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Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

STATE BANK OF ILLINOIS. The first legis- 
lation, having for its object the establishment of 
: a bank within the territory which now consti- 
tutes the State of Illinois, was the passage, by the 
Territorial Legislature of 1816, of an act incor- 
porating the "Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, 
with branches at Edwardsville and Kaskaskia." 
In the Second General Assembly of the State 
(1820) an act was passed, over the Governor's 
veto and in defiance of the adverse judgment of 
the Council of Revision, establishing a State 
Bank at Vandalia with branches at Shawneetown, 
Edwardsville, and Brownsville in Jackson County. 
This was, in effect, a rechartering of the banks at 
Shawneetown and Edwardsville. So far as the 
former is concerned, it seems to have been well 
managed ; but the official conduct of the officers 
of the latter, on the basis of charges made by 
Governor Edwards in 1826, was made the subject 
of a legislative investigation, which (although it 
resulted in nothing) seems to have had some 
basis of fact, in view of the losses finally sus- 
tained in winding up its affairs that of the Gen- 
eral Government amounting to $54,000. Grave 
charges were made in this connection against 
men who were then, or afterwards became, 
prominent in State affairs, including one Justice 
of the Supreme Court and one (still later) a 
United States Senator. The experiment was dis- 
astrous, as, ten years later (1831), it was found 
necessary for the State to incur a debt of $100,000 
to redeem the outstanding circulation. Influ- 
enced, however, by the popular demand for an 
increase in the "circulating medium," the State 
continued its experiment of becoming a stock- 
holder in banks managed by its citizens, and 
accordingly we find it, in 1835, legislating in the 
same direction for the establishing of a central 
"Bank of Illinois" at Springfield, with branches 
at other points as might be required, not to ex- 
ceed six in number. One of these branches was 
established at Vandalia and another at Chicago, 

furnishing the first banking institution of the 
latter city. Two years later, when the State was 
entering upon its scheme of internal improve- 
ment, laws were enacted increasing the capital 
stock of these banks to $4,000,000 in the aggre- 
gate. Following the example of similar institu- 
tions elsewhere, they suspended specie payments 
a few months later, but were protected by "stay 
laws" and other devices until 1842, when, the 
internal improvement scheme having been finally 
abandoned, they tell in general collapse. The 
State ceased to be a stock-holder in 1843, and the 
banks were put in course of liquidation, though 
it required several years, to complete the work. 

STATE CAPITALS. The first State capital of 
Illinois was Kaskaskia, where the first Territorial 
Legislature convened, Nov. 25, 1812. At that 
time there were but five counties in the State 
St. Clair and Randolph being the most important, 
and Kaskaskia being the county-seat of the 
latter. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a 
State in 1818, and the first Constitution provided 
that the seat of government should remain at 
Kaskaskia until removed by legislative enact- 
ment. That instrument, however, made it obli- 
gatory upon the Legislature, at its first session, 
to petition Congress for a grant of not more than 
four sections of land, on which should be erected 
a town, which should remain the seat of govern- 
ment for twenty years. The petition was duly 
presented and granted ; and, in accordance with 
the power granted by the Constitution, a Board 
of five Commissioners selected the site of the 
present city of Vandalia, then a point in the 
wilderness, twenty miles north of any settle 
ment. But so great was the faith of speculators 
in the future of the proposed city, that town lots 
were soon selling at $100 to $780 each. The Com- 
missioners, in obedience to law, erected a plain 
two-story frame building scarcely more than a 
commodious shanty to which the State offices 
were removed in December, 1820. This building 



was burned, Dec. 9, 1823, and a brick structure 
erected in its place. Later, when the question of 
a second removal of the capital began to be agi- 
tated, the citizens of Vandalia assumed the risk 
of erecting a new, brick State House, costing 
16,000. Of this amount $6,000 was reimbursed 
by the Governor from the contingent fund, and 
the balance ($10,000) was appropriated in 1837, 
when the seat of government was removed to 
Springfield, by vote of the Tenth General Assem- 
bly on the fourth ballot. The other places receiv- 
ing the principal vote at the time of the removal 
to Springfield, were Jacksonville, Vandalia, 
Peoria, Alton and Illiopolis Springfield receiv- 
ing the largest vote at each ballot. The law 
removing the capital appropriated $50,000 from 
the State Treasury, provided that a like amount 
should be raised by private subscription and 
guaranteed by bond, and that at least two acres 
of land should be donated as a site. Two State 
Houses have been erected at Springfield, the first 
cost of the present one (including furnishing) 
having been a little in excess of $4,000,000. 
Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the 
Legislature from Sangamon County at the time, 
was an influential factor in securing the removal 
of the capital to Springfield. 

STATE DEBT. The State debt, which proved 
so formidable a burden upon the State of Illinois 
for a generation, and, for a part of that period, 
seriously checked its prosperity, was the direct 
outgrowth of the internal improvement scheme 
entered upon in 1837. (See Internal Improvement 
Policy. ) At the time this enterprise was under- 
taken the aggregate debt of the State was less 
than $400,000 accumulated within the preceding 
six years. Two years later (1838) it had increased 
to over $6,500,000, while the total valuation of 
real and personal property, for the purposes of 
taxation, was less than $60,000,000, and the aggre- 
gate receipts of the State treasury, for the same 
year, amounted to less than $150,000. At the 
same time, the disbursements, for the support of 
the State Government alone, had grown to more 
than twice the receipts. This disparity continued 
until the declining credit of the State forced upon 
the managers of public affairs an involuntary 
economy, when the means could no longer be 
secured for more lavish expenditures. The first 
bonds issued at the inception of the internal 
improvement scheme sold at a premium of 5 per 
cent, but rapidly declined until they were hawked 
in the markets of New York and London at a dis- 
count, in some cases falling into the hands of 
brokers who failed before completing their con- 

tracts, thus causing a direct loss to the State. If 
the internal improvement scheme was ill-advised, 
the time chosen to carry it into effect was most 
unfortunate, as it came simultaneously with the 
panic of 1837, rendering the disaster all the more 
complete. Of the various works undertaken by 
the State, only the Illinois & Michigan Canal 
brought a return, all the others resulting in more 
or less complete loss. The internal improvement 
scheme was abandoned in 1839-40, but not until 
State bonds exceeding $13,000,000 had been 
issued. For two years longer the State struggled 
with its embarrassments, increased by the failure 
of the State Bank in February, 1842, and, by that 
of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, a few 
months later, with the proceeds of more than two 
and a half millions of the State's bonds in their 
possession. Thus left without credit, or means 
even of paying the accruing interest, there were 
those who regarded the State as hopelessly bank- 
rupt, and advocated repudiation as the only 
means of escape. Better counsels prevailed, how- 
ever ; the Constitution of 1848 put the State on a 
basis of strict economy in the matter of salaries 
and general expenditures, with restrictions upon 
the Legislature in reference to incurring in- 
debtedness, while the beneficent "two-mill tax" 
gave assurance to its creditors that its debts 
would be paid. While the growth of the State, 
in wealth and population, had previously been 
checked by the fear of excessive taxation, it now 
entered upon a new career of prosperity, in spite 
of its burdens its increase in population, be- 
tween 1850 and 1860, amounting to over 100 per 
cent. The movement of the State debt after 1840 
when the internal improvement scheme was 
abandoned chiefly by accretions of unpaid inter- 
est, has been estimated as follows: 1842, $15,- 
637,950; 1844, $14,633,969; 1846, $16,389,817; 1848, 
$16,661,795. It reached its maximum in 1853 
the first year of Governor Matteson's administra- 
tion when it was officially reported at $16,724,- 
177. At this time the work of extinguishment 
began, and was prosecuted under successive 
administrations, except during the war, when 
the vast expense incurred in sending troops to 
the field caused an increase. During Governor 
Bissell's administration, the reduction amounted 
to over $3,000,000; during Oglesby's, to over five 
and a quarter million, besides two and a quarter 
million paid on interest. In 1880 the debt had 
been reduced to $281,059.11, and, before the close 
of 1882, it had been entirely extinguished, except 
a balance of $18,500 in bonds, which, having been 
called in years previously and never presented for 



payment, are supposed to have been lost. (See 
Macalister and Stebbins Bonds. ) 

organized for the care of female juvenile delin- 
quents, by act of June 2, 1893. The Board consists 
of seven members, nominated by the Executive 
and confirmed by the Senate, and who consti- 
tute a body politic and corporate. Not more than 
two of the members may reside in the same Con- 
gressional District and, of the seven members, 
four must be women. (See also Home for Female 
Juvenile Offenders.) The term of office is six 

STATE HOUSE, located at Springfield. Its 
construction was begun under an act passed by 
the Legislature in February, 1867, and completed 
in 1887. It stands in a park of about eight acres, 
donated to the State by the citizens of Spring- 
field. A provision of the State Constitution of 
1870 prohibited the expenditure of any sum in 
excess of $3,500,000 in the erection and furnishing 
of the building, without previous approval of such 
additional expenditure by the people. This 
amount proving insufficient, the Legislature, at 
its session of 1885, passed an act making an addi- 
tional appropriation of $531,712, which having 
been approved by popular vote at the general 
election of 1886, the expenditure was made and 
the capitol completed during the following year, 
thus raising the total cost of construction and fur- 
nishing to a little in 'excess of $4,000,000. The 
building is cruciform as to its ground plan, and 
classic in its style of architecture ; its extreme 
dimensions (including porticoes), from north |to 
south, being 379 feet, and, from east to west, 286 
feet. The walls are of dressed Joliet limestone, 
while the porticoes, which are spacious and 
lofty, are of sandstone, supported by polished 
columns of gray granite. The three stories of 
the building are surmounted ' by a Mansard roof, 
with two turrets and a central dome of stately 
dimensions. Its extreme height, to the top of 
the iron flag-staff, which rises from a lantern 
springing from the dome, is 364 feet. 

tion for the education of teachers, organized 
under an act of the General Assembly, passed 
Feb. 18, 1857. This act placed the work of 
organization in the hands of a board of fifteen 
persons, which was styled "The Board of Educa- 
tion of the State of Illinois," and was constituted 
as follows: C. B. Denio of Jo Daviess County; 
Simeon Wright of Lee ; Daniel Wilkins of Mc- 
Lean ; Charles E. Hovey of Peoria ; George P. Rex 
of Pike; Samuel W. Moulton of Shelby; John 

Gillespie of Jasper; George Bunsen of St. Clair,- 
Wesley Sloan of Pope; Ninian W. Edwards of 
Sangamon; John E. Eden of Moultrie; Flavel 
Moseley and William Wells of Cook ; Albert R. 
Shannon of White; and the Superintendent o\. 
Public Instruction, ex-officio. The object of the 
University, as defined in the organizing law, is 
to qualify teachers for the public schools of the 
State, and the course of instruction to be given 
embraces "the art of teaching, and all branches 
which pertain to a common-school education ; in 
the elements of the natural sciences, including 
agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable 
physiology; in the fundamental laws of the 
United States and of the State of Illinois in 
regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and 
such other studies as the Board of Education may, 
from time to time, prescribe." Various cities 
competed for the location of the institution, 
Bloomington being finally selected, its bid, in- 
cluding 160 acres of land, being estimated as 
equivalent to 141,725. The corner-stone was 
laid on September 29, 1857, and the first building 
was ready for permanent occupancy in Septem- 
ber, 1860. Previously, however, it had been 
sufficiently advanced to permit of its being used, 
and the first commencement exercises were held 
on June 29 of the latter year. Three years 
earlier, the academic department had been organ- 
ized under the charge of Charles E. Hovey. The 
first cost, including furniture, etc., was not far 
from $200,000. Gratuitous instruction is given to 
two pupils from each county, and to three from 
each Senatorial District. The departments are : 
Grammar school, high school, normal department 
and model school, all of which are overcrowded. 
The whole number of students in attendance on 
the institution during the school year, 1897-98, 
was 1,197, of whom 891 were in the normal 
department and 306 in the practice school depart- 
ment, including representatives from 86 coun- 
ties of the State, with a few pupils from other 
States on the payment of tuition. The teaching 
faculty (including the President and Librarian) 
for the same year, was made up of twenty-six 
members twelve ladies and fourteen gentlemen. 
The expenditures for the year 1897-98 aggregated 
$47,626.92, against $66,528.69 for 1896-97. Nearly 
$22,000 of the amount expended during the latter 
year was on account of the construction of a 
gymnasium building. 

STATE PROPERTY. The United States Cen- 
sus of 1890 gave the value of real and personal 
property belonging to the State as follows : Pub- 
lic lands, $328,000; buildings, $22,164,000; mis- 


cellaneous property, $2,650,000 total, $25,142,000. 
The land may be subdivided thus : Camp-grounds 
of the Illinois National Guard near Springfield 
(donated), 40,000; Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
$168,000; Illinois University lands, in Illinois 
(donated by the General Government), $41,000, in 
Minnesota (similarly donated), $79,000. The 
buildings comprise those connected with the 
charitable, penal and educational institutions of 
the State, besides the State Arsenal, two build- 
ings for the use of the Appellate Courts (at 
Ottawa and Mount Vernon), the State House, 
the Executive Mansion, and locks and dams 
erected at Henry and Copperas Creek. Of the 
miscellaneous property, $120,000 represents the 
equipment of the Illinois National Guard; $1,959,- 
000 the value of the movable property of public 
buildings; $550,000 the endowment fund of the 
University of Illinois; and $21,000 the movable 
property of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. The 
figures given relative to the value of the public 
buildings include only the first appropriations 
for their erection. Considerable sums have 
since been expended upon some of them in repairs, 
enlargements and improvements. 

STATE TREASURERS. The only Treasurer 
of Illinois during the Territorial period was John 
Thomas, who served from 1812 to 1818, and 
became the first incumbent under the State 
Government. Under the Constitution of 1818 
the Treasurer was elected, biennially, by joint vote 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly ; by 
the Constitution of 1848, this officer was made 
elective by the people for the same period, with- 
out limitations as to number of terms ; under the 
Constitution of 1870, the manner of election and 
duration of term are unchanged, but the incum- 
bent is ineligible to re-election, for two years 
from expiration of the term for which he may 
have been chosen. The following is a list of the 
State Treasurers, from the date of the admission 
of the State into the Union down to the present 
time (1899), with the date and duration of the 
term of each: John Thomas, 1818-19; Robert K. 
McLaughlin, 1819-23; Abner Field, 1823-27; 
James Hall, 1827-31; John Dement, 1831-36; 
Charles Gregory, 1836-37; John D. Whiteside, 
1837-41; Milton Carpenter, 1841-48; John Moore, 
1848-57; James Miller, 1857-59; William Butler, 
1859-63; Alexander Starne, 1863-65; James H. 
Beveridge, 1865-67; George W. Smith, 1867-69; 
Erastus N. Bates, 1869-73; Edward Rutz, 1873-75; 
Thomas S. Ridgway, 1875-77; Edward Rutz, 
1877-79; John C. Smith, 1879-81; Edward Rutz, 
1881-83; John C. Smith, 1883-85; Jacob Gross, 

1885-87; John R. Tanner, 1887-89; Charles 
Becker, 1889-91; Edward S. Wilson, 1891-93; 
Rufus N. Ramsay, 1893-95; Henry Wulff, 1895-97; 
Henry L. Hertz, 1897-99; Floyd K. Whittemore, 
1899- . 

STAUNTON, a village in the southeast corner 
of Macoupin County, on the Chicago, Peoria & 
St. Louis and the Wabash Railways; is 36 miles 
northeast of St. Louis, and 14 miles southwest of 
Litchfield. Agriculture and coal-mining are the 
industries of the surrounding region. Staunton 
has two banks, eight churches and a weekly 
newspaper. Population (1880), 1,358; (1890), 2,209; 
(1900), 2,786. 

STEEL PRODUCTION. In the manufacture 
of steel, Illinois has long ranked as the second 
State in the Union in the amount of its output, 
and, during the period between 1880 and 1890, 
the increase in production was 241 per cent. In 
1880 there were but six steel works in the State ; 
in 1890 these had increased to fourteen ; and the 
production of steel of all kinds (in tons of 2,000 
pounds) had risen from 254,569 tons to 868,250. 
Of the 3,837,039 tons of Bessemer steel ingots, or 
direct castings, produced in the United States in 
1890, 22 per cent were turned out in Illinois, 
nearly all the steel produced in the State being 
made by that process. From the tonnage of 
ingots, as given above, Illinois produced 622,260 
pounds of steel rails, more than 30 per cent of 
the aggregate for the entire country. This fact 
is noteworthy, inasmuch as the competition in 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel rails, since 
1880, has been so great that many rail mills have 
converted their steel into forms other than rails, 
experience having proved their production to 
any considerable extent, during the past few 
years, unprofitable except in works favorably 
located for obtaining cheap raw material, or 
operated under the latest and most approved 
methods of manufacture. Open-hearth steel is 
no longer made in Illinois, but the manufacture 
of crucible steel is slightly increasing, the out- 
put in 1890 being 445 tons, as against 130 in 1880. 
For purposes requiring special grades of steel the 
product of the crucible process will be always 
in demand, but the high cost of manufacture 
prevents it, in a majority of instances, from 
successfully competing in price with the other 
processes mentioned. 

STEPHENSON, Benjamin, pioneer and early 
politician, came to Illinois from Kentucky in 
1809, and was appointed the first Sheriff of 
Randolph County by Governor Edwards under 
the Territorial Government; afterwards served 



as a Colonel of Illinois militia during the War of 
1812; represented Illinois Territory as Delegate 
in Congress, 1814-16, and, on his retirement from 
Congress, became Register of the Land Office at 
Edwardsville, finally dying at Edwardsville Col. 
James W. (Stephenson), a son of the preceding, 
was a soldier during the Black Hawk War, after- 
wards became a prominent politician in the north- 
western part of the State, served as Register of 
the Land Office at Galena and, in 1838, received 
the Democratic nomination for Governor, but 
withdrew before the election. 

STEPHENSON, (Dr.) Benjamin Franklin, 
physician and soldier, was born in Wayne 
County, 111., Oct. 30, 1822, and accompanied his 
parents, in 1825, to Sangamon County, where the 
family settled. His early educational advantages 
were meager, and he did not study his profession 
(medicine) until after reaching his majority, 
graduating from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
in 1850. He began practice at Petersburg, but, 
in April, 1862, was mustered into the volunteer 
army as Surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry. After a little over two years service he 
was mustered out in June, 1864, when he took up 
his residence in Springfield, and, for a year, was 
engaged in the drug business there. In 1865 he 
resumed professional practice. He lacked tenac- 
ity of purpose, however, was indifferent to money, 
and always willing to give his own services and 
orders for medicine to the poor. Hence, his prac- 
tice was not lucrative. He was one of the leaders 
in the organization of the Grand Army of the 
Republic (which see), in connection with which 
he is most widely known ; but his services in its 
cause failed to receive, during his lifetime, the 
recognition which they deserved, nor did the 
organization promptly flourish, as he had hoped. 
He finally returned with his family to Peters- 
burg. Died, at Rock Creek, Menard, County, 111. , 
August 30, 1871. 

STEPHENSON COUNTY, a northwestern 
county, with an area of 560 square miles. The 
soil is rich, productive and well timbered. Fruit- 
culture and stock-raising are among the chief 
industries. Not until 1827 did the aborigines quit 
the locality, and the county was organized, ten 
years later, and named for Gen. Benjamin 
Stephenson. A man named Kirker, who had 
been in the employment of Colonel Gratiot as a 
lead-miner, near Galena, is said to have built the 
first cabin within the present limits of what was 
called Burr Oak Grove, and set himself up as an 
Indian-trader in 1826, but only remained a short 
time. He was followed, the next year, by Oliver 

W. Kellogg, who took Kirker's place, built a 
more pretentious dwelling and became the first 
permanent settler. Later came William Wad- 
dams, the Montagues, Baker, Kilpatrick, Preston, 
the Goddards, and others whose names are linked 
with the county's early history. The first house 
in Freeport was built by William Baker. Organi- 
zation was effected in 1837, the total poll being 
eighty-four votes. The earliest teacher was Nel- 
son Martin, who is said to have taught a school 
of some twelve pupils, in a house which stood on 
the site of the present city of Freeport. Popula- 
tion (1880), 31,963; (1890), 31,338; (1900), 34,933. 

STERLING, a nourishing city on the north 
bank of Rock River, in Whiteside County, 109 
miles west of Chicago, 29 miles east of Clinton, 
Iowa, and 52 miles east-northeast of Rock Island. 
It has ample railway facilities, furnished by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Sterling & 
Peoria, and the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
roads. It contains fourteen churches, an opera 
house, high and grade schools, Carnegie library, 
Government postoffice building, three banks, 
electric street and interurban car lines, electric 
and gas lighting, water-works, paved streets and 
sidewalks, fire department and four newspaper 
offices, two issuing daily editions. It has fine 
water-power, and is an important manufacturing 
center, its works turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages, paper, barbed-wire, school furni- 
ture, burial caskets, pumps, sash, doors, etc. It 
also has the Sterling Iron Works, besides foundries 
and machine shops. The river here flows through 
charming scenery. Pop. (1890), 5,824; (1900). 6,309. 

STEVENS, Bradford A., ex-Congressman, was 
born at Boscawen (afterwards Webster), N. H., 
Jan. 3, 1813. After attending schools in New 
Hampshire and at Montreal, he entered Dart- 
mouth College, graduating therefrom in 1835. 
During the six years following, he devoted him- 
self to teaching, at Hopkinsville, Ky., and New 
York City. In 1843 he removed to Bureau 
County, 111., where he became a merchant and 
farmer. In 1868 he was chairman of the Board 
of Supervisors, and, in 1870, was elected to Con- 
gress, as an Independent Democrat, for the Fifth 
District. v 

STEVENSON, Adlai E., ex-Vice-President of 
the United States, was born in Christian County, 
Ky., Oct. 23, 1835. In 1852 he removed with his 
parents to Bloomington, McLean County, 111., 
where the family settled; was educated at the 
Illinois Wesleyan University and at Centre Col- 
lege, Ky., was admitted to the bar in 1858 and 
began practice at Metamora, Wood ford County, 



where he was Master in Chancery, 1861-65, and 
State's Attorney, 1865-69. In 1864 he was candi- 
date for Presidential Elector on the Democratic 
ticket. In 1869 he returned to Bloomington, 
where he has since resided. In 1874, and again 
in 1876, he was an unsuccessful candidate of his 
party for Congress, but was elected as a Green- 
back Democrat in 1878, though defeated in 1880 
and 1882. In 1877 he was appointed by President 
Hayes a member of the Board of Visitors to 
West Point. During the first administration of 
President Cleveland (1885-89) he was First Assist- 
ant Postmaster General; was a member of the 
National Democratic Conventions of 1884 and 
1892, being Chairman of the Illinois delegation 
the latter year. In 1892 he received his party's 
nomination for the Vice-Presidency, and was 
elected to that office, serving until 1897. Since 
retiring from office he has resumed his residence 
at Bloomington. 

STEWARD, Lewis, manufacturer and former 
Congressman, was born in Wayne County, Pa., 
Nov. 20, 1824, and received a common school 
education. At the age of 14 he accompanied his 
parents to Kendall County, 111. , where he after- 
wards resided, being engaged in farming and the 
manufacture of agricultural implements at 
Piano. He studied law but never practiced. In 
1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, being defeated 
by Shelby M. Cullom. In 1890 the Democrats of 
the Eighth Illinois District elected him to Con- 
gress. In 1892 he was again a candidate, but was 
defeated by his Republican opponent, Robert A. 
Childs, by the narrow margin of 27 votes, and, 
In 1894, was again defeated, this time being pitted 
against Albert J. Hopkins. Mr. Steward died at 
his home at Piano, August 26, 1896. 

STEWARDSON, a town of Shelby County, at 
the intersection of the Toledo, St. Louis & Kan- 
sas City Railway with the Altamont branch of 
the Wabash, 12 miles southeast of Shelby ville; 
is in a grain and lumber region ; has a bank and 
a weekly paper. Population, (1900), 677. 

STICKNEY, William H., pioneer lawyer, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 9, 1809, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati in 
1831, and, in Illinois in 1834, being at that time a 
resident of Shawneetown; was elected State's 
Attorney by the Legislature, in 1839, for the cir- 
cuit embracing some fourteen counties in the 
southern and southeastern part of the State ; for 
a time also, about 1835-36, officiated as editor of 
"The Gallatin Democrat," and "The Illinois 
Advertiser," published at Shawneetown. ' In 1846 

Mr. Stickney was elected to the lower branch of 
the General Assembly from Gallatin County, and, 
twenty-eight years later having come to Chi- 
cago in 1848 to the same body from Cook 
County, serving in the somewhat famous Twenty- 
ninth Assembly. He also held the office of 
Police Justice for some thirteen years, from 1860 
onward. He lived to an advanced age, dying in 
Chicago, Feb. 14, 1898, being at the time the 
oldest surviving member of the Chicago bar. 

STILES, Isaac Newton, lawyer and soldier, 
born at Suffield, Conn., July 16, 1833; was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Lafayette, Ind., in 1855, 
became Prosecuting Attorney, a member of the 
Legislature and an effective speaker in the Fre- 
mont campaign of 1856 ; enlisted as a private sol- 
dier at the beginning of the war, went to the 
field as Adjutant, was captured at Malvern Hill, 
and, after six weeks' confinement in Libby 
prison, exchanged and returned to duty; was 
promoted Major, Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, 
and brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious 
service. After the war he practiced his profes- 
sion in Chicago, though almost totally blind. 
Died, Jan. 18, 1895. 

STILLMAN, Stephen, first State Senator from 
Sangamon County, 111., was a native of Massachu- 
setts who came, with his widowed mother, to 
Sangamon County in 1820, and settled near 
Williamsville, where he became the first Post- 
master in the first postoffice in the State north of 
the Sangamon River. In 1822, Mr. Stillman was 
elected as the first State Senator from Sangamon 
County, serving four years, and, at his first session, 
being one of the opponents of the pro-slavery 
Convention resolution. He died, in Peoria, some- 
where between 1835 and 1840. 

STILLMAN VALLEY, village in Ogle County, 
on Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railways; site of first battle 
Black Hawk War; has graded schools, four 
churches, a bank and a newspaper. Pop. , 475. 

STITES, Samuel, pioneer, was born near 
Mount Bethel, Somerset County, N. J., Oct. 31, 
1776; died, August 16, 1839, on his farm, which 
subsequently became the site of the city of Tren- 
ton, in Clinton County, 111. He was descended 
from John Stites, M.D., who was born in Eng- 
land in 1595, emigrated to America, and died at 
Hempstead, L. I., in 1717, at the age of 122 years. 
The family removed to New Jersey in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Samuel was a 
cousin of Benjamin Stites, the first white man to 
settle within the present limits of Cincinnati, and 
various members of the family were prominent in 



the settlement of the upper Ohio Valley as early 
as 1788. Samuel Stites married, Sept. 14, 1794, 
Martha Martin, daughter of Ephraim Martin, 
and grand- daughter of Col. Ephraim Martin, both 
soldiers of the New Jersey line during the Revo- 
lutionary War with the last named of whom 
he had (in connection with John Cleves Symmes) 
been intimately associated in the purchase and 
settlement of the Miami Valley. In 1800 he 
removed to Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1803 to 
Greene County, and, in 1818, in company with his 
son-in-law. Anthony Wayne Casad, to St. Clair 
County, 111., settling near Union Grove. Later, he 
removed to O'Fallon, and, still later, to Clinton 
County. He left a large family, several members 
of which became prominent pioneers in the 
movements toward Minnesota and Kansas. 

STOLBRAND, Carlos John Mueller, soldier, 
was born in Sweden, May 11, 1821; at the age of 
18, enlisted in the Royal Artillery of his native 
land, serving through the campaign of Schleswig- 
Holstein (1848) ; came to the United States soon 
after, and, in 1861, enlisted in the first battalion 
of Illinois Light Artillery, finally becoming Chief 
of Artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. When 
the latter became commander of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps, Col. Stolbrand was placed at the 
head of the artillery brigade ; in February, 1865, 
was made Brigadier-General, and mustered out 
in January, 1866. After the war he went South, 
and was Secretary of the South Carolina Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1868. The same year he 
was a delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago, and a Presidential Elector. 
He was an inventor and patented various im- 
provements in steam engines and boilers; was 
also Superintendent of Public Buildings at 
Charleston, S. C., under President Harrison. 
Died, at Charleston, Feb. 3, 1894. 

STONE, Daniel, early lawyer and legislator, 
was a native of Vermont and graduate of Middle- 
bury College; became a member of the Spring- 
field (111.) bar in 1833, and, in 1836, was elected 
to the General Assembly being one of the cele- 
brated "Long Nine" from Sangamon County, and 
joining Abraham Lincoln in his protest against 
a series of pro-slavery resolutions which had been 
adopted by the House. In 1837 he was a Circuit 
Court Judge and, being assigned to the north- 
western part of the State, removed to Galena, 
but was legislated out of office, when he left the 
State, dying a few years later, in Essex County, 
N. J. 

STONE, Horatio 0., pioneer, was born in 
Ontario (now Monroe) County, N. Y., Jan. 2, 

1811 ; in boyhood learned the trade of shoemaker, 
and later acted as overseer of laborers on the 
Lackawanna Canal. In 1831, having located in 
Wayne County, Mich., he was drafted for the 
Black Hawk War, serving twenty-two days under 
Gen. Jacob Brown. In January, 1835, he came 
to Chicago and, having made a fortunate specu- 
lation in real estate in that early day, a few 
months later entered upon the grocery and pro- 
vision trade, which he afterwards extended to 
grain; finally giving his chief attention to real 
estate, in which he was remarkably successful, 
leaving a large fortune at his death, which 
occurred in Chicago, June 20, 1877. 

STONE, (Rev.) Luther, Baptist clergyman, 
was born in the town of Oxford, Worcester 
County, Mass., Sept. 26, 1815, and spent his boy- 
hood on a farm. After acquiring a common 
school education, he prepared for college at Lei- 
cester Academy, and, in 1835, entered Brown 
University, graduating in the class of 1839. He 
then spent three years at the Theological Insti- 
tute at Newton, Mass. ; was ordained to the 
ministry at Oxford, in 1843, but, coming west the 
next year, entered upon evangelical work in 
Rock Island, Davenport, Burlington and neigh- 
boring towns. Later, he was pastor of the First 
Baptist Church at Rockford, 111. In 1847 Mr. 
Stone came to Chicago and established "The 
Watchman of the Prairies," which survives to- 
day under the name of "The Standard," and has 
become the leading Baptist organ in the West. 
After six years of editorial work, he took up 
evangelistic work in Chicago, among the poor 
and criminal classes. During the Civil War he 
conducted religious services at Camp Douglas, 
Soldiers' Rest and the Marine Hospital. He was 
associated in the conduct and promotion of many 
educational and charitable institutions. He did 
much for the First Baptist Church of Chicago, 
and, during the latter years of his life, was 
attached to the Immanuel Baptist Church, 
which he labored to establish. Died, in July, 

STONE, Melville E., journalist, banker, Man- 
ager ot Associated Press, born at Hudson, 111., 
August 18, 1848. Coming to Chicago in 1860, he 
graduated from the local high school in 1867, 
and, in 1870, acquired the sole proprietorship of 
a foundry and machine shop. Finding himself 
without resources after the great fire of 1871, he 
embarked in journalism, rising, through the suc- 
cessive grades of reporter, city editor, assistant 
editor and Washington correspondent, to the 
position of editor-in-chief of his own journal. 



He was connected with various Chicago dailies 
between 1871 and 1875, and, on Christmas Day 
of the latter year, issued the first number of "The 
Chicago Daily News." He gradually disposed of 
his interest in this journal, entirely severing 
his connection therewith in 1888. Since that 
date he has been engaged in banking in the city 
of Chicago, and is also General Manager of the 
Associated Press. 

STONE, Samuel, philanthropist, was born at 
Chesterfield, Mass., Dec. 6, 1798; left an orphan 
at seven years of age, after a short term in Lei- 
cester Academy, and several years in a wholesale 
store in Boston, at the age of 19 removed to 
Rochester, N. Y., to take charge of interests in 
the "Holland Purchase," belonging to his father's 
estate ; in 1843-49, was a resident of ^Detroit and 
interested in some of the early railroad enter- 
prises centering there, but the latter year re- 
moved to Milwaukee, being there associated with 
Ezra Cornell in telegraph construction. In 1859 
he became a citizen of Chicago, where he was 
one of the founders of the Chicago Historical 
Society, and a liberal patron of many enterprises 
of a public and benevolent character. Died, May 
4, 1876. 

STONE FORT, a village in the counties of 
Saline and Williamson. It is situated on the Cairo 
Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railway, 57 miles northeast of Cairo. 
Population (1900), 479. 

STOREY, Wilbur F., journalist and news- 
paper publisher, was born at Salisbury, Vt., Dec. 
19, 1819. He began to learn the printer's trade 
at 12, and, before he was 19, was part owner of a 
Democratic paper called "The Herald," published 
at La Porte, Ind. Later, he either edited or con- 
trolled journals published at Mishawaka, Ind., 
and Jackson and Detroit, Mich. In January, 
1861, he became the principal owner of "The 
Chicago Times," then the leading Democratic 
organ of Chicago. His paper soon came to be 
regarded as the organ of the anti-war party 
throughout the Northwest, and, in June, 1863, 
was suppressed by a military order issued by 
General Burnside, which was subsequently 
revoked by President Lincoln. The net result 
was an increase in "The Times' " notoriety and 
circulation. Other charges, of an equally grave 
nature, relating to its sources of income, its char- 
acter as a family newspaper, etc. , were repeatedly 
made, but to all these Mr. Storey turned a deaf 
ear. He lost heavily in the fire of 1871, but, in 
1872, appeared as the editor of "The Times," 
then destitute of political ties. About 1876 his 

health began to decline. Medical aid failed to 
afford relief, and, in August, 1884, he was ad- 
judged to be of unsound mind, and his estate was 
placed in the hands of a conservator. On the 
27th of the following October (1884), he died at 
his home in Chicago. 

STORRS, Emery Alexander, lawyer, was born 
at Hinsdale, Catt'araugus County, N. Y., August 
12, 1835 ; began the study of law with his father, 
later pursued a legal course Tat Buffalo, and, in 
1853, was admitted to the bar ; spent two years 
(1857-59) in New York City, the latter year 're- 
moving to Chicago, where he attained great 
prominence as an advocate at the bar, as well as 
an orator on other occasions. Politically a 
Republican, he took an active part in Presidential 
campaigns, being a delegate-at-large from Illinois 
to the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 
'72, and '80, and serving as one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents in 1872. Erratic in habits and a master of 
epigram and repartee, many of his speeches are 
quoted with relish and appreciation by those wha 
were his contemporaries at the Chicago bar. 
Died suddenly, while in attendance on the Su- 
preme Court at Ottawa, Sept. 12, 1885. 

STRAWN, Jacob, agriculturist and stock- 
dealer, born in Somerset County, Pa., May 30, 
1800 ; removed to Licking County, Ohio, in 1817, 
and to Illinois, in 1831, settling four miles south- 
west of Jacksonville. He was one of the first to 
demonstrate the possibilities of Illinois as a live- 
stock state. Unpretentious and despising mere 
show, he illustrated the virtues of industry, fru- 
gality and honesty. At his death which occurred 
August 23, 1865 he left an estate estimated in 
value at about 1,000,000, acquired by industry 
and business enterprise. He was a zealous 
Unionist during the war, at one time contributing 
10,000 to the Christian Commission. 

STREATOR, a city (laid out in 1868 and incor- 
porated in 1882) in the southern part of La Salle 
County, 93 miles southwest of Chicago ; situated 
on the Vermilion River and a central point for 
five railroads. It is surrounded by a rich agri- 
cultural country, and is underlaid by coal seams 
(two of which are worked) and by shale and 
various clay products of value, adapted to the 
manufacture of fire and building-brick, drain- 
pipe, etc. The city is thoroughly modern, having 
gas, electric lighting, street railways, water- 
works, a good fire-department, and a large, im- 
proved public park. Churches and schools are 
numerous, as are also fine public and private 
buildings. One of the chief industries is the 
manufacture of glass, including rolled-plate. 



window-glass, flint and Bohemian ware and glass 
bottles. Other successful industries are foundries 
and machine shops, flour mills, and clay working 
establishments. There are several banks, and 
three daily and weekly papers are published here. 
The estimated property valuation, in 1884, was 
12,000,000. Streator boasts some handsome 
public buildings, especially the Government post- 
office and the Carnegie public library building, 
both of which have been erected within the past 
few years. Pop. (1890), 11,414; (1900), 14,07-9. 

STREET, Joseph M., pioneer and early politi- 
cian, settled at Shawneetown about 1812, coming 
from Kentucky, though believed to have been a 
native of Eastern Virginia. In 1827 he was a 
Brigadier-General of militia, and appears to have 
been prominent in the affairs of that section of 
the State. His correspondence with Governor 
Edwards, about this time, shows him to have been 
a man of far more than ordinary education, with 
a good opinion of his merits and capabilities. He 
was a most persistent applicant for office, making 
urgent appeals to Governor Edwards, Henry Clay 
and other politicians in Kentucky, Virginia and 
Washington, on the ground of his poverty and 
large family. In 1827 he received the offer of 
the clerkship of the new county of Peoria, but, 
on visiting that region, was disgusted with the 
prospect; returning to Shawneetown, bought a 
farm in Sangamon County, but, before the close 
of the year, was appointed Indian Agent at 
Prairie du Chien. This was during the difficul- 
ties with the Winnebago Indians, upon which he 
made voluminous reports to the Secretary of 
War. Mr. Street was a son-in-law of Gen. 
Thomas Posey, a Revolutionary soldier, who was 
prominent in the early history of Indiana and its 
last Territorial Governor. (See Posey, (Gen.) 
Thomas. ) 

STREETER, Alson J., farmer and politician, 
was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., in 1823; 
at the age of two years accompanied his father to 
Illinois, the family settling at Dixon, Lee County, 
He attended Knox College for three years, and, 
in 1849, went to California, where he spent two 
years in gold mining. Returning to Illinois, he 
purchased a farm of 240 acres near New Windsor, 
Mercer County, to which he has since added sev- 
eral thousand acres. In 1872 he was elected to 
the lower house of the Twenty-eighth General 
Assembly as a Democrat, but, in 1873, allied him- 
self with the Greenback party, whose candidate 
for Congress he was in 1878, and for Governor in 
1880, when he received nearly 3,000 votes more 
than his party's Presidential nominee, in Illinois. 

In 1884 he was elected State Senator by a coali- 
tion of Greenbackers and Democrats in the 
Twenty-fourth Senatorial District, but acted as 
an independent throughout his entire term. 

STRONG, William Emerson, soldier, was born 
at Granville, N. Y., in 1840; from 13 years of age, 
spent his early life in Wisconsin, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at Racine in 1861. The 
same year he enlisted under the first call for 
troops, took part, as Captain of a Wisconsin Com- 
pany, in the first battle of Bull Run; was- 
afterwards promoted and assigned to duty as 
Inspector-General in the West, participated in 
the Vicksburg and Atlanta campaigns, being 
finally advanced to the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. After some fifteen months spent in the 
position of Inspector-General of the Freedmen's 
Bureau (1865-66), he located in Chicago, and 
became connected with several important busi- 
ness enterprises, besides assisting, as an officer on 
the staff of Governor Cullom, in the organization 
of the Illinois National Guard. He was elected 
on the first Board of Directors of the World'a 
Columbian Exposition, and, while making a tour 
of Europe in the interest of that enterprise, died, 
at Florence, Italy, April 10, 1891. 

STUART, John Todd, lawyer and Congress- 
man, born near Lexington, Ky., Nov. 10, 1807 
the son of Robert Stuart, a Presbyterian minister 
and Professor of Languages in Transylvania 
University, and related, on the maternal side, to 
the Todd family, of whom Mrs. Abraham Lincoln 
was a member. He graduated at Centre College, 
Danville, in 1826, and, after studying law, re- 
moved to Springfield, 111., in 1828, and began 
practice. In 1832 he was elected Representative 
in the General Assembly, re-elected in 1834, and, 
in 1836, defeated, as the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress, by Wm. L. May, though elected, two years 
later, over Stephen A. Douglas, and again in 1840. 
In 1837, Abraham Lincoln, who had been 
studying law under Mr. Stuart's advice and 
instruction, became his partner, the relation- 
ship continuing until 1841. He served in the 
State Senate, 1849-53, was the Bell-Everett 
candidate for Governor in 1860, and was 
elected to Congress, as a Democrat, for a third 
time, in 1862, but, in 1864, was defeated by 
Shelby M. Cullom, his former pupil. During the 
latter years of his life, Mr. Stuart was head of the 
law firm of Stuart, Edwards & Brown. Died, at 
Springfield, Nov. 28, 1885. 

STURGES, Solomon, merchant and banker, 
was born at Fairfield, Conn., April 21, 1796, early 
manifested a passion for the sea and, in 1810, 



made a voyage, on a vessel of which his brother 
was captain, from New York to Georgetown, 
D. C., intending to continue it to Lisbon. At 
Georgetown he was induced to accept a position 
as clerk with a Mr. Williams, where he was 
associated with two other youths, as fellow-em- 
ployes, who became eminent bankers and 
capitalists W. W. Corcoran, afterwards the 
well-known banker of Washington, and George 
W. Peabody, who had a successful banking career 
in England, and won a name as one of the most 
liberal and public-spirited of philanthropists. 
During the War of 1812 young Sturges joined a 
volunteer infantry company, where he had, for 
comrades, George W. Peabody and Francis S. Key, 
the latter author of the popular national song, 
"The Star Spangled Banner." In 1814 Mr. 
Sturges accepted a clerkship in the store of his 
brother-in-law, Ebenezer Buckingham, at Put- 
nam, Muskingum County, Ohio, two years later 
becoming a partner in the concern, where he 
developed that business capacity which laid the 
foundation for his future wealth. Before steam- 
ers navigated the waters of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, he piloted flat-boats, loaded with 
produce and merchandise, to New Orleans, return- 
ing overland. During one of his visits to that 
city, he witnessed the arrival of the "Washing- 
ton," the first steamer to descend the Mississippi, 
as, in 1817, he saw the arrival of the "Walk-in- 
the- Water" at Detroit, the first steamer to arrive 
from Buffalo the occasion of his visit to Detroit 
being to carry funds to General Cass to pay off 
the United States troops. About 1849 he was 
associated with the construction of the Wabash 
& Erie Canal, from the Ohio River to Terre Haute, 
Ind., advancing money for the prosecution of the 
work, for which was reimbursed by the State. In 
1854 he came to Chicago, and, in partnership 
with his brothers-in-law, C. P. and Alvah Buck- 
ingham, erected the first large grain-elevator in 
that city, on land leased from the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, following it, two years later, 
by another of equal capacity. For a time, sub- 
stantially all the grain coming into Chicago, by 
railroad, passed into these elevators. In 1857 he 
established the private banking house of Solomon 
Sturges & Sons, which, shortly after his death, 
under the management of his son, George Stur- 
ges, became the Northwestern National Bank of 
Chicago. He was intensely patriotic and, on the 
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, used 
of his means freely in support of the Govern- 
ment, equipping the Sturges Rifles, an independ- 
ent company, at a cost of $20,000. He was also a 

subscriber to the first loan made by the Govern- 
ment, during this period, taking 100,000 in 
Government bonds. While devoted to his busi- 
ness, he was a hater of shams and corruption, and 
contributed freely to Christian and benevolent 
enterprises. Died, at the home of a daughter, at 
Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 14, 1864, leaving a large 
fortune acquired by legitimate trade. 

STURTEYANT, Julian Munson, D.D., LL.D., 
clergyman and educator, was born at Warren, 
Litchfield County, Conn., July 26, 1805; spent his 
youth in Summit County, Ohio, meanwhile pre- 
paring for college ; in 1822, entered Yale College 
as the classmate of the celebrated Elizur Wright, 
graduating in 1826. After two years as Princi- 
pal of an academy at Canaan, Conn., he entered 
Yale Divinity School, graduating there in 1829; 
then came west, and, after spending a year in 
superintending the erection of buildings, in De- 
cember, 1830, as sole tutor, began instruction to ... 
class of nine pupils in what is now Illinois Col- 
lege, at Jacksonville. Having been joined, the 
following year, by Dr. Edward Beecher as Presi- 
dent, Mr. Sturtevant assumed the chair of Mathe- 
matics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, 
which he retained until 1844, when, by the 
retirement of Dr. Beecher, he succeeded to the 
offices of President and Professor of Intellectual 
and Moral Philosophy. Here he labored, inces- 
santly and unselfishly, as a teacher during term 
time, and, as financial agent during vacations, 
in the interest of the institution of which he had 
been one of the chief founders, serving until 1876, 
when he resigned the Presidency, giving his 
attention, for the next ten years, to the duties of 
Professor of Mental Science and Science of Gov- 
ernment, which he had discharged from 1870. 
In 1886 he retired from the institution entirely, 
having given to its service fifty -six years of his 
life. In 1863, Dr. Sturtevant visited Europe in 
the interest of the Union cause, delivering effec- 
tive addresses at a number of points in England. 
He was a frequent contributor to the weekly 
religious and periodical press, and was the author 
of "Economics, or the Science of Wealth" (1876) 
a text-book on political economy, and "Keys 
of Sect, or the Church of the New Testament" 
(1879), besides frequently occupying the pulpits 
of local and distant churches having been early 
ordained a Congregational minister. He received 
the degree of D.D. from the University of Mis- 
souri and that of LL.D. from Iowa University. 
Died, in Jacksonville, Feb. 11, 1886. Julian M. 
(Sturtevant), Jr., son of the preceding, was born 
at Jacksonville, 111.. Feb. 2, 1834; fitted for col- 



lege in the preparatory department of Jllinois 
College and graduated from the college (proper) 
in 1854. After leaving college he served as 
teacher in the Jacksonville public schools one 
year, then spent a year as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of theology at 
Andover Theological Seminary, graduating there 
in 1859, meanwhile having discharged the duties 
of Chaplain of the Connecticut State's prison in 
. 1858. He was ordained a minister of the Con- 
gregational Church at Hannibal, Mo., in 1860, 
remaining as pastor in that city nine years. He 
has since been engaged in pastoral work in New 
York City (1869-70), Ottawa, 111., (1870-73); Den- 
ver, Colo., (1873-77); Grinnell, Iowa, (1877-84); 
Cleveland, Ohio, (1884-90); Galesburg, 111., 
(1890-93), and Aurora, (1893-97). Since leaving 
the Congregational church at Aurora, Dr. Sturte- 
vant has been engaged in pastoral work in Chi- 
cago. He was also editor of "The Congrega- 
tionalist" of Iowa (1881-84), and, at different 
periods, has served as Trustee of Colorado, 
Marietta and Knox Colleges; being still an 
honored member of the Knox College Board. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Illinois 
College, in 1879. 

SUBLETTE, a station and village on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, in Lee County, 8 miles 
northwest of Mendota. Population, (1900), 306. 

SUFFRAGE, in general, the right or privilege 
of voting. The qualifications of electors (or 
voters) , in the choice of public officers in Illinois, 
are fixed by the State Constitution (Art. VII.), 
except as to school officers, which are prescribed 
by law. Under the State Constitution the exer- 
cise of the right to vote is limited to persons who 
were electors at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848, or who are native or natu- 
ralized male citizens of the United States, of the 
age of 21 years or over, who have been residents 
of the State one year, of the county ninety days, 
and of the district (or precinct) in which they 
offer to vote, 30 days. Under an act passed in 
1891, women, of 21 years of age and upwards, are 
entitled to vote for school officers, and are also 
eligible to such offices under the same conditions, 
as to age and residence, as male citizens. (See 
Elections; Australian Ballot. ) 

SULLIVAN, a city and county-seat of Moultrie 
County, 25 miles southeast of Decatur and 14 
miles northwest of Mattoon ; is on three lines of 
railway. It is in an agricultural and stock-rais- 
ing region; contains two State banks and four 
weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 1,305; 
<1890), 1,468; (1900), 2,399; (1900, est). 3,100. 

SULLIVAN, William K., journalist, was born 
at Waterford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1843 ; educated at 
the Waterford Model School and in Dublin ; came 
to the United States in 1863, and, after teaching 
for a time in Kane County, in 1864 enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Forty-first Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers. Then, after a brief season spent in 
teaching and on a visit to his native land, he 
began work as a reporter on New York papers, 
later being employed on "The Chicago Tribune" 
and "The Evening Journal," on the latter, at 
different times, holding the position of city edi- 
tor, managing editor and correspondent. He 
was also a Representative from Cook County in 
the Twenty-seventh General Assembly, for three 
years a member of the Chicago Board of Edu- 
cation, and appointed United States Consul to the 
Bermudas by President Harrison, resigning in 
1892. Died, in Chicago, January 17, 1899. 

SULLIVANT, Michael Lucas, agriculturist, 
was born at Franklinton (a suburb of Columbus, 
Ohio), August 6, 1807; was educated at Ohio 
University and Centre College, Ky., and after 
being engaged in the improvement of an immense 
tract of land inherited from his father near his 
birth-place, devoting much attention, meanwhile, 
to the raising of improved stock in 1854 sold his 
Ohio lands and bought 80,000 acres, chiefly in 
Champaign and Piatt Counties, 111., where he 
began farming on a larger scale than before. ' The 
enterprise proved a financial failure, and he was 
finally compelled to sell a considerable portion of 
his estate in Champaign County, known as Broad 
Lands, to John T. Alexander (see Alexander, 
John T.), retiring to a farm of 40,000 acres at 
Burr Oaks, 111. He died, at Henderson, Ky. ; Jan. 
29, 1879. 

SUMMERFIELD, a village of St. Clair County, 
on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 
27 miles east of St. Louis ; was the home of Gen. 
Fred. Hecker. Population (1900), 360. 

SUMNER, a city of Lawrence County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 19 miles 
west of Vincennes, Ind. ; has a fine school house, 
four churches, two banks, two flour mills, tele- 
phones, and one weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
1,037; (1900), 1,268. 

TION. The office of State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was created by act of the 
Legislature, at a special session held in 1854, its 
duties previous to that time, from 1845, having 
been discharged by the Secretary of State as 
Superintendent, ex-officio. The following is a list 
of the incumbents from the date of the formal 



creation of the office down to the present time 
(1899), with the date and duration of the term of 
each Ninian W. Edwards (by appointment of 
the Governor), 1854-57; William H. PoweU (by 
election), 1857-59; Newton Bateman, 1859-63; 
John P. Brooks, 1863-65; Newton Bateman, 
1865-75; Samuel W. Etter, 1875-79; James P. 
Slade, 1879-83; Henry Raab, 1883-87; Richard 
Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel 
M. Inglis, 1^95-98; James H. Freeman, June, 
1898, to January, 1899 (by appointment of the 
Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof. 
Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898) ; Alfred 
Baylis, 1899. 

Previous to 1870 the tenure of the office was 
two years, but, by the Constitution adopted that 
year, it was extended to four years, the elections 
occurring on the even years between those for 
Governor and other State officers except State 

following is a list of Justices of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois who have held office since the 
organization of the State Government, with the 
period of their respective incumbencies : Joseph 
Phillips, 1818-22 (resigned); Thomas C. Browne, 
1818 48 (term expired on adoption of new Con- 
stitution); William P. Foster, Oct. 9, 1818, to 
July 7, 1819 (resigned), John Reynolds, 1818-25; 
Thomas Reynolds (vice Phillips), 1822-25; Wil- 
liam Wilson (vice Foster) 1819-48 (term expired 
on adoption of new Constitution) ; Samuel D 
Lockwood, 1825-48 (term expired on adoption of 
new Constitution) ; Theophilus W. Smith, 1825-42 
(resigned); Thomas Ford, Feb. 15, 1841, to Au- 
gust 1, 1842 (resigned) ; Sidney Breese, Feb. 15, 
1841, to Dec. 19, 1842 (resigned) also (by re-elec- 
tions), 1857-78 (died in office) ; Walter B. Scates, 
1841-47 (resigned) also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57 
(resigned); Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned); 
Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-42 (resigned) ; John D. 
Caton (vice Ford) August, 1842, to March, 1843 
also (vice Robinson and by successive re-elec- 
tions), May, 1843 to January, 1864 (resigned) ; 
James Semple (vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to 
April 16, 1843 (resigned) ; Richard M. Young (vice 
Smith), 1843-47 (resigned) ; John M. Robinson 
(vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 27, 1843 (died 
in office); Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., (vice Douglas), 
1843-45 (resigned) also (vice Young), 1847-48; 
James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned) ; 
Norman H. Purple (vice Thomas), 1843-48 (retired 
under Constitution of 1848) ; Gustavus Koerner 
(vice Shields), 1845-48 (retired by Constitution) ; 
William A. Denning (vice Scates), 1847-48 (re- 

tired b>y Constitution) ; Lymau Trumbull, 1848-53 
(resigned); Ozias C. Skinner (vice Treat), 1855-58 
(resigned); Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner), 
1858-85 (deceased); Corydon Beckwith (by ap- 
pointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6, 
1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1864-73; 
Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); John M, 
Scott (two terms), 1870-88 ; Benjamin R. Sheldon 
(two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAllister, 
1870-75 (resigned) ; John Scholfield (vice Thorn- 
ton), 187393 (died); T. Lyle Dickey (vice 
McAllister), 1875-85 (died) ; David J. Baker (ap- 
pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 2, 
1879 also, 1888-97; John H. Mulkey, 1879-88; 
Damon G. Tunnicliffe (appointed, vice Walker), 
Feb. 15, 1885, to June 1, 1885; Simeon P. Shope, 
1885-94; Joseph M. Bailey, 1888-95 (died in office). 
The Supreme Court, as at present constituted 
(1899), is as follows: Carroll C. Boggs, elected, 
1897; Jesse J. Phillips (vice Scholfield, deceased) 
elected, 1893, and re-elected, 1897; Jacob W. Wil- 
kin, elected, 1888, and re-elected, 1897; Joseph 
N. Carter, elected, 1894; Alfred M. Craig, elec- 
ted, 1873, and re-elected, 1882 and '91; James H. 
Cartwright (vice Bailey), elected, 1895, and re- 
elected, 1897 ; Benjamin D. Magruder (vice 
Dickey), elected, 1885, '88 and '97. The terms of 
Justices Boggs, Phillips, Wilkin, Cartwright and 
Magruder expire in 1906 ; that of Justice Carter 
on 1903; and Justice Craig's, in 1900. Under the 
Constitution of 1818, the Justices of the Supreme 
Court were chosen by joint ballot of the Legisla- 
ture, but, under the Constitutions of 1848 and 
1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years 
each. (See Judicial System; also sketches of 
individual members of the Supreme Court under 
their proper names.) 

United States law passed on the subject of Gov- 
ernment surveys was dated, May 20, 1785. After 
reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of 
pensions and to be donated for school purposes, 
it provided for the division of the remaining pub- 
lic lands among the original thirteen States. 
This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordi- 
nance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectan- 
gular system of surveys which, with but little 
modification, has remained in force ever since. 
Briefly outlined, the system is as follows : Town- 
ships, six miles square, are laid out from principal 
bases, each township containing thirty -six sec- 
tions of one square mile, numbered consecutively, 
the numeration to commence at the upper right 
hand corner of the township. The first principal 
meridian (84 51' west of Greenwich), coincided 



with the line dividing Indiana and Ohio. The 
second (1 37' farther west) had direct relation 
to surveys in Eastern Illinois. The third (89 10' 
30" west of Greenwich) and the fourth (90 29' 
56" west) governed the remainder of Illinois sur- 
veys. The first Public Surveyor was Thomas 
Hutchins, who was called "the geographer." 
(See Hutchins, Thomas.) 

SWEET, (Gen.) Benjamin J., soldier, was 
born at Kirkland, Oneida County, N. Y., April 
24, 1832; came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy- 
gan, Wis., studied law, was elected to the State 
Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth 
Wisconsin Volunteers, being commissioned Major 
in 1862. Later, he resigned and, returning home, 
assisted in the organization of the Twenty-first 
and Twenty-second regiments, being elected 
Colonel of the former ; and with it taking part in 
the campaign in Western Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. In 1863 he was assigned to command at 
Camp Douglas, and was there on the exposure, 
in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release 
the rebel prisoners. (See Camp Douglas Conspir- 
acy.) The service which he rendered in the 
defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy 
evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of 
inestimable value to the country. After the 
war, General Sweet located at Lombard, near 
Chicago, was appointed Pension Agent at Chi- 
cago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal 
Revenue, and, in 1872, became Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died, 
in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874. Miss Ada C. 
(Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the efficient 
Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's 

SWEETSER, A. C., soldier and Department 
Commander G. A. R. , was born in Oxford County, 
Maine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, 111., in 
1857 ; enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War 
in the Eighth Illinois Volunteers and, later, in the 
Thirty-ninth; at the battle of W'ierbottom 
Church, Va., in June, 1864, was shot through 
both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of 
them. After the war he held several offices of 
trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom- 
ington and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the Springfield District ; in 1887 was elected 
Department Commander of the Grand Army of 
the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington, 
March 23, 1896. 

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born near 
Turner, Maine, August 11, 1825; was educated at 
Waterville College (now Colby University), but 
left before graduation ; read law in Portland, and, 

while seeking a location in the West, enlisted m 
an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being 
attacked by climatic fever, was discharged before 
completing his term of enlistment. He soon 
after came to Bloomington, 111. , where he became 
the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and 
David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for 
a number of years. He early became active in 
State politics, was a member of the Republican 
State Convention of 1856, was elected to the 
lower house of the General Assembly in 1858, 
and, in 1860, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lin- 
coln as a Presidential Elector for the State-at- 
large. In 1862 he received the Republican 
nomination for Congress in his District, but was 
defeatad. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he 
gained increased distinction as a lawyer, espe- 
cially in the management of criminal cases. In 
1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for 
President, but later returned to the Republican 
party, and, in the National Republican Conven- 
tion of 1888, presented the name of Judge 
Gresham for nomination for the Presidency. 
Died, June 8, 1889. 

SWIGERT, Charles Philip, ex- Auditor of Pub- 
lic Accounts, was born in the Province of Baden, 
Germany, Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents 
to Chicago, 111., in childhood, and, in his boy- 
hood, attended the Scammon School in that city. 
In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kanka- 
kee County, where, between the ages of 12 and 
18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between 
400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On the break- 
ing out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18 
years of age, he enlisted as a private in the Forty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, in April, 
1862, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who 
ran the blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet, at 
Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduc- 
tion of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in 
the capture of 7,000 prisoners. At the battle of 
Farmington, Miss., during the siege of Corinth, 
in May, 1862, he had his right arm torn from its 
socket by a six-pound cannon-ball, compelling his 
retirement from the army. Returning home, 
after many weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson 
Barracks and Quincy, 111., he received his final 
discharge, Dec. 21, 1862, spent a year in school, 
also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Com- 
mercial College in Chicago, and having learned 
to write with his left hand, taught for a time in 
Kankakee County ; served as letter-carrier in Chi- 
cago, and for a year as Deputy County Clerk of 
Kankakee County, followed by two terms (1867- 
69) as a student in the Soldiers' College at Fulton. 



111. The latter year he entered upon the duties 
of Treasurer of Kankakee County, serving, by 
successive re-elections, until 1880, when he re- 
signed to take the position of State Auditor, to 
which he was elected a second time in 1884. In 
all these positions Mr. Swigert has proved him- 
self an upright, capable and high-minded public 
official. Of late years his residence has been in 

SWING, (Key.) David, clergyman and pulpit 
orator, was born of German ancestry, at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, August 23, 1836. After 1837 (his 
father dying about this time), the family resided 
for a time at Reedsburgh, and, later, on a farm 
near Williamsburgh, in Clermont County, in the 
same State. In 1852, having graduated from the 
Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the 
study of theology, but, in 1854, accepted the 
position of Professqr of Languages in his Alma 
Mater, which he continued to fill for thirteen 
years. His first pastorate was in connection with 
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chi- 
cago, which he assumed in 1866. His church 
edifice was destroyed in the great Chicago fire, 
but was later rebuilt. As a preacher he was 
popular ; but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial, 
before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomi- 
nation, on charges of heresy. He was acquitted 
by the trial court, but, before the appeal taken by 
the prosecution could be heard, he personally 
withdrew from affiliation with the denomination. 
Shortly afterward he became pastor of an inde- 
pendent religious organization known as the 
"Central Church," preaching, first at McVicker's 
Theatre and, afterward, at Central Music Hall, 
Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker 
on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor 
to numerous magazines, as well as the author of 
several volumes. Among his best known books 
are "Motives of Life," "Truths for To-day," and 
"Club Essays." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894. 

SYCAMORE, the county-seat of De Kalb 
County (founded in 1836), 56 miles west of Chi- 
cago, at the intersection of the Chicago & North- 
western and the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
roads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture, 
dairying and stock-raising. The city itself con- 
tains several factories, the principal products 
being agricultural implements, flour, insulated 
wire, brick, tile, varnish, furniture, soap and 
carriages and wagons. There are also works for 
canning vegetables and fruit, besides two creamer- 
ies. The town is lighted by electricity, and has 
high-pressure water-works. There are eleven 
churches, three graded public schools and a 

young ladies' seminary. Population (1880), 
3,028; (1890), 2,987; (1900), 3,653. 

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was born at Elm wood, 
Peoria County, 111., April 29, 1860; at an early 
age evinced a predilection for sculpture and 
began modeling ; graduated at the University of 
Illinois in 1880, then went to Paris and studied 
sculpture in the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts 
until 1885. The following year he settled in Chi 
cago, finally becoming associated with the Chi- 
cago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on 
art in the Chicago University. Mr. Taft fur- 
nished the decorations of the Horticultural Build- 
ing on the World's Fair Grounds, in 1893. 

TALCOTT, Mancel, business man, was born 
in Rome, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1817; attended the com- 
mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set 
out for the West, traveling on foot from Detroit 
to Chicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he 
worked at farming until 1850. Then, having 
followed the occupation of a miner for some time, 
in California, with some success, he united with 
Horace M. Singer in establishing the firm of 
Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted dur- 
ing most of his life. He served as a member of 
the Chicago City Council, on the Board of County 
Commissioners, as a member of the Police Board, 
and was one of the founders of the First National 
Bank, and President, for several years, of the 
Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and public- 
spirited, he contributed freely to works of 
charity. Died, June 5, 1878. 

TALCOTT, (Capt.) William, soldier of the 
War of 1812 and pioneer, was born in Gilead, 
Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida 
County, N. Y., in 1810, and engaged in farming; 
served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County 
militia during the War of 1812-14, being stationed 
at Sackett's Harbor under the command of Gen. 
Winfield Scott. In 1835, in company with his 
eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an ex- 
tended tour through the West, finally selecting a 
location in Illinois at the junction of Rock River 
and the Pecatonica, where the town of Rockton 
now stands there being only two white families, 
at that time, within the present limits of Winne- 
bago County. Two years later (1837), he brought 
his family to this point, with his sons took up a 
considerable body of Government land and 
erected two mills, to which customers came 
from a long distance. In 1838 Captain Talcott 
took part in the organization of the first Congre- 
gational Church in that section of the State. A 
zealous anti-slavery man, he supported James G. 



Birney (the Liberty candidate for President) in 
1844, continuing to act with that party until the 
organization of the Republican party in 1856; 
was deeply interested in the War for the Union, 
but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 1864. 
Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott), oldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn , April 17, 
.806 ; was taken to Rome, N. Y. , by his father in 
nfancy, and, after reaching maturity, engaged 
in mercantile business with his brother in Che- 
mung County ; in 1835 accompanied his father in 
a tour through the West, finally locating at 
Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On 
the organization of Winnebago County, in 1836, 
he was elected one of the first County Commis- 
sioners, and, in 1850, to the State Senate, serving 
four years. He also held various local offices. 
Died, Sept. 30, 1894. Hon. Wait (Talcott), second 
son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at He- 
bron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807, and taken to Rome, 
N. Y., where he remained until his 19th year, 
when he engaged in business at Booneville and, 
still later, in Utica ,- in 1838, removed to Illinois 
and joined his father at Rockton, finally 
becoming a citizen of Rockford, where, in his 
later years, he was extensively engaged in manu- 
facturing, having become, in 1854, with his 
brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H. 
Manny & Co., in the manufacture of the Manny 
reaper and mower. He was an original anti- 
slavery man and, at one time, a Free-Soil candidate 
for Congress, but became a zealous Republican 
and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
employed as an attorney in the famous suit of 
McCormick vs. the Manny Reaper Company for 
infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected 
to the State Senate, succeeding his brother, 
Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal 
Revenue in the Second District, appointed by Mr. 
Lincoln in 1862, and continuing in office some 
five years. Though too old for active service in 
the field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily 
hired a substitute to take his place. Mr. Talcott 
was one of the original incorporators and Trus- 
tees of Beloit College, and a founder of Rockford 
Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each 
for many years. Died, June 7, 1890. SylYester 
(Talcott), third son of William Talcott, born at 
Rome, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1810; when of age, engaged 
in mercantile business in Chemung County; in 
1837 removed, with other members of the family, 
to Winnebago County, 111., where he joined his 
father in the entry of Government lands and the 
erection of mills, as already detailed. He became 
one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne- 

bago County, also served as Supervisor for a 
number of years and, although a farmer, became 
interested, in 1854, with his brother Wait, 
in the Manny Reaper Company at Rockford. 
He also followed the example of his brother, 
just named, in furnishing a substitute for the 
War of the Rebellion, though too old for service 
himself. Died, June 19, 1885. Henry Walter 
(Talcott), fourth son of William Talcott, was 
born at Rome, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1814; came with 
his father to Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and 
was connected with his father and brothers in busi- 
ness. Died, Dec. 9, 1870. Dwight Lewis (Tal- 
cott), oldest son of Henry Walter Talcott, born 
in Winnebago County; at the age of 17 years 
enlisted at Belvidere, in January, 1864, as a soldier 
in the Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry ; served 
as provost guard some two months at Fort Picker- 
ing, near Memphis, and later took part in many 
of the important battles of that year in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee. Having been captured at 
Campbellsville, Tenn. , he was taken to Anderson- 
ville, Ga. , where he suffered all the horrors of 
that famous prison-pen, until March, 1865, when 
he was released, arriving at home a helpless 
skeleton, the day after Abraham Lincoln's assas- 
sination. Mr. Talcott subsequently settled in 
Muscatine County, Iowa. 

TALLULA, a prosperous village of Menard 
County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chi- 
cago & Alton Railway, 24 miles northeast of 
Jacksonville; is in the midst of a grain, coal- 
mining, and stock-growing region; has a local 
bank and newspaper. Pop. (1890), 445 ; (1900), 639. 

TAMAROA,a village in Perry County, situated 
at the junction of the Illinois Central with the 
Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad, 8 miles 
north of Duquoin, and 57 miles east-southeast of 
Belleville. It has a bank, a newspaper office, a 
large public school, five churches and two flour- 
ing mills. Coal is mined here and exported in 
large quantities. Pop. (1900), 853. 

(See Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad. ) 

TANNER, Edward Allen, clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born of New England ancestry, at 
Waverly, 111., Nov. 29, 1837 being the first child 
who could claim nativity there; was educated 
in the local schools and at Illinois College, 
graduating from the latter in 1857; spent four 
years teaching in his native place and at Jack- 
sonville; then accepted the Professorship of 
Latin in Pacific University at Portland, Oregon, 
remaining four years, when he returned to his 
Alma Mater (1865), assuming there the chair of 



Latin and Rhetoric. In 1881 he was appointed 
financial agent of the latter institution, and, in 
1882, its President. While in Oregon he had 
been ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church, and, for a considerable period during 
his connection with Illinois College, officiated as 
Chaplain of the Central Hospital for the Insane 
at Jacksonville, besides supplying local and 
other pulpits. He labored earnestly for the 
benefit of the institution under his charge, and, 
during his incumbency, added materially to its 
endowment and resources. Died, at Jackson- 
ville, Feb. 8, 1892 4 

TANNER, John R., Governor, was born in 
Warrick County, Ind., April 4, 1844, and brought 
to Southern Illinois in boyhood, where he grew 
up on a farm in the vicinity of Carbondale, 
enjoying only such educational advantages as 
were afforded by the common school ; in 1863, at 
the age of 19, enlisted in the Ninety-eighth Illi- 
nois Volunteers, serving until June, 1865, when 
he was transferred to the Sixty-first, and finally 
mustered out in September following. All the 
male members of Governor Tanner's family were 
soldiers of the late war, his father dying in a 
rebel prison at Columbus, Miss., one of his bro- 
thers suffering the same fate from wounds at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and another brother dying in hospital 
at Pine Bluff, Ark. Only one of this patriotic 
family, besides Governor Tanner, still survives 
Mr. J. M. Tanner of Clay County, who left the 
service with the rank of Lieutenant of the Thir- 
teenth Illinois Cavalry. Returning from the 
war, Mr. Tanner established himself in business 
as a farmer in Clay County, later engaging suc- 
cessfully in the milling and lumber business as 
the partner of his brother. The public positions 
held by him, since the war, include those of 
Sheriff of Clay 'County (1870-72), Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court (1872-76), and State Senator (1880-83). 
During the latter year he received the appoint- 
ment of United States. Marshal for the Southern 
District of Illinois, serving until after the acces- 
sion of President Cleveland in 1885. In 1886, he 
was the Republican nominee for State Treasurer 
and was elected by an unusually large majority ; 
in 1891 was appointed, by Governor Fifer, a 
member of the Railroad and Warehouse Commis- 
sion, but, in 1892, received the appointment of 
Assistant United States Treasurer at Chicago, 
continuing in the latter office until December, 
1893. For ten years (1874-84) he was a member 
of the Republican State Central Committee, re- 
turning to that body in 1894, when he was chosen 
Chairman and conducted the campaign which 

resulted in the unprecedented Republican suc- 
cesses of that year. In 1896 he received the 
nomination of his party for Governor, and was 
elected over Gov. John P. Altgeld, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, by a plurality of over 113,000, 
and a majority, over all, of nearly 90,000 votes. 

TANNER, Tazewell B., jurist, was born in 
Henry County, Va., and came to Jefferson 
County, 111., about 1846 or '47, at first taking a 
position as teacher and Superintendent of Public 
Schools. Later, he was connected with "The 
Jeff ersonian, " a Democratic paper at Mount Ver- 
non, and, in 1849, went to the gold regions of 
California, meeting with reasonable success as a 
miner. Returning in a year or two, he was 
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and, while in 
the discharge of his duties, prosecuted the study 
of law,, finally, on admission to the bar, entering 
into partnership with the late Col. Thomas S. 
Casey. In 1854 he was elected Representative in 
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and was in- 
strumental in securing the appropriation for the 
erection of a Supreme Court building at Mount 
Vernon. In 1862 he served as a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of that year ; was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1873, and, in 1877, was 
assigned to duty on the Appellate bench, but, at 
the expiration of his term, declined a re-election 
and resumed the practice of his profession at 
Mount Vernon. Died, March 25, 1880. 

TAXATION, in its legal sense, the mode of 
raising revenue. In its general sense its purposes 
are the support of the State and local govern- 
ments, the promotion of the public good by 
fostering education and works of public improve- 
ment, the protection of society by the preser- 
vation of order and the punishment of crime, and 
the support of the helpless and destitute. In 
practice, and as prescribed by the Constitution, 
the raising of revenue is required to be done "by 
levying a tax by valuation, so that every person 
and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to 
the value of his, her or its property such value 
to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be 
elected or appointed in such manner as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise." 
(State Constitution, 1870 Art. Revenue, Sec. 1.) 
The person selected under the law to make this 
valuation is the Assessor of the county or the 
township (in counties under township organiza- 
tion), and he is required to make a return to the 
County Board at its July meeting each year the 
latter having authority to hear complaints of tax- 
payers and adjust inequalities when found to 
exist. It is made the duty of the Assessor to 



include in his return, as real-estate, all lands and 
the buildings or other improvements erected 
thereon; and, under the head of personal prop- 
erty, all tangible effects, besides moneys, credits, 
bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or 
corporations, investments, annuities, franchises, 
royalties, etc. Property used for school, church 
or cemetery purposes, as well as public buildings 
and other property belonging to the State and 
General Government, municipalities, public 
charities, public libraries, agricultural and scien- 
tific societies, are declared exempt. Nominally, 
all property subject to taxation is required to be 
assessed at its cash valuation ; but, in reality, the 
valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of 
twenty-five to thirty-three per cent of its esti- 
mated cash value. In the larger cities, however, 
the valuation is often much lower than this, 
while very large amounts escape assessment 
altogether. The Revenue Act, passed at the 
special session of the Fortieth General Assembly 
(1898), requires the Assessor to make a return of 
all property subject to taxation in his district, at 
its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Eeview 
fixes a tax on the basis of twenty per cent of 
such cash valuation. An abstract of the property 
assessment of each county goes before the State 
Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in 
August, for the purpose of comparison and equal- 
izing valuations between counties, but the Board 
has no power to modify the assessments of indi- 
vidual tax-payers. (See State Board of Equali- 
zation. ) This Board has exclusive power to fix 
the valuation for purposes of taxation of the 
capital stock or franchises of companies (except 
certain specified manufacturing corporations) , in- 
corporated under the State laws, together with the 
"railroad track" and "rolling stock" of railroads, 
and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph 
lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter 
between counties in which they lie. The Consti- 
tution of 1848 empowered the Legislature to 
impose a capitation tax, of not less than fifty 
cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free 
white male citizen entitled to the right of suf- 
frage, between the ages of 21 and 60 years, but the 
Constitution of 1870 grants no such power, 
though it authorizes the extension of the "objects 
and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the 
principle contained in the first section of the 
Revenue Article. Special assessments in cities, 
for the construction of sewers, pavements, etc., 
being local and in the form of benefits, cannot 
be said to come under the head of general tax- 
ation. The same is to be said of revenue derived 

from fines and penalties, which are forms of 
punishment for specific offenses, and go to the 
benefit of certain specified funds. 

TAYLOR, Abner, ex-Congressman, is a native 
of Maine, and a resident of Chicago. He has been 
in active business all his life as contractor, builder 
and merchant, and, for some time, a member of 
the wholesale dry-goods firm of J. V. Farwell & 
Co., of Chicago. He was a member of the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly, a delegate to the 
National Republican Convention of 1884, and 
represented the First Illinois District in the Fifty- 
first and Fifty-second Congresses, 1889 to 1893. 
Mr. Taylor was one of the contractors for the 
erection of the new State Capitol of Texas. 

TAYLOR, Benjamin Franklin, journalist, poet 
and lecturer, was born at Lowville, N. Y., July 
19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in 
1839, the next year becoming literary and dra- 
matic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal." 
Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputa- 
tion as a journalist and poet, and was much in 
demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His 
letters from the field during the Rebellion, as 
war correspondent of "The Evening Journal," 
won for him even a greater popularity, and were 
complimented by translation into more than one 
European language. After the war, he gave his 
attention more unreservedly to literature, his 
principal works appearing after that date. His 
publications in book form, including both prose 
and poetry, comprise the following: "Attractions 
of Language" (1845); "January and June" 
(1853); "Pictures in Camp and Field" (1871); 
"The World on Wheels" (1873); "Old Time Pic- 
tures and Sheaves of Rhyme" (1874); "Songs of 
Yesterday" (1877); "Summer Savory Gleaned 
from Rural Nooks" (1879); "Between the Gates" 
pictures of California life (1881); "Dulce 
Domum, the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theo- 
philus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings, ' ' 
a novel (1887). The last was in the hands of the 
publishers at his death, Feb. 27, 1887. Among 
his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long 
Ago," "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of 
the River. " "The London Times" complimented 
Mr. Taylor with the title of "The Oliver Gold- 
smith of America." 

TAYLOR, Edmund Dick, early Indian-trader 
and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H. , Va. , 
Oct. 18, 1802 the son of a commissary in the 
army of the Revolution, under General Greene, 
and a cousin of General (later, President) Zachary 
Taylor ; left his native State in his youth and, at 
an early day, came to Springfield, 111., where he 



opened an Indian-trading post and general store ; 
was elected from Sangamon County to the lower 
branch of the Seventh General Assembly (1830) 
and re-elected in 1832 the latter year being a 
competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
defeated. In 1834 he was elected to the State 
Senate and, at the next session of the Legislature, 
was one of the celebrated "Long Nine" who 
secured the removal of the State Capital to 
Springfield. He resigned before the close of his 
term to accept, from President Jackson, the ap- 
pointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at Chi- 
cago. Here he became one of the promoters of 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (1837), 
serving as one of the Commissioners to secure 
subscriptions of stock, and was also active in 
advocating the construction of the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel," by 
which he was known during most of his life, was 
acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff 
of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk 
War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel 
Taylor became one of the Trustees of the Chicago 
branch of the State Bank, and was later identified 
with various banking enterprises, as also a some- 
what extensive operator in real estate. An active 
Democrat in the early part of his career in Illi- 
nois, Colonel Taylor was one of the members of 
his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb 
raska bill in 1854, and advocated the election of 
General Bissell to the governorship in 1856. In 
1860 he was again in line with his party in sup- 
port of Senator Douglas for the Presidency, and 
was an opponent of the war policy of the Govern- 
ment still later, as shown by his participation in 
the celebrated "Peace Convention" at Spring- 
field, of June 17, 1863. In the latter years of his 
life he became extensively interested in coal 
lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and, 
for a considerable time, served as President of the 
Northern Illinois Coal & Mining Company, his 
home, during a part of this period, being at 
Mendota. Died, in Chicago, Dec. 4, 1891. 

TAYLORVILLE, a city and county-seat of 
Christian County, on the South Fork of the Sanga- 
mon River and on the Wabash Railway at its 
point of intersection with the Springfield Division 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. It is 
about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and 
28 miles southwest of Decatur. It has several 
banks, flour mills, paper mill, electric light and 
gas plants, water-works, two coal mines, carriage 
and wagon shops, a manufactory of farming 
implements, two daily and weekly papers, nine 
churches and five graded and township high 

schools. Much coal is mined in this vicinity. 
Pop. (1890), 2,839; (1900), 4,248. 

TAZEWELL COUNTY, a central county on 
the Illinois River ; was first settled in 1823 and 
organized in 1827 ; has an area of 650 square miles 
was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia. 
It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers 
and traversed by several lines of railway. The 
surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and 
rich, but, requiring drainage, especially on the 
river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are 
found, but, generally speaking, Tazewell is an 
agricultural county. The cereals are extensively 
cultivated; wool is also clipped, and there are 
dairy interests of some importance. Distilling is 
extensively conducted at Pekin, the county-seat, 
which is also the seat of other mechanical indus- 
tries. (See also Pekin.) Population of the 
county (1880), 29,666; (1890), 29,556; (1900), 33,221. 

TEMPLE, John Taylor, M.D., early Chicago 
physician, born in Virginia in 1804, graduated in 
medicine at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1830, and, 
in 1833, arrived in Chicago. At this time he had 
a contract for carrying the United States mail 
from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay, 
and the following year undertook a similar con- 
tract between Chicago and Ottawa. Having sold 
these out three years later, he devoted his atten- 
tion to the practice of his profession, though 
interested, for a time, in contracts for the con- 
struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Dr. 
Temple was instrumental in erecting the first 
house (after Rev. Jesse Walker's missionary 
station at Wolf Point), for public religious 
worship in Chicago, and, although himself a 
Baptist, it was used in common by Protestant 
denominations. He was a member of the first 
Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College, 
though he later became a convert to homeopathy, 
and finally, removing to St. Louis, assisted in 
founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy, 
dying there, Feb. 24, 1877. 

TENURE OF OFFICE. (See Elections.) 

RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Alton & Terre 
Haute Railroad. ) 

St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad.) 

ROAD, a corporation operating no line of its own 
within the State, but the lessee and operator of 
the following lines (which see): St. Louis, 
Vandalia & Terre Haute, 158.3 miles; Terre 
Haute & Peoria, 145.12 miles; East St. Louis 
& Carondelet, 12.74 miles total length of leased 



lines in Illinois, 316.16 miles. The Terre Haute 
& Indianapolis Railroad was incorporated in 
Indiana in 1847, as the Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond, completed a line between the points 
named in the title, in 1852, and took its present 
name in 186C. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany purchased a controlling interest in its stock 
in 1893. 

(Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from 
Terre Haute, Ind., to Peoria, 111., 145.12 miles, 
with 28.78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9 
miles in operation, all being in Illinois operated 
by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Com- 
pany. The gauge is standard, and the rails are 
steel. (HISTORY.) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887, 
successor to the Illinois Midland Railroad. The 
latter was made up by the consolidation (Nov. 4, 
1874) of three lines: (1) The Peoria, Atlanta & 
Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened in 
1874; (2) the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered 
in 1861 and opened in December, 1872 ; and (3) the 
Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873 
and opened in 1874 the consolidated lines 
assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Rail- 
road. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold under 
foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized 
as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1892 
it was leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is 
operated as a part of the "Vandalia System." 
The capital stock (1898) was $3,764,200; funded 
debt, $2,230,000, total capital invested, $6,227,- 

TETJTOPOLTS, a village of Effingham County, 
on the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 4 
miles east of Effingham; was originally settled 
by a colony of Germans from Cincinnati. Popu- 
lation (1900), 498. 

THOMAS, Horace H., lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Vermont*, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at 
Middlebury College, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced 
practice. At the outbreak of the rebellion he 
enlisted and was commissioned Assistant Adju- 
tant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the 
close of the war he took up his residence in Ten- 
nessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff 
of Governor Brownlow. In 1867 he returned to 
Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected 
a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and 
re-elected in 1880, being chosen Speaker of the 
House during his latter term. In 1888 he was 
elected State Senator from the Sixth District, 
serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth 

and Thirty-seventh General Assemblies. In 
1897, General Thomas was appointed United 
States Appraiser in connection with the Custom 
House in Chicago. 

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United 
States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md., 
claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore. 
Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood 
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, 
in 1803; in 1805 was Speaker of the Territorial 
Legislature and, later, represented the Territory 
as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of 
Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he 
removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the 
first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818, 
as Delegate from St. Clair County, presided over 
the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on 
the admission of the State, became one of the 
first United States Senators Governor Edwards 
being his colleague. Though an avowed advo- 
cate of slavery, he gained no little prominence 
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Com- 
promise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to 
the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He sub- 
sequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where 
he died by suicide, May 4, 1853. Jesse Burgess 
(Thomas), Jr., nephew of the United States Sena- 
tor of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, 
July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania 
University, and, being admitted to the bar, 
located at Edwardsville, 111. He first appeared 
in connection with public affairs as Secretary of 
the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1832 ; 
in 1834 was elected Representative in the General 
Assembly from Madison County, but, in Febru- 
ary following, was appointed Attorney-General, 
serving only one year. He afterwards held the 
position of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being 
then in Springfield; in 1843 he became Associ- 
ate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment 
of the Governor, as successor to Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and was afterwards elected to the same 
office by the Legislature, remaining until 1848. 
During a part of his professional career he was 
the partner of David Prickett and William L. 
May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of 
the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago, 
where he died, Feb. 21, 1850. Jesse B. (Thomas) 
third, clergyman and son of the last named ; born 
at Edwardsville, 111., July 29, 1832; educated at 
Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.) 
Theological Seminary; practiced law for a time 
in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist minis- 
try, serving churches at "Waukegan, 111., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He 



then became pastor of the Michigan Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, in Chicago, remaining until 1874, 
when he returned to Brooklyn. In 1887 he 
became Professor of Biblical History in the 
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he 
has since resided. He is the author of several 
volumes, and, in 1866, received the degree of D.D. 
from the old University of Chicago. 

THOMAS, John, pioneer and soldier of the 
Black Hawk War, was born in Wythe County, 
Va., Jan. 11, 1800. At the age of 18 he accom- 
panied his parents to St. Clair County, 111., where 
the family located in what was then called the 
Alexander settlement, near the present site of 
Shiloh. When he was 22 he rented a farm 
(although he had not enough money to buy a 
horse) and married. Six years later he bought 
and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward, 
rapidly accumulated real property, until he 
became one of the most extensive owners of farm- 
ing land in St. Clair County. In early life he 
was fond of military exercise, holding various 
offices in local organizations and serving as a 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1824 he was 
one of the leaders of the party opposed to the 
amendment of the State Constitution to sanction 
slavery, was a zealous opponent of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill in 1854, and a firm supporter of the 
Republican party from the date of its formation. 
He was elected to the lower house of the General 
Assembly in 1838, '62, '64, '72 and '74; and to the 
State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the 
latter body. Died, at Belleville, Dec. 16, 1894, in 
the 95th year of his age. 

THOMAS, John R., ex-Congressman, was born 
at Mount Vernon, 111., Oct. 11, 1846. He served 
in the Union Army during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, rising from the ranks to a captaincy. After 
his return home he studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1869. From 1872 to 1876 he was 
State's Attorney, and, from 1879 to 1889, repre- 
sented his District in Congress. In 1897, Mr. 
Thomas was appointed by President McKinley 
an additional United States District Judge for 
Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita, 
in that Territory. 

THOMAS, William, pioneer lawyer and legis- 
lator, was born in what is now Allen County, 
Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudimentary edu- 
cation, and served as deputy of his father (who 
was Sheriff), and afterwards of the County Clerk ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823 ; 
in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, 111., where he 
taught school, served as a private in the Winne- 
bago War (1827), and at the session of 1828-29, 

reported the proceedings of the General Assem- 
bly for ''The Vandalia Intelligencer"; was State's 
Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan 
County; served as Quartermaster and Commis- 
sary in the Black Hawk War (1831-32), first under 
Gen. Joseph Duncan and, a year later, under 
General Whiteside ; in 1839 was appointed Circuit 
Judge, but legislated out of office two years later. 
It was as a member of the Legislature, however, 
that he gained the greatest prominence, first as 
State Senator in 1834-40, and Representative in 
1846-48 and 1850-52, when he was especially influ- 
ential in the legislation which resulted in estab- 
lishing the institutions for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, and "the Hospital for the Insane 
(the first in the State) at Jacksonville serving, 
for a time, as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the latter. He was also prominent in connec- 
tion with many enterprises of a local character, 
including the establishment of the Illinois Female 
College, to which, although without children of 
his own, he was a liberal contributor. During 
the first year of the war he was a member of the 
Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Gov- 
ernor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 22, 

THORNTON, Anthony, jurist, was born in 
Bourbon County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 being 
descended from a Virginia family. After the 
usual primary instruction in the common schools, 
he spent two years in a high school at Gallatin, 
Tenn., when he entered Centre College at Dan- 
ville, Ky. , afterwards continuing his studies at 
Miami University, Ohio, where he graduated in 
1834. Having studied law with an uncle at 
Paris, Ky., he was licensed to practice in 1836, 
when he left his native State with a view to set- 
tling in Missouri, but, visiting his uncle, Gen. 
William F. Thornton, at Shelby ville, 111., was 
induced to establish himself in practice there. 
He served as a member of the State Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, and as Represent- 
ative in the Seventeenth General Assembly 
(1850-52) for Shelby County. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress, and, in 
1870, to the Illinois Supreme Court, but served 
only until 1873, when he resigned. In 1879 
Judge Thornton removed to Decatur, 111., but 
subsequently returned to Shelbyville, where 
(1898) he now resides. 

THORNTON, William Fit/lmgh, Commissioner 
of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, was born in 
Hanover County, Va., Oct. 4, 1789; in 1806, went 
to Alexandria, Va., where he conducted a drug 
business for a time, also acting as associate 



editor of "The Alexandria Gazette." Subse- 
quently removing to Washington City, he con- 
ducted a paper there in the interest of John 
Quincy Adams for the Presidency. During the 
"War of 1812-14 he served as a Captain of cavalry, 
and, for a time, as staff -officer of General Winder. 
On occasion of the visit of Marquis La Fayette to 
America (1824-25) he accompanied the distin- 
guished Frenchman from Baltimore to Rich- 
mond. In 1829 he removed to Kentucky, and, 
in 1833, to Shelby ville, 111., where he soon after 
engaged in mercantile business, to which he 
added a banking and brokerage business in 1859, 
with which he was actively associated until his 
death. In 1836, he was appointed, by Governor 
Duncan, one of the Commissioners of the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal, serving as President of the 
Board until 1842. In 1840, he made a visit to 
London, as financial agent of the State, in the 
interest of the Canal, and succeeded in making a 
sale of bonds to the amount of $1,000,000 on what 
were then considered favorable terms. General 
Thornton was an ardent Whig until the organi- 
zation of the Republican party, when he became 
a Democrat. Died, at Shelby ville, Oct. 21, 

TILLSON, .loll n, pioneer, was born at Halifax, 
Mass., March 13, 1796; came to Illinois in 1819, 
locating at Hillsboro, Montgomery County, where 
he became a prominent and enterprising operator 
in real estate, doing a large business for eastern 
parties ; was one of the founders of Hillsboro 
Academy and an influential and liberal friend of 
Illinois College, being a Trustee of the latter 
from its establishment until his death ; was sup- 
ported in the Legislature of 1827 for State Treas- 
urer, but defeated by James Hall. Died, at 
Peoria, May 11, 1853. Christiana Holmes (Till- 
son), wife of the preceding, was born at Kingston, 
Mass., Oct. 10, 1798; married to John Tillson in 
1822, and immediately came to Illinois to reside ; 
was a woman of rare culture and refinement, and 
deeply interested in benevolent enterprises. 
Died, in New York City, May 29, 1872. Charles 
Holmes (Tillson), son of John and Christiana 
Holmes Tillson, was born at Hillsboro, 111. , Sept. 
15, 1823; educated at Hillsboro Academy and 
Illinois College, graduating from the latter in 
1844; studied law in St. Louis and at Transyl- 
vania University, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Louis and practiced there some years also served 
several terms in the City Council, and was a 
member of the National Guard of Missouri in the 
War of the Rebellion. Died, Nov. 25, 1865. 
John (Tillson), Jr., another son, was born at 

Hillsboro, 111., Oct. 12, 1825; educated at Hills- 
boro Academy and Illinois College, but did not 
graduate from the latter; graduated from Tran- 
sylvania Law School, Ky., in 1847, and was 
admitted to the bar at Quincy, 111., the same 
year; practiced two years at Galena, when he 
returned to Quincy. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, became its 
Lieutenant -Colonel, on the promotion of Col. J. D. 
Morgan to Brigadier-General, was advanced to 
the colonelcy, and, in July, 1865, was mustered 
out with the rank of brevet Brigadier-General; 
for two years later held a commission as Captain 
in the regular army. During a portion of 1869-70 
he was editor of "The Quincy Whig"; in 1873 
was elected Representative in the Twenty-eighth 
General Assembly to succeed Nehemiah Bushnell, 
who had died in office, and, during the same year, 
was 'appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the Quincy District, serving until 1881. Died, 
August 6, 1892. 

TILLSON, Robert, pioneer, was born in Hali- 
fax County, Mass., August 12, 1800; came to Illi- 
nois in 1822, and was employed, for several years, 
as a clerk in the land agency of his brother, John 
Tillson, at Hillsboro. In 1826 he engaged in the 
mercantile business with Charles Holmes, Jr., in 
St. Louis, but, in 1828, removed to Quincy, 111., 
where he opened the first general store in that 
city; also served as Postmaster for some ten 
years. During this period he built the first two- 
story frame building erected in Quincy, up to 
that date. Retiring from the mercantile business 
in 1840 he engaged in real estate, ultimately 
becoming the proprietor of considerable property 
of this character ; was also a contractor for fur- 
nishing cavalry accouterments to the Government 
during the war. Soon after the war he erected 
one of the handsomest business blocks existing 
in the city at that time. Died, in Quincy, Dec. 
27, 1892. 

TINCHER, John L., banker, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1821 ; brought by his parents to Vermil- 
ion County, Ind., in 1829, and left an orphan at 
17; attended school in Coles County, 111., and 
was employed as clerk in a store at Danville, 
1843-53. He then became a member of the firm 
of Tincher & English, merchants, later establish- 
ing a bank, which became the First National 
Bank of Danville. In 1864 Mr. Tincher was 
elected Representative in the Twenty-fourth 
General Assembly and, two years later, to the 
Senate, being re-elected in 1870. He was also a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention 
of 1869-70. Died, in Springfield, Dec. 17, 1871, 



while in attendance on the adjourned session of 
that year. 

TIPTON, Thomas F., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Franklin County, Ohio, August 29, 1833 ; 
has been a resident of McLean County, 111., from 
the age of 10 years, his present home being at 
Bloomington. He was admitted to the bar in 
1857, and, from January, 1867, to December, 1868, 
was State's Attorney for the Eighth Judicial 
Circuit. In 1870 he was elected Judge of the 
same circuit, and under the new Constitution, 
was chosen Judge of the new Fourteenth Circuit. 
From 1877 to 1879 he represented the (then) 
Thirteenth Illinois District in Congress, but, in 
1878, was defeated by Adlai E. Stevenson, the 
Democratic nominee. In 1891 he was re-elected 
to a seat on the Circuit bench for the Bloomington 
Circuit, but resumed practice at the expiration 
of his term in 1897. 

T1SKILWA, a village of Bureau County, on the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 7 miles 
southwest of Princeton; has creameries and 
cheese factories, churches, school, library, water- 
works, bank and a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 965. 

TODD, (Col.) John, soldier, was born in Mont- 
gomery County, Pa., in 1750; took part in the 
battle of Point Pleasant, Va., in 1774, as Adju- 
tant-General of General Lewis; settled as a 
lawyer at Fincastle, Va., and, in 1775, removed 
to Fayette County, Ky., the next year locating 
near Lexington. He was one of the first two 
Delegates from Kentucky County to the Virginia 
House of Burgesses, and, in 1778, accompanied 
Col. George Rogers Clark on his expedition 
against Kaskaskia and Vincennes. In Decem- 
ber, 1778, he was appointed by Gov. Patrick 
Henry, Lieutenant -Commandant of Illinois 
County, embracing the region northwest of the 
Ohio River, serving two years; in 1780, was again 
a member of the Virginia Legislature, where he 
procured grants of land for public schools and 
introduced a bill for negro-emancipation. He 
was killed by Indians, at the battle of Blue 
Licks, Ky., August 19, 1782. 

TODD, (Dr.) John, physician, born near Lex- 
ington, Ky., April 27, 1787, was one of the earli- 
est graduates of Transylvania University, also 
graduating at the Medical University of Phila- 
delphia ; was appointed Surgeon-General of Ken- 
tucky troops in the War of 1812, and captured at 
trie battle of River Raisin. Returning to Lex- 
ington after his release, he practiced there and 
at Bardstown, removed to Edwardsville, 111., in 
1817, and, in 1827, to Springfield, where he had 
been appointed Register of the Land Office by 

President John Quincy Adams, but was removed 
by Jackson in 1829. Dr. Todd continued to reside 
at Springfield until his death, which occurred, 
Jan. 9, 1865. He was a grandson of John Todd, 
who was appointed Commandant of Illinois 
County by Gov. Patrick Henry in 1778, and an 
uncle of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln. John Hlair 
Smith (Todd), son of the preceding, was born at 
Lexington, Ky., April 4, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1817; graduated at the United 
States Military Academy in 1837, serving after- 
wards in the Florida and Mexican wars and on 
the frontier; resigned, and was an Indian-trader 
in Dakota, 1856-61; the latter year, took his 
seat as a Delegate in Congress from Dakota, 
then served as Brigadier- General of Volun- 
teers, 1861-62; was again Delegate in Congress 
in 1863-65, Speaker of the Dakota Legislature 
in 1867, and Governor of the Territory, 1869-71. 
Died, at Yankton City, Jan. 5, 1872. 

TOLEDO, a village and the county-seat of 
Cumberland County, on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road; founded in 1854; has five churches, a graded 
school, two banks, creamery, flour mill, elevator, 
and two weekly newspapers. There are no manu- 
factories, the leading industry in the surrounding 
country being agriculture. Pop. (1890), 676; 
(1900), 818. 

ROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas Citg 
Railroad. ) 

(See Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway. ) 

(See Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway. ) 

a line of railroad wholly within the State of Illi- 
nois, extending from Effner, at the Indiana State 
line, west to the Mississippi River at Warsaw. 
The length of the whole line is 230. 7 miles, owned 
entirely by the company. It is made up of a 
division from Effner to Peoria (110.9 miles) 
which is practically an air-line throughout nearly 
its entire length and the Peoria and Warsaw 
Division (108.8 miles) with branches from La 
Harpe to Iowa Junction (10.4 miles) and 0.6 of a 
mile connecting with the Keokuk bridge at 
Hamilton. (HISTORY.) The original charter for 
this line was granted, in 1863, under the name of 
the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad ; the main 
line was completed in 1868, and the La Harpe & 
Iowa Junction branch in 1873. Default was 
made in 1873, the road sold under foreclosure, in 
1880, and reorganized as the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroad, and the line leased for 



years to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway 
Company. The latter defaulted in July, 1884, 
and, a year later, the Toledo, Peoria & Western 
was transferred to trustees for the first mortgage 
bond-holders, was sold under foreclosure in 
October, 1886, and, in March, 1887, the present 
company, under the name of the Toledo, Peoria 
& Western Railway Company, was organized for 
the purpose of taking over the property. In 1893 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company obtained a 
controlling interest in the stock, and, in 1894, an 
agreement, for joint ownership and management, 
was entered into between that corporation and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany. The total capitalization, in 1898, was 
19,712,433, of which $4,076,900 was in stock and 
$4,895,000 in bonds. 

ROAD. This line crosses the State in a northeast 
direction from East St. Louis to Humrick, near 
the Indiana State line, with Toledo as its eastern 
terminus. The length of the entire line is 450. 72 
miles, of which 179V miles are operated in Illi- 
nois. (HISTORY.) The Illinois portion of the 
line grew out of the union of charters granted to 
the Tuscola, Charleston & Vincennes and the 
Charleston, Neoga & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
panies, which were consolidated in 1881 with 
certain Indiana lines under the name of the 
Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad. During 
1882 a narrow-gauge road was constructed from 
Ridge Farm, in Vermilion County, to East St. 
Louis (172 miles). In 1885 this was sold under 
foreclosure and, in June, 1886, consolidated with 
the main line under the name of the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Kansas City Railroad. The whole line 
was changed to standard gauge in 1887-89, and 
otherwise materially improved, but, in 1893, 
went into the hands of receivers. Plans of re- 
organization have been under consideration, but 
the receivers were still in control in 1898. 

ROAD. (See Wabash Railroad.) 

TOLONO, a city in Champaign County, situ- 
ated at the intersection of the Wabash and the 
Illinois Central Railroads, 9 miles south of Cham- 
paign and 37 miles east-northeast of Decatur. It 
is the business center of a prosperous agricultural 
region. The town has five churches, a graded 
school, a bank, a button factory, and a weekly 
newspaper. Population (1880), 905; (1890), 902; 
(1900), 845. 

TONICA, a village of La Salle County, on the 
Illinois Central Railway, 9 miles south of La Salle ; 
the district is agricultural, but the place has some 

manufactures and a newspaper. Population 
(1890), 473 ; (1900), 497. 

TOXTY, Chevalier Henry de, explorer and sol- 
dier, born at Gaeta, Italy, about 1650 What is 
now known as the Tontine system of insurance 
undoubtedly originated with his father. The 
younger Tonty was adventurous, and, even as a 
youth, took part in numerous land and naval 
encounters. In the course of his experience he 
lost a hand, which was replaced by an iron or 
copper substitute. He embarked with La Salle 
in 1678, and aided in the construction of a fort at 
Niagara. He advanced into the country of the 
Illinois and established friendly relations with 
them, only to witness the defeat of his putative 
savage allies by the Iroquois. After various 
encounters (chiefly under the direction of La 
Salle) with the Indians in Illinois, he returned 
to Green Bay in 1681. The same year under La 
Salle's orders he began the erection of Fort St. 
Louis, on what is now called "Starved Rock" in 
La Salle County. In 1682 he descended the Mis- 
sissippi to its mouth, with La Salle, but was 
ordered back to Mackinaw for assistance. In 
1684 he returned to Illinois and successfully 
repulsed the Iroquois from Fort St. Louis. In 
1686 he again descended the Mississippi in search 
of La Salle. Disheartened by the death of his 
commander and the loss of his early comrades, 
he took up his residence with the Illinois Indians. 
Among them he was found by Iberville in 1700, 
as a hunter and fur-trader. He died, in Mobile, 
in September, 1704. He was La Salle's most effi- 
cient coadjutor, and next to his ill-fated leader, 
did more than any other of the early French 
explorers to make Illinois known to the civilized 

TOPOGRAPHY. Illinois is, generally speak- 
ing, an elevated table-land. If low water at 
Cairo be adopted as the maximum depression, and 
the summits of the two ridges hereinafter men- 
tioned as the highest points of elevation, the alti- 
tude of this table land above the sea-level varies 
from 300 to 850 feet, the mean elevation being 
about 600 feet. The State has no mountain 
chains, and its few hills are probably the result 
of unequal denudation during the drift epoch. 
In some localities, particularly in the valley of 
the upper Mississippi, the streams have cut 
channels from 200 to 300 feet deep through the 
nearly horizontal strata, and here are found pre- 
cipitous scarps, but, for the most part, the 
fundamental rocks are covered by a thick layer 
of detrital material. In the northwest there is a 
broken tract of uneven ground ; the central por- 



tion of the State is almost wholly flat prairie, 
and, in the alluvial lands in the State, there are 
many deep valleys, eroded by the action of 
streams. The surface generally slopes toward 
the south and southwest, but the uniformity is 
broken by two ridges, which cross the State, one 
in either extremity. The northern ridge crosses 
the Rock River at Grand Detour and the Illinois 
at Split Rock, with an extreme altitude of 800 to 
850 feet above sea -level, though the altitude of 
Mount Morris, in Ogle County, exceeds 900 feet. 
That in the south consists of a range of hills in 
the latitude of Jonesboro, and extending from 
Shawneetown to Grand Tower. These hills are 
also about 800 feet above the level of the ocean. 
The highest point in the State is in Jo Daviess 
County, just south of the Wisconsin State .line 
(near Scale's Mound) reaching an elevation of 
1,257 feet above sea-level, while the highest in 
the south is in the northeast corner of Pope 
County 1,046 feet a spur of the Ozark moun- 
tains. The following statistics regarding eleva- 
tions are taken from a report of Prof. C. W. 
Rolfe, of the University of Illinois, based on 
observations made under the auspices of the Illi- 
nois Board of World's Fair Commissioners: The 
lowest gauge of the Ohio river, at its mouth 
(above sea- lev el), is 268.58 feet, and the mean 
level of Lake Michigan at Chicago 581.28 feet. 
The altitudes of a few prominent points are as 
follows: Highest point in Jackson County, 695 
feet; "Bald Knob" in Union County, 985; high- 
est point in Cook County (Barrington), 818; in La 
Salle County (Mendota), 747; in Livingston 
(Strawn), 770; in Will (Monee), 804; in Pike 
(Arden), 790; in Lake (Lake Zurich), 880; in 
Bureau, 910; in Boone, 1,010; in Lee (Carnahan), 
1,017; in Stephenson (Waddam's Grove), 1,018; 
in Kane (Briar Hill), 974; in Winnebago, 985. 
The elevations of important towns are : Peoria, 
465; Jacksonville, 602; Springfield, 596; Gales- 
burg, 755; Joliet. 537; Rockford, 728; Blooming- 
ton, 821. Outside of the immediate valleys of 
the streams, and a few isolated groves or copses, 
little timber is found in the northern and central 
portions of the State, and such growth as there 
is, lacks the thriftiness characteristic of the for- 
ests in the Ohio valley. These forests cover a 
belt extending some sixty miles north of Cairo, 
and, while they generally include few coniferous 
trees, they abound in various species of oak, 
black and white walnut, white and yellow pop- 
lar, ash, elm, sugar-maple, linden, honey locust, 
cottonwood, mulberry, sycamore, pecan, persim- 
mon, and (in the immediate valley of the Ohio) 

the cypress. From a commercial point of view, 
Illinois loses nothing through the lack of timber 
over three-fourths of the State's area. Chicago 
is an accessible market for the product of the 
forests of the upper lakes, so that the supply of 
lumber is ample, while extensive coal-fields sup- 
ply abundant fuel. The rich soil of the prairies, 
with its abundance of organic matter (see Geo- 
logical Formations) , more than compensates for 
the want of pine forests, whose soil is ill adapted 
to agriculture. About two-thirds of the entire 
boundary of the State consists of navigable 
waters. These, with their tributary streams, 
ensure sufficient drainage. 

for the registration of titles to, and incumbrances 
upon, land, as well as transfers thereof, intended 
to remove all unnecessary obstructions to the 
cheap, simple and safe sale, acquisition and 
transfer of realty. The system has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Canada, Australia, New Zea- 
land and British Columbia for many years, and 
it is also in force in some States in the American 
Union. An act providing for its introduction 
into Illinois was first passed by the Twenty- 
ninth General Assembly, and approved, June 13, 
1895. The final legislation in reference thereto 
was enacted by the succeeding Legislature, and 
was approved, May 1, 1897. It is far more elabo- 
rate in its consideration of details, and is believed 
to be, in many respects, much better adapted to 
accomplish the ends in view, than was the origi- 
nal act of 1895. The law is applicable only to 
counties of the first and second class, and can be 
adopted in no county except by a vote of a 
majority of the qualified voters of the same the 
vote "for" or "against" to be taken at either the 
November or April elections, or at an election 
for the choice of Judges. Thus far the only 
county to adopt the system has been Cook, and 
there it encountered strong opposition on the 
part of certain parties of influence and wealth. 
After its adoption, a test case was brought, rais- 
ing the question of the constitutionality of the 
act. The issue was taken to the Supreme Court, 
which tribunal finally upheld the law. The 
Torrens system substitutes a certificate of regis- 
tration and of transfer for the more 'elaborate 
deeds and mortgages in use for centuries. Under 
it there can be no actual transfer of a title until 
the same is entered upon the public land regis- 
ter, kept in the office of the Registrar, in which 
case the deed or mortgage becomes a mere power 
of attorney to authorize the transfer to be made, 
upon the principle of an ordinary stock transfer, 



or of the registration of a United States bond, 
the actual transfer and public notice thereof 
being simultaneous. A brief synopsis of the pro- 
visions of the Illinois statute is given below: 
Eecorders of deeds are made Registrars, and 
required to give bonds of either 50,000 or $200,- 
000, according to the population of the county. 
Any person or corporation, having an interest in 
land, may make application to any court having 
chancery jurisdiction, to have his title thereto 
registered. Such application must be in writ- 
ing, signed and verified by oath, and must con- 
form, in matters of specification and detail, with 
the requirements of the act. The court may refer 
the application to one of the standing examiners 
appointed by the Registrar, who are required to . 
be competent attorneys and to give bond to ex- 
amine into the title, as well as the truth of the 
applicant's statements. Immediately upon the 
filing of the application, notice thereof is given 
by the clerk, through publication and the issuance 
of a summons to be served, as in other proceed- 
ings in chancery, against all persons mentioned 
in the petition as having or claiming any inter- 
est in the property described. Any person inter- 
ested, whether named as a defendant or not, may 
enter an appearance within the time allowed. A 
failure to enter an appearance is regarded as a 
confession by default. The court, in passing 
upon the application, is in no case bound by the 
examiner's report, but may require other and 
further proof ; and, in its final adjudication, passes 
upon all questions of title and incumbrance, 
directing the Registrar to register the title in the 
party in whom it is to be vested, and making 
provision as to the manner and order in which 
incumbrances thereon shall appear upon the 
certificate to be issued. An appeal may be 
allowed to the Supreme Court, if prayed at the 
time of entering the decree, upon like terms as 
in other cases in chancery; and a writ of error 
may be sued out from that tribunal within two 
years after the entry of the order or decree. 
The period last mentioned may be said to be the 
statutory period of limitation, after which the 
decree of the court must be regarded as final, 
although safeguards are provided for those who 
may have been defrauded, and for a few other 
classes of persons. Upon the filing of the order 
or decree of the court, it becomes the duty of the 
Registrar to issue a certificate of title, the form 
of which is prescribed by the act, making such 
notations at the end as shall show and preserve 
the priorities of all estates, mortgages, incum- 
brances and changes to which the owner's title is 

subject. For the purpose of preserving evidence 
of the owner's handwriting, a receipt for the 
certificate, duly witnessed or acknowledged, is 
required of him, which is preserved in the Regis- 
trar's office. In case any registered owner 
should desire to transfer the whole or any part of 
his estate, or any interest therein, he is required 
to execute a conveyance to the transferee, which, 
together with the certificate of title last issued, 
must be surrendered to the Registrar. That 
official thereupon issues a new certificate, stamp- 
ing the word "cancelled" across the surrendered 
certificate, as well as upon the corresponding 
entry in his books of record. When land is first 
brought within the operation of the act, the 
receiver of the certificate of title is required to 
pay to the Registrar one-tenth of one per cent of 
the value of the land, the aggregate so received 
to be deposited with and invested by the County 
Treasurer, and reserved as an indemnity fund 
for the reimbursement of persons sustaining any 
loss through any omission, mistake or malfea- 
sance of the Registrar or his subordinates. The 
advantage claimed for the Torrens system is, 
chiefly, that titles registered thereunder can be 
dealt with more safely, quickly and inexpensively 
than under the old system ; it being possible to 
close the entire transaction within an hour or 
two, without the need of an abstract of title, 
while (as the law is administered in Cook County) 
the cost of transfer is only $3. It is asserted that 
a title, once registered, can be dealt with almost 
as quickly and cheaply, and quite as safely, as 
shares of stock or registered bonds. 

TOULON v the county-seat of Stark County, on 
the Peoria & Rock Island Railroad, 37 miles north- 
northwest of Peoria, and 11 miles southeast of 
Galva. Besides the county court- house, the town 
has five churches and a high school, an academy, 
steam granite works, two banks, and two weekly 
papers. Population (1880), 967; (1890), 945; (1900), 

TOWER HILL, a village of Shelby County, on 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Leuis 
and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rail- 
roads, 7 miles east of Pana; has bank, grain ele- 
vators, and coal mine. Pop. (1900), 615. 

TOWNSHEND, Richard W., lawyer and Con- 
gressman, was born in Prince George's County, 
Md., April 30, 1840. Between the ages of 10 
and 18 he attended public and private schools 
at Washington, D. C. In 1858 he came to 
Illinois, where he began teaching, at the same 
time reading law with S. S. Marshall, at Mc- 
Leansboro, where he was admitted to the bar 



in 1862, and where he began practice. From 1863 
to 1868 he was Circuit Clerk of Hamilton County, 
and, from 18C8 to 1872, Prosecuting Attorney for 
the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. In 1873 he removed 
to Shawneetown, where he became an officer of 
the Gallatin National Bank. From 1C64 to 1875 
he was a member of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee, and a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention at Baltimore, in 1872. 
For twelve years (1877 to 1889) he represented 
his District in Congress; was re-elected in 1888, 
but died, March 9, 1889, a few days after the 
beginning of his seventh term. 

TRACY, John M., artist, was born in Illinois 
about 1842 ; served in an Illinois regiment during 
the Civil War; studied painting in Paris in . 
1866-76 ; established himself as a portrait painter 
in St. Louis and, later, won a high reputation as 
a painter of animals, being regarded as an author- 
ity on the anatomy of the horse and the dog. 
Died, at Ocean Springs, Miss., March 20, 1893. 

TREASURERS. (See State Treasurers.) 

TREAT, Samuel Hubbel, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Plainfield, Otsego County, N. Y., 
June 21, 1811, worked on his father's farm and 
studied law at Richfield, where he was admitted 
to practice. In 1834 he came to Springfield, 111. , 
traveling most of the way on foot. Here he 
formed a partnership with George Forquer, who 
had held the offices of Secretary of State and 
Attorney-General. In 1839 he was appointed a 
Circuit Judge, and, on the reorganization of the 
Supreme Court in 1841, was elevated to the 
Supreme bench, being acting Chief Justice at the 
time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. 
Having been elected to the Supreme bench under 
the new Constitution, he remained in office until 
March, 1855, when he resigned to take the posi- 
tion of Judge of the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of Illinois, to which he 
had been appointed by President Pierce. This 
position he continued to occupy until his death, 
which occurred at Springfield, March 27, 1887. 
Judge Treat's judicial career was one of the long- 
est in the history of the State, covering a period 
of forty-eight years, of which fourteen were 
spent upon the Supreme bench, and thirty-two 
in the position of Judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court. 

TREATIES. (See Greenville, Treaty of; Indian 
Treaties. ) 

TREE, Lambert, jurist, diplomat and ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Washington, D. C., Nov. 
29, 1832, of an ancestry distinguished in the War 
of the Revolution. He received a superior clas- 

sical and professional education, and was admit- 
ted to the bar, at Washington, in October, 1855. 
Removing to Chicago soon afterward, his profes- 
sional career has been chiefly connected with 
that city. In 1864 he was chosen President of 
the Law Institute, and served as Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook County, from 1870 to 1875, 
when he resigned. The three following years he 
spent in foreign travel, returning to Chicago in 
1878. In that year, and again in 1880, he was 
the Democratic candidate for Congress from the 
Fourth Illinois District, but was defeated by his 
Republican opponent. In 1885 he was the candi- 
date of his party for United States Senator, but 
was defeated by John A. Logan, by one vote. In 
1884 he was a member of the National Democratic 
Convention which first nominated Grover Cleve- 
land, and, in July, 1885, President Cleveland 
appointed him Minister to Belgium, conferring 
the Russian mission upon him in September, 1888. 
On March 3, 1889, he resigned this post and 
returned home. In 1890 he was appointed by 
President Harrison a Commissioner to the Inter- 
national Monetary Conference at Washington. 
The year before he had attended (although not as 
a delegate) the International Conference, at Brus- 
sels, looking to the suppression of the slave-trade, 
where he exerted all his influence on the side of 
humanity. In 1892 Belgium conferred upon him 
the distinction of "Councillor of Honor" upon its 
commission to the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion. In 1896 Judge Tree was one of the most 
earnest opponents of the free-silver policy, and, 
after the Spanish- American War, a zealous advo- 
cate of the policy of retaining the territory 
acquired from Spain. 

TREMONT, a town of Tazewell County, on the 
Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles southeast 
of Pekin; has two banks, two telephone 
exchanges, and one newspaper. Pop. (1900), 768. 

TRENTON, a town of Clinton County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio South western Railway, 31 miles 
east of St. Louis; in agricultural district; has 
creamery, milk condensery, two coal mines, six 
churches, a public school and one newspaper. 
Pop. (1890), 1,384; (1900), 1,706; (1904), about 2,000. 

TROY, a village of Madison County, on the 
Terre Haute & Indianapolis railroad, 21 miles 
northeast of St. Louis ; has churches, a bank and 
a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 1,080. 

TRUITT, James Madison, lawyer and soldier, 
a native of Trimble County, Ky . , was born Feb. 
12, 1842, but lived in Illinois since 1843, his father 
having settled near Carrollton that year; was 



educated at Hillsboro and at McKendree College ; 
enlisted in the One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Illinois Volunteers in 1862, and was promoted 
from the ranks to Lieutenant. After the war he 
studied law with Jesse J. Phillips, now of the 
Supreme Court, and, in 1872, was elected to the 
Twenty -eighth General Assembly, and, in 1888, a 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket. 
Mr. Truitt has been twice a prominent but unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the Republican nomination 
for Attorney-General. His home is at Hillsboro, 
where he is engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. Died July 26, 1900. 

TRUMBULL, Ly 111:111, statesman, was born at 
Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813, descended from 
a historical family, being a grand-nephew of 
Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, from 
whom the name "Brother Jonathan" was derived 
as au appellation for Americans. Having received 
an academic education in his native town, at the 
age of 16 he began teaching a district school near 
his home, went South four years later, and en- 
gaged in teaching at Greenville, Ga. Here he 
studied law with Judge Hiram Warner, after- 
wards of the Supreme Court, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1837. Leaving Georgia the same year, he 
came to Illinois on horseback, visiting Vandalia, 
Belleville, Jacksonville, Springfield, Tremont and 
La Salle, and finally reaching Chicago, then a 
village of four or five thousand inhabitants. At 
Jacksonville he obtained a license to practice 
from Judge Lockwood, and, after visiting Michi- 
gan and his native State, he settled at Belleville, 
which continued to be his home for twenty years. 
His entrance into public life began with his elec- 
tion as Representative in the General Assembly 
in 1840. This was followed, in February, 1841, 
by his appointment by Governor Carlin, Secre- 
tary of State, as the successor of Stephen A. 
Douglas, who, after holding the position only two 
months, had resigned to accept a seat on the 
Supreme bench. Here he remained two years, 
when he was removed by Governor Ford, March 
4, 1843, but, five years later (1848), was elected a 
Justice of the Supreme Court, was re-elected in 
1852, but resigned in 1853 on account of impaired 
health. A year later (1854) he was elected to 
Congress from the Belleville District as an anti- 
Nebraska Democrat, but, before taking his seat, 
was promoted to the United States Senate, as the 
successor of General Shields in the memorable con- 
test of 1855, which resulted in the defeat of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Senator TrumbulFs career of 
eighteen years in the United States Senate (being 
re-elected in 1861 and 1867) is one of the most 

memorable in the history of that body, covering, 
as it does, the whole history of the war for the 
Union, and the period of reconstruction which 
followed it. During this period, as Chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Judiciary, he had more 
to do in shaping legislation on war and recon- 
struction measures than any other single member 
of that body. While he disagreed with a large 
majority of his Republican associates on the ques- 
tion of Andrew Johnson's impeachment, he was 
always found in sympathy with them on the vital 
questions affecting the war and restoration of the 
Union. The Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen's 
Bureau Bills were shaped by his hand. In 1872 
he joined in the ''Liberal Republican" movement 
and afterwards co-operated with the Democratic 
party, being their candidate for Governor in 
1880. From 1863 his home was in Chicago, 
where, after retiring from the Senate, he con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until his 
death, which occurred in that city, June 25, 1896. 

TUGr MILLS. These were a sort of primitive 
machine used in grinding corn in Territorial and 
early State days. The mechanism consisted of an 
upright shaft, into the upper end of which were 
fastened bars, resembling those in the capstan of 
a ship. Into the outer end of each of these bars 
was driven a pin. A belt, made of a broad strip 
of ox-hide, twisted into a sort of rope, was 
stretched around these pins and wrapped twice 
around a circular piece of wood called a trundle 
head, through which passed a perpendicular flat 
bar of iron, which turned the mill- stone, usually 
about eighteen inches in diameter. From the 
upright shaft projected a beam, to which were 
hitched one or two horses, which furnished the 
motive power. Oxen were sometimes employed 
as motive power in lieu of horses. These rudi- 
mentary contrivances were capable of grinding 
about twelve bushels of corn, each, per day. 

TTJLET, Murray Floyd, lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Louisville, Ky., March 4, 1827, of English 
extraction and descended from the early settlers 
of Virginia. His father died in 1832, and, eleven 
years later, his mother, having married Col. 
Richard J. Hamilton, for many years a prominent 
lawyer of Chicago, removed with her family to 
that city. Young Tuley began reading law with 
his step-father and completed his studies at the 
Louisville Law Institute in 1847, the same year 
being admitted to the bar in Chicago. About the 
same time he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Volun- 
teers for service in the Mexican War, and was 
commissioned First Lieutenant. The war having 
ended, he settled at Santa Fe, N. M., where he 



practiced law, also served as Attorney-General 
and in the Territorial Legislature. Returning to 
Chicago in 1854, he was associated in practice, 
successively, with Andrew Harvie, Judge Gary 
and J. N. Barker, and finally as head of the firm 
of Tuley, Stiles & Lewis. From 1869 to 1873 he 
was Corporation Counsel, and during this time 
framed the General Incorporation Act for Cities, 
under which the City of Chicago was reincor- 
porated. In 1879 he was elevated to the bench 
of the Circuit Court of Cook County, and re- 
elected every six years thereafter, his last election 
being in 1897. He is now serving his fourth 
term, some ten years of his incumbency having 
been spent in the capacity of Chief Justice. 

TUNNICLIFFE, Damon G., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 20, 
1829; at the age of 20, emigrated to Illinois, set- 
tling in Vermont, Fulton County, where, for a 
time, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
subsequently studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1853. In 1854 he established himself 
at Macomb, McDonough County, where he built 
up a large and lucrative practice. In 1868 he 
was chosen Presidential Elector on the Repub- 
lican ticket, and, from February to June, 1885, 
by appointment of Governor Oglesby, occupied a 
seat on the bench of the Supreme Court, vice 
Pinkney H. Walker, deceased, who had been one 
of his first professional preceptors. 

TURCHIN, John Basil (Ivan Vasilevitch Tur- 
chinoff), soldier, engineer and author, was born 
in Russia, Jan. 30, 1822. He graduated from the 
artillery school at St. Petersburg, in 1841, and 
was commissioned ensign; participated in the 
Hungarian campaign of 1849, and, -in 1852, was 
assigned to the staff of the Imperial Guards; 
served through the Crimean War, rising to the 
rank of Colonel, and being made senior staff 
officer of the active corps. In 1856 he came to 
this country, settling in Chicago, and, for five 
years, was in the service of the Illinois Central 
Railway Company as topographical engineer. In 
1861 he was commissioned Colonel of the Nine- 
teenth Illinois Volunteers, and, after leading his 
regiment in Missouri, Kentucky and Alabama, 
was, on July 7, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier- 
Generalship, being attached to the Army of the 
Cumberland until 1864, when he resigned. After 
the war he was, for six years, solicitor of patents 
at Chicago, but, in 1873, returned to engineering. 
In 1879 he established a Polish colony at Radom, 
in Washington County, in this State, and settled 
as a farmer. He is an occasional contributor to 
the press, writing usually on military or scientific 

subjects, and is the author of the "Campaign and 
Battle of Chickamauga" (Chicago, 1888). 

TURNER (now WEST CHICAGO), a town and 
manufacturing center in Winfield Township, Du 
Page County, 30 miles west of Chicago, at the 
junction of two divisions of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroads. The town 
has a rolling mill, manufactories of wagons and 
pumps, and railroad repair shops. It also has five 
churches, a graded school, and two newspapers. 
Pop. (1900), 1,877; with suburb, 2,270. 

TURNER, (Col.) Henry L., soldier and real- 
estate operator, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, 
August 26, 1845, and received a part of his edu- 
cation in the college there. During the Civil 
War he served as First Lieutenant in the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Ohio Volunteers, and 
later, with the same rank in a colored regiment, 
taking part in the operations about Richmond, 
the capture of Fort Fisher, of Wilmington and of 
Gen. Joe Johnston's army. Coming to Chi- 
cago after the close of the war, he became con- 
nected with the business office of "The Advance," 
but later was employed in the banking house of 
Jay Cooke & Co., in Philadelphia. On the failure 
of that concern, in 1872, he returned to Chicago 
and bought "The Advance," which he conducted 
some two years, when he sold out and engaged in 
the real estate business, with which he has since 
been identified being President of the Chicago 
Real Estate Board in 1888. He has also been 
President of the Western Publishing Company 
and a Trustee of Oberlin College. Colonel Turner 
is an enthusiastic member of the Illinois National 
Guard and, on the declaration of war between the 
United States and Spain, in April, 1898, promptly 
resumed his connection with the First Regiment 
of the Guard, and finally led it to Santiago de 
Cuba during the fighting there his regiment 
being the only one from Illinois to see actual serv- 
ice in the field during the progress of the war. 
Colonel Turner won the admiration of his com- 
mand and the entire nation by the manner in 
which he discharged his duty. The regiment 
was mustered out at Chicago, Nov. 17, 1898, when 
he retired to private life. 

TURNER, John Bice, Railway President, was 
born at Colchester, Delaware County, N. Y. , Jan. 
14, 1799; after a brief business career in his 
native State, he became identified with the con- 
struction and operation of railroads. Among the 
works Avith which he was thus connected, were 
the Delaware Division of the New York & Erie 
and the Troy & Schenectady Roads. In 1843 he 



came to Chicago, having previously purchased a 
large body of land at Blue Island. In 1847 he 
joined with W. B. Ogden and others, in resusci- 
tating the Galena & Chicago Union Railway, 
which had been incorporated in 1836. He became 
President of the Company in 1850, and assisted in 
constructing various sections of road in Northern 
Illinois and Wisconsin, which have since become 
portions of the Chicago & Northwestern system. 
He was also one of the original Directors of the 
North Side Street Railway Company, organized 
in 1859. Died, Feb. 26, 1871. 

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin, educator and 
agriculturist, was born in Templeton, Mass., Dec. 
7, 1805 ; grew up on a farm and, before reaching 
his majority, began teaching in a country school. 
After spending a short time in an academy at 
Salem, in 1827 he entered the preparatory depart- 
ment of Yale College, supporting himself, in part, 
by manual labor and teaching in a gymnasium. 
In 1829 he matriculated in the classical depart- 
ment at Yale, graduated in 1883, and the same 
year accepted a position as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege at Jacksonville, 111., which had been opened, 
three years previous, by the late Dr. J. M. Sturte- 
vant. In the next fourteen years he gave in- 
struction in nearly every branch embraced in the 
college curriculum, though holding, during most 
of this period, the chair of Rhetoric and English 
Literature. In 1847 he retired from college 
duties to give attention to scientific agriculture, 
in which he had always manifested a deep inter- 
est. The cultivation and sale of the Osage orange 
as a hedge plant now occupied his attention for 
many years, and its successful introduction in 
Illinois and other "Western States where the 
absence of timber rendered some substitute a 
necessity for fencing purposes was largely dne 
to his efforts. At the same time he took a deep 
interest in the cause of practical scientific edu- 
cation for the industrial classes, and, about 1850, 
began formulating that system of industrial edu- 
cation which, after twelve years of labor and 
agitation, he had the satisfaction of seeing 
recognized in the act adopted by Congress, and 
approved by President Lincoln, in July, 1862, 
making liberal donations of public lands for the 
establishment of "Industrial Colleges" in the 
several States, out of which grew the University 
of Illinois at Champaign. While Professor Tur- 
ner had zealous cotaborers in this field, in Illinois 
and elsewhere, to him, more than to any other 
single man in the Nation, belongs the credit for 
this magnificent achievement. (See Education, 
and University of Illinois.) He was also one of 

the chief factors in founding and building up 
the Illinois State Teachers' Association, and the 
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. 
His address on "The Millennium of Labor," 
delivered at the first State Agricultural Fair at 
Springfield, in 1853, is still remembered as mark- 
ing an era in industrial progress in Illinois. A 
zealous champion of free thought, in both political 
and religious affairs, he long bore the reproach 
which attached to the radical Abolitionist, only 
to enjoy, in later years, the respect universally 
accorded to those who had the courage and 
independence to avow their honest convictions. 
Prof. Turner was twice an unsuccessful candidate 
for Congress once as a Republican and once as 
an "Independent" and wrote much on political, 
religious and educational topics. The evening of 
an honored and useful life was spent among 
friends in Jacksonville, which was his home for 
more than sixty years, his death taking place in 
that city, Jan. 10, 1899, at the advanced age of 
93 years. Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel, at the pres- 
ent time (1899) one of the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, is Prof. Turner's only daughter. 

TURNER, Thomas J., lawyer and Congress- 
man, born in Trumbull County, Ohio, April 5, 
1815. Leaving home at the age of 18, he spent 
three years in Indiana and in the mining dis- 
tricts about Galena and in Southern Wisconsin, 
locating in Stephenson County, in 1836, where he 
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and elected 
Probate Judge in 1841. Soon afterwards Gov- 
ernor Ford appointed him Prosecuting Attorney, 
in which capacity he secured the conviction and 
punishment of the murderers of Colonel Daven- 
port. In 1846 he was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat, and, the following year, founded "The 
Prairie Democrat" (afterward "The Freeport 
Bulletin"), the first newspaper published in the 
county. Elected to the Legislature in 1854, he 
was chosen Speaker of the House, the next year 
becoming the first Mayor of Freeport. He was a 
member of the Peace Conference of 1861, and, in 
May of that year, was commissioned, by Governor 
Yates, Colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volun- 
teers, but resigned in 1862. He served as a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, 
and, in 1871, was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, where he received the Democratic caucus 
nomination for United States Senator against 
General Logan. In 1871 he removed to Chicago, 
and was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of State's Attorney. In February, 1874, he 
went to Hot Springs, Ark. , for medical treatment, 
and died there, April 3 following. 



TUSCOLA, a city and the county-seat of 
Douglas County, located at the intersection of the 
Illinois Central and two other trunk lines of rail- 
way, 22 miles south of Champaign, and 36 miles 
east of Decatur. Besides a brick court-house it 
has five churches, a graded school, a national 
bank, two weekly newspapers and two establish- 
ments for the manufacture of carriages and 
wagons. Population (1880), 1,457; (1890), 1,897; 
(1900), 2,569. 

RAILROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas 
City Railroad. ) 

TUTHILL, Richard Stanley, jurist, was born 
at Vergennes, Jackson County, 111., Nov. 10, 1841. 
After passing through the common schools of his 
native county, he took a preparatory course in a 
high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, when he entered Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vt. , graduating there in 1868. Immediately 
thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vicks- 
burg, and, after serving for some time in a com- 
pany of scouts attached to General Logan's 
command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 
First Michigan Light Artillery, with which he 
served until the close of the war, meanwhile 
being twice promoted. During this time he was 
with General Sherman in the march to Meridian, 
and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with 
General Thomas in the operations against the 
rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the 
battle of Nashville. Having resigned his com- 
mission in May, 1865, he took up the study of 
law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportu- 
nity while in the army, and was admitted to the 
bar at Nashville in 1866, afterwards serving for 
a time as Prosecuting Attorney on the Nashville 
circuit. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, two 
years later was elected City Attorney and re- 
elected in 1877 ; was a delegate to the Eepublican 
National Convention of 1880 and, in 1884, was 
appointed United States District Attorney for 
the Northern District, serving until 1886. In 
1887 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Cook County to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Judge Rogers, was re-elected for a full 
term in 1891, and again in 1897. 

TYNDALE, Sharon, Secretary of State, born in 
Philadelphia; Pa., Jan. 19, 1816; at the age of 17 
came to Belleville, 111., and was engaged for a 
time in mercantile business, later being employed 
in a surveyor's corps under the internal improve- 
ment system of 1837. Having married in 1839, 
he returned soon after to Philadelphia, where he 
engaged in mercantile business with his father ; 

then came to Illinois, a second time, in 1845, spend- 
ing a year or two in business at Peoria. About 
1847 he returned to Belleville and entered upon a 
course of mathematical study, with a view to 
fitting himself more thoroughly for the profession 
of a civil engineer. In 1851 he graduated in 
engineering at Cambridge, Mass. , after which he 
was employed for a time on the Sunbury & Erie 
Railroad, and later on certain Illinois railroads. 
In 1857 he was elected County Surveyor of St. 
Clair County, and, in 1861, by appointment of 
President Lincoln, became Postmaster of the city 
of Belleville. He held this position until 1864, 
when he received the Republican nomination for 
Secretary of State and was elected, remaining in 
office four years. He was an earnest advocate, 
and virtually author, of the first act for the regis- 
tration of voters in Illinois, passed at the session 
of 1865. After retiring from office in 1869, he 
continued to reside in Springfield, and was em- 
ployed for a time in the survey of the Gilman, 
Clinton & Springfield Railway now the Spring- 
field Division of the Illinois Central. At an early 
hour on the morning of April 29, 1871, while 
going from his home to the railroad station at 
Springfield, to take the train for St. Louis, he was 
assassinated upon the street by shooting, as sup- 
posed for the purpose of robbery his dead body 
being found a few hours later at the scene of the 
tragedy. Mr. Tyndale was a brother of Gen. 
Hector Tyndale of Pennsylvania, who won a 
high reputation by his services during the war. 
His second wife, who survived him, was a 
daughter of Shadrach Penn, an editor of con- 
siderable reputation who was the contemporary 
and rival of George D. Prentice at Louisville, for 
some years. 

history of Illinois would be incomplete without 
reference to the unique system which existed 
there, as in other Northern States, from forty to 
seventy years ago, known by the somewhat mys- 
terious title of "The Underground Railroad." 
The origin of the term has been traced (probably 
in a spirit of facetiousness) to the expression of 
a Kentucky planter who, having pursued a fugi- 
tive slave across the Ohio River, was so surprised 
by his sudden disappearance, as soon as he had 
reached the opposite shore, that he was led to 
remark, "The nigger must have gone off on an 
underground road." From "underground road" 
to "underground railroad," the transition would 
appear to have been easy, especially in view of 
the increased facility with which the work was 
performed when railroads came into use. For 



readers of the present generation, it may be well 
to explain what "The Underground Railroad" 
really was. It may be defined as the figurative 
appellation for a spontaneous movement in the 
free States extending, sometimes, into the 
slave States themselves to assist slaves in their 
efforts to escape from bondage to freedom. The 
movement dates back to a period close to the 
Revolutionary War, long before it received a 
definite name. Assistance given to fugitives 
from one State by citizens of another, became a 
cause of complaint almost as soon as the Govern- 
ment was organized. In fact, the first President 
himself lost a slave who took refuge at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., where the public sentiment was 
so strong against his return, that the patriotic 
and philosophic "Father of his Country" chose 
to let him remain unmolested, rather than "excite 
a mob or riot, or even uneasy sensations, in the 
minds of well-disposed citizens." That the mat- 
ter was already one of concern in the minds of 
slaveholders, is shown by the fact that a provision 
was inserted in the Constitution for their concili- 
ation, guaranteeing the return of fugitives from 
labor, as well as from justice, from one State to 

In 1793 Congress passed the first Fugitive Slave 
Law, which was signed by President Washing- 
ton. This law provided that the owner, his 
agent or attorney, might follow the slave into 
any State or Territory, and, upon oath or affi- 
davit before a court or magistrate, be entitled 
to a warrant for his return. Any person who 
should hinder the arrest of the fugitive, or who 
should harbor, aid or assist him, knowing him 
to be such, was subject to a fine of $500 for each 
offense. In 1850, fifty-seven years later, the first 
act having proved inefficacious, or conditions 
having changed, a second and more stringent 
law was enacted. This is the one usually referred 
to in discussions of the subject. It provided for 
an increased fine, not to exceed 1,000, and im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, with 
liability for civil damages to the party injured. 
No proof of ownership was required beyond the 
statement of a claimant, and the accused was not 
permitted to testify for himself. The fee of the 
United States Commissioner, before whom the 
case was tried, was ten dollars if he found for 
the claimant: if not, five dollars. This seemed 
to many an indirect form of bribery ; clearly, it 
made it to the Judge's pecuniary advantage to 
decide in favor of the claimant. The law made 
it possible and easy for a white man to arrest, 
and carry into slavery, any free negro who could 

not immediately prove, by other witnesses, that 
he was born free, or had purchased his freedom. 

Instead of discouraging the disposition, on 
the part of the opponents of slavery, to aid fugi- 
tives in their efforts to reach a region where 
they would be secure in their freedom, the effect 
of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (as that of 1793 
had been in a smaller degree) was the very oppo- 
site of that intended by its authors unless, 
indeed, they meant to make matters worse. The 
provisions of the act seemed, to many people, so 
unfair, so one-sided, that they rebelled in spirit 
and refused to be made parties to its enforce- 
ment. The law aroused the anti-slavery senti- 
ment of tke North, and stimulated the active 
friends of the fugitives to take greater risks in 
their behalf. New efforts on the part of the 
slaveholders were met by a determination to 
evade, hinder and nullify the law. 

And here a strange anomaly is presented. The 
slaveholder, in attempting to recover his slave, 
was acting within his constitutional and legal 
rights. The slave was his property in law. He 
had purchased or inherited his bondman on the 
same plane with his horse or his land, and, apart 
from the right to hold a human being in bond- 
age, regarded his legal rights to the one as good 
as the other. From a legal standpoint his posi- 
tion was impregnable. The slave was his, repre- 
senting so much of money value, and whoever 
was instrumental in the loss of that slave was, 
both theoretically and technically, a partner in 
robbery. Therefore he looked on "The Under- 
ground Railway" as the work of thieves, and en- 
tertained bitter hatred toward all concerned in its 
operation. On the other hand, men who were, 
in all other respects, good citizens- often relig- 
iously devout and pillars of the church became 
bold and flagrant violators of the law in relation 
to this sort of property. They set at nought a 
plain provision of the Constitution and the act of 
Congress for its enforcement. Without hope of 
personal gain or reward, at the risk of fine and 
imprisonment, with the certainty of social ostra- 
cism and bitter opposition, they harbored the 
fugitive and helped him forward on every 
occasion. And why? Because they saw in him 
a man, with the same inherent right to "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness" that they 
themselves possessed. To them this was a higher 
law than any Legislature, State or National, could 
enact. They denied that there could be truly 
such a thing as property in man. Believing that 
the law violated human rights, they justified 
themselves in rendering it null and void. 



For the most part, the "Underground Rail- 
road" operators and promoters were plain, 
obscure men, without hope of fame or desire for 
notoriety. Yet there were some whose names 
are conspicuous in history, such as Wendell 
Phillips, Thomas Wentworth Higginson and 
Theodore Parker of Massachusetts ; Gerrit Smith 
and Thurlow Weed of New York: Joshua R. 
Giddings of Ohio, and Owen Lovejoy of Illinois. 
These had their followers and sympathizers in 
all the Northern States, and even in some por- 
tions of the South. It is a curious fact, that 
some of the most active spirits connected with 
the "Underground Railroad" were natives of the 
South, or had resided there long enough to 
become thoroughly acquainted with the "insti- 
tution." Levi Coffin, who had the reputation of 
being the "President of the Underground Rail- 
road" at least so far as the region west of the 
Ohio was concerned was an active operator on 
the line in North Carolina before his removal 
from that State to Indiana in 1826. Indeed, as a 
system, it is claimed to have had its origin at 
Guilford College, in the "Old North State" in 
1819, though the evidence of this may not be 

Owing to the peculiar nature of their business, 
no official reports were made, no lists of officers, 
conductors, station agents or operators preserved, 
and few records kept which are now accessible. 
Consequently, we are dependent chiefly upon the 
personal recollection of individual operators for 
a history of their transactions. Eacli station on 
the road was the house of a "friend" and it is 
significant, in this connection, that in every 
settlement of Friends, or Quakers, there was 
sure to be a house of refuge for the slave. For 
this reason it was, perhaps, that one of the most 
frequently traveled lines extended from Vir- 
ginia and Maryland through Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and then on towards New York or directly 
to Canada. From the proximity of Ohio to 
Virginia and Kentucky, and the fact that it 
offered the shortest route through free soil to 
Canada, it was traversed by more lines than any 
other State, although Indiana was pretty 
thoroughly "grid-ironed" by roads to freedom. 
In all, however, the routes were irregular, often 
zigzag, for purposes of security, and the "con- 
ductor" was any one who conveyed fugitives from 
one station to another The "train" was some- 
times a farm-wagon, loaded with produce for 
market at some town (or depot) on the line, fre- 
quently a closed carriage, and it is related that 
once, in Ohio, a number of carriages conveying 

a large party, were made to represent a funeral 
procession. Occasionally the train ran on foot, 
for convenience of side-tracking into the woods 
or a cornfield, in case of pursuit by a wild loco- 

Then, again, there were not wanting lawyers 
who, in case the operator, conductor or station 
agent got into trouble, were ready, without fee or 
reward, to defend either him or his human 
freight in the courts. These included such 
names of national repute as Salmon P. Chase, 
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, William H. 
Seward, Rutherford B. Hayes, Richard H. Dana, 
and Isaac N. Arnold, while, taking the whole 
country over, their "name was legion." And 
there were a few men of wealth, like Thomas 
Garrett of Delaware, willing to contribute money 
by thousands to their assistance. Although 
technically acting in violation of law or, as 
claimed by themselves, in obedience to a "higher 
law" the time has already come when there is a 
disposition to look upon the actors as, in a certain 
sense, heroes, and their deeds as fitly belonging 
to the field of romance. 

The most comprehensive collection of material 
relating to the history of this movement has 
been furnished in a recent volume entitled, "The 
Underground Railroad from Slavery to Free- 
dom," by Prof. Wilbur H. Siebert, of Ohio State 
University ; and, while it is not wholly free from 
errors, both as to individual names and facts, it 
will probably remain as the best compilation of 
history bearing on this subject especially as the 
principal actors are fast passing away. One of 
the interesting features of Prof. Siebert's book is 
a map purporting to give the principal routes 
and stations in the States northwest of the Ohio, 
yet the accuracy of this, as well as the correct- 
ness of personal names given, has been questioned 
by some best informed on the subject. As 
might be expected from its geographical position 
between two slave States Kentucky and Mis- 
souri on the one hand, and the lakes offering a 
highway to Canada on the other, it is naturally 
to be assumed that Illinois would be an attract- 
ive field, both for the fugitive and his sympa- 

The period of greatest activity of the system in 
this Stat'o was between 1840 and 1861 the latter 
being the year when the pro-slavery party in the 
South, by their attempt forcibly to dissolve the 
Union, took the business out of the hands of the 
secret agents of the "Underground Railroad," 
and in a certain sense placed it in the hands 
of the Union armies. It was in 1841 that Abra- 



ham Lincoln then a conservative opponent of 
the extension of slavery on an appeal from a 
judgment, rendered by the Circuit Court in Taze- 
well County, in favor of the holder of a note 
given for the service of the indentured slave- 
girl "Nance," obtained a decision from the 
Supreme Court of Illinois upholding the doctrine 
that the girl was free under the Ordinance of 
1787 and the State Constitution, and that the 
note, given to the person who claimed to be her 
owner, was void. And it is a somewhat curious 
coincidence that the same Abraham Lincoln, as 
President of the United States, in the second 
year of the War of the Rebellion, issued the 
Proclamation of Emancipation which finally 
resulted in striking the shackles from the limbs 
of every slave in the Union. 

In the practical operation of aiding fugitives 
in Illinois, it was natural that the towns along 
the border upon the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 
should have served as a sort of entrepots, or 
initial stations, for the reception of this class of 
freight especially if adjacent to some anti- 
slavery community. This was the case at Ches- 
ter, from which access was easy to Sparta, where 
a, colony of Covenanters, or Seceders, was 
located, and whence a route extended, by way of 
Oakdale, Nashville and Centralia, in the direction 
of Chicago. Alton offered convenient access to 
Bond County, where there was a community of 
anti-slavery people at an early day, or the fugi- 
tives could be forwarded northward by way of 
Jerseyville, Waverly and Jacksonville, about 
each of which there was a strong anti-slavery 
sentiment. Quincy, in spite of an intense hos- 
tility among the mass of the community to any- 
thing savoring of abolitionism, became the 
theater of great activity on the part of the 
opponents of the institution, especially after the 
advent there of Dr. David Nelson and Dr. Rich- 
ard Eells, both of whom had rendered themselves 
obnoxious to the people of Missouri by extending 
aid to fugitives. The former was a practical 
abolitionist who, having freed his slaves in his 
native State of Virginia, removed to Missouri and 
.attempted to establish Marion College, a few miles 
from Palmyra, but was soon driven to Illinois. 
Locating near Quincy, he founded the "Mission 
Institute" there, at which he continued to dis- 
seminate his anti-slavery views, while educating 
young men for missionary work. The "Insti- 
tute" was finally burned by emissaries from Mis- 
souri, while three young men who had been 
connected with it, having been caught in Mis- 
souri, were condemned to twelve years' confine- 

ment in the penitentiary of that State partly on 
the testimony of a negro, although a negro was 
not then a legal witness in the courts against a 
white man. Dr. Eells was prosecuted before 
Stephen A. Dcfuglas (then a Judge of the Circuit 
Court), and fined for aiding a fugitive to escape, 
and the judgment against him was finally con- 
firmed by the Supreme Court after his death, in 
1852, ten years after the original indictment. 

A map in Professor Siebert's book, showing the 
routes and principal stations of the "Undergound 
Railroad," makes mention of the following places 
in Illinois, in addition to those already referred 
to: Carlinville, in Macoupin County; Pay son 
and Mendon, in Adams; Washington, in Taze- 
well ; Metamora, in Woodford ; Magnolia, in Put- 
nam; Galesburg, in Knox; Princeton (the home 
of Owen Lovejoy and the Bryants), in Bureau; 
and many more. Ottawa appears to have been 
the meeting point of a number of lines, as well 
as the home of a strong colony of practical abo- 
litionists. Cairo also became an important 
transfer station for fugitives arriving by river, 
after the completion of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, especially as it offered the speediest way of 
reaching Chicago, towards which nearly all the 
lines converged. It was here that the fugitives 
could be most safely disposed of by placing them 
upon vessels, which, without stopping at inter- 
mediate ports, could soon land them on Canadian 

As to methods, these differed according to cir- 
cumstances, the emergencies of the occasion, or 
the taste, convenience or resources of the oper- 
ator. Deacon Levi Morse, of Woodford County, 
near Metamora, had a route towards Magnolia, 
Putnam County; and his favorite "car" was a 
farm wagon in which there was a double bottom. 
The passengers were snugly placed below, and 
grain sacks, filled with bran or other light material, 
were laid over, so that the whole presented the 
appearance of an ordinary load of grain on its 
way to market. The same was true as to stations 
and routes. One, who was an operator, says: 
"Wherever an abolitionist happened on a fugi- 
tive, or the converse, there was a station, for the 
time, and the route was to the next anti-slavery 
man to the east or the north. As a general rule, 
the agent preferred not to know anything beyond 
the operation of his own immediate section of the 
road. If he knew nothing about the operations 
of another, and the other knew nothing of his, 
they could not be witnesses in court. 

We have it on the authority of Judge Harvey B. 
Hurd, of Chicago, that runaways were usually 



forwarded from that city to Canada by way of the 
Lakes, there being several steamers available for 
that purpose. On one occasion thirteen were 
put aboard a vessel under the eyes of a United 
States Marshal and his deputies. The fugitives, 
secreted in a woodshed, one by one took the 
places of colored stevedores carrying wood 
aboard the ship. Possibly the term, "There's a 
nigger in the woodpile," may have originated in 
this incident. Thirteen was an "unlucky num- 
ber" in this instance for the masters. 

Among the notable trials for assisting runaways 
in violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, in addi- 
tion to the case of Dr. Eells, already mentioned, 
were those of Owen Lovejoy of Princeton, and 
Deacon Gushing of Will County, both of whom 
were defended by Judge James Collins of Chi- 
cago. John Hossack and Dr. Joseph Stout of 
Ottawa, with some half-dozen of their neighbors 
and friends, were tried at Ottawa, in 1859, for 
assisting a fugitive and acquitted on a techni- 
cality. A strong array of attorneys, afterwards 
widely known through the northern part of the 
State, appeared for the defense, including Isaac 
N. Arnold, Joseph Knox, B. C. Cook, J. V. Eus- 
tace, Edward S. Leland and E. C. Lamed. Joseph 
T. Morse, of Woodford County, was also arrested, 
taken to Peoria and committed to jail, but 
acquitted on trial. 

Another noteworthy case was that of Dr. 
Samuel Willard (now of Chicago) and his father, 
Julius A. Willard, charged with assisting in the 
escape of a fugitive at Jacksonville, in 1843, when 
the Doctor was a student in Illinois College. 
"The National Corporation Reporter," a few 
years ago, gave an account of this affair, together 
with a letter from Dr. Willard, in which he states 
that, after protracted litigation, during which 
the case was carried to the Supreme Court, it was 
ended by his pleading guilty before Judge Samuel 
D. Lockwood, when he was fined one dollar and 
costs the latter amounting to twenty dollars. 
The Doctor frankly adds: "My father, as well 
as myself, helped many fugitives afterwards." 
It did not always happen, however, that offenders 
escaped so easily. 

Judge Harvey B. Kurd, already referred to, 
and an active anti-slavery man in the days of the 
Fugitive Slave Law, relates the following : Once, 
when the trial of a fugitive was going on before 
Justice Kercheval, in a room on the second floor 
of a two-story frame building on Clark Street in 
the city of Chicago, the crowd in attendance 
filled the room, the stairway and the adjoining 
sidewalk. In some way the prisoner got mixed 

in with the audience, and passed down over the 
heads of those on the stairs, where the officers 
were unable to follow. 

In another case, tried before United States 
Commissioner Geo. W. Meeker, the result was 
made to hinge upon a point in the indictment to 
the effect that the fugitive was "copper-colored." 
The Commissioner, as the story goes, being in- 
clined to favor public sentiment, called for a large 
copper cent, that he might make comparison. 
The decision was, that the prisoner was "off 
color," so to speak, and he was hustled out of the 
room before the officers could re-arrest him, as 
they had been instructed to do. 

Dr. Samuel Willard, in a review of Professor 
Siebert's book, published in "The Dial" of Chi 
cago, makes mention of Henry Irving and Will- 
iam Chauncey Carter as among his active allies 
at Jacksonville, with Rev. Bilious .Pond and 
Deacon Lyman of Farmington (near the present 
village of Farmingdale in Sangamon County), 
Luther Ransom of Springfield, Andrew Borders 
of Randolph County, Joseph Gerrish of Jersey 
and William T. Allan of Henry, as their coadju- 
tors in other parts of the State. Other active 
agents or promoters, in the same field, included 
such names as Dr. Charles V. Dyer, Philo Carpen- 
ter, Calvin De Wolf, L. C. P. Freer, Zebina East- 
man, James H. Collins, Harvey B. Hurd, J. Young 
Scammon, Col. J. F. Farnsworth and others of 
Chicago, whose names have already been men- 
tioned; Rev. Asa Turner, Deacon Ballard, J. K. 
Van Dorn and Erastus Benton, of Quincy and 
Adams County; President Rufus Blanchard of 
Knox College, Galesburg ; John Leeper of Bond ; 
the late Prof. J. B. Turner and Elihu Wolcott of 
Jacksonville; Capt. Parker Morse and his four 
sons Joseph T., Levi P., Parker, Jr., and Mark 
of Woodford County ; Rev. William Sloane of 
Randolph ; William Strawn of La Salle, besides a 
host who were willing to aid their fellow men in 
their aspirations to freedom, without advertising 
their own exploits. 

Among the incidents of "Underground Rail- 
road" in Illinois is one which had some importance 
politically, having for its climax a dramatic scene 
in Congress, but of which, so far as known, no 
full account has ever been written. About 1855, 
Ephraim Lombard, a Mississippi planter, but a 
New Englander by birth, purchased a large body 
of prairie land in the northeastern part of Stark 
County, and, taking up his residence temporarily 
in the village of Bradford, began its improve- 
ment. He had brought with him from Mississippi 
a negro, gray-haired and bent with age, a slave 



of probably no great value. "Old Mose, " as he 
was called, soon came to be well known and a 
favorite in the neighborhood. Lombard boldly 
stated that he had brought him there as a slave ; 
that, by virtue of the Dred Scott decision (then 
of recent date), he had a constitutional right to 
take his slaves wherever he pleased, and that 
"Old Mose" was just as much his property in 
Illinois as in Mississippi. It soon became evident 
to some, that his bringing of the negro to Illinois 
was an experiment to test the law and the feel- 
ings of the Northern people. This being the case, 
a shrewd play would have been to let him have 
his way till other slaves should have been 
brought to stock the new plantation. But this 
was too slow a process for the abolitionists, to 
whom the holding of a slave in the free State of 
Illinois appeared an unbearable outrage. It was 
feared that he might take the old negro back to 
Mississippi and fail to bring any others. It was 
reported, also, that "Old Mose" was ill-treated; 
that he was given only the coarsest food in a 
back shed, as if he were a horse or a dog, instead 
of being permitted to eat at table with the family. 
The prairie citizen of that time was very par- 
ticular upon this point of etiquette. The hired 
man or woman, debarred from the table of his or 
her employer, would not have remained a day. 
A quiet consultation with "Old Mose" revealed 
the fact that he would hail the gift of freedom 
joyously. Accordingly, one Peter Risedorf, and 
another equally daring, met him by the light of 
the stars and, before morning, he was placed in 
the care of Owen Lovejoy, at Princeton, twenty 
miles away. From there he was speedily 
"franked" by the member of Congress to friends 
in Canada. 

There was a great commotion in Bradford over 
the "stealing" of "Old Mose." Lombard and his 
friends denounced the act in terms bitter and 
profane, and threatened vengeance upon the per- 
petrators. The conductors were known only to a 
fe'w, and they kept their secret well. Lovejoy's 
part in the affair, however, soon leaked out. 
Lombard returned to Mississippi, where he 
related his experiences to Mr. Singleton, the 
Representative in Congress from his district. 
During the next session of Congress, Singleton 
took occasion, in a speech, to sneer at Lovejoy as a 
"nigger-stealer," citing the case of "Old Mose." 
Mr. Lovejoy replied in his usual fervid and 
dramatic style, making a speech which ensured 
his election to Congress for life "Is it desired to 
call attention to this fact of my assisting fugitive 
slaves?" he said. "Owen Lovejoy lives at Prince- 

ton, 111., three-quarters of a mile east of the 
village, and he aids every slave that comes to his 
door and asks it. Thou invisible Demon of 
Slavery, dost thou think to cross my humble 
threshold and forbid me to give bread to the 
hungry and shelter to the homeless? I bid you 
defiance, in the name of my God!" 

With another incident of an amusing charac- 
ter this article may be closed: Hon. J. Young 
Scammon, of Chicago, being accused of conniving 
at the escape of a slave from officers of the law, 
was asked by the court what he would do if sum- 
moned as one of a posse to pursue and capture a 
fugitive. ' 'I would certainly obey the summons, ' ' 
he replied, "but I should probably stub my toe 
and fall down before I reached him." 

NOTE. Those who wish to pursue the subject of the 
" Underground Eailroad " in Illinois further, are referred 
to the work of Dr. Siebert, already mentioned, and to the 
various County Histories which have been issued and may 
be found in the public libraries; also for interesting inci- 
dents, to " Keminiscences of Levi Coffin," Johnson's 
" From Dixie to Canada," Petit's Sketches, "Still, Under- 
ground Kailroad," and a pamphlet of the same title by 
James H. Fairchild, ex-President of Oberlin College. 

UNDERWOOD, William H., lawyer, legislator 
and jurist, was born at Schoharie Court House, 
N. Y., Feb. 21, 1818, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Belleville, 111., where he began 
practice in 1840. The following year he was 
elected State's Attorney, and re-elected in 1843. 
In 1846 he was chosen a member of the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and, in 1848-54, 
sat as Judge of the Second Circuit. During this 
period he declined a nomination to Congress, 
although equivalent to an election. In 1856 he 
was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 1860. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1869-70, and, in 1870, was again elected to 
the Senate, retiring to private life in 1872. Died, 
Sept. 23, 1875. 

UNION COUNTY, one of the fifteen counties 
into which Illinois was divided at the time of its 
admission as a State having been organized, 
under the Territorial Government, in January, 
1818. It is situated in the southern division of 
the State, bounded on the west by the Mississippi 
River, and has an area of 400 square miles. The 
eastern and interior portions are drained by the 
Cache River and Clear Creek. The western part 
of the county comprises the broad, rich bottom 
lands lying along the Mississippi, but is subject 
to frequent overflow, while the eastern portion is 
hilly, and most of its area originally heavily tim- 
bered. The county is especially rich in minerals. 
Iron-ore, lead, bituminous coal, chalk, alum and 



potter's clay are found in considerable abun- 
dance. Several lines of railway (the most impor- 
tant being the Illinois Central) either cross or 
tap the county. The chief occupation is agri- 
culture, although manufacturing is carried on to 
a limited extent. Fruit is extensively cultivated. 
Jonesboro is the county-seat, and Cobden and 
Anna important shipping stations. The latter is 
the location of the Southern Hospital for the 
Insane. The population of the county, in 1890, 
was 21,529. Being next to St. Clair, Randolph 
and Gallatin, one of the earliest settled counties 
in the State, many prominent men found their 
first home, on coming into the State, at Jones- 
boro, and this region, for a time, exerted a strong 
influence in public affairs. Pop. (1900), 22,610. 

UNIOX LEAGUE OF AMERICA, a secret polit- 
ical and patriotic order which had its origin 
early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pur- 
pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and 
counteracting the machinations of the secret 
organizations designed to promote the success of 
the Rebellion. The first regular Council of the 
order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County, 
June 25, 1862, consisting of eleven members, as 
follows; John W. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever, 
Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. Cullom 
(father of Senator Cullom), Alexander Small, 
Rev. J. W. M. Vernon, George H. Harlow (after- 
ward Secretary of State), Charles Turner, Col. 
Jonathan Merriam, Henry Pratt and L. F. Gar- 
rett. One of the number was a Union refugee 
from Tennessee, who dictated the first oath from 
memory, as administered to members of a some- 
what similar order which had been organized 
among the Unionists of his own State. It sol- 
emnly pledged the taker, (1) to preserve invio- 
late the secrets and business of the order; (2) to 
"support, maintain, protect and defend the civil 
liberties of the Union of these United States 
against all enemies, either domestic or foreign, 
at all times and under all circumstances," even 
"if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"; (3) to aid 
in electing only true Union men to offices of 
trust in the town, county, State and General 
Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend 
any member of the order who might be in peril 
from his connection with the order, and (5) to 
obey all laws, rules or regulations of any Council 
to which the taker of the oath might be attached. 
The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Decla- 
ration of Independence and Constitution of the 
United States, the taker pledging his sacred 
honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the 
organization existed in the activity, about this 

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a 
disloyal organization which had been introduced 
from the South, and which afterwards took the 
name, in the North, of "American Knights" and 
' 'Sons of Liberty. ' ' (See Secret Treasonable Soci- 
eties.) Three months later, the organization had 
extended to a number of other counties of the 
State and, on the 25th of September following, 
the first State Council met at Bloomington 
twelve counties being represented and a State 
organization was effected. At this meeting the 
following general officers were chosen: Grand 
President Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall 
County (now of Chicago) ; Grand Vice-President 
Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean ; Grand Secre- 
tary George H. Harlow, of Tazewell; Grand 
Treasurer H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Mar- 
shal J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald 
A. Gould, of Henry; Grand Sentinel John E. 
Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee 
was also appointed, consisting of Joseph Medill 
of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFai- 
land, of Morgan County ; J. K. Warren, of Macon ; 
Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of La Salle; the President, 
Judge Bangs; Enoch Emery, of Peoria; and 
John E. Rosette. Under the direction of this 
Committee, with Mr. Medill as its Chairman, 
the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly 
revised and a new ritual adopted, which materi- 
ally changed the phraseology and -removed some 
of the crudities of the original obligation, as well 
as increased the beauty and impressiveness of 
the initiatory ceremonies. New signs, grips and 
pass-words were also adopted, which were finally 
accepted by the various organizations of the 
order throughout the Union, which, by this time, 
included many soldiers in the army, as well as 
civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council 
was held at Springfield, January 14, 1863, with 
only seven counties represented. The limited 
representation was discouraging, but the mem- 
bers took heart from the inspiring words of Gov- 
ernor Yates, addressed to a committee of the 
order who waited upon him. At a special ses- 
sion of the Executive Committee, held at Peoria, 
six days later, a vigorous campaign was 
mapped out, under which agents were sent 
into nearly every county in the State. In Oc- 
tober, 1862, the strength of the order in Illi- 
nois was estimated at three to five thousand; 
a few months later, the number of enrolled 
members had increased to 50,000 so rapid 
had been the growth of the order. On March 
25, 1863, a Grand Council met in Chicago 
404 Councils in Illinois being represented, with 



a number from Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa and Minnesota. At this meeting a 
Committee was appointed to prepare a plan of 
organization for a National Grand Council, which 
was carried out at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 20th 
of May following the constitution, ritual and 
signs of the Illinois organization being adopted 
with slight modifications. The iodised obligation 
taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution of the United 
States bound members of the League to "sup- 
port, protect and defend the Government of the 
United States and the flag thereof, against all 
enemies, foreign and domestic," and to"bear true 
faith and allegiance to the same"; to "defend 
the State against invasion or insurrection"; to 
support only "true and reliable men" for offices 
of trust and profit; to protect and defend 
worthy members, and to preserve inviolate the 
secrets of the order. The address to new mem- 
bers was a model of impressiveness and a powerful 
appeal to their patriotism. The organization 
extended rapidly, not only throughout the North- 
west, but in the South also, especially in the 
army. In 1864 the number of Councils in Illinois 
was estimated at 1,300, with a membership of 
175,000; and it is estimated that the total mem- 
bership, throughout the Union, was 2,000,000. 
The influence of the silent, but zealous and effect- 
ive, operations of the organization, was shown, 
not only in the stimulus given to enlistments and 
support of the war policy of the Government, 
but in the raising of supplies for the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the field. Within a few 
weeks before the fall of Vicksburg, over $25,000 in 
cash, besides large quantities of stores, were sent 
to Col. John Williams (then in charge of the 
Sanitary Bureau at Springfield), as the direct 
result of appeals made through circulars sent out 
by the officers of the "League." Large contri- 
butions of money and supplies also reached the 
sick and wounded in hospital through the medium 
of the Sanitary Commission in Chicago. Zealous 
efforts were made by the opposition to get at the 
secrets of the order, and, in one case, a complete 
copy of the ritual was published by one of their 
organs ; but the effect was so far the reverse of 
what was anticipated, that this line of attack was 
not continued. During the stormy session of the 
Legislature in 1863, the League is said to have 
rendered effective service in protecting Gov- 
ernor Yates from threatened assassination. It 
continued its silent but effective operations until 
the complete overthrow of the rebellion, when it 
ceased to exist as a political organization. 

ing is a list of United States senators from Illinois, 
from the date of the admission of the State into 
the Union until 1899, with the date and duration 
of the term of each: Ninian Edwards, 1818-24; 
Jesse B. Thomas, Sr., 1818-29; John McLean, 
1824-25 and 1829-30; Elias Kent Kane, 1825-35; 
David Jewett Baker, Nov. 12 to Dec. 11, 1830; 
John M. Robinson, 1830-41 ; William L. D. Ewing, 
1835-37; Richard M. Young, 1837-43; Samuel Mc- 
Roberts, 1841-43; Sidney Breese, 1843-49; James 
Semple, 1843-47; Stephen A. Douglas, 1847-61; 
James Shields, 1849-55 ;'Ly man Trumbull, 1855-73; 
Orville II. Browning, 1861-63; William A. Rich- 
ardson, 1863-65; Richard Yates, 1865-71; John A. 
Logan, 1871-77 and 1879-86; Richard J. Oglesby, 
1873-79; David Davis, 1877-83; Shelby M. Cullom, 
first elected in 1883, and re-elected in '89 and '95, 
his third term expiring in 1901 : Charles B. Far- 
well, 1887-91; John McAuley Palmer, 1891-97; 
William E. Mason, elected in 1897, for the term 
expiring, March 4, 1903. 

of the leading educational institutions of the 
country, located at Chicago. It is the outgrowth 
of an attempt, put forth by the American Educa- 
tional Society (organized at Washington in 1888), 
to supply the place which the original institution 
of the same name had been designed to fill. (See 
University of Chicago The Old.) The following 
year, Mr. John D. Rockefeller of New York ten- 
dered a contribution of $600, 000 toward the endow- 
ment of the enterprise, conditioned upon securing 
additional pledges to the amount of $400,000 by 
June 1, 1890. The offer was accepted, and the 
sum promptly raised. In addition, a site, covering 
four blocks of land in the city of Chicago, was 
secured two and one-half blocks being acquired 
by purchase for $282,500, and one and one-half 
(valued at $125,000) donated by Mr. Marshall 
Field. A charter was secured and an organiza- 
tion effected, Sept. 10, 1890. The Presidency of 
the institution was tendered to, and accepted by, 
Dr. William R. Harper. Since that time the 
University has been the recipient of other gener- 
ous benefactions by Mr. Rockefeller and others, 
until the aggregate donations (1898) exceed $10,- 
000,000. Of this amount over one-half has been 
contributed by Mr. Rockefeller, while he has 
pledged himself to make additional contributions 
of $2,000,000, conditioned upon the raising of a 
like sum, from other donors, by Jan. 1, 1900. The 
buildings erected on the campus, prior to 1896, 
include a chemical laboratory costing $182,000; a 
lecture hall, $150,000; a physical laboratory 



$150,000; a museum, 100,000; an academy dor- 
mitory, $30,000; three dormitories for women, 
$150,000; two dormitories for men, $100,000, to 
which several important additions were made 
during 1896 and '97. The faculty embraces over 
150 instructors, selected with reference to their 
fitness for their respective departments from 
among the most eminent scholars in America and 
Europe. Women are admitted as students and 
graduated upon an equality with men. The work 
of practical instruction began in October, 1892, 
with 589 registered students, coming from nearly 
every Northern State, and including 250 gradu- 
ates from other institutions, to which accessions 
were made, during the year, raising the aggregate 
to over 900. The second year the number ex- 
ceeded 1,100; the third, it rose to 1,750, and the 
fourth (1895-96), to some 2,000, including repre- 
sentatives from every State of the Union, besides 
many from foreign countries. Special features 
of the institution include the admission of gradu- 
ates from other institutions to a post-graduate 
course, and the University Extension Division, 
which is conducted largely by means of lecture 
courses, in other cities, or through lecture centers 
in the vicinity of the University, non-resident 
students having the privilege of written exami- 
nations. The various libraries embrace over 
300,000 volumes, of which nearly 60,000 belong 
to what are called the "Departmental Libraries,'' 
besides a large and valuable collection of maps 
and pamphlets. 

educational institution at Chicago, under the 
care of the Baptist denomination, for some years 
known as the Douglas University. Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas offered, in 1854, to donate ten 
acres of land, in what was then near the southern 
border of the city of Chicago, as a site for an 
institution of learning, provided buildings cost- 
ing $100,000, be erected thereon within a stipu- 
lated time. The corner-stone of the main building 
was laid, July 4, 1857, but the financial panic of 
that year prevented its completion, and Mr. Doug- 
las extended the time, and finally deeded the 
land to the trustees without reserve. For eighteen 
years the institution led a precarious existence, 
struggling under a heavy debt. By 1885, mort- 
gages to the amount of 8320,000 having accumu- 
lated, the trustees abandoned further effort, and 
acquiesced in the sale of the property under fore- 
closure proceedings. The original plan of the 
institution contemplated preparatory and col- 
legiate departments, together with a college of 
law and a theological school. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, the leading edu- 
cational institution under control of the State, 
located at Urbana and adjoining the city of 
Champaign. The Legislature at the session of 1863 
accepted a grant of 480,000 acres of land under 
Act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, making an 
appropriation of public lands to States 30,000 
acres for each Senator and each Representative in 
Congress establishing colleges for teaching agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, though not to the 
exclusion of classical and scientific studies. Land- 
scrip under this grant was issued and placed in 
the hands of Governor Yates, and a Board of 
Trustees appointed under the State law was organ- 
ized in March, 1867, the institution being located 
the same year. Departments and courses of study 
were established, and Dr. John M. Gregory, of 
Michigan, was chosen Regent (President). The 
landscrip issued to Illinois was sold at an early 
day for what it would bring in open market, 
except 25,000 acres, which was located in Ne- 
braska and Minnesota. This has recently been 
sold, realizing a larger sum than was received 
for all the scrip otherwise disposed of. The entire 
sum thus secured for permanent endowment ag- 
gregates $613,026. The University revenues were 
further increased by donations from Congress to 
each institution organized under the Act of 1862, 
of $15,000 per annum for the maintenance of an 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and, in 1890, of 
a similar amount for instruction the latter to be 
increased $1,000 annually until it should reach 
$25,000. A mechanical building was erected in 
1871, and this is claimed to have been the first of 
its kind in America intended for strictly educa- 
tional purposes. What was called "the main 
building" was formally opened in December, 
1873. Other buildings embrace a "Science Hall," 
opened in 1892; a new "Engineering Hall," 1894; 
a fine Library Building, 1897. Eleven other prin- 
cipal structures and a number of smaller ones 
have been erected as conditions required. The 
value of property aggregates nearly $2,500,000, and 
appropriations from the State, for all purposes, 
previous to 1904, foot up $5,123,517.90. Since 
1871 the institution has been open to women. 
The courses of study embrace agriculture, chem- 
istry, polytechnics, military tactics, natural and 
general sciences, languages and literature, eco- 
nomics, household science, trade and commerce. 
The Graduate School dates from 1891. In 1896 
the Chicago College of Pharmacy was connected 
with the University: a College of Law and a 
Library School were opened in 1897, and the same 
year the Chicago College of Physicians and Sur- 



geons was affiliated as the College of Medicine a 
School of Dentistry being added to the latter in 
1901. In 1885 the State Laboratory of Natural 
History was transferred from Normal, 111., and an 
Agricultural Experiment Station entablished in 
1888, from which bulletins are sent to farmers 
throughout the .State who may desire them. The 
first name of the Institution was "Illinois Indus- 
trial University," but, in 1885, this was changed 
to "University of Illinois." In 1887 the Trustees 
(of whom there are nine) were made elective by 
popular vote three being elected every two 
years, each holding office six years. Dr. Gregory, 
having resigned the office of Regent in 1880, was 
succeeded by Dr. Selim H. Peabody, who had 
been Professor of Mechanical and Civil Engineer- 
ing. Dr. Peabody resigned in 1891. The duties 
of Regent were then discharged by Prof. Thomas 
J. Burrill until August, 1894, when Dr. Andrew 
Sloan Draper, former State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction of the State of New York, was 
installed as President, serving until 1904. The 
corps of instruction (1904) includes over 100 Pro- 
fessors, 60 Associate and Assistant Professors and 
200 Instructors and Assistants, besides special 
lecturers, demonstrators and clerks. The num- 
ber of students has increased rapidly in recent 
years, as shown by the following totals for suc- 
cessive years from 1890-91 to 1903-04, inclusive: 
619; 583; 714; 743; 810; 852; 1,075; 1,582; 1,824; 
2,234; 2,505; 2,932; 3,289; 3,589. Of the last num- 
ber, 2,271 were men and 718 women. During 
1903-04 there were in all departments at Urbana, 
2,547 students (256 being in the Preparatory Aca- 
demy) ; and in the three Professional Departments 
in Chicago, 1,042, of whom 694 were in the Col- 
lege of Medicine, 185 in the School of Pharmacy, 
and 163 in the School of Dentistry. The Univer- 
sity Library contains 63,700 volumes and 14,500 
pamphlets, not including 5,350 volumes and 
15,850 pamphlets in the State Laboratory of Nat- 
ural History. The University occupies a con- 
spicuous and attractive site, embracing 220 acres 
adjacent to the line between Urbana and Cham- 
paign, and near the residence portion of the two 
cities. The athletic field of 11 acres, on which 
stand the gymnasium and armory, is enclosed 
with an ornamental iron fence. The campus, 
otherwise, is an open and beautiful park with 
fine landscape effects. 

the 102 counties into which Illinois is divided, 
acts were passed by the General Assembly, 
at different times, providing for the organiza- 
tion of a number of others, a few of which 

were subsequently organized under different 
names, but the majority of which were never 
organized at all the proposition for such or- 
ganization being rejected by vote of the people 
within the proposed boundaries, or allowed to 
lapse by non-action. These unorganized coun- 
ties, with the date of the several acts authorizing 
them, t,nd the territory which they were in- 
tended to include, were as follows: Allen 
County (1841) comprising portions of Sanga- 
mon, Morgan and Macoupin Counties ; Audobon 
(Audubon) County (1843) from portions of Mont- 
gomery, Fayette and Shelby; Benton County 
(1843) from Morgan, Greene and Macoupin; 
Coffee County (1837) with substantially the 
same territory now comprised within the bound- 
aries of Stark County, authorized two years 
later; Dane County (1839) name changed to 
Christian in 1840; Harrison County (1855) 
from McLean, Champaign and Vermilion, com- 
prising territory since partially incorporated 
in Ford County; Holmes County (1857) from 
Champaign and Vermilion; Marquette County 
(1843), changed (1847) to Highland compris- 
ing the northern portion of Adams, (this act 
was accepted, with Columbus as the county- 
seat, but organization finally vacated) ; Michi- 
gan County (1837) from apart of Cook; Milton 
County (1843) from the south part of Vermil- 
ion; Okaw County (1841) comprising substan- 
tially the same territory as Moultrie, organized 
under act of 1843; Oregon County (1851) from 
parts of Sangamon, Morgan and Macoupin Coun- 
ties, and covering substantially the same terri- 
tory as proposed to be incorporated in Allen 
County ten years earlier. The last act of this 
character was passed in 1867, when an attempt 
was made to organize Lincoln County out o. 
parts of Champaign and Vermilion, but whictt 
failed for want of an affirmative vote. 

UPPER ALTON, a city of Madison County, 
situated on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, about 
\\ miles northeast of Alton laid out in 1816. It 
has several churches, and is the seat of Shurtleff 
College and the Western Military Academy, the 
former founded about 1831, and controlled by the 
Baptist denomination. Beds of excellent clay are 
found in the vicinity and utilized in pottery 
manufacture. Pop. (1890), 1,803; (1900), 2,373. 

UPTON, George Putnam, journalist, was born 
at Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1834; graduated from 
Brown University in 1854, removed to Chicago 
in 1855, and began newspaper work on "The 
Native American," the following year taking 
the place of city editor of "The Evening Jour- 



nal. " In 1862, Mr. Upton became musical critic 
on "The Chicago Tribune," serving for a time 
also as its war correspondent in the field, later 
(about 1881) taking a place on the general edi- 
torial staff, which he still retains. He is regarded 
as an authority on musical and dramatic topics. 
Mr. Upton is also a stockholder in, and, for sev- 
eral years, has been Vice-President of the "Trib- 
une" Company. Besides numerous contributions 
to magazines, his works include: "Letters of 
Peregrine Pickle" (1869) ; "Memories, a Story of 
German Love," translated from the German of 
Max Muller (1879); "Woman in Music" (1880); 
"Lives of German Composers" (3 vols. 1883-84); 
besides four volumes of standard operas, oratorios, 
cantatas, and symphonies (1885-88). 

UBBANA, a flourishing city, the county-seat 
of Champaign County, on the "Big Four," the 
Illinois Central and the Wabash Railways: 130 
miles south of Chicago and 31 miles west of Dan- 
ville; in agricultural and coal-mining region. 
The mechanical industries include extensive rail- 
road shops, manufacture of brick, suspenders and 
lawn-mowers. The Cunningham Deaconesses' 
Home and Orphanage is located here. The city 
has water-works, gas and electric light plants, 
electric car-lines (local and interurban), superior 
schools, nine churches, three banks and three 
newspapers. Urbana is the seat of the University 
of Illinois. Pop. (1890), 3,511; (1900), 5,728. 

DSREY, William J., editor and soldier, was 
born at Washington (near Natchez), Miss., May 
16, 1827; was educated at Natchez, and, before 
reaching manhood, came to Macon County, 111., 
where he engaged in teaching until 1846, when 
he enlisted as a private in Company C, Fourth 
Illinois Volunteers, for the Mexican War. In 
1855, he joined with a Mr. Wingate in the estab- 
lishment, at Decatur, of "The Illinois State Chron- 
icle," of which he soon after took sole charge, 
conducting the paper until 1861, when he enlisted 
in the Thirty-fifth Illinois Volunteers and was 
appointed Adjutant. Although born and edu- 
cated in a slave State, Mr. Usrey was an earnest 
opponent of slavery, as proved by the attitude of 
his paper in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill. He was one of the most zealous endorsers 
of the proposition for a conference of the Anti- 
Nebraska editors of the State of Illinois, to agree 
upon a line of policy in opposition to the further 
extension of slavery, and, when that body met at 
Decatur, on Feb. 22, 1856, he served as its Secre- 
tary, thus taking a prominent part in the initial 
steps which resulted in the organization of the 
Republican party in Illinois. (See Anti-Nebraska 

Editorial Convention.) After returning from 
the war he resumed his place as editor of "The 
Chronicle," but finally retired from newspaper 
work in 1871. He was twice Postmaster of the 
city of Decatur, first previous to 1850, and again 
under the administration of President Grant; 
served also as a member of the City Council and 
was a member of the local Post of the G. A . R. , 
and Secretary of the Macon County Association 
of Mexican War Veterans. Died, at Decatur, 
Jan. 20, 1894. 

UTICA, (also called North Utica), a village of 
La Salle County, on the Illinois & Michigan 
Canal and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railway, 10 miles west of Ottawa, situated on the 
Illinois River opposite "Starved Rock," also 
believed to stand on the- site of the Kaskaskia 
village found by the French Explorer, La Salle, 
when he first visited Illinois. "Utica cement" is 
produced here; it also has several factories or 
mills, besides banks and a weekly paper. Popu- 
lation (1880), 767; (1890), 1,094; (1900), 1,150. 

VAN ARNAM, John, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Plattsburg, N. Y., March 3, 1820. Hav- 
ing lost his father at five years of age, he went to 
live with a farmer, but ran away in his boyhood ; 
later, began teaching, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in New York City, beginning 
practice at Marshall, Mich. In 1858 he removed 
to Chicago, and, as a member of the firm of 
Walker, Van Arnam & Dexter, became promi- 
nent as a criminal lawyer and railroad attorney, 
being for a time Solicitor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad. In 1862 he assisted in 
organizing the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry and was commissioned 
its Colonel, but was compelled to resign on 
account of illness. After spending some time in 
California, he resumed practice in Chicago in 
1865. His later years were spent in California, 
dying at San Diego, in that State, April 6, 1890. 

YANDALIA, the principal city and county-seat 
of Fayette County. It is situated on the Kas- 
kaskia River, 30 miles north of Centralia, 62 
miles south by west of Decatur, and 68 miles 
east-northeast of St. Louis. It is an intersecting 
point for the Illinois Central and the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroads. It was the 
capital of the State from 1820 to 1839, the seat of 
government being removed to Springfield, the 
latter year, in accordance with act of the General 
Assembly passed at the session of 1837. It con- 
tains a court house (old State Capitol building), 
six churches, two banks, three weekly papers, a 



graded school, flour, saw and paper mills, foundry, 
stave and heading mill, carriage and wagon 
and brick works. Pop. (1890), 2,144; (1900), 2,665. 

VANDEVEER, Horatio M., pioneer lawyer, 
was born in Washington County, Ind., March 1, 
1816 ; came with his family to Illinois at an early 
age, settling on Clear Creek, now in Christian 
County; taught school and studied law, using 
books borrowed from the late Hon. John T. Stuart 
of Springfield ; was elected first County Recorder 
of Christian County and, soon after, appointed 
Circuit Clerk, filling both offices three years. 
He also held the office of County Judge from 1848 
to 1857 ; was twice chosen Representative in the 
General Assembly (1842 and 1850) and once to the 
State Senate (1862); in 1846, enlisted and was 
chosen Captain of a company for the Mexican 
War, but, having been rejected on account of the 
quota being full, was appointed Assistant-Quarter- 
master, in this capacity serving on the staff of 
General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. 
Among other offices held by Mr. Vandeveer, were 
those of Postmaster of Taylorville, Master in 
Chancery, Presidential Elector (1848), Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and 
Judge Of the Circuit Court (1870-79). In 1868 
Judge Vandeveer established the private banking 
firm of H. M. Vandeveer & Co., at Taylorville, 
which, in conjunction with his sons, he continued 
successfully during the remainder of his life. 
Died, March 12, 1894. 

VAN HORNE, William C., Railway Manager 
and President, was born in Will County, 111., 
February, 1843 ; began his career as a telegraph 
operator on the Illinois Central Railroad in 1856, 
was attached to the Michigan Central and Chi- 
cago & Alton Railroads (1858-72), later being 
General Manager or General Superintendent of 
various other lines (1872-79). He next served as 
General Superintendent of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, but soon after became General 
Manager of the Canadian Pacific, which he 
assisted to construct to the Pacific Coast; was 
elected Vice-President of the line in 1884, and its 
President in 1888. His services have been recog- 
nized by conferring upon him the order of 
knighthood by the British Government. 

YASSEUR, Noel C., pioneer Indian-trade^, was 
born of French parentage in Canada, Dec. 25, 
1799 ; at the age of 17 made a trip with a trading 
party to the West, crossing Wisconsin by way of 
the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, the route pursued 
by Joliet and Marquette in 1673 ; later, was associ- 
ated with Gurdon S. Hubbard in the service of 
the American Fur Company, in 1820 visiting the 

region now embraced in Iroquois County, where 
he and Hubbard subsequently established a trad- 
ing post among the Pottawatomie Indians, 
believed to have been the site of the present town 
of Iroquois. The way of reaching their station 
from Chicago was by the Chicago and Des 
Plaines Rivers to the Kankakee, and ascending 
the latter and the Iroquois. Here Vasseur re- 
mained in trade until the removal of the Indians 
west of the Mississippi, in which he served as 
agent of the Government. While in the Iroquois 
region he married Watseka, a somewhat famous 
Pottawatomie woman, for whom the town of 
Watseka was named, and who had previously 
been the Indian wife of a fellow-trader. His 
later years were spent at Bourbonnais Grove, in 
Kankakee County, where he died, Dec. 12, 1879. 

YE NICE, a city of Madison County, on the 
Mississippi River opposite St. Louis and 2 miles 
north of East St. Louis ; is touched by six trunk 
lines of railroad, and at the eastern approach to 
the new "Merchants' Bridge," with its round- 
house, has two ferries to St. Louis, street car line, 
electric lights, water-works, some manufactures 
and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 932; (1900), 2,450. 

Louisville, EvcMsville & St. Louis (Consolidated) 
Railroad. ) 

VERMILION COUNTY, an eastern county, 
bordering on the Indiana State line, and drained 
by the Vermilion and Little Vermilion Rivers, 
from which it takes its name. It was originally 
organized in 1826, when it extended north to 
Lake Michigan. Its present area is 926 square 
miles. The discovery of salt springs, in 1819, 
aided in attracting immigration to this region, 
but the manufacture of salt was abandoned 
many years ago. Early settlers were Seymour 
Treat, James Butler, Henry Johnston, Harvey 
Lidington, Gurdon S. Hubbard and Daniel W. 
Beckwith. James Butler and Achilles Morgan 
were the first County Commissioners. Many 
interesting fossil remains have been found, 
among them the skeleton of a mastodon (1868). 
Fire clay is found in large quantities, and two 
coal seams cross the county. The surface is level 
and the soil fertile. Corn is the chief agricultural 
product, although oats, wheat, rye, and potatoes 
are extensively cultivated. Stock-raising and 
wool-growing are important industries. There 
are also several manufactories, chiefly at Dan- 
ville, which is the county-seat. Coal mining 
is carried on extensively, especially in the vicin- 
ity of Danville. Population (1880), 41,588 ; (1890), 
49,905; (1900), 65,635. 



YERMILION RIYER, a tributary of the Illi- 
nois; rises in Ford and the northern part of 
McLean County, and, running northwestward 
through Livingston and the southern part of 
La Salle Counties, enters the Illinois River 
nearly opposite the city of La Salle ; has a length 
of about 80 miles. 

VERMILION RIYER, an affluent of the Wa- 
bash, formed by the union of the North, Middle 
and South Forks, which rise in Illinois, and 
come together near Danville in this State. It 
flows southeastward, and enters the Wabash in 
Vermilion County, Ind. The main stream is 
about 28 miles long. The South Fork, however, 
which rises in Champaign County and runs east- 
ward, has a length of nearly 75 miles. The 
Little Vermilion River enters the Wabash about 
7 or 8 miles below the Vermilion, which is some- 
times called the Big Vermilion, by way of 

VERMONT, a village in Fulton County, at 
junction of Galesburg and St. Louis Division of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 24 
miles north of Beardstown ; has a carriage manu- 
factory, flour and saw-mills, brick and tile works, 
electric light plant, besides two banks, four 
churches, two graded schools, and one weekly 
newspaper. An artesian well has been sunk here 
to the depth of 2,600 feet. Pop. (1900), 1,195. 

VERSAILLES, a town of Brown County, on 
the Wabash Railway, 48 miles east of Quincy ; is 
in a timber and agricultural district ; has a bank 
and weekly newspaper. Population (1900), 524. 

VIENNA, the county-seat of Johnson County, 
situated on the Cairo and Vincennes branch of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad, 36 miles north-northwest of Cairo. It 
has a court house, several churches, a graded 
school, banks and two weekly newspapers. 
Population (1880), 494; (1890), 828; (1900), 1,217. 

YIGO, Francois, pioneer and early Indian- 
trader, was born at Mondovi, Sardinia (Western 
Italy), in 1747, served as a private soldier, first at 
Havana and afterwards at New Orleans. When 
he left the Spanish army he came to St. Louis, 
then the military headquarters of Spain for Upper 
Louisiana, where he became a partner of Com- 
mandant de Leba, and was extensively engaged 
in the fur-trade among the Indians on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers. On the occupation of 
Kaskaskia by Col. George Rogers Clark in 1778, 
he rendered valuable aid to the Americans, turn- 
ing out supplies to feed Clark's destitute soldiers, 
and accepting Virginia Continental money, at 
par, in payment, incurring liabilities in excess of 

$20,000. This, followed by the confiscation policy 
of the British Colonel Hamilton, at Vincennes, 
where Vigo had considerable property, reduced 
him to extreme penury. H. W. Beckwith says 
that, towards the close of his life, he lived on his 
little homestead near Vincennes, in great poverty 
but cheerful to the last He was never recom- 
pensed during his life for his sacrifices in behalf 
of the American cause, though a tardy restitution 
was attempted, after his death, by the United 
States Government, for the benefit of his heirs. 
He died, at a ripe old age, at Vincennes, Ind., 
March 22, 1835. 

VILLA RIDGE, a village of Pulaski County, 
on the Illinois Central Railway, 10 miles north of 
Cairo. Population, 500. 

VINCENNES, Jean Baptiste Bissot, a Canadian 
explorer, born at Quebec, January, 1688, of aris- 
tocratic and wealthy ancestry. He was closely 
connected with Louis Joliet probably his 
brother-in-law, although some historians say that 
he was the latter's nephew. He entered the 
Canadian army as ensign in 1701, and had a long 
and varied experience as an Indian fighter. 
About 1725 he took up his residence on what is 
now the site of the present city of Vincennes, 
Ind., which is named in his honor. Here he 
erected an earth fort and established a trading- 
post. In 1726, under orders, he co-operated with 
D'Artaguiette (then the French Governor of Illi- 
nois) in an expedition against the Chickasaws. 
The expedition resulted disastrously. Vincennes 
and D'Artaguiette were captured and burned 
at the stake, together with Father Senat (a 
Jesuit priest) and others of the command. 
(See also D'Artaguiette; French Governors of 
Illinois. ) 

VIRDEN, a city of Macoupin County, on the 
Chicago & Alton and the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroads, 21 miles south by west from 
Springfield, and 31 miles east-southeast of Jack- 
sonville. It has five churches, two banks, two 
newspapers, telephone service, electric lights, 
grain elevators, machine shop, and extensive coal 
mines. Pop.(1900), 2,280; (school censusl903),3,651. 

VIRGINIA, an incorporated city, the county- 
seat of Cass County, situated at the intersection of 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis, with the Spring- 
field Division of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railroad, 15 miles north of Jacksonville, 
and 33 miles west-northwest of Springfield. It 
lies in the heart of a rich agricultural region. 
There is a flouring mill here, besides manu- 
factories of wagons and cigars. The city has two 
National and one State bank, five churches, a 


high school, and two weekly papers. Pop. (1890), 
1,602; (1900), 1,600. 

YOCKE, William, lawyer, was born at Min- 
den, Westphalia (Germany), in 1839, the son of a 
Government Secretary in the Prussian service. 
Having lost his father at an early age, he emi- 
grated to America in 1856, and, after a short 
stay in New York, came to Chicago, where he 
found employment as a paper-carrier for "The 
Staats-Zeitung, " meanwhile giving his attention 
to the study of law. Later, he became associated 
with a real-estate firm; on the commencement 
of the Civil War, enlisted as a private in a 
three-months' regiment, and, finally, in the 
Twenty-fourth Illinois (the first Hecker regi- 
ment), in which he rose to the rank of Captain. 
Returning from the army, he was employed as 
city editor of "The Staats-Zeitung," but, in 
1865, became Clerk of the Chicago Police Court, 
serving until 1869. Meanwhile he had been 
admitted to the bar, and, on retirement from 
office, began practice, but, in 1870, was elected 
Representative in the Twenty-seventh General 
Assembly, in which he bore a leading part in 
framing "the burnt record act" made necessary 
by the fire of 1871. He has since been engaged 
in the practice of his profession, having been, 
for a number of years, attorney for the German 
Consulate at Chicago, also serving, for several 
years, on the Chicago Board of Education. Mr. 
Vocke is a man of high literary tastes, as shown 
by his publication, in 1869, of a volume of poems 
translated from the German, which has been 
highly commended, besides a legal work on 
"The Administration of Justice in the United 
States, and a Synopsis of the Mode of Procedure 
in our Federal and State Courts and All Federal 
and State Laws relating to Subjects of Interest 
to Aliens, ' ' which has been published in the Ger- 
man Language, and is highly valued by German 
lawyers and business men. Mr. Vocke was a 
member of the Republican National Convention 
of 1872 at Philadelphia, which nominated General 
Grant for the Presidency a second time. 

YOLK, Leonard Wells, a distinguished Illinois 
sculptor, born at Wellstown (afterwards Wells), 
N. Y., Nov. 7, 1828. Later, his father, who was 
a marble cutter , removed to Pittsfield, Mass., 
and, at the age of 16, Leonard began work in his 
shop. In 1848 he came west and began model- 
ing in clay and drawing at St. Louis, being only 
self-taught. He married a cousin of Stephen A. 
Douglas, and the latter, in 1855, aided him in 
the prosecution of his art studies in Italy. Two 
years afterward he settled in Chicago, where he 

modeled the first portrait bust ever made in the 
city, having for his subject his first patron the 
"Little Giant." The next year (1858) he made a 
life-size marble statue of Douglas. In 1860 he 
made a portrait bust of Abraham Lincoln, which 
passed into the possession of the Chicago His- 
torical Society and was destroyed in the great fire 
of 1871. In 1868-69, and again in 1871-72, he 
revisited Italy for purposes of study. In 1867 he 
was elected academician of the Chicago Academy, 
and was its President for eight years. He was 
genial, companionable and charitable, and always 
ready to assist his younger and less fortunate pro- 
fessional brethren. His best known works are the 
Douglas Monument, in Chicago, several soldiers' 
monuments in different parts of the country, 
the statuary for the Henry Keep mausoleum at 
Watertown, N. Y., life-size statues of Lincoln 
and Douglas, in the State House at Springfield, 
and numerous portrait busts of men eminent 
in political, ecclesiastical and commercial life. 
Died, at Osceola, Wis., August 18, 1895. 

YOSS, Arno, journalist, lawyer and soldier, 
born in Prussia, April 16, 1821 ; emigrated to the 
United States and was admitted to the bar in 
Chicago, in 1848, the same year becoming editor 
of "The Staats-Zeitung"; was elected City 
Attorney in 1852, and again In 1853; in 1861 
became Major of the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, but 
afterwards assisted in organizing the Twelfth 
Cavalry, of which he was commissioned Colonel, 
still later serving with his command in, Vir- 
ginia. He was at Harper's Ferry at the time of 
the capture of that place in September, 1862, but 
succeeded in cutting his way, with his command, 
through the rebel lines, escaping into Pennsyl- 
vania. Compelled by ill-health to leave the serv- 
ice in 1863, he retired to a farm in Will County, 
but, in 1869, returned to Chicago, where he served 
as Master in Chancery and was elected to the 
lower branch of the General Assembly in 1876, 
but declined a re-election in 1878. Died, in Chi- 
cago, March 23, 1888. 

ROAD, a railway running from Chester to Mount 
Vernon, 111., 63.33 miles, with a branch extend- 
ing from Chester to Menard. 1.5 miles; total 
mileage, 64.83. It is of standard gauge, and 
almost entirely laid with 60-pound steel rails. 
(HISTORY.) It was organized, Feb. 20, 1878, as 
successor to the Iron Mountain, Chester & East- 
ern Railroad. During the fiscal year 1893-94 the 
Company purchased the Tamaroa & Mount Ver- 
non Railroad, extending from Mount Vernon to 



Tamaroa, 22.5 miles. Capital stock (1898), $1,- 
250,000; bonded indebtedness, $690,000; total 
capitalization, $2,028,573. 

WABASH COUNTY, situated in the southeast 
corner of the State ; area 220 square miles. The 
county was carved out from Edwards in 1824, 
and the first court house built at Centerville, in 
May, 1826. Later, Mount Carmel was made the 
county -seat. (See Mount Carmel.} The Wabash 
River drains the county on the east; other 
streams are the Bon Pas, Coffee and Crawfish 
Creeks. The surface is undulating with a fair 
growth of timber. The chief industries are the 
raising of live-stock and the cultivation of cere- 
als. The wool-crop is likewise valuable. The 
county is crossed by the Louisville, Evansville & 
St. Louis and the Cairo and Vincennes Division 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railroads. Population (1880), 4,945; (1890), 
11,866; (1900), 12,583. 

WABASH RAILROAD, an extensive railroad 
system connecting the cities of Detroit and 
Toledo, on the east, with Kansas City and Council 
Bluffs, on the west, with branches to Chicago, St. 
Louis, Quincy and Altamont, 111., and to Keokuk 
and Des Moines, Iowa. The total mileage (1898) 
is 1,874.96 miles, of which 677.4 miles are in Illi- 
nois all of the latter being the property of the 
company, besides 176. 7 miles of yard-tracks, sid- 
ings and spurs. The company has trackage 
privileges over the Toledo, Peoria & Western (6.5 
miles) between Elvaston and Keokuk bridge, and 
over the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (21.8 
miles) between Camp Point and Quincy. (His- 
TORY.) A considerable portion of this road in 
Illinois is constructed on the line upon which the 
Northern Cross Railroad was projected, in the 
"internal improvement" scheme adopted in 1837, 
and embraces the only section of road completed 
under that scheme that between the Illinois 
River and Springfield. (1) The construction of 
this section was begun by the State, May 11, 
1837, the first rail laid, May 9, 1838, the road 
completed to Jacksonville, Jan. 1, 1840, and to 
Springfield, May 13, 1842. It was operated for a 
time by "mule power," but the income was in- 
sufficient to keep the line in repair and it was 
finally abandoned. In 1847 the line was sold for 
$21,100 to N. H. Ridgely and Thomas Mather of 
Springfield, and by them transferred to New 
York capitalists, who organized the Sangamon & 
Morgan Railroad Company, reconstructed the 
road from Springfield to Naples and opened it for 
business in 1849. (2) In 1853 two corporations 
were organized in Ohio and Indiana, respectively, 

under the name of the Toledo & Illinois Railroad 
and the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad, 
which were consolidated as the Toledo, Wabash 
& Western Railroad, June 25, 1856. In 1858 
these lines were sold separately under foreclo- 
sure, and finally reorganized, under a special char- 
ter granted by the Illinois Legislature, under the 
name of the Great Western Railroad Company. 
(3) The Quincy & Toledo Railroad, extending 
from Camp Point to the Illinois River opposite 
Meredosia, was constructed in 1858-59, and that, 
with the Illinois & Southern Iowa (from Clay- 
ton to Keokuk), was united, July 1, 1865, with 
the eastern divisions extending to Toledo, the 
new organization taking "the name of the main 
line, (Toledo, Wabash & Western). (4) The 
Hannibal & Naples Division (49.6 miles), from 
Bluffs to Hannibal, Mo., was chartered in 1863, 
opened for business in 1870 and leased to the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western. The latter defaulted 
on its interest in 1875, was placed in the hands 
of a receiver and, in 1877, was turned over to a 
new company under the name of the Wabash 
Railway Company. (5) In 1868 the company, 
as it then existed, promoted and secured the con- 
struction, and afterwards acquired the owner- 
ship, of a line extending from Decatur to East St. 
Louis (110.5 miles) under the name of the Deca- 
tur & East St. Louis Railroad. (6) The Eel River 
Railroad, from Butler to Logansport, Ind., was 
acquired in 1877, and afterwards extended to 
Detroit under the name of the Detroit, Butler & 
St. Louis Railroad, completing the connection 
from Logansport to Detroit. In November, 1879, 
the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany was organized, took the property and con- 
solidated it with certain lines west of the 
Mississippi, of which the chief was the St. Louis, 
Kansas City & Northern. A line had been pro- 
jected from Decatur to Chicago as early as 1870, 
but, not having been constructed in 1881, the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific purchased what was 
known as the Chicago & Paducah Railroad, 
uniting with the main line at Bement, and (by 
way of the Decatur and St. Louis Division) giv- 
ing a direct line between Chicago and St. Louis. 
At this time the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific was 
operating the following additional leased lines: 
Pekin, Lincoln & Decatur (67.2 miles); Hannibal 
& Central Missouri (70.2 miles); Lafayette, Mun- 
cie & Bloomington (36. 7 miles), and the Lafayette 
Bloomington & Muncie (80 miles). A connection 
between Chicago on the west and Toledo and 
Detroit on the east was established over the 
Grand Trunk road in 1882, but, in 1890, the com- 



pany constructed a line from Montpelier, Ohio, to 
Clark, Ind. (149.7 miles), thence by track lease 
to Chicago (17.5 miles), giving an independent 
line between Chicago and Detroit by what is 
known to investors as the Detroit & Chicago 

The total mileage of the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific system, in 1884, amounted to over 3,600 
miles ; but, in May of that year, default having 
been made in the payment of interest, the work 
of disintegration began. The main line east of 
the Mississippi and that on the west were sepa- 
rated, the latter taking the name of the "Wabash 
Western." The Eastern Division was placed in 
the hands of a receiver, so remaining until May, 
1889, when the two divisions, having been 
bought in by a purchasing committee, were 
consolidated under the present name. The total 
earnings and income of the road in Illinois, for 
the fiscal year 1898, were $4,402,621, and the 
expenses $4,836,110. The total capital invested 
(1898) was $139,889,643, including capital stock 
of $52,000,000 and bonds to the amount of $81,- 

WABASH RIYER, rises in northwestern Ohio, 
passes into Indiana, and runs northwest to Hun- 
tington. It then flows nearly due west to Logans- 
port, thence southwest to Covington, finally 
turning southward to Terre Haute, a few miles 
below which it strikes the western boundary of 
Indiana. It forms the boundary between Illinois 
and Indiana (taking into account its numerous 
windings) for spme 200 miles. Below Vincennes 
it runs in a south-southwesterly direction, and 
enters the Ohio at the south-west extremity of 
Indiana, near latitude 37 49' north. Its length 
is estimated at 557 miles. 

(See Illinois Central Railroad.) 

ROAD. (See Wabash Railroad.) 

Wabash Railroad.) 

WAIT, William Smith, pioneer, and original 
suggestor of the Illinois Central Railroad, was 
born in Portland, Maine, March 5, 1789, and edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native place. 
In his youth he entered a book-publishing house 
in which his father was a partner, and was for a 
time associated with the publication of a weekly 
paper. Later the business was conducted at 
Boston, and extended over the Eastern, Middle, 
and Southern States, the subject of this sketch 
making extensive tours in the interest of the 
firm. In 1817 he made a tour to the West, 

reaching St. Louis, and, early in the following 
year, visited Bond County, 111., where he made 
his first entry of land from the Government. 
Returning to Boston a few months later, he con- 
tinued in the service of the publishing firm until 

1820, when he again came to Illinois, and, in 

1821, began farming in Ripley Township, Bond 
County. Returning East in 1824, he spent the 
next ten years in the employment of the publish- 
ing firm, with occasional visits to Illinois. In 
1835 he located permanently near Greenville, 
Bond County, and engaged extensively in farm- 
ing and fruit-raising, planting one of the largest 
apple orchards in the State at that early day. Irt 
1845 he presided as chairman over the National 
Industrial Convention in New York, and, irt 
1848, was nominated as the candidate of the 
National Reform Association for Vice-President 
on the ticket with Gerrit Smith of New York, 
but declined. He was also prominent in County 
and State Agricultural Societies. Mr Wait has 
been credited with being one of the first (if not 
the very first) to suggest the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, which he did as early 
as 1835; was also one of the prime movers in the 
construction of the Mississippi & Atlantic Rail- 
road now the "Vandalia Line" giving much 
time to the latter enterprise from 1846 for many 
years, and was one of the original incorporators 
of the St. Louis & Illinois Bridge Company. 
Died, July 17, 1865. 

WALKER, Cyrus, pioneer, lawyer, born in 
Rockbridge County, Va., May 14, 1791; was taken 
while an infant to Adair County, Ky., and came 
to Macomb, 111. , in 1833, being the second lawyer 
to locate in McDonough County. He had a wide 
reputation as a successful advocate, especially in 
criminal cases, and practiced extensively in the 
courts of Western Illinois and also in Iowa. Died, 
Dec. 1, 1875. Mr. Walker was uncle of the late 
Pinkney H. Walker of the Supreme Court, who 
studied law with him. He was Whig candidate 
for Presidential Elector for the State-at-large in 

WALKER, James Barr, clergyman, was born 
in Philadelphia, July 29, 1805; in his youth 
served as errand-boy in a country store near 
Pittsburg and spent four years in a printing 
office ; then became clerk in the office of Mordecai 
M. Noah, in New York, studied law and gradu- 
ated from Western Reserve College, Ohio ; edited 
various religious papers, including "The Watch- 
man of the Prairies" (now "The Advance") of 
Chicago, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Chicago, and for some time was lecturer on 



"Harmony between Science and Revealed Reli- 
gion" at Oberlin College and Chicago Theological 
Seminary. He was author of several volumes, 
one of which "The Philosophy of the Plan of 
Salvation," published anonymously under the 
editorship of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe (1855) ran 
through several editions and was translated into 
five different languages, including Hindustanee. 
Died, at Wheaton, 111., March 6, 1887. 

WALKER, James Monroe, corporation lawyer 
and Railway President, was born at Claremont, 
N. H., Feb. 14, 1820. At fifteen he removed with 
his parents to a farm in Michigan ; was educated 
at Oberlin, Ohio, and at the University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, graduating from the latter in 
1849. He then entered a law office as clerk and 
student, was admitted to the bar the next year, 
and soon after elected Prosecuting Attorney of 
Washtenaw County; was also local attorney for 
the Michigan Central Railway, for which, after 
his removal to Chicago in 1853, he became Gen- 
eral Solicitor. Two years later the firm of Sedg- 
wick & Walker, which had been organized in 
Michigan, became attorneys for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and, until his 
death, Mr. Walker was associated with this com- 
pany, either as General Solicitor, General Counsel 
or President, filling the latter position from 1870 
to 1875. Mr. Walker organized both the Chicago 
and Kansas City stock-yards, and was President 
of these corporations, as also of the Wilmington 
Coal Company, down to the time of his death, 
which occurred on Jan. 22, 1881, as a result of 
heart disease. 

WALKER, (Rev.) Jesse, Methodist Episcopal 
missionary, was born in Rockingham County, 
Va., June 9, 1766; in 1800 removed to Tennessee, 
became a traveling preacher in 1802, and, in 
1806, came to Illinois under the presiding-elder- 
ship of Rev. William McKendree (afterwards 
Bishop), locating first at Turkey Hill, St. Clair 
County. In 1807 he held a camp meeting near 
Edwardsville the first on Illinois soil. Later, 
he transferred his labors to Northern Illinois; 
was at Peoria in 1824; at Ottawa in 1825, and 
devoted much time to missionary work among 
the Pottawatomies, maintaining a school among 
them for a time. He visited Chicago in 1826, and 
there is evidence that he was a prominent resident 
there for several years, occupying a log house, 
which he used as a church and living-room, on 
c 'Wolf Point" at the junction of the North and 
South Branches of the Chicago River. While 
acting as superintendent of the Fox River mis- 
sion, his residence appears to have been at Plain- 

field, in the northern part of Will County. Died, 
Oct. 5, 1835. 

WALKER, Pinkney H., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Adair County, Ky., June 18, 1815. 
His boyhood was chiefly passed in farm work and 
as clerk in a general store ; in 1834 he came to Illi- 
nois, settling at Rushville, where he worked in a 
store for four years. In 1838 he removed to 
Macomb, where he began attendance at an acad- 
emy and the study of law with his uncle, Cyrus 
Walker, a leading lawyer of his time. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1839, practicing at Macomb 
until 1848, when he returned to Rushville. In 
1853 he was elected Judge of the Fifth Judicial 
Circuit, to fill a vacancy, and re-elected in 1855. 
This position he resigned in 1858, having been 
appointed, by Governor Bissell, to fill the vacancy 
on the bench of the Supreme Court occasioned by 
the resignation of Judge Skinner. Two months 
later he was elected to the same position, and 
re-elected in 1867 and '76. He presided as Chief 
Justice from January, 1864, to June, '67, and 
again from June, 1874, to June, '75. Before the 
expiration of his last term he died, Feb. 7, 1885. 

WALL, George Willard, lawyer, politician and 
Judge, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 22, 
1839; brought to Perry County, 111., in infancy, 
and received his preparatory education at McKen. 
dree College, finally graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1858, and from the 
Cincinnati Law School in 1859, when he began 
practice at Duquoin, 111. He was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and, from 
1864 to '68, served as State's Attorney for the 
Third Judicial District ; was also a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 
1872 he was an unsuccessful Democratic candi- 
date for Congress, although running ahead of his 
ticket. In 1877 he was elected to the bench of 
the Third Circuit, and re-elected in '79, '85 and 
'91, much of the time since 1877 being on duty 
upon the Appellate bench. His home is at 

WALLACE, (Rev.) Peter, D.D., clergyman 
and soldier; was born in Mason County, Ky., 
April 11, 1813; taken in infancy to Brown 
County, Ohio, where he grew up on a farm until 
15 years of age, when he was apprenticed to a 
carpenter; at the age of 20 came to Illinois, 
where he became a contractor and builder, fol- 
lowing this occupation for a number of years. He 
was converted in 1835 at Springfield, 111., and, 
some years later, having decided to enter the 
ministry, was admitted to the Illinois Conference 
as a deacon by Bishop E. S. Janes in 1855, and 



placed in charge of the Danville Circuit. Two 
years later he was ordained by Bishop Scott, and, 
in the next few years, held pastorates at various 
places in the central and eastern parts of the 
State. From 1867 to 1874 he was Presiding Elder 
of the Mattoon and Quincy Districts, and, for six 
years, held the position of President of the Board 
of Trustees of Chaddock College at Quincy, from 
which he received the degree of D.D. in 1881. 
In the second year of the Civil War he raised a 
company in Sangamon County, was chosen 
its Captain and assigned to the Seventy-third 
Illinois Volunteers, known as the "preachers' 
regiment" all of its officers being ministers. In 
1864 he was compelled by ill-health to resign his 
commission. While pastor of the church at Say- 
brook, 111., he was offered the position of Post- 
master of that place, which he decided to accept, 
and was allowed to retire from the active minis- 
try. On retirement from office, in 1884, he 
removed to Chicago. In 1889 he was appointed 
by Governor Fifer the first Chaplain of the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy, but retired 
some four years afterward, when he returned to 
Chicago. Dr. Wallace was an eloquent and 
effective preacher and continued to preach, at 
intervals, until within a short time of his decease, 
which occurred in Chicago, Feb. 21, 1897, in his 
84th year. A zealous patriot, he frequently 
spoke very effectively upon the political rostrum. 
Originally a Whig, he became a Republican on 
the organization of that party, and took pride in 
the fact that the first vote he ever cast was for 
Abraham Lincoln, for Representative in the Legis- 
lature, in 1834. He was a Knight Templar, Vice- 
President of the Tippecanoe Club of Chicago, 
and, at his death, Chaplain of America Post, No. 
708, G. A. R. 

WALLACE, William Henry Lamb, lawyer and 
soldier, was born at Urbana, Ohio, July 8, 1821 ; 
brought to Illinois in 1833, his father settling 
near La Salle and, afterwards, at Mount Morris, 
Ogle County, where young Wallace attended the 
Rock River Seminary ; was admitted to the bar in 
1845 ; in 1846 enlisted as a private in the First Illi- 
nois Volunteers (Col. John J. Hardin's regiment), 
for the Mexican War, rising to the rank of Adju- 
tant and participting in the battle of Buena Vista 
(where his commander was killed), and in other 
engagements. Returning to his profession at 
Ottawa, he served as District Attorney (1852-56), 
then became partner of his father-in-law, Col. 
T. Lyle Dickey, afterwards of the Supreme Court. 
In April, 1861, he was one of the first to answer 
the call for troops by enlisting, and became Colo- 

nel of the Eleventh Illinois (three-months' 
men), afterwards re-enlisting for three years. 
As commander of a brigade he participated in 
the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, receiving promotion as Brigadier- 
General for gallantry. At Pittsburg Landing 
(Shiloh), as commander of Gen. C. F. Smith's 
Division, devolving on him on account of the 
illness of his superior officer, he showed great 
courage, but fell mortally wounded, dying at 
Charleston, Tenn., April 10, 1862. His career 
promised great brilliancy and his loss was greatly 
deplored. Martin R. M. ( Wallace), brother of 
the preceding, was born at Urbana, Ohio, Sept. 
29, 1829, came to La Salle County, 111., with his 
father's family and was educated in the local 
schools and at Rock River Seminary ; studied law 
at Ottawa, and was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
soon after locating in Chicago. In 1861 he 
assisted in organizing the Fourth Regiment Illi- 
nois Cavalry, of which he became Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and was complimented, in 1865, with the 
rank of brevet Brigadier-General. After the 
war he served as Assessor of Internal Revenue 
(1866-69) ; County Judge (1869-77) ; Prosecuting 
Attorney (1884) ; and, for many years past, has 
been one of the Justices of the Peace of the city 
of Chicago. 

WALNUT, a .town of Bureau County, on the 
Mendota and Fulton branch of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad, 26 miles west of 
Mendota; is in a farming and stock-raising dis- 
trict ; has two banks and two newspapers. Popu- 
lation (1890), 605; (1900), 791. 

WAR OF 1812. Upon the declaration of war 
by Congress, in June, 1812, the Pottawatomies, 
and most of the other tribes of Indians in the 
Territory of Illinois, strongly sympathized with 
the British. The savages had been hostile and 
restless for some time previous, and blockhouses 
and family forts had been erected at a number 
of points, especially in the settlements most 
exposed to the incursions of the savages. Gov- 
ernor Edwards, becoming apprehensive of an 
outbreak, constructed Fort Russell, a few miles 
from Edwardsville. Taking the field in person, 
he made this his headquarters, and collected a 
force of 250 mounted volunteers, who were later 
reinforced by two companies of rangers, under 
Col. William Russell, numbering about 100 men. 
An independent company of twenty-one spies, of 
which John Reynolds afterwards Governor 
was a member, was also formed and led by Capt. 
Samuel Judy. The Governor organized his little 
army into two regiments under Colonels Rector 



and Stephenson, Colonel Russell serving as 
second to the commander-in-chief, other mem- 
bers of his staff being Secretary Nathaniel Pope 
and Robert K. McLaughlin. On Oct. 18, 1812, 
Governor Edwards, with his men, set out for 
Peoria, where it was expected that their force 
would meet that of General Hopkins, who had 
been sent from Kentucky with a force of 2,000 
men. En route, two Kickapoo villages were 
burned, and a number of Indians unnecessarily 
slain by Edwards' party. Hopkins had orders to 
disperse the Indians on the Illinois and Wabash 
Rivers, and destroy their villages. He deter- 
mined, however, on reaching the headwaters of 
the Vermilion to proceed no farther. Governor 
Edwards reached the head of Peoria Lake, but, 
failing to meet Hopkins, returned to Fort Russell. 
About the same time Capt. Thomas E. Craig led 
a party, in two boats, up the Illinois River to 
Peoria. His boats, as he alleged, having been 
fired upon in the night by Indians, who were har- 
bored and protected by the French citizens of 
Peoria, he burned the greater part of the village, 
and capturing the population, carried them down 
the river, putting them on shore, in the early part 
of the winter, just below Alton. Other desultory 
expeditions marked the campaigns of 1813 and 
1814. The Indians meanwhile gaining courage, 
remote settlements were continually harassed 
by marauding bands. Later in 1814, an expedi- 
tion, led by Major (afterwards President) Zachary 
Taylor, ascended the Mississippi as far as Rock 
Island, where he found a large force of Indians, 
supported by British regulars with artillery. 
Finding himself unable to cope with so formida- 
ble a foe, Major Taylor retreated down the river. 
On the site of the present town of Warsaw he 
threw up fortifications, which he named Fort 
Edwards, from which point he was subsequently 
compelled to retreat. The same year the British, 
with their Indian allies, descended from Macki- 
nac, captured Prairie du Chien, and burned Forts 
Madison and Johnston, after which they retired 
to Cap au Gris. The treaty of Ghent, signed 
Dec. 24, 1814, closed the war, although no formal 
treaties were made with the tribes until the year 

WAR OF THE REBELLION. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the executive chair, in Illinois, 
was occupied by Gov. Richard Yates. Immedi- 
ately upon the issuance of President Lincoln's 
first call for troops (April 15, 1861), the Governor 
issued his proclamation summoning the Legisla- 
ture together in special session and, the same 
day, issued a call for "six regiments of militia," 

the quota assigned to the State under call of the 
President. Public excitement was at fever heat, 
and dormant patriotism in both sexes was 
aroused as never before. Party lines were 
broken down and, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, the mass of the people were actuated by a 
common sentiment of patriotism. On April 19, 
Governor Yates was instructed, by the Secretary 
of War, to take possession of Cairo as an important 
strategic point. At that time, the State militia 
organizations were few in number and poorly 
equipped, consisting chiefly of independent com- 
panies in the larger cities. The Governor acted 
with great promptitude, and, on April 21, seven 
companies, numbering 595 men, commanded by 
Gen. Richard K. Swift of Chicago, were en route 
to Cairo. The first volunteer company to tender 
its services, in response to Governor Yates' proc- 
lamation, on April 16, was the Zouave Grays of 
Springfield. Eleven other companies were ten- 
dered the same day, and, by the evening of the 
18th, the number had been increased to fifty. 
Simultaneously with these proceedings, Chicago 
bankers tendered to the Governor a war loan of 
$500,000, and those of Springfield, 100,000. The 
Legislature, at its special session, passed acts in- 
creasing the efficiency of the militia law, and 
provided for the creation of a war fund of 2,- 
000, 000. Besides the six regiments already called 
for, the raising of ten additional volunteer regi- 
ments and one battery of light artillery was 
authorized. The last of the six regiments, 
apportioned to Illinois under the first presidential 
call, was dispatched to Cairo early in May. The 
six regiments were numbered the Seventh to 
Twelfth, inclusive the earlier numbers, First to 
Sixth, being conceded to the six regiments which 
had served in the war \vith Mexico. The regi- 
ments were commanded, respectively, by Colonels 
John Cook, Richard J. Oglesby, Eleazer A. Paine, 
James D. Morgan, William H. L. Wallace, and 
John Me Arthur, constituting the ."First Brigade 
of Illinois Volunteers." Benjamin M. Prentiss, 
having been chosen Brigadier-General on arrival 
at Cairo, assumed command, relieving General 
Swift. The quota under the second call, consist- 
ing of ten regiments, was mustered into service 
within sixty days, 200 companies being tendered 
immediately. Many more volunteered than could 
be accepted, and large numbers crossed to Mis- 
souri and enlisted in regiments forming in that 
State. During June and July the Secretary of 
War authorized Governor Yates to recruit twenty- 
two additional regiments (seventeen infantry and 
five cavalry), which were promptly raised. On 



July 22, the day following the defeat of the Union 
army at Bull Run, President Lincoln called for 
500,000 more volunteers. Governor Yates im- 
mediately responded with an offer to the War 
Department of sixteen more regiments (thirteen 
of infantry and three of cavalry), and a battalion 
of artillery, adding, that the State claimed it as 
her right, to do her full share toward the preser- 
vation of the Union. Under supplemental author- 
ity, received from the Secretary of War in 
August, 1861, twelve additional regiments of in- 
fantry and five of cavalry were raised, and, by De- 
cember, 1861, the State had 43,000 volunteers in 
the field and 17,000 in camps of instruction. 
Other calls were made in July and August, 1802, 
ach for 300,000 men. Illinois' quota, under both 
calls, was over 52,000 men, no regard being paid 
to the fact that the State had already furnished 
16,000 troops in excess of its quotas under previ- 
ous calls. Unless this number of volunteers was 
raised by September 1, a draft would be ordered. 
The tax was a severe one, inasmuch as it would 
fall chiefly upon the prosperous citizens, the float- 
ing population, the idle and the extremely poor 
having already followed the army's march, either 
as soldiers or as camp-followers. But recruiting 
was actively carried on, and, aided by liberal 
bounties in many of the counties, in less than a 
fortnight the 52,000 new troops were secured, the 
volunteers coming largely from the substantial 
classes agricultural, mercantile, artisan and 
professional. By the end of December, fifty-nine 
regiments and four batteries had been dispatched 
to the front, besides a considerable number to fill 
up regiments already in che field, which had suf- 
fered severely from battle, exposure and disease. 
At this time, Illinois had an aggregate of over 
135,000 enlisted men in the field. The issue of 
President Lincoln's preliminary proclamation of 
emancipation, in September, 1862, was met by a 
storm of hostile criticism from his political 
opponents, who aided by the absence of so 
large a proportion of the loyal population of the 
State in the field were able to carry the elec- 
tions of that year. Consequently, when the 
Twenty-third General Assembly convened in 
regular session at Springfield, on Jan. 5, 1863, a 
large majority of that body was not only opposed 
to both the National and State administrations, 
but avowedly opposed to the further prosecution 
of the war under the existing policy. The Leg- 
islature reconvened in June, but was prorogued 
by Governor Yates Between Oct. 1, 1863, and 
July 1, 1864, 16,000 veterans re-enlisted and 
57,000 new volunteers were enrolled; and, by the 

date last mentioned, Illinois had furnished to the 
Union army 244,496 men, being 14,596 in ex- 
cess of the allotted quotas, constituting fifteen 
per cent of the entire population. These were 
comprised in 151 regiments of infantry, 17 of 
cavalry and two complete regiments of artillery, 
besides twelve independent batteries. The total 
losses of Illinois organizations, during the war, 
has been reported at 34,834, of which 5,874 were 
killed in battle, 4,020 died from wounds, 22,786 
from disease and 2,154 from other causes being 
a total of thirteen per cent of the entire force of 
the State in the service. The part which Illinois 
played in the contest was conspicuous for patriot- 
ism, promptness in response to every call, and 
the bravery and efficiency of its troops in the 
field reflecting honor upon the State and its his- 
tory. Nor were its loyal citizens who, while 
staying at home, furnished moral and material 
support to the men at the front less worthy of 
praise than those who volunteered. By uphold- 
ing the Government National and State and 
by their zeal and energy in collecting and sending 
forward immense quantities of supplies surgical, 
medical and other often at no little sacrifice, 
they contributed much to the success of the 
Union arms. (See also Camp Douglas; Camp 
Douglas Conspiracy; Secret Treasonable Soci- 
eties. ) 

NOIS REGIMENTS). The following is a list of the 
various military organizations mustered into the 
service during the Civil War (1861-65), with the 
terms of service and a summary of the more 
important events in the history of each; while 
in the field : 

SEVENTH INFANTRY. Illinois having sent six 
regiments to the Mexican War, by courtesy the 
numbering of the regiments which took part in 
the war for the Union began with number 
Seven. A number of regiments which responded 
to the first call of the President, claimed the right 
to be recognized as the first regiment in the 
field, but the honor was finally accorded to that 
organized at Springfield by Col. John Cook, and 
hence his regiment was numbered Seventh. It 
was mustered into the service, April 25, 1861, and 
remained at Mound City during the three months' 
service, the period of its first enlistment. It was 
subsequently reorganized and mustered for the 
three years' service, July 25, 1861, and was 
engaged in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Corinth, Cherokee, Allatoona Pass, Salkahatchie 
Swamp, Bentonville and Columbia. The regi- 
ment re-enlisted as veterans at Pulaski, Tenn., 



Dec. 22, 1863; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 9, 1865, and paid off and discharged at 
Springfield, July 11. 

EIGHTH INFANTRY. Organized at Springfield, 
and mustered in for three months' service, April 
26, 1861, Richard J. Oglesby of Decatur, being 
appointed Colonel. It remained at Cairo during 
its term of service, when it was mustered out. 
July 25, 1861, it was reorganized and mustered in 
for three years' service. It participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Port Gibson, 
Thompson Hill, Raymond, Champion Hill, Vicks- 
burg, Brownsville, and Spanish Fort ; re-enlisted 
as veterans, March 24, 1864 ; was mustered out at 
Baton Rouge, May 4, 1866, paid off and dis- 
charged, May 13, having served five years. 

NINTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the service 
at Springfield, April 26, 1861, for the term of 
three months, under Col. Eleazer A. Paine. It 
was reorganized at Cairo, in August, for three 
years, being composed of companies from St. 
Clair, Madison, Montgomery, Pulaski, Alexander 
and Mercer Counties ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, Jackson (Tenn.), Meed Creek 
Swamps, Salem, Wyatt, Florence, Montezuma, 
Athens and Grenada. The regiment was mounted, 
March 15, 1863, and so continued during the 
remainder of its service. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, July 9, 1865. 

TENTH INFANTRY. Organized and mustered 
into the service for three months, on April 29, 
1861, at Cairo, and on July 29, 1861, was mustered 
into the service for three years, with Col. James 
D. Morgan in command. It was engaged at 
Sykeston, New Madrid, Corinth, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw, 
Chattahoochie, Savannah and Bentonville. Re- 
enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, and mustered 
out of service, July 4, 1865, at Louisville, and 
received final discharge and pay, July 11, 1865, 
at Chicago. 

ELEVENTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field and mustered into service, April 30, 1861, 
for three months. July 30, the regiment was 
mustered out, and re-enlisted for three years' 
service. It was engaged at Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, Corinth, Tallahatchie, Vicksburg, Liver- 
pool Heights, Yazoo City, Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely. W. H. L. Wallace, afterwards 
Brigadier-General and killed at Shiloh, was its 
first Colonel. Mustered out of service, at Baton 
Rouge, July 14, 1865 ; paid off and discharged at 

TWELFTH INFANTRY. Mustered into service 
for three years, August 1, 1861 ; was engaged at 

Columbus, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Lay's 
Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw, 
Nickajack Creek, Bald Knob, Decatur, Ezra 
Church, Atlanta, Allatoona and Goldsboro. On 
Jan. 16, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans. John McArthur was its first Colonel, suc- 
ceeded by Augustus L. Chetlain, both being 
promoted to Brigadier-Generalships. Mustered 
out of service at Louisville, Ky., July 10, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge, at Spring- 
field, July 18. 

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. One of the regiment* 
organized under the act known as the ' 'Ten Regi- 
ment Bill" ; was mustered into service on May 24, 
1861, for three years, at Dixon, with John B. 
Wyman as Colonel; was engaged at Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rossville and Ringgold Gap. 
Mustered out at Springfield, June 18, 1864, hav- 
ing served three years and two months. 

FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. One of the regiments 
raised under the "Ten Regiment Bill," which 
anticipated the requirements of the General 
Government by organizing, equipping and dril- 
ling a regiment in each Congressional District in 
the State for thirty days, unless sooner required 
for service by the United States. It was mustered 
in at Jacksonville for three years, May 25, 1861, 
under command of John M. Palmer as its first 
Colonel; was engaged at Shiloh, *Corinth, Meta- 
mora, Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Beauregard and 
Meridian; consolidated with the Fifteenth Infan- 
try, as a veteran battalion (both regiments hav- 
ing enlisted as veterans), on July 1, 1864. In 
October, 1864, the major part of the battalion 
was captured by General Hood and sent to 
Andersonville. The remainder participated in 
the "March to the Sea," and through the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas. In the spring of 1865 the 
battalion organization was discontinued, both 
regiments having been filled up by recruits. The 
regiment was mustered out at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., Sept. 16, 1865; and arrived at 
Springfield, 111., Sept. 22, 2865, where it received 
final payment and discharge. The aggregate 
number of men who belonged to this organization 
was 1,980, and the aggregate mustered out at 
Fort Leavenworth, 480. During its four years 
and four months of service, the regiment 
marched 4,490 miles, traveled by rail, 2,330 miles, 
and, by river, 4,490 miles making an aggregate 
of 11,670 miles. 

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Raised under the "Ten 
Regiment Act," in the (then) First Congressional 
District; was organized at Freeport, and mus- 



tered into service, May 24, 1861. It was engaged 
at Sedalia, Shiloh, Corinth, Metamora Hill, 
Vicksburg, Fort Beauregard, Champion Hill, 
Allatoona and Bentonville. In March, 1864, the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and, in July, 

1864, was consolidated with the Fourteenth Infan- 
try as a Veteran Battalion. At Big Shanty and 
Ackworth a large portion of the battalion was 
captured by General Hood. At Raleigh the 
Veteran Battalion was discontinued and the 
Fifteenth reorganized. From July 1, to Sept. 1, 

1865, the regiment was stationed at Forts Leaven- 
worth and Kearney. Having been mustered out 
at Fort Leavenworth, it was sent to Springfield 
for final payment and discharge having served 
four years and four months. Miles marched, 
4,299; miles by rail, 2,403, miles by steamer, 
4,310; men enlisted from date of organization, 
1,963; strength at date of muster-out, 640. " 

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Quincy under the "Ten-Regi- 
ment Act," May '24, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, Tiptonville, Corinth, 
Buzzards' Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Chattahoochie River, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Savannah, Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Averysboro and Bentonville. In December, 
1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans; was 
mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 8, 1865, 
after a term of service of four years and three 
months, and, a week later, arrived at Spring- 
field, where it received its final pay and discharge 

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the 
service at Peoria, 111., on May 24, 1861; was 
engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Greenfield 
(Ark.), Shiloh, Corinth, Hatchie and Vicksburg. 
In May, 1864, the term of enlistment having 
expired, the regiment was ordered to Springfield 
for pay and discharge. Those men and officers 
who re-enlisted, and those whose term had not 
expired, were consolidated with the Eighth Infan- 
try, which was mustered out in the spring of 1866. 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY. Organized under the 
provisions of the "Ten Regiment Bill," at Anna, 
and mustered into the service on May 28, 1861, 
the term of enlistment being for three years. 
The regiment participated in the capture of Fort 
McHenry, and was actively engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth. It was mustered 
out at Little Rock, Dec. 16, 1865, and Dec. 31, 
thereafter, arrived at Springfield, 111., for pay- 
ment and discharge. The aggregate enlistments 
in the regiment, from its organization to date of 
discharge (rank and file), numbered 2,043. 

NINETEENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the 
United States service for three years, June 17, 
1861, at Chicago, embracing four companies 
which had been accepted under the call for three 
months' men; participated in the battle of 
Stone River and in the Tullahoma and Chatta- 
nooga campaigns; was also engaged at Davis' 
Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and 
Resaca. It was mustered out of service on July 
9, 1864, at Chicago. Originally consisting of 
nearly 1,000 men, besides a large number of 
recruits received during the war, its strength at 
the final muster-out was less than 350. 

TWENTIETH INFANTRY, Organized, May 14, 
1861, at Joliet, and June 13, 1861, and mustered 
into the service for a term of three years. It 
participated in the following engagements, bat- 
tles, sieges, etc. : Fredericktown (Mo. ), Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Thompson's Planta- 
tion, Champion Hills, Big Black River, Vicks- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta. After 
marching through the Carolinas, the regiment 
was finally ordered to Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, July 16, 1865, receiving its final 
discharge at Chicago, on July 24. 

TWENTY- FIRST INFANTRY. Organized under 
the "Ten Regiment Bill," from the (then) Sev- 
enth Congressional District, at Mattoon, and 
mustered into service for three years, June 28, 
1861. Its first Colonel was U. S. Grant, who was 
in command until August 7, when he was com- 
missioned Brigadier-General. It was engaged 
at Fredericktown (Mo. ) , Corinth, Perry ville, Mur- 
freesboro, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans, at Chattanooga, in February, 1864. 
From June, 1864, to December, 1865, it was on 
duty in Texas. Mustered out at San Antonio, 
Dec. 16, 1865, and paid off and discharged at 
Springfield, Jan. 18, 1866. 

Belleville, and mustered into service, for three 
years, at Caseyville, 111., June 25, 1861; was 
engaged at Belmont, Charleston (Mo.), Sikestown, 
Tiptonville, Farmington, Corinth, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, and all the battles of the Atlanta 
campaign, except Rocky Face Ridge. It was 
mustered out at Springfield, July 7, 1864, the vet- 
erans and recruits, whose term of service had not 
expired, being consolidated with the Forty -second 
Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers. 

TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. The organization 
of the Twenty-third Infantry Volunteers com- 
menced, at Chicago, under the popular name of 



the "Irish Brigade," immediately upon the 
opening of hostilities at Sumter. The formal 
muster of the regiment, under the command of 
Col. James A. Mulligan, was made, June 15, 1861, 
at Chicago, when it was occupying barracks 
known as Kane's brewery near the river on 
West Polk Street. It was early ordered to North- 
ern Missouri, and was doing garrison duty at 
Lexington, when, in September, 1861, it surren- 
dered with the rest of the garrison, to the forces 
under the rebel General Price, and was paroled. 
From Oct. 8, 1861, to June 14, 1862, it was detailed 
to guard prisoners at Camp Douglas. Thereafter 
it participated in engagements in the Virginias, 
as follows: at South Fork, Greenland Gap, Phi- 
lippi, Hedgeville, Leetown, Maryland Heights, 
Snicker's Gap, Kernstown, Cedar Creek, Win- 
chester, Charlestown, Berryville, Opequan Creek, 
Fisher's Hill, Harrisonburg, Hatcher's Run and 
Petersburg. It also took part in the siege of 
Richmond and the pursuit of Lee, being present 
at the surrender at Appomattox. In January 
and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans, at Greenland Gap, W. Va. In August, 
1864, the ten companies of the Regiment, then 
numbering 440, were consolidated into five com- 
panies and designated, "Battalion, Twenty -third 
Regiment, Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry. " 
The regiment was thanked by Congress for its 
part at Lexington, and was authorized to inscribe 
Lexington upon its colors. (See also Mulligan, 
James A.) 

First Hecker Regiment). Organized at Chicago, 
with two companies to-wit: the Union Cadets 
and the Lincoln Rifles from the three months' 
service, in June, 1861, and mustered in, July 8, 
1861. It participated in the battles of Perryville, 
Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain and other engagements in the Atlanta 
campaign. It was mustered out of service at 
Chicago, August 6, 1864. A fraction of the regi- 
ment, which had been recruited in the field, and 
whose term of service had not expired at the date 
of muster-out, was organized into one company 
and attached to the Third Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Fourteenth Army Corps, and mustered out 
at Camp Butler, August 1, 1865. 

the counties of Kankakee, Iroquois, Ford, Vermil- 
ion, Douglas, Coles, Champaign and Edgar, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 4, 1861. 
It participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, in the 
siege of Corinth, the battle of Kenesaw Moun- 

tain, the siege of Atlanta, and innumerable skir- 
mishes ; was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 5, 
1864. During its three years' service the regi- 
ment traveled 4,962 miles, of which 3,252 were on 
foot, the remainder by steamboat and railroad. 

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, consisting of seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 31, 1861. On Jan. 1, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans. It was authorized by the 
commanding General to inscribe upon its ban- 
ners "New Madrid" ; "Island No. 10;" "Farming- 
ton;" "Siege of Corinth;" "luka;" "Corinth 
3d and 4th, 1862;" "Resaca;" "Kenesaw;" "Ezra 
Church;" "Atlanta;" "Jonesboro;" "Griswold- 
ville;" "McAllister;" "Savannah;" "Columbia," 
and "Bentonville." It was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 20, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged, at Springfield, July 28 the regiment 
having* marched, during its four years of service, 
6,931 miles, and fought twenty-eight hard battles, 
besides innumerable skirmishes. 

with only seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861, and organization completed by 
the addition of three more companies, at Cairo, 
on September 1. It took part in the battle of Bel- 
mont, the siege of Island No. 10, and the battles 
of Farmington, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Calhoun, Adairsville, Dallas, Pine Top 
Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain, as well as in 
the investment of Atlanta; was relieved from 
duty, August 25, 1864, while at the front, and 
mustered out at Springfield, September 20. Its 
veterans, with the recruits whose term of serv- 
ice had not expired, were consolidated with the 
Ninth Infantry. 

companies from Pike, Fulton, Schuyler, Mason, 
Scott and Menard Counties; was organized at 
Springfield, August 15, 1861, and mustered into 
service for three years. It participated in the 
battles of Shiloh and Metamora, the siege of 
Vicksburg and the battles of Jackson, Mississippi, 
and Fort Beauregard, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. From 
June, 1864, to March, 1866, it was stationed in 
Texas, and was mustered out at Brownsville, in 
that State, March 15, 1866, having served four 
years and seven months. It was discharged, at 
Springfield, May 13, 1866. 

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice at Springfield, August 19, 1861, and was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
sieges of Corinth, Vicksburg and Mobile. Eight 



companies were detailed for duty at Holly Springs, 
and were there captured by General Van Dorn, 
in December, 1862, but were exchanged, six 
months later. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, from June, 1864, to 
November, 1865, was on duty in Texas. It was 
mustered out of service in that State, Nov. 6, 
1865, and received final discharge on November 28. 

THIRTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, August 28, 1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, 
Fort Donelson, the siege of Corinth, Medan 
Station, Raymond, Champion Hills, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, Big Shanty, Atlanta, 
Savannah, Pocotaligo, Orangeburg, Columbia, 
Cheraw, and Fayetteville ; mustered out, July 
17, 1865, and received final payment and discharge 
at Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

THIRTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Cairo, 
and there mustered into service on Sept. 18, 
1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, in the two expeditions against Vicks- 
burg, at Thompson's Hill, Ingram Heights, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hill, Big Shanty, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station and 
Jonesboro; also participated in the "March to 
the Sea" and took part in the battles and skir- 
mishes at Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville and 
Bentonville. A majority of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans in March, 1864. It was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 19, 1865, and 
finally discharged at Springfield, July 23. 

Springfield and mustered into service, Dec. 31, 
1861. By special authority from the War Depart- 
ment, it originally consisted of ten companies of 
infantry, one of cavalry, and a battery. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the sieges 
of Corinth and Vicksburg, and in the battles of 
La Grange, Grand Junction, Metamora, Harrison- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, 
Allatoona, Savannah, Columbia, Cheraw and 
Bentonville. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, in June, 1865, was 
ordered to Fort Leaven worth. Mustered out 
there, Sept. 16, 1865, and finally discharged at 

THIRTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Springfield in September, 
1861: was engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, the 
assault and siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, 
Fort Esperanza, and in the expedition against 
Mobile. The regiment veteranized at Vicksburg, 
Jan. 1, 1864 ; was mustered out, at the same point, 
Nov. 24, 1865, and finally discharged at Spring- 

field, Dec. 6 and 7, 1865. The aggregate enroll- 
ment of the regiment was between 1,900 and 

Springfield, Sept. 7, 1861 ; was engaged at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Murfreesboro, Rocky Face Ridge, Re- 
saca, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, and, after participating in the "March 
to the Sea" and through the Carolinas, took part 
in the battle of Bentonville. After the surrender 
of Johnston, the regiment went with Sherman's 
Army to Washington, D. C., and took part in the 
grand review, May 24, 1865; left Washington, 
June 12, and arrived at Louisville, Ky., June 18, 
where it was mustered out, on July 12 ; was dis- 
charged and paid at Chicago, July 17, 1865. 

catur on July 3, 1861, and its services tendered to 
the President, being accepted by the Secretary of 
War as "Col. G. A. Smith's Independent Regi- 
ment of Illinois Volunteers," on July 23, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 12. It 
was engaged at Pea Ridge and in the siege of 
Corinth, also participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas and 
Kenesaw. Its final muster-out took place at 
Springfield, Sept. 27, 1864, the regiment having 
marched (exclusive of railroad and steamboat 
transportation) 3,056 miles. 

Hammond, near Aurora, 111., and mustered into 
service, Sept. 23, 1861, for a term of three years. 
The regiment, at its organization, numbered 965 
officers and enlisted men, and had two companies 
of Cavalry ("A" and "B"), 186 officers and 
men. It was engaged at Leetown, Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, the siege 
of Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Jones- 
boro, Franklin and Nashville. Mustered out, 
Oct. 8, 1865, and disbanded, at Springfield, Oct. 
27, having marched and been transported, during 
its term of service, more than 10,000 miles. 

as "Fremont Rifles"; organized in August, 1861, 
and mustered into service, Sept. 18. The regi- 
ment was presented with battle-flags by the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade. It participated in the 
battles of Pea Ridge, Neosho, Prairie Grove and 
Chalk Bluffs, the siege of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Yazoo City and Morgan's Bend. In 
October, 1863, it was ordered to the defense of the 
frontier along the Rio Grande; re-enlisted as 

^c il I I IR 



veterans in February, 1864; took part in the 
siege and storming of Fort Blakely and the cap- 
ture of Mobile; from July, 1865, to May, 1866, 
was again on duty in Texas ; was mustered out 
at Houston, May 15, 1866, and finally discharged 
at Springfield, May 31, having traveled some 
17,000 miles, of which nearly 3,300 were by 

Springfield, in September, 1861. The regiment 
was engaged in the battles of Fredericktown, 
Perryville, Knob Gap, Stone River, Liberty Gap, 
Chickamauga, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville; 
re-enlisted as veterans in February, 1864; from 
June to December, 1865, was on duty in Louisi- 
ana and Texas; was mustered out at Victoria, 
Texas, Dec. 31, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Springfield. 

THIRTY-NINTH INFANTRY. The organization of 
this Regiment was commenced as soon as the 
news of the firing on Fort Sumter reached Chi- 
cago. General Thomas O. Osborne was one of its 
contemplated field officers, and labored zealously 
to get it accepted under the first call for troops, 
but did not accomplish his object. The regiment 
had already assumed the name of the "Yates 
Phalanx" in honor of Governor Yates. It was 
accepted by the War Department on the day 
succeeding the first Bull Run disaster (July 22, 
1861), and Austin Light, of Chicago, was appointed 
Colonel. Under his direction the organization was 
completed, and the regiment left Camp Mather, 
Chicago, on the morning of Oct. 13, 1861. It par- 
ticipated in the battles of Winchester, Malvern 
Hill (the second), Morris Island, Fort Wagner, 
Drury's Bluff, and in numerous engagements 
before Petersburg and Richmond, including the 
capture of Fort Gregg, and was present at Lee's 
surrender at Appomattox. In the meantime the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, at Hilton Head, 
S. C., in September, 1863. It was mustered out 
at Norfolk, Dec. 6, 1865, and received final dis- 
charge at Chicago, December 16. 

FORTIETH INFANTRY. Enlisted from the coun- 
ties of Franklin, Hamilton, Wayne, White, 
Wabash, Marion, Clay and Fayette, and mustered 
into service for three years at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861. It was engaged at Shiloh, in 
the siege of Corinth, at Jackson (Miss.), in the 
siege of Vicksburg, at Missionary Ridge, New 
Hope Church, Black Jack Knob, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Ezra Chapel, Gris- 
woldville, siege of Savannah, Columbia (S. C.), 
and Bentonville. It re-enlisted, as veterans, at 

Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 24, 1865, receiving final 
discharge at Springfield. 

FORTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Decatur 
during July and August, 1861, and was mustered 
into service, August 5. It was engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, the second 
battle of Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg and 
Jackson, in the Red River campaign, at Guntown, 
Kenesaw Mountain and Allatoona, and partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea." It re-enlisted, 
as veterans, March 17, 1864, at Vicksburg, and 
was consolidated with the Fifty-third Infantry, 
Jan. 4, 1865, forming Companies G and H. 

cago, July 22, 1861 ; was engaged at Island No. 10, 
the siege of Corinth,' battles of Farmington, 
Columbia (Tenn.), was besieged at Nashville, 
engaged at Stone River, in the Tullahoma cam- 
paign, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope 
Church, Pine and Kenesaw Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, 
Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. It re- 
enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864; was stationed 
in Texas from July to December, 1865 ; was mus- 
tered out at Indianola, in that State, Dec. 16, 
1865, and finally discharged, at Springfield, Jan. 
12, 1866. 

FORTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field in September, 1861, and mustered into 
service on Oct. 12. The regiment took part in 
the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and in the 
campaigns in West Tennessee, Mississippi and 
Arkansas; was mustered out at Little Rock, 
Nov. 30, 1865, and returned to Springfield for 
final pay and discharge, Dec. 14, 1865. 

gust, 1861, at Chicago, and mustered into service, 
Sept. 13, 1861; was engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Hoover's Gap, Shelby- 
ville, Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochie 
River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans in Tennessee, in January, 1864. 
From June to September, 1865, it was stationed 
in Louisiana and Texas, was mustered out at 
Port Lavaca, Sept. 25, 1865, and received final 
discharge, at Springfield, three weeks later. 

FORTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Originally called 
the "Washburne Lead Mine Regiment"; was 
organized at Galena, July 23, 1861, and mustered 



into service at Chicago, Dec. 25, 1861. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, battle of Medan, the campaign against 
Vicksburg, the Meridian raid, the Atlanta cam- 
paign, the "March to the Sea," and the advance 
through the Carolinas. The regiment veteran- 
ized in January, 1864; was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 1865, and arrived 
in Chicago, July 15, 1865, for final pay and dis- 
charge. Distance marched in four years, 1,750 

FORTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, Dec. 28, 1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, battle of 
Metamora, siege of Vicksburg (where five com- 
panies of the regiment were captured), in the 
reduction of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley, 
and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered in 
as a veteran regiment, Jan. 4, 1864. From May, 

1865, to January, 1866, it was on duty in Louisi- 
ana ; was mustered out at Baton Rouge, Jan. 20, 

1866, and, on Feb. 1, 1866, finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield. 

mustered into service at Peoria, 111., on August 
16, 1861. The regiment took part in the expe- 
dition against New Madrid and Island No. 10; 
also participated in the battles of Farmington, 
luka, the second battle of Corinth, the capture 
of Jackson, the siege of Vicksburg, the Red 
River expedition and the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
and in the struggle at Lake Chicot. It was 
ordered to Chicago to assist in quelling an antici- 
pated riot, in 1864, but, returning to the front, 
took part in the reduction of Spanish Fort and 
the capture of Mobile; was mustered out, Jan. 
21, 1866, at Selma, Ala., and ordered to Spring- 
field, where it received final pay and discharge. 
Those members of the regiment who did not re-en- 
list as veterans were mustered out, Oct. 11, 1864. 

FORTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, September, 1861, and participated in battles 
and sieges as follows: Fort Henry and Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (siege of), Vicksburg 
(first expedition against), Missionary Ridge, as 
well as in the Atlanta campaign and the "March 
to the Sea." The regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, at Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864; was mus- 
tered out, August 15, 1865, at Little Rock, Ark., 
and ordered to Springfield for final discharge, 
arriving, August 21, 1865. The distance marched 
was 3,000 miles; moved by water, 5,000; by rail- 
road, 3,450 total, 11,450. 

FORTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, 111., Dec. 31, 1861; was engaged at Fort 

Donelson, Shiloh and Little Rock; took part in 
the campaign against Meridian and in the Red 
River expedition, being in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, Jan. 15, 1864 ; three-fourths of the regiment 
re-enlisted and were mustered in as veterans, 
returning to Illinois on furlough. The non- 
veterans took part in the battle of Tupelo. The 
regiment participated in the battle of Nashville, 
and was mustered out, Sept. 9, 1865, at Paducah, 
Ky., and arrived at Springfield, Sept, 15, 1865, 
for final payment and discharge. 

FIFTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Quincy, in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, Sept. 12, 
1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, the second battle of Corinth, 
Allatoona and Bentonville, besides many minor 
engagements. The regiment was mounted, Nov. 
17, 1863 ; re-enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, and 
reached Springfield, the following day, for final 
pay and discharge. 

FIFTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Chi- 
cago, Dec. 24, 1861 ; was engaged at New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Farmington, the siege of Corinth, 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro, Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. The 
regiment was mustered in as veterans, Feb. 16, 
1864 ; from July to September, 1865, was on duty 
in Texas, and mustered out, Sept. 25, 1865, at 
Camp Irwin, Texas, arriving at Springfield, 111., 
Oct. 15, 1865, for final payment and discharge. 

neva in November, 1861, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Nov. 19. The regiment participated in the 
following battles, sieges and expeditions : Shiloh, 
Corinth (siege and second battle of), luka, Town 
Creek, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, 
Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek, Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesboro 
and Bentonville. It veteranized, Jan. 9, 1864; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 4, 1865, 
and received final payment and discharge at 
Springfield, July 12. 

FIFTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Ottawa 
in the winter of 1861-62, and ordered to Chicago, 
Feb. 27, 1862, to complete its organization. It 
took part in the siege of Corinth, and was engaged 
at Davis' Bridge, the siege of Vicksburg, in the 
Meridian campaign, at Jackson, the siege of 
Atlanta, the "March to the Sea," the capture of 
Savannah and the campaign in the Carolinas, 
including the battle of Bentonville. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of service at Louisville, 



July 22, 1865, and received final discharge, at 
Chicago, July 28. It marched 2,855 miles, and 
was transported by boat and cars, 4,168 miles. 
Over 1,800 officers and men belonged to the regi- 
ment during its term of service. 

FIFTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
in November, 1861, as a part of the "Kentucky 
Brigade," and was mustered into service, Feb. 
18, 1862. No complete history of the regiment 
can be given, owing to the loss of its official 
records. It served mainly in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi and Arkansas, and always effect- 
ively. Three-fourths of the men re-enlisted as 
veterans, in January, 1864. Six companies were 
captured by the rebel General Shelby, in August, 
1864, and were exchanged, the following De- 
cember. The regiment was mustered out at 
Little Rock, Oct. 15, 1865 ; arrived at Springfield, 
Oct. 26, and was discharged. During its organi- 
zation, the regiment had 1,342 enlisted men and 
71 commissioned officers. 

FIFTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered into service, Oct. 31, 1861. 
The regiment originally formed a part of the 
"Douglas Brigade," being chiefly recruited from 
the young farmers of Fulton, McDonough, 
Grundy, La Salle, De Kalb, Kane and Winnebago 
Counties. It participated in the battles of Shiloh 
and Corinth, and in the Tallahatchie campaign; 
in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas 
Post, around Vicksburg, and at Missionary Ridge ; 
was in the Atlanta campaign, notably in the 
battles of Kenesaw Mountain and Jonesboro. In 
all, it was engaged in thirty -one battles, and was 
128 days under fire. The total mileage traveled 
amounted to 11,965, of which 3,240 miles were 
actually marched. Re-enlisted as veterans, while 
at Larkinsville, Tenn.,was mustered out at Little 
Rock, August 14, 1865, receiving final discharge 
at Chicago, the same month. 

FIFTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized with com- 
panies principally enlisted from the counties of 
Massac, Pope, Gallatin, Saline, White, Hamilton, 
Franklin and Wayne, and mustered in at Camp 
Mather, near Shawneetown. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the siege, and second battle, of 
Corinth, the Yazoo expedition, the siege of 
Vicksburg being engaged at Champion Hills, 
and in numerous assaults ; also took part in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge and Resaca, and in 
the campaign in the Carolinas, including the 
battle of Bentonville. Some 200 members of the 
regiment perished in a wreck off Cape Hatteras, 
March 31, 1865. It was mustered out in Arkan- 
sas, August 12, 1865. 

FIFTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, Dec. 26, 1861, at Chicago; took part in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, and the second battle at that point ; was 
also engaged at Resaca, Rome Cross Roads and 
Allatoona; participated in the investment and 
capture of Savannah, and the campaign through 
the Carolinas, including the battle of Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 7, 
1865, and received final discharge at Chicago, 
July 14. 

cago, Feb. 11, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, a large number of the 
regiment being captured during the latter engage- 
ment, but subsequently exchanged. It took part 
in the siege of Corinth and the battle of luka, 
after which detachments were sent to Springfield 
for recruiting and for guarding prisoners. 
Returning to the front, the regiment was engaged 
in the capture of Meridian, the Red River cam- 
paign, the taking of Fort de Russey, and in many 
minor battles in Louisiana. It was mustered out 
at Montgomery, Ala., April 1, 1866, and ordered 
to Springfield for final payment and discharge. 

FIFTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Originally known as 
the Ninth Missouri Infantry, although wholly 
recruited in Illinois. It was organized at St. 
Louis, Sept. 18, 1861, the name being changed to 
the Fifty-ninth Illinois, Feb. 12, 1862, by order of 
the War Department. It was engaged at Pea 
Ridge, formed part of the reserve at Farmington, 
took part at Perryville, Nolansville, Knob Gap 
and Murfreesboro, in the Tullahoma campaign 
and the siege of Chattanooga, in the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Kingston, 
Dallas, Ackworth, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Smyrna, Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin and 
Nashville. Having re-enlisted as veterans, the 
regiment was ordered to Texas, in June, 1865, 
where it was mustered out, December, 1865, 
receiving its final discharge at Springfield. 

SIXTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 111., 
Feb. 17, 1862; took part in the siege of Corinth 
and was besieged at Nashville. The regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans while at the front, in 
January, 1864; participated in the battles of 
Buzzard's Roost, Ringgold, Dalton, Resaca, 
Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Nickajack, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Averysboro and Bentonville; was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 31, 1865, and 
received final discharge at Springfield. 

SIXTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Carroll- 
ton, 111., three full companies being mustered 



in, Feb. 5, 1862. On February 21, the regiment, 
being still incomplete, moved to Benton Bar- 
racks, Mo. , where a sufficient number of recruits 
joined to make nine full companies. The regiment 
was engaged at Shiloh and Bolivar, took part 
in the Yazoo expedition, and re-enlisted as veter- 
ans early in 1864. Later, it took part in the battle 
of Wilkinson's Pike (near Murfreesboro), and 
other engagements near that point ; was mustered 
out at Nashville, Tenn.,'Sept. 8, 1865, and paid 
off and discharged at Springfield, Septem- 
ber 27. 

SIXTY-SECOND INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
111., April 10, 1862; after being engaged in several 
skirmishes, the regiment sustained a loss of 170 
men, who were captured and paroled at Holly 
Springs, Miss., by the rebel General Van Dorn, 
where the regimental records were destroyed. 
The regiment took part in forcing the evacuation 
of Little Rock ; re-enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 9, 
1864 ; was mustered out at Little Rock, March 6, 
1866, and ordered to Springfield for final payment 
and discharge. 

SIXTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
in December, 1861, and mustered into service, 
April 10, 1862. It participated in the first invest- 
ment of Vicksburg, the capture of Richmond 
Hill, La. , and in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 
On Jan. 1, 1864, 272 men re-enlisted as veterans. 
It took part in the capture of Savannah and in 
Sherman's march through the Carolinas, partici- 
pating in its important battles and skirmishes; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, 
reaching Springfield, July 16. The total distance 
traveled was 6,453 miles, of which 2,250 was on 
the march. 

SIXTY- FOURTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, December, 1861, as the "First Battalion of 
Yates Sharp Shooters." The last company was 
mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, the siege of Corinth, 
Chambers' Creek, the second battle of Corinth, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, the 
siege of Atlanta, the investment of Savannah and 
the battle of Bentonville ; re-enlisted as veterans, 
in January, 1864 ; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 11, 1865, and finally discharged, at Chicago, 
July 18. 

SIXTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Originally known as 
the "Scotch Regiment"; was organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered in, May 1, 1862. It was cap- 
tured and paroled at Harper's Ferry, and ordered 
to Chicago; was exchanged in April, 1863; took 
part in Burnside's defense of Knoxville; re-en- 
listed as veterans in March, 1864, and participated 

in the Atlanta campaign and the "March to the 
Sea." It was engaged in battles at Columbia 
(Tenn. ), Franklin and Nashville, and later, near 
Federal Point and Smithtown, N. C., being mus- 
tered out, July 13, 1865, and receiving final pay- 
ment and discharge at Chicago, July 26, 1865. 

SIXTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized at Benton 
Barracks, near St. Louis, Mo., during September 
and October, 1861 being designed as a regiment 
of "Western Sharp Shooters" from Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana and 
Ohio. It was mustered in, Nov. 23, 1861, was 
engaged at Mount Zion (Mo.), Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, luka, the second 
battle of Corinth, in the Atlanta campaign, the 
"March to the Sea" and the campaign through 
the Carolinas. The regiment was variously 
known as the Fourteenth Missouri Volunteers, 
Birge's Western Sharpshooters, and the Sixty- 
sixth Illinois Infantry. The latter (and final) 
name was conferred by the Secretary of War, 
Nov. 20, 1862. It re-enlisted (for the veteran 
service), in December, 1863, was mustered out at 
Camp Logan, Ky., July 7, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged at Springfield, July 15. 

cago, June 13, 1862, for three months' service, in 
response to an urgent call for the defense of 
Washington. The Sixty -seventh, by doing guard 
duty at the camps at Chicago and Springfield, 
relieved the veterans, who were sent to the front. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. Enlisted in response 
to a call made by the Governor, early in the sum- 
mer of 1862, for State troops to serve for three 
months as State Militia, and was mustered in 
early in June, 1862. It was afterwards mustered 
into the United States service as Illinois Volun- 
teers, by petition of the men, and received 
marching orders, July 5, 1862 ; mustered out, at 
Springfield, Sept. 26, 1862 many of the men re- 
enlisting in other regiments. 

SIXTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Organized at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into service for 
three months, June 14, 1862. It remained on 
duty at Camp Douglas, guarding the camp and 
rebel prisoners. 

Butler, near Springfield, and mustered in, July 4, 
1862. It remained at Camp Butler doing guard 
duty. Its term of service was three months. 

SEVENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, July 26, 1862, at Chicago, for three months. 
Its service was confined to garrison duty in Illi- 
nois and Kentucky, being mustered out at Chi- 
cago, Oct. 29, 1862. 



cago, as the First Regiment of the Chicago Board 
of Trade, and mustered into service for three 
years, August 23, 1862. It was engaged at Cham- 
pion Hill, Vicksburg, Natchez, Franklin, Nash- 
ville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely; mustered 
out of service, at Vicksburg, August 6, 1865, and 
discharged at Chicago. 

the counties of Adams, Champaign, Christian, 
Hancock, Jackson, Logan, Piatt, Pike, Sanga- 
mon, Tazewell and Vermilion, and mustered into 
.service at Springfield, August 21, 1862, 900 strong. 
I't participated in the battles of Stone River, 
Perryville, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Burnt Hickory, Pine and 
Lost Mountains, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Spring Hill, Frank- 
lin and Nashville ; was mustered out at Nashville, 
June 12, 1865, and, a few days later, -rent to 
Springfield to receive pay and final discharge. 

Rockford, in August, 1862, and mustered into 
service September 4. It was recruited from Win- 
nebago, Ogle and Stephenson Counties. This regi- 
ment was engaged at Perryville, Murfreesboro 
and Nolansville, took part in the Tullahoma 
campaign, and the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Tunnel Hill, and Rocky Face Ridge, the siege of 
Atlanta, and the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin 
and Nashville. It was mustered out at Nashville, 
June 10, 1865, with 343 officers and men, the 
aggregate number enrolled having been 1,001. 

Dixon, and mustered into service, Sept. 2, 1862. 
The regiment participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville, Nolansville, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, 
Dalton, Resaca, Marietta, Kenesaw, Franklin and 
Nashville; was mustered out at Nashville, June 
12, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, July 
1, following. 

kakee, 111. , in August, 1862, and mustered into the 
service, August 22, 1862 ; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the engagement at Jackson, the cam- 
paign against Meridian, the expedition to Yazoo 
City, and the capture of Mobile, was ordered to 
Texas in June, 1865, and mustered out at Galves- 
ton, July 22, 1865, being paid off and disbanded 
at Chicago, August 4, 1865 having traveled 
10,000 miles. 

mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862, at Peoria; 
was engaged in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 

Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg (including 
the battle of Champion Hills), the capture of 
Jackson, the Red River expedition, and the bat- 
tles of Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill ; the 
reduction of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and the 
capture of Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. 
It was mustered out of service at Mobile, July 
10, 1865, and ordered to Springfield for final pay- 
ment and discharge, where it arrived, July 22, 1865, 
having participated in sixteen battles and sieges. 

Quincy, and mustered into service, Sept. 1, 1862; 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Averysboro and 
Bentonville ; was mustered out, June 7, 1865, and 
sent to Chicago, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged, June 12, 1865. 

toon, in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 28, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Dallas, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin and Nashville ; was 
mustered out, June 12, 1865; arrived at Camp 
Butler, June 15, and, on June 23, received final 
pay and discharge. 

EIGHTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Centralia, 
111., in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 25, 1862. It was engaged at Perryville, 
Dug's Gap, Sand Mountain and Blunt's Farm, 
surrendering to Forrest at the latter point. After 
being exchanged, it participated in the battles of 
Wauhatchie, Missionary Ridge, Dalton, Resaca, 
Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The regiment traveled 6,000 miles and 
participated in more than twenty engagements. 
It was mustered out of service, June 10, 1865, and 
proceeded to Camp Butler for final pay and 

EIGHTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Recruited from the 
counties of Perry, Franklin, Williamson, Jack- 
son, Union, Pulaski and Alexander, and mustered 
into service at Anna, August 26, 1862. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, 
Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, and 
in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. Later, 
the regiment was engaged at Fort de Russey, 
Alexandria, Guntown and Nashville, besides 
assisting in the investment of Mobile. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, August 5, 1864. 



the "Second Hecker Regiment," in honor of Col- 
onel Frederick Hecker, its first Colonel, and for 
merly Colonel of the Twenty-fourth Illinois 
Infantry being chiefly composed of German 
members of Chicago. It was organized at Spring- 
field, Sept. 26, 1862, and mustered into service, 
Oct. 23, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Or- 
chard Knob, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Dallas, Marietta, Pine Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Bentonville ; was 
mustered out of service, June 9, 1865, and 
returned to Chicago, June 16 having marched, 
during its time of service, 2,503 miles. 

mouth in August, 1862, and mustered into serv- 
ice, August 21. It participated in repelling the 
rebel attack on Fort Donelson, and in numerous 
hard- fought skirmishes in Tennessee, but was 
chiefly engaged in the performance of heavy 
guard duty and in protecting lines of communi- 
cation. The regiment was mustered out at Nash- 
ville, June 26, 1865, and finally paid off and 
discharged at Chicago, July 4, following. 

Quincy, in August, 1862, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Sept. 1, 1862, with 939 men and officers. The 
regiment was authorized to inscribe upon its 
battle-flag the names of Perryville, Stone River, 
Woodbury, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, 
Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Dalton, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Sta- 
tion, Franklin, and Nashville. It was mustered 
out, June 8, 1865. 

EIGHTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Peoria, 
about Sept. 1, 1862, and ordered to Louisville. It 
took part in the battles of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, Dalton, Rocky-Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah, Ben- 
tonville, Goldsboro and Raleigh; was mustered 
out at Washington, D. C., June 5, 1865, and 
sent to Springfield, where the regiment was 
paid off and discharged on the 20th of the same 

EIGHTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, August 27, 1862, at Peoria, at which time it 
numbered 923 men, rank and file. It took part 
in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
Dallas, Knesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro, 
Averysboro and Bentonville; was mustered out 
on June 6, 1865, at Washington, D. C., arriving 

on June 11, at Chicago, where, ten days later, the 
men received their pay and final discharge. 

gust, 1862; was composed of companies from 
Hamilton, Edwards, Wayne and White Counties ; 
was organized in the latter part of August, 1862, 
at Shawneetown; mustered in, Oct. 3, 1862, the 
muster to take effect from August 2. It took 
part in the siege and capture of Warrenton and 
Jackson, and in the entire campaign through 
Louisiana and Southern Mississippi, participating 
in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads and in numer- 
ous skirmishes among the bayous, being mustered 
out, June 16, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, 
where it arrived, June 24, 1865, and was paid off 
and disbanded at Camp Butler, on July 2. 

cago, in September, 1862, and known as the 
"Second Board of Trade Regiment." It was 
mustered in, Sept. 4, 1862 ; was engaged at Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, 
New Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Mud Creek, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Franklin 
and Nashville; was mustered out, June 9, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 13, 1865, where it received final pay and 
discharge, June 22, 1865. 

road Regiment"; was organized by the railroad 
companies of Illinois, at Chicago, in August, 
1862, and mustered into service on the 27th of 
that month. It fought at Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Knoxville, Resaca, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Pickett's Mills, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Lovejoy's Station, Spring Hill, Columbia, Frank- 
lin and Nashville; was mustered out, June 10, 
1865, in the field near Nashville, Tenn. ; arrived 
at Chicago two days later, and was finally dis- 
charged, June 24, after a service of two years, 
nine months and twenty -seven days. 

NINETIETH INFANTRY. Mustered into service 
at Chicago, Sept. 7, 1862 ; participated in the siege 
of Vicksburg and the campaign against Jackson, 
and was engaged at Missionary Ridge, Resaca, 
Dallas, New Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Nickajack Creek, Rosswell, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro and Fort McAllister. After 
the review at Washington, the regiment was 
mustered out, June 6, and returned to Chicago, 
June 9, 1865, where it was finally discharged. 

Butler, near Springfield, in August, 1862, and 



mustered in on Sept. 8, 1862 ; participated in the 
campaigns against Vicksburg and New Orleans, 
and all along the southwestern frontier in 
Louisiana and Texas, as well as in the investiture 
and capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at 
Mobile, July 12, 1865, starting for home the same 
day, and being finally paid off and discharged on 
July 28, following. 

ized and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862, 
being recruited from Ogle, Stephenson and Car- 
roll Counties. During its term of service, the 
Ninety -second was in more than sixty battles and 
skirmishes, including Ringgold, Chickamauga, 
and the numerous engagements on the "March 
to the Sea," and during the pursuit of Johnston 
through the Carolinas. It was mustered out at 
Concord, N. C. , and paid and discharged from the 
service at Chicago, July 10, 1865. 

cago, in September, 1862, and mustered in, Oct. 
18, 998 strong. It participated in the movements 
against Jackson and Vicksburg, and was engaged 
at Champion Hills and at Fort Fisher ; also was 
engaged in the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Dallas, Resaca, and many minor engagements, 
following Sherman in his campaign though the 
Carolinas. Mustered out of service, June 23, 
1865, and, on the 25th, arrived at Chicago, receiv- 
ing final payment and discharge, July 7, 1865, the 
regiment having marched 2,554 miles, traveled 
by water, 2,296 miles, and, by railroad, 1,237 
miles total, 6,087 miles. 

Blooinington in August, 1862, and enlisted wholly 
in McLean County. After some warm experi 
ence in Southwest Missouri, the regiment took 
part in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and 
was, later, actively engaged in the campaigns in 
Louisiana and Texas. It participated in the cap- 
ture of Mobile, leading the final assault. After 
several months of garrison duty, the regiment was 
mustered out at Galveston, Texas, on July 17, 
1865, reaching Bloornington on August 9, follow- 
ing, having served just three years, marched 1,200 
miles, traveled by railroad 610 miles, and, by 
steamer, 6,000 miles, and taken part in nine bat- 
tles, sieges and skirmishes. 

NINETY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Rock- 
ford and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862. It 
was recruited from the counties of McHenry and 
Boone three companies from the latter and 
seven from the former. It took part in the cam- 
paigns in Northern Mississippi and against Vicks- 
burg. in the Red River expedition, the campaigns 

against Price in Missouri and Arkansas, against 
Mobile and around Atlanta. Among the battles 
in which the regiment was engaged were those 
of the Tallahatchie River, Grand Gulf, Raymond, 
Champion Hills, Fort de Russey, Old River, 
Cloutierville, Mansura, Yellow Bayou, Guntown, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Chattahoochie River, Atlanta, Ezra 
Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The distance traveled by the regiment, 
while in the service, was 9,960 miles. It was 
transferred to the Forty-seventh Illinois Infan- 
try, August 25, 1865. 

NINETY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Recruited during 
the months of July and August, 1862, and mus- 
tered into service, as a regiment, Sept. 6, 1862. 
The battles engaged in included Fort Donelson, 
Spring Hill, Franklin, Triune, Liberty Gap, 
Shelbyville, Chickamauga, "Wauhatchie, Lookout 
Mountain, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Kingston, New Hope Church, Dallas, 
Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna 
Camp Ground, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Rough 
and Ready, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. Its date of final pay and dis- 
charge was June 30, 1865. 

August and September, 1862, and mustered in on 
Sept. 16 ; participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Black River, Vicksburg, Jackson and 
Mobile. On July 29, 1865, it was mustered out 
and proceeded homeward, reaching Springfield, 
August 10, after an absence of three years, less a 
few days. 

tralia, September, 1862, and mustered in, Sept. 3; 
took part in engagements at Chickamauga, Mc- 
Minnville, Farmington and Selma, besides many 
others of less note. It was mustered out, June 
27, 1865, the recruits being transferred to the 
Sixty -first Illinois Volunteers. The regiment 
arrived at Springfield, June 30, and received final 
payment and discharge, July 7, 1865. 

County and mustered in at Florence, August 23, 
1862; participated in the following battles and 
skirmishes: Beaver Creek, Hartsville, Magnolia 
Hills, Raymond, Champion Hills, Black River, 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Esperanza, Grand 
Coteau, Fish River, Spanish Fort and Blakely: 
days under fire, 62; miles traveled, 5,900; men 
killed in battle, 38; men died of wounds and 
disease, 149; men discharged for disability, 127; 
men deserted, 35; officers killed in battle, 8; 



officers died, 2; officers resigned, 26. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Baton Rouge, July 31, 
1865, and paid off and discharged, August 9, 

Joliet, in August, 1862, and mustered in, August 
30. The entire regiment was recruited in Will 
County. It was engaged at Bardstown, Stone 
River, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and 
Nashville; was mustered out of service, June 12, 
1865, at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 15, where it received final payment and 

ized at Jacksonville during the latter part of the 
month of August, 1862, and, on Sept. 2, 1862, 
was mustered in. It participated in the battles 
of Wauhatchie, Chattanooga, Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. 
On Dec. 20, 1862, five companies were captured 
at Holly Springs, Miss., paroled and sent to 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and formally exchanged 
in June, 1863. On the 7th of June, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and started for Springfield, where, 
on the 21st of June, it was paid off and disbanded. 

ized at Knoxville, in August, 1862, and mustered 
in, September 1 and 2. It was engaged at Resaca, 
Camp Creek, Burnt Hickory, Big Shanty, Peach 
Tree Creek and Averysboro; mustered out of 
service June 6, 1865, and started home, arriving 
at Chicago on the 9th, and, June 14, received 
final payment and discharge. 

cruited wholly in Fulton County, and mustered 
into the service, Oct. 2, 1862. It took part in 
the Grierson raid, the sieges of Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Atlanta and Savannah, and the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dal- 
las, Kenesaw Mountain and Griswoldsville ; was 
also in the campaign through the Carolinas. 
The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, 
June 21, and received final discharge at Chi- 
cago, July 9, 1865. The original strength of 
the regiment was 808, and 84 recruits were 

ized at Ottawa, in August, 1862, and composed 
almost entirely of La Salle County men. The 
regiment was engaged in the battles of Harts- 
ville, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy 
Creek, Jonesboro and Bentonville, besides many 
severe skirmishes ; was mustered out at Washing- 

ton, D. C., June 6, 1865, and, a few days later, 
received final discharge at Chicago. 

tered into service, Sept. 2, 1862, at Dixon, and 
participated in the Atlanta campaign, being 
engaged at Resaca, Peach Tree Creek and 
Atlanta, and almost constantly skirmishing; 
also took part in the "March to the Sea" and the 
campaign in the Carolinas, including the siege of 
Savannah and the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, D. C., June 7, 1865, and paid off and dis- 
charged at Chicago, June 17. 

tered into service at Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1862, 
eight of the ten companies having been recruited 
in Logan County, the other two being from San- 
gamon and Menard Counties. It aided in the 
defense of Jackson, Tenn., where Company "C" 
was captured and paroled, being exchanged in 
the summer of 1863; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the Yazoo expedition, the capture of 
Little Rock, the battle of Clarendon, and per- 
formed service at various points in Arkansas. It 
was mustered out, July 12, 1865, at Pine Bluff, 
Ark., and arrived at Springfield, July 24, 1865, 
where it received final payment and discharge 

tered into service at Springfield, Sept. 4, 1862; 
was composed of six companies from DeWitt and 
four companies from Piatt County. It was 
engaged at Campbell's Station, Dandridge, 
Rocky-Face Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and 
Fort Anderson, and mustered out, June 21, 1865, 
at Salisbury, N. C., reaching Springfield, for 
final payment and discharge, July 2, 1865. 

ized at Peoria, and mustered into service, August 
28, 1862 ; took part in the first expedition against 
Vicksburg and in the battles of Arkansas Post 
(Fort Hindman), Port Gibson and Champion 
Hills ; in the capture of Vicksburg, the battle of 
Guntown, the reduction of. Spanish Fort, and the 
capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at Vicks- 
burg, August 5, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Chicago, August 11. 

cruited from Union and Pulaski Counties and 
mustered into the service, Sept. 11, 1862. Owing 
to its number being greatly reduced, it was con- 
solidated with the Eleventh Infantry in April, 
1863. (See Eleventh Infantry.) 

ized at Anna and mustered in, Sept. 11, 1862; was 



engaged at Stone Ri^er, Woodbury, and in 
numerous skirmishes in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In May, 1863, the regiment was consolidated, its 
numbers having been greatly reduced. Subse- 
quently it participated in the battles of Chicka- 
mauga and Missionary Ridge, the battles around 
Atlanta and the campaign through the Carolinas, 
being present at Johnston's surrender. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Washington, D. C., 
June 5, 1865, and received final discharge at 
Chicago, June 15. The enlisted men whose term 
of service had not expired at date of muster-out, 
were consolidated into four companies and trans- 
ferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veteran Volunteer 

cruited from Marion, Clay, Washington, Clinton 
and Wayne Counties, and mustered into the serv- 
ice at Salem, Sept. 18, 1862. The regiment aided 
in the capture of Decatur, Ala. ; took part in the 
Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro ; partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea" and the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas, taking part in the battles 
of Fort McAllister and Bentonville. It was mus- 
tered out at Washington, D. C., June 7, 1865, 
receiving final discharge at Springfield, June 27, 
having traveled 3,736 miles, of which 1,836 was 
on the march. 

tered into service at Peoria, Sept. 20 and 22, 
1862 ; participated in the campaign in East Ten- 
nessee, under Burnside, and in that against 
Atlanta, under Sherman; was also engaged in 
the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville, 
and the capture of Fort Anderson and Wilming- 
ton. It was mustered out at Goldsboro, N. C., 
June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, 
July 7, 1865. 

Left Camp Hancock (near Chicago) for the front, 
Nov. 6, 1862; was engaged in the Tallahatchie 
expedition, participated in the battle of Chicka- 
saw Bayou, and was sent North to guard prison- 
ers and recruit. The regiment also took part in 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, was mustered 
out, June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chi- 
cago, five days later. 

Organized in July and August, 1862, and mustered 
in at Springfield, Sept. 18, being recruited from 
Cass, Menard and Sangamon Counties. The regi- 
ment participated in the battle of Jackson (Miss. ), 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Guntown and Harrisville, the pursuit 

of Price through Missouri, the battle of Nash- 
ville, and the capture of Mobile. It v.-as mustered 
out at Vicksburg, August 3, 1865, receiving final 
payment and discharge at Springfield. August 15, 

Ordered to the front from Springfield, Oct. 4, 
1862 ; was engaged at Chickamauga, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Resaca and in all 
the principal battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
and in the defense of Nashville and pursuit of 
Hood; was mustered out of service, June 11, 
1865, and received final pay and discharge, June 
23, 1865, at Springfield. 

Recruited almost wholly from Macon County, 
numbering 980 officers and men when it started 
from Decatur for the front on Nov. 8, 1862. It 
participated in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Stone Mountain, 
Atlanta, Fort McAllister and Bentonville, and 
was mustered out, June 7, 1865, near Washington, 
D. C. 

Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Sept. 
19, 1862 ; participated in the Meridian campaign, 
the Red River expedition (assisting in the cap- 
ture of Fort de Russey), and in the battles of 
Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Franklin, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. It 
was mustered out at Springfield, August 5, 1865, 
having traveled 9,276 miles, 2,307 of which were 

Organized and mustered into the service at 
Springfield, Nov. 7, 1862 ; was engaged at Chicka- 
saw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Black River Bridge, Jackson (Miss.), 
Grand Coteau, Jackson (La. ), and Amite River. 
The regiment was mounted, Oct. 11, 1863, and 
dismounted, May 22, 1865. Oct. 1, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and finally discharged, Oct. 13. 
At the date of the muster-in, the regiment num- 
bered 820 men and officers, received 283 recruits, 
making a total of 1,103; at muster-out it num- 
bered 523. Distance marched, 2,000 miles; total 
distance traveled, 5,700 miles. 

Organized at Quincy, in September, 1862, and 
was mustered into the United States service, 
October 10 ; was engaged in the Red River cam- 
paign and in the battles of Shreveport, Yellow 
Bayou, Tupelo, Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort 



Blakely. Its final muster-out took place at 
Mobile, August 26, 1865, and its discharge at 

Mustered into the service, Oct. 28, 1862, at Spring- 
field ; was mustered out, Sept. 7, 1865, and received 
final payment and discharge, September 10, at 

TRY. (The organization of this regiment was not 

TRY. Organized at Carlinville, in August, 1862, 
and mustered into the service, Sept. 4, with 960 
enlisted men. It participated in the battles of 
Tupelo and Nashville, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and was mustered 
out, July 15, 1865, at Mobile, and finally dis- 
charged at Springfield, August 4. 

TRY. Mustered into service at Mattoon, Sept. 6, 
1862; participated in the battles of Perry ville, 
Milton, Hoover's Gap, and Farmington ; also took 
part in the entire Atlanta campaign, marching 
as cavalry and fighting as infantry. Later, it 
served as mounted infantry in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see and Alabama, taking a prominent part in the 
capture of Selma. The regiment was discharged 
at Springfield, July 11, 1865 the recruits, whose 
terms had not expired, being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Volunteer Infantry. 

TRY. Mustered into the service, Sept. 10, 1862, at 
Springfield ; took part in the Vicksburg campaign 
arid in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond and 
Champion Hills, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
Meridian raid, the Yazoo expedition, and the 
capture of Mobile. On the 16th of August, 1865, 
eleven days less than three years after the first 
company went into camp at Springfield, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Chicago. Colonel 
Howe's history of the battle-flag of the regiment, 
stated that it had been borne 4,100 miles, in four- 
teen skirimishes, ten battles and two sieges of 
forty-seven days and nights, and thirteen days 
and nights, respectively. 

TRY. Mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862; par- 
ticipated in the battles of Perryville, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro, and in 
the "March to the Sea" and the Carolina cam- 
paign, being engaged at Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Washington, D. C., 
June 9, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago. 

TRY. Organized at Alton and mustered in, Sept. 4, 
1862, and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. 
Six companies were engaged in skirmish line, near 
Humboldt, Tenn., and the regiment took part in 
the capture of Little Rock and in the fight at 
Clarendon, Ark. It was mustered out July 12, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered into service at Chicago, Sept. 6, 
1862; took part in the first campaign against 
Vicksburg, and in the battle of Arkansas Post, 
the siege of Vicksburg under Grant, the capture 
of Jackson (Miss.), the battles of Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, the Meridian raid, 
and in the fighting at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro; also accom- 
panied Sherman in his march through Georgia 
and the Carolinas, taking part in the battle of 
Bentonville ; was mustered out at Chicago. June 
17, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered in, Dec. 18, 1862, but remained 
in service less than five months, when, its num- 
ber of officers and men having been reduced from 
860 to 161 (largely by desertions), a number of 
officers were dismissed, and the few remaining 
officers and men were formed into a detachment, 
and transferred to another Illinois regiment. 

TRY. Organized at Pontiac, in August, 1862, and 
mustered into the service Sept. 8. Prior to May, 
1864, the regiment was chiefly engaged in garri- 
son duty. It marched with Sherman in the 
Atlanta campaign and through Georgia and the 
Carolinas, and took part in the battles of Resaca, 
Buzzard's Roost, Lost Mountain, Dallas, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It received final pay and discharge at Chi- 
ca~o, June 10, 1865. 

Organized at Springfield and mustered into 
service, Oct. 25, 1862 ; was engaged at Port Gib- 
son, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicks- 
burg, Jackson (Miss.), and in the Red River 
expedition. While on this expedition almost the 
entire regiment was captured at the battle of 
Mansfield, and not paroled until near the close of 
the war. The remaining officers and men were 
consolidated with the Seventy-seventh Infantry 
in January, 1865, and participated in the capture 
of Mobile. Six months later its regimental re- 
organization, as the One Hundred and Thirtieth, 
was ordered. It was mustered out at New 
Orleans, August 15, 1865, and discharged at 
Springfield, August 31. 



TRY. Organized in September, 1862, and mus- 
tered into the service, Nov. 13, with 815 men, 
exclusive of officers. In October, 1863, it was 
consolidated with the Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
and ceased to exist as a separate organization. 
Up to that time the regiment had been in but a 
few conflicts and in no pitched battle. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago and mustered in for 
100 days from June 1, 1864. The regiment re- 
mained on duty at Paducah until the expiration 
of its service, when it moved to Chicago, and 
was mustered out, Oct. 17, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in 
for one hundred days, May 31, 1864; was engaged 
during its term of service in guarding prisoners 
of war at Eock Island ; was mustered out, Sept. 
4, 1864, at Camp Butler. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago and mustered in, 
May 31, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to 
garrison duty at Columbus, Ky., and mustered 
out of service, Oct. 25, 1864, at Chicago. 

TRY. Mustered in for 100-days' service at Mat- 
toon, June 6, 1864, having a strength of 852 men. 
It was chiefly engaged, during its term of service, 
in doing garrison duty and guarding railroads. 
It was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 28, 1864. 

TRY. Enlisted about the first of May, 1864, for 
100 days, and went into camp at Centralia, 111., 
but was not mustered into service until June 1, 
following. Its principal service was garrison 
duty, with occasional scouts and raids amongst 
guerrillas. At the end of its term of service the 
regiment re-enlisted for fifteen days; was mus- 
tered out at Springfield, Oct. 22, 1864, and dis- 
charged eight days later 

TRY. Organized at Quincy, with ex-Gov. John 
Wood as its Colonel, and mustered in, June 5, 
1864, for 100 days. Was on duty at Memphis, 
Tenn , and mustered out of service at Spring- 
field. 111.. Sept. 4, 1864. 

TRY Organized at Quincy, and mustered in, 
June 21, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to garri- 
son duty at Fort Leaven worth, Kan., and in 
Western Missouri. It was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Springfield, 111., Oct. 14, 1864. 

TRY. Mustered into service as a 100-day's regi- 

ment, at Peoria, June 1, 1864; was engaged in 
garrison duty at Columbus and Cairo, in making 
reprisals for guerrilla raids, and in the pursuit of 
the Confederate General Price in Missouri. The 
latter service was rendered, at the President's 
request, after the term of enlistment had expired. 
It was mustered out at Peoria, Oct. 25, 1864, hav- 
ing been in the service nearly five months. 

Organized as a 100-days' regiment, at Springfield, 
June 18, 1864, and mustered into service on that 
date. The regiment was engaged in guarding 
railroads between Memphis and Holly Springs, and 
in garrison duty at Memphis. After the term of 
enlistment had expired and the regiment had 
been mustered out, it aided in the pursuit of 
General Price through Missouri; was finally dis- 
charged at Chicago, after serving about five 

TRY. Mustered into service as a 100-days' regi- 
ment, at Elgin, June 16, 1864 strength, 842 men; 
departed for the field, June 27, 1864; was mus- 
tered out at Chicago, Oct. 10, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Freeport as a battalion of 
eight companies, and sent to Camp Butler, where 
two companies were added and the regiment 
mustered into service for 100 days, June 18, 1864. 
It was ordered to Memphis, Tenn., five days later, 
and assigned to duty at White's Station, eleven 
miles from that city, where it was employed in 
guarding the Memphis & Charleston railroad. 
It was mustered out at Chicago, on Oct, 27, 1864, 
the men having voluntarily served one month 
beyond their term of enlistment. 

TRY. Organized at Mattoon, and mustered in, 
June 11, 1864, for 100 days. It was assigned to 
garrison duty, and mustered out at Mattoon, 
Sept. 26, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Alton, in 1864, as a one-year 
regiment; was mustered into the service, Oct. 21, 
its strength being 1,159 men. It was mustered 
out, July 14, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered into service at Springfield, June 
9, 1864 ; strength, 880 men. It departed for the 
field, June 12, 1864; was mustered out, Sept. 23, 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Sept. 18, 1864, for 
one year. Was assigned to the duty of guarding 
drafted men at Brighton, Quincy, Jacksonville 



and Springfield, and mustered out at Springfield, 
July 5, 1865. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago, and mustered into 
service for one year, Feb. 18 and 19, 1865; was 
engaged chiefly on guard or garrison duty, in 
scouting and in skirmishing with guerrillas. 
Mustered out at Nashville, Jan. 22, 1866, and 
received final discharge at Springfield, Feb. 4. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, for 
the term of one year ; was assigned to garrison 
and guard duty and mustered out, Sept. 5, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn ; arrived at Springfield, Sept. 
9, 1865, where it was paid off and discharged. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 11, 1865, 
and mustered in for one year; was engaged in 
garrison and guard duty ; mustered out, Jan. 27, 
1866, at Dalton, Ga. , and ordered to Springfield, 
where it received final payment and discharge. 

Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Feb. 14, 
1865, for one year ; was on duty in Tennessee and 
Georgia, guarding railroads and garrisoning 
towns. It was mustered out, Jan. 16, 1866, at 
Atlanta, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

This regiment was organized at Quincy, 111., 
and mustered into the United States service, 
Feb. 23, 1865, and was composed of companies 
from various parts of the State, recruited, under 
the call of Dec. 19, 1864. It was engaged in 
guard duty, with a few guerrilla skirmishes, and 
was present at the surrender of General War- 
ford's army, at Kingston, Ga. ; was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ga., Jan. 24, 1866, and ordered to 
Springfield, where it received final payment and 
discharge, Feb. 8, 1866. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield and mustered in, 
Feb. 18, 1865, for one year ; was mustered out of 
service, to date Sept. 11, at Memphis, Tenn., and 
arrived at Camp Butler, Sept. 9, 1865, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago, and mustered in, 
Feb. 27, 1865, for one year; was not engaged in 
any battles. It was mustered out, Sept. 15, 1865, 
and moved to Springfield, 111., and, Sept. 24, 
received final pay and discharge. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, 
for one year. Sept. 18, 1865, the regiment was 

mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., and ordered to 
Springfield for final payment and discharge, 
where it arrived, Sept. 22 ; was paid oft and dis- 
charged at Camp Butler, Sept- 29. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield and mustered in 
Feb. 28, 1865, for one year, 904 strong. On Sept. 
4, 1865, it was mustered out of service, and moved 
to Camp Butler, where it received final pay and 

TRY. Organized and mustered in during the 
months of February and March, 1865, from the 
northern counties of the State, for the term of 
one year. The officers of the regiment have left 
no written record of its history, but its service 
seems to have been rendered chiefly in Tennessee 
in the neighborhood of Memphis, Nashville and 
Chattanooga. Judging by the muster-rolls of 
the Adjutant-General, the regiment would appear 
to have been greatly depleted by desertions and 
otherwise, the remnant being finally mustered 
out, Sept. 20, 1865. 

FIRST CAVALRY. Organized consisting of 
seven companies, A, B, C, D, E, F and G at 
Alton, in 1861, and mustered into the United 
States service, July 3. After some service in 
Missouri, the regiment participated in the battle 
of Lexington, in that State, and was surrendered, 
with the remainder of the garrison, Sept. 20, 1861. 
The officers were paroled, and the men sworn not 
to take up arms again until discharged. No ex- 
change having been effected in November, the 
non-commissioned officers and privates were 
ordered to Springfield and discharged. In June, 
1862, the regiment was reorganized at Benton 
Barracks, Mo., being afterwards employed in 
guarding supply trains and supply depots at 
various points. Mustered out, at Benton Bar- 
racks, July 14, 1862. 

SECOND CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield 
and mustered into service, August 12, 1861, with 
Company M (which joined the regiment some 
months later), numbering 47 commissioned offi- 
cers and 1,040 enlisted men. This number was in- 
creased by recruits and re-enlistments, during its 
four and a half year's term of service, to 2,236 
enlisted men and 145 commissioned officers. It 
was engaged at Belmont ; a portion of the regi- 
ment took part in the battles at Fort Henry, 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, another portion at 
Merriweather's Ferry, Bolivar and Holly Springs, 
and participated in the investment of Vicksburg. 
In January, 1864, the major part of the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, later, participating in the 



Red River expedition and the investment of Fort 
Blakely. It was mustered out at San Antonio, 
Tex., Nov. 22, 1865, and finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield, Jan. 3, 1866. 

THIRD CAVALRY. Composed of twelve com- 
panies, from various localities in the State, the 
grand total of company officers and enlisted men, 
under the first organization, being 1,433. It was 
organized at Springfield, in August, 1861 ; partici- 
pated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Haines' Bluff, 
Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicksburg. 
In July, 1864, a large portion of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans. The remainder were mus- 
tered out, Sept. 5, 1864. The veterans participated 
in the repulse of Forrest, at Memphis, and in the 
battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbells- 
ville and Franklin. From May to October, 1865, 
engaged in service against the Indians in the 
Northwest The regiment was mustered out at 
Springfield, Oct. 18, 1865. 

FOURTH CAVALRY. Mustered into service, 
Sept. 26, 1861, and participated in the battles of 
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh; in the 
siege of Corinth, and in many engagements of 
less historic note ; was mustered out at Springfield 
in November, 1864. By order of the War Depart- 
ment, of June 18, 1865, the members of the 
regiment whose terms had not expired, were con- 
solidated with the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. 

FIFTH CAVALRY. Organized at Camp Butler, 
in November, 1861 ; took part in the Meridian 
raid and the expedition against Jackson, Miss., 
and in numerous minor expeditions, doing effect- 
ive work at Canton, Grenada, Woodville, and 
other points. On Jan. 1, 1864, a large portion of 
the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. Its final 
muster-out took place, Oct. 27, 1865, and it re- 
ceived final payment and discharge, October 30. 
SIXTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
Nov. 19, 1861 ; participated in Sherman's advance 
upon Grenada ; in the Grierson raid through Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana, the siege of Port Hudson, 
the battles of Moscow (Tenn), West Point (Miss.), 
Franklin and Nashville; re-enlisted as veterans, 
March 30, 1864 ; was mustered out at Selma, Ala. , 
Nov. 5, 1865, and received discharge, November 
20, at Springfield. 

SEVENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
and was mustered into service, Oct. 13, 1861. It 
participated in the battles of Farmington, luka, 
Corinth (second battle) ; in Grierson's raid 
through Mississippi and Louisiana; in the en- 
gagement at Plain's Store (La.), and the invest- 
ment of Port Hudson. In March, 1864, 288 

officers and men re-enlisted as veterans. The 
non- veterans were engaged at Guntown, and the 
entire regiment took part in the battle of Frank- 
lin. After the close of hostilities, it was stationed 
in Alabama and Mississippi, until the latter part 
of October, 1865 ; was mustered out at Nashville, 
and finally discharged at Springfield, Nov. 17, 

EIGHTH CAVALRY. Organized at St. Charles, 
111., and mustered in, Sept. 18, 1861. The regi- 
ment was ordered to Virginia, and participated 
in the general advance on Manassas in March, 
1862; was engaged at Mechanicsville, Games' 
Hill, Malvern Hill, Sugar Loaf Mountain, Middle- 
town, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Sulphur Springs, Warrenton, Rapidan 
Station, Northern Neck, Gettysburg, Williams- 
burg, Funkstown, Falling Water, Chester Gap 
Sandy Hook, Culpepper, Brandy Station, and in 
many raids and skirmishes. It was mustered 
out of service at Benton Barracks, Mo., July 17, 
1865, and ordered to Chicago, where it received 
final payment and discharge. 

NINTH CAVALRY. Organized at Chicago, in 
the autumn of 1861, and mustered in, November 
30 ; was engaged at Coldwater, Grenada, Wyatt, 
Saulsbury, Moscow, Guntown, Pontotoc, Tupelo, 
Old Town Creek, Hurricane Creek, Lawrence- 
burg, Campellsville, Franklin and Nashville. 
The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, March 16, 
1864; was mustered out of service at Selma, Ala., 
Oct. 31, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, where 
the men received final payment and discharge. 

TENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield in 
the latter part of September, 1861, and mustered 
into service, Nov. 25, 1861 ; was engaged at Prairie 
Grove, Cotton Plant, Arkansas Post, in the 
Yazoo Pass expedition, at Richmond (La.), 
Brownsville, Bayou Metoe, Bayou La Fourche 
and Little Rock. In February, 1864, a large 
portion of the regiment re -enlisted as veter- 
ans, the non- veterans accompanying General 
Banks in his Red River expedition. On Jan. 27, 
1865, the veterans, and recruits were consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, and all reorganized 
under the name of the Tenth Illinois Veteran 
Volunteer Cavalry. Mustered out of service at 
San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 22, 1865, and received 
final discharge at Springfield, Jan. 6, 1866. 

ELEVENTH CAVALRY. Robert G. Ingersoll of 
Peoria, and Basil D. Meeks, of Woodford County, 
obtained permission to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and recruiting commenced in October, 
1861. The regiment was recruited from the 
counties of Peoria, Fulton, Tazewell, Woodford, 



Marshall, Stark, Knox, Henderson and Warren; 
was mustered into the service at Peoria, Dec. 20, 
1861, and was first under fire at Shiloh. It also 
took part in the raid in the rear of Corinth, and 
in the battles of Bolivar, Corinth (second battle), 
luka, Lexington and Jackson (Tenn. ) ; in Mc- 
Pherson's expedition to Canton and Sherman's 
Meridian raid, in the relief of Yazoo City, and in 
numerous less important raids and skirmishes. 
Most of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans in 
December, 1863; the non- veterans being mus- 
tered out at Memphis, in the autumn of 1864. The 
veterans were mustered out at the same place, 
Sept. 80, 1865, and discharged at Springfield, 
October 20. 

TWELFTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
in February, 1862, and remained there guarding 
rebel prisoners until June 25, when it was 
mounted and sent to Martinsburg, Va. It was 
engaged at Fredericksburg, Williamsport, Falling 
Waters, the Rapidan and Stevensburg. On Nov. 
26, 1863, the regiment was relieved from service 
and ordered home to reorganize as veterans. 
Subsequently it joined Banks in the Red River 
expedition and in Davidson's expedition against 
Mobile. While at Memphis the Twelfth Cavalry 
was consolidated into an eight-company organi- 
zation, and the Fourth Cavalry, having previously 
been consolidated into a battalion of five com- 
panies, was consolidated with the Twelfth. The 
consolidated regiment was mustered out at 
Houston, Texas, May 29, 1866, and, on June 18, 
received final pay and discharge at Springfield. 

THIRTEENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Chicago, 
in December, 1861 ; moved to the front from 
Benton Barracks, Mo., in February, 1862, and 
was engaged in the following battles and skir- 
mishes (all in Missouri and Arkansas) : Putnam's 
Ferry, Cotton Plant, Union City (twice), Camp 
Pillow, Bloomfield (first and second battles), Van 
Buren, Allen, Eleven Point River, Jackson, 
White River, Chalk Bluff, Bushy Creek, near 
Helena, Grand Prairie, White River, Deadman's 
Lake, Brownsville, Bayou Metoe, Austin, Little 
Rock, Benton, Batesville, Pine Bluff, Arkadel- 
phia, Okolona, Little Missouri River, Prairie du 
Anne, Camden, Jenkins' Ferry, Cross Roads, 
Mount Elba, Douglas Landing and Monticello. 
The regiment was mustered out, August 31, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge at Spring- 
field, Sept. 13, 1865. 

FOURTEENTH CAVALRY. Mustered into service 
at Peoria, in January and February, 1863; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Cumberland Gap, in the 
defense of Knoxville and the pursuit of Long- 

street, in the engagements at Bean Station and 
Dandridge, in the Macon raid, and in the cavalry 
battle at Sunshine Church. In the latter Gen- 
eral Stoneman surrendered, but the Fourteenth 
cut its way out. On their retreat the men were 
betrayed by a guide and the regiment badly cut 
up and scattered, those escaping being hunted by 
soldiers with bloodhounds. Later, it was engaged 
at Waynesboro and in the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville, and was mustered out at Nashville, 
July 31, 1865, having marched over 10,000 miles, 
exclusive of duty done by detachments. 

FIFTEENTH CAVALRY. Composed of companies 
originally independent, attached to infantry regi- 
ments and acting as such; participated in the. 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
siege and capture of Corinth. Regimental or- 
ganization was effected in the spring of 1863, and 
thereafter it was engaged chiefly in scouting and 
post duty. It was mustered out at Springfield, 
August 25, 1864, the recruits (whose term of 
service had not 'expired) being consolidated with 
the Tenth Cavalry. 

SIXTEENTH CAVALRY. Composed principally 
of Chicago men Thieleman's and Schambeck's 
Cavalry Companies, raised at the outset of the 
war, forming the nucleus of the regiment. The 
former served as General Sherman's body-guard 
for some time. Captain Thieleman was made a 
Major and authorized to raise a battalion, the 
two companies named thenceforth being known 
as Thieleman's Battalion. In September, 1862, 
the War Department authorized the extension of 
the battalion to a regiment, and, on the llth of 
June, 1863, the regimental organization was com- 
pleted. It took part in the East Tennessee cam- 
paign, a portion of the regiment aiding in the 
defense of Knoxville, a part garrisoning Cumber- 
and Gap, and one battalion being captured by 
Longstreet. The regiment also participated in 
the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, Carterville, 
Allatoona, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Mines 
Ridge, Powder Springs, Chattahoochie, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. It arrived 
in Chicago, August 23, 1865, for final payment 
and discharge, having marched about 5,000 miles 
and engaged in* thirty -one battles, besides numer- 
ous skirmishes. 

SEVENTEENTH CAVALRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice in January and February, 1864; aided in the 
repulse of Price at Jefferson City, Mo., and was 
engaged at Booneville, Independence, Mine 
Creek, and Fort Scott, besides doing garrison 
duty, scouting and raiding. It was mustered 



out in November and December, 1865, at Leaven- 
worth, Kan. Gov. John L. Beveridge, who had 
previously been a Captain and Major of the 
Eighth Cavalry, was the Colonel of this regi- 

FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY. Consisted of ten 
batteries. Battery A was organized under the 
first call for State troops, April 21, 1861, but not 
mustered into the three years' service until July 
16; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was in reserve at Champion Hills and 
Nashville, and mustered out July 3, 1865, at 

Battery B was organized in April, 1861, en- 
gaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the 
siege of Corinth and at La Grange, Holly Springs, 
Memphis, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the 
siege of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond 
(La.), the Atlanta campaign and the battle of 
Nashville. The Battery was reorganized by con- 
solidation with Battery A, and mustered out at 
rChicago, July 2, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, Sept. 2, 1861 ; 
was engaged at Fort Donelson and at Shiloh, 
and mustered out, July 28, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery E was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into service, Dec. 19, 1861 ; was engaged 
at Shiloh, Corinth, Jackson, Vicksburg, Gun- 
town, Pontotoc, Tupelo and Nashville, and mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Dec. 24, 1864. 

Battery F was recruited at Dixon and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, Feb. 25, 1862. It took 
part in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona 
expedition, and was consolidated with the other 
batteries in the regiment, March 7, 1865. 

Battery G was organized at Cairo and mus- 
tered in Sept. 28, 1861 ; was engaged in the siege 
and the second battle of Corinth, and mustered 
out at Springfield, July 24, 1865. 

Battery H was recruited in and about Chicago, 
during January and February, 1862 ; participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg, and 
in the Atlanta campaign, the "March to the 
Sea," and through the Carolinas with Sherman. 

Battery I was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered in, Feb. 10, 1862; was engaged at 
Shiloh, in the Tallahatchie raid, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the battles of 
Chattanooga and Vicksburg It veteranized, 
March 17, 1864, and was mustered out, July 26, 

Battery K was organized at Shawneetown and 
mustered in, Jan. 9, 1862, participated in Burn- 

side's campaign in Tennessee, and in the capture 
of Knoxville. Part of the men were mustered 
out at Springfield in June, 1865, and the re- 
manider at Chicago in July. 

Battery M was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into the service, August 12, 1862, for 
three years. It served through the Chickamauga 
campaign, being engaged at Chickamauga; also 
was engaged at Missionary Ridge, was besieged 
at Chattanooga, and took part in all the impor- 
tant battles of the Atlanta campaign. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, July 24, 1864, having 
traveled 3,102 miles and been under fire 178 days. 

SECOND LIGHT ARTILLERY. Consisted of nine 
batteries. Battery A was organized at Peoria, 
and mustered into service, May 23, 1861 ; served 
in Missouri and Arkansas, doing brilliant work 
at Pea Ridge. It was mustered out of service at 
Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, and mustered 
into service in December, 1861 ; was engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Meridian and Decatur, and mustered out at 
Louisville, Nov. 21, 1864. 

Battery E was organized at St. Louis, Mo., in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, August 
20, at that point. It was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son and Shiloh, and in the siege of Corinth and 
the Yocona expedition was consolidated with 
Battery A. 

Battery F was organized at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., and mustered in, Dec. 11, 1861 ; was engaged 
at Shiloh, in the siege and second battle of 
Corinth, and the Meridian campaign; also 
at Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It was 
mustered out, July 27, 1865, at Springfield. 

Battery H was organized at Springfield, De- 
cember, 1861, and mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861 ; was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and in the siege of 
Fort Pillow; veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mounted as cavalry the following summer, and 
mustered out at Springfield, July 29, 18G5. 

Battery I was recruited in Will County, and 
mustered into service at Camp Butler, Dec. 31, 
1861. It participated in the siege of Island No. 
10, in the advance upon Cornith, and in the 
battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga. 
It veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, marched with Sher- 
man to Atlanta, and thence to Savannah and 
through the Carolinas, and was mustered out at 

Battery K was organized at Springfield and 
mustered in Dec. 31, 1863; was engaged at Fort 
Pillow, the capture of Clarkston, Mo., and the 


siege of Vicksburg. It was mustered out, July 
14, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery L was organized at Chicago and mus- 
tered in, Feb. 28, 1862; participated in the ad- 
vance on Corinth, the battle of Hatchie and the 
advance on the Tallahatchie, and was mustered 
out at Chicago, August 9, 1865. 

Battery M was organized at Chicago, and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, June, 1862 ; was engaged 
at Jonesboro, Blue Spring, Blountsville and 
Rogersville, being finally consolidated with 
other batteries of the regiment. 

ized through the efforts of the Chicago Board of 
Trade, which raised $15,000 for its equipment, 
within forty-eight hours. It was mustered into 
service, August 1, 1862, was engaged at Law- 
renceburg, Murfreesboro, Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Farmington, Decatur (Ga.), Atlanta, 
Lovejoy Station, Nashville, Selma and Columbus 
(Ga. ) It was mustered out at Chicago, June 30, 
1865, and paid in full, July 3, having marched 
5,268 miles and traveled by rail 1,231 miles. The 
battery was in eleven of the hardest battles 
fought in the West, and in twenty-six minor 
battles, being in action forty -two times while on 
scouts, reconnoissances or outpost duty. 

and organized under the auspices of the Mercan- 
tile Association, an association of prominent and 
patriotic merchants of the City of Chicago. It 
was mustered into service, August 29, 1862, at 
Camp Douglas, participated in the Tallahatchie 
and Yazoo expeditions, the first attack upon 
Vicksburg, the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege 
of Vicksburg, the battles of Magnolia Hills, 
Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and Jackson 
(Miss.); also took part in Banks' Red River ex- 
pedition; was mustered out at Chicago, and 
received final payment, July 10, 1865, having 
traveled, by river, sea and land, over 11,000 

principally from the cities of Springfield, Belle- 
ville and Wenona, and mustered into service at 
Springfield, for the term of three years, August 
21, 1862, numbering 199 men and officers. It 
participated in the capture of Little Rock and in 
the Red River expedition, and was mustered out 
at Springfield, 114 strong, June 30, 1865. 

Organized at Ottawa, 111., and mustered in, Nov. 
11, 1861, as Company A (Artillery) Fifty-third 
Illinois Volunteers, Colonel Cushman command- 
ing the regiment. It participated in the 

advance on Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, and the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile. The 
regiment was mustered out at Springfield, August 
14, 1865, having served three years and nine 
months, marched over 7,500 miles, and partici- 
pated in seven sieges and battles. 

STURGES RIFLES. An independent company, 
organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and sub- 
sisted for nearly two months, by the patriotic 
generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturges ; was mustered 
into service, May 6, 1861 ; in June following, was 
ordered to West Virginia, serving as body- 
guard of General McClellan; was engaged at 
Rich Mountain, in the siege of Yorktown, and in 
the seven days' battle of the Chickahominy. A 
portion of the company was at Antietam, the 
remainder having been detached as foragers, 
scouts, etc. It was mustered out at Washington, 
Nov. 25, 1862. 

oppressions and misrule which had character- 
ized the administration of affairs by the Spanish 
Government and its agents for generations, in the 
Island of Cuba, culminated, in April, 1898, in 
mutual declarations of war between Spain and 
the United States. The causes leading up to this 
result were the injurious effects upon American 
commerce and the interests of American citizens 
owning property in Cuba, as well as the constant 
expense imposed upon the Government of the 
United States in the maintenance of a large navy 
along the South Atlantic coast to suppress fili- 
bustering, superadded to the friction and unrest 
produced among the people of this country by the 
long continuance of disorders and abuses so near 
to our own shores, which aroused the sympathy 
and indignation of the entire civilized world. 
For three years a large proportion of the Cuban 
population had been in open rebellion against the 
Spanish Government, and, while the latter had 
imported a large army to the island and sub- 
jected the insurgents and their families and 
sympathizers to the grossest cruelties, not even 
excepting torture and starvation itself, their 
policy had failed to bring the insurgents into 
subjection or to restore order. In this condition 
of affairs the United States Government had 
endeavored, through negotiation, to secure a miti- 
gation of the evils complained of, by a modifica- 
tion of the Spanish policy of government in the 
island ; but all suggestions in this direction had 
either been resented by Spain as unwarrantable 
interference in her affairs, or promises of reform, 
when made, had been as invariably broken. 



In the meantime an increasing sentiment had 
been growing up in the United States in favor of 
conceding belligerent rights to the Cuban insur- 
gents, or the recognition of their independence, 
which found expression in measures proposed in 
Congress all offers of friendly intervention by 
the United States having been rejected by Spain 
with evidences of indignation. Compelled, at 
last, to recognize its inability to subdue the insur- 
rection, the Spanish Government, in November, 
1897, made a pretense of tendering autonomy to 
the Cuban people, with the privilege of amnesty 
to the insurgents on laying down their arms. 
The long duration of the war and the outrages 
perpetrated upon the helpless "reconcentrados, " 
coupled with the increased confidence of the 
insurgents in the final triumph of their cause, 
rendered this movement even if intended to be 
carried out to the letter of no avail. The 
proffer came too late, and was promptly rejected. 

In this condition of affairs and with a view to 
greater security for American interests, the 
American battleship Maine was ordered to 
Havana, on Jan. 24, 1898. It arrived in Havana 
Harbor the following day, and was anchored at a 
point designated by the Spanish commander. On 
the night of February 15, following, it was blown 
up and destroyed by some force, as shown by after 
investigation, applied from without. Of a crew 
of 354 men belonging to the vessel at the time, 
266 were either killed outright by the explosion, 
or died from their wounds. Not only the Ameri- 
can people, but the entire civilized world, was 
shocked by the catastrophe. An act of horrible 
treachery had been perpetrated against an 
American vessel and its crew on a peaceful mis- 
sion in the harbor of a professedly friendly na- 

The successive steps leading to actual hostili- 
ties were rapid and eventful. One of the earliest 
and most significant of these was the passage, by 
a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, on 
March 9, of an appropriation placing $50,000,000 
in the hands of the President as an emergency 
fund for purposes of national defense. This was 
followed, two days later, by an order for the 
mobilization of the army. The more important 
events following this step were : An order, under 
date of April 5, withdrawing American consuls 
from Spanish stations ; the departure, on April 9, 
of Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee from Havana; 
April 19, the adoption by Congress of concurrent 
resolutions declaring Cuba independent and 
directing the President to use the land and naval 
forces of the United States to put an end to 

Spanish authority in the island; April 20, the 
sending to the Spanish Government, by the Presi- 
dent, of an ultimatum in accordance with this 
act; April 21, the delivery to Minister Woodford, 
at Madrid, of his passports without waiting for 
the presentation of the ultimatum, with the 
departure of the Spanish Minister from Washing- 
ton ; April 23, the issue of a call by the President 
for 125,000 volunters; April 24, the final declara- 
tion of war by Spain ; April 25, the adoption by 
Congress of a resolution declaring that war had 
existed from April 21 ; on the same date an order 
to Admiral Dewey, in command of the Asiatic 
Squadron at Hongkong, to sail for Manila with a 
view to investing that city and blockading 
Philippine ports. 

The chief events subsequent to the declaration 
of war embraced the following: May 1, the 
destruction by Admiral Dewey's squadron of the 
Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila; May 19, 
the arrival of the Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet 
at Santiago de Cuba; May 25, a second call by 
the President for 75,000 volunteers; July 3, the 
attempt of Cervera's fleet to escape, and its 
destruction off Santiago; July 17, the surrender 
of Santiago to the forces under General Shaf ter ; 
July 30, the statement by the President, through 
the French Ambassador at Washington, of the 
terms on which the United States would consent 
to make peace ; August 9, acceptance of the peace 
terms by Spain, followed, three days later, by the 
signing of the peace protocol ; September 9, the 
appointment by the President of Peace Commis- 
sioners on the part of the United States ; Sept. 18, 
the announcement of the Peace Commissioners 
selected by Spain; October 1, the beginning of the 
Peace Conference by the representatives of the 
two powers, at Paris, and the formal signing, on 
December 10, of the peace treaty, including the 
recognition by Spain of the freedom of Cuba, 
with the transfer to the United States of Porto 
Rico and her other West India islands, together 
with the surrender of the Philippines for a con- 
sideration of $20,000,000. 

Seldom, if ever, in the history of nations have 
such vast and far-reaching results been accom- 
plished within so short a period. The war, 
which practically began with the destruction of 
the Spanish fleet in Manila Harbor an event 
which aroused the enthusiasm of the whole 
American people, and won the respect and 
admiration of other nations was practically 
ended by the surrender of Santiago and the 
declaration by the President of the conditions of 
peace just three months later. Succeeding 



events, up to the formal signing of the peace 
treaty, were merely the recognition of results 
previously determined. 

played by Illinois in connection with these events 
may be briefly summarized in the history of Illi- 
nois regiments and other organizations. Under 
the first call of the President for 125,000 volun- 
teers, eight regiments seven of infantry and one 
of cavalry were assigned to Illinois, to which 
was subsequently added, on application through 
Governor Tanner, one battery of light artil- 
lery. The infantry regiments were made up 
of the Illinois National Guard, numbered 
consecutively from one to seven, and were 
practically mobilized at their home stations 
within forty-eight hours from the receipt of the 
call, and began to arrive at Camp Tanner, near 
Springfield, the place of rendezvous, on April 26, 
the day after the issue of the Governor's call. 
The record of Illinois troops is conspicuous for 
the promptness of their response and the com- 
pleteness of their organization in this respect 
being unsurpassed by those of any other State. 
Under the call of May 25 for an additional force 
of 75,000 men, the quota assigned to Illinois was 
two regiments, which were promptly furnished, 
taking the names of the Eighth and Ninth. The 
first of these belonged to the Illinois National 
Guard, as the regiments mustered in under the 
first call had done, while the Ninth was one of a 
number of "Provisional Regiments" which had 
tendered their services to the Government. Some 
twenty-five other regiments of this class, more or 
less complete, stood ready to perfect their organi- 
zations should there be occasion for their serv- 
ices. The aggregate strength of Illinois organi- 
zations at date of muster out from the United 
States service was 12,280 11,789 men and 491 

inally Illinois National Guard) was organized at 
Chicago, and mustered into the United States 
service at Camp Tanner (Springfield), under the 
command of Col. Henry L. Turner, May 13, 1898; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas (Chickamauga) 
May 17; assigned to First Brigade, Third 
Division, of the First Army Corps; started for 
Tampa, Fla., June 2, but soon after arrival there 
was transferred to Picnic Island, and assigned to 
provost duty in place of the First United States 
Infantry. On June 30 the bulk of the regiment 
embarked for Cuba, but was detained in the har- 
bor at Key West until July 5, when the vessel 
sailed for Santiago, arriving in Guantanamo Bay 

on the evening of the 8th. Disembarking on 
the 10th, the whole regiment arrived on the 
firing line on the llth, spent several days and 
nights in the trenches before Santiago, and 
were present at the surrender of that city 
on the 17th. Two companies had previously 
been detached for the scarcely less perilous duty 
of service in the fever hospitals and in caring 
for their wounded comrades. The next month 
was spent on guard duty in the captured city, 
until August 25, when, depleted in numbers and 
weakened by fever, the bulk of the regiment was 
transferred by hospital boats to Camp Wikoff, on 
Montauk Point, L. I. The members of the regi- 
ment able to travel left Camp Wikoff, September 
8, for Chicago, arriving two days later, where they 
met an enthusiastic reception and were mustered 
out, November 17, 1,235 strong (rank and file) a 
considerable number of recruits having joined the 
regiment just before leaving Tampa. The record 
of the First was conspicuous by the fact that it 
was the only Illinois regiment to see service in 
Cuba during the progress of actual hostilities. 
Before leaving Tampa some eighty members of the 
regiment were detailed for engineering duty in 
Porto Rico, sailed for that island on July 12, and 
were among the first to perform service there. 
The First suffered severely from yellow fever 
while in Cuba, but, as a regiment, while in the 
service, made a brilliant record, which was highly 
complimented in the official reports of its com- 
manding officers. 

FANTRY (originally Second I. N. G.). This regi- 
ment, also from Chicago, began to arrive at 
Springfield, April 27, 1898 at that time number- 
ing 1,202 men and 47 officers, under command of 
Col. George M. Moulton; was mustered in 
between May 4 and May 15; on May 17 started 
for Tampa, Fla., but en route its destination was 
changed to Jacksonville, where, as a part of the 
Seventh Army Corps, under command of Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee, it assisted in the dedication of 
Camp Cuba Libre. October 25 it was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at "Camp Lee" until 
December 8, when two battalions embarked for 
Havana, landing on the 15th, being followed, a 
few days later, by the Third Battalion, and sta- 
tioned at Camp Columbia. From Dec. 17 to Jan. 
11, 1899, Colonel Moulton served as Chief of 
Police for the city of Havana. On March 28 to 30 
the regiment left Camp Columbia in detach- 
ments for Augusta, Ga., where it arrived April 
5, and was mustered out, April 26, 1,051 strong 
(rank and file), and returned to Chicago. Dur- 



ing its stay in Cuba the regiment did not lose a 
man. A history of this regiment has been 
written by Rev. H. W. Bolton, its late Chaplain. 

FANTRY, composed of companies of the Illinois 
National Guard from the counties of La Salle. 
Livingston, Kane, Kankakee, McHenry, Ogle, 
Will, and Winnebago, under command of Col. 
Fred Bennitt, reported at Springfield, with 1,170 
men and 50 officers, on April 27 ; was mustered 
in May 7, 1898; transferred from Springfield to 
Camp Thomas (Chickamauga), May 14; on July 
22 left Chickamauga for Porto Rico ; on the 28th 
sailed from Newport News, on the liner St. Louis, 
arriving at Ponce, Porto Rico, on July 31 ; soon 
after disembarking captured Arroyo, and assisted 
in the capture of Guayama, which was the 
beginning of General Brooke's advance across 
the island to San Juan, when intelligence was 
received of the signing of the peace protocol by 
Spain. From August 13 to October 1 the Third 
continued in the performance of guard duty in 
Porto Rico; on October 22, 986 men and 39 offi- 
cers took transport for home by way of New York, 
arriving in Chicago, November 11, the several 
companies being mustered out at their respective 
home stations. Its strength at final muster-out 
was 1,273 men and officers. This regiment had 
the distinction of being one of the first to see 
service in Porto Rico, but suffered severely from 
fever and other diseases during the three months 
of its stay in the island. 

posed of companies from Champaign, Coles, 
Douglas, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Jackson, 
Jefferson, Montgomery, Richland, and St. Clair 
counties; mustered into the service at Spring- 
field, May 20, under command of Col. Casimer 
Andel; started immediately for Tampa, Fla., but 
en route its destination was changed to Jackson- 
ville, where it was stationed at Camp Cuba Libre 
as a part of the Seventh Corps under command of 
Gen. Fitzhugh Lee; in October was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at Camp Onward 
until about the first of January, when the regi- 
ment took ship for Havana. Here the regiment 
was stationed at Camp Columbia until April 4, 
1899, when it returned to Augusta, Ga., and was 
mustered out at Camp Mackenzie (Augusta), May 
2, the companies returning to their respective 
home stations. During a part of its stay at 
Jacksonville, and again at Savannah, the regi- 
ment was employed on guard duty. While at 
Jacksonville Colonel Andel was suspended by 
court-martial, and finally tendered his resigna- 

tion, his place being supplied by Lieut. -Col. Eben 
Swift, of the Ninth. 

FANTRY was the first regiment to report, and was 
mustered in at Springfield, May 7, 1898, under 
command of Col. James S. Culver, being finally 
composed of twelve companies from Pike, Chris- 
tian, Sangamon, McLean, Montgomery, Adams, 
Tazewell, Macon, Morgan, Peoria, and Fulton 
counties; on May 14 left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas (Chickamauga, Ga.), being assigned to 
the command of General Brooke ; August 3 left 
Chickamauga for Newport News, Va., with the 
expectation of embarking for Porto Rico a 
previous order of July 26 to the same purport 
having been countermanded; at Newport News 
embarked on the transport Obdam, but again the 
order was rescinded, and, after remaining on 
board thirty-six hours, the regiment was disem- 
barked. The next move was made to Lexington; 
Ky., where the regiment having lost hope of 
reaching "the front" remained until Sept. 5, 
when it returned to Springfield for final muster- 
out. This regiment was composed of some of the 
best material in the State, and anxious for active 
service, but after a succession of disappoint- 
ments, was compelled to return to its home sta- 
tion without meeting the enemy. After its arrival 
at Springfield the regiment was furloughed for 
thirty days and finally mustered out, October 16, 
numbering 1,213 men and 47- officers. 

FANTRY, consisting of twelve companies from the 
counties of Rock Island, Knox, Whiteside, Lee, 
Carroll, Stephenson, Henry, Warren, Bureau, and 
Jo Daviess, was mustered in May 11, 1898, under 
command of Col. D. Jack Foster; on May 17 left 
Springfield for Camp Alger, Va. ; July 5 the 
regiment moved to Charleston, S. C., where a 
part embarked for Siboney, Cuba, but the whole 
regiment was soon after united in General 
Miles' expedition for the invasion of Porto Rico, 
landing at Guanico on July 25, and advancing 
into the interior as far as Adjunta and Utuado. 
After several weeks' service in the interior, the 
regiment returned to Ponce, and on September 7 
took transport for the return home, arrived at 
Springfield a week later, and was mustered out 
November 25, the regiment at that time consist- 
ing of 1,239 men and 49 officers. 
(known as the "Hibernian Rifles"). Two 
battalion? of this regiment reported at Spring, 
field, April 27, with 33 officers and 765 enlisted 
men, being afterwards increased to the maxi- 



mum ; was mustered into the United States serv- 
ice, under command of Col. Marcus Kavanagh, 
May 18, 1898; on May 28 started for Camp Alger, 
Va. ; was afterwards encamped at Thoroughfare 
Gap and Camp Meade ; on September 9 returned 
to Springfield, was furloughed for thirty days, 
and mustered out, October 20, numbering 1,260 
men and 49 officers. Like the Fifth, the Seventh 
saw no actual service in the field. 

ored regiment), mustered into the service at 
Springfield under the second call of the Presi- 
dent, July 23, 1898, being composed wholly of 
Afro- Americans under officers of their own race, 
with Col. John R. Marshall in command, the 
muster-roll showing 1,195 men and 76 officers. 
The six companies, from A to F, were from Chi- 
cago, the other five being, respectively, from 
Bloomington, Springfield, Quincy, Litchfield, 
Mound City and Metropolis, and Cairo. The 
regiment having tendered their services to 
relieve the First Illinois on duty at Santiago de 
Cuba, it started for Cuba, August 8, by way of 
New York ; immediately on arrival at Santiago, 
a week later, was assigned to duty, but subse- 
quently transferred to San Luis, where Colone, 
Marshall was made military governor. The 
major part of the regiment remained here until 
ordered home early in March, 1899, arrived at 
Chicago, March 15, and was mustered out, April 
3, 1,226 strong, rank and file, having been in 
service nine months and six days. 

organized from the counties of Southern Illinois, 
and mustered in at Springfield under the second 
call of the President, July 4-11, 1898, under com- 
mand of Col. James R. Campbell; arrived at 
Camp Cuba Libre (Jacksonville, Fla.), August 9; 
two months later was transferred to Savannah, 
Ga. ; was moved to Havana in December, where 
it remained until May, 1899, when it returned to 
Augusta, Ga., and was mustered out there, May 
20, 1899, at that time consisting of 1,095 men and 
46 officers. From Augusta the several companies 
returned to their respective home stations. The 
Ninth was the only "Provisional Regiment" from 
Illinois mustered into the service during the 
war, the other regiments all belonging to the 
National Guard. 

FIRST ILLINOIS CAVALRY was organized at Chi- 
cago immediately after the President's first call, 
seven companies being recruited from Chicago, 
two from Bloomington, and one each from 
Springfield, Elkhart, and Lacon ; was mustered in 
at Springfield, May 21, 1898, under command of 

Col. Edward C. Young; left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas, Ga., May 30, remaining there until 
August 24, when it returned to Fort Sheridan, 
near Chicago, where it was stationed until October 
11, when it was mustered out, at that time con- 
sisting of 1,158 men and 50 officers. Although 
the regiment saw no active service in the field, it 
established an excellent record for itself in respect 
to discipline. 

FIRST ENGINEERING CORPS, consisting of 80 
men detailed from the First Illinois Volunteers, 
were among the first Illinois soldiers to see serv- 
ice in Porto Rico, accompanying General Miles' 
expedition in the latter part of July, and being^ 
engaged for a time in the construction of bridges 
in aid of the intended advance across the island. 
On September 8 they embarked for the return 
home, arrived at Chicago, September 17, and 
were mustered out November 20. 

BATTERY A (I. N. G.), from Danville, 111., was 
mustered in under a special order of the War 
Department, May 12, 1898, under command of 
Capt. Oscar P. Yaeger, consisting of 118 men; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas, Ga., May 19, 
and, two months later, joined in General Miles' 
Porto Rico expedition, landing at Guanico oa 
August 3, and taking part in the affair at Gua- 
yama on the 12th. News of peace having been 
received, the Battery returned to Ponce, where 
it remained until September 7, when it started 
on the return home by way of New York, arrived 
at Danville, September 17, was furloughed for 
sixty days, and mustered out November 25. The 
Battery was equipped with modern breech-load- 
ing rapid-firing guns, operated by practical artil- 
lerists and prepared for effective service. 

NAVAL RESERVES. One of the earliest steps 
taken by the Government after it became ap- 
parent that hostilities could not be averted, was 
to begin preparation for strengthening the naval 
arm of the service. The existence of the "Naval 
Militia," first organized in 1893, placed Illinois in. 
an exceptionally favorable position for making a 
prompt response to the call of the Government, as 
well as furnishing a superior class of men for 
service a fact evidenced during the operations 
in the West Indies. Gen. John McNulta, as head 
of the local committee, was active in calling the 
attention of the Navy Department to the value of 
the service to be rendered by this organization, 
which resulted in its being enlisted practically as 
a body, taking the name of "Naval Reserves" 
all but eighty -eight of the number passing the 
physical examination, the places of these being 
promptly filled by new recruits. The first de- 



tachment of over 200 left Chicago May 2, under 
the command of Lieut. -Com. John M. Hawley, 
followed soon after by the remainder of the First 
Battalion, making the whole number from Chi- 
cago 400, with 267, constituting the Second Bat- 
talion, from other towns of the State. The latter 
was made up of 147 men from Moline, 58 from 
Quincy, and 62 from Alton making a total from 
the State of 667. This does not include others, 
not belonging to this organization, who enlisted 
for service in the navy during the war, which 
raised the whole number for the State over 1,000. 
The Reserves enlisted from Illinois occupied a 
different relation to the Government from that 
of the "naval militia" of other States, which 
retained their State organizations, while those 
from Illinois were regularly mustered into the 
United States service. The recruits from Illinois 
were embarked at Key West, Norfolk and New 
York, and distributed among fifty-two different 
vessels, including nearly every vessel belonging 
to the North Atlantic Squadron. They saw serv- 
ice in nearly every department from the position 
of stokers in the hold to that of gunners in the 
turrets of the big battleships, the largest number 
(60) being assigned to the famous battleship Ore- 
gon, while the cruiser Yale followed with 47 ; the 
Harvard with 35; Cincinnati, 27; Yankton, 19; 
Franklin, 18; Montgomery and Indiana, each, 17; 
Hector, 14; Marietta, 11; Wilmington and Lan- 
caster, 10 each, and others down to one each. 
Illinois sailors thus had the privilege of partici- 
pating in the brilliant affair of July 3, which 
resulted in the destruction of Cervera's fleet off 
Santiago, as also in nearly every other event in 
the West Indies of less importance, without the 
loss of a man while in the service, although 
among the most exposed. They were mustered 
out at different times, as they could be spared 
from the service, or the vessels to which they 
were attached went out of commission, a portion 
serving out their full term of one year. The 
Reserves from Chicago retain their organization 
under the name of "Naval Reserve Veterans," 
with headquarters in the Masonic Temple Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WARD, James H., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Chicago, Nov. 30, 1853, and educated in the 
Chicago public schools and at the University of 
Notre Dame, graduating from the latter in 1873. 
Three years later he graduated from the Union 
College of Law, Chicago, and was admitted to 
the bar. Since then he has continued to practice 
his profession in his native city. In 1879 he was 
elected Supervisor of the town of West Chicago, 

and, in 1884, was a candidate for Presidential 
Elector on the Democratic ticket, and the same 
year, was the successful candidate of his party 
for Congress in the Third Illinois District, serv- 
ing one term. 

WINNEBAGO INDIANS, a tribe of the Da- 
cota, or Sioux, stock, which at one time occupied 
a part of Northern Illinois. The word Winne- 
bago is a corruption of the French Ouinebe- 
goutz, Ouimbegouc, etc., the diphthong "ou" 
taking the place of the consonant "w," which is 
wanting in the French alphabet. These were, 
in turn, French misspellings of an Algonquin 
term meaning "fetid," which the latter tribe 
applied to the Winnebagoes because they had 
come from the western ocean the salt (or 
"fetid") water. In their advance towards the 
East the Winnebagoes early invaded the country 
of the Illinois, but were finally driven north- 
ward by the latter, who surpassed them in num- 
bers rather than in bravery. The invaders 
settled in Wisconsin, near the Fox River, and 
here they were first visited by the Jesuit Fathers 
in the seventeenth century. (See Jesuit Rela- 
tions.) The Winnebagoes are commonly re- 
garded as a Wisconsin tribe; yet, that they 
claimed territorial rights in Illinois is shown by 
the fact that the treaty of Prairia du Chien 
(August 1, 1829), alludes to a Winnebago village 
located in what is now Jo Daviess County, near 
the mouth of the Pecatonica River. While, as a 
rule, the tribe, if left to itself, was disposed to 
live in amity with the whites, it was carried 
away by the eloquence and diplomacy of 
Tecumseh and the cajoleries of "The Prophet. " 
General Harrison especially alludes to the brav- 
ery of the .Winnebago warriors at Tippecanoe' 
which he attributees in part, however, to a super- 
stitious faith in "The Prophet." In June or 
July, 1827, an unprovoked and brutal outrage by 
the whites upon an unoffending and practically 
defenseless party of Winnebagoes, near Prairie 
du Chien brought on what is known as the 
'Winnebago War." (See Winnebago War.) 
The tribe took no part in the Black Hawk War, 
largely because of the great influence and shrewd 
tactic of their chief, Naw-caw. By treaties 
executed in 1832 and 1837 the Winnebagoes ceded 
to the United States all their lands lying east of 
the Mississippi. They were finally removed west 
of that river, and, after many sh if tings of loca- 
tion, were placed upon the Omaha Reservation in 
Eastern Nebraska, where their industry, thrift 
and peaceable disposition elicited high praise 
from Government officials. 



WARNER, Vespasian, lawyer and Member of 
Congress, was born in De Witt County, 111., April 
23, 1842, and has lived all his life in his native 
county his present residence being Clinton. 
After a short course in Lombard University, 
while studying law in the office of Hon. Law- 
rence Weldon, at Clinton, he enlisted as a private 
soldier of the Twentieth Illinois Volunteers, in 
June, 1861, serving until July, 1866, when he was 
mustered out with the rank of Captain and 
brevet Major. He received a gunshot wound at 
Shiloh, but continued to serve in the Army of 
the Tennessee until the evacuation of Atlanta, 
when he was ordered North on account of dis- 
ability. His last service was in fighting Indians 
on the plains. After the war he completed his 
law studies at Harvard University, graduating in 
1868, when he entered into a law partnership 
with Clifton H. Moore of Clinton. He served as 
Judge- Advocate General of the Illinois National 
Guard for several years, with the rank of Colonel, 
under the administrations of Governors Hamil- 
ton, Oglesby and Fifer, and, in 1894, was nomi- 
nated and elected, as a Republican, to the 
Fifty -fourth Congress for the Thirteenth District, 
being re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898. In 
the Fifty-fifth Congress, Mr. Warner was a mem- 
ber of the Committees on Agriculture and Invalid 
Pensions, and Chairman of the Committee on 
Revision of the Laws. 

WARREN, a village in Jo Daviess County, at 
intersection of the Illinois Central and the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways, 26 miles 
west-northwest of Freeport and 27 miles east by 
north of Galena. The surrounding region is 
agricultural and stock-raising ; there are also lead 
mines in the vicinity. Tobacco is grown to some 
extent. Warren has a flouring mill, tin factory, 
creamery and stone quarries, a State bank, water 
supply from artesian wells, fire department, gas 
plant, two weekly newspapers, five churches, a 
high school, an academy and a public library. 
Pop. (1890), 1,172; (1900), 1,327. 

WARREN, Calvin A., lawyer, was born in 
Essex County, N. Y., June 3, 1807; in his youth, 
worked for a time, as a typographer, in the office 
of "The Northern Spectator," at Poultney, Vt., 
side by side with Horace Greeley, afterwards the 
founder of "The New York Tribune." Later, he 
became one of the publishers of "The Palladium" 
at Ballston, N. Y., but, in 1832, removed to 
Hamilton County, Ohio, where he began the 
study of law, completing his course at Transyl- 
vania University, Ky., in 1834, and beginning 
practice at Batavia, Ohio, as the partner of 

Thomas Morris, then a United States Senator 
from Ohio, whose daughter he married, thereby 
becoming the brother-in-law of the late Isaac N. 
Morris, of Quincy, 111. In 1836, Mr. Warren 
came to Quincy, Adams County, 111., but soon 
after removed to Warsaw in Hancock County, 
where he resided until 1839, when he returned to 
Quincy. Here he continued in practice, either 
alone or as a partner, at different times, of sev- 
eral of the leading attorneys of that city. 
Although he held no office except that of Master 
in Chancery, which he occupied for some sixteen 
years, the possession of an inexhaustible fund of 
humor, with strong practical sense and decided 
ability as a speaker, gave him great popularity 
at the bar and upon the stump, and made him a 
recognized leader in the ranks of the Democratic 
party, of which he was a life-long member. He 
served as Presidential Elector on the Pierce 
ticket in 1852, and was the nominee of his party 
for the same position on one or two other occa- 
sions. Died, at Quincy, Feb. 22, 1881. 

WARREN, Hooper, pioneer journalist, was 
born at Walpole, N. H., in 1790; learned the print- 
er's trade on the Rutland (Vt. ) "Herald"; in 
1814 went to Delaware, whence, three years later, 
he emigrated to Kentucky, working for a time 
on a paper at Frankfort. In 1818 he came to St. 
Louis and worked in the office of the old "Mis- 
souri Gazette" (the predecessor of "The Repub- 
lican"), and also acted as the agent of a lumber 
company at Cairo, 111. , when the whole popula- 
tion of that place consisted of one family domi- 
ciled on a grounded flat-boat. In March, 1819, 
he established, at Edwardsville, the third paper 
in Illinois, its predecessors being "The Illinois 
Intelligencer," at Kaskaskia, and "The Illinois 
Emigrant," at Shawneetown. The name given 
to the new paper was "The Spectator," and the 
contest over the effort to introduce a pro-slavery 
clause in the State Constitution soon brought it 
into prominence. Backed by Governor Coles, 
Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Judge S. D. Lock- 
wood, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, Judge Wm. H. 
Brown (afterwards of Chicago), George Churchill 
and other opponents of slavery, "The Spectator" 
made a sturdy fight in opposition to the scheme, 
which ended in defeat of the measure by the 
rejection at the polls, in 1824, of the proposition 
for a Constitutional Convention. Warren left 
the Edwardsville paper in 1825, and was, for a 
time, associated with "The National Crisis," an 
anti-slavery paper at Cincinnati, but soon re~ 
turned to Illinois and established "The Sangamon 
Spectator" the first paper ever published at the 



present State capital. This he sold out in 1829, 
and, for the next three years, was connected 
with "The Advertiser and Upper Mississippi Her- 
ald," at Galena. Abandoning this field in 1832, 
he removed to Hennepin, where, within the next 
five years, he held the offices of Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit and County Commissioners' Courts and ex- 
officio Recorder of Deeds. In 1836 he began the 
publication of the third paper in Chicago "The 
Commercial Advertiser" (a weekly) which was 
continued a little more than a year, when it was 
abandoned, and he settled on a farm at Henry, 
Marshall County. His further newspaper ven- 
tures were, as the associate of Zebina Eastman, in 
the publication of "The Genius of Liberty," at 
Lowell, La Salle County, and "The Western 
Citizen" afterwards "The Free West" in Chi- 
cago. (See Eastman, Zebina, and. Lundy, Ben- 
jamin.) On the discontinuance of "The Free 
West" in 1856, he again retired to his farm at 
Henry, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
While returning home from a visit to Chicago, 
in August, 1864, he was taken ill at Mendota, 
dying there on the 22d of the month. 

WARREN, John Esaias, diplomatist and real- 
estate operator, was born in Troy, N. Y., in 1826, 
graduated at Union College and was connected 
with the American Legation to Spain during the 
administration of President Pierce; in 1859-60 
was a member of the Minnesota Legislature and, 
in 1861-62, Mayor of St. Paul; in 1867, came to 
Chicago, where, while engaged in real-estate 
business, he became known to the press as the 
author of a series of articles entitled ' 'Topics of 
the Time." In 1886 he took up his residence in 
Brussels, Belgium, where he died, July 6, 1896. 
Mr. Warren was author of several volumes of 
travel, of which "An Attache in Spain" and 
"Para" are most important. 

WARREN COUNTY. A western county, 
created by act of the Legislature, in 1825, but 
not fully organized until 1830, having at that time 
about 350 inhabitants ; has an area of 540 square 
miles, and was named for Gen. Joseph Warren. 
It is drained by the Henderson River and its 
affluents, and is traversed by the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy (two divisions), the Iowa 
Central and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroads. Bituminous coal is mined and lime- 
stone is quarried in large quantities. The county's 
early development was retarded in consequence 
of having become the "seat of war," during the 
Black Hawk War. The principal products are 
grain and live-stock, although manufacturing is 
carried on to some extent. The county -seat and 

chief city is Monmouth (which see). Roseville 
is a shipping point. Population (1880), 22,933. 
(1890), 21,281; (1900), 23,163. 

WARRENSBURG, a town of Macon County, 
on Peoria Division 111. Cent. Railway, 9 miles 
northwest of Decatur; has elevators, canning 
factory, a bank and newspaper. Pop. (1900), 503. 

WARSAW, the largest town in Hancock 
County, and admirably situated for trade. It 
stands on a bluff on the Mississippi River, some 
three miles below Keokuk, and about 40 miles 
above Quincy. It is the western terminus of the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway, and lies 116 
miles west-southwest of Peoria. Old Fort 
Edwards, established by Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
during the War of 1812, was located within the 
limits of the present city of Warsaw, opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines River. An iron 
foundry, a large woolen mill, a plow factory 
and cooperage works are its principal manufac- 
turing establishments. The channel of the Missis- 
sippi admits of the passage of the largest steamers 
up to this point. Warsaw has eight churches, a 
system of common schools comprising one high 
and three grammar schools, a National bank and 
two weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 3,105; 
(1890), 2,721; (1900), 2,335. 

WASHBURN, a village of Woodford County, on 
a branch of the Chicago & Alton Railway 25 
miles northeast of Peoria; has banks and a 
weekly paper ; the district is agricultural. Popu- 
lation (1890), 598; (1900), 703. 

WASHBURNE, Elihu Benjamin, Congressman 
and diplomatist, was born at Livermore, Maine, 
Sept. 23, 1816 ; in early life learned the trade of a 
printer, but graduated from Harvard Law School 
and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Coming 
west, he settled at Galena, forming a partnership 
with Charles S. Hempstead, for the practice of 
law, in 1841. He was a stalwart Whig, and, as 
such, was elected to Congress in 1852. He con- 
tinued to represent his District until 1869, taking 
a prominent position, as a Republican, on the 
organization of that party. On account of his 
long service he was known as the "Father of the 
House," administering the Speaker's oath three 
times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James G. 
Blaine. He was appointed Secretary of State by 
General Grant in 1869, but surrendered his port- 
folio to become Envoy to France, in which ca- 
pacity he achieved great distinction. He was the 
only official representative of a foreign govern- 
ment who remained in Paris, during the siege of 
that city by the Germans (1870-71) and the reign 
of the ' 'Commune." For his conduct he was 



honored by the Governments of France and Ger- 
many alike. On his return to the United States, 
he made his home in Chicago, where he devoted 
his latter years chiefly to literary labor, and 
where he died, Oct. 22, 1887. He was strongly 
favored as a candidate for the Presidency in 1880. 
WASHINGTON, a city in Tazewell County, 
situated at the intersection of the Chicago & 
Alton, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroads. It is 21 
miles west of El Paso, and 12 miles east of Peoria. 
Carriages, plows and farming implements con- 
stitute the manufactured output. It is also an 
important shipping-point for farm products. It 
has electric light and water-works plants, eight 
churches, a graded school, two banks and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,801; (1900), 1,451. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY, an interior county of 
Southern Illinois, east of St. Louis ; is drained by 
the Kaskaskia River and the Elkhorn, Beaucoup 
and Muddy Creeks; was organized in 1818, and 
has an area of 540 square miles. The surface is 
diversified, well watered and timbered. The 
soil is of variable fertility. Corn, wheat and 
oats are the chief agricultural products. Manu- 
facturing is carried onto some extent, among 
the products being agricultural implements, 
flour, carriages and wagons. The most impor- 
tant town is Nashville, which is also the county- 
seat. Population (1890), 19,262; (1900), 19,526. 
Washington was one of the fifteen counties into 
which Illinois was divided at the organization of 
the State Government, being one of the last 
three created during the Territorial period the 
other two being Franklin and Union. 

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS, a village of Cook 
County, on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railways, 12 miles southwest of Chicago ; 
has a graded school, female seminary, military 
school, a car factory, several churches and a 
newspaper. Annexed to City of Chicago, 1890. 

WATAGA, a village of Knox County, oh the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 8 miles 
northeast of Galesburg. Population (1900), 545. 
WATERLOO, the county-seat and chief town 
of Monroe County, on the Illinois Division of the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 24 miles east of south 
from St. Louis. The region is chiefly agricultural, 
but underlaid with coal. Its industries embrace 
two flour mills, a plow factory, distillery, cream- 
ery, two ice plants, and some minor concerns. 
The city has municipal water and electric light 
plants, four churches, a graded school and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,860; (1900) 2,114. 

WATERMAN, Arba Nelson, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Greensboro, Orleans County, Vt., 
Feb. 3, 1836. After receiving an academic edu- 
cation and teaching for a time, he read law at 
Montpelier and, later, passed through the Albany 
Law School. In 1861 he was admitted to the 
bar, removed to Joliet, 111., and opened an office. 
In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the One Hun- 
dredth Illinois Volunteers, serving with the 
Army of the Cumberland for two years, and 
being mustered out in August, 1864, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. On leaving the 
army, Colonel Waterman commenced practice in 
Chicago. In 1873-74 he represented the Eleventh 
Ward in the City Council. In 1887 he was elected 
to the bench of the Cook County Circuit Court, 
and was re-elected in 1891 and, again, in 1897. In 
1890 he was assigned as one of the Judges of the 
Appellate Court. 

WATSEKA, the county-seat of Iroquois County, 
situated on the Iroquois River, at the mouth of 
Sugar Creek, and at the intersection of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois and the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroads, 77 miles south of Chicago, 46 
miles north of Danville and 14 miles east of 
Gilman. It has flour-mills, brick and tile works 
and foundries, besides several churches, banks, a 
graded school and three weekly newspapers. 
Artesian well water is obtained by boring to the 
depth of 100 to 160 feet, and some forty flowing 
streams from these shafts are in the place. Popu- 
lation (1890), 2,017; (1900), 2,505. 

WATTS, Amos, jurist, was born in St. Clair 
County, 111., Oct. 25, 1821, but removed to Wash- 
ington County in boyhood, and was elected County 
Clerk in 1847, '49 and '53, and State's Attorney 
for the Second Judicial District in 1856 and '60 ; 
then became editor and proprietor of a news- 
paper, later resuming the practice of law, and, in 
1873, was elected Circuit Judge, remaining in 
office until his death, at Nashville, 111., Dec. 6, 

WAUKEGAN, the county-seat and principal 
city of Lake County, situated en the shore of 
Lake Michigan and on the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad, about 36 miles north by west 
from Chicago, and 50 miles south of Milwaukee; 
is also the northern terminus of the Elgin, Joliet 
& Eastern Railroad and connected by electric 
lines with Chicago and Fox Lake. Lake Michigan 
is about 80 miles wide opposite this point. 
Waukegan was first known as "Little Fort," 
from the remains of an old fort that stood on its 
site. The principal part of the city is built on a 
bluff, which rises abruptly to the height of about 



fifty feet. Between the bluff and the shore is a 
flat tract about 400 yards wide which is occupied 
by gardens, dwellings, warehouses and manu- 
factories. The manufactures include steel- wire, 
refined sugar, scales, agricultural implements, 
brass and iron products, sash, doors and blinds, 
leather, beer, etc. ; the city has paved streets, gas 
and electric light plants, three banks, eight or 
ten churches, graded and high schools and two 
newspapers. A large trade in grain, lumber, coal 
and dairy products is carried on. Pop. (1890), 
4,915; (1900), -9,426. 

WAY. (See Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway.) 

WAYERLY, a city in Morgan County, 18 miles 
southeast of Jacksonville, on the Jacksonville & 
St. Louis and the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis 
Railroads. It was originally settled by enter- 
prising emigrants from New England, whose 
descendants constitute a large proportion of the 
population. It is the center of a rich agricultural 
region, has a fine graded school, six or seven 
churches, two banks, two newspapers and tile 
works. Population (1880), 1,124; (1890), 1,337; 
(1900), 1,573. 

WAYNE, (Gen.) Anthony, soldier, was born in 
Chester County, Pa., Jan. 1, 1745, of Anglo-Irish 
descent, graduated as a Surveyor, and first prac- 
ticed his profession in Nova Scotia. During the 
years immediately antecedent to the Revolution 
he was prominent in the colonial councils of his 
native State, to which he had returned in 1767, 
where he became a member of the "Committee of 
Safety." On June 3, 1776, he was commissioned 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Pennsylvania 
troops in the Continental army, and, during the 
War of the Revolution, was conspicuous for his 
courage and ability as a leader. One of his most 
daring and successful achievements was the cap- 
ture of Stony Point, m 1779, when the works 
having been carried and Wayne having received, 
what was supposed to be, his death-wound he 
entered the fort, supported by his aids. For this 
service he was awarded a gold medal by Con- 
gress. He also took a conspicuous part in the 
investiture and capture of Yorktown. In October, 
1783, he was brevetted Major-General. In 1784 
lie was elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
A few years later he settled in Georgia, which 
State he represented in Congress for seven 
months, when his seat was declared vacant after 
contest. In April, 1792, he was confirmed as 
General-in-Chief of the United States Army, on 
nomination of President Washington. His con- 
nection with Illinois history began shortly after 

St. Clair's defeat, when he led a force into Ohio 
(1783) and erected a stockade at Greenville, 
which he named Fort Recovery ; his object being 
to subdue the hostile savage tribes. In this he 
was eminently successful and, on August 3, 
1793, after a victorious campaign, negotiated the 
Treaty of Greenville, as broad in its provisions as 
it was far-reaching in its influence. He was a 
daring fighter, and although Washington called 
him "prudent," his dauntlessness earned for him 
the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony." In matters of 
dress he was punctilious, and, on this account, 
he was sometimes dubbed "Dandy Wayne." He 
was one of the few white officers whom all the 
Western Indian tribes at once feared and re- 
spected. They named him "Black Snake" and 
"Tornado." He died at Presque Isle near Erie, 
Dec. 15, 1796. Thirteen years afterward his 
remains were removed by one of his sons, and 
interred in Badnor churchyard, in his native 
county. The Pennsylvania Historical Society 
erected a marble monument over his grave, and 
appropriately dedicated it on July 4 of the same 

WAYNE COUNTY, in the southeast quarter of 
the State ; has an area of 720 square miles ; was 
organized in 1819, and named for Gen. Anthony 
Wayne. The county is watered and drained by 
the Little Wabash and its branches, notably the 
Skillet Fork. At the first election held in the 
county, only fifteen votes were cast. Early life 
was exceedingly primitive, the first settlers 
pounding corn into meal with a wooden pestle, 
a hollowed stump being used as a mortar. The 
first mill erected (of the antique South Carolina 
pattern) charged 25 cents per bushel for grinding. 
Prairie and woodland make up the surface, and 
the soil is fertile. Railroad facilities are furnished 
by the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis and the 
Baltimore & Ohio (Southwestern) Railroads. 
Corn, oats, tobacco, wheat, hay and wool are the 
chief agricultural products. Saw mills are numer- 
ous and there are also carriage and wagon facto- 
ries. Fairfield is the county-seat. Population 
(1880), 21,291; (1890), 23,806; (1900), 27,626. 

WEAS, THE, a branch of the Miami tribe of 
Indians. They called themselves "We-wee- 
hahs, " and were spoken of by the French as "Oui- 
at-a-nons" and "Oui-as." Other corruptions of 
the name were common among the British and 
American colonists. In 1718 they had a village 
at Chicago, but abandoned it through fear of 
their hostile neighbors, the Chippewas and Potta- 
watomies. The Weas were, at one time, brave 
and warlike ; but their numbers were reduced by 



constant warfare and disease, and, in the end, 
debauchery enervated and demoralized them. 
They were removed west of the Mississippi and 
given a reservation in Miami County, Kan. This 
they ultimately sold, and, under the leadership 
of Baptiste Peoria, united with their few remain- 
ing brethren of the Miamis and with the remnant 
of the Ill-i-ni under the title of the "confederated 
tribes," and settled in Indian Territory. (See also 
Miamis; Piankeshaws.) 

WEBB, Edwin B., early lawyer and politician, 
was born about 1802, came to the vicinity of 
Carmi, White County, 111., about 1828 to 1830, 
and, still later, studied law at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He held the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney of White County, and, in 1834, was 
elected to the lower branch of the General 
Assembly, serving, by successive re-elections, 
until 1842, and, in the Senate, from 1842 to '46. 
During his service in the House he was a col- 
league and political and personal friend of 
Abraham Lincoln. He opposed the internal 
improvement scheme of 1837, predicting many 
of the disasters which were actually realized a 
few years later. He was a candidate for Presi- 
dential Elector on the Whig ticket, in 1844 and 
'48, and, in 1852, received the nomination for 
Governor as the opponent of Joel A. Matteson, 
two years later, being an unsuccessful candidate 
for Justice of the Supreme Court in opposition to 
Judge W. B. Scates. While practicing law at 
Carmi, he was also a partner of his brother in 
the mercantile business. Died, Oct. 14, 1858, in 
the 56th year of his age. 

WEBB, Henry Livingston, soldier and pioneer 
(an elder brother of James Watson Webb, a noted 
New York journalist), was born at Claverack, 
N. Y., Feb. 6, 1795; served as a soldier in the 
War of 1812, came to Southern Illinois in 1817, 
and became one of the founders of the town of 
America near the mouth of the Ohio ; was Repre- 
sentative in the Fourth and Eleventh General 
Assemblies, a Major in the Black Hawk War and 
Captain of volunteers and, afterwards, Colonel of 
regulars, in the Mexican War. In 1860 he went 
to Texas and served, for a time, in a semi -mili- 
tary capacity under the Confederate Govern- 
ment; returned to Illinois in 1869, and died, at 
Makanda, Oct. 5, 1876. 

WEBSTER, Fletcher, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Portsmouth, N. H. , July 23, 1813 ; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1833, and studied law with 
his father (Daniel Webster) ; in 1837, located at 
Peru, 111., where he practiced three years. His 
father having been appointed Secretary of State 

in 1841, the son became his private secretary, 
was also Secretary of Legation to Caleb Gushing 
(Minister to China) in 1843, a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1847, and Surveyor 
of the Port of Boston, 1850-61; the latter year 
became Colonel of the Twelfth Massachusetts 
Volunteers, and was killed in the second battle 
of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

WEBSTER, Joseph Dana, civil engineer and 
soldier, was born at Old Hampton, N. H., 
August 25, 1811. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1832, and afterwards read 
law at Newburyport, Mass. His natural incli- 
nation was for engineering, and, after serv- 
ing for a time in the Engineer and War offices, 
at Washington, was made a United States civil 
engineer (1835) and, on July 7, 1838, entered the 
army as Second Lieutenant of Topographical 
Engineers. He served through the Mexican 
War, was made First Lieutenant in 1849, and 
promoted to a captaincy, in March, 1853. Thir- 
teen months later he resigned, removing to Chi- 
cago, where he made his permanent home, and 
soon after was identified, for a time, with the 
proprietorship of "The Chicago Tribune." He 
was President of the commission that perfected 
the Chicago sewerage system, and designed and 
executed the raising of the grade of a large por- 
tion of the city from two to eight feet, whole 
blocks of buildings being raised by jack screws, 
while new foundations were inserted. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War he tendered his serv- 
ices to the Government and superintended the 
erection of the fortifications at Cairo, 111., and 
Paducah, Ky. On April 7, 1861, he was com- 
missioned Paymaster of Volunteers, with the 
rank of Major, and, in February, 1862, Colonel of 
the First Illinois Artillery. For several months 
he was chief of General Grant's staff, participat- 
ing in the capture of Forts Donelson and Henry, 
and in the battle of Shiloh, in the latter as Chief 
of Artillery. In October, 1862, the War Depart- 
ment detailed him to make a survey of the Illi 
nois & Michigan Canal, and, the following month, 
he was commissioned Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, serving as Military Governor of Mem- 
phis and Superintendent of military railroads. 
He was again chief of staff to General Grant 
during the Vicksburg campaign, and, from 1864 
until the close of the war, occupied the same 
relation to General Sherman. He was bre vetted 
Major-General of Volunteers, March 13, 1865, but, 
resigning Nov. 6, following, returned to Chicago, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. From 
1869 to 1872 he was Assessor of Internal Revenue 



there, and, later, Assistant United States Treas- 
urer, and, in July, 1872, was appointed Collector 
of Internal Revenue. Died, at Chicago, March 
12, 1876. 

WELCH, William R., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Jessamine County, Ky., Jan. 22, 1828, 
educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, 
graduating from the academic department in 
1847, and, from the law school, in 1851. In 1864 he 
removed to Carlinville, Macoupin County, 111., 
which place he made his permanent home. In 
1877 he was elected to the bench of the Fifth 
Circuit, and re-elected in 1879 and '85. In 1884 
he was assigned to the bench of the Appellate 
Court for the Second District. Died, Sept. 1, 

WELDON, Lawrence, one of the Judges of the 
United States Court of Claims, Washington, 
D. C., was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, in 
1829; while a child, removed with his jparents to 
Madison County, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools, the local academy and at Wittenberg 
College, Springfield, in the same State ; read law 
with Hon. R. A. Harrison, a prominent member 
of the Ohio bar, and was admitted to practice in 
1854, meanwhile, in 1852-53, having served as a 
clerk in the office of the Secretary of State at 
Columbus. In 1854 he removed to Illinois, locat- 
ing at Clinton, DeWitt County, where he engaged 
in practice ; in 1860 was elected a Representative 
in the Twenty-second General Assembly, was 
also chosen a Presidential Elector the same year, 
and assisted in the first election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency. Early in 1861 he 
resigned his seat in the Legislature to accept the 
position of United States District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois, tendered him by 
President Lincoln, but resigned the latter office 
in 1866 and, the following year, removed to 
Bloomington, where he continued the practice of 
his profession until 1883, when he was appointed, 
by President Arthur, an Associate Justice of the 
United States Court of Claims at Washington 
a position which he still (1899) continues to fill. 
Judge Weldon is among the remaining few who 
rode the circuit and practiced law with Mr. Lin- 
coln. From the time of coming to the State in 
1854 to 1860, he was one of Mr. Lincoln's most 
intimate traveling companions in the old 
Eighth Circuit, which extended from Sangamon 
County on the west to Vermilion on the east, and 
of which Judge David Davis, afterwards of the 
Supreme Court of the United States and United 
States Senator, was the presiding Justice. The 
Judge holds in his memory many pleasant remi- 

niscences of that day, especially of the eastern 
portion of the District, where he was accustomed 
to meet the late Senator Voorhees, Senator Mc- 
Donald and other leading lawyers of Indiana, as 
well as the historic men whom he met at the 
State capital. 

WELLS, Albert W., lawyer and legislator, was 
born at Woodstock, Conn., May 9, 1839, and 
enjoyed only such educational and other advan- 
tages as belonged to the average New England 
boy of that period. During his boyhood his 
family removed to New Jersey, where he attended 
an academy, later, graduating from Columbia 
College and Law School in New York City, and 
began practice with State Senator Robert Allen 
at Red Bank, N. J. During the Civil War he 
enlisted in a New Jersey regiment and took part 
in the battle of Gettysburg, resuming his profes- 
sion at the close of the war. Coming west in 
1870, he settled in Quincy, 111., where he con- 
tinued practice. In 1886 he was elected to the 
House of Representatives from Adams County, 
as a Democrat, and re-elected two years later. 
In 1890 he was advanced to the Senate, where, 
by re-election in 1894, he served continuously 
until his death in office, March 5, 1897. His 
abilities and long service covering the sessions 
of the Thirty-fifth to the Fortieth General Assem- 
blies placed him at the head of the Democratic 
side of the Senate during the latter part of his 
legislative career. 

WELLS, William, soldier and victim of the 
Fort Dearborn massacre, was born in Kentucky, 
about 1770. When a boy of 12, he was captxired 
by the Miami Indians, whose chief, Little Turtle, 
adopted him, giving him his daughter in mar- 
riage when he grew to manhood. He was highly 
esteemed by the tribe as a warrior, and, in 1790, 
was present at the battle where Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair was defeated. He then realized that he 
was fighting against his own race, and informed 
his father-in-law that he intended to ally himself 
with the whites. Leaving the Miamis, he made 
his way to General Wayne, who made him Cap- 
tain of a company of scouts. After the treaty of 
Greenville (1795) he settled on a farm near Fort 
Wayne, where he was joined by his Indian wife. 
Here he acted as Indian Agent and Justice of the 
Peace. In 1812 he learned of the contemplated 
evacuation of Fort Dearborn, and, at the head of 
thirty Miamis, he set out for the post, his inten- 
tion being to furnish a body-guard to the non- 
combatants on their proposed march to Fort 
Wayne. On August 13, he marched out of the 
fort with fifteen of his dusky warriors behind 



him, the remainder bringing up the rear. Before 
a mile and a half had been traveled, the party fell 
into an Indian ambuscade, and an indiscrimi- 
nate massacre followed. (See Fort Dearborn.') 
The Miamis fled, and Captain Wells' body was 
riddled with bullets, his head cut off and his 
heart taken out. He was an uncle of Mrs. Heald, 
wife of the commander of Fort Dearborn. 

WELLS, William Harvey, educator, was born 
in Tolland, Conn., Feb. 27, 1812; lived on a farm 
until 17 years old, attending school irregularly, 
but made such progress that he became succes- 
sively a teacher in the Teachers' Seminary at 
Andover and Newburyport, and, finally, Principal 
of the State Normal School at Westfield, Mass. 
In 1856 he accepted the position of Superintend- 
ent of Public Schools for the city of Chicago, 
serving till 1864, when he resigned. He was an 
organizer of the Massachusetts State Teachers' 
Association, one of the first editors of "The 
Massachusetts Teacher" and prominently con- 
nected with various benevolent, educational and 
learned societies ; was also author of several text- 
books, and assisted in the revision of "Webster's 
Unabridged Dictionary." Died, Jan. 21, 1885. 

WENONA, city on the eastern border of Mar- 
shall County, 20 miles south of La Salle, has 
zinc works, public and parochial schools, a 
weekly paper, two banks, and five churches. A 
good quality of soft coal is mined here. Popu- 
lation (1880), 911; (1890), 1,053; (1900), 1,486. 

WENTWORTH, John, early journalist and 
Congressman, was born at Sandwich, N. H., 
March 5, 1815, graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1836, and came to Chicago the same year, 
where he became editor of "The Chicago Demo- 
crat," which had been established by John Cal- 
houn three years previous. He soon after became 
proprietor of "The Democrat," of which he con- 
tinued to be the publisher until it was merged 
into "The Chicago Tribune," July 24, 1864. He 
also studied law, and was admitted to the Illinois 
bar in 1841. He served in Congress as a Demo- 
crat from 1843 to 1851, and again from 1853 to 
1855, but left the Democratic party on the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise. He was elected 
Mayor of Chicago in 1857, and again in 1860, 
during his incumbency introducing a number of 
important municipal reforms ; was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and twice 
served on the Board of Education. He again 
represented Illinois in Congress as a Republican 
from 1865 to 1867 making fourteen years of 
service in that body. In 1872 he joined in the 
Greeley movement, but later renewed his alle- 

giance to the Republican party. In 1878 Mr. Went- 
worth published an elaborate genealogical work 
in three volumes, entitled "History of the Went- 
worth Family." A volume of "Congressional 
Reminiscences" and two by him on "Early Chi- 
cago, ' ' published in connection with the Fergus 
Historical Series, contain some valuable informa- 
tion on early local and national history. On 
account of his extraordinary height he received 
the sobriquet of "Long John," by which he was 
familiarly known throughout the State. Died, 
in Chicago, Oct. 16, 1888. 

WEST, Edward M., merchant and banker, was 
born in Virginia, May 2, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1818 ; in 1829 became a clerk 
in the Recorder's office at Edwardsville, also 
served as deputy postmaster, and, in 1833, took a 
position in the United States Land Office there. 
Two years later he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, which he prosecuted over thirty years 
meanwhile filling the office of County Treasurer, 
ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, and Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 1867, 
in conjunction with W. R. Prickett, he established 
a bank at Edwardsville, with which he was con- 
nected until his death, Oct. 31, 1887. Mr. West 
officiated frequently as a "local preacher" of the 
Methodist Church, in which capacity he showed 
much ability as a public speaker. 

WEST, Mary Allen, educator and philanthro- 
pist, was born at Galesburg, 111., July 31, 1837; 
graduated at Knox Seminary in 1854 and taught 
until 1873, when she was elected County Super- 
intendent of Schools, serving nine years. She 
took an active and influential interest in educa- 
tional and reformatory movements, was for two 
years editor of "Our Home Monthly," in Phila- 
delphia, and also a contributor to other journals, 
besides being editor-in-chief of "The Union Sig- 
nal," Chicago, the organ of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union in which she held the 
position of President ; was also President, in the 
latter days of her life, of the Illinois Woman's 
Press Association of Chicago, that city having 
become her home in 1885. In 1892, Miss West 
started on a tour of the world for the benefit of 
her health, but died at Tokio, Japan, Dec. 1, 1892. 
an institution for the treatment of the insane, 
located at Watertown, Rock Island County, in 
accordance with an act of the General Assembly, 
approved, May 22, 1895. The Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly made an appropriation of $100,000 
for the erection of fire-proof buildings, while 
Rock Island County donated a tract of 400 acres 



of land valued at $40, 000. The site selected by the 
Commissioners, is a commanding one overlooking 
the Mississippi River, eight miles above Rock 
Island, and five and a half miles from Moline, and 
the buildings are of the most modern style of con- 
struction. Watertown is reached by two lines of 
railroad the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy besides the 
Mississippi River. The erection of buildings was 
begun in 1896, and they were opened for the 
reception of patients in 1898. They have a ca- 
pacity for 800 patients. 

tution located at Upper Alton, Madison County, 
incorporated in 1892; has a faculty of eight mem- 
bers and reports eighty pupils for 1897-98, with 
property valued at $70,000. The institution gives 
instruction in literary and scientific branches, 
besides preparatory and business courses. 

Bushnell, McDonough County; incorporated in 
1888. It is co-educational, has a corps of twelve 
instructors and reported 500 pupils for 1897-98, 
300 males and 200 females. 

WESTERN SPRINGS, a village of Cook 
County, and residence suburb of the city of Chi- 
cago, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, 15 miles west of the initial station. 
Population (1890), 451; (1900), 662. 

located in Chicago and controlled by the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. It was founded in 1883 
through the munificence of Dr. Tolman Wheeler, 
and was opened for students two years later. It 
has two buildings, of a superior order of archi- 
tecture one including the school and lecture 
rooms and the other a dormitory. A hospital 
and gymnasium are attached to the latter, and a 
school for boys is conducted on the first floor of 
the main building, which is known as Wheeler 
Hall. The institution is under the general super- 
vision of Rt. Rev. William E. McLaren, Protes- 
tant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Illinois. 

WESTFIELD, village of Clark County, on Gin., 
Ham. & Dayton R. R. , 10 m. s -e. of Charleston ; 
seat of Westfield College; has a bank, five 
churches and two newspapers. Pop. (1900), 820. 

WEST SALEM, a town of Edwards County, on 
the Peoria-Evansville Div. 111. Cent. R. R., 12 
miles northeast of Albion; has a bank and a 
weekly paper. Pop. (1890), 476; (1900), 700. 

WETHERELL, Emma Abbott, vocalist, was 
born in Chicago, DP/?,. 9, 1849; in her childhood 
attracted attention while singing with her father 
(a poor musician) in hotels and on the streets in 

Chicago, Peoria and elsewhere; at 18 years of 
age, went to New York to study, earning her way 
by giving concerts en route, and receiving aid 
and encouragement from Clara Louisa Kellogg; 
in New York was patronized by Henry Ward 
Beecher and others, and aided in securing the 
training of European masters. Compelled to sur- 
mount many obstacles from poverty and other 
causes, her after success in her profession was 
phenomenal. Died, during a professional tour, 
at Salt Lake City, Jan. 5, 1891. Miss Abbott 
married her manager, Eugene Wetherell, who 
died before her. 

WHEATON, a city and the county-seat of Du 
Page County, situated on the Chicago & North- 
western Railway, 25 miles west of Chicago. Agri- 
culture and stock-raising are the chief industries 
in the surrounding region. The city owns a new 
water- works plant (costing $60,000) and has a 
public library valued at $75,000, the gift of a 
resident, Mr. John Quincy Adams; has a court 
house, electric light plant, sewerage and drainage 
system, seven churches, three graded schools, 
four weekly newspapers and a State bank. 
Wheaton is the seat of Wheaton College (which 
see). Population (1880), 1,160; (1890), 1,622; 
(1900), 2,345. 

WHEATON COLLEGE, an educational insti- 
tution located at Wheaton, Du Page County, and 
under Congregational control. It was founded 
in 1853, as the Illinois Institute, and was char- 
tered under its present name in 1860. Its early 
existence was one of struggle, but of late years it 
has been established on a better foundation, in 
1898 having $54, 000 invested in productive funds, 
and property aggregating $136,000. The faculty 
comprises fifteen professors, and, in 1898, there 
were 321 students in attendance. It is co-edu- 
cational and instruction is given in business and 
preparatory studies, as well as the fine arts, 
music and classical literature. 

WHEELER, David Hilton, D.D., LL.D., clergy- 
man, was born at Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1829; 
graduated at Rock River Seminary, Mount 
Morris, in 1851; edited "The Carroll County 
Republican" and held a professorship in Cornell 
College, Iowa, (1857-61) ; was United States Con- 
sul at Geneva, Switzerland, (1861-66) ; Professor of 
English Literature in Northwestern University 
(1867-75); edited "The Methodist" in New York, 
seven years, and was President of Allegheny 
College (1883-87); received the degree of D.D. 
from Cornell College in 1867, and that of LL.D. 
from the Northwestern University in 1881. He 
is the author of "Brigandage in South Italy" 



(two volumes, 1864) and "By -Ways of Literature" 
(1883), besides some translations. 

WHEELER, Hamilton K., ex-Congressman, 
was born at Ballston, N. Y., August 5, 1848, but 
emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1852; 
remained on a farm until 19 years of age, his 
educational advantages being limited to three 
months' attendance upon a district school each 
year. In 1871, he was admitted to the bar at 
Kankakee, where he has since continued to prac- 
tice. In 1884 he was elected to represent the Six- 
teenth District in the State Senate, where he 
served on many important committees, being 
Chairman of that on the Judicial Department. 
In 1892 he was elected Representative in Con- 
gress from the Ninth Illinois District, on the 
Republican ticket. 

WHEELING, a town on the northern border of 
Cook County, on the Wisconsin Central Railway. 
Population (1890), 811; (1900), 331. 

WHISTLER, (Maj.) John, soldier and builder 
of the first Fort Dearborn, was born in Ulster, Ire- 
land, about 1756 ; served under Burgoyne in the 
Revolution, and was with the force surrendered 
by that officer at Saratoga, in 1777. After the 
peace he returned to the United States, settled at 
Hagerstown, Md., and entered the United States 
Army, serving at first in the ranks and being 
severely wounded in the disastrous Indian cam- 
paigns of 1791. Later, he was promoted to a 
captaincy and, in the summer of 1803, sent with 
his company, to the head of Lake Michigan, 
where he constructed the first Fort Dearborn 
within the limits of the present city of Chicago, 
remaining in command until 1811, when he was 
succeeded by Captain Heald. He received the 
brevet rank of Major, in 1815 was appointed 
military store- keeper at Newport, Ky . , and after- 
wards at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, 
where he died, Sept. 3, 1829. Lieut. William 
Whistler, his son, who was with his father, for a 
time, in old Fort Dearborn but transferred, in 
1809, to Fort Wayne was of the force included 
in Hull's surrender at Detroit in 1812. After 
his exchange he was promoted to a captaincy, to 
the rank of Major in 1826 and to a Lieutenant-Colo- 
nelcy in 1845, dying at Newport, Ky., in 1863. 
James Abbott McNiel Whistler, the celebrated, - 
but eccentric artist of that name, is a grandson 
of the first Major Whistler. 

WHITE, George E., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Massachusetts in 1848 ; after graduating, at the 
age of 16, he enlisted as a private in the Fifty- 
seventh Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers, serv- 
ing under General Grant in the campaign 

against Richmond from the battle of the Wilder- 
ness until the surrender of Lee. Having taken a 
course in a commercial college at Worcester, 
Mass., in 1867 he came to Chicago, securing em- 
ployment in a lumber yard, but a year later 
began business on his own account, which he has 
successfully conducted. In 1878 he was elected 
to the State Senate, as a Republican, from one of 
the Chicago Districts, and re-elected four years 
later, serving in that body eight years. He 
declined a nomination for Congress in 1884, but 
accepted in 1894, and was elected for the Fifth 
District, as he was again in 1896, but was 
defeated, in 1898, by Edward T. Noonan, Demo- 

WHITE, Horace, journalist, was born at Cole- 
brook, N. H., August 10, 1834; in 1853 graduated 
at Beloit College, Wis., whither his father had 
removed in 1837 ; engaged in journalism as city 
editor of "The Chicago Evening Journal," later 
becoming agent of the Associated Press, and, in 
1857, an editorial writer on "The Chicago Trib- 
une," during a part of the war acting as its 
Washington correspondent. He also served, in 
1856, as Assistant Secretary of the Kansas 
National Committee, and, later, as Secretary of 
the Republican State Central Committee. In 
1864 he purchased an interest in "The Tribune," 
a year or so later becoming editor-in-chief, but 
retired in October, 1874 After a protracted 
European tour, he united with Carl Schurz and 
E. L. Godkin of "The Nation," in the purchase 
and reorganization of "The New York Evening 
Post," of which he is now editor-in-chief. 

WHITE, Julius, soldier, was born in Cazen- 
ovia, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1816; removed to Illinois 
in 1836, residing there and in Wisconsin, where 
he was a member of the Legislature of 1849 ; in 
1861 was made Collector of Customs at Chicago, 
but resigned to assume the colonelcy of the 
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, which he 
commanded on the Fremont expedition to South- 
west Missouri. He afterwards served with Gen- 
eral Curtiss in Arkansas, participated in the 
battle of Pea Ridge and was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. He was subsequently 
assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah, 
but finding his position at Marti nsburg, W. Va., 
untenable, retired to Harper's Ferry, voluntarily 
serving under Colonel Miles, his inferior in com- 
mand. When this post was surrendered (Sept. 
15, 1862), he was made a prisoner, but released 
under parole ; was tried by a court of inquiry at 
his own request, and acquitted, the court finding 
that he had acted with courage and capability. 



He resigned in 1864, and, in March, 1865, was 
brevetted Major-General of Volunteers. Died, 
at Evanston, May 12, 1890. 

WHITE COUNTY, situated in the southeastern 
quarter of the State, and bounded on the east by 
the Wabash River ; was organized in 1816, being 
the tenth county organized during the Territorial 
period: area, 500 square miles. The county is 
crossed by three railroads and drained by the 
Wabash and Little Wabash Rivers. The surface 
consists of prairie and woodland, and the soil is, 
for the most part, highly productive. The princi- 
pal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, fruit, butter, sorghum and 
wool. The principal industrial establishments 
are carriage factories, saw mills and flour mills. 
Carmi is the county -seat. Other towns are En- 
field, Grayville and Norris City. Population 
(1880), 23,087; (1890), 25,005; (1900), 25,386. 

WHITEHALL, a city in Greene County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago & Alton and the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 65 miles 
north of St. Louis and 24 miles south-southwest 
of Jacksonville; in rich farming region; has 
stoneware and sewer-pipe factories, foundry and 
machine shop, flour mill, elevators, wagon shops, 
creamery, water system, sanitarium, heating, 
electric light and power system, nurseries and 
fruit-supply houses, and two poultry packing 
houses; also has five churches, a graded school, 
two banks and three newspapers one daily. Pop- 
ulation (1890), 1,961; (1900), 2,030. 

WHITEHOUSE, Henry John, Protestant Epis 
copal Bishop, was born in New York City, August 
19, 1803; graduated from Columbia College in 
1821, and from the (New York) General Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1824. After ordination he was 
rector of various parishes in Pennsylvania and 
New York until 1851, when he was chosen Assist- 
ant Bishop of Illinois, succeeding Bishop Chase 
in 1852. In 1867, by invitation of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, he delivered the opening sermon 
before the Pan-Anglican Conference held in 
England. During this visit he received the 
degree of D.D. from Oxford University, and that 
of LL.D. from Cambridge. His rigid views as a 
churchman and a disciplinarian, were illustrated 
in his prosecution of Rev. Charles Edward 
Cheney, which resulted in the formation of the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He was a brilliant 
orator and a trenchant and unyielding controver- 
sialist. Died, in Chicago, August 10, 1874. 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, in the northwestern 
portion of the State bordering on the Mississippi 
River; created by act of the Legislature passed in 

1836, and named for Capt. Samuel Whiteside, a 
noted Indian fighter ; area, 700 square miles. The 
surface is level, diversified by prairies and wood- 
land, and the soil is extremely fertile. .The 
county-seat was first fixed at Lyndon, then at 
Sterling, and finally at Morrison, its present 
location. The Rock River crosses the county 
and furnishes abundant water power for numer- 
ous factories, turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages and wagons, furniture, woolen 
goods, flour and wrapping paper. There are also 
distilling and brewing interests, besides saw and 
planing mills. Corn is the staple agricultural 
product, although all the leading cereals are 
extensively grown. The principal towns are 
Morrison, Sterling, Fulton and Rock Falls. Popu- 
lation (1880), 30,885; (1890), 30.854; (1900), 34.710. 

WHITESIDE, William, pioneer and soldier of 
the Revolution, emigrated from the frontier of 
North Carolina to Kentucky, and thence, in 1793, 
to the present limits of Monroe County, 111., 
erecting a fort between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
which became widely known as "Whiteside 
Station." He served as a Justice of the Peace, 
and was active in organizing the militia during 
the War of 1812-14, dying at the old Station in 
1815. John (Whiteside), a brother of the preced- 
ing, and also a Revolutionary soldier, came to 
Illinois at the same time, as also did William B. 
and Samuel, sons of the two brothers, respec- 
tively. All of them became famous as Indian 
fighters. The two latter served as Captains of 
companies of "Rangers" in the War of 1812, 
Samuel taking part in the battle of Rock Island 
in 1814, and contributing greatly to the success 
of the day. During the Black Hawk War (1832) 
he attained the rank of Brigadier- General. 
Whiteside County was named in his honor. He 
made one of the earliest improvements in Ridge 
Prairie, a rich section of Madison County, and 
represented that county in the First General 
Assembly. William B. served as Sheriff of Madi- 
son County for a number of years. John D. 
(Whiteside), another member of this historic 
family, became very prominent, serving in the 
lower House of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and 
Fourteenth General Assemblies, and in the Sen- 
ate of the Tenth, from Monroe County; was a 
Presidential Elector in 1836, State Treasurer 
(1837-41) and a member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847. General Whiteside, as 
he was known, was the second of James Shields 
in the famous Shields and Lincoln duel (so-called) 
in 1842, and, as such, carried the challenge of the 
former to Mr. Lincoln. (See Diiels. ) 



WHITING, Lorenzo D., legislator, was born 
in Wayne County, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1819; came to 
Illinois in 1838, but did not settle there perma- 
nently until 1849, when he located in Bureau 
County. He was a Representative from that 
county in the Twenty-sixth General Assembly 
(1869), and a member of the Senate continuously 
from 1871 to 1887, serving in the latter through 
eight General Assemblies. Died at his home 
near Tiskilwa, Bureau County, 111., Oct. 10, 

WHITING, Richard H., Congressman, was 
born at West Hartford, Conn., June 17, 1826, and 
received a common school education. In 1862 he 
was commissioned Paymaster in the Volunteer 
Army of the Union, and resigned in 1866. Hav- 
ing removed to Illinois, he was appointed Assist- 
ant Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Fifth 
Illinois District, in February, 1870, and so contin- 
ued until the abolition of the office in 1873. On 
retiring from the Assessorship he was appointed 
Collector of Internal Revenue, and served until 
March 4, 1875, when he resigned to take his seat 
as Republican Representative in Congress from 
the Peoria District, to which he had been elected 
in November, 1874. After the expiration of his 
term he held no public office, but was a member 
of the Republican National Convention of 1884. 
Died, at the Continental Hotel, in New York 
City, May 24, 1888. 

WHITNEY, James W., pioneer lawyer and 
early teacher, known by the nickname of "Lord 
Coke"; came to Illinois in Territorial days (be- 
lieved to have been about 1800) ; resided for some 
time at or near Edwardsville, then became a 
teacher at Atlas, Pike County, and, still later, the 
first Circuit and County Clerk of that county. 
Though nominally a lawyer, he had little if any 
practice. He acquired the title, by which he was 
popularly known for a quarter of a century, by 
his custom of visiting the State Capital, during 
the sessions of the General Assembly, when 
he would organize the lobbyists and visit- 
ors about the capital of which there were an 
unusual number in those days into what was 
called the "Third House." Having been regu- 
larly chosen to preside under the name of 
"Speaker of the Lobby," he would deliver a mes- 
sage full of practical hits and jokes, aimed at 
members of the two houses and others, which 
would be received with cheers and laughter. 
The meetings of the "Third House," being held 
in the evening, were attended by many members 
and visitors in lieu of other forms of entertain- 
ment. Mr. Whitney's home, in his latter years, 

was at Pittsfield. He resided for a time at 
Quincy. Died, Dec. 13, 1860, aged over 80 years. 

WHITTEMORE, Floyd K., State Treasurer, is 
a native of New York, came at an early age, with 
his parents, to Sycamore, 111. , where he was edu- 
cated in the high school there. He purposed 
becoming a lawyer, but, on the election of the 
late James H. Beveridge State Treasurer, in 1864, 
accepted the position of clerk in the office. 
Later, he was employed as a clerk in the banking 
house of Jacob Bunn in Springfield, and, on the 
organization of the State National Bank, was 
chosen cashier of that Institution, retaining the 
position some twenty years. After the appoint- 
ment of Hon. John R. Tanner to the position of 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States, at Chi- 
cago, in 1892, Mr. Whittemore became cashier in 
that office, and, in 1865, Assistant State Treas- 
rure under the administration of State Treasurer 
Henry Wulff. In 1898 he was elected State 
Treasurer, receiving a plurality of 43,450 over 
his Democratic opponent. 

WICKERSHAM, (Col.) Dudley, soldier and 
merchant, was born in Woodford County, Ky., 
Nov. 22, 1819; came to Springfield, 111., in 1843, 
and served as a member of the Fourth Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers (Col. E. D. Baker's) through 
the Mexican War. On the return of peace he 
engaged in the dry-goods trade in Springfield, 
until 1861, when he enlisted in the Tenth Regi- 
ment Illinois Cavalry, serving, first as Lieutenant- 
Colonel and then as Colonel, until May, 1864, 
when, his regiment having been consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, he resigned. After 
the war, he held the office of Assessor of Internal 
Revenue for several years, after which he en- 
gaged in the grocery trade. Died, in Springfield, 
August 8, 1898. 

WIDEN, Raphael, pioneer and early legislator, 
was a native of Sweden, who, having been taken 
to France at eight years of age, was educated for 
a Catholic priest. Coming to the United States 
in 1815, he was at Cahokia, 111., in 1818, where, 
during the same year, he married into a French 
family of that place. He served in the House of 
Representatives from Randolph County, in the 
Second and Third General Assemblies (1820-24), 
and as Senator in the Fourth and Fifth (1824-28). 
During his last term in the House, he was one of 
those who voted against the pro-slavery Con- 
vention resolution. He died of cholera, at Kas- 
kaskia, in 1833. 

WIKE, Scott, lawyer and ex-Congressman, was 
born at Meadville, Pa., April 6, 1834; at 4 years 
of age removed with his parents to Quincy, 111., 



and, in 1844, to Pike County. Having graduated 
from Lombard University, Galesburg, in 1857, he 
began reading law with Judge O. C. Skinner of 
Quincy. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, 
but, before commencing practice, spent a year at 
Harvard Law School, graduating there in 1859. 
Immediately thereafter he opened an office at 
Pittsfield, 111., and has resided there ever since. 
In politics he has always been a strong Democrat. 
He served two terms in the Legislature (1863-67) 
and, in 1874, was chosen Representative from his 
District in Congress, being re-elected in 1888 and, 
again, in 1890. In 1893 he was appointed by 
President Cleveland Third Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury, which position he continued 
to fill until March, 1897, when he resumed the 
practice of law at Pittsfield. Died Jan. 15, 1901 
WILEY, (Col.) Benjamin Ladd, soldier, was 
born in Smithfield, Jefferson County, Ohio, 
March 25, 1821, came to Illinois in 1845 and began 
life at Vienna, Johnson County, as a teacher. 
In 1846 he enlisted for the Mexican War, as a 
member of the Fifth (Colonel Newby's) Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers, serving chiefly in New 
Mexico until mustered out in 1848. A year later 
he removed to Jonesboro, where he spent some 
time at the carpenter's trade, after which he 
became clerk in a store, meanwhile assisting to 
edit "The Jonesboro Gazette" until 1853; then 
became traveling salesman for a St. Louis firm, 
but later engaged in the hardware trade at 
Jonesboro, in which he continued for several 
years. In 1856 he was the Republican candidate 
for Congress for the Ninth District, receiving 
4,000 votes, while Fremont, the Republican can- 
didate for President, received only 825 in the 
same district. In 1857 he opened a real estate 
office in Jonesboro in conjunction with David L. 
Phillips and Col. J. W. Ashley, with which he 
was connected until 1860, when he removed to 
Makanda, Jackson County. In September, 1861, 
he was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, later serving in Missouri 
and Arkansas under Generals Steele and Curtiss, 
being, a part of the time, in command of the First 
Brigade of Cavalry, and, in the advance on Vicks- 
burg, having command of the right wing of 
General Grant's cavalry. Being disabled by 
rheumatism at the end of the siege, he tendered 
his resignation, and was immediately appointed 
Enrolling Officer at Cairo, serving in this capac- 
ity until May, 1865, when he was mustered out. 
In 1869 he was appointed by Governor Palmer 
one of the Commissioners to locate the Southern 
Illinois Hospital for the Insane, and served as 

Secretary of the Board until the institution was 
opened at Anna, in May, 1871. In 1869 he was 
defeated as a candidate for County Judge of 
Jackson County, and, in 1872, for the State Sen- 
ate, by a small majority in a strongly Democratic 
District; in 1876 was the Republican candidate 
for Congress, in the Eighteenth District, against 
William Hartzell, but was defeated by only 
twenty votes, while carrying six out of the ten 
counties comprising the District. In the latter 
years of his life, Colonel Wiley was engaged quite 
extensively in fruit-growing at Makanda, Jack- 
son County, where he died, March 22, 1890. 

WILKIE, Franc Bangs, journalist, was born 
in Saratoga County, N. Y., July 2, 1830; took a 
partial course at Union College, after which he 
edited papers at Schenectady, N. Y., Elgin, 111., 
and Davenport and Dubuque, Iowa ; also serving, 
during a part of the Civil War, as the western 
war correspondent of "The New York Times." 
In 1863 he became an editorial writer on "The 
Chicago Times," remaining with that paper, 
with the exception of a brief interval, until 1888 
a part of the time as its European correspond- 
ent. He was the author of a series of sketches 
over the nom de plume of "Poliuto," and of a 
volume of reminiscences under the title, 
"Thirty-five Years of Journalism," published 
shortly before his death, which took place, April 
12, 1892. 

WILKIN, Jacob W., Justice of the Supreme 
Court, was born in Licking County, Ohio, June 
7, 1837 ; removed with his parents to Illinois, at 
12 years of age, and was educated at McKendree 
College ; served three years in the War for the 
Union; studied law with Judge Scholfield and 
was admitted to the bar in 1866. In 1872, he was 
chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican 
ticket, and, in 1879, elected Judge of the Circuit 
Court and re-elected in 1885 the latter year 
being assigned to the Appellate bench for the 
Fourth District, where he remained until his 
election to the Supreme bench in 1888, being 
re-elected to the latter office in 1897. His home 
is at Danville. 

WILKINSON, Ira 0., lawyer and Judge, was 
born in Virginia in 1822, and accompanied his 
father to Jacksonville (1835), where he was edu- 
cated. During a short service as Deputy Clerk of 
Morgan County, he conceived a fondness for the 
profession of the law, and, after a course of study 
und^r Judge William Thomas, was admitted to 
practice in 1847. Richard Yates (afterwards Gov- 
ernor and Senator) was his first partner. In 1845 
he removed to Rock Island, and, six years later, 



was elected a Circuit Judge, being again closen 
to the same position in 1861. At the expiration 
of his second term he removed to Chicago. 
Died, at Jacksonville, August 24, 1894. 

WILKINSON, John P., early merchant, was 
born, Dec. 14, 1790, in New Kent County, Va., 
emigrated first to Kentucky, and, in 1828, settled 
in Jacksonville, 111., where he engaged in mer- 
cantile business. Mr. Wilkinson was a liberal 
friend of Illinois College and Jacksonville Female 
Academy, of each of which he was a Trustee 
from their origin until his death, which occurred, 
during a business visit to St. Louis, in December, 

WILL, Conrad, pioneer physician and early 
legislator, was born in Philadelphia, June 4, 1778; 
about 1804 removed to Somerset County Pa., and, 
in 1813, to Kaskaskia, 111. He was a physician 
by profession, but having leased the saline lands 
on the Big Muddy, in the vicinity of what after- 
wards became the town of Brownsville, he 
engaged in the manufacture of salt, removing 
thither in 1815, and becoming one of the founders 
of Brownsville, afterwards the first county-seat 
of Jackson County. On the Organization of 
Jackson County, in 1816, he became a member of 
the first Board of County Commissioners, and, in 
1818, served as Delegate from that county in the 
Convention which framed the first State Consti- 
tution. Thereafter he served continuously as a 
member of the Legislature from 1818 to '34 first 
as Senator in the First General Assembly, then 
as Representative in the Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth, and again as Senator in the Sixth, 
Seventh, Eighth and Ninth his career being 
conspicuous for long service. He died in office, 
June 11, 1834. Dr. "Will was short of stature, 
fleshy, of jovial disposition and fond of playing 
practical jokes upon his associates, but very 
popular, as shown by his successive elections to 
the Legislature. He has been called "The Father 
of Jackson County." Will County, organized by 
act of the Legislature two years after his death, 
was named in his honor. 

WILL COUNTY, a northeastern county, em- 
bracing 850 square miles, named in honor of Dr. 
Conrad Will, an early politician and legislator. 
Early explorations of the territory were made 
in 1829, when white settlers were few. The bluff 
west of Joliet is said to have been first occupied 
by David and Benjamin Maggard. Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon "apostle," expounded his 
peculiar doctrines at "the Point" in 1831. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers fled from the country 
during (or after) a raid by the Sac Indians. 

There is a legend, seemingly well supported, to 
the effect that the first lumber, sawed to build 
the first frame house in Chicago (that of P. F. W. 
Peck), was sawed at Plainfield. Will County, 
originally a part of Cook, was separately erected 
in 1836, Joliet being made the county-seat. 
.Agriculture, quarrying and manufacturing are 
the chief industries. Joliet, Lockport and Wil- 
mington are the principal towns. Population 
(1880), 53,422; (1890), 62,007; (1900), 74,764. 

WILLARD, Frances Elizabeth, teacher and 
reformer, was born at Churchville, N. Y., Sept. 
28, 1839, graduated from the Northwestern 
Female College at Evanston, 111., in 1859, and, in 
1862, accepted the Professorship of Natural 
Sciences in that institution. During 1866-67 she 
was the Principal of the Genessee Wesleyan 
Seminary. The next two years she devoted to 
travel and study abroad, meanwhile contribut- 
ing to various periodicals. From 1871 to 1874 she 
was Professor of ^Esthetics in the Northwestern 
University and dean of the Woman's College. 
She was always an enthusiastic champion of 
temperance, and, in 1874, abandoned her profes- 
sion to identify herself with the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. For five years she was 
Corresponding Secretary of the national body, 
and, from 1879, its President. While Secretary 
she organized the Home Protective Association, 
and prepared a petition to the Illinois Legislature, 
to which nearly 200,000 names were attached, 
asking for the granting to women of the right to 
vote on the license question. In 1878 she suc- 
ceeded her brother, Oliver A. Willard (who had 
died), as editor of "The Chicago Evening Post," 
but, a few months later, withdrew, and, in 1882, 
was elected as a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Prohibition party. In 
1886 she became leader of the White Cross Move- 
ment for the protection of women, and succeeded 
in securing favorable legislation, in this direc- 
tion, in twelve States. In 1883 she founded the 
World's Christian Temperance Union, and, in 
1888, was chosen its President, as also President 
of the International Council of Women. The 
latter years of her life were spent chiefly abroad, 
much of the time as the guest and co-worker of 
Lady Henry Somerset, of England, during which 
she devoted much attention to investigating the 
condition of women in the Orient. Miss Willard 
was a prolific and highly valued contributor to 
the magazines, and (besides numerous pamphlets) 
published several volumes, including "Nineteen 
Beautiful Years" (a tribute to her sister) ; 
"Woman in Temperance"; "How to Win," and 



"Woman in the Pulpit." Died, in New York, 
Feb. 18, 1898. 

WILLARD, Samuel, A.M., M.D., LL.D., phy- 
sician and educator, was born in Lunenberg, 
Vt, Dec. 80, 1821 the lineal descendant of Maj. 
Simon Willard, one of the founders of ' Concord, 
Mass., and prominent in "King Philip's "War," 
and of his son, Rev. Dr. Samuel Willard, of the 
Old South Church, Boston, and seventh President 
of Harvard College. The subject of this sketch 
was taken in his infancy to Boston, and, in 1831, 
to Carrollton, 111., where his father pursued the 
avocation of a druggist. After a preparatory 
course at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, in 1886 
he entered the freshman class in Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, but withdrew the following year, 
re-entering qollege in 1840 and graduating in the 
class of 1843, as a classmate of Dr. Newton Bate- 
man, afterwards State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and President of Knox College, and 
Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, now of Elmira, N. Y. 
The next year he spent as Tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of medicine at 
Quincy, graduating from the Medical Department 
of Illinois College in 1848. During a part of the 
latter year he edited a Free-Soil campaign paper 
("The Tribune") at Quincy, and, later, "The 
Western Temperance Magazine" at the same 
place. In 1849 he began the practice of his pro- 
fession at St. Louis, but the next year removed 
to Collinsville, 111. , remaining until 1857, when he 
took charge of the Department of Languages in 
the newly organized State Normal University at 
Normal. The second year of the Civil War (1862) 
he enlisted as a private in the Ninety-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon after 
commissioned as Surgeon with the rank of Major, 
participating in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
in the first attack upon Vicksburg. Being dis- 
abled by an attack of paralysis, in February, 1863, 
he was compelled to resign, when he had suffici- 
ently recovered accepting a position in the office 
of Provost Marshal General Oakes, at Spring- 
field, where he remained until the close of the 
war. He then became Grand Secretary of the 
Independent Order of Odd-Fellows for the State 
of Illinois a position which he had held from 
1856 to 1862 remaining under his second appoint- 
ment from 1865 to '69. The next year he served 
as Superintendent of Schools at Springfield, 
meanwhile assisting in founding the Springfield 
public library, and serving as its first librarian. 
In 1870 he accepted the professorship of History 
in the West Side High School of Chicago, 
which, with the exception of two years (1884-86), 

he continued to occupy for more than twenty- 
five years, retiring in 1898. In the meantime, 
Dr. Willard has been a laborious literary worker, 
having been, for a considerable period, editor, or 
assistant-editor, of "The Illinois Teacher," a con- 
tributor to "The Century Magazine" and "The 
Dial" of Chicago, besides having published a 
"Digest of the Laws of Odd Fellowship" in six- 
teen volumes, begun while he was Grand Secre- 
tary of the Order in 1864, and continued in 1872 
and '82; a "Synopsis of History and Historical 
Chart," covering the period from B. C. 800 
to A. D. 1876 of which he has had a second 
edition in course of preparation. Of late years 
he has been engaged upon a "Historical Diction- 
ary of Names and Places," which will include 
some 12,000 topics, and which promises to be the 
most important work of his life. Previous to the 
war he was an avowed Abolitionist and operator 
on the "Underground Railroad," who made no 
concealment of his opinions, and, on one or two 
occasions, was called to answer for them in 
prosecutions under the "Fugitive Slave Act." 
(See "Underground Railroad.") His friend 
and classmate, the late Dr. Batemar;, says of 
him: "Dr. Willard is a sound thinker; a clear 
and forcible writer; of broad and accurate 
scholarship; conscientious, genial and kindly, 
and a most estimable gentleman." 

WILLIAMS, Archibald, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Montgomery County, Ky., June 10, 
1801 ; with moderate advantages but natural 
fondness for study, he chose the profession of 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Tennessee 
in 1828, coming to Quincy, 111., the following 
year. He was elected to the General Assembly 
three times serving in the Senate in 1832-36, and 
in the House, 1836-40 ; was United States District 
Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois, by 
appointment of President Taylor, 1849-53; was 
twice the candidate of his party (the Whig) for 
United States Senator, and appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, in 1861, United States District 
Judge for the State of Kansas. His abilities and 
high character were widely recognized. Died, 
in Quincy, Sept. 21, 1863 His son, John H., an 
attorney at Quincy, served as Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court 1879-85. Another son, Abraham Lin- 
coln, was twice elected Attorney-General of 

WILLIAMS, Erastus Smith, lawyer and ju- 
rist, was born at Salem, N. Y., May 22, 1821. In 
1842 he removed to Chicago, where, after reading 
law, he was admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1854 
he was appointed Master in Chancery, which 



office he filled until 1863, when he was elected a 
Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. 
After re-election in 1870 he became Chief Justice, 
and, at the same time, heard most of the cases on 
the equity side of the court. In 1879 he was a 
candidate for re-election as a Republican, but 
was defeated with the party ticket. After his 
retirement from the bench he resumed private 
practice. Died, Feb. 24, 1884. 

WILLIAMS, James R., Congressman, was 
born in White County, 111., Dec. 27, 1850, at the 
age of 25 graduated from the Indiana State Uni- 
versity, at Bloomington, and, in 1876, from the 
Union College of Law, Chicago, since then being 
an active and successful practitioner at Carmi. 
In 1880 he was appointed Master in Chancery and 
served two years. From 1882 to 1886 he was 
County Judge. In 1892 he was a nominee on 
the Democratic ticket for Presidential Elector. 
He was elected to represent the Nineteenth Illi- 
nois District in the Fifty-first Congress at a 
special election held to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of R. W. Townshend, was re-elected 
in 1890 and 1892, but defeated by Orlando Burrell 
(Republican) for re-election in the newly organ- 
ized Twentieth District in 1894. In 1898 he was 
again a candidate and elected to the Fifty-sixth 

WILLIAMS, John, pioneer merchant, was 
born in Bath County, Ky., Sept. 11, 1808; be- 
tween 14 and 16 years of age was clerk in a store 
in his native State; then, joining his parents, 
who had settled on a tract of land in a part of 
Sangamon (now Menard) County, 111., he found 
employment as clerk in the store of Major Elijah 
lies, at Springfield, whom he succeeded in busi- 
ness at the age of 22, continuing it without inter- 
ruption until 1880. In 1856 Mr. Williams was 
the Republican candidate for Congress in the 
Springfield District, and, in 1861, was appointed 
Commissary-General for the State, rendering 
valuable service in furnishing supplies for State 
troops, in camps of instruction and while proceed- 
ing to the field, in the first years of the war ; was 
also chief officer of the Illinois Sanitary Commis- 
sion for two years, and, as one of the intimate 
personal friends of Mr. Lincoln, was chosen to 
accompany the remains of the martyred President, 
from Washington to Springfield, for burial. 
Liberal, enterprising and public-spirited, his name 
was associated with nearly every public enter- 
prise of importance in Springfield during his 
business career being one of the founders, and, 
for eleven years President, of the First National 
Bank; a chief promoter in the construction of 

what is now the Springfield Division of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, and the Springfield and 
Peoria line; a Director of the Springfield Iron 
Company ; one of the Commissioners who con- 
structed the Springfield water-works, and an 
officer of the Lincoln Monument Association, 
from 1865 to his death, May 29, 1890. 

WILLIAMS, Norman, lawyer, was born at 
Woodstock, Vt., Feb. 1, 1833, being related, on 
both the paternal and maternal sides, to some of 
the most prominent families of New England. 
He fitted for college at Union Academy, Meriden, 
and graduated from the University of Vermont 
in the class of 1855. After taking a course in 
the Albany Law School and with a law firm in 
his native town, he was admitted to practice in 
both New York and Vermont, removed to Chi- 
cago in 1858, and, in 1860, became a member of 
the firm of King, Kales & Williams, still later 
forming a partnership with Gen. John L. Thomp- 
son, which ended with the death of the latter in 
1888. In a professional capacity he assisted in 
the organization of the Pullman Palace Car Com- 
pany, and was a member of its Board of Directors ; 
also assisted in organizing the Western Electric 
Company, and was prominently identified with 
the Chicago Telephone Company and the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. In 1881 he served as 
the United States Commissioner to the Electrical 
Exposition at Paris., In conjunction with his 
brother (Edward H. Williams) he assisted in 
founding the public library at Woodstock, Vt., 
which, in honor of his father, received the name 
of "The Norman Williams Public Library." 
With Col. Huntington W. Jackson and J. Mc- 
Gregor Adams, Mr. Williams was named, in the 
will of the late John Crerar, as an executor of the 
Crerar estate and one of the Trustees of the 
Crerar Public Library, and became its first Presi- 
dent ; was also a Director of the Chicago Pub- 
lic Library, and trustee of a number of large 
estates. Mr. Williams was a son-in-law of the 
late Judge John D. Caton, and his oldest daughter 
became the wife of Major-General Wesley Mer- 
ritt, a few months before his death, which oc- 
curred at Hampton Beach, N. H., June 19, 1899 
his remains being interred in his native town 
of Woodstock, Vt. 

WILLIAMS, Robert Ebenezer, lawyer, born 
Dec. 3, 1825, at Clarksville, Pa., his grandfathers 
on both sides being soldiers of the Revolutionary 
War. In 1830 his parents removed to Washing- 
ton in the same State, where in boyhood he 
worked as a mechanic in his father's shop, 
attending a common school in the winter until 



he reached the age of 17 years, when he entered 
Washington College, remaining for more than a 
year. He then began teaching, and, in 1845 
went to Kentucky, where he pursued the business 
of a teacher for four years. Then he entered 
Bethany College in West Virginia, at the same 
time prosecuting his law studies, but left at the 
close of his junior year, when, having been 
licensed to practice, he removed to Clinton, 
Texas. Here he accepted, from a retired lawyer, 
the loan of a law library, which he afterwards 
purchased; served for two years as State's Attor- 
ney, and, in 1856, came to Bloomington, 111., 
where . he spent the remainder of his life in the 
practice of his profession. Much of his time was 
devoted to practice as a railroad attorney, espe- 
cially in connection with the Chicago & Alton and 
the Illinois Central Railroads, in which he 
acquired prominence and wealth. He was a life- 
long Democrat and, in 1868, was the unsuccessful 
candidate of his party for Attorney-General of 
the State. The last three years of his life he had 
been in bad health, dying at Bloomington, Feb. 
15, 1899. 

WILLIAMS, Samuel, Bank President, was born 
in Adams County, Ohio, July 11, 1820; came to 
Winnebago County, III, in 1835, and, in 1842, 
removed to Iroquois County, where he held vari- 
ous local offices, including that of County Judge, 
to which he was elected in 1861. During his 
later years he had been President of the Watseka 
Citizens' Bank. Died, June 16, 1896. 

WILLIAMSON, Rollin Samuel, legislator and 
jurist, was born at Cornwall, Vt., May 23, 1839. 
At the age of 14 he went to Boston, where he 
began life as a telegraph messenger boy. In 
two years he had become a skillful operator, and, 
as such, was employed in various offices in New 
England and New York. In 1857 he came to 
Chicago seeking employment and, through the 
fortunate correction of an error on the part of 
the receiver of a message, secured the position of 
operator and station agent at Palatine, Cook 
County. Here he read law during his leisure 
time without a preceptor, and, in 1870, was 
admitted to the bar. The same year he was 
elected to the lower House of the General 
Assembly and, in 1872, to the Senate. In 1880 he 
was elected to the bench of the Superior Court of 
Cook County, and, in 1887, was chosen a Judge 
of the Cook County Circuit Court. Died, Au- 
gust 10, 1889. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY, in the southern part 
of the State, originally set off from Franklin and 
organized in 1839. The county is well watered, 

the principal streams being the Big Muddy and 
the South Fork of the Saline. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. The region was 
originally well covered with forests. All the 
cereals (as well as potatoes) are cultivated, and 
rich meadows encourage stock-raising. Coal and 
sandstone underlie the entire county. Area, 440 
square miles; population (1880), 19,324: (1890) 
22,226; (1900), 27,796. 

WILLIAMSVILLE, village of Sangamon Coun- 
ty, on Chicago & Alton Railroad, 12 miles north 
of Springfield ; has a bank, elevator, 3 churches, 
a newspaper and coal-mines. Pop. (1900), 573. 

WILLIS, Jonathan Clay, soldier and former 
Railroad and Warehouse Commissioner, was born 
in Sumner County, Tenn. , June 27, 1826 ; brought 
to Gallatin County, 111., in 1834, and settled at 
Golconda in 1843; was elected Sheriff of Pope 
County in 1856, removed to Metropolis in 1859, 
and engaged in the wharf -boat and commission 
business. He entered the service as Quarter- 
master of the Forty -eighth Illinois Volunteers in 
1861, but was compelled to resign on account of 
injuries, in 1863 ; was elected Representative ir> 
the Twenty-sixth General Assembly (1868), 
appointed Collector of Internal Revenue in 1869, 
and Railway and Warehouse Commissioner in 
1892, as the successor of John R. Tanner, serving 
until 1893. 

WILMETTE, a village in Cook County, 14 miles 
north of Chicago, on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, a handsome suburb of Chicago on the 
shore of Lake Michigan; principal streets paved 
and shaded with fine forest trees; has public 
library and good schools. Pop. (1900), 2,300. 

WILMINGTON, a city of Will County, on the 
Kankakee River and the Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road, 53 miles from Chicago and 15 south-south- 
west of Joliet; has considerable manufactures, 
two National banks, a graded school, churches 
and one newspaper. Wilmington is the location 
of the Illinois Soldiers' Widows' Home. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,576; (1900), 1,420. 

WILSON, Charles Lush, journalist, was born 
in Fairfield County, Conn., Oct. 10, 1818, edu- 
cated in the common schools and at an academy 
in his native State, and, in 1835, removed to Chi- 
cago, entering the employment of his older 
brothers, who were connected with the construc- 
tion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at Joliet. 
His brother, Richard L. , having assumed charge 
of "The Chicago Daily Journal" (the successor 
of "The Chicago American"), in]1844, Charles L. 
took a position in the office, ultimately securing 
a partnership, which continued until the death 



of his brother in 1856, when he succeeded to the 
ownership of the paper. Mr. Wilson was an 
ardent friend and supporter of Abraham Lincoln 
for the United States Senate in 1858, but, in 1860, 
favored the nomination of Mr. Seward for the 
Presidency, though earnestly supporting Mr. Lin- 
coln after his nomination. In 1861 he was 
appointed Secretary of the American Legation at 
London, serving with the late Minister Charles 
Francis Adams, until 1864, when he resigned and 
resumed his connection with "The Journal." In 
1875 his health began to fail, and three years 
later, having gone to San Antonio, Tex. , in the 
hope of receiving benefit from a change of cli- 
mate, he died in that city, March 9, 1878. 
Richard Lush (Wilson), an older brother of the 
preceding, the first editor and publisher of "The 
Chicago Evening Journal," the oldest paper of 
consecutive publication in Chicago, was a native 
of New York. Coming to Chicago with his 
brother John L., in 1834, they soon after estab- 
lished themselves in business on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, then in course of construction. 
In 1844 he took charge of "The Chicago Daily 
Journal" for a publishing committee which had 
purchased the material of "The Chicago Ameri- 
can," but soon after became principal proprietor. 
In April, 1847, while firing a salute in honor of 
the victory of Buena Vista, he lost an arm and 
was otherwise injured by the explosion of the can- 
non. Early in 1849, he was appointed, by Presi- 
dent Taylor, Postmaster of the city of Chicago, 
but, having failed of confirmation, was compelled 
to retire in favor of a successor appointed by 
Millard Fillmore, eleven months later. Mr. 
Wilson published a little volume in 1842 entitled 
"A Trip to Santa Fe," and, a few years later, 
a story of travel under the title, "Short Ravel- 
lings from a Long Yarn." Died, December, 1856. 
John Lush (Wilson), another brother, also a 
native of New York, came to Illinois in 1834, was 
afterwards associated with his brothers in busi- 
ness, being for a time business manager of "The 
Chicago Journal;" also served one term as Sher- 
iff of Cook County. Died, in Chicago, April 18, 

WILSON, Isaac Grant, jurist, was born at 
Middlebury, N. Y., April 26, 1817, graduated 
from Brown University in 1838, and the same 
year came to Chicago, whither his father's 
family had preceded him in 1835. After reading 
law for two years, he entered the senior class at 
Cambridge (Mass.) Law School, graduating in 
1841. In August of that year he opened an 
office at Elgin, and, for ten years "rode the cir- 

cuit." In 1851 he was elected to the bench of 
the Thirteenth Judicial Circuit to fill a vacancy, 
and re-elected for a full term in 1855, and again 
in '61. In November of the latter year he was 
commissioned the first Colonel of the Fifty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but resigned, 
a few weeks later, and resumed his place upon 
the bench. From 1867 to 1879 he devoted him- 
self to private practice, which was largely in 
the Federal Courts. In 1879 he resumed his seat 
upon the bench (this time for the Twelfth Cir- 
cuit), and was at once designated as one of the 
Judges of the Appellate Court at Chicago, of 
which tribunal he became Chief Justice in 1881. 
In 1885 he was re-elected Circuit Judge, but died, 
about the close of his term, at Geneva, June 8, 

WILSON, James Grant, soldier and author, 
was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, April 28, 1832, 
and, when only a year old, was brought by his 
father, William Wilson, to America. The family 
settled at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where James 
Grant was educated at College Hill and under 
private teachers. After finishing his studies he 
became his father's partner in business, but, in 
1855, went abroad, and, shortly after his return, 
removed to Chicago, where he founded the first 
literary paper established in the Northwest. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War, he disposed of his 
journal to enlist in the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, 
of which he was commissioned Major and after- 
wards promoted to the colonelcy. In August, 
1863, while at New Orleans, by advice of General 
Grant, he accepted a commission as Colonel of 
the Fourth Eegiment United States Colored 
Cavalry, and was assigned, as Aid-de-camp, to 
the staff of the Commander of the Department of 
the Gulf, filling this post until April, 1865. 
When General Banks was relieved, Colonel Wil- 
son was brevetted Brigadier-General and placed 
in command at Port Hudson, resigning in July, 
1865, since which time his home has been in New 
York. He is best known as an author, having 
published numerous addresses, and being a fre- 
quent contributor to American and European 
magazines. Among larger works which he has 
written or edited are "Biographical Sketches of 
Illinois Officers"; "Love in Letters"; "Life of 
General U. S. Grant"; "Life and Letters of 
Fitz Greene Halleck"; "Poets and Poetry of 
Scotland"; "Bryant and His Friends", and 
"Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography." 

WILSON, James Harrison, soldier and mili- 
tary engineer, was born near Shawneetown, 111., 
Sept. 2, 1837. His grandfather, Alexander Wil- 


son, was one of the pioneers of Illinois, and 
his father (Harrison Wilson) was an ensign dur- 
ing the War of 1812 and a Captain in the Black 
Hawk War. His brother (Bluford Wilson) 
served as Assistant Adjutant-General of Volun- 
teers during the Civil War, and as Solicitor of the 
United States Treasury during the "whisky ring" 
prosecutions. James H. was educated in the 
common schools, at McKendree College, and 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, graduating from the latter in 1860, and 
being assigned to the Topographical Engineer 
Corps. In September, 1861, he was promoted to 
a First Lieutenancy, then served as Chief Topo- 
graphical Engineer of the Port Royal expedition 
until March, 1862; was afterwards attached to 
the Department of the South, being present at 
the bombardment of Fort Pulaski; was Aid-de- 
camp to McClellan, and participated in the bat- 
tles of South Mountain and Antietam ; was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers in November, 
1862; was Chief Topographical Engineer and 
Inspector-General of the Army of the Tennessee 
until October, 1863, being actively engaged in 
the operations around Vicksburg; was made 
Captain of Engineers in May, 1863, and Brigadier- 
General of Volunteers, Oct. 31, following. He 
also conducted operations preliminary to the 
battle of Chattanooga and Missionary Ridge, and 
for the relief of Knoxville. Later, he was placed 
in command of the Third Division of the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Potomac, serving from 
May to August, 1864, under General Sheridan. 
Subsequently he was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the Mississippi, where he so distinguished 
himself that, on April 20, 1865, he was made 
Major-General of Volunteers. In twenty-eight 
days he captured five fortified cities, twenty - 
three stands of colors, 288 guns and 6,820 prison- 
ers among the latter being Jefferson Davis. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service in 
January, 1866, and, on July 28, following, was 
commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Thirty- 
fifth United States Infantry, being also brevetted 
Major-General in the regular army. On Dec. 31, 
1870, he returned to civil life, and was afterwards 
largely engaged in railroad and engineering oper- 
ations, especially in West Virginia. Promptly 
after the declaration of war with Spain (1898) 
General Wilson was appointed, by the President, 
Major-General of Volunteers, serving until its 
close. He is the author of "China: Travels and 
Investigations in the Middle Kingdom" ; "Life of 
Andrew J. Alexander"; and the "Life of Gen. 
U. S. Grant," in conjunction with Charles A. 

Dana. His home, in recent years, has been in 
New York. 

WILSON, John M., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in New Hampshire in 1802, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1824 the classmate of Frank- 
lin Pierce and Nathaniel Hawthorne ; studied law 
in New Hampshire and came to Illinois in 1835, 
locating at Joliet; removed to Chicago in 1841, 
where he was the partner of Norman B. Judd, 
serving, at different periods, as attorney of the 
Chicago & Rock Island, the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern and the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railways; was Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Cook County, 1853-59, when he became 
Presiding Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, 
serving until 1868. Died, Dec. 7, 1883. 

WILSON, John P., lawyer, was born in White- 
side County, 111., July 3, 1844; educated in the 
common schools and at Knox College, Galesburg, 
graduating from the latter in 1865; two years 
later was admitted to the bar in Chicago, and 
speedily attained prominence in his profession. 
During the World's Fair period he was retained 
as counsel by the Committee on Grounds and 
Buildings, and was prominently connected, as 
counsel for the city, with the Lake Front litiga- 

WILSON, Robert L., early legislator, was born 
in Washington County, Pa., Sept. 11, 1805, taken 
to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1810, graduated at Frank- 
lin College in 1831, studied law and, in 1833, 
removed to Athens (now in Menard County), 111. ; 
was elected Representative in 1836, and was one 
of the members from Sangamon County, known 
as the "Long Nine," who assisted in securing the 
removal of the State Capital to Springfield. Mr. 
Wilson removed to Sterling, Whiteside County, 
in 1840, was elected five times Circuit Clerk and 
served eight years as Probate Judge. Immedi- 
ately after the fall of Fort Sumter, he enlisted as 
private in a battalion in Washington City under 
command of Cassius M. Clay, for guard duty 
until the arrival of the Seventh New York Regi- 
ment. He subsequently assisted in raising 
troops in Illinois, was appointed Paymaster by 
Lincoln, serving at Washington, St. Louis, and, 
after the fall of Vicksburg, at Springfield being 
mustered out in November, 1865. Died, in White- 
side County, 1880. 

WILSON, Robert S., lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Montrose, Susquehanna County, Pa. , Nov. 
6, 1812; learned the printer's art, then studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in Allegheny 
County, about 1833; in 1836 removed to Ann 
Arbor, Mich. , where he served as Probate Judge 



and State Senator ; in 1850 came to Chicago, was 
elected Judge of the Recorder's Court in 1853, 
and re-elected in 1858, serving ten years, and 
proving "a terror to evil-doers." Died, at Law- 
rence, Mich., Dec. 23, 1882. 

WILSON, William, early jurist, was born in 
Loudoun County, Va., April 27, 1794; studied law 
with Hon. John Cook, a distinguished lawyer, 
and minister to France in the early part of the 
century; in 1817 removed to Kentucky, soon after 
came to Illinois, two years later locating in White 
County, near Carmi, which continued to be his 
home during the remainder of his life. In 1819 
he was appointed Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court as successor to William P. 
Foster, who is described by Governor Ford as 
"a great rascal and no lawyer," and who held 
office only about nine months. Judge Wilson 
was re-elected to the Supreme bench, as Chief- 
Justice, in 1825, being then only a little over 30 
years old, and held office until the reorganization 
of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 
1848 a period of over twenty-nine years, and, 
with the exception of Judge Browne's, the long- 
est term of service in the history of the court. 
He died at his home in White County, April 29, 
1857. A Whig in early life, he allied himself 
with the Democratic party on the dissolution of 
the former. Hon. James C. Conkling, of Spring- 
field, says of him, "as a writer, his style was clear 
and distinct; as a lawyer, his judgment was 
sound and discriminating." 

WINCHESTER, a city and county-seat of Scott 
County, founded in 1839, situated on Big Sandy 
Creek and on the line of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad, 29 miles south of Beardstown 
and 84 miles north by west of St. Louis. While 
the surrounding region is agricultural and largely 
devoted to wheat growing, there is some coal 
mining. Winchester is an important shipping- 
point, having three grain elevators, two flouring 
mills, and a coal mine employing fifty miners. 
There are four Protestant and one Catholic 
church, a court house, a high school, a graded 
school building, two banks and two weekly news- 
papers. Population (1880), 1,626; (1890), 1,542; 
(1900), 1,711. 

WINDSOR, a city of Shelby County at the cross- 
ing of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis and the Wabash Railways, 11 miles north- 
east of Shelby ville. Population (1880), 768; 
(1890), 888; (1900), 866. 

WINES, Frederick Howard, clergyman and 
sociologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 
0, 1838, graduated at Washington (Pa.) College 

in 1857, and, after serving as tutor there for a 
short time, entered Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, but was compelled temporarily to discon- 
tinue his studies on account of a weakness of 
the eyes. The Presbytery of St. Louis licensed 
him to preach in 1860, and, in 1862, he was com- 
missioned Hospital Chaplain in the Union army. 
During 1862-64 he was stationed at Springfield, 
Mo., participating in the battle of Springfield on 
Jan. 8, 1863, and being personally mentioned for 
bravery on the field in the official report. Re- 
entering the seminary at Princeton in 1864, he 
graduated in 1865, and at once accepted a call to 
the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield, 111., which he filled for four years. 
In 1869 he was appointed Secretary of the newly 
created Board of Commissioners of Public Chari- 
ties of Illinois, in which capacity he continued 
until 1893, when he resigned. For the next four 
years he was chiefly engaged in literary work, in 
lecturing before universities on topics connected 
with social science, in aiding in the organization 
of charitable work, and in the conduct of a 
thorough investigation into the relations between 
liquor legislation and crime. At an early period 
he took a prominent part in organizing the 
various Boards of Public Charities of the United 
States into an organization known as the National 
Conference of Charities and Corrections, and, at 
the Louisville meeting (1883), was elected its 
President. At the International Penitentiary 
Congress at Stockholm (1878) he was the official 
delegate from Illinois. On his return, as a result 
of his observations while abroad, he submitted 
to the Legislature a report strongly advocating 
the construction of the Kankakee Hospital for 
the Insane, then about to be built, upon the 
"detached ward" or "village" plan, a departure 
from then existing methods, which marks an era 
in the treatment of insane in the United States. 
Mr. Wines conducted the investigation into the 
condition and number of the defective, depend- 
ent and delinquent classes throughout the coun- 
try, his report constituting a separate volume 
under the "Tenth Census," and rendered a simi- 
lar service in connection with the eleventh 
census (1890). In 1887 he was elected Secretary 
of the National Prison Association, succeeding to 
the post formerly held by his father, Enoch Cobb 
Wines, D.D., LL.D. After the inauguration of 
Governor Tanner in 1897, he resumed his former 
position of Secretary of the Board of Public 
Charities, remaining until 1899, when he again 
tendered his resignation, having received the 
appointment to the position of Assistant Director 



of the Twelfth Census, which he now holds. He 
is the author of "Crime and Reformation" (1895) ; 
of a voluminous series of reports ; also of numer- 
ous pamphlets and brochures, among which may 
be mentioned "The County Jail System; An 
Argument for its Abolition" (1878) ; "The Kanka- 
kee Hospital" (1882) ; "Provision for the Insane 
in the United States" (1885); "Conditional 
Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners" (1886), 
and "American Prisons in the Tenth Census" 

WINES, Walter B., lawyer (brother of Freder- 
ick H. Wines), was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 
10, 1848, received his primary education at Willis- 
ton Academy, East Hamnton, Mass., after which 
he entered Middlebury College, Vt., taking a 
classical course and graduating there. He after- 
wards became a student in the law department 
of Columbia College, N. Y., graduating in 1871, 
being -admitted to the bar the same year and 
commencing practice in New York City. In 1879 
he came to Springfield, 111. , and was, for a time, 
identified with the bar of that city. Later, he 
removed to Chicago, where he has been engaged 
in literary and journalistic work. 

WINNEBAGO COUNTY, situated in the 
"northern tier," bordering on the Wisconsin 
State line ; was organized, under an act passed in 
1836, from La Salle and Jo Daviess Counties, and 
has an area of 552 square miles. The county is 
drained by the Rock and Pecatonica Rivers. 
The surface is rolling prairie and the soil fertile. 
The geology is simple, the quaternary deposits 
being underlaid by the Galena blue and buff 
limestone, adapted for building purposes. All 
the cereals are raised in abundance, the chief 
product being corn. The Winnebago Indians 
(who gave name to the county) formerly lived 
on the west side of the Rock River, and the Potta- 
watomies on the east, but both tribes removed 
westward in 1835. (As to manufacturing inter- 
ests, see RocJcford.) Population (1880), 30,505; 
(1890), 39,938; (1900), 47,845 

WINNEBAGO WAR. The name given to an 
Indian disturbance which had its origin in 1827, 
during the administration of Gov. Ninian 
Edwards. The Indians had been quiet since the 
conclusion of the War of 1812, but a few isolated 
outrages were sufficient to start terrified "run- 
ners" in all directions. In the northern portion 
of the State, from Galena to Chicago (then Fort 
Dearborn) the alarm was intense. The meagre 
militia force of the State was summoned and 
volunteers were called for. Meanwhile, 600 
United States Regular Infantry, under command 

of Gen. Henry Atkinson, put in an appearance. 
Besides the infantry, Atkinson had at his disposal 
some 130 mounted sharpshooters. The origin of 
the disturbance was as follows: The Winne- 
bagoes attacked a band of Cliippewas, who were 
(by treaty) under Government potection, several 
of the latter being killed. For participation in 
this offense, four Winnebago Indians were sum- 
marily apprehended, surrendered to the Chippe- 
was and shot. Meanwhile, some dispute had 
arisen as to the title of the lands, claimed by the 
Winnebagoes in the vicinity of Galena, which 
had been occupied by white miners. Repeated 
acts of hostility and of reprisal, along the Upper 
Mississippi, intensified mutual distrust. A gather- 
ing of the Indians around two keel-boats, laden 
with supplies for Fort Snelling, which had 
anchored near Prairie du Chien and opposite a 
Winnebago camp, was regarded by the whites as 
a hostile act. Liquor was freely distributed, and 
there is historical evidence that a half-dozen 
drunken squaws were carried off and shamefully 
maltreated. Several hundred warriors assembled 
to avenge the deception which had been practiced 
upon them. They laid in ambush for the boats 
on their return trip. The first passed too rapidly 
to be successfully assailed, but the second 
grounded and was savagely, yet unsuccessfully, 
attacked. The presence of General Atkinson's 
forces prevented an actual outbreak, and, on his 
demand, the great Winnebago Chief, Red Bird, 
with six other leading men of the tribe, sur- 
rendered themselves as hostages to save their 
nation from extermination. A majority of these 
were, after trial, acquitted. Red Bird, however, 
unable to endure confinement, literally pined to 
death in prison, dying on Feb. 16, 1828. He is 
described as having been a savage of superior 
intelligence and noble character. A treaty of 
peace was concluded with the Winnebagoes in a 
council held at Prairie du Chien, a few months 
later, but the affair seems to have produced as 
much alarm among the Indians as it did among 
the whites. (For Winnebago Indians see page 576. ) 

WINNETKA, a village of Cook County, on the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 16i^ miles 
north of Chicago. It stands eighty feet above 
the level of Lake Michigan, has good schools 
(being the seat of the Winnetka Institute), sev- 
eral churches, and is a popular residence town. 
Population (1880), 584; (1890), 1,079; (1900), 1,833. 

WINSTON, Frederick Hampton, lawyer, was 
born in Liberty County, Ga., Nov. 20, 1830, was 
brought to Woodford County, Ky., in 1835, left 
an orphan at 12, and attended the common 



schools until 18, when, returning to Georgia, he 
engaged in cotton manufacture. He finally 
began the study of law with United States Sena- 
tor W. C. Dawson, and graduated from Harvard 
Law School in 1852 ; spent some time in the office 
of W. M. Evarts in New York, was admitted to 
the bar and came to Chicago in 1853, where he 
formed a partnership with Norman B. Judd, 
afterwards being associated with Judge Henry 
W. Blodgett; served as general solicitor of the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific and the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railways remaining with the 
latter twenty years. In 1885 he was appointed, 
by President Cleveland, Minister to Persia, but 
resigned the following year, and traveled exten- 
sively in Russia, Scandinavia and other foreign 
countries. Mr. Winston was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Conventions of 1868, '76 and 
'84 ; first President of the Stock Yards at Jersey 
City, for twelve years President of the Lincoln 
Park Commission, and a Director of the Lincoln 
National Bank. 

sin Central Company was organized, June 17, 
1887, and subsequently acquired the Minnesota, 
St. Croix & Wisconsin, the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota, the Chippewa Falls & Western, the St. 
Paul & St. Croix Falls, the Wisconsin Central, the 
Penokee, and the Packwaukee & Montebello Rail- 
roads, and assumed the leases of the Milwaukee 
& Lake Winnebago and the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota Roads. On July 1, 1888, the company began 
to operate the entire Wisconsin Central system, 
with the exception of the Wisconsin Central 
Railroad and the leased Milwaukee & Lake Win- 
nebago, which remained in charge of the Wis- 
consin Central Railroad mortgage trustees until 
Nov. 1, 1889, when these, too, passed under the 
control of the Wisconsin Central Company. The 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Company is a re- 
organization (Oct. 1, 1879) of a company formed 
Jan. 1, 1871. The Wisconsin Central and the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Companies, though 
differing in name, are a financial unit; the 
former holding most of the first mortgage bonds 
of the latter, and substantially all its notes, stocks 
and income bonds, but, for legal reasons (such as 
the protection of land titles), it is necessary that 
separate corporations be maintained. On April 
1, 1890, the Wisconsin Central Company executed 
a lease to the Northern Pacific Railroad, but this 
was set aside by the courts, on Sept. 27, 1893, for 
non-payment of rent, and was finally canceled. 
On the same day receivers were appointed to 

insure the protection of all interests. The total 
mileage is 415.46 miles, of which the Company 
owns 258.90 only .10 of a mile in Illinois. A 
line, 58.10 miles in length, with 8.44 miles of 
side-track (total, 66.54 miles), lying wholly within 
the State of Illinois, is operated by the Chicago & 
Wisconsin and furnishes the allied line an en- 
trance into Chicago. 

WITHROW, Thomas F., lawyer, was born in 
Virginia in March, 1833, removed with his parents 
to Ohio in childhood, attended the Western 
Reserve College, and, after the death of his 
father, taught school and worked as a printer, 
later, editing a paper at Mount Vernon. In 1855 
he removed to Janesville, Wis. , where he again 
engaged in journalistic work, studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in Iowa in 1857, settled at 
Des Moines and served as private secretary of 
Governors Lowe and Kirkwood. In 1860 he 
became Supreme Court Reporter; served as 
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee in 1863 and, in 1866, became associated 
with the Rock Island Railroad in the capacity of 
local attorney, was made chief law officer of the 
Company in 1873, and removed to Chicago, and, 
in 1890, was promoted to the position of General 
Counsel. Died, in Chicago, Feb. 3, 1893. 

WOLCOTT, (Dr.) Alexander, early Indian 
Agent, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 
14, 1790; graduated from Yale College in 1809, 
and, after a course in medicine, was commis- 
sioned, in 1812, Surgeon's Mate in the United 
States Army. In 1820 he was appointed Indian 
Agent at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), as suc- 
cessor to Charles Jouett the first Agent who 
had been appointed a United States Judge in 
Arkansas. The same year he accompanied Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass and Henry Schoolcraft on their 
tour among the Indians of the Northwest; was 
married in 1823 to Ellen Marion Kinzie, a 
daughter of Col. John Kinzie, the first perma- 
nent settler of Chicago ; in 1825 was appointed a 
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, which 
then included Cook County; was a Judge of 
Election in 1830, and one of the purchasers of a 
block of ground in the heart of the present city 
of Chicago, at the first sale of lots, held Sept. 27, 
1830, but died before the close of the year. Dr. 
Wolcott appears to have been a high-minded and 
honorable man, as well as far in advance of the 
mass of pioneers in point of education and intel- 

CAGO. (See Northwestern University Woman's 
Medical School.) 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. (See Suffrage.) 

WOOD, Benson, lawyer and Congressman, was 
born in Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1839; re- 
ceived a common school and academic education ; 
at the age of 20 came to Illinois, and, for two 
years, taught school in Lee County. He then 
enlisted as a soldier in an Illinois regiment, 
attaining the rank of Captain of Infantry ; after 
the war, graduated from the Law Department of 
the old Chicago University, and has since been 
engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
was elected a member of the Twenty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly (1872) and was a delegate to the 
Republican National Conventions of 1876 and 
1888 ; also served as Mayor of the city of Effing- 
ham, where he now resides. In 1894 he was 
elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the 
Republicans of the Nineteenth District, which has 
uniformly returned a Democrat, and, in office, 
proved himself a most industrious and efficient 
member. Mr. Wood was defeated as a candidate 
for re-election in 1896. 

WOOD, John, pioneer, Lieutenant-Governor 
and Governor, was born at Moravia, N. Y., Dec. 
20, 1798 his father being a Revolutionary soldier 
who had served as Surgeon and Captain in the 
army. At the age of 21 years young "Wood re- 
moved to Illinois, settling in what is now Adams 
County, and building the first log-cabin on the site 
of the present city of Quincy. He was a member 
of the upper house of the Seventeenth and Eight- 
eenth General Assemblies, and was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in 1859 on the same ticket with 
Governor Bissell, and served out the unexpired 
term of the latter, who died in office. (See Bis- 
sell, William H. ) He was succeeded by Richard 
Yates in 1861. In February of that year he was 
appointed one of the five Commissioners from 
Illinois to the "Peace Conference" at Wash- 
ington, to consider methods for averting 
civil war. The following May he was appointed 
Quartermaster-General for the State by Governor 
Yates, and assisted most efficiently in fitting out 
the troops for the field. In June, 1864, he was 
commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and 
Thirty -seventh Illinois Volunteers (100-days' men) 
and mustered out of service the following Sep- 
tember. Died, at Quincy, June 11, 1880. He 
was liberal, patriotic and public-spirited. His 
fellow-citizens of Quincy erected a monument to 
his memory, which was appropriately dedicated, 
July 4, 1883. 

WOODFORD COUNTY, situated a little north 
of the center of the State, bounded on the west 
by the Illinois River ; organized in 1841 ; area, 

540 square miles. The surface is generally level, 
except along the Illinois River, the soil fertile 
and well watered. The county lies in the north- 
ern section of the great coal field of the State. 
Eureka is the county -seat. Other thriving cities 
and towns are Metamora, Minonk, El Paso and 
Roanoke. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes and barley 
are the principal crops. The chief mechanical 
industries are flour manufacture, carriage and 
wagon-making, and saddlery and harness work. 
Population (1890), 21,429; (1900), 21,822. 

WOODHULL, a village of Henry County, on 
Keithsburg branch Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad, 15 miles west of Galva; has a bank, 
electric lights, waterworks, brick and tile works, 
six churches and weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 774. 

WOODMAN, Charles W., lawyer and Congress- 
man, was born in Aalborg, Denmark, March 11, 
1844; received his early education in the schools 
of his native country, but took to the sea in 1860, 
following the life of a sailor until 1863, when, 
coming to Philadelphia, he enlisted in the Gulf 
Squadron of the United States. After the war, 
he came to Chicago, and, after reading law for 
some time in the office of James L. High, gradu- 
ated from the Law Department of the Chicago 
University in 1871. Some years later he was 
appointed Prosecuting Attorney for some of the 
lower courts, and, in 1881, was nominated by the 
Judges of Cook County as one of the Justices of 
the Peace for the city of Chicago. In 1894 he 
became the Republican candidate for Congress 
from the Fourth District and was elected, but 
failed to secure a renomination in 1896. Died, in 
Elgin Asylum for the Insane, March 18, 1898. 

WOODS, Robert Mann, was born at Greenville, 
Pa., April 17, 1840; came with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1842, the family settling at Barry, Pike 
County, but subsequently residing at Pittsfield, 
Canton and Galesburg. He was educated at 
Knox College in the latter place, which was his 
home from 1849 to '58; later, taught school in 
Iowa and Missouri until 1861, when he went to 
Springfield and began the study of law with 
Milton Hay and Shelby M. Cullom. His law 
studies having been interrupted by the Civil 
War, after spending some time in the mustering 
and disbursing office, he was promoted by Gov- 
ernor Yates to a place in the executive office, 
from which he went to the field as Adjutant of 
the Sixty-fourth Illinois Infantry, known as the 
"Yates Sharp-Shooters. " After participating, 
with the Army of the Tennessee, in the Atlanta 
campaign, he took part in the "March to the 
Sea," and the campaign in the Carolinas, includ- 



ing the siege of Savannah and the forcing of the 
Salkahatchie, where he distinguished himself, as 
also in the taking of Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Cheraw, Raleigh and Bentonville. At the latter 
place he had a horse shot under him and won the 
brevet rank of Major for gallantry in the field, 
having previously been commissioned Captain of 
Company A of his regiment. He also served on 
the. staffs of Gens. Giles A. Smith, Benjamin F. 
Potts, and William W. Belknap, and was the last 
mustering officer in General Sherman's army. 
In 1867 Major Woods removed to Chicago, where 
he was in business for a number of years, serving 
as chief clerk of Custom House construction 
from 1872 to 1877. In 1879 he purchased "The 
Daily Republican" at Joliet, which he conducted 
successfully for fifteen years. While connected 
with "The Republican, " he served as Secretary of 
the Illinois Republican Press Association and in 
various other positions. 

Major Woods was one of the founders of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, whose birth-place 
was in Illinois. (See Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic; also Stephenson, Dr. B. F.) When Dr. 
Stephenson (who had been Surgeon of the Four- 
teenth Illinois Infantry), conceived the idea of 
founding such an order, he called to his assist- 
ance Major Woods, who was then engaged in 
writing the histories of Illinois regiments for the 
Adjutant-General's Report. The Major wrote 
the Constitution and By-laws of the Order, the 
charter blanks for all the reports, etc. The first 
official order bears his name as the first Adjutant- 
General of the Order, as follows : 



No. 1. ( The following named officers are hereby 

appointed and assigned to duty at these headquarters. They 
will be obeyed and respected accordingly: 
Colonel Jules C. Webber, A.D.C. and Chief of Staff. 
Colonel John M. Snyder, Quartermaster-General. 
Major Robert M. Woods, Adjutant-General. 
Captain John A. Lightfoot, Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Captain John S. Phelps, Aid-de-Camp. 
By order of B. P. Stephenson, Department Commander. 



Major Woods afterwards organized the various 
Departments in the West, and it has been con- 
ceded that he furnished the money necessary to 
carry on the work during the first six months of 
the existence of the Order. He has never 
accepted a nomination or run for any political 
office, but is now engaged in financial business in 
Joliet and Chicago, with his residence in the 
former place. 

WOODSOtf, David Meade, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Jessamine County, Ky., May 18, 
1806; was educated in private schools and at 
Transylvania University, and read law with his 
father. He served a term in the Kentucky Legis- 
lature in 1832, and, in 1834, removed to Illinois, 
settling at Carrollton, Greene County. In 1839 
he was elected State's Attorney and, in 1840, a 
member of the lower house of the Legislature, 
being elected a second time in 1868. In 1843 he 
was the Whig candidate for Congress in the 
Fifth District, but was defeated by Stephen.A. 
Douglas. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1869-70. In 1848 he was 
elected a Judge of the First Judicial Circuit, 
remaining in office until 1867. Died, in 1877. 

WOODSTOCK, the county-seat of McHenry 
County, situated on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway, about 51 miles northwest of Chicago 
and 32 miles east of Rockford. It contains a 
court house, eight churches, four banks, three 
newspaper offices, foundry and machine shops, 
planing mills, canning works, pickle, cheese and 
butter factories. The Oliver Typewriter Factory 
is located here; the town is also the seat of the 
Todd Seminary for boys. Population (1890), 
1,683; (1900), 2,502. 

WORCESTER, Linus E., State Senator, was 
born in Windsor, Vt., Dec. 5, 1811, was educated 
in the common schools of his native State and at 
Chester Academy, came to Illinois in 1836, and, 
after teaching three years, entered a dry-goods 
store at Whitehall as clerk, later becoming a 
partner. He was also engaged in various other 
branches of business at different times, including 
the drug, hardware, grocery, agricultural imple- 
ment and lumber business. In 1843 he was 
appointed Postmaster at Whitehall, serving 
twelve years ; was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847, served as County Judge for 
six years from 1853, and as Trustee of the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville, 
from 1859, by successive reappointments, for 
twelve years. In 1856 he was elected, as a Demo- 
crat, to the State Senate, to succeed John M. 
Palmer, resigned ; was re-elected in 1860, and, at 
the session of 1865, was one of the five Demo- 
cratic members of that body who voted for the 
ratification of the Emancipation Amendment of 
the National Constitution. He was elected 
County Judge a second time, in 1863, and re- 
elected in 1867, served as delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1876, and, for more 
than thirty years, was one of the Directors of the 
Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton 



Railroad, serving from the organization of the 
corporation until his death, which occurred Oct. 
19, 1891. 

W OR DEN, a village of Madison County, on the 
Wabash and the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. 
Louis Railways, 32 miles northeast of St. Louis. 
Population (1890), 522; (1900), 544 

exhibition of the scientific, liberal and mechan- 
ical arts of all nations, held at Chicago, between 
May 1 and Oct. 31, 1893. The project had its 
inception in November, 1885, in a resolution 
adopted by the directorate of the Chicago Inter- 
State Exposition Company. On July 6, 1888, the 
first well denned action was taken, the Iroquois 
Club, of Chicago, inviting the co-operation of six 
other leading clubs of that city in "securing the 
location of an international celebration at Chi- 
cago of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
America by Columbus." In July, 1889, a decisive 
step was taken in the appointment by Mayor 
Cregier, under resolution of the City Council, of 
a committee of 100 (afterwards increased to 256) 
citizens, who were charged with the duty of 
promoting the selection of Chicago as the site for 
the Exposition. New York, Washington and St. 
Louis were competing points, but the choice of 
Congress fell upon Chicago, and the act establish- 
ing the World's Fair at that city was signed by 
President Harrison on April 25, 1890. Under the 
requirements of the law, the President appointed 
eight Commissioners-at-large, with two Commis- 
sioners and two alternates from each State and 
Territory and the District of Columbia. Col. 
George R. Davis, of Chicago, was elected Direc- 
tor-General by the body thus constituted. Ex- 
Senator Thomas M. Palmer, of Michigan, was 
chosen President of the Commission and John T. 
Dickinson, of Texas, Secretary. This Commis- 
sion delegated much of its power to a Board of 
Reference and Control, who were instructed to 
act with a similar number appointed by the 
World's Columbian Exposition. The latter 
organization was an incorporation, with a direc- 
torate of forty-five members, elected annually by 
the stockholders. Lyman J. Gage, of Chicago, 
was the first President of the corporation, and 
was succeeded by W. T. Baker and Harlow N. 

In addition to these bodies, certain powers were 
vested in a Board of Lady Managers, composed 
of two members, with alternates, from each 
State and Territory, besides nine from the city 
of Chicago. Mrs. Potter Palmer was chosen 
President of the latter. This Board was particu : 

larly charged with supervision of women's par- 
ticipation in the Exposition, and of the exhibits 
of women's work. 

The supreme executive power was vested in 
the Joint Board of Control. The site selected 
was Jackson Park, in the South Division of Chi- 
cago, with a strip connecting Jackson and 
Washington Parks, known as the "Midway 
Plaisance, " which was surrendered to "conces- 
sionaires" who purchased the privilege of giving 
exhibitions, or conducting restaurants or selling- 
booths thereon. The total area of the site was 
633 acres, and that of the buildings not reckon- 
ing those erected by States other than Illinois, 
and by foreign governments was about 200 
acres. When to this is added the acreage of the 
foreign and State buildings, the total space 
under roof approximated 250 acres. These fig- 
ures do not include the buildings erected by 
private exhibitors, caterers and venders, which 
would add a small percentage to the grand total. 
Forty-seven foreign Governments made appropri- 
ations for the erection of their own buildings and 
other expenses connected with official represen- 
tation, and there were exhibitors from eighty-six 
nations. The United States Government erected 
its own building, and appropriated $500,000 to 
defray the expenses of. a national exhibit, besides 
$2,500,000 toward the general cost of the Exposi- 
tion. The appropriations by foreign Governments 
aggregated about $6,500,000, and those by the 
States and Territories, $6,120,000 that of Illinois 
being $800,000. The entire outlay of the World's 
Columbian Exposition Company, up to March 31, 
1894, including the cost of preliminary organiza- 
tion, construction, operating and post-Exposition 
expenses, was $27,151,800. This is, of course, 
exclusive of foreign and State expenditures, 
which would swell the aggregate cost to nearly 
$45,000,000. Citizens of Chicago subscribed 
$5,608,206 toward the capital stock of the Exposi- 
tion Company, and the municipality, $5,000,000, 
which was raised by the sale of bonds. (See 
Thirty-sixth General Assembly.) 

The site, while admirably adapted to the pur- 
pose, was, when chosen, a marshy flat, crossed 
by low sand ridges, upon which stood occasional 
clumps of stunted scrub oaks. Before the gates 
of the great fair were opened to the public, the 
entire area had been transformed into a dream of 
beauty. Marshes had been drained, filled in and 
sodded ; driveways and broad walks constructed ; 
artificial ponds and lagoons dug and embanked, 
and all the highest skill of the landscape garden- 
er's art had been called into play to produce 

9outh P, 


showing the General Arrangement 


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varied and striking effects. But the task had 
been a Herculean one. There were seventeen 
principal (or, as they may be called, depart- 
mental) buildings, all of beautiful and ornate 
design, and all of vast size. They were known 
as the Manufacturers' and Liberal Arts, the 
Machinery, Electrical, Transportation, Woman's, 
Horticultural, Mines and Mining, Anthropolog- 
ical, Administration, Aft Galleries, Agricultural, 
Art Institute, Fisheries, Live Stock, Dairy and 
Forestry buildings, and the Music Hall and Ca- 
sino. Several of these had large annexes. The 
Manufacturers' Building was the largest. It was 
rectangular (1687x787 feet), having a ground 
area of 31 acres and a floor and gallery area of 
44 acres. Its central chamber was 1280x380 
feet, with a nave 107 feet wide, both hall and 
nave being surrounded by a gallery 50 feet wide. 
It was four times as large as the Roman Coliseum 
and three times as large as St. Peter's at Rome; 
17,000,000 feet of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of 
steel, and 2,000,000 pounds of iron had been used 
in its construction, involving a cost of 1,800,000. 

It was originally intended to open the Exposi- 
tion, formally, on Oct. 21, 1892, the quadri-centen- 
nial of Columbus' discovery of land on the 
Western Hemisphere, but the magnitude of the 
undertaking rendered this impracticable. Con- 
sequently, while dedicatory ceremonies were held 
on that day, preceded by a monster procession and 
followed by elaborate pyrotechnic displays at 
night, May 1, 1893, was fixed as the opening day 
the machinery and fountains being put in oper- 
ation, at the touch of an electric button by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, at the close of a short address. 
The total number of admissions from that date 
to Oct. 31, was 27,530,460 the largest for any 
single day being on Oct. 9 (Chicago Day) amount- 
ing to 761,944. The total receipts from all sources 
(including National and State appropriations, 
subscriptions, etc.), amounted to $28,151,168.75, 
of which $10,626,330.76 was from the sale of tick 
ets, and 3,699,581.43 from concessions. The 
aggregate attendance fell short of that at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889 by about 500,000, while 
the receipts from the sale of tickets and con- 
cessions exceeded the latter by nearly 5,800,000. 
Subscribers to the Exposition stock received a 
return of ten per cent on the same. 

The Illinois building was the first of the State 
buildings to be completed. It was also the 
largest and most costly, but was severely criti- 
cised from an architectural standpoint. The 
exhibits showed the internal resources of the 
State, as well as the development of its govern- 

mental system, and its progress in civilization 
from the days of the first pioneers. The entire 
Illinois exhibit in the State building was under 
charge of the State Board of Agriculture, who 
devoted one-tenth of the appropriation, and a like 
proportion of floor space, to the exhibition of the 
work of Illinois women as scientists, authors, 
artists, decorators, etc. Among special features 
of the Illinois exhibit were : State trophies and 
relics, kept in a fire-proof memorial hall ; the dis- 
play of grains and minerals, and an immense 
topographical map (prepared at a cost of 15,000), 
drafted on a scale of two miles to the inch, show- 
ing the character and resources of the State, and 
correcting many serious cartographical errors 
previously undiscovered. 

WORTHEN, Amos Henry, scientist and State 
Geologist, was born at Bradford, Vt., Oct. 31, 
1813, emigrated to Kentucky in 1834, and, in 1836, 
removed to Illinois, locating at Warsaw. Teach- 
ing, surveying and mercantile business were his 
pursuits until 1842, when he returned to the 
East, spending two years in Boston, but return- 
ing to Warsaw in 1844. His natural predilections 
were toward the natural sciences, and, after 
coming west, he devoted most of his leisure time 
to the collection and study of specimens of 
mineralogy, geology and conchology. On the 
organization of the geological survey of Illinois 
in 1851, he was appointed assistant to Dr. J. G. 
Norwood, then State Geologist, and, in 1858, suc- 
ceeded to the office, having meanwhile spent 
three years as Assistant Geologist in the first Iowa 
survey. As State Geologist he published seven 
volumes of reports, and was engaged upon the 
eighth when overtaken by death, May 6, 1888. 
These reports, which are as comprehensive as 
they are voluminous, have been reviewed and 
warmly commended by the leading scientific 
periodicals of this country and Europe. In 1877 
field work was discontinued, and the State His- 
torical Library and Natural History Museum were 
established, Professor Worthen being placed in 
charge as curator. He was the author of various 
valuable scientific papers and member of numer- 
ous scientific societies in this country and in 

WORTHINGTON, Nicholas Ellsworth, ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Brooke County, W. Va., 
March 30, 1836, and completed his education at 
Allegheny College, Pa., studied Law at Morgan- 
town, Va., and was admitted to the bar in 1860. 
He is a resident of Peoria, and, by profession, a 
lawyer; was County Superintendent of Schools 
of Peoria County from 1868 to 1872, and a mem- 



ber of the State Board of Education from 1869 to 
1872. In 1882 he was elected to Congress, as a 
Democrat, from the Tenth Congressional District, 
and re-elected in 1884. In 1886 he was again a 
candidate, but was defeated by his Republican 
.opponent, Philip Sidney Post. He was elected 
Circuit Judge of the Tenth Judicial District in 
1891, and re-elected in 1897. In 1894 he served 
upon a commission appointed by President Cleve- 
land, to investigate the labor strikes of that year 
at Chicago. 

WRIGHT, John Stephen, manufacturer, was 
born at Sheffield, Mass., July 16, 1815; came to 
Chicago in 1832, with his father, who opened a 
store in that city ; in 1837, at his own expense, 
built the first school building in Chicago ; in 1840 
established "The Prairie Farmer," which he con- 
ducted for many years in the interest of popular 
education and progressive agriculture. In 1852 
he engaged in the manufacture of Atkins' self- 
raking reaper and mower, was one of the pro- 
moters of the Galena & Chicago Union and the 
Illinois Central Railways, and wrote a volume 
entitled, "Chicago: Past, Present and Future," 
published in 1870. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 26, 1874. 

WTJLFF, Henry, ex-State Treasurer, was born 
in Meldorf, Germany, August 24, 1854; came to 
Chicago in 1863, and began his political career as 
a Trustee of the town of Jefferson. In 1866 he 
was elected County Clerk of Cook County, and 
re-elected in 1890 ; in 1894 became the Republican 
nominee for State Treasurer, receiving, at the 
November election of that year, the unprece- 
dented plurality of 133,427 votes over his Demo- 
cratic opponent. 

WYANET, a town of Bureau County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railways, 
7 miles southwest of Princeton. Population 
(1890), 670; (1900), 902. 

WYLIE, (Rev.) Samuel, domestic missionary, 
born in Ireland and came to America in boyhood ; 
was educated at the University of Pennsylvania 
and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, and ordained in 1818. 
Soon after this he came west as a domestic mis- 
sionary and, in 1820, became pastor of a church 
at Sparta, 111. , where he remained until his death, 
March 20, 1872, after a pastorate of 52 years. 
During his pastorate the church sent out a dozen 
colonies to form new church organizations else- 
where. He is described as able, eloquent and 

WYMAN, (Col.) John B., soldier, was born in 
Massachusetts, July 12, 1817, and educated in the 

schools of that State until 14 years of age, when 
he became a clerk in a clothing store in his native 
town of Shrewsbury, later being associated with 
mercantile establishments in Cincinnati, and 
again in his native State. From 1846 to 1850 he 
was employed successively as a clerk in the car 
and machine shops at Springfield, Mass. , then as 
Superintendent of Construction, and, later, as con- 
ductor on the New York & New Haven Railroad , 
finally, in 1850, becoming Superintendent of the 
Connecticut River Railroad. In 1852 he entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, assisting in the survey and construction of 
the line under Col. R. B. Mason, the Chief Engi- 
neer, and finally becoming Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Northern Division. He was one 
of the original proprietors of the town of Amboy, 
in Lee County, and its first Mayor, also serving 
a second term. Having a fondness for military 
affairs, he was usually connected with some mili- 
tary organization while in Cincinnati being 
attached to a company, of which Prof. O. M. 
Mitchell, the celebrated astronomer (afterwards 
Major-General Mitchell), was Captain. After 
coming to Illinois he became Captain of the Chi- 
cago Light Guards. Having left the employ of 
the Railroad in 1858, he was in private business 
at Amboy at the beginning of the Civil War in 
1861. As Assistant- Adjutant General, by appoint- 
ment of Governor Yates, he rendered valuable 
service in the early weeks of the war in securing 
arms from Jefferson Barracks and in the organi- 
zation of the three-months' regiments. Then, 
having organized the Thirteenth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry the first organized in the State 
for the three years' service he was commis- 
sioned its Colonel, and, in July following, entered 
upon the duty of guarding the railroad lines in 
Southwest Missouri and Arkansas. The follow- 
ing year his regiment was attached to General 
Sherman's command in the first campaign 
against Vicksburg. On the second day of the 
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, he fell mortally 
wounded, dying on the field, Dec. 28, 1862. Colo- 
nel Wyman was one of the most accomplished 
and promising of the volunteer soldiers sent to 
the field from Illinois, of whom so many were 
former employes of the Illinois Central Rail- 

WYOMING, a town of Stark County, 31 miles 
north-northwest from Peoria, at the junction of 
the Peoria branch Rock Island & Pacific and the 
Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway ; has two high schools, churches, 
two banks, flour mills, water-works, machine 


shop, and two weekly newspapers. Coal is mined 
here. Pop. (1890), 1,116; (1900), 1,277. 

XEIVIA, a village of Clay County, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 87 miles 
east of St. Louis. Population (1900), 800. 

YATES CITY, a village of Knox County, at the 
junction of the Peoria Division of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with the Rushville 
branch, 23 miles southeast of Galesburg. The 
town has banks, a coal mine, telephone exchange, 
school, churches and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
687; (1900), 650. 

YATES, Henry, pioneer, was born in Caroline 
County, Va., Oct. 29, 1786 being a grand-nephew 
of Chief Justice John Marshall ; removed to Fa- 
yette County, Ky., where he located and laid out 
the town of Warsaw, which afterwards became 
the county-seat of Gallatin County. In 1831 he 
removed to Sangamon County, 111. , and, in 1832, 
settled at the site of the present town of Berlin, 
which he laid out the following year, also laying 
out the town of New Berlin, a few years later, on 
the line of the Wabash Railway. He was father 
of Gov. Richard Yates. Died, Sept. 13, 1865. 
Henry (Yates), Jr., son of the preceding, was born 
at Berlin, 111., March 7, 1835 ; engaged in merchan- 
dising at New Berlin ; in 1862, raised a company 
of volunteers for the One Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment Illinois Infantry, was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel and brevetted Colonel and Briga- 
dier-General. He was accidentally shot in 1863, 
and suffered sun-stroke at Little Rock, from 
which he never fully recovered. Died, August 
3, 1871. 

YATES, Richard, former Governor and United 
States Senator, was born at Warsaw, Ky., Jan. 
18, 1815, of English descent. In 1831 he accom- 
panied his father to Illinois, the family settling 
first at Springfield and later at Berlin, Sangamon 
County. He soon after entered Illinois College, 
from which he graduated in 1835, and subse- 
quently read law with Col. John J. Hardin, at 
Jacksonville, which thereafter became his home. 
In 1842 he was elected Representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly from Morgan County, and was 
re-elected in 1844, and again in 1848. In 1850 he 
was a candidate for Congress from the Seventh 
District and elected over Maj. Thomas L. Harris, 
the previous incumbent, being the only Whig 
Representative in the Thirty-second Congress 
from Illinois. Two years later he was re-elected 
over John Calhoun, but was defeated, in 1854, 
by his old opponent, Harris. He was one of the 

most vigorous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill in the Thirty-third Congress, and an early 
participant in the movement for the organization 
of the Republican party to resist the further 
extension of slavery, being a prominent speaker, 
on the same platform with Lincoln, before the 
first Republican State Convention held at Bloom- 
ington, in May, 1856, and serving as one of the 
Vice-Presidents of that body. In 1860 he was 
elected to the executive chair on the ticket 
headed by Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 
and, by his energetic support of the National 
administration in its measures for the suppression 
of the Rebellion, won the sobriquet of "the Illi- 
nois War-Governor." In 1865 he was elected 
United States Senator, serving until 1871. He 
died suddenly, at St. Louis, Nov. 27, 1873, while 
returning from Arkansas, whither he had gone, 
as a United States Commissioner, by appointment 
of President Grant, to inspect a land-subsidy 
railroad. He was a man of rare ability, earnest- 
ness of purpose and extraordinary personal mag- 
netism, as well as of a lofty order of patriotism. 
His faults were those of a nature generous, 
impulsive and warm-hearted. 

YORKVILLE, the county-seat of Kendall 
County, on Fox River and Streator Division of 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 12 miles 
southwest of Aurora; on interurban electric line; 
has water-power, electric lights, a bank, churches 
and weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890) 375 ; (1900), 413. 

YOUNG, Brig'liam, Mormon leader, was born 
at Whittingham, Vt., June 1, 1801, joined the 
Mormons in 1831 and, the next year, became asso- 
ciated with Joseph Smith, at Kirtland, Ohio, and, 
in 1835, an "apostle." He accompanied a con- 
siderable body of that sect to Independence, Mo. , 
but was driven out with them in 1837, settling 
for a short time at Quincy, 111., but later remov- 
ing to Nauvoo, of which he was one of the foun- 
ders. On the assassination of Smith, in 1844, he 
became the successor of the latter, as head of the 
Mormon Church, and, the following year, headed 
the exodus from Illinois, which finally resulted in 
the Mormon settlement in Utah. His subsequent 
career there, where he was appointed Governor 
by President Fillmore, and, for a time, success- 
fully defied national authority, is a matter of 
national rather than State history. He remained 
at the head of the Mormon Church until his 
death at Salt Lake City, August 29, 1877. 

YOUNG, Richard Montgomery, United States 
Senator, was born in Kentucky in 1796, studied 
law and removed to Jonesboro, 111. , where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1817; served in the Second 



General Assembly (1820-22) as Representative 
from Union County ; was a Circuit Judge, 1825-27 ; 
Presidential Elector in 1828 ; Circuit Judge again, 
1829-37 ; elected United States Senator in 1837 as 
successor to W. L. D. Evving, serving until 1843, 
when he was commissioned Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, but resigned in 1847 to become 
Commissioner of the General Laud Office at 
"Washington. During the session of 1850-51, he 
served as Clerk of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives. Died, in an insane asylum, in Wash- 
ington, in 1853. 

first permanently organized at Chicago, in 1858, 
although desultory movements of a kindred char- 
acter had previously been started at Peoria, 
Quincy, Chicago and Springfield, some as early 
as 1854. From 1858 to 1872, various associations 
were formed at different points throughout the 
State, which were entirely independent of each 
other. The first effort looking to union and 
mutual aid, was made in 1872, when Robert 
Weidensall, on behalf of the International Com- 
mittee, called a convention, to meet at Blooming- 
ton, November 6-9. State conventions have been 
held annually since 1872. In that of 1875, steps 
were taken looking to the appointment of a 
State Secretary, and, in 1876, Charles M. Morton 
assumed the office. Much evangelistic work was 
done, and new associations formed, the total 
number reported at the Champaign Convention, 
in 1877, being sixty -two. After one year's work 
Mr. Morton resigned the secretaryship, the office 
remaining vacant for three years. The question 
of the appointment of a successor was discussed 
at the Decatur Convention in 1879, and, in April, 
1880, I. B. Brown was made State Secretary, and 
has occupied the position to the present time 
(1899). At the date of his appointment the 
official figures showed sixteen associations in Illi- 
nois, with a total membership of 2,443, and prop- 
erty valued at $126,500, including building funds, 
the associations at Chicago and Aurora owning 
buildings. Thirteen officers were employed, 
none of them being in Chicago. Since 1880 the 
work has steadily grown, so that five Assistant 
State Secretaries are now employed. In 1886, a 
plan for arranging the State work under depart- 
mental administration was devised, but not put 
in operation until 1890. The present six depart- 
ments of supervision are: General Supervision, 
in charge of the State Secretary and his Assist- 
ants; railroad and city work; counties and 
towns; work among students; corresponding 
membership department, and office work. The 

two last named are under one executive head, 
but each of the others in charge of an Assistant 
Secretary, who is responsible for its development 
The entire work is under the supervision of a 
State Executive Committee of twenty-seven 
members, one-third of whom are elected annually. 
Willis H. Herrick of Chicago has been its chair- 
man for several years. This body is appointed 
by a State convention composed of delegates 
from the local Associations. Of these there were, 
in October, 1898, 116, with a membership of 
15,888. The value of the property owned was 
$2,500,000. Twenty-two occupy their own build- 
ings, of which five are for railroad men and one 
for students. Weekly gatherings for young men 
numbered 248, and there are now representatives 
or correspondents in 665 communities where no 
organization has been effected. Scientific phys- 
ical culture is made a feature by 40 associations, 
and educational work has been largely developed. 
The enrollment in evening classes, during 1898-99, 
was 978. The building of the Chicago branch 
(erected in 1893) is the finest of its class in the 
world. Recently a successful association has 
been formed among coal miners, and another 
among the first grade boys of the Illinois State 
Reformatory, while an extensive work has been 
conducted at the camps of the Illinois National 

ZANE, Charles S., lawyer and jurist, was born 
in Cumberland County, N. J., March 2, 1831, of 
English and New England stock. At the age of 
19 he emigrated to Sangamon County, 111., for a 
time working on a farm and at brick-making. 
From 1852 to '55 he attended McKendree College) 
but did not graduate, and, on leaving college, 
engaged in teaching, at the same time reading 
law. In 1857 he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice at Springfield. The follow- 
ing year he was elected City Attorney. He had 
for partners, at different times, William H. 
Herndon (once a partner of Abraham Lincoln) 
and Senator Shelby M. Cullom. In 1873 he was 
elected a Judge of the Circuit Court for the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, and was re-elected in 1879. In 
1883 President Arthur appointed him Chief Jus- 
tice of Utah, where he has since resided, though 
superseded by the appointment of a successor by 
President Cleveland. At the first State elec- 
tion in Utah, held in November, 1895, he was 
chosen one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the new Commonwealth, but was defeated 
for re-election, by his Democratic opponent, in 


The following matter, received too late for insertion in the body of this work, is added in the form of a supplement. 

COGHLAJV, (Capt.) Joseph Bullock, naval 
officer, was born in Kentucky, and, at the age of 
15 years, came to Illinois, living on a farm for a 
time near Carlyle, in Clinton County. In 1860 he 
was appointed by his uncle, Hon. Philip B. 
Fouke then a Representative in Congress from 
the Belleville District to the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, graduating in 1863, and being pro- 
moted through the successive grades of Ensign, 
Master, Lieutenant, Lieutenant-Commander, and 
Commander, and serving upon various vessels 
until Nov. 18, 1893, when he was commissioned 
Captain and, in 1897, assigned to the command 
of the battleship Raleigh, on the Asiatic Station. 
He was thus connected with Admiral Dewey's 
squadron at the beginning of the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War, and took a conspicuous and brilliant part 
in the affair in Manila Bay, on May 1, 1898, which 
resulted in the destruction of the Spanish fleet. 
Captain Coghlan's connection with subsequent 
events in the Philippines was in the highest 
degree creditable to himself and the country. 
His vessel (the Raleigh) was the first of Admiral 
Dewey's squadron to return home, coming by 
way of the Suez Canal, in the summer of 1899, he 
and his crew receiving an immense ovation on 
their arrival in New York harbor. 

CRANE, (Rev.) James Lyons, clergyman, 
army chaplain, was born at Mt. Eaton, Wayne 
County, Ohio, August 30, 1823, united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Cincinnati in 

1841, and, coming to Edgar County, Illinois, in 

1842, attended a seminary at Paris some three 
years. He joined the Illinois Conference in 1846, 
and was assigned to the Danville circuit, after- 
wards presiding over charges at Grandview, Hills- 
boro, Alton, Jacksonville, and Springfield at the 
last two points being stationed two or more 
times, besides serving as Presiding Elder of the 
Paris, Danville, and Springfield Districts. The 
importance of the stations which he filled during 
his itinerant career served as evidence of his 
recognized ability and popularity as a preacher. 

In July, 1861, he was appointed Chaplain of the 
Twenty-first Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at 
that time commanded by Ulysses S. Grant as 
Colonel, and, although he remained with the 
regiment only a few months, the friendship then 
established between him and the future com- 
mander of the armies of the Union lasted through 
their lives. This was shown by his appointment 
by President Grant, in 1869, to the position of 
Postmaster of the city of Springfield, which came 
to him as a personal compliment, being re- 
appointed four years afterwards and continuing 
in office eight years. After retiring from tho 
Springfield postoffice, he occupied charges at 
Island Grove and Shelby ville, his death occurring 
at the latter place, July 29, 1879, as the result of 
an attack of paralysis some two weeks previous. 
Mr. Crane was married in 1847 to Miss Elizabeth 
Mayo, daughter of Col. J. Mayo a prominent 
citizen of Edgar County, at an early day his 
wife surviving him some twenty years. Rev. 
Charles A. Crane and Rev. Frank Crane, pastors 
of prominent Methodist churches in Boston and ' 
Chicago, are sons of the subject of this sketch. 

DAWES, Charles Gates, Comptroller of the 
Treasury, was born at Marietta, Ohio, August 27, 
1865; graduated from Marietta College in 1884, 
and from the Cincinnati Law School in 1886; 
worked at civil engineering during his vacations, 
finally becoming Chief Engineer of the Toledo & 
Ohio Railroad. Between 1887 and 1894 he was 
engaged in the practice of law at Lincoln, Neb., 
but afterwards became interested in the gas busi- 
ness in various cities, including Evanston, 111., 
which became his home. In 1896 he took a lead- 
ing part in securing instructions by the Republi- 
can State Convention at Springfield in favor of 
the nomination of Mr. McKinley for the Presi- 
dency, and during the succeeding campaign 
served as a member of the National Republican 
Committee for the State of Illinois. Soon after 
the accession of President McKinley, he was 
appointed Comptroller of the Treasury, a position 




which he now holds. Mr. Dawes is the son of 
R. B. Dawes, a former Congressman from Ohio, 
and the great-grandson of Manasseh Cutler, who 
was an influential factor in the early history of 
the Northwest Territory, and has been credited 
with exerting a strong influence in shaping and 
securing the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787. 

DISTIN, (Col.) William L., former Depart- 
ment Commander of Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic for the State of Illinois, was born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 9, 1843, his father being of 
English descent, while his maternal grandfather 
was a Colonel of the Polish Lancers in the army 
of the first Napoleon, who, after the exile of his 
leader, came to America, settling in Indiana. 
The father of the subject of this sketch settled at 
Keokuk, Iowa, where the son grew to manhood 
and in February, 1863, enlisted as a private in the 
Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, having been twice 
rejected previously on account of physical ail- 
ment. Soon after enlistment he was detailed for 
provost-marshal duty, but later took part with 
his regiment in the campaign in Alabama. He 
served for a time in the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
under Gen. John A. Logan, was subsequently 
detailed for duty on the Staff of General Raum, 
and participated in the battles of Resaca and 
Tilton, Ga. Having been captured in the latter, 
he was imprisoned successively at Jacksonville 
(Ga.), Montgomery, Savannah, and finally at 
Andersonville. From the latter he succeeded in 
effecting his escape, but was recaptured and 
returned to that famous prison-pen. Having 
escaped a second time by assuming the name of 
a dead man and bribing the guard, he was again 
captured and imprisoned at various points in Mis- 
sissippi until exchanged about the time of the 
assassination of President Lincoln. He was then 
so weakened by his long confinement and scanty 
fare that he had to be carried on board the 
steamer on a stretcher. At this time he narrowly 
escaped being on board the steamer Sultana, 
which was blown up below Cairo, with 2,100 
soldiers on board, a large proportion of whom lost 
their lives. After being mustered out at Daven- 
port, Iowa, June 28, 1865, he was employed for a 
time on the Des Moines Valley Railroad, and as a 
messenger and route agent of the United States 
Express Company. In 1872 he established him- 
self in business in Quincy, 111., in which he 
proved very successful. Here he became prom- 
inent in local Grand Army circles, and, in 1890, 
was unanimously elected Commander of the 
Department of Illinois. Previous to this he had 
been an officer of the Illinois National Guard, and 

served as Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of 
Colonel, on the staff of Governors Hamilton, 
Oglesby and Fifer. In 1897 Colonel Distin was 
appointed by President McKinley Surveyor-Gen- 
eral for the Territory of Alaska, a position which 
(1899) he still holds. 

DUMMER, Henry E., lawyer, was born at 
Hallowell, Maine, April 9, 1808, was educated in 
Bowdoin College, graduating there in the class of 
1827, after which he -took a course in law at Cam- 
bridge Law School, and was soon after admitted 
to the bar. Then, having spent some two years 
in his native State, in 1832 he removed to Illinois, 
settling first in Springfield, where he remained six 
years, being for a part of the time a partner of 
John T. Stuart, who afterwards became the first 
partner in law of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Dum- 
mer had a brother, Richard William Dummer, 
who had preceded him to Illinois, living for a 
time in Jacksonville. In 1838 he removed to 
Beardstown, Cass County, which continued to be 
his horne for more than a quarter of a century. 
During his residence there he served as Alder- 
man, City Attorney and Judge of Probate for 
Cass County ; also represented Cass County in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1847, and, in 1860, 
was elected State Senator in the Twenty-second 
General Assembly, serving four years. Mr. 
Dummer was an earnest Republican, and served 
that party as a delegate for the State-at-large to 
the Convention of 1864, at Baltimore, which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency a 
second time. In 1864 he removed to Jackson- 
ville, and for the next year was the law partner 
of David A. Smith, until the death of the latter 
in 1865. In the summer of 1878 Mr. Dummer 
went to Mackinac, Mich., in search of health, but 
died there August 12 of that year. 

ECKELS, James H., ex-Comptroller of the 
Currency, was born of Scotch-Irish parentage at 
Princeton, 111., Nov. 22, 1858, was educated in 
the common schools and the high school of his 
native town, graduated from the Law School at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1881, and the following year 
began practice at Ottawa, 111. Here he con- 
tinued in active practice until 1893, when he was 
appointed by President Cleveland Comptroller of 
the Currency, serving until May 1, 1898, when he 
resigned to accept the presidency of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Chicago. Mr. Eckels 
manifested such distinguished ability in the dis- 
charge of his duties as Comptroller that he 
received the notable compliment of being 
retained in office by a Republican administration 
more than a year after the retirement of Presi- 



dent Cleveland, while his selection for a place at 
the head of one of the leading banking institu- 
tions of Chicago was a no less marked recognition 
of his abilities as a financier. He was a Delegate 
from the Eleventh District to the National 
Democratic Convention at Chicago in 1892, and 
repiesented the same district in the Gold Demo- 
cratic Convention at Indianapolis in 1896, and 
assisted in framing the platform there adopted 
which indicated his views on the financial ques- 
tions involved in the campaign of that year. 

FIELD, Daniel, early merchant, was born in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, Nov. 30, 1790, and 
settled at Golconda, 111., in 1818, dying there in 
1855. He was a man of great enterprise, engaged 
in merchandising, and became a large land- 
holder, farmer and stock-grower, and an extensive 
shipper of stock and produce to lower Mississippi 
markets. He married Elizabeth Dailey of 
Charleston, Ind., and raised a large family of 
children, one of whom, Philip D., became Sheriff 
while another, John, was County Judge of Pope 
County. His daughter, Maria, married Gen. 
Green B. Raum, who became prominent as a 
soldier during the Civil War and, later, as a mem- 
ber of Congress and Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue and Pension Commissioner in Wash- 

FIELD, Green B., member of a pioneer family, 
was born within the present limits of the State of 
Indiana in 1787, served as a Lieutenant in the 
War of 1812, was married in Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, to Miss Mary E. Cogswell, the 
daughter of Dr. Joseph Cogswell, a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War, and, in 1817, removed to 
Pope County, Illinois, where he laid off the town 
of Golconda, which became the county-seat. He 
served as a Representative from Pope County in 
the First General Assembly (1818-20), and was 
the father of Juliet C. Field, who became the 
wife of John Raum; of Edna Field, the wife of 
Dr. Tarlton Dunn, and of Green B. Field, who 
was a Lieutenant in Third Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers during the Mexican War. Mr. Field 
was the grandfather of Gen. Green B. Raum, 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. He died 
of yellow fever in Louisiana in 1823. 

GALE, Stephen Francis, first Chicago book- 
seller and a railway promoter, was born at 
Exeter, N. H. , March 8, 1812 ; at 15 years of age 
became clerk in a leading book-store in Boston ; 
came to Chicago in 1835, and soon afterwards 
opened the first book and stationery establish- 
ment in that city, which, in after years, gained 
an extensive trade. In 1842 the firm of S. F. 

Gale & Co. was organized, but Mr. Gale, having 
become head of the Chicago Fire Department, 
retired from business in 1845. As early as 1846 
he was associated with W m. B. Ogden and John 
B. Turner in the steps then being taken to revive 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (now a 
part of the Chicago & Northwestern), and, in 
conjunction with these gentlemen, became 
responsible for the means to purchase the charter 
and assets of the road from the Eastern bond- 
holders. Later, he engaged in the construction 
of the branch road from Turner Junction to 
Aurora, became President of the line and ex- 
tended it to Mendota to connect with the Illinois 
Central at that Point. These roads afterwards 
became a part of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy line. A number of years ago Mr. Gale 
returned to his old home in New Hampshire, 
where he has since resided. 

HAY, John, early settler, came to the region of 
Kaskaskia between 1790 and 1800, and became a 
prominent citizen of St. Clair County. He was 
selected as a member of the First Legislative 
Council of Indiana Territory for St. Clair County 
in 1805. In 1809 he was appointed Clerk of the 
Common Pleas Court of St. Clair County, and 
was continued in office after the organization of 
the State Government, serving until his death at 
Belleville in 1845. 

HAYS, John, pioneer settler of Northwest Ter- 
ritory, was a native of New York, who came to 
Cahokia, in the "Illinois Country," in 1793, and 
lived there the remainder of his life. His early 
life had been spent in the fur-trade about Macki- 
nac, in the Lake of the Woods region and about 
the sources of the Mississippi. During the War 
of 1812 he was able to furnish Governor Edwards 
valuable information in reference to the Indians 
in the Northwest. He filled the office of Post- 
master at Cahokia for a number of years, and was 
Sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 1818. 

MOULTON, (Col.) George M., soldier and 
building contractor, -was born at Readsburg, Vt., 
March 15, 1851, came early in life to Chicago, and 
was educated in the schools of that city. By pro- 
fession he is a contractor and builder, the firm of 
which he is a member having been connected 
with the construction of a number of large build- ' 
ings, including some extensive grain elevators. 
Colonel Moulton became a member of the Second 
Regiment Illinois National Guard in June, 1884, 
being elected to the office of Major, which he 
retained until January, 1893, when he was 
appointed Inspector of Rifle Practice on the staff 
of General Wheeler. A year later he was com- 



missioned Colonel of the regiment, a position 
which he occupied at the time of the call by the 
President for troops to serve in the Spanish- 
American War in April, 1898. He promptly 
answered the call, and was sworn into the United 
States service at the head of his regiment early 
in May. The regiment was almost immediately 
ordered to Jacksonville, Fla., remaining there 
and at Savannah, Ga., until early in December, 
when it was transferred to Havana, Cuba. Here 
he was soon after appointed Chief of Police for 
the city of Havana, remaining in office until the 
middle of January, 1899, when he returned to his 
regiment, then stationed at Camp Columbia, near 
the city of Havana. In the latter part of March 
he returned with his regiment to Augusta, Ga.. 
where it was mustered out, April 26, 1899, one 
year from the date of its arrival at Springfield. 
After leaving the service Colonel Moulton 
resumed his business as a contractor. 

SHERMAN, Lawrence Y., legislator and 
Speaker of the Forty -first General Assembly, was 
born in Miami County, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1858 ; at 3 
years of age came to Illinois, his parents settling 
at Industry, McDonough County. When he had 
reached the age of 10 years he went to Jasper 
County, where he grew to manhood, received his 
education in the common schools and in the law 

department of McKendree College, graduating 
from the latter, and, in 1881, located at Macomb, 
McDonough County. Here he began his career 
by driving a team upon the street in order to 
accumulate means enabling him to devote his 
entire attention to his chosen profession of law. 
He soon took an active interest in politics, was 
elected County Judge in 1886, and, at the expira- 
tion of his term, formed a partnership with 
George D. Tunnicliffe and D. G. Tunnicliffe, 
ex-Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1894 he was 
a candidate for the Republican nomination for 
Representative in the General Assembly, but 
withdrew to prevent a split in the party; was 
nominated and elected in 1896, and re-elected in 
1898, and, at the succeeding session of the 
Forty-first General Assembly, was nominated 
by the Republican caucus and elected Speaker, 
as he was again of the Forty -second in 1901. 

VINYABD, Philip, early legislator, was born 
in Pennsylvania in 1800, came to Illinois at an 
early day, and settled in Pope County, which he 
represented in the lower branch of the Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth General Assemblies. He married 
Miss Matilda McCoy, the daughter of a prominent 
Illinois pioneer, and served as Sheriff of Pope 
County for a number of years. Died, at Gol- 
conda, in 1862. 


BLACK HAWK WAR, THE. The episode 
known in history under the name of "The Black 
Hawk War," was the most formidable conflict 
between the whites and Indians, as well as the 
most far-reaching in its results, that ever oc- 
curred upon the soil of Illinois. It takes its 
name from the Indian Chief, of the Sac tribe, 
Black Hawk (Indian name, Makatai Meshekia- 
kiak, meaning "Black Sparrow Hawk"), who 
was the leader of the hostile Indian band and a 
principal factor in the struggle. Black Hawk 
had been an ally of the British during the War 
of 1812-15, served with Tecumseh when the lat- 
ter fell at the battle of the Thames in 1813, and, 
after the war, continued to maintain friendly re- 
lations with his "British father." The outbreak 

in Illinois had its origin in the construction 
put upon the treaty negotiated by Gen. William 
Henry Harrison with the Sac and Fox Indians 
on behalf of the United States Government, No- 
vember 3, 1804, under which the Indians trans- 
ferred to the Government nearly 15,000,000 acres 
of land comprising the region lying between the 
Wisconsin River on the north, Fox River of Illi- 
nois on the east and southeast, and the Mississippi 
on the west, for which the Government agreed to 
pay to the confederated tribes less than $2, 500 in 
goods and the insignificant sum of 1,000 per an- 
num in perpetuity. While the validity of the 
treaty was denied on the part of the Indians on the 
ground that it had originally been entered into by 
their chiefs under duress, while held as prisoners 



under a charge of murder at Jefferson Barracks, 
during which they had been kept in a state of con- 
stant intoxication, it had been repeatedly reaf- 
firmed by parts or all of the tribe, especially in 
1815, in 1816, in 1822 and in 1823, and finally recog- 
nized by Black Hawk himself in 1831. The part of 
the treaty of 1804 which was the immediate cause 
of the disagreement was that which stipulated 
that, so long as the lands ceded under it remained 
the property of the United States (that is, should 
not be transferred to private owners), ' 'the Indians 
belonging to the said tribes shall enjoy the priv- 
ilege of living or hunting upon them." Al- 
though these lands had not been put upon the 
market, or even surveyed, as "squatters" multi- 
plied in this region little respect was paid to the 
treaty rights of the Indians, particularly with 
reference to those localities where, by reason of 
fertility of the soil or some other natural advan- 
tage, the Indians had established something like 
permanent homes and introduced a sort of crude 
cultivation. This was especially the case with 
reference to the Sac village of "Saukenuk" on 
the north bank of Rock River near its mouth, 
where the Indians, when not absent on the chase, 
had lived for over a century, had cultivated 
fields of corn and vegetables and had buried their 
dead. In the early part of the last century, it is 
estimated that some five hundred families had 
been accustomed to congregate here, making it 
the largest Indian village in the West. As early 
as 1823 the encroachments of squatters on the 
rights claimed by the Indians under the treaty 
of 1804 began ; their fields were taken possession 
of by the intruders, their lodges liurned and their 
women and children whipped and driven away 
during the absence of the men on their annual 
hunts. The dangers resulting from these con- 
flicts led Governor Edwards, as early as 1828, to 
demand of the General Government the expul- 
sion of the Indians from Illinois, which resulted 
in an order from President Jackson in 1829 for 
their removal west of the Mississippi. On appli- 
cation of Col. George Davenport, a trader of 
much influence with the Indians, the time was 
extended to April 1, 1830. During the preceding 
year Colonel Davenport and the firm of Davenport 
and Farnham bought from the United States Gov- 
ernment most of the lands on Rock River occupied 
by Black Hawk's band, with the intention, as has 
been claimed, of permitting the Indians to remain. 
This was not so understood by Black Hawk, who 
was greatly incensed, although Davenport offered 
to take other lands from the Government in ex- 
change or cancel the sale an arrangement to 

which President Jackson would not consent. On 
their return in the spring of 1830, the Indians 
found whites in possession of their village. Pre- 
vented from cultivating their fields, and their 
annual hunt proving unsuccessful, the following 
winter proved for them one of great hardship. 
Black Hawk, having made a visit to his ' ' British 
father" (the British Agent) at Maiden, Canada, 
claimed to have received words of sympathy and 
encouragement, which induced him to determine 
to regain possession of their fields. In this he 
was encouraged by Neapope, his second in com- 
mand, and by assurance of support from White 
Cloud, a half Sac and half Winnebago known 
also as " The Prophet " whose village (Prophet's? 
Town) was some forty miles from the mouth 
of Rock River, and through whom Black Hawk 
claimed to have received promises of aid in guns, 
ammunition and provisions from the British* 
The reappearance of Black Hawk's band in the 
vicinity of his old haunts, in the spring of 1831, 
produced a wild panic among the frontier settlers. 
Messages were hurried to Governor Reynolds, 
who had succeeded Governor Edwards in De- 
cember previous, appealing for protection against 
the savages. The Governor issued a call for 700 
volunteers " to remove the band of Sac Indians " 
at Rock Island beyond the Mississippi. Al- 
though Gen. E. P. Gaines of the regular army, 
commanding the military district, thought the 
regulars sufficiently strong to cope with the situa- 
tion, the Governor's proclamation was responded 
to by more than twice the number called for. 
The volunteers assembled early in June, 1831, at 
Beardstown, the place of rendezvous named in 
the call, and having been organized into two regi- 
ments under command of Col. James D. Henry and 
Col. Daniel Lieb, with a spy battalion under Gen. 
Joseph Duncan, marched across the country and, 
after effecting a junction with General Gaines' 
regulars, appeared before Black Hawk's village on 
the 25th of June. In the meantime General 
Gaines, having learned that the Pottawatomies, 
Winnebagos and Kickapoos had promised to join 
the Sacs in their uprising, asked the assistance of 
the battalion of mounted men previously offered 
by Governor Reynolds. The combined armies 
amounted to 2,500 men, while the fighting force 
of the Indians was 300. Finding himself over- 
whelmingly outnumbered, Black Hawk withdrew 
under cover of night to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi. After burning the village, General Gaines 
notified Black Hawk of his intention to pursue 
and attack his band, which had the effect to 
bring the fugitive chief to the General's head- 



quarters, where, on June 30, a new treaty was 
entered into by which he bound himself and his 
people to remain west of the Mississippi unless 
permitted to return by the United States. This 
ended the campaign, and the volunteers returned 
to their homes, although the affair had produced 
an intense excitement along the whole frontier, 
and involved a heavy expense. 

The next winter was spent by Black Hawk and 
his band on the site of old Fort Madison, in the 
present State of Iowa. Dissatisfied and humil- 
iated by his repulse of the previous year, in disre- 
gard of his pledge to General Gaines, on April 6, 
1832, at the head of 500 warriors and their fam- 
ilies, he again crossed the Mississippi at Yel- 
low Banks about the site of the present city of 
Oquawka, fifty miles below Rock Island, with the 
intention, as claimed, if not permitted to stop at 
his old village, to proceed to the Prophet's Town 
and raise a crop with the Winnebagoes. Here he 
was met by The Prophet with renewed assurances 
of aid from the Winnebagoes, which was still 
further strengthened by promises from the Brit- 
ish Agent received through a visit by Neapope to 
Maiden the previous autumn. An incident of this 
invasion was the effective warning given to the 
white settlers by Shabona, a friendly Ottawa 
chief, which probably had the effect to prevent 
a widespread massacre. Besides the towns of 
Galena and Chicago, the settlements in Illinois 
north of Fort Clark (Peoria) were limited to some 
thirty families on Bureau Creek with a few 
cabins at Hennepin, Peru, LaSalle, Ottawa, In- 
dian Creek, Dixon, Kellogg's Grove, Apple Creek, 
and a few other points. Gen. Henry Atkinson, 
commanding the regulars at Fort Armstrong 
(Rock Island), having learned of the arrival of 
Black Hawk a week after he crossed the Missis- 
sippi, at once took steps to notify Governor Rey- 
nolds of the situation with a requisition for an 
adequate force of militia to cooperate with the 
regulars. Under date of April 16, 1832, the Gov- 
ernor issued his call for ' 'a strong detachment of 
militia," to meet by April 22, Beardstown again 
being named as a place of rendezvous. The call 
resulted in the assembling of a force which was 
organized into four regiments under command of 
Cols. John DeWitt, Jacob Fry, John Thomas and 
Samuel M. Thompson, together with a spy bat- 
talion under Maj. James D. Henry, an odd bat- 
talion under Maj. Thomas James and a foot 
battalion under Maj. Thomas Long. To these were 
subsequently added two independent battalions 
of mounted men, under command of Majors 
Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey, which were 

finally consolidated as the Fifth Regiment under 
command of Col. James Johnson. The organiza- 
tion of the first four regiments at Beardstown 
was completed by April 27, and the force under 
command of Brigadier-General Whiteside (but 
accompanied by Governor Reynolds, who was 
allowed pay as Major General by the General 
Government) began its march to Fort Armstrong, 
arriving there May 7 and being mustered into the 
Uni ted States service. Among others accompany- 
ing the expedition who were then, or afterwards 
became, noted citizens of the State, were Vital 
Jarrot, Adjutant-General; Cyrus Edwards, Ord- 
nance Officer; Murray McConnel, Staff Officer, 
and Abraham Lincoln, Captain of a company of 
volunteers from Sangamon County in the Fourth 
Regiment. Col. Zachary Taylor, then commander 
of a regiment of regulars, arrived at Fort Arm- 
strong about the same time with reinforcements 
from Fort Leaven worth and Fort Crawford. The 
total force of militia amounted to 1,935 men, and 
of regulars about 1,000. An interesting story is 
told concerning a speech delivered to the volun- 
teers by Colonel Taylor about this time. After 
reminding them of their duty to obey an order 
promptly, the future hero of the Mexican War 
added: " The safety of all depends upon the obe- 
dience and courage of all. You are citizen sol- 
diers; some of you may fill high offices, or even be 
Presidents some day but not if you refuse to do 
your duty. Forward, march!" A curious com- 
mentary upon this speech is furnished in the fact 
that, while Taylor himself afterwards became 
President, at least one of his hearers a volunteer 
who probably then had no aspiration to that dis- 
tinction (Abraham Lincoln) reached the same 
position during the most dramatic period in the 
nation's history. 

Two days after the arrival at Fort Armstrong, 
the advance up Rock River began, the main force 
of the volunteers proceeding by land under Gen- 
eral Whiteside, while General Atkinson, with 
400 regular and 300 volunteer foot soldiers, pro- 
ceeded by boat, carrying with him the artillery, 
provisions and bulk of the baggage. Whiteside, 
advancing by the east bank of the river, was the 
first to arrive at the Prophet's Town, which, 
finding deserted, he pushed on to Dixon's Ferry 
(now Dixon), where he arrived May 12. Here he 
found the independent battalions of Stillman and 
Bailey with ammunition and supplies of which 
Whiteside stood in need. The mounted battalions 
under command of Major Stillman, having been 
sent forward by Whiteside as a scouting party, 
left Dixon on the 13th and, on the afternoon of 



the next day, went into camp in a strong position 
near the mouth of Sycamore Creek. As soon dis- 
covered, Black Hawk was in camp at the same 
time, as he afterwards claimed, with about forty 
of his braves, on Sycamore Creek, three miles 
distant, while the greater part of his band were en- 
camped with the more war-like faction of the Pot- 
tawatomies some seven miles farther north on the 
Kishwaukee River. As claimed by Black Hawk 
in his autobiography, having been disappointed in 
his expectation of forming an alliance with the 
Winnebagoes and the Pottawatomies, he had at 
this juncture determined to return to the west 
side of the Mississippi. Hearing of the arrival of 
Stillman's command in the vicinity, and taking 
it for granted that this was the whole of Atkin- 
son's command, he sent out three of his young 
men with a white flag, to arrange a parley and 
convey to Atkinson his offer to meet the latter in 
council. These were captured by some of Still- 
man's band regardless of their flag of truce, while 
a party of five other braves who followed to ob- 
serve the treatment received by the flagbearers, 
were attacked and two of their number killed, the 
the other three escaping to their camp. Black 
Hawk learning the fate of his truce party was 
aroused to the fiercest indignation. Tearing the 
flag to pieces with which he had intended to go 
into council with the whites, and appealing to his 
followers to avenge the murder of their comrades, 
he prepared for the attack. The rangers num- 
bered 275 men, while Black Hawk's band has been 
estimated at less than forty. As the rangers 
caught sight of the Indians, they rushed forward 
in pell-mell fashion. Retiring behind a fringe 
of bushes, the Indians awaited the attack. As 
the rangers approached, Black Hawk and his 
party rose up with a war whoop, at the same time 
opening fire on their assailants. The further 
history of the affair was as much of a disgrace to 
Stillman's command as had been their desecra- 
tion of the flag of truce. Thrown into panic by 
their reception by Black Hawk's little band, the 
rangers turned and, without firing a shot, began 
the retreat, dashing through their own camp and 
abandoning everything, which fell into the hands 
of the Indians. An attempt was made by one or 
two officers and a few of their men to check the 
retreat, but without success, the bulk of the fu- 
gitives continuing their mad rush for safety 
through the night until they reached Dixon, 
twenty-five miles distant, while many never 
stopped until they reached their homes, forty 
or fifty miles distant. The casualties to the 
rangers amounted to eleven killed and two 

wounded, while the Indian loss consisted of two 
spies and one of the flag-bearers, treacherously 
killed near Stillman's camp. This ill-starred af- 
fair, which has passed into history as "Stillman's 
defeat, " produced a general panic along the fron- 
tier by inducing an exaggerated estimate of the 
strength of the Indian force, while it led Black 
Hawk to form a poor opinion of the courage of 
the white troops at the same time that it led to 
an exalted estimate of the prowess of his own 
little band thus becoming an important factor 
in prolonging the war and in the bloody massacres 
which followed. Whiteside, with his force of 
1,400 men, advanced to the scene of the defeat 
the next day and buried the dead, while on the 
19th, Atkinson, with his force of regulars, pro- 
ceeded up Rock River, leaving the remnant of 
Stillman's force to guard the wounded and sup- 
plies at Dixon. No sooner had he left than the 
demoralized fugitives of a few days before de- 
serted their post for their homes, compelling At- 
kinson to return for the protection of his base of 
supplies, while Whiteside was ordered to follow 
the trail of Black Hawk who had started up the 
Kishwaukee for the swamps about Lake Kosh- 
konong, nearly west of Milwaukee within the 
present State of Wisconsin. 

At this point the really active stage of the 
campaign began. Black Hawk, leaving the 
women and children of his band in the fastnesses 
of the swamps, divided his followers into two 
bands, retaining about 200 under his own com- 
mand, while the notorious half-breed, Mike Girty, 
led a band of one hundred renegadePottawatomies. 
Returning to the vicinity of Rock Island, he 
gathered some recruits from the Pottawatomies 
and Winnebagoes, and the work of rapine and 
massacre among the frontier settlers began. One 
of the most notable of these was the Indian 
Creek Massacre in LaSalle County, about twelve 
miles north of Ottawa, on May 21, when sixteen 
persons were killed at the Home of William 
Davis, and two young girls Sylvia and Rachel 
Hall, aged, respectively, 17 and 15 years were 
carried away captives. The girls were subse- 
quently released, having been ransomed for $2,000 
in horses and trinkets through a Winnebago 
Chief and surrendered to sub-agent Henry 
Gratiot, Great as was the emergency at this 
juncture, the volunteers began to manifest evi- 
dence of dissatisfaction and, claiming that they 
had served out their term of enlistment, refused 
to follow the Indians into the swamps of Wis 
consin. As the result of a council of war, the 
volunteers were ordered to Ottawa, where they 



were mustered out on May 28, by Lieut. Robt. 
Anderson, afterwards General Anderson of Fort 
Sumter fame. Meanwhile Governor Reynolds had 
issued his call (with that of 1831 the third,) for 
2,000 men to serve during the war. Gen. 
Winfield Scott was also ordered from the East 
with 1,000 regulars although, owing to cholera 
breaking out among the troops, they did not 
arrive in time to take part in the campaign. The 
rank and file of volunteers responding under the 
new call was 3,148, with recruits and regulars 
then in Illinois making an army of 4,000. Pend- 
ing the arrival of the troops under the new call, 
and to meet an immediate emergency, 300 men 
were enlisted from the disbanded rangers for a 
period of twenty days, and organized into a 
regiment under command .of Col. Jacob Fry, 
with James D. Henry as Lieutenant Colonel and 
John Thomas as Major. Among those who en- 
listed as privates in this regiment were Brig.- 
Gen. Whiteside and Capt. Abraham Lincoln. A 
regiment of five companies, numbering 195 men, 
from Putnam County under command of Col. 
John Strawn, and another of eight companies 
from Vermilion County under Col. Isaac R. 
Moore, were organized and assigned to guard 
duty for a period of twenty days. 

The new volunteers were rendezvoused at Fort 
Wilbourn, nearly opposite Peru, June 15, and 
organized into three brigades, each consisting of 
three regiments and a spy battalion. The First 
Brigade (915 strong) was placed under command 
of Brig. -Gen. Alexander Posey, the Second 
under Gen. Milton K. Alexander, and the third 
under Gen. James D. Henry. Others who served 
as officers in some of these several organizations, 
and afterwards became prominent in State his- 
tory, were Lieut. -Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard of the 
Vermilion County regiment ; John A. McClern- 
and, on the staff of General Posey ; Maj. John 
Dement ; then State Treasurer ; Stinson H. Ander- 
son, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; Lieut.- 
Gov. Zadoc Casey; Maj., William McHenry; 
Sidney Breese (afterwards Judge of the State 
Supreme Court and United States Senator) ; W. 
ii. D. Ewing (as Major of a spy battalion, after- 
wards United States Senator and State Auditor) ; 
Alexander W. Jenkins (afterwards Lieutenant- 
Governor) ; James W. Semple (afterwards United 
States Senator) ; and William W T eatherford (after- 
wards a Colonel in the Mexican War), and many 
more. Of the Illinois troops, Posey's brigade 
was assigned to the duty of dispersing the Indians 
between Galena and Rock River, Alexander's sent 
to intercept Black Hawk up the Rock River, 

while Henry's remained with Gen. Atkinson at 
Dixon. During the next two weeks engage- 
ments of a more or less serious character were 
had on the Pecatonica on the southern border of 
the present State of Wisconsin ; at Apple River 
Fort fourteen miles east of Galena, which was 
successfully defended against a force under Black 
Hawk himself, and at Kellogg's Grove the next 
day (June 25), when the same band ambushed 
Maj. Dement's spy battalion, and came near in- 
flicting a defeat, which was prevented by 
Dement's coolness and the timely arrival of re- 
inforcements. In the latter engagement the 
whites lost five killed besides 47 horses which had 
been tethered outside their lines, the loss of the 
Indians being sixteen killed. Skirmishes also 
occurred with varying results, at Plum River 
Fort, Burr Oak Grove, Sinsiniwa and Blue 
Mounds the last two within the present State of 

Believing the bulk of the Indians to be camped 
in the vicinity of Lake Koshkonong, General 
Atkinson left Dixon June 27 with a combined 
force of regulars and volunteers numbering 2,600 
men the volunteers being under the command 
of General Henry. They reached the outlet of the 
Lake July 2, but found no Indians, being joined 
two days later by General Alexander's brigade, and 
on the 6th by Gen. Posey's. From here the com- 
mands of Generals Henry and Alexander were 
sent for supplies to Fort Winnebago, at the Port- 
age of the Wisconsin ; Colonel Ewing, with the 
Second Regiment of Posey's brigade descending 
Rock River to Dixon, Posey with the remainder, 
going to Fort Hamilton for the protection of 
settlers in the lead-mining region, while Atkin- 
son, advancing with the regulars up Lake Koshko- 
nong, began the erection of temporary fortifica- 
tions on Bark River near the site of the present 
village of Fort Atkinson. At Fort Winnebago 
Alexander and Henry obtained evidence of the 
actual location of Black Hawk's camp through 
Pierre Poquette, a half-breed scout and trader 
in the employ of the American Fur Company, 
whom they employed with a number of Winne- 
bagos to act as guides. From this point Alex- 
ander's command returned to General Atkinson's 
headquarters, carrying with them twelve day's 
provisions for the main army, while General 
Henry's (600 strong), with Major Dodge's battalion 
numbering 150, with an equal quantity of supplies 
for themselves, started under the guidance of 
Poquette and his Winnebago aids to find Black 
Hawk's camp. Arriving on the 18th at the 
Winnebago village on Rock River where Black 



Hawk and his band had been located, their camp 
was found deserted, the Winiiebagos insisting 
that they had gone to Cranberry ( now Horicon) 
Lake, a half-day's march up the river. Messen- 
gers were immediately dispatched to Atkinson's 
headquarters, thirty-five miles distant, to ap- 
prise him of this fact. When they had proceeded 
about half the distance, they struck a broad, 
fresh trail, which proved to be that of Black 
Hawk's bund headed westward toward the Mis- 
sissippi. The guide having deserted them in 
order to warn his tribesmen that further dis- 
sembling to deceive the whites as to 
the whereabouts of the Sacs was use- 
less, the messengers were compelled to follow 
him to General Henry's camp. The discovery pro- 
duced the wildest enthusiasm among the volun- 
teers, and from this time-events followed in rapid 
succession. Leaving as far as possible all incum- 
brances behind, the pursuit of the fugitives was 
begun without delay, the troops wading through 
swamps sometimes in water to their armpits. 
Soon evidence of the character of the flight the 
Indians were making, in the shape of exhausted 
horses, blankets, and camp equipage cast aside 
along the trail, began to appear, and straggling 
bands of Winnebagos, who had now begun to 
desert Black Hawk, gave information that the 
Indians were only a few miles in advance. On 
the evening of the 20th of July Henry's forces 
encamped at "The Four Lakes," the present 
site of the city of Madison, Wis. , Black Hawk's 
force lying in ambush the same night seven or 
eight miles distant. During the next afternoon 
the rear-guard of the Indians under Neapope was 
overtaken and skirmishing continued until the 
bluffs of the Wisconsin were reached. Black 
Hawk's avowed object was to protect the passage 
of the main body of his people across the stream. 
The loss of the Indians in these skirmishes has 
been estimated at 40 to 68, while Black Hawk 
claimed that it was only six killed, the loss of 
the whites being one killed and eight wounded. 
During the night Black Hawk succeeded in 
placing a considerable number of the women and 
children and old men on a raft and in canoes 
obtained from the Winnebagos, and sent them 
down the river, believing that, as non-combat- 
ants, they would be permitted by the regulars 
to pass Fort Crawford, at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin, undisturbed. In this he was mistaken. 
A force sent from the fort under Colonel Ritner to 
intercept them, fired mercilessly upon the help- 
less fugitives, killing fifteen of their number, 
while about fifty were drowned and thirty-two 

women and children made prisoners. The re- 
mainder, escaping into the woods, with few ex- 
ceptions died from starvation and exposure, or 
were massacred by their enemies, the Menomi- 
nees, acting under white officers. During the 
night after the battle of Wisconsin Heights, a 
loud, shrill voice of some one speaking in an un- 
known tongue was heard in the direction where 
Black Hawk's band was supposed to be. This 
caused something of a panic in Henry's camp, as 
it was supposed to come from some one giving 
orders for an attack. It was afterwards learned 
that the speaker was Neapope speaking in the 
Winnebago language in the hope that he might 
be heard by Poquette and the Winnebago guides. 
He was describing the helpless condition of his 
people, claiming that the war had been forced 
upon them, that their women and children were 
starving! and that, if permitted peacefully to re- 
cross the Mississippi, they would give no further 
trouble. Unfortunately Poquette and the other 
guides had left for Fort Winnebago, so that no 
one was there to translate Neapope's appeal and 
it failed of its object. 

General Henry 's force having discovered that the 
Indians had escaped Black Hawk heading with 
the bulk of his warriors towards the Mississippi 
spent the next and day night on the field, but on 
the following day (July 23) started to meet General 
Atkinson, who had, in the meantime, been noti- 
fied of the pursuit. The head of their columns 
met at Blue Mounds, the same evening, a com- 
plete junction between the regulars and the 
volunteers being effected at Helena, a deserted 
village on the Wisconsin. Here by using the 
logs of the desei'ted cabins for rafts, the army 
crossed the river on the 27th and the 28th and the 
pursuit of black Hawk's fugitive band was re- 
newed. Evidence of their famishing condition 
\vas found in the trees stripped of bark for food ; 
the carcasses of dead ponies, with here and there 
the dead body of an Indian. 

On August 1, Black Hawk's depleted and famish- 
ing band reached the Mississippi two miles below 
the mouth of the Bad Ax, an insignificant 
stream, and immediately began trying to cross 
the river ; but having only two or three canoes, 
the work was slow. About the middle of the 
afternoon the steam transport, "Warrior," ap- 
peared on the scene, having on board a score of 
regulars and volunteers, returning from a visit 
to the village of the Sioux Chief, Wabasha, to 
notify him that his old enemies, the Sacs, were 
headed in that direction. Black Hawk raised the 
white flag in token of surrender P but the officer 



in command claiming that he feared treachery or 
an ambush, demanded that Black Hawk should 
come on board. This he was unable to do, as he 
had no canoe. After waiting a few minutes a 
murderous fire of canister and musketry was 
opened from the steamer on the few Indians on 
shore, who made such feeble resistance as they 
were able. The result was the killing of one 
white man and twenty-three Indians. After this 
exploit the "Warrior" proceeded to Prairie du 
Chien, twelve or fifteen miles distant, for fuel. 
During the night a few more of the Indians 
crossed the river, but Black Hawk, seeing the 
hopelessness of further resistance, accompanied 
by the Prophet, and taking with him a party of 
ten warriors and thirty -five squaws and children, 
fled in the direction of "the dells" of the Wis- 
consin. On the morningof the 3d General Atkinson 
arrived within four or five miles of the Sac 
position. Disposing his forces with the regulars 
and Colonel Dodge's rangersin the center, the brig- 
ades of Posey and Alexander on the right and 
Henry's on the left, he began the pursuit, but 
was drawn by the Indian decoys up the river 
from the place where the main body of the 
Indians were trying to cross the stream. This 
had the effect of leaving General Henry in the rear 
practically without orders, but it became the 
means of making his command the prime factors 
in the climax which followed. Some of the spies 
attached to Henry's command having accidental- 
ly discovered the trail of the main body of the fu- 
gitives, he began the pursuit without waiting for 
orders and soon found himself engaged with some 
300 savages, a force nearly equal to his own. It 
was here that the only thing like a regular battle 
occurred. The savages fought with the fury of 
despair, while Henry's force was no doubt nerved 
to greater deeds of courage by the insult which 
they conceived had been put upon them by Gen- 
eral Atkinson. Atkinson, hearing the battle in 
progress and discovering that he was being led 
off on a false scent, soon joined Henry's force 
with his main army, and the steamer " Warrior," 
arriving from Prairie du Chien, opened a fire of 
canister upon the pent-up Indians. The battle 
soon degenerated into a massacre. In the course 
of the three hours through which it lasted, it is es- 
timated that 150 Indians were killed by fire from 
the troops, an equal number of both sexes and 
all ages drowned while attempting to cross the 
river or by being driven into it, while about 50 
(chiefly women and children) were made prison- 
ers. The loss of the whites was 20 killed and 13 
wounded. When the "battle" was nearing its 

close it is said that Black Hawk, having repented 
the abandonment of his people, returned within 
sight of the battle-ground, but seeing the slaugh- 
ter in progress which he was powerless to avert, he 
turned and, with a howl of rage and horror, fled 
into the forest. About 300 Indians (mostly non- 
combatants) succeeded in crossing the river in a 
condition of exhaustion from hunger and fatigue, 
but these were set upon by the Sioux under Chief 
Wabasha, through the suggestion and agency of 
General Atkinson, and nearly one-half their num- 
ber exterminated. Of the remainder many died 
from wounds and exhaustion, while still others 
perished while attempting to reach Keokuk's band 
who had refused to join in Black Hawk's desper- 
ate venture. Of one thousand who crossed to the 
east side of the river with Black Hawk in April, 
it is estimated that not more than 150 survived 
the tragic events of the next four months. 

General Scott, having arrived at Prairie du Chien 
early in August, assumed command and, on 
August 15, mustered out the volunteers at Dixon, 
111. After witnessing the bloody climax at the 
Bad Axe of his ill-starred invasion, Black Hawk 
fled to the dells of the Wisconsin, where he and 
the Prophet surrendered themselves to the Win. 
nebagos, by whom they were delivered to the 
Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien. Having been 
taken to Fort Armstrong on September 21, he 
there signed a treaty of peace. Later he was 
taken to Jefferson Barracks (near St. Louis) in 
the custody of Jefferson Davis, then a Lieutenant 
in the regular army, where he was held a captive 
during the following winter. The connection of 
Davis with the Black Hawk War, mentioned by 
many historians, seems to have been confined to 
this act. In April, 1833, with the Prophet and 
Neapope, he was taken to Washington and then 
to Fortress Monroe, where they were detained as 
prisoners of war until June 4, when they were 
released. Black Hawk, after being taken to many 
principal cities in order to impress him with the 
strength of the American nation, was brought to 
Fort Armstrong, and there committed to the 
guardianship of his rival, Keokuk, but survived 
this humiliation only a few years, dying on a 
small reservation set apart for him in Davis 
County, Iowa, October 3, 1838. 

Such is the story of the Black Hawk War, the 
most notable struggle with the aborigines in Illi- 
nois history. At its beginning both the State 
and national authorities were grossly misled by 
an exaggerated estimate of the strength of Black 
Hawk's force as to numbers and his plans for 
recovering the site of his old village, while 



Black Hawk had conceived a low estimate of the 
numbers and courage of his white enemies, es- 
pecially after the Stillman defeat. The cost of 
the war to the State and nation in money has been 
estimated at 2,000,000, and in sacrifice of life 
on both sides at not less than 1,200. The loss of 
life by the troops in irregular skirmishes, and in 
massacres of settlers by the Indians, aggregated 
about 250, while an equal number of regulars 
perished from a visitation of cholera at the 
various stations within the district affected by 
the war, especially at Detroit, Chicago, Fort 
Armstrong and Galena. Yet it is the judgment 
of later historians that nearly all this sacrifice of 
life and treasure might have been avoided, but 
for a series of blunders due to the blind or un- 
scrupulous policy of officials or interloping squat- 
ters upon lands which the Indians had occupied 
under the treaty of 1804. A conspicious blunder 
to call it by no harsher name was 
the violation by Stillman's command of the 
rules of civilized warfare in the attack made 
upon Black Hawk's messengers, sent under 
flag of truce to request a conference to settle 
terms under which he might return to the west 
side of the Mississippi an act which resulted in 
a humiliating and disgraceful defeat for its 
authors and proved the first step in actual war. 
Another misfortune was the failure to understand 
Neapope's appeal for peace and permission for his 
people to pass beyond the Mississippi the night 
after the battle of Wisconsin Heights; and the 
third and most inexcusable blunder of all, was 
the refusal of the officer in command of the 
"Warrior " to respect Black Hawk's flag of truce 
and request for a conference just before the 
bloody massacre which has gone into history 
under the name of the '' battle of the Bad Axe." 
Either of these events, properly availed of, would 
have prevented much of the butchery of that 
bloody episode which has left a stain upon the 
page of history, although this statement implies 
no disposition to detract from the patriotism and 
courage of some of the leading actors upon whom 
the responsibility was placed of protecting the 
frontier settler from outrage and massacre. One 
of the features of the war was the bitter jealousy 
engendered by the unwise policy pursued by 
General Atkinson towards some of the volun- 
teers especially the treatment of General James 
D. Henry, who, although subjected to repeated 
slights and insults, is regarded by Governor Ford 
and others as the real hero of the war. Too 
brave a soldier to shirk any responsibility and 
too modest to exploit his own deeds, he felt 

deeply the studied purpose of his superior to 
ignore him in the conduct of the campaign a 
purpose which, as in the affair at the Bad Axe, 
was defeated by accident or by General Henry's 
soldierly sagacity and attention to duty, although 
he gave out to the public no utterance of com- 
plaint. Broken in health by the hardships and 
exposures of the campaign, he went South soon 
after the war and died of consumption, unknown 
and almost alone, in the city of New Orleans, less 
two years later. 

Aside from contemporaneous newspaper ac- 
counts, monographs, and manuscripts on file 
in public libraries relating to this epoch in State 
history, the most comprehensive records of the 
Black Hawk War are to be found in the " Life of 
Black Hawk," dictated by himself (1834) ; Wake- 
field's "History of the War between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox Nations" (1834); 
Drake's" Life of Black Hawk" (1854); Ford's 
"History of Illinois" (1854); Reynolds' "Pio- 
neer History of Illinois; and "My Own Times"; 
Davidson & Stuve's and Moses' Histories of Illi- 
nois ; Blanchard's " The Northwest and Chicago" ; 
Armstrong's " The Sauks and the Black Hawk 
War," and Eeuben G. Thwaite's "Story of the 
Black Hawk War" (1892.) 

CHICAGO HEIGHTS, a village in the southern 
part of Cook County, twenty -eight miles south of 
the central part of Chicago, on the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and 
the Michigan Central Railroads ; is located in an 
agricultural region, but has some manufactures 
as well as good schools also has one newspaper. 
Population (1900), 5,100. 

GRANITE, a city of Madison Couuty, located 
five miles north of St. Louis on the lines of the 
Burlington; the Chicago & Alton; Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis; Chicago, Peoria 
& St. Louis (Illinois), and the Wabash Railways. 
It is adjacent to the Merchants' Terminal Bridge 
across the Mississippi and has considerable manu- 
facturing and grain-storage business; has two 
newspapers. Population (1900), 3,122. 

HARLEM, a village of Proviso Township, Cook 
County, and suburb of Chicago, on the line of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, nine miles 
west of the terminal station at Chicago. Harlem 
originally embraced the village of Oak Park, now 
a part of the city of Chicago, but, in 1884, was set 
off and incorporated as a village. Considerable 
manufacturing is done here. Population (1900), 

HARVEY, a city of Cook County, and an im- 
portant manufacturing suburb of the city of Chi- 



cago, three miles southwest of the southern city 
limits. It is on the line of the Illinois Central 
and the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railways, and 
has extensive manufactures of harvesting, street 
and steam railway machinery, gasoline stoves, 
enameled ware, etc. ; also has one newspaper and 
ample school facilities. Population (1900), 5,395. 

IOWA CENTRAL RAILWAY, a railway line 
having its principal termini at Peoria, 111., and 
Manly Junction, nine miles north of Mason City, 
Iowa, with several lateral branches making con- 
nections with Centerville, Newton, State Center, 
Story City, Algona and Northwood in the latter 
State. The total length of line owned, leased 
and operated by the Company, officially reported 
in 1899, was 508.98 miles, of which 89.76 miles- 
including 3.5 miles trackage facilities on the 
Peoria & Pekin Union between Iowa Junction 
and Peoria were in Illinois. The Illinois divi- 
sion extends from Keithsburg where it enters 
the State at the crossing of the Mississippi to 
Peoria. (HISTORY.) The Iowa Central Railway 
Company was originally chartered as the Central 
Railroad Company of Iowa and the road com- 
pleted in October, 1871. In 1873 it passed into 
the hands of a receiver and, on June 4, 1879, was 
reorganized under the name of the Central Iowa 
Railway Company. In May, 1883, this company 
purchased the Peoria & Farmington Railroad, 
which was incorporated into the main line, but 
defaulted and passed into the hands of a receiver 
December 1, 1886; the line was sold under fore- 
closure in 1887 and 1888, to the Iowa Central 
Railway Company, -which had effected a new 
organization on the basis of $11, 000, 000 common 
stock, $6,000,000 preferred stock and 1,379,625 
temporary debt certificates convertible into pre- 
ferred stock, and $7,500,000 first mortgage bonds. 
The transaction was completed, the receiver dis- 
charged and the road turned over to the new 
company, May 15, 1889. (FINANCIAL). The total 
capitalization of the road in 1899 was $21,337,558, 
of which $14,159,180 was in stock, $6,650,095 in 
bonds and $528, 283 in other forms of indebtedness. 
The total earnings and income of the line in Illi- 
nois for the same year were $532,568, and the ex- 
penditures $566, 333. 

SPARTA, a city of Randolph County, situated 
on the Centralia & Chester and the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroads, twenty miles northwest of Ches- 
ter and fifty miles southeast of St. Louis. It has 

a number of manufacturing establishments, in- 
cluding plow factories, a woolen mill, a cannery 
and creameries; also has natural gas. The first 
settler was James McClurken, from South Caro- 
lina, who settled here in 1818. He was joined by 
James Armour a few years later, who bought 
land of McClurken, and together they laid out 
a village, which first received the name of Co- 
lumbus. About the same time Robert G. Shan- 
non, who had been conducting a mercantile busi- 
ness in the vicinity, located in the town and 
became the first Postmaster. In 1839 the name 
of the town was changed to Sparta. Mr. McClur- 
ken, its earliest settler, appears to have been a 
man of considerable enterprise, as he is credited 
with having built the first cotton gin in this vi- 
cinity, besides still later, erecting saw and flour 
mills and a woolen mill. Sparta was incorporated 
as a village in 1837 and in 1859 as a city. A col- 
ony of members of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church (Covenanters or "Seceders'') established 
at Eden, a beautiful site about a mile from 
Sparta, about 1822, cut an important figure in 
the history of the latter place, as it became the 
means of attracting here an industrious and 
thriving population. At a later period it became 
one of the most important stations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" (so called) in Illinois (which 
see). The population of Sparta (1890) was 1,979; 
(1900), 2,041. 

TOLUCA, a city of Marshall County situated 
on the line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railroad, 18 miles southwest of Streator. It is in 
the center of a rich agricultural district ; has the 
usual church and educational facilities of cities 
of its rank, and two newspapers. Population 
(1900), 2,629. 

WEST HAMMOND, a village situated in the 
northeast corner of Thornton Township, Cook 
County, adjacent to Hammond, Ind. , from which 
it is separated by the Indiana State line. It is on 
the Michigan Central Railroad, one mile south of 
the Chicago City limits, and has convenient ac- 
cess to several other lines, including the Chicago 
& Erie; New York, Chicago & St. Louis, and 
Western Indiana Railroads. Like its Indiana 
neighbor, it is a manufacturing center of much 
importance, was incorporated as a village in 
1892, and has grown rapidly within the last few 
years, having a population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1900, of 2,935. 


Cook County. 


The Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, first published in 1900 under the edit- 
orship of two competent men especially well versed in State history, has since 
passed through two revisions for the purpose of bringing it up to date. As its 
name implies, the work presents an epitome of Illinois history, in reference to 
which it has come to be recognized as a standard authority, the price of this 
issue, in one volume, being $12.50. 

The special Cook County edition, now issued, was undertaken only with the 
promise that, in addition to the Historical Encyclopedia of the State, it was 
intended to embrace a biographical department open to patrons of the work, the 
whole to be delivered to subscribers in two volumes, at $15.00 per set, accord- 
ing to printed and signed agreements. 

As the sale of this special edition progressed, there arose an urgent demand 
for a concise, but comprehensive, outline of Chicago and Cook County history, 
with the various townships of the latter, and especially embracing certain instances, 
or object lessons, illustrative of the wondrous strides of development witnessed in 
Chicago business and municipal history. Following the history of Chicago's 
original discovery by the early French explorers, and its gradual growth from a 
trading station and a frontier military post to the commercial metropolis of the 
Northwest, these instances (which are indicative of the general development) are 
presented in special articles descriptive of the past and the present the "then 
and the now" of the "Union Stock Yards," the "Postal Service," the "Fire 
Department," "Municipal Lighting," "Water Service," "Railway Progress," 
"Parks and Boulevards," etc., with a condensed history of the city, county and 
townships all being additions to what was promised at the outset, and all accom- 
plished at a large expenditure of time and money on the part of the publishers, 
but without any additional cost to the patrons of the work. 

The contracts entered into between the publishers of this work and its pat- 
rons provides that the volumes shall "be delivered within a fair and reasonable 
time after publication, " at which time payment therefor becomes due. It is appar- 
ent, therefore, that the interest of the publishers lies in as early a publication and 
delivery as practicable, while the interest of the patrons has been subserved by 
postponement of the completion of the work consequent upon the length of time 
occupied in collection of added material for, and the addition of much valuable 
history not promised, thereby increasing its scope and value beyond what was 
contemplated in the original plan, but without added cost to the subscribers. 

While these volumes are the result of human endeavor with human limita- 
tions, and while perfection will not be claimed for them, they are submitted in 
the hope that they will be found to possess an intrinsic value which will be 
accorded due recognition, and that future generations will render to them a just 
meed of appreciation for the preservation of a large amount of family and in- 
dividual history, of which they are the repository. 


Cook County. 



Jean Nicolet Discovers Lake Michigan Conjectures as to Extent of His 
Explorations The Parrot Expedition The Locality of Chicago Visited 
by White Men Arrival of Joliet and Marquette Discovery of Illinois 
River The Kaskaskias Marquette 's Second Visit Spends the Win- 
ter on the Chicago River Returns North by the Eastern Shore of 
Lake Michigan His Death 617-621 


French Traders and Missionaries in the "Illinois Country" Arrival of La- 
Salle Discoveries of the Great Explorer The Henry M. Stanley of 
His Age Disaster of "The Griffon" Henry de Tonty LaSalle 
Reaches the Illinois by Way of the Kankakee The Story of Fort 
Creve-Coeur LaSalle Explores the Mississippi to Its Mouth Louisi- 
ana is Named Fort St. Louis Erected on "Starved Rock" Tragic 
Fate of the Great Explorer Uncertainty About Location of the First 
Chicago River 621-623 


Early French Fortifications "Fort Chicagou" Mentioned by Tonty in 
1685 Remains of an Early Fortification in Palos Township Indian 
and Other Relics Found in That Vicinity Fort Guarie on the North 
Branch First Catholic Mission at the Village of the Kaskaskias 
Missionaries Who Followed Marquette and Allouez A Jesuit Mission 
Established at Chicago as Early as 1699 Visit of St. Cosme Missions 
Between Lake Ontario and the Mississippi 623-625 


Removal of the French Mission on the Upper Illinois to Kaskaskia En- 
trance to the Mississippi Valley Changed to the Gulf Coast Country 
South of the Illinois River Becomes Part of Louisiana, Chicago Re- 
gion Still Attached to Canada Visit of Charlevoix Early Indian Oc- 
cupantsA French-Indian Battle on Illinois Soil Chicago in the 
Eighteenth Century , 625-627 



First Transaction Affecting Chicago Real Estate Principal Part of North- 
ern Illinois Bought for Five Shillings and Certain "Goods and Mer- 
chandise" Cession of Lands by the Indians Under Treaty of Green- 
villeTract Six Miles Square at Mouth of Chicago River Ceded to the 
United States Government Site of Early French Fort in Doubt. . . . 627-629 


Chicago's First Permanent Settler a San Domingo Negro Colonel de 
Peyster's Description of Jean Baptiste Pointe de Saible Chicago Then 
Known as "Eschikagou" Le Mai, a French Trader, Succeeds Pointe 
de Saible Other Early Settlers Antoine Ouilmette Comes in 1790 
Chicago Previous to the Building of Fort Dearborn 629-630 


Building of the First Fort Begun by Captain Whistler in 1803 Loca- 
tion and Description of the Original Fortress Arrival of the Kinzie 
Family Other Newcomers The Kinzies Occupy the Le Mai Cabin 
Dr. Alexander Wolcott and Gen. David Hunter Charles Jouett, Indian 
Agent and "Chicago's First Lawyer" Mrs. J. H. Kinzie 's "Waubun" 
A Precursor of Disaster The Hardscrabble Massacre 630-634 


Beginning of War of 1812 General Hull Orders Evacuation of Fort Dear- 
bornStatement of Captain Heald A Story of Indian Treachery 
Location of the Great Tragedy Incidents of the Bloody Affair as Re- 
lated in Mrs. Kinzie 's "Waubun" Magnanimous Conduct of Chief 
Black Partridge The Story of Mrs. Helm Valor of Capt. William 
Wells and His Tragic Fate 634-637 


The Kinzie Family in Peril Appearance of "Sauganash" on the Scene 
Fort Dearborn Burned The Kinzies Take Refuge at St. Joseph 
Lieutenant Helm Released Through the Influence of Black Partridge 
Some Prominent Actors Sketches of the Noted Half -Breeds, Alexan- 
der Robinson and Billy Caldwell ("Sauganash") Black Partridge 
Again Proves His Humanity Ungrateful Treatment of This Noble 
"Man of the Woods.".. . 637-639 



Four Years of Arrested Development Fort Dearborn in Desolaition Its 
Restoration Begun in 1816 Burial of Victims of the Massacre List 
of Commandants A New Immigration Sets in The Kinzies Among 
the First to Arrive Other Notable Arrivals The Clybourns, Gal- 
loways, Heacock, Etc. A Fire in Fort Dearborn The "Winnebago 
Scare." 639.643 


Varied Orthography of the Name Chicago Reputed Origin of the Name 
Some Early Impressions of the Future Great Metropolis As Seen 
by Judge Storrow, Gurdon S. Hubbard, Schoolcraft, Professor Keat- 
ing and Others Early Mail Facilities Some Pioneer Hotels and Their 
History Fernando Jones ' Account of the Origin of the Name Chicago 643-648 


Conditions Under French Occupation Northern Illinois Attached to Can- 
ada as Part of New France Effect of the Col. George Rogers Clark 
Expedition Territory Northwest of the Ohio River Organized Ordi- 
nance of 1787 Its Far-reaching Influence on Illinois and General His- 
toryTerritorial and County History Cook County Organized First 
Election and First County Officers 648-650 


Illinois and Michigan Canal Feasibility of the Enterprise Recognized 
by Early Explorers Effect on the Development of Chicago Survey of 
Government Lands About the Mouth of Chicago River in 1821 Chi- 
cago Village Platted in 1830 First Sale of Village Lots Chicago Be- 
comes a County-Seat in 1831 Payment of Indian Annuities Promi- 
nent Men Who Became Citizens in That Year 651-653 


The Black Hawk War Episode Receipt of the News in Chicago and 
Preparations for Defense Service Rendered by Chief Shabona, Billy 
Caldwell and Alexander Robinson Refugees Seek Safety in Fort 
Dearborn Organization of Volunteers Gen. Scott's Troops Attacked 
by Cholera The Indian Treaty of 1833 Description of the Event by 
an English Traveler 653-655 



An Era of Progress After the Black Hawk War Early Business and Pro- 
fessional Men Growth in 1833 "A Village of Pike County" in 1823 
Chicago Incorporated as a Town in 1833 Establishment of the First 
Newspaper Chicago in 1833-1837 The "Land Craze" Some Con- 
temporaneous Descriptions of the Place Incorporated as a City 
Financial Revulsion of 1837 Growth in Area and Population from 
1837 to 1900.. ... . 655-658 


Chicago as a Railway Center The Galena & Chicago Union the Pioneer 
Line Principal Lines Now Operating Street Railway History Sur- 
face and Elevated Lines Inter-urban Trolley Roads The Fox River 
Valley System Chicago & Joliet Line 659-661 


Chicago as a Political Center National Political Conventions Nomina- 
tion of Lincoln in 1860 Other Notable Conventions Citizens of Cook 
County Who Have Held State Offices Cook County Citizens in the 
Councils of the Nation United States Senators and Representatives in 
Congress Present Representation (1904) in Congress Legislative Dis- 
tricts in Cook County 662-664 


General History Beginning of the Park System First Park Named for 
the Martyred President Statistics of Cost and Area of Park Systems 
in the Three Several Divisions Projected Parks on - the Des Plaines 
and Calumet Rivers. . . 664-669 



Republican National Convention of 1860 The Camp Douglas Conspiracy 
Some of Its Principal Actors Exposure and Defeat The Conflagra- 
tion of 1871 Vast Destruction of Property and Homes Area Burned 
Over Relief Measures The Haymarket Massacre Conviction and 
Punishment of the Conspirators Labor Strikes Heavy Losses of Em- 
ployers and Employed 669-677 



One Hundred Years of Local History Enumeration of Most Important 
Events in the History of Chicago from the Founding of Fort Dear- 
born in 1803 to 1904 677-679 


Characteristics of Chicago's Early Settlers Problems They Had to Meet 
Chicago Historical Society Its Object, History and Membership- 
First Old Settlers' Society Calumet Club Old Settlers' Reunions- 
Pioneers of Chicago Pioneers' Sons and Daughters' Society List of 
Members The Sons of Chicago Old Time Printers' Association Old 
Settlers' Club of Williams Street German Old Settlers' Picnic 679-700 


First Slaughter House in Chicago Origin and Development of the Pack- 
ing Industry The Founders and Promoters of the Business Early 
Stock Yards Organization of the Union Stock Yards 1 Phenomenal 
Growth of the Packing and Live-Stock Trade Description of Build- 
ings and Grounds Banking Institutions Statistics for Different Years 
Past and Present Officers International Live-Stock Expositions, 
1900-1904 700-713 


An Example of Marvelous Development Progress of Fifty Years The 
Chicago Board of Trade State Laws Regulating Warehouses and 
Grain Inspection List of Inspectors and Registrars Chicago Stand- 
ard of Inspection Widely Accepted History of Elevator System A 
Chicago Grain Elevator and Its Operation Described Grain Trade Sta- 
tistics 1900 a Record Breaking Year 713-716 


Chicago Manual Training School Its Origin and Object Work Accom- 
plished in Twenty-odd Years of Its History Number of Graduates 
Merged With the University of Chicago Armour Technological School 
Young Men's Christian Association of Illinois Its History of Fifty 
Years Present Strength and Status of the Organization Y. M. C. A. 
Building in Chicago 717-720 



The Chicago Public Library An Outgrowth of the Great Fire of 1871 
Thomas Hughes, the English Author, a Leader in the Movement His- 
tory of the Library Building Statistics for the Year 1904 Chi- 
cago Historical Library Its Origin and History Newberry Library- 
John Crerar Library Evanston Free Public Library 720-726 


Pioneer Mail Service How Letters Were Brought to Fort Dearborn in 
1817 The First Postoffice in Chicago Established in 1831 Picture 
of First Office Growth of Business in Seventy-two Years Volume of 
Business in 1903 Personal Sketches of Postmasters New Postoffice 
Building Number of Employes and Heads of Departments Statis- 
tics of Business for Year Ending June 30, 1904 726-733 



History of Origin and Progress of Fire Department First Volunteer 
Fire Company Organized in 1832 Early Methods of Fighting Fires 
First Chicago Fire in 1834 Loss Contrasted with the Fire of 1871 
Early Volunteer Fire Organizations List of Chief Engineers Paid 
Fire Department Organized in 1859 Chief Marshals, 1859-1904 
Present Organization of Department Outfit and Value of Fire Appa- 
ratus, Buildings and Other Property The Fire-Boat Service A Great 
Fire Tragedy The Iroquois Theater Disaster of December 30, 1903 
History of the Fire Alarm Service. . . : 733-740 


First Attempt at Illumination at Old Fort Dearborn Progress of One 
Hundred Years From the Pine-Knot to the Electric Light System- 
Electric Lighting Introduced in 1887 History and Equipment of Cen- 
tral Stations Aggregate Cost of the Entire Municipal Lighting Sys- 
temPolice and Fire Alarm Telegraph Service 741-744 


Early Conditions as to the Chicago Water Supply Public Well Dug in 
1834 First Pumping Station and Reservoir Constructed in 1840 
New Water Works Set in Operation in 1854 The System Adopted and 
the First Two-Mile Tunnel Completed in 1867 Other Tunnels Con- 
structedPresent Condition of the Chicago Water System 744-747 



History of the Chicago Health Department The Cholera Epidemic of 
1832 First Health Board Appointed in 1833 Changes in the System 
List of Members of Different Health Boards Public Baths Chica- 
go the First City in the World to Establish a System of Free Baths- 
Carter H. Harrison Bath House Opened in 1894 Other Bathing Sta- 
tionsBeneficial Effect of the System on the Public Health McKinley 
Park Swimming Pool 747-750 


First White Visitors to the Chicago River Importance of a Harbor at 
Chicago Attracts Attention m 1814 Illinois and Michigan Canal and 
Chicago Harbor Twin Enterprises First Step in Improvement of 
Calumet Harbor and River Begun in 1870 Rank of Chicago as a 
Maritime Port History of Ferries and Bridges First Ferry Estab- 
lished in 1829 Advance from the Indian Canoe to the Bascule 
Bridge 750-754 


First Attempt to Organize a Drainage and Sewerage System for Chicago 
in 1847 Drainage and Sewerage Commissions Appointed in 1852 
and 1855 The Sewerage Commission Gives Place to a Board of Public 
Works in 1861 Changes of the Last Fifty Years Extent and Cost of 
System The Drainage Canal Its History and Extent Cost of the 
Work over $45,000,000 755-758 


Celebration of Hundredth Anniversary of the Founding of Fort Dear- 
bornMarvelous Progress of a Hundred Years Representatives of In- 
dian Tribes Take Part in the Exercises Historical Tablets Brilliant 
Fireworks Display Industrial Parade Reunion of Old Settlers 758-765 


Business Conditions Notable City Improvements in 1904 Financial and 
Trade Conditions Live Stock Business Grain Trade Board of Trade 
Affairs Insurance Business Theatrical Matters The New City Char- 
ter Question Practical Unanimity on the Subject in the State Legis- 
latureResults Anticipated in Another Year 765-770 



Early Chicago Cemeteries Locations of South and North Side Burial 
Grounds Prior to 1840 First Chicago City Cemetery Now Part of Lin- 
coln Park Further Burials There Prohibited in 1859 Rose Hill Cem- 
etery Dedicated July 28, 1859 770-771 


Cook County First Divided Into Precincts Township Organization in 1850 
Successive Reorganizations and Present List of Townships Popula- 
tion by Townships in 1900 Townships Embraced in City of Chi- 
cagoIndividual History of Townships Outside the City of Chicago 
Barrington, Bloom and Bremen Calumet and Worth Townships City 
of Blue Island Cicero, Berwyn and Oak Park Townships Elk Grove 
Township Evanston Township and City -- Hanover -- Lament Ley- 
den Lyons and Stickney Townships Maine New Trier Niles 
Northfield Norwood Park Orland Palatine - Palos Proviso 
Rich Riverside Township and Village Schaumburg Thornton Town- 
shipHarvey City Other Towns and Villages - - Wheeling Township 
and Arlington Heights Village . . . : 771-801 


The Part of Biography in General History Citizens of Cook County 
Personal Sketches Arranged in Encyclopedic Order (These Being Ar- 
ranged Alphabetically, no List of Names of Individual Subjects is 
Here Deemed Necessary.) 


Portraits and Illustrations. 

Adler, Peter (Biography 803) 804 

Along Sheridan Road On the Boulevards 758 

Ashby, James H. (Biography 810) 700 

Belfield, Henry H. (Biography 820) 720 

Best, John E. (Biography 822) 796 

Board of Trade Building, Chicago 277 

Bradwell, James B. (Biography 58) 618 

Brintnall, Solva (Biography 834) ' 702 

Brosseau, Zenophile P. (Biography 835) 716 

Burned District Chicago Fire 1871. ., 27(5 

Busse, William (Biography 842) 780 

Chase, Charles C. (Biography 849) 624 

Chase, Horace G. (Biography 848) 620 

Chase, Samuel B. (Biography 850) 622 

Chicago Academy of Sciences 394 

Chicago Historical Society Building 394 

Chicago Manual Training Building University of Chicago 718 

Chicago Public Buildings 395 

Chicago Thoroughfares 740 

Crawford, Andrew (Biography 859) 626 

Day after Chicago Fire 92 

Dixon, Arthur (Biography 865) 628 

Early Historic Scenes, Chicago 170 

Early Historic Scenes, Chicago (No. 2) 171 

Eberhart, John F. (Biography 873) 630 

Farwell, John V. (Biography 878) 632 

First Post Office where kept 728 

Fitzwilliam, Francis J. (Biography 880) 634 

Fort Dearborn View from the West (1808 246 

Fort Dearborn View from Southeast( 1808) 247 

Fort Dearborn (1853) 247 

Gale, Daniel W. (Biography 885) 884 

Gale, Stephen F. (Biography 886) 636 

George, John B. (Biography 888) 888 

Goodall, Harvey L. (Biography 891) 704 

Goodrich, Adams A. (Biography 893) 640 

Grannis, William C. D. (Biography 894) 638 

Halsted, Henry S. (Biography 898) . 660 

Hammer, D. Harry (Biography 899) 646 

Harless, Thomas H. (Biography 900) 668 

Harris, James H. (Biography 902) 798 

Hastings, Lewis R. (Biography 903) 706 

Hayward, Henry J. (Biography 1030) 662 

Head, Franklin H. (Biography 904) 652 

Healy. James J. (Biography 905) 664 


Herendeen, Charles (Biography 907) 658 

Hervey, Robert (Biography 910) 666 

Hibbard, William G. (Biography 911) 650 

Hoffman, Peter M. (Biography 912) 784 

Honore, Henry H. (Biography 914) 654 

Hotz, Christoph (Biography 916) 644 

Hoyt, W. M. (Biography 919) 648 

Kurd, Harvey B. (Biography 240) 642 

Hutchinson, Jonas (Biography 923) 656 

Illinois State Building, World's Columbian Exposition, 1893 601 

Johnson, William 0. (Biography 925) 926 

Jones, Daniel A. (Biography 926) 670 

Jones, Fernando (Biography 928) 678 

Jones, George P. (Biography 929) 672 

Jones, William (Biography 309) 676 

Lincoln Park Vistas 752 

Mathews, Thomas (Biography 945) 944 

Map of Grounds, World's Columbian Exposition, 1893 600 

McCausland, Samuel G. (Biography 946) 708 

McCormick Seminary, Chicago 362 

McKnight, George F. (Biography 949) 680 

Monuments in Lincoln Park, Chicago 90 

Monuments in Lincoln Park, Chicago 206 

Monuments in Lincoln Park, Chicago 207 

Moore, Charles E. (Biography 953) 954 

Newberry Library, Chicago 394 

Otis, Joseph E. (Biography 965) 682 

Palmer, Potter (Biography 966) 684 

Peck, Ferdinand W. (Biography 970) 686 

Philbrick, George A. (Biography 975) 688 

Porter, Rogers (Biography 978) 978 

Powell, M. W. (Biography 979) 690 

Rappal, Frederick J. and Sons (Biography 986) 714 

Runyan, Eben F. (Biography 986) 692 

Scenes in South Park 746 

Senne, Henry C. (Biography 993) 786 

Sexton, Patrick J. (Biography 993) 694 

Staples, Mason L. (Biography 1000) 788 

Stebbins, Henry S. (Biography 1000) 1000 

Swenie, Denis J. (Biography (1005) 734 

Tatham, Robert L. (Biography 1007) 696 

Turner, Charles C. (Biography 1013) 1012 

U. S. Government Building Chicago Postoffice (Frontispiece Vol. II.) 

University of Chicago 363 

Van Norman, George B. (Biography 1014) 710 

Views in Lincoln Park, Chicago 91 

Watkins, Elias T. (Biography 1018) 1018 

Wood, Samuel E. (Biography 1027) -. 712 

World's Fair Buildings 764 

Yates, H. H. (Biography 1028) 1028 

Young, Frank W. (Biography 1028) 698 


[Part of Special Local Edition of Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois.] 





Although Cook County, as a political division, 
ranks in the class of younger counties in the 
State of Illinois, there is evidence that it was, 
in all probability, the first section comprised 
within the present limits of the State to be 
visited by white men. The spirit of exploration 
directed towards the region about the great 
lakes, had received a strong impulse among the 
early French settlers at Quebec, under the 
vigorous administration of Samuel de Cham- 
plain in the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and, according to the "Jesuit Relations," 
Jean Nicolet, one of Champlain's trusted pupils, 
in. company with two missionaries, Fathers 
Brebeuf and Daniel, reached the northern and 
western shore of Lake Michigan as early as 
1634. He thus became the discoverer of Lake 
Michigan, and, having entered Green Bay, 
ascended the Fox River of Wisconsin to the 

portage of the Wisconsin River, anticipating 
the expedition of Joliet and Marquette by 
nearly forty years. It is even claimed by some 
authorities (especially by Shea and Parkman) 
that Nicolet reached the Mississippi and sailed 
some distance down that stream, though this is 
discredited in other quarters. There seems to 
be more conclusive evidence that he extended 
his explorations southward into the present lim- 
its of Illinois, although the exact locality 
reached is uncertain. It seems highly probable, 
however, that in his soiithward march he may 
have approached the western shore of Lake 
Michigan, and this would have brought him to 
the vicinity of Chicago. The career of this 
intrepid explorer was cut short by drowning, 
near Quebec, in 1642. 

In the years following the Nicolet expedition, 
which reached the Sault Ste. Marie at the foot 
of Lake Superior, the activity of the warlike 
Iroquois prevented the advance of the Jesuit 
missionaries and their fellow explorers in the 
northwestern lake region, and it was not until 
1658 that two other celebrated French explorers, 
Radisson and his brother-in-law, Medard Chou- 
art (known also as Groseilliers), reached the 
southwestern shore of Lake Superior and win- 
tered at La Pointe, in the vicinity of what is 
now Ashland, Wis. It is claimed that Radisson 
and Groseilliers penetrated as far west as the 
Mississippi, and even descended that river a 
long distance. They were followed by Nicholas 
Perrot who, between 1670 and 1690, spent much 
time in explorations about the junction of Lakes 
Michigan, Huron and Superior, and followed 
the example of Nicolet by visiting the Fox 
River valley in Wisconsin. He also took a 



prominent part in the conference between the 
French and a number of native tribes held at 
Sault Ste. Marie on June 14, 1671, acting as the 
principal interpreter on that occasion. It has 
also been claimed that he extended his explora- 
tions to the Mississippi and made the first dis- 
covery of lead in the vicinity of -Galena. 
Charlevoix, who visited this region in 1679 and 
1700, also credits Perrot with having advanced 
as far south as Chicago, which he mentions by 
name and describes as situated "at the lower 
end of Lake Michigan where the Miamis then 
were." While this would seem to leave no doubt 
that Perrot visited the head of Lake Michigan 
at that early day, it by no means determines 
the fact that the locality mentioned by the 
name of "Chicago" was the same as that of the 
city of to-day, as three other rivers were known 
by the name of Chicago, with somewhat different 
spellings, about that time, viz.: The St. Joseph, 
the Grand Calumet and the Des Plaines. Besides 
this, it is claimed that the Miamis were never 
located on the present site of Chicago, but that 
they did have a settlement about the mouth of 
the St. Joseph, at the southeast border of the 

This brings us to what has been universally 
accepted as the best authenticated if not the 
first visit of French explorers to the locality 
now known as Chicago. This was accomplished 
through the expedition set on foot by Jean 
Talon, the French Intendant of Canada, and 
authorized by Count de Frontenac, the Gover- 
nor, under the command of Louis Joliet, who 
had already spent some years in an official 
exploration of the copper-mine region of Lake 
Superior. The object of this expedition was to 
explore the Mississippi River and, by fol- 
lowing its course, settle the question regard- 
ing the location of its mouth, which was then 
believed to be on the border of the "South 
Sea" (or Gulf of California), thus opening a 
highway across the continent to Eastern Asia. 
Joliet left Quebec in the fall of 1872, and, hav- 
ing spent the winter at Michilimackinac (Mack- 
inac), on the 17th of May following, set out 
from the mission of St. Ignace in company with 
Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, and 
five other Frenchmen, with two birch bark 
canoes and a meager stock of provisions, in 
search of the great river. Father Marquette, 
having spent the preceding three or four years 
among the Indians at Sault Ste. Marie and at 
La Pointe on the southwest shore of Lake 

Superior, besides being zealously devoted to 
missionary work in which he had been engaged, 
was especially well fitted to act as an interpre- 
ter and win the favor of the Indians whom 
they were likely to encounter. The expedition 
having passed through Green Bay and Lake 
Winnebago, entered the Fox River of Wisconsin, 
which they ascended under the direction of 
Indian guides to the portage connecting with 
the Wisconsin. Then, transferring their 
canoes to the Wisconsin, they descended that 
stream to its mouth, entering the Mississippi 
on June 17, 1673. Continuing their journey 
down the latter stream for one month, they 
are believed by some to have reached the 
mouth of the Arkansas River, while others 
maintain that they did not proceed farther 
south than a short distance below the mouth of 
the Ohio, when, their course having been 
arrested by a tribe of Indians known as the 
Mausopelas, they turned back. In the absence 
of definite information as to distances traveled 
and points passed, the absolute solution of this 
question at this day seems impossible, though 
there are strong reasons tending to sustain the 
latter view. An incident of the journey south- 
ward was the startling surprise given to Mar- 
quette and his fellow-voyagers at the sight of 
what was supposed to be a painting on the face 
of the cliff, a short distance above where the 
city of Alton now stands. This picture, whether 
a work of aboriginal art or produced by natu- 
ral seams in the rock, was vividly described by 
Marquette in his journal, and was widely known 
in the first half of the last century under the 
name of "The Piasa Bird," but has wholly 
disappeared within the last generation before 
the quarryman and the advances of civilization. 
(See "Piasa Bird, Legend of The." His. 
Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) Other noteworthy points 
passed in this historic voyage included the 
mouth of the Missouri River, to which Mar - 
quette gave the name of the Pekitanoui; the 
site of the present city of St. Louis and that of 
Old Kaskaskia, which, within the next half 
century, became the seat of power for the 
French possessions west and south of the great 

Retracing their course from the lower Mis- 
sissippi, Joliet and his companions entered the 
river Illinois, which they ascended, making a 
stop of three days, en route, at the village of 
the Peorias about where the city of Peoria now 
stands, and later at the "Illinois Town of the 



Kaskaskias," in the vicinity of the present vil- 
lage of Utica in LaSalle County. This local- 
ity, as it will be seen later, eventually became 
the seat of French power in the "Illinois Coun- 
try" for some twenty years, as well as the cen- 
ter of a large Indian population. According to 
the statement of Marquette, having promised to 
"return and instruct" them, he and his com- 
panions were escorted hy a chief and a number 
of his tribe to the shore of the "Lac des Illi- 
nois," as Lake Michigan was then called, whence 
they continued their journey to Green Bay, 
arriving there about the close of September. 
The journey was made from the "Town of the 
Kaskaskias," by ascending the Illinois and the 
Des Plaines rivers to the point where the port- 
age was made to the Chicago River. The iden- 
tity of the stream referred to under this name 
has been matter of considerable discussion, 
and has given rise to some diversity of opinion. 
While the earlier historians, including Shea, 
Parkman, and others, have generally accepted 
the theory that it was the Chicago River of 
to-day, and that Joliet and his companions were 
the first white men to stand on the site of the 
present city of Chicago, this has been quest- 
tioned by later authors. One reason for this 
doubt grows out of the fact, already alluded to, 
that between 1670 and 1700 there were three 
other rivers which bore the name of "The Chi- 
cago" the St. Joseph, the Grand Calumet and 
the Des Plaines. For reasons which seem to 
have considerable weight, a number of later 
students of this period including the late Prof. 
Albert D. Hager, former Secretary of the Chi- 
cago Historical Society have maintained that 
the river by which Joliet and his party entered 
Lake Michigan was the Grand Calumet. The 
only point upon which there would seem to be 
no doubt is the fact that these explorers, who 
were the first to leave a written record of their 
visit to this region, reached Lake Michigan 
near its southern limit late in the summer of 
1673. Whether that was by the Chicago Rher 
of to-day or by some stream which then bore 
that name, there seems absolutely no doubt that 
it was in the immediate vicinity of the present 
city or Chicago, if not upon its site. 

On October 25, 1674, Father Marquette, accom- 
panied by two French boatmen, started from 
Green Bay with the intention of carrying out 
his plan, determined upon during his visit of 
the previous year, of establishing a mission 
among the Illinois Indians. As he kept a jour- 

nal of his travels during this period, a transla- 
tion of which was published nearly fifty years 
ago, there is no difficulty in tracing his journey 
from Green Bay along the western shore of Lake 
Michigan to its head, and identifying many of 
the points at which he and his companions 
camped for the night or made brief stops. The 
journey occupied about a month. On the 20th 
of November he mentions having "cabined" 
(camped) in great discomfort on account of 
the wind and cold at "the Bluffs," which is 
believed to have been "Lake Bluff," now known 
as Lake Forest, about thirty miles north of 
Chicago. In the entry for the next day he 
speaks of having had "hard enough work to 
make a river" (which was necessary in order 
to effect a landing, especially in stormy 
weather) and find a camping ground. Here 
they were detained three days. From the 
description given of the mouth of this river, 
and the time occupied in reaching it from "the 
Bluffs," there would appear to be strong reason 
for believing that it was the Chicago River of 
to-day. One reason for this conclusion is the 
fact that he mentions the "large sand-banks 
off the shore," which was a peculiarity of the 
mouth of the Chicago River when it became 
known to white men at the beginning of the 
last century. Under date of November 27th, 
the journal makes mention of the "hard work 
to get out of the river," after which they "made 
about three leagues" (approximately seven and 
a half English miles), where they were detained 
by the wind for the remainder of the month. 
On December 1st, the party made another start, 
and, after meeting many difficulties on account 
of the weather, on the 4th they appear to have 
reached what Marquette calls "Portage River" 
for the reason, no doubt, that it was the chan- 
nel by which a portage was obtained to the Des 
Plaines. This stream was found frozen over, 
and, after drawing their boats up this river on 
the ice two leagues (about five miles), in view 
of the obstacles in the way of making further 
progress, and Marquette's continued illness, it 
was decided to winter there. Here again arises 
the question as to the identity of the stream 
where Marquette wintered. That it was on 
the same stream by which he entered Lake 
Michigan from the south on his first visit is evi- 
dent from an entry in his journal a few weeks 
later, which will be referred to farther on in 
this history. It has been claimed that the 
cabin which he occupied belonged to two French 



traders who had preceded Marquette on his 
second visit here, and the generally accepted 
theory has been that it was situated on the 
South Branch of the Chicago River about what 
was known as "Lee's place," or "Hardscrabble," 
in the early part of the last century. Professor 
Hager, who has already been quoted, is of the 
opinion, however, that the "Portage River" 
mentioned by Marquette was the Little Calu- 
met, and that the location of his cabin may 
have been on or in the vicinity of what is 
known as "Indian Ridge" and near Calumet 
Lake. While this question is of interest chiefly 
in a speculative sense, there is abundant evi- 
dence, as already shown, not only that both 
rivers were known by the name of the "Chick- 
agou," but that both were used for securing a 
portage to the Des Plaines. 

During his stay on "Portage River," Mar- 
quette was visited by a number of Indians who 
brought him provisions, and by a French sur- 
geon, who came from a village eighteen leagues 
(about 45 miles) distant, where there was 
another Frenchman named Pierre Moreau 
these two men being reputed owners of the 
cabin which Marquette occupied. The exact 
locality of the village mentioned by Marquette 
is unknown, although it has been conjectured 
that it may have been about where the city of 
Joliet now is, as it appears that it was on the 
way to the village of the Kaskaskias, which 
Marquette had set out to reach. On March 29, 
1675, Marquette and his companions were com- 
pelled to break camp on account of a sudden 
flood caused by the breaking up of the ice and a 
consequent gorge in the stream on which they 
were located. This appears to have flooded the 
surrounding country, and Marquette and his 
party, having placed their property in trees 
above the reach of the flood, sought a camping 
place on some hillocks in the vicinity. On the 
30th they started to complete the portage to the 
Des Plaines, which they reached the next day 
at a point of which he speaks in his journal as 
the same where "we began our portage more 
than eighteen months ago" that is to say, on 
the journey of himself and Joliet from the vil- 
lage of the Kaskaskias en route to Mackinac 
during the summer of 1673. In his entry of 
April 1st, at this point, he speaks of the French 
village (which they hoped to reach the next 
day), as still fifteen leagues distant, though 
they were detained here by contrary winds until 
the 6th, at which date his journal breaks off. 

Father Dablon, the Superior of Marquette, in 
his report of the labors of the latter, claims 
that the devoted missionary reached the village 
of the Kaskaskias in eleven days after breaking 
camp at Portage River which would have made 
the date of his arrival at the Indian village 
April 8th and gives a detailed account of his 
work in founding there the "Mission of the 
Immaculate Conception." If this statement is 
correct, Marquette's stay must have been very 
brief; for, only a few days later, admonished 
by his failing health, we find him and his two 
faithful companions on their return towards the 
mission of St. Ignace, which he hoped to reach 
in time to end his life there, although his 
hope was not to be realized. Dablon says he 
traveled thirty leagues (about 80 miles) to the 
lake "upon whose waters he had to journey 
nearly 100 leagues by an unknown route 
whereon he had never traveled before." This 
evidently refers to the route by the lake, and 
there is nothing in this inconsistent with the 
assumption that his return to the lake was by 
the same route over which he had recently 
traveled to reach the Des Plaines. If this had 
been upon the Calumet, it would seem to be but 
natural that, finding himself near the southern 
end of the lake, the idea may have occurred to 
him of endeavoring to reach St. Ignace "by an 
unknown route," as Father Dablon expresses 
it, along the eastern shore, believing this to be 
the shortest route to his destination (St. 
Ignace), whether that was at that time on 
Mackinac Island or on the north shore of the 
Straits of that name which the late John G. 
Shea confesses to be a matter of doubt. As 
for Marquette himself, he has left no record 
over his own name of this part of his journey, 
the last entry in his journal bearing the date 
of his arrival at the Des Plaines on his way 
to the village of the Kaskaskias. On the 18th 
of May forty-two days after this last record 
by his ovn hand this zealous missionary and 
famous discoverer breathed his last in camp 
on the eastern shore of the lake at the mouth 
of what is now, in honor of his memory, called 
the Marquette River, about where the town 
of Ludington, Mich., now stands. While, as 
has already been shown, there is doubt as to 
the exact locality on which he camped during 
his two visits to this region, there is no doubt 
that he left the first written description of the 
country embraced in what is now known as 
Cook County, and his name will always be inti- 

American Buy* Rib Co Ckc 



mately associated with this most interesting 
and romantic period in the history of Chicago. 
( See Joliet, Louis, and Marguette, Jacques, 
Hist. Encyc. of III. Vol. I.) 









During the five years' interval immediately 
following Marquette's second visit to the Illi- 
nois Country, there would seem to be no doubt 
that this region was roamed over by many 
French traders, hunters and missionaries from 
Canada and the locality about Mackinac and 
Green Bay. Among the missionary class the 
most noteworthy visitor was Father Allouez, 
who had been engaged in missionary work 
about Green Bay for a number of years, and 
who, in 1677, came to the village of the Kaskas- 
kias to complete the work undertaken by Mar- 
quette, two years earlier, by founding a mis- 
sion there. He is reputed to have been met by 
a delegation of Illinois Indians at the mouth 
of the Chicago River, and conducted to his 
destination, as well as to have spent two years 
there between 1678 and 1680, and again visited 
Chicago in 1684, when there was a French fort 
in this vicinity under command of Col. Duran- 
taye. The actual location of this fort, however, 
is matter of uncertainty, but will be touched 
upon later. 

The most important arrival following the 
visit of Marquette and Joliet was that of Robert 
Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, who became for a 
time, under the authority of the King of France, 

the virtual proprietor of the "Illinois Country," 
and did more to attract attention to that region 
and open it up to the knowledge of the rest of 
the world than all of his predecessors. This 
celebrated explorer is credited by some histori- 
ans especially by his biographer, Pierre Mar- 
gry with having reached the Illinois and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers by way of the Chicago portage, 
as early as 1670, thus preceding Marquette's 
first visit by three years. Although this theory 
is accepted in part by the historian Parkman, 
Mr. Shea is of the opinion that the "Chicaugou" 
River reached by LaSalle, at this time, was the 
St. Joseph of Michigan. There is, however, a 
lack of documentary evidence to sustain the 
assumption of M. Margry, who bases his con- 
clusion upon reported conversations with 
LaSalle previous to 1678 and a letter from a 
niece of LaSalle's written nearly eighty years 
after his reputed visit to Illinois. However 
much or little credence may be given to this 
story of LaSalle's early arrival in this region, 
there can be no doubt of the importance of the 
discoveries made by this greatest of French 
explorers, or of the fact that the most thor- 
ough explorations, not only of the Illinois Coun- 
try but of the Mississippi Valley, by any single 
man up to this period, were those undertaken by 
him. In a certain sense he may be regarded as 
the Henry M. Stanley of his age. What the 
latter accomplished a quarter of a century 
ago in penetrating into the heart of the "Dark 
Continent," LaSalle, by his explorations 
through the heart of the American Continent, 
from the St. Lawrence far towards the Rio 
Grande in the southwest, including the discov- 
ery of the mouth of the Mississippi, accom- 
plished in the face of greater obstacles than 
Stanley had to encounter and with inferior 

Beginning his career as an explorer in 1669, 
there is ground for believing that LaSalle was 
the first Frenchman to reach the Ohio River, 
which he did from Canada, descending that 
stream, as claimed by some, to the falls below 
Louisville, and by others to its mouth. During 
the next ten years he made extensive excursions 
to the south and into the lake region of the 
West, with three voyages to his native France 
for the purpose of procuring supplies and 
obtaining grants from the crown. In 1679 he 
constructed and launched on the Niagara River, 
above the falls, the first vessel larger than the 
Indian canoe to navigate the lakes. With this 



vessel (named "The Griffon") loaded with sup- 
plies and men for his expedition, he made the 
voyage from the eastern end of Lake Erie to 
Green Bay, arriving at the latter in September. 
"The Griffon," having discharged its cargo on 
one of the islands at the entrance of Green Bay, 
was reloaded with furs and sent back to Canada, 
with instructions to return with another cargo 
of supplies and join LaSalle at the head of Lake 
Michigan, but was never heard of again. 
Among those accompanying LaSalle on this 
expedition was Henry de Tonty, who had joined 
LaSalle in France, and finally became his sec- 
ond in command. On the day "The Griffon" 
sailed on its return to Niagara, LaSalle left 
Green Bay at the head of a party of seventeen 
men (including three priests) in four canoes, 
for the mouth of the St. Joseph River at the 
head of Lake Michigan. Following the west- 
ern shore of the lake and passing by the site of 
Chicago, he arrived at his destination on Novem- 
ber 1st, expecting there to meet Tonty, who had 
been ordered to proceed from Mackinac with 
another party by the eastern shore. The arrival 
of Tonty's party was delayed, however, some 
twenty days, LaSalle occupying the interval in 
erecting a fort at the mouth of the river to 
which he gave the name of the "Fort of the 
Miamis" the river having received its name 
from the Miami Indians, then settled on its 
banks. Tonty's party having finally arrived, 
on December 3d, LaSalle set out with eight 
canoes and thirty-three men to ascend the St. 
Joseph to the portage from that stream to the 
Theakiki (Kankakee), leaving four men at the 
fort as a guard, and to await the expected 
arrival of "The Griffon." The portage was 
finally effected from the vicinity of the present 
village of South Bend, Ind., requiring the trans- 
portation of canoes and baggage overland a dis- 
tance of four miles. Having again embarked, 
this time on the waters of the Kankakee, the 
party descended that stream to the Illinois, and, 
by the latter, to the village of the Kaskaskias, 
which had been visited by Joliet and Marquette 
in 1673. Their arrival here was on January 
1, 1680, but finding the village deserted, they 
proceeded to that of the Peorias on Peoria 
Lake (then called Pimiteoui), where they 
arrived on January 4th. Here LaSalle made 
his first extended stop and began the erection 
of a fort on the east side of the lake near its 
foot, to which he gave the name of "Fort Creve- 
Coeur" (Broken-Heart), and also began the 

construction of a boat, with which he expected 
to explore the Mississippi River to its mouth. 
Being in want of material to complete his ves- 
sel, which he had hoped to receive by "The 
Griffon," on March 2d, accompanied by four 
Frenchmen and one Indian, he started on his 
return to Canada by way of the mouth of the 
St. Joseph, leaving Tonty, with the rest of his 
party, at Creve-Coeur. Before leaving he dis- 
patched Michael Accault and Father Hennepin, 
by way of the Illinois, to the Mississippi with 
instructions to ascend the latter to the region 
occupied by the Sioux. (See Accault and Hen- 
nepin, Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) Soon after 
LaSalle's departure, the bulk of the party left 
at Fort Creve-Coeur mutinied during the tem- 
porary absence of Tonty on a visit to the vil- 
lage of the Kaskaskias, burned the fort, and 
returning on their way to Canada by the mouth 
of the St. Joseph, subjected the fort there to a 
like fate. Tonty, finding himself deserted by 
all but five of his party, made his way back to 
Green Bay and spent the next winter among the 
Pottawatomies. LaSalle, after being detained 
in Canada for several months by a succession of 
reverses, started on his return west by way of 
Mackinac, arriving at the fort at the mouth 
of the St. Joseph early in November and, later 
descending the Illinois, saw the havoc wrought 
by the mutineers at Creve-Coeur. Having spent 
the following winter at Fort St. Joseph, in the 
spring he proceeded to Mackinac, where he met 
Tonty and Father Membre, who had belonged to 
the expedition of 1680. After another trip to 
Canada, in which he was accompanied by Tonty, 
the latter part of December, 1681, found him 
again at Fort St. Joseph. Making the portage 
by way of what he called "the Chicago River" 
(where Tonty had preceded him) to the Des 
Plaines, he entered upon his third descent of 
the Illinois, making a part of the journey upon 
the ice and arriving at the confluence of the 
Illinois with the Mississippi, February 6, 1682. 
With a few companions he and Tonty continued 
their course to the mouth of the Mississippi, 
where they arrived April 9, 1682, and took 
formal possession of the country in the name 
of the King of France, giving to it the name of 
Louisiana. The fourth and last visit of LaSalle 
was made in December of the same year, where 
he had the satisfaction of seeing the realiza- 
tion of his dream of a fortress on the summit 
of "Starved Rock," the erection of which had 
been begun by Tonty a few months previous. 



Here he remained during the remainder of the 
winter and the following summer, but going to 
France before the close of the year, entered 
upon the scheme of founding a colony at the 
mouth of the Mississippi, which ended so disas- 
trously in his death by treachery at the hands 
of some of his own followers, on the banks of 
the Trinity River in Texas, March 19th, 1687. 
While the career of this great explorer, who did 
so much to open up Illinois and the Mississippi 
Valley to Europe in the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century, belongs rather to general 
and State history than to that of Chicago and 
COOK County, it still has a deep interest for 
Chicagoans in view of its influence upon events 
which tended to make Chicago the entrepot and 
focal point of those seeking entrance, at that 
early day, to the region known as the "Illinois 
Country." There seems little reason for doubt 
that, at some time probably more than once 
during his later visits to Illinois, this ambi- 
tious and indefatigable explorer stood on the 
site of the present city of Chicago, as he cer- 
tainly saw it on his several voyages up and 
down the lake past its shores. (See LaSalle, 
Reni Robert Cavclier, Sieur de; Tonty, Henri 
de; Fort St. Louis, and Starved Rock. Hist. 
Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) In all probability Tonty, 
who made his headquarters at Fort St. Louis 
while making extensive excursions throughout 
the West, including one in 1686 as far south as 
the mouth of the Arkansas, in search of LaSalle 
not unfrequently had occasion to visit the site 
of the present city of Chicago, especially on his 
journeys to Mackinac. The confusion as to the 
identity of the Chicago River (or "Chikagoue," 
as it is spelled on some of the French maps of 
that time) still remains unsolved, as there is 
conclusive evidence that the name was applied 
to the portage leading from the St. Joseph to 
the Kankakee, as well as that between the Calu- 
met and the Des Plaines. The frequent men- 
for many years after the death of LaSalle 
tion, by early French explorers, of the Miami 
Indians about the mouth of the Chicago River, 
also militates against the theory that the river, 
best known at that time by that name, was 
the Chicago River of to-day, as there is abund- 
ant evidence that the territory occupied by the 
Miamis did not extend beyond the southern 
point of Lake Michigan; whereas, the western 
shore was occupied by the Mascoutins and the 
Pottawatomies, with occasionally wandering 
bands of the Kickapoos and Winnebagos. 













The earliest evidence of the existence of a 
French fort in the vicinity of Chicago is con- 
tained in the following entry in a report by 
Tonty of a trip made, in 1685, from Mackinac 
whither he had gone to obtain information 
regarding LaSalle to his headquarters at Fort 
St. Louis. The Tonty record says: 

"I embarked, therefore, (at Mackinac) for 
the Illinois, on St. Andrew's Day (Oct. 30th, 
1685); but being stopped by the ice, I was 
obliged to leave my canoe and to proceed by 
land. After going one hundred and twenty 
leagues (about 275 miles), I arrived at the 
fort of Chicago, where M. de la Durantaye 
commanded, and from thence I came to Fort 
St. Louis, where I arrived the middle of Janu- 
ary (1686)." 

There is no definite information as to the 
locality of this fort or when it was erected. It 
has been conjectured, however, that it had been 
established during the previous year, when 
Durantaye had been called, with a force of 
sixty Frenchmen from Mackinac, to assist 
Tonty in resisting an expected attack by the 
Iroquois upon Fort St. Louis. It would seem 
reasonable to presume that the necessity for 
the establishment of this fort, as a way station 
near Lake Michigan, should have been sug- 
gested by this expedition, and have been fol- 
lowed out on Durantaye's return. The belief 
has been expressed in some quarters that the 
location of this fort was at the junction of the 
North and South Branches of the Chicago River, 
while others have maintained that it was at the 



portage between the Calumet and the Des 
Plaines. Whether relating to the old Fort of 
Durantaye or some other structure, the follow- 
ing extract from a paper contributed, some 
twenty years ago, by Dr. V. A. Boyer, of Chi- 
cago, to the Chicago Historical Society, will 
have a deep interest for the student of local 
history. In this paper Dr. Boyer says: 

"I have many times visited, when on hunt- 
ing excursions, the remains of an old fort 
located in the town of Pajos, Cook County, 
111., at the crossing of the old 'sag 1 trail, 
which crossed the Ausagaunashkee swamp, 
and was the only crossing east of the Des 
Plaines River prior to the building of the 
Archer bridge in 1836. The remains of the 
fort, situated north of 'the sag 1 and near 
the crossing, were on the elevated timber 
land commanding a view of the surrounding 
country, and, as a military post, would well 
command and guard the crossing. ... I have 
never been able to find any account of this 
fort in any historical work. I first saw it in 
1833, and since then have visited it often in 
company with other persons. ... I feel sure 
it was not built during the Sac War, from its 
appearance. ... It seems probable that it 
was the work of French fur-traders or 
explorers, as there were trees a century old 
growing in its environs. It was evidently the 
work of an enlightened people, skilled in the 
science of warfare. ... As a strategic point, 
it most completely commanded the surround- 
ing country and the crossing of the swamp or 
'sag.' " 

The location of this ancient structure is 
described as having been in the western part of 
Section 15 in the Town of Palos, about five 
miles east of the "Sag Bridge," and three 
miles in a southeasterly direction from the Des 
Plaines. As the Des Plaines River in the lat- 
ter part of the seventeenth century was known 
as the "Chicagou," and the neck of land between 
that river and the streams falling into the Lake 
as the "Chicago Portage," it would not seem 
unreasonable to assume that the "Fort of Chi- 
cagou," mentioned by Tonty as commanded by 
Durantaye in 1685, may have been located at 
the spot described by Dr. Boyer. Capt. A. T. 
Andreas, in his "History of Early Chicago," 
referring to Dr. Boyer's paper, says: "It is 
reported that near that place, and near the 
point where 'the Sag' enters the Des Plaines, 

many relics of Indians and those evidently 
made by a more civilized people have been 
found." . 

As to other early fortifications, there is a 
tradition that a fort or stockade, erected by an 
early French trader named Gaurie, stood on the 
North Branch of the Chicago River in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century- This man 
Guarie gave name to this part of the Chicago 
River it being popularly known at an early 
day as Garay (or Guarie) Creek. There were 
probably other like structures in the vicinity 
erected for the storage and protection of furs 
and goods intended for traffic with the Indians. 

While the mission founded or at least pro- 
jected by Marquette, and afterwards placed in 
charge of Father Allouez, at the village of the 
Kaskaskias, was undoubtedly the first estab- 
lished in Illinois, it is no doubt true that, 
within the next few years, the Chicago portage 
became a familiar locality to the missionaries 
seeking to reach the Illinois and other Indian 
tribes farther south and west. Among those 
who followed Marquette and Allouez in this 
region may be mentioned the names of Gravier, 
Rasle, Bineteau, Pinet, Limoges, Marest, Ber- 
gier, Membre, Douay, Ribourde, St. Cosme, 
Montigny, Davion and De La Source, repre- 
senting both the Jesuit organizations and their 
rivals, the Recollects. There is evidence that 
there was a Jesuit mission here as early as 1699 
possibly a year earlier as it was definitely 
mentioned by St. Cosme in connection with a 
visit he made to this region in the latter year. 
Although this mission is spoken of as having 
been located "at Chicagou," yet owing to the 
confusion in the use of this name, its actual 
location is still left in doubt. St. Cosme, who 
has furnished the record of this visit, says that 
he left Mackinac on September 14th, 1699, in 
company with De Tonty and three other mis- 
sionaries, De Montigny, Davion and De La 
Source besides De Vincennes, and a number of 
companions who contemplated a visit to the St. 
Joseph and the country of the Miamis. On the 
7th of October, they arrived at the Indian vil- 
lage of "Melwarik" (Milwaukee), and three 
days later were at Kipiwaki, now identified as 
Racine, intending to ascend the Kipiwaki (Root) 
River to the portage from that stream to the 
Fox River of Illinois. Finding a lack of water, 
he says they were "obliged to take the route to 
Chicagou." Leaving Racine on the 17th, they 
were delayed by rough weather for several 



days, arriving on the 21st, within half a league 
of their destination, when, in consequence of a 
sudden storm, they were compelled to land and 
walk the remainder of the distance. St. Cosme 
whose account is in the form of a letter 
addressed to the Bishop of Quebec says of his 

"We went by land, M. DeMontigny, Davion 
and myself, to the house of the Rev. Jesuit 
Fathers, our people staying with the bag- 
gage. We found there Rev. Father Pinet and 
Rev. Father Bineteau, who had recently come 
in from the Illinois and were slightly sick. I 
cannot explain to you, Monseigneur, with 
what cordiality and marks of esteem these 
Rev. Jesuit Fathers received and caressed us 
during the time that we had the consolation 
of staying with them. The house is built on 
the banks of the small lake, having the lake 
on one side and a fine large prairie on the 
other. The Indian village is of over 150 cab-' 
ins, and one league on the river there is 
another village almost as large. They are 
both of the Miamis. Rev. Father Pinet makes 
it his ordinary residence except in winter, 
when the Indians all go hunting, and which 
he goes and spends at the Illinois." 

This was one of thirty-five missions said to 
be in existence at this period between Frontenac 
(at the foot of Lake Ontario) and the mouth 
of the Mississippi; and its location is assumed, 
in some quarters, to have been on the east side 
of Mud Lake near the head of the South Branch 
of the Chicago River. Yet this theory is appar- 
ently as doubtful as was the location of Mar- 
quette's cabin at the Chicago portage in the 
winter of 1674-75. The only thing which can be 
assumed with reasonable certainty is, that the 
site of the Jesuit mission of 1699 was near the 
southwestern shore of Lake Michigan on the 
route usually followed by travelers, at that day, 
in reaching the Des Plaines from the Lake; and 
there is nothing inconsistent in the description 
given by St. Cosme of its location, with ^ the 
theory that it was on the Calumet or Wolf Lake. 
An additional reason for this conclusion is the 
fact that St. Cosme speaks of this mission as 
located at or near a village of the Miamis, with 
another village of the same tribe a league 
distant; whereas, it is claimed by early explor- 
ers that the settlements of these Indians did 
not extend on the west beyond the southern 
shore of the Lake. 









With the removal of the principal French 
mission from the first Kaskaskia, on the Upper 
Illinois, to the more modern village of the 
same name near the mouth of the Kaskaskia 
River, in 1700, and the establishment at the 
latter of whatever civil or colonial government 
existed in the Illinois Country for two-thirds of 
a century, the region about the mouth of the 
Chicago River ceased to occupy the prominence 
it had previously maintained as the gateway 
from Canada to the Mississippi Valley. This 
result was hastened by the settlements, within 
the same period, about the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, and the increased frequency of communi- 
cation between the French villages about Kas- 
kaskia with the settlements on the Gulf Coast 
by way of the Mississippi River. Accordingly 
little note was taken by chroniclers of the time, 
for nearly a century, of the region about where 
Chicago now stands. Nevertheless the name 
Chicago, with its varied orthography, continued 
to be recognized on the various maps issued 
during the eighteenth century, including the 
Senex map (1710), the De Lisle map (1718), 
the Poples map (1733), the Bowen maps (1752 
and 1774), the D'Anville map (1755), the Du 
Pratz map (1757), the Bowles and Winter- 
botham maps (1783), and the Carey map 
(1801). The place also received occasional 
mention, during this period, from the few 
traders and travelers who visite'd this region 
at long intervals. Father Pinet, whom St. 
Cosme found at the Chicago mission in 1699, 
died at his post in 1704, although the mission 
was maintained for a number of years, possibly 
as late as 1712, as it is mentioned in a letter 



written from Kaskaskia by Father Marest dur- 
ing that year. It was during the year just 
mentioned that the "Illinois Country," as far 
north as the Illinois River, was attached by the 
French Government to Louisiana for govern- 
mental purposes, while the lake region was left 
in nominal connection with Canada. Thus the 
locality about the head of Lake Michigan, owing 
to its distance from the center of governmental 
authority, was left practically without any 
organized government, and was probably sel- 
dom, if ever, visited by any representative of 
the Canadian Government. The absorption of 
interest on the part of the French nation in the 
establishment and development of colonies on 
the Mississippi, and, at a later date, by the wars 
with the Iroquois, which threatened French 
supremacy in all the Northwest, left the region 
about the head of Lake Michigan in practical 
eclipse. Fort St. Louis (on Starved Rock) was 
abandoned as a military post in 1702, and, a 
few years later, the frequent incursions of the 
Iroquois from the east and the Foxes from the 
north, compelled the remnant of the Illinois, 
who had made their headquarters about the 
"Rock" for so many years, to join the rest of 
their tribe on the Mississippi, while the Miamis 
retired to the southcc^t, leaving the region 
about the head of Lake Michigan virtually 
depopulated of the original occupants of the 
soil, and even leading to the abandonment of 
the missionary stations. Charlevoix, the 
French traveler and historian, who visited the 
Illinois Country in 1721, says of this period: 
"The Outagamies (Foxes) infested with their 
robberies and murders not only the neighbor- 
hood of the Bay (Green Bay), but almost all 
the routes communicating with the remote 
colonial posts, as well as those leading from 
Canada to Louisiana." 

In September, 1730, the struggle between the 
French and their Indian allies, on the one side, 
and the Foxes, on the other, came to a crisis in 
one of the most bloody battles ever fought on 
the soil of Illinois, resulting in the defeat of the 
Foxes. Some are of the opinion that this con- 
test occurred on Fox River, near Piano in Ken- 
dall County. Another event of like character 
was a great battle between the Illinois confeder- 
ation and their Indian enemies, in 1769, which 
is said by some authorities to have occurred 
about where Blue Island now stands. This may 
have been the beginning or the precursor of the 
tragedy which had its climax at "Starved 

Rock," the same year, when the followers of 
Pontiac, consisting of several northern tribes, 
seeking revenge for the murder of their leader, 
besieged the remnant of different bands of the 
Illinois on "the Rock" for twelve days, finally 
capturing that stronghold and virtually exter- 
minating its defenders. Of the outcome of that 
famous struggle, Moses, in his "History of Illi- 
nois," says: "Only one, a half-breed, escaped 
to tell the tale. Their tragic fate and whitening 
bones, which were to be seen years afterward 
upon its summit, gave to this noted location the 
name of the 'Starved Rock,' which it has ever 
since borne." (See "Pontiac" and "Starved 
Rock," Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) 

There is a tradition that the Spaniards, who 
made the march across the Illinois Country for 
the purpose of capturing Fort St. Joseph at the 
mouth of the St. Joseph's River, in the present 
State of Indiana, in 1781, encamped on the 
present site of the city of Chicago, although 
this would have required a considerable diver- 
gence from a straight line towards the point of 
their destination. Captain Andreas, in his 
"History of Early Chicago," commenting upon 
the isolation of Chicago during the eighteenth 
century, says: 

"After the Foxes came the Pottawatomies, 
who finally almost exterminated the old allies 
of the French, and the Chicago route, for- 
merly so often traversed by French mission- 
aries and traders on their way to the Illinois 
and Mississippi, was, as before stated, for- 
saken, if not forgotten. . . . For nearly half 
a century the name of Chicago is not men- 
tioned, and there is no record of any visit 
of a white man to the locality. Du Pratz, an 
old French writer and a resident of Louisi- 
ana from 1718 to 1734, says of the 'Chicagou' 
and Illinois route in 1757: 'Such as come 
from Canada, and have business only in Illi- 
nois, pass that way yet; but such as want to 
go directly to the sea, go down the river of 
the Wabache to the Ohio, and from thence into 
the Mississippi.' He predicts also that, unless 
'some curious person shall go to the north of 
the Illinois in search of mines,' where they 
are said to be in great numbers and very 
rich, that region 'will not soon come to the 
knowledge of the French.' " 

The "mines" referred to were, no doubt, those 
belonging to what was known as the "Galena 
Lead Mine Region" in the early part of the last 



century, of the character and richness of which 
the French had probably received exaggerated 
reports from the Indians. 





A story of curious interest in connection with 
the early history of Chicago, relates to the 
alleged purchase from the Indians, before the 
Revolutionary War, by one William Murray, of 
a tract of land embracing a large part of the 
State of Illinois, including the site of the City 
of Chicago. According to this story, as told by 
Murray himself, his negotiations were conducted 
with the chiefs of the several tribes of the Illi- 
nois Indians, in the presence of the British 
officers and authorities stationed at Kaskaskia, 
in the summer of 1773. Two tracts appear to 
have been involved in this transaction, one of 
them (the northern) being described in the 
deed, as quoted in Hurlbut's "Antiquities of 
Chicago," as follows: 

"Beginning at a place or point in a direct 
line opposite to the mouth of the Missouri 
River; thence up the Mississippi by the sev- 
eral courses thereof to the mouth of the Illi- 
nois River about six leagues, be the same 
more or less; and then up the Illinois River 
by the several courses thereof, to Chicagou 
or Garlick Creek, about ninety leagues or 
thereabouts, be the same more or less; then 
nearly a northerly (probably westerly) 
course, in a direct line to a certain place 
remarkable, being the ground on which an 
engagement or battle was fought, about forty 
or fifty years ago, between the Pewaria 

(Peoria) and Renard (Fox) Indians, about 
fifty leagues, be the same more or less; thence 
by the same course in a direct line to two 
remarkable hills close together in the middle 
of a large prairie or plain about fourteen 
leagues, be the same more or less; thence a 
north of east course in a direct line to a 
remarkable spring known by the Indians by 
the name of Foggy Springs, about fourteen 
leagues, be the same more or less; thence the 
same course in a direct line to a great moun- 
tain to the northward of the White Buffaloe 
plain, about fifteen leagues, be the same more 
or less; thence nearly a southwest course in 
a direct line to the place of beginning about 
forty leagues, be the same more or less." 

Making due allowance for apparent typo- 
graphical errors in points of compass in this 
pretended deed, as handed down to us through 
a period of two and a quarter centuries, in spite 
of an evident attempt to adhere to the use of 
specific legal terms then in vogue, it is doubt- 
ful if the tract intended to be conveyed could 
have been satisfactorily traced at that time or 
any other: certainly such a feat would be 
impossible at the present day. There may have 
been a purpose on the part of the purchasers, 
however, in the lack of definiteness in describ- 
ing the boundaries, the chief object being to 
establish a sort of claim to as large a territory 
as possible. Almost the only points now dis- 
tinctly understood from the so-called "deed," 
as given, are the facts that the southern limit 
of the tract was opposite the mouth of the 
Missouri, that it extended north along the east 
bank of the Mississippi and the Illinois, and 
reached the mouth of the "Garlick Creek," 
embracing the site of the present city of Chi- 
cago. Not the least curious circumstance in 
connection with this early land transaction, is 
that the "consideration" for the transfer of this 
tract is said to have been "the sum of five shil- 
lings, to them (the Indians) in hand paid," and 
certain "goods and merchandise." The items 
embraced in the "merchandise" part of the 
"consideration" are described as follows: "260 
strouds, 250 blankets, 250 shirts, 150 pairs of 
strouds and half-thick stockings, 150 stroud 
breech-cloths, 500 pounds of gunpowder, 4,000 
pounds of lead, one gross of knives, 30 pounds 
of vermilion, 2,000 gun-flints, 200 pounds of 
brass kettles, 200 pounds of tobacco, three dozen 
gilt looking-glasses, one gross of gun-worms, 



two gross of awls, one gross of fire-steels, 16 
dozen of gartering, 10,000 pounds of flour, 500 
bushels of Indian corn, 12 horses, 12 horned 
cattle, 20 bushels of salt and 20 guns" the 
receipt whereof was acknowledged, though it 
is doubtful if the articles ever passed out of the 
hands of the alleged land purchasers. 

Out of this curious transaction appears to 
have grown the attempt to organize the "Illi- 
nois Land Company," composed of Englishmen, 
but later (in 1780 the Revolutionary War, in 
the meantime, having been in progress for 
several years) reorganized as an American 
company at Philadelphia. This claim was 
brought before the Continental Congress in 
1781, in an attempt to secure its recognition 
by a proffer to cede the land to the United 
States on condition that one-fourth of the claim 
be reconveyed to the company; but it was fin- 
ally rejected on the ground that private per- 
sons, without previous authority obtained from 
the Government, could not obtain a valid title 
to lands from the Indians. Attempts were 
made to revive the claim before Congress in 
1792 and 1797, but with the same result as in 
1781. (H. U. HurlbuVs "Chicago Antiquities.") 

The next land transaction involving the title 
to the site of the present City of Chicago, 
though not embracing quite so large a terri- 
tory as that claimed under the Murray pur- 
chase, proved of less questionable legality and 
more permanently effective. This was the 
result of what is known as the Greenville 
Treaty, concluded on August 3, 1795, by Gen. 
Anthony Wayne, with representatives of twelve 
Indian tribes then occupying most of the Terri- 
tory Northwest of the Ohio River being the 
direct outcome of Gen. Wayne's decisive vic- 
tory gained over the Indians at the Battle of 
Maumee Rapids, in August of the previous year. 
The tribes especially interested in this treaty, 
as it affected Illinois territory, were the Pot- 
tawatomies, Miamis, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws 
and Kaskaskias, the first named being then the 
principal claimants to land about the south- 
western shore of Lake Michigan, including the 
mouth of the Chicago River. Among the ces- 
sions granted by this treaty were sixteen special 
grants (or reservations), embracing tracts vary- 
ing in area from two to twelve miles square, 
each, three of which were within the present 
limits of the State of Illinois. One of these 
related to a tract six miles square at the mouth 
of the Chicago River; another to a tract twelve 

miles square at or near the mouth of the Illi- 
nois, and the third to a plat six miles square 
embracing the fort and village at the lower 
end of Peoria Lake, then called Illinois Lake. 
The terms of the grant, as it applied to the 
tract about the mouth of the Chicago River, 
were as follows: "One piece of land six miles 
square, at the mouth of the Chicago River, 
emptying into the southwest end of Lake Mich- 
igan, where a fort formerly stood." The fort 
here referred to is generally assumed to have 
been that mentioned in the earlier part of this 
history as being under the command of Colonel 
Durantaye between 1685 and 1700, and there 
was probably as much doubt at the date of 
the Greenville Treaty about its actual location 
as at the present day. For reasons of policy, 
perhaps, rather than regard for the actual truth 
of history, the region about the mouth of what 
is now known as the Chicago River, appears 
to have been settled upon as the location of this 
reservation, and this was accepted by the 
Indians, and here the erection of old Fort Dear- 
born by Capt. William Whistler was begun in 

In reference to the early French fort, sup- 
posed to be the one alluded to in the Treaty 
of Greenville, Andreas' "History' of Early Chi- 
cago" says: 

"What this fort was, or by whom erected, 
is now chiefly matter of conjecture. In 1718, 
James Logan, an agent of Governor Keith, of 
Pennsylvania, was sent to explore some of 
the routes to the Mississippi. Among others 
he reports as to the route by way of the River 
Chicagou as follows: 

" 'From Lake Huron they pass by the Strait 
of Michilimakina four leagues, being two in 
breadth and of a great depth, to the Lake Illi- 
noise; thence 150 leagues to Fort Miamis, sit- 
uated at the mouth of the River Chicagou. 
This fort is not regularly garrisoned.' 

"About this time, or shortly after, the fort 
was probably entirely abandoned. At all 
events, at the time of the Treaty of Green- 
ville, the oldest Indians then living had no 
recollection of a fort ever having been at that 

The doubtfulness as to the exact location of 
the fort mentioned by James Logan, in the 
above quotation from his report, is all the 
greater in view of the fact that the "Fort of the 
Miamis" was the name given to the first fort 

Pub X_ Eng Chico-gc 



erected by LaSalle, in the winter of 1679-80, at 
the mouth of the St. Joseph River which, for 
a time, bore the name of the "Chicagou." While 
this could scarcely have been the fort alluded 
to by Logan in 1718. it is barely possible that 
the name of La'Salle's fort may have been 
transferred to that occupied by Durantaye in 
1685, and which there is reason to believe was 
maintained until after 1700. 









Even at an earlier date than the Treaty of 
Greenville, what has come to be accepted as 
the first permanent settlement had been made 
on the site of the present city of Chicago. The 
name connected with this important event is 
that of Jean Baptiste Pointe de Saible (or, as 
written by some, AuSable), and his history 
gives to the circumstance an air of romance. 
The earliest mention made of him in history is 
found in a volume of "Miscellanies" written by 
Col. Arent Schuyler DePeyster, a British officer, 
who had been assigned to the command of the 
British post at Mackinac in 1774, where he 
remained several years. In his "Miscellanies," 
under date of July 4, 1779, appears the follow- 
ing entry: "Baptiste Pointe de Saible, a hand- 
some negro, well settled at Eschikagou, but 
much in the French interest." Elsewhere in 
the same volume Colonel DePeyster writes: 
"Eschikagou is a river and fort at the head ot 
Lake Michigan." There is evidence that the 
river here referred to was the Chicago River 
of to-day, and it would seem that there was a 
fort of some sort here at that time, though its 
character and exact location are left in doubt. 
From other sources of information it would 

appear that Pointe de Saible was a native of San 
Domingo who had come to this country before 
or during the early years of the Revolutionary 
War, and, after spending some time with a 
friend and fellow-countryman named Glamor- 
gan, who was a trader among the Peoria Indi- 
ans about Lake Peoria, had come to the locality 
of Chicago probably as early as 1778. It has 
also been assumed in some quarters that he 
had been a slave. However this may have been, 
his color has suggested the facetious paradox 
that "the first white settler of Chicago was a 
negro." Another interesting circumstance 
developed by Colonel DePeyster's reminiscence 
is the fact that, among the score or more of 
different spellings given to the name of Chi- 
cago in the hundred years following the visits 
of Marquette and LaSalle, was that of "Eschi- 

The story of Pointe de Saible's presence here 
at this early day is corroborated by the state- 
ment of Augustin Grignon, obtained in the form 
of an interview in 1857, and published in the 
third volume of the "Wisconsin Historical 
Society's Collections." Grignon belonged to a 
pioneer family of Wisconsin, being the grand- 
son of Sieur Charles de Langlade, who is cred- 
ited with having been the first permanent white 
settler in Wisconsin, where he located about 
1735 after having served in the French-Indian 
War. At the time of making this statement, 
Mr. Grignon was a resident of Butte des Morts, 
near Oshkosh, Wis. He says: 

"At a very early period there was a negro 
lived there (at Chicago) named Baptiste 
Pointe de Saible. My brother Perish Grig- 
non visited Chicago about 1794, and told me 
that Pointe de Saible was a large man; that 
he had a commission for some office, but for 
what particular office, or from what govern- 
ment, I cannot now recollect. He was a 
trader, pretty wealthy and drank freely. I 
know not what became of him." 

All that is known of Pointe de Saible's later 
history is, that about 1796 he sold or aban- 
doned his cabin which was probably also his 
headquarters for trade with the Pottawatomies 
when it fell into the hands of a French 
trader named LeMai, Pointe de Saible rejoining 
his old friend and comrade Glamorgan, at 
Peoria, and dying there soon after. There is 
a tradition that, while about Chicago, he sought 
to place himself at the head of the Potta- 



watomies as their chief, but in this was doomed 
to disappointment. His house, which seems 
to have been a better building than the ordi- 
nary cabins of that day, is said to have been 
constructed of "squared logs," and located on 
the north side of the Chicago River about the 
present junction of Kinzie and Pine streets. 
This cabin had an important history. After 
being occupied as a home and trading house 
some eight years, it was sold by LeMai, in 1804, 
to John Kinzie, who came to this locality soon 
after the erection of Fort Dearborn, and became 
the first permanent settler of the metropolis of 
the Northwest. (See Pointe de Saible Hist, 
Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) 

Besides LeMai, who succeeded Pointe de 
Saible, there appear to have been settled about 
the mouth of the Chicago River, during the 
closing years of the eighteenth century, several 
other white men, most, if not all, of whom were 
Indian traders with Indian wives and half-breed 
families. One of these was a French trader 
named Guarie, whose location was on the west 
side of the North Branch near its junction 
with the South Branch, and from whom the 
former received the name of Guarie (or Garay) 
Creek, by which it was known about that time. 
The date of Guarie's arrival and the length of 
his stay here are unknown. Another early 
resident was Antoine Ouilmette, also a trader, 
who, according to his own statement, came here 
in 1790, was here at the date of the Fort Dear- 
born massacre of 1812 and as late as 1825. 
In 1839 he was living at Racine, Wis. The 
suburb known as Wilmette, just north of Evans- 
ton, with an Anglicized spelling, was named in 
his honor. There was also another Frenchman 
named Pettell here at this time, but of whom 
little is known. These substantially included 
all who were located about the mouth of the 
Chicago River at the time the erection of 
the first Fort Dearborn was begun in 1803, 
although, no doubt, traders, trappers and explor- 
ers were accustomed to make brief sojourns 
here during that period. The Hon. John Went- 
worth, who came to Chicago in 1836 when the 
history of that era was still fresh in the mem- 
ories of the older settlers, in an address deliv- 
ered on occasion of the unveiling of a tablet 
to mark the site of the old Fort Dearborn, said 
of the condition existing at Chicago at the 
time work on the fort was begun: "There were 
then here but four rude huts, or traders' cabins, 
occupied by white men, Canadian French with 

Indian wives." These were doubtless the men 
whose names have already been quoted. 

During this early period one William Bur- 
nett seems to have been conducting an extensive 
business among the Indians between Detroit 
and Mackinac. His headquarters appear to 
have been at St. Joseph, Michigan, from 1786 
to 1803, although he is believed to have located 
in Michigan as early as 1769. Like most of the 
Indian traders of his time he had an Indian 
wife the sister of a prominent Pottawatomie 
chief and reared a half-breed family. For a 
part of the time, probably as early as 1798, he is 
reputed to have had a storage or trading house 
at Chicago, though earlier conducting his busi- 
ness at St. Joseph, which was a more promi- 
nent trading post than Chicago. After the 
Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812, Captain Heald 
(who had been commander of the fort) , together 
with his wife, found a temporary refuge at 
the home of Mr. Burnett before giving himself 
up to the British commandant at Mackinac. 









Mention has already been made of the reser- 
vation of a tract of land six miles square, at 
the mouth of the Chicago River, in accordance 
with the terms of the Treaty of Greenville, in 
1795. Although this indicated the purpose of 
the Government to establish some sort of a 
military post here, and this seems to have been 
under consideration as early as 1798, it was not 
until 1803 that actual steps were taken in that 
direction. In the summer of the latter year 
Capt. John Whistler, of the regular army, was 



ordered to proceed with his company from 
Detroit to the mouth of the Chicago River and 
erect a fortification there. Captain Whistler, 
accompanied by his family, including his son, 
Lieut. William Whistler, of the same company, 
and the young wife of the latter (aged seven- 
teen years), bringing with him supplies for 
the new garrison, made the trip from Detroit 
on board the United States schooner "Tracy" 
to the mouth of the St. Joseph's River, and 
thence by row-boat to Chicago. The date of 
his arrival at the latter place has been given 
as July 4, 1803. The remainder of the com- 
pany came overland under command of Lieut. 
James S. Swearingen. The arrival of the 
troops, with that of the schooner which soon 
after followed from St. Joseph, was an event 
of deep interest to the numerous bands of 
Indians either gathered about the two or three 
trading houses then located here, or attracted 
by the novel scenes they had come to witness. 
Captain Whistler at once began the construc- 
tion of the fort or stockade which was neces- 
sary for the housing and protection of his 
troops the soldiers, in the absence of teams 
of any sort, dragging the needed timbers from 
the woods in the immediate vicinity. Accord- 
ing to the statement of the younger Mrs. Whist- 
ler, who was a visitor in Chicago in 1875, there 
were here at that time only "fouir rude huts, or 
traders' cabins, occupied by white men, Can- 
adian French with Indian wives." (The names 
of the occupants of these huts have already 
been given under the head of "Early Settlers.") 
The structure stood on the south side of the 
Chicago River, about the foot of Michigan Ave- 
nue opposite the south end of the Rush Street 
bridge, and a short distance west of where the 
river then made a bend to the southward before 
entering the lake where the foot of Madison 
Street now is. 

Although its construction was begun in 1803, 
the fort was not completed until the following 
year. As originally constructed it consisted of 
two block-houses located at opposite angles 
(.northwestern and southeastern) of a strong 
wooden stockade, with the commandant's head- 
quarters on the east side of the quadrangle, 
soldiers' barracks on the west, and magazine, 
contractor's (or sutler's) store and general 
store-house on the north the whole built of 
logs, and all, except the block-houses which 
commanded the outside of the stockade, being 
entirely within the enclosure. There were two 

main entrances one on the south or land side, 
and the other on the north or water side, where 
a sunken road led down to the river, giving 
access to the water without exposure to a 
besieging force from without. The armament 
consisted of three pieces of light artillery, 
besides the small arms in the hands of the 
soldiers constituting the garrison. Captain 
Whistler remained in command of the garri- 
son until the early part of 1811, when he was 
succeeded by Capt. Nathan Heald. There has 
been some discussion regarding the name which 
the post first received, yet there seems to be no 
doubt that it was first named Fort Dearborn, in 
honor of Gen. Henry Dearborn, who was Secre- 
tary of War at the time it was constructed ; and 
this was the name by which it was known at 
the time of the massacre and its destruction by 
the Indians in 1812 an event which will be 
the subject of comment later on in this narra-. 
tive. (See Whistler, John, and Fort Dearborn 
Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) 

The most important event in local history 
about Chicago, following the establishment of 
the garrison at Fort Dearborn, was the arrival 
here, in the early spring of 1804, of John Kin- 
zie, who had previously been engaged in trade 
with the Indians at Detroit and, later on, about 
St. Joseph, Mich. Mr. Kinzie had learned the 
trade of a silver-smith in his youth at Quebec, 
and had made himself useful to the Indians in 
repairing their guns and trinkets, besides 
becoming widely known as a popular trader. 
He was known among the Indians by the name 
of "Shaw-nee-aw-kee" (The "Silver-man") 
which, at a later date, descended to his son, 
Col. John H. Kinzie, who, in the early '30s, 
was Sub-Agent for the Winnebago Indians, with 
headquarters at Fort Winnebago, Wis. (See 
Kinzie, John, and Kinzie, John Harris. Hist. 
Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) The elder Kinzie 
brought with him his family consisting of his 
wife and the son just named, the latter an 
infant less than one year old. The maiden 
name of Mrs. Kinzie was Eleanor Lytle, but at 
the date of her marriage to Kinzie (about 1800) 
she was the widow of a British officer named 
McKillip, who had been killed by accident at 
Fort Defiance, in the present State of Ohio, in 
1794. On his removal to Fort Dearborn, Mr. 
Kinzie purchased from the French trader, Le 
Mai, the cabin originally occupied by Pointe de 
Saible, located on the north shore of the Chi- 
cago River opposite the fort. Here he followed 



his vocation as a silversmith, sutler for Fort 
Dearborn and trader among the Indians, in 
after years becoming an agent of the American 
Fur Company, organized in the early part of 
the last century by John Jacob Astor. A mem- 
ber of Mr. Kinzie's own family has been quoted' 
as authority for the statement that he had the 
position of sutler when he came to Fort Dear- 
born, which is highly probable, as he appears to 
have been an intimate friend of Captain Whist- 
ler, and at a later date, had a son of the latter 
as a partner in business. 

The Pointe de Saible and LeMai cabin, hav- 
ing been improved and enlarged, became widely 
known throughout the Northwest as "The 
Kinzie Mansion," and many men of national 
reputation were entertained there during the 
first quarter of the century. The fact that 
Mr. Kinzie continued to be a resident of the 
vicinity for the remainder of his life except 
for a few years following the Fort Dearborn 
massacre and reared here a family who were 
prominently identified with Chicago history 
after the place became a city, won for him the 
title of the first permanent white settler of 
Chicago. Besides the elder son, John H. Kin- 
zie, already named, who was born at Sandwich, 
Canada, in 1803, his descendants included Ellen 
Marion Kinzie, born in December, 1805 after- 
wards became the wife of Dr. Alexander Wol- 
cott, for many years Indian Agent at Chicago; 
Maria Indiana Kinzie, born in 1807 became the 
wife of Gen. David Hunter, a distinguished 
soldier of the Civil War; and Robert Allen Kin- 
zie, born at Fort Dearborn in 1810. Mrs. Juli- 
ette A. (Magill) Kinzie, the gifted author of 
early reminiscences of Chicago and the North- 
west under the title of "Waubun," was the wife 
of Col. John H. Kinzie, to whom she was mar- 
ried at Middletown, Conn., in 1830, going imme- 
diately to Fort Winnebago, Wis., where, as 
already stated, he had charge of the Indian 

In the eight years following the erection of 
P'ort Dearborn there were few changes of 
which any record has been preserved, although 
there is reason to suppose that there were the 
usual excitements incident to life about a fron- 
tier military station, varied only by communica- 
tion, at long intervals, with the older settle- 
ments, and not infrequent visits from noisy 
bands of Indians who came to trade, but 
remained to carry on their drunken revels. 
Doubtless there were few arrivals of white 

men during this period, except of those 
employed in some official capacity, or of traders 
seeking to extend their traffic with the Indians. 
Among the former class was Charles Jouett, 
who had, been educated as a lawyer in Virginia, 
but came to Detroit in 1802 to serve as Indian 
Agent by appointment of President Jefferson, 
and, three years later (1805), was transferred 
in the same capacity, to Fort Dearborn, remain- 
ing until 1811, when he resigned. The year 
previous to the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn in 
1816, Mr. Jouett resumed his old position as 
Indian Agent at Chicago, but about 1820 again 
resigned and, for a time, was Judge of the 
United States Court for the Territory of 
Arkansas. In consequence of his training as a 
lawyer he has been accredited the honor of 
being "Chicago's first lawyer," though it is 
doubtful if, apart from his official duties as 
Indian Agent, his legal qualifications were ever 
called into requisition. Mr. Jouett took a 
prominent part in negotiating several impor- 
tant treaties with the Indians during his' con- 
nection with the agency at Detroit and that 
at Chicago. The first Agency Building or 
"United States Factory," as it was also called 
occupied by Mr. Jouett, is said to have stood 
west of the fort and just outside of the palisade. 
It is believed to have been erected about 1810, 
and is described by Mrs. Kinzie in "Waubun" 
as "an old-fashioned log-building, with a hall 
running through the center, and one large room 
on each side. Piazzas extended the whole length 
of the building in front and rear." 

On Mr. Jouett's return to Chicago in 1815 
he occupied quarters on the north side of the 
river about where the freight depot of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railroad now stands. His 
house is believed to have been in existence 
before the massacre. At a later date another 
building for the Agency was erected in the 
immediate vicinity of the latter, and this 
became somewhat famous under the name of 
"Cobweb Castle," but was never occupied by 
Mr. Jouett. (See Jouett, Charles. Hist. Encyc. 
of III., Vol. I.) 

During this period (i. e., between 1804 and 
1812) two other settlers are known to have been 
located in the vicinity of Fort Dearborn. One 
of these was John Burns, who occupied a cabin 
on the north side west of the Ouilmette home, 
and was living there with his family a few 
months before the massacre. The Burns house 
is conjectured to have been the one occupied by 



Mr. Jouett as an Agency building on the re-es- 
tablishment of the Agency here in 1815. The 
other new settler was one Charles Lee, who is 
believed to have come soon after the establish- 
ment of Fort Dearborn, and erected a cabin on 
the lake shore near the fort, where he resided 
with his family. Lee had begun to open a farm 
on the South Branch, some four miles from its 
mouth, about where Bridgeport stood at a later 
day, but now within the limits of the city of 
Chicago. This farm, at an early day, bore the 
name of "Lee's place," and later was known as 

It was at this place during the spring of 1812 
that occurred an event which proved a pre- 
curser of the disaster which was to follow, a 
few months later, at Fort Dearborn. What has 
been generally accepted as a substantially accu- 
rate history of this affair has been given by 
Mrs. Kinzie, in her story entitled "Waubun." 
On the date of this event there happened to be 
at Lee's place three men and a boy one of the 
former being Liberty White, the manager, and 
the latter the son of Mr. Lee. Mrs. Kinzie's 
story runs as follows : 

"In the afternoon (April 6, 1812), a party 
of ten or twelve Indians, dressed and painted, 
arrived at the Lee house, and, according to 
their custom, entered and seated themselves 
without ceremony. Something in their 
appearance and manner excited the suspicions 
of one of the family, a Frenchman (named 
Debou), who remarked: 'I don't like the 
looks of these Indians they are none of our 
folks. . . . They are not Pottawato- 
mies.' Another of the family, a discharged 
soldier, said to the boy: 'If this is the case, 
we had better get away if we can. Say noth- 
ing, but do as you see me do.' 

"As the afternoon was far advanced, the 
soldier walked leisurely towards the canoes 
tied near the bank. The Indians asked where 
he was going. He pointed to the cattle which 
were standing among the haystacks on the 
opposite bank, and made signs that they must 
go and fodder them, and then they would 
return and get their supper. He got into 
one canoe and the boy into the other. . . . 
When they gained the opposite side they 
pulled some hay for the cattle . . . and 
when they had gradually made a circuit so 
that their movements were concealed by the 
haystacks, they took to the woods and made 

for the fort. They had run a quarter of a 
mile when they heard the discharge of two 
guns successively. . . . They stopped 
not nor stayed until they arrived opposite 
Burns' place (about the State Street bridge), 
where they called across to warn the family 
of the danger, and then hastened on to the 
fort. . . . 

"A party of soldiers, consisting of a cor- 
poral and six men, had, that afternoon, 
obtained leave to go up the river to fish. They 
had not returned when the fugitives from 
Lee's place arrived at the fort. . . . The 
commanding officer ordered a cannon to be 
fired to warn them of their danger. Hearing 
the signal, they took the hint, put out their 
torches and dropped down the river toward 
the garrison as silently as possible. . . . 
When the fishing party reached Lee's place 
it was proposed to stop and warn the inmates. 
. . . All was still as death around the 
house. They groped their way along and, 
as the corporal jumped over the small enclos- 
ure, he placed his hand on the dead body of 
a man. By the sense of touch he soon ascer- 
tained that the head was without a scalp and 
was otherwise mutilated. The faithful dog 
of the murdered man stood guarding the 
remains of his master. They retreated to 
their canoes and reached the fort unmolested 
about eleven o'clock at night. The next 
morning a party of citizens and soldiers vol- 
unteered to go to Lee's place. . . . The 
body of Mr. White was found pierced by two 
balls and with eleven stabs in the breast. 
The Frenchman lay dead with his dog still 
beside him. Their bodies were brought to 
the fort and buried in its immediate vicinity. 

"It was subsequently ascertained from trad- 
ers out in the Indian country, that the per- 
petrators of this bloody deed were a party 
of Winnebagos who had come into this neigh- 
borhood to 'take some white scalps..' Their 
plan had been to proceed down the river 
from Lee's place and kill every white man 
without the walls of the fort. Hearing, how- 
ever, the report of the cannon, and not know- 
ing what it portended, they thought it best 
to remain satisfied with this one exploit, and 
forthwith retreated to their homes on Rock 

This affair produced general alarm among 
the inhabitants outside of the fort, consisting 



chiefly of a few discharged soldiers and a few 
traders with their half-breed families, who now 
entrenched themselves in the Agency House 
near the fort. No immediate attack was made, 
and, with the exception of the appearance of 
skulking parties of Indians in the vicinity, for 
the purpose of picking off straggling soldiers 
or stealing horses, no hostile demonstration 
against the fort occurred for over three months. 








Before the close of the summer of 1812 
occurred the most bloody tragedy in the history 
of Illinois, which, only three years preceding, 
had been organized under a Territorial Gov- 
ernment, although Chicago, as a city, was not 
yet in existence even in embryo. War between 
England and the United States had been 
declared on June 18th of this year and, on July 
16th, Fort Mackinac surrendered to the British. 
The situation was calculated to arouse the ani- 
mosity of the Indians, who had already mani- 
fested their friendship for the British, and 
were watching their opportunity to give vent to 
their hatred against the Americans. The 
account of what followed is drawn from the 
statement of Capt. Nathan Heald, the com- 
mandant at Fort Dearborn, and the story of the 
massacre as told by Mrs. Juliette A. Kinzie in 
"Waubun" : 

On June 9, 1812, a friendly Pottawatomie 
Chief, named Winnemeg, arrived at Fort Dear- 
born bringing dispatches from General Hull, 
then of Detroit, but in command of the North- 
west, instructing Captain Heald, the command- 
ant at Fort Dearborn, in consideration of the 

fall of Mackinac, to evacuate the fort and pro- 
ceed with his command by land to Detroit. 
According to a statement of Captain Heald, pub- 
lished a few months later, the order for evacu- 
ation was positive, only leaving it to his dis- 
cretion to dispose of the public property as he 
saw proper. Other authorities, including a let- 
ter from General Hull of an earlier date than 
his order to Heald, imply that the latter was 
authorized to exercise his own judgment in ref- 
erence to the matter of evacuation. Captain 
Heald's statement continues: 

"The neighboring Indians got the informa- 
tion as early as I did, and came in from all 
quarters in order to receive the goods in the 
factory store, which they understood were to 
be given them. On the 13th, Captain Wells, 
of Fort Wayne, arrived with about thirty 
Miamis, for the purpose of escorting us in by 
the request of General Hull. On the 14th I 
delivered the Indians all the goods in the 
factory store, and a considerable quantity of 
provisions which we could not take away with 
us; the surplus and ammunition I thought 
proper to destroy, fearing they would make 
bad use of 'it if put in their possession. I 
also destroyed all the liquor on hand soon 
after they began to collect. The collection 
was unusually large for that place, but they 
conducted with the strictest propriety till 
after I left the fort. On the 15th, at nine in 
the morning we commenced our march; a 
part of the Miamis were detached in front 
and the remainder in our rear as guards, 
under the direction of Captain Wells. The 
situation of the country rendered it necessary 
for us to take to the beach, with the lake on 
our left and a high sand-bank on our right 
hand about 100 yards distant. 

"We had proceeded about a mile and a half, 
when it was discovered that the Indians were 
prepared to attack us from behind the bank. 
I immediately marched up with the company 
to the top of the bank, when the action com- 
menced; after firing one round we charged, 
and the Indians gave way in front and joined 
those on our flanks. In about fifteen minutes 
they got possession of all our horses, pro- 
visions and baggage of every description; 
and, finding the Miamis did not assist us, I 
drew off the few men I had left and took 
possession of a small elevation in the open 
prairie, out of shot of the bank or any other 



cover. The Indians did not follow me but 
assembled in a body, on the top of the bank 
and, after some consultation among them- 
selves, made signs for me to approach them. 
I advanced toward them alone, and was met 
by one of the Pottawatomie chiefs, called the 
"Black Bird," with an interpreter. After 
shaking hands, he requested me to surrender, 
promising to spare the lives of all the pris- 
oners. On a few moments' consideration, I 
concluded it would be most prudent to com- 
ply, although I did not put entire confidence 
in his promise. After delivering up our arms, 
we were taken to their encampment near the 
fort and distributed among the different 
tribes. The next morning they set fire to the 
fort and left the place, taking the prisoners 
with them. Their number of warriors was 
between four and five hundred, mostly of the 
Pottawatomie nation, and their loss, from the 
best information I could get, was; about fif- 
teen. Our strength was 54 regulars and 12 
militia, out of which 26 regulars and all the 
militia were killed in the action, with two 
women and twelve children. Ensign George 
Roman and Dr. Isaac V. Van Voorhis of my 
company, with Captain Wells, of Fort Wayne, 
are, to my great sorrow, numbered among the 
dead. Lieut. Lina T. Helm, with 25 non- 
commissioned officers and privates and eleven 
women and children, were prisoners when we 
were captured. Mrs. Heald and myself were 
taken to the mouth of the river St. Joseph, 
and, being both badly wounded, were permit- 
ted to reside with Mr. Burnett, an Indian 
trader. In a few days after our arrival there, 
the Indians all went off to take Fort Wayne, 
and in their absence I engaged a Frenchman 
to take us to Mackinac by water, where I 
gave myself up as a prisoner of war, with 
one of my sergeants."* 

The exact location where the battle and mas- 
sacre of the 15th of August, 1812, occurred has 
been matter of Interesting speculation, although, from 
contemporary descriptions of the event and the 
reminiscences of citizens who arrived at Chicago a 
few years later, it has been possible to locate the 
site with reasonable accuracy. While the operations 
of the troops from the fort and the attacking force 
of Indians must have covered considerable ground, 
the best informed authorities seem to have settled 
upon the space near the lake shore between Eight- 
eenth and Twenty-first streets as the probable scene 
of the fight. An elm tree which, until a few years 
ago, stood on the premises of the late George M. 
Pullman, near the foot of Eighteenth street, has been 
accepted as the historical point ; and here Mr. Pull- 
man erected, in 1893, a monument in commemoration 
of the event. 

Other statements including that of Mrs. Kiii- 
zie, who undoubtedly obtained her account 
indirectly from the elder Mr. Kinzie through 
the widow and other members of the family of 
the latter differ materially from that made by 
Captain Heald. According to the history of 
the affair as told by Mrs. Kinzie, Winnemeg, the 
Pottawatomie Chief who had brought the order 
from General Hull to Captain Heald, when 
informed of its purport, strongly advised 
against evacuation; but, in case this step should 
be decided upon, urged that it be taken without 
delay. Mr. Kinzie who, from long residence 
among the Indians, was well acquainted with 
their temper and character, seems to have been 
in thorough accord with Winnemeg's opinion. 
It is also claimed that the subordinate officers 
strongly protested against Captain Heald's pro- 
posed line of action, while the Indians them- 
selves had begun to manifest an unruly and 
dangerous spirit even before the work of evacu- 
ation began. 

An incident indicating the condition of 
affairs existing among the Indians, as well as 
illustrating the honorable character of at least 
one of their number, is related by Mrs. Kinzie 
in the volume ("Wau-bun") already referred 
to in this history. Mrs. Kinzie relates this inci- 
dent as follows: 

"Among the chiefs were several who, 
although they shared the general hostile feel- 
ing of their tribe toward the Americans, yet 
retained a personal regard for the troops at 
this post, and for the few white citizens of 
the place. These chiefs exerted their utmost 
influence to allay the revengeful feelings of 
the young men, and to avert their sanguin- 
ary designs, but without effect. On the even- 
ing succeeding the council Black Partridge, a 
conspicuous chief, entered the quarters of 
the commanding officer (Captain Heald). 
'Father,' said he, 'I come to deliver up to 
you the medal I wear. It was given to me 
by the Americans, and I have long worn it 
in token of our mutual friendship. But our 
young men are resolved to imbrue their hands 
in the blood of the whites. I cannot restrain 
them, and I will not wear a token of peace 
while I am compelled to act as an enemy.' " 

While this can only be supposed to indicate 
the substance of Black Partridge's speech, it 
furnishes proof that Captain Heald had abun- 
dant evidence, in advance, of the hostile feel- 



ing in existence among the savages. Black 
Partridge had long been a friend of the whites, 
and the medal which he then proposed to sur- 
render is said to have been given him by Gen- 
eral Wayne at the time of the Treaty of Green- 
ville, in 1795. Before the conclusion of the 
tragedy at Fort Dearborn this high-minded 
Indian had an opportunity, in another way, to 
prove his magnanimity to one of the helpless 
victims. This incident, as related by the victim 
herself Mrs. Helm, the wife of Lieutenant 
Helm, an officer of the garrison is quoted by 
Mrs. Kinzie. While the fight was going on 
near the lake shore, a young Indian attacked 
Mrs. Helm, aiming to strike her on the head 
with his tomahawk. By springing aside she 
had partially avoided the blow which fell upon 
her shoulder, inflicting there a painful wound. 
What followed is thus described by Mrs. Helm: 

"I seized him around the neck and, while 
exerting my utmost efforts to get possession 
of his scalping-knife, which hung in a scab- 
bard over his breast, I was dragged from his 
grasp by another and older Indian. The lat- 
ter bore me struggling and resisting towards 
the lake. I was immediately plunged into 
the water and held there with a forcible 
hand, notwithstanding my resistance. I soon 
perceived that the object of my captor was not 
to drown me, for he held me firmly in such a 
position as to place my head above water. 
This reassured me, and regarding him atten- 
tively I soon recognized, in spite of the paint 
with which he was disguised, The Black Part- 

While the troops generally gave evidence of 
the most splendid courage in their efforts to 
resist the assaults of the infuriated savages and 
protect the helpless women and children, there 
were numerous instances, on the part of their 
assailants, of those inhuman atrocities custo- 
mary in savage warfare. One of the most 
revolting of these was the deliberate murder of 
all the children twelve in number of the 
white families, who had been placed in a bag- 
gage wagon for convenience of transportation 
with the troops, while many of the wounded 
prisoners shared the same fate. The feeling 
of horror produced by the recital of these atro- 

cities is relieved somewhat by individual 
instances of humane treatment on the part of 
some of the Indians. Following out the story 
of Mrs. Helm: After the battle she was taken 
back to the vicinity of the fort by her pre- 
server, Black Partridge, and, after having been 
protected, for a time, by the wife of a friendly 
chief, was placed in charge of a French trader 
named Ouilmette, with a half-breed family, and 
either kept concealed or disguised as a French 
woman until it was safe to surrender her to 
her step-father, Mr. John Kinzie. 

The case of Capt. William Wells, who had 
arrived from Fort Wayne, two days before the 
evacuation, with a party of Miamis, to act as 
an escort for the force from Fort Dearborn, was 
one of deep interest. Wells, who was the 
uncle of Mrs. Heald, belonged to a white family 
of Kentucky, but having been captured by 
Indians at the age of twelve years, had grown 
up among them and adopted their mode of life. 
While a captive he had been adopted by the 
celebrated Miami Chief, Little Turtle, whose 
daughter he married. He took part on the side 
of the Indians in the war of 1790 and was pres- 
ent at the defeat of Colonel Harmer the same 
year, and that of Governor St. Clair in 1801, 
but later joined the whites and fought under 
General Wayne at Maumee Rapids. Having 
settled near Fort Wayne, he began to open a 
farm, was appointed a Justice of the Peace by 
Gov. William Henry Harrison, and, at the time 
of the evacuation of Fort Dearborn, was serving 
as Indian Agent. Anticipating trouble from 
the start, it is said that he took his place, in 
Indian garb and with blackened face, in com- 
mand of the rear guard, and was one of the first 
to discover the hostile intentions of the treach- 
erous savages. He made a most gallant resist- 
ance, but having his horse shot under him, 
was soon overpowered and fell fighting desper- 
ately. According to one report his head was 
cut off and borne upon a pole back to the fort, 
while his heart was cut out and eaten by the 
fiendish savages. Mrs. Helm and a son of Cap- 
tain Heald have been quoted as authority for 
the statement that, before receiving his death- 
wound, this heroic man had succeeded in kill- 
ing eight Indians. 













Mr. Kinzie, although not directly connected 
with the fort except as sutler and an occasional 
interpreter, and regarded as a lifelong friend 
by the Indians, determined to leave with the 
troops. A part of his family had taken passage 
on board a bateau, with which it was intended 
to keep along the lake shore near the moving 
column. The boat had reached the mouth of 
the river (then about where Madison Street 
now approaches the lake), when a friendly 
Indian brought intelligence of the tragedy that 
had just been enacted. Having been halted 
here, the family were guarded by friendly 
Indians until able to return with safety to their 
home opposite the fort. 

While the boat lay at the mouth of the river, 
Mrs. Kinzie's attention was directed to Mrs. 
Heald who, although badly wounded, was still 
on horseback, but a captive in the hands of an 
Indian who was preparing to scalp her. Through 
Mrs. Kinzie's appeal to Chandonai, a friendly 
half-breed and chief of the Pottawatomies, Mrs. 
Heald, by the offer of a liberal reward, was 
rescued from her captor and finally taken to 
the Kinzie home, where a bullet was extracted 
from one of her most dangerous wounds by Mr. 
Kinzie with a pen-knife. 

Although once more in their home, the con- 
dition of the Kinzie family was one of great 
peril and anxiety. The house was constantly 
exposed to invasion by hostile savages who 
watched the inmates with suspicion, while a 
few, like Black Partridge, sought to shield 
them from danger. At a time when even the 

faithful Black Partridge had lost hope, the 
unexpected appearance on the scene of another 
"friendly" had the effect to avert disaster. This 
part of the story, as graphically told by Mrs. 
J. H. Kinzie in Jier "Waubun," is as follows : 

"At this moment a friendly war-whoop 
was heard from a party of new-comers on the 
opposite bank of the river. Black Partridge 
sprang to meet their leader. 'Who are you?' 
'A man. Who are you?' 'A man like your- 
self; but tell me who you are.' 'I am the 
Sauganash.' (Englishman.) 'Then make all 
haste to the house. Your friend is in danger; 
you alone can save him.' Billy Caldwell 
for it was he entered with a calm step and 
without a trace of agitation. He deliber- 
ately took off his accoutrements and placed 
them with his rifle behind the door, then 
saluted the hostile savages. 

" 'How now, my friends! A good day to 
you. I was told there were enemies here; 
but I am glad to find only friends. Why have 
you blackened your faces? Is it that you are 
mourning for the friends you lost in battle? 
Or is it that you are fasting? If so, ask our 
friend here and he will give you to eat. He 
is the Indians' friend, and never refused 
them what they had need of.' 

"Thus taken by surprise, the savages were 
ashamed to acknowledge their bloody pur- 
pose. They therefore said modestly that they 
had come to beg of their friends some white 
cotton to wrap their dead. This was given 
them with some presents and they took their 

"Billy Caldwell" or "The Sauganash" (Eng- 
lishman), as he was known among the Indians 
was the half-breed son of a Pottawatomie 
woman and an Irish officer in the British army, 
was educated in a Jesuit school and fought on 
the side of the British in the war of 1812, being 
an aid of Tecumseh's at the Battle of the 
Thames in 1813. His interference for the pro- 
tection of the Kinzie family in 1812, seems 
to have been prompted purely by his personal 
friendship for Mr. Kinzie. 

The day after the massacre, Fort Dearborn 
and the Agency building having previously been 
looted, were burned by the Indians. Three 
days later, the Kinzie family, having been 
joined in the meantime by Mrs. Helm in com- 
pany with a few other refugees, were on the 
way to St. Joseph, where they found a tempo- 

6 3 8 


rary refuge with Alexander Robinson, a half- 
breed Pottawatomie chief, but soon after were 
removed as prisoners to Detroit, which had 
been surrendered by General Hull to the Brit- 
ish the day after the evacuatipn of Fort Dear- 
born. Lieutenant Helm, after being wounded 
on the day of the massacre, had been carried 
as a prisoner to a village on the Kankakee. 
Here he was discovered two months later, by 
Black Partridge, who, having been author- 
ized by Col. Thomas Forsyth, a half-brother of 
Mr. Kinzie, and then Indian Agent at Peoria, 
to negotiate for his ransom, succeeded in doing 
so, but not until he had added his pony, his 
rifle and a large gold ring which he wore in 
his nose, to the ransom money. The Lieuten- 
ant was then permitted to join his wife at 
Detroit and finally, after having been sub- 
jected to considerable hardship as prisoners 
under the notorious and inhuman British Col- 
onel Proctor, they were exchanged. 

A brief reference to some of the actors in 
this drama, who were afterwards prominent in 
Chicago history, will be of interest. Alexander 
Robinson, the half-breed Pottawatomie chief 
(Indian name Chee-chu-pin-quay) is said by 
the late Mr. Draper, Secretary of the Wisconsin. 
State Historical Society, to have been the son of 
a Scotch trader and an Ottawa woman, although 
the latter is believed to have had French blood 
in her veins. Another author speaks of him as 
a "half-breed Chippewa." He appears to have 
grown up at Mackinac (possibly was born 
there) and early in the last century was con- 
nected with a trading house at Bertrand, Mich., 
and, as early as 1809, visited Chicago. About 
the date of the evacuation of Fort Dearborn, 
he appears to have been living at St. Joseph, 
and, if not present with other members of his 
tribe at the time of the massacre, evidently 
made his appearance soon after and accompa- 
nied the Kinzies to his home still later taking 
Captain Heald to Mackinac, where the latter 
surrendered to the British commandant. The 
exact date of his locating at Chicago is un- 
known, but is thought to have been as early as 
1814. Later he appears to have been associ- 
ated at different periods with Mr. Kinzie, Gur- 
don S. Hubbard and others in trade with the 
Indians. His home at an early day was on the 
north side about, the intersection of Dearborn 
Avenue and Kinzie Street, and, later, at Wolf 
Point, the junction of the North and South 
Branch. He often officiated as interpreter for 

the Government, and, about 1823, was employed 
in that capacity by the Indian Agent, Dr. Wol- 
cott. ^is name appears in a list of voters and 
tax-payers at Chicago in 1825 and 1826, and 
he was one of the signers of the treaty at 
Prairie du Chien in 1829, and of that at Chicago 
in 1833 was granted a reservation of two sec- 
tions of land on the Des Plaines and an annu- 
ity of $200 in 1832, and an addition to the lat- 
ter of $300 at the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. 
He is reputed to have rendered valuable ser- 
vice, in conjunction with Caldwell and Sha- 
bona, in holding his tribe in check during the 
"Winnebago Scare" of 1827, and again during 
the Black Hawk War of 1832. He assisted in 
removing the Indians west of the Mississippi 
after the Treaty of 1833, but returned and set- 
tled on his reservation on the Des Plaines, 
where he spent the remainder of his days, dying 
there, April 22, 1872. The inscription on his 
tomb-stone fixes his age at 110 years; though 
the late Henry H. Hurlbut, who knew Robin- 
son personally, thinks his age could not have 
exceeded 85 years, and possibly was not over 80. 
Capt. Billy Caldwell (Indian, "The Saugan- 
ash"), alluded to elsewhere as the preserver 
of the Kinzie family, was a native of Canada, 
and, although a half-breed, was fairly well edu- 
cated, being able to write with facility in both 
the English and French languages, besides 
being master of several Indian dialects. His 
devotion to the British cause was the natural 
result of his having grown up under British 
rule. From 1807 down to the battle of the 
Thames in 1813, he was intimately asso- 
ciated with the celebrated Chief Tecumseh, 
and known as his "secretary." In 1816 
he was at Amherstburg, Can., and is 
believed to have located in Chicago about 1820. 
His wife was the daughter of a somewhat 
famous Indian chief named Nee-scot-nee-meg, 
who is said to have been one of the participants 
in the massacre of 1812. Caldwell was a tax- 
payer here in 1825, and in 1826 a voter, serving 
also as one of the clerks at the same election. 
During the latter 3 r ear he was appointed a 
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, to which 
the region now embraced in Cook Oounty was 
then attached. Although an office-holder and 
a voter under the State Government of Illinois, 
it appears that Caldwell never renounced his 
allegiance to Great Britain. In 1828, in con- 
sideration of his services, the Government 
erected a house for him on the North Side 




near the intersection of North State Street and 
Chicago Avenue. This house was the first 
frame building erected in Chicago, much of 
the material for it having been brought from 
Cleveland, Ohio. At a later period it was 
removed to Indiana Street, but was destroyed 
in the fire of 1871. At the treaty of Prairie du 
Chien in 1829 a reservation of two and a half 
sections of land on the Chicago River was set 
apart for Caldwell, and at Tippecanoe, in 1833, 
he was granted an annuity of $600. He is 
described by his contemporaries as "a tall, fine- 
looking man," of high courage and strong com- 
mon sense. During the troubles with the Win- 
nebagoes in 1827, and the Sacs and Foxes in 
1832, he proved himself a faithful and efficient 
friend of the whites. On the departure of the 
Indians from Northern Illinois for their new 
home west of the Mississippi, in 1836, he felt 
it his duty to accompany them; and, after liv- 
ing with them five years, died at (or near) 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, September 28, 1841, in the 
60th year of his age. "The Sauganash Hotel," 
a log-building erected at the corner of Lake 
and Market Streets, and opened as a hotel, 
about 1831, by Mark Beaubien, was one of the 
earliest and most noted hostelries in the future 
great city, and was* named in honor of Captain 
Caldwell. (See Khabona; also, Beaubien, Mark. 
Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol I.) 

The Indian, Black Partridge, who had sought 
so faithfully to protect Mrs. Helm and the fam- 
ily of Mr. Kinzie, continued his kindness to 
tne sufferers after the massacre. One of his 
benevolent acts, of which mention has been 
made by Mrs. Kinzie, was the carrying of an 
infant of a Mrs. Lee to Chicago, a distance of 
fifty miles, in order that it might receive medi- 
cal treatment. Mrs. Lee was the widow of 
Charles Lee, the owner of "Lee's Place," where 
had occurred the tragedy of the spring of 1812 
before the Fort Dearborn massacre. Mr. Lee, 
with a son and daughter, had been killed dur- 
ing the massacre. Black Partridge, who had 
taken charge of the surviving members of the 
family, wished to marry the widow, but, too 
honorable to force his affections upon her, con- 
tinued to treat her with respect in spite of her 
refusal. Later, she became the wife of a 
French trader named Du Pin, who located here 
about the time of the massacre. The magna- 
nimity of this high-minded and honorable savage 
did not protect him, however, from punishment 
for the wrongs committed by other members 

of his tribe. According to Moses' History of Illi- 
nois, it was only a few months later, when his 
village, then located near the head of Peoria 
Lake, was attacked without provocation by a 
party of volunteers under command of Governor 
Edwards on the way to Peoria, and some thirty 
of Black Partridge's followers were killed, their 
village and stores burned and eighty horses 
captured. (See Hoses' "History of Illinois," 
Vol. I., p. 253.) Black Partridge's experience 
seems to have been a counterpart of that of the 
celebrated Chief Logan examples which have 
left an indelible stain upon American civiliza- 









The four years following the evacuation of 
Fort Dearborn was a period of practical sus- 
pension, so far as Chicago history was con- 
cerned. The evacuation and subsequent mas- 
sacre resulted in the elimination from the 
region about the mouth of the Chicago River 
of the last remnant of American civilization. 
All that remained consisted of the mixed 
French and Indian type, such as had existed, 
for a century previous, at the various trading 
posts along the Great Lakes and about the head- 
waters of the Mississippi. For the time being 
the northern portion of what then constituted 
the Territory of Illinois was under practical 
control of the British, or rather their savage 
allies who roamed over all this region at their 
will. Probably the only family permitted to 
remain here immediately after the massacre, 
was that of the French trader Ouilmette, which, 
being composed chiefly of half-breeds, was 
regarded as friendly to the Indians. It is said, 



however, that another trader named Du Pin 
came here about the time of the evacuation, or 
soon after, and occupied the Kinzie home. It 
has been claimed that Jean Baptiste Beaubien, 
who had been engaged in the fur trade on the 
Grand River of Michigan, probably before 1800, 
and at a later date at Mackinac and Milwaukee, 
about the time of the massacre bought the Lee 
cabin on the Lake shore south of the fort. 
While Beaubien may have been here for a time 
during this period, there is no conclusive evi- 
dence that he resided here permanently until 
some years later. One John Dean, an army con- 
tractor, appears to have erected a house near 
the old fort about the close of the period here 
referred to, and this was purchased by Beaubien 
and became his home in 1817. Beaubien became 
the head of a large and well-known family, and, 
in later years, was in the employ of the Ameri- 
can Fur Company and owner of a farm at 
"Hardscrabble" (the historic Lee Place), where 
quite a number of families lived. The arrival 
of Alexander Robinson (half-breed Indian 
chief) in 1814 has been mentioned elsewhere. 

Peace between the United States and Great 
Britain having been declared in 1815, the 
Indian Agency was re-established at Chicago 
the same year, under the former Agent, Charles 
Jouett. During the following year (1816) Fort 
Dearborn was rebuilt under the direction of 
Capt. Hezekiah Bradley, who brought with him 
two companies of infantry. The date of Cap- 
tain Bradley's arrival is said to have been July 
4, 1816, the same day of the month upon which 
his predecessor, Captain Whistler, arrived thir- 
teen years before. One of the earliest acts of 
Captain Bradley's troops after arriving was the 
burial of the victims of the massacre of 1812, 
whose bones had lain bleaching on the lake 
shore during the intervening four years. 

The new fort was erected on the site of the 
old one, though constructed on a somewhat 
larger scale and improved plan. It consisted of 
a, quadrangular stockade of oak pickets four- 
teen feet high, inclosing barracks for the sol- 
diers and officers' quarters, constructed of 
hewed logs and two stories in height. A mag- 
azine (of brick) and store-houses were also 
embraced in the area of about 600 feet square. 
The soldiers' barracks were located on the east 
side and the officers' quarters on the west. The 
structure was defended by bastions at the 
northwest and the southeast corners, with a 
blockhouse at the southwest angle. Captain 

Bradley remained in command until the fol- 
lowing year (1817), when he was succeeded by 
Maj. Daniel Baker, who remained until 1820. 
Captain Bradley then resumed command for 
one year. Other commandants were: Maj. 
Alexander Cummings, 1821; Lieut. Col. John 
McNeil, 1821-23; Capt. John Greene for a short 
time in 1823. In May of the latter year, the 
garrison having been withdrawn, the fort was 
turned over to Dr. Alexander Wolcott, then 
Indian Agent at Chicago. In August, 1828, fol- 
lowing upon the heels of the "Winnebago 
Scare," the fort was again occupied by a gar- 
rison under command of Maj. John Fowle, so 
continuing until May, 1831, when it was again 
evacuated. Again, in June, 1832 the Black- 
Hawk War being then in its early stages the 
fort was reoccupied by a force under command 
of Maj. William Whistler, the son of Capt. 
John Whistler, the builder of the first Fort 
Dearborn. Major Whistler was succeeded by 
Maj. John Fowle for a short time, and the lat- 
ter, in 1833, by Maj. De Lafayette Wilcox. After 
a few other changes, on December 29, 1836, it 
was permanently abandoned, the garrison being 
ordered to Fort Howard, near Green Bay. The 
structure gradually disappeared before the 
advancing tide of development in Chicago, 
although the old block-house stood until 1857, 
when it was demolished. 

Although peace had generally been restored 
throughout the Northwest before the time of 
the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn, the accessions 
to population about the fort, in the next decade 
and a half, gave no indication of the rapid 
influx that was to be witnessed a generation or 
two later the arrivals for some time being 
confined almost exclusively to Government 
employes or persons engaged in trade with the 
Indians. One of the earliest arrivals during 
this period was that of Mr. John Kinzie, who, 
after remaining a prisoner for some time in 
the hands of the British, had spent most of the 
interval of his absence from Chicago in the 
effort to reestablish his business at Detroit. 
On returning to Chicago he re-occupied the 
historic house opposite the fort which he had 
abandoned after the massacre, thus establish- 
ing his claim as the first permanent settler at 
Chicago. Here he resumed his occupation as a 
silversmith and fur-trader, some years later 
entering into the service of the American Fur 
Company. He also served for a time as sub- 
agent under Indian Agent Charles Jouett. In 



1821, and again in 1823, he was 1 recommended 
for appointment as a Justice of the Peace at 
the former date for Pike County and, at the 
later, for Fulton but in 1825 was formally 
appointed for Peoria County, becoming the first 
Justice at Chicago, which had been transferred 
to the jurisdiction of Peoria County the same 
year. Some time in 1827 the Kinzie family took 
up their residence in the fort, which had been 
vacated as a military post four years previous. 
Later they resided in a house belonging to J. B. 
Beaubien, just outside the fort, and here Mr. 
Kinzie died on January 26, 1828. (See Kinzie, 
John. Hist. Encyc. of III, Vol. I.) Those 
arriving during the next four years, but not 
previously mentioned in this record, included: 
Jacob B. Varnum, United States Factor, who 
came in 1816 and remained until about 1822, 
when the factory was abolished; John Crafts, 
fur-trader, from 1817 until about 1823, when 
hp entered into the service of the American Fur 
Company, but, dying in 1825, was succeeded by 
John Kinzie; Dr. Alexander Wolcott came as 
successor to Mr. Jouett as Indian Agent in 
1820, serving until his death ten years later. 
(See Wolcott (Dr.) Alexander. Hist. Encyc. of 
III, Vol. I.) Henry R. Schoolcraft, the noted 
ethnologist and naturalist, who visited Chicago 
in 1820, says there were only four or five fam- 
ilies here at that time, of whom he names those 
of John Kinzie, Dr. Wolcott, John B. Beaubien 
and John Crafts. Two years later (1822) 
Charles C. Trowbridge made a trip on Govern- 
ment business from Detroit to Chicago, when 
there does not seem to have been any increase, 
as he names only Kinzie, Wolcott and Beaubien 
as residents about the fort Crafts being then 
located at "Hardscrabble." 

In 1822 the accessions included David 
McKee, who* came here as Government black- 
smith in connection with the Indian Agency, 
and became a permanent citizen, dying at 
Aurora in 1881. Joseph Porthier, a Frenchman, 
with a half-breed family, also came the same 
year, as McKee's assistant. The most impor- 
tant addition to the population about this period 
was due to the arrival, in 1823, of Archibald 
Clybourn, a distant relative of the Kinzies. who, 
coming from Virginia, joined his half-brother, 
John K. Clark, who had been engaged as a clerk 
in trade with the Indians for several years. The 
following year Clybourn and Clark brought out 
the family of Jonas Clybourn, the father of the 
former, and the new arrivals, settling on the 

North Branch, started the growth of the village 
in that direction. Mr. Clybourn became the 
first Constable at Chicago, being appointed for 
Peoria County in 1825, and a Justice of the 
Peace in 1831. Another arrival of 1824 was 
James Galloway, who brought his family by 
way of the Lakes from Sandusky, Ohio, and, 
locating at "Hardscrabble," was engaged in the 
fur trade for some three years, finally removing 
to LaSalle County in 1827. Here Archibald 
Clybourn was married in 1829 to Miss Mary 
Galloway, oldest daughter of Mr. Galloway, who 
survived until 1904, in an honored old age, 
Mr. Clybourn became a successful and respected 
business man, was one of the first to engage in 
the packing business in Chicago, and did much 
to build up the northwestern part of the city. 
Clybourn Avenue was named in his honor. 
Rev. William See, a local Methodist preacher 
from Virginia, came the same year the Cly- 
bourns did, and, for a time, lived in a log-house 
on the West Side. He became the first County 
Clerk on the organization of Cook County and, 
later, a Justice of the Peace; but spent over 
twenty years, in the latter part of his life, in 
Wisconsin, dying at Pulaski, in that State, in 
1858. Others who located at "Hardscrabble" 
about the time the Galloways were there were 
the Laframboise families father and three sons 
(1824), half-breeds engaged in trade with the 
Indians; William H. Wallace (1826), a fur- 
trader, said to have died there a year later, 
and David and Bernardus (or Barnabas) 
Laughton, also traders, who located a year or so 
later on The Des Plaines about where River- 
side now is. In fact, about this time leaving 
out the garrison at Fort Dearborn "Hard- 
scrabble" seems to have been not less populous, 
and scarcely less important as a business point, 
than its rival at the mouth of the river. The 
assessment roll for Peoria County, to which 
Chicago was attached in 1825, contained a list 
of fourteen persons probably comprising all 
the heads of families in this region at that time 
paying taxes on a valuation ranging from $50 
to $5,000, each. The larger sum, was assessed 
against John Crafts, the Agent of the American 
Fur Company, while the others graded down, 
from $1,000 for J. B. Beaubien to the smaller 
sum mentioned. Judging from the names of 
the tax-payers about one-half were Frenchmen, 
or of French descent several of them being 

The year of the arrival of the elder Clybourn 



(1824) James Kinzie, an older son of Mr. John 
Kinzie by the first wife of the latter who had 
been an employe of the American Fur Company 
about Mackinac and Milwaukee came to Chi- 
cago and, later, became a prominent business 
man. About 1826 Kinzie and David Hall, a half- 
brother of Kinzie's, from Virginia, kept a store 
in a cabin on the South Side, at the forks of 
the river. During the same year Mark Beau- 
bien, a younger brother of J. Beaubien, appeared 
on the ground and soon after purchased a cabin 
from Kinzie, probably the one just mentioned. 

There will be occasion to refer to both Kinzie 
and Beaubien again in connection with the his- 
tory of early Chicago hotels. The year 1826 
also saw the advent in this vicinity of Jesse 
Walker, the pioneer Methodist Missionary in 
Northern Illinois, who, a year or so later, 
erected a log-cabin at Wolf Point, which, in 
after years, was used as a meeting house, where 
one of Chicago's early schools was taught by 
John Watkins. The Scott family Stephen H., 
Willard and Willis came this year, and the 
former located a claim at Gross Point, now 

An arrival of importance in 1827 was that 
of Russell E. Heacock, who, after spending sev- 
eral years in the southern part of the State, 
removed to Chicago, and became the earliest 
practicing lawyer here. Soon after his arrival 
Mr. Heacock taught a school in Fort Dearborn, 
but a year later was living on the South Branch 
at a place called : 'Heacock's Point." He was 
prominent in the organization of Cook County 
in 1831, and was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace for the new county two years later. He 
also bore a prominent part, at a subsequent 
period, in connection with the discussion of the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal question. (See 
Heacock, Russell E. Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. 

An incident of the year 1827 was a fire in 
Fort Dearborn caused by lightning during the 
night, which resulted in the destruction of the 
soldiers' barracks and store-house, with a part 
of the guard house. This occurred just at the 
close of the payment of annuities to the Pot- 
tawatomies, which had been celebrated by a 
dance iu the soldiers' quarters the same night. 
Gurdon S. Hubbard, who relates the incident in 
the "Reminiscences" of his life, says the alarm 
was given by Mrs. Helm, who saw the flames 
from her window in the Kinzie dwelling on the 
north side of the river. Mr. Hubbard, who 

happened to be there, accompanied by Robert 
H. Kinzie, finding it impossible to launch a 
canoe, swam the river, and arousing the inmates 
of the fort, took a prominent part in subduing 
the flames. The men and women, about forty 
in number, formed a line between the fort and 
the river, and every available utensil was 
brought into use in passing water to Mr. Kin- 
zie, who had taken his place on the roof. 
Although he had taken the precaution to wrap 
himself in a wet blanket, Mr. Kinzie was 
severely burned about his face and hands, but 
kept his place until the flames were brought 
under subjection. A number of Indians, who 
had gathered around as spectators, refused to 
give any assistance in fighting the flames. 

It was a few days probably one week 
after this event that Gen. Lewis Cass, then Gov- 
ernor of Michigan Territory, arrived at Chi- 
cago, coming from Green Bay by way of Fox 
River, the Wisconsin and the Mississippi to St. 
Louis, and thence returning by the Illinois fol- 
lowing the route pursued by Joliet and Mar- 
quette in 1673 bringing with him the first 
intelligence of the actual outbreak of hostilities 
with the Winnebagos. General Cass is said to 
have been entertained on this occasion at the 
Kinzie home, but left in a few hours, by the 
western shore of the lake, for Green Bay. 

An important event following closely upon 
the fire in Fort Dearborn of this year (1827) 
was the outbreak of the "Winnebago War," 
which, although the principal disturbances 
occurred on the upper Mississippi, produced a 
general panic throughout all the white set- 
tlements of Northern Illinois, in view of the 
possibility that other tribes (especially the Pot- 
tawatomies) might be drawn into hostilities. 
Many of the settlers throughout the region con- 
tiguous to Chicago hastened to Fort Dearborn 
for safety, although the fort was at the time 
without a garrison. The militia were called 
out by the Governor, and Mr. Gurdon S. Hub- 
bard, acting in the interest of the people col- 
lected at Fort Dearborn, mart^, an unprecedented 
trip to Danville to procure aid, returning at the 
end of seven days with a force of one hundred 
volunteers under the command of an old Indian 
fighter named Morgan. Through the influence 
of Billy Caldwell and Shabona, the Pottawato- 
mies were prevented from joining the Winne- 
bagos, and General Atkinson having arrived at 
the scene of the disturbances with a force of 
over 700 regulars from Fort Jefferson, below 



St. Louis, a settlement of the difficulties was 
reached by the voluntary surrender of the prin- 
cipal leaders. During the continuance of the 
excitement at Fort Dearborn, a company of 
citizens, composed mostly of Canadian half- 
breeds and a few Americans, formed an organ- 
ization for defense under the command of Col. 
J. B. Beaubien. (See Winnebago War. Hist. 
Enc. of III., Vol. I.) 








Probably no other name in all history has 
given rise to so many different forms of spell- 
ing, in the effort to perpetuate it in written 
symbols, as the word "Chicago." More than 
sixty different varieties of orthography have 
been enumerated, most of them due to imper- 
fect attempts to transfer, from an unwritten to 
a written language, sounds in themselves vary- 
ing more or less according to the dialect 
through which they were transmitted, as well 
as affected by the difference in hearing or intel- 
ligence of those receiving them. Only the more 
important and historical modes of spelling will 
be cited here. They embrace the following, 
with the authorities through which they were 
derived, arranged in a somewhat chronological 
order: Che-cau-gou (Father Hennepin) ; She- 
ca-gou (LaSalle) ; Chi-ca-gou (Marquette and 
LaSalle) ; Chi-ca-ga (Sanson, geographer to 
Louis XIV.) ; Che-ka-gou and Chi-ka-goue (old 
maps of 1679-82) ; Cha-ca-qua (old French 
maps, 1684-96); Che-ga-kou (LaHontan) ; Chi- 
ca-gou-a (Father Gravier) ; Chi-ca-gu, Chi-ca- 
gou, Chi-ca-qw and Chi-ca-go (St. Cosme, 1700); 
Che-ka-kou (Moll, cartographer, 1720) ; Chi-ca- 
gou (Charlevoix, 1721); Chi-ca-goe (report of 
English Commissioners, 1721) ; Chi-ca-goux 

(letter of M. De Ligney to M. De Siette, 1726) ; 
Eschikagou (Colonel DePeyster, British Com- 
mandant at Mackinac, 1779); Chi-ka-go (Capt. 
William Whistler, builder of the first Fort Dear- 
born) ; Chi-cau-ga (Niles' Register, 1813). 
Besides these spellings for the name of the 
river and the locality about its mouth, there 
are a number of other words of similar sound, 
and alleged to be of related significance, from 
the Indian dialects, as She-cau-go ("playful 
waters"); Choc-ca-go ("destitute"); Sho-gang 

The signification of the term has been much 
debated, but while its first meaning is conceded 
to be the "skunk," "leek" or "wild onion," 
competent etymologists claim that it is also 
the synonym of "strong, mighty or powerful." 
Henry R. Schoolcraft, the celebrated ethnol- 
ogist, who spent many years among the Indians 
in the Northwest and was familiar with many 
of their dialects, defined the word Chicago as 
"Place of the Wild Leek" (or onion). Samuel 
A. Storrow, who visited Fort Dearborn as a 
Judge Advocate of the United States Army in 
1817, in an official report speaks of "the River 
Chicago or, in plain English, Wild Onion 
River" and this view of the definition is cor- 
roborated by Gurdon S. Hubbard, who was here 
in 1818, and many more who asserted that at 
an early day the wild onion grew in great lux- 
uriance in the marshes about the mouth of the 
river. The theory has also been strongly main- 
tained (referred to in Mrs. Kinzie's "Waubun" 
as handed down through Indian tradition) that 
the river Chicago derived its name from a noted 
Indian Chief of the Illinois, of the same name, 
who was drowned in the river at a remote 
period. Charles Fenno Hoffman, whose letters 
have been alluded to elsewhere as written here 
during the winter of 1833-34, when the Indians 
were still numerous throughout this section, 
gave the pronunciation of the word, as uttered 
by the Indians at that time, as "Tschi-cau-go." 
The Indian pronunciation of the name, as 
described by Mr. Fernando Jones who prob- 
ably retains a more vivid recollection of the 
Pottawatomie dialect than any other among 
the few surviving pioneers of Chicago closely 
resembles that just quoted from Mr. Hoffman. 
The last two syllables, "cau-g6" with a strong 
accent on the last syllable as defined by Mr. 
Jones on the basis of information derived 
directly from the Pottawatomies, simply meant 
"Nothing;" while the first syllable, "Tschi" 



("S-shi-"), pronounced with a strong hissing 
accent, simply made the meaning more 
emphatic "absolutely nothing." This rather 
graphic definition, as explained by Mr. Jones, 
was intended by the Indians to describe the 
Chicago River, which after being explored 
from its mouth up both branches into the 
marshes which, in the dry season, soon ceased 
to be navigable even for an Indian's canoe 
was declared to be "Absolutely Nothing" as a 
river. If this was the Indian conception of the 
Chicago River at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, its present condition as a 
water-way, bearing a large percentage of the 
commerce of the Nation and destined to become 
the connecting link between the great lakes 
and the Gulf of Mexico, illustrates the marvel- 
ous results which have been wrought by the 
civilization of a single century. (See article on 
"The Name Chicago," by Mr. Fernando Jones 
at close of this chapter.) 

The following additional forms of spelling 
the name of a prominent Indian of the Illinois 
tribe, supposed to be the same identified with 
the naming of the Chicago River, have been fur- 
nished by different French explorers of this 
period: Chachagouession (Marquette) ; Chas- 
sagoac (Membre) ; Chassagouache (LaSalle). 

While Chicago was visited by numerous trav- 
elers, official and otherwise, during the first 
decade after the restoration of Fort Dearborn, 
the number of those whose impressions regard- 
ing the place at -this primitive period in its 
history have come down to us, has been com- 
paratively small. James W. Biddle, of Phila- 
delphia, a contractor engaged in furnishing sup- 
plies to the troops in 1816, said of the condi- 
tion of the place at that time: "Chicago then 
had no trading reputation, vessels only visiting 
it to carry troops or provisions to supply them." 
A visitor to Fort Dearborn in 1817 was Judge 
Advocate Samuel A. Storrow, of the United 
States Army. In a report of his visit, he had 
this to say of the physical conformation of the 
country between the Chicago and Des Plaines 
Rivers : 

"The course of these two rivers illustrates 
the geographical phenomenon of a reservoir 
on the very summit of a dividing ridge. In 
the autumn they are both without any appar- 
ent fountain, but are formed within a mile 
and a half of each other by some impercep- 
tible undulations of the prairie which drain 

and lead in different directions. But in the 
spring the space between the two is a single 
sheet of water, the common reservoir of both, 
in the center of which there is no current 
toward either of the opposite streams." (Then, 
speaking particularly of the location of Fort 
Dearborn, he adds:) "It has no advantage 
of harbor, the river itself being always 
choked, and frequently barred, from the same 
cause that I have imputed to the other 
streams of this country" (viz.: the accu- 
mulation of sand dunes about their mouths 
by the combined action of winds and waves.) 
"In the rear of the fort is a prairie of the 
most complete flatness, no signs of elevation 
being within range of the eye. The soil and 
climate are both excellent." 

One of ' the most important arrivals at Chi- 
cago about that period was that of Gurdon S. 
Hubbard, who, although then only a youth of 
about sixteen years, at a later period became one 
of Chicago's most prominent and highly 
esteemed business men. In an interesting vol- 
ume of reminiscences relating to his experi- 
ences while in the employ of the American Fur 
Company, Mr. Hubbard gives the following 
account of his first sight of Fort Dearborn in 
the fall of 1818 having come from Mackinac 
by the eastern and southern shore of the lake: 

"On the evening of September 30, 1818, 
reached the mouth of the Calumet River, then 
known as the 'Little Calumet,' where we met 
a party of Indians returning to their villages 
from a visit to Chicago. They were very 
drunk and before midnight commenced a 
fight in which several of their number were 
killed. Owing to this disturbance we removed 
our camp to the opposite side of the river. 
We started at dawn. The morning was calm 
and bright, and we, in our holiday attire, 
with flags flying, completed the last twelve 
miles of our lake voyage. Arriving at Doug- 
las Grove, where the prairie could be seen 
through the oak woods, I landed and, climb- 
ing a tree, gazed in admiration on the first 
prairie I had ever seen. The waving grass, 
intermingling with a rich profusion of wild 
flowers, was the most beautiful sight I had 
ever gazed upon. In the distance the grove 
of Blue Island loomed up, beyond it the tim- 
ber on the Des Plaines River, while, to give 
animation to the scene, a herd of wild deer 
appeared and a pair of red foxes emerged 



from the grass within gunshot of me. Look- 
ing north, I saw the whitewashed buildings 
of Fort Dearborn sparkling in the sunshine, 
our boats with flags flying and oars keeping 
time to the cheering boat-song. I was spell- 
bound and amazed at the beautiful scene 
before me. I took the trail leading to the 
fort, and on my arrival, found our party 
camped on the north side of the river near 
what is now State Street. A soldier ferried 
me across the river in a canoe, and thus I 
made mv first entry into Chicago, October 1, 

Making due allowance for the enthusiasm of 
youth with which Mr. Hubbard, for the first 
time, looked upon the scene about the mouth 
of the Chicago River, there can be no doubt 
that the view was a most inspiring one, but 
would have been infinitely more so if he could 
have looked forward in history to a period 
three-quarters of a century later. A description 
scarcely less enthusiastic than that of Mr. Hub- 
bard, and belonging to the same era, was that 
furnished by Henry R. Schoolcraft, the cele- 
brated ethnologist and naturalist, in his "Nar- 
rative Journal of Travels from Detroit North- 
west to the Sources of the Mississippi in 
1820." Mr. Schoolcraft, having arrived here 
in company with Gov. Lewis Cass, thus states 
his impressions of the surrounding country: 

"The country around Chicago is the most 
fertile and beautiful that can be imagined. 
It consists of an intermixture of woods and 
prairies, diversified with gentle slopes, some- 
times attaining the elevation of hills, and 
irrigated by a number of clear streams and 
rivers which throw their waters partly into 
Lake Michigan and partly into the Mississippi 
River. As a farming country it unites the 
fertile soil of the finest lowland prairies with 
an elevation which exempts it from the influ- 
ence of stagnant waters, and a summer cli- 
mate of delightful serenity, while the mead- 
ows present all the advantages of raising 
stock of the most favored part of the valley 
of the Mississippi. It is already the seat of 
several flourishing plantations, and only 
requires the extinguishment of the Indian 
titles to the land to become one of the most 
attractive fields for the immigrant. To the 
ordinary advantages of an agricultural mar- 
ket town it must hereafter add that of a 
depot for the inland commerce between the 

northern and southern sections of the Union, 
and a great thoroughfare for strangers, mer- 
chants and travelers." 

All of which and more was accomplished 
before the close of the century, giving to Mr. 
Schoolcraft's description an air of prophecy. 

An impression of a sort quite different from 
those just cited was that received by Prof. W. 
H. Keating, geologist and historiographer of 
Major Stephen H. Long's expedition to the 
sources of St. Peter's River in 1823. His report 
has been widely attributed to Major Long, who, 
although probably approving it, cannot be said 
technically to have been its author. Professor 
Keating who was Professor of Mineralogy and 
Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania 
in his narrative of Long's expedition, published 
in London in 1825, makes the following refer- 
ence to Chicago: 

"We were much disappointed at the appear- 
ance of Chicago and its vicinity. We found in 
it nothing to justify the great eulogium lav- 
ished upon this place by a late traveler 
(Schoolcraft), who observes that it 'is the 
most fertile and beautiful that can be imag- 
ined.' " (The writer then goes on to com- 
ment upon the obstacles to be encountered in 
obtaining satisfactory supplies for the sub- 
sistence of troops from the immediate vicin- 
ity, and the difficulties met with by agricul- 
turists on account of the shallowness and 
humidity of the soil, and its exposure to "cold 
and damp winds, which blow from the lake 
with great force during most part of the 
year," the destruction of growing crops by 
insects, birds, etc., and then proceeds : ) "The 
appearance of the country near Chicago offers 
but few features upon which the pye of the 
traveler can dwell with pleasure. There is 
too much uniformity in the scenery; the 
extensive water prospect is a waste uncheck- 
ered by islands, unenlivened by the spreading 
canvas, and the fatiguing monotony of which 
is increased by the equally undiversified pros- 
pect of the land scenery which affords no 
relief in sight, as it consists merely of a plain 
in which but few patches of thin and scrubby 
woods are observed here and there. The 
village presents no cheering prospect as, not- 
withstanding its antiquity, it consists of but 
few huts inhabited by a miserable race of 
men scarcely equal to the Indians from whom 
they are descended. Their log or bark houses 



are low, filthy and disgusting, displaying not 
the least trace of comfort. . . . The 
number of trails centering at this point, and 
their apparent antiquity, indicate that this 
was probably for a long time the site of a 
large Indian village. As a place of business 
it offers no inducements to the settler." 

While Professor Keating may have looked 
upon the scene with the eye of a rather fastidi- 
ous artist, it was evidently without imagination, 
as he foresaw nothing of the development 
brought about within the next half century, 
removing many of the blemishes of which he 
complained and supplying some of the very 
features whose absence he deplored the 
"scrubby woods" giving place to extensive man- 
ufactories and vast mercantile establishments, 
while the waste of waters, "unenlivened by the 
spreading canvas," has been transformed into 
a highway of commerce connecting Chicago, 
not only with every lake port, but even with 
Europe itself. Yet, in view of possibilities 
growing out of the construction of the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal, Major Long's histori- 
ographer thought it "not impossible that, at 
some distant day, when the banks of the Illi- 
nois shall have been covered by a dense popu- 
lation, and when the low prairies which extend 
between that river and Fort Wayne shall have 
acquired a population proportionate to the prod- 
uce which they can yield, Chicago may Lew me 
one of the points in the direct line of com- 
munication between the northern lakes and the 
Mississippi" a conclusion showing that he was 
not wholly incapable of realizing the changes 
which might be wrought by the development of 
less than a century. 

Previous to 1826 the residents about Fort 
Dearborn were compelled to depend upon occa- 
sional visits of traders or travelers, or the 
arrival of small lake craft bringing supplies for 
the troops at Fort Dearborn or for the fur- 
traders located here, for communication with 
the outside world. At an early day the officers 
of the fort were accustomed, in cases of emer- 
gency, to employ special messengers or "run- 
ners," while ordinarily and at long intervals 
receiving mail for the garrison from Fort 
Wayne, now in Eastern Indiana. The first 
regular mail-route crossing the Allegheny 
Mountains was established between Philadel- 
phia and Pittsburg in 1788; in 1794 it was 
extended to Louisville, in 1800 to Vincennes, 

and, in 1810, from Vincennes to Cape Girardeau 
in Missouri. By 1824 a direct route had been 
established between Vandalia and Springfield, 
and, during 1826, David McKee, who had come 
to Fort Dearborn as a Government blacksmith 
in 1822, began carrying dispatches and letters 
once a month between Chicago and Fort Wayne 
two weeks being required to make the trip 
one way. At a later date White Pigeon, Mich., 
became the supply station instead of Fort 
Wayne. At a still later period probably 
1820 according to the Hon. John Wentworth, 
the supply point was moved westward to Niles, 
Mich., and Elijah Wentworth, Jr., the son of 
Chicago's second hotel-keeper, became the mail- 
carrier. Early in 1831 a post-office was estab- 
lished here and Jonathan N. Bailey, by appoint- 
ment of President Jackson, became the first 
postmaster, using the Kinzie house on the North 
Side of the Chicago River, opposite Fort Dear- 
born, as a residence and postoffice. The car- 
rier about this time is said to have been an 
Indian half-breed, who made the trip from 
Niles, Mich., once in two weeks. Bross's "His- 
tory of Chicago" says: "In 1832 there was a 
mail-route established from Tecumseh, Mich., 
by way of Niles to Chicago; from Chicago to 
Danville, also (from Chicago to Green Bay," 
the two last named places being supplied by 
mail carried weekly on horseback. The car- 
riers on these routes, especially that to Green 
Bay, suffered great hardship from exposure to 
cold and heavy snows in passing through long 
stretches of country that were totally uninhab- 
ited. After 1831 the history of the postoffice 
became a part of the history of Chicago, and 
the arrival of the stage coach, under the suc- 
cessive management of Frink, Messrs. Frink & 
Bingham, and Messrs. Frink & Walker, became 
an important feature of Chicago daily life. (See 

Prior to 1830 the bulk of the settlement at 
Chicago had begun to concentrate about "Wolf 
Point," as the locality at the junction of the 
North and the South Branch was known, Fort 
Dearborn, during a part of that time (1823 
to 1828), being occupied by the Indian Agent 
instead of a garrison.'NThe tide of travel which 
had begun to set in by that time created a 
demand for places of entertainment, although 
up to that period there scarcely seems to have 
been any thought of organizing a village here, 
much less of founding a city. Previous to this 
date the few travelers visiting the locality of 



Fort Dearborn if not public officials and, there- 
fore, entitled to entertainment at the fort or 
the Agency were, no doubt, accommodated in 
private homes. That of the Kinzie family, 
being the most commodious, as well as the most 
widely known, was probably most frequently 
called upon to give evidence of its hospitality. 
While there is some doubt as to the date of 
the formal opening of the first house of public 
entertainment, it appears to be conceded that 
Archibald Caldwell, who came to Chicago in 
1827, was conducting a tavern here in the 
autumn of 1829, for which he received a license 
from the County Commissioners of Peoria 
County in December of the same year. The 
house was a double log-cabin located at Wolf 
Point on the West Side, and has gone down in 
history as the "Wolf Point Tavern." It is 
believed to have been owned in whole or in part 
by James Kinzie. Caldwell appears to have 
remained in charge only for a short time, as, 
early in 1830, the establishment had passed into 
the hands of Elijah Wentworth, who came here 
in the latter part of the preceding year with 
the intention of returning to Maine, but 
remained to become Chicago's second hotel- 
keeper. While Wentworth was in charge of the 
"Wolf Point Tavern," Samuel Miller was con- 
ducting an opposition house on the North Side, 
east of the North Branch, and, a few months 
later, Mark Beaubien had opened another on 
the South Side, just east of the South Branch. 
When first established Beaubien's tavern was 
kept in a log-house bought from James Kinzie, 
to which he built an addition; but a year later 
he erected the second frame house in Chicago, 
at the corner of Lake and Market Streets, to 
which he gave the name of "The Sauganash," 
and which became one of the most famous hos- 
telries in the history of Chicago. After under- 
going various changes, for a part of the time 
being used as Chicago's first theatre this his- 
toric building was burned on the morning of 
March 4, 1851. Other notable places of enter- 
tainment connected with early Chicago history 
were the "Mansion House," erected by Dexter 
Graves on Lake Street near Dearborn in 1831; 
the "Green Tree Tavern," built by James Kinzie 
at the northeast corner of Canal and Lake 
Streets in 1833, and the "Lake House," erected 
by Chicago capitalists in 1835 at the corner of 
Kinzie, Rush and Michigan Streets the latter, 
In its time, the most pretentious building of 
its kind in Chicago. Among hotels of a later 

date none have had a longer or more conspicu- 
ous history than the "Tremont House" and the 
"Sherman House." The former, erected first 
as a frame building on the northwest corner of 
Lake and Dearborn Streets in 1833, was kept 
as a saloon and boarding house for a short 
time, when it passed into the hands of the late 
Couch brothers, who opened it as a hotel. This 
structure having been burned in October, 1839, 
a new frame-building was erected at the south- 
east corner of the same streets on the site of 
the later Tremont, and opened as a hotel early 
in 1840. On July 21, 1849, this building was 
destroyed by fire, but having been replaced by 
a brick structure, was reopened in October, 1850. 
After various changes in management, it was 
burned again in the fire of 1871, was again 
rebuilt on an enlarged and substantial scale and 
maintained as a hotel until 1901 when, having 
become surrounded by heavy manufacturing 
and wholesale business houses, it passed into 
the hands of the Northwestern University to 
be utilized by that institution for its' depart- 
ments of Law, Pharmacy and Dental Surgery, 
thus ending its hotel history of nearly three- 
quarters of a century. The Sherman House, 
erected in 1836-37 by Francis C. Sherman, was 
opened at the close of the latter year as the 
City Hotel; was enlarged and remodeled in 1844 
and opened as the Sherman House, which it 
has since remained under various changes of 


Many fanciful stories, as to the derivation of 
the name of the River upon which the great 
City of Chicago is situated, have been circulated 
and put in print. These stories are mostly 
given out by ignorant travelers, preachers and 
school-teachers, all equally absurd. One reports 
that the word signifies great strength; another, 
miserable weakness. One says it signifies a 
skunk, or skunk cabbage; another, that it 
means a leek or wild onion. A celebrated 
writer insists that it was named for a great 
chief who was famed for his strength. 

On my arrival in Chicago in the early spring 
of the year 1835, I became acquainted with 
many of the Indians and learned their Ian- 



guage the Pottawatomie. I was told many 
times, by different Indians, of the tradition of 
the name. The legend was repeated to me 
many times and legends handed down from 
father to son are more reliable than fanciful 
written histories. Each one of my informants 
told the same story. Some Northern Indians 
bent upon exploring which is a common trait 
of the roaming red man came down to the 
mouth of what seemed to be a great river, per- 
haps 50 or 100 miles long. They bivouacked 
at the mouth of what seemed to be a river, and 
sent an Indian, with his birch bark canoe, to 
investigate. He paddled his light canoe up the 
stream about half a mile, where it divided into 
two branches. He went up the north, branch, 
something like a mile, when it began in a low 
swamp. He quickly returned and paddled up 
the south branch, about the same distance, and 
found that it began in a lake of mud. He 
returned and reported "Ca-go" there is "Noth- 
ing." Upon being remonstrated with, he used 
an adjective signifying in the strongest terms, 
positively "tocchi," or "chugh," "ca-go!" 
"ca-go!" "Chuh-ca-go!" positively, there is no 
river. And that name has stuck to it through 
all the years. The name is justified, for the 
river is no river, being but a dirty slough; and 
the city is no city, being but an overgrown vil- 
lage "Chic-cago." 

While upon the subject of the Indians, I 
recall the fact, that, by a treaty of the United 
States, the Pottawatomies were to receive, 
amongst many other things, as payment for 
their land, $16,000 annually, forever 'payable at 
Chicago; 50 barrels of salt annually, forever, 
delivered at Chicago; and a blacksmith-shop 
for the tribe, at Chicago. Did the good Doctor 
Wolcott, the Indian Agent who manipulated 
this treaty, really believe this was to be car- 
ried out, or did he know that it was a fraud 
upon the poor Indian? In a very few years 
they were driven away beyond the Mississippi 
River by a new treaty, forced upon them by 
unscrupulous agents of the Government. 








Up to this point the settlement about the 
mouth of the Chicago River sems to have gone 
on without any formal attempt to organize a 
local civil government. What government 
existed was administered either by the military 
officers over the troops at Fort Dearborn or, 
during the latter period, through the county 
authorities at a distance from the locality gov- 
erned. In the early days of French exploration 
and occupation, this region was regarded as 
coining within the undefined limits of what 
was then known as "New France," but after 
the establishment of a local government near 
the mouth of the Mississippi, it was attached to 
Canada the region south of the Illinois 
(including the settlements about Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia) becoming a part of Louisiana. On 
the extinguishment of the French title by the 
Treaty of Paris in 1763, it became nominally 
British territory, though formal possession was 
not taken of Southern Illinois until two years 
later. As the result of the expedition of Col. 
George Rogers Clark in 1778, the region known 
as the "Illinois Country" fell under jurisdiction 
of the State of Virginia, but the Revolutionary 
War being then in progress, the lake region 
continued to be disputed territory, or in virtual 
possession of the British, until the treaty of 
peace of 1783, when the title of the United 
States to the region east of the Mississippi and 
south of the lakes was recognized. It is safe 
to say there was no more influential factor in 
bringing about this result than the Clark expe- 
dition to the "Illinois Country" and the build- 
ing of forts and block-houses in this region, 
which followed the occupation of Kaskaskia and 
Vincennes, backed by the 'American Commis- 
sioners at the Treaty of Paris in 1783. 

CenturvPuilisMng &EnrwiAg Co. CMcagc 



From that time all this region was regarded 
as part of the unorganized "Territory North- 
west of the River Ohio," and, in 1784, came 
under the operation of a resolution adopted by 
Congress under the Articles of Confederation, 
providing a temporary government therefor. 
Speaking of the condition of affairs in this 
region as late as 1785, Gen. William Henry 
Harrison, in an address delivered before the 
Historical Society of Ohio, said there was "not 
a Christian inhabitant within the bounds of 
what is now the State of Ohio" proving that, 
in permanent settlement, Illinois antedated its 
sister State farther east. The enactment by 
Congress of the celebrated "Ordinance of 1787" 
established a more permanent form of govern- 
ment and, for the next thirteen years (1787-1800) 
Illinois, with the territory now embraced within 
the States of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Wis- 
consin, constituted one territorial government 
under the name of the "Northwest Territory." 
In 1800 Ohio was set apart, the remainder of the 
territory being organized as Indiana Territory, 
and, by act of Congress of February 3, 1809, 
Illinois Territory was set off from Indiana, the 
former embracing the country west of the 
present eastern boundary of the State and Lake 
Michigan, extending westward to the Missis- 
sippi and north to the Canada boundary line. 
From south to north it extended from the mouth 
of the Ohio to the Lake of the Woods. On 
April 13, 1818, Congress passed an act empow- 
ering the people to frame a State Constitution 
and organize a State Government, and, on 
December 3d, following, Illinois was formally 
admitted as a State with its present boundaries. 
(See Illinois. Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) 

The first county organization within the 
Northwest Territory was created by act of the 
Virginia Legislature in October, 1778, a few 
months after the occupation of Kaskaskia by 
Col. George Rogers Clark this act being per- 
formed by virtue of the fact that Clark's expe- 
dition was undertaken wholly under authority 
of the State of Virginia, which assumed control 
of the territory thus added to the newly cre- 
ated American Union. The territory organized 
received the name of "Illinois County," but, 
without naming any specific boundaries, simply 
assumed to include "the citizens of the com- 
monwealth of Virginia who are already settled, 
or shall hereafter settle, on the western side 
of the Ohio," and provided for the government 
of the same by a "County-Lieutenant or Com- 

mandaoat-in-Chief," to be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. Col. John Todd, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed Commandant, and pro- 
ceeded to appoint subordinates and provide 
for the election of civil officers at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia, and still later at Vincennes; but 
Chicago being without what might even be 
called a "settlement," was not recognized as 
coming within the operation of the act. The 
next county to be organized within Illinois 
territory was St. Clair by the act of Arthur 
St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory, 
in 1790. Its territory lay between the Missis- 
sippi and the Illinois Rivers on the west and 
northwest, the Ohio on the south, and a line on 
the east drawn from about Fort Massac on the 
Ohio, northward to the junction of the Little 
Mackinaw River with the Illinois, in what is 
now the county of Tazewell. Other counties 
organized within the Northwest Territory 
previous to 1800 (the date of the separation of 
Indiana Territory from Ohio) were: Washing- 
ton (the first 1788); Hamilton (1790); Knox 
(1790); Randolph (1795); Wayne (1796); 
Adams and Jefferson (1797), and Ross (1798). 
Of these, five Washington, Hamilton, Adams, 
Jefferson and Ross were wholly, and Wayne 
partly, within the present State of Ohio; Knox 
in Indiana, and St. Clair and Randolph within 
Illinois. Wayne County, as organized in 1796 
the year the British finally evacuated the 
upper lake region under the Jay Treaty of 1794 
embraced Northwestern Ohio, a considerable 
portion of Northeastern Indiana, the whole of 
the present State of Michigan, and, on the west, 
extended to the heads of the streams flowing 
eastward into Lake Michigan thus including 
the section about the mouth of the Chicago 
River to the portage to the Des Plaines and a 
considerable portion of Eastern Wisconsin. In 
January, 1803, the boundaries of Wayne 
County were changed, leaving out the Chicago 
district, which remained outside of any county 
organization (though a part of the Territory 
of Indiana), until 1809. The Territory of Illi- 
nois having been organized this year, one of 
Governor Edwards' earliest acts was the issue 
of a proclamation re-organizing St. Clair County 
in such manner as to include the whole of the 
northern part of the territory to the Canada 
boundary line, embracing all Northern Illinois, 
as well as the present State of Wisconsin and 
the western peninsula of Michigan. In 1812 
there came another change, in the creation, by 



proclamation of Governor Edwards (September 
14, 1812) of the county of Madison out of the 
northern part of St. Clair County, and extend- 
ing, as the latter had done, to the Canada line. 
Other county connections formed in accordance 
with the precedent established as to St. Clair 
and Madison Counties, brought Chicago success- 
ively under the jurisdiction of Edwards County 
(1814-16) and Crawford (1816-18) during the 
Territorial period, and (after the admission of 
Illinois as a State) of Clark (1819-21), Pike 
(1821-23), Fulton (1S23-25), and Peoria (1825- 
31). This jurisdiction consisted chiefly in the 
exercise of authority by Justices of the Peace 
appointed by the Governor, but these officials 
seem to have been few in number and widely 
scattered, since, as late as 1823, Dr. Alexander 
Wolcott, then Indian Agent at Chicago, found 
it necessary to call upon a Justice of the Peace 
from Fulton County to perform the ceremony 
uniting him in marriage to Ellen Marion Kin- 
zie, the oldest daughter of John Kinzie. To a 
great extent the scattered pioneer settlements, 
though nominally under the jurisdiction of 
county authorities located at distant points, 
remained isolated and almost unnoticed. As 
stated by C. W. Butterfield in his History of 
Wisconsin, their jurisdiction was "rather ideal 
than real." At the regular election held at 
Chicago in August, 1830 Chicago then consti- 
tuting a part of Peoria County only 32 votes 
were cast. The precinct then extended west- 
ward to the Dupage River. 

On January 15, 1831, the State Legislature 
passed an act organizing the county of Cook, 
which was named in honor of Daniel P. Cook, 
who had been the Representative" in Congress 
from 1819 to 1827, and through whose efforts 
the first grant of public lands to aid in the 
construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal 
was obtained from Congress. In addition to 
its present area, the new county, as originally 
organized, embraced the present counties of 
Lake, McHenry, Dupage and Will, covering 
an area of a little over 3,000 square miles. 
Within the next eight years this area was 
reduced to its present limits by the setting-off 
of McHenry and Will Counties in 1836 (the 
former embracing also the present territory of 
Lake County, organized in 1839), and Dupage 
County in 1839. According to the report of 
Henry Gannett, Geographer of the Census 
Bureau for 1900, the area of Cook County at 

the present time is 993 square miles, although 
it has heretofore been set down at 50 to 100 
square miles less. 

The same act which created Cook County in 
1831 also provided for the election of a Board 
of County Commissioners at an election to be 
held on the first Monday in March of that year. 
Samuel Miller and Gholson Kercheval of Chi- 
cago, and James Walker, the latter living on 
the Du Page River, were elected the first Com- 
missioners, and, having been sworn in the 
next day by John S. C. Hogan, a Justice of the 
Peace for Peoria County, proceeded to organize 
the new county government. William See was 
chosen County Clerk and Archibald Clybourn 
Treasurer, while Jedediah Wooley was recom- 
mended for appointment as County Surveyor. 
At a meeting of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners held in April following, James Kinzie 
was chosen Sheriff, and John K. Clark, Coro- 
ner. Kinzie served until 1832, when he was 
succeeded by the election of Stephen V. R. 
Forbes, who came to Chicago in 1829 and had 
been employed as one of the first teachers in 
Chicago. At this second meeting the Com- 
missioners also made provision for levying a 
tax of one-half of one per cent upon property, 
and the issue of licenses for the privilege of 
conducting certain classes of business, as a 
means of raising funds for county expenses. 
Those receiving licenses as tavern keepers in- 
cluded Elijah Wentworth, Samuel Miller and 
Russell E. Heacock the two former located at 
the forks of the river (see Early Hotels) and 
the latter at "Hsacoek's Point," known also as 
"Hardscrabble." A dozen names appear in 
the list of those to whom licenses were granted 
this year, to conduct mercantile business, among 
them, Alexander Robinson, three Beaubiens, 
Bernardus Laughton, R. A. Kinzie, Samuel Mil- 
ler, Oliver Newberry, Joseph Laframboise, John 
S. C. Hogan, Philip F. W. Peck, Joseph Naper, 
and others. Newberry and Peck had come to 
Chicago during the previous year and, at a 
later period, became prominent business men, 
while Naper was the founder of Naperville. At 
the first election the whole county had consti- 
tuted a single precinct, but at one of its earliest 
meetings the Board divided it into three pfe- 
cincts named Chicago, Hickory Creek and Du- 
page. At the meeting held in September, the 
lower room of the "brick house" (the magazine) 
in Fort Dearborn was selected as the place for 
holding the sessions of the Circuit Court. 











Undoubtedly Chicago owes its first existence 
as a village, as well as its unprecedented 
growth after it had taken on the form of a city 
government, to the project which began to be 
discussed at an early day for the construction 
of a canal connecting Lake Michigan with the 
Illinois River. In fact, the feasibility of this 
enterprise had attracted the attention of the 
early French explorers notably Louis Joliet 
and was the subject of frequent comment at a 
later period. The principal steps which led 
up to the actual undertaking of the work 
embraced a favorable discussion of the subject 
in a report by Secretary of the Treasury Albert 
Gallatin, in 1808; the cession by the Indians 
in 1816, of a strip of land ten miles wide from 
Lake Michigan to the Illinois at the mouth of 
Fox River, as a route for the canal ; an endorse- 
ment of the measure as "valuable for military 
purposes," in 1819, by John C. Calhoun, then 
Secretary of War; the granting to the State by 
Congress of the right of way for the canal 
through the public domain in 1832, and the 
donation, five years later, of public lands for 
its construction. The Congressional act of 1822 
had led to the passage by the State Legislature, 
in 1820, of an act authorizing the appointment 
of a commission to devise means for carrying 
the enterprise into effect. Although this was 
followed by surveys for the purpose of determin- 
ing the most available route and the passage 
of an act by the Legislature, in 1825, incorpo- 
rating the "Illinois and Michigan Canal Associa- 
tion" with a capital of $1,000,000, nothing was 
done toward actual construction until after the 

passage by Congress, in 1827, of an act appro- 
priating alternate sections on each side of the 
canal for a distance of five miles, to be applied 
to the cost of construction. To follow out the 
history of the enterprise concisely, it is suf- 
ficient to say here that, after nine years of 
effort to secure funds by the sale of lands and 
State bonds, the work was begun at Bridgeport 
(now within the limits of the city of Chicago) 
on the 4th of July, 1836, Dr. W. B. Eagan of 
Chicago delivering an eloquent address in cele- 
bration of the event. Although the work often 
lagged for want of funds, it was so far com- 
pleted by April, 1848, as to admit of the passage 
of boats betwen Chicago and La Salle. The 
outlay up to this time had been nearly six and 
a quarter million dollars against less than 
three-quarter million, as first estimated, after- 
wards increased to $4,000,000. Enlargements 
and betterments of the canal up to 1879 had 
increased the expenditures to a little over nine 
and a half million dollars, which had almost 
been met by receipts from tolls and otherwise. 
(See Illinois and Michigan Canal, also Chicago 
Drainage Canal. Hist. Encyc. of III., Vol. I.) 

While the selection of the Chicago River as 
the northern terminus of the canal no doubt 
determined the location of the future city, it 
is a fact of curious interest that there were 
prominent men at that time who regarded the 
mouth of the Calumet as the most available 
medium for making the connection with the 
lake. Maj. Stephen H. Long, of the Govern- 
ment Engineer Corps, who had inspected the 
route of the proposed canal and made a report 
on the measure to the War Department in 1817, 
referring to the subject in his "Narrative of an 
Expedition to the Source of the St. Peter's 
River in 1823," says: "It is the opinion of those 
best acquainted with the nature of the country, 
that the easiest communication would be be- 
tween the Little Calamick (Calumet), and 
some point of the Des Plaines, probably below 
the portage road." Ex-Gov. Edward Coles, in 
a communication published in the "Illinois 
Monthly Magazine" of October, 1830, corrobo- 
rated this view, favoring the route between the 
"Calumet of the lake and the Saganaskee" 
("The Sag"), on the ground that "between these 
streams the summit is believed to be the low- 

Although the Government survey of lands 
about the mouth of the Chicago River took 
place in 1821, it was not until nine years later 



that the work of platting the land now 
embraced within the heart of the city was begun. 
This followed upon the passage by the State 
Legislature, of an act accepting the appropria- 
tion of lands by the General Government for 
the construction of the canal and empowering 
the Commissioners, appointed by the same act, 
to fix the route of the canal and select the lands 
for that purpose. The same act authorized 
the Commissioners to sell the lands so selected, 
as well as to lay out towns and dispose of lots 
within the same. Up to this time no steps had 
been taken for the organization of a village 
government for Chicago. The first town to be 
laid out by the Commissioners under the act 
of 1829 was Ottawa, after which came the plat- 
ting of Chicago, this work being done by 
James Thornton of St. Louis, who filed his plat 
under date of August. 4, 1830. The village of 
Chicago, as thus platted, covered an area of 
about three-eighths of a square mile, embrac- 
ing the southern portion of Section Nine of 
Township 39 North, and Range 14 East of the 
Third Principal Meridian, and extending from 
Kinzie Street on the north to Madison on the 
south, and from State Street on the east to Des 
Plaines on the west. Wolf Point was near 
the center of this area, while Fort Dearborn lay 
on the east. The first sale of lots took place 
September 27, 1830 130 lots being disposed of 
to thirty-six purchasers, at prices ranging from 
$8 to $100 each, realizing a little over $4,500.* 
The population at that time, outside of two 
companies of United States troops in Fort Dear- 
born, it has been estimated, did not exceed one 
hundred. This embraced a number of Indian 
traders, several of them being Frenchmen (or 
their half-breed descendants) with half-breed 
families. There were three taverns all located 
in the immediate vicinity of the forks of the 
river, one on the West Side, one on the North 
and the other on the South. The poll-book for 
the precinct of Chicago then attached to 
Peoria County for the election held August 2, 
1830, contained thirty-two names. The precinct 
embraced all that portion of country between 
the junction of the Dupage and Des Plaines 

James M. Bucklin, who was Chief Engineer of 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1830, in a com- 
munication to "Pomeroy's Democrat," printed in 1876, 
says that the town of Chicago was platted by Captain 
Pope, "surveyor of the Board of Canal Commis- 
sioners" and that, "previous to the sale of lots," 
acting "by order of the Board," he "enlarged the 
boundaries of the town, extending them to the mouth 
of the Chicago River" also, that the sale occurred 
on September 1, 1830 a statement which does not 
appear to have got into local history. 

Rivers on the west, and Lake Michigan on the 
east, covering an area larger than Cook County 
at the present day. It is probable, therefore, 
that the list of voters included quite a number 
outside of the village of Chicago. Among those 
who were residents of the village about 1829- 
30 not including those previously named 
were Leon Bourassea (fur-trader) ; Jonathan A. 
Bailey, who become Chicago's first postmaster: 
John L. Davis, John S. C. Hogan, Stephen Mack 
(clerk of the American Fur Company), and a 
number of others whose history is unknown, 
but who were probably employes about the fur- 
trading stations, the Factor House or the fort. 
Stephen R. V. Forbes came the former year 
and, during 1830, became one of Chicago's early 
teachers, and two years later the first regularly 
elected Sheriff of Cook County. 

The act of the Legislature which authorized 
the creation of the new county and the organ- 
ization of a county government, also named 
Chicago (as it had been laid out during the 
previous year by the "Land Commissioners" 
appointed to dispose of the canal lands), as 
the permanent county-seat, and empowered the 
County Commissioners to sell certain lands at 
their discretion, and apply the proceeds to the 
erection of a court-house and jail. Thus Chi- 
cago received its recognition as a town, though 
the formal organization of a village government 
did not come until two years later. The lands 
placed at the disposal of the County Board by 
the Canal Commissioners embraced a tract of 
ten acres on the south side of the river, includ- 
ing the present court-house square. The County 
Board decided to sell a part of this tract and 
retain the remainder as a site for the county- 
buildings, which has been maintained to this 
day. The sale took place in July, 1831, James 
Kinzie acting as auctioneer the sum realized 
from the sale amounting to $1,153.75. 

An event of local importance this year was 
the payment of the annuities to the Indians 
in September, which was the means of bring- 
ing nearly 4,000 savages to this locality. The 
payment was conducted by Col. T. J. V. Owen, 
Indian Agent, assisted by John H. Kinzie and 
Gholson Kercheval. As Fort Dearborn had been 
evacuated by the United States troops during 
the preceding year, and the friction which cul- 
minated in the Black Hawk War in the fol- 
lowing year had already become manifest on 
the Mississippi, there was considerable nervous- 
ness among the few white residents in view of 



the hostile attitude manifested by some of the 
Pottawatomie chiefs. An outbreak was averted 
by the firmness and good sense of Colonel Owen 
and the fidelity of some of the half-breeds who 
had been residents of Chicago for many years, 
especially including in this number Capt. Billy 
Caldwell, the famous "Sauganash." 

Although attention had been directed to the 
new town by its erection into the seat of jus- 
tice for Cook County in 1831, its growth during 
the next two years was slow. Among the more 
important accessions to the population about 
this time were Col. R. J. Hamilton, George W. 
Dole, Mark and John Noble, Dr. Elijah D. Har- 
mon, and a few others who, in after years, 
became prominent in Chicago history. Colonel 
Hamilton, who had been identified with the 
infantile banking interests for ten years in the 
southern portion of the State, came here early 
in 1831, to assume the duties of Probate Judge 
in the new county by appointment of Governor 
Reynolds. In after years he held simultane- 
ously besides the position of Probate Judge 
the offices of Circuit and County Clerk, 
Recorder and Commissioner of School Lands, 
and was also, for a time, a Colonel of the State 
Militia. Mr. Dole became one of Chicago's most 
prominent and successful merchants and, as the 
associate of Archibald Clybourn, the Noble 
Brothers and Gurdon S. Hubbard, was one of the 
first to set in motion enterprises which have 
since grown into such vast proportions as to 
make Chicago the greatest stock market in the 
world. ( See Chicago Live Stock and Meat-Pack- 
ing Industry.) 









The events leading up to the Black Hawk 

War of 1832 produced a condition approaching 
universal panic throughout Northern Illinois, 
which did not fail to communicate itself to the 
few residents about Chicago. The alarm was 
all the greater in view of the fact that Fort 
Dearborn was then unoccupied as a military 
post, the troops having been transferred during 
the previous year to Port Howard (Green Bay). 
The first rumor of the threatened outbreak is 
said to have been brought to Chicago by Hon. 
Richard M. Young, then a Justice of the Circuit 
Court for the northern part of the State, who, 
on making the journey from Galena in com- 
pany with Benjamin Mills and J. M. Strode, had 
learned at Dixon of the appearance of Black 
Hawk's hostile band on Rock River. The hos- 
tile savages did not approach nearer to Chicago 
than the vicinity of Naperville in Dupage 
County, but the alarming reports of outrages, 
reaching Chicago almost daily, produced the 
wildest consternation among its few citizens 
and the refugees gathered there. As he had 
done during the "Winnebago Scare" of 1827, 
the friendly Pottawatomie Chief Shabona ren- 
dered the whites valuable service by warning 
the settlers along the Fox River, and exerting 
his influence among the Pottawatomies to pre- 
serve the peace, as Billy Caldwell and Alexan- 
der Robinson did about Chicago. The pioneer 
families settled along the Des Plaines and Fox 
Rivers, sought refuge at Fort Dearborn until it 
was estimated that, by the latter part of May, 
five hundred fugitives had collected at the fort 
and its vicinity. Aid consisting of small com- 
panies of volunteers came from the vicinity of 
Niles, Mich., and Danville, 111., while two or 
three small companies were organized from set- 
tlers about Chicago and refugees from the soir- 
rounding country. One of the earliest of these, 
organized under command of Capt. Gholson 
Kercheval, with George W. Dole and John S. C. 
Hogan, as First and Second Lieutenants, 
embraced among its rank and file such familiar 
names as Richard J. Hamilton, Isaac D. Har- 
mon, Samuel Miller, James Kinzie, Samuel 
Ellis, David McKee and other well-known early 
settlers. Another company organized still later 
with Joseph Naper, one of the founders of 
Naperville, as its head, included P. F. W. Peck, 
Alanson Sweet, Lyman Butterfield, Isaac P. 
Blodgett (father of Judge Henry W. Blodgett), 
Richard M. Sweet, Calvin M. and Augustine 
Stowell and some twenty-five others. Another 
organization made up of refugees and local 



settlers was under command of Capt. J. B. 
Beaubien, while a company of some fifty Potta- 
watomies, under command of Robert Kinzie, 
rendered good service as scouts in the region 
now embraced in Cook and adjoining counties. 
Among the settlers from distant localities who 
took refuge in Fort Dearborn were those from 
Naperville and Plainfield. At the latter place 
a considerable number of fugitives had taken 
refuge in a hastily constructed block-house, 
from which they were removed under escort to 
Chicago for safety. On June 17, Fort Dearborn 
was occupied by two companies of United States 
infantry under command of Maj. William 
Whistler, the son of the builder of the first 
Fort Dearborn. While this compelled the set- 
tlers who had taken refuge in the fort to find 
quarters elsewhere, it assisted to restore con- 
fidence in their general security. Besides 
anxiety for the safety of friends, refugees were 
compelled to endure many privations in the 
abandonment of their property and for lack of 
shelter and supplies. One of the tragic events 
of this period in the region adjacent to Chi- 
cago, was the massacre of the Hall, Davis and 
Pettegrew families on Indian Creek in La Salle 
County, in which sixteen lives were sacrificed. 
On July 10, the steamer "Sheldon Thompson" 
reached Chicago, bringing four companies of 
United States troops under command of Gen. 
Winfield Scott, intended to reinforce the troops 
then in pursuit of Black Hawk. These, however, 
brought with them a peril no less dreaded 
than the Indians. Before their arrival the Asi- 
atic cholera had obtained a foothold among the 
troops, and Fort Dearborn was immediately 
transformed into a hospital. Another detach- 
ment which arrived a week later by the "Wil- 
liam Penn," was in a similar condition, and in 
the course of ten days the number of soldiers 
who succumbed to the fell disease has been 
estimated at one hundred. On the 20th of July 
Gen. Scott removed his command to the Des 
Plaines, encamping about where Riverside now 
is a step which was attended with beneficial 
results as to their health. Soon after intelli- 
gence was received of the final defeat of Black 
Hawk at the Bad Axe in Wisconsin, and Gen- 
eral Scott's forces made their way across the 
State to Fort Armstrong (Rock Island) with- 
out having an opportunity to participate in the 
war. (See Black Hawk War, Hist. Ency. of 
III., pp. 608-615.) 


An event of importance connected with this 
period was the Council at Chicago with the 
Pottawatomie, Chippewa and Ottawa Indians, 
which resulted in the Treaty of September, 
1833. Following upon the Black Hawk War 
of the previous year, it gave a new and pow- 
erful impetus to the development of the embryo 
city. It was estimated that 7,000 Indians were 
present at the council, and for days the streets 
of the frontier village were thronged with sav- 
ages, and the shrubs lighted with their camp 
fires. Charles J. Latrobe, an English traveler 
who happened to be in Chicago at the time, 
has left a graphic account of the event, of 
which the following is a brief extract: 

"We found the village on our arrival 
crowded to excess, and we procured with great 
difficulty a small apartment, comfortless and 
noisy from its close proximity to others, but 
quite as good as we could have hoped for. 
. . . The village and its occupants pre- 
sented a most motley scene. The fort con- 
tained within its palisades by far the most 
enlightened residents in the little knot of 
officers attached to the slender garrison. The 
quarters were too confined to afford place for 
the Government Commissioners, for whom 
and a crowd of dependents a temporary set 
of plank huts were erected on the north side 

of the river 

"With immigrants and land speculators as 
numerous as the sand, you will find horse- 
dealers and horse-stealers rogues of every 
Description white, black, brown and red; 
half-breeds, quarter-breeds and men of no 
breed at all; dealers in pigs, poultry and pota- 
toes; . . . sharpers of every degree; ped- 
dlers, grog-sellers; Indian Agents and Indian 

traders of every description The 

little village was in an uproar from morning 
to night, and from night to morning; for 
during the hours of darkness, when the 
housed portion of the population of Chicago 
strove to obtain repose in the crowded plank 
edifices of the village, the Indians howled, 
sang, wept and whooped in their various 

encampments All was bustle and 

tumult, especially at the houses set apart for 

the distribution of the rations 

Frame and clapboard houses were springing 
up daily under the active axes and hammers 
of the speculators, and piles of lumber 



announced the preparation for yet other edi- 
fices of an equally light character. . . . 
Within the vile two-storied barrack which, 
dignified, as usual, by the title of hotel, 
afforded ua quarters, all was in a state of 
most appalling confusion, filth and racket. 
. . . Far and wide the grassy prairie 
teemed with figures; warriors mounted or on 
foot, squaws and horses." 
The Commissioners engaged in negotiating 
the treaty on the part of the United States 
were George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen 
and William Weatherford, and the treaty was 
concluded September 26, 1838. The lands ceded 
by the Indians embraced a little over 5,000,000 
acres in Northern Illinois and Eastern Wiscon- 
sin, in consideration for a like area west of the 
Mississippi, besides money and goods amount- 
ing to over $1,000,000. A large proportion of 
the latter went into the hands of alleged cred- 
itors of the Indians. The affair ended in a spec- 
tacular war dance participated in by eight hun- 
dred braves. 









While the Black Hawk War proved a tem- 
porary check to the growth of Chicago thus 
early in its history, it became the means, indi- 
rectly, of attracting wide attention to the com- 
mercial advantages of the place through the 
presence here of persons from distant portions 
of the country in the character of soldiers or 
otherwise. As a consequence a strong tide of 
immigration set in immediately thereafter, 
which continued with increasing volume for 
the next four years. Among those who arrived 
during this period and afterwards became prom- 

inent as business or professional men, were 
Philo Carpenter, John S. Wright, D. Philip 
Maxwell, Dr. E. S. Kimberly, John D. Caton, 
John K. Botsford, Silas B. Cobb, Charles 
Cleaver, Walter Kimball, H. W. Knickerbocker. 
Asahel Pierce, Dr. John T. Temple and Rev. 
Jeremiah Porter. Up to this time Chicago was 
almost wholly a village of log cabifts, but 
during the year 1833 it is estimated that one 
hundred and sixty-five frame buildings were 
erected. This was also the year of the erec- 
tion of the first brick building in Chicago out- 
side of Fort Dearborn, the builders being Alan- 
son Sweet and William Worthington. The 
improvement of the Chicago harbor the same 
year, based upon an appropriation of $25,000 
by Congress, with the result that the channel 
of the Chicago River was straightened into 
Lake Michigan, and, on July 11, 1834, the 
schooner "Illinois," the first large vessel to 
enter the river, crossed the bar and sailed into 
the harbor amid great public rejoicing. 


Another event of 1833 was the formal incor- 
poration of the town of Chicago, which, in 
"Beck's Gazetteer" (1823), had been described 
as "a village of Pike County" with "twelve or 
fifteen houses and about 60 or 70 inhabitants," 
and which in 1831, had become the county-seat 
of Cook County. The decision to incorporate 
was reached at a public meeting held August 
5th, at which only one dissenting vote was cast. 
At an election for the choice of a Board of Trus- 
tees, held at the house of Mark Beaubien, 28 
votes were cast, resulting in the election of 
Thomas J. V. Owen, George W. Dole, Medore 
Beaubien, John Miller and E. S. Kimberly. 
Owen was chosen President of the Board, Isaac 
Harmon Clerk, and George W. Dole Treasurer. 
On November 6th the limits of the town were 
extended to Jackson Street on the south, Jef- 
ferson Street on the west, Ohio Street on the 
north and State Street on the east. 

Other notable events of this year were the 
establishment of the first newspaper "The 
Chicago Democrat" by John Calhoun, which 
commenced publication November 26th; * 
the first log-jail was built, and the first public 
school was opened under the instruction of 
Miss Eliza Chappell. During the same year 
occurred the sale of school lands (the 16th sec- 
tion) in the township embraced within the city 
of Chicago. These lands were located in the 



very heart of the present city, the whole sec- 
tion, with the exception of four blocks, being 
sold, realizing less than $39,000. 

From 1833 to 1837 something like a "land 
craze" prevailed at Chicago, as at many other 
places throughout the West, and the increase 
in values, as well as in population, was phe- 
nomenal. The bona fide population of the vil- 
lage at the close of the year first named has 
been estimated at 200; in 1834 it was claimed 
to be 1,600; in 1836 a school census showed 
3,279, and, in 1837, the first census under the 
new city government showed a total of 4,179. 

Some contemporary opinions of the future 
emporium of the West will be of interest, as 
indicating its growth about this period. 
Charles Fenno Hoffman, a popular writer and, 
for a time, editor of the "Knickerbocker Maga- 
zine," in a series of letters under the title, "A 
Winter in the West," early in 1834, wrote as 

"The writer is informed by a gentleman 
recently from Illinois that Chicago, which, 
but eighteen months since, contained but two 
or three frame buildings and a few miserable 
huts, has now 500 houses, 400 of which have 
been erected this year, and 2,200 inhabitants. 
A year ago there was not a place of worship 
in the town; there are now five churches and 
two schoolhouses, and numerous brick stores 
and warehouses." 

In another letter written from Chicago 
a few weeks later, Mr. Hoffman spoke 
of the town as destined, from the improve- 
ments already under way for the ensu- 
ing season, to assume a "metropolitan 
appearance." "As a place of business," he 
predicted that, "its situation at the central 
head of the Mississippi Valley, will make it the 
New Orleans of the North." One of Mr. Hoff- 
man's letters was devoted entirely to a descrip- 
tion of a wolf-hunt on the Des Plaines River, 
in which he took part with a number of ladies 
and gentlemen from Chicago. 

Rev. John M. Peck, in his "New Guide for 
Emigrants for the West," published in 1836, 
spoke of Chicago as "the largest commercial 
.town of Illinois . . . said to contain 51 
stores, 30 groceries, 10 taverns, 12 physicians, 
21 attorneys and 4,000 inhabitants." 

Hon. H. L. Ellsworth, at the time Superin- 
tendent of the Patent Office at Washington, in a 

volume entitled "Illinois in 1837," wrote of 
Chicago as follows: 

"Its growth, even for western cities, has 
been unexampled. In Dr. Beck's Gazetteer, 
published in 1823, Chicago is described as a 
village of ten or twelve houses, and 60 or 70 
inhabitants. In 1832 it contained five small 
stores and 250 inhabitants; and now (1837) 
the population amounts to 8,000 (an exag- 
gerated estimate, however Ed.) with 120 
stores, besides a number of groceries. . . . 
It has also twelve public houses, three news- 
papers, nearly 50 lawyers and upwards of 30 

One of the most noteworthy, as well as enthu- 
siastic descriptions of the Chicago of 1837, was 
contributed by a correspondent of the "Penn- 
sylvania Inquirer and Daily Courier" of Phila- 
delphia, over the signature, "A Rambler in the 
West." In one of his letters "A Rambler" 
writes : 

"Chicago is, without doubt, the greatest 
wonder in this wonderful country. Four 
years ago the savage Indian there built his 
wigwam the noble stag there was undis- 
mayed by his own image reflected in the pol- 
ished mirror of the glassy lake the adven- 
turous settler there cultivated a small por- 
tion of those fertile prairies, and was living 
far, far away from the comforts of civiliza- 
tion. Four years have rolled by and have 
changed that scene. That Indian is now 
driven far west of the Mississippi ; he has left 
his native hills, his hunting grounds, the 
grave of his father, and now is building his 
home in the Far West, again to be driven 
away by the tide of emigration. That gallant 
stag no longer bounds secure over these 
mighty plains, but startles at the rustling of 
every leaf or sighing of every wind, fearing 
the rifles of the numerous Nimrods who now 
pursue the daring chase. That adventurous 
settler is now surrounded by luxury and 
refinement; a city with a population of over 
6,000 souls has now arisen; its spires glitter 
in the morning sun; its wharves are crowded 
by the vessels of trade; its streets are alive 
with the busy hum of commerce. 

"The wand of the magician never effected 
changes like these; nay, Aladdin's lamp, in 
all its glory, never performed greater won- 
ders. But the growth of the town, extraor- 



dinary as it is, bears no comparison with that 
of its commerce. In 1833 there were but 
four arrivals or about 60,000 tons. Point 
me, if you can, to any place in this land, 
whose trade has increased in like proportion. 
What has produced this great prosperity? I 
answer, its great natural advantages and the 
untiring enterprise of its citizens. Its situa- 
tion is unsurpassed by any in our land. Lake 
Michigan opens up to it the trade of the 
North and the East, and the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, when completed, will open 
up the trade of the South and West. But 
the great share of its prosperity is to be 
attributed to the enterprise of its citizens." 

How far the enthusiastic dream of "A 
Rambler" has been surpassed by the reality in 
a little more than three-score years, is a story 
already familiar to the world. 

In common with the entire country, Chicago 
felt most keenly the effects of the financial 
revulsion of 1837. During a considerable part 
of the next five years, the financial disasters 
which had overtaken the State, compelled the 
suspension of work on the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal, which had been entered upon in 1836, 
and upon the completion of which the future 
growth of the city was so closely dependent. 
As a consequence there was a rapid deprecia- 
tion in the value of real estate and a general 
stagnation in business, which had the effect to 
check the tide of immigration which had been 
so marked a feature of the four years following 
the Black Hawk War and the Indian treaty of 
1833. About 1842 there was a revival of busi- 
ness and immigration, which was made evident 
by the State census of 1845 showing a popula- 
tion of over 12,000, and was still more marked 
by the United States census of 1850, when the 
population had grown to more than 28,000 an 
increase of over 600 per cent as compared with 
that of ten years previous. In 1844 it has been 
estimated that over 600 new buildings were 

On March 4, 1837, the State Legislature 
passed an act granting a special charter author- 
izing Chicago to organize a city government. 
The first election under this act was held on 
the first Tuesday in May, following, resulting 
in the election of William B. Ogden the first 
Mayor, the total vote cast being 703. The first 
charter fixed the term of the Mayor at one 
year, but in 1863 it was changed to two years. 

In the sixty-eight years that have elapsed since 
the organization of a city government thirty 
different persons have occupied the chair of 
Mayor eighteen under the one-year rule, and 
twelve under the two-year period. Of the one- 
year class, ten held office for one term each and 
eight for two terms each ; while of the two-year 
class, nine held office for one term each, one for 
two terms, one (Carter H. Harrison, Sr.) five 
terms, and one (Carter H. Harrison, Jr.) is now 
(1904) serving his fourth consecutive term. 

Embracing an area of 2.55 square miles at the 
date of its incorporation as a town in 1835, 
Chicago has grown by successive annexations 
until now (1905) it covers 190.64 square miles, 
including seven entire townships, viz.: North, 
South and West Chicago, Hyde Park, Lake, 
Lake View and Jefferson, with parts of Calu- 
met, Cicero, Evanston, Maine, Niles and Nor- 
wood Park Townships. 

The following table presents the population 
of Chicago, as officially reported at different 
periods during its history as a city: 

1837 4,179 | 1870 298,977 

1840 4,470 | 1880 503,185 

1850 28,269 | 1890 1,099,850 

1860 112,162 | 1900 1,698,575 

Population 1903 (est.) 1,885,000. 


One of the most noteworthy evidences of the 
change that has been going on in Cook County 
within the past twenty years, has been the 
absorption of outlying villages and townships 
within the city of Chicago. As already 
explained in the opening pages of this chapter, 
the city now embraces seven full townships, 
which formerly had an independent existence, 
while it has absorbed parts of five others. One 
of the interesting features in the history of 
these changes relates to the large number of 
suburban villages which have been swept into 
the city by the various annexations which 
have taken place within the past fifteen years. 
The fever for annexation began in 1869, and 
since that time there have been ten successive 
annexations, which have more than quadrupled 
the area of the city and added largely to the 
population by annexation alone, as well as 
given room for further development. Previous 
to the date first named, the northern limit was 
at Fullerton Avenue, the southern at Thirty- 
ninth Street, and the western at Fortieth Ave- 
nue. Since then the city limits have been 



moved six and a half miles farther north, thir- 
teen miles farther south to One Hundred and 
Thirty-eighth Street, four miles farther west 
making the city over twenty-five miles in 
length from north to south, with an average 
width of about seven and a half miles to make 
up its area of 191 square miles. The record 
breaking year in the way of annexations was 
1889, when nearly four congressional townships 
(about 140 square miles) were brought within 
the city limits. These comprised the whole of 
Jefferson and Lake View Townships on the 
uorth/and Lake and Hyde Park Townships on 
the south. 

The town of Hyde Park was organized in 
1861, being set apart from Lake Township, its 
area at first extending from Thirty-ninth 
Street on the north to Eighty-seventh Street on 
the south, and from Grand Boulevard, or South 
Park Avenue, on the west to Michigan on the 
east. In 1867 its limits were extended south 
to One Hundred Thirty-eighth Street on the 
south and to Indiana State line on the east. 
While Hyde Park Township, at the date of its 
annexation to the city in 1889, constituted a 
municipal corporation with a population of 
some 80,000, it was made up of a large number 
of incipient villages, or hamlets, which had 
sprung into existence at different periods. One 
of the most important of these was known as 
Oakland also as .Cleaverville;, from Charles 
Cleaver who settled in Ellis Avenue south of 
Thirty-ninth Street in 1853. It is only possible 
here to make mention of some of the most 
important incidents in the history of this local- 
ity, but it was, for a time, the residence of 
some of the most prominent citizens of Chi- 
cago Village, Oolehour, Cummings, Hegewisch, 
township were Forrestville, Egandale, Grand 
Crossing, Cornell, Brookline, Cheltenham Beach, 
South Chicago, City of Calumet, South Chi- 
cago Village, Colehour, Cummings, Hegewisch, 
Riverdale, Wildwood, Kensington, Roseland, 
Pullman, North Pullman, etc. Some of these 
were simply residence districts taking their 
names, like Egandale and Cornell, from their 
most prominent families, while others, like 
Pullman, Colehour, Cummings, Hegewisch, 
Kensington, etc., were manufacturing centers, 
or points of junction of different lines of rail- 
road approaching Chicago. The most important 
of these was Pullman, which, starting as a 
manufacturing suburb, grew to the proportions 
of a model city, and now constitutes one of the 

most busy and prosperous parts of the city of 

Lake Township, one of the early voting pre- 
cincts of Cook County, later one of the town- 
ships organized in 1850, and incorporated as a 
village in 1855, comprised within its area a num- 
ber of industrial and residence centers, though 
not formally incorporated as villages. The 
most important of these was the Union Stock 
Yards, which would rank as a city in itself 
today, if the number of persons finding employ- 
ment there, and the volume of financial trans- 
actions were alone taken into account. Engle- 
wood, South Englewood, and Auburn were prom- 
ising residence districts, while Normalville was 
the location of the Cook County Normal School. 
South Lynn and South Brighton were also the 
beginnings of residence suburbs, .the latter in 
the immediate vicinity of what is now known 
as McKinley Park. 

On the North Side, Lake View Township, 
lying between the City of Chicago and Evanston, 
and embracing an area five miles in length, with 
an average of two and a half in breadth along 
the lake shore, and including a portion of Lin- 
coln Park, was known previous to the annexa- 
tion period as one of the choice residence sub- 
urbs of Chicago. This applies especially to the 
village of Ravenswood, situated on the Mil- 
waukee Division of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad. The first settlement was made in the 
township previous to 1837. The north branch 
of the Chicago River flows near the west line 
of what was Lake View Township and across 
its southwest corner. Rosehill and Graceland 
cemeteries, two of the most noted cemeteries 
near Chicago, are both within the limits of 
the original Lake View Township, now, as 
already explained, a part of Chicago. 

Jefferson Township, originally another sub- 
urban district to the northwest of Chicago but 
now a part of the city, is believed to have been 
settled first in 1830, by John K. Clark, a rela- 
tive of the Kinzies and Clybourns. Other 
early settlers in the township were Mark 
Noble, George Bickerdike and Joseph Lovell. 
A number of prosperous villages were located 
in this township previous to the date of annexa- 
tion, all being now within the city of Chicago. 
The most important were Humboldt Park, 
Cragin, Avondale, Mont Clare, Forest Glen, 
Bowmanville, Galewood, Montrose, Garfield 
and Pennock. Several of these, like Humboldt 
Park and Garfield, have given names to impor- 
tant localities within the city. Pub Cc 




centering at Chicago with the mileage operated 
by each, as stated in the Report of the Illinois 
Railway Commission for 1903: 


RAILWAY PROGRESS. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. . . 4,828.86 

Baltimore & Ohio 3,832.89 

Chicago & Alton 898.04 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois 728.36 

CHICAGO AS A RAILWAY CENTER--THE GALENA & ^.^ & Wegtern In( j iana 37.37 



TORY-SURFACE AND ELEVATED LINES-INTER- CWcago & Northwes tem 7,327.38 


SYSTEMS-CHICAGO & JOLIET LINE. ^.^ ^^ ^^ 846<18 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville 

Chicago was still in the primitive condition (M(m(>n Route) 53g 89 

of a pioneer settlement and Indian trading post Chicago> Indianapolis & Western 36L45 

when railway construction began in the older chicago> Mllwaukee & st Paul 6;669 . 20 

sections of the Union, and had scarcely entered Chicago Rock Igland & paciflc ^^ M 

upon the condition of an embryonic city when Cleyelimd Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 

the first railroad was built in the State of Illi- T . , g,y. . 

nois. Consequently it was* tardy in entering min g S central".' .' ^SS.'lS 

upon its career of railroad construction, yet in Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 1>411 . 16 

the half-century, which has since elapsed, it Micnigan Central . 1>650 . 18 

has become the center of a larger mileage of New York Chicago & gt LQuis (Nickel 

tributary railway lines than any other city in pi t ^ 512 5"> 

the country-or, for that matter, in the world. Penns y lvan ' ia ' ' '^ ' ' ( ^pJttsbuVg,' ' Ft. ' ' 

Of over twenty corporations now operating Wayne & Chicago) 1;470 78 

main or trunk lines into the city of Chicago, p^ Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 

several have control, either by lease or pur- _ . 1 35g <, 

chase, of subsidiary lines leading into the w h h ' 2*044 70 

city or directly tributary to it. The whole num- wiscongin ' Cen V ral ' ] ' 815 [ 1Q 

ber of original lines centering at Chicago as a 

terminal point has numbered not less than T , , 552B511 
thirty-five, of which several have been known 

by different names. The first railroad to be While the main lines radiating from Chicago 

constructed with Chicago as the starting point, give close connection with other trunk lines 

was the Galena & Chicago Union now a part leading to both the Atlantic and the Pacific, as 

of the Chicago & Northwestern originally well as to the Gulf Coast and Canada, there 

chartered in 1836, although the work of actual are a number of short lines directly tributary to < 

construction was not fairly begun until 1847. the city which add largely to the general vol- 

As its name indicates, this line was intended ume of business. The gross earnings' of the 

to connect the cities of Galena and Chicago. twenty-two roads constituting the Chicago Rail- 

The first ten miles of the line west from the road Association for the year 1903, aggregated 

city of Chicago were so far completed as to $660, 800,972, showing an increase of 87 per 

permit the running of a train over it in Decem- cent in the income of the same lines in the 

ber, 1848, an event celebrated with great past ten years, while the increase in mileage of 

enthusiasm by the people. This was ten years the same companies, during the same period, 

after the first locomotive had been placed on amounted to 26 per cent. The total number of 

the track of the Northern Cross Railroad (now passenger trains arriving at and departing from 

a part of the Wabash System), and about nine Chicago per day (Sundays excepted) at the 

years after the completion of that line from the present time (1904) amounts to 1,144, of which 

Illinois River to Jacksonville. The following 333 are through express trains and 811 are 

table presents a list of the trunk line railways accommodation and suburban trains. The aver- 



age number of freight trains arriving and 
departing daily is estimated at 325 outgoing 
and 324 incoming trains, making a total of 
649 within twenty-four hours. The total 
amount of freight handled by Chicago roads 
aggregates 41 per cent of the entire freight ton- 
nage of the United States, making Chicago the 
largest railroad center in the world. 

Besides many substations within the city 
limits, the general passenger business of roads 
entering Chicago is handled at six separate ter- 
minal stations, located in different parts of the 
city but conveniently accessible from the prin- 
cipal hotels. Central Station, located at No. 1 
Lake Park Place, is used by five main lines; 
Dearborn Station, on Polk Street facing Dear- 
born, by nine lines; Grand Central Passenger 
Station, Harrison Street and Fifth Avenue, by 
five lines; La Salle Street Station, 136 to 154 
Van Buren Street, by three lines; Northwestern 
Depot, North Wells and Kinzie Streets, by the 
Chicago & Northwestern; and the Union Depot, 
Canal and Adams Streets, by five lines. 


The history of street railways in Chicago 
begins with the construction of a line in State 
Street authorized by ordinance of the City 
Council in 1856, and later granted special char- 
ter by act of the General Assembly, although 
the work of actual construction did not com- 
mence until nearly three years later. The line, 
as originally opened in April, 1859, extended 
south to Twelfth Street, and was, of course, 
operated by horse-power, as all street-car lines 
were in that day. The progress made in this 
department within the last forty years is indi- 
cated not only in the increased mileage, but in 
the style of construction, horse-power having 
given way almost entirely to cable and electric 
power. Reduced to single track, the mileage 
of ten surface and six elevated lines amounts 
to more than 1,000 miles. The following is a 
list of the lines as reported for July, 1901, since 
when there have been few changes. 


Calumet Electric Street Railway 
(trolley) operates 72 miles of 
owned and 5 miles of leased 
track total 

Chicago City Railway (cable, trolley 
and horse) 

General Electric (controlled by Chi- 

in miles. 


in miles. 

cago City Railway Company 
operated by storage battery .... 56 . 

Chicago Electric Traction (trolley). 28. 

Chicago General Railway (electric). 22. 

Chicago Union Traction (cable and 
electric) includes : 

West Side System 202.70 

North Side System 94 . 33 

Chicago Consolidated Trac- 
tion 205 . 71 502 . 74 

Northern Electric Railway 5. 

South Chicago City Railway 37. 




As the city has extended its area and the 
downtown streets have become more and more 
congested with traffic and travel, there has 
been a constantly increasing demand, during 
the last few years, for relief by the construc- 
tion of elevated lines, thereby securing both 
speed and safety. The first line of this class 
to be constructed was the South Side Elevated 
(popularly known as the "Alley L") chartered 
as the "Chicago and South Side Rapid Transit 
Railroad" in 1888, and completed from Con- 
gress Street to Thirty-ninth Street in 1892, and 
to Jackson Park (8.56 miles) in May, 1893, 
becoming an important factor in connection 
with the World's Fair. It is a double-track 
line with switches and sidetracks, making a 
total trackage of 19.44 miles. 

A most important part of the elevated rail- 
road system is the "Union Loop," extending 
north on Wabash Avenue to Lake Street, west 
on Lake to Fifth Avenue, south on Fifth Avenue 
to Van Buren and east on Van Buren to 
Wabash Avenue. The company was organized 
in 1894 for the purpose of constructing a road 
to connect the several elevated lines, and owns 
approximately two miles of double-track total 
trackage, about four miles. The "Loop" is used 
for turning purposes by the following lines: 
Lake Street Elevated, Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated, Northwestern Elevated and South 
Side Elevated. The Union Consolidated Ele- 
vated Railroad is a short line extending in Van 
Buren Street from Fifth Avenue to Market 
Street, and is operated by the Metropolitan 
Elevated, furnishing the latter with a connec- 
tion with the Union Loop. 

The Lake Street Elevated was chartered in 
1888, but not constructed until several years 
later. Besides the Union Loop Division it oper- 


66 1 

ates 6.5 miles of double-track elevated line 
from Fifth Avenue to West Fifty-second Street, 
and 4.3 miles of surface track. 

The Metropolitan West Side Elevated was 
organized in 1892, and in May, 1901, operated 
over 17 miles of road (lineal measure) exclu- 
sive of the Union Loop, made up of the main 
line and two branches. A part of this is 4- 
track and the remainder double-track, making 
a total of 37.9 miles single track. 

The Northwestern Elevated (May, 1901), is 
made up of .92 mile double-track from Lake 
Street to Institute Place; 5.52 4-track line from 
Institute Place to Wilson Avenue; besides one 
and a half miles for storage purposes. The 
total length of line operated for transportation 
purposes in 1903 was 8.42 miles, or about 25 
miles of single-track. At the present time 
(January, 1905) the Northwestern Elevated is 
constructing a line to the Ravenswood district 
in the northwest part of the city. 

The aggregate of all the elevated lines oper- 
ated in Chicago, at the present time is esti- 
mated, approximately, as follows: 

Length in miles. 

Lake Street Elevated *10.8 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated 17 . 35 

Northwestern Elevated 8.42 

South Side Elevated 8.72 

Union Loop 1.98 




About five years ago the attention of capital- 
ists began to be attracted to projects for the 
construction of electric lines of railway, con- 
necting various suburban towns with the city 
of Chicago, and during the past three years the 
work of construction has been going on with 
great activity. The earliest of these lines, 
known as the "Suburban Railroad," was char- 
tered in 1895, for the purpose of constructing a 
trolley line connecting Chicago with Elgin, 
Aurora, Joliet and intermediate points. During 
1900 this line was completed by way of River 
Forest, Riverside and Grossdale to La Grange 
by way of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad some fourteen miles from the city 
and the company has been operating over 
33% miles of owned single track, besides 22^4 
miles of leased track belonging to the Chicago 

*4.3 miles of this line is surface road. 

Terminal Transfer Company, thereby securing 
connection with Oak Park, Ridgeland, Harlem 
and the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Road. 

One of the most extensive interurban lines 
projected is the Aurora, Wheaton & Chicago 
Railroad, designed to connect the places named 
in the title. Early in 1901 the company 
absorbed several other similar enterprises, 
including the Elgin, Carpentersville & Aurora; 
the Aurora Street Railway; the Aurora & Gen- 
eva; the Aurora, Yorkville & Morris, and the 
Geneva, Batavia & Southern. When completed, 
the parent road, extending from Fifty-second 
Avenue in Chicago (where it has connection 
with the Metropolitan Elevated), will connect 
with Wheaton, Aurora, Elgin, Warrenhurst and 
Batavia a total of 55 miles. About July 1, 
1901, it had 71 miles, single-track measurement, 
in operation, and before the close of the year 
the principal towns of the Fox River Valley 
between Yorkville, in Kendall County, and 
Dundee, in Kane County, were in communica- 
tion with each other and the city of Chicago. 
Ultimately these rural lines will establish con- 
nections with similar lines extending to Rock- 
ford, Belvidere, Freeport, etc., forming a per- 
fect network of electric lines over Northern 

One of the most important of these inter- 
urban lines is the Chicago & Joliet, extending 
from Forty-eighth Street and Archer Avenue 
in the city of Chicago to Joliet a distance of 
40 miles which was opened in September, 
1901, and will, no doubt, be extended down the 
valley of the Illinois, and ultimately form a 
connection with rural lines projected and in 
process of construction from Springfield and 
Bloomington northward. The total trackage of 
the Joliet line (1903) aggregates 48% miles. 

The Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railway, 
designed to connect Chicago with Milwaukee 
and intermediate points, has been completed 
(1901) to Waukegan, a distance of 30 miles 
from the city limits and 28 miles from Evans- 

The Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago 
Electric Railway, extending from Hammond to 
East Chicago and Whiting in Lake County, 
Ind., though wholly within the State of Indi- 
ana, is directly connected with the Chicago 
system. The company owns 22 miles of trolley 







The importance of Chicago as a political cen- 
ter is indicated in the fact that, within the last 
forty-four years (1860-1904), it has been the 
point for the holding of more National conven- 
tions of the respective political parties than any 
other single city in the country since the 
foundation of the Republic. Commencing with 
the memorable convention of May 16, 1860, 
which resulted in the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln for President, and Hannibal Hamlin, 
of Maine, for Vice-President, there have been 
six National conventions of the Republican 
party and four Democratic. The dates of 
Republican conventions, besides that of 1860, 
have been as follows: May 21, 1868, at which 
Gen. U. S. Grant was nominated for the Presi- 
dency and Schuyler Coif ax for Vice-President; 
June 2-8, 1880, resulting in the nomination of 
James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur; June 
3, 1884, when James G. Elaine and Gen. John 
A. Logan were nominated for President and 
Vice-President; June 20-25, 1888, which ended 
in the first nomination of Benjamin Harrison 
for President and Levi P. Morton for Vice- 
President; the sixth being the convention of 
June 21-23, 1904, at which Theodore Roosevelt 
was nominated for the Presidency and Charles 
W. Fairbanks of Indiana, for the Vice-Presi- 
dency. Of these conventions, that of 1860, 
marking the beginning of Republican rule in 
national affairs and the agitation which termi- 
nated in the Civil War; that of 1880, when a 
sturdy struggle was made for the nomination 
of Gen. Grant for the Presidency for a third 
term, and that of 1904, at which the nomina- 
tion of both candidates on the national ticket 

was accomplished by acclamation, will gener- 
ally be regarded as most noteworthy. 

The National conventions of the Democratic 
party were held, respectively, August 29, 1864 
this date being a postponement from July 4 
preceding which ended in the nomination of 
George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton; 
July 10, 1884, when Grover Cleveland was nom- 
inated for the first time; June 21, 1892, when 
Mr. Cleveland received his third nomination for 
the Presidency, with Adlai E. Stevenson, of 
Illinois, as his running mate for the Vice- 
Presidency; while the fourth was that of July 
7-10, 1896, at which William J. Bryan received 
his first nomination for the Presidency. Of 
these the conventions of 1864 and 1896 were 
probably the most notable the first resulting 
in the choice of a candidate for the Presidency 
of a man who had been in command of the 
Union armies in the field on a platform declar- 
ing the war "a failure;" while the second was 
notable for the display of oratory during its 
deliberations and the declaration of the party 
in favor of free-coinage of silver on the basis 
of 16 to 1 of gold a position which the party 
maintained for the next eight years. On the 
other hand, the conventions of 1884 and 1892 
at both of which Mr. Cleveland was nominated 
for the Presidency resulted in the only suc- 
cesses which the party has attained in national 
campaigns since 1856. 


While Chicago has been an important and 
constantly growing factor in National and State 
politics, the number of its citizens who have 
held executive and other prominent positions 
in connection with the National and State gov- 
ernments has not been large. Up to 1904 only 
two citizens of Cook County had held the office 
of Governor, viz.: John L. Beveridge, who was 
elected Lieutenant-Governor on the same ticket 
with Governor Oglesby, and, on the election of 
the latter to the United States Senate ten days 
after his inauguration, succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship; and John P. Altgeld, who was 
elected Governor in 1892. November 8, 1904, 
Charles S. Deneen, who had previously served 
as a member of the lower branch of the Gen- 
eral Assembly from Cook County, and two 
terms in the office of State's Attorney, was 
elected Governor on the Republican ticket by 
the unprecedented plurality, for the whole 



State, of over 300,000 votes, of which Cook 
County furnished over 130,000 his majority 
within the county over all other candidates 
for the office of Governor being 81,560 votes. 

Those who have held the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor by election, have been: Hon. Fran- 
cis A. Hoffman, 1861-65 (elected with the first 
Gov. Richard Yates); William Bross, 1865-69; 
John L. Beveridge, Jan. 13 to 23, 1873, when 
he succeeded to the governorship; Andrew 
Shuman, 1877-81; Gen. John C. Smith, 1885-89. 

The only citizen of Cook County who ever 
occupied the office of Secretary of State was 
David L. Gregg, who had previously been a citi- 
zen of Will County and editor of the first paper 
established at Joliet. He held the office from 
1850 to 1853, as successor to Horace S. Cooley, 
who died in office during the year first named. 
Gregg had previously been a member of the 
Legislature from the Will County District, and 
after his retirement from the Secretaryship, 
.served as Commissioner to the Sandwich 
Islands by appointment of President Pierce. 

The following citizens of Cook County have 
served in the office of State Treasurer: Gen. 
George W. Smith, 1867-69; Edward Rutz, 1881-83 
having previously served two terms as a res- 
ident of St. Glair County; Jacob Gross, 1885-87; 
Henry Wulff, 1895-97; Henry L. Hertz, 1897-99. 


In the councils of the Nation Chicago has 
exerted a marked influence, although, of twen- 
ty-seven men who have held the position of 
United States Senator from Illinois, for one or 
more terms, up to the present time (1904), 
only five were residents of Chicago for at least 
a part of their terms of service, though men 
of wide national reputation. The list includes 
the names of Stephen A. Douglas, who was Sen- 
ator from 1847 to 1861; Lyman Trumbull, 1855 
to 1873; John A. Logan, 1871 to 1877 and 1879 
to 1886; Charles B. Farwell, 1887 to 1891, and 
William E. Mason, 1897 to 1903. Of these all 
except Farwell and Mason were elected for 
three terms each, Douglas and Logan dying 
before the expiration of their last term, while 
Trumbull served his full period of eighteen 
years. At the time of his first election, Doug- 

las was a resident of Quincy, afterwards becom- 
ing a citizen of Chicago, while Trumbull 
entered the Senate as a citizen of Belleville, 
but before the beginning of his second term 
removed to Chicago. Logan, Farwell and 
Mason were residents of Chicago during their 
entire incumbency in the Senate. Senator Far- 
well's service of four years was as successor to 
Senator Logan, filling the unexpired term of 
the latter who died in 1886 after his third elec- 
tion in 1885. 

As Chicago and Cook County have increased 
in population they have steadily increased in 
the- number of their Representatives in Con- 
gress, until now, under the apportionment 
adopted by the General Assembly of 1901, divid- 
ing the State into twenty-five Congressional 
Districts in accordance with the census of 1900, 
nine Districts are Assigned wholly to Cook 
County and the tenth to Cook in conjunction 
with Lake County. Of Cook County Districts, 
six ttfe First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, Eighth 
and Ninth lie wholly within the Chicago city 
limits, while the Third, Sixth and Seventh each 
embrace parts of the city and country towns. 
The Tenth District, as already stated, embraces. 
Lake County, with a portion of the city of 
Chicago and several northern townships of 
Cook County. 

John Wentworth, the second newspaper 
editor in Chicago, was the first citizen of Chi- 
cago to hold a seat in the lower house of Con- 
gress from the district of which Cook County 
then formed a part, being elected for six terms 
between 1842 and 1866. Other citizens of Chi- 
cago and Cook County who have represented the 
city and county in the Congressional House of 
Representatives have been: James H. Wood-, 
worth (one term), 1855-57; John F. Farns- 
worth (two terms), 1857-61 later a resident 
of Kane County; Isaac N. Arnold (two terms), 
1861-65; Norman B. Judd (two terms), 1867-71; 
John L. Beveridge for State-at-large, 1871-73; 
Charles B. Farwell, 1871-75 and 1881-83; John 
B. Rice, 1873-74 (died in office); Jasper D. 
Ward, 1873-75; B. G. Caulfield (as successor to 
Rice), 1875-77; Carter H. Harrison, 1875-79; 
John V. LeMoyne, 1876-77; William Aldrich, 
1877-83; Lorenz Brentano, 1877-79; George R, 
Davis, 1879-85; Hiram Barber, 1879-81; R. W, 

66 4 


Dunham, 1883-89; John F. Finerty, 1883-85; 
George E. Adams, 1883-91; Frank Lawler, 
1885-91; James H. Ward, 1885-87; William E. 
Mason, 1887-91; Abner Taylor, 1889-93; Law- 
rence E. McGann, 1891-97; Allen C. Durborow, 
1891-95; Walter C. Newberry, 1891-93; J. Frank 
Aldrich, 1893-97; Julius Goldzier, 1893-95; Wil- 
liam Lorimer, 1895-1905; Charles W. Wood- 
man, 1895-97 ; George E. White, 1895-99 ; Edward 
D. Cooke, 1895-97 (died in office after re-elec- 
tion) ; George Edmund Foss, 1895-1905; James 
R. Mann, 1897-1905; Hugh R. Belknap, 1897-99; 
Daniel W. Mills, 1897-99; Henry Sherman Bou- 
tell, vice Cooke, 1897-1905; George P. Foster, 
1899-1905; Thomas Cusack, 1899-1901; Edward 
T. Noonan, 1899-1901; John J. Feely, 1901-03; 
James J. McAndrews, 1901-03; William F. 
Mahony, 1901-05; Martin Emerich, 1903-05. 
The Representatives in the Fifty-eighth Con- 
gress (1903-05), representing districts com- 
prised, in whole or in part, within Cook County, 
are: First District Martin Emerich (Dem.); 
Second District James R. Mann (Rep.)? Third 
District William Warfield Wilson (Rep,); 
Fourth District George P. Foster (Dem.); 
Fifth District James McAndrews (Dem.) ; 
Sixth District William Lorimer (Rep.) ; Sev- 
enth District Philip Knopf (Rep.); Eighth 
District William F. Mahony (Dem.); Ninth 
District Henry Sherman Boutell (Rep.) ; 
Tenth District George Edmund Foss (Rep.) 


Under the act apportioning members of the 
General Assembly, Cook County is divided into 
nineteen Legislative Districts, of which four- 
teen are wholly within the city of Chicago; four 
composed of city territory and country towns 
combined, and one consisting wholly of rural 
territory. The city districts are numbered First 
to Fifth consecutively, the Ninth, Eleventh, Sev- 
enteenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-fifth, Twenty- 
seventh, Twenty-ninth and Thirty-first; the city 
and country districts being the Sixth, Thir- 
teenth, Nineteenth and Twenty-third, and the 
sole country district the Seventh. The county 
is thus entitled to 19 Senators and 57 Repre- 
sentatives making a total representation in 
both branches of the Legislature of 76, a little 
over one-third of the representation of the whole 







Geographically considered the most pictur- 
esque feature of modern Chicago rests upon its 
extensive system of public parks, a portion of 
which is located in each of the three divisions 
into which the city is divided, the whole being 
united by a system of improved boulevards and 
driveways making a complete circuit of the 
city. The park system had its origin in an act 
of the Legislature in 1837 granting to the town 
of Chicago a lot of canal land near the town 
plat on the North Side, to be used as a burial 
ground, and paid for by the town at the valua- 
tion afterwards to be set upon these lands by 
the State. During the cholera epidemic of 
1852, a considerable tract was purchased in 
the same vicinity, for the purpose of establish- 
ing a hospital and quarantine grounds. By 
1858 the city had grown around the cemetery, 
and considerable opposition began to be mani- 
fested to the maintenance of a cemetery within 
the city limits. This led to the passage of an 
ordinance by the City Council in 1859, prohibit- 
ing the further sale of lots within the cemetery. 
During the next year the question of dedicating 
a portion of these lands for use as a public 
park began to be agitated, and, early in 1860, 
an ordinance was adopted limiting burials to 
the portion already subdivided for that purpose, 
and reserving the north sixty acres to be used 
as a public park, or for such purpose as the 
Common Council might direct. Two years 
later a beginning had been made in the laying 
out of roads and walks and the clearing of 
ground in the portion of the tract reserved 
for park purposes, the prosecution of the work 
being in charge of the Commissioners of Pub- 
lic Works. Early in 1864 an ordinance was 
passed setting aside the whole of this tract 
(including the cemetery grounds) for a public 



park, and giving it the name of "Lake Park." 
The further sale of lots for cemetery pur- 
poses was also prohibited and, in 1866, an 
ordinance was adopted prohibiting any more 
burials in the cemetery, and the removal of 
bodies to other burial grounds, which had 
already begun, became general. 

Up to 1864 the appropriations for the 
improvement of the park had been insignifi- 
cant, and very little real progress had been 
made. In June, 1865 a few weeks after the 
assassination of President Lincoln the name 
of Chicago's pioneer park was changed by 
ordinance to "Lincoln Park," and, with the 
increased interest produced by attaching to it 
the name of the "Martyred President," the 
work of development appears to have begun in 
earnest. The appropriation for this year 
amounted to $10,000, which enabled the Com- 
missioners to employ a landscape gardener to 
lay out walks and drives. In 1868 the expen- 
ditures in construction of drives and walks, 
transplanting trees and digging sewers, 
exceeded $20,000. A new and most important 
step was taken in 1869, when, by three separate 
acts of the Legislature, the regulation of the 
Chicago park system came under control of 
State laws providing for the improvement of 
parks in each of the three divisions of the 
city, each being under control of a separate 
Board of Commissioners. These will be treated 
of separately under their respective heads. 


A concise history of Lincoln Park which 
virtually constitutes the whole of the North 
Park System has been given up to the time 
of its passing under control of a Board of 
Park Commissioners appointed under act of 
the State Legislature. This step was taken in 
the passage of an act, approved February 8, 
1869, which named E. B. McCagg, John B. 
Turner, Andrew Nelson, Joseph Stockton and 
Jacob Rehm as the first Board of "Commis- 
sioners of Lincoln Park." In 1871 the appoint- 
ing power was placed in the hands of the 
Governor, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, the number of the Commissioners 
remaining unchanged until 1897, when it was 
increased from five to seven. 

As would naturally be inferred from its his- 
tory as the original park enterprise in the 
City of Chicago, the equipment of Lincoln 
Park as to improvement of grounds, walks and 

drives, landscape gardening and greenhouses, 
lakes and other water-ways, fountains, monu- 
ments and statuary, zoological collections, etc., 
is the most complete and extensive in the city, 
and surpasses any other in the United States, 
unless it be that of Central Park in New York 
City. At the same time the area occupied for 
park purposes is smaller than that of either 
of the other divisions of the city, being less 
than half that of the West Side system (includ- 
ing boulevards), and less than one-third of that 
of the South Side. Besides Lincoln Park, 
proper, two other small parks extending from 
North Avenue on the south to Diversey Boule- 
vard on the north constitute a part of the 
North Park system, viz.: Chicago Avenue 
Park and Union Square. The area of these, 
with the boulevards attached, as shown by the 
report of the Park Commissioners for 1900, is 
as follows: 


Lincoln Park 308.072 

Chicago Avenue Square 9.160 

Union Square 462 

All Boulevards . . 91.433 

Total 409.127 

(Since 1900 the Oak Park Triangle embracing 
an area of 9 acres has been added to the sys- 
tem, making a total, with boulevards, of 418- 
.433 acres.) 

The total length of improved boulevards in 
miles (1901) approximated 8% miles, while 
the improved walks and drives within the park 
aggregated a little over 25 miles. Work is 
now in progress (1904) on the Shore Boulevard 
extending from Indiana Street to Lincoln Park. 
In addition to about 41 acres of water surface 
(ponds and lagoons) within the park, Lincoln 
Park has a water frontage of 4% miles along 
the lake shore, which is traversed through its 
entire length by the famous Lake Shore Drive. 
An extension of Lincoln Park on the north by 
the filling in of the lake front is contemplated, 
which is expected to add about 213 acres to its 

The buildings in Lincoln Park are the most 
extensive of those of any park in the city, 
including "The Zoo" which, with its collec- 
tion of animals, is an especially attractive 
feature for visitors; the Matthew Laflin Memo- 
rial Building, which furnishes offices for the 
Park Commissioners and houses the treasures 



of the Academy of Sciences; and the great 
conservatory, which is approached by terraces 
at the north end of the park. Besides the 
colossal statue of Abraham Lincoln facing the 
southern entrance to the park, there are statues 
of General Grant, Schiller, Linne, Franklin, 
Shakespeare, La Salle, Hans Christian Ander- 
sen, Beethoven, Garibaldi and "Peace," repre- 
sented by an Indian (in bronze) astride a horse 
several of these statues being gifts from 
citizens of different nationalities. 

The stupendous character of the work accom- 
plished by the development of Lincoln Park and 
its connecting systems of boulevards, in thirty- 
two years, is indicated by the fact that, between 
1869 and January 1, 1901, the total expendi- 
tures for park purposes (purchase of ground, 
erection of buildings and other improvements) 
amounted to $8,808,121.31. The receipts of 
the Board of Commissioners within the same 
time aggregated $8,921,002.79, of which $5,104,- 
815.06 was obtained by general taxation, and 
the remainder ($3,816,187.73) derived from 
special assessments and other sources. 

The Lincoln Park Commission for 1904 
embraces the following names: W. W. Tracy 
(President), Bryan Lathrop (Vice-President), 
F. H. Gansbergen, J. H. Hirsch, Burr A. Ken- 
nedy, Gustave Lundquist and F. T. Simmons; 
with R. H. Warder, Superintendent and Secre- 
tary; Edward Dickinson, Treasurer; and Frank 
Hamlin, Attorney. 


The creation of the South Park system fol- 
lowed closely upon the organization of Lincoln 
Park under authority of State law, and was 
undoubtedly the result of the rivalry aroused 
by that act between the different divisions of 
the city. The act authorizing the appointment 
of a Board of South Park Commissioners, and 
empowering them to purchase lands and 
improve the same, passed the Legislature and 
received the approval of Gov. John M. Palmer, 
February 24, 1869 only about two weeks after 
the creation of the Lincoln Park Board. The 
first Board of Commissioners appointed con- 
sisted of John M. Wilson, George W. Gage, 
Chauncey T. Bowen, L. B. Sidway and Paul 
Cornell. The number of Commissioners, origi- 
nally fixed at five, has remained unchanged, 
their appointment being placed in the hands 
of the Judges of the Circuit Court of Cook 
County. Plans were prepared for the develop- 

ment of a park system for the towns of South 
Chicago, Hyde Park and Lake, by Messrs. Olm- 
stead and Vaux, landscape architects, but active 
work was soon suspended in conseque'nce of the 
fire of 1871, but resumed the following year. 
As it now stands, the South Park system is 
the most extensive in the city, embracing six 
park districts varying in area from 20 to 
approximately 524 acres each, with 17.28 miles 
of boulevards. The two largest park areas are 
embraced in Jackson and Washington Parks, 
with the connecting Midway Plaisance, making 
a total of about 975 acres. On January 10, 
1901, a tract known as Brighton Park, just east 
of the South Branch and north of Thirty-ninth 
Street, was transferred to the South Park Com- 
missioners at a cost of $85,827.50, and by action 
of the Board on October 9th following, received 
the name of McKinley Park. By act of the 
, General Assembly of 1901, what was known as 
Lake Front Park, extending along the lake 
shore from Monroe Street on the north to Park 
Place on the south, and east of Michigan 
Avenue, was changed to Grant Park. This park 
is already the site of the Chicago Art Institute 
and of the equestrian statue of Gen. John A. 

The following table exhibits the area of the 
several South Side parks, with the amount of 
improved lands belonging to each, as shown by 
the Report of the South Park Commissioners 
for December 1, 1900, except as to McKinley 
Park, which was acquired since January 1, 


Jackson Park 290.86 523.9 

Washington Park ..371 371 

Grant Park 25.13 186.43 

Gage Park 5 20 

Midway Plaisance. . 80 80 

McKinley Park 34.33 

Total 771.99 1,215.66 

Area of Boulevards . . 318.88 

Grand Total of System 1,534.54 

Since the above table was prepared, under the 
provisions of an act of the Legislature passed 
in 1903, 14 new parks have been added to 
the South Park System, of which Marquette 
Park is the largest, with an area of 322.68 
acres, making a total of 20 parks under the 
management of the South Park Board, and 



increasing the total area to 1,872.96 acres. 
The areas of the smaller parks range from five 
to about 60 acres each. Considerable improve- 
ments have been made in Jackson and 
McKinley Parks, an extensive outdoor swim- 
ming pool having been constructed in the latter, 
but the most extensive improvements are con- 
templated in Grant (formerly Lake Front) 
Park, which is now in process of enlargement 
to something like 200 acres by filling in the 
lake east of the Illinois Central Railroad. In 
addition to this it is proposed to construct a 
boulevard along the harbor line, which will be 
220 feet wide and over a mile in length. The 
Michigan Avenue side of this park north of 
Monroe Street, will be the site of the new 
Crerar Library, which with the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, also to be erected on the park 
grounds, and the Art Institute already in exist- 
ence, will be the most conspicuous buildings 
and attractive centers of future Chicago. One 
of the improvements contemplated for McKin- 
ley Park is a monument to President McKinley, 
for whom the park is named. 

Of ten boulevards belonging to the South 
Park system, with a total length of 17.28 miles, 
Michigan Boulevard is the longest, with a lineal 
measurement of 5% miles, while the Drexel, 
Garfield and Western Avenue Boulevards have 
each a width of 200 feet and Grand Boulevard 
198 feet. The aggregate length of improved 
drives, including those within the parks as well 
as the boulevards, is 41.75 miles. 

Jackson Park and its associated Midway 
Plaisance acquired a world-wide celebrity as 
the site of the World's Columbian Exposition of 
1893, the total area occupied for that purpose 
being 666 acres. This event gave an impulse 
to the improvements in Jackson Park, which 
has since been followed up by the Commission- 
ers with great vigor and successful results, 
rfaking it one of the most attractive pleasure 
grounds in the city. The Field Museum (ulti- 
mately to be transferred to Grant Park), 
though not under the management of the South 
Park Commissioners, is one of the noteworthy 
attractions of the park, while the Convent 
Building (another relic of the Exposition of 
1893), has been used with most satisfactory 
results during the summer months as a fresh 
air sanitarium for children. A large space in 
both Jackson and Washington Parks, as well 
as in the Midway Plaisance, is set apart for 
athletic sports. 

The total assets of the South Park system on 
December 1, 1900, were $16,279,640.02, of which 
$16,180,042.68 represented expenditures in the 
purchase of lands, cost of improvements, main- 
tenance, etc., since its organization in 1869. 
Adding $85,827.50 expended in the purchase of 
Brighton (now McKinley) Park, since January 
1, 1901, makes the cost of the park system, up 
to that date, in excess of sixteen and a quar- 
ter million dollars. 

The South Park Commission at the present 
time (1904) consists of William Best, Jefferson 
Hodgkins, Henry G. Foreman, Lyman A. Wal- 
ton and Daniel F. Crilly, with Mr. Foreman as 
President of the Board, Mr. Best, Auditor; 
Edward G. Shumway, Secretary, and John R. 
Walsh, Treasurer. 


The West Chicago Park system dates its 
origin back to an act of the Legislature, 
approved February 26, 1869, two days after the 
incorporation of the South Park system. The 
first Board of Commissioners for the West 
Chicago Park system was appointed by the 
Governor April 26, 1869, consisting of Charles 
C. P. Holden, Henry Greenebaum, George W. 
Stanford, Eben F. Runyan, Isaac R. Hitt, 
Clark Lipe and David Cole. The number 
of the members originally fixed at seven, 
appointed by the Governor has remained 
unchanged ever since. The system is made up 
of three principal parks, with six minor ones, 
all being connected by a boulevard system 
embracing a greater mileage and larger acreage 
than any other system in the city. The follow- 
ing is a list of the several parks with the area 
of each in acres, as per the Report of the Com- 
mission for the year ending December 31, 1900: 


Humboldt Park ..." 205.865 

Garfield Park 187.534 

Douglas Park 181.991 

Union Park 17.37 

Jefferson Park 7.026 

Vernon Park 6.14 

Campbell Park 1.38 

Wicker Park 4.03 

Shedd's Park 1.134 

Holstein Park . 1.94 

Total 614.41 

Area of boulevards. . . .374.396 

Total area of system 988.806 



The West Park system embraces twelve bou- 
levard lines, aggregating 21.75 miles in length 
and connecting the several parks with each 
other and with the North and South Side sys- 
tems. The longest of these is Washington Bou- 
levard, which has a lineal extent approximating 
five miles, while Humboldt, Franklin, Douglas 
and Marshall cover the largest area, having a 
width of 250 feet each through their entire 
length, which, for a small section of Humboldt 
Boulevard, is increased to 400 feet, with a lawn 
in the midway. Jackson Boulevard extends by a 
direct east and west line from Garfield Park 
through the South Side to Lake Michigan. The 
area of water surface (lakes and lagoons) 
within the parks aggregates 70 acres, and the 
improved lawns, 243 acres, leaving a balance of 
nearly 300 acres of unimproved lands belong- 
ing to the system. 

Notwithstanding some financial reverses, espe- 
cially that growing out of the defalcation of 
the Park Board Treasurer in 1896, there has 
been much activity in the development of the 
West Side Park system during the past few 
years. The total cost of the entire park sys- 
tem from its organization in 1869 to January 
1, 1901 (exclusive of special assessments), 
amounted to $11,027,243.68, of which $7,145,- 
981.43 was on account of lands and improve- 
ments, and $3,775,339.44 for maintenance. The 
amount received on special assessments for 
boulevard improvements and maintenance dur- 
ing the same time has been $2,107,194.56, mak- 
ing a grand total of $13,134,438.24 for the 
entire West Park system. 

The West Chicago Park Commission of seven 
members (1901) is as follows: Fred A. Bangs 
(President), Andrew J. Graham, Charles W. 
Kopf, C. Lichtenberger, Jr., Gabriel J. Norden, 
Edward H. Peters and Frederick Schultz, with 
Col. Walter Fieldhouse, Secretary; F. W. 
Blount, Treasurer, and William J. Cooke, Gen- 
eral Superintendent. 


A consolidated statement of the several park 
systems of the city of Chicago, as they exist at 
the present time (1904), presents the follow- 
ing results as to number of both parks and 
boulevards, with area of the former in acres, 
and mileage of the latter: 


South Park System . . 20 
West Park System . . 17 
Lincoln Park System 9 
School Parks (City) . 38 


in acres. 



84 3,169.06 

No. of 










The area of the boulevards reported in 1901 
at 734.71 acres, and which has not materially 
changed since then would make the combined 
area of parks and boulevards 3,903.77 acres. 
Of this area nearly 2,200 acres, or more than 
one-half of the whole, is in the South Park Dis- 
trict. The largest acreage in boulevards 
belongs to the West Park system. 

JANUARY 1, 1901: 

Lincoln Park System $ 8,808,121 . 31 

South Park System 16,180,042 . 69 

West Park System 13,134,438.24 

Grand total $38,122,602 . 24 


Dearborn Park, the most historical of all the 
Chicago Parks, embracing, as it does, a consid- 
erable portion of the site of the old Fort Dear- 
born, is occupied by the Chicago Public Library 
and Memorial Hall building. The ground on 
the east side of Michigan avenue opposite 
Dearborn Park, constituting the northern por- 
tion of what has been known as Lake Front 
Park, still remains under the jurisdiction of 
the Commissioner of Public Works. By act of 
the Forty-second General Assembly (1901) the 
portion of this tract lying between Madison 
and Monroe streets, was set apart, under cer- 
tain conditions, to be used as the site of the 
John Crerar Library, which will, in all prob- 
ability, be erected within the next three years. 


In addition to the larger parks, already enu- 
merated, to which the Park Boards are mak- 
ing frequent additions, a plan was set on foot 
about 1900, for the purpose of establishing 
playgrounds in connection with various public 
schools. These remain under control of the 
City Council, but are managed by a special com- 
mission consisting of members of the City 
Council, representatives of the Park Boards 
and of the County Board, besides citizens rep- 
resenting different professions and classes of 
business, the object being to secure the aid of 
practical architects, civil engineers, landscape 
gardeners and advisers as to sanitary condi- 



tions. The extension of the system is being 
actively agitated and, at a meeting of the City 
Council held in October, 1904, authority was 
granted to purchase 25 playgrounds in addi- 
tion to the eight or nine already in use. It is 
claimed that these playgrounds are having a 
decidedly beneficial effect upon the children in 
the neighborhoods provided with them. 

On April 21, 1904, an organization was 
effected of what is known as the "Outer-Belt 
Park Commission" under authority granted by 
the Board of Commissioners of Cook County, 
August 3, 1903. The commission is made up 
of ten prominent citizens representing the 
city and county, the Mayor of Chicago and four 
Aldermen, three members of each Park Com- 
mission, and four members and the President 
of the Board of County Commissioners, its 
object as defined in its constitution being "to 
devise plans and means, and do all things that 
may be necessary, to create a system of outer 
parks and boulevards encircling the city of 
Chicago," on the ground that such improve- 
ments are needed for the health and comfort 
of the people of the city and its suburbs. The 
scheme contemplated by this commission looks 
to the establishment of a system of suburban 
parks on the northern border of the city, along 
the Des Plaines on the west, in the Calumet 
region on the south, and eventually possibly 
along "the Sag" in Palos Township in the south- 
west. All these localities afford important ad- 
vantages for improvements of this character, 
and while the Park Board has but recently 
effected its organization, it is proposed to 
take up its labors energetically during 
the present year. Both the Des Plaines 
and the Calumet regions are convenient 
of access from the central portions of 
the city, and, as the population in these sec- 
tions becomes more and more congested, the 
demand for larger breathing places will become 
more urgent. In support of the argument for 
an increased park area for the benefit of the 
citizens of Chicago, it is shown that the city 
stands nineteenth in a list of principal cities 
of the United States, in park and reservation 
areas in proportion to population, the total (in 
acres) for Chicago, being 3,174 against 12,878 
for Boston; 8,074 for New York; 3,503 for Phil- 
adelphia; 2,911 for Washington, D. C., and 
2,183 for St. Louis. The proportions of popu- 

lation to each acre of park and reservation 
area for these and other cities are as follows: 
Los Angeles, Cal., 36.1; Boston, 46.8; Minne- 
apolis, 153.6; St. Paul, 103.4; New York, 443.9; 
Philadelphia, 427.8; St. Louis, 320.3; New 
Orleans, 507.6; Baltimore, 520.4; and Chicago 
the largest population in proportion to park 
area 702.9 population per acre. In the event 
that the plans of the Outer-Belt Park Commis- 
sion are carried into effect, it may be expected 
that Chicago will ultimately rival Boston in 
the aggregate of its park area, if not in its 
proportion as to population. 


In addition to the park systems already 
enumerated, what is known as the North Shore 
Park District has been organized within the 
past two years, for the development of a park 
system in the northern section of the city, 
but the Board of Commissioners has so far 
devoted its attention chiefly to the subject of 











While Chicago has been the theater of many 
important and far-reaching events, such as the 
nomination here, on the 16th day of May, 1860, 
of the first successful Republican candidate for 
the Presidency in the person of Abraham Lin- 
coln, whose election and inauguration proved 
the forerunner of the attempted secession of 
eleven Southern States and a four-years' war 
in the effort to perpetuate negro slavery under 
the auspices of a "Southern Confederacy," only 
a few of the more notable of these events can 
be noticed in a volume of this character. One 



of those deserving special mention in this con- 
nection, both on account of its importance 
from a national point of view and its relation 
to local history, is what is known as the 
"Camp Douglas Conspiracy." This was a plot 
entered into early in 1864, by a number of 
rebel leaders in the South or their agents with 
confederates connected with certain treasonable 
organizations in the North, which had for its 
object the securing by force of the liberation 
of the rebel prisoners confined in certain North- 
ern prison-camps, especially those at Chicago, 
Rock Island, Springfield and Alton in this 
State. Camp Douglas from which the plot 
took its name, in view of the fact that it con- 
tained a larger number of prisoners than any 
of the others named and was the center of 
greatest activity on the part of the conspira- 
tors had been established during the first year 
of the war on an irregular block of ground 
within the present limits of the city of Chicago 
between Thirty-first Street and Thirty-third 
Place, and Cottage Grove and Forest Avenues. 
This was a part of the ground which had been 
originally donated to the old University of 
Chicago, by Senator Stephen A. Douglas, from 
whom it took its name. Originally established 
as a camp of instruction for military recruits, 
soon after the capture of Fort Donelson it was 
changed into a place of confinement for rebel 
prisoners of war, and during a part of the year 
1864, is reputed to have contained as high as 
12,000 prisoners. At the time the conspiracy 
was at its height during the summer of 1864, 
it is estimated that the total number of South- 
ern prisoners in prison-camps within the State 
of Illinois was about 26,500, of whom 8,000 
were in Camp Douglas, 6,000 at Rock Island, 
7,500 at Camp Butler (Springfield), and 5,000 
at Alton. The principal agents on the part of 
the Confederacy in organizing the conspiracy 
were three so-called "Peace Commissioners" 
Jacob Thompson (who had been a member of 
President Buchanan's cabinet), C. C. Clay, and 
J. P. Holcomb who, having established them- 
selves in Canada, found means of getting into 
communication with representatives of secret 
treasonable organizations in the Northern 
States, especially the organization known, suc- 
cessively and at different periods during the 
progress of the war, as "Knights of the Golden 
Circle," "American Knights" and "Sons of Lib- 
erty," and which had been especially active in 
the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The 

general management of the affair for Illinois 
was entrusted by the rebel agents to one Capt. 
Thomas H. Hines, who established himself at 
Chicago, where it is is estimated there were at 
that time 4,000 "Sons of Liberty," and gave his 
attention to the collection of arms and the dis- 
tribution of funds. One Charles Walsh was at 
the head of the movement in Chicago, with 
confederates scattered throughout this and 
other States. The scheme not only contem- 
plated the release of rebel prisoners, but, so 
far as Chicago was concerned, looked to the 
seizure of arms and military stores, the looting 
of banks and finally, if necessary to carrying 
out the plot, the burning of the city. A draft 
having been expected during the month of July, 
the 20th day of that month had been first 
selected as the date of the uprising. This hav- 
ing been abandoned, the next date chosen was 
August 29th that of the Democratic National 
Convention, which had found reason for ad- 
journing over from July 4, the first date chosen 
for its assembling. It was evidently antici- 
pated that the crowd of strangers, then expected 
in the city, would divert suspicion from any 
unusual gathering of those expected to take 
part in the affair. Suspicion had been aroused, 
however, and the forces in charge of Camp 
Douglas having been strengthened by the addi- 
tion of a regiment of infantry and a battery of 
artillery, another postponement of the plot was 
deemed advisable by the leaders. The third 
date selected was November 8th, the date of the 
National election at which Mr. Lincoln was 
chosen President for his second term. It was 
expected that the local conspirators would be 
strongly reinforced by confederates from dif- 
ferent parts of the State, and that, having 
released the prisoners from Camp Douglas, the 
combined force of conspirators and released 
prisoners by that time a large army would 
proceed to Rock Island, Springfield and Alton, 
and perform the same feat there. 

By this time the authorities, through the aid 
of detectives and one or two of the prisoners 
who had been admitted into the plot, had 
obtained evidence of what was afoot. At an 
early hour on the morning of the 7th the day 
before the plot was to be carried into effect 
Gen. Benjamin J. Sweet, who was in command 
at Camp Douglas, secured the simultaneous 
arrest of the principal conspirators in their 
various hiding places, and the scheme was 
defeated. Almost the only important agent 




connected with the local plot who succeeded 
in evading arrest was Captain Hines, its gen- 
eral manager. Among those arrested were 
Charles Walsh, a "Brigadier General" of the 
"Sons of Liberty," who was furnishing shelter 
to the leading agents of the conspiracy from 
abroad, and on whose premises a large quantity 
of arms and military stores were found. The 
service rendered by General Sweet in ferreting 
out and defeating this nefarious conspiracy, 
won for him the gratitude and admiration of 
the whole country, and was recognized by the 
Government in his promotion from the rank 
of Colonel to that of Brigadier-General and 
later, by his appointment to various offices 
under the General Government, one of which 
was that of Pension Agent at Chicago. (See 
"Camp Douglas Conspiracy" "Secret Treason- 
able Organizations" and "Gen. Benjamin J. 
Sweet," Hist. Encyc. of 111., Vol. I.) 


Undoubtedly the most tragic chapter in Chi- 
cago history is that which has to deal with the 
great fire of October 8-9, 1871. The preceding 
three months had been marked by an almost 
unprecedented drouth, which had parched vege- 
tation and reduced wooden structures, then so 
numerous even in the business portions of the 
city, to a highly inflammable condition. On 
Saturday night, October 7th, occurred a fire on 
the West Side, commencing in the planing mill 
of Lille & Holmes, at 209 South Canal Street, 
which would ordinarily have been regarded 
as extremely disastrous. This destroyed nearly 
the whole of four blocks of buildings (covering 
about 27 acres) surrounded by Adams, Clinton 
and Van Buren Streets and the South Branch. 
The loss from this fire has been estimated at 

On the next evening (Sunday, October 8) a 
fire broke out a little before 9 o'clock in a barn 
attached to a wooden tenement at 137 De Koven 
Street, southwest, but only two blocks distant 
from the district burned over the night before. 
The premises where the fire began were occu- 
pied by a family named O'Leary, where a 
dance had been in progress during the evening, 
and the story widely accepted has been that 
the fire was started by the breaking of a kero- 
sene lamp in the barn while some one was milk- 
ing a cow, although this was vigorously denied 
by the O'Learys. Owing to the fatiguing serv- 
ice which the fire department had rendered the 

night before, according to one report, although 
another attributes the cause to over-indulgence 
of the firemen through the mistaken hospitality 
of a saloon-keeper after the Saturday evening 
fire there was great delay in securing a 
response from the fire department. In the 
meantime the fire, aided by a strong wind and 
the inflammable condition of the buildings in 
the vicinity, was rapidly getting under way and 
was soon beyond control. In some cases burn- 
ing brands, carried by the force of the wind, 
started new fires one or two blocks distant, and 
in a short time the flames had spread to the 
heart of the business district on the South Side 
and the choicest residence portion of the city 
north of the river. By three o'clock on Mon- 
day morning the Chamber of Commerce, the 
Court House, the Postoffice, the principal hotels 
and many of the largest business houses on the 
South Side were in ruins, and half an hour 
later, the water-works station on the North 
Side was in the same condition, greatly para- 
lyzing the efforts of the firemen to fight the 
flames. Although the greatest havoc was 
wrought during the early hours of the morn- 
ing, the fire continued its ravages until half 
past ten o'clock Monday evening a period of 
twenty-five hours when it practically ceased 
for want of material to prey upon. The last 
house destroyed is said to have been that of 
Dr. John H. Foster, the well known scientist 
and educator, on Fullerton Avenue where it 
ends at Lincoln Avenue, then the northern 
limit of the city and four miles from the place 
of the starting of the fire. Of the fire apparatus, 
eight engines, three hose-carts and three hook 
and ladder trucks had ^ to be abandoned and 
were destroyed. The total area burned over is 
estimated at 2,124 acres, of which 194 acres 
were on the West Side, 460 acres on the South 
Side and 1,470 acres on the North Side. This 
area extended from Fullerton Avenue on the 
north to Harrison Street on the south, with an 
arm extending southwest to De Koven and Jef- 
ferson Streets in the West Division, and em- 
bracing the district within these northern and 
southern limits lying between the lake shore 
on the east and an irregular western boundary 
extending at some points nearly to Halsted 
Street. In the more compactly built portions 
of both the North and South . Divisions, the 
areas between the North and South Branches 
of the Chicago River on the west and the lake 
on the east, were swept clean. The number of 


buildings destroyed has been estimated at 
17,450, valued with other property at $187,000- 
000, and leaving 98,000 people homeless. No 
reliable statement of the actual jloss of life 
resulting from the fire has been attainable, but 
it has been estimated that 250 to 275 persons 
perished. The total insurance on the property de- 
stroyed amounted to about $88,000,000, of which, 
in consequence of the insolvency of many of 
the insurance companies, only about one-half 
was recovered. In the area burned over, only two 
buildings escaped destruction. One of these 
was the residence of Mahlon D. Ogden, a 
wooden building in the heart of the North 
Division, located at North Clark Street and 
Walton Place on the site now occupied by the 
Newberry Library, while the other was a grain 
elevator, known as "Elevator B," belonging to 
Messrs. Sturges & Buckingham, and located at 
the junction of the Chicago River and Lake 
Michigan, near the Randolph Street Station of 
the Illinois Central Railroad. The preservation 
of the elevator building was due to the discov- 
ery of a fire engine in the Illinois Central Rail- 
road yards, which was awaiting transportation 
to some other city on Lake Michigan. This 
was used successfully to extinguish a fire which 
had already started in a building attached to 
the elevator. While the further spread of the 
flames was checked by the exhaustion of 
material, the fires continued to burn for days 
in the ruins of some of the larger buildings, 
and thousands of excursionists came from long 
distances to gaze upon the ruins which had 
been left in the wake of one of the most 
appalling conflagrations in the world's history. 
Systems of relief for sufferers by the fire 
were set on foot immediately, not only by the 
citizens of Chicago who had escaped the dis- 
aster, but in the principal cities of the country, 
and even in Europe, especially in England, 
Germany and France. A Relief and Aid Society 
composed of prominent citizens, was organ- 
ized for the purpose of distributing contribu- 
tions among the needy and, in a report made 
under date of April 30, 1874, they acknowledged 
the receipt of $4,820,148, of which $973,897 
came from foreign countries, over $500,000 
coming from England, Scotland and Ireland, 
$80,000 from Germany and nearly $63,000 from 
France. Churches and secret societies also 
acted with great promptness and liberality in 
aid, not only of their associated organizations, 
but for the benefit of the various classes of 

sufferers. Governor Palmer called the Legis- 
lature together in special session before the 
close of the week, with a view to furnishing 
such relief as might appropriately come from 
that body. One of the steps taken by the Leg- 
islature was the passage of an act reimbursing 
the city for $2,995,340 expended in the deepen- 
ing of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

Relating to the destruction by the fire of 
public records involving titles to real estate, 
etc., the late Joseph Kirkland, in connection 
with a reference, in his "Story of Chicago," to- 
the three abstract firms then doing business in 
the city, says: 

"It curiously happened that, although the 
portion of the records saved by each abstract 
firm was only a portion, yet the part lost 
by each was saved by another; so that, when 
combined, the fragments made a total whole 
and entire, lacking nothing in continuity or 
completeness. Chase Brothers lost many of 
their press copies of abstracts given out, but 
saved tract indexes, judgment dockets, tax- 
sales and some volumes of their 'original 
entries,' Shortall & Hoard lost their record 
of 'original entries,' but saved tract indexes, 
judgment dockets, tax sales and some vol- 
umes of their original entries. Jones & Sel- 
lers saved all their original entries and let- 
ter-press copies of abstracts given out." 

The fortunate consequences of this accidental 
combination of circumstances, has been seen in 
the avoidance of confusion as to titles of real 
estate in Chicago and Cook County growing out 
of the fire. 

The rebuilding of the ruined city began 
immediately, and its restoration and enlarge- 
ment within a generation after the most disas- 
trous calamity that has overtaken any city in 
modern times, has been one of the marvels of 
the century. Not only has every vestige of 
the catastrophe of thirty-three years ago been 
wiped away, but the ruins of 1871 have given 
place to a class of structures, in their number, 
size and magnificence, unsurpassed by those 
of any other city of its size in this or any other 
country, and, in population, it has grown, 
within the same period, from less than 350,000 
people to nearly 2,000,000, making it the sec- 
ond city in size in the United States. 

On the afternoon of July 14, 1874, a fire broke 
out in a two-story frame building at 449 South 
Clark Street between Polk and Taylor Streets 



and south of the burned district of 1871 which, 
before it was subdued, swept as far north as 
Van Buren Street and east to Michigan Avenue, 
covering an area of forty-seven acres and 
destroying property estimated at $2,845,000, of 
which $2,200,000 was covered by insurance. 
This fire lasted about eleven hours, and but 
for the greater disaster of three years before, 
would have been regarded as a calamity unpar- 
alleled in the history of the city. 


On the evening of May 4, 1886, occurred what 
has been handed down in history as the "Hay- 
market Massacre." This grew out of an assem- 
blage held in Haymarket Square on the West 
Side, in the nominal interest of a projected 
strike for an eight-hour labor-day. A number 
of professional anarchists, desirous of posing 
as the champions of labor, had taken advantage 
of a strike which had been ordered in the 
McCormick Reaper Works, to call the meeting 
on the evening named. On the day preceding 
a collision had occurred at the Reaper Works 
between a party of strikers and the police, in 
which six of the former were killed and a large 
number wounded. This was used by the anar- 
chist agitators as a pretext for issuing an 
inflammatory circular, summoning the "work- 
ingmen to arms" and appealing to them to seek 
"revenge" upon the police, upon the ground that 
they had played the part of "bloodhounds" at 
the command of capital, and had been guilty 
of "killing workingmen because they dared to 
ask for the shortening of the hours of toil." 
The appeal was written by August Spies, the 
editor of an anarchist paper called the 
"Arbeiter-Zeitung." At the hour named an 
immense crowd assembled, many being attracted 
through curiosity. The Mayor Carter H. Har- 
rison, Sr. was present during the early part of 
the meeting, but the proceedings being more 
peaceful than had been anticipated, he with- 
drew. Later the speeches having assumed a 
more violent and incendiary character, a 
strong force of police appeared under the com- 
mand of Inspector Bonfield, who commanded 
the peace "in the name of the people of the 
State," and ordered the crowd to disperse. The 
answer to this was the hurling of a dynamite 
bomb among the policeman, followed by an 
explosion which resulted in the wounding of 
sixty-seven members of the force, of whom 
seven died. A number of arrests of suspected 

parties followed, and on June 7th the trial 
began, twenty-one days being consumed in 
securing a jury during which 982 veniremen 
were examined. Judge Joseph E. Gary, still 
(1904) a Justice of the Superior Court of Cook 
County, presided, while Julius S. Grinnell, now 
counsel of the Chicago City Railway Company, 
officiated as State's Attorney, the trial occupy- 
ing 62 days, during which 143 witnesses were 
examined for the prosecution and 79 for the 
defense. The outcome of the trial was the con- 
viction of eight persons, of whom seven were 
sentenced to suffer death and one (Oscar 
Neebe) to the State's Prison for fifteen years. 
The names of those sentenced to suffer capi- 
tally were August Spies, Albert D. Parsons, 
Adolph Fischer, Louis Engel, Louis Lingg, 
Samuel Fielden and Justus Schwab. Of these 
Lingg committed suicide while awaiting execu- 
tion, by exploding in his mouth a bomb which 
he had obtained surreptitiously from some 
sympathizer; the sentences of Fielden and 
Schwab were commuted by Governor Oglesby 
to imprisonment for life on their appeal for 
clemency, supported by the recommendations 
of the Judge, Prosecuting Attorney and Jury, 
while Spies, Parsons, Fischer and Engel were 
executed, Nov. 11, 1887 eighteen months after 
the commission of their crime, but not until 
the proceedings in the lower court had been 
sustained by the unanimous opinion of the 
Supreme Court. On June 26, 1893, Fielden, 
Schwab and Neebe were pardoned by Governor 
Altgeld in a decree in which he attacked the 
ruling and acts of the trial court, although the 
latter has been sustained in a most conspicu- 
ous manner not only by public sentiment but 
by the courts of higher jurisdiction. The 
scene of the "Haymarket Massacre" has been 
marked by the erection on its site of a statue 
in commemoration of the policemen whose lives 
were sacrificed by a murderous plot while in 
the discharge of their duty. 


The year 1877 was a period of turmoil and 
excitement unparalleled in the previous history 
of the nation, except when the country was 
engaged in actual war. This condition grew out 
of "strikes" on the part of labor organizations, 
beginning with a reduction of wages by some of 
the railroads, but extending to other employes 
on grounds of sympathy. While the disturb- 
ances were widespread, involving nearly every 



important city in the Northern States, Chicago 
was one of the centers of most serious disturb- 
ance, second only to Pittsburg and Baltimore, 
where there was heavy destruction of property 
accompanied by much loss of life. 

The trouble in Chicago began on the night 
of the 23d of July, following promptly out- 
breaks by railroad employes at Martinsburg, 
Va.; Baltimore, Pittsburg, and other Eastern 
points. The first demonstration in Chicago 
was made by the switchmen of the Michigan 
Central Railroad who, on the following morn- 
ing, visited the employes of other roads and by 
noon they had brought about a general strike 
on all the lines except the Chicago & North- 
western. This was followed a day or two later 
by a general suspension of business in manufac- 
tories, rolling mills, lumber yards and work- 
shops of every variety, and, although the 
employes of the Northwestern Railroad main- 
tained that they had no grievance, they were 
at last compelled to cease work by constant 
interference and intimidation by the mob. In 
the meantime the streets, especially in the 
neighborhood of the railroads and manufactur- 
ing plants, were thronged by riotous bands of 
strikers and their friends the latter, in many 
cases, being composed of boys and riotous 
classes who had no other interest in the strike 
than to bring about a condition of lawlessness 
that would open the way for the pillaging of 
stores and other places of business. Although 
there was much disorder throughout the city, 
the most serious disturbances occurred in the 
neighborhood of Halsted Street between Six- 
teenth and Twenty-second Streets, where fre- 
quent collisions occurred between the strikers 
and the police. The turbulent element was held 
in check somewhat by the fact that Mayor 
Monroe Heath had taken the precaution to 
order the saloons throughout the city closed. 
Besides the police and posses of armed citizens 
under the command of the peace officers, five 
regiments of the State militia were called out 
by authority of the Governor under command 
of Gen. Torrence, although the First and Sec- 
ond Regiments were most constantly on duty. 
Several companies of United States regulars 
who happened to be passing through the city, 
were held for several days and rendered effi- 
cient service in checking the spirit of lawless- 
ness and protecting life and property. Valuable 
aid was rendered the authorities by various 
volunteer and independent organizations com- 

posed of business men and other friends of law 
and order, one of the most effective of these 
being the Union Veterans, a force composed 
wholly of old and tried soldiers of the Civil 
War, under the command of Gen. Reynolds, 
Col. Owen Stuart, Gen. 0. L. Mann and Gen. 
Martin Beem. On the night of the 25th of 
July, when the disturbances had reached a 
most critical stage, it is estimated that 15,000 
men were under arms in the city of Chicago. 
In a conflict between the police and a mob at 
Halsted Street viaduct on the morning of the 
26th, two persons (one a boy) were killed and, 
on the afternoon of the same day, five of the 
rioters were killed at Turner Hall, on West 
Twelfth Street. In a riot in the evening of the 
same day, at Sixteenth and Halsted Streets, 
three soldiers and two policemen were badly 
wounded and several of the rioters danger- 
ously hurt. During the progress of the strike 
women took a prominent part in the parades 
of the strikers; and, in some of the most vio- 
lent conflicts, as usual on such occasions, a 
lawless class who had no immediate connection 
with the workingmen's organizations were most 
active in their efforts to stir up strife with the 
authorities. Friday, July 27th, business began 
to be resumed, many of the strikers rushed 
back to secure their old places, and the strike 
was practically at an end. The organizations 
reputed to be chiefly represented by the strik- 
ing element, were then known as the "Working- 
men's Party," the "Workingmen's International 
Association" and "Labor League," although the 
most active spirits came from the ranks of the 
anarchists and foreign communists who have 
never failed to avail themselves of a labor 
strike to promote their lawless ends. During 
the progress of the strike there were serious 
disturbances at a number of other points in 
the State, especially at Peoria, Springfield and 
Braidwood, the most serious, however, being at 
East St. Louis, where the passage of railroad 
trains across the bridge to St. Louis was 
obstructed for several days; but the prompt and 
vigorous measures taken by Gov. Cullom finally 
restored order. 

A record-breaking period in strike history in 
the city of Chicago came during the year 1886, 
culminating in the Haymarket riot of May 4th, 
in which seven policemen lost their lives and 
sixty others were more or less severely 
wounded by the explosion of a bomb in their 
midst by some one professing to be in the 



interest of a party of striking employes con- 
nected with the McCormick Reaper Works. 
(See "Haymarket Massacre" in this chapter.) 
While the year was one of great commotion 
among labor organizations throughout the 
country, Chicago was the theater of some of the 
most stubborn conflicts between labor organiza- 
tions and employers. According to statistics 
furnished by the United States Labor Com- 
mission, the total number of strikes in Illinois 
for that year was 487, of which 313 were in the 
city of Chicago. The number of employes 
affected by the strike in the State was over 
100,000, while the business establishments 
involved numbered 1,060. Of these 310 strikes 
succeeded, 204 were partially successful, an.l 
546 ended in failure. The issues between 
employers and employes during the strike of 
1886 were largely based on demands of the 
latter for reduction of hours of employment, 
with a smaller number for increase of wages 
and quite a number demanding the concession 
of both points. A still smaller number were 
based on resistance to the employment of non- 
union men and demands for recognition of the 
union. The loss to employes in wages was esti- 
mated at $2,524,244, and that of the employers 
at $2,366,555. Besides these, there were 43 
lockouts, of which seven succeeded, 30 were 
partially successful and six were failures. The 
losses of employers and employes in these cases 
nearly counterbalanced each other, each aggre- 
gating about $250,000. 

The third most notable labor disturbance 
connected with Chicago history, was that of 
May to July, 1894, growing out of a strike of 
the employes in the Pullman Palace Car shops. 
The previous year had been one of considerable 
commotion, owing to the increasing financial 
depression and the decline in industrial enter- 
prises, but the striking element had been held 
in check somewhat, so far as Chicago was con- 
cerned, by concessions due to the fact that the 
Columbian World's Exposition was then in 
progress. During the summer of 1893 an organ- 
ization of railroad employes under the name of 
the "American Railway Union" was formed, 
and in the following fall the agitation against 
a threatened reduction in wages became very 
active. Owing to the growing depression in the 
car manufacturing industry during the latter 
part of 1893, The Pullman Company, in Septem- 
ber of that year, made a reduction in the wages 
of their employes, and in March and April fol- 

lowing, the latter, who had become dissatisfied 
with the existing condition of affairs, became 
members of the Railway Union and submitted 
to the Company a demand for a restoration of 
the wages which they had received during the 
previous year. This having been refused, on 
May 10, 1894, the local union ordered a strike 
which went into effect the next day, some three 
hundred members taking part in it. This was 
promptly followed by the Company with an 
order to close the shops, thus throwing out of 
employment six hundred men who had not pre- 
viously taken part in the strike. Up to July 3 
it is claimed that no actual violence or destruc- 
tion of property by the strikers or their sym- 
pathizers had taken place, although a sympa- 
thetic boycott and strike against the handling 
of Pullman cars by members of the Railway 
Union was ordered on the 26th of June, which 
soon extended practically to all the railroad 
lines entering the city of Chicago. From this 
time the disorders increased rapidly, and on 
July 7 the principal officers of the American 
Railway Union were indicted and placed under 
arrest for refusing to obey an injunction of the 
United States Court issued on July 2, prohibit- 
ing interference with the moving of railroad 
'trains. Meanwhile many scenes of violence 
were occurring upon the streets and in the 
vicinity of the railway yards, much property 
was destroyed and a general paralysis of busi- 
ness had resulted. So serious had become the 
situation, the municipal and State authorities 
proving themselves incapable of holding the 
lawless element in check, that on July 3 Presi- 
dent Cleveland issued a proclamation taking 
notice of the interference with the laws, and 
instructing the officer commanding the United 
States forces at Fort Sheridan to "move his 
entire command at once to the city of Chi- 
cago, there to execute the orders 

and processes of the United States Court, to 
prevent the obstruction of the United States 
mails, and generally to enforce the faithful 
execution of the laws of the United States." 
Gen. Nelson A. Miles, then in command of 
this Department, appeared on the scene about 
noon on July 4, took command in person, and 
State troops being also ordered upon the 
ground to assist the civil authorities, the 
lawless element was finally brought under 
control, although several days were necessary 
to bring about a complete restoration of order. 
According to the report of a commission con- 



sisting of Carroll D. Wright, United States 
Commissioner of Labor, John D. Kernan, of 
New York, and N. E. Worthington, of Illinois, 
to inquire into the causes and facts connected 
with the controversy between the railroads and 
their employes, the number of men employed 
in the preservation of order during the progress 
of the strike was over 14,000, of which 1,936 
were United States troops, about 4,000 State 
militia, about 5,000 Deputy United States Mar- 
shals, 250 Deputy Sheriffs and a local police 
force of 3,000. During the same time twelve 
persons were killed or fatally wounded, and 
515 arrests were made and a large number 
indicted by the Grand Jury of the United States 
Court. One of these was Eugene V. Debs, who 
had been a leader in organizing the strike, and 
who was sentenced to imprisonment for a period 
of six months. Independent of the cost to the 
city, State and General Governments of restor- 
ing order, the loss of property and incidental 
expenses to the railroad corporations, is esti- 
mated by the same authority at $685,308; loss 
of earnings sustained by the same corporations, 
$4,672,916; the loss in wages to 3,100 employes, 
at Pullman, at $350,000, and that of about 100,- 
000 employes on the railroads entering Chicago, 
$1,389,143 making a total loss of wages 
amounting to $1,739,000. In this no account is 
taken of the loss to other branches of business 
by the general suspension and paralyzation of 

The following statistics of strike history for 
a period of twenty years (1881-1900) taken from 
the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Labor for 1901, will furnish a fitting 
conclusion to this chapter. According to this 
report, Illinois and especially the city of Chi- 
cago has become the leading strike center in 
the country, second only at some periods to the 
city of New York, but in later years taking 
front rank in cost to both employers and 
employed. Within the period named, the total 
number of strikes and lockouts in Chicago has 
been 1,794, affecting 20,645 business concerns 
employing 720,000 operatives. The loss to 
employes in wages during this time is estimated 
at $41,614,883 and that of employers at $30,698,- 

STRIKES OF 1902-1904. 

One of the notable strikes in the history of 
the country was that of the anthracite coal- 
miners in the fall of 1902. While this did not 

directly involve the labor organizations of Chi- 
cago, it seriously affected the interests of the 
people of the city, as it did those of the whole 
country, in consequence of its effect on the 
supply of coal needed for local consumption and 
the consequent advance in prices. 

During 1903 there were numerous strikes by 
local labor organizations, that of the building- 
trades and metal-workers unions being probably 
the most serious, as it paralyzed building opera- 
tions to a large extent through the whole year. 
Other strikes which were most stubbornly con- 
tested were those of the metal-workers, machin- 
ists and electrical workers in the employ of the 
Kellogg Switchboard Supply Company, and the 
Franklin Union Bookbinders and Pressfeeders 
both of these being attended with much riot- 
ing and numerous attacks upon both life and 
property. The strike of City Railway employes, 
occurring during the month of November, 1903, 
was especially noteworthy because of the 
inconvenience it imposed upon that large pro- 
portion of the population accustomed to use the 
cable and trolley-car lines to reach their places 
of business or regular employment. This also 
was attended by many acts of violence and 
some damage to property in consequence of 
assaults upon non-union conductors, grip and 
motor-men by the strikers and their sympathiz- 
ers. A strike by the employes of the Deering 
Harvester-Works, begun on April 27, 1903, for 
recognition of the union, ended in practical 
failure as the strikers were without a grievance. 
Less important strikes of the year were those 
of the elevator men and janitors in the large 
office and flat-buildings; the laundry-workers; 
and the restaurant employes the latter being 
for higher wages and shorter hours. The first 
of these was settled without material changes 
or loss to either party; the laundry-workers 
were temporarily successful, but a few months 
later prices fell back to the original standard; 
while the restaurant-waiters' strike ended in 
absolute failure, a majority of those employed 
in down-town resturants permanently losing 
their places. 

The most sensational strike of 1904 was that 
of the packing house employes, which began 
July 12, in a demand for uniform wages for the 
same class of employes in all the packing 
establishments of the country, with a material 
advance for unskilled workmen. This included 
the packing establishments at Chicago, Omaha. 
St. Louis, Kansas City, Sioux City, Fort Worth 



(Texas), and New York. A week after the 
strike began an agreement was reached and, 
two days later (July 21), a portion of the men 
returned to work, but were immediately called 
out by the leaders on the ground that the 
employers were not fulfiling their part of the 
contract. A few days later an attempt was 
made to get up a sympathetic strike, but it was 
only partially successful, there being a wide- 
spread impression that the striking employes 
had violated their agreement. On September 
7 the unions involved voted almost unani- 
mously to continue the strike, but a day later 
(September 8) the officials of the order called 
it off and there was an immediate rush, on the 
part of the employes, to secure their old places 
without change of wages. The strike, which 
lasted 51 days, had affected 50,000 workmen 
engaged in the different packing industries of 
the country, of whom 20,000 belonged to the 
city of Chicago", besides 6,000 connected with 
other trades. A newspaper estimate of the loss 
in wages by Chicago employes during the con- 
tinuance of the strike places the sum at 
$2,680,000, against which they had received in 
benefits from other organizations $115,000. The 
loss to packers in the same time is estimated 
by the same authority at $6,250,000; to stock- 
men, $2,750,000; to the Union Stock Yards, 
$150,000, and to the railroads $550,000, making 
a total of $12,380,000. This estimate, while in 
some respects possibly exaggerated, does not 
include the loss to the general public in the 
increased cost of food products, to say nothing 
of the inconvenience caused by inability to 
procure supplies while the strike lasted, nor 
the suffering caused to many of the strikers' 
families. When it is remembered that the 
strikers gained no advantage either in the mat- 
ter of wages or hours of labor, this will take 
rank as one of the most disastrous strikes in 

Newspapers, Early, Hist. Encyc. of 111., p. 

(See World's Columbian Exposition, Hist. 
Encyc. of 111., pp. 600-601.) 



Among the more important events in local 
history may be enumerated the following: 

1803. Fort Dearborn established. 

1804. First permanent white settler, John 
Kinzie, arrives. 

1805. First Masonic Lodge organized. 

1812. (June 15) Fort Dearborn Massacre. 

1816. Fort Dearborn rebuilt. 

1823. (July 20) First marriage, Dr. Alex- 
ander Wolcott to Ellen M. Kinzie, celebrated in 

1825. (Sept. 6) Chicago becomes a precinct 
of Peoria County; (Oct. 9) Isaac McCoy 
preaches the first Protestant sermon in Chicago. 

1826 (August 7) First election in Chicago. 

1829. First ferry established at Lake Street. 

1830. City surveyed and platted by Canal 
Commissioners; first bridge across South 
Branch erected near Randolph Street. 

1831. (Jan. 15) Cook County created by act 
of the Legislature; first county roads estab- 
lished (State Street, Archer Avenue, Madison 
Street and Ogden Avenue) ; first Methodist class 
organized; first Postoffice established. 

1832. First street leading to lake laid out; 
first bridge over North Branch erected; first 
Sunday School organized; period of Black 
Hawk War; visitation of cholera. 

1833. First Catholic church (May 5) organ- 
ized; first Presbyterian church (June 26) 
organized; (August 10) Village Government 
organized; (Nov. 26) first issue of "Chicago 

1834. First drawbridge across Chicago River 
constructed at Dearborn Street; first Episcopal 
service in Chicago. 

1835. Government Land Office opened at 
Chicago James Whitlock, Register, and E. D. 
Taylor, Receiver; first court-house erected; 
first fire company (the Pioneer) organized. 

1836. Work on the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal inaugurated (July 4) at Bridgeport, Dr. 
W. B. Egan, delivering the address; Fort Dear- 
born permanently evacuated ; first Odd Fellows' 
Lodge organized. 

1837. City incorporated, March 4; first city 



election, March 31; first theatrical entertain- 

1839. (April 9) First daily paper (the "Chi- 
cago American") commenced publication; first 
book printed in Chicago by Stephen F. Gale 
("Scammon's Compilation of Public and Gen- 
eral Laws of Illinois"). 

1840. New market-house (corner of State 
and Lake Streets) opened; bridge across river 
at Clark Street built. 

1841. Bridge across river at Wells Street 

1842. First propeller built on Lake Michi- 
gan; first water-works put in operation; negro 
sold at auction (Nov. '14). 

1843 Rush Medical College established; 
Board of Trade organized. 

1844. First meat packed for a foreign mar- 
ket; (April 22) first issue of the "Chicago 
Daily Journal." 

1845 First public school building completed 
and opened. 

1846. Chicago made a port of entry first 
Collector of the Port appointed. 

1846-48. Mexican War. Chicago furnished 
two companies (B and K) for the First Regi- 
ment (Col. John J. Hardin's) Illinois Volun- 
teers, one company (F) for the Fifth Regi- 
ment (Col. Newby's), and a number of recruits 
for the Sixth. 

1847. River and Harbor Convention held in 
Chicago; first theater (John B. Rice's) opened. 

1848. First telegraphic dispatch received at 
Chicago; Illinois and Michigan Canal opened 
to La Salle; first grain elevator erected; first 
regular cattle market established; first railroad 
(10-mile section of Galena & Chicago Union) 

1849. Galena & Chicago Union Railroad 
opened to Elgin; great flood in the Chicago 

1850. City lighted by gas for first time. 

1852. First Eastern Railway (Michigan 
Southern) opened. 

1853. First Southern Railway (Chicago & 
Rock Island) opened to Peru; new court house 
occupied; city water-works put in operation. 

1855. (December 28) Main line Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad between Chicago and Cairo com- 

1858. Paid Fire Department organized. 

1859. First Street Railroad (State Street 
line) opened. 

1860. Republican National Convention in 

Chicago (May 16) nominated Abraham Lincoln 
for the Presidency; Steamer Lady Elgin 
wrecked off Milwaukee (Nov. 7) 297 lives, out 
of 393 persons on board, lost. 

1861. (June 3) Senator Stephen A. Douglas 
dies in Chicago. 

1861-65. Period of the Civil War; citizens of 
Chicago and Cook County contributed, in whole 
or in part, to the organization of 23 regiments 
of infantry, seven of cavalry, and 11 companies 
of artillery number of troops furnished by 
Cook County, 22,436. 

1864. Camp Douglas conspiracy exposed. 

1867. Lake tunnel completed and new water- 
works system inaugurated. 

1868. (May 21) Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago nominated Gen. U. S. Grant 
for President and Schuyler Colfax for Vice- 

1869. Park System inaugurated. 

1871. The Great Fire (October 8-9) 2,024 
acres burned over; 18,000 buildings destroyed; 
property loss estimated at $187,000,000. 

1875. City government reorganized under 
General Incorporation Act. 

1877. Great Railroad Strike at Chicago. 

1880. (June 2) Republican National Con- 
vention meets in Chicago; James A. Garfield 
nominated for President June 7. 

1884. (June 3) Republican National Conven- 
tion meets in Chicago; James G. Blaine nomi- 
nated for President and John A. Logan for 
Vice-President; (July 10) Democratic National 
Convention in Chicago nominated Grover Cleve- 
land for President. 

1886. Haymarket Riot (May 4) growing out 
of a labor strike begun at the McCormick 
Reaper Works in February previous; sixty- 
seven policemen wounded (of whom seven 
died) by the explosion of a bomb thrown by 
the rioters. In ( the trials which followed, 
seven of the leading rioters were condemned 
to death and one to fifteen years' imprison- 
ment. Of those condemned to death, one com- 
mitted suicide, four were executed (Nov. 11, 
1887) and the sentences of two were commuted 
to life imprisonment. 

1887. (October 2) Lincoln Statue unveiled 
in Lincoln Park. 

1888. (June 20) Republican National Con- 
vention in Chicago; Benjamin Harrison nomi- 
nated for President. 

1889. (June 29) Hyde Park, Lake Township, 
Jefferson and Lake View annexed to the city 



of Chicago; (Nov. 21) phenomenally dark day 
in Chicago lights used at noon. 

1890. University of Chicago endowed by 
J. D. Rockefeller with gift of $1,600,000. 

1891. (July 22) Unveiling of Grant Eques- 
trian statue in Lincoln Park. 

1892. (September 3) Work on Drainage 
Canal inaugurated; World's Fair Site dedicated 
October 21. 

1893. The World's Columbian Exposition 
formally opened May 1 officially closed Oct. 
30; Mayor Carter Harrison assassinated Octo- 
ber 27; Gov. Altgeld pardoned the three an- 
archists connected with the Haymarket Mas- 
sacre who were serving life terms in the State 

1900. Drainage Canal opened for flow of 
water from Lake Michigan into the Des Plaines 
and the Illinois Rivers. 

1904. (June 21-23) Republican National Con- 
vention held in Chicago, nominating Theodore 
Roosevelt for President and Charles W. Fair- 
banks for Vice-President. 







Chicago was peculiarly fortunate in having 
for its early settlers men of sterling worth and 
of mental as well as physical ability, who 
held an abiding faith in their chosen place of 
abode and labored for its ultimate success. 
Undaunted by the hardships that naturally 
beset every initiative effort in establishing a 

home in the wilderness, nerved to repulse the 
encroachments of Indians, wild animals, and 
unusually severe winters, they struggled on, 
each performing the task laid out for him, 
sustained by an indomitable will that remained 
steadfast under every discouraging circum- 
stance. That was the material of which the 
pioneers of Chicago were made, and by which 
was rendered possible the Empire City of the 
West. And these men who, as it were, blazed 
the way to civilization and all that the word 
stands for, are most worthy of earnest con- 
sideration and all the honor that can be 
accorded them. 

The present generation is only too apt to 
look upon the city's existing prosperous state 
with a prejudiced eye, losing sight of the early 
efforts which made that condition possible. It 
is prone to overlook the battles waged by its 
ancestors in laying the foundation of present 
day prosperity, and to place the credit more to 
the present than to the past. Through the mist 
of years it loses sight of the importance of 
those early struggles that were so productive of 
good. Once the corner-stone was laid, the 
underbrush of savagery cleared away, it was a 
comparatively easy matter to proceed with the 
task, stupendous as it was at the beginning. 

And now, after the years have winged their 
way to the past after the struggles, the con- 
tentions, the privations, have been relegated to 
the storage room of their memories the old 
settlers have transferred the burden of civili- 
zation to the shoulders of the younger genera- 
tion, content in the knowledge that they, 
themselves, have builded well. But a certain 
spirit of restlessness, inculcated in youthful 
days, still makes itself evident, and a longing 
occasionally comes to live over the past, even 
though it be only in imagination, to dig up 
those memories laid away in the mental store- 
room, and to exchange reminiscences with 
old-time comrades. That is the incentive that 
has caused the organization of various old 
settlers' societies throughout the city. "Youth 
lives in the future, middle age in the present, 
old age in the past." And it is only appro- 
priate that some recognition of these societies, 
organized to perpetuate a feeling of comrade- 
ship, the promotion of social life, and more 
thoroughly to Cement the ties that bind the 
present with the past, should be given some 
definite as well as permanent form in the city's 




When a city has passed its one-hundredth 
milestone, there is a peculiar interest attached 
to its early history and the circumstances 
which have made its present position among the 
world's leading cities possible. The preserva- 
tion of early records becomes of paramount 
importance and the contributions to its pioneer 
history have a value that will be at once 
recognized by the historiographer. 

As far back as 1856 the idea of collecting 
the records of Chicago's local history, as well 
as the preservation of material relating to the 
early days and growth of the State, was con- 
ceived by Rev. William Barry, and it was prin- 
cipally through his well-directed efforts that 
the Chicago Historical Society was organized 
on the 24th of April, 1856. The following 
officers were at that time elected: William H. 
Brown, President; William B. Ogden and J. 
Young Scammon, Vice-Presidents; S. D. Ward, 
Treasurer; William Barry, Recording Secre- 
tary; Charles H. Ray, Corresponding Secretary. 
In addition to the foregoing, the following 
were the charter members of the Society: 
Mark Skinner, M. Brayman, George Manierre, 
John H. Kinzie, J. V. Z. Blaney, Isaac N. 
Arnold, E. I. Tinkham, J. D. Webster, W. A. 
Smallwood, Van H. Higgins, N. S. Davis, M. D. 
Ogden, F. Scammon, Ezra B. McCagg, and 
Luther Haven a list of most distinguished and 
influential Chicago ciitzens. 

The objects of the Society are first, the 
establishment of a library; second, the collec- 
tion, into a safe and permanent depository, of 
manuscripts and documents of historical value; 
third, to encourage the investigation of aborigi- 
nal remains ; and fourth, to collect and preserve 
such historical materials as should serve to 
illustrate the settlement and growth of Chi- 
cago. At the time of the destructive fire of 
1871 the Society occupied a commodious brick 
building on its present site, at the corner of 
Dearborn Avenue and Ontario Street, where, 
under the intelligent management of its Secre- 
tary, Dr. Barry, had been collected a library 
of 14,000 volumes and priceless treasures in 
manuscripts and records, including the Emanci- 
pation Proclamation, in the handwriting of 
President Lincoln and his signature. The dev- 
astating flames swept everything away. Sub- 
sequently another building was erected, but it 
met a similar fate in the conflagration of 1874. 

Undaunted, however, by these repeated dis- 
asters, the Society's friends once more began 
the collection of books and material and, in 
1877, a third building was erected, and the col- 
lection of valuable documents, books and accu- 
mulations was resumed, continuing until the 
quarters had become too small for their proper 
storage, when it was decided to build a struc- 
ture more suitable to the demands of the 

In 1896 a magnificent edifice was built the 
most perfect fire proof building in the world 
at a cost of $150,000, and it stands today as a 
monument to the industry, perseverance, and 
energy of Chicago's citizens. Among the So- 
ciety's three hundred members are to be found 
the city's prominent pioneers, who have been 
identified with Chicago's best interests ever 
since the days of its struggling infancy. The 
full list of members follows: 

Levi Z. Leiter, Sarah McClintock, Nettie F. 
McCormick, Samuel M. Nickerson, Daniel K. 
Pearsons, Byron L. Smith, John M. Adams, 
Edwards E. Ayer, Eliphalet W. Blatchford, 
George M. Bogue, Henry I. Cobb, Richard T. 
Crane, George L. Dunlap, William W. Farnum, 
John V. Farwell, Marshall Field, Henry Greene- 
baum, Henry H. Honore, Charles L. Hutchin- 
son, Samuel H. Kerfoot, Jr., Joseph Leiter, 
Jessie B. Lloyd, Frank O. Lowden, Henry C. 
Lytton, Ezra B. McCagg, Cyrus H. McCormick, 
Jr., William B. Ogden, Benjamin V. Page, 
Honore Palmer, William J. Quan, Martin A. 
Ryerson, Otto L. Schmidt, Catharina O. Seipp, 
Jesse Spalding, George C. Walker, Elias T. 
Watkins, Frederick H. Winston, George E. 
Adams, Charles C. Adsit, Albert Antisdel, 
Edward D. Appleton, George A. Armour, Ed- 
ward P. Bailey, Alfred L. Baker, Henry C. 
Bannard, Frederick Barnard, Charles J. Barnes, 
Henry Bartholomay, Jr., Adolphus C. Bartlett, 
Enos M. Barton, William G. Beale, Anita M. 
Blaine, Edward T. Blair Fred M. Blount, 
Joseph T. Bowen, J. Harley Bradley, George P. 
Braun, James C. Brooks, Edward O. Brown, 
William J. Bryson, Ebenezer Buckingham, John 
W. Bunn, Augustus H. Burley, Le Grand S. 
Burton, Augustus A. Carpenter, George B. Car- 
penter, Kate S. Caruthers, William J. Chalmers, 
Hobart Chatfield-Taylor, Lewis L. Coburn, Milo 
L. Coffeen, Charles Colahan, Charles H. Con- 
over, Charles R. Crane, Charles C. Curtiss, 
Edward T. Gushing, Nathan S. Davis, Luther M. 
Dearborn, Charles Deering, William Deering, 


68 1 

Annie L. DeKoven, Frederick A. Delano, 
Thomas Dent, Albert B. Dick, Albert Dickin- 
son, Arthur Dixon, William F. Dummer, Elliott 
Durand, Sidney C. Eastman, Max Eberhardt, 
Augustus N. Eddy, John M. Ewen, Granger Far- 
well, John V. Farwell, Jr., George H. Fergus, 
George H. Ferry, Eugene H. Fishburn, Lucius 
G. Fisher, Walter L. Fisher, Archibald E. Freer, 
Oliver F. Fuller, William A. Fuller, John J. 
Glessner, Ralph S. Greenlee, Otto Gresham, 
Charles F. Gunther, William W. Gurley, David 
G. Hamilton, George B. Harris, Norman W. 
Harris, Carter H. Harrison, William P. Harri- 
son, Frank W. Harvey, Frederick T. Haskell, 
Franklin H. Head, Wallace Heckman, Harlow 
N. Higinbotham, Annie M. Hitchcock, John P. 
Hopkins, Christoph Hotz, Charles H. Hulburd, 
Robert W. Hunt, William J. Hynes, Samuel 
Insull, Ralph N. Isham, John F. Jameson, 
John N. Jewett, David B. Jones, Joseph R. 
Jones, Thomas D. Jones, Albert Keep, Chaun- 
cey Keep, William E. Kelley, William D. Ker- 
foot, Eugene S. Kimball, William W. Kimball, 
Francis King, John B. Kirk, Herman H. Kohl- 
saat, George H. Laflin, Bryan Lathrop, Dwight 
Lawrence, Victor F. Lawson, Albert T. Lay, 
Thies J Lefens, Robert T. Lincoln, John B. 
Lord, Harold F. McCormick, Robert H. McCor- 
mick, Robert S. McCormick, Stanley McCor- 
mick, George A. McKinlock, Franklin Me- 
Veagh, Lafayette McWilliams, Levy Mayer, 
George Merryweather, Luther L. Mills, James 
H. Moore, Fred W. Morgan, Joy Morton, Adolph 
Moses, Alfred H. Mulliken, Charles H. Mulli- 
ken, Walter C. Newberry, Jacob Newman, La 
Verne W. Noyes, John A. Orb, Ferdinand W. 
Peck, Erskine M. Phelps, Eugene S. Pike, Char- 
lotte W. Pitkin, Henry H. Porter, Sartell Pren- 
tice, Norman B. Ream, William H. Rehm, Dan- 
iel G. Reid, Edward P. Ripley, Robert W. Rolo- 
son, Maurice Rosenfeld, Harry Rubens, John 
S. Runnells, Edward L. Ryerson, Harry L. Say- 
ler, Frederick M. Schmidt, Richard E. Schmidt, 
Frank H. Scott, Caroline R. G. Scott, John A. 
Scudder, William C. Seipp, Elizabeth Skinner, 
Frederika Skinner, Delavan Smith, Frederick 

B. Smith, Orson Smith, John A. Spoor, Albert 
A. Sprague, Otho S. A. Sprague, Lucretia J. 
Tilton, Lambert Tree, Charles H. Wacker, 
Henry H. Walker, William B. Walker, Thomas 
S. Wallin, Ezra J. Warner, David S. Wegg, John 

C. Welling, Frances S. Willing, John P. Wilson, 
Frederick S. Winston, John H. Wrenn, Mar- 
garet M. O'Donoghue, Charles F. Adams, Henry 

W. Blodgett, Isaac Craig, Shelby M. Cullom, 
Andrew S. Draper, Desire Girouard, William E. 
McLaren, Charles Rogers, Adlai E. Stevenson, 
William L. Stone, Jr., Samuel D. Ward, F. Cope 
Whitehouse, Henry C. L. Anderson, Perry A. 
Armstrong, George H. Baker, Edmund M. Bar- 
ton, Oliver, L. Baskin, Hiram W. Beckwith, 
John H. Beers, Rufus Blanchard, Daniel Bon- 
bright, Benjamin N. Bond, Henry R. Boss, Ben- 
jamin L. T. Bourland, Wesley R. Brink, Ed- 
mund Bruwaert, John H. Burnham, Francis 
Cantelo, Charles C. Chapman, Francis M. Chap- 
man, Oscar W. Collet, John W. DePeyster, 
Charles H. G. Douglas, Daniel O. Drennan, 
Jacob P. Dunn, Jr., Reuben T. Durrett, Francis 
A. Eastman, Bernhard Felsenthal, Jacob Fouke, 
Marian S. Franklin, Asa B. Gardner, Charles 
Gilpin, Richard A. Gilpin, Edward Goodman 
Nelly K. Gordon, Samuel A. Green, Ossian 
Guthrie, William Harden, Robert J. Harmer, 
Charles Harpel, Henry H. Hill, Adolphus S. 
Hubbard, William B. Isham, Dwight H. Kelton, 
William H. Kimball, Henry C. Kinney, George 
S. Knapp, Edward F. Leonard, Benjamin F. 
Lewis, John T. Long, Anthony J. Ludlam, David 
R. McCord, James J. McGovern, Eliza, Meachem, 
Peter A. Menard, William A. R. Mitchell, Will- 
iam J. Onahan, Nathan H. Parker, Stephen D. 
Peet, William H. Perrin, Lily M. Redmond, 
James A. Rose, Julius Rosenthal, John C. Smith, 
Perry H. Smith, Jr., John F. Steward, James S. 
Swearingen, Edward S. Thacher, Reuben G. 
Thwaites, Caleb B. Tillinghast, George P. Up- 
ton, Addison Van Name, Thomas A. M. Ward, 
Townsend Ward, Winslow C. Watson, Albert 
E. Wells, Garland N. Whistler, Samuel Willard, 
James G. Wilson, James W. Wood. 


The organization of the first "Old Settlers' 
Society" took place before the fire of 1871. It 
had headquarters in what was then known as 
Rice's building, and the following constituted 
its officers: William Jones, President; J. H. 
Kinzie, Vice-President; G. W. Dole, Treasurer; 
G. T. Pearson, Secretary. Later John Calhoun 
was Treasurer. William Jones, the President, 
was the father of Fernando Jones. Mr. Kinzie 
and Mr. Dole were ex-Mayors of Chicago, and 
John Calhoun was the original editor of the 



old "Chicago Democrat." The following account 
of a meeting held to organize an Old Settlers' 
Society is from the "Chicago Tribune" of 
January 20, 1871: 

"There have been several spasmodic at- 
tempts in this city to permanently organize 
an old settlers' society, but hitherto without 
success. About three years ago a number 
of 'Old Folks' put their venerable heads 
together, but beyond having a good old-fash- 
ioned festival, and a social reunion, accom- 
plished nothing. There are several cities 
where the pioneer residents have permanent 
organizations, and at the recurrence of each 
dull winter season they enjoy themselves 
in real old-time style. Among the prominent 
societies of this kind is that at Buffalo, where 
a round of fun, lasting from three to four 
days, is indulged in in the winter, by old and 
young, and where all the old fashions worn 
by the parents and grandparents of the 
members of the Society, are exhibited to the 
wondering eyes of the young people. 

"The new movement, begun so auspiciously 
last evening, looks toward a permanent organ- 
ization, and as a natural result, plenty of 
fun, such as the Old Settlers can engage in. 
Soon we shall have Old Folks' concerts, balls, 
suppers, etc., and there are plenty of old 
time people to participate in them. 

"Agreeably to a call in the newspapers a 
goodly number of Chicago's oldest residents 
gathered in Parlor No. 1, Tremont House, last 
evening. Such an assemblage of white and 
gray-haired men, some with bald crowns glis- 
tening in the gas-light, has rarely been wit- 
nessed in these parts. 

"On motion of Hon. John Wentworth, G. S. 
Hubbard was called to the chair; Mr. Went- 
worth was made Secretary, and L. P. Hilliard 
Assistant Secretary. 

"It was suggested that a list of those pres- 
ent, and who came to Chicago previous to 
1843, be taken in, and it was found that the 
following were present, the years preceding 
their names indicating when they came to 
Chicago: 1818, G. S. Hubbard; 1825, Joseph 
Robertson; 1826, W. Marshall, Julius M. War- 
ren; 1833, Joseph Meeker, Ezekiel Morrison, 
L. Hugunin, S. B. Cobb, Captain John M. 
Turner, Dr. J. H. Foster; 1834, Robinson 
Tripp; 1835, K. K. Jones, J. H. Rees, Tuttle 
King, Fernando Jones, John C. Haines, S. L. 

Brown, William H. Clark, H. H. Magee, H. P. 
Murphy, Dr. C. V. Dyer, H. O. Stone, E. K. 
Rogers, Seth Wadhams, J. K. Murphy; 1836, 
John Wentworth, L. P. Hillard, A. B. Wheeler, 
M. L. Satterlee, David Follansbee, B. W. Ray- 
mond, L. C. P. Freer, H. L. Stewart, Redmond 
Prindiville, S. P. Warner, M. C. Stearns, 
Orrin Sherman; 1837, Matthew Laflin, J. C. 
Walter, William Wayman, Thomas Hoyne, 
C. N. Holden, John M. Van Osdel, Peter Page, 
John Gray; 1838, A. J. Willard, C. R. Vander- 
cook, H. W. Clark; 1839, Isaac Speer, C. G. 
Wicker, Henry Fuller, 0. W. Stoughten, John 
A. Oliver A. W. Gray, N. Scranton, Nat Saw- 
yer; 1840, R. W. Patterson, M. B. Clancy; 
1841, George Anderson; 1842, William Blair, 
O. Lunt, Henry Warrington, William M. 
Ingalls, J. F. Irwin. 

"On motion of K. K. Jones, the Chairman 
and Secretaries were appointed a Committee 
to draft a Constitution, to be presented at a 
future meeting. On motion of John C. Haines, 
the meeting adjourned, subject to the call 
of the Committee on Constitution. It is 
expected that the next meeting will be held 
in about two weeks, when the organization 
will be perfected." 

On February 7, 1871, the following notice was 
inserted in the newspapers: 

"All residents of the original county of 
Cook, prior to the adoption of the city char- 
ter, and all voters of the city of Chicago 
prior to the first day of January, 1843, are 
invited to meet at Parlor No. 1, Tremont 
House, on Thursday evening, Feb. 9, at 7 
o'clock, to hear the report of the Committee 
appointed to prepare a Constitution. 



The Tribune made the following report of the 
meeting in its issue of February 10: 

"An adjourned and largely attended meet- 
ing of the Old Settlers of Chicago was held 
in the ladies' ordinary of the Tremont House 
last evening. 

"A more venerable assembly has rarely 
taken place here, and the collection of white, 
gray, and bald heads was one such as is 
seldom seen anywhere. G. S. Hubbard, Esq., 
the oldest settler present, called the meet- 





ing to order, and reported that the Commit- 
tee on Constitution had examined the Con- 
stitutions of old settlers' societies in other 
places, and had prepared one for considera- 

"Hon. John Wentworth read the Constitu- 
tion, which is, in brief as follows: 

"The name to be the Old Settlers' Society 
of Chicago. 

"Object. To cultivate social intercourse, 
friendship, union, and the collection of and 
preservation of information. 

"Members to be only residents of Cook 
County prior to the adoption of the charter 
ofi Chicago, and those voters resident in 
Cook County prior to January 1, 1843. The 
time may be extended every third year by a 
vote of three-fourths of the members present 
at an auuual meeting. 

"Ladies who have been here since 1843 
are made honorary members. 

"Any members of the Society may register 
the number of their family as junior mem- 
bers of the Society. 

"The officers shall be a President, Vice- 
President, Corresponding Secretary, Treas- 
urer, and eight Directors (who, with the 
President, shall constitute a board of nine 
members), a Recording Secretary, and a His- 
toriographer, and such others as may be 
provided for in the by-laws. All the officers 
shall be elected annually. 

"The duties of the officers are denned at 
length. The Directors shall meet upon the 
call of the President, and a majority may 
call a meeting of the board or society. No 
debts shall be contracted or bills paid with- 
out the sanction of the Directors. 

"Four times the amount of the initiation 
fee paid by an old settler constitutes him a 
life member. 

"After some discussion a motion of Mr. 
B. T. Lee to fix the initiation fee at $10 was 
carried, and then a reconsideration was had. 
Another colloquy, facetious and sincere in its 
nature, followed, and the amount necessary 
for the entrance fee into the Society was 
fixed at $10. 

"A letter from Hon. Carlile Mason, express- 
ing a desire to join the Society, was read. 
He had been a resident of Chicago since 1842. 

"The Constitution was then signed by the 
following gentlemen: Gurdon S. Hubbard, 
J. W. Poole, L. Nichols, James A. Marshall, 

Philo Carpenter, Joseph Meeker, Alexander 
Beaubien, A. D. Taylor, Hibbard Porter, 
Asahel Pierce, Samuel Wayman, Rev. J. E. 
Ambrose, Grant Goodrich, Bennet Bailey, J. 
C. Rue, Alexander Wolcott, Seth Paine, 
James A. Smith, Tuttle King, Jacob Doney, 
Cyrenius Beers, M. D. Butterfield, John M. 
Turner, D. N. Chappell, George Bassett, 
James Lane, K. K. Jones, Charles V. Dyer, 
S. L. Brown, James Couch, A. B. Wheeler, 
William L. Church, Daniel Worthington, A. 
Follansbee, J. T. Durant, Jacob Morgan, 
Charles Harding, James M. Hannahs, Elisha 
B. Lane, A. S. Sherman, Peter Graff, Oren 
Sherman, W. W. Smith, C. McDonald, John 
W. Weir, M. B. Smith, L. P. Hilliard, John 
Wentworth, John Turner, William M. But- 
ler, L. A. Doolittle, C. B. Sammons, J. B. Hunt, 
Matthew Laflin, Michael White, N. S. Cush- 
ing, Eljiah Smith, Darius Knights, William 
Wayman, J. B. Bridges, Eugene O'Sullivan, 
John M. Van Osdel, John Gray, Joel C. Wal- 
ters, N. Goold, James B. Hugunin, Alonzo J. 
Willard, William B. H. Gray, W. Butterfield, 
O. L. Lange, Henry Fuller, Isaac Speer, John 
Oliver, Sydney Sawyer, Edwin Judson, 
Thomas L. Forrest, Frederick Burcky, 
Thomas Speer, James Ward, B. W. Thomas, 
Thomas Hastie. 

"The main object of the Society, as set 
forth by John Wentworth, who was the prime 
mover in its organization, was not only the 
social reunion of old settlers, but the col- 
lection and formulation of historical facts, 
which otherwise would pass from remem- 
brance and be lost. 

"The Society then adjourned, subject to the 
call of the Committee on Constitution. At 
the next meeting the officers will be elected 
and the organization perfected." 

During the following spring and summer 
months the Society did not accomplish a great 
deal, either in holding meetings, or in the 
accumulating of historical information. Then 
came the all-absorbing fire of October 9, and the 
Old Settlers' Society, as it was then organized, 
ceased to exist, giving way to the weightier 
problem of rebuilding a cremated and wholly 
dismembered city. 




In 1879, interest began again to manifest 
itself in the welfare of Chicago's old settlers. 
In that year several of the oldest members 
of the Calumet Club, which had been organ- 
ized in 1878, decided to constitute themselves 
a committee to invite all those citizens who 
had lived in Chicago prior to 1840, and who 
were over twenty-one years of age at the time, 
to attend a reception at the club house. This 
restriction was found to be necessary at the 
time on account of the number of people who 
would be otherwise eligible. At the first recep- 
tion about eight hundred pioneers attended. 

Arrangements for the first reception were 
made at the first annual meeting of the Calu- 
met Club, held May 5, 1879, the motion to 
that effect being presented by Mr. Joel Walter, 
seconded by Mr. Charles S. Hutchings. At a 
special meeting of the Board of Directors of 
the Club, held on May 10, it was, on motion 
of Mr. Augustus M. Eddy and seconded by Mr. 
William Chisholm, resolved that a committee 
of three, to consist of the Vice-President, Mr. 
Charles J. Barnes, the Secretary, Mr. Frederick 
B. Tuttle, and Mr. A. G. Van Schick, be 
appointed with power to act, to confer with 
Messrs. Silas B. Cobb, Franklin D. Gray, Mark 
Kimball, James H. Rees, Marcus Stearns, Fred- 
erick Tuttle, and Joel C. Walter, and to make 
all necessary arrangements for the reception 
to be given the old settlers of Chicago. Invi- 
tations were at once issued, and on the even- 
ing of Tuesday, May 27, the settlers of Chicago 
began to assemble in large numbers at the 
Club house, which at that time was located at 
the corner of Michigan Avenue and Eighteenth 
Street. The members of the Club were there 
to give them a cordial greeting, and by eight 
o'clock there was an assemblage of Chicago's 
pioneers that exceeded in number the expecta- 
tions of the most sanguine. 

Mr. Cobb called upon the Rev. Stephen R. 
Beggs, the oldest living Chicago clergyman, 
born in 1801, and who was here in 1831, to 
make a prayer, after which he was asked to 
give his experiences in early Chicago. Addi- 
tional addresses were made by the following 
pioneers: General Henry Strong, Ex-Chief 
Justice John Dean Caton, Judge Henry W. 
Blodgett, Judge James Grant, Hon. John Went- 
worth, Judge Grant Goodrich, J. Young Scam- 

mon, and Lieutenant-Governor William Bross. 

At the close of the last speech the guests 
were invited into the supper room. After 
refreshments they returned to the original 
reception rooms, which had been cleared for 
dancing. Mr. Mark Beaubien took a position 
at the head of the rooms with fiddle in hand, 
and the guests all went forward and shook 
his hand, as a valued friend of olden times, 
and congratulated him upon his well-preserved 
appearance and good spirits. He sang a song, 
accompanied by his fiddle, in ridicule of Gen- 
eral Hull's surrender, which he learned at 
Detroit in 1812. Then he and Gurdon S. Hub- 
bard indulged in a conversation in the orig- 
inal Indian tongue, which terminated in their 
giving a specimen of Indian dancing, to the 
great merriment of the company. 

Hon. John Wentworth assumed the role of 
floor manager and, with a voice loud enough 
for the deafest to hear, called upon Colonel 
Julius M. Warren to lead Silas B. Cobb to the 
head of the hall for "Monnie Musk." He called 
upon all those over seventy-five, all over sixty, 
all over fifty-five, and all over fifty, and then 
requested the younger members of the Club 
to stand back and see how their fathers and 
grandfathers danced when Mark Beaubein 
handled the bow. The "Virginia Reel" and 
several old time favorite dances were after- 
ward gone through with, and early incidents 
were recalled and stories told. The settlers 
then took their leave with many expressions 
of gratitude, hoping, without reasonably expect- 
ing, that some day they might all meet again. 
Their hopes were destined to be realized, for 
that was the first of a series of annual recep- 
tions given to the old settlers by the Calumet 
Club, which continued uninterruptedly until 

Of the old settlers of Chicago prior to 1840 
who attended the first Calumet Club reception, 
one hundred and forty-nine registered their 
names as follows: William H. Adams, James 
M. Adsit, Isaac N. Arnold, Ezra Batchelor, Ben- 
net Bailey, Franklin Baker, William A. Bald- 
win, John Balsley, John Bates, Mark Beaubien, 
Jerome Beecher, Stephen R. Beggs, S. Sand- 
ford Blake, Henry W. Blodgett, Levi D. Boone, 
Jabez K. Botsford, Erastus E. Bowen, James B. 
Bradwell, Frederick A. Bryan, Arthur G. Bur- 
ley, Augustus H. Burley, James Campbell, 
Thomas B. Carter, Abel E. Carpenter, Philo 
Carpenter, juiir Dean Caton, William L. 




Church, Henry W. Clarke, L. J. Clarke, 
James Couch, Norman Clarke, Silas B. Cobb, 
Charles Cleaver, Isaac Cook, Eleazer W. 
Densmore, Calvin De Wolf, Christian B. 
Dodsori, Theodorus Doty, Thomas Drummond, 
Wiley M. Egan, James F. D. Elliott, Albert 

C. Ellithorpe, Robert Fergus, Charles Fol- 
lansbee, Robert Freeman, L. C. Paine Freer, 
Abram Gale, Stephen F. Gale, Philetus W. 
Gates, George H. Germain, Samuel H. Gilbert, 
Grant Goodrich, T. W. Goodrich, Peter Graff, 
Elihu Granger, Amos Grannis, James Grant, 
Franklin D. Gray, George M. Gray, John Gray, 
Joseph H. Gray, William B. H. Gray, Edward 
H. Hadduck, Philip A. Hall, Polemus D. Ham- 
ilton, John L. Hanchett, Isaac N. Harmon, John 
S. Hawley, William Hickling, Van H. Higgins, 
Lorin P. Hilliard, Samuel Hoard, Charles N. 
Holden, Dennison Horton, Frederick A. Howe, 
Alonzo Huntington, Thomas Hoyne, Gurdon S. 
Hubbard, Nathaniel A. Jones, Michael Kehoe, 
Jonathan A. Kennicott, Mark Kimball, Martin 
N. Kimball, Walter Kimball, Tuttle King, H. 
W. Knickerbocker, Elisha B. Lane, James Lane, 
William Lock, Horatio G. Loomis, Edward 
Manierre, James A. Marshall, Alexander Mc- 
Daniels, John R. Mills, Isaac L. Milliken, Ira 
Miltimore, Daniel Morrison, Ephraim Morrison, 
Ezekiel Morrison, James K. Murphy, R. N. 
Murray, Willard F. Myrick, John Noble, Mahlon 

D. Ogden, John A. Oliver, A. L. Osborn, Will- 
iam Osborn, Peter Page, Joseph Peacock, Asahel 
Pierce, J. W. Poole, Hibbard Porter, William 
G. Powers, Cornelius Price, John Prindiville, 
Redmond Prindiville, Benjamin W. Raymond, 
James H. Rees, Stephen Rexford, James J. 
Richards, Edward K. Rodgers, George F. Rum- 
sey, Julien S. Rumsey, M. L. Satterlee, Sidney 
Sawyer, J. Young Scammon, Willard Scott, Wil- 
liam H. Scoville, Alanson S. Sherman, Ezra L. 
Sherman, L. Sherman, Oren Sherman, Mark 
Skinner, S. Smith, William B. Snowhook, John 
Sollitt, Marcus C. Stearns, James W. Steele, 
L. Stewart, S. A. Stubb. 

Many left without knowing a registry was 
being kept, and some called subsequently and 

This custom of inviting the old settlers to 
an annual reunion, which had been so auspi- 
ciously begun, was continued from year to year 
until 1892, when, for reasons of their own, the 
Directors of the Club decided not to hold the 
annual event. In the meantime, however, cir- 
cumstances had been so shaping themselves 

that, as a direct outcome of the yearly gather- 
ings at the Calumet Club, the old settlers were 
to have an organization of their own, and the 
decision of the Club served to stimulate the 
plans that had been working in the minds of 
some of the more active old settlers previously. 


The old settlers who were accustomed to 
gather once a year at the Calumet Club were 
not an organized society. There were merely 
invited guests of the Club, the only qualifica- 
tions being that they must have been residents 
of Chicago qualified to vote in 1840. This 
formed rather an exclusive coterie, and kept 
from the gatherings a large number of old 
residents who laid claim to having grown up 
with the city from its infancy. 

The Calumet Club had been asked once or 
twice to alter the qualifications so that more 
old settlers might attend the receptions, and it 
had been suggested that the year 1850 should 
be substituted for 1840. Those members of the 
Club who had the matter in charge thought 
differently, and were afraid that the recep- 
tions would become too large. This being the 
case, something had to be done by which those 
who were of the opinion that they were entitled 
to be ranked as old settlers should be able to 
come together. 

In this emergency Mr. Fernando Jones came 
to the rescue with a happy thought in the 
spring of 1890. On May 26th of that year he 
would complete his seventieth year, and he 
determined to invite fifty old residents of Chi- 
cago to dine with him at the Auditorium in 
celebration of his birthday, and at the same 
time they would organize a society and retain 
the fellowship which had existed among them 
for so many years. A charter was applied for 
and, on May 22d, four days before the banquet, 
the charter was granted. It was a merry gath- 
ering of well-preserved and notable men that 
assembled in the Auditorium, and after Mr. 
Jones had been duly congratulated, the business 
of the evening was laid before the assembled 
guests. The idea met with hearty co-operation 
and it was unanimously resolved that a society 
should be formed, to be known as "The Pio- 
neers of Chicago." The fifty guests present 



formed the nucleus of this now well known 

Two years later, on May 26, 1892, the Chicago 
Pioneer Society was formally organized at 
another banquet given by Mr. Jones at the 
Auditorium, and the following officers were 
elected: Henry W. Blodgett, President; Fer- 
nando Jones and James B. Bradwell, Vice-Presi- 
dents; Amos Grannis, Treasurer; William A. 
Calhoun, Corresponding Secretary; George H. 
Fergus, Recording Secretary. 

The by-laws of the Society provide that no 
citizen of Chicago is eligible for membership 
until he has been fifty years in Chicago. Con- 
sequently the Society's membership is limited, 
but numbers over one hundred and eighty, 
including twenty-five ladies. Arrangements 
were made whereby the Society should not 
die out, even after its founders and original 
members were no more. To this end associate 
members were allowed to join, men who had 
lived nearly the fifty years, and who, having 
been born in Chicago, were still in the prime 
of life. 

The object of the Pioneers of Chicago Society 
is to enable the real old folk to make the 
acquaintance of the younger class of pioneers. 
The Society is neither exclusive nor expensive. 
There are no initiation fees, the expenses being 
met by voluntary contributions. The candidate 
for admission to the Society is asked to. fill 
out a blank addressed to the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Pioneers of Chicago, certifying that 
he or she had resided in Cook County fifty 
years, with the additional facts of the date 
of birth and time of arrival in Chicago. 

At the time of the formation of the Pioneers' 
Society, notices were sent to all who were con- 
sidered eligible to membership, and with them 
information blanks. It was not then deemed 
advisable to include those old settlers who had 
been attending the receptions of the Calumet 
Club, as it was thought the members of that 
Club might think the Pioneers were encroach- 
ing on their prerogative and be offended. 

The Pioneers of Chicago held their first 
annual reunion and dinner at the Grand Pacific 
Hotel, May 26, 1892, about two hundred ladies 
and gentlemen being present. At the same date 
in each succeeding year the society has held 
a reunion and banquet, which promises to be 
repeated for many years to come. 


Inspired by the laudable example of their 
forefathers to still further perpetuate and keep 
young in the hearts and minds of generations 
yet to come, the old time friendships, the early 
associations, the cherished recollections of pio- 
neer days, there was organized, in the summer 
of 1901, still another association, the interest 
of whose members is directed toward the past 
rather than the future. 

When the Pioneers of Chicago decided to 
place the year 1900 as a time limit in which 
those who desired to join their ranks should 
be able to qualify, a number of the descend- 
ants of the old settlers got together for the 
purpose of devising ways and means whereby 
they and others might also enter the charmed 
circle that formed the connecting link between 
the present and the past. 

In this movement Mr. Frank W. Smith was 
the leading spirit. For many years Mr. Smith 
has taken a deep interest in Chicago, and 
possesses the most complete collection of pic- 
tures of old Chicago landmarks and historic 
places in the city. As a result of his earnest 
efforts to inculcate a feeling of interest among 
the younger generation, a meeting was held 
in July, 1901, in Parlor M of the Sherman 
House, which was attended by the following: 
Mrs. J. D. C. Whitney, William H. Gale, Fer- 
nando Jones, George Sinclair, James Sinclair, 
David Vernon, C. D. Peacock, De Witt H. Curtis, 
George H. Fergus, John A. Phillips and David 
E. Bradley. 

In consequence of this gathering the organ- 
ization now known as the "Chicago Pioneers' 
Sons and Daughters" was formed, and the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Frank W. 
Smith, President; Charles D. Peacock, First 
Vice-President; David Vernon, Second Vice- 
President; Samuel H. Kerfoot, Jr., Third Vice- 
President; Orson Smith, Treasurer; John S. 
Zimmerman, Corresponding Secretary; George 
H. Fergus, Recording Secretary; William H. 
Gale, Historiographer. Directors: David E. 
Bradley, De Witt H. Curtis, Edward T. Gush- 
ing, John J. Flanders, Sarah C. Forrest, Reuble 
M. Outhet, Albert G. Lane, Joseph Schlossman, 
Charles E. Sinclair, Alice J. Whitney. 

The object of the Society is to renew and 



maintain early social relations among the mem- 
bers, and those who were resident of Chicago 
as early as 1850, their descendants who have 
attained the age of thirty-five years, and those 
who were pupils and teachers of Chicago 
schools as early as 1860, are eligible to active 
membership. The husbands and wives of active 
members may become associate members, en- 
titled to all the privileges except voting and 
holding office. The annual meeting is held on 
the second Tuesday in October. 

The Pioneers' Sons and Daughters rapidly 
attained popular interest, and as all those who 
had joined the ranks of the Pioneers of Chi- 
cago were eligible to membership, the two 
societies are to a certain extent intermingled 
and affiliated with one another. The follow- 
ing is the complete membership of both organ- 


Miss Katherine Arnold, 108 Pine St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. G. E. Adams, N. Clark & Belden Av., Chi. 

Mrs. Sarah M. Adams, 467 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Charles E. Affleld, 1824 Diversey Blvd., Chicago. 

Mr. Frank O. Affleld, 22 Pine St., New York. 

Mr. John Anderson, 646 Cleveland Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. M. Armstrong, 85 Lincoln Av., Chicago. 

Mrs. J. K. Armsby & Sister, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. J. F. Ahles, 287 S. Irving Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Jas. M. Adsit, 400 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. C. Adsit, 222 La Salle St., Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. M. Adams, 566 Washington Blvd., Chicago. 

Mr. Harvey Akhurst, 4812 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Abram Adler, Joliet, 111. 

Mrs. Cyrus P. Albee (widow), Blue Island, 111. 

Mr. James B. Allen, 3410 W. 60th St., Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Allen, Mont Clair P. O. 

Mr. Ed. L. Austin, 5723 Cedar St., Austin. 

Mr. Edward Brainard, Chestnut St., Chicago. 

Mr. John R. Barker, 2421 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. John N. Barker, 5000 Greenwood Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Geo. P. Bay, 6400 Wentworth Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. A. H. Blackall, Randolph St., Chicago. 

Dr. J. N. Banks, E. Church Block, Chicago. 

Mr. George Barry, Wilmette, 111. 

Mr. Hugh Bradshaw, 695 Fullerton St., Chicago. 

Mr. Frederick Barnard, 46 La Salle St., Chicago. 

Mr. David 1 F. Bremmer, Home Ins. Bldg., Chicago. 

Mr. Robert Bremmer, 205 La Salle St., Chicago. 

Hon. Charles Bent, Morrison, 111. 

Mr. A. H. Beardsley, Rosalie Court, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Burton, Hinsdale, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin Burton, Aurora, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Cyrus Bentley, Ind. Ave. & 20th St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. B. A. Bailey, 649 Cleveland Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Babcock, 2701 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Bailey, Chicago. 

Dr. David Basset, Waukegan, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. E. Barnum, 6400 Wright St., Chicago. 

Hon. John L. Beveridge, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Blaikie, 417 Center St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. E. S. Blake, 1275 Palmer St., Ravenswood. 
Mr. & Mrs. J. Bickerdike, Elston Ave. & Roacoe St. 
Mr. & Mrs. R. J. Bickerdike, 2058 Elston Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. R. F. Bickerdike, W. Ros. St. & Els. Av. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. G. Bickerdike, 2077 Elston Av., Chicago. 
Mrs. E. Brooks, 804 Pine Grove Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Buckley, 957 Spaulding Av., Chi. 
Maj. & Mrs. E. A. Blodgett, 6415 Wright St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew J. Brown, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. Henry Bowman, Oakland, Gal. 
Hon. A. H. Burley, 254 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. L. A. Budlong, Foster & West'rn Av., Chi. 
Hon. Thomas B. Bryan, Elmhurst, 111. 
Mr. Louis Braunhold, 1729 Diversey, Blvdl., Chicago. 
Mr. Robert Boyd, 111. Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago. 
Mr. C. F. Bass, 149 Lincoln Park Blvd., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. H. Brenan, 1007 West Adams St., Chicago. 
Mr. Howard C. Bristol, East Tawas, Mich. 
Mr. Edward F. Bishop, Denver, Colo. 
Mr. Lewis Bushnell, 439 W. Randolph St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Geo. W. Beaubien, Dubuque, Iowa. 
Mr. Thomas Bradwell, 3209 S. Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Bassett, LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Mr. and Mrs. Boardman, 2513 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. H. C. Bradley, cf. 444 N. Clark St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. H. Bradley, Cty. Clks. Off., C. H., Chi. 
Mr. Frank W. Baker, Benton Harbor, Mich. 
Mr. N. S. Bouton, 191 47th St., Chicago. 
Mr! Walter S. Bogle, 1449 Sheridan Park, 111. 
Mr. Hume R. Buchanan, 5315 Lake Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Brown, 6830 Woodlawn Ave., Chi. 
Mary A. Bourke, 3650 Ashland Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. L. N. Barnes, 4012 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Martin Barbe, 3153 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Addison Ballard, 241 53rd St., Chicago. 
Mr. N. H. Blatchford, 375 LaSalle Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Jerome Beecher, 241 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. C. T. Boggs (deceased), 5547 Wash. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Ira P. Bowen, 218 LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. A. Bond, 4029 Drexel Blvd., Chicago. 
Alice L. Barnard, 2018 N. 103rd St., Longwood. 
.Alex Beaubien, 98 S. Whipple St., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. S. Beaubien, 91 S. Whipple St., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. D. Bromell, 496 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Mr/ Fred M. Blount, Chicago Nat'l Bank, Chicago, 
Mrs. Wm. Blair, 230 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Otto C. Butts, Reaper Block, Chicago. 
Mr. Jas. B. Bradwell, 112 Clark 'St., Chicago. 
Mr. H. W. Blodgett, Waukegan, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. A. E. Bournique, 51 23d St., Chicago. 
Mr. Frank M. Barrett, 1304 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 
Mr. Fred W. Bryan, 164 LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. L. Boyd, 486 42d St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. N. Buschwah, 142 Eugenie St., Chicago. 
Mr. A. C. Blayney, 398 40th St., Chicago. 
Hattie J. Blake, 55 20th St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. E. B. Bacon, 596 Cleveland Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Oscar W. Barrett, 785 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Mr. John D. Bangs, 3861 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Olaf Benson, 594 Cleveland Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Josephine J. Brabrook, 520 W. Congress St., Chi. 
Mrs. Margaret P. Barker, 824 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 
Mrs. S. C. Blake & Sons, 55 20th St., Chicago. 
Miss Josephine Balkman, County Record's Offi., C. H. 
Mr. David E. Bradley (deceased) Evanston, 111. 



Dr. Wallace Blanchard, Avenue House, Evanston, 111. 

Mrs. Rose Baumstark, 189 B. Fullerton Ave. 

Mr. James Bell, Grove, 111. 

Mr. Arthur G. Bennett, Wm. H. Hoyt & Co. 

Mr. Jonathan Brooks, 4912 Wood'lawn Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Stiles Burton, 229 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Bowron, Green Bay, Wis. 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Burnham, Reid, Murdock & Co. 

Prof. C. P. Bradley, 1745 Hinman Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. C. S. Calhoun, Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Catlin, 481 Belden Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary L. C. Clancy, 3244 Vernon Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. B. F. Chase, 3353 Forest Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thos. Chalmers, 179 Ash'd Bd., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. J. Chalmers, Virginia Hotel, Chicago. 

Mr. Arthur J. Caton, 1910 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. G. H. Campbell, 3334 Rhodes Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. D. W. Clark, 956 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. R. R. Clark, 1547 N. Halsted St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. W. Clark, 1857 W. 22d St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. M. Clark, 2000 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Cherry, 6530 Monroe Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Flora B. Clark, 5830 Wash. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Clinton Carpenter, 306 Chestnut St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. G. B. Carpenter, Lake Shore Drive, Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jno. H. Carpenter, 16 Irving PI., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. O. J. Carpenter, 517 Fulton St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. H. E. Caster, 419 41st St, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. Catlin, 5111 Hibbard Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Clark, 3505 Kenmore Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. W. Cherry, 436 W. Wash., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. H. B. Chamberlain, 6532 Vincennes, Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter F. Cobb, 138 Rush St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. Clingman, 617 Oglesby Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. R, W. Clifford, 1729 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Sidney Cooper, 376 Oak St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Isaac S. Collins, 76 Bellevue Place, Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Isaac Cook, Jr., St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Harrison Cowper, 215 Warren Av., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. C. H. Cowper, 2 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank L. Church, 165 Gladys Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Collier, 361 Fullerton St, Chicago. 

Mr. Jas. Alex. Clybourn, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Mr. & Mrs. Peter Cure, Blue Island, 111. 

Mrs. Emma Carter, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Mrs. Henry C. Crittenden, 1658 Brier Place, Chicago. 

Mr. Edtoondson Cooban, 6142 Wallace St., Chicago. 

Mr. T. S. Chamberlain, 1668 W. Chicago Ave., Chi. 

Capt. W. A. Calhoun, 1043 Wilcox Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Ira J. Couch, No. 6 Rookery, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jno. T. Casey, 4720 Shields Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. John Culver, 64 Wendell St., Chicago. 

Mr. Leslie Carter, 108 Cass St., Chicago. 

Mr. Francis T. Colby, 282 Campbell Ave., S. Chicago. 

Mrs. M. S. Chatterton, 2897 Kenmore Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Charlotte Miller Crib, Lake Villa, 111. 

Mr. E. T. Gushing, Dearborn & 15th St., Chicago. 

Mr. C. W. Clingman, Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., Chi. 

Mary F. Clift, 425 La Salle Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. D. B. Coey, 5238 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Stewart Clark, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. Daniel W. Clark, People's Gas Co., Chicago. 

Mr. J. V. Clarke, Hibernian Bank, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. B. Conkey, 5318 East End Ave., Chi. 

Mr. Andrew Cummings, 147 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mrs. H. R. Clissold, Morgan Park, 111. 

Mr. A. J. W. Copelin, 308 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mr. R. W. Clifford, 1729 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Robert Clarke, 2022 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. M. Crowe, 433 Grand Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. James Cook, 2964 State St., Chicago. 

Mr. R. H. Countiss, 3612 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. R. W. Cox, 131 Astor St., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. R. Corwith, 1945 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. C. Curtiss, Studebaker Bldg., Chicago. 

Gertrude Cole, 3139 Forest Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. W. N. Campbell, 398 Superior St., Chicago. 

Mr. Lucien P. Cheney, 444 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. James Chisholm, 536 Orchard St., Chicago. 

Mrs. Emily A. Chapman, 1239 Wilcox Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. H. J. Cater, Libertyville, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. B. Carter, 499 W. Congress St., Chicago. 

Mr. J. C. Carroll, Majestic Hotel, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. E. D. Clarke, 5432 Lexington Ave., Chi. 

Mr. G. T. Chacksfleld, 941 W. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Mr. Fred L. Chase, 128 5th Ave., Chicago. 

Gen. A. L. Chetlain, 1137 Birchwood Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Archibald Clybourn, 135 Seminary Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Rebecca Fetsworth Curth, 6458 Wright Ave., Chi. 

Mr. De Witt H. Curtis, 409 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 


Mr. John R. Daley, 318 High St., Elkhart, Ind. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Doyle, 5915 Washington Blvd., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. John F. Dony, 96 Hill St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. H. L. Daniels, 81 Lefferts PI., B'klyn.N.Y. 

Mrs. Mary R. Dewey, 5700 Jackson Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Dennis, 34 St. John's PL, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John S. Dixon, 387 Bissell St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jas. M. Doyle, 203 Wood St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Hogan Dodson, Geneva, 111. 

Mr. Joseph Duncan, 4047 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. M. O. Downes, 880 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. E. A. Downs, 7 Lake St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Harvey C. Doty, 88 Austin Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Margaretta K. Donelly, 398 Oak St., Chicago. 

Mr. Wallace De Wolf, Midlothian Club, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. David G. Doty, 486 E. 42d Place, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Erastus D. Doty, 486 E. 42d PI., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. A. Dean, 1 River St., Chicago. 

Mr. James B. Dutch, 6637 Parnell Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Thomas Dugall, 47 Cedar St., Chicago. 

Dr. N. S. Davis, Jr., 291 Huron St., Chicago. 

Mr. John Dillon, 5000 Washington Ave., Chicago. 

Julia Knights Duncan, 4728 Evans Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. T. C. Denier, 489 Ashland Ave., Chicago. 

Virginia E. Doty, 5547 Washington Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Fred Dickinson, 97 Board of Trade, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. H. L. Dahl, 634 La Salle Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. H. L. Dupee, 4824 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Albert J. Deniston, 3226 Rhodes Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. John Dolese, 184 La Salle St., Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Dupee, 12 Rookery, Chicago. 

Mr. Gayton A. Douglas, 4210% Berkely Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. Dickinson, 1691 Sheridan Road, Chicago. 

Mrs. S. S. Banaive, 1775 Perry St., Chicago. 

Mr. Robert Dunk, 324 Hermitage Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. B. C. Delane, 172 Ashland Blvd., Chicago. 

Mr. Richard W. Dodd, 7042 Princeton Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. J. Dorrence, Marquette Club, Chicago. 

Mr. Thomas H. Dunk, Mont Clare P. O. 

Mrs. Edwin Dymond, 3959 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 




Mrs. Zebina Eastman, 1807 Arlington PL, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. S. C. Eastman, 1807 Arlington PL, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. J. F. Eberhardt, 64th St., Cor. 4, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. W. S. Edbrooke, 881 W. Oakley Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Prank D. Everett, Highland Park, 111. 
Mr. Geo. Ebbert, La Salle & Madison Sts., Chicago. 
Mr. W. H. Ebbert, La Salle & Madison Sts., Chicago. 
Mrs. Ann Davidson Elsey, 123 York St., Chicago. 
Mr. Albert E. Ebert, State & Polk Sts., Chicago. 
Mr. Albert D. Elmers, 5330 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. M. Egan, 444 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. J. W. Errant, 346 54th St., Chicago. 
Mr. Frank L. Eastman, Wm. Merigold & Co., Chicago. 
Col. A. C. Ellithorpe, 939 N. 63d Ave., Mont Clare. 
Samuel Eugene Egan. 


Mr. & Mrs. Chas. B. Farwell, 99 Pearson St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jno. V. Farwell, 109 Pearson St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jos. W. Franks, Peoria, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. E. Frankenthal, 3236 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. L. C. P. Freer & Sisters, 4527 G'nwood Av., Chi. 

Mr. Scott Fergus, San Antonio, Tex. 

Mr. & Mrs. John B. Fergus, Sheridan Road, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Edw. A. Filkins, 507 Webster Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. B. F. Felix, 555 N. State St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thos. L. Forrest, 419 Center St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. L. Forrest, La Grange, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Horace S. Foot, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. & Mrs. O. C. Foster, 527 La Salle Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Elisha M. Ford, 1000 Warren Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Archibald Freer, N. Shore Drive, Chicago. 

Aid. & Mrs. Frank D. Fowler, 149 Fulton St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Lucius G. Fisher, Erie & Cass Sts., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. N. D. Fraser, 1245 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 

John Q. Fergus, 

Mrs. R. M. Fair, 2222 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Miss Fergus, 25 Walton Place, Chicago. 

Mr. Conrad Furst, 84 Astor St., Chicago. 

Mrs. Carrie Clark Foreman, 2022 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. A. Fuller, 2913 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Hy. E. Fisk, 2100 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Geo. H. Fergus, 11 S. Water St., Chicago. 

Mr. Hy. F. Frink, 97 Clark St., Chicago. 

Mr. A. C. Fuller, 3226 Rhodes Ave., Chicago, 

Mr. Chas. B. Foot, Corn Ex. Nat'l Bank, Chicago. 

Mr. John J. Flanders, 1519 Masonic Temple. 

Mr. L. H. Freer, 138 Washington St., Chicago. 

Mr. Geo. A. Follansbee, 2342 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. E. Follansbee, 4539 Greenw'd Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John A. Farwell, 2506 Mich. Av., Chicago. 

Mr. Max Frank, 4516 Drexel Blvd., Chicago. 

Sarah P. Forrest, 1043 Wilcox Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Myra Felker, Glen Ellyn, Illinois. 

Mr. Jno. P. FOBS, 447 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. James Forsyth, 5031 Mad. Ave., Chicago. 


Mr. & Mrs. T. M. Garrett, Ontario & Cass, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. X. Glock, 5046 5th Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. George Gregory, 440 Elm St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. David Goodwillie, Roslin PL, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Dennison F. Graves, 4011 Lake Av., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Ossian Guthrie, Hyde Pk. Hotel, Ch.i. 

Hon. Walter S. Gurnee, 7 Nassau St., New York. 

Mr. & Mrs. Warden Guthrie, 2822 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. George Kirk, Waukegan, Illinois. 

Mr. Henry Graves, 3254 Graves PL, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry H. Gage, Borden Blk., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. B. W. Gates, Jr., 650 Els. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Gates, 650 Elston Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Horace A. Goodrich, Deming PL, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. L. W. Goodrich, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jacob Gross, 1730 Deming PL, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. W. Gordon, Savannah, Ga. 

Dr. A. W. Gray, 1410 Washington Blvd., Chicago. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Gilmore Reid, 1032 N. Hal. St, Chi. 

Mr. James S. Gibbs, 111. Trust & Sav. Bk., Chicago. 

Mr. Dennison F. Grover, 4011 Lake Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin O. Gale, 34 .Wash. St., Chicago. 

Mr. George L, Gray, 2644 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 

Lily Gray, 77 53d St., Chicago. 

Mr. W. J. Gray, 5238 Cornell Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Geo. F. Geist, 21 Drexel Square, Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. H. Gale, Mont Clare. 

Mr. Frank N. Gage, 125 Clark St., Chicago. 

Mr. John E. Gould, 2219 Cot. Grove Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Geo. E. Gerts, 208 Randolph St., Chicago. 

Mr. W. H. Gilmore, 217 N. Cen. Park Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. James B. Gallaway, 185 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mrs. S. E. Gross, 1182 N. Lawndale Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Jno. B. George, 3119 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Albert W. Giles, Oak Park, 111. 

Mrs. Carolina Giles, Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter Goodrich, 79 Clark St. 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter S. Haines, Rush Med. Col., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles J. Haines, Waukegan, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Harman, Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Henrotin, Chicago. 

Dr. & Mrs. Fernand Henrotin, 353 LaSalle Av., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Christopher J. Hess, 4431 Ellis Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel E. Healey, 2700 Lime St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Healey, 222 42d Place, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. James J. Healey, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. A. Heartt, 3219 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry E. Hamilton, 115 Dearb'n St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry H. Handy, 4423 Ellis Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Parry Hanna, Traverse City, Mich. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Hayward', 4739 Kimbark Av., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. William Hansborough, Blue Island, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Harpel, 394 Oak St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Hatch, 610 W. Wash. St., Chi. 

Mrs. Carolina C. Hatch, River Forest, 111. 

Mr. S. A. Hillard, 6 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Hitz, 211 Monroe St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Hoag, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. A. Howe, 3931 Grand Blvd., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Jeremiah P. Hoit, 3916 Lake Ave., Chi. 

Hon. Francis A. Hoffman, Elmhurst, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Gurdon S. Hubbard, Jr., 115 Mon., Chi. 

Hon. Harvey B. Hurd, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. James L Houghteling, 27 Banks, Chicago. 

Mrs. Virginia Burton Holmes, Chicago. 

Mrs. Harriet B. Rossiter Home, 1892 Paulina, Chi. 

Maj. James R. Hayden, Seattle, Wash. 

Mrs. J. Sherman Hall, 3701 Sheridan Road, Chicago. 

Mrs. Gurdon S. Hubbard, 85 Rush St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. H. Heafford, 4560 Oaken'd Av., Chi. 



Mr. & Mrs. Wm. F. Hunt, 180 Lake St., Chicago. 

Mr. A. Lucas Hunt, 180 Lake St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. E. Hamilton Hunt, 180 Lake St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. D. G. Hamilton, 2929 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. J. R. Hoxie, 2929 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. B. W. Hutchinson, 400 Walnut Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Helmer, 1428 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel D. Healy. 

Mr. Perry G. Hale, 538 W. Jackson St., Chicago. 

Mr. E. K. Hubbard, Middletown, Conn. 

Mr. C. C. P. Holden, 1837 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. E. M. Higgins, 2897 Kenmore Ave., Chi. 

Mrs. Christopher J. Hess, 4431 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Holmes Hoge, First National Bank. 

Mr. Arthur J. Howe, 217 LaSalle St., Chicago. 

Mrs. E. Hunter, 153 Laflin St., Chicago. 

Mr. Frank G. Hoyne, 90 21st St., Chicago. 

Mr. H. W. Hinsdale, Cham. Com. Safety V'lts, Chi. 

Mr. Chas. M. Home, 708, 169 Jackson St., Chicago. 

Mr. Joseph Harris, 375 Rookery, Chicago. 

Mrs. Harriet H. Hayes, 5832 Rosalie Ct., Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. P. Hilliard, 59 Clark St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. E. Hyde, 601 Jackson Blvd., Chi. 

Mr. Jno. M. Hubbard, Post Office, Chicago. 

Mr. W. H. Hansborough, 3142 Lake Park Ave., Chi. 

Mr. Albert J. Hough, 4828 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Chas. Hough, 4828 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Walter Hough, 6617 Washington Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. A. T. Heminway, 189 LaSalle St., Chicago. 

Mr. T. W. Hamill, 517 The Plaza, Chicago. 

Mr. Wm..H. Holden, 91 Hartford Block, Chicago. 

Mr. Hy. E. Hamilton, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mr. Erasmus W. Hills, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mr. Frank Hills, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mr. E. Burton Holmes, 229 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Jas. H. Heald, 301-172 Washington Ave., Chicago. 

Eliza Gray Howland, 5407 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. A. C. Helm, 11 Board of Trade, Chicago. 

Mr. Julius Husted, 429 55th St., Chicago. 

Mr. Frank Husted', 259 S. Clinton St., Chicago. 

Mr. Thos. M. Hoyne, 3369 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. W. H. Holden, 500 W. Mon. St., Chicago. 

Mr. Charles Holden, 1841 Wellington Ave., Chicago. 

Dr. P. Hayes, Western Springs, 111. 

Mrs. Louise Boyce Harvey, 116 Oakley Blvd., Chicago. 

Mrs. Eliza O. Harvey, 481 W. Mon. St., Chicago. 

Mr. Christian Halm, 1148 Hermitage Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Ernest T. Halm, 1148 Hermitage Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Caroline Hatch, River Forest, 111., Chicago. 

Mr. Jas. Harrick, 103 State St., Chicago. 

Mr. E. W. Hoard, Oak Park, 111. 

Miss Eleanor Hunter, 153 Laflin St., Chicago. 

Ex-Officer Geo. W. Hunter, Hyde Park, Chicago. 

Dr. & Mrs. Ralph N. Isham, 321 Dearborn Av., Chi. 
Mrs. Mary Church Ingals, Oak Park, 111. 

Mrs. N. B. Judd, 3522 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Edward J. Judd, 433 Rookery, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene M. Jerome, 55 Williams St., Chi. 
Dr. & Mrs. Wm. J. Johustone, 6151 Hal. PI, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. James B. Johnstone, (H., S. & B.,) Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Oliver K. Johnston, 4527 Green'd Av., Chi. 
Mrs. Parker A. Jenks, 3179 Melden, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence M. Jacobson, 715 W. Mad., Chi. 
Mr. Fernando Jones, 1834 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Oliver Jackson, 130 50th St., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. Jones, 14 Trades Bldg., Chicago. 
Mr. Walter S. Joslyn, 803-115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
Mrs. M. E. Jennings, 234 Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. H. L. Jennings, 752 W. Adams St., Chicago. 
Mrs. A. M. Johnson, 2475 Paulina St., Ravenswood. 


Maj. & Mrs. Ranson Kennicott, 4050 Ellis Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. Ellen Hamilton Keenon, 117 Dearborn St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. H. C. Kelley, cor Wash. & Frank., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. George Kettlestrings, Oak Park, 111. 
Mr. John H. Kedzie, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. C. Kohlsaat, 239 Ashland Blvd., Chi. 
Mr. Joel A. Kinney, Wilmette, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene L. Kimball, 4702 Woodlawn, Chi. 
Mrs. James B. Kimball, 10 Scott St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. W. W. Kimball, 1801 Prairie Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Wm. Brown King, Portland, Ore. 
Mrs. Sarah Ann King, 334 Division St., Chicago. 
Mr. Frederick J. Knott, 340 S. Blvd., Oak Park, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen C. Knight, 3336 Rhodes Av., Chi. 
Mrs. Arthur M. Kenzie, Riverside, 111. 
Mr. George S. Kimberly, Barrington, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Kimball, 184 Lincoln Park Blvd., Chi. 
Mr. Eugene C. Kimball, 4706 Woodlawn Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. E. D. Kimball, 4828 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Spencer S. Kimbell, 138 Washington St., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. B. Kimbell, 140 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
Mr. Martin N. Kimbell, 1459 Kimball Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. S. H. Kerfoot, Jr., 1012 Chamber Com., Chicago. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Kenned<y, 619 W. Har. St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Emma N. Kitt, 117 S. Wood St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Ada Dorsett Kimball, 4015 Lake Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Hy. Kleinman, Torrence Ave., & 112th St., Chi. 
Mr. Chas. E. Katz, 1089 Carmen Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. George Hinman Laflin, 1614 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Edward F. Lawrence, 57 Lake Shore Drive, Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. David J. Lake, 6133 Mon. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. A. Tracy Lay, 321 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Link, 76 Walton Place, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. W. Lock, 159 Wood St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel A. Lock, 2556 Wabash Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Long, 82 Ward Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Lowe, 3611 Grand Blvd., Chicago. 
Mrs. Stella Dyer Loring, 2535 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Jno. A. Lloyd, 266 Winchester Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander T. Loyd, 377 Dearborn Av., Chi. 
Mrs. A. G. Low & Daughter, Norwood Park, 111. 
Mrs. Mary S. Low, Norwood Park, Chicago. 
Miss Nina Grey Lunt, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. John Lynch, 44 Burton Place, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Lynch, 584 Dearborn Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. H. D. Lloyd, Winnetka, 111. 
Mrs. Amanda M. Lane, 430 W. Adams St., Chicago. 
Mr. Albert J. Lane, 430 W. Adams St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Lawrence, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Thos. Lynch, 256 Dearborn Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Edward K. Light, Van Buren & Cal. Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. Sarah Skinner Lake, 1698 Kenmore Ave., Chi. 
Mr. John H. Leslie, 3344 Rhodes Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Victor F. Lawson, 317 LaSalle Ave., Chicago. 



Mr. John C. Long, 5338 Washington Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Eugene C. Long, 4907 Lake Ave., Chicago. 

Miss Ella Lee, 1403 Dunning St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. G. Lester, 5737 Madison Ave., Chi. 

Mrs. L. J. Lewis, 1204 Madison St., Chicago. 

Mr. George H. Laflin, 1604 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Sam S. Lock, Wabash Ave. & 26th St., Chicago. 

Mr. Wm. M. Lock, 159 S. Wood St., Chicago. 

Mrs. Leslie Lewis, 5606 Madison Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. John R. Lindgren, Evanston, 111. 

Mrs. C. E. Lake, 1698 Kenmore Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Peter Lang, 830 Larrabee St., Chicago. 

Dr. Russell Lewis, Oak Park, 111. 

Mrs. Mary Link, 76 Walton Place, Chicago. 

Mrs. Margaret Ellis Liscom, Heyworth, 111. 

Alida C. Leaven worth, 594 E. Division St., Chicago. 

Mr. Andrew J. Meserve, 7130 Wentworth Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Hy. Martin, Dolese & Shepard Co., Chicago. 
Mr. J. H. Mather, Norwood Park. 
Mr. Albert McCalla, 51 22d St., Chicago. 
Lily I. Martin, 115 Adams St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Clara Perkins Mahoney, 752 W. Adams St., Chi. 
Mrs. James R, MacKay, 290 Ohio St., Chicago. 
Mrs. James A. Marshall, 2906 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. C. R. Matson, 611 Cleveland Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Jno. T. McHail, 865 Blucher St., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. H. Merrill, 214 So. Halsted St., Chicago. 
Mary Hatton Miller, 46 Roslyn Place, Chicago. 
Mr. John A. Mason, 907 W Madison St., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. Mason, 511 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Minnie Mason, 448 W. Adams St., Chicago. 
Mrs. O. P. Mixon. Waukegan, 111. 


Mr. & Mrs. Cyrus H. McCormick, Rush St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. George Manierre, 61 Bellevue PI., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. William Reid Manierre, 365 Sup. St., Chi. 
Mrs. Horatio N. May, 147 Astor St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Edward G. Mason, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
Rev. James McGovern, Jollet, 111. 
Mrs. John McCauley, 750 N. Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Will Magee, 7722 Union Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Frederick Mattern, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Mrs. Helen Bowman Mather, Wellington, Nev. 
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph Matteson, 3166 Groveland Av., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Edwards Arthur Metz, 107 22d St., Chi. 
Mrs. Margaret A. Mitchell. 

Mr. & Mrs. Washington L. Midler, 303 Pull. Blv., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. John M. Morrison, 5757 Wabash Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Lorenzo Morrison, 3534 Lake Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. E. Mortimer, 1261 Wash. Blv., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. H. Musham, Fire D., City H., Chi. 
Mrs. James A. Mulligan. 

Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin F. Monroe, 4122 Vin. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Ezra B. McCragg, 67 Cass St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Emily McCarthy, Geneva, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael McHale, 375 Bissell St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Geo. W. McKee, 6040 Langley Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. D. L. Morrison, 176 Warren Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Mackenzie, 4919 Vincennes Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Murdock Morrison, 6111 Wabash Av., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry W Magee, 806 Fisher Bldg., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. F. Main, 1245 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 
Mrs. E. F. Minor, 1245 Washington Blvd., Chicago. 
Mrs. Henry S. Mann, 4534 Forrestville Ave., Chi. 
Mr. George Cadogan Morgan, 389 W. Adams St. or 

808 Royal Ins. Bldg., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. McEvoy, 52 Racine Ave., Chicago'. 
Mr. Geo. W. Moser, 400 Maple Ave., Oak Park, 111. 
The Misses McDonnell, 4211 Lake Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. W. E. McLaughlin, 96 S. Water St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Andre Matterson, Waukegan, 111. 
Mr. G. T. Manahan, Delavan, Wls. 
Mrs. Clara S. Mason, Waveland Ave., cor. Pine Grove. 
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel W. Mills, 135 S. 53d Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Brice A. Miller, 46 Roslyn Place, Chi. 
Mr. Luther Laflin Mills, 171 LaSalle St., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. E. Moulton, 2119 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Feeta May MacDonald, 103 State, M. F. Bongus. 
Mrs. Catherine Manahan, Morris, 111. 
Dr. Delaskie Miller, 110 Astor St., Chicago. 
Mr. E. W. Morrison, 113 Madison St., Chicago. 
Mr. Hy. B. Mason, 115 Dearborn St., Chicago. 


Mr. & Mrs. Erastus Nichols, Butte, Mont. 

Mr. Frank Newhall, 131 S. Water St., Chicago. 

Mr. Jno. L. Norton, Lockport, 111. 

Mr. L. D. Norton, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. Chas. L. Norton, Hyde Park Bank. 

Mr. Lawrence Nelson, Western State Bank, Chicago. 

Mrs. Chas. Naramore, 171 S. Sacramento Ave., Chi. 

Mr. Theron Norton. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas G. Otis, 4505 Lake Ave., Chi. 

Mrs. Margaret O'Donoghue, 3623 Prairie Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Oliver, 1541 W. Monroe St., Chi. 

Miss Elizabeth Outhet, Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. John J. O'Neal, 113 Ohio St., Chicago. 

Mr. R. M. Outhet, R. 503 188 Madison St., Chicago. 

Mr. F. E. Owens, 6241 Kimbark Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Sara E. Oberlander, 332 Wash. Blvd., Chicago. 

Mr. Jerome B. Osier, 101 Evergreen Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Parker, 966 W. Monroe St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. G. C. Pearson, Danville,- 111. 
Mr. Milton E. Page, 187 Huron St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Page, 217 LaSalle St., Chi. 
Mr. John C. Patterson, Ashland Block, Chicago. 
Mr. Raymond Patterson, Chicago Tribune, Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Patterson, Tribune, Chicago. 
Mrs. R. W. Patterson, 1637 Judson Av., Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Fred W. Peck, 1824 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Clarence I. Peck, 2254 Mich. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter L. Peck, 2254 Michigan Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. Marion Heald Perkins. 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Petrie, 172 Wash. St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Silas Q. Perry, 343 53d St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W. Penney, Park Ridge, 111. 
Mr. Thomas B. Penton, 120 Broadway, New York. 
Mrs. Lucretia Pinney, 4919 Vincennes Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Myron L. Pearce, 2548 Prairie Ave., Chi. 
Mr. Redmond Prindiville, 457 Elm St., Chicago. 
Capt. John Prindiville, 388 N. State St., Chicago. 
Esq. & Mrs. John K. Prindiville. 

Mr. & Mrs. Abner Price, 2219 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander Price. 

Mr. & Mrs. C. D. Peacock, 1713 Indiana Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen G. Pitkin, 224 Schiller St., Chi. 
Miss Kate Putnam, Benton Harbor, Mich. 



Mrs. Mary McWilliams Putnam, Bent. Harbor, Mich. 

Mrs. George M. Pullman, 18th St. & Pra'e Av. ( Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Win. B. Phillips, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. George N. Powell, 958 Sheridan Road, Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. F. Powell, Waukegan, 111. 

Mr. Charles E. Peck, 2700 N. Hermitage Ave., Chi. 

Mr. Robert A. Pinkertpn, 71 8th Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. James W. Porter, Fullerton Ave., N. Clark St. 

Mr. Saml. Polkey, 88 LaSalle St., Chicago. 

Mr. William A. Pinkerton, 196 Ashland Ave., Chi. 

Mr. Chas. Eugene Peltzer, R. 608, 87 Wash. St., Chi. 

Mrs. Mary E. Prescott, 214 Park Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Pflrshing, 3001 Groveland Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. John A. Phillips, 614-59 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mrs. Richard E. Parker, 5000 Wash. Ave., Chicagb. 

Mrs. Chas. A. Palzer, 20 Drexel Square, Chicago. 

Mr. Alex Price, 3641 Vernon Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. George Pearce, Marshall Field Wholesale, Chi. 

Mr. M. Pearce, 85 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Mr. James S. Price, 1826 Indiana Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Otto Peltzer, 87 Washington St., Chicago. 

Mr. Henry E. Parker, 410 Boylston Bldg., Chicago. 

Mrs. Nelson Parker, Waukegan, 111. 

Mr. C. F. Periolat, 1327 Masonic Temple, Chicago. 

Mr. Peter Periolat, 1327 Masonic Temple, Chicago. 


Mr. John Raber, 2263 State St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Jacob Rehm, 589 Dearborn Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. H. Rehm, 537 N. State St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Alex H. Revell, 577 LaSalle Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Hugh Ritchie, 333 Chestnut St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Rhines, 176 Adams St., Chicago. 
Hon. & Mrs. James P. Root, 5334 Wash. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward K. Rogers, Jr. 
Mrs. Joseph P. Ross. 

Mr. & Mrs. Clark Roberts, Jefferson, 111. 
Mrs. Lucy Davis Rowe, 239 Green'd Av., Evanston. 
Miss Mary H. Russell, Comp. Office, City Hall, Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Isaac Russell, 888 Carroll Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel J. Rock, 1214 Lill Ave., Chicago. 
Ellen Kelly Ryan, 92 Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. George D. Rumsey, Mon. & Clin., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Rendell, 435 Dearborn, Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Geo. C. Raymond, Princeton, N. J. 
Mrs. Mary Stell Rooks, 355 S. Western Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. C. A. Reno, 95 Walnut St., Chicago. 
Mrs. A. W. Rathbone, 212 Monroe St., Chicago. 
Mr. John Rankin, Oak Park, 111. 
Mrs. T. N. Rafflngton, 719 Lunt Ave., Rogers Park. 
Mr. L. C. Roberts, 4098 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Jno. Robertson, 390 Chicago Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Robert W. Robinson, 1851 N. Sacramento, Chi. 
Mr. E. W. Raworth, 1427 N. Clark St., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. D. Rumsey, 607 Division St., Chicago. 
Mr. John S. Roach, 75 Monroe St., Chicago. 
Nannie Rosenfleld, 1620 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Julius L. Rosenberg, 3734 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. T. A. Randall, 2624 Calumet Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. L. Root, 4923 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mrs. Henrietta B. Roney, 252 S. Desplaines St., Chi. 
Mrs. Charles Reed, 37 High. Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mr. F. J. Robinson, Ridgland, 111. 


Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan Slade, Ohio & Cass Sts., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. M. L. & Geo. Satterlee, 2704 Mich. Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. M. Catherine Sanger, 1729 Prairie Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Benj. C. Sammons, Corn Ex. Bk., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Jacob Sauter, 210 Ran. St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. George A. Severns, 2819 Mich. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles R. Scales, 114 S. Water St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. James W. Scott, Mail. Dept, P. O., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. H. Saddle, Prairie View, Lake Co., 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis J. Swenie. 

Gen. & Mrs. Frank T. Sherman, Waukegan, 111. 
Mrs. Martha E. Sherman, Evanston, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Austin O. Sexton, 3827 Ind. Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. George Schneider, 2000 Mich., Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert F. Snell, 406 Cleveland Ave., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Sears, Kenilworth, 111. 
Mrs. Charles R. Steel, Waukegan, 111. 
Mr. & Mrs. Orson Smith, 41 Bellevue PI., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. John Stoneham, 134 Walnut St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Geo. M. Scott, Johnson & 22d St., Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. Henry H. Shufeldt, 261 Kinzie St. ,Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. John M. Smyth, 300 W. Adams St., Chi. 
Mr. Peter Schuttler, W. Mon. & Clin. Sts., Chi. 
Dr. & Mrs. Ralph E. Starkweather, 115 Dearborn, Chi. 
Mr. & Mrs. W. W. Strong, 453 Wash. Blvd., Chi. 
Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Thomas, 1842 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. and Mrs. William C. Seipp. 

Mr. & Mrs. Benj. F. Schnell, 1088 N. West. Av., Chi. 
Hon. Alson Smith Sherman, Waukegan, 111. 
Miss Sherman Waukegan, 111. 
Mrs. Harriet Sayre, Mont Clare Sta., Chicago. 
Mr. E, H. Smalley, 1477 Kimball Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Geo. W. Spofford, 1520 Wash. Blvd., Chi 
Miss Fanny A. Speer, 3642 Indiana Aye., Chicago. 
Miss Jos. C. Snow, 987 N. Leavitt St., Chicago. 
Mrs. Wm. H. Stone, 3438 Rhodes Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. H. O. Stone, 4924 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. Chas. Scupham, Homewood, Cook Co., 111. 
Mrs. Emma Sinclair, 7449 Eggleston Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Jas. E. Slocum, 5139 Madison Ave., Chicago. 
Miss Valentine Smith, 288 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Frank W. Staples, 11 Fifth Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. D. C. Schnell, 407 W. Randolph St., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Schapper, Blue Island, 111. 
Mrs. John Stell, 3226 Lake Park Ave., Chicago. 
Hattie Gray Sherman, 3324 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago 
Mr. E. A. Shedd, 3812 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. C. B. Shedd, 3812 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. G. V. Smith, 352 S. Marshfield, Chicago. 
Mr. Fred A. Smith, Clark & Madison Sts., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. H. Spear, 97 51st St., Chicago. 
Miss Belle Smith, 239 Ashland Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. H. Smith, 171 Jackson St., Chicago. 
Mr. Jos. Schlossman, M. O. Dept., P. O. 
Mr. W. W. Sammons, Corn. Exch. Nat. Bank, Chi. 
Mr. E. H. Sammons, 3112 S. Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. La Grand Smith, 410 Chicago Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Geo. Sinclair, 3755 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Jas. C. Sinclair, 3252 S. Park Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. Sinclair, 1491 Perry St., Chicago. 
Mr. D. J. Swenie, 524 W. Jackson St., Chicago. 
Mr. C. J. Stambaugh, 52 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
Mr. Ed. G. Shumway, 4549 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. B. Shourds, 108 E. 45th St., Chicago. 
Mr. Solomon J. Stebbings, 7351 Princeton Ave., Chi. 
Mrs. Emily W. Stevens, 124 Ashland Blk., Chicago. 
Mr. John C. Sampson, 710 Tacoma Bldg., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. E. Scharlau, 59 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
Mr. Wm. F. Scharlau, 384 N. Paulina St., Chicago. 
John & Wm. Sweney, Mil. Ave. & Belmont St., Chi. 
Mr. Chas. R. Stauffer, 4168 Drexel Blvd., Chicago. 
Mr. F. W. Smith, Corn Exch. Nat. Bank, Chicago. 



Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Thomas, 1842 Ind. Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. F. Thwing, 4838 Evans Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. Samuel H. Talmage, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. H. P. Talbott, 241 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Judge & Mrs. Larnb't Tree, Ontario & Cass Sts., Chi. 

Mrs. L. G. Titus, 1238 N. Clark St., Chicago. 

Mr. Fred'k B. Tuttle, 2022 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Laurin H. Turner, 4915 Wash. Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Turner, Addison & Lincoln Ave., Chi. 

Mr. John S. Turner, 109 Duane St., New York. 

Mrs. Carrie Ferguson Turner, 3601 Ellis' Park, Chi. 

Mr. A. S. Tyler, 88 Randolph St., Chicago. 

Mr. A. D. Taylor, Glencoe, 111. 

Annie E. Trimmingham, 5239 Cornell Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. F. K. Tracy, 545 W. Jackson, Chicago. 

Mr. John Tyrrell, Kenilworth, 111. 

Mrs. C. O. Tower, 743 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

Henry Turner, Esq., 420 Belden Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Miller Thayer, 184 Norwood Place, Chicago. 

Mr. W. E. S. Trowbrid/ge, Downer's Grove, 111. 


Mrs. B. W. Underwood, 3004 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 
Mr. Chas. Updike (deceased), 137 Rialto Bldg., Chi. 
Mr. Henry E. Updike, 137 Rialto Bldg., Chicago. 
Mr. S. L. Underwood, 5327 Cornell Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. A. Winkelman, 387 Warren Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Chas. F. Whitmarsh, Austin, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. John H. Witbeck, 2841 Mich. Ave., Chi. 

Mrs. Lizzie Hoyne Williams, 3253 Forest Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Aug. W. Wright, Monadnock Blk., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward J. Whitehead, Austin, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. H. Whitehead, Evanston, 111. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hempstead Washburne. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Wygant, 131 Park Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Alonzo Wygant, 537 W. Jackson, Chicago. 

Mrs. Esther Wardlow, 5330 Greenwood Ave., Chicago. 

Julie Beaubien Waite, 173 Walnut St., Chicago. 

Rev. Edw. F. Williams, 70 N. Clinton St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry J. Willing, 100 Rush St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. A. Wemple, 3409 63d Place, Chicago. 

Mr. Lorenz Walter, Roscoe St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. F. Ward, 1725 Hinman Ave., Evanston. 

Mr. Chas. J. Waller, Evanston, 111. 

Mrs. Alice J. Whitney, 453 Belden Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Wait, 124 Ashland Blvd., Chi. 

Miss A. E. Winchill, 133 E. Circle, Norwood Pk., Chi. 

Mrs. Sylvia E. Walker, Hinsdale, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. E. Walker, 4454 Woodlawn Ave., Chi. 

Mrs. David Wylie, 524 Orchard St., Chicago. 

Mr. John D. Walsh, Mont Clare, 111. 

Mr. Silas B. Watson, 311 S. Robey St., Chicago. 

Carrie Adsit Wheeler (C. C. Adsit), 224 La Salle, Chi. 

Mr. Geo. W. Waite, La Grange, 111. 

Mr. Jno. M. Van Nortwick, Appleton, Wis. 

Mr. Wm. M. Van Nortwick, Batavia, 111. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. Van Sant, 833 W. Monroe St., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. C. Vaughan, 6048 Jefferson Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. E. Vreeland (Englewood), Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Samuel .Vial, 444 Fifth Ave., La Grange, 111. 

Mrs. Amy G. Van Horn, 1491 Perry St., Chicago. 

Mr. David Vernon, Com. Nat. Bank, Chicago. 

Mr. Henry R. Vandercook, 4153 Berkeley Ave., Chi. 

Mr. C. R. Vandercook, 213 S. Park Ave., Austin, 111. 

Mr. John Vernon. 

Mr. W. Vernon. 


Mr. & Mrs. Charles B. Waite, 168 53d St., Chicago. 

Mr. Campbell W. Waite, 168 53d St., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. N W. Watson, 174 Millard Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. R. J. Washke, 2339 Calumet Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. B. Walker, 2027 Prairie Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. C. Walker, 228 Mich. Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Judson Wells, 3366 South Park Ave., Chi. 

Mr. and Mrs. James B. Wayman. 

Mrs. John W. Wauhop, 2457 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Mrs. James Wallace, 3551 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Warrington, 127 Park Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. F. H. Waite, 5141 Madison Ave., Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Wait. 

Mr. and Mrs. Orrin Warner, 

Mrs. Roxana Lowe Warner, 3611 Grand' Blvd., Chi. 

Mr. and Mrs. Geo. S. Wheeler, Waukegan, 111. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Wheeler. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wheeler. 

Mr. & Mrs. L. D. Webster, 386 Dearborn Ave., Chi. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Wheeler. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Weckler, 435 Evanston Ave., Chi. 

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen W. Wheeler, 6804 Yale, Chicago. 

Mr. H. H. Yates, 2897 Kenmore Ave., Chicago. 


Mr. John S. Zimmerman, 132 Park Ave., Chicago. 

THE SONS OF CHICAGO is the title of an asso- 
ciation composed of the sons of old settlers of 
Chicago, or those who had attended the public 
schools of the city, organized in 1894, the first 
president being Thomas H. Cannon, followed 
by Charles E. Kotz and William Bollard. Their 
meetings were attended by many of the old 
pioneers both ladies and gentlemen who 
thus sought to encourage the boys and add 
interest to the occasion. The exercises included 
addresses by the old Pioneers and Sons of Chi- 
cago; the presentation of gold medals to the 
oldest son and oldest daughter whose parents 
were born in Chicago; a fat men's race, open 
to all over 200 pounds, the distance being 300 
feet and the prize a fine silk umbrella; an 
old-fashioned game of baseball prize, bat and 
ball ; ladies' race, open to all between 15 and 
25 years prize, a gold ring; old-fashioned 
game of football prize, a ball; egg race, open 
to ladies of 15 to 18 years distance 300 feet 
prize, a beautiful fan; the exercises being 
interspersed with dancing, games, speech-mak- 



ing and a general good time. The following 
were members of the principal committees at 
the first meeting: 

Executive Committee William Bollard, Wil- 
liam S. Beaubien, Philip Jackson, John G. 
Neumeister, John S. Cooper, M. S. Musham, C. 
S. Periolet, John F. Doney, Val. Schmitt, 
Henry Best, John S. Burke, Paul Dassa, A. J. 
Thaler, Charles E. Kotz and Frank Kettinger, 

Reception Committee William Bollard, Nic. 
Reis, Alex. Beaubien, J. L. Veit, Louis Haase, 
James J. Tobin, John Bavis, Robert Beygeh, 
Thomas J. Finucane, Edward Houseman, John 
B. Casey, Ed. Tague, Henry Clybourn, Phillip 
Kastler, Clarke E. Rolfe, Jacob Schnur, George 
Ludwig, William Burke, James Connolley, 
Thomas Cannon, John P. Rafferty and John 


When a little band of printers who had grown 
gray in the service who had learned their 
cases when Chicago was still in the struggling 
years of its infancy met one blustering day in 
March, 1885, to promote a feeling of sociabil- 
ity and good fellowship, they little anticipated 
they parties to so successful a christ- 
ening. The organization, however, was not 
completed until March 21, 1886, when a num- 
ber of old-time printers assembled in the club 
room of the Sherman House and formed a per- 
manent association. It was chartered as a 
corporation under the laws of the State of Illi- 
nois May 23, 1896. 

The object of the association is to promote 
a feeling of sociability and good fellowship 
among the pioneer printers of Chicago, but at 
the same time its members will encourage and 
assist one another in efforts to better their 
condition. It also provides for an annual 
reunion on January 17 (Franklin's birthday), 
or on other occasions of such a nature as may 
be determined upon by the members. The 
association is composed of printers who have 
been engaged in the printing or publishing 
business, as employer or employe, twenty-five 
years or more in Chicago previous to their 
application. Continuous residence in the city 
or employment at the business is not required. 
The regular meetings of the association are 

held quarterly on the second Sundays in Jan- 
uary, April, July and October. 

The following comprised the charter mem- 
bers: J. S. Thompson, J. R. Baly, John 
Buckie, C. B. Langley, A. J. Getzler, J. L. Ban- 
croft, John Gordon, S. Bavis, S. E. Pinta, Sam- 
uel Rastall, A. C. Cameron, C. F. Sheldon, 
John Anderson, J. C. Burroughs, James Hyde, 
M. J. Kearns, J. A. Van Buzer, William McEvoy. 
M. J. Carroll, A. McCutcheon. At the first reg- 
ular quarterly meeting, held in the reading 
room of the Sherman House on April 24, 1886, 
these officers were elected: J. A. Thompson, 
President; B. Oliphant, Vice-President; A. C. 
Cameron, Secretary and Treasurer. Birectors: 
John Anderson, W. A. Hornish, J. Camberg, 
A. McNally, J. S. Thompson, A. C. Cameron, 
John Buckie, J. S. Rastall, B. Oliphant and 

A. McCutcheon. At this meeting Hon. John 
Wentworth was present and addressed the 
members, narrating in an interesting manner 
some of his experiences with the craft in the 
days gone by, and concluded by congratulating 
the association on the steps it had taken and 
wishing it abundant success. He was then 
elected an honorary member of the association. 

The first banquet of the association was held 
at the Matteson House on January 17, 1887. 
This hotel had an interesting history. It was 
at that time a five-story brick building, located 
at the corner of Lake and Bearborn streets, 
and for a long time a city landmark. In 1836 
the lot on which it stood was sold by Br. W. 

B. Egan to John H. Hodgson for $1,000 and a 
suit of clothes. The latter, with others, built 
the Baltic House, which was burned in 1849. 
In 1850 Joel A. Matteson, who subsequently 
became governor, bought the land, paying for it 
$9,000, and erected the hotel bearing his name. 
After passing into various other hands it was 
finally, on March 5, 1866, sold at auction for 

At this first banquet addresses were made by 
J. H. McVicker, Governor William Bross, Mark 
L. Crawford and A. H. McLaughlin. Governor 
Bross pictured the busy life of the old-time 
editor when he was his own canvasser for 
subscribers, his own collector of doubtful bills, 
and general collector of such items of local 
importance as could be turned in for the day's 
news. Messrs. Crawford and McLaughlin gave 
the printers' end in a manner to gratify their 
brethren of the craft, and the entire affair was 
voted a success. 



The second celebration was held at Kinsley's, 
with Major Calkins, editor of the Evening 
Journal, as orator of the occasion. At subse- 
quent banquets addresses were made by the 
following printers, editors and men of public 
renown: Mayor Carter H. Harrison, Sr., Wil- 
liam Penn Nixon, John McGovern, R. W. Pat- 
terson, James W. Scott, Washington Hesing, 
Martin J. Russell, Moses P. Handy, H. H. 
Kohlsaat, M. H. Madden, Hon. William J. 
Haines, Dr. Thomas, Paul Hull, Joseph Medill, 
F. K. Tracy, Judge John Barton Paine, Francis 
W. Walker, Colonel N. A. Reed, Rev. J. A. 
Brushingham, Hon. W. J. Calhoun, Luther 
Laflin Mills, A. H. Brown and Judge Holdom. 

On June 6, 1896, a statue of Benjamin Frank- 
lin was unveiled in Lincoln Park under the 
auspices of the Old-Time Printers' Association. 
The statue was a gift from Mr. Joseph Medill. 
of the Chicago Tribune, and the occasion was 
made notable by appropriate exercises and elo- 
quent addresses by Mr. Medill, M. J. Carroll, 
Conrad Kahler, William Penn Nixon, H. D. 
Estabrook and P. F. Pettibone. 

One of the pleasant features of the associa- 
tion is the annual picnic which is held in Sep- 
tember of each year at Humboldt Park. On 
this occasion all the old-time printers, accom- 
panied by their wives and children, take a day 
off and enjoy themselves under the trees. 
Games, refreshments and contests by young 
and old enliven the occasion. 

The following is a list of members: John 
Anderson, Ephraim Abbott, Standish Acres, A. 
B. Adair, George S. Affolter, Richard Barlow, 
Frank Beck, Charles F. Blakeley, Thomas E. 
Billings, Joseph Bichl, James A. Bond, Charles 
N. Bond, Henry R. Boss, T. D. Brock, A. H. 
Brown, Garrett Burns, John S. Burke, P. J. 
Cahill, John Canty, M. J. Carroll, Thomas Car- 
roll, Joseph Carolan, D. W. Clark, Charles E. 
Cobb, D. F. Considine, J. R. Courson, M. L. 
Crawford, John R. Daly, Thomas Day, Paul 
De Brule, William E. Dennis, S. M. Dickson, 
J. M. Edson, Thomas N. Ellis, J. M. Farquhar, 
T. H. Falkner, W. H. Faul, R. M. Figg, A. L. 
Fyfe, James Garner, Isaac D. George, E. T. Gil- 
bert, John Gordon, James Gunthorp, William 
Hack, John Halloran, W. H. Hawes, James 
Hayde, John F. Higgins, Frank B. Howard, 
Fred Hull, W. A. Hutchinson, J. B. Hutchinson, 
D. J. Hynes, C. M. Jacobus, J. R. Jessup, Nels 
Johnson, Fred Johnson, Michael Kearns, John 
P. Keefe, D. C. Kelley, William Kennedy, 

Edward Kerrott, Martin Knowles, F. Kohl- 
becker, C. B. Langley, J. W. Langston, J. 
Lauth, James L. Lee, W. N. Lewis, F. M. Leyda, 
Van J. Lyman, M. H. Madden, John Mangan, 
William Mill, Charles M. Moore, W. F. Mor- 
rison, John C. McBean, John McCaffrey, Wil- 
liam S. McClevey, J. H. McConnell, William 
McEvoy, John McGovern, A. H. McLaughlin, J. 
A. McNamara, Sam D. McNeal, William Nichol- 
son, Sam K. Parker, W. J. Parsons, O. H. Perry, 
C. H. Philbrick, William Pigott, Samuel E. 
Pinta, Frank M. Powel, M. C. Pringle, Samuel 
Rastall, N. A. Reed, James L. Regan, Frank 
Ross, James Schock, C. F. Sheldon, L. C. Shep- 
ard, H. D. Smith, John M. Smyth, Joseph C. 
Snow, Peter Splithoff, J. B. Stranger, John B. 
Stevens, C. G. Stivers, H. S. Streat, John Stuart, 
Thomas E. Sullivan, E. G. C. Thomas, F. K. 
Tracy, George A. Treyser, John W. Troy, C. D. 
Tuttle, J. G. Van Horn, John R. Walsh, John 
C. Ward, Nick Welsh, H. J. Wendorff, O. F. 
Wermich, Richard Westlake, Lee H. Wilson, 
John H. Wood, General John C. Black, W. J. 
Calhoun, Henry D. Estabrook, Judson Graves, 
Joseph Hatton, Frank Hudson, Paul Hull, Wil- 
liam J. Hynes, H. H. Kohlsaat, Andrew 
McNally, William Penn Nixon, Robert W. Pat- 
terson, John Barton Payne, E. Powell, M. J. 
Russell, M. E. Stone, Rev. Dr. H. W. Thomas, 
George P. Upton, Francis W. Walker. 


Away back in the early forties there was a 
street on the West Side called William, it 
was not a very great thoroughfare, being only 
about three blocks long, but it contained an 
aggregation of patriotic citizens who were 
interested in the city's growth and welfare, and 
who later became identified with Chicago in 
various important capacities. 

The first permanent settler on William 
street was Michael Nugent, who took up his 
residence there in a frame house about the year 
1845. Among the other residents of the street 
were John C. Haines, Mayor of Chicago during 
the years 1858-59, who occupied a house on 
the northwest corner of Van Buren and San- 
gamon streets. The house still stands and is 
at present used as a boarding house. Mr. 
Haines was born in New York in 1818, and 

6 9 6 


coming to Chicago, served six years in the City 
Council, and a similar period as Water Com- 
missioner. He was elected a member of the 
State Constitutional Convention in 1869, and 
a member of the State Senate in 1874. On 
the opposite corner from Mr. Haines' place 
stood the residence of Dr. W. B. Egan. The 
house of Samuel B. Hoard, who was Post- 
master of Chicago in 1865, stood at the end of 
the street. The Jesuit church was also one of 
the early landmarks of the street. The only 
water' supply on the West Side south of Mad- 
ison and west of Halsted street was supplied 
by an old-fashioned hand pump, located in 
William street. 

During the Civil War this abbreviated thor- 
oughfare, whose total number of inhabitants 
did not exceed one hundred voters, sent about 
twenty men to the front, who joined Colonel 
James A. Mulligan's Irish Brigade. 

In the campaign of 1876, when Samuel J. 
Tilden was running on the Democratic ticket 
for President of the United States, every voter 
on William street cast a ballot for him, in con- 
sequence of which Alderman Frank Lawler 
subsequently had the name of the street 
changed from William to Tilden, by which it 
is at the present time known. 

During the year 1903 it occurred to several 
of the former residents of William street to 
look up their early day neighbors, with the 
idea of reviving old-time memories, perpetuat- 
ing the friendships formed during the younger 
years, and preserving the identity of the old 
William street residents. After some time 
spent in locating them for in the intervening 
years they had scattered to various parts of 
the city a goodly number were notified, and 
as a result the Old Settlers of William Street 
Society was organized in September, 1903, with 
the following officers: Patrick Murphy, Pres- 
ident; William A. Hanley, Recording Secre- 
tary; John Riley, Financial Secretary; Michael 
Day, Treasurer. The following comprise the 
members: John McDermott, Edward Noonan, 
Charles McKenna, Captain Charles O'Neil, 
Lieutenant John F. Pyne, Sergeant John Riley, 
Edward Riley, Charles Riley, John Griffin, 
Michael Gorman, Michael O'Grady, Sergeant 
Michael Hogan, John Dougherty, William Man- 
gan, Timothy Hanley, Wiliam Dillon, William 
O'Rourke, John Welch, John Hanley, Fred Fitz, 
John Kluber, James Scanlan, John T. Rowley, 
Dennis Sullivan, Sergeant Edward Marpole, 

James Murphy, Jacob Keller, Philip Grady, John 
Grady, Thomas G. O'Connor, Frank Mitchell. 

Those who lived or were born on William 
street, and their descendants are eligible to 
membership. The first annual reception of the 
organization was held at Pick's Hall, Kedzie 
and Colorado avenues, on March 17, 1904. 


One of the annual events that is looked for- 
ward to with a great deal of interest and 
pleasurable anticipation by every German old 
settler in Chicago, is the picnic that is given 
yearly under the auspices of the Turn-Gem- 
einde. Since 1875 this Society has held thess 
reunions at some appropriate place on the 
North Side, and the enthusiasm in celebrating 
these events has grown with each succeeding 

While not regularly organized, the German 
old settlers attend these affairs faithfully and 
participate in the exercises with the hearty 
good will that always distinguishes the Teu- 
tonic people. Although the picnics are under 
the supervision of a German society, they are 
not confined exclusively to Germans, as every 
old German settler in the city who is aged 
forty-two years or over, and who had resided 
in Chicago or its suburbs previous to 1881, is 
invited to attend, and upon registering in a 
book of memorials, receives a silk badge 
inscribed with the year of his or her settle- 

Primarily, these annual gatherings were inau- 
gurated for the purpose of retaining in the 
hearts of the Germans who had adopted the 
United States as their future home a warm 
place for the Fatherland; the instilling in 
every breast of a high degree of the duties 
each one owes to himself and his forefathers; 
the fostering of old-time national customs; and 
as a means whereby the older people would be 
able to come in closer contact with the younger 

It is the object of the Turn-Gemeinde to 
make these outings as pleasant as possible, 
socially, and patriotic addresses are given, 
prizes are offered for contests of various kinds, 
and medals are awarded old settlers under the 
following conditions: 



1. To the old settler present, who has con- 
tinuously resided in Chicago for the greatest 
number of years. 

2. To the old lady settler present who con- 
tinuously resided in Chicago for the greatest 
number of years. 

3. To the old settler present, born in Ger- 
many, who has continuously resided in Chi- 
cago for the greatest number of years. 

4. To the old lady settler present, born in 
Germany, who has continuously resided in 
Chicago for the greatest number of years. 

5. To the old settler who has been longest 
in the employ of the same business concern 
at Chicago, and who is still there employed 
at the present time. 

6. To the lady who has been longest work- 
ing in the same family, and still holds that 

7. To the couple of old settlers whose 
combined age will give the greatest number 
of years. 

8. To the couple of old settlers, born in 
Germany, whose combined age will give the 
greatest number of years. 

9. At 5 p. m. grand prize waltz; silver 
medals and bouquets given to the old couple 
whose combined age will give the greatest 
number of years. 

A complete list of the members of this asso- 
ciation embraces about 2,800 names, of which 
nearly 1,300 are male members and over 1,500 
ladies. Only the names of those dating as far 
back as 1854 or having had a residence in 
Chicago of fifty years are given in the follow- 
ing list: 


1822 Alex. Beaubien. 

1832 Jas. Maxwell. 

1833 Jas. B. Allen. 

1834 Judge J. B. Bradwell, T. A. Howe, L. 
D. Taylor. 

1835 Wm. Gale, James Hogan, Fernando 
Jones, G. W. Soule, Geo. Sinclair, Wm. J. Sloan. 

1836 Henry Ackoff, Henry Gilbe