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V. 2 
pt. 1 












Volume II 








Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 

1912, by Monsell Publishing Company, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington 




STARXE, Alexander, Secretary of State and 
State Treasurer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Nov. 21, 1813; in the spring of 1836 removed to 
Illinois, settling at Origgsville, Pike County, 
where he opened a general store. From 1839 to 
'42 he served as Commissioner of Pike County, 
and, in the latter year, was elected to the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and re-elected in 
1844. Having, in the meanwhile, disposed of his 
store at Griggsville and removed to Pittsfield, he 
was appointed, by Judge Purple, Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, and elected to the same office for 
four years, when it was made elective. In 1852 
he was elected Secretary of State, when he 
removed to Springfield, returning to Griggsville 
at the expiration of his term in 1857, to assume 
the Presidency of the old Hannibal and Naples 
Railroad (now a part of the W abash system). 
He represented Pike and Brown Counties in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1862, and the same 
year was elected State Treasurer. He thereupon 
again removed to Springfield, where he resided 
until his death, being, with his sons, extensively 
engaged in coal mining. In 1870, and again in 
1872, he was elected State Senator from Sau- 
gamon County. He died at Springfield, March 
31, 1886. 

STATE BANK OF ILLINOIS. The first legis- 
lation, having for its object the establishment of 
a bank within the territory which now consti- 
tutes the State of Illinois, was the passage, by 
the Territorial Legislature of 1816, of an act 
incorporating the "Bank of Illinois at Shawnee- 
town, with branches at Edwardsville and Kas- 
kaskia." In the Second General Assembly of 
the State (1820) an act was passed, over the 
Governor's veto and in defiance of the adverse 
judgment of the Council of Revision, establish- 
ing a State Bank at Vandalia with branches at 
Shawneetown, Edwardsville, and Brownsville in 
Jackson County. This was, in effect, a recharter- 
ing of the banks at Shawneetown and Edwards- 
ville. So far as the former is concerned, it seems 
to have been well managed; but the official 
conduct of the officers of the latter, on the basis 
of charges made by Governor Edwards in 1826, 
was made the subject of a legislative investiga- 
tion, which (although it resulted in nothing) 
seems to have had some basis of fact, in view of 
the losses finally sustained in winding up its 
affairs that of the General Government amount- 
ing to $54,000. Grave charges were made in this 
connection against men who were then, or 
afterwards became, prominent in State affairs, 
including one Justice of the Supreme Court and 
one (still later) a United States Senator. The 

experiment was disastrous, as, ten years later 
(1831), it was found necessary for the State to 
incur a debt of 6100,000 to redeem the outstand- 
ing circulation. Influenced, however, by the 
popular demand for an increase in the "circu- 
lating medium, " the State continued its experi- 
ment of becoming a stockholder in banks 
managed by its citizens, and accordingly we find 
it, in 1835. legislating in the same direction for 
the establishing of a central "Bank of Illinois" 
at Springfield, with branches at other points as 
might be required, not to exceed six in number. 
One of these branches was established at Van- 
dalia and another at Chicago, furnishing the first 
banking institution of the latter city. Two 
years later, when the State was entering upon 
its scheme of internal improvement, laws were 
enacted increasing the capital stock of these 
banks to 4,000,000 in the aggregate. Following 
the example of similar institutions elsewhere, 
they suspended specie payments a few months 
later, but were protected by "stay laws" and 
other devices until 1842, when the internal 
Improvement scheme having been finally aban- 
doned, they fell in general collapse. The State 
ceased to be a stock-holder in 1843, and the banks 
were put in course of liquidation, though it 
required several years to complete the work. 

STATE CAPITALS. The first State capital of 
Illinois was Kaskaskia, where the first Territorial 
Legislature convened, Nov. 25, 1812. At that 
time there were but five counties in the State 
St. Clair and Randolph being the most important, 
and Kaskaskia being the county-seat of the 
latter. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a 
State in 1818, and the first Constitution provided 
that the seat of government should remain at 
Kaskaskia until removed by legislative enact- 
ment. That instrument, however, made it obli- 
gatory upon the Legislature, at its first session, 
to petition Congress for a grant of not more than 
four sections of land, on which should be erected 
a town, which should remain the seat of govern- 
ment for twenty years. The petition was duly 
presented and granted ; and, in accordance with 
the power granted by the Constitution, a Board 
of five Commissioners selected the site of the 
present city of Vandalia, then a point in the 
wilderness twenty miles north of any settle- 
ment. But so great was the faith of speculators 
in the future of the proposed city, that town lots 
were soon selling at 5100 to S780 each. The Com- 
missioners, in obedience to law, erected a plain 
two-story frame building scarcely more than a 
commodious shanty to which the State offices 
were removed in December, 1820. This building 




was burned, Dec. 9, 1823, and a brick structure 
erected in its place. Later, when the question of 
a second removal of the capital began to be agi- 
tated, the citizens of Vandalia assumed the risk 
of erecting a new, brick State House, costing 
$16,000. Of this amount $6,000 was reimbursed 
by the Governor from the contingent fund, and 
the balance ($10,000) was appropriated in 1837, 
when the seat of government was removed to 
Springfield, by vote of the Tenth General Assem- 
bly on the fourth ballot. The other places receiv- 
ing the principal vote at the time of the removal 
to Springfield, were Jacksonville, Vandalia, 
Peoria, Alton and Illiopolis Springfield receiv- 
ing the largest vote at each ballot. The law 
removing the capital appropriated $50,000 from 
the State Treasury, provided that a like amount 
should be raised by private subscription and 
guaranteed by bond, and that at least two acres 
of land should be donated as a site. Two State 
Houses have been erected at Springfield, the first 
cost of the present one (including furnishing) 
having been a little in excess of $4,000,000. 
Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the 
Legislature from Sangamon County at the time, 
was an influential factor in securing the removal 
of the capital to Springfield. 

STATE DEBT. The State debt, which proved 
so formidable a burden upon the State of Illinois 
for a generation, and, for a part of that period, 
seriously checked its prosperity, was the direct 
outgrowth of the internal improvement scheme 
entered upon in 1837. (See Internal Improvement 
Policy. ) At the time this enterprise was under- 
taken the aggregate debt of the State was less 
than $400,000 accumulated within the preceding 
six years. Two years later (1838) it had increased 
to over $6,500,000, while the total valuation of 
real and personal property, for the purposes of 
taxation, was less than $60, 000, 000, andtheaggre- 
gate receipts of the State treasury, for the same 
year, amounted to less than $150,000. At the 
same time, the disbursements, for the support of 
the State Government alone, had grown to more 
than twice the receipts. This disparity continued 
until the declining credit of the State forced upon 
the managers of public affairs an involuntary 
economy, when the means could no longer be 
secured for more lavish expenditures. The first 
bonds issued at the inception of the internal 
improvement scheme sold at a premium of 5 per 
cent, but rapidly declined until they were hawked 
in the markets of New York and London at a dis- 
count, in some cases falling into the hands of 
brokers who failed before completing their con- 

tracts, thus causing a direct loss to the State. If 
the internal improvement scheme was ill-advised, 
the time chosen to carry it into effect was most 
unfortunate, as it came simultaneously with the 
panic of 1837, rendering the disaster all the more 
complete. Of the various works undertaken by 
the State, only the Illinois & Michigan Canal 
brought a return, all the others resulting in more 
or less complete loss. The internal improvement 
scheme was abandoned in 1839-40, but not until 
State bonds exceeding $13,000,000 had been 
issued. For two years longer the State struggled 
with its embarrassments, increased by the failure 
of the State Bank in February, 1842, and, by that 
of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, a few 
months later, with the proceeds of more than two 
and a half millions of the State's bonds in their 
possession. Thus left without credit, or means 
even of paying the accruing interest, there were 
those who regarded the State as hopelessly bank- 
rupt, and advocated repudiation as the only 
means of escape. Better counsels prevailed, how- 
ever; the Constitution of 1848 put the State on a 
basis of strict economy in the matter of salaries 
and general expenditures, with restrictions upon 
the Legislature in reference to incurring in- 
debtedness, while the beneficent "two-mill tax" 
gave assurance to its creditors that its debts 
would be paid. While the growth of the State, 
in wealth and population, had previously been 
checked by the fear of excessive taxation, it now 
entered upon a new career of prosperity, in spite 
of its burdens its increase in population, be- 
tween 1850 and 1860, amounting to over 100 per 
cent. The movement of the State debt after 1840 
when the internal improvement scheme was 
abandoned chiefly by accretions of unpaid inter- 
est, has been estimated as follows: 1842, $15,- 
637,950; 1844, $14,633,969; 1846, $16,389,817; 1848, 
$16,661,795. It reached its maximum in 1853 
the first year of Governor Matteson's administra- 
tion when it was officially reported at $16,724,- 
177. At this time the work of extinguishment 
began, and was prosecuted under successive 
administrations, except during the war, when 
the vast expense incurred in sending troops to 
the field caused an increase. During Governor 
Bissell's administration, the reduction amounted 
to over $3,000,000; during Oglesby's, to over five 
and a quarter million, besides two and a quarter 
million paid on interest. In 1880 the debt had 
been reduced to $281,059.11, and, before the close 
of 1882, it had been entirely extinguished, except 
a balance of $18,500 in bonds, which, having been 
called in years previously and never presented f 01 

"yiyt- - -*p 



payment, are supposed to have been lost. (See 
Macalister and Stebbins Bonds. ) 

organized for the care of female juvenile delin- 
quents, by act of June 2, 1893. The Board consists 
of seven members, nominated by the Executive 
and confirmed by the Senate, and who consti- 
tute a body politic and corporate. Not more than 
two of the members may reside in the same Con- 
gressional District and, of the seven members, 
four must be women. (See also Home for Female 
Juvenile Offenders.) The term of office is six 

STATE HOUSE, located at Springfield. Its 
construction was begun under an act passed by 
the Legislature in February, 1867, and completed 
in 1887. It stands in a park of about eight acres, 
donated to the State by the citizens of Spring- 
field. A provision of the State Constitution of 
1870 prohibited the expenditure of any sum in 
excess of $3,500,000 in the erection and furnishing 
of the building, without previous approval of such 
additional expenditure by the people. This 
amount proving insufficient, the Legislature, at 
its session of 1885, passed an act making an addi- 
tional appropriation of 531,712, which having 
been approved by popular vote at the general 
election of 1886, the expenditure was made and 
the capitol completed during the following year, 
thus raising the total cost of construction and fur- 
nishing to a little in excess of $4,000,000. The 
building is cruciform as to its ground plan, and 
classic in its style of architecture ; its extreme 
dimensions (including porticoes), from north (to 
south, being 379 feet, and, from east to west, 286 
feet. The walls are of dressed Joliet limestone, 
while the porticoes, which are spacious and 
lofty, are of sandstone, supported by polished 
columns of gray granite. The three stories of 
the building are surmounted by a Mansard roof, 
with two turrets and a central dome of stately 
dimensions. Its extreme height, to the top of 
the iron flag-staff, which rises from a lantern 
springing from the dome, is 364 feet. 

tion for the education of teachers, organized 
under an act of the General Assembly, passed 
Feb. 18, 1857. This act placed the work of 
organization in the hands of a board of fifteen 
persons, which was styled "The Board of Educa- 
tion of the State of Illinois," and was constituted 
as follows: C. B. Denio of Jo Daviess County; 
Simeon Wright of Lee ; Daniel Wilkins of Mc- 
Lean ; Charles E. Hovey of Peoria ; George P. Rex . 
of Pike; Samuel W. Moulton of Shelby; John 

Gillespie of Jasper; George Bunsen of St. Clair; 
Wesley Sloan of Pope; Ninian W. Edwards of 
Sangamon; John R. Eden of Moultrie; Flavel 
Moseley and William Wells of Cook ; Albert R. 
Shannon of White; and the Superintendent ov 
Public Instruction, ex-officio. The object of the 
University, as defined in the organizing law, is 
to qualify teachers for the public schools of the 
State, and the course of instruction to be given 
embraces "the art of teaching, and all branches 
which pertain to a common-school education ; in 
the elements of the natural sciences, including 
agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable 
physiology; in the fundamental laws of the 
United States and of the State of Illinois in 
regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and 
such other studies as the Board of Education may, 
from time to time, prescribe." Various cities 
competed for the location of the institution, 
Bloomington being finally selected, its bid, in- 
cluding 160 acres of land, being estimated as 
equivalent to $141,725. The corner-stone was 
laid on September 29, 1857, and the first building 
was ready for permanent occupancy in Septem- 
ber, 1860. Previously, however, it had been 
sufficiently advanced to permit of its being used, 
and the first commencement exercises were held 
on June 29 of the latter year. Three years 
earlier, the academic department had been organ- 
ized under the charge of Charles E. Hovey. The 
first cost, including furniture, etc., was not far 
from $200,000. Gratuitous instruction is given to 
two pupils from each county, and to three from 
each Senatorial District. The departments are : 
Grammar school, high school, normal department 
and model school, all of which are overcrowded. 
The whole number of students in attendance on 
the institution during the school year, 1897-98, 
was 1,197, of whom 891 were iii the normal 
department and 306 in the practice school depart- 
ment, including representatives from 86 coun- 
ties of the State, with a few pupils from other 
States on the payment of tuition. The teaching 
faculty (including the President and Librarian) 
for the same year, was made up of twenty-six 
members twelve ladies and fourteen gentlemen. 
The expenditures for the year 1897-98 aggregated 
47,626.92, against $66,528.69 for 1896-97. Nearly 
$22,000 of the amount expended during the latter 
year was on account of the construction of a 
gymnasium building. 

STATE PROPERTY. The United States Cen- 
sus of 1890 gave the value of real and personal 
property belonging to the State as follows: Pub- 
lic lands, $328,000; buildings, 22,164,000; mis- 



cellaneous property, 2,650,000 total, 25,143,000. 
The land may be subdivided thus: Camp-grounds 
of the Illinois National Guard near Springfield 
(donated), 40,000; Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
$168,000; Illinois University lands, in Illinois 
(donated by the General Government), 41,000, in 
Minnesota (similarly donated), 79,000. The 
buildings comprise those connected with the 
charitable, penal and educational institutions of 
the State, besides the State Arsenal, two build- 
ings for the use of the Appellate Courts (at 
Ottawa and Mount Vernon), the State 'House, 
the Executive Mansion, and locks and dams 
erected at Henry and Copperas Creek. Of the 
miscellaneous property, 120,000 represents the 
equipment of the Illinois National Guard; 1,959,- 
000 the value of the movable property of public 
buildings; 550,000 the endowment fund of the 
University of Illinois; and 21,000 the movable 
property of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. The 
figures given relative to the value of the public 
buildings include only the first appropriations 
for their erection. Considerable sums have 
since been expended upon some of them in repairs, 
enlargements and improvements. 

STATE TREASURERS. The only Treasurer 
of Illinois during the Territorial period was John 
Thomas, who served from 1812 to 1818, and 
became the first incumbent under the State 
Government. Under the Constitution of 1818 
the Treasurer was elected, biennially, by joint vote 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly ; by 
the Constitution of 1848, this officer was made 
elective by the people for the same period, with- 
out limitations as to number of terms; under the 
Constitution of 1870, the manner of election and 
duration of term are unchanged, but the incum- 
bent is ineligible to re-election, for two years 
from expiration of the term for which he may 
have been chosen. The following is a list of the 
State Treasurers from 1818 to 1911, with term of 
each in office: John Thomas, 1818-19; Robert K. 
McLaughlin, 1819-23; Abner Field, 1823-27; James 
Hall, 1827-31; John Dement, 1831-36; Charles 
Gregory, 1836-37; John D. Whiteside, 1837-41; 
Milton Carpenter, 1841-48, John Moore, 1848-57; 
James Miller, 1857-59; William Butler, 1859-63; 
Alexander Starne, 1863-65; James H. Beveridge, 
1865-67; George W Smith, 1867-69; Erastus N. 
Bates, 1869-73; Edward Rutz, 1873-75; Thomas S. 
Ridgway, 1875-77; Edward Rutz, 1877-79, John C. 
Smith, 1879-81; Edward Rutz, 1881-83; John C. 
Smith, 1883-85; Jacob Gross, 1885-87; John R. 
Tanner, 1887-89; Charles Becker, 1889-91; Edward 
S. Wilson, 1891-93; Rufus N. Ramsay, 1893-95; 

Henry Wulff, 1895-97; Henry L. Hertz, 1897-99; 
Floyd K. Whittemore, 1899-1901; Moses O. William- 
son, 1901-03; Fred A. Busse, 1903-05; Len Small, 
1905-07; John F. Smulski, 1907-09; Andrew Russel, 
1909-11; E. E. Mitchell, 1911. 

STAUNTON, a village in Macoupin County, on 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis and Wabash Rail- 
ways, 36 miles northeast of St. Louis; an agricultural 
and mining region; has two banks, churches and a 
weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 2,786; (1910), 5.048. 

STEGER, a village in Cook and Will Counties, 
on the C. & E. I. R. R.; has some local industries 
and one weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 2,161. 

STEEL PRODUCTION. In the manufacture 
of steel, Illinois has long ranked as the second 
State in the Union in the amount of its output, 
and, during the period between 1880 and 1890, 
the increase in production was 241 per cent. In 
1880 there were but six steel works in the State ; 
in 1890 these had increased to fourteen ; and the 
production of steel of all kinds (in tons of 2,000 
pounds) had risen from 254,569 tons to 868,250. 
Of the 3,837,039 tons of Bessemer steel ingots, or 
direct castings, produced in the United States in 
1890, 22 per cent were turned out in Illinois, 
nearly all the steel produced in the State being 
made by that process. From the tonnage of 
ingots, as given above, Illinois produced 622,260 
pounds of steel rails, more than 30 per cent of 
the aggregate for the entire country. This fact 
is noteworthy, inasmuch as the competition in 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel rails, since 
1880, has been so great that many rail mills have 
converted their steel into forms other than rails, 
experience having proved . their production to 
any considerable extent, during the past few 
years, unprofitable except in works favorably 
located for obtaining cheap raw material, or 
operated under the latest and most approved 
methods of manufacture. Open-hearth steel is 
no longer made in Illinois, but the manufacture 
of crucible steel is slightly increasing, the out- 
put in 1890 being 445 tons, as against 130 in 1880. 
For purposes requiring special grades of steel the 
product of the crucible process will be always 
in demand, but the high cost of manufacture 
prevents it, in a majority of instances, from 
successfully competing in price with the other 
processes mentioned. 

STEPHEIS'SOX, Benjamin, pioneer and early 
politician, came to Illinois from Kentucky in 
1809, and was appointed the first Sheriff of 
Randolph County by Governor Edwards under 
the Territorial Government; afterwards served 



as a Colonel of Illinois militia during the War of 
1812; represented Illinois Territory as Delegate 
in Congress, 1814 16, and, on his retirement from 
Congress, became Register of the Land Office at 
Edwardsville, finally dying at Edwardsville Col. 
James TV. (Stephenson), a son 6f the preceding, 
was a soldier during the Black Hawk War, after- 
wards became a prominent politician in the north- 
western part of the State, served as Register of 
the Land Office at Galena and, in 1838, received 
the Democratic nomination for Governor, but 
withdrew before the election. 

STEPHENSON, (Dr.) Benjamin Franklin, 
physician and soldier, was born in Wayne 
County, 111., Oct. 30, 1822, and accompanied his 
parents, in 1825, to Sangamon County, where the 
family settled. His early educational advantages 
were meager, and he did not study his profession 
(medicine) until after reaching his majority, 
graduating from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
in 185C. He began practice at Petersburg, but, 
in April, 1862, was mustered into the volunteer 
army as Surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry. After a little over two years service he 
was mustered out in June, 1864, when he took up 
his residence in Springfield, and, for a year, was 
engaged in the drug business there. In 1865 lie 
resumed professional practice. He lacked tenac- 
ity of purpose, however, was indifferent to money, 
and always willing to give his own services and 
orders for medicine to the poor. Hence, his prac- 
tice was not lucrative. He was one of the leaders 
in the organization of the Grand Army of the 
Republic (which see), in connection with which 
he is most widely known ; but his services in its 
cause failed to receive, during his lifetime, the 
recognition which they deserved, nor did the 
organization promptly flourish, as he had hoped. 
He finally returned with his family to Peters- 
burg. Died, at Rock Creek, Menard, County, 111., 
August 30, 1871. 

STEPHENSON COUNTY, a northwestern 
county, with an area of 573 square miles. The 
soil is rich, productive and well timbered. Fruit- 
culture and stock-raising are among the chief 
industries. Not until 1827 did the aborigines quit 
the locality, and the county was organized, ten 
years later, and named for Gen. Benjamin 
Stephenson. A man named Kirker, who had 
been in the employment of Colonel Gratiot as a 
lead-miner, near Galena, is said to have built the 
first cabin within the present limits of what was 
called Burr Oak Grove, and set himself up as an 
Indian-trader in 1826, but only remained a short 
time. He was followed, the next year, by Oliver 

W. Kellogg, who took Kirker's place, built a 
more pretentious dwelling and became the first 
permanent settler. Later came William Wad- 
dams, the Montagues, Baker, Kilpatrick, Preston, 
the Goddards, and others whose names are linked 
with the county's early history. The first house 
in Freeport was built by William Baker. Organi- 
zation was effected in 1837, the total poll being 
eighty-four votes. The earliest teacher was Nel- 
son Martin, who is said to have taught a school 
of some twelve pupils, in a house which stood on 
the site of the present city of Freeport. Popula- 
tion (1890), 31,338; (1900), 34,933; (1910), 36, 821. 

STERLING, a flourishing city on the north 
bank of Rock River, in Whiteside Count}', 109 
miles west of Chicago, 29 miles east of Clinton, 
Iowa, and 52 miles east-northeast of Rock Island. 
It has ample railway facilities, furnished by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Sterling & 
Peoria, and the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
roads. It contains fourteen churches, an opera 
house, high and grade schools, Carnegie library, 
Government postoffice building, three banks, 
electric street and interurban car lines, electric 
and gas lighting, water-works, paved streets and 
sidewalks, fire department and four newspaper 
offices, two issuing daily editions. It has fine 
water-power, and is an important manufacturing 
center, its works turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages, paper, barbed-wire, school furni- 
ture, burial caskets, pumps, sash, doors, etc. It 
also has the Sterling Iron Works, besides foundries 
and machine shops. The river here flows through 
charming scenery. Pop. (1900), 6,309; (1910), 7,467. 

STEVENS, Bradford A., ex-Congressman, was 
born at Boscawen (afterwards Webster), N. H. , 
Jan. 3, 1813. After attending schools in New 
Hampshire and at Montreal, he entered Dart- 
mouth College, graduating therefrom in 1835. 
During the six years following, he devoted him- 
self to teaching, at Hopkinsville, Ky., and New 
York City. In 1843 he removed to Bureau 
County, 111., where he became a merchant and 
farmer. In 1868 he was chairman of the Board 
of Supervisors, and, in 1870, was elected to Con- 
gress, as an Independent Democrat, for the Fifth 

STEVENSON, Adlai E., ex-Vice-President of 
the United States, was born in Christian County, 
Ky., Oct. 23, 1835. In 1852 he removed with his 
parents to Bloomington, McLean County, 111., 
where the family settled; was educated at the 
Illinois Wesleyan University and at Centre Col- 
lege, Ky., was admitted to the bar in 1858 and 
began practice at Metamora, Wood ford County, 



where he was Master in Chancery, 1861-65, and 
State's Attorney, 1865-69. In 1864 he was candi- 
date for Presidential Elector on the Democratic 
ticket. In 1869 he returned to Bloomington, 
where he has since resided. In 1874, and again 
in 1876, he was an unsuccessful candidate of his 
party for Congress, but was elected as a Green- 
back Democrat in 1878, though defeated in 1880 
and 1882. In 1877 lie was appointed by President 
Hayes a member of the Board of Visitors to 
West Point. During the first administration of 
President Cleveland (1885-89) he was First Assist- 
ant Postmaster General; was a member of the 
National Democratic Conventions of 1884 and 
1892, being Chairman of the Illinois delegation 
the latter year. In 1892 he received his party's 
nomination for the Vice-Presidency, and was 
elected to that office, serving until 1897. Since 
retiring from office he has resumed his residence 
at Bloomington. 

STEWARD, Lewis, manufacturer and former 
Congressman, was born in Wayne County, Pa., 
Nov. 20, 1824, and received a common school 
education. At the age of 14 he accompanied his 
parents to Kendall County, 111., where he after- 
wards resided, being engaged in farming and the 
manufacture of agricultural implements at 
Piano. He studied law but never practiced. In 
1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, being defeated 
by Shelby M. Cullom. In 1890 the Democrats of 
the Eighth Illinois District elected him to Con- 
gress. In 1892 he was again a candidate, but was 
defeated by his Republican opponent, Robert A. 
Childs, by the narrow margin of 27 votes, and, 
In 1894, was again defeated, this time being pitted 
against Albert J. Hopkins. Mr. Steward died at 
his home at Piano, August 26, 1896. 

STEWARDSON, a town of Shelby County, at 
the intersection of the Toledo, St. Louis & Kan- 
sas City Railway with the Altamont branch of 
the Wabash, 12 miles southeast of Shelbyville; 
is in a grain and lumber region ; has a bank and 
a weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 677; (1910), 720. 

STICKNEY, William H., pioneer lawyer, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 9, 1809, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati in 
1831, and, in Illinois in 1834, being at that time a 
resident of Shawneetown; was elected State's 
Attorney by the Legislature, in 1839, for the cir- 
cuit embracing some fourteen counties in the 
southern and southeastern part of the State ; for 
a time also, about 1835-36, officiated as editor of 
"The Gallatin Democrat," and "The Illinois 
Advertiser, " published at Shawneetown. In 1846 

Mr. Stickney was elected to the lower branch of 
the General Assembly from Gallatin County, and, 
twenty-eight years later having come to Chi- 
cago in 1848 to the same body from Cook 
County, serving in the somewhat famous Twenty- 
ninth Assembly. He also held the office of 
Police Justice for some thirteen years, from 1860 
onward. He lived to an advanced age, dying in 
Chicago, Feb. 14, 1898, being at the time the 
oldest surviving member of the Chicago bar. 

STILES, Isaac Newton, lawyer and soldier, 
born at Suffield, Conn., July 16, 1833; was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Lafayette, Ind., in 1855, 
became Prosecuting Attorney, a member of the 
Legislature and an effective speaker in the Fre- 
mont campaign of 1856 ; enlisted as a private sol- 
dier at the beginning of the war, went to the 
field as Adjutant, was captured at Malvern Hill, 
and, after six weeks' confinement in Libby 
prison, exchanged and returned to duty; was 
promoted Major, Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, 
and brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious 
service. After the war he practiced his profes- 
sion in Chicago, though almost totally blind. 
Died, Jan. 18, 1895. 

STJLLMAN, Stephen, first State Senator from 
Sangamon County, 111., was a native of Massachu- 
setts who came, with .his widowed mother, to 
Sangamon County in 1820, and settled near 
Williamsville, where he became the first Post- 
master in the first postoffice in the State north of 
the Sangamon River. In 1822, Mr. Stillman was 
elected as the first State Senator from Sangamon 
County, serving four years, and, at his first session, 
being one of the opponents of the pro-slavery 
Convention resolution. He died, in Peoria, some- 
where between 1835 and 1840. 

STILLMAN TALLEY, village in Ogle County, 
on Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railways; site of first battle 
Black Hawk War; has graded schools, creameries, 
a bank and a newspaper. Pop. about 400. 

STITES, Samnel, pioneer, was born near 
Mount Bethel, Somerset County, N. J., Oct. 31, 
1776; died, August 16, 1839, on his farm, which 
subsequently became the site of the city of Tren- 
ton, in Clinton County, 111. He was descended 
from John Stites, M.D., who was born in Eng- 
land in 1595, emigrated to America, and died at 
Hempstead, L. I., in 1717, at the age of 122 years. 
The family removed to New Jersey in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Samuel was a 
cousin of Benjamin Stites, the first white man to 
settle within the present limits of Cincinnati, and 
various members of the family were prominent in 



the settlement of the upper Ohio Valley as early 
as 1788. Samuel Stites married, Sept. 14, 1794, 
Martha Martin, daughter of Ephraim Martin, 
and grand- daughter of Col. Ephraim Martin, both 
soldiers of the New Jersey line during the Revo- 
lutionary War with the last named of whom 
lie had (in connection with John Cleves Symmes) 
been intimately associated in the purchase and 
settlement of the Miami Valley. In 1800 he 
removed to Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1803 to 
Greene County, and, in 1818, in company with his 
son-in-law. Anthony Wayne Casad, to St. Clair 
County, 111., settling near Union Grove. Later, he 
removed to O'Fallon, and, still later, to Clinton 
County. He left a large family, several members 
of which became prominent pioneers in the 
movements toward Minnesota and Kansas. 

STOLBRAND, Carlos John Mueller, soldier, 
was born in Sweden, May 11, 1821 ; at the age of 
18, enlisted in the Royal Artillery of his native 
land, serving through the campaign of Schleswig- 
Holstein (1848) ; came to the United States soon 
after, and, in 1861, enlisted in the first battalion 
of Illinois Liight Artillery, finally becoming Chief 
of Artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. When 
the latter became commander of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps, Col. Stolbrand was placed at the 
head of the artillery brigade ; in February, 1865, 
was made Brigadier-General, and mustered out 
in January, 1866. After the war he went South, 
and was Secretary of the South Carolina Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1868. The same year he 
was a delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago, and a Presidential Elector. 
He was an inventor and patented various im- 
provements in steam engines and boilers; was 
also Superintendent of Public Buildings at 
Charleston, S. C., under President Harrison. 
Died, at Charleston, Feb. 3, 1894. 

STONE, Daniel, early lawyer and legislator, 
was a native of Vermont and graduate of Middle- 
bury College; became a member of the Spring- 
field (111.) bar in 1833, and, in 1836, was elected 
to the General Assembly being one of the cele- 
brated "Long Nine" from Sangamon County, and 
joining Abraham Lincoln in his protest against 
;i series of pro-slavery resolutions which had been 
adopted by the House. In 1837 he was a Circuit 
Court Judge and, being assigned to the north- 
western part of the State, removed to Galena, 
but was legislated out of office, when he left the 
State, dying a few years later, in Essex County, 
N. J. 

STONE, Horatio 0., pioneer, was born in 
Ontario (now Monroe) County, N. Y., Jan. 2, 

1811 ; in boyhood learned the trade of shoemaker, 
and later acted as overseer of laborers on the 
Lackawanna Canal. In 1831, having located in 
Wayne County, Mich., he was drafted for the 
Black Hawk War, serving twenty-two days under 
Gen. Jacob Brown. In January, 1835, he came 
to Chicago and, having made a fortunate specu- 
lation in real estate in that early day, a few 
months later entered upon the grocery and pro- 
vision trade, which he afterwards extended to 
grain; finally giving his chief attention to real 
estate, in which he was remarkably successful, 
leaving a large fortune at his death, which 
occurred in Chicago, June 20, 1877. 

STONE, (Rev.) Luther, Baptist clergyman, 
was born in the town of Oxford, Worcester 
County, Mass., Sept. 26, 1815, and spent his boy- 
hood on a farm. After acquiring a common 
school education, he prepared for college at Lei- 
cester Academy, and, in 1835, entered Brown 
University, graduating in the class of 1839. He 
then spent three years at the Theological Insti- 
tute at Newton, Mass. ; was ordained to the 
ministry at Oxford, in 1843, but, coming west the 
next year, entered upon evangelical work in 
Rock Island, Davenport, Burlington and neigh- 
boring towns. Later, he was pastor of the First 
Baptist Church at Rockford, 111. In 1847 Mr. 
Stone came to Chicago and established "The 
Watchman of the Prairies," which survives to- 
day under the name of "The Standard," and has 
become the leading Baptist organ in the West. 
After six years of editorial work, he took up 
evangelistic work in Chicago, among the poor 
and criminal classes. During the Civil War he 
conducted religious services at Camp Douglas, 
Soldiers' Rest and the Marine Hospital. He was 
associated in the conduct and promotion of many 
educational and charitable institutions. He did 
much for the First Baptist Church of Chicago, 
and, during the latter years of his life, was 
attached to the Immanuel Baptist Church, 
which he labored to establish. Died, in July, 

STONE, MelTllle E., journalist, banker, Man- 
ager ot Associated Press, born at Hudson, 111., 
August 18, 1848. Coming to Chicago in 1860, he 
graduated from the local high school in 1867, 
and, in 1870, acquired the sole proprietorship of 
a foundry and machine shop. Finding himself 
without resources after the great fire of 1871, he 
embarked in journalism, rising, through the suc- 
cessive grades of reporter, city editor, assistant 
editor and Washington correspondent, to the 
position of editor-in-chief of his own journal. 



He was connected with various Chicago dailies 
between 1871 and 1875, and, on Christinas Day 
of the latter year, issued the first number of "The 
Chicago Daily News." He gradually disposed of 
his interest in this journal, entirely severing 
his connection therewith in 1888. Since that 
date he has been engaged in banking in the city 
of Chicago, and is also General Manager of the 
Associated Press. 

STONE, Samuel, philanthropist, was born at 
Chesterfield, Mass., Dec. 6, 1798; left an orphan 
at seven years of age, after a short term in Lei- 
cester Academy, and several years in a wholesale 
store in Boston, at the age of 19 removed to 
Rochester, N. Y., to take charge of interests in 
the "Holland Purchase," belonging to his father's 
estate ; in 1843-49, was a resident of ^Detroit and 
interested in some of the early railroad enter- 
prises centering there, but the latter year re- 
moved to Milwaukee, being there associated with 
Ezra Cornell in telegraph construction. In 1859 
he became a citizen of Chicago, where he was 
one of the founders of the Chicago Historical 
Society, and a liberal patron of many enterprises 
of a public and benevolent character. Died, May 
4, 1876. 

STOCKTON, a village of Jo Daviess County, on 
the Chicago Great Western R.R. Pop. (1910), 1,096. 

STONINGTON, a village of Christian County; 
on the Wabash Railroad in a farming and coal 
mining district. Pop. (1910), 1,118. 

STOREY, Wilbur F., journalist and news- 
paper publisher, was born at Salisbury, Vt. , Dec. 
19, 1819. He began to learn the printer's trade 
at 12, and, before he was 19, was part owner of a 
Democratic paper called "The Herald," published 
at La Porte, Ind. Later, he either edited or con- 
trolled journals published at Mishawaka, Ind., 
and Jackson and Detroit, Mich. In January, 
1861, he became the principal owner of "The 
Chicago Times," then the leading Democratic 
organ of Chicago. His paper soon came to be 
regarded as the organ of the anti-war party 
throughout the Northwest, and, in June, 1863, 
was suppressed by a military order issued by 
General Burnside, which was subsequently 
revoked by President Lincoln. The net result 
was an increase in "The Times' " notoriety and 
circulation. Other charges, of an equally grave 
nature, relating to its sources of income, its char- 
acter as a family newspaper, etc., were repeatedly 
made, but to all these Mr. Storey turned a deaf 
ear. He lost heavily in the fire of 1871, but, in 
1872, appeared as the editor of "The Times," 
then destitute of political ties About 1876 his 

health began to decline. Medical aid failed to 
afford relief, and, in August, 1884, he was ad- 
judged to be of unsound mind, and his estate was 
placed in the hands of a conservator. On the 
27th of the following October (1884), he died at 
his home in Chicago. 

STORKS, Emery Alexander, lawyer, was born 
at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., August 
12, 1835 ; began the study of law with his father, 
later pursued a legal course at Buffalo, and, in 
1853, was admitted to the bar; spent two years 
(1857-59) in New York City, the latter year 're- 
moving to Chicago, where he attained great 
prominence as an advocate at the bar, as well as 
an orator on other occasions. Politically a 
Republican, he took an active part in Presidential 
campaigns, being a delegate-at-large from Illinois 
to the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 
'72, and '80, and serving as one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents in 1872. Erratic in habits and a master of 
epigram and repartee, many of his speeches are 
quoted with relish and appreciation by those who 
were his contemporaries at the Chicago bar. 
Died suddenly, while in attendance on the Su- 
preme Court at Ottawa, Sept. 12, 1885. 

STRAWN, Jacob, agriculturist and stock- 
dealer, born in Somerset County, Pa., May 30, 
1800 ; removed to Licking County, Ohio, in 1817, 
and to Illinois, in 1831, settling four miles south- 
west of Jacksonville. He was one of the first to 
demonstrate the possibilities of Illinois as a live- 
stock state. Unpretentious and despising mere 
show, he illustrated the virtues of industry, fru- 
gality and honest}'. At his death which occurred 
August 23, 1865 he left an estate estimated in 
value at about 81,000,000, acquired by industry 
and business enterprise. He was a zealous 
Unionist during the war, at one time contributing 
810,000 to the Christian Commission. 

STREATOR, a city (laid out in 1868 and incor- 
porated in 1882) in the southern part of La Salle 
County, 93 miles southwest of Chicago; situated 
on the Vermilion River and a central point for 
five railroads. It is surrounded by a rich agri- 
cultural country, and is underlaid by coal seams 
(two of which are worked) and by shale and 
various clay products of value, adapted to the 
manufacture of fire and building-brick, drain- 
pipe, etc. The city is thoroughly modern, having 
gas, electric lighting, street railways, water- 
works, a good fire-department, and a large, im- 
proved public park. Churches and schools are 
numerous, as are also fine public and private 
buildings. One of the chief industries is the 
manufacture of glass, including rolled-plate, 



window-glass, flint and Bohemian ware and glass 
bottles. Other successful industries are foundries 
and machine shops, flour mills, and clay working 
establishments. There are several banks, and 
three daily and weekly papers are published here. 
The estimated property valuation, in 1884, was 
$12,000,000. Streator boasts some handsome 
public buildings, especially the Government post- 
office and the Carnegie public library building, 
both of which have been erected within the past 
few years. Pop. (1890), 11,414; (1910), 14,253. 

STREET, Joseph M., pioneer and early politi- 
cian, settled at Shawneetown about 1812, coming 
from Kentucky, though believed to have been a 
native of Eastern Virginia. In 1827 he was a 
Brigadier-General of militia, and appears to have 
been prominent in the affairs of that section of 
the State. His correspondence with Governor 
Edwards, about this time, shows him to have been 
a man of far more than ordinary education, with 
a good opinion of his merits and capabilities. He 
was a most persistent applicant for office, making 
urgent appeals to Governor Edwards, Henry Clay 
and other politicians in Kentucky, Virginia and 
Washington, on the ground of his poverty and 
large family. In 1827 he received the offer of 
the clerkship of the new county of Peoria, but, 
on visiting that region, was disgusted with the 
prospect; returning to Shawneetown, bought a 
farm in Sangamon County, but, before the close 
of the year, was appointed Indian Agent at 
Prairie du Chien. This was during the difficul- 
ties with the Winnebago Indians, upon which he 
made voluminous reports to the Secretary of 
War. Mr. Street was a son-in-law of Gen. 
Thomas Posey, a Revolutionary soldier, who was 
prominent in the early history of Indiana and its 
last Territorial Governor. (See Posey, (Gen.) 
Thomas. ) 

STREETER, Alson J., farmer and politician, 
was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., in 1823; 
at the age of two years accompanied his father to 
Illinois, the family settling at Dixon, Lee County, 
He attended Knox College for three years, and, 
in 1849, went to California, where lie spent two 
years in gold mining. Returning to Illinois, he 
purchased a farm of 240 acres near New Windsor, 
Mercer County, to which he has since added sev- 
eral thousand acres. In 1873 he was elected to 
the lower house of the Twenty-eighth General 
Assembly as a Democrat, but, in 1873, allied him- 
self with the Greenback party, whose candidate 
for Congress he was in 1878, and for Governor in 
1880, when he received nearly 3,000 votes more 
than his party's Presidential nominee, in Illinois. 

In 1884 he was elected State Senator by a coali- 
tion of Greenbackers and Democrats in the 
Twenty-fourth Senatorial District, but acted as 
an independent during his term. Died Nov. 24, 1901. 

STRONG, William Emerson, soldier, was born 
at Granville, N. Y., in 1840; from 13 years of age, 
spent his early life in Wisconsin, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at Racine in 1861. The 
same year he enlisted under the first call for 
troops, took part, as Captain of a Wisconsin Com- 
pany, in the first battle of Bull Run; was 
afterwards promoted and assigned to duty as 
Inspector-General in the West, participated in 
the Vicksburg and Atlanta campaigns, being 
finally advanced to the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. After some fifteen months spent in the 
position of Inspector-General of the Freedmen's 
Bureau (1865-66), he located in Chicago, and 
became connected with several important busi- 
ness enterprises, besides assisting, as an officer on 
the staff of Governor Cullom, in the organization 
of the Illinois National Guard. He was elected 
on the first Board of Directors of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and, while making a tour 
of Europe in the interest of that enterprise, died, 
at Florence, Italy, April 10, 1891. 

STUART, John Todd, lawyer and Congress- 
man, born near Lexington, Ky. , Nov. 10, 1807 
the son of Robert Stuart, a Presbyterian minister 
and Professor of Languages in Transylvania 
University, and related, on the maternal side, to 
the Todd family, of whom Mrs. Abraham Lincoln 
was a member. He graduated at Centre College, 
Danville, in 1826, and, after studying law, re- 
moved to Springfield, 111., in 1828, and began 
practice. In 1832 he was elected Representative 
in the General Assembly, re-elected in 1834, and, 
in 1836, defeated, as the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress, by Wm. L. May, though elected, two years 
later, over Stephen A. Douglas, and again in 1840. 
In 1837, Abraham Lincoln, who had been 
studying law under Mr. Stuart's advice and 
instruction, became his partner, the relation- 
ship continuing until 1841. He served in the 
State Senate, 1849-53, was the Bell-Everett 
candidate for Governor in 1860, and was 
elected to Congress, as a Democrat, for a third 
time, in 1862, but, in 1864, was defeated by 
Shelby M. Cullom, his former pupil. During the 
latter years of his life, Mr. Stuart was head of the 
law firm of Stuart, Edwards & Brown. Died, at 
Springfield, Nov. 28, 1885. 

STURGES, Solomon, merchant and banker, 
was born at Fairfield, Conn., April 21, 1796, early 
manifested a passion for the sea and, in 1810, 



made a voyage, on a vessel of which his brother 
was captain, from New York to Georgetown, 
D. C., intending to continue it to Lisbon. At 
Georgetown he was induced to accept a position 
as clerk with a Mr. Williams, where he was 
associated with two other youths, as fellow-em- 
ployes, who became eminent bankers and 
capitalists W. W. Corcoran, afterwards the 
well-known banker of Washington, and George 
W. Peabody, who had a successful banking career 
in England, and won a name as one of the most 
liberal and public-spirited of philanthropists. 
During the War of 1812 young Sturges joined a 
volunteer infantry company, where he had, for 
comrades, George W. Peabody and Francis S. Key, 
the latter author of the popular national song, 
"The Star Spangled Banner." In 1814 Mr. 
Sturges accepted a clerkship in the store of his 
brother-in-law, Ebenezer Buckingham, at Put- 
nam, Muskingum County, Ohio, two years later 
becoming a partner in the concern, where he 
developed that business capacity which laid the 
foundation for his future wealth. Before steam- 
ers navigated the waters of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, he piloted flat-boats, loaded with 
produce and merchandise, to New Orleans, return- 
ing overland. During one of his visits to that 
city, he witnessed the arrival of the "Washing- 
ton," the first steamer to descend the Mississippi, 
as, in 1817, he saw the arrival of the "Walk-in- 
the- Water" at Detroit, the first steamer to arrive 
from Buffalo the occasion of his visit to Detroit 
being to carry funds to General Cass to pay off 
the United States troops. About 1849 lie was 
associated with the construction of the Wabash 
& Erie Canal, from the Ohio River to Terre Haute, 
Ind., advancing money for the prosecution of the 
work, for which was reimbursed by the State. In 
1854 he came to Chicago, and, in partnership 
with his brothers-in-law, C. P. and Alvah Buck- 
ingham, erected the first large grain-elevator in 
that city, on land leased from the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, following it, two years later, 
by another of equal capacity. For a time, sub- 
stantially all the grain coming into Chicago, by 
railroad, passed into these elevators. In 1857 he 
established the private banking house of Solomon 
Sturges & Sons, which, shortly after his death, 
under the management of his son, George Stur- 
ges, became the Northwestern National Bank of 
Chicago. He was intensely patriotic and, on the 
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, used 
of his means freely in support of the Govern- 
ment, equipping the Sturges Rifles, an independ- 
ent company, at a cost of $20,000. He was also a 

subscriber to the first loan made by the Govern- 
ment, during this period, taking $100,000 in 
Government bonds. While devoted to his busi- 
ness, he was a hater of shams and corruption, and 
contributed freely to Christian and benevolent 
enterprises. Died, at the home of a daughter, at 
Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 14, 1864, leaving a large 
fortune acquired by legitimate trade. 

STURTEVANT, Julian Munson, D.D., LL.D., 
clergyman and educator, was born at Warren, 
Litchfield County, Conn., July 26, 1805; spent his 
youth in Summit County, Ohio, meanwhile pre- 
paring for college; in 1822, entered Yale College 
as the classmate of the celebrated Elizur Wright, 
graduating in 1826. After two years as Princi- 
pal of an academy at Canaan, Conn., he entered 
Yale Divinity School, graduating there in 1829; 
then came west, and, after spending a year in 
superintending the erection of buildings, in-De- 
cember, 1830, as sole tutor, began instruction to . 
class of nine pupils in what is now Illinois Col- 
lege, at Jacksonville. Having been joined, the 
following year, by Dr. Edward Beecher as Presi- 
dent, Mr. Sturtevant assumed the chair of Mathe- 
matics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, 
which he retained until 1844, when, by the 
retirement of Dr. Beecher, he succeeded to the 
offices of President and Professor of Intellectual 
and Moral Philosophy. Here he labored, inces- 
santly and unselfishly, as a teacher during term 
time, and, as financial agent during vacations, 
in the interest of the institution of which he had 
been one of the chief founders, serving until 1876, 
when he resigned the Presidency, giving his 
attention, for the next ten years, to the duties of 
Professor of Mental Science and Science of Gov- 
ernment, which he had discharged from 1870. 
In 1886 he retired from the institution entirely, 
having given to its service fifty-six years of his 
life. In 1863, Dr. Sturtevant vkited Europe in 
the interest of the Union cause, delivering effec- 
tive addresses at a number of points in England. 
He was a frequent contributor to the weekly 
religious and periodical press, and was the author 
of "Economics, or the Science of Wealth" (1876) 
a text-book on political economy, and "Keys 
of Sect, or the Church of the New Testament" 
(1879), besides frequently occupying the pulpits 
of local and distant churches having been early 
ordained a Congregational minister. He received 
the degree of D. D. from the University of Mis- 
souri and that of LL.D. from Iowa University. 
Died, in Jacksonville, Feb. 11, 1886. Julian M. 
(Sturtevant), Jr., son of the preceding, was born 
at Jacksonville, III. Feb. 2, 1834; fitted for col- 



lege in the preparatory department of Illinois 
College and graduated from the college (proper) 
in 1854. After leaving college he served as 
teacher in the Jacksonville public schools one 
year, then spent a year as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of theology at 
Andover Theological Seminary, graduating there 
in 1859, meanwhile having discharged the duties 
of Chaplain of the Connecticut State's prison in 
1858. He was ordained a minister of the Con- 
gregational Church at Hannibal, Mo., in 1860, 
remaining as pastor in that city nine years. He 
has since been engaged in pastoral work in New 
York City (1869-70), Ottawa, 111., (1870-73); Den- 
ver, Colo., (1873-77); Grinnell, Iowa, (1877-84); 
Cleveland, Ohio, (1884-90); Galesburg, 111., 
(1890-93), and Aurora, (1893-97). Since leaving 
the Congregational church at Aurora, Dr. Sturte- 
vant has been engaged in pastoral work in Chi- 
cago. He was also editor of "The Congrega- 
tionalist" of Iowa (1881-84), and, at different 
periods, has served as Trustee of Colorado, 
Marietta and Knox Colleges; being still an 
honored member of the Knox College Board. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Illinois 
College, in 1879. 

STRONGHURST, a village of Henderson County 
on the A., T. & S. F. R. R.; in rich agricultural dis- 
trict; has a bank and weekly paper. Pop. (1910), 762. 

SUFFRAGE, in general, the right or privilege 
Df voting. The qualifications of electors (or 
voters), in the choice of public officers in Illinois, 
are fixed by the State Constitution (Art. VII.), 
except as to school officers, which are prescribed 
by law. Under the State Constitution the exer- 
cise of the right to vote is limited to persons who 
were electors at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848, or who are native or natu- 
ralized male citizens of the United States, of the 
age of 21 years or over, who have been residents 
of the State one year, of the county ninety days, 
and of the district (or precinct) in which they 
offer to vote, 30 days. Under an act passed in 
1891, women, of 21 years of age and upwards, are 
entitled to vote for school officers, and are also 
eligible to such offices under the same conditions, 
as to age and residence, as male citizens. (See 
Elections; Australian Ballot. ) 

SULLIVAN, a city and county-seat of Moultrie 
County, 25 miles southeast of Decatur and 14 
miles northwest of Mattoon ; is on three lines of 
railway. It is in an agricultural and stock-rais- 
ing region; contains two State banks, flour and plan- 
ing mills and three weekly newspapers. Pop. 
(1890), 1,468; (1900), 2,399; (1910), 2,621. 

SULLIVAN, William K., journalist, was born 
at Waterford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1843; educated at 
the Waterford Model School and in Dublin; came 
to the United States in 1863, and, after teaching 
for a time in Kane County, in 1864 enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Forty-first Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers. Then, after a brief season spent in 
teaching and on a visit to his native land, he 
began work as a reporter on New York papers, 
later being employed on "The Chicago Tribune" 
and "The Evening Journal," on the latter, at 
different times, holding the position of city edi- 
tor, managing editor and correspondent. He 
was also a Representative from Cook County in 
the Twenty-seventh General Assembly, for three 
years a member of the Chicago Board of Edu- 
cation, and appointed United States Consul to the 
Bermudas by President Harrison, resigning in 
1892. Died, in Chicago, January 17, 1899. 

SULLIVANT, Michael Lucas, agriculturist, 
was born at Franklinton (a suburb of Columbus, 
Ohio), August 6, 1807; was educated at Ohio 
University and Centre College, Ky., and after 
being engaged in the improvement of an immense 
tract of land inherited from his father near his 
birth-place, devoting much attention, meanwhile, 
to the raising of improved stock in 1854 sold his 
Ohio lands and bought 80,000 acres, chiefly in 
Champaign and Piatt Counties, 111., where he 
began farming on a larger scale than before. The 
enterprise proved a financial failure, and he was 
finally compelled to sell a considerable portion of 
his estate in Champaign County, known as Broad 
Lands, to John T. Alexander (see Alexander, 
John T.), retiring to a farm of 40,000 acres at 
Burr Oaks, 111. He died, at Henderson, Ky., Jan. 
29, 1879. 

SUMMIT, a village in Cook County on the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad, 11 miles southwest of 
Chicago, in a farming and popular residence dis- 
trict. Pop. (1910), 949. 

SUMNER, a city of Lawrence County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 19 miles 
west of Vincennes, Ind. ; has a fine school house, 
four churches, two banks, two flour mills, tele- 
phones, and one weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
1,037; (1900), 1,268; (1910), 1,413. 

TION. The office of State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was created by act of the 
Legislature, at a special session held in 1854, its 
duties previous to that time, from 1845, having 
been discharged by the Secretary of State aa 
Superintendent, ex-officio. The following is a list 
of the incumbents from the date of the forma] 



creation of the office down to the present time 
(1911), with the date and duration of term of 
each Ninian W. Edwards (by appointment of 
the Governor), 1854-57; William H. Powell (by- 
election), 1857-59; Newton Bateman, 1859-63; 
John P. Brooks, 1863-65; Newton Bateman, 
1865-75; Samuel W. Etter, 1875-79; James P. 
Slade, 1879-83; Henry Raab, 1883-87; Richard 
Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel 
M. Inglis, 1895-98; James H. Freeman, June, 
1898, to January, 1899 (by appointment of the 
Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof. 
Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898); Alfred 
Bayliss, 1899-1907; Francis G. Blair, 1907. 

Previous to 1870 the tenure of the office was 
two years, but, by the Constitution adopted that 
year, it was extended to four years, the elections 
occurring on the even years between those for 
Governor and other State officers except State 

following is a list of Justices of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois who have held office since the 
organization of the State Government, with the 
period of their respective incumbencies: Joseph 
Phillips. 1818-22 (resigned); Thomas C. Browne, 
1818 48 (term expired on adoption of new Con- 
stitution); William P. Foster, Oct. 9, 1818, to 
July 7, 1819 (resigned), John Reynolds, 1818-25; 
Thomas Reynolds (vice Phillips), 1822-25; Wil- 
liam Wilson (vice Foster) 1819 48 (term expired 
on adoption of new Constitution) ; Samuel D 
Lockwood, 1825-48 (term expired on adoption of 
new Constitution) ; Theophilus W. Smith, 1825-42 
(resigned); Thomas Ford, Feb. 15, 1841, to Au- 
gust 1, 1842 (resigned) ; Sidney Breese, Feb. 15, 
1841, to Dec. 19, 1842 (resigned) also (by re-elec- 
tions), 1857-78 (died in office) ; Walter B. Scales, 
1841-47 (resigned) also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57 
(resigned); Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned); 
Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-42 (resigned) ; John D. 
Caton (vice Ford) August, 1842, to March, 1843 
also (vice Robinson and by successive re-elec- 
tions), May, 1843 to January, 1864 (resigned) ; 
James Semple (vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to 
April 16, 1843 (resigned) ; Richard M. Young (vice 
Smith), 1843-47 (resigned); John M. Robinson 
(vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 27, 1843 (died 
in office); Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., (vice Douglas), 
1843-45 (resigned) also (vice Young), 1847-48; 
James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned); 
Norman H. Purple (vice Thomas), 1843-48 (retired 
under Constitution of 1848) ; Gustavus Koerner 
(vice Shields), 1845-48 (retired by Constitution); 
William A. Denning (vice Scates), 1847-48 (re- 

tired by Constitution) ; Lymau Trumbull, 1848-53 
(resigned); Ozias C. Skinner (vice Treat), 1855-58 
(resigned); Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner), 
1858-85 (deceased); Corydon Beckwith (by ap- 
pointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6, 
1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1864-73; 
Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); John M. 
Scott (two terms), 1870-88; Benjamin R. Sheldon 
(two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAllister, 
1870-75 (resigned) ; John Scholfield (vice Thorn- 
ton), 187393 (died); T. Lyle Dickey (vice 
McAllister), 1875-85 (died) ; David J. Baker (ap- 
pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 2, 
1879 also, 1888-97: John H. Mulkey, 1879-88; 
Damon G. Tunnicliffe (appointed, vice Walker), 
Feb. 15, 1885, to June 1, 1885; Simeon P. Shope, 
1885-94, Joseph M. Bailey, 1888-95 (died in office), 
Alfred M. Craig, 1873-1900; Jesse J. Phillips (vice 
Scholfield), 1893-1901 (deceased); Joseph N. Carter, 
1894-1903; James B. Ricks (vice-Phillips), 1901-06; 
Carroll C. Boggs, 1897-1906; Benjamin M. Magruder, 
1885-1906; Jacob W. Wilkin, 1888-1907 (deceased); 
Guy C. Scott, 1903-09 (deceased). The following 
are the present incumbents (1911) arranged in order 
of Districts, with period for which each has been 
elected: Alonzo K. Vickers; William H. Farmer, 
1906-15; Frank H. Dunn (vice Wilkin), 1907-15; 
George A. Cooke (vice Scott), 1909-12; John P. 
Hand, 1900-18; James H. Cartwright (vice Bailey), 
1895-15; Orrin N. Carter, 1906-15. Under the 
Constitution of 1818, Justices of the Supreme 
Court were chosen by joint ballot of the Legis- 
lature, but under the Constitutions of 1848 and 
1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years 
each. (See Judicial System; also sketches of 
individual members of the Supreme Court under 
their proper names.) 

United States law passed on the subject of Gov- 
ernment surveys was dated, May 20, 1785. After 
reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of 
pensions and to be donated for school purposes, 
it provided for the division of the remaining pub- 
lic lands among the original thirteen States. 
This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordi- 
nance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectan- 
gular system of surveys which, with but little 
modification, has remained in force ever since. 
Briefly outlined, the system is as follows: Town- 
ships, six miles square, are laid ort from principal 
bases, each township containing thirty-six sec- 
tions of one square mile, numbered consecutively, 
the numeration to commence at the upper right 
hand corner of the township. The first principal 
meridian (84 51' west of Greenwich), coincided 



with the line dividing Indiana and Ohio. The 
second (1 37' farther west) had direct relation 
to surveys in Eastern Illinois. The third (89 10' 
30" west of Greenwich) and the fourth (90 29' 
56" west) governed the remainder of Illinois sur- 
veys. The first Public Surveyor was Thomas 
Hutchins, who was called "the geographer." 
(See Hutchins, Thomas.) 

SWEET, (Gen.) Benjamin J., soldier, was 
born at Kirkland, Oneida County, N. Y., April 
24, 1832; came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy- 
gan, Wis , studied law, was elected to the State 
Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth 
Wisconsin Volunteers, being commissioned Major 
in 1862. Later, he resigned and, returning home, 
assisted in the organization of the Twenty-first 
and Twenty-second regiments, being elected 
Colonel of the former ; and with it taking part in 
the campaign in Western Kentucky and Tennes- 
see In 1863 he was assigned to command at 
Camp Douglas, and was there on the exposure, 
in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release 
the rebel prisoners. (See Camp Douglas Conspir- 
acy.) The service which he rendered in the 
defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy 
evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of 
inestimable value to the country. After the 
war. General Sweet located at Lombard, near 
Chicago, was appointed Pension Agent at Chi- 
cago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal 
Revenue, and, in 1872, became Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died, 
in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874 Miss Ada C. 
(Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the efficient 
Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's 

SWEETSER, A. C., soldier and Department 
Commander G. A. R., was born in Oxford County, 
Maine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, 111., in 
1857; enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War 
in the Eighth Illinois Volunteers and, later, in the 
Thirty-ninth; at the battle of Wierbottom 
Church, Va., in June, 1864, was shot through 
both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of 
them. After the war he held several offices of 
trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom- 
ington and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the Springfield District; in 1887 was elected 
Department Commander of the Grand Army of 
the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington, 
March 23, 1896. 

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born near 
Turner, Maine, August 11, 1825, was educated at 
Waterville College (now Colby University), but 
left before graduation , read law in Portland, and, 

while seeking a location in the West, enlisted in 
an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being 
attacked by climatic fever, was discharged before 
completing his term of enlistment. He soon 
after came to Bloomington, 111., where he became 
the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and 
David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for 
a number of years He early became active in 
State politics, was a member of the Republican 
State Convention of 1856, was elected to the 
lower house of the General Assembly in 1858, 
and, in 1860, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lin- 
coln as a Presidential Elector for the State-at- 
large. In 1862 he received the Republican 
nomination for Congress in his District, but was 
defeated. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he 
gained increased distinction as a lawyer, espe- 
cially in the management of criminal cases. In 
1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for 
President, but later returned to the Republican 
party, and, in the National Republican Conven- 
tion of 1888, presented the name of Judge 
Gresham for nomination for the Presidency. 
Died, June 8, 1889. 

SWIGERT, Charles Philip, ex-Auditor of Pub- 
lic Accounts, was born in the Province of Baden, 
Germany, Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents 
to Chicago, I1L, in childhood, and, in his boy- 
hood, attended the Scammon School in that city. 
In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kanka- 
kee County, where, between the ages of 12 and 
18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between 
400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On the break- 
ing out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18 
years of age,- he enlisted as a private in the Forty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, in April, 
1862, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who 
ran the blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet, at 
Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduc- 
tion of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in 
the capture of 7,000 prisoners At the battle of 
Farrnington, Miss., during the siege of Corinth, 
in May, 1862, he had his right arm torn from its 
socket by a six-pound cannon-ball, compelling his 
retirement from the army. Returning home, 
after many weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson 
Barracks and Quincy, 111., he received his final 
discharge, Dec. 21, 1862, spent a year in school, 
also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Com- 
mercial College in Chicago, and having learned 
to write with his left hand, taught for a time in 
Kankakee County ; served as letter-carrier in Chi- 
cago, and for a year as Deputy County Clerk of 
Kankakee County, followed by two terms (1867- 
69) as a student in the Soldiers' College at Fulton, 



111. The latter year he entered upon the duties 
of Treasurer of Kankakee County, serving, by 
successive re-elections, until 1880, when he re- 
signed to take the position of State Auditor, to 
which he was elected a second time in 1884. In 
all these positions Mr. Swigert has proved him- 
self an upright, capable and high-minded public 
official. During his later years his residence was in 
Chicago, where he died June 30, 1903. 

SWING, (Ber.) David, clergyman and pulpit 
orator, was born of German ancestry, at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, August 23, 1836. After 1837 (his 
father dying about this time), the family resided 
for a time at Reedsburgh, and, later, on a farm 
near Williamsburgh, in Clermont County, in the 
same State. In 1852, having graduated from the 
Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the 
study of theology, but, in 1854, accepted the 
position of Professor of Languages in his Alma 
Mater, which he continued to fill for thirteen 
years. His first pastorate was in connection with 
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chi- 
cago, which he assumed in 18G6. His church 
edifice was destroyed in the great Chicago fire, 
but was later rebuilt. As a preacher he was 
popular ; but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial, 
before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomi- 
nation, on charges of heresy. He was acquitted 
by the trial court, but, before the appeal taken by 
the prosecution could be heard, he personally 
withdrew from affiliation with the denomination. 
Shortly afterward he became pastor of an inde- 
pendent religious organization known as the 
"Central Church," preaching, first at McVickers 
Theatre and, afterward, at Central Music Hall, 
Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker 
on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor 
to numerous magazines, as well as the author of 
several volumes. Among his best known books 
are "Motives of Life," "Truths for To-day," and 
"Club Essays." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894. 

SYCAMORE, the county-seat of De Kalb 
County (founded in 1836), 56 miles west of Chi- 
cago, at the intersection of the Chicago & North- 
western and the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
roads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture, 
dairying and stock-raising. The city itself con- 
tains several factories, the principal products 
being agricultural implements, flour, insulated 
wire, brick, tile, varnish, furniture, soap and 
carriages and wagons. There are also works for 
canning vegetables and fruit, besides two creamer- 
ies. The town is lighted by electricity, and has 
high-pressure water-works. There are several 
churches, graded public schools, two weekly 

papers and a young ladies' seminary. Population 
(1900), 3,653; (1910), 3,926. 

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was born at Elmwood, 
Peoria County, 111., April 29, 1860; at an early 
age evinced a predilection for sculpture and 
began modeling; graduated at the University of 
Illinois in 1880, then went to Paris and studied 
sculpture in the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts 
until 1885. The following year he settled in Chi 
cago, finally becoming associated with the Chi- 
cago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on 
art in the Chicago University. Mr. Taft fur- 
nished the decorations of the Horticultural Build- 
ing on the World's Fair Grounds, in 1893. 

TALCOTT, Mancel r business man, was born 
in Rome, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1817; attended the com- 
mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set 
out for the West, traveling on foot from Detroit 
to Chicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he 
worked at farming until 1850. Then, having 
followed the occupation of a miner for some time, 
in California, with some success, he united with 
Horace M. Singer in establishing the firm of 
Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted dur- 
ing most of his life. He served as a member of 
the Chicago City Council, on the Board of County 
Commissioners, as a member of the Police Board, 
and was one of the founders of the First National 
Bank, and President, for several years, of the 
Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and public- 
spirited, he contributed freely to works of 
charity. Died, June 5, 1878. 

TALCOTT, (Capt.) William, soldier of the 
War of 1812 and pioneer, was born in Gilead, 
Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida 
County, N. Y., in 1810, and engaged in farming; 
served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County 
militia during the War of 1812-14, being stationed 
at Sackett's Harbor under the command of Gen. 
Winfield Scott. In 1835, in company with his 
eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an ex- 
tended tour through the West, finally selecting a 
location in Illinois at the junction of Rock River 
and the Pecatonica, where the town of Rockton 
now stands there being only two white families, 
at that time, within the present limits of Winne- 
bago County. Two years later (1837), he brought 
his family to this point, with his sons took up a 
considerable body of Government land and 
erected two mills, to which customers came 
from a long distance. In 1838 Captain Talcott 
took part in the organization of the first Congre- 
gational Church in that section of the State. A 
zealous anti-slavery man, he supported James G. 



Birney (the Liberty candidate for President) in 
1844, continuing to act with that party until the 
organization of the Republican party in 1856; 
was deeply interested in the War for the Union, 
but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 1864. 
Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott), oldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn , April 17, 
1806; was taken to Rome, N. Y., by his father in 
infancy, and, after reaching maturity, engaged 
in mercantile business with his brother in Che- 
mung County ; in 1835 accompanied his father in 
a tour through the West, finally locating at 
Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On 
the organization of Winnebago County, in 1836, 
he was elected one of the first County Commis- 
sioners, and, in 1850, to the State Senate, serving 
four years. He also held various local offices. 
Died, Sept. 30, 1894. Hon. Wait (Talcott), second 
son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at He- 
bron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807, and taken to Rome, 
N. Y., where he remained until his 19th year, 
when he engaged in business at Booneville and, 
still later, in Utica; in 1838, removed to Illinois 
and joined his father at Rockton, finally 
becoming a citizen of Rockford, where, in his 
later years, lie was extensively engaged in manu- 
facturing, having become, in 1854, with his 
brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H. 
Manny & Co., in the manufacture of the Manny 
reaper and mower. He was an original anti- 
slavery man and, at one time,a Free-Soil candidate 
for Congress, but became a zealous Republican 
and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
employed as an attorney in the famous suit of 
McCormick vs. the Manny Reaper Company for 
infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected 
to the State Senate, succeeding his brother, 
Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal 
Revenue in the Second District, appointed by Mr. 
Lincoln in 1862, and continuing in office some 
five years. Though too old for active service in 
the field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily 
hired a substitute to take his place. Mr. Talcott 
was one of the original incorporators and Trus- 
tees of Beloit College, and a founder of Rockford 
Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each 
for many years. Died, June 7, 1890. SylYester 
(Talcott), third son of William Talcott, born at 
Rome, N.- Y., Oct. 14, 1810; when of age, engaged 
in mercantile business in Chemung County; in 
1837 removed, with other members of the family, 
to Winnebago County, 111., where he joined his 
father in the entry of Government lands and the 
erection of mills, as already detailed. lie became 
one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne- 

bago County, also served as Supervisor for a 
number of years and, although a farmer, became 
interested, in 1854, with his brother Wait, 
in the Manny Reaper Company at Rockford. 
He also followed the example of his brother, 
just named, in furnishing a substitute for the 
War of the Rebellion, though too old for service 
himself. Died, June 19, 1885. Henry Walter 
(Talcott), fourth son of William Talcott, was 
born at Rome, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1814; came with 
his father to Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and 
was connected with his father and brothers in busi- 
ness. Died, Dec. 9, 1870. Dwight Lewis (Tal- 
cott), oldest son of Henry Walter Talcott, born 
in Winnebago County; at the age of 17 years 
enlisted at Belvidere, in January, 1864, as a soldier 
in the Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry ; served 
as provost guard some two months at Fort Picker- 
ing, near Memphis, and later took part in many 
of the important battles of that year in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee. Having been captured at 
Campbellsville, Tenn. , he was taken to Anderson- 
ville, Ga., where he suffered all the horrors of 
that famous prison-pen, until March, 1865, when 
he was released, arriving at home a helpless 
skeleton, the day after Abraham Lincoln's assas- 
sination. Mr. Talcott subsequently settled in 
Muscatine County, Iowa. 

TALLULA, a prosperous village of Menard 
County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chi- 
cago & Alton Railway, 24 miles northeast of 
Jacksonville; is in the midst of a grain, coal- 
mining, and stock-growing region; has a local 
bank and newspaper. Pop. (1900), 639; (1910), 742. 

TAMAROA,a village in Perry County, situated 
at the junction of the Illinois Central with the 
Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad, 8 miles 
north of Duquoin, and 57 miles east-southeast of 
Belleville. It has a bank, a newspaper office, a 
large public school, five churches and two flour- 
ing mills. Coal is mined here and exported in 
large quantities. Pop. (1900), 853; (1910), 910. 

(See Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad. ) 

TANNER, Edward Allen, clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born of New England ancestry, at 
Waverly, 111., Nov. 29, 1837 being the first child 
who could claim nativity there; was educated 
in the local schools and at Illinois College, 
graduating from the latter in 1857; spent four 
years teaching in his native place and at Jack- 
sonville; then accepted the Professorship of 
Latin in Pacific University at Portland, Oregon, 
remaining four years, when he returned to his 
Alma Mater (1865), assuming there the chair of 



Latin and Rhetoric. In 1881 he was appointed 
financial agent of the latter institution, and, in 
1882, its President. While in Oregon he had 
been ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church, and, for a considerable period during 
his connection with Illinois College, officiated as 
Chaplain of the Central Hospital for the Insane 
at Jacksonville, besides supplying local and 
other pulpits. He labored earnestly for the 
benefit of the institution under his charge, and, 
during his incumbency, added materially to its 
endowment and resources. Died, at Jackson- 
ville, Feb. 8, 1892. 

TANNER, John R., Governor, was born in 
Warrick County, Ind., April 4, 1844, and brought 
to Southern Illinois in boyhood, where he grew 
up on a farm in the vicinity of Carbondale, 
enjoying only such educational advantages as 
were afforded by the common school ; in 1863, at 
the age of 19, enlisted in the Ninety-eighth Illi- 
nois Volunteers, serving until June, 1865, when 
he was transferred to the Sixty-first, and finally 
mustered out in September following. All the 
male members of Governor Tanner's family were 
soldiers of the late war, his father dying in a 
rebel prison at Columbus, Miss. , one of his bro- 
thers suffering the same fate from wounds at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and another brother dying in hospital 
at Pine Bluff, Ark. Only one of this patriotic 
family, besides Governor Tanner, still survives 
Mr. J. M. Tanner of Clay County, who left the 
service with the rank of Lieutenant of the Thir- 
teenth Illinois Cavalry. Returning from the 
war, Mr. Tanner established himself in business 
as a farmer in Clay County, later engaging suc- 
cessfully in the milling and lumber business as 
the partner of his brother. The public positions 
held by him, since the war, include those of 
Sheriff of Clay County (1870-72), Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court (1872-76), and State Senator (1880-83). 
During the latter year he received the appoint- 
ment of United States Marshal for the Southern 
District of Illinois, serving until after the acces- 
sion of President Cleveland in 1885. In 1886. he 
was the Republican nominee for State Treasurer 
and was elected by an unusually large majority ; 
in 1891 was appointed, by Governor Fifer, a 
member of the Railroad and Warehouse Commis- 
sion, but, in 1892, received the appointment of 
Assistant United States Treasurer at Chicago, 
continuing in the latter office until December, 
1893. For ten years (1874-84) he was a member 
of the Republican State Central Committee, re- 
turning to that body in 1894, when he was chosen 
Chairman and conducted the campaign which 

resulted in the unprecedented Republican suc- 
cesses of that year. In 1896 he received the 
nomination of his party for Governor, and was 
elected over Gov. John P. Altgeld, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, by a plurality of over 113.000. 
Died after expiration of his term, May 23, 1901. 

TANNER, Tazewell B., jurist, was born in 
Henry County, Va., and came to Jefferson 
County, 111., about 1846 or '47, at first taking a 
position as teacher and Superintendent of Public 
Schools. Later, he was connected with "The 
Jeffersonian, " a Democratic paper at Mount Ver- 
non, and, in 1849, went to the gold regions of 
California, meeting with reasonable success as a 
miner. Returning in a year or two, he was 
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and, while in 
the discharge of his duties, prosecuted the study 
of law, finally, on admission to the bar, entering 
into 'partnership with the late Col. Thomas S. 
Casey. In 1854 he was elected Representative in 
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and was in- 
strumental in securing the appropriation for the 
erection of a Supreme Court building at Mount 
Vernon. In 1862 he served as a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of that year ; was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1873, and, in 1877, was 
assigned to duty on the Appellate bench, but, at 
the expiration of his term, declined a re-election 
and resumed the practice of his profession at 
Mount Vernon. Died, March 25, 1880. 

TAXATION, in its legal sense, the mode of 
raising revenue. In its general sense its purposes 
are the support of the State and local govern- 
ments, the promotion of the public good by 
fostering education and works of public improve- 
ment, the protection of society by the preser- 
vation of order and the punishment of crime, and 
the support of the helpless and destitute. In 
practice, and as prescribed by the Constitution, 
the raising of revenue is required to be done "by 
levying a tax by valuation, so that every person 
and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to 
the value of his, her or its property such value 
to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be 
elected or appointed in such manner as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise." 
(State Constitution, 1870 Art. Revenue, Sec. 1.) 
The person selected under the law to make this 
valuation is the Assessor of the county or the 
township (in counties under township organiza- 
tion), and he is required to make a return to the 
County Board at its July meeting each year the 
latter having authority to hear complaints of tax- 
payers and adjust inequalities when found to 
exist. It is made the duty of the Assessor to 






include in his return, as real-estate, all lands and 
the buildings or other improvements erected 
thereon; and, under the head of personal prop- 
erty, all tangible effects, besides moneys, credits, 
bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or 
corporations, investments, annuities, franchises, 
royalties, etc. Property used for school, church 
or cemetery purposes, as well as public buildings 
and other property belonging to the State and 
General Government, municipalities, public 
charities, public libraries, agricultural and scien- 
tific societies, are declared exempt. Nominally, 
all property subject to taxation is required to be 
assessed at its cash valuation ; but, in reality, the 
valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of 
twenty-five to thirty-three per cent of its esti- 
mated cash value. In the larger cities, however, 
the valuation is often much lower than this, 
while very large amounts escape assessment 
altogether. The Revenue Act, passed at the 
special session of the Fortieth General Assembly 
(1898), requires the Assessor to make a return of 
ah property subject to taxation in his district, at 
its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Review 
fixes a tax on the basis of twenty per cent of 
such cash valuation. An abstract of the property 
assessment of each county goes before the State 
Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in 
August, for the purpose of comparison and equal- 
izing valuations between counties, but the Board 
has no power to modify the assessments of indi- 
vidual tax-payers. (See State Board of Equali- 
zation.) This Board has exclusive power to fix 
the valuation for purposes of taxation of the 
capital stock or franchises of companies (except 
certain specified manufacturing corporations) , in- 
corporated under the State laws, together with the 
"railroad track" and "rolling stock" of railroads, 
and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph 
lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter 
between counties in which they lie. The Consti- 
tution of 1848 empowered the Legislature to 
impose a capitation tax, of not less than fifty 
cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free 
white male citizen entitled to the right of suf- 
frage, between the ages of 21 and 60 years, but the 
Constitution of 1870 grants no such power, 
though it authorizes the extension of the "objects 
and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the 
principle contained in the first section of the 
Revenue Article. Special assessments in cities, 
for the construction of sewers, pavements, etc., 
being local and in the form of benefits, cannot 
be said to come under the head of general tax- 
ation. The same is to be said of revenue derived 

from fines and penalties, which are forms of 
punishment for specific offenses, and go to the 
benefit of certain specified funds. 

TAYLOR, Abner, ex-Congressman, was a native 
of Maine, and a resident of Chicago. He had been 
in active business all his life as contractor, builder 
and merchant, and, for some time, a member of 
the wholesale dry-goods firm of J. V. Farwell & 
Co., of Chicago. He was a member of the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly, a delegate to the 
National Republican Convention of 1884, and 
represented the First Illinois District in the Fifty- 
first and Fifty-second Congresses, 1889 to 1893. 
He was one of the contractors for the erection of 
the new State Capitol of Texas. Died April 13, 1903. 

TAYLOR, Benjamin Franklin, journalist, poet 
and lecturer, was born at Lowville, N. Y , July 
19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in 
1839, the next year becoming literary and dra- 
matic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal" 
Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputa- 
tion as a journalist and poet, and was much in 
demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His 
letters from the field during the Rebellion, as 
war correspondent of "The Evening Journal," 
won for him even a greater popularity, and were 
complimented by translation into more than one 
European language. After the war, he gave his 
attention more unreservedly to literature, his 
principal works appearing after that date. His 
publications in book form, including both prose 
and poetry, comprise the following: "Attractions 
of Language" (1845); "January and June" 
(1853); "Pictures in Camp and Field" (1871), 
"The World on Wheels" (1873); "Old Time Pic- 
tures and Sheaves of Rhyme" (1874) ; "Songs of 
Yesterday" (1877); "Summer Savory Gleaned 
from Rural Nooks" (1879); "Between the Gates" 
pictures of California life (1881) ; "Dulce 
Domum, the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theo- 
philus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings," 
a novel (1887). The last was in the hands of the 
publishers at his death, Feb. 27, 1887. Among 
his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long 
Ago," "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of 
the River. " "The London Times" complimented 
Mr. Taylor with the title of "The Oliver Gold- 
smith of America. " 

TAYLOR, Edmund Dick, early Indian-trader 
and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H., Va., 
Oct. 18, 1802 the son of a commissary in the 
army of the Revolution, under General Greene, 
and a cousin of General (later, President) Zachary 
Taylor ; left his native State in his youth and, at 
an early day, came to Springfield, 111., where he 



opened an Indian-trading post and general store ; 
was elected from Sangamon County to the lower 
branch of the Seventh General Assembly (1830) 
and re-elected in 1832 the latter year being a 
competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
defeated. In 1834 he was elected to the State 
Senate and, at the next session of the Legislature, 
was one of the celebrated "Long Nine" who 
secured the removal of the State Capital to 
Springfield. He resigned before the close of his 
term to accept, from President Jackson, the ap- 
pointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at Chi- 
cago. Here he became one of the promoters of 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (1837), 
serving as one of the Commissioners to secure 
subscriptions of stock, and was also active in 
advocating the construction of the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel," by 
which he was known during most of his life, was 
acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff 
of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk 
War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel 
Taylor became one of the Trustees of the Chicago 
branch of the State Bank, and was later identified 
with various banking enterprises, as also a some- 
what extensive operator in real estate. An active 
Democrat in the early part of his career in Illi- 
nois, Colonel Taylor was one of the members of 
his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb 
raska bill in 1854, and advocated the election of 
General Bissell to the governorship in 1856. In 
1860 he was again in line with his party in sup- 
port of Senator Douglas for the Presidency, and 
was an opponent of the war policy of the Govern- 
ment still later, as shown by his participation in 
the celebrated "Peace Convention" at Spring- 
field, of June 17, 1863. In the latter years of his 
life he became extensively interested in coal 
lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and, 
for a considerable time, served as President of the 
Northern Illinois Coal & Mining Company, his 
home, during a part of this period, being at 
Mendota. Died, in Chicago, Dec. 4, 1891. 

TAYLORVILLE, a city and county-seat of 
Christian County, on the South Fork of the Sanga- 
mon River and on the Wabash Railway at its 
point of intersection with the Springfield Division 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. It is 
about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and 
28 miles southwest of Decatur. It has several 
banks, flour mills, paper mill, electric light and 
gas plants, water-works, two coal mines, carriage 
and wagon shops, a manufactory of farming 
implements, two daily and weekly papers, nine 
churches and five graded and township high 

schools. Much coal is mined in this vicinity. 
Pop. (1890), 2,839; (1900), 4,248; (1910), 5,446. 

TAZEWELL COUNTY, a central county on 
the Illinois River; was first settled in 1823 and 
organized in 1827 ; has an area of 650 square miles 
was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia. 
It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers 
and traversed by several lines of railway. The 
surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and 
rich, but, requiring drainage, especially on the 
river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are 
found, but, generally speaking, Tazewell is an 
agricultural county. The cereals are extensively 
cultivated; wool is also clipped, and there are 
dairy interests of some importance. Distilling is 
extensively conducted at Pekin, the county -seat, 
which is also the seat of other mechanical indus- 
tries. (See also Pekin.) Population of the 
county (1890), 29,556: (1900), 33,221; (1910). 34,027 

TEMPLE, John Taylor, M.D., early Chicago 
physician, born in Virginia in 1804, graduated in 
medicine at Middlebury College, Vt. , in 1830, and, 
in 1833, arrived in Chicago. At this time he had 
a contract for carrying the United States mail 
from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay, 
and the following year undertook a similar con- 
tract between Chicago and Ottawa. Having sold 
these out three years later, he devoted his atten- 
tion to the practice of his profession, though 
interested, for a time, in contracts for the con- 
struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Dr. 
Temple was instrumental in erecting the first 
house (after Rev. Jesse Walker's missionary 
station at Wolf Point), for public religious 
worship in Chicago, and, although himself a 
Baptist, it was used in common by Protestant 
denominations. He was a member of the first 
Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College, 
though he later became a convert to homeopathy, 
and finally, removing to St. Louis, assisted in 
founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy, 
dying there, Feb. 24, 1877. 

TENURE OF OFFICE. (See Elections.) 

RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Alton <fc Terre 
Haute Railroad.) 

St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad.) 

ROAD, a corporation operating no line of its own 
within the State, but the lessee and operator of 
the following lines (which see): St. Louis, 
Vandalia & Terre Haute, 158.3 miles; Terre 
Haute & Peoria, 145.12 miles; East St. Louis 
& Carondelet, 12.74 miles total length of leased 




lines in Illinois, 316.16 miles. The Terre Haute 
& Indianapolis Railroad was incorporated in 
Indiana in 1847, as the Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond, completed a line between the points 
named in the title, in 1852, and took its present 
name in 1866. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany purchased a controlling interest in its stock 
in 1893. 

(Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from 
Terre Haute, Ind., to Peoria, 111., 145.12 miles, 
with 28. 78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9 
miles in operation, all being in Illinois operated 
by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Com- 
pany. The gauge is standard, and the rails are 
steel. (HISTORY.) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887, 
successor to the Illinois Midland Railroad. The 
latter was made up by the consolidation (Nov. 4, 
1874) of three lines: (1) The Peoria, Atlanta & 
Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened in 
1874; (2) the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered 
in 1861 and opened in December, 1872 ; and (3) the 
Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873 
and opened in 1874 the consolidated lines 
assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Rail- 
road. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold under 
foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized 
as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1892 
it was leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is 
operated as a part of the "Vandalia System." 
The capital stock (1898) was $3,764,200; funded 
debt, $2,280,000,total capital invested, $6,227,481. 
TEUTOPOLIS, a village of Efflngham County, 
on the Vandalia Railroad line, four miles east of 
Effingham, is a strictly agricultural region and 
was originally settled by a colony of Germans 
from Cincinnati. Population (1900), 498; (1910), 

THOMAS, Horace H., lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Vermont, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at 
Middlebury College, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced 
practice. At the outbreak of the rebellion he 
enlisted and was commissioned Assistant Adju- 
tant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the 
close of the war he took up his lesidence in Ten- 
nessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff 
of Governor Brownlow. In 1867 lie returned to 
Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected 
a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and 
re-elected in 1880, being chosen Speaker of the 
House during his latter term. In .1888 he was 
elected State Senator from the Sixth District, 
serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth 

and Thirty-seventh General Assemblies. In 
1897, General Thomas was appointed United 
States Appraiser in connection with the Custom 
House in Chicago. Died March 17, 1904. 

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United 
States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md., 
claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore. 
Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood 
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, 
in 1803; in 1805 was Speaker of the Territorial 
Legislature and, later, represented the Territory 
as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of 
Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he 
removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the 
first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818, 
as Delegate from St. Clair County, presided over 
the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on 
the admission of the State, became one of the 
first United States Senators Governor Edwards 
being his colleague. Though an avowed advo- 
cate of slavery, he gained no little prominence 
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Com- 
promise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to 
the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He sub- 
sequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where 
he died by suicide, May 4, 1853. Jesse Burgess 
(Thomas), Jr., nephew of the United States Sena- 
tor of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, 
July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania 
University, and, being admitted to the bar, 
located at Edwardsville, 111. He first appeared 
in connection with public affairs as Secretary of 
the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1832; 
in 1834 was elected Representative in the General 
Assembly from Madison County, but, in Febru- 
ary following, was appointed Attorney-General, 
serving only one year. He afterwards held the 
position of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being 
then in Springfield; in 1843 he became Associ- 
ate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment 
of the Governor, as successor to Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and was afterwards elected to the same 
office by the Legislature, remaining until 1848. 
During a part of his professional career he was 
the partner of David Prickett and William L. 
May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of 
the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago, 
where he died, Feb. 21, 1850. Jesse B. (Thomas) 
third, clergyman and son of the last named ; born 
at Edwardsville, 111., July 29, 1832; educated at 
Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.) 
Theological Seminary ; practiced law for a time 
in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist minis- 
try, serving churches at Waukegan, 111., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He 



then became pastor of the Michigan Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, in Chicago, remaining until 1874, 
when he returned to Brooklyn. In 1887 he 
became Professor of Biblical History in the 
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he 
has since resided. He is the author of several 
volumes, and, in 1866, received the degree of D.D. 
from the old University of Chicago. 

THOMAS, John, pioneer and soldier of the 
Black Hawk War, was born in Wythe County, 
Va., Jan. 11, 1800. At the age of 18 he accom- 
panied his parents to St. Clair County, 111., where 
the family located in what was then called the 
Alexander settlement, near the present site of 
Shiloh. When he was 22 he rented a farm 
(although he had not enough money to buy a 
horse) and married. Six years later he bought 
and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward, 
rapidly accumulated real property, until he 
became one of the most extensive owners of farm- 
ing land in St. Clair County. In early life he 
was fond of military exercise, holding various 
offices in local organizations and serving as a 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1824 he was 
one of the leaders of the party opposed to the 
amendment of the State Constitution to sanction 
slavery, was a zealous opponent of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill in 1854, and" a firm supporter of the 
Republican party from the date of its formation. 
He was elected to the lower house of the General 
Assembly in 1838, '62, '64, '72 and '74; and to the 
State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the 
latter body. Died, at Belleville, Dec. 16, 1894, in 
the 95th year of his age. 

THOMAS, John R., ex-Congressman, was born 
at Mount Vernon, 111., Oct. 11, 1846. He served 
in the Union Army during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, rising from the ranks to a captaincy. After 
his return home he studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1869. From 1872 to 1876 he was 
State's Attorney, and, from 1879 to 1889, repre- 
sented his District in Congress. In 1897, Mr. 
Thomas was appointed by President McKinley 
an additional United States District Judge for 
Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita, 
in that Territory. 

THOMAS, William, pioneer lawyer and legis- 
lator, was born in what is now Allen County, 
Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudimentary edu- 
cation, and served as deputy of his father (who 
was Sheriff) , and afterwards of the County Clerk ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823 ; 
in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, 111., where he 
taught school, served as a private in the Winne- 
bago War (1827), and at the session of 1828-29, 

reported the proceedings of the General Assem- 
bly for ; 'The Vandalia Intelligencer"; was State's 
Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan 
County; served as Quartermaster and Commis- 
sary in the Black Hawk War (1831-32), first under 
Gen. Joseph Duncan and, a year later, under 
General Whiteside ; in 1839 was appointed Circuit 
Judge, but legislated out of office two years later. 
It was as a member of the Legislature, however, 
that he gained the greatest prominence, first as 
State Senator in 1834-40, and Representative in 
1846-48 and 1850-52, when he was especially influ- 
ential in the legislation which resulted in estab- 
lishing the institutions for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane 
(the first in the State) at Jacksonville serving, 
for a time, as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the latter. He was also prominent in connec- 
tion with many enterprises of a local character, 
including the establishment of the Illinois Female 
College, to which, although without children of 
his own, he was a liberal contributor. During 
the first year of the war he was a member of the 
Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Gov- 
ernor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 22, 

THORNTON, Anthony, jurist, was born in 
Bourbon County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 being 
descended from a Virginia family. After the 
usual primary instruction in the common schools, 
he spent two years in a high school at Gallatin, 
Tenn., when he entered Centre College at Dan- 
ville, Ky., afterwards continuing his studies at 
Miami University, Ohio, where he graduated in 
1834. Having studied law with an uncle at 
Paris, Ky., he was licensed to practice in 1836, 
when he left his native State with a view to set- 
tling in Missouri, but, visiting his uncle, Gen. 
William F. Thornton, at Shelby ville, 111., was 
induced to establish himself in practice there. 
He served as a member of the State Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862, and as Represent- 
ative in the Seventeenth General Assembly 
(1850-52) for Shelby County. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress, and, in 
1870, to the Illinois Supreme Court, but served 
only until 1873, when he resigned. In 1879 
Judge Thornton removed to Decatur, 111., but 
subsequently returned to Shelbyville, where 
he died Sept. 10, 1904. 

THORNTON, William Fltzhngh, Commissioner 
of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, was born in 
Hanover County, Va., Oct. 4, 1789; in 1806, went 
to Alexandria, Va., where he conducted a drug 
business for a time, also acting as associate 



editor of "The Alexandria Gazette." Subse- 
quently removing to Washington City, he con- 
ducted a paper there in the interest of John 
Quincy Adams for the Presidency. During the 
War of 1812-14 he served as a Captain of cavalry, 
and, for a time, as staff-officer of General Winder. 
On occasion of the visit of Marquis La Fayette to 
America (1824-25) he accompanied the distin- 
guished Frenchman from Baltimore to Rich- 
mond. In 1829 he removed to Kentucky, and, 
in 1833, to Shelby ville, 111., where he soon after 
engaged in mercantile business, to which he 
added a banking and brokerage business in 1859, 
with which he was actively associated until his 
death. In 1836, he was appointed, by Governor 
Duncan, one of the Commissioners of the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal, serving as President of the 
Board until 1842. In 1840, he made a visit to 
London, as financial agent of the State, in the 
interest of the Canal, and succeeded in making a 
sale of bonds to the amount of $1,000,000 on what 
were then considered favorable terms. General 
Thornton was an ardent Whig until the organi- 
zation of the Republican party, when he became 
a Democrat. Died, at Shelbyville, Oct. 21, 

TILLSOJf, John, pioneer, was born at Halifax, 
Mass., March 13, 1796; came to Illinois in 1819, 
locating at Hillsboro, Montgomery County, where 
he became a prominent and enterprising operator 
in real estate, doing a large business for eastern 
parties; was one of the founders of Hillsboro 
Academy and an influential and liberal friend of 
Illinois College, being a Trustee of the latter 
from its establishment until his death ; was sup- 
ported in the Legislature of 1827 for State Treas- 
urer, but defeated by James Hall. Died, at 
Peoria, May 11, 1853.^hri9tiana Holmes (Till- 
son), wife of the preceding, was born at Kingston, 
Mass., Oct. 10, 1798; married to John Tillson in 
1822, and immediately came to Illinois to reside ; 
was a woman of rare culture and refinement, and 
deeply interested in benevolent enterprises. 
Died, in New York City, May 29, 1872. Charles 
Holmes (Tillson), son of John and Christiana 
Holmes Tillson, was born at Hillsboro, 111. , Sept. 
15, 1823; educated at Hillsboro Academy and 
Illinois College, graduatifig from the latter in 
1844; studied law in St. Louis and at Transyl- 
vania University, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Louis and practiced there some years also served 
several terms in the City Council, and was a 
member of the National Guard of Missouri in the 
War of the Rebellion. Died, Nov. 25, 1865. 
John (Tillson), Jr., another son, was born at 

Hillsboro, 111., Oct. 12, 1825; educated at Hills- 
boro Academy and Illinois College, but did not 
graduate from the latter; graduated from Tran- 
sylvania Law School, Ky., in 1847, and was 
admitted to the bar at Quincy, 111., the same 
year; practiced two years at Galena, when he 
returned to Quincy. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, became its 
Lieutenant-Colonel, on the promotion of Col. J. D. 
Morgan to Brigadier-General, was advanced to 
the colonelcy, and, in July, 1865, was mustered 
out with the rank of brevet Brigadier-General; 
for two years later held a commission as Captain 
in the regular army. During a portion of 1869-70 
he was editor of "The Quincy Whig"; in 1873 
was elected Representative in the Twenty-eighth 
General Assembly to succeed Nehemiah Bushnell, 
who had died in office, and, during the same year, 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the Quincy District, serving until 1881. Died, 
August 6, 1892. 

TILLSON, Robert, pioneer, was born in Hali- 
fax County, Mass., August 12, 1800; came to Illi- 
nois in 1822, and was employed, for several years, 
as a clerk in the land agency of his brother, John 
Tillson, at Hillsboro. In 1826 he engaged in the 
mercantile business with Charles Holmes, Jr., in 
St. Louis, but, in 1828, removed to Quincy, 111., 
where, he opened the first general store in that 
city; also served as Postmaster for some ten 
years During this period he built the first two- 
story frame building erected in Quincy, up to 
that date. Retiring from the mercantile business 
in 1840 he engaged in real estate, ultimately 
becoming the proprietor of considerable property 
of this character ; was also a contractor for fur- 
nishing cavalry accouterments to the Government 
during the war. Soon after the war he erected 
one of the handsomest business blocks existing 
in the city at that time. Died, in Quincy, Dec. 
27, 1892. 

TINCHER, John L., banker, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1821 ; brought by his parents to Vermil- 
ion County, Ind., in 1829, and left an orphan at 
17; attended school in Coles County, 111., and 
was employed as clerk in a store at Danville, 
1843-53. He then became a member of the firm 
of Tiuch.r & English, merchants, later establish- 
ing c, bsak, which became the First National 
Bank of Danville. In 1864 Mr. Tincher was 
elected Representative in the Twenty-fourth 
General Assembly and, two years later, to the 
Senate, being re-elected in 1870. He was also a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention 
of 1869-70. Died, in Springfield, Dec. 17, 1871, 



while in attendance on the adjourned session of 
that year. 

TIPTON, Thomas F., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Franklin County, Ohio, August 29, 1833; 
and was a resident of McLean County, 111., from 
the age of 10 years, his last home being in 
Bloomington. He was admitted to the bar in 
1857, and, from January, 1867, to December, 1868, 
was State's Attorney for the Eighth Judicial 
Circuit. In 1870 he was elected Judge of the 
same circuit, and under the new Constitution, 
was chosen Judge of the new Fourteenth Circuit. 
From 1877 to 1879 he represented the (then) 
Thirteenth Illinois District in Congress, but, in 
1878, was defeated by Adlai E. Stevenson, the 
Democratic nominee. In 1891 he was re-elected 
to a seat on the Circuit bench for the Bloomington 
Circuit, but resumed practice at the expiration 
of his term in 1897. Died Feb. 7, 1904. 

T1SKILWA, a village of Bureau County, on the 
Chicago, Book Island & Pacific Railway, 7 miles 
southwest of Princeton; has creameries and 
cheese factories, churches, school, library, water- 
works, bank and a newspaper. Pop. (1910), 857. 

TODD, (Col.) John, soldier, was born in Mont- 
gomery County, Pa., in 1750; took part in the 
battle of Point Pleasant, Va., in 1774, as Adju- 
tant-General of General Lewis; settled as a 
lawyer at Fincastle, Va., and, in 1775, removed 
to Fayette County, Ky., the next year locating 
near Lexington. He was one of the first two 
Delegates from Kentucky County to the Virginia 
House of Burgesses, and, in 1778, accompanied 
Col. George Rogers Clark on his expedition 
against Kaskaskia and Vincennes. In Decem- 
ber, 1778, he was appointed by Gov. Patrick 
Henry, Lieutenant -Commandant of Illinois 
County, embracing the region northwest of the 
Ohio River, serving two years; in 1780, was again 
a member of the Virginia Legislature, where he 
procured grants of land for public schools and 
introduced a bill for negro-emancipation. He 
was killed by Indians, at the battle of Blue 
Licks, Ky., August 19, 1782. 

TODD, (Dr.) John, physician, born near Lex- 
ington, Ky., April 27, 1787, was one of the earli- 
est graduates of Transylvania University, also 
graduating at the Medical University of Phila- 
delphia; was appointed Surgeon-General of Ken- 
tucky troops in the War of 1812, and captured at 
tne battle of River Raisin. Returning to Lex- 
ington after his release, he practiced there and 
at Bardstown, removed to Edwardsville, 111., in 
1817, and, in 1827, to Springfield, where he had 
been appointed Register of the Land Office by 

President John Quincy Adams, but was removed 
by Jackson in 1829. Dr. Todd continued to reside 
at Springfield until his death, which occurred, 
Jan. 9, 1865. He was a grandson of John Todd, 
who was appointed Commandant of Illinois 
County by Gov. Patrick Henry in 1778, and an 
uncle of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln. John Blair 
Smith (Todd), son of the preceding, was born at 
Lexington, Ky., April 4, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1817; graduated at the United 
States Military Academy in 1837, serving after- 
wards in the Florida and Mexican wars and on 
the frontier; resigned, and was an Indian-trader 
in Dakota, 1856-61; the latter year, took his 
seat as a Delegate in Congress from Dakota, 
then served as Brigadier-General of Volun- 
teers, 1861-62; was again Delegate in Congress 
in 1863-65, Speaker of the Dakota Legislature 
in 1867, and Governor of the Territory, 1869-71. 
Died, at Yankton City, Jan. 5, 1872. 

TOLEDO, a village and the county-seat of 
Cumberland County, on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road ; founded in 1854 ; has five churches, a graded 
school, two banks, creamery, flour mill, elevator, 
and two weekly newspapers. There are no consider- 
able manufactories, the leading industry in the 
surrounding country being agriculture. Pop. (1900), 
818; (1910), 900. 

ROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City 
Railroad. ) 

(See Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway. ) 

(See Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway. ) 

a line of railroad wholly within the State of Illi- 
nois, extending from Effner, at the Indiana State 
line, west to the Mississippi River at Warsaw. 
The length of the whole line is 230. 7 miles, owned 
entirely by the company. It is made up of a 
division from Effner to Peoria (110.9 miles) 
which is practically an air-line throughout nearly 
its entire length and the Peoria and Warsaw 
Division (108.8 miles) with branches from La 
Harpe to Iowa Junction (10.4 miles) and 0.6 of a 
mile connecting with the Keokuk bridge at 
Hamilton. (HISTORY*.) The original charter for 
this line was granted, in 1863, under the name of 
the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad ; the main 
line was completed in 1868, and the La Harpe & 
Iowa Junction branch in 1873. Default was 
made in 1873, the road sold under foreclosure, in 
1880, and reorganized as the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroad, and the line leased for 




years to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway 
Company. The latter defaulted in July, 1884, 
and, a year later, the Toledo, Peoria & Western 
was transferred to trustees for the first mortgage 
bond-holders, was sold under foreclosure in 
October, 1886, and, in March, 1887, the present 
company, under the name of the Toledo, Peoria 
& Western Railway Company, was organized for 
the purpose of taking over the property. In 1893 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company obtained a 
controlling interest in the stock, and, in 1894, an 
agreement, for joint ownership and management, 
was entered into between that corporation and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany. The total capitalization, in 1898, was 
$9,712,433, of which $4,076,900 was in stock and 
$4,895,000 in bonds. 

ROAD. This line crosses the State in a northeast 
direction from East St. Louis to Humrick, near 
the Indiana State line, with Toledo as its eastern 
terminus. The length of the entire line is 450.72 
miles, of which 179V4 miles are operated in Illi- 
nois. (HISTORY.) The Illinois portion of the 
line grew out of the union of charters granted to 
the Tuscola, Charleston & Vincennes and the 
Charleston, Neoga & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
panies, which were consolidated in 1881 with 
certain Indiana lines under the name of the 
Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad. During 
1882 a narrow-gauge road was constructed from 
Ridge Farm, in Vermilion County, to East St. 
Louis (172 miles). In 1885 this was sold under 
foreclosure and, in June, 1886, consolidated with 
the main line under the name of the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Kansas City Railroad. The whole line 
was changed to standard gauge in 1887-89, and 
otherwise materially improved, but, in 1893, 
went into the hands of receivers. Plans of re- 
organization have been under consideration, but 
the receivers were still in control in 1898. 

ROAD. (See Wabasli Railroad.) 

TOLONO, a village in Champaign County, situ- 
ated at the intersection of the Wabash and the 
Illinois Central Railroads, 9 miles south of Cham- 
paign and 37 miles east-northeast of Decatur. It 
is the business center of a prosperous agricultural 
region. The town has several churches, a graded 
school, a bank, some manufactories and a weekly 
newspaper; much grain is shipped here. Pop. 
(1890), 902; (1900), 845; (1910), 700. 

TOLUCA, a city of Marshall County, on the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe arid the Toluca, 
Marquette & Northern R. Rs., 10 miles southwest 

of Wenona; has two coal mines and two weekly 
papers. Pop. (1910), 2,407. 

TONTY, Chevalier Henry de, explorer and sol- 
dier, born at Gaeta, Italy, about 1650 What is 
now known as the Tontine system of insurance 
undoubtedly originated with his father. The 
younger Tonty was adventurous, and, even as a 
youth, took part in numerous land and naval 
encounters. In the course of his experience he 
lost a hand, which was replaced by an iron or 
copper substitute. He embarked with La Salic 
in 1678, and aided in the construction of a fort at 
Niagara. He advanced into the country of the 
Illinois and established friendly relations with 
them, only to witness the defeat of his putative 
savage allies by the Iroquois. After various 
encounters (chiefly under the direction of La 
Salle) with the Indians in Illinois, he returned 
to Green Bay in 1681. The same year under La 
Salle's orders he began the erection of Fort St. 
Louis, on what is now called "Starved Rock" in 
La Salle County. In 1682 he descended the Mis- 
sissippi to its mouth, with La Salle, but was 
ordered back to Mackinaw for assistance. In 
1684 he returned to Illinois and successfully 
repulsed the Iroquois from Fort St. Louis. In 
1686 he again descended the Mississippi in search 
of La Salle. Disheartened by the death of his 
commander and the loss of his early comrades, 
he took up his residence with the Illinois Indians. 
Among them he was found by Iberville in 1700, 
as a hunter and fur-trader. He died, in Mobile, 
in September, 1704. He was La Salle's most effi- 
cient coadjutor, and next to his ill-fated leader, 
did more than any other of the early French 
explorers to make Illinois known to the civilized 

TOPOGRAPHY. Illinois is, generally speak- 
ing, an elevated table-land. If low water at 
Cairo be adopted as the maximum depression, and 
the summits of the two ridges hereinafter men- 
tioned as the highest points of elevation, the alti- 
tude of this table land above the sea-level varies 
from 300 to 850 feet, the mean elevation being 
about 600 feet. The State has no mountain 
chains, and its few hills are probably the result 
of unequal denudation during the drift epoch. 
In some localities, particularly in the valley of 
the upper Mississippi, the streams have cut 
channels from 200 to 300 feet deep through the 
nearly horizontal strata, and here are found pre- 
cipitous scarps, but, for the most part, the 
fundamental rocks are covered by a thick layer 
of detrital material. In the northwest there is a 
broken tract of uneven ground ; the central por- 



tion of the State is almost wholly flat prairie, 
and, in the alluvial lands in the State, there are 
many deep valleys, eroded by the action of 
streams. The surface generally slopes toward 
the south and southwest, but the uniformity is 
broken by two ridges, which cross the State, one 
in either extremity. The northern ridge crosses 
the Rock River at Grand Detour and the Illinois 
at Split Rock, with an extreme altitude of 800 to 
850 feet above sea- level, though the altitude of 
Mount Morris, in Ogle County, exceeds 900 feet. 
That in the south consists of a range of hills in 
the latitude of Jonesboro, and extending from 
Shawneetown to Grand Tower. These hills are 
also about 800 feet above the level of the ocean. 
The highest point in the State is in Jo Daviess 
County, just south of the Wisconsin State line 
(near Scale's Mound) reaching an elevation of 
1,257 feet above sea-level, while the highest in 
the south is in the northeast corner of Pope 
County 1,046 feet a spur of the Ozark moun- 
tains. The following statistics regarding eleva- 
tions are taken from a report of Prof. C. W. 
Rolfe, of the University of Illinois, based on 
observations made under the auspices of the Illi- 
nois Board of World's Fair Commissioners: The 
lowest gauge of the Ohio river, at its mouth 
(above sea-level), is 268.58 feet, and the mean 
level of Lake Michigan at Chicago 581.28 feet. 
The altitudes of a few prominent points are as 
follows: Highest point in Jackson County, 695 
feet; "Bald Knob" in Union County, 985; high- 
est point in Cook County (Barrington), 818 ; in La 
Salle County (Mendota), 747; in Livingston 
(Strawn), 770; in Will (Monee), 804; in Pike 
(Arden), 790; in Lake (Lake Zurich), 880; in 
Bureau, 910; in Boone, 1,010; in Lee (Carnahan), 
1,017; in Stephenson (Waddam's Grove), 1,018; 
in Kane (Briar Hill), 974; in Winnebago, 985. 
The elevations of important towns are : Peoria, 
465; Jacksonville, 602; Springfield, 596; Gales- 
burg, 755; Joliet, 537; Rockford, 728; Blooming- 
ton, 821. Outside of the immediate valleys of 
the streams, and a few isolated groves or copses, 
little timber is found in the northern and central 
portions of the State, and such growth as there 
is, lacks the thriftiness characteristic of the for- 
ests in the Ohio valley. These forests cover a 
belt extending some sixty miles north of Cairo, 
and, while they generally include few coniferous 
trees, they abound in various species of oak, 
black and white walnut, white and yellow pop- 
lar, ash, elm, sugar-maple, linden, honey locust, 
cottonwood, mulberry, sycamore, pecan, persim- 
mon, and (in the immediate valley of the Ohio) 

the cypress. From a commercial point of view, 
Illinois loses nothing through the lack of timber 
over three-fourths of the State's area. Chicago 
is an accessible market for the product of the 
forests of the upper lakes, so that the supply of 
lumber is ample, while extensive coal-fields sup- 
ply abundant fuel. The rich soil of the prairies, 
with its abundance of organic matter (see Geo- 
logical Formations) , more than compensates for 
the want of pine forests, whose soil is ill adapted 
to agriculture. About two-thirds of the entire 
boundary of the State consists of navigable 
waters. These, with their tributary streams, 
ensure sufficient drainage. 

for the registration of titles to, and incumbrances 
upon, land, as well as transfers thereof, intended 
to remove all unnecessary obstructions to the 
cheap, simple and safe sale, acquisition and 
transfer of realty. The system has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Canada, Australia, New Zea- 
land and British Columbia for many years, and 
it is also in force in some States in the American 
Union. An act providing for its introduction 
into Illinois was first passed by the Twenty- 
ninth General Assembly, and approved, June 13, 
1895. The final legislation in reference thereto 
was enacted by the succeeding Legislature, and 
was approved, May 1, 1897. It is far more elabo- 
rate in its consideration of details, and is believed 
to be, in many respects, much better adapted to 
accomplish the ends in view, than was the origi- 
nal act of 1895. The law is applicable only to 
counties of the first and second class, and can be 
adopted in no county except by a vote of a 
majority of the qualified voters of the same the 
vote "for" or "against" to be taken at either the 
November or April elections, or at an election 
for the choice of Judges. Thus far the only 
county to adopt the system has been Cook, and 
there it encountered strong opposition on the 
part of certain parties of influence and wealth. 
After its adoption, a test case was brought, rais- 
ing the question of the constitutionality of the 
act. The issue was taken to the Supreme Court, 
which tribunal finally upheld the law. The 
Torrens system substitutes a certificate of regis- 
tration and of transfer for the more elaborate 
deeds and mortgages in use for centuries. Under 
it there can be no actual transfer of a title until 
the same is entered upon the public land regis- 
ter, kept in the office of the Registrar, in which 
case the deed or mortgage becomes a mere power 
of attorney to authorize the transfer to be made, 
upon the principle of an ordinary stock transfer, 



or of the registration of a United States bond, 
the actual transfer and public notice thereof 
being simultaneous. A brief synopsis of the pro- 
visions of the Illinois statute is given below: 
Recorders of deeds are made Registrars, and 
required to give bonds of either 50,000 or $200,- 
000, according to the population of the county. 
Any person or corporation, having an interest in 
land, may make application to any court having 
chancery jurisdiction, to have his title thereto 
registered. Such application must be in writ- 
ing, signed and verified by oath, and must con- 
form, in matters of specification and detail, with 
the requirements of the act. The court may refer 
the application to one of the standing examiners 
appointed by the Registrar, who are required to 
be competent attorneys and to give bond to ex- 
amine into the title, as well as the truth of the 
applicant's statements. Immediately upon the 
filing of the application, notice thereof is given 
by the clerk, through publication and the issuance 
of a summons to be served, as in other proceed- 
ings in chancery, against all persons mentioned 
in the petition as having or claiming any inter- 
est in the property described. Any person inter- 
ested, whether named as a defendant or not, may 
enter an appearance within the time allowed. A 
failure to enter an appearance is regarded as a 
confession by default. The court, in passing 
upon the application, is in no case bound by the 
examiner's report, but may require other and 
further proof ; and, in its final adjudication, passes 
upon all questions of title and incumbrance, 
directing the Registrar to register the title in the 
party in whom it is to be vested, and making 
provision as to the manner and order in which 
incumbrances thereon shall appear upon the 
certificate to be issued. An appeal may be 
allowed to the Supreme Court, if prayed at the 
time of entering the decree, upon like terms as 
in other cases in chancery ; and a writ of error 
may be sued out from that tribunal within two 
years after the entry of the order or decree. 
The period last mentioned may be said to be the 
statutory period of limitation, after which the 
decree of the court must be regarded as final, 
although safeguards are provided for those who 
may have been defrauded, and for a few other 
classes of persons Upon the filing of the order 
or decree of the court, it becomes the duty of the 
Registrar to issue a certificate of title, the form 
of which is prescribed by the act, making such 
notations at the end as shall show and preserve 
the priorities of all estates, mortgages, incum- 
brances and changes to which the owner's title is 

subject. For the purpose of preserving evidence 
of the owner's handwriting, a receipt for the 
certificate, duly witnessed or acknowledged, is 
required of him, which is preserved in the Regis- 
trar's office. In case any registered owner 
should desire to transfer the whole or any part of 
his estate, or any interest therein, he is required 
to execute a conveyance to the transferee, which, 
together with the certificate of title last issued, 
must be surrendered to the Registrar. That 
official thereupon issues a new certificate, stamp- 
ing the word "cancelled" across the surrendered 
certificate, as well as upon the corresponding 
entry in his books of record. When land is first 
brought within the operation of the act, the 
receiver of the certificate of title is required to 
pay to the Registrar one-tenth of one per cent of 
the value of the land, the aggregate so received 
to be deposited with and invested by the County 
Treasurer, and reserved as an indemnity fund 
for the reimbursement of persons sustaining any 
loss through any omission, mistake or malfea- 
sance of the Registrar or his subordinates. The 
advantage claimed for the Torrens system is, 
chiefly, that titles registered thereunder can be 
dealt with more safely, quickly and inexpensively 
than under the old system ; it being possible to 
close the entire transaction within an hour or 
two, without the need of an abstract of title, 
while (as the law is administered in Cook County) 
the cost of transfer is only S3. It is asserted that 
a title, once registered, can be dealt with almost 
as quickly and cheaply, and quite as safely, a* 
shares of stock or registered bonds. 

TOULONy the county-seat of Stark County, on 
the Peoria & Rock Island Railroad, 37 miles north- 
northwest of Peoria, and 11 miles southeast of 
Galva. Besides the cpunty court-house, the town 
has five churches and a high school, an academy, 
steam granite works, two banks, and one weekly 
paper. Population (1880), 967; (1890), 945; (1900), 
1,057; (1910), 1,208. 

TOWER HILL, a village of Shelby County, on 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and 
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroads, 7 
miles east of Pana; has bank, elevators, coal mines 
and one weekly paper. Pop. (1910), 1,040. 

TOWNSHEND, Richard W., lawyer and Con- 
gressman, was born in Prince George's County, 
Md., April 30, 1840. Between the ages of 10 
and 18 he attended public and private schools 
at Washington, D. C. In 1858 he came to 
Illinois, where he began teaching, at the same 
time reading law with S. S. Marshall, at Mc- 
Leansboro, where he was admitted to the bar 



in 1862, and where he began practice. From 1863 
to 1868 he was Circuit Clerk of Hamilton County, 
and, from 1868 to 1872, Prosecuting Attorney for 
the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. In 1873 he removed 
to Shawneetown, where lie became an officer of 
the Gallatin National Bank. From 1C64 to 1875 
he was a member of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee, and a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention at Baltimore, in 1872. 
For twelve years (1877 to 1889) he represented 
his District in Congress; was re-elected in 1888, 
but died, March 9, 1889, a few days after the 
beginning of his seventh term. 

TRACY, John M., artist, was born in Illinois 
about 1842 ; served in an Illinois regiment during 
the Civil War; studied painting in Paris in 
1866-76 ; established himself as a portrait painter 
in St. Louis and, later, won a high reputation as 
a painter of animals, being regarded as an author- 
ity on the anatomy of the horse and the dog. 
Died, at Ocean Springs, Miss., March 20, 1893. 

TREASURERS. (See State Treasurers.) 

TREAT, Samuel Hubbel, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Plainfield, Otsego County, N. Y., 
June 21, 1811, worked on his father's farm and 
studied law at Richfield, where he was admitted 
to practice. In 1834 he came to Springfield, 111. , 
traveling most of the way on foot. Here he 
formed a partnership with George Forquer, who 
had held the offices of Secretary of State and 
Attorney-General. In 1839 he was appointed a 
Circuit Judge, and, on the reorganization of the 
Supreme Court in 1841, was elevated to the 
Supreme bench, being acting Chief Justice at the 
time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. 
Having been elected to the Supreme bench under 
the new Constitution, he remained in office until 
March, 1855, when he resigned to take the posi- 
tion of Judge of the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of Illinois, to which he 
had been appointed by President Pierce. This 
position he continued to occupy until his death, 
which occurred at Springfield, Marcli 27, 1887. 
Judge Treat's judicial career was one of the long- 
est in the history of the State, covering a period 
of forty-eight years, of which fourteen were 
spent upon the Supreme bench, and thirty-two 
in the position of Judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court. 

TREATIES. (See Greenville, Treaty of; Indian 

TREE, Lambert, jurist, diplomat and ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Washington, D. C., Nov. 
29, 1832, of an ancestry distinguished in the War 
of the Revolution. He received a superior clas- 

sical and professional education, and was admit- 
ted to the bar, at Washington, in October, 1855. 
Removing to Chicago soon afterward, his profes- 
sional career has been chiefly connected with 
that city. In 1864 he was chosen President of 
the Law Institute, and served as Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook County, from 1870 to 1875, 
when he resigned. The three following years he 
spent in foreign travel, returning to Chicago in 
1878. In that year, and again in 1880, he was 
the Democratic candidate for Congress from the 
Fourth Illinois District, but was defeated by his 
Republican opponent. In 1885 he was the candi- 
date of his party for United States Senator, but 
was defeated by John A. Logan, by one vote. In 
1884 he was a member of the National Democratic 
Convention which first nominated Grover Cleve- 
land, and, in July, 1885, President Cleveland 
appointed him Minister to Belgium, conferring 
the Russian mission upon him in September, 1888. 
On March 3, 1889, he resigned this post and 
returned home. In 1890 he was appointed by 
President Harrison a Commissioner to the Inter- 
national Monetary Conference at Washington. 
The year before he had attended (although not as 
a delegate) the International Conference, at Brus- 
sels, looking to the suppression of the slave-trade, 
where he exerted all his influence on the side of 
humanity. In 1892 Belgium conferred upon him 
the distinction of "Councillor of Honor" upon its 
commission to the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion. In 1896 Judge Tree was one of the most 
earnest opponents of the free-silver policy, and, 
after the Spanish- American War, a zealous advo- 
cate of the policy of retaining the territory 
acquired from Spain. Died October 9, 1910. 

TREMONT, a town of Tazewell County, on the 
Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles southeast of 
Pekin; has two banks, two telephone exchanges, 
and one newspaper. Pop. (1910), 782. 

TRENTON, a town of Clinton County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 31 miles 
east of St. Louis; in agricultural district; has 
creamery, milk condensery, two coal mines, six 
churches, a public school and one newspaper. Pop. 
(1890), 1,384; (1900), 1,706; (1910), 1,694. 

TROT, a city of Madison County, on the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 21 miles northeast 
of St. Louis; has coal mines, a bank and a news- 
paper. Pop. (1900), 1,080; (1910), 1,447. 

TRUITT, James Madison, lawyer and soldier, 
a native of Trimble County, Ky., was born Feb. 
12, 1842, but lived in Illinois since 1843, his father 
having settled near Carrollton that year; was 




educated at Hillsboro and at McKendree College ; 
enlisted in the One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Illinois Volunteers in 1862, and was promoted 
from the ranks to Lieutenant. After the war he 
studied law with Jesse J. Phillips, now of the 
Supreme Court, and, in 1872, was elected to the 
Twenty -eighth General Assembly, and, in 1888, a 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket. 
Mr. Truitt has been twice a prominent but unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the Republican nomination 
for Attorney-General. His home is at Hillsboro, 
where he is engaged in the practice of his profes- 
sion. Died July 26, 1900. 

TRUMBULL, I.vinan, statesman, was born at 
Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813, descended from 
a historical family, being a grand-nephew of 
Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, from 
whom the name "Brother Jonathan" was derived 
as an appellation for Americans. Having received 
an academic education in his native town, at the 
age of 16 he began teaching a district school near 
his home, went South four years later, and en- 
gaged in teaching at Greenville, Ga. Here he 
studied law with Judge Hiram Warner, after- 
wards of the Supreme Court, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1837. Leaving Georgia the same year, he 
came to Illinois on horseback, visiting Vandal ia. 
Belleville, Jacksonville, Springfield, Tremont and 
La Salle, and finally reaching Chicago, then a 
village of four or five thousand inhabitants. At 
Jacksonville he obtained a license to practice 
from Judge Lockwood, and, after visiting Michi- 
gan and his native State, he settled at Belleville, 
which continued to be his home for twenty years. 
His entrance into public life began with his elec- 
tion as Representative in the General Assembly 
in 1840. This was followed, in February, 1841, 
by his appointment by Governor Carlin, Secre- 
tary of State, as the successor of Stephen A. 
Douglas, who, after holding the position only two 
months, had resigned to accept a seat on the 
Supreme bench. Here he remained two years, 
when he was removed by Governor Ford, March 
4, 1843, but, five years later (1848), was elected a 
Justice of the Supreme Court, was re-elected in 
1852, but resigned in 1853 on account of impaired 
health. A year later (1854) he was elected to 
Congress from the Belleville District as an anti- 
Nebraska Democrat, but, before taking his seat, 
was promoted to the United States Senate, as the 
successor of General Shields in the memorable con- 
test of 1855, which resulted in the defeat of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Senator Trumbull's career of 
eighteen years in the United States Senate (being 
re-elected in 1861 and 1867) is one of the most 

memorable in the history of that body, covering, 
as it does, the whole history of the war for the 
Union, and the period of reconstruction which 
followed it. During this period, as Chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Judiciary, he had more 
to do in shaping legislation on war and recon- 
struction measures than any other single member 
of that body. While he disagreed with a large 
majority of his Republican associates on the ques- 
tion of Andrew Johnson's impeachment, he was 
always found in sympathy with them on the vital 
questions affecting the war and restoration of the 
Union. The Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen's 
Bureau Bills were shaped by his hand. In 1872 
he joined in the ''Liberal Republican" movement 
and afterwards co-operated with the Democratic 
party, being their candidate for Governor in 
1880. From 1863 his home was in Chicago, 
where, after retiring from the Senate, he con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until his 
death, which occurred in that city, June 25, 1896. 

TUG MILLS. These were a sort of primitive 
machine used in grinding corn in Territorial and 
early State days. The mechanism consisted of an 
upright shaft, into the upper end of which were 
fastened bars, resembling those in the capstan of 
a ship. Into the outer end of each of these bars 
was driven a pin. A belt, made of a broad strip 
of ox-hide, twisted into a sort of rope, was 
stretched around these pins and wrapped twice 
around a circular piece of wood called a trundle 
head, through which passed a perpendicular flat 
bar of iron, which turned the mill-stone, usually 
about eighteen inches in diameter. From the 
upright shaft projected a beam, to which were 
hitched one or two horses, which furnished the 
motive power. Oxen were sometimes employed 
as motive power in lieu of horses. These rudi- 
mentary contrivances were capable of grinding 
about twelve bushels of corn, each, per day. 

TULEY, Murray Floyd, lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Louisville, Ky., March 4, 1827, of English 
extraction and descended from the early settlers 
of Virginia. His father died in 1832, and, eleven 
years later, his mother, having married Col. 
Richard J. Hamilton, for many years a prominent 
lawyer of Chicago, removed with her family to 
that city. Young Tuley began reading law with 
his step-father and completed his studies at the 
Louisville Law Institute in 1847, the same year 
being admitted to the bar in Chicago. About the 
same time he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Volun- 
teers for service in the Mexican War, and was 
commissioned First Lieutenant. The war having 
ended, he settled at Santa Fe, N. M., where he 



practiced law, also served as Attorney-General 
and in the Territorial Legislature. Returning to 
Chicago in 1854, he was associated in practice, 
successively, with Andrew Harvie, Judge Gary 
and J. N. Barker, and finally as head of the firm 
of Tuley, Stiles & Lewis. From 1869 to 1873 he 
was Corporation Counsel, and during this time 
framed the General Incorporation Act for Cities, 
under which the City of Chicago was reincor- 
porated. In 1879 he was elevated to the bench 
of the Circuit Court of Cook County, and re- 
elected every six years thereafter, his last election 
being in 1897. He died Dec. 25, 1905, during his 
fourth term, some ten years of his incumbency 
having been spent as Chief Justice. 

TUNNICLTFFE, Damon G., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 20, 
1829 ; at the age of 20, emigrated to Illinois, set- 
tling in Vermont, Fulton County, where, for a 
time, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
subsequently studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1853. In 1854 he established himself 
at Macomb, McDonough County, where he built 
up a large and lucrative practice. In 1868 he 
was chosen Presidential Elector on the Repub- 
lican ticket, and, from February to June, 1885, 
by appointment of Governor Oglesby, occupied a 
seat on the bench of the Supreme Court, vice 
Pinkney H. Walker, deceased, who had been one 
of his professional preceptors. Died Dec. 20, 1901. 

TURCHIN, John Basil (Ivan Vasilevitch Tur- 
chinoff), soldier, engineer and author, was born 
in Russia, Jan. 30, 1822. He graduated from the 
artillery school at St. Petersburg, in 1841, and 
was commissioned ensign; participated in the 
Hungarian campaign of 1849, and, in 1852, was 
assigned to the staff of the Imperial Guards; 
served through the Crimean War, rising to the 
rank of Colonel, and being made senior staff 
officer of the active corps. In 1856 he came to 
this country, settling in Chicago, and, for five 
years, was in the service of the Illinois Central 
Railway Company as topographical engineer. In 
1861 he was commissioned Colonel of the Nine- 
teenth Illinois Volunteers, and, after leading his 
regiment in Missouri, Kentucky and Alabama, 
was, on July 7, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier- 
Generalship, being attached to the Army of the 
Cumberland until 1864, when he resigned. After 
the war he was, for six years, solicitor of patents 
at Chicago, but, in 1873, returned to engineering. 
In 1879 he established a Polish colony at Radom, 
in Washington County, in this State, and settled 
as a farmer. He was an occasional contributor to 
the press, writing usually on military or scientific 

subjects; was the author of the "Campaign and 
Battle of Chickamauga." Died June 18, 1901. 

TURNER (now WEST CHICAGO), a town and 
manufacturing center in Winfield Township, Du 
Page County, 30 miles west of Chicago, at the 
junction of two divisions of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railroads. The town 
has a rolling-mill, manufactories of wagons and 
pumps, and railroad repair shops. It also has five 
churches, a graded school, and two newspapers. 
Pop. (1900), 1,877; with suburb, 2,270. 

TURNER, (Col.) Henry L., soldier and real- 
estate operator, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, 
August 26, 1845, and received a part of his edu- 
cation in the college there. During the Civil 
War he served as First Lieutenant in the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Ohio Volunteers, and 
later, with the same rank in a colored regiment, 
taking part in the operations about Richmond, 
the capture of Fort Fisher, of Wilmington and of 
Gen. Joe Johnston's army. Coming to Chi- 
cago after the close of the war, he became con- 
nected with the business office of "The Advance, " 
but later was employed in the banking house of 
Jay Cooke & Co., in Philadelphia. On the failure 
of that concern, in 1872, he returned to Chicago 
and bought "The Advance," which he conducted 
some two years, when he sold out and engaged in 
the real estate business, with which he has since 
been identified being President of the Chicago 
Real Estate Board in 1888. He has also been 
President of the Western Publishing Company 
and a Trustee of Oberlin College. Colonel Turner 
is an enthusiastic member of the Illinois National 
Guard and, on the declaration of war between the 
United States and Spain, in April, 1898, promptly 
resumed his connection with the First Regiment 
of the Guard, and finally led it to Santiago de 
Cuba during the fighting there his regiment 
being the only one from Illinois to see actual serv- 
ice in the field during the progress of the war. 
Colonel Turner won the admiration of his com- 
mand and the entire nation by the manner in 
which he discharged his duty. The regiment 
was mustered out at Chicago, Nov. 17, 1898, when 
he retired to private life. 

TURNER, John Bice, Railway President, was 
born at Colchester, Delaware County, N. Y. , Jan. 
14, 1799; after a brief business career in his 
native State, he became identified with the con- 
struction and operation of railroads. Among the 
works with which he was thus connected, were 
the Delaware Division of the New York & Erie 
and the Troy & Schenectady Roads. In 1843 he 




came to Chicago, having previously purchased a 
large body of land at Blue Island. In 1847 he 
joined with W. B. Ogden and others, in resusci- 
tating the Galena & Chicago Union Railway, 
which had been incorporated in 1836. He became 
President of the Company in 1850, and assisted in 
constructing various sections of road in Northern 
Illinois and Wisconsin, which have since become 
portions of the Chicago & Northwestern system. 
He was also one of the original Directors of the 
North Side Street Railway Company, organized 
in 1859. Died, Feb. 26, 1871. 

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin, educator and 
agriculturist, was born in Tenipleton, Mass., Dec. 
7, 1805 ; grew up on a farm and, before reaching 
his majority, began teaching in a country school. 
After spending a short time in an academy at 
Salem, in 1827 he entered the preparatory depart- 
ment of Yale College, supporting himself, in part, 
by manual labor and teaching in a gymnasium. 
In 1829 he matriculated in the classical depart- 
ment at Yale, graduated in 1833, and the same 
year accepted a position as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege at Jacksonville, 111., which had been opened, 
three years previous, by the late Dr. J. M. Sturte- 
vant. In the next fourteen years he gave in- 
struction in nearly every branch embraced in the 
college curriculum, though holding, during most 
of this period, the chair of Rhetoric and English 
Literature. In 1847 he retired from college 
duties to give attention to scientific agriculture, 
in which he had always manifested a deep inter- 
est. The cultivation and sale of the Osage orange 
as a hedge- plant now occupied his attention for 
many years, and its successful introduction in 
Illinois and other Western States where the 
absence of timber rendered some substitute a 
necessity for fencing purposes was largely due 
to his efforts. At the same time he took a deep 
interest in the cause of .practical scientific edu- 
cation for the industrial classes, and, about 1850, 
began formulating that system of industrial edu- 
cation which, after twelve years of labor and 
agitation, he had the satisfaction of seeing 
recognized in the act adopted by Congress, and 
approved by President Lincoln, in July, 1862, 
making liberal donations of public lands for the 
establishment of "Industrial Colleges" in the 
several States, out of which grew the University 
of Illinois at Champaign. While Professor Tur- 
ner had zealous colaborers in this field, in Illinois 
and elsewhere, to him, more than to any other 
single man in the Nation, belongs the credit for 
this magnificent achievement. (See Education, 
and University of Illinois.) He was also one of 

the chief factors in founding and building up 
the Illinois State Teachers' Association, and the 
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. 
His address on "The Millennium of Labor," 
delivered at the first State Agricultural Fair at 
Springfield, in 1853, is still remembered as mark- 
ing an era in industrial progress in Illinois. A 
zealous champion of free thought, in both political 
and religious affairs, he long bore the reproach 
which attached to the radical Abolitionist, only 
to enjoy, in later years, the respect universally 
accorded to those' who had the courage and 
independence to avow their honest convictions. 
Prof. Turner was twice an unsuccessful candidate 
for Congress once as a Republican and once as 
an "Independent" and wrote much on political, 
religious and educational topics. The evening of 
an honored and useful life was spent among 
friends in Jacksonville, which was his home for 
more than sixty years, his death taking place in 
that city, Jan. 10, 1899, at the advanced age of 
93 years. Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel, at the pres- 
ent time (1899) one of the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, is Prof. Turner's only daughter. 

TURNER, Thomas J., lawyer and Congress- 
man, born in Trumbull County, Ohio, April 5, 
1815. Leaving home at the age of 18, he spent 
three years in Indiana and in the mining dis- 
tricts about Galena and in Southern Wisconsin, 
locating in Stephenson County, in 1836, where he 
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and elected 
Probate Judge in 1841. Soon afterwards Gov- 
ernor Ford appointed him Prosecuting Attorney, 
in which capacity he secured the conviction and 
punishment of the murderers of Colonel Daven- 
port. In 1846 he was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat, and, the following year, founded "The 
Prairie Democrat" (afterward "The Freeport 
Bulletin"), the first newspaper published in the 
county. Elected to the Legislature in 1854, he 
was chosen Speaker of the House, the next year 
becoming the first Mayor of Freeport. He was a 
member of the Peace Conference of 1861, and, in 
May of that year, was commissioned, by Governor 
Yates, Colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volun- 
teers, but resigned in 1862. He served as a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, 
and, in 1871, was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, where he received the Democratic caucus 
nomination for United States Senator against 
General Logan. In 1871 he removed to Chicago, 
and was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of State's Attorney. In February, 1874, he 
went to Hot Springs, Ark., for medical treatment, 
and died there, April 3 following. 



TUSCOLA, a city and the county-seat of 
Douglas County, located at the intersection of the 
Illinois Central and two other trunk lines of rail- 
way, 22 miles south of Champaign, and 36 miles 
east of Decatur. Besides a brick court-house it 
has five churches, a graded school, a national 
bank, two weekly newspapers and two establish- 
ments for the manufacture of carriages and 
wagons; in a fanning district. Pop. (1890), 1,897; 
(1900), 2,569; (1910), 2,453. 

RAILROAD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas 
City Railroad. ) 

TUTHILL, Richard Stanley, jurist, was born 
at Vergennes, Jackson County, 111., Nov. 10, 1841. 
After passing through the common schools of his 
native county, he took a preparatory course in a 
high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, when he entered Middlebury Col- 
lege, Vt., graduating there in 1863. Immediately 
thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vicks- 
burg, and, after serving for some time in a com- 
pany of scouts attached to General Logan's 
command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 
First Michigan Light Artillery, with which he 
served until the close of the war, meanwhile 
being twice promoted. During this time he was 
with General Sherman in the march to Meridian, 
and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with 
General Thomas in the operations against the 
rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the 
battle of Nashville. Having resigned his com- 
mission in May, 1865, he took up the study of 
law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportu- 
nity while in the army, and was admitted to the 
bar at Nashville in 1866, afterwards serving for 
a time as Prosecuting Attorney on the Nashville 
circuit. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, two 
years later was elected City Attorney and re- 
elected in 1877 ; was a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention of 1880 and, in 1884, was 
appointed United States District Attorney for 
the Northern District, serving until 1886. In 
1887 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Cook County to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Judge Rogers, was re-elected for a full 
term in 1891, and again in 1897. 

TYNDALE, Sharon, Secretary of State, born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 19, 1816; at the age of 17 
came to Belleville, 111., and was engaged for a 
time in mercantile business, later being employed 
in a surveyor's corps under the internal improve- 
ment system of 1837. Having married in 1839, 
he returned soon after to Philadelphia, where he 
engaged in mercantile business with his father ; 

then came to Illinois, a second time, in 1845, spend- 
ing a year or two in business at Peoria. About 
1847 he returned to Belleville and entered upon a 
course of mathematical study, witli a view to 
fitting himself more thoroughly for the profession 
of a civil engineer. In 1851 he graduated in 
engineering at Cambridge, Mass., after which he 
was employed for a time on the Sunbury & Erie 
Railroad, and later on certain Illinois railroads. 
In 1857 he was elected County Surveyor of St. 
Clair County, and, in 1861, by appointment of 
President Lincoln, became Postmaster of the city 
of Belleville. He held this position until 1864, 
when he received the Republican nomination for 
Secretary of State and was elected, remaining in 
office four years. He was an earnest advocate, 
and virtually author, of the first act for the regis- 
tration of voters in Illinois, passed at the session 
of 1865. After retiring from office in 1869, he 
continued to reside in Springfield, and was em- 
ployed for a time in the survey of the Oilman, 
Clinton & Springfield Railway now the Spring- 
field Division of the Illinois Central. At an early 
hour on the morning of April 29, 1871, while 
going from his home to the railroad station at 
Springfield, to take the train for St. Louis, he was 
assassinated upon the street by shooting, as sup- 
posed for the purpose of robbery his dead body 
being found a few hours later at the scene of the 
tragedy. Mr. Tyndale was a brother of Gen. 
Hector Tyndale of Pennsylvania, who won a 
high reputation by his services during the war. 
His second wife, who survived him, was a 
daughter of Shadrach Penn, an editor of con- 
siderable reputation who was the contemporary 
and rival of George D. Prentice at Louisville, for 
some years. 

history of Illinois would be incomplete without 
reference to the unique system which existed 
there, as in other Northern States, from forty to 
seventy years ago, known by the somewhat mys- 
terious title of "The Underground Railroad." 
The origin of the term has been traced (probably 
in a spirit of facetiousness) to the expression of 
a Kentucky planter who, having pursued a fugi- 
tive slave across the Ohio River, was so surprised 
by his sudden disappearance, as soon as he had 
reached the opposite shore, that he was led to 
remark, "The nigger must have gone off on an 
underground road." From "underground road" 
to "underground railroad," the transition would 
appear to have been easy, especially in view of 
the increased facility with which the work was 
performed when railroads came into use. For 



readers of the present generation, it may be well 
to explain what "The Underground Railroad" 
really was. It may be defined as the figurative 
appellation for a spontaneous movement in the 
free States extending, sometimes, into the 
slave States themselves to assist slaves in their 
efforts to escape from bondage to freedom. The 
movement dates back to a period close to the 
Revolutionary War, long before it received a 
definite name. Assistance given to fugitives 
from one State by citizens of another, became a 
cause of complaint almost as soon as the Govern- 
ment was organized. In fact, the first President 
himself lost a slave who took refuge at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., where the public sentiment was 
so strong against his return, that the patriotic 
and philosophic "Father of his Country" chose 
to let him remain unmolested, rather than "excite 
a mob or riot, or even uneasy sensations, in the 
minds of well-disposed citizens." That the mat- 
ter was already one of concern in the minds of 
slaveholders, is shown by the fact that a provision 
was inserted in the Constitution for their concili- 
ation, guaranteeing the return of fugitives from 
labor, as well as from justice, from one State to 

In 1793 Congress passed the first Fugitive Slave 
Law, which was signed by President Washing- 
ton. This law provided that the owner, his 
agent or attorney, might follow the slave into 
any State or Territory, and, upon oath or affi- 
davit before a court or magistrate, be entitled 
to a warrant for his return. Any person who 
should hinder the arrest of the fugitive, or who 
should harbor, aid or assist him, knowing him 
to be such, was subject to a fine of $500 for each 
offense. In 1850, fifty -seven years later, the first 
act having .proved inefficacious, or conditions 
having changed, a second and more stringent 
law was enacted. This is the one usually referred 
to in discussions of the subject. It provided for 
an increased fine, not to exceed $1,000, and im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, with 
liability for civil damages to the party injured. 
No proof of ownership was required beyond the 
statement of a claimant, and the accused was not 
permitted to testify for himself. The fee of the 
United States Commissioner, before whom the 
case was tried, was ten dollars if he found for 
the claimant; if not, five dollars. This seemed 
to many an indirect form of bribery ; clearly, it 
made it to the Judge's pecuniary advantage to 
decide in favor of the claimant. The law made 
it possible and easy for a white man to arrest, 
and carry into slavery, any free negro who could 

not immediately prove, by other witnesses, that 
he was born free, or had purchased his freedom. 

Instead of discouraging the disposition, on 
the part of the opponents of slavery, to aid fugi- 
tives in their efforts to reach a region where 
they would be secure in their freedom, the effect 
of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (as that of 1793 
had been in a smaller degree) was the very oppo- 
site of that intended by its authors unless, 
indeed, they meant to make matters worse. The 
provisions of the act seemed, to many people, so 
unfair, so one-sided, that they rebelled in spirit 
and refused to be made parties to its enforce- 
ment. The law aroused the anti-slavery senti- 
ment of the North, and stimulated the active 
friends of the fugitives to take greater risks in 
their behalf. New efforts on the part of the 
slaveholders were met by a determination to 
evade, hinder and nullify the law. 

And here a strange anomaly is presented. The 
slaveholder, in attempting to recover his slave, 
was acting within his constitutional and legal 
rights. The slave was his property in law. He 
had purchased or inherited his bondman on the 
same plane witli his horse or his land, and, apart 
from the right to hold a human being in bond- 
age, regarded his legal rights to the one as good 
as the other. From a legal standpoint his posi- 
tion was impregnable. The slave was his, repre- 
senting so much of money value, and whoever 
was instrumental in the loss of that slave was, 
both theoretically and technically, a partner in 
robbery. Therefore he looked on "The Under- 
ground Railway" as the work of thieves, and en- 
tertained bitter hatred toward all concerned in ita 
operation. On the other hand, men who were, 
in all other respects, good citizens often relig- 
iously devout and pillars of the church became 
bold and flagrant violators of the law in relation 
to this sort of property. They set at nought a 
plain provision of the Constitution and the act of 
Congress for its enforcement. Without hope of 
personal gain or reward, at the risk of fine and 
imprisonment, with the certainty of social ostra- 
cism and bitter opposition, they harbored the 
fugitive and helped him forward on every 
occasion. And why? Because they saw in him 
a man, with the same inherent right to "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness" that they 
themselves possessed. To them this was a higher 
law than any Legislature, State or National, could 
enact. They denied that there could be truly 
such a thing as property in man. Believing that 
the law violated human rights, they justified 
themselves in rendering it null and void. 



For the most part, the "Underground Rail- 
road" operators and promoters were plain, 
obscure men, without hope of fame or desire for 
notoriety. Yet there were some whose names 
are conspicuous in history, such as Wendell 
Phillips, Thomas Wentworth Higginson and 
Theodore Parker of Massachusetts ; Gerrit Smith 
and Thurlow Weed of New York: Joshua R. 
Giddings of Ohio, and Owen Lovejoy of Illinois. 
These had their followers and sympathizers in 
all the Northern States, and even in some por- 
tions of the South. It is a curious fact, that 
some of the most active spirits connected with 
the "Underground Railroad" were natives of the 
South, or had resided there long enough to 
become thoroughly acquainted with the "insti- 
tution." Levi Coffin, who had the reputation of 
being the "President of the Underground Rail- 
road" at least so far as the region west of the 
Ohio was concerned was an active operator on 
the line in North Carolina before his removal 
from that State to Indiana in 1826. Indeed, as a 
system, it is claimed to have had its origin at 
Guilford College, in the "Old North State" in 
1819, though the evidence of this may not be 

Owing to the peculiar nature of their business, 
no official reports were made, no lists of officers, 
conductors, station agents or operators preserved, 
and few records kept which are now accessible. 
Consequently, we are dependent chiefly upon the 
personal recollection of individual operators for 
a history of their transactions. Each station on 
the road was the house of a "friend" and it is 
significant, in this connection, that in every 
settlement of Friends, or Quakers, there was 
sure to be a house of refuge for the slave. For 
this reason it was, perhaps, that one of the most 
frequently traveled lines extended from Vir- 
ginia and Maryland through Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and then on towards New York or directly 
to Canada. From the proximity of Ohio to 
Virginia and Kentucky, and the fact that it 
offered the shortest route through free soil to 
Canada, it was traversed by more lines than any 
other State, although Indiana was pretty 
thoroughly "grid-ironed" by roads to freedom. 
In all, however, the routes were irregular, often 
zigzag, for purposes of security, and the "con- 
ductor" was any one who conveyed fugitives from 
one station to another The "train" was some- 
times a farm-wagon, loaded with produce for 
market at some town (or depot) on the line, fre- 
quently a closed carriage, and it is related that 
once, in Ohio, a number of carriages conveying 

a large party, were made to represent a funeral 
procession. Occasionally the train ran on foot, 
for convenience of side-tracking into the woods 
or a cornfield, in case of pursuit by a wild loco- 

Then, again, there were not wanting lawyers 
who, in case the operator, conductor or station 
agent got into trouble, were ready, without fee-or 
reward, to defend either him or his human 
freight in the courts. These included such 
names of national repute as Salmon P. Chase, 
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, William H. 
Seward, Rutherford B. Hayes, Richard H. Dana, 
and Isaac N. Arnold, while, taking the whole 
country over, their "name was legion." And 
there were a few men of wealth, like Thomas 
Garrett of Delaware, willing to contribute money 
by thousands to their assistance. Although 
technically acting in violation of law or, as 
claimed by themselves, in obedience to a "higher 
law" the time has already come when there is a 
disposition to look upon the actors as, in a certain 
sense, heroes, and their deeds as fitly belonging 
to the field of romance. 

The most comprehensive collection of material 
relating to the history of this movement has 
been furnished in a recent volume entitled, "The 
Underground Railroad from Slavery to Free- 
dom," by Prof. Wilbur H. Siebert, of Ohio State 
University ; and, while it is not wholly free from 
errors, both as to individual names and facts, it 
will probably remain as the best compilation of 
history bearing on this subject especially as the 
principal actors are fast passing away. One of 
the interesting features of Prof. Siebert's book is 
a map purporting to give the principal routes 
and stations in the States northwest of the Ohio, 
yet the accuracy of this, as well as the correct- 
ness of personal names given, has been questioned 
by some best informed on the subject. As 
might be expected from its geographical position 
between two slave States Kentucky and Mis- 
souri on the one hand, and the lakes offering a 
highway to Canada on the other, it is naturally 
to be assumed that Illinois would be an attract- 
ive field, both for the fugitive and his sympa- 

The period of greatest activity of the system in 
this State was between 1840 and 1861 the latter 
being the year when the pro-slavery party in the 
South, by their attempt forcibly to dissolve the 
Union, took the business out of the hands of the 
secret agents of the "Underground Railroad," 
and in a certain sense placed it in the hands 
of the Union armies. It was in 1841 that Abra- 





ham Lincoln then a conservative* opponent of 
the extension of slavery on an appeal from a 
judgment, rendered by the Circuit Court in Taze- 
well County, in favor of the holder of a note 
given for the service of the indentured slave- 
girl "Nance," obtained a decision from the 
Supreme Court of Illinois upholding the doctrine 
that the girl was free under the Ordinance of 
1787 and the State Constitution, and that the 
note, given to the person who claimed to be her 
owner, was void. And it is a somewhat curious 
coincidence that the same Abraham Lincoln, as 
President of the United States, in the second 
year of the War of the Rebellion, issued the 
Proclamation of Emancipation which finally 
resulted in striking the shackles from the limbs 
of every slave in the Union. 

In the practical operation of aiding fugitives 
in Illinois, it was natural that the towns along 
the border upon the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 
should have served as a sort of entrepots, or 
initial stations, for the reception of this class of 
freight especially if adjacent to some anti- 
slavery community. This was the case at Ches- 
ter, from which access was easy to Sparta, where 
a colony of Covenanters, or Seceders, was 
located, and whence a route extended, by way of 
Oakdale, Nashville and Centralia, in the direction 
of Chicago. Alton offered convenient access to 
Bond County, where there was a community of 
anti-slavery people at an early day, or the fugi- 
tives could be forwarded northward by way of 
Jerseyville, Waverly and Jacksonville, about 
each of which there was a strong anti-slavery 
sentiment. Quincy, in spite of an intense hos- 
tility among the mass of the community to any- 
thing savoring of abolitionism, became the 
theater of great activity on the part of the 
opponents of the institution, especially after the 
advent there of Dr. David Nelson and Dr. Rich- 
ard Bells, both of whom had rendered themselves 
obnoxious to the people of Missouri by extending 
aid to fugitives. The former was a practical 
abolitionist who, having freed his slaves in his 
native State of Virginia, removed to Missouri and 
attempted to establish Marion College, a few miles 
from Palmyra, but was soon driven to Illinois. 
Locating near Quincy, he founded the "Mission 
Institute" there, at which he continued to dis- 
seminate his anti-slavery views, while educating 
young men for missionary work. The "Insti- 
tute" was finally burned by emissaries from Mis- 
souri, while three young men who had been 
connected with it, having been caught in Mis- 
souri, were condemned to twelve years' confine- 

ment in the penitentiary of that State partly on 
the testimony of a negro, although a negro was 
not then a legal witness in the courts against a 
white man. Dr. Eells was prosecuted before 
Stephen A. Douglas (then a Judge of the Circuit 
Court), and fined for aiding a fugitive to escape, 
and the judgment against him was finally con- 
firmed by the Supreme Court after his death, in 
1852, ten years after the original indictment. 

A map in Professor Siebert's book, showing the 
routes and principal stations of the "Undergound 
Railroad," makes mention of the following places 
in Illinois, in addition to those already referred 
to: Carlinville, in Macoupin County; Payson 
and Mendon, in Adams; Washington, in Taze- 
well ; Metamora, in Woodford ; Magnolia, in Put- 
nam; Galesburg, in Knox; Princeton 1 (the home 
of Owen Love joy and the Bryants), in Bureau; 
and many more. Ottawa appears to have been 
the meeting point of a number of lines, as well 
as the home of a strong colony of practical abo- 
litionists. Cairo also became an important 
transfer station for fugitives arriving by river, 
after the completion of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, especially as it offered the speediest way of 
reaching Chicago, towards which nearly all the 
lines converged. It was here that the fugitives 
could be most safely disposed of by placing them 
upon vessels, which, without stopping at inter- 
mediate ports, could soon laud them on Canadian 

" As to methods, these differed according to cir- 
cumstances, the emergencies of the occasion, or 
the taste, convenience or resources of the oper- 
ator. Deacon Levi Morse, of Woodford County, 
near Metamora, had a route towards Magnolia, 
Putnam County; and his favorite "car" was a 
farm wagon in which there was a double bottom. 
The passengers were snugly placed below, and 
grain sacks, filled with bran or other light material, 
were laid over, so that the whole presented the 
appearance of an ordinary load of grain on its 
way to market. The same was true as to stations 
and routes. One, who was an operator, says: 
"Wherever an abolitionist happened on a fugi- 
tive, or the converse, there was a station, for the 
time, and the route was to the next anti-slavery 
man to the east or the north. As a general rule, 
the agent preferred not to know anything beyond 
the operation of his own immediate section of the 
road. If he knew nothing about the operations 
of another, and the other knew nothing of his, 
they could not be witnesses in court. 

We have it on the authority of Judge Harvey B. 
Hurd, of Chicago, that runaways were usually 



forwarded from that city to Canada by way of the 
Lakes, there being several steamers available for 
that purpose. On one occasion thirteen were 
put aboard a vessel under the eyes of a United 
States Marshal and his deputies. The fugitives, 
secreted in a woodshed, one by one took the 
places of colored stevedores carrying wood 
aboard the ship. Possibly the term, "There's a 
nigger in the woodpile," may have originated in 
this incident. Thirteen was an "unlucky num- 
ber" in this instance for the masters. 

Among the notable trials for assisting runaways 
in violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, in addi- 
tion to the case of Dr. Eells, already mentioned, 
were those of Owen Lovejoy of P-rinceton, and 
Deacon Gushing of Will County, both of whom 
were defended by Judge Jas. H. Collins of Chi- 
cago. John Hossack and Dr. Joseph Stout of 
Ottawa, with some half-dozen of their neighbors 
and friends, were tried at Ottawa, in 1859, for 
assisting a fugitive and acquitted on a techni- 
cality. A strong array of attorneys, afterwards 
widely known through the northern part of the 
State, appeared for the defense, including Isaac 
N. Arnold, Joseph Knox, B. C. Cook, J. V. Eus- 
tace, Edward S. Leland and E. C. Larned. Joseph 
T. Morse, of Woodford County, was also arrested, 
taken to Peoria and committed to jail, but 
acquitted on trial. 

Another noteworthy case was that of Dr. 
Samuel Willard (now of Chicago) and his father, 
Julius A. Willard, charged with assisting in the 
escape of a fugitive at Jacksonville, in 1843, when 
the Doctor was a student in Illinois College. 
"The National Corporation Reporter," a few 
years ago, gave an account of this affair, together 
with a letter from Dr. Willard, in which he states 
that, after protracted litigation, during which 
the case was carried to the Supreme Court, it was 
ended by his pleading guilty before Judge Samuel 
D. Lockwood, when he was fined one dollar and 
costs the latter amounting to twenty dollars. 
The Doctor frankly adds: "My father, as well 
as myself, helped many fugitives afterwards." 
It did not always happen, however, that offenders 
escaped so easily. 

Judge Harvey B. Hurd, already referred to, 
and an active anti-slavery man in the days of the 
Fugitive Slave Law, relates the following : Once, 
when the trial of a fugitive was going on before 
Justice Kercheval, in a room on the second floor 
of a two-story frame building on Clark Street in 
the city of Chicago, the crowd in attendance 
filled the room, the stairway and the adjoining 
sidewalk. In some way the prisoner got mixed 

in with the audience, and passed down over the 
heads of those on the stairs, where the officers 
were unable to follow. 

In another case, tried before United States 
Commissioner Geo. W. Meeker, the result was 
made to hinge upon a point in the indictment to 
the effect that the fugitive was ' 'copper-colored. ' ' 
The Commissioner, as the story goes, being in- 
clined to favor public sentiment, called for a large 
copper cent, that he might make comparison. 
The decision was, that the prisoner was "off 
color," so to speak, and he was hustled out of the 
room before the officers could re-arrest him, as 
they had been instructed to do. 

Dr. Samuel Willard, in a review of Professor 
Siebert's book, published in "The Dial" of Chi 
cago, makes mention of Henry Irving and Will- 
iam Chauncey Carter as among his active allies 
at Jacksonville, with Rev. Bilious Pond and 
Deacon Lyman of Farmington (near the present 
village of Farmingdale in Sangamon County), 
Luther Ransom of Springfield, Andrew Borders 
of Randolph County, Joseph Gerrish of Jersey 
and William T. Allan of Henry, as their coadju- 
tors in other parts of the State. Other active 
agents or promoters, in the same field, included 
such names as Dr. Charles V. Dyer, Philo Carpen- 
ter, Calvin De Wolf, L. C. P. Freer, Zebina East- 
man, James H. Collins, Harvey B. Hurd, J. Young 
Scammon, Col. J. F. Farnsworth and others of 
Chicago, whose names have already been men- 
tioned; Rev. Asa Turner, Deacon Ballard, J. K. 
Van Dorn and Erastus Benton, of Quincy and 
Adams County; President Rufus Blanchard of 
Knox College, Galesburg ; John Leeper of Bond ; 
the late Prof. J. B. Turner and Elihu Wolcott of 
Jacksonville; Capt. Parker Morse and his four 
sons Joseph T., Levi P., Parker, Jr., and Mark 
of Woodford County ; Rev. William Sloane of 
Randolph ; William Strawn of La Salle, besides a 
host who were willing to aid their fellow men in 
their aspirations to freedom, without advertising 
their own exploits. 

Among the incidents of "Underground Rail- 
road" in Illinois is one which had some importance 
politically, having for its climax a dramatic scene 
in Congress, but of which, so far as known, no 
full account has ever been written. About 1855, 
Ephraim Lombard, a Mississippi planter, but a 
New Englander by birth, purchased a large body 
of prairie land in the northeastern part of Stark 
County, and, taking up his residence temporarily 
in the village of Bradford, began its improve- 
ment. He had brought with him from Mississippi 
a negro, gray -haired and bent with age, a slave 



of probably no great value. "Old Mose, " as he 
was called, soon came to be well known and a 
favorite in the neighborhood. Lombard boldly 
stated that he had brought him there as a slave ; 
that, by virtue of the Dred Scott decision (then 
of recent date), he had a constitutional right to 
take his slaves wherever he pleased, and that 
"Old Mose" was just as much his property in 
Illinois as in Mississippi. It soon became evident 
to some, that his bringing of the negro to Illinois 
was an experiment to test the law and the feel- 
ings of the Northern people. This being the case, 
a shrewd play would have been to let him have 
his way till other slaves should have been 
brought to stock the new plantation But this 
was too slow a process for the abolitionists, to 
whom the holding of a slave in the free State of 
Illinois appeared an unbearable outrage. It was 
feared that he might take the old negro back to 
Mississippi and fail to bring any others. It was 
reported, also, that "Old Mose" was ill-treated; 
that he was given only the coarsest food in a 
back shed, as if he were a horse or a dog, instead 
of being permitted to eat at table with the family. 
The prairie citizen of that time was very par- 
ticular upon this point of etiquette. The hired 
man or woman, debarred from the table of his or 
her employer, would not have remained a day. 
A quiet consultation with "Old Mose" revealed 
the fact that he would hail the gift of freedom 
joyously. Accordingly, one Peter Risedorf, and 
another equally daring, met him by the light of 
the stars and, before morning, he was placed in 
the care of Owen Lovejoy, at Princeton, twenty 
miles away. From there he was speedily 
"franked" by the member of Congress to friends 
in Canada. 

There was a great commotion in Bradford over 
the "stealing" of "Old Mose." Lombard and his 
friends denounced the act in terms bitter and 
profane, and threatened vengeance upon the per- 
petrators. The conductors were known only to a 
few, and they kept their secret well. Lovejoy's 
part in the affair, however, soon leaked out. 
Lombard returned to Mississippi, where he 
related his experiences to Mr. Singleton, the 
Representative in Congress from his district. 
During the next session of Congress, Singleton 
took occasion, in a speech, to sneer at Lovejoy as a 
"nigger-stealer," citing the case of "Old Mose." 
Mr. Lovejoy replied in his usual fervid and 
dramatic style, making a speech which ensured 
his election to Congress for life "Is it desired to 
call attention to this fact of my assisting fugitive 
slaves?" he said. "Owen Lovejoy lives at Prince- 

ton, 111., three-quarters of a mile east of the 
village, and he aids every slave that comes to his 
door and asks it. Thou invisible Demon of 
Slavery, dost thou think to cross my humble 
threshold and forbid me to give bread to the 
hungry and shelter to the homeless? I bid you 
defiance, in the name of my God!" 

With another incident of an amusing charac- 
ter this article may be closed: Hon. J. Young 
Scammon, of Chicago, being accused of conniving 
at the escape of a slave from officers of the law, 
was asked by the court what he would do if sum- 
moned as one of a posse to pursue and capture a 
fugitive. "I would certainly obey the summons, ' ' 
he replied, "but I should probably stub my toe 
and fall down before I reached him." 

NOTE. Those who wish to pursue the subject of the 
" Underground Railroad " In Illinois further, are referred 
to the work of Dr. Siebert, already mentioned, and to the 
various County Histories which have been issued and may 
be found in the public libraries; also for Interesting Inci- 
dents, to " Reminiscences of Lev! Coffin," Johnson's 
"From Dixie to Canada," Petit 's Sketches, "Still, Under- 
ground Railroad," and a pamphlet of the same title by 
James H. Fairchild, ex-President of Oberlin College. 

UNDERWOOD, William H., lawyer, legislator 
and jurist, was born at Schoharie Court House, 
N. Y., Feb. 21, 1818, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Belleville, 111., where he began 
practice in 1840. The following year he was 
elected State's Attorney, and re-elected in 1843. 
In 1846 he was chosen a member of the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and, in 1848-54, 
sat as Judge of the Second Circuit. During this 
period he declined a nomination to Congress, 
although equivalent to an election. In 1856 he 
was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 1860. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1869-70, and, in 1870, was again elected to 
the Senate, retiring to private life in 1872. Died, 
Sept. 23, 1875. 

UNION COUNTY, one of the fifteen counties 
into which Illinois was divided at the time of its 
admission as a State having been organized, 
under the Territorial Government, in January, 
1818. It is situated in the southern division of 
the State, bounded on the west by the Mississippi 
River, and has an area of 400 square miles. The 
eastern and interior portions are drained by the 
Cache River and Clear Creek. The western part 
of the county comprises the broad, rich bottom 
lands lying along the Mississippi, but is subject 
to frequent overflow, while the eastern portion is 
hilly, and most of its area originally heavily tim- 
bered. The county is especially rich in minerals. 
Iron-ore, lead, bituminous coal, chalk, alum and 



potter's clay are found in considerable abun- 
dance. Several lines of railway (the most impor- 
tant being the Illinois Central) either cross or 
tap the county. The chief occupation is agri- 
culture, although manufacturing is carried on to 
a limited extent. Fruit is extensively cultivated. 
Jonesboro is the county-seat, and Cobden and 
Anna important shipping stations. The latter is 
the location of the Southern Hospital for the 
Insane. The population of the county, in 1890, 
was 21,529. Being next to St. Clair, Randolph 
and Gallatin, one of the earliest settled counties 
in the State, many prominent men found their 
first home, on coming into the State, at Jones- 
boro, and this region, for a time, exerted a strong 
influence in public affairs. Pop. (1910), 21,856. 

UNION LEAGUE OF AMERICA, a secret polit- 
ical and patriotic order which had its origin 
early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pur- 
pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and 
counteracting the machinations of the secret 
organizations designed to promote the success of 
the Rebellion. The first regular Council of the 
order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County, 
June 25, 1862, consisting of eleven members, as 
follows: John W. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever, 
Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. Culloni 
(father of Senator Cullom), Alexander Small, 
Rev. J. \V. M. Vernon, George H. Harlow (after- 
ward Secretary of State), Charles Turner, Col. 
Jonathan Merriam, Henry Pratt and L. F. Gar- 
rett. One of the number was a Union refugee 
from Tennessee, who dictated the first oath from 
memory, as administered to members of a some- 
what similar order which had been organized 
among the Unionists of his own State. It sol- 
emnly pledged the taker, (1) to preserve invio- 
late the secrets and business of the order; (2) to 
"support, maintain, protect and defend the civil 
liberties of the Union of these United States 
against all enemies, either domestic or foreign, 
at all times and under all circumstances," even 
"if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"; (3) to aid 
in electing only true Union men to offices of 
trust in the town, county, State and General 
Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend 
any member of the order who might be in peril 
from his connection with the order, and (5) to 
obey all laws, rules or regulations of any Council 
to which the taker of the oath might be attached. 
The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Decla- 
ration of Independence and Constitution of the 
United States, the taker pledging his sacred 
honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the 
organization existed in the activity, about this 

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a 
disloyal organization which had been introduced 
from the South, and which afterwards took the 
name, in the North, of "American Knights" and 
"Sons of Liberty. " (See Secret Treasonable Soci- 
eties.) Three months later, the organization had 
extended to a number of other counties of the 
State and, on the 25th of September following, 
the first State Council met at Bloomington 
twelve counties being represented and a State 
organization was effected. At this meeting the 
following general officers were chosen: Grand 
President Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall 
County (now of Chicago) ; Grand Vice-President 
Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean ; Grand Secre- 
tary George H. Harlow, of Tazewell; Grand 
Treasurer H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Mar- 
shal J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald 
A. Gould, of Henry; Grand Sentinel John E. 
Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee 
was also appointed, consisting of Joseph Medill 
of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFar- 
land, of Morgan County ; J. K. Warren, of Macon ; 
Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of La Salle; the President, 
Judge Bangs; Enoch Emery, of Peoria; and 
John E. Rosette. Under the direction of this 
Committee, with Mr. Medill as its Chairman, 
the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly 
revised and a new ritual adopted, which materi- 
ally changed the phraseology and removed some 
of the crudities of the original obligation, as well 
as increased the beauty and impressiveness of 
the initiatory ceremonies. New signs, grips and 
pass-words were also adopted, which were finally 
accepted by the various organizations of the 
order throughout the Union, which, by this time, 
included many soldiers in the army, as well as 
civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council 
was held at Springfield, January 14, 1863, with 
only seven counties represented. The limited 
representation was discouraging, but the mem- 
bers took heart from the inspiring words of Gov- 
ernor Yates, addressed to a committee of the 
order who waited upon him. At a special ses- 
sion of the Executive Committee, held at Peoria, 
six days later, a vigorous campaign was 
mapped out, under which agents were sent 
into nearly every county in the State. In Oc- 
tober, 1862, the strength of the order in Illi- 
nois was estimated at three to five thousand; 
a few months later, the number of enrolled 
members had increased to 50,000 so rapid 
had been the growth of the order. On March 
25, 1863, a Grand Council met in Chicago 
404 Councils in Illinois being represented, with 



a number from Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa and Minnesota. At this meeting a 
Committee was appointed to prepare a plan of 
organization for a National Grand Council, which 
was carried out at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 20th 
of May following the constitution, ritual and 
signs of the Illinois organization being adopted 
with slight modifications. The icvised obligation 
taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution of the United 
States bound members of the League to "sup- 
port, protect and defend the Government of the 
United States and the flag thereof, against all 
enemies, foreign and domestic," and to" bear true 
faith and allegiance to the same"; to "defend 
the State against invasion or insurrection"; to 
support only "true and reliable men" for offices 
of trust and profit; to protect and defend 
worthy members, and to preserve inviolate the 
secrets of the order. The address to new mem- 
bers was a model of impressiveness and a powerful 
appeal to their patriotism. The organization 
extended rapidly, not only throughout the North- 
west, but in the South also, especially in the 
army. In 1864 the number of Councils in Illinois 
was estimated at 1,300, with a membership of 
175, 000; and it is estimated that the total mem- 
bership, throughout the Union, was 2,000,000. 
The influence of the silent, but zealous and effect- 
ive, operations of the organization, was shown, 
not only in the stimulus given to enlistments and 
support of the war policy of the Government, 
but in the raising of supplies for the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the field. Within a few 
weeks before the fall of Vicksburg, over $25,000 in 
cash, besides large quantities of stores, were sent 
to Col. John Williams (then in charge of the 
Sanitary Bureau at Springfield), as the direct 
result of appeals made through circulars sent out 
by the officers of the "League." Large contri- 
butions of money and supplies also reached the 
sick and wounded in hospital through the medium 
of the Sanitary Commission in Chicago. Zealous 
efforts were made by the opposition to get at the 
secrets of the order, and, in one case, a complete 
copy of the ritual was published by one of their 
organs ; but the effect was so far the reverse of 
what was anticipated, that this line of attack was 
not continued. During the stormy session of the 
Legislature in 1863, the League is said to have 
rendered effective service in protecting Gov- 
ernor Yates from threatened assassination. It 
continued its silent but effective operations until 
the complete overthrow of the rebellion, when it 
ceased to exist as a political organization. 

ing is a list of United States senators from Illinois, 
from the date of the admission of the State into 
the Union until 1899, with the date and duration 
of the term of each: Ninian Edwards, 1818-24; 
Jesse B. Thomas, Sr., 1818-29; John McLean, 
1824-25 and 1829-30; Elias Kent Kane, 1825-35; 
David Jewett Baker, Nov. 12 to Dec. 11, 1830; 
John M. Robinson, 1830-41; William L. D. Ewing, 
1835-37; Richard M. Young, 1837-43; Samuel Mc- 
Roberts, 1841-43; Sidney Breese, 1843-49; James 
Semple, 1843-47; Stephen A. Douglas, 1847-61; 
James Shields, 1849-55; Lyman Trumbull, 1855-73; 
Orville H. Browning, 1861-63; William A. Rich- 
ardson, 1863-65; Richard Yates, 1865-71; John A. 
Logan, 1871-77 and 1879-86; Richard J. Oglesby, 
1873-79; David Davis, 1877-83; Shelby M. Cullom, 
first elected in 1883, and re-elected four times, his 
fifth term expiring in 1912; Charles B. Farwell, 
1887-91; John McAuley Palmer, 1891-97; William 
E. Mason, 1897-1903; Albert J. Hopkins, 1903-09; 
William Lorimer, 1909-^. 

of the leading educational institutions of the 
country, located at Chicago. It is the outgrowth 
of an attempt, put forth by the American Educa- 
tional Society (organized at Washington in 1888). 
to supply the place which the original institution 
of the same name had been designed to fill. (See 
University of Chicago Tlie Old.) The following 
year, Mr. John D. Rockefeller of New York ten- 
dered a contribution of $600, 000 toward the endow- 
ment of the enterprise, conditioned upon securing 
additional pledges to the amount of $400,000 by 
June 1, 1890. The offer was accepted, and the 
sum promptly raised. In addition, a site, covering 
four blocks of land in the city of Chicago, was 
secured two and one-half blocks being acquired 
by purchase for $282,500, and one and one- half 
(valued at $125,000) donated by Mr. Marshall 
Field. A charter was secured and an organiza- 
tion effected, Sept. 10, 1890. The Presidency of 
the institution was tendered to, and accepted by, 
Dr. William R. Harper. Since that time the 
University has been the recipient of other gener- 
ous benefactions by Mr. Rockefeller and others, 
until the aggregate donations (1898) exceed $10,- 
000,000. Of this amount over one-half has been 
contributed by Mr. Rockefeller, while he has 
pledged himself to make additional contributions 
of $2,000,000, conditioned upon the raising of a 
like sum, from other donors, by Jan. 1, 1900. The 
buildings erected on the campus, prior to 1896, 
include a chemical laboratory costing $182,000; a 
lecture hall, $150,000; a physical laboratory 



$150,000; a museum, 100,000; an academy dor- 
mitory, $30,000; three dormitories for women, 
$150,000; two dormitories for men, $100,000, to 
which several important additions were made 
during 1896 and '97. The faculty embraces over 
150 instructors, selected with reference to their 
fitness for their respective departments from 
among the most eminent scholars in America and 
Europe. Women are admitted as students and 
graduated upon an equality with men. The work 
of practical instruction began in October, 1892, 
with 589 registered students, coming from nearly 
every Northern State, and including 250 gradu- 
ates from other institutions, to which accessions 
were made, during the year, raising the aggregate 
to over 900. The second year the number ex- 
ceeded 1,100; the third, it rose to 1,750, and the 
fourth (1895-96), to some 2,000, including repre- 
sentatives from every State of the Union, besides 
many from foreign countries. Special features 
of the institution include the admission of gradu- 
ates from other institutions to a post-graduate 
course, and the University Extension Division, 
which is conducted largely by means of lecture 
courses, in other cities, or through lecture centers 
in the vicinity of the University, non-resident 
students having the privilege of written exami- 
nations. The various libraries embrace over 
300,000 volumes, of which nearly 60,000 belong 
to what are called the "Departmental Libraries," 
besides a large and valuable collection of maps 
and pamphlets. 

educational institution at Chicago, under the 
care of the Baptist denomination, for some years 
known as the Douglas University. Senator 
Stephen A. Douglas offered, in 1854, to donate ten 
acres of land, in what was then near the southern 
border of the city of Chicago, as a site for an 
institution of learning, provided buildings cost- 
ing $100,000, be erected thereon within a stipu- 
lated time. The corner-stone of the main building 
was laid, July 4, 1857, but the financial panic of 
that year prevented its completion, and Mr. Doug- 
las extended the time, and finally deeded the 
land to the trustees without reserve. For eighteen 
years the institution led a precarious existence, 
struggling under a heavy debt. By 1885, mort- 
gages to the amount of 320,000 having accumu- 
lated, the trustees abandoned further effort, and 
acquiesced in the sale of the property under fore- 
closure proceedings. The original plan of the 
institution contemplated preparatory and col- 
legiate departments, together with a college of 
law and a theological school. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, the leading edu- 
cational institution under control of the State, 
located at Urbana and adjoining the city of 
Champaign. The Legislature at the session of 1863 
accepted a grant of 480,000 acres of land under 
Act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, making an 
appropriation of public lands to States 30,000 
acres for each Senator and each Representative in 
Congress establishing colleges for teaching agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, though not to the 
exclusion of classical and scientific studies. Land- 
scrip under this grant was issued and placed in 
the hands of Governor Yates, and a Board of 
Trustees appointed under the State law was organ- 
ized in March, 1867, the institution being located 
the same year. Departments and courses of study 
were established, and Dr. John M. Gregory, of 
Michigan, was chosen Regent (President): The 
landscrip issued to Illinois was sold at an early 
day for what it wonlcl bring in open market, 
except 25,000 acres, which was located in Ne- 
braska and Minnesota. This has recently been 
sold, realizing a larger sum than was received 
for all the scrip otherwise disposed of. The entire 
sum thus secured for permanent endowment ag- 
gregates 613,026. The University revenues were 
further increased by donations from Congress to 
each institution organized under the Act of 1862, 
of 15,000 per annum for the maintenance of an 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and, in 1890, of 
a similar amount for instruction the latter to be 
increased 1,000 annually until it should reach 
$25,000. A mechanical building was erected in 
1871, and this is claimed to have been the first of 
its kind in America intended for strictly educa- 
tional purposes. What was called "the main 
building" was formally opened in December, 
1873. Other buildings embrace a "Science Hall," 
opened in 1892; a new "Engineering Hall, " 1894; 
a fine Library Building, 1897. Eleven other prin- 
cipal structures and a number of smaller ones 
have been erected as conditions required. The 
value of property aggregates nearly $2,500,000, and 
appropriations from the State, for all purposes, 
previous to 1904, foot up $5,123,517.90. Since 
1871 the institution has been open to women. 
The courses of study embrace agriculture, chem- 
istry, polytechnics, military tactics, natural and 
general sciences, languages and literature, eco- 
nomics, household science, trade and commerce. 
The Graduate School dates from 1891. In 1896 
the Chicago College of Pharmacy was connected 
with the University: a College of Law and a 
Library School were opened in 1897, and the same 
year the Chicago College of Physicians and ^Sur- 



geons was affiliated as the College of Medicine a 
School of Dentistry being added to the latter in 
1901. In 1885 the State Laboratory of Natural 
History was transferred from Normal, 111., and an 
Agricultural Experiment Station entablished in 
1888, from which bulletins are sent to farmers 
throughout the State who may desire them. The 
first name of the Institution was "Illinois Indus- 
trial University," but, in 1885, this was changed 
to "University of Illinois." In 1887 the Trustees 
(of whom there are nine) were made elective by 
popular vote three being elected every two 
years, each holding office six years. Dr. Gregory, 
having resigned the office of Regent in 1880, was 
succeeded by Dr. Selim H. Peabody, who had 
been Professor of Mechanical and Civil Engineer- 
ing. Dr. Peabody resigned in 1891. The duties 
of Regent were then discharged by Prof. Thomas 
J. Burrill until August, 1894, when Dr. Andrew 
Sloan Draper, former State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction of the State of New York, was 
installed as President, serving until 1904. The 
corps of instruction (1904) includes over 100 Pro- 
fessors, 60 Associate and Assistant Professors and 
200 Instructors and Assistants, besides special 
lecturers, demonstrators and clerks. The num- 
ber of students has increased rapidly in recent 
years, as shown by the following totals for suc- 
cessive years from 1890-91 to 1903-04, inclusive: 
619; 583; 714; 743; 810; 852; 1,075: 1,582; 1,824; 
2,234 ; 2,505 ; 2,932; 3,289 ; 3,589. Of the last num- 
ber, 2,271 were men and 718 women. During 
1903-04 there were in all departments at Urbana, 
2.547 students (256 being in the Preparatory Aca- 
demy) ; and in the three Professional Departments 
in Chicago, 1,042, of whom 694 were in the Col- 
lege of Medicine, 185 in the School of Pharmacy, 
and 163 in the School of Dentistry. The Univer- 
sity Library contains 63,700 volumes and 14,500 
pamphlets, not including 5,350 volumes and 
15,850 pamphlets in the State Laboratory of Nat- 
ural History. The University occupies a con- 
spicuous and attractive site, embracing 220 acres 
adjacent to the line between Urbana and Cham- 
paign, and near the residence portion of the two 
cities. The athletic field of 11 acres, on which 
stand the gymnasium and armory, is enclosed 
with an ornamental iron fence. The campus, 
otherwise, is an open and beautiful park with 
fine landscape effects. 

the 102 counties into which Illinois is divided, 
acts were passed by the General Assembly, 
at different times, providing for the organiza- 
tion of a number of others, a few of which 

were subsequently organized under different 
names, but the majority of which were never 
organized at all the proposition for such or- 
ganization being rejected by vote of the people 
within the proposed boundaries, or allowed to 
lapse by non-action. These unorganized coun- 
ties, with the date of the several acts authorizing 
them, t,.nd the territory which they were in- 
tended to include, were as follows: Allen 
County (1841) comprising portions of Sanga- 
1 11011, Morgan and Macoupin Counties ; Audobon 
(Audubon) County (1843) from portions of Mont- 
gomery, Fayette and Shelby; Benton County 
(1843) from Morgan, Greene and Macoupin; 
Coffee County (1837) with substantially the 
same territory now comprised within the bound- 
aries of Stark County, authorized two years 
later; Dane County (1839) name changed to 
Christian in 1840; Harrison County (1855) 
from McLean, Champaign and Vermilion, com- 
prising territory since partially incorporated 
in Ford County; Holmes County (1857) from 
Champaign and Vermilion; Marquette County 
(1843), changed (1847) to Highland compris- 
ing the northern portion of Adams, (this act 
was accepted, with Columbus as the county- 
seat, but organization finally vacated) ; Michi- 
gan County (1837) from a part of Cook; Milton 
County (1843) from the south part of Vermil- 
ion; Okaw County (1841) comprising substan- 
tially the same territory as Moultrie, organized 
under act of 1843; Oregon County (1851) from 
parts of Sangamon, Morgan and Macoupin Coun- 
ties, and covering substantially the same terri- 
tory as proposed to be incorporated in Allen 
County ten years earlier. The last act of this 
character was passed in 1867, when an attempt 
was made to organize Lincoln County out of 
parts of Champaign and Vermilion, but whicn 
failed for want of an affirmative vote. 

UPPER ALTON, a city of Madison County, 
situated on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, about 
1| miles northeast of Alton laid out in 1816. It 
has several churches, and is the seat of Shurtleff 
College and the Western Military Academy, the 
former founded about 1831, and controlled by the 
Baptist denomination. Beds of excellent clay are 
found in the vicinity and utilized in pottery 
manufacture. Pop. (1900), 2,373; (1910), 2,918. 

UPTON, George Putnam, journalist, was born 
at Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1834; graduated from 
Brown University in 1854, removed to Chicago 
in 1855, and began newspaper work on "The 
Native American," the following year taking 
the place of city editor of "The Evening Jour- 



nal." In 1862, Mr. Upton became musical critic 
on "The Chicago Tribune," serving for a time 
also as its war correspondent in the field, later 
(about 1881) taking a place on the general edi- 
torial staff, which he still retains. He is regarded 
as an authority on musical and dramatic topics. 
Mr. Upton is also a stockholder in, and, for sev- 
eral years, has been Vice- President of the "Trib- 
une" Company. Besides numerous contributions 
to magazines, his works include: "Letters of 
Peregrine Pickle" (1869) ; "Memories, a Story of 
German Love," translated from the German of 
Max Muller (1879) ; "Woman in Music" (1880) ; 
"Lives of German Composers" (3 vols. 1883-84); 
besides four volumes of standard operas, oratorios, 
cantatas, and symphonies (1885-88). 

CRBANA, a flourishing city, the county-seat 
of Champaign County, on the "Big Four," the 
Illinois Central and the Wabash Railways: 130 
miles south of Chicago and 31 miles west of Dan- 
ville; in agricultural and coal-mining region. 
The mechanical industries include extensive rail- 
road shops, manufacture of brick, suspenders and 
lawn-mowers. The Cunningham Deaconesses' 
Home and Orphanage is located here. The city 
has water-works, gas and electric light plants, 
electric car-lines (local and interurban), superior 
schools, nine churches, three banks and three 
newspapers. Urbana is the seat of the University 
of Illinois. Pop. (1900), 5,728; (1910), 8,245. 

USREY, William J., editor and soldier, was 
born at Washington (near Natchez), Miss., May 
16, 1827; was educated at Natchez, and, before 
reaching manhood, came to Macon County, 111., 
where he engaged in teaching until 1846, when 
he enlisted as a private in Company C, Fourth 
Illinois Volunteers, for the Mexican War. In 
1855, he joined with a Mr. Wingate in the estab- 
lishment, at Decatur, of "The Illinois State Chron- 
icle," of which he soon after took sole charge, 
conducting th.e paper until 1861, when he enlisted 
in the Thirty-fifth Illinois Volunteers and was 
appointed Adjutant. Although born and edu- 
cated in a slave State, Mr. Usrey was an earnest 
opponent of slavery, as proved by the attitude of 
his paper in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill. He was one of the most zealous endorsers 
of the proposition for a conference of the Anti- 
Nebraska editors of the State of Illinois, to agree 
upon a line of policy in opposition to the further 
extension of slavery, and, when that body met at 
Decatur, on Feb. 22, 1856, he served as its Secre- 
tary, thus taking a prominent part in the initial 
steps which resulted in the organization of the 
Republican party in Illinois. (See Anti-Nebraska 

Editorial Convention.) After returning from 
the war he resumed his place as editor of "The 
Chronicle," but finally retired from newspaper 
work in 1871. He was twice Postmaster of the 
city of Decatur, first previous to 1850, and again 
under the administration of President Grant; 
served also as a member of the City Council and 
was a member of the local Post of the G. A. R., 
and Secretary of the Macon County Association 
of Mexican War Veterans. Died, at Decatur, 
Jan. 20, 1894. 

UTICA, (also called North Utica), a village of 
La Salle County, on the Illinois & Michigan 
Canal and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railway, 10 miles west of Ottawa, situated on the 
Illinois River opposite "Starved Rock," also 
believed to stand on the site of the Kaskaskia 
village found by the French Explorer, La Salle, 
when he first visited Illinois. "Utica cement" is 
produced here; it also has several factories or 
mills, besides banks and a weekly paper. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,094; (1900), 1,150; (1910), 976. 

VAJf Alt !\ AM, John, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Plattsburg, N. Y., March 3, 1820. Hav- 
ing lost his father at five years of age, he went to 
live with a farmer, but ran away in his boyhood ; 
later, began teaching, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in New York City, beginning 
practice at Marshall, Mich. In 1858 he removed 
to Chicago, and, as a member of the firm of 
Walker, Van Arnam & Dexter, became promi- 
nent as a criminal lawyer and railroad attorney, 
being for a time Solicitor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton &-Quincy Railroad. In 1862 he assisted in 
organizing the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry and was commissioned 
its Colonel, but was compelled to resign on 
account of illness. After spending some time in 
California, he resumed practice in Chicago in 
1865. His later years were spent in California, 
dying at San Diego, in that State, April 6, 1890. 

TANDALIA, the principal city and county -seat 
of Fayette County. It is situated on the Kas- 
kaskia River, 30 miles north of Centralia, 62 
miles south by west of Decatur, and 68 miles 
east-northeast of St. Louis. It is an intersecting 
point for the Illinois Central and the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroads. It was the 
capital of the State from 1820 to 1839, the seat of 
government being removed to Springfield, the 
latter year, in accordance with act of the General 
Assembly passed at the session of 1837. It con- 
tains a court house (old State Capitol building), 
six churches, two banks, three weekly papers, a 




graded school, flour, saw and paper mills, foundry, 
stave and heading mill, carriage and wagon 
and brick works. Pop. (1900), 2,665; (1910), 2,974. 

VANDEVEEK, Horatio M., pioneer lawyer, 
was born in Washington County, Ind., March 1, 
1816 ; came with his family to Illinois at an early 
age, settling on Clear Creek, now in Christian 
County; taught school and studied law, using 
books borrowed from the late Hon. John T. Stuart 
of Springfield ; was elected first County Recorder 
of Christian County and, soon after, appointed 
Circuit Clerk, filling both offices three years. 
He also held the office of County Judge from 1848 
to 1857 ; was twice chosen Representative in the 
General Assembly (1842 and 1850) and once to the 
State Senate (1862); in 1846, enlisted and was 
chosen Captain of a company for the Mexican 
War, but, having been rejected on account of the 
quota being full, was appointed Assistant-Quarter- 
master, in this capacity serving on the staff of 
General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. 
Among other offices held by Mr. Vandeveer, were 
those of Postmaster of Taylorville, Master in 
Chancery, Presidential Elector (1848), Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and 
Judge of the Circuit Court (1870-79). In 1868 
Judge Vandeveer established the private banking 
firm of H. M. Vandeveer & Co., at Taylorville, 
which, in conjunction with his sons, he continued 
successfully during the remainder of his life. 
Died, March 12, 1894. 

VAN NORM., William C., Railway Manager 
and President, was born in Will County, 111., 
February, 1843 ; began his career as a telegraph 
operator on the Illinois Central Railroad in 1856, 
was attached to the Michigan Central and Chi- 
cago & Alton Railroads (1858-72), later being 
General Manager or General Superintendent of 
various other lines (1872-79). He next served as 
General Superintendent of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, but soon after became General 
Manager of the Canadian Pacific, which he 
assisted to construct to the Pacific Coast; was 
elected Vice-President of the line in 1884, and its 
President in 1888. His services have been recog- 
nized by conferring upon him the order of 
knighthood by the British Government. 

YASSEUR, Noel C., pioneer Indian-trader, was 
born of French parentage in Canada, Dec. 25, 
1799; at the age of 17 made a trip with a trading 
party to the West, crossing Wisconsin by way of 
the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, the route pursued 
by Joliet and Marquette in 1673 ; later, was associ- 
ated with Gurdon S. Hubbard in the service of 
the American Fur Company, in 1820 visiting the 

region now embraced in Iroquois County, where 
he and Hubbard subsequently established a trad- 
ing post among the Pottawatomie Indians, 
believed to have been the site of the present town 
of Iroquois. The way of reaching their station 
from Chicago was by the Chicago and Des 
Plaines Rivers to the Kankakee, and ascending 
the latter and the Iroquois. Here Vasseur re- 
mained in trade until the removal of the Indians 
west of the Mississippi, in which he served as 
agent of the Government. While in the Iroquois 
region he married Watseka, a somewhat famous 
Pottawatomie woman, for whom the town of 
Watseka was named, and who had previously 
been the Indian wife of a fellow-trader. His 
later years were spent at Bourbonnais Grove, in 
Kankakee County, where he died, Dec. 12, 1879. 

YENICE, a ity of Madison County, on the 
Mississippi River opposite St. Louis and 2 miles 
north of East St. Louis ; is touched by six trunk 
lines of railroad, and at the eastern approach to 
the new "Merchants' Bridge," with its round- 
house, has two ferries to St. Louis, street car line, 
electric lights, water-works, some manufactures 
and a newspaper. Pop. (1900), 2,450; (1910), 3,718. 

Louisville, EwMsville & St. Louis (Consolidated) 
Railroad. ) 

VERMILION COUNTY, an eastern county, 
bordering on the Indiana State line, and drained 
by the Vermilion and Little Vermilion Rivers, 
from which it takes its name. It was originally 
organized in 1826, when it extended north to 
Lake Michigan. Its present area is 882 square 
miles. The discovery of salt springs, in 1819, 
aided in attracting immigration to this region, 
but the manufacture of salt was abandoned 
many years ago. Early settlers were Seymour 
Treat, James Butler, Henry Johnston, Harvey 
Lidington, Gurdon S. Hubbard and Daniel W. 
Beckwith. James Butler and Achilles Morgan 
were the first County Commissioners. Many 
interesting fossil remains have been found, 
among them the skeleton of a mastodon (1868). 
Fire clay is found in large quantities, and two 
coal seams cross the county. The surface is level 
and the soil fertile. Corn is the chief agricultural 
product, although oats, wheat, rye, and potatoes 
are extensively cultivated. Stock-raising and 
wool-growing are important industries. There 
are also several manufactories, chiefly at Dan- 
ville, which is the county-seat. Coal mining 
is carried on extensively, especially in the vicin- 
ity of Danville. Population (1880), 41,588; (1890), 
49,905; (1900), 65,635; (1910), 77,996. 



VERMILION RIVER, a tributary of the Illi- 
nois; rises in Ford and the northern part of 
McLean County, and, running northwestward 
through Livingston and the southern part of 
La Salle Counties, enters the Illinois River 
nearly opposite the city of La Salle ; has a length 
of about 80 miles. 

VERMILION RIVER, an affluent of the Wa- 
bash, formed by the union of the North, Middle 
and South Forks, which rise in Illinois, and 
come together near DanvUle in this State. It 
flows southeastward, and enters the Wabash in 
Vermilion County, Ind. The main stream is 
about 28 miles long. The South Fork, however, 
which rises in Champaign County and runs east- 
ward, has a length of nearly 75 miles. The 
Little Vermilion Eiver enters the Wabash about 
7 or 8 miles below the Vermilion,- which is some- 
times called the Big Vermilion, by way of 

VERMONT, a village in Fulton County, at 
junction of Galesburg and St. Louis Division of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 24 
miles north of Beardstown ; has a carriage manu- 
factory, flour and saw-mills, brick and tile works, 
electric light plant, besides two banks, four 
churches, two graded schools, and one weekly 
newspaper. An artesian well has been sunk here 
to the depth of 2,600 feet. Pop (1910), 1,118. 

VERSAILLES, a town of Brown County, on 
the Wabash Railway, 48 miles east of Quincy; is 
hi a timber and agricultural district; has a bank 
and weekly newspaper. Pop. (1910), 557. 

VIENNA, the county-seat of Johnson County, 
situated on the Cairo and Vincennes branch of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad, 36 miles north-northwest of Cairo. It 
has a court house, several churches, a graded 
school, banks and two weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1890), 828; (1900), 1,217; (1910), 1,124. 

VIGO, Francois, pioneer and early Indian- 
trader, was born at Mondovi, Sardinia (Western 
Italy), in 1747, served as a private soldier, first at 
Havana and afterwards at New Orleans. When 
he left the Spanish army he came to St. Louis, 
then the military headquarters of Spain for Upper 
Louisiana, where he became a partner of Com- 
mandant de Leba, and was extensively engaged 
in the fur-trade among the Indians on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers. On the occupation of 
Kaskaskia by Col. George Rogers Clark in 1778, 
he rendered valuable aid to the Americans, turn- 
ing out supplies to feed Clark's destitute soldiers, 
and accepting Virginia Continental money, at 
par, in payment, incurring liabilities in excess of 

$20,000. This, followed by the confiscation policy 
of the British Colonel Hamilton, at Vincennes, 
where Vigo had considerable property, reduced 
him to extreme penury. H. W. Beckwith says 
that, towards the close of his life, he lived on his 
little homestead near Vincennes, in great poverty 
but cheerful to the last He was never recom- 
pensed during his life for his sacrifices in behalf 
of the American cause, though a tardy restitution 
was attempted, after his death, by the United 
States Government, for the benefit of his heirs. 
He died, at a ripe old age, at Vincennes, Ind., 
March 22, 1835. 

VILLA GROVE, a village of Douglas County on 
the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, eight miles 
northeast of Tuscola. Pop. (1910), 1,828. 

VINCENNES, Jean Baptists Bissot, a Canadian 
explorer, born at Quebec, January, 1688, of aris- 
tocratic and wealthy ancestry. He was closely 
connected with Louis Joliet probably his 
brother-in-law, although some historians say that 
he was the latter's nephew. He entered the 
Canadian army as ensign in 1701, and had a long 
and varied experience as an Indian fighter. 
About 1725 he took up his residence on what is 
now the site of the present city of Vincennes, 
Ind., which is named in his honor. Here he 
erected an earth fort and established a trading- 
post. In 1726, under orders, he co-operated with 
D'Artaguiette (then the French Governor of Illi- 
nois) in an expedition against the Chickasaws. 
The expedition resulted disastrously. Vincennes 
and D'Artaguiette were captured and burned 
at the stake, together with Father Senat (a 
Jesuit priest) and others of the command. 
(See also D'Artaguiette; French Governors of 
Illinois. ) 

VIRDEN, a city of Macoupin County, on the 
Chicago & Alton and the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroads, 21 miles south by west from 
Springfield, and 31 miles east-southeast of Jack- 
sonville. It has five churches, two banks, two 
newspapers, telephone service, electric lights, 
grain elevators, machine shop, and extensive coal 
mines. Pop. (1900), 2,280; (1910), 4,000. 

VIRGINIA, an incorporated city, the county- 
seat of Cass County, situated at the intersection of 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis, with the Spring- 
field Division of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railroad, 15 miles north of Jacksonville, 
and 33 miles west-northwest of Springfield. It 
lies in the heart of a rich agricultural region. 
There is a flouring mill here, besides manu- 
factories of wagons and cigars. The city has two 
National and one State bank, five churches, a 



high school, and two weekly papers. Pop. (1890), 
1,602; (1900), 1,000; (1910), 1,301. 

YOCKE, William, lawyer, was born at Min- 
den, Westphalia (Germany), in 1839, the son of a 
Government Secretary in the Prussian service. 
Having lost his father at an early age, he emi- 
grated to America in 1856, and, after a short 
stay in New York, came to Chicago, where he 
found employment as a paper-carrier for "The 
Staats-Zeitung, " meanwhile giving his attention 
to the study of law. Later, he became associated 
with a real-estate firm; on the commencement 
of the Civil War, enlisted as a private in a 
three-months' regiment, and, finally, in the 
Twenty-fourth Illinois (the first Hecker regi- 
ment), in which he rose to the rank of Captain. 
Returning from the army, he was employed as 
city editor of "The Staats-Zeitung," but, in 
1865, became Clerk of the Chicago Police Court, 
serving until 1869. Meanwhile he had been 
admitted to the bar, and, on retirement from 
office, began practice, but, in 1870, was elected 
Representative in the Twenty-seventh General 
Assembly, in which he bore a leading part in 
framing "the burnt record act" made necessary 
by the fire of 1871. He was still later engaged 
in the practice of his profession, having been, 
for a number of years, attorney for the German 
Consulate at Chicago, also serving, for several 
years, on the Chicago Board of Education. Mr. 
Vocke was a man of high literary tastes, as shown 
by his publication, in 1869, of a volume of poems 
translated from the German, which has been 
highly commended, besides a legal work on 
"The Administration of Justice in the United 
States, and a Synopsis of the Mode of Procedure 
in our Federal and State Courts and All Federal 
and State Laws relating to Subjects of Interest 
to Aliens," which has been published in the Ger- 
man Language, and is highly valued by German 
lawyers and business men. Mr. Vocke was a 
member of the Republican National Convention 
of 1872 at Philadelphia, which nominated General 
Grant for the Presidency in 1872. Died May 3, 1907. 

VOLK, Leonard Wells, a distinguished Illinois 
sculptor, born at Wellstown (afterwards Wells), 
N. Y., Nov. 7, 1828. Later, his father, who was 
a marble cutter, removed to Pittsfield, Mass., 
and, at the age of 16, Leonard began work in his 
shop. In 1848 he came west and began model- 
ing in clay and drawing at St. Louis, being only 
self-taught. He married a cousin of Stephen A. 
Douglas, and the latter, in 1855, aided him in 
the prosecution of his art studies in Italy. Two 
years afterward he settled in Chicago, where he 

modeled the first portrait bust ever made in the 
city, having for his subject his first patron the 
"Little Giant." The next year (1858) he made a 
life-size marble statue of Douglas. In 1860 he 
made a portrait bust of Abraham Lincoln, which 
passed into the possession of the Chicago His- 
torical Society and was destroyed in the great fire 
of 1871. In 1868-69, and again in 1871-72, he 
revisited Italy for purposes of study. In 1867 he 
was elected academician of the Chicago Academy, 
and was its President for eight years. He was 
genial, companionable and charitable, and always 
ready to assist his younger and less fortunate pro- 
fessional brethren. His best known works are the 
Douglas Monument, in Chicago, several soldiers' 
monuments in different parts of the country, 
the statuary for the Henry Keep mausoleum at 
Watertown, N. Y., life-size statues of Lincoln 
and Douglas, in the State House at Springfield, 
and numerous portrait busts of men eminent 
in political, ecclesiastical and commercial life. 
Died, at Osceola, Wis., August 18, 1895. 

TOSS, Arno, journalist, lawyer and soldier, 
born in Prussia, April 16, 1821 ; emigrated to the 
United States and was admitted to the bar in 
Chicago, in 1848, the same year becoming editor 
of "The Staats-Zeitung"; was elected City 
Attorney in 1852, and again in 1853; in 1861 
became Major of the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, but 
afterwards assisted .in organizing the Twelfth 
Cavalry, of which he was commissioned Colonel, 
still later serving with his command in Vir- 
ginia. He was at Harper's Ferry at the time of 
the capture of that place in September, 1862, but 
succeeded in cutting his way, with his command, 
through the rebel lines, escaping into Pennsyl- 
vania. Compelled by ill-health to leave the serv- 
ice in 1863, he retired to a farm in Will County, 
but, in 1869, returned to Chicago, where he served 
as Master in Chancery and was elected to the 
lower branch of the General Assembly in 1876, 
but declined a re-election in 1878. Died, in Chi- 
cago, March 23, 1888. 

ROAD, a railway running from Chester to Mount 
Vernon, 111., 63.33 miles, with a branch extend- 
ing from Chester to Menard, 1.5 miles; total 
mileage, 64.83. It is of standard gauge, and 
almost entirely laid with 60-pound steel rails. 
(HISTORY.) It was organized, Feb. 20, 1878, as 
successor to the Iron Mountain, Chester & East- 
ern Railroad. During the fiscal year 1893-94 the 
Company purchased the Tamaroa & Mount Ver- 
non Railroad, extending from Mount Vernon to 



Tamaroa, 22.5 miles. Capital stock (1898), $1,- 
250,000; bonded indebtedness, $690,000; total 
capitalization, $2,028,573. 

WABASH COUNTY, situated in the southeast 
corner of the State ; area 220 square miles. The 
county was carved out from Edwards in 1824, 
and the first court house built at Centerville, in 
May, 1826. Later, Mount Carmel was made the 
county -seat. (See Mount Carmel. ) The Wabash 
River drains the county on the east; other 
streams are the Bon Pas, Coffee and Crawfish 
Creeks. The surface is undulating with a fair 
growth of timber. The chief industries are the 
raising of live-stock and the cultivation of cere- 
als. The wool-crop is likewise valuable. The 
county is crossed by the Louisville, Evansville & 
3t. Louis and the Cairo and Vincennes Division 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railroads. Population (1880), 4,945; (1890), 
11,866; (1900), 12,583; (1910), 14,913. 

WABASH RAILROAD,, an extensive railroad 
system connecting the cities of Detroit and 
Toledo, on the east, with Kansas City and Council 
Bluffs, on the west, with branches to Chicago, St. 
Louis, Quincy and Altamont, 111., and to Keokuk 
and Des Moines, Iowa. The total mileage (1898) 
is 1,874.96 miles, of which 677.4 miles are in Illi- 
nois all of the latter being the property of the 
company, besides 176.7 miles of yard-tracks, sid- 
ings and spurs. The company has trackage 
privileges over the Toledo, Peoria & Western (6.5 
miles) between Elvaston and Keokuk bridge, and 
over the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (21.8 
miles) between Camp Point and Quincy. (His- 
TORY.) A considerable portion of this road in 
Illinois is constructed on the line upon which the 
Northern Cross Railroad was projected, in the 
"internal improvement" scheme adopted in 1837, 
and embraces the only section of road completed 
under that scheme that between the Illinois 
River and Springfield. (1) The construction of 
this section was begun by the State, May 11, 
1837, the first rail laid, May 9, 1838, the road 
completed to Jacksonville, Jan. 1, 1840, and to 
Springfield, May 13, 1842. It was operated for a 
time by "mule power," but the income was in- 
sufficient to keep the line in repair and it was 
finally abandoned. In 1847 the line was sold for 
$21,100 to N. H. Ridgelyand Thomas Mather of 
Springfield, and by them transferred to New 
York capitalists, who organized the Sangamon & 
Morgan Railroad Company, reconstructed the 
road from Springfield to Naples and opened it for 
business in 1849. (2) In 1853 two corporations 
were organized in Ohio and Indiana, respectively, 

under the name of the Toledo & Illinois Railroad 
and the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad, 
which were consolidated as the Toledo, Wabash 
& Western Railroad, June 25, 1856. In 1858 
these lines were sold separately under foreclo- 
sure, and finally reorganized, under a special char- 
ter granted by the Illinois Legislature, under the 
name of the Great Western Railroad Company.. 
(3) The Quincy & Toledo Railroad, extending 
from Camp Point to the Illinois River opposite 
Meredosia, was constructed in 1858-59, and that, 
with the Illinois & Southern Iowa (from Clay- 
ton to Keokuk), was united, July 1, 1865, with 
the eastern divisions extending to Toledo, the 
new organization taking the name of the main 
line, (Toledo, Wabash & Western). (4) The 
Hannibal & Naples Division (49.6 miles), from 
Bluffs to Hannibal, Mo., was chartered in 1863, 
opened for business in 1870 and leased to the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western. The latter defaulted 
on its interest in 1875, was placed in the hands 
of a receiver and, in 1877, was turned over to a 
new company under the name of the Wabash 
Railway Company. (5) In 1868 the company, 
as it then existed, promoted and secured the con- 
struction, and afterwards acquired the owner- 
ship, of a line extending from Decatur to East St. 
Louis (110.5 miles) under the name of the Deca- 
tur & East St. Louis Railroad. (6) The Eel River 
Railroad, from Butler to Logansport, Ind., was 
acquired in 1877, and afterwards extended to 
Detroit under the name of the Detroit, Butler & 
St. Louis Railroad, completing the connection 
from Logansport to Detroit. In November, 1879, 
the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany was organized, took the property and con- 
solidated it with certain lines west of the 
Mississippi, of which the chief was the St. Louis, 
Kansas City & Northern. A line had been pro- 
jected from Decatur to Chicago as early as 1870, 
but, not having been constructed in 1881, the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific purchased what was 
known as the Chicago & Paducah Railroad, 
uniting with the main line at Bement, and (by 
way of the Decatur and St. Louis Division) giv- 
ing a direct line between Chicago and St. Louis. 
At this time the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific wal 
operating the following additional leased lines: 
Pekin, Lincoln & Decatur (67.2 miles); Hannibal 
& Central Missouri (70.2 miles); Lafayette, Mun- 
cie & Bloomington (36. 7 miles), and the Lafayette 
Bloomington & Muncie (80 miles). A connection 
between Chicago on the west and Toledo and 
Detroit on the east was established over the 
Grand Trunk road in 1882, but, in 1890, the com- 



pany constructed a line from Montpelier, Ohio, to 
Clark, Ind. (149.7 miles), thence by track lease 
to Chicago (17.5 miles), giving an independent 
line between Chicago and Detroit by what is 
known to investors as the Detroit & Chicago 

The total mileage of the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific system, in 1884, amounted to over 3,600 
miles ; but, in May of that year, default having 
been made in the payment of interest, the work 
of disintegration began. The main line east of 
the Mississippi and that on the west were sepa- 
rated, the latter taking the name of the "Wabash 
Western." The Eastern Division was placed in 
the hands of a receiver, so remaining until May, 
1889, when the two divisions, having been 
bought in by a purchasing committee, were 
consolidated under the present name. The total 
earnings and income of the road in Illinois, for 
the fiscal year 1898, were $4,408,621, and the 
expenses $4,836,110. The total capital invested 
(1898) was $139,889,643, including capital stock 
of $52,000,000 and bonds to the amount of $81,- 

WABASH BITER, rises in northwestern Ohio, 
passes into Indiana, and runs northwest to Hun- 
tington. It then flows nearly due west to Logans- 
port, thence southwest to Covington, finally 
turning southward to Terre Haute, a few miles 
below which it strikes the western boundary of 
Indiana. It forms the boundary between Illinois 
and Indiana (taking into account its numerous 
windings) for some 200 miles. Below Vincennes 
it runs in a south-southwesterly direction, and 
enters the Ohio at the south-west extremity of 
Indiana, near latitude 37 49' north. Its length 
is estimated at 557 miles. 

(See Illinois Central Railroad. ) 

ROAD. (See Wabash Railroad. ) 

Wabash Railroad.) 

WAIT, William Smith, pioneer, and original 
suggestor of the Illinois Central Railroad, was 
born in Portland, Maine, March 5, 1789, and edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native place. 
In his youth he entered a book-publishing house 
in which his father was a partner, and was for a 
time associated with the publication of a weekly 
paper. Later the business was conducted at 
Boston, and extended over the Eastern, Middle, 
and Southern States, the subject of this sketch 
making extensive tours in the interest of the 
firm. In 1817 he made a tour to the West, 

reaching St. Louis, and, early in the following 
year, visited Bond County, 111., where he made 
his first entry of land from the Government. 
Returning to Boston a few months later, he con- 
tinued in the service of the publishing firm until 

1820, when he again came to Illinois, and, in 

1821, began farming in Ripley Township, Bond 
County. Returning East in 1824, he spent the 
next ten years in the employment of the publish- 
ing firm, with occasional visits to Illinois. In 
1835 he located permanently near Greenville, 
Bond County, and engaged extensively in farm- 
ing and fruit-raising, planting one of the largest 
apple orchards in the State at that early day. In 
1845 he presided as chairman over the National 
Industrial Convention in New York, and, in 
1848, was nominated as the candidate of the 
National Iteform Association for Vice-President 
on the ticket with Gerrit Smith of New York, 
but declined. He was also prominent in County 
and State Agricultural Societies. Mr Wait has 
been credited with being one of the first (if not 
the very first) to suggest the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, which he did as early 
as 1835 ; was also one of the prime movers in the 
construction of the Mississippi & Atlantic Rail- 
road now the "Vandalia Line" giving much 
time to the latter enterprise from 1846 for many 
years, and was one of the original incorporators 
of the St. Louis & Illinois Bridge Company. 
Died, July 17, 1865. 

WALKER, Cyrus, pioneer, lawyer, born in 
Rockbridge County, Va., May 14, 1791; was taken 
while an infant to Adair County, Ky., and came 
to Macomb, 111., in 1833, being the second lawyer 
to locate in McDonough County. He had a wide 
reputation as a successful advocate, especially in 
criminal cases, and practiced extensively in the 
courts of Western Illinois and also in Iowa. Died, 
Dec. 1, 1875. Mr. Walker was uncle of the late 
Pinkney H. Walker of the Supreme Court, who 
studied law with him. He was Whig candidate 
for Presidential Elector for the State-at-large in 

WALKER, James Barr, clergyman, was born 
in Philadelphia, July 29, 1805; in his youth 
served as errand-boy in a country store near 
Pittsburg and spent four years in a printing 
office ; then became clerk in the office of Mordecai 
M. Noah, in New York, studied law and gradu- 
ated from Western Reserve College, Ohio ; edited 
various religious papers' including "The Watch- 
man of the Prairies" (now "The Advance") of 
Chicago, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Chicago, and for some time was lecturer on 



"Harmony between Science and Revealed Reli- 
gion" at Oberlin College and Chicago Theological 
Seminary. He was author of several volumes, 
one of which "The Philosophy of the Plan of 
Salvation," published anonymously under the 
editorship of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe (1855) ran 
through several editions and was translated into 
five different languages, including Hindustanee. 
Died, at Wheaton, 111., March 6, 1887. 

WALKER, James Monroe, corporation lawyer 
and Railway President, was born at Claremont, 
N. H., Feb. 14, 1820. At fifteen he removed with 
his parents to a farm in Michigan ; was educated 
at Oberlin, Ohio, and at the University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, graduating from the latter in 
1849. He then entered a law office as clerk and 
student, was admitted to the bar the next year, 
and soon after elected Prosecuting Attorney of 
Washtenaw County ; was also local attorney for 
the Michigan Central Railway, for which, after 
his removal to Chicago in 1853, he became Gen- 
eral Solicitor. Two years later the firm of Sedg- 
wick & Walker, which had been organized in 
Michigan, became attorneys for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and, until his 
death, Mr. Walker was associated with this com- 
pany, either as General Solicitor, General Counsel 
or President, filling the latter position from 1870 
to 1875. Mr. Walker organized both the Chicago 
and Kansas City stock-yards, and was President 
of these corporations, as also of the Wilmington 
Coal Company, down to the time of his death, 
which occurred on Jan. 22, 1881, as a result of 
heart disease. 

WALKER, (Rev.) Jesse, Methodist Episcopal 
missionary, was born in Rockingham County, 
Va., June 9, 1766; in 1800 removed to Tennessee, 
became a traveling preacher in 1802, and, in 
1806, came to Illinois under the presiding-elder- 
ship of Rev. William McKendree (afterwards 
Bishop), locating first at Turkey Hill, St. Clair 
County. In 1807 he held a camp meeting near 
Edwardsville the first on Illinois soil. Later, 
he transferred his labors to Northern Illinois; 
was at Peoria in 1824; at Ottawa in 1825, and 
devoted much time to missionary work among 
the Pottawatomies, maintaining a school among 
them for a time. He visited Chicago in 1826, and 
there is evidence that he was a prominent resident 
there for several years, occupying a log house, 
which he used as a church and living-room, on 
"Wolf Point" at the junction of the North and 
South Branches of the Chicago River. While 
acting as superintendent of the Fox River mis- 
sion, his residence appears to have been at Plain- 

field, in the northern part of Will County. Died, 
Oct. 5, 1835. 

WALKER, Pinkney H., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Adair County, Ky., June 18, 1815. 
His boyhood was chiefly passed in farm work and 
as clerk in a general store ; in 1834 he came to Illi- 
nois, settling at Rushville, where he worked in a 
store for four years. In 1838 he removed to 
Macomb, where he began attendance at an acad- 
emy and the study of law with his uncle, Cyrus 
Walker, a leading lawyer of his time. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1839, practicing at Macomb 
until 1848, when he returned to Rushville. In 
1853 he was elected Judge of the Fifth Judicial 
Circuit, to fill a vacancy, and re-elected in 1855. 
This ppsition he resigned in 1858, having been 
appointed, by Governor Bissell, to fill the vacancy 
on the bench of the Supreme Court occasioned by 
the resignation of Judge Skinner. Two months 
later lie was elected to the same position, and 
re-elected in 1867 and '76. He presided as Chief 
Justice from January, 1864, to June, '67, and 
again from June, 1874, to June, '75. Before the 
expiration of his last term he died, Feb. 7, 1885. 

WALL, George Willard, lawyer, politician and 
Judge, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 22, 
1839; brought to Perry County, 111., in infancy, 
and received his preparatory education at McKen- 
dree College, finally graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1858, and from the 
Cincinnati Law School in 1859, when he began 
practice at Duquoin, 111. He was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and, from 
1864 to '68, served as State's Attorney for the 
Third Judicial District ; was also a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 
1872 he was an unsuccessful Democratic candi- 
date for Congress, although running ,head of his 
ticket. In 1877 he was elected to the bench of 
the Third Circuit, and re-elected in '79, '85 and 
'91, much of the time since 1877 being on duty 
upon the Appellate bench. His home is at 

WALLACE, (Rev.) Peter, D.D., clergyman 
and soldier; was born in Mason County, Ky., 
April 11, 1813; taken in infancy to Brown 
County, Ohio, where he grew up on a farm until 
15 years of age, when he was apprenticed to a 
carpenter; at the age of 20 came to Illinois, 
where he became a contractor and builder, fol- 
lowing this occupation for a number of years. He 
was converted in 1835 at Springfield, 111., and, 
some years later, having decided to enter the 
ministry, was admitted to the Illinois Conference 
as a deacon by Bishop E. S. Janes in 1855, and 



placed in charge of the Danville Circuit. Two 
years later he was ordained by Bishop Scott, and, 
in the next few years, held pastorates at various 
places in the central and eastern parts of the 
State. From 1867 to 1874 he was Presiding Elder 
of the Mattoon and Quincy Districts, and, for six 
years, held the position of President of the Board 
of Trustees of Chaddock College at Quincy, from 
which he received the degree of D.D. in 1881. 
In the second year of the Civil War he raised a 
company in Sangamon County, was chosen 
its Captain and assigned to the Seventy-third 
Illinois Volunteers, known as the "preachers' 
regiment" all of its officers being ministers. In 
1864 he was compelled by ill-health to resign his 
commission. While pastor of the church at Say- 
brook, 111., he was offered the position of Post- 
master of that place, which he decided to accept, 
and was allowed to retire from the active minis- 
try. On retirement from office, in 1884, he 
removed to Chicago. In 1889 he was appointed 
by Governor Fifer the first Chaplain of the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy, but retired 
some four years afterward, when he returned to 
Chicago. Dr. Wallace was an eloquent and 
effective preacher and continued to preach, at 
intervals, until within a short time of his decease, 
which occurred in Chicago, Feb. 21, 1897, in his 
84th year. A zealous patriot, he frequently 
spoke very effectively upon the political rostrum. 
Originally a Whig, he became a Republican on 
the organization of that party, and took pride in 
the fact that the first vote he ever cast was for 
Abraham Lincoln, for Representative in the Legis- 
lature, in 1834 He was a Knight Templar, Vice- 
President of the Tippecanoe Club of Chicago, 
and, at his death, Chaplain of America Post, No. 
708, G. A. R. 

WALLACE, William Henry Lamb, lawyer and 
soldier, was born at Urbana, Ohio, July 8, 1821; 
brought to Illinois in 1833, his father settling 
near La Salle and, afterwards, at Mount Morris, 
Ogle County, where young Wallace attended the 
Rock River Seminary ; was admitted to the bar in 
1845 ; in 1846 enlisted as a private in the First Illi- 
nois Volunteers (Col. John J. Hardin's regiment), 
for the Mexican War, rising to the rank of Adju- 
tant and participting in the battle of Buena Vista 
(where his commander was killed), and in other 
engagements. Returning to his profession at 
Ottawa, he served as District Attorney (1852-56), 
then became partner of his father-in-law, Col. 
T. Lyle Dickey, afterwards of the Supreme Court. 
In April, 1861, he was one of the first to answer 
the call for troops by enlisting, and became Colo- 

nel of the Eleventh Illinois (three-months' 
men), afterwards re-enlisting for three years. 
As commander of a brigade he participated in 
the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, receiving promotion as Brigadier- 
General for gallantry. At Pittsburg Landing 
(Shiloh), as commander of Gen. C. F. Smith's 
Division, devolving on him on account of the 
illness of his superior Officer, he showed great 
courage, but fell mortally wounded, dying at 
Charleston, Tenn., April 10, 1862. His career 
promised great brilliancy and his loss was greatly 
deplored. Martin R. M. ( Wallace), brother of 
the preceding, was born at Urbana, Ohio, Sept. 
29, 1829, came to La Salle County, 111., with his 
father's family and was educated in the local 
schools and at Rock River Seminary ; studied law 
at Ottawa, and was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
soon after locating in Chicago. In 1861 he 
assisted in organizing the Fourth Regiment Illi- 
nois Cavalry, of which he became Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and was complimented, in 1865, with the 
rank of brevet Brigadier-General. After the 
war he served as Assessor of Internal Revenue 
(1866-69); County Judge (1869-77); Prosecuting 
Attorney (1884); and, for many years was one of 
the Justices of the Peace of the city of Chicago. 
Died March 6, 1902. 

WALNUT, a town of Bureau County, on the 
Mendota and Fulton branch of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad, 26 miles west of 
Mendota ; is in a farming and stock-raising dis- 
trict ; has two banks and two newspapers. Popu- 
lation (1900), 791; (1910), 763. 

WAR OF 1812. Upon the declaration of war 
by Congress, in June, 1812, the Pottawatomies, 
and most of the other tribes of Indians in the 
Territory of Illinois, strongly sympathized with 
the British. The savages had been hostile and 
restless for some time previous, and blockhouses 
and family forts had been erected at a number 
of points, especially in the settlements most 
exposed to the incursions of the savages. Gov- 
ernor Edwards, becoming apprehensive of an 
outbreak, constructed Fort Russell, a few milea 
from Edwardsville. Taking the field in person, 
he made this his headquarters, and collected a 
force of 250 mounted volunteers, who were later 
reinforced by two companies of rangers, under 
Col. William Russell, numbering about 100 men. 
An independent company of twenty -one spies, of 
which John Reynolds afterwards Governor 
was a member, was also formed and led by Capt. 
Samuel Judy. The Governor organized his little 
army into two regiments under Colonels Rector 



and Stephenson, Colonel Russell serving as 
second to the commander-in-chief, 6ther mem- 
bers of his staff being Secretary Nathaniel Pope 
and Robert K. McLaughlin. On Oct. 18, 1812, 
Governor Edwards, with his men, set out for 
Peoria, where it was expected that their force 
would meet that of General Hopkins, who had 
been sent from Kentucky with a force of 2,000 
men. En route, two iUckapoo villages were 
burned, and a number of Indians unnecessarily 
slain by Edwards' party. Hopkins had orders to 
disperse the Indians on the Illinois and Wabash 
Rivers, and destroy their villages. He deter- 
mined, however, on reaching the headwaters of 
the Vermilion to proceed no farther. Governor 
Edwards reached the head of Peoria Lake, but, 
failing to meet Hopkins, returned to Fort Russell. 
About the same time Capt. Thomas E. Craig led 
a party, in two boats, up the Illinois River to 
Peoria. His boats, as he alleged, having been 
fired upon in the night by Indians, who were har- 
bored and protected by the French citizens of 
Peoria, he burned the greater part of the village, 
and capturing the population, carried them down 
the river, putting them on shore, in the early part 
of the winter, just below Alton. Other desultory 
expeditions marked the campaigns of 1813 and 
1814. The Indians meanwhile gaining courage, 
remote settlements were continually harassed 
by marauding bands. Later in 1814, an expedi- 
tion, led by Major (afterwards President) Zachary 
Taylor, ascended the Mississippi as far as Rock 
Island, where he found a large force of Indians, 
supported by British regulars with artillery. 
Finding himself unable to cope with so formida- 
ble a foe, Major Taylor retreated down the river. 
On the site of the present town of Warsaw he 
threw up fortifications, which he named Fort 
Edwards, from which point he was subsequently 
compelled to retreat. The same year the British, 
with their Indian allies, descended from Macki- 
nac, captured Prairie du Chien, and burned Forts 
Madison and Johnston, after which they retired 
to Cap au Gris. The treaty of Ghent, signed 
Dec. 24, 1814, closed the war, .although no formal 
treaties were made with the tribes until the year 

WAR OF THE REBELLION. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the executive chair, in Illinois, 
was occupied by Gov. Richard Yates. Immedi- 
ately upon the issuance of President Lincoln's 
first call for troops (April 15, 1861), the Governor 
issued his proclamation summoning the Legisla- 
ture together in special session and, the same 
day, issued a call for "six regiments of militia," 

the quota assigned to the State under call of the 
President. Public excitement was at fever heat, 
and dormant patriotism in both sexes was 
aroused as never before. Party lines were 
broken down and, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, the mass of the people were actuated by a 
common sentiment of patriotism. On April 19, 
Governor Yates was instructed, by the Secretary 
of War, to take possession of Cairo as an important 
strategic point. At that time, the State militia 
organizations were few in number and poorly 
equipped, consisting chiefly of independent com- 
panies in the larger cities. The Governor acted 
with great promptitude, and, on April 21,. seven 
companies, numbering 595 men, commanded by 
Gen. Richard K. Swift of Chicago, were en route 
to Cairo. The first volunteer company to tender 
its services, in response to Governor Yates' proc- 
lamation, on April 16, was the Zouave Grays of 
Springfield. Eleven other companies were ten- 
dered the same day, and, by the evening of the 
18th, the number had been increased to fifty. 
Simultaneously with these proceedings, Chicago 
bankers tendered to the Governor a war loan of 
$500,000, and those of Springfield, $100,000. The 
Legislature, at its special session, passed acts in- 
creasing the efficiency of the militia law, and 
provided for the creation of a war fund of $2, - 
000,000. Besides the six regiments already called 
for, the raising of ten additional volunteer regi- 
ments and one battery of light artillery was 
authorized. The last of the six regiments, 
apportioned to Illinois under the first presidential 
call, was dispatched to Cairo early in May. The 
six regiments were numbered the Seventh to 
Twelfth, inclusive the earlier numbers, First to 
Sixth, being conceded to the six regiments which 
had served in the war with Mexico. The regi- 
ments were commanded, respectively, by Colonels 
John Cook, Richard J. Oglesby, Eleazer A. Paine, 
James D. Morgan, William H. L. Wallace, and 
John Me Arthur, constituting the "First Brigade 
of Illinois Volunteers." Benjamin M. Prentiss, 
having been chosen Brigadier-General on arrival 
at Cairo, assumed command, relieving General 
Swift. The quota under the second call, consist- 
ing of ten regiments, was mustered into service 
within sixty days, 200 companies being tendered 
immediately. Many more volunteered than could 
be accepted, and large numbers crossed to Mis- 
souri and enlisted in regiments forming in that 
State. During June and July the Secretary of 
War authorized Governor Yates to recruit twenty- 
two additional regiments (seventeen infantry and 
five cavalry), which were promptly raised. On 



July 22, the day following the defeat of the Union 
army at Bull Run, President Lincoln called for 
500,000 more volunteers. Governor Yates im- 
mediately responded with an offer to the War 
Department of sixteen more regiments (thirteen 
of infantry and three of cavalry), and a battalion 
of artillery, adding, that the State claimed it as 
her right, to do her full share toward the preser- 
vation of the Union. Under supplemental author- 
ity, received from the Secretary of War in 
August, 1861, twelve additional regiments of in- 
fantry and five of cavalry were raised, and, by De- 
cember, 1861, the State had 43,000 volunteers in 
the field and 17,000 in camps of instruction. 
Other calls were made in July and August, 1802, 
each for 300,000 men. Illinois' quota, under both 
calls, was over 52,000 men, no regard being paid 
to the fact that the State had already furnished 
16,000 troops in excess of its quotas under previ- 
ous calls. Unless this number of volunteers was 
raised by September 1, a draft would be ordered. 
The tax was a severe one, inasmuch as it would 
fall chiefly upon the prosperous citizens, the float- 
ing population, the idle and the extremely poor 
having already followed the army's march, either 
as soldiers or as camp-followers. But recruiting 
was actively carried on, and, aided by liberal 
bounties in many of the counties, in less than a 
fortnight the 52,000 new troops were secured, the 
volunteers coming largely from the substantial 
classes agricultural, mercantile, artisan and 
professional. By the end of December, fifty-nine 
regiments and four batteries had been dispatched 
to the front, besides a considerable number to fill 
up regiments already in the field, which had suf- 
fered severely from battle, exposure and disease. 
At this time, Illinois had an aggregate of over 
135,000 enlisted men in the field. The issue of 
President Lincoln's preliminary proclamation of 
emancipation, in September, 1862, was met by a 
storm of hostile criticism from his political 
opponents, who aided by the absence of so 
large a proportion of the loyal population of the 
State in the field were able to carry the elec- 
tions of that year. Consequently, when the 
Twenty-third General Assembly convened in 
regular session at Springfield, on Jan. 5, 1863, a 
large majority of that body was not only opposed 
to both the National and State administrations, 
but avowedly opposed to the further prosecution 
of the war under the existing policy. The Leg- 
islature reconvened in June, but was prorogued 
by Governor Yates Between Oct. 1, 1863, and 
July 1, 1864, 16,000 veterans re-enlisted and 
87,000 new volunteers were enrolled; and, by the 

date last mentioned, Illinois had furnished to the 
Union army 244,496 men, being 14,596 in ex- 
cess of the allotted quotas, constituting fifteen 
per cent of the entire population. These were 
comprised in 151 regiments of infantry, 17 of 
cavalry and two complete regiments of artillery, 
besides twelve independent batteries. The total 
losses of Illinois organizations, during the war, 
has been reported at 34,834, of which 5,874 were 
killed in battle, 4,020 died from wounds, 22,786 
from disease and 2,154 from other causes being 
a total of thirteen per cent of the entire force of 
the State in the service. The part which Illinois 
played in the contest was conspicuous for patriot- 
ism, promptness in response to every call, and 
the bravery and efficiency of its troops in the 
field reflecting honor upon the State and its his- 
tory. Nor were its loyal citizens who, while 
staying at home, furnished moral and material 
support to the men at the front less worthy of 
praise than those who volunteered. By uphold- 
ing the Government National and State and 
by their zeal and energy in collecting and sending 
forward immense quantities of supplies surgical, 
medical and other often at no little sacrifice, 
they contributed much to the success of the 
Union arms. (See also Camp Douglas; Camp 
Douglas Conspiracy; Secret Treasonable Soci- 

NOIS REGIMENTS). The following is a list of the 
various military organizations mustered into the 
service during the Civil War (1861-65), with the 
terms of service and a summary of the more 
important events in the history of each, while 
in the field : 

SEVENTH INFANTRY. Illinois having sent six 
regiments to the Mexican War, by courtesy the 
numbering of the regiments which took part in 
the war for the Union began with number 
Seven. A number of regiments which responded 
to the first call of the President, claimed the right 
to be recognized as the first regiment in the 
field, but the honor was finally accorded to that 
organized at Springfield by Col. John Cook, and 
hence his regiment was numbered Seventh. It 
was mustered into the service, April 25, 1861, and 
remained at Mound City during the three months' 
service, the period of its first enlistment. It was 
subsequently reorganized and mustered for the 
three years' service, July 25, 1861, and was 
engaged in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Corinth, Cherokee, Allatoona Pass, Salkahatchie 
Swamp, Bentonville and Columbia. The regi- 
ment re-enlisted as veterans at Pulaski, Tenn., 




Dec. 22, 1863; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 9, 1865, and paid off and discharged at 
Springfield, July 11. 

EIGHTH INFANTRY. Organized at Springfield, 
and mustered in for three months' service, April 
26, 1861, Richard J. Oglesby of Decatur, being 
appointed Colonel. It remained at Cairo during 
its term of service, when it was mustered out. 
July 25, 1861, it was reorganized and mustered in 
for three years' service. It participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Port Gibson, 
Thompson Hill, Raymond, Champion Hill, Vicks- 
burg, Brownsville, and Spanish Fort ; re-enlisted 
as veterans, March 24, 1864 ; was mustered out at 
Baton Rouge, May 4, 1866, paid off and dis- 
charged, May 13, having served five years. 

NINTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the service 
at Springfield, April 26, 1861, for the term of 
three months, under Col. Eleazer A. Paine. It 
was reorganized at Cairo, in August, for three 
years, being composed of companies from St. 
Clair, Madison, Montgomery, Pulaski, Alexander 
and Mercer Counties ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, Jackson (Tenn.), Meed Creek 
Swamps, Salem, Wyatt, Florence, Montezuma, 
Athens and Grenada. The regiment was mounted, 
March 15, 1863, and so continued during the 
remainder of its service. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, July 9, 1865. 

TENTH INFANTRY. Organized and mustered 
into the service for three months, on April 29, 
1861, at Cairo, and on July 29, 1861, was mustered 
into the service for three years, with Col. James 
D. Morgan in command. It was engaged at 
Sykeston, New Madrid, Corinth, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw, 
Chattahoochie, Savannah and Bentonville. Re- 
enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, and mustered 
out of service, July 4, 1865, at Louisville, and 
received final discharge and pay, July 11, 1865, 
at Chicago. 

ELEVENTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field and mustered into service, April 30, 1861, 
for three months. July 30, the regiment was 
mustered out, and re-enlisted for three years' 
service. It was engaged at Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, Corinth, Tallahatchie, Vicksburg, Liver- 
pool Heights, Yazoo City, Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely. W. H. L. Wallace, afterwards 
Brigadier-General and killed at Shiloh, was its 
first Colonel. Mustered out of service, at Baton 
Rouge, July 14, 1865 ; paid off and discharged at 

TWELFTH INFANTRY. Mustered into service 
for three years, August 1, 1861 ; was engaged at 

Columbus, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Lay's 
Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw, 
Nickajack Creek, Bald Knob, Decatur, Ezra 
Church, Atlanta, Allatoona and Goldsboro. On 
Jan. 16, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans. John McArthur was its first Colonel, suc- 
ceeded by Augustus L. Chetlain, both being 
promoted to Brigadier-Generalships. Mustered 
out of service at Louisville, Ky., July 10, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge, at Spring- 
field, July 18. 

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. One of the regiments 
organized under the act known as the "Ten Regi- 
ment Bill" ; was mustered into service on May 24, 
1861, for three years, at Dixon, with John B. 
Wyman as Colonel; was engaged at Chiekasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rossville and Ringgold Gap. 
Mustered out at Springfield, June 18, 1864, hav- 
ing served three years and two months. 

FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. One of the regiments 
raised under the "Ten Regiment Bill," which 
anticipated the requirements of the General 
Government by organizing, equipping and dril- 
ling a regiment in each Congressional District in 
the State for thirty days, unless sooner required 
for service by the United States. It was mustered 
in at Jacksonville for three years, May 25, 1861, 
under command of John M. Palmer as its first 
Colonel; was engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, Meta- 
mora, Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Beauregard and 
Meridian ; consolidated with the Fifteenth Infan- 
try, as a veteran battalion (both regiments hav- 
ing enlisted as veterans), on July 1, 1864. In 
October, 1864, the major part of the battalion 
was captured by General Hood and sent to 
Andersonville. The remainder participated in 
the "March to the Sea," and through the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas. In the spring of 1865 the 
battalion organization was discontinued, both 
regiments having been filled up by recruits. The 
regiment was mustered out at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., Sept. 16, 1865; and arrived at 
Springfield, 111., Sept. 22, 1865, where it received 
final payment and discharge. The aggregate 
number of men who belonged to this organization 
was 1,980, and the aggregate mustered out at 
Fort Leavenworth, 480. During its four years 
and four months of service, the regiment 
marched 4,490 miles, traveled by rail, 2,330 miles, 
and, by river, 4,490 miles making an aggregate 
of 11,670 miles. 

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Raised under the "Ten 
Regiment Act," in the (then) First Congressional 
District; was organized at Freeport, and mus- 



tered into service, May 24, 1861. It was engaged 
at Sedalia, Shiloh, Corinth, Metamora Hill, 
Vicksburg, Fort Beauregard, Champion Hill, 
Allatoona and Bentonville. In March, 1864, the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and, in July, 

1864, was consolidated with the Fourteenth Infan- 
try as a Veteran Battalion. At Big Shanty and 
Ackworth a large portion of the battalion was 
captured by General Hood. At Raleigh the 
Veteran Battalion was discontinued and the 
Fifteenth reorganized. From July 1, to Sept. 1, 

1865, the regiment was stationed at Forts Leaven- 
worth and Kearney. Having been mustered out 
at Fort Leavenworth, it was sent to Springfield 
for final payment and discharge having served 
four years and four months. Miles marched, 
4,299; miles by rail, 2,403, miles by steamer, 
4,310; men enlisted from date of organization, 
1,963; strength at date of muster-out, 640. 

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Quincy under the "Ten- Regi- 
ment Act," May 24, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, Tiptonville, Corinth, 
Buzzards' Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Chattahoochie River, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Savannah, Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Averysboro and Bentonville. In December, 
1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans; was 
mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 8, 1865, 
after a term of service of four years and three 
months, and, a week later, arrived at Spring- 
field, where it received its final pay and discharge 

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the 
service at Peoria, 111., on May 24, 1861; was 
engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Greenfield 
(Ark.), Shiloh, Corinth, Hatchie and Vicksburg. 
In May, 1864, the term of enlistment having 
expired, the regiment was ordered to Springfield 
for pay and discharge. Those men and officers 
who re-enlisted, and those whose term had not 
expired, were consolidated with the Eighth Infan- 
try, which was mustered out in the spring of 1866. 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY. Organized under the 
provisions of the "Ten Regiment Bill," at Anna, 
and mustered into the service on "May 28, 1861, 
the term of enlistment being for three years. 
The regiment participated in the capture of Fort 
McHenry, and was actively engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth. It was mustered 
out at Little Rock, Dec. 16, 1865, and Dec. 81, 
thereafter, arrived at Springfield, 111., for pay- 
ment and discharge. The aggregate enlistments 
in the regiment, from its organization to date of 
discharge (rank and file), numbered 2,043. 

NINETEENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into the 
United States service for three years, June 17, 
1861, at Chicago, embracing four companies 
which had been accepted under the call for three 
months' men; participated in the battle of 
Stone River and in the Tullahoma and Chatta- 
nooga campaigns; was also engaged at Davis' 
Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and 
Resaca. It was mustered out of service on July 
9, 1864, at Chicago. Originally consisting of 
nearly 1,000 men, besides a large number of 
recruits received during the war, its strength at 
the final muster-out was less than 350. 

TWENTIETH INFANTRY. Organized, May 14, 
1861, at Joliet, and June 13, 1861, and mustered 
into the service for a term of three years. It 
participated in the following engagements, bat- 
tles, sieges, etc. : Fredericktown (Mo. ), Fort 
Donelson, Sliiloh, Corinth, Thompson's Planta- 
tion, Champion Hills, Big Black River, Vicks- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta. After 
marching through the Carolinas, the regiment- 
was finally ordered to Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, July 16, 1865, receiving its final 
discharge at Chicago, on July 34. 

the "Ten Regiment Bill," from the (then) Sev- 
enth Congressional District, at Mattoon, and 
mustered into service for three years, June 28, 
1861. Its first Colonel was IT. S. Grant, who was 
in command until August 7, when he was com- 
missioned Brigadier-General. It was engaged 
at Fredericktown (Mo.), Corinth, Perry ville, Mur- 
freesboro, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans, at Chattanooga, in February, 1864. 
From June, 1864, to December, 1865, it was on 
duty in Texas. Mustered out at San Antonio, 
Dec. 16, 1865, and paid off and discharged at 
Springfield, Jan. 18, 1866. 

Belleville, and mustered into service, for three 
years, at Casey ville, 111., June 25, 1861; was 
engaged at Belmont, Charleston (Mo.), Sikestown, 
Tiptonville, Farmington, Corinth, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, and all the battles of the Atlanta 
campaign, except Rocky Face Ridge. It was 
mustered out at Springfield, July 7, 1864, the vet- 
erans and recruits, whose term of service had not 
expired, being consolidated with the Forty -second 
Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers. 

TWENTY-THIRD INFANTRY. The organization 
of the Twenty-third Infantry Volunteers com- 
menced, at Chicago, under the popular name of 



the "Irish Brigade," immediately upon the 
opening of hostilities at Sumter. The formal 
muster of the regiment, under the command of 
Col. James A. Mulligan, was made, June 15, 1861, 
at Chicago, when it was occupying barracks 
known as Kane's brewery near the river on 
West Polk Street. It was early ordered to North- 
ern Missouri, and was doing garrison duty at 
Lexington, when, in September, 1861, it surren- 
dered with the rest of the garrison, to the forces 
under the rebel General Price, and was paroled. 
From Oct. 8, 1861, to June 14, 1862, it was detailed 
to guard prisoners at Camp Douglas. Thereafter 
it participated in engagements in the Virginias, 
as follows: at South Fork, Greenland Gap, Phi- 
lippi, Hedgeville, Leetown, Maryland Heights, 
Snicker's Gap, Kernstown, Cedar Creek, Win- 
chester, Charlestown, Berryville, Opequan Creek, 
Fisher's Hill, Harrisonburg, Hatcher's Run and 
-Petersburg. It also took part in the siege of 
Richmond and the pursuit of Lee, being present 
at the surrender at Appomattox. In January 
and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans, at Greenland Gap, W. Va. In August, 
1864, the ten companies of the Regiment, then 
numbering 440, were consolidated into five com- 
panies and designated, "Battalion, Twenty-third 
Regiment, Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry. " 
The regiment was thanked by Congress for its 
part at Lexington, and was authorized to inscribe 
Lexington upon its colors. (See also Mulligan, 
James A.) 

First Hecker Regiment). Organized at Chicago, 
with two companies to-wit: the Union Cadets 
and the Lincoln Rifles from the three months' 
service, in June, 1861, and mustered in, July 8, 
1861. It participated in the battles of Perryville, 
Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain and other engagements in the Atlanta 
campaign. It was mustered out of service at 
Chicago, August 6, 1864. A fraction of the regi- 
ment, which had been recruited in the field, and 
whose term of service had not expired at the date 
of muster-out, was organized into one company 
and attached to the Third Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Fourteenth Army Corps, and mustered out 
at Camp Butler, August 1, 1865. 

the counties of Kankakee, Iroquois, Ford, Vermil- 
ion, Douglas, Coles, Champaign and Edgar, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 4. 1861. 
It participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, in the 
siege of Corinth, the battle of Kenesaw Moun- 

tain, the siege of Atlanta, and innumerable skir- 
mishes ; was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 6, 
1864. During its three years' service the regi- 
ment traveled 4,962 miles, of which 3,252 were on 
foot, the remainder by steamboat and railroad. 

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, consisting of seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 31, 1861. On Jan. 1, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans. It was authorized by the 
commanding General to inscribe upon its ban- 
ners "New Madrid" ; "Island No. 10;" "Farming- 
ton;" "Siege of Corinth;" "luka;" "Corinth 
3d and 4th, 1862;" "Resaca;" "Kenesaw;" "Ezra 
Church;" "Atlanta;" "Jonesboro;" "Griswold- 
ville;" "McAllister;" "Savannah;" "Columbia," 
and "Bentonville." It was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 20, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged, at Springfield, July 28 the regiment 
having marched, during its four years of service, 
6, 931 miles, and fought twenty -eight hard battles, 
besides innumerable skirmishes. 

with only seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861, and organization completed by 
the addition of three more companies, at Cairo, 
on September 1. It took part in the battle of Bel- 
mont, the siege of Island No. 10, and the battles 
of Farmington, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Calhoun, Adairsville, Dallas, Pine Top 
Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain, as well as in 
the investment of Atlanta; was relieved from 
duty, August 25, 1864, while at the front, and 
mustered out at Springfield, September 20. Its 
veterans, with the recruits whose term of serv- 
ice had not expired, were consolidated with the 
Ninth Infantry. 

companies from Pike, Fulton, Schuyler, Mason, 
Scott and Menard Counties; was organized at 
Springfield, August 15, 1861, and mustered into 
service for three years. It participated in the 
battles of Shiloh and Metamora, the siege of 
Vicksburg and the battles of Jackson, Mississippi, 
and Fort Beauregard, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. From 
June, 1864, to March, 1866, it was stationed in 
Texas, and was mustered out at Brownsville, in 
that State, March 15, 1866, having served four 
years and seven months. It was discharged, at 
Springfield, May 13, 1866. 

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice at Springfield, August 19, 1861, and was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
sieges of Corinth, Vicksburg and Mobile. Eight 



companies were detailed for duty at Holly Springs, 
and were there captured by General Van Dorn, 
in December, 1862, but were exchanged, six 
months later. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, from June, 1864, to 
November, 1865, was on duty in Texas. It was 
mustered out of service in that State, Nov. 6, 
1865, and received final discharge on November 28. 

THIRTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, August 28, 1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, 
Fort Donelson, the siege of Corinth, Medan 
Station, Raymond, Champion Hills, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, Big Shanty, Atlanta, 
Savannah, Pocotaligo, Orangeburg, Columbia, 
Cheraw, and Fayetteville ; mustered out, July 
17, 1865, and received final payment and discharge 
at Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

THIRTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Cairo, 
and there mustered into service on Sept. 18, 
1861; was engaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, in the two expeditions against Vicks- 
burg, at Thompson's Hill, Ingram Heights, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hill, Big Shanty, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station and 
Jonesboro; also participated in the "March to 
the Sea" and took part in the battles and skir- 
mishes at Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville and 
Bentonville. A majority of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans in March, 1864. It was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 19, 1865, and 
finally discharged at Springfield, July 23. 

Springfield and mustered into service, Dec. 31, 
1861. By special authority from the War Depart- 
ment, it originally consisted of ten companies of 
infantry, one of cavalry, and a battery. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the sieges 
of Corinth and Vicksburg, and in the battles of 
La Grange, Grand Junction, Metamora, Harrison- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, 
Allatoona, Savannah, Columbia, Cheraw and 
Bentonville. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, in June, 1865, was 
ordered to Fort Leavenworth. Mustered out 
there, Sept. 16, 1865, and finally discharged at 

THIRTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Springfield in September, 
1861; was engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, the 
assault and siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, 
Fort Esperanza, and in the expedition against 
Mobile. The regiment veteranized at Vicksburg, 
Jan. 1, 1804 ; was mustered out, at the same point, 
Nov. 24, 1865, and finally discharged at Spring- 

field, Dec. 6 and 7, 1865. The aggregate enroll- 
ment of the regiment was between 1,900 and 

Springfield, Sept. 7, 1861 ; was engaged at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Murfreesboro, Rocky Face Ridge, Re- 
saca, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, and, after participating in the "March 
to the Sea" and through the Carolinas, took part 
in the battle of Bentonville. After the surrender 
of Johnston, the regiment went with Sherman's 
Army to Washington, D. C., and took part in the 
grand review, May 24, 1865; left Washington, 
June 12, and arrived at Louisville, Ky., June 18, 
where it was mustered out, on July 12; was dis- 
charged and paid at Chicago, July 17, 1865. 

catur on July 3, 1861, and its services tendered to 
the President, being accepted by the Secretary of 
War as "Col. G. A. Smith's Independent Regi- 
ment of Illinois Volunteers," on July 23, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 12. It 
was engaged at Pea Ridge and in the siege of 
Corinth, also participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas and 
Kenesaw. Its final muster-out took place at 
Springfield, Sept. 27, 1864, the regiment having 
marched (exclusive of railroad and steamboat 
transportation) 3,056 miles. 

THIRTY -SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized at Camp 
Hammond, near Aurora, 111., and mustered into 
service, Sept. 23, 1861, for a term of three years. 
The regiment, at its organization, numbered 965 
officers and enlisted men, and had two companies 
of Cavalry ("A" and "B"), 186 officers and 
men. It was engaged at Leetown, Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, the siege 
of Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Jones- 
boro, Franklin and Nashville. Mustered out, 
Oct. 8, 1865, and disbanded, at Springfield, Oct. 
27, having marched and been transported, during 
its term of service, more than 10,000 miles. 

as "Fremont Rifles"; organized in August, 1861, 
and mustered into service, Sept. 18. The regi- 
ment was presented with battle-flags by the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade. It participated in the 
battles of Pea Ridge, Neosho, Prairie Grove and 
Chalk Bluffs, the siege of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Yazoo City and Morgan's Bend. In 
October, 1863, it was ordered to the defense of the 
frontier along the Rio Grande; re-enlisted as 



veterans in February, 1864; took part in the 
siege and storming of Fort Blakely and the cap- 
ture of Mobile; from July, 1865, to May, 1866, 
was again on duty in Texas ; was mustered out 
at Houston, May 15, 1866, and finally discharged 
at Springfield, May 31, having traveled some 
17,000 miles, of which nearly 3,300 were by 

Springfield, in September, 1861. The regiment 
was engaged in the battles of Fredericktown, 
Perry ville, Knob Gap, Stone River, Liberty Gap, 
Chickamauga, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville; 
re-enlisted as veterans in February, 1864; from 
June to December, 1865, was on duty in Louisi- 
ana and Texas; was mustered out at Victoria, 
Texas, Dec. 31, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Springfield. 

THIRTY-NINTH INFANTRY. The organization of 
this Regiment was commenced as soon as the 
news of the firing on Fort Sumter reached Chi- 
cago. General Thomas O. Osborne was one of its 
contemplated field officers, and labored zealously 
to get it accepted under the first call for troops, 
but did not accomplish his object. The regiment 
had already assumed the name of the "Yates 
Phalanx" in honor of Governor Yates. It was 
accepted by the War Department on the day 
succeeding the first Bull Run disaster (July 22, 
1861), and Austin Light.of Chicago, was appointed 
Colonel. Under his direction the organization was 
completed, and the regiment left Camp Mather, 
Chicago, on the morning of Oct. 13, 1861. It par- 
ticipated in the battles of Winchester, Malvern 
Hill (the second), Morris Island, Fort Wagner, 
Drury's Bluff, and in numerous engagements 
before Petersburg and Richmond, including the 
capture of Fort Gregg, and was present at Lee's 
surrender at Appomattox. In the meantime the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, at Hilton Head, 
S. C., in September, 1863. It was mustered out 
at Norfolk, Dec. 6, 1865, and received final dis- 
charge at Chicago, December 16. 

FORTIETH INFANTRY. Enlisted from the coun- 
ties of Franklin, Hamilton, Wayne, White, 
Wabash, Marion, Clay and Fayette, and mustered 
into service for three years at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861. It was engaged at Shiloh, in 
the siege of Corinth, at Jackson (Miss.), in the 
siege of Vicksburg, at Missionary Ridge, New 
Hope Church, Black Jack Knob, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Ezra Chapel, Gris- 
wold ville, siege of Savannah, Columbia (S. C.), 
and Bentonville. It re-enlisted, as veterans, at 

Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 24, 1865, receiving final 
discharge at Springfield. 

FORTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Decatur 
during July and August, 1861, and was mustered 
into service, August 5. It was engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, the second 
battle of Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg and 
Jackson, in the Red River campaign, at Guntown, 
Kenesaw Mountain and Allatoona, and partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea." It re-enlisted, 
as veterans, March 17, 1864, at Vicksburg, and 
was consolidated with the Fifty-third Infantry, 
Jan. 4, 1865, forming Companies G and H. 

cago, July 22, 1861 ; was engaged at Island No. 10, 
the siege of Corinth, battles of Farmington, 
Columbia (Tenn.), was besieged at Nashville, 
engaged at Stone River, in the Tullahoma cam- 
paign, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope 
Church, Pine and Kenesaw Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, 
Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. It re- 
enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864; was stationed 
in Texas from July to December, 1865 ; was mus- 
tered out at Indianola, in that State, Dec. 16, 
1865, and finally discharged, at Springfield, Jan. 
12, 1866. 

FORTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field in September, 1861, and mustered into 
service on Oct. 12. The regiment took part in 
the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and in the 
campaigns in West Tennessee, Mississippi and 
Arkansas; was mustered out at Little Rock, 
Nov. 30, 1865, and returned to Springfield for 
final pay and discharge, Dec. 14, 1865. 

gust, 1861, at Chicago, and mustered into service, 
Sept. 13, 1861 ; was engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Hoover's Gap, Shelby- 
ville, Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochie 
River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans in Tennessee, in January, 1864. 
From June to September, 1865, it was stationed 
in Louisiana and Texas, was mustered out at 
Port Lavaca, Sept. 25, 1865, and received final 
discharge, at Springfield, three weeks later. 

FORTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Originally called 
the "Washburne Lead Mine Regiment"; was 
organized at Galena, July 23, 1861, and mustered 



into service at Chicago, Dec. 25, 1861. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, battle of Medan, the campaign against 
Vicksburg, the Meridian raid, the Atlanta cam- 
paign, the "March to the Sea," and the advance 
through the Carolinas. The regiment veteran- 
ized in January, 1864; was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 1865, and arrived 
in Chicago, July 15, 1865, for final pay and dis- 
charge. Distance marched in four years, 1,750 

FORTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, Dec. 28, 1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, battle of 
Metamora, siege of Vicksburg (where five com- 
panies of the regiment were captured), in the 
reduction of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley, 
and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered in 
as a veteran regiment, Jan. 4, 1864. From May, 

1865, to January, 1866, it was on duty in Louisi- 
ana; was mustered out at Baton Rouge, Jan. 20, 

1866, and, on Feb. 1, 1866, finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield. 

mustered into service at Peoria, 111., on August 
16, 1861. The regiment took part in the expe- 
dition against New Madrid and Island No. 10; 
also participated in the battles of Farmington, 
luka, the second battle of Corinth, the capture 
of Jackson, the siege of Vicksburg, the Red 
River expedition and the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
and in the struggle at Lake Chicot. It was 
ordered to Chicago to assist in quelling an antici- 
pated riot, in 1864, but, returning to the front, 
took part in the reduction of Spanish Fort and 
the capture of Mobile; was mustered out, Jan. 
21, 1866, at Selma, Ala., and ordered to Spring- 
field, where it received final pay and discharge. 
Those members of the regiment who did not re-en- 
list as veterans were mustered out, Oct. 11, 1864. 

FORTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, September, 1861, and participated in battles 
and sieges as follows: Fort Henry and Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (siege of), Vicksburg. 
(first expedition against), Missionary Ridge, as 
well as in the Atlanta campaign and the "March 
to the Sea." The regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, at Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864; was mus- 
tered out, August 15, 1865, at Little Rock, Ark., 
and ordered to Springfield for final discharge, 
arriving, August 21, 1865. The distance marched 
was 3,000 miles; moved by water, 5,000; by rail- 
road, 3,450 total, 11,450. 

FORTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, 111., Dec. 31, 1861; was engaged at Fort 

Donelson, Shiloh and Little Rock; took part in 
the campaign against Meridian and in the Red 
River expedition, being in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, Jan. 15, 1864; three- fourths of the regiment 
re-enlisted and were mustered in as veterans, 
returning to Illinois on furlough. The non- 
veterans took part in the battle of Tupelo. The 
regiment participated in the battle of Nashville, 
and was mustered out, Sept. 9, 1865, at Paducah, 
Ky., and arrived at Springfield, Sept, 15, 1865, 
for final payment and discharge. 

FIFTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Quincy, in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, Sept. 12, 
1861 ; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, the second battle of Corinth, 
Allatoona and Bentonville, besides many minor 
engagements. The regiment was mounted, Nov. 
17, 1863 ; re-enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, and 
reached Springfield, the following day, for final 
pay and discharge. 

FIFTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Chi- 
cago, Dec. 24, 1861 ; was engaged at New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Farmington, the siege of Corinth, 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridg, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro, Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. The 
regiment was mustered in as veterans, Feb. 16, 
1864 ; from July to September, 1865, was on duty 
in Texas, and mustered out, Sept. 25, 1865, at 
Camp Irwin, Texas, arriving at Springfield, 111., 
Oct. 15, 1865, for final payment and discharge. 

neva in November, 1861, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Nov. 19. The regiment participated in the 
following battles, sieges and expeditions : Shiloh, 
Corinth (siege and second battle of), luka, Town 
Creek, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, 
Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek, Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesboro 
and Bentonville. It veteranized, Jan. 9, 1864; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 4, 1865, 
and received final payment and discharge at 
Springfield, July 12. 

FIFTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Ottawa 
in the winter of 1861-62, and ordered to Chicago, 
Feb. 27, 1862, to complete its organization. It 
took part in the siege of Corinth, and was engaged 
at Davis' Bridge, the siege of Vicksburg, in the 
Meridian campaign, at Jackson, the siege of 
Atlanta, the "March to the Sea," the capture of 
Savannah and the campaign in the Carolinas, 
including the battle of Bentonville. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of service at Louisville, 



July 22, 1865, and received final discharge, at 
Chicago, July 28. It marched 2,855 miles, and 
was transported by boat and cars, 4,168 miles. 
Over 1,800 officers and men belonged to the regi- 
ment during its term of service. 

FIFTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
in November, 1861, as a part of the "Kentucky 
Brigade," and was mustered into service, Feb. 
18, 1862. No complete history of the regiment 
can be given, owing to the loss of its official 
records. It served mainly in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi and Arkansas, and always effect- 
ively. Three-fourths of the men re-enlisted as 
veterans, in January, 1864. Six companies were 
captured by the rebel General Shelby, in August, 
1864, and were exchanged, the following De- 
cember. The regiment was mustered out at 
Little Rock, Oct. 15, 1865 ; arrived at Springfield, 
Oct. 26, and was discharged. During its organi- 
zation, the regiment had 1,342 enlisted men and 
71 commissioned officers. 

FIFTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered into service, Oct. 31, 1861. 
The regiment originally formed a part of the 
"Douglas Brigade," being chiefly recruited from 
the young farmers of Fulton, McDonough, 
Grundy, La Salle, De Kalb, Kane and Winnebago 
Counties. It participated in the battles of Sliiloh 
and Corinth, and in the Tallahatchie campaign; 
in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas 
Post, around Vicksburg, and at Missionary Ridge ; 
was in the Atlanta campaign, notably in the 
battles of Kenesaw Mountain and Jonesboro. In 
all, it was engaged in thirty -one battles, and was 
128 days under fire. The total mileage traveled 
amounted to 11,965, of which 3,240 miles were 
actually marched. Re-enlisted as veterans, while 
at Larkinsville, Tenn.,was mustered out at Little 
Rock, August 14, 1865, receiving final discharge 
at Chicago, the same month. 

FIFTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized with com- 
panies principally enlisted from the counties of 
Massac, Pope, Gallatin, Saline, White, Hamilton, 
Franklin and Wayne, and mustered in at Camp 
Mather, near Shawneetown. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the siege, and second battle, of 
Corinth, the Yazoo expedition, the siege of 
Vicksburg being engaged at Champion Hills, 
and in numerous assaults; also took part in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge and Resaca, and in 
the campaign in the Carolinas, including the 
battle of Bentonville. Some 200 members of the 
regiment perished in a wreck off Cape Hatteras, 
March 31, 1865. It was mustered out in Arkan- 
sas, August 12, 1865. 

FIFTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, Dec. 26, 1861, at Chicago; took part in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, and the second battle at that point ; was 
also engaged at Resaca, Rome Cross Roads and 
Allatoona; participated in the investment and 
capture of Savannah, and the campaign through 
the Carolinas, including the battle of Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 7, 
1865, and received final discharge at Chicago, 
July 14. 

cago, Feb. 11, 186S; participated in the battles of 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, a large number of the 
regiment being captured during the latter engage- 
ment, but subsequently exchanged. It took part 
in the siege of Corinth and the battle of luka, 
after which detachments were sent to Springfield 
for recruiting and for guarding prisoners. 
Returning to the front, the regiment was engaged 
in the capture of Meridian, the Red River cam- 
paign, the taking of Fort de Russey, and in many 
minor battles in Louisiana. It was mustered out 
at Montgomery, Ala., April 1, 1866, and ordered 
to Springfield for final payment and discharge. 

FIFTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Originally known as 
the Ninth Missouri Infantry, although wholly 
recruited in Illinois. It was organized at St. 
Louis, Sept. 18, 1861, the name being changed to 
the Fifty-ninth Illinois, Feb. 12, 1862, by order of 
the War Department. It was engaged at Pea 
Ridge, formed part of the reserve at Farmington, 
took part at Perryville, Nolansville, Knob Gap 
and Murfreesboro, in the Tullahooa campaign 
and the siege of Chattanooga, in the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Kingston, 
Dallas, Ackworth, Pine Top, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Smyrna, Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin and 
Nashville. Having re-enlisted as veterans, the 
regiment was ordered to Texas, in June, 1865, 
where it was mustered out, December, 1865, 
receiving its final discharge at Springfield. 

SIXTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 111., 
Feb. 17, 1862; took part in the siege of Corinth 
and was besieged at Nashville. The regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans while at the front, in 
January, 1864; participated in the battles of 
Buzzard's Roost, Ringgold, Dalton, Resaca, 
Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Nickajack, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Averysboro and Bentonville; was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 31, 1865, and 
received final discharge at Springfield. 

SIXTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Organized at Carroll- 
ton, 111., three full companies being mustered 



in, Feb. 5, 1862. On February 21, the regiment, 
being still incomplete, moved to Benton Bar- 
racks. Mo. , where a sufficient number of recruits 
joined to make nine full companies. The regiment 
was engaged at Shiloh and Bolivar, took part 
in the Yazoo expedition, and re-enlisted as veter- 
ans early in 1864. Later, it took part in the battle 
of Wilkinson's Pike (near Murfreesboro), and 
other engagements near that point ; was mustered 
out at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 8, 1865, and paid 
off and discharged at Springfield, Septem- 
ber 27. 

SIXTY-SECOND INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
111., April 10, 1862; after being engaged in several 
skirmishes, the regiment sustained a loss of 170 
men, who were captured and paroled at Holly 
Springs, Miss., by the rebel General Van Dorn, 
where the regimental records were destroyed. 
The regiment took part in forcing the evacuation 
of Little Rock ; re-enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 9, 
1864 ; was mustered out at Little Bock, March 6, 
1866, and ordered to Springfield for final payment 
and discharge. 

SIXTY-THIRD INFANTRY. Organized at Anna, 
in December. 1861, and mustered into service, 
April 10, 1862. It participated in the first invest- 
ment of Vicksburg, the capture of Richmond 
Hill, La., and in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 
On Jan. 1, 1864, 272 men re-enlisted as veterans. 
It took part in the capture of Savannah and in 
Sherman's march through the Carolinas, partici- 
pating in its important battles and skirmishes; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, 
reaching Springfield, July 16. The total distance 
traveled was 6,453 miles, of which 2,250 was on 
the march. 

SIXTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, December, 1861, as the "First Battalion of 
Yates Sharp Shooters." The last company was 
mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, the siege of Corinth, 
Chambers' Creek, the second battle of Corinth, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, the 
siege of Atlanta, the investment of Savannah and 
the battle of Bentonville ; re-enlisted as veterans, 
in January, 1864 ; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 11, 1865, and finally discharged, at Chicago, 
July 18. 

SIXTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Originally known as 
the "Scotch Regiment"; was organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered in, May 1, 1862. It was cap- 
tured and paroled at Harper's Ferry, and ordered 
to Chicago; was exchanged in April, 1863; took 
part in Burnside's defense of Knoxville; re-en- 
listed as veterans in March, 1864, and participated 

in the Atlanta campaign and the "March to the 
Sea." It was engaged in battles at Columbia 
(Tenn.), Franklin and Nashville, and later, near 
Federal Point and Smithtown, N. C., being mus- 
tered out, July 13, 1865, and receiving final pay- 
ment and discharge at Chicago, July 26, 1865. 

SIXTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Organized at Benton 
Barracks, near St. Louis, Mo., during September 
and October, 1861 being designed as a regiment 
of "Western Sharp Shooters" from Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana and 
Ohio. It was mustered in, Nov. 23, 1861, was 
engaged at Mount Zion (Mo.), Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, luka, the second 
battle of Corinth, in the Atlanta campaign, the 
"March to the Sea" and the campaign through 
the Carolinas. The regiment was variously 
known as the Fourteenth Missouri Volunteers, 
Birge's Western Sharpshooters, and the Sixty- 
sixth I'linois Infantry. The latter (and final) 
name was conferred by the Secretary of War, 
Nov. 20, 1862. It re-enlisted (for the veteran 
service), in December, 1863, was mustered out at 
Camp Logan, Ky., July 7, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged at Springfield, July 15. 

cago, June 13, 1862, for three months' service, in 
response to an urgent call for the defense of 
Washington. The Sixty -seventh, by doing guard 
duty at the camps at Chicago and Springfield, 
relieved the veterans, who were sent to the front. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY. Enlisted in response 
to a call made by the Governor, early in the sum- 
mer of 1862, for State troops to serve for three 
months as State Militia, and was mustered in 
early in June, 1862. It was afterwards mustered 
into the United States service as Illinois Volun- 
teers, by petition of the men, and received 
marching orders, July 5, 1862; mustered out, at 
Springfield, Sept. 26, 1862 many of the men re- 
enlisting in other regiments. 

SIXTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Organized at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into service for 
three months, June 14, 1862. It remained on 
duty at Camp Douglas, guarding the camp and 
rebel prisoners. 

Butler, near Springfield, and mustered in, July 4, 
1862. It remained at Camp Butler doing guard 
duty. Its term of service was three months. 

SEVENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, July 26, 1862, at Chicago, for three months. 
Its service was confined to garrison duty in Illi- 
nois and Kentucky, being mustered out at Chi- 
cago, Oct. 29, 1862. 



cago, as the First Regiment of the Chicago Board 
of Trade, and mustered into service for three 
years, August 23, 1862. It was engaged at Cham- 
pion Hill, Vicksburg, Natchez, Franklin, Nash- 
ville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely; mustered 
out of service, at Vicksburg, August 6, 1865, and 
discharged at Chicago. 

the counties of Adams, Champaign, Christian, 
Hancock, Jackson, Logan, Piatt, Pike, Sanga- 
mon, Tazewell and Vermilion, and mustered into 
service at Springfield, August 21, 1862, 900 strong. 
It participated in the battles of Stone River, 
Perryville, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Burnt Hickory, Pine and 
Lost Mountains, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Spring Hill, Frank- 
lin and Nashville ; was mustered out at Nashville, 
June 12, 1865, and, a few days later, -.vent to 
Springfield to receive pay and final discharge. 

Rockford, in August, 1862, and mustered into 
service September 4. It was recruited from Win- 
nebago, Ogle and Stephenson Counties. This regi- 
ment was engaged at Perryville, Murfreesboro 
and Nolansville, took part in the Tullahoma 
campaign, and the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Tunnel Hill, and Rocky Face Ridge, the siege of 
Atlanta, and the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin 
and Nashville. It was mustered out at Nashville, 
June 10, 1865, with 343 officers and men, the 
aggregate number enrolled having been 1,001. 

Dixon, and mustered into service, Sept. 2, 1862. 
The regiment participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville, Nolansville, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, 
Dalton, Resaca, Marietta, Kenesaw, Franklin and 
Nashville; was mustered out at Nashville, June 
12, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, July 
1, following. 

kakee, 111., in August, 1862, and mustered into the 
service, August 22, 1862 ; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the engagement at Jackson, the cam- 
paign against Meridian, the expedition to Yazoo 
City, and the capture of Mobile, was ordered to 
Texas in June, 1865, and mustered out at Qalves- 
ton, July 22, 1865, being paid off and disbanded 
at Chicago, August 4, 1865 having traveled 
10,000 miles. 

mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862, at Peoria; 
was engaged in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 

Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg (including 
the battle of Champion Hills), the capture of 
Jackson, the Red River expedition, and the bat- 
tles of Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill ; the 
reduction of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and the 
capture of Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. 
It was mustered out of service at Mobile, July 
10, 1865, and ordered to Springfield for final pay- 
ment and discharge, where it arrived, July 22, 1865, 
having participated in sixteen battles and sieges. 

Quincy, and mustered into service, Sept. 1, 1862; 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Averysboro and 
Bentonville ; was mustered out, June 7, 1865, and 
sent to Chicago, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged, June 12, 1865. 

toon, in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 28, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Dallas, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin and Nashville; was 
mustered out, June 12, 1865; arrived at Camp 
Butler. June 15, and, on June 23, received final 
pay and discharge. 

EIGHTIETH INFANTRY. Organized at Centralia, 
111., in August, 1862, and mustered into service, 
August 25, 1862. It was engaged at Perryville, 
Dug's Gap, Sand Mountain and Blunt's Farm, 
surrendering to Forrest at the latter point. After 
being exchanged, it participated in the battles of 
Wauhatchie, Missionary Ridge, Dalton, Resaca, 
Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The regiment traveled 6,000 miles and 
participated in more than twenty engagements. 
It was mustered out of service, June 10, 1865, and 
proceeded to Camp Butler for final pay and 

EIGHTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Recruited from the 
counties of Perry, Franklin, Williamson, Jack- 
son, Union, Pulaski and Alexander, and mustered 
into service at Anna, August 26, 1862. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, 
Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, and 
in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. Later, 
the regiment was engaged at Fort de Russey, 
Alexandria, Guntovvn and Nashville, besides 
assisting in the investment of Mobile. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, August 5. 1864. 






the "Second Hecker Regiment," in honor of Col- 
onel Frederick Hecker, its first Colonel, and for 
merly Colonel of the Twenty-fourth Illinois 
Infantry being chiefly composed of German 
members of Chicago. It was organized at Spring- 
field, Sept. 26, 1862, and mustered into service, 
Oct. 23, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Or- 
chard Knob, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Dallas, Marietta, Pine Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Bentonville ; was 
mustered out of service, June 9, 1865, and 
returned to Chicago, June 16 having marched, 
during its time of service, 2,503 miles. 

mouth in August, 1862, and mustered into serv- 
ice, August 21. It participated in repelling the 
rebel attack on Fort Donelson, and in numerous 
hard-fought skirmishes in Tennessee, but was 
chiefly engaged in the performance of heavy 
guard duty and in protecting lines of communi- 
cation. The regiment was mustered out at Nash- 
ville, June 26, 1865, and finally paid off and 
discharged at Chicago, July 4, following. 

Quincy, in August, 1862, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Sept. 1, 1862, with 939 men and officers. The 
regiment was authorized to inscribe upon its 
battle-flag the names of Perryville, Stone River, 
Woodbury, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, 
Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Dalton, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Sta- 
tion, Franklin, and Nashville. It was mustered 
out, June 8, 1865. 

EIGHTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Peoria, 
about Sept. 1, 1862, and ordered to Louisville. It 
took part in the battles of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, Dalton, Rocky-Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah, Ben- 
tonville, Goldsboro and Raleigh; was mustered 
out at Washington, D. C., June 5, 1865, and 
sent to Springfield, where the regiment was 
paid off and discharged on the 20th of the same 

EIGHTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice, August 27, 1862, at Peoria, at which time it 
numbered 923 men, rank and file. It took part 
in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro, 
Averysboro and Bentonville; was mustered out 
on June 6, 1865, at Washington, D. C., arriving 

on June 11, at Chicago, where, ten days later, the 
men received their pay and final discharge. 

gust, 1862; was composed of companies from 
Hamilton, Edwards, Wayne and White Counties; 
was organized in the latter part of August, 1862, 
at Shawneetown; mustered in, Oct. 3, 1862, the 
muster to take effect from August 2. It took 
part in the siege and capture of Warrenton and 
Jackson, and in the entire campaign through 
Louisiana and Southern Mississippi, participating 
in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads and in numer- 
ous skirmishes among the bayous, being mustered 
out, June 16, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, 
where it arrived, June 24, 1865, and was paid off 
and disbanded at Camp Butler, on July 2. 

cago, in September, 1862, and known as the 
"Second Board of Trade Regiment." It waa 
mustered in, Sept. 4, 1862; was engaged at Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, 
New Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Mud Creek, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Franklin 
and Nashville; was mustered out, June 9, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 13, 1865, where it received final pay and 
discharge, June 22, 1865. 

road Regiment"; was organized by the railroad 
companies of Illinois, at Chicago, in August, 
1862, and mustered into service on the 27th of 
that month, ft fought at Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Knoxville, Resaca, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Pickett's Mills, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Lovejoy's Station, Spring Hill, Columbia, Frank- 
lin and Nashville; was mustered out, June 10, 
1865, in the field near Nashville, Tenn. ; arrived 
at Chicago two days later, and was finally dis- 
charged, June 24, after a service of two years, 
nine months and twenty -seven days. 

NINETIETH INFANTRY. Mustered into service 
at Chicago, Sept. 7, 1862 ; participated in the siege 
of Vicksburg and the campaign against Jackson, 
and was engaged at Missionary Ridge, Resaca, 
Dallas, New Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Nickajack Creek, Rosswell, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro and Fort McAllister. After 
the review at Washington, the regiment was 
mustered out, June 6, and returned to Chicago, 
June 9, 1865, where it was finally discharged. 

Butler, near Springfield, in August, 1862, and 



mustered in on Sept. 8, 1862 ; participated in the 
campaigns against Vicksburg and New Orleans, 
and all along the southwestern frontier in 
Louisiana and Texas, as well as in the investiture 
and capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at 
Mobile, July 12, 1865, starting for home the same 
day, and being finally paid off and discharged on 
July 28, following. 

ized and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862, 
being recruited from Ogle, Stephenson and Car- 
roll Counties. During its term of service, the 
Ninety-second was in more than sixty battles and 
skirmishes, including Ringgold, Chickamauga, 
and the numerous engagements on the "March 
to the Sea," and during the pursuit of Johnston 
through the Carolinas. It was mustered out at 
Concord, N. C. , and paid and discharged from the 
service at Chicago, July 10, 1865. 

cago, in September, 1862, and mustered in, Oct. 
13, 998 strong. It participated in the movements 
against Jackson and Vicksburg, and was engaged 
at Champion Hills and at Fort Fisher ; also was 
engaged in the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Dallas, Resaca, and many minor engagements, 
following Sherman in his campaign though the 
Carolinas. Mustered out of service, June 23, 
1865, and, on the 25th, arrived at Chicago, receiv- 
ing final payment and discharge, July 7, 1865, the 
regiment having marched 2,554 miles, traveled 
by water, 2,296 miles, and, by railroad, 1,237 
miles total, 6,087 miles. 

Bloomington in August, 1862, and enlisted wholly 
in McLean County. After some warm experi 
ence in Southwest Missouri, the regiment took 
part in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and 
was, later, actively engaged in the campaigns in 
Louisiana and Texas. It participated in the cap- 
ture of Mobile, leading the final assault. After 
several months of garrison duty, the regiment was 
mustered out at Galveston, Texas, on July 17, 
1865, reaching Bloomington on August 9, follow- 
ing, having served just three years, marched 1,200 
miles, traveled by railroad 610 miles, and,, by 
steamer, 6,000 miles, and taken part in nine bat- 
tles, sieges and skirmishes. 

NINETY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Organized at Rock- 
ford and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862. It 
was recruited from the counties of McHenry and 
Boone three companies from the latter and 
seven from the former. It took part in the cam- 
paigns in Northern Mississippi and against Vicks- 
burg, in the Red River expedition, the campaigns 

against Price in Missouri and Arkansas, against 
Mobile and around Atlanta. Among the battles 
in which the regiment was engaged were those 
of the Tallahatchie River, Grand Gulf, Raymond, 
Champion Hills, Fort de Russey, Old River, 
Cloutierville, Mansura, Yellow Bayou, Guntown, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Chattahoochie River, Atlanta, Ezra 
Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The distance traveled by the regiment, 
while in the service, was 9,960 miles. It was 
transferred to the Forty-seventh Illinois Infan- 
try, August 25, 1865. 

NINETY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Recruited during 
the months of July and August, 1862, and mus- 
tered into service, as a regiment, Sept. 6, 1862. 
The battles engaged in included Fort Donelson, 
Spring Hill, Franklin, Triune, Liberty Gap, 
Shelbyville, Chickamauga, Wauhatchie, Lookout 
Mountain, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Kingston, New Hope Church, Dallas, 
Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna 
Camp Ground, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Rough 
and Ready, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. Its date of final pay and dis- 
charge was June 30, 1865. 

August and September, 1862, and mustered in on 
Sept. 16 ; participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Black River, Vicksburg, Jackson and 
Mobile. On July 29, 1865, it was mustered out 
and proceeded homeward, reaching Springfield, 
August 10, after an absence of three years, less a 
few days. 

tralia, September, 1862, and mustered in, Sept. 3 ; 
took part in engagements at Chickamauga, Mc- 
Minnville, Farmington and Selma, besides many 
others of less note. It was mustered out, June 
27, 1865, the recruits being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Illinois Volunteers. The regiment 
arrived at Springfield, June 30, and received final 
payment and discharge, July 7, 1865. 

County and mustered in at Florence, August 23, 
1862; participated in the following battles and 
skirmishes: Beaver Creek, Hartsville, Magnolia 
Hills, Raymond, Champion Hills, Black River, 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Esperanza, Grand 
Coteau, Fish River, Spanish Fort and Blakely: 
days under fire, 62; miles traveled, 5,900; men 
killed in battle, 38; men died of wounds and 
disease, 149; men discharged for disability, 127; 
men deserted, 35; officers killed in battle, 3; 



officers died, 2; officers resigned, 26. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Baton Rouge, July 31, 
1805, and paid off and discharged, August 9, 

Joliet, in August, 1862, and mustered in, August 
30. The entire regiment was recruited in Will 
County. It was engaged at Bardstown, Stone 
Eiver, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and 
Nashville; was mustered out of service, June 12, 
1865, at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 15, where it received final payment and 

ized at Jacksonville during the latter part of the 
month of August, 1862, and, on Sept. 2, 1862, 
was mustered in. It participated in the battles 
of Wauhatchie, Chattanooga, Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw and .Pine Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. 
On Dec. 20, 1862, five companies were captured 
at Holly Springs, Miss., paroled and sent to 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and formally exchanged 
in June, 1863. On the 7th of June, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and started for Springfield, where, 
on the 21st of June, it was paid off and disbanded. 

ized at Knoxville, in August, 1862, and mustered 
in, September 1 and 2. It was engaged at Resaca, 
Camp Creek, Burnt Hickory, Big Shanty, Peach 
Tree Creek and Averysboro; mustered out of 
service June 6, 1865, and started home, arriving 
at Chicago on the 9th, and, June 14, received 
final payment and discharge. 

cruited wholly in Fulton County, and mustered 
into the service, Oct. 2, 1862. It took part in 
the Grierson raid, the sieges of Vicksburg, Jack- 
son, Atlanta and Savannah, and the battles of 
Missionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dal- 
las, Kenesaw Mountain and Griswoldsville ; was 
also in the campaign through the Carolinas. 
The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, 
June 21, and received final discharge at Chi- 
cago, July 9, 1865. The original strength of 
the regiment was 808, and 84 recruits were 

ized at Ottawa, in August, 1862, and composed 
almost entirely of La Salle County men. The 
regiment was engaged in the battles of Harts- 
ville, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy 
Creek, Jonesboro and Bentonville, besides many 
severe skirmishes ; was mustered out at Washing- 

ton, D. C., June 6, 1865, and, a few days later 
received final discharge at Chicago. 

tered into service, Sept. 2, 1862, at Dixon, and 
participated in the Atlanta campaign, being 
engaged at Resaca, Peach Tree Creek and 
Atlanta, and almost constantly skirmishing; 
also took part in the "March to the Sea" and the 
campaign in the Carolinas, including the siege of 
Savannah and the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, D. C. , June 7, 1865, and paid off and dis- 
charged at Chicago, June 17. 

tered into service at Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1862, 
eight of the ten companies having been recruited 
in Logan County, the other two being from San- 
gamon and Menard Counties. It aided in the 
defense of Jackson, Tenn., where Company "C" 
was captured and paroled, being exchanged in 
the summer of 1863; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the Yazoo expedition, the capture of 
Little Rock, the battle of Clarendon, and per- 
formed service at various points in Arkansas. It 
was mustered out, July 12, 1865, at Pine Bluff, 
Ark., and arrived at Springfield, July 24, 1865, 
where it received final payment and discharge 

tered into service at Springfield, Sept. 4, 1862; 
was composed of six companies from DeWitt and 
four companies from Piatt County. It was 
engaged at Campbell's Station, Dandridge, 
Rocky-Face Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and 
Fort Anderson, and mustered out, June 21, 1865, 
at Salisbury, N. C., reaching Springfield, for 
final payment and discharge, July 2, 1865. 

ized at Peoria, and mustered into service, August 
28, 1862 ; took part in the first expedition against 
Vicksburg and in the battles of Arkansas Post 
(Fort Hindman), Port Gibson and Champion 
Hills ; in the capture of Vicksburg, the battle of 
Guntown, the reduction of Spanish Fort, and the 
capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at Vicks- 
burg, August 5, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Chicago, August 11. 

cruited from Union and Pulaski Counties and 
mustered into the service, Sept. 11, 1862. Owing 
to its number being greatly reduced, it was con- 
solidated with the Eleventh Infantry in April, 
1863. (See Eleventh Infantry.) 

ized at Anna and mustered in, Sept. 11, 1862; was 



engaged at Stone River, Woodbury, and in 
numerous skirmishes in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
In May, 1863, the regiment was consolidated, its 
numbers having been greatly reduced. Subse- 
quently it participated in the battles of Chicka- 
mauga and Missionary Ridge, the battles around 
Atlanta and the campaign through the Carolinas, 
being present at Johnston's surrender. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Washington, D. C., 
June 5, 1865, and received final discharge at 
Chicago, June 15. The enlisted men whose term 
of service had not expired at date of muster-out, 
were consolidated into four companies and trans- 
ferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veteran Volunteer 

cruited from Marion, Clay, Washington, Clinton 
and Wayne Counties, and mustered into the serv- 
ice at Salem, Sept. 18, 1862. The regiment aided 
in the capture of Decatur, Ala. ; took part in the 
Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro ; partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea" and the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas, taking part in the battles 
of Fort McAllister and Bentonville. It was mus- 
tered out at Washington, D. C., June 7, 1865, 
receiving final discharge at Springfield, June 27, 
having traveled 3,736 miles, of which 1,836 was 
on the march. 

tered into service at Peoria, Sept. 20 and 22, 
1862 ; participated in the campaign in East Ten- 
nessee, under Burnside, and in that against 
Atlanta, under Sherman; was also engaged in 
the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville, 
and the capture of Fort Anderson and Wilming- 
ton. It was mustered out at Goldsboro, N. C., 
June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, 
July 7, 1865. 

Left Camp Hancock (near Chicago) for the front, 
Nov. 6, 1862; was engaged in the Tallahatchie 
expedition, participated in the battle of Chicka- 
saw Bayou, and was sent North to guard prison- 
ers and recruit. The regiment also took part in 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, was mustered 
out, June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chi- 
cago, five days later. 

Organized in July and August, 1862, and mustered 
in at Springfield, Sept. 18, being recruited from 
Cass, Menard and Sangamon Counties. The regi- 
ment participated in the battle of Jackson (Miss.), 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Guntown and Harrisville, the pursuit 

of Price through Missouri, the battle of Nash- 
ville, and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered 
out at Vicksburg, August 3, 1865, receiving final 
payment and discharge at Springfield. August 15, 

Ordered to the front from Springfield, Oct. 4, 
1862 ; was engaged at Chickainauga, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Resaca and in all 
the principal battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
and in the defense of Nashville and pursuit of 
Hood; was mustered out of service, June 11, 
1865, and received final pay and discharge, June 
23, 1865, at Springfield. 

Recruited almost wholly from Macon County, 
numbering 980 officers and men when it started 
from Decatur for the front on Nov. 8, 1862. It 
participated in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Stone Mountain, 
Atlanta, Fort McAllister and Bentonville, and 
was mustered out, June 7, 1865, near Washington, 
D. C. 

Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Sept. 
19, 1862 ; participated in the Meridian campaign, 
the Red River expedition (assisting in the cap- 
ture of Fort de Russey), and in the battles of 
Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Franklin, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. It 
was mustered out at Springfield, August 5, 1865, 
having traveled 9,276 miles, 2,307 of which were 

Organized and mustered into the service at 
Springfield, Nov. 7, 1862; was engaged at Chicka- 
saw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Black River Bridge, Jackson (Miss.), 
Grand Coteau, Jackson (La.), and Amite River. 
The regiment was mounted, Oct. 11, 1863, and 
dismounted, May 22, 1865. Oct. 1, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and finally discharged, Oct. 13. 
At the date of the muster-in, the regiment num- 
bered 820 men and officers, received 283 recruits, 
making a total of 1,103; at muster-out it num- 
bered 523. Distance marched, 2,000 miles; total 
distance traveled, 5,700 miles. 

Organized at Quincy, in September, 1862, and 
was mustered into the United States service, 
October 10 ; was engaged in the Red River cam- 
paign and in the battles of Shreveport, Yellow 
Bayou, Tupelo, Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort 






Blakely. Its final muster-out took place at 
Mobile, August 26, 1865, and its discharge at 

Mustered into the service, Oct. 28, 1862, at Spring- 
field ; was mustered out, Sept. 7, 1865, and received 
final payment and discharge, September 10, at 

TRY. (The organization of this regiment was not 

TRY. Organized at Carlinville, in August, 1862, 
and mustered into the service, Sept. 4, with 960 
enlisted men. It participated in the battles of 
Tupelo and Nashville, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and was mustered 
out, July 15, 1865, at Mobile, and finally dis- 
charged at Springfield, August 4. 

TRY. Mustered into service at Mattoon, Sept. 6, 
1862; participated in the battles of Perryville, 
Milton, Hoover's Gap, and Farmington ; also took 
part in the entire Atlanta campaign, marching 
as cavalry and fighting as infantry. Later, it 
served as mounted infantry in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see and Alabama, taking a prominent part in the 
capture of Selma. The regiment was discharged 
at Springfield, July 11, 1865 the recruits, whose 
terms had not expired, being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Volunteer Infantry. 

TRY. Mustered into the service, Sept. 10, 1862, at 
Springfield ; took part in the Vicksburg campaign 
and in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond and 
Champion Hills, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
Meridian raid, the Yazoo expedition, and the 
capture of Mobile. On the 16th of August, 1865, 
eleven days less than three years after the first 
company went into camp at Springfield, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Chicago. Colonel 
Howe's history of the battle-flag of the regiment, 
stated that it had been borne 4, 100 miles, in four- 
teen skirimishes, ten battles and two sieges of 
forty-seven days and nights, and thirteen days 
and nights, respectively. 

TRY. Mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862; par- 
ticipated in the battles of Perryville, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro, and in 
the "Ma r ch to the Sea" and the Carolina cam- 
paign, being engaged at Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Washington, D. C., 
June 9, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago. 

TRY. Organized at Alton and mustered in, Sept. 4, 
1862, and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. 
Six companies were engaged in skirmish line, near 
Humboldt, Tenn., and the regiment took part in 
the capture of Little Rock and in the fight at 
Clarendon, Ark. It was mustered out July 12, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered into service at Chicago, Sept. 6, 
1862; took part in the first campaign against 
Vicksburg, and in the battle of Arkansas Post, 
the siege of Vicksburg under Grant, the capture 
of Jackson (Miss.), the battles of Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, the Meridian raid, 
and in the fighting at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro; also accom- 
panied Sherman in his march through Georgia 
and the Carolinas, taking part in the battle of 
Bentonville ; was mustered out at Chicago June 
17, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered in, Dec. 18, 1862, but remained 
in service less than five months, when, its num- 
ber of officers and men having been reduced from 
860 to 161 (largely by desertions), a number of 
officers were dismissed, and the few remaining 
officers and men were formed into a detachment, 
and transferred to another Illinois regiment. 

TRY. Organized at Pontiac, in August, 1862, and 
mustered into the service Sept. 8. Prior to May, 
1864, the regiment was chiefly engaged in garri- 
son duty. It marched with Sherman in the 
Atlanta campaign and through Georgia and the 
Carolinas, and took part in the battles of Resaca, 
Buzzard's Roost, Lost Mountain, Dallas, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It received final pay and discharge at Chi- 
ca<-o, June 10, 1865. 

Organized at Springfield and mustered into 
service, Oct. 25, 1862 ; was engaged at Port Gib- 
son, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicks- 
burg, Jackson (Miss.), and in the Red River 
expedition. While on this expedition almost the 
entire regiment was captured at the battle of 
Mansfield, and not paroled until near the close of 
the war. The remaining officers and men were 
consolidated with the Seventy-seventh Infantry 
in January, 1865, and participated in the capture 
of Mobile. Six months later its regimental re- 
organization, as the One Hundred and Thirtieth, 
was ordered. It was mustered out at New 
Orleans, August 15, 1865, and discharged at 
Springfield, August 31. 



TRY. Organized in September, 1862, and mus- 
tered into the service, Nov. 13, with 815 men, 
exclusive of officers. In October, 1863, it was 
consolidated with the Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
and ceased to exist as a separate organization. 
Up to that time the regiment had been in but a 
few conflicts and in no pitched battle. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago and mustered in for 
100 days from June 1, 1864. The regiment re- 
mained on duty at Paducah until the expiration 
of its service, when it moved to Chicago, and 
was mustered out, Oct. 17, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in 
for one hundred days, May 31, 1864; was engaged 
during its term of service in guarding prisoners 
of war at Rock Island ; was mustered out, Sept. 
4, 1864, at Camp Butler. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago and mustered in, 
May 31, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to 
garrison duty at Columbus, Ky., and mustered 
out of service, Oct. 25, 1864, at Chicago. 

TRY. Mustered in for 100-days' service at Mat- 
toon, June 6, 1864, having a strength of 852 men. 
It was chiefly engaged, during its term of service, 
in doing garrison duty and guarding railroads. 
It was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 28, 1864. 

TRY. Enlisted about the first of May, 1864, for 
100 days, and went into camp at Centralia, 111., 
but was not mustered into service until June 1, 
following. Its principal service was garrison 
duty, with occasional scouts and raids amongst 
guerrillas. At the end of its term of service the 
regiment re-enlisted for fifteen days; was mus- 
tered out at Springfield, Oct. 22, 1864, and dis- 
charged eight days later 

TRY. Organized at Quincy, with ex-Gov. John 
Wood as its Colonel, and mustered in, June 5, 
1864, for 100 days. Was on duty at Memphis, 
Tenn , and mustered out of service at Spring- 
field. 111.. Sept. 4, 1864. 

TRY Organized at Quincy, and mustered in, 
June 21, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to garri- 
son duty at Fort Leaven worth, Kan., and in 
Western Missouri. It was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Springfield, 111., Oct. 14, 1864. 

TRY. Mustered into service as a 100-day's regi- 

ment, at Peoria, June 1, 1864; was engaged in 
garrison duty at Columbus and Cairo, in making 
reprisals for guerrilla raids, and in the pursuit of 
the Confederate General Price in Missouri. The 
latter service was rendered, at the President's 
request, after the term of enlistment had expired. 
It was mustered out at Peoria, Oct. 25, 1864, hav- 
ing been in the service nearly five months. 

Organized as a 100-days' regiment, at Springfield, 
June 18, 1864, and mustered into service on that 
date. The regiment was engaged in guarding 
railroads between Memphis and Holly Springs, and 
in garrison duty at Memphis. After the term of 
enlistment had expired and the regiment had 
been mustered out, it aided in the pursuit of 
General Price through Missouri; was finally dis- 
charged at Chicago, after serving about five 

TRY. Mustered into service as a 100-days' regi- 
ment, at Elgin, June 16, 1864 strength, 842 men; 
departed for the field, June 27, 1864; was mus- 
tered out at Chicago, Oct. 10, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Freeport as a battalion of 
eight companies, and sent to Camp Butler, where 
two companies were added and the regiment 
mustered into service for 100 days, June 18, 1864. 
It was ordered to Memphis, Tenn. , five days later, 
and assigned to duty at White's Station, eleven 
miles from that city, where it was employed in 
guarding the Memphis & Charleston railroad. 
It was mustered out at Chicago, on Oct, 27, 1864, 
the men having voluntarily served one month 
beyond their term of enlistment. 

TRY. Organized at Mattoon, and mustered in, 
June 11, 1864, for 100 days. It was assigned to 
garrison duty, and mustered out at Mattoon. 
Sept. 26, 1864. 

TRY. Organized at Alton, in 1864, as a one-year 
regiment ; was mustered into the service, Oct. 21, 
its strength being 1,159 men. It was mustered 
out, July 14, 1865. 

TRY. Mustered intc service at Springfield, June 
9, 1864 ; strength, 880 men. It departed for the 
field, June 12, 1864; was mustered out, Sept. 23, 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Sept. 18, 1864, for 
one year. Was assigned to the duty of guarding 
drafted men at Brighton, Quincy, Jacksonville 



and Springfield, and mustered out at Springfield, 
July 5, 1865. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago, and mustered into 
service for one year, Feb. 18 and 19, 1865; was 
engaged chiefly on guard or garrison duty, in 
scouting and in skirmishing with guerrillas. 
Mustered out at Nashville, Jan. 22, 1866, and 
received final discharge at Springfield, Feb. 4. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, for 
the term of one year ; was assigned to garrison 
and guard duty and mustered out, Sept. 5, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn ; arrived at Springfield, Sept. 
9, 1865, where it was paid off and discharged. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 11, 1865, 
and mustered in for one year; was engaged in 
garrison and guard duty ; mustered out, Jan. 27, 
1866, at Dalton, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, 
where it received final payment and discharge. 

Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Feb. 14, 
1865, for one year ; was on duty in Tennessee and 
Georgia, guarding railroads and garrisoning 
towns. It was mustered out, Jan. 16, 1866, at 
Atlanta, Ga. , and ordered to Springfield, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

This regiment was organized at Quincy, 111., 
and mustered into the United States service, 
Feb. 23, 1865, and was composed of companies 
from various parts of the State, recruited, under 
the call of Dec. 19, 1864. It was. engaged in 
guard duty, with a few guerrilla skirmishes, and 
was present at the surrender of General War- 
ford's army, at Kingston, Ga. ; was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ga., Jan. 24, 1866, and ordered to 
Springfield, where it received final payment and 
discharge, Feb. 8, 1866. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield and mustered in, 
Feb. 18, 1865, for one year; was mustered out of 
service, to date Sept. 11, at Memphis, Tenn., and 
arrived at Camp Butler, Sept. 9, 1865, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

TRY. Organized at Chicago, and mustered in, 
Feb. 27, 1865, for one year; was not engaged in 
any battles. It was mustered out, Sept. 15, 1865, 
and moved to Springfield, 111., and, Sept. 24, 
received final pay and discharge. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, 
for one year. Sept. 18, 1865, the regiment was 

mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., and ordered to 
Springfield for final payment and discharge, 
where it arrived, Sept. 22; was paid oft and dis- 
charged at Camp Butler, Sept. 29. 

TRY. Organized at Springfield and mustered in 
Feb. 28, 1865, for one year, 904 strong. On Sept. 
4, 1865, it was mustered out of service, and moved 
to Camp Butler, where it received final pay and 

TRY. Organized and mustered in during the 
months of February and March, 1865, from the 
northern counties of the State, for the term of 
one year. The officers of the regiment have left 
no written record of its history, but its service 
seems to have been rendered chiefly in Tennessee 
in the neighborhood of Memphis, Nashville and 
Chattanooga. Judging by the muster-rolls of 
the Adjutant-General, the regiment would appear 
to have been greatly depleted by desertions and 
otherwise, the remnant being finally mustered 
out, Sept. 20, 1865. 

FIRST CAVALRY. Organized consisting of 
seven companies, A, B, C, D, E, F and G at 
Alton, in 1861, and mustered into the United 
States service, July 3. After some service in 
Missouri, the regiment participated in the battle 
of Lexington, in that State, and was surrendered, 
with the remainder of the garrison, Sept. 20, 1861. 
The officers were paroled, and the men sworn not 
to take up arms again until discharged. No ex- 
change having been effected in November, the 
non-commissioned officers and privates were 
ordered to Springfield and discharged. In June, 
1862, the regiment was reorganized at Benton 
Barracks, Mo., being afterwards employed in 
guarding supply trains and supply depots at 
various points. Mustered out, at Benton Bar- 
racks, July 14, 1862. 

SECOND CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield 
and mustered into service, August 12, 1861, with 
Company M (which joined the regiment some 
months later), numbering 47 commissioned offi- 
cers and 1,040 enlisted men. This number was in- 
creased by recruits and re-enlistments, during its 
four and a half year's term of service, to 2,236 
enlisted men and 145 commissioned officers. It 
was engaged at Belmont ; a portion of the regi- 
ment took part in the battles at Fort Henry, 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, another portion at 
Merriweather's Ferry, Bolivar and Holly Springs, 
and participated in the investment of Vicksburg. 
In January. 1864, the major part of the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, later, participating in the 



Red River expedition and the investment of Fort 
Blakely. It was mustered out at San Antonio, 
Tex., Nov. 22, 1865, and finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield, Jan. 3, 1866. 

THIRD CAVALRY. Composed of twelve com- 
panies, from various localities in the State, the 
grand total of company officers and enlisted men, 
tinder the first organization, being 1,433. It was 
organized at Springfield, in August, 1861 ; partici- 
pated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Haines' Bluff, 
Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicksburg. 
In July, 1864, a large portion of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans. The remainder were mus- 
tered out, Sept. 5, 1864. The veterans participated 
in the repulse of Forrest, at Memphis, and in the 
battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbells- 
ville and Franklin. From May to October, 1865, 
engaged in service against the Indians in the 
Northwest The regiment was mustered out at 
Springfield, Oct. 18, 1865. 

FOURTH CAVALRY. Mustered into service, 
Sept. 26, 1861, and participated in the battles of 
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh; in the 
siege of Corinth, and in many engagements of 
less historic note ; was mustered out at Springfield 
in November, 1864. By order of the War Depart- 
ment, of June 18, 18C5, the members of the 
regiment whose terms had not expired, were con- 
solidated with the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. 

FIFTH CAVALRY. Organized at Camp Butler, 
in November, 1861; took part in the Meridian 
raid and the expedition against Jackson, Miss., 
and in numerous minor expeditions, doing effect- 
ive work at Canton, Grenada, Woodville, and 
other points. On Jan. 1, 1864, a large portion of 
the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. Its final 
muster-out took place, Oct. 27, 1865, and it re- 
ceived final payment and discharge, October 30. 
SIXTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
Nov. 19, 1861 ; participated in Sherman's advance 
upon Grenada ; in the Grierson raid through Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana, the siege of Port Hudson, 
the battles of Moscow (Tenn), West Point (Miss.), 
Franklin and Nashville; re-enlisted as veterans, 
March 30, 1864; was mustered out at Selma, Ala., 
Nov. 5, 1865, and received discharge, November 
20, at Springfield. 

SEVENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
and was mustered into service, Oct. 13, 1861. It 
participated in the battles of Farmington, luka, 
Corinth (second battle) ; in Grierson's raid 
through Mississippi and Louisiana; in the en- 
gagement at Plain's Store (La.), and the invest- 
ment of Port Hudson. In March, 1864, 288 

officers and men re-enlisted as veterans. The 
non-veterans were engaged at Guntown, and the 
entire regiment took part in the battle of Frank- 
lin. After the close of hostilities, it was stationed 
in Alabama and Mississippi, until the latter part 
of October, 1865 ; was mustered out at Nashville, 
and finally discharged at Springfield, Nov. 17, 

EIGHTH CAVALRY. Organized at St. Charles, 
111., and mustered in, Sept. 18, 1861. The regi- 
ment was ordered to Virginia, and participated 
in the general advance on Manassas in March, 
1862; was engaged at Mechanicsville, Games' 
Hill, Malvern Hill, Sugar Loaf Mountain, Middle- 
town, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Sulphur Springs, Warrenton, Rapidan 
Station, Northern Neck, Gettysburg, Williams- 
burg, Funkstown, Falling Water, Chester Gap 
Sandy Hook, Culpepper, Brandy Station, and in 
many raids and skirmishes. It was mustered 
out of service at Benton Barracks, Mo., July 17, 
1865, and ordered to Chicago, where it received 
final payment and discharge. 

NINTH CAVALRY Organized at Chicago, in 
the autumn of 1861, and mustered in, November 
30 ; was engaged at Coldwater, Grenada, Wyatt, 
Saulsbury, Moscow, Guntown, Pontotoc, Tupelo, 
Old Town Creek, Hurricane Creek, Lawrence- 
burg, Campellsville, Franklin and Nashville. 
The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, March 16, 
1864; was mustered out of service at Selma, Ala., 
Oct. 31, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, where 
the men received final payment and discharge. 

TENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield in 
the latter part of September, 1861, and mustered 
into service, Nov. 25, 1861 ; was engaged at Prairie 
Grove, Cotton Plant, Arkansas Post, in the 
Yazoo Pass expedition, at Richmond (La.), 
Brownsville, Bayou Metoe, Bayou La Fourche 
and Little Rock. In February, 1864, a large 
portion of the regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, the non-veterans accompanying General 
Banks in his Red River expedition. On Jan. 27, 
1865, the veterans, and recruits were consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, and all reorganized 
under the name of the Tenth Illinois Veteran 
Volunteer Cavalry. Mustered out of service at 
San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 22, 1865, and received 
final discharge at Springfield, Jan. 6, 1866. 

ELEVENTH CAVALRY. Robert G. Ingersoll of 
Peoria, and Basil D. Meeks, of Woodford County, 
obtained permission to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and recruiting commenced in October, 
1861. The regiment was recruited from the 
counties of Peoria, Fulton, Tazewell, Woodford, 



Marshall, Stark, Knox, Henderson and Warren; 
was mustered into the service at Peoria, Dec. 20, 
1861, and was first under fire at Shiloh. It also 
took part in the raid in the rear of Corinth, and 
in the battles of Bolivar, Corinth (second battle), 
luka, Lexington and Jackson (Tenn.); in Mc- 
Pherson's expedition to Canton and Sherman's 
Meridian raid, in the relief of Yazoo City, and in 
numerous less important raids and skirmishes. 
Most of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans in 
December, 1863; the non-veterans being mus- 
tered out at Memphis, in the autumn of 1864. The 
Teterans were mustered out at the same place, 
Sept. 30, 1865, and discharged at Springfield, 
October 20. 

TWELFTH CAVALRY. Organized at Springfield, 
in February, 1862, and remained there guarding 
rebel prisoners until June 25, when it was 
mounted and sent to Martinsburg, Va. It was 
engaged at Fredericksburg, Williamsport, Falling 
Waters, the Rapidan and Stevensburg. On Nov. 
26, 1863, the regiment was relieved from service 
and ordered home to reorganize as veterans. 
Subsequently it joined Banks in the Red River 
expedition and in Davidson's expedition against 
Mobile. While at Memphis the Twelfth Cavalry 
was consolidated into an eight-company organi- 
zation, and the Fourth Cavalry, having previously 
been consolidated into a battalion of five com- 
panies, was consolidated with the Twelfth. The 
consolidated regiment was mustered out at 
Houston, Texas, May 29, 1866, and, on June 18, 
received final pay and discharge at Springfield. 

THIRTEENTH CAVALRY. Organized at Chicago, 
in December, 1861; moved to the front from 
Benton Barracks, Mo., in February, 1862, and 
was engaged in the following battles and skir- 
mishes (all in Missouri and Arkansas) : Putnam's 
Ferry, Cotton Plant, Union City (twice), Camp 
Pillow, Bloomfield (first and second battles), Van 
Buren, Allen, Eleven Point River, Jackson, 
White River, Chalk Bluff, Bushy Creek, near 
Helena, Grand Prairie, White River, Deadman's 
Lake, Brownsville, Bayou Metoe, Austin, Little 
Rock, Benton, Batesville, Pine Bluff, Arkadel- 
phia, Okolona, Little Missouri River, Prairie du 
Anne, Camden, Jenkins' Ferry, Cross Roads, 
Mount Elba, Douglas Landing and Monticello. 
The regiment was mustered out, August 31, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge at Spring- 
field, Sept. 13, 1865. 

FOURTEENTH CAVALRY. Mustered into service 
at Peoria, in January and February, 1863 ; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Cumberland Gap, in the 
defense of Knoxville and the pursuit of Long- 

street, in the engagements at Bean Station and 
Dandridge, in the Macon raid, and in the cavalry 
battle at Sunshine Church. In the latter Gen- 
eral Stoneman surrendered, but the Fourteenth 
cut its way out. On their retreat the men were 
betrayed by a guide and the regiment badly cut 
up and scattered, those escaping being hunted by 
soldiers with bloodhounds. Later, it was engaged 
at Waynesboro and in the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville, and was mustered out at Nashville, 
July 31, 1865, having marched over 10,000 miles, 
exclusive of duty done by detachments. 

FIFTEENTH CAVALRY. Composed of companies 
originally independent, attached to infantry regi- 
ments and acting as such; participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
siege and capture of Corinth. Regimental or- 
ganization was effected in the spring of 1863, and 
thereafter it was engaged chiefly in scouting and 
post duty. It was mustered out at Springfield, 
August 25, 1864, the recruits (whose term of 
service had not expired) being consolidated with 
the Tenth Cavalry. 

SIXTEENTH CAVALRY. Composed principally 
of Chicago men Thieleman's and Schambeck's 
Cavalry Companies, raised at the outset of the 
war, forming the nucleus of the regiment. The 
former served as General Sherman's body-guard 
for some time. Captain Thieleman was made a 
Major and authorized to raise a battalion, the 
two companies named thenceforth being knowr- 
as Thieleman's Battalion. In September, 1862, 
the War Department authorized the extension of 
the battalion to a regiment, and, on the llth of 
June, 1863, the regimental organization was com- 
pleted. It took part in the East Tennessee cam- 
paign, a portion of the regiment aiding in the 
defense of Knoxville, a part garrisoning Cumber- 
and Gap, and one battalion being captured by 
Longstreet. The regiment also participated in 
the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, Carterville, 
Allatoona, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Mines 
Ridge, Powder Springs, Chattahoochie, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. It arrived 
in Chicago, August 23, 1865, for final payment 
and discharge, having marched about 5,000 miles 
and engaged in thirty-one battles, besides numer- 
ous skirmishes. 

SEVENTEENTH CAVALRY. Mustered into serv- 
ice in January and February, 1864; aided in the 
repulse of Price at Jefferson City, Mo., and was 
engaged at Booneville, Independence, Mine 
Creek, and Fort Scott, besides doing garrison 
duty, scouting and raiding. It was mustered 



out in November and December, 1865, at Leaven- 
worth, Kan. Gov. John L. Beveridge, who had 
previously been a Captain and Major of the 
Eighth Cavalry, was the Colonel of this regi- 

FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY. Consisted of ten 
batteries. Battery A was organized under the 
first call for State troops, April 21, 1861, but not 
mustered into the three years' service until July 
16; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was in reserve at Champion Hills and 
Nashville, and mustered out July 3, 1865, at 

Battery B was organized in April, 1861, en- 
gaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the 
siege of Corinth and at La Grange, Holly Springs, 
Memphis, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the 
siege of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond 
(La.), the Atlanta campaign and the battle of 
Nashville. The Battery was reorganized by con- 
solidation with Battery A, and mustered out at 
Chicago, July 2, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, Sept. 2, 1861 ; 
was engaged at Fort Donelson and at Shiloh, 
and mustered out, July 28, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery E was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into service, Dec. 19, 1861 ; was engaged 
at Shiloh, Corinth, Jackson, Vicksburg, Gun- 
town, Pontotoc, Tupelo and Nashville, and mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Dec. 24, 1864 

Battery F was recruited at Dixon and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, Feb. 25, 1862. It took 
part in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona 
expedition, and was consolidated with the other 
batteries in the regiment, March 7, 1865. 

Battery G was organized at Cairo and mus- 
tered in Sept. 28, 1861 ; was engaged in the siege 
and the second battle of Corinth, and mustered 
out at Springfield, July 24, 1865. 

Battery H was recruited in and about Chicago, 
during January and February, 1862; participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg, and 
in the Atlanta campaign, the "March to the 
Sea," and through the Carolinas with Sherman. 

Battery I was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered in, Feb. 10, 1862; was engaged at 
Shiloh, in the Tallahatchie raid, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the battles of 
Chattanooga and Vicksburg It veteranized, 
March 17, 1864, and was mustered out, July 26, 

Battery K was organized at Shawneetown and 
mustered in, Jan. 9, 1862, participated in Burn- 

side's campaign in Tennessee, and in the capture 
of Knoxville. Part of the men were mustered 
out at Springfield in June, 1865, and the re- 
manider at Chicago in July. 

Battery M was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into the service, August 12, 1862, for 
three years. It served through the Chickamauga 
campaign, being engaged at Chickamauga; also 
was engaged at Missionary Ridge, was besieged 
at Chattanooga, and took part in all the impor- 
tant battles of the Atlanta campaign. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, July 24, 1864, having 
traveled 3,102 miles and been under fire 178 days. 

SECOND LIGHT ARTILLERY. Consisted of nine 
batteries. Battery A was organized at Peoria, 
and mustered into service, May 23, 1861 ; served 
in Missouri and Arkansas, doing brilliant work 
at Pea Ridge. It was mustered out of service at 
Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

Batterj- D was organized at Cairo, and mustered 
into service in December, 1861 ; was engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Meridian and Decatur, and mustered out at 
Louisville, Nov. 21, 1864. 

Battery E was organized at St. Louis, Mo., in 
August, 1861, and mustered into service, August 
20, at that point. It was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son and Shiloh, and in the siege of Corinth and 
the Yocona expedition was consolidated with 
Battery A. 

Battery F was organized at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., and mustered in, Dec. 11, 1861; was engaged 
at Shiloh, in the siege and second battle of 
Corinth, and the Meridian campaign; also 
at Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It was 
mustered out, July 27, 1865, at Springfield. 

Battery H was organized at Springfield, De- 
cember, 1861, and mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861 ; was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and in the siege of 
Fort Pillow; veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mounted as cavalry the following summer, and 
mustered out at Springfield, July 29, 1865. 

Battery I was recruited in Will County, and 
mustered into service at Camp Butler, Dec. 31, 
1861. It participated in the siege of Island No. 
10, in the advance upon Cornith, and in the 
battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga. 
It veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, marched with Sher- 
man to Atlanta, and thence to Savannah and 
through the Carolinas, and was mustered out at 

Battery K was organized at Springfield and 
mustered in Dec. 31, 1863; was engaged at Fort 
Pillow, the capture of Clarkston, Mo., and the 



siege of Vicksburg. It was mustered out, July 
14, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery L was organized at Chicago and mus- 
tered in, Feb. 28, 1862; participated in the ad- 
vance on Corinth, the battle of Hatchie and the 
advance on the Tallahatchie, and was mustered 
out at Chicago, August 9, 1865. 

Battery M was organized at Chicago, and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, June, 1862 ; was engaged 
at Jonesboro, Blue Spring, Blountsville and 
Rogersville, being finally consolidated with 
other batteries of the regiment. 

ized through the efforts of the Chicago Board of 
Trade, which raised $15,000 for its equipment, 
within forty-eight hours. It was mustered into 
service, August 1, 1862, was engaged at Law- 
renceburg, Murfreesboro, Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Farmington, Decatur (Ga.), -Atlanta, 
Lovejoy Station, Nashville, Selma and Columbus 
(Ga. ) It was mustered out at Chicago, June 30, 
1865, and paid in full, July 3, having marched 
5,268 miles and traveled by rail 1,231 miles. The 
battery was in eleven of the hardest battles 
fought in the West, and in twenty-six minor 
battles, being in action forty-two times while on 
scouts, reconnoissances or outpost duty. 

and organized under the auspices of the Mercan- 
tile Association, an association of prominent and 
patriotic merchants of the City of Chicago. It 
was mustered into service, August 29, 1862, at 
Camp Douglas, participated in the Tallahatchie 
and Yazoo expeditions, the first attack upon 
Vicksburg, the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege 
of Vicksburg, the battles of Magnolia Hills, 
Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and Jackson 
(Miss. ) ; also took part in Banks' Red River ex- 
pedition; was mustered out at Chicago, and 
received final payment, July 10, 1865, having 
traveled, by river, sea and land, over 11,000 

principally from the cities of Springfield, Belle- 
ville and Wenona, and mustered into service at 
Springfield, for the term of three years, August 
21, 1862, numbering 199 men and officers. It 
participated in the capture of Little Rock and in 
the Red River expedition, and was mustered out 
at Springfield, 114 strong, June 30, 1865. 

Organized at Ottawa, 111., and mustered in, Nov. 
11, 1861, as Company A (Artillery) Fifty-third 
Illinois Volunteers, Colonel Cushman command- 
ing the regiment. It participated in the 

advance on Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, and the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile. The 
regiment was mustered out at Springfield, August 
14, 1865, having served three years and nine 
months, marched over 7,500 miles, and partici- 
pated in seven sieges and battles. 

STURGES RIFLES. An independent company, 
organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and sub- 
sisted for nearly two months, by the patriotic 
generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturges; was mustered 
into service, May 6, 1861; in June following, was 
ordered to West Virginia, serving as body- 
guard of General McClellan; was engaged at 
Rich Mountain, in the siege of Yorktown, and in 
the seven days' battle of the Chiokahominy. A 
portion of the company was at Antietam, the 
remainder having been detached as foragers, 
scouts, etc. It was mustered out at Washington, 
Nov. 25, 1862. 

oppressions and misrule which had character- 
ized the administration of affairs by the Spanish 
Government and its agents for generations, in the 
Island of Cuba, culminated, in April, 1898, in 
mutual declarations of war between Spain and 
the United States. The causes leading up to this 
result were the injurious effects upon American 
commerce and the interests of American citizens 
owning property in Cuba, as well as the constant 
expense imposed upon the Government of the 
United States in the maintenance of a large navy 
along the South Atlantic coast to suppress fili- 
bustering, superadded to the friction and unrest 
produced among the people of this country by the 
long continuance of disorders and abuses so near 
to our own shores, which aroused the sympathy 
and indignation of the entire civilized world. 
For three years a large proportion of the Cuban 
population had been in open rebellion against the 
Spanish Government, and, while the latter had 
imported a large army to the island and sub- 
jected the insurgents and their families and 
sympathizers to the grossest cruelties, not even 
excepting torture and starvation itself, their 
policy had failed to bring the insurgents into 
subjection or to restore order. In this condition 
of affairs the United States Government had 
endeavored, through negotiation, to secure a miti- 
gation of the evils complained of, by a modifica- 
tion of the Spanish policy of government in the 
island ; but all suggestions in this direction had 
either been resented by Spain as unwarrantable 
interference in her affairs, or promises of reform, 
when made, had been as invariably broken. 



In the meantime an increasing sentiment had 
been growing up in the United States in favor of 
conceding belligerent rights to the Cuban insur- 
gents, or the recognition of their independence, 
which found expression in measures proposed in 
Congress all offers of friendly intervention by 
the United States having been rejected by Spain 
with evidences of indignation. Compelled, at 
last, to recognize its inability to subdue the insur- 
rection, the Spanish Government, in November, 
1897, made a pretense of tendering autonomy to 
the Cuban people, with the privilege of amnesty 
to the insurgents on laying down their arms. 
The long duration of the war and the outrages 
perpetrated upon the helpless "reconcentrados," 
coupled with the increased confidence of the 
insurgents in the final triumph of their cause, 
rendered this movement even if intended to be 
carried out to the letter of no avail. The 
proffer came too late, and was promptly rejected. 

In this condition of affairs and with a view to 
greater security for American interests, the 
American battleship Maine was ordered to 
Havana, on Jan. 24, 1898. It arrived in Havana 
Harbor the following day, and was anchored at a 
point designated by the Spanish commander. On 
the night of February 15, following, it was blown 
up and destroyed by some force, as shown by after 
investigation, applied from without. Of a crew 
of 354 men belonging to the vessel at the time, 
266 were either killed outright by the explosion, 
or died from their wounds. Not only the Ameri- 
can people, but the entire civilized world, was 
shocked by the catastrophe. An act of horrible 
treachery had been perpetrated against an 
American vessel and its crew on a peaceful mis- 
sion in the harbor of a professedly friendly na- 

The successive steps leading to actual hostili- 
ties were rapid and eventful. One of the earliest 
and most significant of these was the passage, by 
a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, on 
March 9, of an appropriation placing $50,000,000 
in the hands of the President as an emergency 
fund for purposes of national defense. This was 
followed, two days later, by an order for the 
mobilization of the army. The more important 
events following this step were : An order, under 
date of April 5, withdrawing American consuls 
from Spanish stations ; the departure, on April 9, 
of Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee from Havana; 
April 19, the adoption by Congress of concurrent 
resolutions declaring Cuba independent and 
directing the President to use the land and naval 
forces of the United States to put an end to 

Spanish authority in the island; April 20, the 
sending to the Spanish Government, by the Presi- 
dent, of an ultimatum in accordance with this 
act ; April 21, the delivery to Minister Woodford, 
at Madrid, of his passports without waiting for 
the presentation of the ultimatum, with the 
departure of the Spanish Minister from Washing- 
ton ; April 23, the issue of a call by the President 
for 125,000 volunters; April 24, the final declara- 
tion of war by Spain; April 25, the adoption by 
Congress of a resolution declaring that war had 
existed from April 21 ; on the same date an order 
to Admiral Dewey, in command of the Asiatic 
Squadron at Hongkong, to sail for Manila with a 
view to investing that city and blockading 
Philippine ports. 

The chief events subsequent to the declaration 
of war embraced the following: May 1, the 
destruction by Admiral Dewey's squadron of the 
Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila; May 19, 
the arrival of the Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet 
at Santiago de Cuba; May 25, a second call by 
the President for 75,000 volunteers; July 3, the 
attempt of Cervera's fleet to escape, and its 
destruction off Santiago; July 17, the surrender 
of Santiago to the forces under General Shatter; 
July 30, the statement by the President, through 
the French Ambassador at Washington, of the 
terms on which the United States would consent 
to make peace ; August 9, acceptance of the peace 
terms by Spain, followed, three days later, by the 
signing of the peace protocol ; September 9, the 
appointment by the President of Peace Commis- 
sioners on the part of the United States ; Sept. 18, 
the announcement of the Peace Commissioners 
selected by Spain ; October 1, the beginning of the 
Peace Conference by the representatives of the 
two powers, at Paris, and the formal signing, on 
December 10, of the peace treaty, including the 
recognition by Spain of the freedom of Cuba, 
with the transfer to the United States of Porto 
Rico and her other West India islands, together 
with the surrender of the Philippines for a con- 
sideration of $20,000,000. 

Seldom, if ever, in the history of nations have 
such vast and far-reaching results been accom- 
plished within so short a period. The war, 
which practically began with the destruction of 
the Spanish fleet in Manila Harbor an event 
which aroused the enthusiasm of the whole 
American people, and won the respect and 
admiration of other nations was practically 
ended by the surrender of Santiago and the 
declaration by the President of the conditions of 
peace just three months later. Succeeding 



events, up to the formal signing of the peace 
treaty, were merely the recognition of results 
previously determined. 

played by Illinois in connection with these events 
may be briefly summarized in the history of Illi- 
nois regiments and other organizations. Under 
the first call of the President for 125,000 volun- 
teers, eight regiments seven of infantry and one 
of cavalry were assigned to Illinois, to which 
was subsequently added, on application through 
Governor Tanner, one battery of light artil- 
lery. The infantry regiments were made up 
of the Illinois National Guard, numbered 
consecutively from one to seven, and were 
practically mobilized at their home stations 
within forty-eight hours from the receipt of the 
call, and began to arrive at Camp Tanner, near 
Springfield, the place of rendezvous, on April 26, 
the day after the issue of the Governor's call. 
The record of Illinois troops is conspicuous for 
the promptness of their response and the com- 
pleteness of their organization in this respect 
being unsurpassed by those of any other State. 
Under the call of May 25 for an additional force 
of 75,000 men, the quota assigned to Illinois was 
two regiments, which were promptly furnished, 
taking the names of the Eighth and Ninth. The 
first of these belonged to the Illinois National 
Guard, as the regiments mustered in under the 
first call had done, while the Ninth was one of a 
number of "Provisional Regiments" which had 
tendered their services to the Government. Some 
twenty-five other regiments of this class, more or 
less complete, stood ready to perfect their organi- 
zations should there be occasion for their serv- 
ices. The aggregate strength of Illinois organi- 
zations at date of muster out from the United 
States service was 12,280 11,789 men and 491 

inally Illinois National Guard) was organized at 
Chicago, and mustered into the United States 
service at Camp Tanner (Springfield), under the 
command of Col. Henry L. Turner, May 13, 1898; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas (Chickamauga) 
May 17; assigned to First Brigade, Third 
Division, of the First Army Corps; started for 
Tampa, Fla., June 2, but soon after arrival there 
was transferred to Picnic Island, and assigned to 
provost duty in place of the First United States 
Infantry. On June 30 the bulk of the regiment 
embarked for Cuba, but was detained in the har- 
bor at Key West until July 5, when the vessel 
sailed for Santiago, arriving in Guantanamo Bay 

on the evening of the 8th. Disembarking on 
the 10th, the whole regiment arrived on the 
firing line on the llth, spent several days and 
nights in the trenches before Santiago, and 
were present at the surrender of that city 
on the 17th. Two companies had previously 
been detached for the scarcely less perilous duty 
of service in the fever hospitals and in caring 
for their wounded comrades. The next month 
was spent on guard duty in the captured city, 
until August 25, when, depleted in numbers and 
weakened by fever, the bulk of the regiment was 
transferred by hospital boats to Camp Wikoff, on 
Montauk Point, L. I. The members of the regi- 
ment able to travel left Camp Wikoff, September 
8, for Chicago, arriving two days later, where they 
met an enthusiastic reception and were mustered 
out, November 17, 1,235 strong (rank and file) a 
considerable number of recruits having joined the 
regiment just before leaving Tampa. The record 
of the First was conspicuous by the fact that it 
was the only Illinois regiment to see service in 
Cuba during the progress of actual hostilities. 
Before leaving Tampa some eighty members of the 
regiment were detailed for engineering duty in 
Porto Rico, sailed for that island on July 12, and 
were among the first to perform service there. 
The First suffered severely from yellow fever 
while in Cuba, but, as a regiment, while in the 
service, made a brilliant record, which was highly 
complimented in the official reports of its com- 
manding officers. 

FANTRY (originally Second I. N. G.). This regi- 
ment, also from Chicago, began to arrive at 
Springfield, April 27, 1898 at that time number- 
ing 1,202 men and 47 officers, under command of 
Col. George M. Moulton; was mustered in 
between May 4 and May 15; on May 17 started 
for Tampa, Fla., but en route its destination was 
changed to Jacksonville, where, as a part of the 
Seventh Army Corps, under command of Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee, it assisted in the dedication of 
Camp Cuba Libre. October 25 it was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at "Camp Lee" until 
December 8, when two battalions embarked for 
Havana, landing on the 15th, being followed, a 
few days later, by the Third Battalion, and sta- 
tioned at Camp Columbia. From Dec. 17 to Jan. 
11, 1899, Colonel Moulton served as Chief of 
Police for the city of Havana. On March 28 to 30 
the regiment left Camp Columbia in detach- 
ments for Augusta, Ga., where it arrived April 
5, and was mustered out, April 26, 1,051 strong 
(rank and file), and returned to Chicago. Dur- 



ing its stay in Cuba the regiment did not lose a 
man. A history of this regiment has been 
written by Rev. H. W. Bolton, its late Chaplain. 

FANTRY, composed of companies of the Illinois 
National Guard from the counties of La Salle. 
Livingston, Kane, Kankakee, McHenry, Ogle, 
Will, and Winnebago, under command of Col. 
Fred Bennitt, reported at Springfield, with 1,170 
men and 50 officers, on April 27 ; was mustered 
in May 7, 1898; transferred from Springfield to 
Camp Thomas (Chickamauga), May 14; on July 
22 left Chickamauga for Porto Rico ; on the 28th 
sailed from Newport News, on the liner St. Louis, 
arriving at Ponce, Porto Rico, on July 31; soon 
after disembarking captured Arroyo, and assisted 
in the capture of Guayama, which was the 
beginning of General Brooke's advance across 
the island to San Juan, when intelligence was 
received of the signing of the peace protocol by 
Spain. From August 13 to October 1 the Third 
continued in the performance of guard duty in 
Porto Rico; on October 22, 986 men and 39 offi- 
cers took transport for home by way of New York, 
arriving in Chicago, November 11, the several 
companies being mustered out at their respective 
home stations. Its strength at final muster-out 
was 1,273 men and officers. This regiment had 
the distinction of being one of the first to see 
service in Porto Rico, but suffered severely from 
fever and other diseases during the three months 
of its stay in the island. 

posed of companies from Champaign, Coles, 
Douglas, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Jackson, 
Jefferson, Montgomery, Richland, and St. Clair 
counties; mustered into the service at Spring- 
field, May 20, under command of Col. Casimer 
Andel; started immediately for Tampa, Fla., but 
en route its destination was changed to Jackson- 
ville, where it was stationed at Camp Cuba Libre 
as a part of the Seventh Corps under command of 
Gen. Fitzhugh Lee; in October was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at Camp Onward 
until about the fitst of January, when the regi- 
ment took ship for Havana. Here the regiment 
was stationed at Camp Columbia until April 4, 
1899, when it returned to Augusta, Ga., and was 
mustered out at Camp Mackenzie (Augusta), May 
2, the companies returning to their respective 
home stations. During a part of its stay at 
Jacksonville, and again at Savannah, the regi- 
ment was employed on guard duty. While at 
Jacksonville Colonel Andel was suspended by 
court-martial, and finally tendered his resigna- 

tion, his place being supplied by Lieut. -Col. Eben 
Swift, of the Ninth. 

FANTRY was the first regiment to report, and was 
mustered in at Springfield, May 7, 1898, under 
command of Col. James S. Culver, being finally 
composed of twelve companies from Pike, Chris- 
tian, Sangamon, McLean, Montgomery, Adams, 
Tazewell, Macon, Morgan, Peoria, and Fulton 
counties; on May 14 left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas (Chiekamauga, Ga.), being assigned to 
the command of General Brooke ; August 3 left 
Chickamauga for Newport News, Va., with the 
expectation of embarking for Porto Rico a 
previous order of July 26 to the same purport 
having been countermanded; at Newport News 
embarked on the transport Obdam, but again the 
order was rescinded, and, after remaining on 
board thirty-six hours, the regiment was disem- 
barked. The next move was made to Lexington. 
Ky., where the regiment having lost hope of 
reaching "the front" remained until Sept. 5, 
when it returned to Springfield for final muster- 
out. This regiment was composed of some of the 
best material in the State, and anxious for active 
service, but after a succession of disappoint- 
ments, was compelled to return to its home sta- 
tion without meeting the enemy. After its arrival 
at Springfield the regiment was furloughed for 
thirty days and finally mustered out, October 16, 
numbering 1,213 men and 47 officers. 

FANTRY, consisting of twelve companies from the 
counties of Rock Island, Knox, Whiteside, Lee, 
Carroll, Stephenson, Henry, Warren, Bureau, and 
Jo Daviess, was mustered in May 11, 1898, under 
command of Col. D. Jack Foster; on May 17 left 
Springfield for Camp Alger, Va. ; July 5 the 
regiment moved to Charleston, S. C., where a 
part embarked for Siboney, Cuba, but the w4iole 
regiment was soon after united in General 
Miles' expedition for the invasion of Porto Rico, 
landing at Guanico on July 25, and advancing 
into the interior as far as Ad junta and Utuado. 
After several weeks' service in the interior, the 
regiment returned to Ponce, and on September 7 
took transport for the return home, arrived at 
Springfield a week later, and was mustered out 
November 25, the regiment at that time consist- 
ing of 1,239 men and 49 officers. 

(known as the "Hibernian Rifles"). Two 
battalions of this regiment reported at Spring, 
field, April 27, with 33 officers and 765 enlisted 
men, being afterwards increased to the maxi- 



mum ; was mustered into the United States serv- 
ice, under command of Col. Marcus Kavanagh, 
May 18, 1898; on May 28 started for Camp Alger, 
Va. ; was afterwards encamped at Thoroughfare 
Gap and Camp Meade ; on September 9 returned 
to Springfield, was furloughed for thirty days, 
and mustered out, October 20, numbering 1,260 
men and 49 officers. Like the Fifth, the Seventh 
saw no actual service in the field. 

ored regiment), mustered into the service at 
Springfield under the second call of the Presi- 
dent, July 23, 1898, being composed wholly of 
Afro- Americans under officers of their own race, 
with Col. John R. Marshall in command, the 
muster-roll showing 1,195 men and 76 officers. 
The six companies, from A to F, were from Chi- 
cago, the other five being, respectively, from 
Bloomington, Springfield, Quincy, Litchfield, 
Mound City and Metropolis, and Cairo. The 
regiment having tendered their services to 
relieve the First Illinois on duty at Santiago de 
Cuba, it started for Cuba, August 8, by way of 
New York ; immediately on arrival at Santiago, 
a week later, was assigned to duty, but subse- 
quently transferred to San Luis, where Colone, 
Marshall was made military governor. The 
major part of the regiment remained here until 
ordered home early in March, 1899, arrived at 
Chicago, March 15, and was mustered out, April 
3, 1,226 strong, rank and file, having been in 
service nine months and six days. 

organized from the counties of Southern Illinois, 
and mustered in at Springfield under the second 
call of the President, July 4-11, 1898, under com- 
mand of Col. James R. Campbell; arrived at 
Camp Cuba Libre (Jacksonville, Fla.), August 9; 
two months later was transferred to Savannah, 
Ga. ; was moved to Havana in December, where 
it remained until May, 1899, when it returned to 
Augusta, Ga., and was mustered out there, May 
20, 1899, at that time consisting of 1,095 men and 
46 officers. From Augusta the several companies 
returned to their respective home stations. The 
Ninth was the only "Provisional Regiment" from 
Illinois mustered into the service during the 
war, the other regiments all belonging to the 
National Guard. 

FIRST ILLINOIS CAVALRY was organized at Chi- 
cago immediately after the President's first call, 
seven companies being recruited from Chicago, 
two from Bloomington, and one each from 
Springfield, Elkhart, and Lacon ; was mustered in 
at Springfield, May 21, 1898, under command of 

Col. Edward C. Young; left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas, Ga., May 30, remaining there until 
August 24, when it returned to Fort Sheridan, 
near Chicago, where it was stationed until October 
11, when it was mustered out, at that time con- 
sisting of 1,158 men and 50 officers. Although 
the regiment saw no active service in the field, it 
established an excellent record for itself in respect 
to discipline. 

FIRST ENGINEERING CORPS, consisting of 80 
men detailed from the First Illinois Volunteers, 
were among the first Illinois soldiers to see serv- 
ice in Porto Rico, accompanying General Miles' 
expedition in the latter part of July, and being 
engaged for a time in the construction of bridges 
in aid of the intended advance across the island. 
On September 8 they embarked for the return 
home, arrived at Chicago, September 17, and 
were mustered out November 20. 

BATTERY A (I. N. G.), from Danville, 111., was 
mustered in under a special order of the War 
Department, May 12, 1898, under command of 
Capt. Oscar P. Yaeger, consisting of 118 men; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas, Ga., May 19, 
and, two months later, joined in General Miles' 
Porto Rico expedition, landing at Guanico on 
August 3, and taking part in the affair at Gua 
yama on the 12th. News of peace having been 
received, the Battery returned to Ponce, where 
it remained until September 7, when it started 
on the return home by way of New York, arrived 
at Danville, September 17, was furloughed for 
sixty days, and mustered out November 25. The 
Battery was equipped with modern breech-load- 
ing rapid-firing guns, operated by practical artil- 
lerists and prepared for effective service. 

NAVAL RESERVES. One of the earliest steps 
taken by the Government after it became ap- 
parent that hostilities could not be averted, was 
to begin preparation for strengthening the naval 
arm of the service. The existence of the "Naval 
Militia," first organized in 1893, placed Illinois in 
an exceptionally favorable position for making a 
prompt response to the call of the Government, as 
well as furnishing a superior class of men for 
service a fact evidenced during the operations 
in the West Indies. Gen. John McNulta, as head 
of the local committee, was active in calling the 
attention of the Navy Department to the value of 
the service to be rendered by this organization, 
which resulted in its being enlisted practically as 
a body, taking the name of "Naval Reserves" 
all but eighty-eight of the number passing the 
physical examination, the places of these being 
promptly filled by new recruits. The first de- 



tachment of over 200 left Chicago May 2, under 
the command of Lieut. -Com. John M. Hawley, 
followed soon after by the remainder of the First 
Battalion, making the whole number from Chi- 
cago 400, with 267, constituting the Second Bat- 
talion, from other towns of the State. The latter 
was made up of 147 men from Moline, 58 from 
Quincy, and 62 from Alton making a total from 
the State of 667. This does not include others, 
not belonging to this organization, who enlisted 
for service in the navy during the war, which 
raised the whole number for the State over 1,000. 
The Reserves enlisted from Illinois occupied a 
different relation to the Government from that 
of the "naval militia" of other States, which 
retained their State organizations, while those 
from Illinois were regularly mustered into the 
United States service. The recruits from Illinois 
were embarked at Key West, Norfolk and New 
York, and distributed among fifty-two different 
vessels, including nearly every vessel belonging 
to the North Atlantic Squadron. They saw serv- 
ice in nearly every department from the position 
of stokers in the hold to that of gunners in the 
turrets of the big battleships, the largest number 
(60) being assigned to the famous battleship Ore- 
gon, while the cruiser Yale followed with 47 ; the 
Harvard with 35; Cincinnati, 27; Yankton, 19; 
Franklin, 18; Montgomery and Indiana, each, 17; 
Hector, 14; Marietta, 11; Wilmington and Lan- 
caster, 10 each, and others down to one each. 
Illinois sailors thus had the privilege of partici- 
pating in the brilliant affair of July 3, which 
resulted in the destruction of Cervera's fleet off 
Santiago, as also in nearly every other event in 
the West Indies of less importance, without the 
loss of a man while in the service, although 
among the most exposed. They were mustered 
out at different times, as they could be spared 
from the service, or the vessels to which they 
were attached went out of commission, a portion 
serving out their full term of one year. The 
Reserves from Chicago retain their organization 
under the name of "Naval Reserve Veterans," 
with headquarters in the Masonic Temple Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WARD, James H., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Chicago, Nov. 30, 1853, and educated in the 
Chicago public schools and at the University of 
Notre Dame, graduating from the latter in 1873. 
Three years later he graduated from the Union 
College of Law, Chicago, and was admitted to 
the bar. Since then he has continued to practice 
his profession in his native city. In 1879 he was 
elected Supervisor of the town of West Chicago, 

and, in 1884, was a candidate for Presidential 
Elector on the Democratic ticket, and the same 
year, was the successful candidate of his party 
for Congress in the Third Illinois District, serv- 
ing one term. 

WIXNEBAGO INDIANS, a tribe of the Da 
cota, or Sioux, stock, which at one time occupied 
a part of Northern Illinois. The word Winne- 
bago is a corruption of the French Ouinebe- 
goutz, Ouimbegouc, etc., the diphthong "ou" 
taking the place of the consonant "w," which is 
wanting in the French alphabet. These were, 
in turn, French misspellings of an Algonquin 
term meaning "fetid," which the latter tribe 
applied to the Winnebagoes because they had 
come from the western ocean the salt (or 
"fetid") water. In their advance towards the 
East the Winnebagoes early invaded the country 
of the Illinois, but were finally driven north- 
ward by the latter, who surpassed them in num- 
bers rather than in bravery. The invaders 
settled in Wisconsin, near the Fox River, and 
here they were first visited by the Jesuit Fathers 
in the seventeenth century. (See Jesuit Rela- 
tions.) The Winnebagoes are commonly re- 
garded as a Wisconsin tribe; yet, that they 
claimed territorial rights in Illinois is shown by 
the fact that the treaty of Prairia du Chien 
(August 1, 1829), alludes to a Winnebago village 
located in what is now Jo Daviess County, near 
the mouth of the Pecatonica River. While, as a 
rule, the tribe, if left to itself, was disposed to 
live in amity with the whites, it was carried 
away by the eloquence and diplomacy of 
Tecumseh and the cajoleries of "The Prophet. " 
General Harrison especially alludes to the brav- 
ery of the Winnebago warriors at Tippecanoe' 
which he attributees in part, however, to a super- 
stitious faith in "The Prophet." In June or 
July, 1827, an unprovoked and brutal outrage by 
the whites upon an unoffending and practically 
defenseless party of Winnebagoes, near Prairie 
du Chien brought on what is known as the 
'Winnebago War." (See Winnebago War.) 
The tribe took no part in the Black Hawk War, 
largely because of the great influence and shrewd 
tactic of their chief, Naw-caw. By treaties 
executed in 1832 and 1837 the Winnebagoes ceded 
to the United States all their lands lying east of 
the Mississippi. They were finally removed west 
of that river, and, after many shiftings of loca- 
tion, were placed upon the Omaha Reservation in 
Eastern Nebraska, where their industry, thrift 
and peaceable disposition elicited high praise 
from Government officials. 



WARNER, Yespasian, lawyer and Member of 
Congress, was born in De Witt County, 111., April 
23, 1842, and has lived all his life in his native 
county his present residence being Clinton. 
After a short course in Lombard University, 
while studying law in the office of Hon. Law- 
rence Weldon, at Clinton, he enlisted as a private 
soldier of the Twentieth Illinois Volunteers, in 
June, 1861, serving until July, 1866, when he was 
mustered out with the rank of Captain and 
brevet Major. He received a gunshot wound at 
Shiloh, but continued to serve in the Army of 
the Tennessee until the evacuation of Atlanta, 
when he was ordered North on account of dis- 
ability. His last service was in fighting Indians 
on the plains. After the war he completed his 
law studies at Harvard University, graduating in 
1868, when he entered into a law partnership 
with Clifton H. Moore of Clinton. He served as 
Judge- Advocate General of the Illinois National 
Guard for several years, with the rank of Colonel, 
under the administrations of Governors Hamil- 
ton, Oglesby and Fifer, and, in 1894, was nomi- 
nated and elected, as a Republican, to the 
Fifty-fourth Congress for the Thirteenth District, 
being re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898. In 
the Fifty-fifth Congress, Mr. Warner was a mem- 
ber of the Committees on Agriculture and Invalid 
Pensions, and Chairman of the Committee on 
Revision of the Laws. 

WARREN, a village in Jo Daviess County, at 
intersection of the Illinois Central and the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways, 26 miles 
west-northwest of Freeport and 27 miles east by 
north of Galena. The surrounding region is 
agricultural and stock-raising ; there are also lead 
mines in the vicinity. Tobacco is grown to some 
extent. Warren has a flouring mill, tin factory, 
creamery and stone quarries, a State bank, water 
supply from artesian wells, fire department, gas 
plant, two weekly newspapers, five churches, a 
high school, an academy and a public library. 
Pop. (1890), 1,172; (1900), 1,327. 

WARREN, Calvin A., lawyer, was born in 
Essex County, N. Y. , June 3, 1807 ; in his youth, 
worked for a time, as a typographer, in the office 
of "The Northern Spectator," at Poultney, Vt., 
side by side with Horace Greeley, afterwards the 
founder of "The New York Tribune." Later, he 
became one of the publishers of "The Palladium" 
at Ballston, N. Y., but, in 1832, removed to 
Hamilton County, Ohio, where he began the 
study of law, completing his course at Transyl- 
vania University, Ky., in 1834, and beginning 
practice at, Batavia, Ohio, as the partner of 

Thomas Morris, then a United States Senator 
from Ohio, whose daughter he married, thereby 
becoming the brother-in-law of the late Isaac N. 
Morris, of Quincy, 111. In 1836, Mr. Warren 
came to Quincy, Adams County, 111., but soon 
after removed to Warsaw in Hancock County, 
where he resided until 1839, when he returned to 
Quincy. Here he continued in practice, either 
alone or as a partner, at different times, of sev- 
eral of the leading attorneys of that city. 
Although he held no office except that of Master 
in Chancery, which he occupied for some sixteen 
years, the possession of an inexhaustible fund of 
humor, with strong practical sense and decided 
ability as a speaker, gave him great popularity 
at the bar and upon the stump, and made him a 
recognized leader in the ranks of the Democratic 
party, of which he was a life-long member. He 
served as Presidential Elector on the Pierce 
ticket in 1852, and was the nominee of his party 
for the same position on one or two other occa- 
sions. Died, at Quincy, Feb. 22, 1881. 

WARREN, Hooper, pioneer journalist, was 
born at Walpole, N. H., in 1790; learned the print- 
er's trade on the Rutland (Vt.) "Herald"; in 
1814 went to Delaware, whence, three years later, 
he emigrated to Kentucky, working for a time 
on a paper at Frankfort. In 1818 he came to St. 
Louis and worked in the office of the old "Mis- 
souri Gazette" (the predecessor of "The Repub- 
lican"), and also acted as the agent of a lumber 
company at Cairo, 111. , when the whole popula- 
tion of that place consisted of one family domi- 
ciled on a grounded flat-boat. In March, 1819, 
he established, at Edwardsville, the third paper 
in Illinois, its predecessors being "The Illinois 
Intelligencer," at Kaskaskia, and "The Illinois 
Emigrant," at Shawneetown. The name given 
to the new paper was "The Spectator," and the 
contest over the effort to introduce a pro-slavery 
clause in the State Constitution soon brought it 
into prominence. Backed by Governor Coles, 
Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Judge S. D. Lock- 
wood, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, Judge Wm. H. 
Brown (afterwards of Chicago), George Churchill 
and other opponents of slavery, "The Spectator" 
made a sturdy fight in opposition to the scheme, 
which ended in defeat of the measure by tha 
rejection at the polls, in 1824, of the proposition 
for a Constitutional Convention. Warren left 
the Ed%vardsville paper in 1825, and was, for a 
time, associated with "The National Crisis," an 
anti-slavery paper at Cincinnati, but soon re- 
turned to Illinois and established "The Sangamon 
Spectator" the first paper ever published at the 



present State capital. This he sold out in 1829, 
and, for the next three years, was connected 
with "The Advertiser and Upper Mississippi Her- 
ald," at Galena. Abandoning this field in 1832, 
he removed to Hennepin, where, within the next 
five years, he held the offices of Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit and County Commissioners' Courts and ex- 
officio Recorder of Deeds. In 1836 he began the 
publication of the third paper in Chicago "The 
Commercial Advertiser" (a weekly) which was 
continued a little more than a year, when it was 
abandoned, and he settled on a farm at Henry, 
Marshall County. His further newspaper ven- 
tures were, as the associate of Zebina Eastman, in 
the publication of "The Genius of Liberty," at 
Lowell, La Salle County, and "The Western 
Citizen" afterwards "The Free West" in Chi- 
cago. (See Eastman, Zebina, and Lundy, Ben- 
jamin.) On the discontinuance of "The Free 
West" in 1856, he again retired to his farm at 
Henry, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
While returning home from a visit to Chicago, 
in August, 1864, he was taken ill at Mendota, 
dying there on the 22d of the month. 

WARREN, John Esaias, diplomatist and real- 
estate operator, was born in Troy, N. Y., in 1826, 
graduated at Union College and was connected 
with the American Legation to Spain during the 
administration of President Pierce; in 1859-60 
was a member of the Minnesota Legislature and, 
in 1861-62, Mayor of St. Paul; in 1867, came to 
Chicago, where, while engaged in real-estate 
business, he became known to the press as the 
author of a series of articles entitled "Topics of 
the Time." In 1886 he took up his residence in 
Brussels, Belgium, where he died, July 6, 1896. 
Mr. Warren was author of several volumes of 
travel, of which "An Attache in Spain" and 
"Para" are most important. 

WARREN COUNTY. A western county, 
created by act of the Legislature, in 1825, but 
not fully organized until 1830, having at that time 
about 350 inhabitants ; has an area of 540 square 
miles, and was named for Gen. Joseph Warren. 
It is drained by the Henderson River and its 
affluents, and is traversed by the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy (two divisions), the Iowa 
Central and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroads. Bituminous coal is mined and lime- 
stone is quarried in large quantities. The county's 
early development was retarded in consequence 
of having become the "seat of war," during the 
Black Hawk War. The principal products are 
grain and live-stock, although manufacturing is 
carried on to some extent. The county -seat and 

chief city is Monmouth (which see). Roseville 
is a shipping point. Population (1880), 22,933. 
(1890), 21,281; (1900), 23,163; (1910), 23,313. 

WARREN, a village of Jo Daviess County on 
the 111. Cent, and the Chi., Mil. & St. Paul Rys.; 
lead is extensively mined in vicinity; has a large 
creamery and some factories. Pop. (1910), 1,331. 

WARSAW, a principal town in Hancock 
County, and admirably situated for trade. It 
stands on a bluff on the Mississippi River, some 
three miles below Keokuk, and about 40 miles 
above Quincy. It is the western terminus of the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway, and lies 116 
miles west-southwest of Peoria. Old Fort 
Edwards, established by Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
during the War of 1812, was located within the 
limits of the present city of Warsaw, opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines River. An iron 
foundry, a large woolen mill, a plow factory 
and cooperage works are its principal manufac- 
turing establishments. The channel of the Missis- 
sippi admits of the passage of the largest steamers 
up to this point. Warsaw has several churches, a 
system of common schools comprising one high 
and three grammar schools, a national bank and 
one weekly newspaper. Population (1880), 3,105; 
(1890), 2,721; (1900), 2,335; (1910), 2,254. 

WASHBURN, a village of Woodford County, on 
a branch of the Chicago & Alton Railway 25 miles 
northeast of Peoria; has banks and a weekly paper; 
the district is agricultural. Population (1890), 
598; (1900), 703; (1910), 777. 

WASHBURNE, Elihu Benjamin, Congressman 
and diplomatist, was born at Livermore, Maine, 
Sept. 23, 1816 ; in early life learned the trade of a 
printer, but graduated from Harvard Law School 
and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Coming 
west, he settled at Galena, forming a partnership 
with Charles S. Hempstead, for the practice of 
law, in 1841. He was a stalwart Whig, and, as 
such, was elected to Congress in 1852. He con- 
tinued to represent his District until 1869, taking 
a prominent position, as a Republican, on the 
organization of that party. On account of his 
long service he was known as the "Father of the 
House," administering the Speaker's oath three 
times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James G. 
Blaine. He was appointed Secretary of State by 
General Grant in 1869, but surrendered his port- 
folio to become Envoy to France, in which ca- 
pacity he achieved great distinction. He was the 
only official representative of a foreign govern- 
ment who remained in Paris, during the siege of 
that city by the Germans (1870-71) and the reign 
of the "Commune." For his conduct he was 



honored by the Governments of France and Ger- 
many alike. On his return to the United States, 
he made his home in Chicago, where he devoted 
his latter years chiefly to literary labor, and 
where he died, Oct. 22, 1887. He was strongly 
favored as a candidate for the Presidency in 1880. 

WASHINGTON, a city in Tazewell County, 
situated at the intersection of the Chicago & 
Alton, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroads. It is 21 
miles west of El Paso, and 12 miles east of Peoria. 
Carriages, plows and farming implements con- 
stitute the manufactured output. It is also an 
important shipping-point for farm products. It 
has electric light and water-works plants, eight 
churches, a graded school, two banks and two 
weekly papers. Pop. (1900), 1,459; (1910), 1,530. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY, an interior county of 
Southern Illinois, east of St. Louis; is drained by 
the Kaskaskia River and the Elkhorn, Beaucoup 
and Muddy Creeks; was organized in 1818, and 
has an area of 557 square miles. The surface is 
diversified, well watered and timbered. The soil 
is of variable fertility. Corn, wheat and oats 
are the chief agricultural products. Manufactur- 
ing is carried on to some extent, among the products 
being agricultural implements, flour, carriages 
and wagons. The most important town is Nash- 
ville, which is also the county-seat. Popula- 
tion (1900), 19,526; (1910), 18,759. Washing- 
ton was one of the fifteen counties into which 
Illinois was divided at the organization of the 
State Government, being one of the last three 
created during the Territorial period the other 
two being Franklin and Union. 

WATERTOWN, a village in Rock Island County, 
on the Mississippi, 5 miles east of Moline. The 
Illinois Western Hospital for the Insane, located 
here on an elevation a quarter of a mile from the 
river, is reached by a switch from the C., B. & Q. 
Ry. Pop. of the village (1910), 525. 

WEST CHICAGO, in Du Page County, on the 
C., B. & Q. and C. & N. W. Rys., 30 miles west of 
Chicago; has railroad repair shops, various manu- 
factures and two weekly papers. Pop. (1910), 2,378. 

WATERLOO, the county-seat and chief town 
of Monroe County, on the Illinois Division of the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 24 miles east of south 
from St. Louis. The region is chiefly agricultural, 
but underlaid with coal. Its industries embrace 
two flour mills, a plow factory, distillery, cream- 
ery, two ice plants, and some minor concerns. 
The city has municipal water and electric light 
plants, four churches, a graded school and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1900), 2,114; (1910), 2,091. 

WATERMAN, Arba Nelson, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Greensboro, Orleans County, Vt., 
Feb. 3, 1836. After receiving an academic edu- 
cation and teaching for a time, he read law at 
Montpelier and, later, passed through the Albany 
Law School. In 1861 he was admitted to the 
bar, removed to Joliet, 111., and opened an office. 
In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the One Hun- 
dredth Illinois Volunteers, serving with the 
Army of the Cumberland for two years, and 
being mustered out in August, 1864, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. On leaving the 
army, Colonel Waterman commenced practice in 
Chicago. In 1873-74 he represented the Eleventh 
Ward in the City Council. In 1887 he was elected 
to the bench of the Cook County Circuit Court, 
and was re-elected in 1891 and, again, in 1897. In 
1890 he was assigned as one of the Judges of the 
Appellate Court. 

WATSEKA, the county-seat of Iroquois County, 
situated on the Iroquois River, at the mouth of 
Sugar Creek, and at the intersection of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois and the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroads, 77 miles south of Chicago, 46 
miles north of Danville and 14 miles east of 
Gilman. It has flour-mills, brick and tile works 
and foundries, besides several churches, banks, a 
graded school and two weekly newspapers. Artesian 
well water is obtained by boring to the depth 
of 100 to 160 feet, and some 200 flowing streams 
from these shafts are within the city limits. Pop. 
(1890), 2,017; (1900), 2,505; (1910), 2,476. 

WATTS, Amos, jurist, was born in St. Clair 
County, 111., Oct. 25, 1821, but removed to Wash- 
ington County in boyhood, and was elected County 
Clerk in 1847, '49 and '53, and State's Attorney 
for the Second Judicial District in 1856 and '60; 
then became editor and proprietor of a news- 
paper, later resuming the practice of law, and, in 
1873, was elected Circuit Judge, remaining in 
office until his death, at Nashville, 111 Pec. 6, 

WAUKEGAN, the county-seat and principal 
city of Lake County, situated on the shore of 
Lake Michigan and on the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad, about 36 miles north by west 
from Chicago, and 50 miles south of Milwaukee; 
is also the northern terminus of the Elgin, Joliet 
& Eastern Railroad and connected by electric 
lines with Chicago and Fox Lake. Lake Michigan 
is about 80 miles wide opposite this point. 
Waukegan was first known as "Little Fort," 
from the remains of an old fort that stood on its 
site. The principal part of the city is built on a 
bluff, which rises abruptly to the height of about 



fifty feet. Between the bluff and the shore is a 
flat tract about 400 yards wide which is occupied 
by gardens, dwellings, warehouses and manu- 
factories. The manufactures include steel-wire, 
refined sugar, scales, agricultural implements, 
brass and iron products, sash, doors and blinds, 
leather, beer, etc. ; the city has paved streets, gas 
and electric light plants, three banks, eight or 
ten churches, graded and high schools and two 
daily and one weekly newspaper. A large trade in 
grain, lumber, coal and dairy products is carried 
on. Pop. (1900), 9,426; (1910), 16,069. 

WAY. (See Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway.) 

WAVERLY, a city in Morgan County, 18 miles 
southeast of Jacksonville, on the Jacksonville & 
St. Louis and the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis 
Railroads. It was originally settled by enter- 
prising emigrants from New England, whose 
descendants constitute a large proportion of the 
population. It is the center of a rich agricultural 
region, has a fine graded school, six or seven 
churches, two banks, one weekly newspaper; also 
brick and tile works, flour mills and elevators. 
Pop. (1890), 1,337; (1900), 1,573; (1910), 1,538. 

WAYNE, (Gen.) Anthony, soldier, was born in 
Chester County, Pa., Jan. 1, 1745, of Anglo-Irish 
descent, graduated as a Surveyor, and first prac- 
ticed his profession in Nova Scotia. During the 
years immediately antecedent to the Revolution 
he was prominent in the colonial councils of his 
native State, to which he had returned in 1767, 
where he became a member of the "Committee of 
Safety." On June 3, 1776, he was commissioned 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Pennsylvania 
troops in the Continental army, and, during the 
War of the Revolution, was conspicuous for his 
courage and ability as a leader. One of his most 
daring and successful achievements was the cap- 
ture of Stony Point, in 1779, when the works 
having been carried and Wayne having received, 
what was supposed to be, his death- wound he 
entered the fort, supported by his aids. For this 
service he was awarded a gold medal by Con- 
gress. He also took a conspicuous part in the 
investiture and capture of Yorktown. In October, 
1783, he was brevetted Major-General. In 1784 
he was elected to the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
A few years later he settled in Georgia, which 
State he represented in Congress for seven 
months, .when his seat was declared vacant after 
contest. In April, 1792, he was confirmed as 
General-in-Chief of the United States Army, on 
nomination of President Washington. His con- 
nection with Illinois history began shortly after 

St. Clair's defeat, when he led a force into Ohio 
(1783) and erected a stockade at Greenville, 
which he named Fort Recovery ; his object being 
to subdue the hostile savage tribes. In this he 
was eminently successful and, on August 3, 
1793, after a victorious campaign, negotiated the 
Treaty of Greenville, as broad in its provisions as 
it was far-reaching in its influence. He was a 
daring fighter, and although Washington called 
him "prudent," his dauntlessness earned for hira 
the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony." In matters of 
dress he was punctilious, and, on this account, 
he was sometimes dubbed "Dandy Wayne." He 
was one of the few white officers whom all the 
Western Indian tribes at once feared and re- 
spected. They named him "Black Snake" and 
"Tornado." He died at Presque Isle near Erie, 
Dec. 15, 1796. Thirteen years afterward hia 
remains were removed by one of his sons, and 
interred in Badnor churchyard, in his native 
county. The Pennsylvania Historical Society 
erected a marble monument over his grave, and 
appropriately dedicated it on July 4 of the same 

WAYNE COUNTY, in the southeast quarter of 
the State ; has an area of 720 square miles ; was 
organized in 1819, and named for Gen. Anthony 
Wayne. The county is watered and drained by 
the Little Wabash and its branches, notably the 
Skillet Fork. At the first election held in the 
county, only fifteen votes- were cast. Early life 
was exceedingly primitive, the first settlers 
pounding corn into meal with a wooden pestle, 
a hollowed stump being used as a mortar. Tlie 
first mill erected (of the antique South Carolina 
pattern) charged 25 cents per bushel for grinding. 
Prairie and woodland make up the surface, and 
the soil is fertile. Railroad facilities are furnished 
by the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis and the 
Baltimore & Ohio (Southwestern) Railroads. 
Corn, oats, tobacco, wheat, hay and wool are the 
chief agricultural products. Saw mills are numer- 
ous and there are also carriage and wagon facto- 
ries. Fan-field is the county-seat. Population 
(1890), 23,806; (1900), 27,626; (1910), 25,697. 

WEAS, THE, a branch of the Miami tribe of 
Indians. They called themselves "We-wee- 
hahs," and were spoken of by the French as "Oui- 
at-a-nons" and "Oui-as." Other corruptions of 
the name were common among the British and 
American colonists. In 1718 they had a village 
at Chicago, but abandoned it through fear of 
their hostile neighbors, the Chippewas and Potta- 
watomies. The Weas were, at one time, brave 
and warlike : but their numbers were reduced by 



constant warfare and disease, and, in the end, 
debauchery enervated and demoralized them. 
They were removed west of the Mississippi and 
given a reservation in Miami County, Kan. This 
they ultimately sold, and, under the leadership 
of Baptiste Peoria, united with their few remain- 
ing brethren of the Miamis and with the remnant 
of the Ill-i-ni under the title of the "confederated 
tribes," and settled in Indian Territory. (See also 
Miamis; Piankeshaws.) 

WEBB, Edwin B., early lawyer and politician, 
was born about 1802, came to the vicinity of 
Carmi, White County, 111., about 1828 to 1830, 
and, still later, studied law at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He held the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney of White County, and, in 1834, was 
elected to the lower branch of the General 
Assembly, serving, by successive re-elections, 
until 1842, and, in the Senate, from 1842 to '46. 
During his service in the House he was a col- 
league and political and personal friend of 
Abraham Lincoln. He opposed the internal 
improvement scheme of 1837, predicting many 
of the disasters which were actually realized a 
few years later. He was a candidate for Presi- 
dential Elector on the Whig ticket, in 1J344 and 
'48, and, in 1852, received the nomination for 
Governor as the opponent of Joel A. Matteson, 
two years later, being an unsuccessful candidate 
for Justice of the Supreme Court in opposition to 
Judge W. B. Scates. While practicing law at 
Carmi, he was also a partner of his brother in 
the mercantile business. Died, Oct. 14, 1858, in 
the 56th year of his age. 

WEBB, Henry Livingston, soldier and pioneer 
(an elder brother of James Watson Webb, a noted 
New York journalist), was born at Claverack, 
N. Y., Feb. 6, 1795; served as a soldier in the 
War of 1812, came to Southern Illinois in 1817, 
and became one of the founders of the town of 
America near the mouth of the Ohio ; was Repre- 
sentative in the Fourth and Eleventh General 
Assemblies, a Major in the Black Hawk War and 
Captain of volunteers and, afterwards, Colonel of 
regulars, in the Mexican War. In 1860 he went 
to Texas and served, for a time, in a semi-mili- 
tary capacity under the Confederate Govern- 
ment; returned to Illinois in 1869, and died, at 
Makanda, Oct. 5, 1876. 

WEBSTER, Fletcher, lawyer and soldier, was 
born at Portsmouth, N. H., July 23, 1813; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1833, and studied law with 
his father (Daniel Webster) ; in 1837, located at 
Peru, 111., where he practiced three years. His 
father having been appointed Secretary of State 

in 1841, the son became his private secretary, 
was also Secretary of Legation to Caleb Gushing 
(Minister to China) in 1843, a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1847, and Surveyor 
of the Port of Boston, 1850-61; the latter year 
became Colonel of the Twelfth Massachusetts 
Volunteers, and was killed in the second battle 
of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

WEBSTER, Joseph Dana, civil engineer and 
soldier, was born at Old Hampton, N. H., 
August 25, 1811. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1832, and afterwards read 
law at Newburyport, Mass. His natural incli- 
nation was for engineering, and, after serv- 
ing for a time in the Engineer and War offices, 
at Washington, was made a United States civil 
engineer (1835) and, on July 7, 1838, entered the 
army as Second Lieutenant of Topographical 
Engineers. He served through the Mexican 
War, was made First Lieutenant in 1849, and 
promoted to a captaincy, in March, 1853. Thir- 
teen months later he resigned, removing to Chi- 
cago, where he made his permanent home, and 
soon after was identified, for a time, with the 
proprietorship of "The Chicago Tribune." He 
was President of the commission that perfected 
the Chicago sewerage system, and designed and 
executed the raising of the grade of a large por- 
tion of the city from two to eight feet, whole 
blocks of buildings being raiaed by jack screws, 
while new foundations were inserted. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War he tendered his serv- 
ices to the Government and superintended the 
erection of the fortifications at Cairo, 111., and 
Paducah, Ky. On April 7, 1861, he was com- 
missioned Paymaster of Volunteers, with the 
rank of Major, and, in February, 1862, Colonel of 
the First Illinois Artillery. For several months 
he was chief of General Grant's staff, participat- 
ing in the capture of Forts Donelson and Henry, 
and in the battle of Shiloh, in the latter as Chief 
of Artillery. In October, 1862, the War Depart- 
ment detailed him to make a survey of the Illi- 
nois & Michigan Canal, and, the following month, 
he was commissioned Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, serving as Military Governor of Mem- 
phis and Superintendent of military railroads. 
He was again chief of staff to General Grant 
during the Vicksburg campaign, and, from 1864 
until the close of the war, occupied the same 
relation to General Sherman. He was brevetted 
Major-General of Volunteers, March 13, 1865, but, 
resigning Nov. 6, following, returned to Chicago, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. From 
1869 to 1872 he was Assessor of Internal Revenue 



there, and, later, Assistant United States Treas- 
urer, and, in July, 1872, was appointed Collector 
of Internal Revenue. Died, at Chicago, March 
12, 1876. 

WELCH, William JR., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Jessamine County, Ky., Jan. 22, 1828, 
educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, 
graduating from the academic department in 
1847, and, from the law school, in 1851. In 1864 he 
removed to Carlinville, Macoupin County, 111., 
which place he made his permanent home. In 
1877 he was elected to the bench of the Fifth 
Circuit, and re-elected in 1879 and '85. In 1884 
he was assigned to the bench of the Appellate 
Court for the Second District. Died, Sept. 1, 

WELDOJf, Lawrence, one of the Judges of the 
United States Court of Claims, Washington, 
D. C., was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, in 
1829 ; while a child, removed with his parents to 
Madison County, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools, the local academy and at Wittenberg 
College, Springfield, in the same State ; read law 
with Hon. R. A. Harrison, a prominent member 
of the Ohio bar, and was admitted to practice in 
1854, meanwhile, in 1852-53, having served as a 
clerk in the office of the Secretary of State at 
Columbus. In 1854 he removed to Illinois, locat- 
ing at Clinton, DeWitt County, where he engaged 
in practice; in 1860 was elected a Representative 
in the Twenty-second General Assembly, was 
also chosen a Presidential Elector the same year, 
and assisted in the first election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency. Early in 1861 he 
resigned his seat in the Legislature to accept the 
position of United States District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois, tendered him by 
President Lincoln, but resigned the latter office 
in 1866 and, the following year, removed to 
Bloomington, where he continued the practice of 
his profession until 1883, when he was appointed, 
by President Arthur, an Associate Justice of the 
United States Court of Claims at Washington 
a position which he occupied until his death. 
Judge Weldon was among the last of those who 
rode the circuit and practiced law with Mr. Lin- 
coln. From the time of coming to the State in 
1854 to 1860, he was one of Mr. Lincoln's most 
intimate traveling companions in the old 
Eighth Circuit, which extended from Sangamon 
County on the west to Vermilion on the east, and 
of which Judge David Davte, afterwards of the 
Supreme Court of the United States and United 
States Senator, was the presiding Justice. The 
Judge held in his memory many pleasant remi- 

niscences of that day, especially of the eastern 
portion of the District, where he was accustomed 
to meet the late Senator Voorhees, Senator Mc- 
Donald and other leading lawyers of Indiana, as 
well as the historic men whom he met at the 
State capital. Died April 10, 1905. 

WELLS, Albert W., lawyer and legislator, was 
born at Woodstock, Conn., May 9, 1839, and 
enjoyed only such educational and other advan- 
tages as belonged to the average New England 
boy of that period. During his boyhood his 
family removed to New Jersey, where he attended 
an academy, later, graduating from Columbia 
College and Law School in New York City, and 
began practice with State Senator Robert Allen 
at Red Bank, N. J. During the Civil War he 
enlisted in a New Jersey regiment and took part 
in the battle of Gettysburg, resuming his profes- 
sion at the close of the war. Coming west in 
1870, he settled in Quincy, 111., where he con- 
tinued practice. In 1886 he was elected to the 
House of Representatives from Adams County, 
as a Democrat, and re-elected two years later. 
In 1890 he was advanced to the Senate, where, 
by re-election in 1894, he served continuously 
until his death in office, March 5, 1897. His 
abilities and long service covering the sessions 
of the Thirty -fifth to the Fortieth General Assem- 
blies placed him at the head of the Democratic 
side of the Senate during the latter part of his 
legislative career. 

WELLS, William, soldier and victim of the 
Fort Dearborn massacre, was born in Kentucky, 
about 1770. When a boy of 12, he was captured 
by the Miami Indians, whose chief, Little Turtle, 
adopted him, giving him his daughter in mar- 
riage when he grew to manhood. He was highly 
esteemed by the tribe as a warrior, and, in 1790, 
was present at the battle where Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair was defeated. He then realized that he 
was fighting against his own race, and informed 
his father-in-law that he intended to ally himself 
with the whites. Leaving the Miamis, he made 
his way to General Wayne, who made him Cap- 
tain of a company of scouts. After the treaty of 
Greenville (1795) he settled on a farm near Fort 
Wayne, where he was joined by his Indian wife. 
Here he acted as Indian Agent and Justice of the 
Peace. In 1812 he learned of the contemplated 
evacuation of Fort Dearborn, and, at the head of 
thirty Miamis, he set out for the post, his inten- 
tion being to furnish a body-guard to the non- 
combatants on their proposed march to Fort. 
Wayne. On August 13, he marched out of the 
fort with fifteen of his dusky warriors behind 



him, the remainder bringing up the rear. Before 
a mile and a half had been traveled, the party fell 
into an Indian ambuscade, and an indiscrimi- 
nate massacre followed. (See Fort Dearborn.) 
The Miamis fled, and Captain Wells' body was 
riddled with bullets, his head cut off and his 
heart taken out. He was an uncle of Mrs. Heald, 
wife of the commander of Fort Dearborn. 

WELLS, William Harvey, educator, was born 
in Tolland, Conn., Feb. 27, 1812; lived on a farm 
until 17 years old, attending school irregularly, 
but made such progress that he became succes- 
sively a teacher in the Teachers' Seminary at 
Andover and Newburyport, and, finally, Principal 
of the State Normal School at Westfield, Mass. 
In 1856 he accepted the position of Superintend- 
ent of Public Schools for the city of Chicago, 
serving till 1864, when he resigned. He was an 
organizer of the Massachusetts State Teachers' 
Association, one of the first editors of "The 
Massachusetts Teacher" and prominently con- 
nected with various benevolent, educational and 
learned societies ; was also author of several text- 
books, and assisted in the revision of "Webster's 
Unabridged Dictionary." Died, Jan. 21, 1885. 

WENONA, city on the eastern border of Mar- 
shall County, 20 miles south of La Salle, has 
zinc works, public and parochial schools, a 
weekly paper, two banks, and five churches. A 
good quality of soft coal is mined here. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,053; (1900), 1,486; (1910), 1,442. 

WENTWORTH, John, early journalist and 
Congressman, was born at Sandwich, N. H., 
March 5, 1815, graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1836, and came to Chicago the same year, 
where he became editor of "The Chicago Demo- 
crat," which had been established by John Cal- 
houn three years previous. He soon after became 
proprietor of "The Democrat," of which he con- 
tinued to be the publisher until it was merged 
into "The Chicago Tribune," July 24, 1864. He 
also studied law, and was admitted to the Illinois 
bar in 1841. He served in Congress as a Demo- 
crat from 1843 to 1851, and again from 1853 to 
1855, but left the Democratic party on the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise. He was elected 
Mayor of Chicago in 1857, and again in 1860, 
during his incumbency introducing a number of 
important municipal reforms ; was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and twice 
served on the Board of Education. He again 
represented Illinois in Congress as a Republican 
from 1865 to 1867 making fourteen years of 
service in that body. In 1872 he joined in the 
Greeley movement, but later renewed his alle- 

giance to the Republican party. In 187i, tfr. Went- 
worth published an elaborate genealogical work 
in three volumes, entitled "History of the Went- 
worth Family." A volume of "Congressional 
Reminiscences" and two by him on "Early Chi- 
cago,'' published in connection with the Fergus 
Historical Series, contain some valuable informa- 
tion on early local and national history. On 
account of his extraordinary height he received 
the sobriquet of "Long John," by which he was 
familiarly known throughout the State. Died, 
in Chicago, Oct. 16, 1888. 

WEST, Edward M., merchant 'and banker, was 
born in Virginia, May 2, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1818 ; in 1829 became a clerk 
in the Recorder's office at Edwardsville, also 
served as deputy postmaster, and, in 1833, took a 
position in the United States Land Office there. 
Two years later he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, which he prosecuted over thirty years 
meanwhile filling the office of County Treasurer, 
ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, and Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 1867, 
in conjunction with W. R. Prickett, he established 
a bank at Edwardsville, with which he was con- 
nected until his death, Oct. 31, 1887. Mr. West 
officiated frequently as a "local preacher" of the 
Methodist Church, in which capacity he showed 
much ability as a public speaker. 

WEST, Mary Allen, educator and philanthro- 
pist, was born at Galesburg, 111., July 31, 1837; 
graduated at Knox Seminary in 1854 and taught 
until 1873, when she was elected County Super- 
intendent of Schools, serving nine years. She 
took an active and influential interest in educa- 
tional and reformatory movements, was for two 
years editor of "Our Home Monthly," in Phila- 
delphia, and also a contributor to other journals, 
besides being editor-in-chief of "The Union Sig- 
nal," Chicago, the organ of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union in which she held the 
position of President ; was also President, in the 
latter days of her life, of the Illinois Woman's 
Press Association of Chicago, that city having 
become her home in 1885. In 1892, Miss West 
started on a tour of the world for the benefit of 
her health, but died at Tokio, Japan, Dec. 1, 1892. 
an institution for the treatment of the insane, 
located at Watertown, Rock Island County, in 
accordance with an act of the General Assembly, 
approved, May 22, 1895. The Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly made an appropriation of $100,000 
for the erection of fire-proof buildings, while 
Rock Island County donated a tract of 400 acres 



of land valued at $40, 000. The site selected by the 
Commissioners, is a commanding one overlooking 
the Mississippi River, eight miles above Eock 
Island, and five and a half miles from Moline, and 
the buildings are of the most modern style of con- 
struction. Watertown is reached by two lines of 
railroad the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy besides the 
Mississippi River. The erection of buildings was 
begun in 1896, and they were opened for the 
reception of patients in 1898. They have a ca- 
pacity for 800 patients. 

tution located at Tipper Alton, Madison County, 
incorporated in 1892; has a faculty of eight mem- 
bers and reports eighty pupils for 1897-98, with 
property valued at $70,000. The institution gives 
instruction in literary and scientific branches, 
besides preparatory and business courses. 

Bushnell, McDonough County; incorporated in 
1888. It is co-educational, has a corps of twelve 
instructors and reported 500 pupils for 1897-98, 
800 males and 200 females. 

WESTERN SPRINGS, a village of Cook 
County, and residence suburb of the city of Chi- 
cago, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, 15 miles west of the initial station. 
Pop. (1900), 662; (1910), 905. 

located in Chicago and controlled by the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. It was founded in 1883 
through the munificence of Dr. Tolman Wheeler, 
and was opened for students two years later. It 
has two buildings, of a superior order of archi- 
tecture one including the school and lecture 
rooms and the other a dormitory. A hospital 
and gymnasium are attached to the latter, and a 
school for boys is conducted on the first floor of 
the main building, which is known as Wheeler 
Hall. The institution is under the general super- 
vision of Rt. Rev. William E. McLaren, Protes- 
tant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Illinois. 

WESTFIELD, village of Clark County, on Cin., 
Ham. & Dayton R. R., 10 m. s.-e. of Charleston ; 
seat of Westfield College; has a bank, five 
churches and one newspaper. Pop. (1910), 927. 

WEST SALEM, a town of Edwards County, on 
the Peoria-Evansville Div. 111. Cent. R. R., 12 
miles northeast of Albion; has a bank and a weekly 
paper. Pop. (1900), 700; (1910), 725. 

WETHERELL, Emma Abbott, vocalist, was 
born in Chicago, Dc. 9, 1849; in her childhood 
attracted attention while singing with her father 
(a poor musician) in hotels and on the streets in 

Chicago, Peoria and elsewhere; at 18 years of 
age, went to New York to study, earning her way 
by giving concerts en route, and receiving aid 
and encouragement from Clara Louisa Kellogg; 
in New York was patronized by Henry Ward 
Beecher and others, and aided in securing the 
training of European masters. Compelled to sur- 
mount many obstacles from poverty and other 
causes, her after success in her profession was 
phenomenal. Died, during a professional tour, 
at Salt Lake City, Jan. 5, 1891. Miss Abbott 
married her manager, Eugene Wetherell, who 
died before her. 

WHEATON, a city and the county-seat of Du 
Page County, situated on the Chicago & North- 
western Railway, 25 miles west of Chicago. Agri- 
culture and stock-raising are the chief industries 
in the surrounding region. The city owns a new 
water- works plant (costing 60,000) and has a 
public library valued at $75,000, the gift of a 
resident, Mr. John Quincy'Adams ; has a court 
house, electric light plant, sewerage and drainage 
system, seven churches, three graded schools, 
two weekly newspapers and a State bank. Wheaton 
is the seat of Wheaton College (which see). Popu- 
lation (1880), 1,160; (1890), 1,622; (1900), 2,345; 
(1910), 3,423. 

WHEATON COLLEGE, an educational insti- 
tution located at Wheaton, Du Page County, and 
under Congregational control. It was founded 
in 1853, as the Illinois Institute, and was char- 
tered under its present name in 1860. Its early 
existence was one of struggle, but of late years it 
has been established on a better foundation, in 
1898 having $54, 000 invested in productive funds, 
and property aggregating $136,000. The faculty 
comprises fifteen professors, and, in 1898, there 
were 321 students in attendance. It is co-edu- 
cational and instruction is given in business and 
preparatory studies, as well as the fine arts, 
music and classical literature. 

WHEELER, David Hilton,D.D., LL.D., clergy- 
man, was born at Ithaca, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1829; 
graduated at Rock River Seminary, Mount 
Morris, in 1851; edited "The Carroll County 
Republican" and held a professorship in Cornell 
College, Iowa, (1857-61) ; was United States Con- 
sul at Geneva, Switzerland, (1861-66) ; Professor of 
English Literature in Northwestern University 
(1867-75); edited "The Methodist" in New York, 
seven years, and was President of Allegheny 
College (1883-87); received the degree of D.D. 
from Cornell College in 1867, and that of LL.D. 
from the Northwestern University in 1881. He 
is the author of "Brigandage in South Italy" 



(two volumes, 1864) and "By- Ways of Literature" 
(1883), besides some translations. 

WHEELER, Hamilton K., ex-Congressman, 
was born at Ballston, N. Y., August 5, 1848, but 
emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1852; 
remained on a farm until 19 years of age, his 
educational advantages being limited to three 
months' attendance upon a district school each 
year. In 1871, he was admitted to the bar at 
Kankakee, where he has since continued to prac- 
tice. In 1884 he was elected to represent the Six- 
teenth District in the State Senate, where he 
served on many important committees, being 
Chairman of that on the Judicial Department. 
In 1892 he was elected Representative in Con- 
gress from the Ninth Illinois District, on the 
Republican ticket. 

WESTVILLE, a village of Vermilion County, on 
the C. & E. I. and "Big Four" Rys., 8 miles north 
of Danville; a coal mining region. Pop. (1910), 3,607. 

WHISTLER, (Maj.) John, soldier and builder 
of the first Fort Dearborn, was born in Ulster, Ire- 
land, about 1756 ; served under Burgoyne in the 
Revolution, and was with the force surrendered 
by that officer at Saratoga, in 1777. After the 
peace he returned to the United States, settled at 
Hagerstown, Md., and entered the United States 
Army, serving at first in the ranks and being 
severely wounded in the disastrous Indian cam- 
paigns of 1791. Later, he was promoted to a 
captaincy and, in the summer of 1803, sent with 
his company, to the head of Lake Michigan, 
where he constructed the first Fort Dearborn 
within the limits of the present city of Chicago, 
remaining in command until 1811, when he was 
succeeded by Captain Heald. He received the 
brevet rank of Major, in 1815 was appointed 
military store-keeper at Newport, Ky., and after- 
wards at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, 
where he died, Sept. 3, 1829. Lieut. William 
Whistler, his son, who was with his father, for a 
time, in old Fort Dearborn but transferred, in 
1809, to Fort Wayne was of the force included 
in Hull's surrender at Detroit in 1812. After 
his exchange he was promoted to a captaincy, to 
the rank of Major in 1826 and to a Lieutenant-Colo- 
nelcy in 1845, dying at Newport, Ky., in 1863. 
James Abbott McNiel Whistler, the celebrated, 
but eccentric artist of that name, is a grandson 
of the first Major Whistler. 

WHITE, George E., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Massachusetts in 1848 ; after graduating, at the 
age of IB, he enlisted as a private in the Fifty- 
seventh Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers, serv- 
ing under General Grant in the campaign 

against Richmond from the battle of the Wilder- 
ness until the surrender of Lee. Having taken a 
course in a commercial college at Worcester, 
Mass., in 1867 he came to Chicago, securing em- 
ployment in a lumber yard, but a year later 
began business on his own account, which he has 
successfully conducted. In 1878 he was elected 
to the State Senate, as a Republican, from one of 
the Chicago Districts, and re-elected four years 
later, serving in that body eight years. He 
declined a nomination for Congress in 1884, but 
accepted in 1894, and was elected for the Fifth 
District, as he was again in 1896, but was 
defeated, in 1898, by Edward T. Noonan, Demo- 

WHITE, Horace, journalist, was born at Cole- 
brook, N. H., August 10, 1834; in 1853 graduated 
at Beloit College, Wis., whither his father had 
removed in 1837 ; engaged in journalism as city 
editor of "The Chicago Evening Journal," later 
becoming agent of the Associated Press, and, in 
1857, an editorial writer on "The Chicago Trib- 
une," during a part of the war acting as its 
Washington correspondent. He also served, in 
1856, as' Assistant Secretary of the Kansas 
National Committee, and, later, as Secretary of 
the Republican State Central Committee. In 
1864 he purchased an interest in "The Tribune," 
a year or so later becoming editor-in-chief, but 
retired in October, 1874. After a protracted 
European tour, he united with Carl Schurz and 
E. L. Godkin of "The Nation," in the purchase 
and reorganization of "The New York Evening 
Post," of which he is now editor-in-chief. 

WHITE, Julias, soldier, was born in Cazen- 
ovia, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1816; removed to Illinois 
in 1836, residing there and in Wisconsin, where 
he was a member of the Legislature of. 1849; in 
1861 was made Collector of Customs at Chicago, 
but resigned to assume the colonelcy of the 
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, which he 
commanded on the Fremont expedition to South- 
west Missouri. He afterwards served with Gen- 
eral Curtiss in Arkansas, participated in the 
battle of Pea Ridge and was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. He was subsequently 
assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah, 
but finding his position at Martinsburg, W. Va., 
untenable, retired to Harper's Ferry, voluntarily 
serving under Colonel Miles, his inferior in com- 
mand. When this post was surrendered (Sept. 
15, 1862), he was made a prisoner, but released 
under parole ; was tried by a court of inquiry at 
his own request, and acquitted, the court finding 
that he had acted with courage and capability 



He resigned in 1864, and, in March, 1865, was 
brevetted Major-General of Volunteers. Died, 
at Evanston, May 12, 1890. 

WHITE COUNTY, situated in the southeastern 
quarter of the State, and bounded on the east by 
the Wabash River; was organized in 1816, being 
the tenth county organized during the Territorial 
period: area, 500 square miles. The county is 
crossed by three railroads and drained by the 
Wabash and Little Wabash Rivers. The surface 
consists of prairie and woodland, and the soil is, 
for the most part, highly productive. The princi- 
pal agricultural products are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, fruit, butter, sorghum and 
wool. The principal industrial establishments 
are carriage factories, saw mills and flour mills. 
Carmi is the county-seat. Other towns are En- 
field, Grayville and Norris City. Population 
(1890), 25,005; (1900), 25,386; (1910), 23,052. 

WHITEHALL, a city in Greene County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago & Alton and the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroads, 65 miles 
north of St. Louis and 24 miles south-southwest 
of Jacksonville; in rich farming region; has 
stoneware and sewer-pipe factories, foundry and 
machine shop, flour mill, elevators, wagon shops, 
creamery, water system, sanitarium, heating, 
electric light and power system, nurseries and 
fruit-supply houses, and two poultry packing 
houses: also has five churches, a graded school, 
two banks and two newspapers one issuing daily 
edition. Pop. (1900), 2,030; (1910), 2,854. 

WHITEHOUSE, Henry John, Protestant Epis- 
copal Bishop, was born in New York City, August 
19, 1803; graduated from Columbia College in 
1821, and from the (New York) General Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1824. After ordination he was 
rector of various parishes in Pennsylvania and 
New York until 1851, when he was chosen Assist- 
ant Bishop of Illinois, succeeding Bishop Chase 
in 1852. In 1867, by invitation of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, he delivered the opening sermon 
before the Pan-Anglican Conference held in 
England. During this visit he received the 
degree of D.D. from Oxford University, and that 
of LL.D. from Cambridge. His rigid views as a 
churchman and a disciplinarian, were illustrated 
in his prosecution of Rev. Charles Edward 
Cheney, which resulted in the formation of the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He was a brilliant 
orator and a trenchant and unyielding controver- 
sialist. Died, in Chicago, August 10, 1874. 

WHITESIDE COUNTY, in the northwestern 
portion of the State bordering on the Mississippi 
River ; created by act of the Legislature passed in 

1836, and named for Capt. Samuel Whiteside, a 
noted Indian fighter ; area, 676 square miles. The 
surface is level, diversified by prairies and wood- 
land, and the soil is extremely fertile. The 
county-seat was first fixed at Lyndon, then at 
Sterling, and finally at Morrison, its present 
location. The Rock River crosses the county 
and furnishes abundant water power for numer- 
ous factories, turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages and wagons, furniture, woolen 
goods, ftour and wrapping paper. There are also 
distilling and brewing interests, besides saw and 
planing mills. Corn is the staple agricultural 
product, although all the leading cereals are 
extensively grown. The principal towns are 
Morrison, Sterling, Fulton and Rock Falls. Popu- 
lation (1890), 30,854; (1900), 34,710; (1910), 34,507. 
WHITESIDE, William, pioneer and soldier of 
the Revolution, emigrated from the frontier of 
North Carolina to Kentucky, and thence, in 1793, 
to the present limits of Monroe County, 111., 
erecting a fort between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
which became widely known as "Whiteside 
Station." He served as a Justice of the Peace, 
and was active in organizing the militia during 
the War of 1812-14, dying at the old Station in 
1815. John (Whiteside), a brother of the preced- 
ing, and also a Revolutionary soldier, came to 
Illinois at the same time, as also did William B. 
and Samuel, sons of the two brothers, respec- 
tively. All of them became famous as Indian 
fighters. The two latter served as Captains of 
companies of "Rangers"' in the War of 1812, 
Samuel taking part in the battle of Rock Island 
in 1814, and contributing greatly to the success 
of the day. During the Black Hawk War (1832) 
lie attained the rank of Brigadier-General. 
Whiteside County was named in his honor. He 
made one of the earliest improvements in Ridge 
Prairie, a rich section of Madison County, and 
represented that county in the First General 
Assembly. William B. served as Sheriff of Madi- 
son County for a number of years. John D. 
(Whiteside), another member of this historic 
family, became very prominent, serving in the 
lower House of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and 
Fourteenth General Assemblies, and in the Sen- 
ate of the Tenth, from Monroe County ; was a 
Presidential Elector in 1836, State Treasurer 
(1837-41) and a member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847. General Whiteside, as 
he was known, was the second of James Shields 
in the famous Shields and Lincoln duel (so-called) 
in 1842, and, as such, carried the challenge of the 
former to Mr. Lincoln. (See Duels. ) 



WHITING, Lorenzo D., legislator, was born 
in Wayne County, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1819; came to 
Illinois in 1838, but did not settle there perma- 
nently until 1849, when he located in Bureau 
County. He was a Representative from that 
county in the Twenty-sixth General Assembly 
(1869), and a member of the Senate continuously 
from 1871 to 1887, serving in the latter through 
eight General Assemblies. Died at his home 
near Tiskilwa, Bureau County, 111., Oct. 10, 

WHITING, Richard H., Congressman, was 
born at West Hartford, Conn., June 17, 1826, and 
received a common school education. In 1862 he 
was commissioned Paymaster in the Volunteer 
Army of the Union, and resigned in 1866. Hav- 
ing removed to Illinois, he was appointed Assist- 
ant Assessor of Internal Eevenue for the Fifth 
Illinois District, in February; 1870, and so contin- 
ued until the abolition of the office in 1873. On 
retiring from the Assessorship he was appointed 
Collector of Internal Revenue, and served until 
March 4, 1875, when he resigned to take his seat 
as Republican Representative in Congress from 
the Peoria District, to which he had been elected 
in November, 1874. After the expiration of his 
term he held no public office, but was a member 
of the Republican National Convention of 1884. 
Died, at the Continental Hotel, in New York 
City, May 24, 1888. 

WHITNEY, James W., pioneer lawyer and 
early teacher, known by the nickname of "Lord 
Coke"; came to Illinois in Territorial days (be- 
lieved to have been about 1800) ; resided for some 
time at or near Edwardsville, then became a 
teacher at Atlas, Pike County, and, still later, the 
first Circuit and County Clerk of that county. 
Though nominally a lawyer, he had little if any 
practice. He acquired the title, by which he was 
popularly known for a quarter of a century, by 
his custom of visiting the State Capital, during 
the sessions of the General Assembly, when 
he would organize the lobbyists and visit- 
ors about the capital of which there were an 
unusual number in those days into what was 
called the "Third House." Having been regu- 
larly chosen to preside under the name of 
"Speaker of the Lobby," he would deliver a mes- 
sage full of practical hits and jokes, aimed at 
members of the two houses and others, which 
would be received with cheers and "laughter. 
The meetings of the "Third House," being held 
in the evening, were attended by many members 
and visitors in lieu of other forms of entertain- 
ment. Mr. Whitney's home, in his latter years, 

was at Pittsfield. He resided for a time at 
Quincy. Died, Dec. 13, 1860, aged over 80 years. 

WHITTEMORE, Floyd K., State Treasurer, is 
a native of New York, came at an early age, with 
his parents, to Sycamore, 111., where he was edu- 
cated in the high school there. He purposed 
becoming a lawyer, but, on the election of the 
late James H. Beveridge State Treasurer, in 1864, 
accepted the position of clerk in the office. 
Later, he was employed as a clerk in the banking 
house of Jacob Bunn in Springfield, and, on the 
organization of the State National Bank, was 
chosen cashier of that Institution, retaining the 
position some twenty years. After the appoint- 
ment of Hon. John R. Tanner to the position of 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States, at Chi- 
cago, in 1892, Mr. Whittemore became cashier in 
that office, and, in 1865, Assistant State Treas- 
rure under the administration of State Treasurer 
Henry Wulff. In 1898 he was elected State 
Treasurer, receiving a plurality of 43,450 over 
his Democratic opponent. Died March 4, 1907. 

WICKERSHAM, (Col.) Dudley, soldier and 
merchant, was born in Woodford County, Ky., 
Nov. 22, 1819; came to Springfield, 111., in 1843, 
and served as a member of the Fourth Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers (Col. E. D. Baker's) through 
the Mexican War. On the return of peace he 
engaged in the dry-goods trade in Springfield, 
until 1861, when he enlisted in the Tenth Regi- 
ment Illinois Cavalry, serving, first as Lieutenant- 
Colonel and then as Colonel, until May, 1864, 
when, his regiment having been consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, he resigned. After 
the war, he held the office of Assessor of Internal 
Revenue for several years, after which he en- 
gaged in the grocery trade. Died, in Springfield, 
August 8, 1898. 

WIDEN, Raphael, pioneer and early legislator, 
was a native of Sweden, who, having been taken 
to France at eight years of age, was educated for 
a Catholic priest. Coming to the United States 
in 1815, he was at Cahokia, 111., in 1818, where, 
during the same year, he married into a French 
family of that place. He served in the House of 
Representatives from Randolph County, in the 
Second and Third General Assemblies (1820-24), 
and as Senator in the Fourth and Fifth (1824-28). 
During his last term in the House, he was one of 
those who voted against the pro-slavery Con- 
vention resolution. He died of cholera, at Kas- 
kaskia, in 1833. 

WIKE, Scott, lawyer and ex-Congressman, was 
born at Meadville, Pa., April 6, 1834; at 4 years 
of age removed with his parents to Quincy, 111., 



and, in 1844, to Pike County. Having graduated 
from Lombard University, Galesburg, in 1857, he 
began reading law with Judge O. C. Skinner of 
Quincy. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, 
but, before commencing practice, spent a year at 
Harvard Law School, graduating there in 1859. 
Immediately thereafter he opened an pfiBce at 
Pittsfield, 111., and has resided there ever since. 
In politics he has always been a strong Democrat. 
He served two terms in the Legislature (1863-67) 
and, in 1874, was chosen Representative from his 
District in Congress, being re-elected in 1888 and, 
again, in 1890. In 1893 he was appointed by 
President Cleveland Third Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury, which position he continued 
to fill until March, 1897, when he resumed the 
practice of law at Pittsfield. Died Jan.' 15, 1901. 
WILEY, (Col.) Benjamin Ladd, soldier, was 
born in Smithfield, Jefferson County, Ohio, 
March 25, 1821, came to Illinois in 1845 and began 
life at Vienna, Johnson County, as a teacher. 
In 1846 he enlisted for the Mexican War, as a 
member of the Fifth (Colonel Newby's) Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers, serving chiefly in New 
Mexico until mustered out in 1848. A year later 
he removed to Jonesboro, where he spent some 
time at the carpenter's trade, after which he 
became clerk in a store, meanwhile assisting to 
edit "The Jonesboro Gazette" until 1853; then 
became traveling salesman for a St. Louis firm, 
but later engaged in the hardware trade at 
Jonesboro, in which he continued for several 
years. In 1856 he was the Republican candidate 
for Congress for the Ninth District, receiving 
4,000 votes, while Fremont, the Republican can- 
didate for President, received only 825 in the 
same district. In 1857 he opened a real estate 
office in Jonesboro in conjunction with David L. 
Phillips and Col. J. W. Ashley, with which he 
was connected until 1860, when he removed to 
Makanda, Jackson County. In September, 1861, 
he was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, later serving in Missouri 
and Arkansas under Generals Steele and Curtiss, 
being, a part of the time, in command of the First 
Brigade of Cavalry, and, in the advance on Vicks- 
burg, having command of the right wing of 
General Grant's cavalry. Being disabled by 
rheumatism at the end of the siege, he tendered 
his resignation, and was immediately appointed 
Enrolling Officer at Cairo, serving in this capac- 
ity until May, 1865, when he was mustered out. 
In 1869 he was appointed by Governor Palmer 
one of the Commissioners to locate the Southern 
Illinois Hospital for the Insane, and served as 

Secretary of the Board until the institution wag 
opened at Anna, in May, 1871. In 1869 he was 
defeated as a candidate for County Judge of 
Jackson County, and, in 1872, for the State Sen- 
ate, by a small majority in a strongly Democratic 
District; in 1876 was the Republican candidate 
for Congress, in the Eighteenth District, against 
William Hartzell, but was defeated by only 
twenty votes, while carrying six out of the ten 
counties comprising the District. In the latter 
years of his life, Colonel Wiley was engaged quite 
extensively in fruit-growing at Makanda, Jack- 
son County, where he died, March 22, 1890. 

WILKIE, Franc Bangs, journalist, was born 
in Saratoga County, N. Y., July 2, 1830; took a 
partial course at Union College, after which he 
edited papers at Schenectady, N. Y., Elgin, 111., 
and Davenport and Dubuque, Iowa ; also serving, 
during a part of the Civil War, as the western 
war correspondent of "The New York Times." 
In 1863 he became an editorial writer on "The 
Chicago Times," remaining with that paper, 
with the exception of a brief interval, until 1888 
a part of the time as its European correspond- 
ent. He was the author of a series of sketches 
over the nom de plume of "Poliuto," and of a 
volume of reminiscences under the title, 
"Thirty-five Years of Journalism," published 
shortly before his death, which took place, April 
12, 1892. 

WILKIJf, Jacob W., Justice of the Supreme 
Court, was born in Licking County, Ohio, June 
7, 1837 ; removed with his parents to Illinois, at 
12 years of age, and was educated at McKendree 
College ; served three years in the War for the 
Union; studied law with Judge Scholfield and 
was admitted to the bar in 1866. In 1872, he was 
chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican 
ticket, and, in 1879, elected Judge of the Circuit 
Court and re-elected in 1885 the latter year 
being assigned to the Appellate bench for the 
Fourth District, where he remained until his 
election to the Supreme bench in 1888, being 
re-elected to the latter office in 1897. His home 
was at Danville. Died April 3, 1907. 

WILKINSON, Ira 0., lawyer and Judge, was 
born in Virginia in 1822, and accompanied his 
father to Jacksonville (1835), where he was edu- 
cated. During a short service as Deputy Clerk of 
Morgan County, he conceived a fondness for the 
profession of the law, and, after a course of study 
under Judge William Thomas, was admitted to 
practice in 1847. Richard Yates (afterwards Gov- 
ernor and Senator) was his first partner. In 1845 
he removed to Rock Island, and, six years later, 






was elected a Circuit Judge, being again closen 
to the same position in 1861. At the expiration 
of his second term he removed to Chicago. 
Died, at Jacksonville, August 24, 1894. 

WILKINSON, John P., early merchant, was 
born, Dec. 14, 1790, in New Kent County, Va., 
emigrated first to Kentucky, and, in 1828, settled 
in Jacksonville, 111., where he engaged in mer- 
cantile business. Mr. Wilkinson was a liberal 
friend of Illinois College and Jacksonville Female 
Academy, of each of which he was a Trustee 
from their origin until his death, which occurred, 
during a business visit to St. Louis, in December, 

WILL, Conrad, pioneer physician and early 
legislator, was born in Philadelphia, June 4, 1778; 
about 1804 removed to Somerset County Pa., and, 
in 1813, to Kaskaskia, 111. He was a physician 
by profession, but having leased the saline lands 
on the Big Muddy, in the vicinity of what after- 
wards became the town of Brownsville, he 
engaged in the manufacture of salt, removing 
thither in 1815, and becoming one of the founders 
of Brownsville, afterwards the first county-seat 
of Jackson County. On the organization of 
Jackson County, in 1816, he became a member of 
the first Board of County Commissioners, and, in 
1818, served as Delegate from that county in the 
Convention which framed the first State Consti- 
tution. Thereafter he served continuously as a 
member of the Legislature from 1818 to '34 first 
as Senator in the First General Assembly, then 
as Representative in the Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth, and again as Senator in the Sixth, 
Seventh, Eighth and Ninth his career being 
conspicuous for long service. He died in office, 
June 11, 1834. Dr. Will was short of stature, 
fleshy, of jovial disposition and fond of playing 
practical jokes upon his associates, but very 
popular, as shown by his successive elections to 
the Legislature. He has been called "The Father 
of Jackson County." Will County, organized by 
act of the Legislature two years after his death, 
was named in his honor. 

WILL COUNTY, a northeastern county, em- 
bracing 850 square miles, named in honor of Dr. 
Conrad Will, an early politician and legislator. 
Early explorations of the territory were made 
in 1829, when white settlers were few. The bluff 
west of Joliet is said to have been first occupied 
by David and Benjamin Maggard. Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon "apostle," expounded his 
peculiar doctrines at "the Point" in 1831. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers fled from the country 
during (or after) a raid by the Sac Indians. 

There is a legend, seemingly well supported, to 
the effect that the first lumber, sawed to build 
the first frame house in Chicago (that of P. F. W. 
Peck), was sawed at Plainfield. Will County, 
originally a part of Cook, was separately erected 
in 1836, Joliet being made the county-seat. 
Agriculture, quarrying and manufacturing are 
the chief industries. Joliet, Lockport and Wil- 
mington are the principal towns. Population 
(1890), 62,007; (1900), 74,764; (1910), 84,371. 

WILLARD, Frances Elizabeth, teacher and 
reformer, was born at Churchville, N. Y., Sept. 
28, 1839, graduated from the Northwestern 
Female College at Evanston, 111., in 1859, and, in 
1862, accepted the Professorship of Natural 
Sciences in that institution. During 1866-67 she 
was the Principal of the Genessee Wesleyan 
Seminary. The next two years she devoted to 
travel and study abroad, meanwhile contribut- 
ing to various periodicals. From 1871 to 1874 she 
was Professor of ^Esthetics in the Northwestern 
University and dean of the Woman's College. 
She was always an enthusiastic champion of 
temperance, and, in 1874, abandoned her profes- 
sion to identify herself with the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. For five years she was 
Corresponding Secretary of the national body, 
and, from 1879, its President. While. Secretary 
she organized the Home Protective Association, 
and prepared a petition to the Illinois Legislature, 
to which nearly 200,000 names were attached, 
asking for the granting to women of the right to 
vote on the license question. In 1878 she suc- 
ceeded her brother, Oliver A. Willard (who had 
died), as editor of "The Chicago Evening Post," 
but, a few months later, withdrew, and, in 1882, 
was elected as a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Prohibition party. In 
1886 she became leader of the White Cross Move- 
ment for the protection of women, and succeeded 
in securing favorable legislation, in this direc- 
tion, in twelve States. In 1883 she founded the 
World's Christian Temperance Union, and, in 
1888, was chosen its President, as also President 
of the International Council of Women. The 
latter years of her life were spent chiefly abroad, 
much of the time as the guest and co-worker of 
Lady Henry Somerset, of England, during which 
she devoted much attention to investigating the 
condition of women in the Orient. Miss Willard 
was a prolific and highly valued contributor to 
the magazines, and (besides numerous pamphlets) 
published several volumes, including "Nineteen 
Beautiful Years" (a tribute to her sister) ; 
"Woman in Temperance"; "How to Win," and 



"Woman in the Pulpit." Died, in New York, 
Feb. 18, 1898. 

WILLARD, Samuel, A.M., M.D., LL.D., phy- 
sician and educator, was born in Lunenberg, 
Vt., Dec. 30, 1821 the lineal descendant of Maj. 
Simon Willard, one of the founders of Concord, 
Mass., and prominent in "King Philip's "War," 
and of his son, Rev. Dr. Samuel Willard, of the 
Old South Church, Boston, and seventh President 
of Harvard College. The subject of this sketch 
was taken in his infancy to Boston, and, in 1831, 
to Carrollton, 111. , where his father pursued the 
avocation of a druggist. After a preparatory 
course at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, in 1836 
he entered the freshman class in Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, but withdrew the following year, 
re-entering college in 1840 and graduating in the 
class of 1843, as a classmate of Dr. Newton Bate- 
man, afterwards State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and President of Knox College, and 
Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, now of Elmira, N. Y. 
The next year he spent as Tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of medicine at 
Quincy, graduating from the Medical Department 
of Illinois College in 1848. During a part of the 
latter year he edited a Free-Soil campaign paper 
("The Tribune") at Quincy, and, later, "The 
Western Temperance Magazine" at the same 
place. In 1849 he began the practice of his pro- 
fession at St. Louis, but the next year removed 
to Collinsville, 111. , remaining until 1857, when he 
took charge of the Department of Languages in 
the newly organized State Normal University at 
Normal. The second year of the Civil War (1862). 
he enlisted as a private in the Ninety-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon after 
commissioned as? Surgeon with the rank of Major, 
participating in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
in the first attack upon Vicksburg. Being dis- 
abled by an attack of paralysis, in February, 1863, 
he was compelled to resign, when he had suffici- 
ently recovered accepting a position in the office 
of Provost Marshal General Oakes, at Spring- 
field, where he remained until the close of the 
war. He then became Grand Secretary of the 
Independent Order of Odd-Fellows for the State 
of Illinois a position which he had held from 
1856 to 1862 remaining under his second appoint- 
ment from 1865 to '69. The next year he served 
as Superintendent of Schools at Springfield, 
meanwhile assisting in founding the Springfield 
public library, and serving as its first librarian. 
In 1870 he accepted the professorship of History 
in the West Side High School of Chicago, 
which, with the exception of two years (1884-86), 

he continued to occupy for more than twenty- 
five years, retiring in 1898. In the meantime, 
Dr. Willard has been a laborious literary worker, 
having been, for a considerable period, editor, or 
assistant-editor, of "The Illinois Teacher," a con- 
tributor to "The Century Magazine" and "The 
Dial" of Chicago, besides having published a 
"Digest of the Laws of Odd Fellowship" in six- 
teen volumes, begun while he was Grand Secre- 
tary of the Order in 1864, and continued in 1872 
and '82; a "Synopsis of History and Historical 
Chart," covering the period from B. C. 800 
to A. D. 1876 of which he has had a second 
edition in course of preparation. Of late years 
he has been engaged upon a "Historical Diction- 
ary of Names and Places," which will include 
some 12,000 topics, and which promises to be the 
most important work of his life. Previous to the 
war he was an avowed Abolitionist and operator 
on the "Underground Railroad," who made no 
concealment of his opinions, and, on one or two 
occasions, was called to answer for them in 
prosecutions under the "Fugitive Slave Act." 
(See "Underground Railroad.") His friend 
and classmate, the late Dr. Bateman, says of 
him: "Dr. Willard is a sound thinker; a clear 
and forcible writer; of broad and accurate 
scholarship; conscientious, genial and kindly, 
and a most estimable gentleman." 

WILLIAMS, Archibald, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Montgomery County, Ky., June 10, 
1801; with moderate advantages but natural 
fondness for study, he chose the profession of 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Tennessee 
in 1828, coming to Quincy, 111., the following 
year. He was elected to the General Assembly 
three times serving in the Senate in 1832-36, and 
in the House, 1836-40; was United States District 
Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois, by 
appointment of President Taylor, 1849-53; was 
twice the candidate of his party (the Whig) for 
United States Senator, and appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, in 1861, United States District 
Judge for the State of Kansas. His abilities and 
high character were widely recognized. Died, 
in Quincy, Sept. 21, 1863 His son, John H., an 
attorney at Quincy, served as Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court 1879-85. Another son, Abraham Lin- 
coln, was twice elected Attorney -General of 

WILLIAMS, Erastns Smith, lawyer and ju- 
rist, was born at Salem, N. Y., May 22, 1821. In 
1842 he removed to Chicago, where, after reading 
law, he was admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1854 
he was appointed Master in Chancery, which 










office he filled until 1863, when he was elected a 
Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. 
After re-election in 18TO lie became Chief Justice, 
and, at the same time, heard most of the cases on 
the equity side of the court. In 1879 he was a 
candidate for re-election as a Republican, but 
was defeated with the party ticket. After his 
retirement from the bench he resumed private 
practice. Died, Feb. 24, 1884. 

WILLIAMS, James R., Congressman, was 
born in "White County, 111., Dec. 27, 1850, at the 
age of 25 graduated from the Indiana State Uni- 
versity, at Bloomington, and, in 1876, from the 
Union College of Law, Chicago, since then being 
an active and successful practitioner at Carmi. 
In 1880 he was appointed Master in Chancery and 
served two years. From 1882 to 1886 he was 
County Judge. In 1892 he was a nominee on 
the Democratic ticket for Presidential Elector. 
He was elected to represent the Nineteenth Illi- 
nois District in the Fifty-first Congress at a 
special election held to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of R. W. Townshend, was re-elected 
in 1890 and 1892, but defeated by Orlando Burrell 
(Republican) for re-election in the newly organ- 
ized Twentieth District in 1894. In 1898 he was 
again a candidate and elected to the Fifty-sixth 

WILLIAMS, John, pioneer merchant, was 
born in Bath County, Ky., Sept. 11, 1808; be- 
tween 14 and 16 years of age was clerk in a store 
in his native State; then, joining his parents, 
who had settled on a tract of land in a part of 
Sangamon (now Menard) County, 111., he found 
employment as clerk in the store of Major Elijah 
lies, at Springfield, whom he succeeded in busi- 
ness at the age of 22, continuing it without inter- 
ruption until 1880. In 1856 Mr. Williams was 
the Republican candidate for Congress in the 
Springfield District, and, in 1861, was appointed 
Commissary-General for the State, rendering 
valuable service in furnishing supplies for State 
troops, in camps of instruction and while proceed- 
ing to the field, in the first years of the war ; was 
also chief officer of the Illinois Sanitary Commis- 
sion for two years, and, as one of the intimate 
personal friends of Mr. Lincoln, was chosen to 
accompany the remains of the martyred President, 
from Washington to Springfield, for burial. 
Liberal, enterprising and public-spirited, his name 
was associated with nearly every public enter- 
prise of importance in Springfield during his 
business career being one of the founders, and, 
for eleven years President, of the First National 
Bank; a chief promoter in the construction of 

what is now the Springfield Division of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, and the Springfield and 
Peoria line; a Director of the Springfield Iron 
Company ; one of the Commissioners who con- 
structed the Springfield water-works, and an 
officer of the Lincoln Monument Association, 
from 1865 to his death, May 29, 1890. 

WILLIAMS, Norman, lawyer, was born at 
Woodstock, Vt., Feb. 1, 1833, being related, on 
both the paternal and maternal sides, to some of 
the most prominent families of New England. 
He fitted for college at Union Academy, Meriden, 
and graduated from the University of Vermont 
in the class of 1855. After taking a course in 
the Albany Law School and with a law firm in 
his native town, he was admitted to practice in 
but li New York and Vermont, removed to Chi- 
cago in 1858, and, in 1860, became a member of 
the firm of King, Kales & Williams, still later 
forming a partnership with Gen. John L. Thomp- 
son, which ended with the death of the latter in 
1888. In a professional capacity he assisted in 
the organization of the Pullman Palace Car Com- 
pany, and was a member of its Board of Directors ; 
also assisted in organizing the Western Electric 
Company, and was prominently identified with 
the Chicago Telephone Company and the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. In 1881 he served as 
the United States Commissioner to the Electrical 
Exposition at Paris. In conjunction with his 
brother (Edward H. Williams) he assisted in 
founding the public library at Woodstock, Vt., 
which, in honor of his father, received the name 
of "The Norman Williams Public Library." 
With Col. Huntington W. Jackson and J. Mc- 
Gregor Adams, Mr. Williams was named, in the 
will of the late John Crerar, as an executor of the 
Crerar estate and one of the Trustees of the 
Crerar Public Library, and became its first Presi- 
dent ; was also a Director of the Chicago Pub- 
lic Library, and trustee of a number of large 
estates. Mr. Williams was a son-in-law of the 
late Judge John D. Caton, and his oldest daughter 
became the wife of Major-General Wesley Mer- 
ritt, a few months before his death, which oc- 
curred at Hampton Beach, N. H., June 19, 1899 
his remains being interred in his native town 
of Woodstock, Vt. 

WILLIAMS, Robert Ebenezer, lawyer, born 
Dec. 3, 1825, at Clarksville, Pa., his grandfathers 
on both sides being soldiers of the Revolutionary 
War. In 1830 his parents removed to Washing- 
ton in the same State, where in boyhood he 
worked as a mechanic in his father's shop, 
attending a common school in the winter until 


he reached the age of 17 years, when he entered 
Washington College, remaining for more than a 
year. He then began teaching, and, in 1845 
went to Kentucky, where he pursued the business 
of a teacher for four years. Then he entered 
Bethany College in West Virginia, at the same 
time prosecuting his law studies, but left at the 
close of his junior year, when, having been 
licensed to practice, he removed to Clinton, 
Texas. Here he accepted, from a retired lawyer, 
the loan of a law library, which he afterwards 
purchased ; served for two years as State's Attor- 
ney, and, in 1856, came to Bloomington, 111., 
where he spent the remainder of his life in the 
practice of his profession. Much of his time was 
devoted to practice as a railroad attorney, espe- 
cially in connection with the Chicago & Alton and 
the Illinois Central Railroads, in which he 
acquired prominence and wealth. He was a life- 
long Democrat and, in 1868, was the unsuccessful 
candidate of his party for Attorney-General of 
the State. The last three years of his life he had 
been in bad health, dying at Bloomington, Feb. 
15, 1899. 

WILLIAMS, Samuel, Bank President, was born 
in Adams County, Ohio, July 11, 1820; came to 
Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and, in 1842, 
removed to Iroquois County, where he held vari- 
ous local offices, including that of County Judge, 
to which he was elected in 1861. During his 
later years he had been President of the Watseka 
Citizens' Bank. Died, June 16, 1896. 

WILLIAMSON, Rollin Samuel, legislator and 
jurist, was born at Cornwall, Vt., May 23, 1839. 
At the age of 14 he went to Boston, where he 
began life as a telegraph messenger boy. In 
two years he had become a skillful operator, and, 
as such, was employed in various offices in New 
England and New York. In 1857 he came to 
Chicago seeking employment and, through the 
fortunate correction of an error on the part of 
the receiver of a message, secured the position of 
operator and station agent at Palatine, Cook 
County. Here he read law during his leisure 
time without a preceptor, and, in 1870, was 
admitted to the bar. The same year he was 
elected to the lower House of the General 
Assembly and, in 1872, to the Senate. In 1880 he 
was elected to the bench of the Superior Court of 
Cook County, and, in 1887, was chosen a Judge 
of the Cook County Circuit Court. Died, Au- 
gust 10, 1889. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY, in the southern part 
of the State, originally set off from Franklin and 
organized in 1839. The county is well watered, 

the principal streams being the Big Muddy and 
the South Fork of the Saline. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. The region was 
originally well covered with forests. All the 
cereals (as well as potatoes) are cultivated, and 
rich meadows encourage stock-raising. Coal and 
sandstone underlie the entire county. Area, 440 
square miles; population (1880), 19,324: (1890) 
22,226; (1900), 27,796; (1910), 45,098. 

WILLIAMSVILLE, village of Sangamon Coun- 
ty, on Chicago & Alton Railroad, 12 miles north 
of Springfield; has a bank, elevator, 3 churches, a 
newspaper and coal-mines. Pop. (1910), 600. 

WILLIS, Jonathan Clay, soldier and former 
Railroad and Warehouse Commissioner, was born 
in Sumner County, Tenn., June 27, 1826; brought 
to Gallatin County, 111., in 1834, and settled at 
Golconda in 1843; was elected Sheriff of Pope 
County in 1856, removed to Metropolis in 1859, 
and engaged in the wharf -boat and commission 
business. He entered the service as Quarter- 
master of the Forty-eighth Illinois Volunteers in 
1861, but was compelled to resign on account of 
injuries, in 1863 ; was elected Representative m 
the Twenty-sixth General Assembly (1868), 
appointed Collector of Internal Revenue in 1869, 
and Railway and Warehouse Commissioner in 
1892, as the successor of John R. Tanner, serving 
until 1893. 

WILMETTE, a village in Cook County, 14 miles 
north of Chicago, on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, a handsome suburb of Chicago on the 
shore of Lake Michigan ; principal streets paved 
and shaded with fine forest trees; has public 
library and good schools. Pop. (1910), 4,943. 

WILMINGTON, a city of Will County, on the 
Kankakee River and the Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road, 53 miles from Chicago and 15 south-south- 
west of Joliet; has considerable manufactures, 
two National banks, a graded school, churches 
and one newspaper. Wilmington is the location 
of the Illinois Soldiers' Widows' Home. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,576; (1900), 1,420; (1910), 1,450. 

WILSON, Charles Lush, journalist, was born 
in Fairfleld County, Conn., Oct. 10, 1818, edu- 
cated in the common schools and at an academy 
in his native State, and, in 1835, removed to Chi- 
cago, entering the employment of his older 
brothers, who were connected with the construc- 
tion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at Joliet. 
His brother, Richard L., having assumed charge 
of "The Chicago Daily Journal" (the successor 
of "The Chicago American"), in|1844, Charles L. 
took a position in the office, ultimately securing 
a partnership, which continued until the death 



of his brother in 1856, when he succeeded to the 
ownership of the paper. Mr. Wilson was an 
ardent friend and supporter of Abraham Lincoln 
for the United States Senate in 1858, but, in 1860, 
favored the nomination of Mr. Seward for the 
Presidency, though earnestly supporting Mr. Lin- 
coln after his nomination. In 1861 he was 
appointed Secretary of the American Legation at 
London, serving with the late Minister Charles 
Francis Adams, until 1864, when he resigned and 
resumed his connection with "The Journal." In 
1875 his health began to fail, and three years 
later, having gone to San Antonio, Tex., in the 
hope of receiving benefit from a change of cli- 
mate, he died in that city, March 9, 1878. 
Richard Lush (Wilson), an older brother of the 
preceding, the first editor and publisher of "The 
Chicago Evening Journal," the oldest paper of 
consecutive publication in Chicago, was a native 
of New York. Coming to Chicago with his 
brother John L., in 1834, they soon after estab- 
lished themselves in business on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, then in course of construction. 
In 1844 he took charge of "The Chicago Daily 
Journal" for a publishing committee which had 
purchased the material of "The Chicago Ameri- 
can," but soon after became principal proprietor. 
In April, 1847, while firing a salute in honor of 
the victory of Buena Vista, he lost an arm and 
was otherwise injured by the explosion of the can- 
non. Early in 1849, he was appointed, by Presi- 
dent Taylor, Postmaster of the city of Chicago, 
but, having failed of confirmation, was compelled 
to retire in favor of a successor appointed by 
Millard Fillmore, eleven months later. Mr. 
Wilson published a little volume in 1842 entitled 
"A Trip to Santa Fe," and, a few years later, 
a story of travel under the title, "Short Ravel- 
lings from a Long Yarn." Died, December, 1856. 
John Lush (Wilson), another brother, also a 
native of New York, came to Illinois in 1834, was 
afterwards associated with his brothers in busi- 
ness, being for a time business manager of "The 
Chicago Journal;" also served one term as Sher- 
iff of Cook County. Died, in Chicago, April 13, 

WILSON, Isaac Grant, jurist, was born at 
Middlebury, N. Y., April 26, 1817, graduated 
from Brown University in 1838, and the same 
year came to Chicago, whither his father's 
family had preceded him in 1835. After reading 
law for two years, he entered the senior class at 
Cambridge (Mass.) Law School, graduating in 
1841. In August of that year he opened an 
office at Elgin, and, for ten years "rode the cir- 

cuit." In 1851 he was elected to the bench of 
the Thirteenth Judicial Circuit to fill a vacancy, 
and re-elected for a full term in 1855, and again 
in '61. In November of the latter year he was 
commissioned the first Colonel of the Fifty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but resigned, 
a few weeks later, and resumed his place upon 
the bench. From 1867 to 1879 he devoted him- 
self to private practice, which was largely in 
the Federal Courts. In 1879 he resumed his seat 
upon the bench (this time for the Twelfth Cir- 
cuit), and was at once designated as one of the 
Judges of the Appellate Court at Chicago, of 
which tribunal he became Chief Justice in 1881. 
In 1885 he was re-elected Circuit Judge, but died, 
about the close of his term, at Geneva, June 8, 

WILSON, James Grant, soldier and author, 
was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, April 28, 1832, 
and, when only a year old, was brought by his 
father, William Wilson, to America. The family 
settled at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where James 
Grant was educated at College Hill and under 
private teachers. After finishing his studies he 
became his father's partner in business, but, in 
1855, went abroad, and, shortly after his return, 
removed to Chicago, where he founded the first 
literary paper established in the Northwest. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War, he disposed of his 
journal to enlist in the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, 
of which he was commissioned Major and after- 
wards-promoted to the colonelcy. In August, 
1863, while at New Orleans, by advice of General 
Grant, he accepted a commission as Colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment United States Colored 
Cavalry, and was assigned, as Aid-de-camp, to 
the staff of the Commander of the Department of 
the Gulf, filling this post until April, 1865. 
When General Banks was relieved, Colonel Wil- 
son was brevetted Brigadier-General and placed 
in command at Port Hudson, resigning in July, 
1865, since which time his home has been in New 
York. He is best known as an author, having 
published numerous addresses, and being a fre- 
quent contributor to American and European 
magazines. Among larger works which he has 
written or edited are "Biographical Sketches of 
Illinois Officers"; "Love in Letters"; "Life of 
General U. S. Grant"; "Life and Letters of 
Fitz Greene Halleck"; "Poets and Poetry of 
Scotland"; "Bryant and His Friends", and 
"Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. " 

WILSON, James Harrison, soldier and mili- 
tary engineer, was born near Shawneetown, 111., 
Sept. 2, 1837. His grandfather, Alexander Wil- 



son, was one of the pioneers of Illinois, and 
his father (Harrison Wilson) was an ensign dur- 
ing the War of 1812 and a Captain in the Black 
Hawk War. His brother (Bluford Wilson) 
served as Assistant Adjutant-General of Volun- 
teers during the Civil War, and as Solicitor of the 
United States Treasury during the "whisky ring" 
prosecutions. James H. was educated in the 
common schools, at McKendree College, and 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, graduating from the latter in 1860, and 
being assigned to the Topographical Engineer 
Corps. In September, 1861, he was promoted to 
a First Lieutenancy, then served as Chief Topo- 
graphical Engineer of the Port Royal expedition 
until March, 1862; was afterwards attached to 
the Department of the South, being present at 
the bombardment of Fort Pulaski; was Aid-de- 
camp to McClellan, and participated in the bat- 
tles of South Mountain and Antietam ; was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers in November, 
1862; was Chief Topographical Engineer and 
Inspector-General of the Army of the Tennessee 
until October, 1863, being actively engaged in 
the operations around Vicksburg; was made 
Captain of Engineers in May, 1863, and Brigadier- 
General of Volunteers, Oct. 31, following. He 
also conducted operations preliminary to the 
battle of Chattanooga and Missionary Ridge, and 
for the relief of Knoxville. Later, he was placed 
in command of the Third Division of the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Potomac, serving from 
May to August, 1864, under General Sheridan. 
Subsequently he was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the Mississippi, where he so distinguished 
himself that, on April 20, 1865, he was made 
Major-General of Volunteers. In twenty-eight 
days he captured five fortified cities, twenty- 
three stands of colors, 288 guns and 6,820 prison- 
ers among the latter being Jefferson Davis. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service in 
January, 1866, and, on July 28, following, was 
commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Thirty- 
fifth United States Infantry, being also brevetted 
Major-General in the regular army. On Dec. 31, 
1870, he returned to civil life, and was afterwards 
largely engaged in railroad and engineering oper- 
ations, especially in West Virginia. Promptly 
after the declaration of war with Spain (1898) 
General Wilson was appointed, by the President, 
Major-General of Volunteers, serving until its 
close. He is the author of "China: Travels and 
Investigations in the Middle Kingdom" ; "Life of 
Andrew J. Alexander"; and the "Life of Gen. 
U. S. Grant," in conjunction with Charles A. 

Dana. His home, in recent years, has been in 
New York. 

WILSON, John M., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in New Hampshire in 1802, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1824 the classmate of Frank- 
lin Pierce and Nathaniel Hawthorne ; studied law 
in New Hampshire and came to Illinois in 1835, 
locating at Joliet; removed to Chicago in 1841, 
where he was the partner of Norman B. Judd, 
serving, at different periods, as attorney of the 
Chicago & Rock Island, the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern and the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railways; was Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Cook County, 1853-59, when he became 
Presiding Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, 
serving until 1868. Died, Dec. 7, 1883. 

WILSO'N, John P., lawyer, was born in White- 
side County, 111., July 3, 1844; educated in the 
common schools and at Knox College, Galesburg, 
graduating from the latter in 1865; two years 
later was admitted to the bar in Chicago, and 
speedily attained prominence in his profession. 
During the World's Fair period he was retained 
as counsel by the Committee on Grounds and 
Buildings, and was prominently connected, as 
counsel for the city, with the Lake Front litiga- 

WILSON, Robert L., early legislator, was born 
in Washington County, Pa., Sept. 11, 1805, taken 
to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1810, graduated at Frank- 
lin College in 1831, studied law and, in 1833, 
removed to Athens (now in Menard County), 111. ; 
was elected Representative in 1836, and was one 
of the members from Sangamon County, known 
as the "Long Nine," who assisted in securing the 
removal of the State Capital to Springfield. Mr. 
Wilson removed to Sterling, Whiteside County, 
in 1840, was elected five times Circuit Clerk and 
served eight years as Probate Judge. Immedi- 
ately after the fall of Fort Sumter, he enlisted as 
private in a battalion in Washington City under 
command of Cassius M. Clay, for guard duty 
until the arrival of the Seventh New York Regi- 
ment. He subsequently assisted in raising 
troops in Illinois, was appointed Paymaster by 
Lincoln, serving at Washington, St. Louis, and, 
after the fall of Vicksburg, at Springfield being 
mustered out in November, 1865. Died, in White- 
side County, 1880. 

WILSON, Robert S., lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Montrose, Susquehanna County, Pa. , Nov. 
6, 1812; learned the printer's art, then studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in Allegheny 
County, about 1833; in 1836 removed to Ann 
Arbor, Mich., where he served as Probate Judge 




and State Senator; in 1850 came to Chicago, was 
elected Judge of the Recorder's Court in 1853, 
and re-elected in 1858, serving ten years, and 
proving "a terror to evil-doers." Died, at Law- 
rence, Mich., Dec. 23, 1882. 

WILSON, William, early jurist, was born in 
Loudoun County, Va., April 27, 1794; studied law 
with Hon. John Cook, a distinguished lawyer, 
and minister to France in the early part of the 
century; in 1817 removed to Kentucky, soon after 
came to Illinois, two years later locating in White 
County, near Carmi, which continued to be his 
home during the remainder of his life. In 1819 
he was appointed Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court as successor to William P. 
Foster, who is described by Governor Ford as 
"a great rascal and no lawyer," and who held 
office only about nine months. Judge Wilson 
was re-elected to the Supreme bench, as Chief- 
Justice, in 1825, being then only a little over 30 
years old, and held office until the reorganization 
of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 
1848 a period of over twenty-nine years, and, 
with the exception of Judge Browne's, the long- 
est term of service in the history of the court. 
He died at his home in White County, April 29, 
1857. A Whig in early life, he allied himself 
with the Democratic party on the dissolution of 
the former. Hon. James C. Conkling, of Spring- 
field, says of him, "as a writer, his style was clear 
and distinct; as a lawyer, his judgment was 
sound and discriminating." 

WINCHESTER, a city and county-seat of Scott 
County, founded in 1839, situated on Big Sandy 
Creek and on the line of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad, 29 miles south of Beardstown 
and 84 miles north by west of St. Louis. While 
the surrounding region is agricultural and largely 
devoted to wheat growing, there is some coal 
mining. Winchester is an important shipping- 
point, having three grain elevators, two flouring 
mills, and a coal mine employing fifty miners. 
There are four Protestant and one Catholic 
church, a court house, a high school, a graded 
school building, two banks and two weekly news- 
papers. Population (1880), 1,626; (1890), 1,542; 
(1900), 1,711; (1910), 1,639. 

WINDSOR, a city of Shelby County at the 
crossing of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis and the Wabash Railways, 11 miles 
northeast of Shelbyville; in agricultural district; has 
bank and one paper. Pop. (1900), 866; (1910), 987. 
WINES, Frederick Howard, clergyman and 
sociologist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 
9, 1838, graduated at Washington (Pa.) College 

in 1857, and, after serving as tutor there for a 
short time, entered Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, but was compelled temporarily to discon- 
tinue his studies on account of a weakness of 
the eyes. The Presbytery of St. Louis licensed 
him to preach in 1860, and, in 1862, he was com- 
missioned Hospital Chaplain in the Union army. 
During 1862-64 he was stationed at Springfield, 
Mo., participating in the battle of Springfield on 
Jan. 8, 1863, and being personally mentioned for 
bravery on the field in the official report. Re- 
entering the seminary at Princeton in 1864, he 
graduated in 1865, and at once accepted a call to 
the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield, 111., which he filled for four years. 
In 1869 lie was appointed Secretary of the newly 
created Board of Commissioners of Public Chari- 
ties of Illinois, in which capacity he continued 
until 1893, when he resigned. For the next four 
years he was chiefly engaged in literary work, in 
lecturing before universities on topics connected 
with social science, in aiding in the organization 
of charitable work, and in the conduct of a 
thorough investigation into the relations between 
liquor legislation and crime. At an early period 
he took a prominent part in organizing the 
various Boards of Public Charities of the United 
States into an organization known as the National 
Conference of Charities and Corrections, and, at 
the Louisville meeting (1883), was elected its 
President. At the International Penitentiary 
Congress at Stockholm (1878) he was the official 
delegate from Illinois. On his return, as a result 
of his observations while abroad, he submitted 
to the Legislature a report strongly advocating 
the construction of the Kankakee Hospital for 
the Insane, then about to be built, upon the 
"detached ward" or "village" plan, a departure 
from then existing methods, which marks an era 
in the treatment of insane in the United States. 
Mr. Wines conducted the investigation into the 
condition and number of the defective, depend- 
ent and delinquent classes throughout the coun- 
try, his report constituting a separate volume 
under the "Tenth Census," and rendered a simi- 
lar service in connection with the eleventh 
census (1890). In 1887 he was elected Secretary 
of the National Prison Association, succeeding to 
the post formerly held by his father, Enoch Cobb 
Wines, D.D., LL.D. After the inauguration of 
Governor Tanner in 1897, he resumed his former 
position of Secretary of the Board of Public 
Charities, remaining until 1899, when he again 
tendered his resignation, having received the 
appointment to the position of Assistant Director 



of the Twelfth Census, which he held 2 years. He 
is the author of "Crime and Reformation" (1895) ; 
of a voluminous series of reports ; also of numer- 
ous pamphlets and brochures, among which may 
be mentioned "The County Jail System; An 
Argument for its Abolition" (1878) , "The Kanka- 
kee Hospital" (1882); "Provision for the Insane 
in the United States" (1885); "Conditional 
Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners" (1886), 
and "American Prisons in the Tenth Census" 
(1888). Died Jan. 31, 1912. 

WINES, Walter B., lawyer (brother of Freder- 
ick H. Wines), was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 
10, 1848, received his primary education at Willis- 
ton Academy, East Hampton, Mass., after which 
he entered Middlebury College, Vt., taking a 
classical course and graduating there. He after- 
wards became a student in the law department 
of Columbia College, N. Y., graduating in 1871, 
being admitted to the bar the same year and 
commencing practice in New York City. In 1879 
he came to Springfield, 111., and was, for a time, 
identified with the bar of that city; was engaged 
some years in literary and journalistic work in 
Chicago; died at Minneapolis, Minn., July 31, 1901. 

WINNEBAGO COUNTY, situated in the 
"northern tier." bordering on the Wisconsin 
State line; was organized, under an act passed in 
1836, from La Salle and Jo Daviess Counties, and 
has an area of 540 square miles. The county is 
drained by the Rock and Pecatonica Rivers. 
The surface is rolling prairie and the soil fertile. 
The geology is simple, the quaternary deposits 
being underlaid by the Galena blue and buff 
limestone, adapted for building purposes. All 
the cereals are raised in abundance, the chief 
product being corn. The Winnebago Indians 
(who gave name to the county) formerly lived 
on the west side of the Rock River, and the Potta- 
watomies on the east, but both tribes removed 
westward in 1835. (As to manufacturing inter- 
ests, see Rockford.) Population (1880), 30,505; 
(1890), 39,938; (1900), 47,845; (1910), 63,153. 

WINNEBAGO WAR. The name given to an 
Indian disturbance which had its origin in 1827, 
during the administration of Gov. Ninian 
Edwards. The Indians had been quiet since the 
conclusion of the War of 1812, but a few isolated 
outrages were sufficient to start terrified "run- 
ners" in all directions. In the northern portion 
of the State, from Galena to Chicago (then Fort 
Dearborn) the alarm was intense. The meagre 
militia force of the State was summoned and 
volunteers were called for. Meanwhile, 600 
United States Regular Infantry, under command 

of Gen. Henry Atkinson, put in an appearance. 
Besides the infantry, Atkinson had at his disposal 
some 130 mounted sharpshooters. The origin of 
the disturbance was as follows: The Winne- 
bagoes attacked a band of Chippewas, who were 
(by treaty) under Government potection, several 
of the latter being killed. For participation in 
this offense, four Winnebago Indians were sum- 
marily apprehended, surrendered to the Chippe- 
was and shot. Meanwhile, some dispute had 
arisen as to the title of the lands, claimed by the 
Winnebagoes in the vicinity of Galena, which 
had been occupied by white miners. Repeated 
acts of hostility and of reprisal, along the Upper 
Mississippi, intensified mutual distrust. A gather- 
ing of the Indians around two keel-boats, laden 
with supplies for Fort Snelling, which had 
anchored near Prairie du Chien and opposite a 
Winnebago camp, was regarded by the whites as 
a hostile act. Liquor was freely distributed, and 
there is historical evidence that a half-dozen 
drunken squaws were carried off and shamefully 
maltreated. Several hundred warriors assembled 
to avenge the deception which had been practiced 
upon them. They laid in ambush for the boats 
on their return trip. The first passed too rapidly 
to be successfully assailed, but the second 
grounded and was savagely, yet unsuccessfully, 
attacked. The presence of General Atkinson's 
forces prevented an actual outbreak, and, on his 
demand, the great Winnebago Chief, Red Bird, 
with six other leading' men of the tribe, sur- 
rendered themselves as hostages to save their 
nation from extermination. A majority of these 
were, after trial, acquitted. Red Bird, however, 
unable to endure confinement, literally pined to 
death in prison, dying on Feb. 16, 1828. He is 
described as having been a savage of superior 
intelligence and noble character. A treaty of 
peace was concluded with the Winnebagoes in a 
council held at Prairie du Chien, a few months 
later, but the affair seems to have produced as 
much alarm among the Indians as it did among 
the whites. (For Winnebago Indians see page 576. ) 

WINNETKA, a village of Cook County, on the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 16M> miles 
north of Chicago. It stands eighty feet above 
the level of Lake Michigan, has good schools 
(being the seat of the Winnetka Institute), sev- 
eral churches, and is a popular residence town. 
Pop. (1890), 1,079; (1900), 1,833; (1910), 3,168. 

WINSTON, Frederick Hampton, lawyer, was 
born in Liberty County, Ga., Nov. 20, 1830, was 
brought to Woodford County, Ky., in 1835, left 
an orphan at 12, and attended the common 



schools until 18, when, returning to Georgia, he 
engaged in cotton manufacture. He finally 
began the study of law with United States Sena- 
tor W. C. Dawson, and graduated from Harvard 
Law School in 1852; spent some time in the office 
of W. M. Evarts in New York, was admitted to 
the bar and came to Chicago in 1853, where he 
formed a partnership with Norman B. Judd, 
afterwards being associated with Judge Henry 
W. Blodgett; served as general solicitor of the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific and the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railways remaining with the 
latter twenty years. In 1885 he was appointed, 
by President Cleveland, Minister to Persia, but 
resigned the following year, and traveled exten- 
sively in Russia, Scandinavia and other foreign 
countries. Mr. Winston was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Conventions of 1868, '76 and 
'84 ; first President of the Stock Yards at Jersey 
City, for twelve years President of the Lincoln 
Park Commission, and a Director of the Lincoln 
National Bank. Died Feb. 19, 1904. 

sin Central Company was organized, June 17, 
1887, and subsequently acquired the Minnesota, 
St. Croix & Wisconsin, the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota, the Chippewa Falls & Western, the St. 
Paul & St. Croix Falls, the Wisconsin Central, the 
Penokee, and the Packwaukee &_Montebello Rail- 
roads, and assumed the leases of the Milwaukee 
& Lake Winnebago and the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota Roads. On July 1, 1888, the company began 
to operate the entire Wisconsin Central system, 
with the exception of the Wisconsin Central 
Railroad and the leased Milwaukee & Lake Win- 
nebago, which remained in charge of the Wis- 
consin Central Railroad mortgage trustees until 
Nov. 1, 1889, when these, too, passed under the 
control of the Wisconsin Central Company. The 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Company is a re- 
organization (Oct. 1, 1879) of a company formed 
Jan. 1, 1871. The Wisconsin Central and the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Companies, though 
differing in name, are a financial unit; the 
former holding most of the first mortgage bonds 
of the latter, and substantially all its notes, stocks 
and income bonds, but, for legal reasons (such as 
the protection of land titles), it is necessary that 
separate corporations be maintained. On April 
1, 1890, the Wisconsin Central Company executed 
a lease to the Northern Pacific Railroad, but this 
was set aside by the courts, on Sept. 27, 1893, for 
non-payment of rent, and was finally canceled. 
On the same day receivers were appointed to 

insure the protection of all interests. The total 
mileage is 415.46 miles, of which the Company 
owns 258.90 only .10 of a mile in Illinois. A 
line, 58.10 miles in length, with 8.44 miles of 
side-track (total, 66.54 miles), lying wholly within 
the State of Illinois, is operated by the Chicago & 
Wisconsin and furnishes the allied line an en- 
trance into Chicago. 

WITHROW, Thomas F., lawyer, was born in 
Virginia in March, 1833, removed with his parents 
to Ohio in childhood, attended the Western 
Reserve College, and, after the death of his 
father, taught school and worked as a printer, 
later, editing a paper at Mount Vernon. In 1855 
he removed to Janesville, Wis. , where he again 
engaged in journalistic work, studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in Iowa in 1857, settled at 
Des Moines and served as private secretary of 
Governors Lowe and Kirkwood. In 1860 he 
became Supreme Court Reporter; served as 
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee in 1863 and, in 1866, became associated 
with the Rock Island Railroad in the capacity of 
local attorney, was made chief law officer of the 
Company in 1873, and removed to Chicago, and, 
in 1890, was promoted to the position of General 
Counsel. Died, in Chicago, Feb. 3, 1893. 

WOLCOTT, (Dr.) Alexander, early Indian 
Agent, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 
14, 1790; graduated from Yale College in 1809, 
and, after a course in medicine, was commis- 
sioned, in 1812, Surgeon's Mate in the United 
States Army. In 1820 he was appointed Indian 
Agent at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), as suc- 
cessor to Charles Jouett the first Agent who 
had been appointed a United States Judge in 
Arkansas. The same year he accompanied Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass and Henry Schoolcraft on their 
tour among the Indians of the Northwest; was 
married in 1823 to Ellen Marion Kinzie, a 
daughter of Col. John Kinzie, the first perma- 
nent settler of Chicago ; in 1825 was appointed a 
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, which 
then included Cook County; was a Judge of 
Election in 1830, and one of the purchasers of a 
block of ground in the heart of the present city 
of Chicago, at the first sale of lots, held Sept. 27, 
1830, but died before the close of the year. Dr. 
Wolcott appears to have been a high-minded and 
honorable man, as well as far in advance of the 
mass of pioneers in point of education and intel- 

CAGO. (See Northwestern University Woman's 
Medical School.) 



WOMAN SUFFRAGE. (See Suffrage.) 

WOOD, Benson, lawyer and Congressman, was 
born in Susquehanna County. Pa., in 1839; re- 
ceived a common school and academic education; 
at the age of 20 came to Illinois, and, for two 
years, taught school in Lee County. He then 
enlisted as a soldier in an Illinois regiment, 
attaining the rank of Captain of Infantry ; after 
the war, graduated from the Law Department of 
the old Chicago University, and has since been 
engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
was elected a member of the Twenty -eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly (1872) and was a delegate to the 
Republican National Conventions of 1876 and 
1888 ; also served as Mayor of the city of Effing- 
ham, where he now resides. In 1894 he was 
elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the 
Republicans of the Nineteenth District, which has 
uniformly returned a Democrat, and, in office, 
proved himself a most industrious and efficient 
member. Mr. Wood was defeated as a candidate 
for re-election in 1896. 

WOOD, John, pioneer, Lieutenant-Governor 
and Governor, was born at Moravia, N. Y., Dec. 
20, 1798 his father being a Revolutionary soldier 
who had served as Surgeon and Captain in the 
army. At the age of 21 years young Wood re- 
moved to Illinois, settling in what is now Adams 
County, and building the first log-cabin on the site 
of the present city of Quincy. He was a member 
of the upper house of the Seventeenth and Eight- 
eenth General Assemblies, and was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in 1859 on the same ticket with 
Governor Bissell, and served out the unexpired 
term of the latter, who died in office. (See Bis- 
sell, William H.) He was succeeded by Richard 
Yates in 1861. In February of that year he was 
appointed one of the five Commissioners from 
Illinois to the "Peace Conference" at Wash- 
ington, to consider methods for averting 
civil war. The following May he was appointed 
Quartermaster-General for the State by Governor 
Yates, and assisted most efficiently in fitting out 
the troops for the field. In June, 1864, he was 
commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers (100-days' men) 
and mustered out of service the following Sep- 
tember. Died, at Quincy, June 11, 1880. He 
was liberal, patriotic and public-spirited. His 
fellow-citizens of Quincy erected a monument to 
his memory, which was appropriately dedicated, 
July 4, 1883. 

WOODFORD COUNTY, situated a little north 
of the center of the State, bounded on the west 
by the Illinois River; organized in 1841; area, 

556 square miles. The surface is generally level, 
except along the Illinois River, the soil fertile 
and well watered. The county lies in the north- 
ern section of the great coal field of the State. 
Eureka is the county-seat. Other thriving cities 
and towns are Metamora, Minonk, El Paso and 
Roanoke. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes and barley 
are the principal crops. The chief mechanical 
industries are flour manufacture, carriage and 
wagon-making, and saddlery and harness work. 
Pop. (1900), 21,822; (1910), 20,506. 

WOODHULL, a village of Henr County, on 
Keithsburg branch Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad, 15 miles west of Galva; has a bank, 
electric lights, water works, brick and tile works, 
six churches and weekly paper. Pop. (1910), 692. 

WOODMAN, Charles W., lawyer and Congress- 
man, was born in Aalborg, Denmark. March 11, 
1844 ; received his early education in the schools 
of his native country, but took to the sea in I860, 
following the life of a sailor until 1863, when, 
coming to Philadelphia, he enlisted in the Gulf 
Squadron of the United States. After the war, 
he came to Chicago, and, after reading law for 
some time in the office of James L. High, gradu- 
ated from the Law Department of the Chicago 
University in 1871. Some years later he was 
appointed Prosecuting Attorney for some of the 
lower courts, and, in 1881, was nominated by the 
Judges of Cook County as one of the Justices of 
the Peace for the city of Chicago. In 1894 he 
became the Republican candidate for Congress 
from the Fourth District and was elected, but 
failed to secure a renomination in 1896. Died, in 
Elgin Asylum for the Insane, March 18, 1898. 

WOODS, Robert Mann, was born at Greenville, 
Pa., April 17, 1840; came with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1842, the family settling at Barry, Pike 
County, but subsequently residing at Pittsfield, 
Canton and Galesburg. He was educated at 
Knox College in the latter place, which was his 
home from 1849 to '58; later, taught school in 
Iowa and Missouri until 1861, when he went to 
Springfield and began the study of law with 
Milton Hay and Shelby M. Cullom. His law 
studies having been interrupted by the Civil 
War, after spending some time in the mustering 
and disbursing office, he was promoted by Gov- 
ernor Yates to a place in the executive office, 
from which he went to the field as Adjutant of 
the Sixty-fourth Illinois Infantry, known as the 
"Yates Sharp-Shooters. " After participating, 
with the Army of the Tennessee, in the Atlanta 
campaign, he took part in the "March to the 
Sea," and the campaign in the Carolinas, includ- 




ing the siege of Savannah and the forcing of the 
Salkahatohie, where he distinguished himself, as 
also in the taking of Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Cheraw, Raleigh and Bentonville. At the latter 
place he had a horse shot under him and won the 
brevet rank of Major for gallantry in the field, 
having previously been commissioned Captain of 
Company A of his regiment. He also served on 
the staffs of Gens. Giles A. Smith, Benjamin F. 
Potts, and William W. Belknap, and was the last 
mustering officer in General Sherman's army. 
In 1867 Major Woods removed to Chicago, where 
he was in business for a number of years, serving 
as chief clerk of Custom House construction 
from 1872 to 1877. In 1879 he purchased "The 
Daily Republican" at Joliet, which he conducted 
successfully for fifteen years. While connected 
with "The Republican," he served as Secretary of 
the Illinois Republican Press Association and in 
various other positions. 

Major Woods was one of the founders of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, whose birth-place 
was in Illinois. (See Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic; also Stephenson, Dr. B. F.) When Dr. 
Stephenson (who had been Surgeon of the Four- 
teenth Illinois Infantry), conceived the idea of 
founding such an order, he called to his assist- 
ance Major Woods, who was then engaged in 
writing the histories of Illinois regiments for the 
Adjutant-General's Report. The Major wrote 
the Constitution and By-laws of the Order, the 
charter blanks for all the reports, etc. The first 
official order bears his name as the first Adjutant- 
General of the Order, as follows : 


sritiNHFiKi.n. ILL., APRIL 1, 1866. 

No. 1. (The following named officers are hereby 

appointed and assigned to duty at these headquarters. They 
will be obeyed and respected accordingly: 
Colonel Jules C. Webber. A.D.C. and Chief of Staff. 
Colonel John M. Snyder, Quartermaster-General. 
Major Robert M. Woods, Adjutant-General. 
Captain John A. Ltghtfoot, Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Cap'.ain John 8. Fhelps, Aid-de-Camp. 
By order of B. F. Stepbenson, Department Commander. 



Major Woods afterwards organized the various 
Departments in the West, and it has been con- 
ceded that he furnished the money necessary to 
carry on the work during the first six months of 
the existence of the Order. He has never 
accepted a nomination or run for any political 
office, but is now engaged in financial business in 
Joliet and Chicago, with his residence in the 
former place. 

WOODSON, David Meade, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Jessamine County, Ky., May 18, 
1806; was educated in private schools and at 
Transylvania University, and read law with his 
father. He served a term in the Kentucky Legis- 
lature in 1832, and, in 1834, removed to Illinois, 
settling at Carrollton, Greene County. In 1839 
he was elected State's Attorney and, in 1840, a 
member of the lower house of the Legislature, 
being elected a second time in 1868. In 1843 he 
was the Whig candidate for Congress in the 
Fifth District, but was defeated by Stephen A. 
Douglas. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1869-70. In 1848 he was 
elected a Judge of the First Judicial Circuit, 
remaining in office until 1867. Died, in 1877. 

WOODSTOCK, the county-seat of McHenry 
County, situated on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway, about 51 miles northwest of Chicago 
and 32 miles east of Rockford. It contains a 
court house, eight churches, four banks, three 
newspaper offices, foundry and machine shops, 
planing mills, canning works, pickle, cheese and 
butter factories. The Oliver Typewriter Factory 
is located here ; the town is also the seat of the 
Todd Seminary for boys. Population (1890), 
1,683; (1900), 2,502; (1910), 4,331. 

WORCESTER, Linus E., State Senator, was 
born in Windsor, Vt., Dec. 5, 1811, was educated 
in the common schools of his native State and at 
Chester Academy, came to Illinois in 1836, and, 
after teaching three years, entered a dry-goods 
store at Whitehall as clerk, later becoming a 
partner. He was also engaged in various other 
branches of business at different times, including 
the drug, hardware, grocery, agricultural imple- 
ment and lumber business. In 1843 he was 
appointed Postmaster at Whitehall, serving 
twelve years ; was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847, served as County Judge for 
six years from 1853, and as Trustee of the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville, 
from 1859, by successive reappointments, for 
twelve years. In 1856 he was elected, as a Demo- 
crat, to the State Senate, to succeed John M. 
Palmer, resigned ; was re-elected in 1860, and, at 
the session of 1865, was one of the five Demo- 
cratic members of that body who voted for the 
ratification of the Emancipation Amendment of 
the National Constitution. He was elected 
County Judge a second time, in 1863, and re- 
elected in 1867, served as delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1876, and, for more 
than thirty years, was one of the Directors of the 
Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton 



Railroad, serving from the organization of the 
corporation until his death, which occurred Oct. 
19, 1891. 

WORDEN, a village of Madison County, on the 
Wabash and the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. 
Louis Railways, 32 miles northeast of St. Louis. 
Pop. (1890), 522; (1900), 544; (1910), 1,082. 

exhibition of the scientific, liberal and mechan- 
ical arts of all nations, held at Chicago, between 
May 1 and Oct. 31, 1893. The project had its 
inception in November, 1885, in a resolution 
adopted by the directorate of the Chicago Inter- 
State Exposition Company. On July 6, 1888, the 
first well defined action was taken, the Iroquois 
Club, of Chicago, inviting the co-operation of six 
other leading clubs of that city in "securing the 
location of an international celebration at Chi- 
cago of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
America by Columbus." In July, 1889, a decisive 
step was taken in the appointment by Mayor 
Cregier, under resolution of the City Council, of 
a committee of 100 (afterwards increased to 256) 
citizens, who were charged with the duty of 
promoting the selection of Chicago as the site for 
the Exposition. New York, Washington and St. 
Louis were competing points, but the choice of 
Congress fell upon Chicago, and the act establish- 
ing the World's Fair at that city was signed by 
President Harrison on April 25, 1890. Under the 
requirements of the law, the President appointed 
eight Commissioners-at-large, with two Commis- 
sioners and two alternates from each State and 
Territory and the District of Columbia. Col. 
George R. Davis, of Chicago, was elected Direc- 
tor-General by the body thus constituted. Ex- 
Senator Thomas M. Palmer, of Michigan, was 
chosen President of the Commission and John T. 
Dickinson, of Texas, Secretary. This Commis- 
sion delegated much of its power to a Board of 
Reference and Control, who were instructed to 
act with a similar number appointed by the 
World's Columbian Exposition. The latter 
organization was an incorporation, with a direc- 
torate of forty-five members, elected annually by 
the stockholders. Lyman J. Gage, of Chicago, 
was the first President of the corporation, and 
was succeeded by W. T. Baker and Harlow N. 

In addition to these bodies, certain powers were 
vested in a Board of Lady Managers, composed 
of two members, with alternates, from each 
State and Territory, besides nine from the city 
of Chicago. Mrs. Potter Palmer was chosen 
President of the latter. This Board was particu- 

larly charged with supervision of women's par- 
ticipation in the Exposition, and of the exhibits 
of women's work. 

The supreme executive power was vested in 
the Joint Board of Control. The site selected 
was Jackson Park, in the South Division of Chi- 
cago, with a strip connecting Jackson and 
Washington Parks, known as the "Midway 
Plaisance," which was surrendered to "conces- 
sionaires" who purchased the privilege of giving 
exhibitions, or conducting restaurants or selling- 
booths thereon. The total area of the site was 
633 acres, and that of the buildings not reckon- 
ing those erected by States other than Illinois, 
and by foreign governments was about 200 
acres. When to this is added the acreage of the 
foreign and State buildings, the total space 
under roof approximated 250 acres. These fig- 
ures do not include the buildings erected by 
private exhibitors, caterers and venders, which 
would add a small percentage to the grand total. 
Forty-seven foreign Governments made appropri- 
ations for the erection of their own buildings and 
other expenses connected with official represen- 
tation, and there were exhibitors from eighty-six 
nations. The United States Government erected 
its own building, and appropriated $500,000 to 
defray the expenses of a national exhibit, besides 
$2,500,000 toward the general cost of the Exposi- 
tion. The appropriations by foreign Governments 
aggregated about $6,500,000, and those by the 
States and Territories, $6,120,000 that of Illinois 
being $800,000. The entire outlay of the World's 
Columbian Exposition Company, up to March 31, 
1894, including the cost of preliminary organiza- 
tion, construction, operating and post-Exposition 
expenses, was $27,151,800. This is, of course, 
exclusive of foreign and State expenditures, 
which would swell the aggregate cost to nearly 
45,000,000. Citizens of Chicago subscribed 
$5,608,206 toward the capital stock of the Exposi- 
tion Company, and the municipality, $5,000,000, 
which was raised by the sale of bonds. (See 
Thirty -sixth General Assembly.) 

The site, while admirably adapted to the pur- 
pose, was, when chosen, a marshy flat, crossed 
by low sand ridges, upon which stood occasional 
clumps of stunted scrub oaks. Before the gates 
of the great fair were opened to the public, the 
entire area had been transformed into a dream of 
beauty. Marshes had been drained, filled in and 
sodded ; driveways and broad walks constructed ; 
artificial ponds and lagoons dug and embanked, 
and all the highest skill of the landscape garden- 
er's art had been called into play to produce 




Jackson Park 

showing the General Arrangement 


Buildings and Grounds 




varied and striking effects. But the task had 
been a Herculean one. There were seventeen 
principal (or, as they may be called, depart- 
mental) buildings, all of beautiful and ornate 
design, and all of vast size. They were known 
as the Manufacturers' and Liberal Arts, the 
Machinery, Electrical, Transportation, Woman's, 
Horticultural, Mines and Mining, Anthropolog- 
ical, Administration, Art Galleries, Agricultural, 
Art Institute, Fisheries, Live Stock, Dairy and 
Forestry buildings, and the Music Hall and Ca- 
sino. Several of these had large annexes. The 
Manufacturers' Building was the largest. It was 
rectangular (1687x787 feet), having a ground 
area of 31 acres and a floor and gallery area of 
44 acres. Its central chamber was 1280x380 
feet, with a nave 107 feet wide, both hall and 
nave being surrounded by a gallery 50 feet wide. 
It was four times as large as the Roman Coliseum 
and three times as large as St. Peter's at Rome ; 
17,000,000 feet of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of 
steel, and 2,000,000 pounds of iron had been used 
in its construction, involving a cost of 1,800,000. 

It was originally intended to open the Exposi- 
tion, formally, on Oct. 21, 1892, the quadri-centen- 
nial of Columbus' discovery of land on the 
Western Hemisphere, but the magnitude of the 
undertaking rendered this impracticable. Con- 
sequently, while dedicatory ceremonies were held 
on that day, preceded by a monster procession and 
followed by elaborate pyrotechnic displays at 
night, May 1, 1893, was fixed as the opening day 
the machinery and fountains being put in oper- 
ation, at the touch of an electric button by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, at the close of a short address. 
The total number of admissions from that date 
to Oct. 31, was 27,530,460 the largest for any 
single day being on Oct. 9 (Chicago Day) amount- 
ing to 761,944. The total receipts from all sources 
(including National and State appropriations, 
subscriptions, etc.), amounted to $28,151,168.75, 
of which $10,626,330.76 was from the sale of tick- 
ets, and 3,699,581.43 from concessions. The 
aggregate attendance fell short of that at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889 by about 500,000, while 
the receipts from the sale of tickets and con- 
cessions exceeded the latter by nearly $5,800,000. 
Subscribers to the Exposition stock received a 
return of ten per cent on the same. 

The Illinois building was the first of the State 
buildings to be completed. It was also the 
largest and most costly, but was severely criti- 
cised from an architectural standpoint. The 
exhibits showed the internal resources of the 
State, as well as the development of its govern- 

mental system, and its progress in civilization 
from the days of the first pioneers. The entire 
Illinois exhibit in the State building was under 
charge of the State Board of Agriculture, who 
devoted one-tenth of the appropriation, and a like 
proportion of floor space, to the exhibition of the 
work of Illinois women as scientists, authors, 
artists, decorators, etc. Among special features 
of the Illinois exhibit were: State trophies and 
relics, kept in a fire-proof memorial hall ; the dis- 
play of grains and minerals, and an immense 
topographical map (prepared at a cost of $15,000), 
drafted on a scale of two miles to the inch, show- 
ing the character and resources of the State, and 
correcting many serious cartographical errors 
previously undiscovered. 

WORTHEN, Amos Henry, scientist and State 
Geologist, was born at Bradford, Vt., Oct. 31, 
1813, emigrated to Kentucky in 1834, and, in 1836, 
removed to Illinois, locating at Warsaw. Teach- 
ing, surveying and mercantile business were his 
pursuits until 1842, when he returned to the 
East, spending two years in Boston, but return- 
ing to Warsaw in 1844. His natural predilections 
were toward the natural sciences, and, after 
coming west, he devoted most of his leisure time 
to the collection and study of specimens of 
mineralogy, geology and conchology. On the 
organization of the geological survey of Illinois 
in 1851, he was appointed assistant to Dr. J. G.- 
Norwood, then State Geologist, and, in 1858, suc- 
ceeded to the office, having meanwhile spent 
three years as Assistant Geologist in the first Iowa 
survey. As State Geologist he published seven 
volumes of reports, and was engaged upon the 
eighth when overtaken by death, May 6, 1888. 
These reports, which are as comprehensive as 
they are voluminous, have been reviewed and 
warmly commended by the leading scientific 
periodicals of this country and Europe In 1877 
field work was discontinued, and the State His- 
torical Library and Natural History Museum were 
established, Professor Worthen being placed in 
charge as curator. He was the author of various 
valuable scientific papers and member of numer- 
ous scientific societies in this country and in 

WORTHEVGTON, Nicholas Ellsworth, ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Brooke County, W. Va., 
March 30, 1836, and completed his education at 
Allegheny College, Pa. , studied Law at Morgan- 
town, Va., and was admitted to the bar in 1860. 
He is a resident of Peoria, and, by profession, a 
lawyer; was County Superintendent of Schools 
of Peoria County from 1868 to 1872, and a mem- 



her of the State Board of Education from 1869 to 
1872. In 1882 he was elected to Congress, as a 
Democrat, from the Tenth Congressional District, 
and re-elected in 1884. In 1886 he was again a 
candidate, but was defeated by his Republican 
opponent, Philip Sidney Post. He was elected 
Circuit Judge of the Tenth Judicial District in 
1891, and re-elected in 1897. In 1894 he served 
upon a commission appointed by President Cleve- 
land, to investigate the labor strikes of that year 
at Chicago. 

WRIGHT, John Stephen, manufacturer, was 
born at Sheffield, Mass., July 16, 1815; came to 
Chicago in 1832, with his father, who opened a 
store in that city ; in 1837, at his own expense, 
built the first school building in Chicago ; in 1840 
established "The Prairie Farmer," which he con- 
ducted for many years in the interest of popular 
education and progressive agriculture. In 1852 
he engaged in the manufacture of Atkins' self- 
raking reaper and mower, was one of the pro- 
moters of the Galena & Chicago Union and the 
Illinois Central Railways, and wrote a volume 
entitled, "Chicago: Past, Present and Future," 
published in 1870. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 26, 1874. 

WULFF, Henry, ex-State Treasurer, was born 
in Meldorf, Germany, August 24, 1854; came to 
Chicago in 1863, and began his political career as 
a Trustee of the town of Jefferson. In 1866 he 
was elected County Clerk of Cook County, and 
re-elected in 1890 ; in 1894 became the Republican 
nominee for State Treasurer, receiving, at the 
November election of that year, the unprece- 
dented plurality of 133,427 votes over his Demo- 
cratic opponent. Died Dec. 27, 1907. 

WYANET, a town of Bureau County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railways, 
7 miles southwest of Princeton. Population (1900), 
902; (1910), 872. 

WYLIE, (Rev.) Samuel, domestic missionary, 
born in Ireland and came to America in boyhood ; 
was educated at the University of Pennsylvania 
and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, and ordained in 1818. 
Soon after this he came west as a domestic mis- 
sionary and, in 1820, became pastor of a church 
at Sparta, 111. , where he remained until his death, 
March 20, 1872, after a pastorate of 52 years. 
During his pastorate the church sent out a dozen 
colonies to form new church organizations else- 
where. He is described as able, eloquent and 

WYMAN, (Col.) John B., soldier, was born in 
Massachusetts, July 12, 1817, and educated in the 

schools of that State until 14 years of age, when 
he became a clerk in a clothing store in his native 
town of Shrewsbury, later being associated with 
mercantile establishments in Cincinnati, and 
again in his native State. From 1846 to 1850 he 
was employed successively as a clerk in the car 
and machine shops at Springfield, Mass. , then as 
Superintendent of Construction, and, later, as con- 
ductor on the New York & New Haven Railroad, 
finally, in 1850, becoming Superintendent of the 
Connecticut River Railroad. In 1852 he entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, assisting in the survey and construction of 
the line under Col. R. B. Mason, the Chief Engi- 
neer, and finally becoming Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Northern Division. He was one 
of the original proprietors of the town of Amboy, 
in Lee County, and its first Mayor, also serving 
a second term. Having a fondness for military 
affairs, he was usually connected with some mili- 
tary organization while in Cincinnati being 
attached to a company, of which Prof. O. M. 
Mitchell, the celebrated astronomer (afterwards 
Major-General Mitchell), was Captain. After 
coming to Illinois he became Captain of the Chi- 
cago Light Guards. Having left the employ of 
the Railroad in 1858, he was in private business 
at Amboy at the beginning of the Civil War in 
1861. As Assistant- Adjutant General, by appoint- 
ment of Governor Yates, he rendered valuable 
service in the early weeks of the war in securing 
arms from Jefferson Barracks and in the organi- 
zation of the three-months' regiments. Then, 
having organized the Thirteenth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry the first organized in the State 
for the three years' service he was commis- 
sioned its Colonel, and, in July following, entered 
upon the duty of guarding the railroad lines in 
Southwest Missouri and Arkansas. The follow- 
ing year his regiment was attached to General 
Sherman's command in the first campaign 
against Vicksburg. On the second day of the 
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, he fell mortally 
wounded, dying on the field, Dec. 28, 1862. Colo- 
nel Wyman was one of the most accomplished 
and promising of the volunteer soldiers sent to 
the field from Illinois, of whom so many were 
former employes of the Illinois Central Rail- 

WYOMING, a town of Stark County, 31 miles 
north-northwest from Peoria, at the junction of 
the Peoria branch Rock Island & Pacific and the 
Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway ; has two high schools, churches, 
two banks, flour mills, water-works, machine 



shop, and two weekly newspapers. Coal is mined 
here. Population (1900), 1,277; (1910), 1,506. 

XENIA, a village of Clay County, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 87 miles 
east of St. Louis. Pop. (1900), 800; (1910), 634. 

TATES CITY, a village of Knox County, at the 
junction of the Peoria Division of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with the Rushville 
branch, 23 miles southeast of Galesburg. The 
town has banks, a coal mine, telephone exchange, 
school, churches and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
687; (1900), 650; (1910), 586. 

YATES, Henry, pioneer, was born in Caroline 
County, Va., Oct. 29, 1786 being a grand-nephew 
of Chief Justice John Marshall ; removed to Fa- 
yette County, Ky., where he located and laid out 
the town of Warsaw, which afterwards became 
the county-seat of Gallatin County. In 1831 he 
removed to Sangamon County, 111., and, in 1832, 
settled at the site of the present town of Berlin, 
which he laid out the following year, also laying 
out the town of New Berlin, a few years later, on 
the line of the Wabash Railway. He was father 
of Gov. Richard Yates. Died, Sept. 13, 1865. 
Henry (Yates), Jr., son of the preceding, was born 
at Berlin, 111. , March 7, 1835 ; engaged in merchan- 
dising at New Berlin ; in 1862, raised a company 
of volunteers for the One Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment Illinois Infantry, was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel and brevetted Colonel and Briga- 
dier-General. He was accidentally shot in 1863, 
and suffered sun-stroke at Little Rock, from 
which he never fully recovered. Died, August 
3, 1871. 

YATES, Richard, former Governor and United 
States Senator, was born at Warsaw, Ky., Jan. 
18, 1815, of English descent. In 1831 he accom- 
panied his father to Illinois, the family settling 
first at Springfield and later at Berlin, Sangamon 
County. He soon after entered Illinois College, 
from which he graduated in 1835, and subse- 
quently read law with Col. John J. Hardin, at 
Jacksonville, which thereafter became his home. 
In 1842 he was elected Representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly from Morgan County, and was 
re-elected in 1844, and again in 1848. In 1850 he 
was a candidate for Congress from the Seventh 
District and elected over Maj. Thomas L. Harris, 
the previous incumbent, being the only Whig 
Representative in the Thirty-second Congress 
from Illinois. Two years later he was re-elected 
over John Calhoun, but was defeated, in 1854, 
by his old opponent, Harris. He was one of the 

most vigorous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill in the Thirty-third Congress, and an early 
participant in the movement for the organization 
of the Republican party to resist the further 
extension of slavery, being a prominent speaker, 
on the same platform with Lincoln, before the 
first Republican State Convention held at Bloom- 
ington, in May, 1856, and serving as one of the 
Vice-Presidents of that body. In 1860 he was 
elected to the executive chair .on the ticket 
headed by Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 
and, by his energetic support of the National 
administration in its measures for the suppression 
of the Rebellion, won the sobriquet of "the Illi- 
nois War-Governor." In 1865 he was elected 
United States Senator, serving until 1871. He 
died suddenly, at St. Louis, Nov. 27, 1873, while 
returning from Arkansas, whither he had gone, 
as a United States Commissioner, by appointment 
of President Grant, to inspect a land-subsidy 
railroad. He was a man of rare ability, earnest- 
ness of purpose and extraordinary personal mag- 
netism, as well as of a lofty ordr of patriotism. 
His faults were those of a nature generous, 
impulsive and warm-hearted. 

YOKKVILLE, the county-seat of Kendall 
County, on Fox River and Streator Division of 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 12 miles 
southwest of Aurora; on interurban electric line; 
has water-power, electric lights, a bank, churches 
and weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 413; (1910), 431. 

YOUNG, Brigham, Mormon leader, was born 
at Whittingham, Vt., June 1, 1801, joined the 
Mormons in 1831 and, the next year, became asso- 
ciated with Joseph Smith, at Kirtland, Ohio, and, 
in 1835, an "apostle." He accompanied a con- 
siderable body of that sect to Independence, Mo. , 
but was driven out with them in 1837, settling 
for a short time at Quincy, 111. , but later remov- 
ing to Nauvoo, of which he was one of the foun- 
ders. On the assassination of Smith, in 1844, he 
became the successor of the latter, as head of the 
Mormon Church, and, the following year, headed 
the exodus from Illinois, which finally resulted in 
the Mormon settlement in Utah. His subsequent 
career there, where he was appointed Governor 
by President Fillmore, and, for a time, success- 
fully defied national authority, is a matter of 
national rather than State history. He remained 
at the head of the Mormon Church until his 
death at Salt Lake City, August 29, 1877. 

YOUNG, Richard Montgomery, United States 
Senator, was born in Kentucky in 1796, studied 
law and removed to Jonesboro, 111. , where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1817 ; served in the Second 



General Assembly (1820-22) as Representative 
from Union County ; was a Circuit Judge, 1825-27 ; 
Presidential Elector in 1828 ; Circuit Judge again, 
1829-37; elected United States Senator in 1837 as 
successor to W. L. D. Ewing, serving until 1843, 
when he was commissioned Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, but resigned in 1847 to become 
Commissioner of the General Land Office at 
Washington. During the session of 1850-51, he 
served as Clerk of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives. Died, in an insane asylum, in Wash- 
ington, in 1853. 

first permanently organized at Chicago, in 1858, 
although desultory movements of a kindred char- 
acter had previously been started at Peoria, 
Quincy, Chicago and Springfield, some as early 
as 1854. From 1858 to 1872, various associations 
were formed at different points throughout the 
State, which were entirely independent of each 
other. The first effort looking to union and 
mutual aid, was made in 1872, when Robert 
Weidensall, on behalf of the International Com- 
mittee, called a convention, to meet at Blooming- 
ton, November 6-9. State conventions have been 
held annually since 1872. In that of 1875, steps 
were taken looking to the appointment of a 
State Secretary, and, in 1876, Charles M. Morton 
assumed the office. Much evangelistic work was 
done, and new associations formed, the total 
number reported at the Champaign Convention, 
in 1877, being sixty -two. After one year's work 
Mr. Morton resigned the secretaryship, the office 
remaining vacant for three years. The question 
of the appointment of a successor was discussed 
at the Decatur Convention in 1879, and, in April, 
1880, I. B. Brown was made State Secretary, and 
has occupied the position to the present time 
(1899). At the date of his appointment the 
official figures showed sixteen associations in Illi- 
nois, with a total membership of 2,443, and prop- 
erty valued at $126,500, including building funds, 
the associations at Chicago and Aurora owning 
buildings. Thirteen officers were employed, 
none of them being in Chicago. Since 1880 the 
work has steadily grown, so that five Assistant 
State Secretaries are now employed. In 1886, a 
plan for arranging the State work under depart- 
mental administration was devised, but not put 
in operation until 1890. The present six depart- 
ments of supervision are : General Supervision, 
in charge of the State Secretary and his Assist- 
ants; railroad and city work; counties and 
towns; work among students; corresponding 
membership department, and office work. The 

two last named are under one executive head, 
but each of the others in charge of an Assistant 
Secretary, who is responsible for its development 
The entire work is under the supervision of a 
State Executive Committee of twenty-seven 
members, one-third of whom are elected annually. 
Willis H. Herrick of Chicago has been'its chair- 
man for several yeacs. This body is appointed 
by a State convention composed of delegates 
from the local Associations. Of these there were, 
in October, 1898, 116, with a membership of 
15,888. The value of the property owned was 
$2,500,000. Twenty-two occupy their own build- 
ings, of which five are for railroad men and one 
for students. Weekly gatherings for young men 
numbered 248, and there are now representatives 
or correspondents in 665 communities where no 
organization has been effected. Scientific phys- 
ical culture is made a feature by 40 associations, 
and educational work has been largely developed. 
The enrollment in evening classes, during 1898-99, 
was 978. The building of the Chicago branch 
(erected in 1893) is the finest of its class in the 
world. Recently a successful association has 
been formed among coal miners, and another 
among the first grade boys of the Illinois State 
Reformatory, while an extensive work has been 
conducted at the camps of the Illinois National 

/AM:, Charles S., lawyer and jurist, was born 
in Cumberland County, N. J., March 2, 1831, of 
English and New England stock. At the age of 
19 he emigrated to Sangamon County, 111., for a 
time working on a farm and at brick-making. 
From 1852 to '55 he attended McKendree College, 
but did not graduate, and, on leaving college, 
engaged in teaching, at the same time reading 
law. In 1857 he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice at Springfield. The follow- 
ing year he was elected City Attorney. He had 
for partners, at different times, William H. 
Herndon (once a partner of Abraham Lincoln) 
and Senator Shelby M. Cullom. In 1873 he was 
elected a Judge of the Circuit Court for the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, and was re-elected in 1879. In 
1883 President Arthur appointed him Chief Jus- 
tice of Utah, where he has since resided, though 
superseded by the appointment of a successor by 
President Cleveland. At the first State elec- 
tion in Utah, held in November, 1895, he was 
chosen one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the new Commonwealth, but was defeated 
for re-election, by his Democratic opponent, in 



The Peristyle. Administration Building. German Building. 

The Fisheries. 


The following matter, received too late for insertion In the body of this work. Is added In the form of a supplement 

COGHLAN, (Capt.) Joseph Bullock, naval 

officer, was born in Kentucky, and, at the age of 
15 years, came to Illinois, living on a farm, for a 
time near Carlyle, in Clinton County. In 1860 he 
was appointed by his uncle, Hon. Philip B. 
Fouke then a Representative in Congress from 
the Belleville District to the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, graduating in 1863, and being pro- 
moted through the successive grades of Ensign, 
Master, Lieutenant, Lieutenant-Commander, and 
Commander, and serving upon various vessels 
until Nov. 18, 1890, when he was commissioned 
Captain and, in 1897, assigned to the command 
of the battleship Raleigh, on the Asiatic Station. 
He was thus connected with Admiral Dewey's 
squadron at the beginning of the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War, and took a conspicuous and brilliant part 
in the affair in Manila Bay, on May 1, 1898, which 
resulted in the destruction of the Spanish fleet 
Captain Coghlan's connection with subsequent 
events in the Philippines was "in the highest 
degree creditable to himself and the country. 
His vessel (the Raleigh) was the first of Admiral 
Dewey's squadron to return home, coming by 
way of the Suez Canal, in the summer of 1899, he 
and his crew receiving an immense ovation on 
their arrival in New York harbor. 

CRANE, (Rev.) James Lyons, clergyman, 
army chaplain, was born at Mt. Eaton, Wayne 
County, Ohio, August 30, 1823, united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Cincinnati in 
1841, and, coming to Edgar County, Illinois, in 
1843, attended a seminary at Paris some three 
years. He joined the Illinois Conference in 1846, 
and was assigned to the Danville circuit, after- 
wards presiding over charges at Grandview, Hills- 
boro, Alton, Jacksonville, and Springfield at the 
last two points being stationed two or more 
times, besides serving as Presiding Elder of the 
Paris, Danville, and Springfield Districts. The 
importance of the stations which he filled during 
his itinerant career served as evidence of his 
recognized ability and popularity as a preacher. 

In July, 1861, he was appointed Chaplain of the 
Twenty-first Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at 
that time commanded by Ulysses S. Grant as 
Colonel, and, although he remained with the 
regiment only a few months, the friendship then 
established between him and the future com- 
mander of the armies of the Union lasted through 
their lives. This was shown by his appointment 
by President Grant, in 1869, to the position of 
Postmaster of the city of Springfield, which came 
to him as a personal compliment, being re- 
appointed four years afterwards and continuing 
in office eight years. After retiring from the 
Springfield postoffice, he occupied charges at 
Island Grove and Shelby ville, his death occurring 
at the latter place, July 29, 1879, as the result of 
an attack of paralysis some two weeks previous. 
Mr. Crane was married in 1847 to Miss Elizabeth 
Mayo, daughter of CoL J. Mayo a prominent 
citizen of Edgar County, at an early day his 
wife surviving him some twenty years. Rev. 
Charles A. Crane and Rev. Frank Crane, pastors 
of prominent Methodist churches in Boston and 
Chicago, are sons of the subject of this sketch. 

DAWES, Charles Gates, Comptroller of the 
Treasury, was born at Marietta, Ohio, August 27, 
1865; graduated from Marietta College in 1884, 
and from the Cincinnati Law School in 1886; 
worked at civil engineering during his vacations, 
finally becoming Chief Engineer of the Toledo & 
Ohio Railroad. Between 1887 and 1894 he waa 
engaged in the practice of law at Lincoln, Neb., 
but afterwards became interested in the gas busi- 
ness in various cities, including Evanston, I1L, 
which became his home. In 1896 he took a lead- 
ing part in securing instructions by the Republi- 
can State Convention at Springfield in favor of 
the nomination of Mr. McKinley for the Presi- 
dency, and during the succeeding campaign 
served as a member of the National Republican 
Committee for the State of Illinois. Soon after 
the accession of President McKinley, he was 
appointed Comptroller of the Treasury, a position 




which he now holds. Mr. Dawes is the son of 
R. B. Dawes, a former Congressman from Ohio, 
and the great-grandson of Manasseh Cutler, who 
was an influential factor in the early history of 
the Northwest Territory, and has been credited 
with exerting a strong influence in shaping and 
securing the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787. 

DISTIN, (Col.) William L., former Depart- 
ment Commander of Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic for the State of Illinois, was born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 9, 1843, his father being of 
English descent, while his maternal grandfather 
was a Colonel of the Polish Lancers in the army 
f the first Napoleon, who, after the exile of his 
leader, came to America, settling in Indiana. 
The father of the subject of this sketch settled at 
Keokuk, Iowa, where the son grew to manhood 
and in February, 1863, enlisted as a private in the 
Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, having been twice 
rejected previously on account of physical ail- 
ment. Soon after enlistment he was detailed for 
provost-marshal duty, but later took part with 
his regiment in the campaign in Alabama. He 
served for a time in the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
under Gen. John A. Logan, was subsequently 
detailed for duty on the Staff of General Raum, 
and participated in the battles of Resaca and 
Tilton, Ga. Having been captured in the latter, 
he was imprisoned successively at Jacksonville 
(Ga.), Montgomery, Savannah, and finally at 
Andersonville. From the latter he succeeded in 
effecting his escape, but was recaptured and 
returned to that famous prison-pen. Having 
escaped a second time by assuming the name of 
a dead man and bribing the guard, he was again 
captured and imprisoned at various points in Mis- 
sissippi until exchanged about the time of the 
assassination of President Lincoln. He was then 
so weakened by his long confinement and scanty 
fare that he had to be carried on board the 
steamer on a stretcher. At this time he narrowly 
escaped being on board the steamer Sultana, 
which was blown up below Cairo, with 2,100 
soldiers on board, a large proportion of whom lost 
their lives. After being mustered out at Daven- 
port, Iowa, June 28, 1865, he was employed for a 
time on the Des Moines Valley Railroad, and as a 
messenger and route agent of the United States 
Express Company. In 1872 he established him- 
self in business in Quincy, 111., in which he 
proved very successful. Here he became prom- 
inent in local Grand Army circles, and, in 1890, 
was unanimously elected Commander of the 
Department of Illinois. Previous to this he had 
been an officer of the Illinois National Guard, and 

served as Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of 
Colonel, on the staff of Governors Hamilton, 
Oglesby and Fifer. In 1897 Colonel Distin was 
appointed by President McKinley Surveyor-Gen- 
eral for the Territory of Alaska, a position which 
(1899) he still holds. 

DUMMEK, Henry E., lawyer, was born at 
Hallowell, Maine, April 9, 1808, was educated in 
Bowdoin College, graduating there in the class of 
1827, after which he took a course in law at Cam- 
bridge Law School, and was soon after admitted 
to the bar. Then, having spent some two years 
in his native State, in 1833 he removed to Illinois, 
settling first in Springfield, where he remained six 
years, being for a part of the time a partner of 
John T. Stuart, who afterwards became the first 
partner in law of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Dum- 
mer had a brother, Richard William Dummer, 
who had preceded him to Illinois, living for a 
time in Jacksonville. In 1838 he removed to 
Beardstown, Cass County, which continued to be 
his home for more than a quarter of a century. 
During his residence there he served as Alder- 
man, City Attorney and Judge of Probate for 
Cass County ; also represented Cass County in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1847, and, in 1860, 
was elected State Senator in the Twenty-second 
General Assembly, serving four years. Mr. 
Dummer was an earnest Republican, and served 
that party as a delegate for the State-at-large to 
the Convention of 1864, at Baltimore, which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency a 
second time. In 1864 he removed to Jackson- 
ville, and for the next year was the law partner 
of David A. Smith, until the death of the latter 
in 1865. In the summer of 1878 Mr. Dummer 
went to Mackinac, Mich., in search of health, but 
died there August 12 of that year. 

ECKELS, James H., ex-Comptroller of the 
Currency, was born of Scotch-Irish parentage at 
Princeton, 111., Nov. 22, 1858, was educated in 
the common schools and the high school of his 
native town, graduated from the Law School at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1881, and the following year 
began practice at Ottawa, 111. Here he con- 
tinued in active practice until 1893, when he was 
appointed by President Cleveland Comptroller of 
the Currency, serving until May 1, 1898, when he 
resigned to accept the presidency of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Chicago. Mr. Eckels 
manifested such distinguished ability in the dis- 
charge of his duties as Comptroller that he 
received the notable compliment of being 
retained in office by a Republican administration 
more than a year after the retirement of Presi- 



dent Cleveland, while his selection for a place at 
the head of one of the leading banking institu- 
tions of Chicago was a no less marked recognition 
of his abilities as a financier. He was a Delegate 
from the Eleventh District to the National 
Democratic Convention at Chicago in 1892, and 
represented the same district in the Gold Demo- 
cratic Convention at Indianapolis in 1896, and 
assisted in framing the platform there adopted 
which indicated his views on the financial ques- 
tions involved in that campaign. Died Apr. 14, 1908. 
FIELD, Daniel, early merchant, was born in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, Nov. 30, 1790, and 
settled at Golconda, 111., in 1818, dying there in 
1855. He was a man of great enterprise, engaged 
in merchandising, and became a large land- 
holder, farmer and stock-grower, and an extensive 
shipper of stock and produce to lower Mississippi 
markets. He married Elizabeth Dailey of 
Charleston, Ind., and raised a large family of 
children, one of whom, Philip D., became Sheriffi 
while another, John, was County Judge of Pope 
County. His daughter, Maria, married Gen. 
Green B. Raum, who became prominent as a 
soldier during the Civil War and, later, as a mem- 
ber of Congress and Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue and Pension Commissioner in Wash- 

FIELD, Green B., member of a pioneer family, 
was born within the present limits of the State of 
Indiana in 1787, served as a Lieutenant in the 
War of 1812, was married in Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, to Miss Mary E. Cogswell, the 
daughter of Dr. Joseph Cogswell, a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War, and, in 1817, removed to 
Pope County, Illinois, where he laid off the town 
of Golconda, which became the county-seat. He 
served as a Representative from Pope County in 
the First General Assembly (1818-20), and was 
the father of Juliet C. Field, who became the 
wife of John Raum; of Edna Field, the wife of 
Dr. Tarlton Dunn, and of Green B. Field, who 
was a Lieutenant in Third Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers during the Mexican War. Mr. Field 
was the grandfather of Gen. Green B. Raum, 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. He died 
of yellow fever in Louisiana in 1823. 

GALE, Stephen Francis, first Chicago book- 
seller and a railway promoter, was born at 
Exeter, N. H., March 8, 1812; at 15 years of age 
became clerk in a leading book-store in Boston; 
came to Chicago in 183o, and soon afterwards 
opened the first book and stationery establish- 
ment in that city, which, in after years, gained 
an extensive trade. In 1842 the firm of S. F. 

Gale & Co. was organized, but Mr. Gale, having 
become head of the Chicago Fire Department, 
retired from business in 1845 As early as 1848 
he was associated with W m. B. Ogden and John 
B. Turner in the steps then being taken to revive 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (now a 
part of the Chicago & Northwestern), and, in 
conjunction with these gentlemen, became 
responsible for the means to purchase the charter 
and assets of the road from the Eastern bond- 
holders. Later, he engaged in the construction 
of the branch road from Turner Junction to 
Aurora, became President of the line and ex- 
tended it to Mendota to connect with the Illinois 
Central at that Point. These roads afterwards 
became a part of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy line. A number of years ago Mr. Gale 
returned to his old home in New Hampshire, 
where he has since resided. 

HAT, John, early settler, came to the region of 
Kaskaskia between 1790 and 1800, and became a 
prominent citizen of St., Clair County. He was 
selected as a member of the First Legislative 
Council of Indiana Territory for St. Clair County 
in 1805. In 1809 he was appointed Clerk of the 
Common Pleas Court of St. Clair County, and 
was continued in office after the organization of 
the State Government, serving until his death at 
Belleville in 1845. 

HATS, John, pioneer settler of Northwest Ter- 
ritory, was a native of New York, who came to 
Cahokia, in the "Illinois Country," in 1793, and 
lived there the remainder of his life. His early 
life had been spent in the fur-trade about Macki- 
nac, in the Lake of the Woods region and about 
the sources of the Mississippi. During the War 
of 1812 he was able to furnish Governor Edwards 
valuable information in reference to the Indians 
in the Northwest. He filled the office of Post- 
master at Cahokia for a number of years, and was 
Sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 1818. 

MOULTON, (Col.) George M., soldier and 
building contractor, was born at Readsburg, Vt., 
March 15, 1851, came early in life to Chicago, and 
was educated in the schools of that city. By pro- 
fession he is a contractor and builder, the firm of 
which he is a member having been connected 
with the construction of a number of large build- 
ings, including some extensive grain elevators. 
Colonel Moulton became a member of the Second 
Regiment Illinois National Guard in June, 1884, 
being elected to the office of Major, which he 
retained until January, 1893, when he was 
appointed Inspector of Rifle Practice on the staff 
of General Wheeler. A year later he was com 



missioned Colonel of the regiment, a position 
which he occupied at the time of the call by the 
President for troops to serve in the Spanish- 
American War in April, 1898. He promptly 
answered the call, and was sworn into the United 
States service at the head of his regiment early 
in May. The regiment was almost immediately 
ordered to Jacksonville, Fla., remaining there 
and at Savannah, Ga., until early in December, 
when it was transferred to Havana, Cuba. Here 
he was soon after appointed Chief of Police for 
the city of Havana, remaining in office until the 
middle of January, 1899, when he returned to his 
regiment, then stationed at Camp Columbia, near 
the city of Havana. In the latter part of March 
he returned with his regiment to Augusta, Ga., 
where it was mustered out, April 26, 1899, one 
year from the date of its arrival at Springfield. 
After leaving the service Colonel Moulton 
resumed his business as a contractor. 

SHERMAN, Lawrence T., legislator and 
Speaker of the Forty-first General Assembly, was 
born in Miami County, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1858; at 3 
years of age came to Illinois, his parents settling 
at Industry, McDonough County. When he had 
reached the age of 10 years he went to Jasper 
County, where he grew to manhood, received his 
education in the common schools and in the law 

department of McKendree College, graduating 
from the latter, and, in 1881, located at Macomb, 
McDonough County. Here he began his career 
by driving a team upon the street in order to 
accumulate means enabling him to devote his 
entire attention to his chosen profession of law. 
He soon took an active interest in politics, was 
elected County Judge in 1886, and, at the expira- 
tion of his term, formed a partnership with 
George D. Tunnicliffe and D. G. Tunnicliffe, 
ex-Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1894 he was 
a candidate for the Republican nomination for 
Representative in the General Assembly, but 
withdrew to prevent a split in the party; was 
nominated and elected in 1896, and re-elected in 
1898, and, at the succeeding -session of the 
Forty-first General Assembly, was nominated 
by the Republican caucus and elected Speaker, 
as he was again of the Forty -second in 1901. 

VINYARD, Philip, early legislator, was born 
in Pennsylvania in 1800, came to Illinois at an 
early day, and settled in Pope County, which he 
represented in the lower branch of the Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth General Assemblies. He married 
Miss Matilda McCoy, the daughter of a prominent 
Illinois pioneer, and served as Sheriff of Pope 
County for a number of years. Died, at Gol- 
conda," in 1862. 


BLACK HAWK WAR, THE. The episode 
known in history under the name of "The Black 
Hawk War," was the most formidable conflict 
between the whites and Indians, as well as the 
most far-reaching in its results, that ever oc- 
curred upon the soil of Illinois. It takes its 
name from the Indian Chief, of the Sac tribe, 
Black Hawk (Indian name, Makatai Meshekia- 
kiak, meaning "Black Sparrow Hawk"), who 
was the leader of the hostile Indian band and a 
principal factor in the struggle. Black Hawk 
had been an ally of the British during the War 
of 1812-15, served with Tecumseh when the lat- 
ter fell at the battle of the Thames in 1813, and, 
after the war, continued to maintain friendly re- 
lations with his "British father." The outbreak 

in Illinois had its origin in the construction 
put upon the treaty negotiated by Gen. William 
Henry Harrison with the Sac and Fox Indians 
on bekalf of the United States Government, No- 
vember 3, 1804, under which the Indians trans- 
ferred to the Government nearly 15,000,000 acres 
of land comprising the region lying between the 
Wisconsin River on the north, Fox River of Illi- 
nois on the east and southeast, and the Mississippi 
on the west, for which the Government agreed to 
pay to the confederated tribes less than $2, 500 in 
goods and the insignificant sum of $1,000 per an- 
num in perpetuity. While the validity of the 
treaty was denied on the part of the Indians on the 
ground that it had originally been entered into by 
their chiefs under duress, while held as prisoners 



under a charge of murder at Jefferson Barracks, 
during which they had been kept in a state of con- 
stant intoxication, it had teen repeatedly reaf- 
firmed by parts or all of the tribe, especially in 
1815, in 1816, in 1822 and in 1823, and finally recog- 
nized by Black Hawk himself in i831. The part of 
the treaty of 1804 which was the immediate cause 
of the disagreement was that which stipulated 
that, so long as the lands ceded under it remained 
the property of the United States (that is, should 
not be transferred to private owners), ' 'the Indians 
belonging to the said tribes shall enjoy the priv- 
ilege of living or hunting upon them." Al- 
though these lands had not been put upon the 
market, or even surveyed, as "squatters" multi- 
plied in' this region little respect was paid to the 
treaty rights of the Indians, particularly with 
reference to those localities where, by reason of 
fertility of the soil or some other natural advan- 
tage, the Indians had established something like 
permanent homes and introduced a sort of crude 
cultivation. This was especially the case with 
reference to the Sac village of "Saukenuk" on 
the north bank of Rock River near its mouth, 
where the Indians, when not absent on the chase, 
had lived for over a century, had cultivated 
fields of corn and vegetables and had buried their 
dead. In the early part of the last century, it is 
estimated that some five hundred families had 
been accustomed to congregate here, making it 
the largest Indian village in the West. As early 
as 1823 the encroachments of squatters on the 
rights claimed by the Indians under the treaty 
of 1804 began ; their fields were taken possession 
of by the intruders, their lodges burned and their 
women and children whipped and driven away 
during the absence of the men on their annual 
hunts. The dangers resulting from these con- 
flicts led Governor Edwards, as early as 1828, to 
demand of the General Government the expul- 
sion of the Indians from Illinois, which resulted 
in an order from President Jackson in 1829 for 
their removal west of the Mississippi. On appli- 
cation of Col. George Davenport, a trader of 
much influence with the Indians, the time was 
extended to April 1, 1830. During the preceding 
year Colonel Davenport and the firm of Davenport 
and Farnham bought from the United States Gov- 
ernment most of the lands on Rock River occupied 
by Black Hawk's band, with the intention, as has 
been claimed, of permitting the Indians to remain. 
This was not so understood by Black Hawk, who 
was greatly incensed, although Davenport offered 
to take other lands from the Government in ex- 
change or cancel the sale an arrangement to 

which President Jackson would not consent. On 
their return in the spring of 1830, the Indians 
found whites in possession of their village. Pre- 
vented from cultivating their fields, and their 
annual hunt proving unsuccessful, the following 
winter proved for them one of great hardship. 
Black Hawk, having made a visit to his " British 
father" (the British Agent) at Maiden, Canada, 
claimed to have received words of sympathy and 
encouragement, which induced him to determine 
to regain possession of their fields. In this he 
was encouraged by Neapope, his second in com- 
mand, and by assurance of support from White 
Cloud, a half Sac and half Winnebago known 
also as "The Prophet " whose village (Prophet's 
Town) was some forty miles from the mouth 
of Rock River, and through whom Black Hawk 
claimed to have leceived promises of aid in guns, 
ammunition and provisions from the British. 
The reappearance of Black Hawk's band in the 
vicinity of his old haunts, in the spring of 1831, 
produced a wild panic among the frontier settlers. 
Messages were hurried to Governor Reynolds, 
who had succeeded Governor Edwards in De- 
cember previous, appealing for protection against 
the savages. The Governor issued a call for 700 
volunteers " to remove the band of Sac Indians " 
at Rock Island beyond the Mississippi. Al- 
though Gen. E. P. Gaines of the regular army, 
commanding the military district, thought the 
regulars sufficiently strong to cope with the situa- 
tion, the Governor's proclamation was responded 
to by more than twice the number called for. 
The volunteers assembled early in June, 1831, at 
Beardstown, the place of rendezvous named in 
the call, and having been organized into two regi- 
ments under command of Col. James D. Henrj and 
Col. Daniel Lieb, with a spy battalion under Gen. 
Joseph Duncan, marched across the country and, 
after effecting a junction with General Gaines' 
regulars, appeared before Black Hawk's village on 
the 25th of June. In the meantime General 
Gaines, having learned that the Pottawatomies, 
Winnebagos and Kickapoos had promised to join 
the Sacs in their uprising, asked the assistance of 
the battalion of mounted men previously offered 
by Governor Reynolds. The combined armies 
amounted to 2,500 men, while the fighting force 
of the Indians was 300. Finding himself over- 
whelmingly outnumbered, Black Hawk withdrew 
under cover of night to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi. After burning the village, General Gaines 
notified Black Hawk of his intention to pursue 
and attack his band, which had the effect to 
bring the fugitive chief to the General's head- 



quarters, where, on June 30, a new treaty was 
entered into by which he bound himself and his 
people to remain west of the Mississippi unless 
permitted to return by the United States. This 
ended the campaign, and the volunteers returned 
to their homes, although the affair had produced 
an intense excitement along the whole frontier, 
and involved a heavy expense. 

The next winter was spent by Black Hawk and 
his band on the site of old Fort Madison, in the 
present State of Iowa. Dissatisfied and humil- 
iated by his repulse of the previous year, in disre- 
gard of his pledge to General Gaines, on April 6, 
1832, at the head of 500 warriors and their fam- 
ilies, he again crossed the Mississippi at Yel- 
low Banks about the site of the present city of 
Oquawka, fifty miles below Rock Island, with the 
intention, as claimed, if not permitted to stop at 
his old village, to proceed to the Prophet's Town 
and raise a crop with the Winnebagoes. Here he 
was met by The Prophet with renewed assurances 
of aid from the Winnebagoes, which was still 
further strengthened by promises from the Brit- 
ish Agent received through a visit by Neapope to 
Maiden the previous autumn. An incident of this 
Invasion was the effective warning given to the 
white settlers by Shabona, a friendly Ottawa 
chief, which probably had the effect to prevent 
a widespread massacre. Besides the towns of 
Galena and Chicago, the settlements in Illinois 
north of Fort Clark (Peoria) were limited to some 
thirty families on Bureau Creek with a few 
cabins at Hennepin, Peru, LaSalle, Ottawa, In- 
dian Creek, Dixon, Kellogg's Grove, Apple Creek, 
and a few other points. Gen. Henry Atkinson, 
commanding the regulars at Fort Armstrong 
(Rock Island), having learned of the arrival of 
Black Hawk a week after he crossed the Missis- 
sippi, at once took steps to notify Governor Rey- 
nolds of the situation with a requisition for an 
adequate force of militia to cooperate with the 
regulars. Under date of April 16, 1832, the Gov- 
ernor issued his call for "a strong detachment of 
militia " to meet by April 22, Beardstown again 
being named as a place of rendezvous. The call 
resulted in the assembling of a force which was 
organized into four regiments under command of 
Cols. John DeWitt, Jacob Fry, John Thomas and 
Samuel M. Thompson, together with a spy bat- 
talion under Maj. James D. Henry, an odd bat- 
talion under Maj. Thomas James and a foot 
battalion under Maj. Thomas Long. To these were 
subsequently added two independent battalions 
of mounted men, under command of Majors 
Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey, which were 

finally consolidated as the Fifth Regiment undei 
command of Col. James Johnson. The organiza 
tion of the first four regiments at Beardstown 
was completed by April 27, and the force under 
command of Brigadier-General Whiteside (but 
accompanied by Governor Reynolds, who was 
allowed pay as Major General by the General 
Government) began its inarch to Fort Armstrong, 
arriving there May 7 and being mustered into the 
United States service. Among others accompany- 
ing the expedition who were then, or afterwards 
became, noted citizens of the State, were Vital 
Jarrot, Adjutant-General; Cyrus Edwards, Ord- 
nance Officer; Murray McConnel, Staff Officer, 
and Abraham Lincoln, Captain of a company of 
volunteers from Sangamon County in the Fourth 
Regiment. Col. Zachary Taylor, then commander 
of a regiment of regulars, arrived at Fort Arm- 
strong about the same time with reinforcements 
from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Crawford. The 
total force of militia amounted to 1,935 men, and 
of regulars about 1,000. An interesting story is 
told concerning a speech delivered to the volun- 
teers by Colonel Taylor about this time. After 
reminding them of their duty to obey an order 
promptly, the future hero of the Mexican War 
added: " The safety of all depends upon the obe- 
dience and courage of all. You are citizen sol- 
diers; some of you may fill high offices, or even be 
Presidents some day but not if you refuse to do 
your duty. Forward, march!" A curious com- 
mentary upon this speech is furnished in the fact 
that, while Taylor himself afterwards became 
President, at least one of his hearers a volunteer 
who probably then had no aspiration to that dis- 
tinction (Abraham Lincoln) reached the same 
position during the most dramatic period in the 
nation's history. 

Two days after the arrival at Fort Armstrong, 
the advance up Rock River began, the main force 
of the volunteers proceeding by land under Gen- 
eral Whiteside, while General Atkinson, with 
400 regular and 300 volunteer foot soldiers, pro- 
ceeded by boat, carrying with him the artillery, 
provisions and bulk of the baggage. Whiteside, 
advancing by the east bank of the river, was the 
first to arrive at the Prophet's Town, which, 
finding deserted, he pushed on to Dixon's Ferry 
(now Dixon), where he arrived May 12. Here he 
found the independent battalions of Stillman and 
Bailey with ammunition and supplies of which 
Whiteside stood in need. The mounted battalions 
under command of Major Stillman, having been 
sent forward by Whiteside as a scouting party, 
left Dixon on the 13th and, on the afternoon of 





the next day, went into camp in a strong position 
near the mouth of Sycamore Creek. As soon dis- 
covered, Black Hawk was in camp at the same 
time, as he afterwards claimed, with about forty 
of his braves, on Sycamore Creek, three miles 
distant, while the greater part of his band were en- 
camped with the more war-like faction of the Pot- 
tawatomies some seven miles farther north on the 
Kishwaukee River. As claimed by Black Hawk 
in his autobiography, having been disappointed in 
his expectation of forming an alliance with the 
Winnebagoes and the Pottawatomies, he had at 
this juncture determined to return to the west 
side of the Mississippi. Hearing of the arrival of 
Stillman's command in the vicinity, and taking 
it for granted that this was the whole of Atkin- 
son's command, he sent out three of his young 
men with a white flag, to arrange a parley and 
convey to Atkinson his offer to meet the latter in 
council. These were captured by some of Still- 
man's band regardless of their flag of truce, while 
a party of five other braves who followed to ob- 
serve the treatment received by the flagbearers, 
were attacked and two of their number killed, the 
the other three escaping to their camp. Black 
Hawk learning the fate of his truce party was 
aroused to the fiercest indignation. Tearing the 
flag to pieces with which he had intended to go 
into council with the whites, and appealing to his 
followers to avenge the murder of their comrades, 
he prepared for the attack. The rangers num- 
bered 275 men, while Black Hawk's band has been 
estimated at less than forty. As the rangers 
caught sight of the Indians, they rushed forward 
in pell-mell fashion. Retiring behind a fringe 
of bushes, the Indians awaited the attack. As 
the rangers approached, Black Hawk and his 
party rose up with a war whoop, at the same time 
opening fire on their assailants. The further 
history of the affair was as much of a disgrace to 
Stillman's command as had been their desecra- 
tion of the flag of truce. Thrown into panic by 
their reception by Black Hawk's little band, the 
rangers turned and, without firing a shot, began 
the retreat, dashing through their own camp and 
abandoning everything, which fell into the hands 
of the Indians. An attempt was made by one or 
two officers and a few of their men to check the 
retreat, but without success, the bulk of the fu- 
gitives continuing their mad rush for safety 
through the night until they reached Dixon, 
twenty-five miles distant, while many never 
stopped until they reached their homes, forty 
or fifty miles distant. The casualties to the 
rangers amounted to eleven killed and two 

wounded, while the Indian loss consisted of two 
spies and one of the flag-bearers, treacherously 
killed near Stillman's camp, 'ihis ill-starred af- 
fair, which has passed into history as "Stillman's 
defeat," produced a general panic along the fron- 
tier by inducing an exaggerated estimate of the 
strength of the Indian force, while it led Black 
Hawk to form a poor opinion of the courage ct 
the white troops at the same time that it led to 
an exalted estimate of the prowess of his own 
little band thus becoming an important factor 
in prolonging the war and in the bloody massacres 
which followed. Whiteside, with his force of 
1,400 men, advanced to the scene of the defeat 
the next day and buried the dead, while on the 
19th, Atkinson, with his force of regulars, pro- 
ceeded up Rock River, leaving the remnant of 
Stillman's force to guard the wounded and sup- 
plies at Dixon. No sooner had he left than the 
demoralized fugitives of a few days before de- 
serted their post for their homes, compelling At- 
kinson to return for the protection of his base of 
supplies, while Whiteside was ordered to follow 
the trail of Black Hawk who had started up the 
Kishwaukee for the swamps about Lake Kosh- 
konong, nearly west of Milwaukee within the 
present State of Wisconsin. 

At this point the really active stage of the 
campaign began. Black Hawk, leaving the 
women and children of his band in the fastnesses 
of the swamps, divided his followers into two 
bands, retaining about 200 under his own com- 
mand, while the notorious half-breed, Mike Girty, 
led a band of one hundred renegadePottawatomies. 
Returning to the vicinity of Rock Island, he 
gathered some recruits from the Pottawatomies 
and Winnebagoes, and the work of rapine and 
massacre among the frontier settlers began. One 
of the most notable of these was the Indian 
Creek Massacre in LaSalle County, about twelve 
miles north of Ottawa, on May 21, when sixteen 
persons were killed at the Home of William 
Davis, and two young girls Sylvia and Rachel 
Hall, aged, respectively, 17 and 15 years were 
carried away captives. The girls were subse- 
quently released, having been ransomed for $2,000 
in horses and trinkets through a Winnebago 
Chief and surrendered to sub-agent Henry 
Gratiot. Great as was the emergency at this 
juncture, the volunteers began to manifest evi- 
dence of dissatisfaction and, claiming that they 
had served out their term of enlistment, refused 
to follow the Indians into the swamps of Wis 
consin. As the result of a council of war, the 
volunteers were ordered to Ottawa, where they 



were mustered out on May 28, by Lieut. Robt. 
Anderson, afterwards General Anderson of Fort 
Sumter fame. Meanwhile Governor Reynolds had 
issued his call (with that of 1831 the third,) for 
2.000 men to serve during the war. Gen. 
Winfield Scott was also ordered from the East 
with 1,000 regulars although, owing to cholera 
breaking out among the troops, they did not 
arrive in time to take part in the campaign. The 
rank and file of volunteers responding under the 
new call was 3,148, with recruits and regulars 
then in Illinois making an army of 4,000. Pend- 
ing the arrival of the troops under the new call, 
and to meet an immediate emergency, 300 men 
were enlisted from the disbanded rangers for a 
period of twenty days, and organized into a 
regiment under command of Col. Jacob Fry, 
with James D. Henry as Lieutenant Colonel and 
John Thomas as Major. Among those who en- 
listed as privates in this regiment were Brig.- 
Gen. Whiteside and Capt. Abraham Lincoln. A 
regiment of five companies, numbering 195 men, 
from Putnam County under command of Col. 
John Strawn, and another of eight companies 
from Vermilion County under Col. Isaac R. 
Moore, were organized and assigned to guard 
duty for a period of twenty days. 

The new volunteers were rendezvoused at Fort 
Wilbourn, nearly opposite Peru, June 15, and 
organized into three brigades, each consisting of 
three regiments and a spy battalion. The First 
Brigade (915 strong) was placed under command 
of Brig. -Gen. Alexander Posey, the Second 
under Gen. Milton K. Alexander, and the third 
under Gen. James D. Henry. Others who served 
as officers in some of these several organizations, 
and afterwards became prominent in State his- 
tory, were Lieut. -Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard of the 
Vermilion County regiment; John A. McClern- 
and, on the staff of General Posey ; Maj. John 
Dement ; then State Treasurer ; Stinson H. Ander- 
son, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; Lieut. - 
Gov. Zadoc Casey; Maj., William McHenry; 
Sidney Breese (afterwards Judge of the State 
Supreme Court and United States Senator) ; W. 
L. D. Ewing (as Major of a spy battalion, after- 
wards United States Senator and State Auditor) ; 
Alexander W. Jenkins (afterwards Lieutenant- 
Governor) ; James W. Semple (afterwards United 
States Senator) ; and William Weatherford (after- 
wards a Colonel in the Mexican War), and many 
more. Of the Illinois troops, Posey's brigade 
was assigned to the duty of dispersing the Indians 
between Galena and Rock River, Alexander's sent 
to intercept Black Hawk up the Rock River, 

while Henry's remained with Gen. Atkinson at 
Dixon. During the next two weeks engage- 
ments of a more or less serious charactei were 
had on the Pecatonica on the southern border of 
the present State of Wisconsin ; at Apple River 
Fort fourteen miles east of Galena, which was 
successfully defended against a force under Black 
Hawk himself, and at Kellogg's Grove the next 
day (June 25), when the same band ambushed 
Maj. Dement's spy battalion, and cam'i near in- 
flicting a defeat, which was prevented by 
Dement's coolness and the timely arrival of re- 
inforcements. In the latter engagement the 
whites lost five killed besides 47 horses which had 
been tethered outside their lines, the loss of the 
Indians being sixteen killed. Skirmishes also 
occurred with varying results, at Plum River 
Fort, Burr Oak Grove, Sinsiniwa and Blue 
Mounds the last two within the present State of 

Believing the bulk of the Indians to be camped 
in the vicinity of Lake Koshkonong, General 
Atkinson left Dixon June 27 with a combined 
force of regulars a-nd volunteers numbering 2,600 
men the volunteers being under the command 
of General Henry. They reached the outlet of the 
Lake July 2, but found no Indians, being joined 
two days later by General Alexander's brigade, and 
on the 6th by Gen. Posey's. From here the com- 
mands of Generals Henry and Alexander were 
sent for supplies to Fort Winnebago, at the Port- 
age of the Wisconsin ; Colonel Ewing, with the 
Second Regiment of Posey's brigade descending 
Rock River to Dixon, Posey with the remainder, 
going to Fort Hamilton for the protection of 
settlers in the lead-mining region, while Atkin- 
son, advancing with the regulars up Lake Koshko- 
nong, began the erection of temporary fortifica- 
tions on Bark River near the site of the present 
village of Fort Atkinson. At Fort Winnebago 
Alexander and Henry obtained evidence of the 
actual location of Black Hawk's camp through 
Pierre Poquette, a half-breed scout and trader 
in the employ of the American Fur Company, 
whom they employed with a number of Winne 
bagos to act as guides. From this point Alex- 
ander's command returned to General Atkinson's 
headquarters, carrying with them twelve day's 
provisions for the main army, while General 
Henry's (600 strong), with Major Dodge's battalion 
numbering 150, with an equal quantity of supplies 
for themselves, started under the guidance of 
Poquette and his Winnebago aids to find Black 
Hawk's camp. Arriving on the 18th at the 
Winnebago village on Rock River where Black 



Hawk and his band had been located, their camp 
was found deserted, the Winnebagos insisting 
that they had gone to Cranberry ( now Horicon) 
Lake, a half-day's march up the river. Messen- 
gers were immediately dispatched to Atkinson's 
headquarters, thirty-five miles distant, to ap- 
prise him of this fact. When they had proceeded 
about half the distance, they struck a broad, 
fresh trail, which proved to be that of Black 
Hawk's band headed westward toward the Mis- 
sissippi. The guide having deserted them in 
order to warn his tribesmen that further dis- 
sembling to deceive the whites as to 
the whereabouts of the Sacs was use- 
less, the messengers were compelled to follow 
him to General Henry's camp. The discover pro- 
duced the wildest enthusiasm among the volun- 
teers, and from this time-events followed in rapid 
succession. Leaving as far as possible all incum- 
brances behind, the pursuit of the fugitives was 
begun without delay, the troops wading through 
swamps sometimes in water to their armpits. 
Soon evidence of the character of the flight the 
Indians were making, in the shape of exhausted 
horses, blankets, and camp equipage cast aside 
along the trail, began to appear, and straggling 
bands of Winnebagos, who had now begun to 
desert Black Hawk, gave information that the 
Indians were only a few miles in advance. On 
the evening of the 20th of July Henry's forces 
encamped at "The Four Lakes," the present 
site of the city of Madison, Wis. , Black Hawk's 
force lying in ambush the same night seven or 
eight miles distant. During the next afternoon 
the rear-guard of the Indians under Neapope was 
overtaken and skirmishing continued until the 
bluffs of the Wisconsin were reached. Black 
Hawk's avowed object was to protect the passage 
of the main body of his people across the stream. 
The loss of the Indians in these skirmishes has 
been estimated at 40 to 68, while Black Hawk 
claimed that it was only six killed, the loss of 
the whites being one killed and eight wounded. 
During the night Black Hawk succeeded in 
placing a considerable number of the women and 
children and old men on a raft and in canoes 
obtained from the Winnebagos, and sent them 
down the river, believing that, as non-combat- 
ants, they would be permitted by the regulars 
to pass Fort Crawford, at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin, undisturbed. In this he was mistaken. 
A force sent from the fort under Colonel Ritner to 
intercept them, fired mercilessly upon the help- 
less fugitives, killing fifteen of their number, 
while about fifty were drowned and thirty-two 

women and children made prisoners. The re- 
mainder, escaping into the woods, with few ex- 
ceptions died from starvation and exposure, or 
were massacred by their enemies, the Menonii- 
nees, acting under white officers. During the 
night after the battle of Wisconsin Heights, a 
loud, shrill voice of some one speaking in an un- 
known tongue was heard in the direction where 
Black Hawk's band was supposed to be. This 
caused something of a panic in Henry's camp, as 
it was supposed to come from some one giving 
orders for an attack. It was afterwards learned 
that the speaker was Neapope speaking in the 
Winnebago language in the hope that he might 
be heard by Poquette and the Winnebago guides. 
He was describing the helpless condition of his 
people, claiming that the war had been forced 
upon them, that their women and children were 
starving, and that, if permitted peacefully to re- 
cross the Mississippi, they would give no further 
trouble. Unfortunately Poquette and the other 
guides had left for Fort Winnebago, so that no 
one was there to translate Neapope's appeal and 
it failed of its object. 

General Henry's force having discovered that the 
Indians had escaped Black Hawk heading with 
the bulk of his warriors towards the Mississippi 
spent the next and day night on the field, but on 
the following day (July 23) started to meet General 
Atkinson, who had, in the meantime, been noti- 
fied of the pursuit. The head of their columns 
met at Blue Mounds, the same evening, a com- 
plete junction between the regulars and the 
volunteers being effected at Helena, a deserted 
village on the Wisconsin. Here by using the 
logs of the deserted cabins for rafts, the army 
crossed the river on the 27th and the 28th and the 
pursuit of black Hawk's fugitive band was re- 
newed. Evidence of their famishing condition 
was found in the trees stripped of bark for food, 
the carcasses of dead ponies, with here and there 
the dead body of an Indian. 

On August 1, Black Hawk's depleted and famish- 
ing band reached the Mississippi two miles below 
the mouth of the Bad Ax, an insignificant 
stream, and immediately began trying to cross 
the river; but having only two or three canoes, 
the work was slow. About the middle of the 
afternoon the steam transport, "Warrior," ap- 
peared on the scene, having on board a score of 
regulars and volunteers, returning from a visit 
to the village of the Sioux Chief, Wabasha, to 
notify him that his old enemies, the Sacs, were 
headed in that direction. Black Hawk raised the 
white flag in token of surrender but the officer 



in command claiming that he feared treachery or 
an ambush, demanded that Black Hawk should 
come on board. This he was unable to do, as he 
had no canoe. After waiting a few minutes a 
murderous fire of canister and musketry was 
opened from the steamer on the few Indians on 
shore, who made such feeble resistance as they 
were able. The result was the killing of one 
white man and twenty-three Indians. After this 
exploit the "Warrior" proceeded to Prairie du 
Chien, twelve or fifteen miles distant, for fuel. 
During the night a few more of the Indians 
crossed the river, but Black Hawk, seeing the 
hopelessness of further resistance, accompanied 
by the Prophet, and taking with him a party of 
ten warriors and thirty-five squaws and children, 
fled in the direction of "the dells ". of the Wis- 
consin. On the morningof the 3d General Atkinson 
arrived within four or five miles of the Sac 
position. Disposing his forces with the regulars 
and Colonel Dodge's rangersin the center, the brig- 
ades of Posey and Alexander on the right and 
Henry's on the left, he began the pursuit, but 
was drawn by the Indian decoys up the river 
from the place where the main body of the 
Indians were trying to cross the stream. This 
had the effect of leaving General Henry in the rear 
practically without orders, but it became the 
means of making his command the prime factors 
in the climax which followed. Some of the spies 
attached to Henry's command having accidental- 
ly discovered the trail of the main body of the fu- 
gitives, he began the pursuit without waiting for 
orders and soon found himself engaged with some 
300 savages, a force nearly equal to his own. It 
was here that the only thing like a regular battle 
occurred. The savages fought with the fury of 
despair, while Henry's force was no doubt nerved 
to greater deeds of courage by the insult which 
they conceived had been put upon them by Gen- 
eral Atkinson. Atkinson, hearing the battle in 
progress and discovering that he was being led 
off on a false scent, soon joined Henry's force 
with his main army, and the steamer " Warrior," 
arriving from Prairie du Chien, opened a fire of 
canister upon the pent-up Indians. The battle 
soon degenerated into a massacre. In the course 
of the three hours through which it lasted, it is es- 
timated that 150 Indians were killed by fire from 
the troops, an equal number of both sexes and 
all ages drowned while attempting to cross the 
river or by being driven into it, while about 50 
(chiefly women and children) were made prison- 
ers. The loss of the whites was 20 killed and 13 
wounded. When the "battle" was nearing its 

close it is said that Black Hawk, having repented 
the abandonment of his people, returned within 
sight of the battle-ground, but seeing the slaugh- 
ter in progress which he was powerless to avert, he 
turned and, with a howl of rage and horror, fled 
into the forest. About 300 Indians (mostly non- 
combatants) succeeded in crossing the river in a 
condition of exhaustion from hunger and fatigue, 
but these were set upon by the Sioux under Chief 
Wabasha, through the suggestion and agency of 
General Atkinson, and nearly one-half their num- 
ber exterminated. Of the remainder many died 
from wounds and exhaustion, while still others 
perished while attempting to reach Keokuk's band 
who had refused to join in Black Hawk's desper- 
ate venture. Of one thousand who crossed to the 
east side of the river with Black Hawk in April, 
it is estimated that not more than 150 survived 
the tragic events of the next four months. 

General Scott, having arrived at Prairie du Chien 
early in August, assumed command and, on 
August 15, mustered out the volunteers at Dixon, 
111. After witnessing the bloody climax at the 
Bad Axe of his ill-starred invasion, Black Hawk 
fled to the dells of the Wisconsin, where he and 
the Prophet surrendered themselves to the Win. 
nebagos, by whom they were delivered to the 
Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien. Having been 
taken to Fort Armstrong on September 21, he 
there signed a treaty of peace. Later he was 
taken to Jefferson Barracks (near St. Louis) in 
the custody of Jefferson Davis, then a Lieutenant 
in the regular army, where he was held a captive 
during the following winter. The connection of 
Davis with the Black Hawk War, mentioned by 
many historians, seems to have been confined to 
this act. In April, 1833, with the Prophet and 
Neapope, he was taken to Washington and then 
to Fortress Monroe, where they were detained as 
prisoners of war until June 4, when they were 
released. Black Hawk, after being taken to many 
principal cities in order to impress him with the 
strength of the American nation, was brought to 
Fort Armstrong, and there committed to the 
guardianship of his rival, Keokuk, but survived 
this humiliation only a few years, dying on a 
small reservation set apart for him in Davis 
County, Iowa, October 3, 1838. 

Such is the story of the Black Hawk War, the 
most notable struggle with the aborigines in Illi- 
nois history. At its beginning both the State 
and national authorities were grossly misled by 
an exaggerated estimate of the strength of Black 
Hawk's force as to numbers and his plans for 
recovering the site of his old village, while 



Black Hawk had conceived a low estimate of the 
numbers and courage of his white enemies, es- 
pecially after the Stillman defeat. The cost of 
the war to the State and nation in money has been 
estimated at $2,000,000, and in sacrifice of life 
on both sides at not less than 1,200. The loss of 
life by the troops in irregular skirmishes, and in 
massacres of settlers by the Indians, aggregated 
about 250, while an equal number of regulars 
perished from a visitation of cholera at the 
various stations within the district affected by 
the war, especially at Detroit, Chicago, Fort 
Armstrong and Galena. Yet it is the judgment 
of later historians that nearly all this sacrifice of 
life and treasure might have been avoided, but 
for a series of blunders due to the blind or un- 
scrupulous policy of officials or interloping squat- 
ters upon lands which the Indians had occupied 
under the treaty of 1804 A conspicious blunder 
to call it by no harsher name was 
the violation by Stillman's command of the 
rules of civilized warfare in the attack made 
upon Black Hawk's messengers, sent under 
flag of truce to request a conference to settle 
terms under which he might return to the west 
side of the Mississippi an act which resulted in 
a humiliating and disgraceful defeat for its 
authors and proved the first step in actual war. 
Another misfortune was the failure to understand 
Neapope's appeal for peace and permission for his 
people to pass beyond the Mississippi the night 
after the battle of Wisconsin Heights; and the 
third and most inexcusable blunder of all, was 
the refusal of the office t in command of the 
"Warrior " to respect Black Hawk's flag of truce 
and request for a conference just before the 
bloody massacre which has gone into history 
under the name of the '' battle of the Bad Axe." 
Either of these events, properly availed of, would 
have prevented much of the butchery of that 
bloody episode which has left a stain upon the 
Dage of history, although this statement implies 
no disposition to detract from the patriotism and 
".ourage of some of the leading actors upon whom 
Mie responsibility was placed of protecting the 
frontier settler from outrage and massacre. One 
of the features of the war was the bitter jealousy 
engendered by the unwise policy pursued by 
General Atkinson towards some of the volun- 
teers especially the treatment of General James 
D. Henry, who, although subjected to repeated 
slights and insults, is regarded by Governor Ford 
and others as the real hero of the war. Too 
brave a soldier to shirk any responsibility and 
too modest to exploit his own deeds, he felt 

deeply the studied purpose of his superior to 
ignore him in the conduct of the campaign a 
purpose which, as in the affair at the Bad Axe, 
was defeated by accident or by General Henry's 
soldierly sagacity and attention to duty, although 
he gave out to the public no utterance of com- 
plaint. Broken in health by the hardships and 
exposures of the campaign, he went South soon 
after the war and died of consumption, unknown 
and almost alone, in the city of New Orleans, less 
two years later. 

Aside from contemporaneous newspaper ac- 
counts, monographs, and manuscripts on file 
in public libraries relating to this epoch in State 
history, the most comprehensive records of the 
Black Hawk War are to be found in the " Life of 
Black Hawk," dictated by himself (1834) ; Wake- 
field's "History of the War between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox Nations" (1834); 
Drake's" Life of Black Hawk" (1854); Ford's 
"History of Illinois" (1854); Reynolds' "Pio- 
neer History of Illinois; and "My Own Times"; 
Davidson & Stuve's and Moses' Histories of Illi- 
nois; Blanchard's " The Northwest and Chicago" ; 
Armstrong's "The Sauks and the Black Hawk 
War," and Reuben G. Thwaite's "Story of the 
Black Hawk War" (1892.) 

CHICAGO HEIGHTS, a village in the southern 
part of Cook County, twenty-eight miles south of 
the central part of Chicago, on the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and 
the Michigan Central Railroads; is located in an 
agricultural region, but has some manufactures 
as well as good schools also has two weekly news- 
papers. Pop. (1900), 5,100; (1910), 14,525. 

GRANITE CITY, in Madison County, located 
five miles north of St. Louis on the lines of the 
Burlington; the Chicago & Alton; Cleveland, 
Cincinaati, Chicago & St. Louis; Chicago, Peoria 
& St. Louis (Illinois), and the Wabash Railways. 
It is adjacent to the Merchants' Terminal Bridge 
across the Mississippi and has considerable manu- 
facturing and grain-storage business; has two 
newspapers. Pop. (1900), 3,122; (1910), 9,903. 

CICERO, a city and township of Cook County, 
adjacent to and west of the city of Chicago, and 
lies between Oak Park on the north and Berwyn on 
the south ; is a popular residence section and has long 
resisted annexation to Chicago. Pop. (1910), 14,557. 

FOREST PARK (formerly Harlem), a village 
and suburb of Chicago, on the line of the C. & N. W. 
R. R., 9 miles west of the terminal station; is a 
favorite residence section. Pop.' (1910), 6,594. 

HARVEY, a city of Cook County, and an im- 
portant manufacturing suburb of the city of Chi- 



cago, three miles southwest of the southern city 
limits. It is on the line of the Illinois Central 
and the Chicago & Grand Trunk Railways, and 
lias extensive manufactures of harvesting, street 
and steam railway machinery, gasoline stoves, 
enameled ware, etc. ; also has one newspaper and 
ample school facilities. Population (1900), 5,395. 

IOWA CENTRAL RAILWAY, a railway line 
having its principal termini at Peoria, 111., and 
Manly Junction, nine miles north of Mason City, 
Iowa, with several lateral branches making con- 
nections with Centerville, Newton, State Center, 
Story City, Algona and Northwood in the latter 
State. The total length of line owned, leased 
and operated by the Company, officially reported 
in 1899, was 508.98 miles, of which 89.76 miles- 
including 3.5 miles trackage facilities on the 
Peoria & Pekin Union between Iowa Junction 
and Peoria were in Illinois. The Illinois divi- 
.sion extends from Keithsburg where it enters 
the State at the crossing of the Mississippi to 
Peoria. (HISTORY.) The Iowa Central Railway 
Company was originally chartered as the Central 
Railroad Company of Iowa and the road com- 
pleted in October, 1871. In 1873 it passed into 
the hands of a receiver and, on June 4, 1879, was 
reorganized under the name of the Central Iowa 
Railway Company. In May, 1883, this company 
purchased the Peoria & Farmington Railroad, 
which was incorporated into the main line, but 
defaulted and passed into the hands of a receiver 
December 1, 1886; the line was sold under fore- 
closure in 1887 and 1888, to the Iowa Central 
Railway Company, which had effected a new 
organization on the basis of $11,000,000 common 
stock, $6,000,000 preferred stock and $1,379,625 
temporary debt certificates convertible into pre- 
ferred stock, and $7,500,000 first mortgage bonds. 
The transaction was completed, the receiver dis- 
charged and the road turned over to the new 
company, May 15, 1889. (FINANCIAL). The total 
capitalization of the road in 1899 was $21,337,558, 
of which $14,159,180 was in stock, $6,650,095 in 
bonds and $528, 283 in other forms of indebtedness. 
The total earnings and income of the line in Illi- 
nois for the same year were 532,568, and the ex- 
penditures $566,333. 

SPARTA, a city of Randolph County, situated 
on the Centralia & Chester and the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroads, twenty miles northwest of Ches- 
ter and fifty miles southeast of St. Louis. It has 

a number of manufacturing establishments, in- 
cluding plow factories, a woolen mill, a cannery 
and creameries; also has natural gas. The first 
settler was James McClurken, from South Caro- 
lina, who settled here in 1818. He was joined by 
James Armour a few years later, who bought 
land of McClurken, and together they laid out 
a village, which first received the name of Co- 
lumbus. About the same time Robert G. Shan- 
non, who had been conducting a mercantile busi- 
ness in the vicinity, located in the town and 
became the first Postmaster. In 1839 the name 
of the town was changed to Sparta. Mr. McClur- 
ken, its earliest settler, appears to have been a 
man of considerable enterprise, as he is credited 
with having built the first cotton gin in this vi- 
cinity, besides still later, erecting saw and flour 
mills and a woolen mill. Sparta was incorporated 
as a village in 1837 and in 1859 as a city. A col- 
ony of members of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church (Covenanters or "Seceders") established 
at Eden, a beautiful site about a mile from 
Sparta, about 1822, cut an important figure in 
the history of the latter place, as it became the 
means of attracting here an industrious and 
thriving population. At a later period it became 
one of the most important stations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" (so called) in Illinois (which 
see). The population of .Sparta (1890) was 1,979; 
(1900), 2,041; (1910), 3,081. 

WEST FRANKFORT, a city of Franklin County, 
on the line of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Rail- 
road; is a rich coal mining region and has some 
manufactures. Pop. (1910), 2,111. 

WITT, a city of Montgomery County on the " Big 
Four" and C. & E. I. R. R., 10 miles northeast of 
Hillsboro; in mining district. Pop. (1910), 2,170. 

WEST HAMMOND, a village situated in the 
northeast corner of Thornton Township, Cook 
County, adjacent to Hammond, Ind., from which 
it is separated by the Indiana State line. It is on 
the Michigan Central Railroad, one mile south of 
the Chicago City limits, and has convenient ac- 
cess to several other lines, including the Chicago 
& Erie; New York, Chicago & St. Louis, and 
Western Indiana Railroads. Like its Indiana 
neighbor, it is a manufacturing center of much 
importance, was incorporated as a village in 
1892, and has grown rapidly within the last few 
years, having a population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1900, of 2.93.1. 



History of Sangamon County 




(By Paul Selby) 


History consists largely of combined biog- 
raphy. While biography deals with personal 
details, History, in its most coinprehnsive form, 
deals with the consolidated results of personal 
effort combined with special causes and natural 

The twenty-first county in order of organiza- 
tion of the one hundred and two now composing 
the State of Illinois, Saugamon County, in point 
of historical and political importance is second 
to no other In the State. Its central location 
and the superiority of its soil and other natural 
resources gave to* this region a prominence 
which was widely recognized before the date 
of its organization ninety years ago. This is 
illustrated by the statements of explorers, 
biographers alfB historians of that period. 
Ferdinand Ernst, a German traveler who 
visited this region in 1819, and whose reminis- 
cences are quoted from freely in Chapters III 
and VI, of this volume, had his enthusiasm 
aroused by what he called "the beautiful laud of 
the Sangamon" and after reviewing it, indulged 
in the optimistic declaration "I do not believe 
that any one State in all America is so highly 

favored by Nature, in every respect, as the 
State of Illinois." 

Of no less significance is the statement of 
Gov. Reynolds, one of the early pioneers of what 
was then called "The Illinois Country," and 
most widely acquainted with the State, as a 
whole, during a later period. In "My Own 
Times," referring to the period (about 1822-24), 
when, many new counties were being organized, 
Gov. Reynolds says : 

"About this time Sangamon County became 
famous and known all over the West as the 
most beautiful country in the valley of the 
Mississippi. It acquired a f great reputation, 
as It deserved, for 'its exceedingly fertile soil 
and fine timber, which last 'advantage attracted 
a numerous, respectable and wealthy population 
from Kentucky who settled in it. The first 
settlement commenced in 1819. The Indians, 
long before a white man saw the Sangamon 
Country, were apprised of Its fertility and rich 
products. In the Pottawatomle language, 
Sangamon means 'the where there Is plenty 
to eat.' According to our parlance, it would be 
termed 'the laud of milk and honey.'" (Rey- 
nold's "My Own Times," p. 151.) 

According to Reynolds, the Indian name by 
which the Sangamon was known in 1812, was 
"Saiu-quee-mon," and there were then said to 
be "Kee-ka-poo" villages on its branches. Sur 
rounded for a time by different Indian tribes, 
not always friendly with each other, but to 
whom this region was accessible, it seems to 
have been a sort of neutral ground, which these 
tribes entered at different periods for hunting 
purposes and where they established temporary 

Lewis C. Beck, author of "Beck's Gazetteer 
of Illinois and Missouri," published in 1823, re- 
ferring to Saugamon County, which had been 
organized two years previous, and where the 
first permanent settlement liad been made only 
four years earlier, says : 



"The County of Sangamon, since Its first 
settlement, has been justly esteemed the most 
desirable tract in the State, and it consequently 
has been settled with a rapidity heretofore 
unequaled. Previous to 1819, not a white In- 
habitant was to be found on the waters of the 
Sangamon; at present (1823) the population 
amounts to near 5,000, while not a single acre 
of land has yet been brought Into market. The 
Sangamon River, which has a northeasterly 
course (toward Its head waters) through the 
southern part of this county (as it then existed) , 
may at a trifling expense be made navigable 
for nearly 200 miles; It is now obstructed by 
timber. This stream passes through a tract of 
country which is unexcelled in fertility." 

This dream of the Sangamon as a navigable 
water-way was experimented upon In 1832 as 
will be described In another chapter but proved 
a failure. This, however, did not check the 
development of a more ample system of trans- 
portation in the county, as shown by the exis- 
tence at the present time of eight different 
lines of railroad penetrating its territory. 

At the time mentioned in "Beck's Gazetteer," 
Sangamon County, besides Its present dimen- 
sions, included all the territory now embraced 
within the present counties of Cass, Menard, 
Mason, Logan and Tazewell, with portions of 
Woodford, Marshall, Putnam, a strip from 
the western part of ' McLean, a small 
section of the western part of Macon 
and more than half of Christian County its 
eastern border extending north along the Third 
Principal Meridian to the Illinois River at what 
is now the western border of La Salle County, 
and its area embracing all the territory north 
of its present southern boundary and west of 
the Third Principal Meridian to the Illinois 
River, except the territory now embraced In 
Morgan and Scott Counties the total area 
being nearly 4,800 square miles. By subsequent 
changes at different periods up to 1839, when 
Logan, Menard and Dane (now Christian) 
Counties were organized, Sangamon County was 
reduced to Its present dimension of 875 square 

In connection with this period the following 
reference In Rev. John M. Peck's "Gazetteer of 
Illinois" (1834) to the village of Springfield, 
and foreshadowing its future development, will 
be of interest: "Situated not far from the 
geographical center of the State, and surrounded 

by one of the richest tracts of country in the 
great western valley, it is thought by some that, 
should the seat of government be removed from 
Vandalia, it will find a location at this place" 
a forecast that was realized in the removal of 
the -State Capital to Springfield by act of the 
Legislature in 1837. 

While the development of the natural re- 
sources of Sangamon County is a matter of just 
pride to its citizens, there is no feature of its 
history that will appeal to the interest of a 
larger class of citizens of this and other States 
than the roster of noted names that have been 
so intimately interwoven in both State and 
national history. For more than seventy years 
the political center of the State, Springfield has 
been the official home of a larger number of 
distinguished citizens identified with public 
affairs than any other city of the Middle-West. 
Yet the name of Abraham Lincoln, during the 
twenty-five years of his career preceding his 
entrance upon his duties as Chief Magistrate 
of the nation a resident of Springfield, will, 
through all time, stand at the head of this list, 
not only In his own State but throughout the 

To this honored list Sangamon County has 
contributed its full share in the civic councils 
of the State and the Nation, as well as in the 
military field, the professions and business en- 
terprises; but as these will be treated more 
fully in other chapters and the biographical 
department, it is not necessary here to enter into 
personal detail. It is hoped that this volume 
will preserve, in somewhat adequate form, a 
record of past events and personal history that 
will be of interest and value to future genera- 





. >3k, 

liiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiS 






(By Edward W. Payne) 

"Write a Prehistoric History of Central Illi- 
nois" a strange request, quite a compliment, 
with, "you are just the one to do it," etc., but 
when you realize it not only requires a very 
vivid imagination but probably stronger and 
more elastic treatment, have tried to calculate 
the value of the compliment. 

A geologist can tell you many things that hap- 
pened since the great ice-pack melted and left 
the hills and fields around us to be smoothed 
over by rains and floods, to be covered with 
black soil, and still further changed and altered 
by the effect of winds, water and vegetation up 
to the present time. And a forester can take 
a monarch of the woods and tell many things 
that happened long before Columbus discovered 
America, afterwards buying it from the people 
that had held it for thousands of years. 

It is one of the peculiar traits of the white 
race that no discovery ever took place, or at 
least was recorded, until the white man saw fit 
to do the discovering. While I do not claim to 
be an anthropologist, I have paid some attention 
to the subject, but only as a relaxation. Just 
as you would turn out from a smooth finished 
pike-road into a dark, winding, rough timber 
drive an old abandoned log route, in among 
the low boughs, ferns and shrubbery and after 
a half hour's pleasure, although scratched and 
brushed, you are back on the main road in better 
spirits, ready for a fresh start. 

The sycamore is a stately tree, tall, erect and 
solid to the core, but it is governed by certain 
conditions. Unlike the cottonwood, its seed is 
not carried far by the wind and its thin bark, 
affording no protection from the fire, prevents 
it from being a pioneer of the prairies. Its seed 
is not carried by the squirrels or birds, and 
rarely by the hoofs of animals, so the stately 
sycamore, as the water is practically the only 
carrier of its seed, is forced to live along the 
streams, although it enjoys the fresh air and 
sunshine of the prairie as well. And, as the 
sycamore is so firmly held and restrained, just 
so the human race is held and reverted, espe- 
cially so prior to rapid transit by railroads. 

horses and other means. In fact, we are only 
a species of lobster, dwelling at the bottom of 
a sea of air knowing little more beyond the 
surface of that sea than the real lobster knows 
of what lies beyond his domain of sea-water. 

Man requires water and food continually, and 
he must naturally remain where they are to be 
found. We do not wonder at having for break- 
fast grapefruit from Florida, broiled salmon 
steak from the Columbia River, cakes made 
from wheat flour produced in the Saskatchewan 
Valley, mixed with corn meal from Illinois, with 
Vermont maple syrup, grapes and nuts from 
California and, possibly a banana from Central 
America. Such a meal was never dreamed of 
in prehistoric times : perhaps you remember the 
very interesting little story and the great reward 
the Arab received who sent the large and deli- 
cious red and white cherries to the invalid 
king, hundreds of miles over the desert, by car- 
rier pigeons, each cherry neatly enclosed in a 
little silken bag. 

On account of these restrictions we have the 
"Shore People" that live along the ocean beach; 
they are educated and trained for thousands of 
generations to live there, like the sea-gull, and 
cannot very well live anywhere else. The enor- 
mous shell- heaps that these people left are 
remarkable. Then we have the "Fish People," 
for example; those that have lived for ages on 
the salmon along the Columbia Elver ; they have 
full developed bodies, but undeveloped and pecu- 
liar looking legs, from living in boats and 

Again, we have the "Plains People," who live 
with the buffalo. The buffalo provided them 
houses, clothing, thread, tools, implements, and 
nearly everything they required ; they moved 
with the buffalo, eating meat and seldom any- 
thing else the year round; in fact, they were 
human wolves. Next were the "Northern Woods 
People," or "Timber Indians;" they lived on 
fish, game, nuts, berries, roots and wild vegeta- 
tion, but not cultivating the soil on account of 
its poor quality and the short seasons ; also they 
were required to keep on the move, more or less, 
for game and new hunting grounds. 

A little further south were the "Wild Rice 
People," a very similar people to the "Timber 
Indian," with wild rice (that is, wild to us) as 
their staple food ; well advanced and workers 
in hammered copper. 

Next we have the "Corn People," the class 



that cultivated the soil and did not have to keep 
on the move in pursuit of game. They stored up 
grain for winter use, and were not forced to 
undergo, at times, the same hardships that the 
"Game People" were forced to meet ; they were 
a superior race because their conditions, good 
food and permanent location, enabled them to 
become so. In fact, through Illinois and South- 
ern Indiana the flint-hoe is found everywhere, 
more so than in any other part of the western 
continent, and wherever you will find the hoe 
or its present descendant, the Sattley Plow, you 
will find a good class and most invariably a 
very superior race. 

Such were the "Cliff Dwellers" and the Aztecs 
of Mexico, who were probably of Chinese origin, 
while the northern Indians were possibly of that 
vast horde that menaced China on the North 
for thousands of years the people that the 
Great Wall was built to keep in restraint. And, 
no doubt, even when the Great Wall was built, 
this country had been occupied for a long period. 
While it is a common belief that our prehistoric 
people were Asiatics, yet the ruins in Central 
and South America may have been ruins when 
the pyramids were new. 

You have, no doubt, watched on your lawn a 
"tribe" of busy little ants, in Central Africa 
you can find a similar ant hill, with a similar 
lot of busy little workers. Did our ants come 
from Africa, or did the African ants come from 
this country? It is simply impossible to say. 
That is about as much as we know of the 
"Thumb-animals,'' who later advanced and were 
dignified by the name of the "Fire People." 

In prehistoric times, when the spear, arrow 
and battle-axe were the weapons of the world, 
one man was about as good as another. Inter- 
course was almost impossible. Might ruled, but 
change came, and a rapid one, when brain and 
knowledge commenced to rule and spread with 
the help of gunpowder and leaden bullets ; and 
we are rapidly nearing the age when the auto- 
matic gun and central fire cartridge will be 
unnecessary for the further advancement of 
what we call civilization. 

Our Indians traveled by canoe the creeks 
and streams were their highways. The country 
was wet and swampy ; cross country traveling 
was difficult and at times impossible, especially 
as there were no pack animals, the llama of 
Peru being the only domesticated animal on the 
American continent. It was a veritable Indian 

Heaven ; the streams were alive with fish, the 
woods and fields with game, the greatest resort 
in the world for all kinds of water fowl, grouse, 
prairie chicken, wild turkey, quail, and many 
other kinds of game. The woods were full of 
many kinds of wild fruits, berries, acorns and 
nuts a paradise. In fact, the Indian Heaven 
of the Cherokee, the Osage and other tribes 
of the Indian nation, rests upon the traditions 
and memories of this Central Illinois and part 
of Indiana, handed down through many genera- 
tions to the present. 

The white man little realizes that he is now 
living in another man's heaven. When the 
"Red Man," or rather the "Red Woman." man- 
aged to raise a little patch of corn, and after 
tending it with flint hoes and keeping and guard- 
ing it with the help of a lot of wolf dogs, from 
the wild animals and birds, and the corn was 
matured enough for food, the whole tribe held 
a corn dance and gave thanks to the great and 
good Spirit for all their blessings, and while 
many a modern farmer working with improved 
machinery and horses, raises more corn than all 
the Indians in central Illinois, it is very doubt- 
ful if he is as sincere in his "Thanksgiving 
Day" as were those simple wild people, and 
though the white man has polluted the streams, 
killed the fish and wild game, cut down the nut 
bearing trees, and worn out the soil, it is still 
one of the most prosperous lands on earth. 

The education of these people was strictly a 
business one, to swim, run, fight, to use the bow, 
spear and battle axe, to trap, hunt and fish, all 
to meet the two requirements, protection and 
food, and at times, a little clothing. 

There is hardly a farmer in Central Illinois 
who has not plowed up many arrows and spear 
points on his farm ; in fact, this entire country 
is strewn with them. They were not wasted 
by the Indian, but were gathered up after a 
hunt and re-used. The beveled saw-tooth point, 
the last step of the Stone Age, is very common, 
showing, without doubt, that these people were 
a somewhat superior class. 

All along the creeks and streams in central 
Illinois, wherever you find a beautiful location, 
especially at the top of the bluff or hill at the 
bend, you will find everywhere the low mound, 
now probably only two feet in height, although 
originally much higher, and probably fifteen 
to thirty feet in width, marking the resting 
place of a chief or prominent members of the 



nearby village, sis wefl us the lookout or watch 
tower from which the signal fires at night sent 
out the wireless message of alarm, repeated dur- 
ing the tiny by slender columns of smoke reach- 
ing towards the sky. the pillar of fire and cloud 
that led the Israelites out of the land of Egypt 
and out of the house of bondage. 

Is it not singular and could there possibly be 
any connection in the fact that an Indian has 
never been made a slave? 

Very little remains in these mounds and sci- 
ence will gain nothing by any further investi- 
gation ; perhaps you may pick up a beautifully 
made and polished tomahawk, surely too light 
and small for use. just a little toy, a week's 
work at least, possibly for a little four year old 
boy; or you may find an exquisitely braided 
broken strand of hair, evenly and carefully en- 
twined with little copper rings; that is all 
except the roots of the wild flowers growing 
there and, as you stand on the beautiful spot, 
you wonder who planted the first wild rose. 

These aborigines had their trials, hardships 
and troubles just the same as their followers of 
the present day, only they were different as to 
impure food, transportation, (for instance, rail- 
road crossings), and the diseases caused by im- 
pure air and unventilated homes. The little 
three-cornered sharp Hint found everywhere, 
especially in Gardner and Salisbury Townships, 
the tip of a poisoned arrow the arrow that is 
used only to kill other human beings tells its 
story. They were quick and deadly in effect 
and. in the underbrush and undergrowth of the 
forest, were preferred in after years to fire- 

The streams were the boundary lines and 
limits of their possessions, which were usually 
respected, as it was not safe to go beyond them. 
When one crossed the river it meant going into 
strange lauds and among strange people ; death 
meant the crossing of the river, and, as at 
that time a day's journey was from ten to 
thirty miles, you can readily see how much 
smaller the world is today. Every tribe had its 
own dialect or language, and at that period the 
same conditions prevailed all over the world ; 
even in England and Germany, it was difficult 
for the people of one village to understand the 
language of those living in another only twenty- 
five miles away or even less. 

There is nothing for us to learn from these 
people, no superior knowledge in any line that 

would now be worth anything to us. There 
were no pigmies or dwarfs. They knew nothing 
of metal work excepting hammered copper, had 
no knowledge of hardening copper ; they knew 
nothing of cast iron ; in fact, it has been im- 
possible to find where they had even melted lead 
before the advent of the white man. Their 
blankets, baskets, bead-work, quill-work are 
works of art, and some of their carvings on stone 
and slate are exquisitely well done. They 
tanned leather as well as it is done today. 
They had a universal sign language, and or- 
dinary correspondence was carried on by many 
tribes by sign or picture writing. 

There was no distinct or separate race of 
mound builders. We are all mound builders. 
Even after the discovery of granite cutting tools 
we cling to mound building the pyramids are 
only mounds public opinion has prevented the 
flat grave custom in our cemeteries. Nearly 
everything remarkable or sensational said or 
written about these people is merely "Heap 
Noise" or "Big Smoke." 

Among these people a man did not build his 
own monument; there was no monument other 
than that his friends built for him. If these 
customs existed today, many of us would have 
n hole in the ground as a marker. How many 
of us would have a monument, a mound of 
earth, that would cost at least $25,000 to build 
with modern methods and machinery? Making 
a comparison with the actual labor, the Lincoln 
Monument would be a very ordinary headstone 
in comparison with some of the mounds along 
the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. Truly, there 
must have been other heroes here ages ago as 
there are today, all brought up and raised on 
the golden yellow corn, the greatest gift of the 
Great Spirit to his people. The mounds tell 
us so, and also that these people had a great 
love not only for their dead but for the beau- 
tiful in nature. They had a great respect even 
for the graves of their enemies, and would not 
disturb them, while the white race, who at least 
once a week reverently bow their heads and 
repeat that they believe in the resurrection 
of the body, are the only people that cut up and 
sell their cemeteries into public building lots. 

All their work, except stone, has long since 
decayed and disappeared. Their bone needles, 
tools and implements of wood, their beautifully 
tanned leather, their woven blankets and 
feathercloth are gone. Occasionally shell beads 




and pearls are found, but so old that they have 
lost all their luster and beauty. 

Their stone chert, commonly called flint work, 
is very artistic and beautiful, showing art, taste 
and talent aside from a great deal of patience 
and labor. 

At that time the world was made for men, the 
males spent their lives in idleness, indolence 
and amusement, the females in close restraint 
in youth, then a period of license and revelry, 
then a life of drudgery and old age, not so very 
different from that of today among a class. 

Their religion was varied and simple; spirits 
were everywhere ; signs and omens were com- 
mon among them and governed their actions, 
just as they did our ancestors at the same 
period. Many of them believed in a Great and 
Good Spirit and a happy hunting ground that 
was all. Strange to say, it is the religion that 
is even now gradually, but surely, spreading aud 
taking possession of this country and that, too, 
without a minister, missionary, Bible, prayer, 
hymn or discordant clanging bell. They had 
many weird so-called legends or traditions 
about the creation and other subjects, but noth- 
ing any more astonishing or unreasonable than 
Jonah and the Whale, to which our "great 
thinkers" still cling. 

They had their medicine men and they certainly 
had various kinds of treatments, but when it is 
estimated that at the present time 95 per cent 
of all illnesses will get well without a doctor, 
that 97% per cent will get well with a doctor, 
and that 2% to 5 per cent of the patients will 
die anyway whether they have a doctor or not, 
one can readily see that the Indian medicine 
man had just about an even break with Chris- 
tian Science, and that he was not many laps 
behind the average physician. In one respect 
his charges were very reasonable, and there were 
not many serious operations. 

Many of them refused to believe that God 
would send to them a missionary or messenger 
direct from heaven that could not speak their 
language, because many of their people were in 
heaven and, if it were possible that they were 
not, they did not care to go there. Were they 
ignorant, stupid or right? 

But changes are going on now as ever before. 
In a comparatively few years our ancestors 
will be known merely as a people from Europe 
with strange beliefs and superstitions, destruc- 
tive and wasteful, ever ready to kill, using 

domesticated wild animals, wearing weird head 
coverings and heavy and strange looking cloth- 
ing; curing all kinds of disease with pills, pow- 
ders and liquids taken into the stomach ; a peo- 
ple that knew nothing but labor that lived in 
unventilated houses; and used locks, bars, bolts 
and fences; a civilization (?) full of the disso- 
lute and criminal class; paupers, feeble-minded 
and insane in fact, a horde of "white devils" 
that drove the "red devils" out and that will 
be all. 











While there is lack of specific information 
regarding the date of occupancy and location 
of Indian villages in the "Sangamon Country," 
there is abundant evidence that bands belong- 
ing to various tribes frequently roamed over 
this region, engaged either in warfare or in 
hunting on the prairies and in the forests along 
the Sangamon and its tributaries. A map show- 
ing the distribution of principal tribes on Illi- 
nois soil about the time of the coming of the 
early French explorers (1673-82) locates the 
Kickapoos in the northwestern part of what is 
now the State of Illinois; the Illinois tribes 







. d 

, ^- ~ 

^it^ -^;' "i- .^ i < 

^ ' ^ 

Wt BY ii.-LINOt5 _ STATE 



(including the Peorias, Kaskaskias, Cahokias, 
Tamaroas, and Mitchigamis) in the west be- 
tween the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers and 
on both sides of the Illinois ; the Miamis in the 
eastern section with the Piankashaws still far- 
ther east on both sides of the Wabash ; the 
Weas just south of Lake Michigan and the Pot- 
tawatomies still farther north along the west- 
ern shore of Lake Michigan in both Illinois 
and Wisconsin. At that period what is now 
Central Illinois was an unexplored region, the 
knowledge of the French explorers being limited 
to the country along the lakes and the principal 
streams the Mississippi, the Illinois, Wabash 
and the Ohio which furnished them means of 
water transportation, the only methods of travel 
for long distance then employed by the first 
white invaders. Moses' "History of Illinois" 
says: "The Kickapoos and Mascoutins, nomi- 
nally the same, were found. by Allouez, in 1670, 
near the mouth of Fox River in Wisconsin. 
They subsequently worked their way, in opposi- 
tion to the Piankashaws (on the east) and Illi- 
nois (on the west), southward to the river of 
the latter name, thence south to the Kankakee, 
and still later, fighting their way to the Ver- 
milion, the headwaters of the Okaw, and on to 
Sugar Creek, and their principal village at 
Mackinaw, McLean County." 

Coming down to a later period, and in ac- 
cordance with the changes just described, a 
map in Moses' "History," showing the location 
of tribes in the Illinois Country in 1812 the 
period of the last war with Great Britain 
presents them as follows: Kickapoos in the 
southern central division ; Pottawatomies to the 
north between the Illinois and Mississippi Riv- 
ers and on the upper Illinois; Sacs and Foxes 
in the northwest and on the upper Mississippi; 
the Winnebagos in the northern part of the 
State and east of the Sacs and Foxes ; the Illi- 
nois Tribes in the partially settled counties east 
of the Mississippi from the vicinity of Kaskas- 
kia northward to the point where the Macoupin 
River empties into the Illinois ; and the Piank- 
ashaws in the southeastern part of the State 
although by that time it is claimed that most of 
the Piankashaws had removed to the southwest. 
The Miamis, who had occupied a considerable 
extent of country west of the Piankashaws 
and north to Lake Michigan, also had removed 
eastward to Indiana and Western Ohio. What 
is now the Sangamon region, from its location. 

may have been a sort of neutral (or "happy 
hunting ground"), entered at different times by 
representatives of various neighboring tribes. 
Yet there are also traditions that there were 
some bitter struggles between different Indian 
bands, making it a sort of "Dark and Bloody 
Ground," of which there is some evidence fur- 
nished in the vicinity of "Old Town' 1 or "Kick- 
apoo Indian Fort" in McLean County. As a 
rule, however, the early settlers in Sangamon 
County seem to have got along peacefully with 
their Indian predecessors. 

Dr. Edwin James, the scientist and interpre- 
ter who accompanied Col. Stephen H. Long in 
his explorations among the Western Indians 
about 1819-22, quotes Alexander Robinson 
the Pottawatomie half-breed chief, for sixty 
years after the Fort Dearborn massacre a resi- 
dent of Chicago and vicinity as saying in ref- 
erence to Indian fortifications in Central Illi- 
nois: "He (Robinson) had heard of one made 
by the Kickapoo and Fox Indians on the Sanga- 
mon River, a stream running into the Illinois. 
The fortification is distinguished by the name 
Et-na-ta-ek. It is known to have served as an 
intrenctiment to the Kickapoos and Foxes who 
were met there and were defeated by the Pot- 
tawatomies, the Ottawas and the Chippewas. 
No date is assigned to this transaction. We 
understood that the Et-na-ta-ek was near the 
Kickapoo village on the Sangamon." 

cially reliable testimony as to Indian occupation 
of this region about the time of the War of 
1812, is furnished by former Gov. John Rey- 
nolds, who, as a pioneer of 1800 and later a 
"Ranger" of Central Illinois, was brought into 
personal contact with the Indians of that period. 
In the introductory chapter of his "Pioneer His- 
tory of Illinois" Gov. Reynolds says: "A small 
but energetic tribe of Kickapoos resided on the 
east side of Illinois between the Illinois and 
Wabash Rivers, and including the Sangamon 
River and the country thereabouts. Some 
lived in villages near the Elkhart Grove and 
on the Mackinaw River. They claimed rela- 
tionship with the Pottawatomies, and perhaps 
the Sauks and Foxes also." 

In another volume ("My Own Times") Gov. 
Reynolds gives the following account of a march 
through the Sangamon Country of a force of 
about 350 men, including two companies of 
"Rangers" (of which Gov. Reynolds was a mem- 



ber), mustered at Fort Russell near Edwards- 
ville, and led under command of Gov. Edwards, 
to the vicinity of Lake Peoria for the purpose 
of destroying the Indian villages in that region. 
This movement occurred about two months 
after the capture of Fort Dearborn, and the 
principal sufferers from the expedition were the 
bands of Black Partridge and Gomo, two chiefs 
who had been especially active in their efforts 
to prevent the Dearborn massacre. Referring 
to the march through what is now Sangamon 
County, Gov. Reynolds says: "We crossed the 
Sangamon River east of the present Springfield 
and passed not far east of Elkhart Grove. At 
this day this grove presented a beautiful and 
charming prospect. It was elevated and com- 
manded a view over the natural prairies for 
many miles around. We next reached an old 
Indian village on Sugar Creek (a branch of the 
Saugamou) where we saw on the bark of the 
wigwams much painting, generally the Indians 
scalping the whites." 

This exhibition of the Indian spirit, no doubt 
greatly excited the indignation of the "Rangers'" 
and increased the bitterness of the attack made 
on the villages of Black Partridge and Gomo, 
although they had no responsibility for the 
murderous character displayed by the former 
occupants of these wigwams. 

The following reminiscence of "The Old In- 
dian Trail" through Sangamon County from 
Peoria to St. Louis, taken from the papers of 
the late Zimri A. Enos, of Springfield, as pub- 
lished in the "Journal of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society" for July, 1911, will be of special 
interest in this connection, as it refers (more 
fully) to the route followed by Gov. Edwards' 
army in the march from Fort Russell to Peoria 
in 1812, as described in a quotation from Gov. 
Reynolds' "My Own Times" in a preceding por- 
tion of this chapter : 

"This trail, according to niy understanding, 
was the route which the army under Gov. Ed- 
wards, in 1812, followed in their march from 
Fort Russell, near Edwardsville, to Peoria, and 
which route is designated in one of the early 
records of Saugamon County as the Old Ed- 
wards Trace, and Clear Lake is therein men- 
tioned as a place on the line of the Trace. This 
trail or trace should, as an interesting matter 
of history, be definitely established, before all 
evidence of its location is gone. I' have a gen- 

eral idea of the route of the trail or trace from 
Edwardsville as far north as Elkhart, derived 
from a personal knowledge of fixed points in it, 
the topography or character of the country over 
which it passed and, in the manner in which the 
Indians usually selected their routes, following 
the high ground or dividing ridges in the prai- 
rie, heading streams and avoiding passing 
through heavy timbers as much as possible, and 
seldom pursuing a straight line. I know that 
the path, from the house to the stable on a farm 
seven miles north of Edwardsville (which was 
settled in 1817), was and is now the line of 
the Old Trail. And in 1833 I traveled the Old 
Trail from Honey Point, north about eight 
miles, to where Zanesville now is ; the trail was 
east of and considerably further out in the prai- 
rie than the wagon road between the same 
places, and was then very distinct. From Fort 
Russell north, for about eighteen miles to the y 
old watering place at the head of Paddock 
Creek, a short distance north-east of the town 
of Bunker Hill, the trail ran in a generally 
straight course through the prairie along the 
dividing ridge between the waters and timbers 
of Paddock Creek on the east and Indian Creek 
on the west, thence ill a northeast course through 
the prairie to the points of timber at the head 
of Dry Creek (designated in old times as Honey 
Point), and thence to the head of timber on 
Horse Creek (the three creeks running into Ma- 
coupin Creek on the west), and thence north to 
Macoupin point, the little grove of timber at the 
head of Macoupin Creek thence north through 
the prairie and between the timber lines of 
Brush Creek, Horse Creek and South Fork of 
the Sangamon River on the east and Sugar 
Creek on the west, entering Round Prairie and 
crossing the Sangamon River between the 
mouths of Sugar Creek and the South Fork 
thence by Clear Lake and through the prairie 
to Buffalo Hart Grove thence on the divide be- 
tween the waters of Lake Fork on the east and 
Wolf Creek on the west to Elkhart Grove 
thence to the Rocky Ford of Salt Creek in the 
S. E. corner of Section 6, T. 19 N., R. 3 W. 
thence north to an Indian village on the north 
side of Salt Creek at either Kickapoo or Sugar 
Creek, and thence to Peoria. After the crossing 
of Salt Creek, of the route from there on to 
Peoria, I have no information or definite idea. 
"This route of the trail, for over 100 miles 
from Edwardsville to Salt Creek (with the ex- 



ceptkm of the Sangamou River and timber), 
crossed no stream of any size and passed through 
little timber, followed nearly the water-sheds or 
divides of the streams through the prairie. The 
Hon. Wm. H. Herndon, in his lifetime, claimed 
a little variation of the route as above described, 
asserting that it crossed Sugar Creek from 
Round Prairie and passed along the west side 
of the Sangamon River, through German prai- 
rie, crossing the river at or near the site of 
Bogues' old mill in the N. E. corner of the S. 
K. quarter of Section 6, T. 16 N., R. 4 W., 
Third P. M., and thence north on the west side 
of Wolf Creek Timber to Elkhart Grove, in 
Sections 7 and 18, T. 18 N., R. 3 W. He stated 
that his father settled in German prairie in 
1821, live miles northeast from Springfield, and, 
at that date, an Indian trail was not far from 
their cabin and he frequently saw the Indians 
traveling it. Both routes may have been trails 
that were traveled by the Indians. Since writ- 
ing the foregoing, I have discovered on the old- 
est known map of the Illinois Territory (now in 
the Historical State Library), a surprisingly ac- 
curate delineation of that part of the Sangamon 
River and the Lake Fork northeast of Spring- 
field, and between the two streams an Indian 
village marked thereon, in location exactly fit- 
ting Buffalo Hart Grove. . . . The line of 
this Old Indian Trail was the wagon route of 
most of the early settlers of Sangamon County, 
and is accurately located in the subdivision sur- 
veys of Townships 9 and 10 North, Range 6 
West, Third P. M., made by the U. S. Deputy 
Surveyor in 1818, and gives the distances from 
the section corners at which the section lines 
north and south and east and west intersected 
the trail. These connections of the survey lines 
with the trail were made in conformity with 
the general instructions issued by the Surveyor 
General to all deputy surveyors; but these two 
townships are the only ones on the line of the 
trail where any attention was paid to this in- 
struction. Mr. Joseph Stafford informs me that, 
when a boy riding in company with a grown 
brother along the road on the narrow divide 
between Horse Creek and Sugar Creek, his 
brother called his attention to and pointed out 
the line of the old Indian trail a little to the 
side of the road." 

other interesting story of exploration of the 
Sangamon Country, in which evidence is given 

of the presence of Indians within the limits of 
what is now Sangamon County, is told in the 
"Travels in Illinois in 1819" of Ferdinand 
Ernst, a German explorer who visited this re- 
gion during that year, and from which some 
liberal extracts are quoted in another chapter 
in this volume. Mr. Ernst had visited Edwards- 
ville, Vaudalia and a number of other points in 
Southern Illinois, and having had his atten- 
tion called to the beauties of the Sangamon 
Country, as he says, "started upon a journey to 
view the wonderful land upon the Sangamon 
before I (he) returned to Europe." After leav- 
ing Vandalia, on the second day, he found him- 
self on Sugar Creek, in what is now Sangamon 
County, where Robert Pulliam had erected the 
first cabin in 1817, but which he did not 
permanently occupy until two years later. The 
next day, after traveling some distance toward 
the northwest, with the intention of reaching 
the mouth of the Sangamon River, Mr. Ernst 
says: "On the other side of Spring Creek is a 
camping ground of Indians, whence the ground 
rises to gentle hills where we found two springs 
shaded simply by a few trees. The water of 
these two brooks flows swift and clear through 
the luxuriant prairie, the high grass of which 
reaches above the head of the horsemen. From 
these two little brooks rises a plain which ex- 
tends to Richland Creek." The mention in this 
connection of the two branches of Spring Creek, 
and later of Richland Creek, would indicate that 
the region passed over by Mr. Ernst in this 
journey was in the vicinity of the present vil- 
lage of Curran, and that the site of the Indian 
camp was a few miles west of the present city 
of Springfield. 

SHIPS. At the time of settlement of Island 
Grove in 1818, it is stated that there were two 
Indian villages in what now constitutes Island 
Grove Township, one on Skillet Fork, a branch 
of Spring Creek, and another at the head of the 
Grove near the west line, with about 300 Indians 
in each. One of these may have been the vil- 
lage or "camp" discovered by Mr. Ernst in his 
visit to this region in 1819. The Indians are 
said to have been remnants of the Pottawatomie 
and Delaware tribes. 

In the "History of Sangamon County" (1881) 
John Smith, then still living in the vicinity of 
Curran, and who came to Sangamon County with 
his parents in 1822, is quoted as authority for 


the statement that "two thousand Indians 
camped on Lick Creek soon after the arrival of 
his father's family there in 1822, and remained 
about two weeks," also that "they were very 

In consonance with this is the statement made 
In local history that when Maj. Elijah lies, the 
first merchant In Springfield, came and there 
opened up the first store in July, 1821, "Indians 
were about as numerous as whites, and his sales 
to the different races were about equal." The 
Indians, it Is said, paid for goods with furs 
and dressed deer skins, while the whites paid 
In silver coin, home-made jeans, beeswax, honey 
and butter." 

INDIAN LANDS. Beginning with the treaty of 
Greenville (1795) negotiated by Gen. Anthony 
Wayne with the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Miamis, Shawnees, Pottawatomies, 
Kaskaskias, Eel Rivers, Kickapoos and Pianka- 
shaws for the first time including all the prin- 
cipal tribes in Illinois and as far east as Ohio 
the United States entered upon a general line 
of policy in reference to the acquisition of 
Indian lands which later was followed. While 
this treaty related nominally to nearly 12,- 
000,000 acres of land north of the Ohio and east 
of the Mississippi with recognition by the In- 
dians of die rights of the early French settlers 
to the lands they then occupied, and absolute 
conveyance to the Government of numerous 
tracts, including among the most Important those 
within the territory of Illinois at the mouths 
of the Chicago and Illinois Rivers and about 
the sites of Fort Clark (Peoria) and Fort Mas- 
sac in consequence of later concession to the 
Indians of indefinite occupancy and until 
further sales, its chief feature was agreement, 
on the part of the Indians, to relinquish their 
claims to lands, in future, only to the General 
Government. As a consequence future land 
cessions from different tribes and at different 
periods, in some cases (in whole or in part) 
covered the same areas, due to the fact that 
different tribes were at times claimants of the 
same tracts. 

The most important later treaties affecting 
Illinois lands were: first, one concluded by 
Gov. William Henry Harrison, with the Kas- 
kaskias (representing themselves, the Cahokias 
and Mitchigamis), at Vincennes, August 13, 
1803, and covering an area of 8,911,850 acres ; 
second, the treaty of Edwardsville, negotiated, 

(according to Moses' "History of Illinois," with 
the Peorias and other Illinois tribes, and accord- 
ing to Washburne, in a note to the "Edwards 
Papers,' with the Kickapoos) by Gov. Ninian 
Edwards and Auguste Chouteau in September, 
1818, and covering 0,865,280 acres; and third, 
the treaty at Chicago, with the Pottawatomies, 
Chippewas and Ottawas, embracing 5,104,900 
acres. The first of these treaties related to 
lands in Southern Illinois, the second to lands 
in the southern and central parts of the State, 
and the third and last to lands in Northern Illi- 
nois, covering the last sale of Indian lands in 
the State just before the removal of the In- 
dians west of the Mississippi. If these had em- 
braced separate subdivisions, the total area 
would have covered 20,882,000 acres, or nearly 
32,500 square miles considerably more than 
one-half the area of the whole State. The fol- 
lowing statement of the boundaries of the pur- 
chase made at Edwardsville in September, 1818, 
will be found of interest in this connection : 

"Beginning at the confluence of the Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers ; thence up the Ohio to the 
mouth of Saline Creek about twelve miles below 
the mouth of the Wabash ; thence along the 
dividing ridge between the waters of {said creek 
and the Wabash, to the general dividing ridge 
between the waters which fall into the Kaskas- 
kia River ; thence along the said ridge until it 
reaches the waters which fall into the Illinois 
River ; thence down the Illinois to its confluence 
with the Mississippi and down the latter to the 

This would indicate that the Edwardsville 
purchase covered nearly the whole of Southern 
Illinois, as well as the central part of the State, 
and evidently included much of the territory 
embraced in previous purchases, especially the 
Harrison purchase of 1803 the object being to 
wipe out all Indian claims. The eastern bound- 
ary of this purchase extended northward be- 
tween the tributaries of the Wabash and Kas- 
kaskia Rivers, through Lawrence and Champaign 
Counties, to the head waters of the Illinois 
and down that stream to the Mississippi, thus 
including the territory now embraced in Sanga- 
tnon and adjoining counties its area of S.S60,- 
280 acres (or 10,727 square miles) amounting 
to nearly one-fifth of the entire State, although 
there is reason to believe much of this region 
had been acquired by previous purchases. Local 
history furnishes evidence that this purchase 








marked the beginning of white settlements in 
Sangainon County, which really became active 
in 1819. 









(By Clinton L. Conkling.) 

The earliest government set up within the 
bounds of what is now known as the State of 
Illinois was in 1718, under the "Company of the 
West," an association formed in Paris under a 
grant from the King of France for the govern- 
ment and exploitation of New France, then 
claimed by the French, and which included the 
northern portion and much of the great un- 
known interior of the North American continent. 
This government was military in character and 
its headquarters were at Fort Chartres near 
Kaskaskia in the Great American Bottom. This 
fort was named after the Due de Chartres, son 
of the Regent of France. A French Comandant 
was then Governor of the Illinois Country. 
When New France, which included the Illinois 
Country, was, by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, 
ceded to Great Britain, this commandant was 
succeeded in 1765 by a Captain of the English 
Army as governor, and in 1772 the seat of gov- 

ernment was removed to Kaskaskia, which place 
is called by Ford, in his "History of Illinois," 
the ancient seat of empire for more than one 
hundred and fifty years, both for the French 
and American inhabitants." Originally it was 
a village of the Illinois Indians, then a mission, 
and then a French trading post It was the 
first capital of the Territory of Illinois and 
afterwards of the State until in 1819, and at the 
time of its transfer to England was a place of 
about seven hundred inhabitants. The whole 
population of what is now the State of Illi- 
nois did not then exceed three thousand. The 
War of the Revolution between the colonies 
and the mother country commenced with the 
fight at Lexington, Mass., in April, 1775. This 
was followed by the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence on July 4, 1776, and the General Gov- 
ernment was so closely engaged in the conduct 
of the war along the Atlantic seaboard, that it 
could not send forces to attack the British out- 
posts in the West. At this juncture Colonel 
George Rogers Clarke of Virginia volunteered 
to lead an expedition against these western out- 
posts, and on the night of July 4, 1778, he, act- 
ing under a commission from the Governor and 
Council of Virginia, with a small force of men 
surprised the British garrison of Kaskaskia, 
and without bloodshed captured the town and 
the fort at that place. 

In October of the same year the Virginia 
House of Delegates passed an Act organizing 
all the country west and north of the Ohio River 
into the "Illinois County," which embraced the 
territory now included in the States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and the 
portion of Minnesota east of the Mississippi 
River, a territory larger than Great Britain and 
Ireland. On December 12, 1778, Patrick Henry, 
Governor of Virginia, at Williamsburg, then the 
capital of that State, and so of the Illinois 
Country, commissioned Colonel John Todd of 
Kentucky as County Lieutenant or Commandant 
of the new county, which he at once proceeded 
to organize as a county of the State of Vir- 
ginia, the county seat and headquarters of the 
commandant being at Kaskaskia. The laws of 
Old France, modified by local customs and con- 
ditions, constituted the law of the land, which 
was administered by magistrates, the proceed- 
ings and records being preserved In the French 
language. Later, however, the troops being 
withdrawn, anarchy and confusion prevailed, 



the established order failed and there was no 
stable system of government iu force for some 
years. In 1784 the State of Virginia trans- 
ferred all her claim to this vast territory to 
the United States, and the claims of Connec- 
ticut and Massachusetts to what is now the 
northern part of Illinois were also relinquished. 

This organization of Illinois County legally 
ceased in 1782. and there was no government 
resting on positive enactments of law from then 
until in 1790. The people in and about Kaskas- 
kia appealed most earnestly to Congress for the 
establishment of a better government At last 
Congress passed the celebrated Ordinance of 
1787 for the government of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, of which the Illinois Country formed a 
part. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was appointed the 
first Governor, and established the seat of gov- 
ernment at Marietta on the Ohio River in 1788, 
although the first Territorial Legislature In 
1799 met at what is now Cincinnati. Gov. St. 
Clair did not reach Kaskaskia until in 1790 
when he organized the County of St. Clair, 
which then comprised, as part thereof, more 
than half of the present State of Illinois. This 
county had two county seats, Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia, but in 1795 the disputes between these 
rival seats of government, together with other 
causes, led to the formation of the second 
county of Randolph, with Kaskaskia as its 
county seat. 

TAL. By Act of Congress, May 7, 1800, the 
Northwest Territory was divided into two Ter- 
ritories, Ohio and Indiana, what is now the 
State of Illinois being a part of the latter. The 
capital of Indiana Territory was Post Saint Vin- 
cent, now Vincennes. In 1809 Congress divided 
the Territory, the western part being called the 
Territory of Illinois. Its boundaries were then 
the same as the present State except that on the 
north it extended to the Canada line. Kaskas- 
kia was made the capital of the new territory 
until otherwise directed. Here the first Terri- 
torial Legislature convened November 25, 1812. 
The building then used as the capitol is de- 
scribed as a rough building in the center of a 
square in the Village of Kaskaskia. The body 
of this building was of uncut limestone, the 
gables and roof of the gambrel style, of un- 
painted boards and shingles, with dormer win- 
dows. The lower floor, a long cheerless room, 
was fitted up for the House, whilst the Council 

sat in the small chamber above. This build- 
ing was, during the French occupancy of the 
country prior to 1763, the headquarters of the 
military commandant. In 1838 this house was a 
mass of ruins. This building was the capitol 
during the existence of Illinois as a Territory 
and in it the State Government was organized. 

Rev. John M. Peck, in his Gazetteer, says: 
"In olden time Kaskaskia was to Illinois what 
Paris is at this time to France. Both were in 
their respective days the great emporiums of 
fashion, gayety and, I must say, happiness also. 
Kaskaskia for many years was the largest town 
\vpst of the Allegheny Mountains. It was a 
tolerable place before the existence of Pittsburg, 
Cincinnati or New Orleans." 

It was the commercial aenter of the great in- 
terior valley of the Mississippi River. Twice a 
year the surplus products of the region were 
sent by fleets of keel boats to New Orleans, 
whence on their return three months later they 
brought back rice, manufactured tobacco, cot- 
ton goods and other fabrics and such other com- 
modities as the simple wants of the inhabitants 

Fort Chartres and Kaskaskia were built on 
the soft alluvial soil of the American Bottom 
and the sites of both places have now been 
almost entirely swept away by the waters of 
the Mississippi River. 

mitted into the Union in accordance with an 
enabling act passed by Congress and approved 
April 18. 1818, entitled "An Act to enable the 
people of Illinois to form a Constitution and 
State Government, and for the admission of 
such State into the Union on an equal footing 
with the Original States." 

The Constitutional Convention of the State 
provided for by this act met at Kaskaskia and 
on August 26, 1818, adopted what is known as 
the Constitution of 1818. and on December 3, 
1818, by resolution of Congress, this constitu- 
tion was approved and the State declared ad- 
mitted to the Union. 

Section 13 of the Schedule to this Constitu- 
tion of 1818, provided as follows : 

"The seat of Government for the State shall 
be at Kaskaskia, until the General Assembly 
shall otherwise provide. The General Assembly, 
at their first session, holden under the authority 
of this Constitution, shall petition the Congress 
of the United States to grant to this State a 
quantity of land, to consist of not more than four 



nor less than one section, or to give to this State 
the right of preemption in the purchase of the 
said quantity of land, the said land to he sit- 
uate on the Kaskaskia River, and as near as 
may he east of the Third Principal Meridian ou 
said river. Should the prayer of such petition 
be granted, the General Assembly, at their next 
session thereafter, shall provide for the appoint- 
ment of five Commissioners to make the selec- 
tion of said land so granted, and shall further 
provide for laying out a town upon the said 
land so selected, which town, so laid out, shall 
be the seat of government of this State for the 
term of twenty years. Should, however, the 
prayer of said petition not be granted, the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall have power to make such 
provision for a permanent seat of government 
as may he necessary, and shall fix the same 
where they may think best." 

The members of this convention, evidently 
foreseeing the future immigration to the north- 
ern part of the State, and the consequent 
shifting of the center of population in that 
direction, inserted this limitation of twenty 
years to the location of the second State capital. 

While the seat of government was located at 
Kaskaskia the State owned no State House 
there, but rented three rooms at the rate of 
lour dollars per day in which to hold the ses- 
sions of the first General Assembly, of which 
the Senate consisted of fourteen members and 
the House of Representatives of twenty-eight, 













(By Charles P. Kane.) 

Those who have dwelt long in the Sangamou 
Valley affectionately regard it as one of the 
choicest regions of earth, an attachment which 
will be winked at and even cordially sanctioned 
by any making only a casual survey of the 
beauty and fruitage of this delectable land. 
Without the rugged majesty of mountains or the 
solemn spell of wide bordering seas to enhance 
its charm, still its milder comeliness strongly 
appeals to both, eye and heart. The broad ex- 
panse of level or gently undulating surface is 
well watered by the river and its branching 
tributaries. Primitively the streams were 
fringed with dense thickets of shrub and wood, 
which have since been greatly wasted by the 
assaults of the practical farmer. The soil of 
this valley is of rare fertility and most bounti- 
fully repays the care and labors of husbandry. 
At present a teeming population thrives upon its 
nourishing bosom, whose numbers, wealth and 
culture grow apace. 

Yet for ages this fair domain lay unsought 
by civilized men. Nearly a century and a half 
elapsed after Marquette and Joliet in 1673 
guided their pioneering canoes down the Missis- 
sippi and up the Illinois, before a white man 
erected the rudest dwelling in the territory now 
defined as the County of Sangamon. 

To quote from the address of Hon. Charles A. 
Keyes, delivered to the Old Settlers' Society Au- 
gust 14, 1900, "Less than one hundred years 
figo, the Sangamon Country was- practically a 
wilderness, with no inhabitants save .the Indian, 
the elk, the buffalo, the American deer, the black 
bear, the panther, the wolf, the wild cat, the 
wild horse, the wild turkey and the prairie 
chicken. The gentleman fox, both gray and red. 
delayed his coming until the advance of civil- 

Hon. Milton Hay, speaking to the same society 
August 20, 1879, declares that "these regions 
were not considered so inviting as to cause a 
rush or haste in their settlement ; doubt existed 
as to whether a prairie country was habitable, 
and the impression generally prevailed that its 
characteristics were those of a desert." 

The difficulties of travel and want of means 



of transportation long deterred homeseekers 
from pressing on to the frontier lands of Central 
Illinois. The earliest comers, having no roads 
to follow, no chart or compass to point their 
course, were often lost in the woods or on the 
prairies and confided in the instinct of their 
animals to guide them to water. Many were 
ill supplied with horses and wagons, so that 
members of the party walked and rode by turns ; 
occasionally a horse or an ox died by the way, 
a most serious and irreparable loss. One of the 
old pioneers thus relates his own experience: 
"My wife and child in arms were placed upon 
a horse with a bed and bed clothjng; a second 
horse bore the cooking utensils and two chairs ; 
upon a third myself and child were mounted; 
and so equipped we journeyed to our future 
home on the Sangainon." 

At length the fullness of time is come. After 
ages of waiting the wilds of the Sangamon are 
to be taken and subdued by the aggressive 
Anglo-Saxon, and eventually to become the de- 
lightful home of a thriving multitude. In the 
autumn of 1816, a group of four or five herds- 
men, like the first flight of birds that herald 
the approach of a new season, appeared in the 
southern part of the county and built the first 
cabin within its present borders. The next 
spring, like homing birds, they went to the 
South again, leaving their solitary cabin in the 
woods. At this date Illinois had not been ad- 
mitted into the Union, and more than four 
years later the county of Sangamon was estab- 
lished by law. 

Robert Pulliam was a native of Virginia, 
born April 12, 1776, about three months prior 
to the adoption of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. \\iith his father's family he emi- 
grated to Kentucky and thence to Illinois, arriv- 
ing at what was then known as the New Design 
settlement, now a part of Monroe County. 
After several changes of residence to points 
in Illinois and Missouri, Mr. Pulliam in 1815 re- 
moved to St. Clair County, 111. One year later, 
with two or three employes, including one 
woman, a sister of one of the men named 
Strickland, who accompanied the party as cook, 
Mr. Pulliam drove a herd of cattle northward 
for grazing, and upon arriving at Sugar Creek 
timber, built the first cabin in the county as 
before narrated. It was erected October 20, 
1817, on the tract designated by a subsequent 
government survey as the south-west quarter 

of Section 21, in Township Fourteen North, 
Range Five West of the Third Principal Me- 
ridian, about ten and one-half miles south of 
the City of Springfield. The next spring he 
drove his cattle South, but in 1819 returned 
with his family to find his cabin on Sugar 
Creek snugly occupied by Mr. Zachariah Peter. 
The premises were promptly surrendered and 
the Pulliams became permanent residents there. 
Mr. Peter afterward served as one of the Com- 
missioners to locate the county seat of the new 
County of Saugamon. 

Mr. Pulliam was married to Mary Stout, 
who was born April 9, 1776 the locality not 
known. They had six children, and many of 
their descendants still reside in the county. 
Mr. Pulliam died July 31, 1838, and his widow, 
July 1, 1847. 

Immediately following the advent of Mr. 
Pulliam, a number of immigrants entered the 
county, no less than a score of them in 1818, 
many with families, and thereafter a swelling 
tide flowed in. The southern part was occupied 
earliest as most of the newcomers were from 
Southern Illinois, primarily from Kentucky, 
Virginia and Tennessee, and naturally were in- 
fluenced to seek a location as near to the South 
as might be convenient. Good report of a de- 
sirable new land rapidly spread to the far 
South and East. 

Well defined roads and lines of travel were 
now opened up by government officials and an 
increasing procession of pioneers. Elijah lies in 
1821 heard that "commissioners had staked 
out a road" from Vincennes to the Sangamon 
Valley. He followed the stakes from Vandalia, 
favoring his horse by walking and leading it 
much of the way, till he could see the timber 
of Sugar and Horse Creeks on the headwaters 
of the Sangamon. 

Seven years later Hon. John T. Stuart sought 
a new home at Springfield. As he pursued the 
same course that lies had traveled, he saw men, 
women and children, with all kinds of domestic 
animals, following every conceivable fashion of 
conveyance. Some rode on horseback, some in 
carriages or wagons, and many trudged along on 

Despite the disparity between the limited tim- 
ber tracts and the prairies, outreaching in all 
directions, early settlers unanimously chose to 
locate in the timber. The sod was thickly 
matted, the wild grass grew luxuriant and tall 





r 1 















on the open country, and no plow had yet been 
invented to cleave it ; it was therefore dis- 
carded as unfit for tillage. The argument was 
made that should the country ever become well 
populated, proprietors in possession of the tim- 
ber would have the residue at their mercy ; for 
where could fuel, fencing or building material 
be procured except of them. The opinion was 
frankly expressed that the prairie lands would 
never be purchased of the Government ; that 
they were not worth the taxes, and would 
forever remain common pasture grounds for 
owners of land near the woods; and so, with 
axe and grubbing hoe, the invaders bravely as- 
sailed the thickets, felled the trees and plowed 
among the stumps. How have the introduction 
of steel plows and the development of our coal 
industries discredited the confident forecast of 
our ancestors ! 

The vanguard of the army that came up to 
possess the Sangamon Valley were not men of 
wealth, but rather such as desired, by the 
strength of youth, to wrest a competence from 
the wilderness or, at maturer age, ventured to 
retrieve fortunes that had failed. They ex- 
pected to endure hardship and without flinching 
encountered the privations that marked frontier 
life in Illinois ninety years ago. Money was 
scarce and little used. Necessarily resort was 
had to hunting and agriculture as about the only 
vocations which promised a livelihood. Wild 
game was plentiful, but there were no railways, 
telegraphs or newspapers ; no cultivators, no 
planting, reaping or threshing machines, no mills 
or factories. Only the simplest farming imple- 
ments were obtainable; corn was cultivated 
largely with the hoe, small grains were sown 
broadcast from the hand, harvested with scythe 
and cradle, threshed with flails and winnowed 
by tossing in a sheet or canvas, or by other 
device equally inartificial. But things must be 
done. One father saw, with something of dis- 
may, that he must not only make his children's 
shoes but tan the leather as well. And so 
he did. 

Rude fabrics turned out by the spinning 
wheels and looms of cabin homes supplied the 
artless raiment of the household. Women ac- 
quired a cleverness in the manufacture of home- 
made stuffs, and prepared from minerals and 
the juices of bark, leaves and berries, varied 
dyes to add life and color to the flannels, jeans 
and linseys woven for family wear and tear. 

Garments for men as well as women and chil- 
dren, were cut and neatly sewed by wives and 
daughters, oftentimes before the spacious blaz- 
ing hearth, or by the light of grease dip or 
tallow candle, which the same hands had molded 
that so deftly plied the needle. Early settlers 
are unanimous and emphatic in their eulogy of 
the women of those times, and declare their 
courage, patience and enterprise beyond praise. 
They met every obligation conditions imposed 
upon them, discharged every duty without com- 
plaint. A gentleman who became a leading 
citizen and whose family was one of the most 
prominent in Springfield in after years, first 
saw his wife at the washtub and her beauty 
at once made a deep impression upon him. 
Professionally she engaged in school-teaching and 
was a lady of fine presence and culture. Her 
husband, after her death in the "sixties, bore 
testimony that her natural mental endowments 
were superior to his own. Such was the qual- 
ity of many of the pioneer wives of the Sanga- 
mon regions. In laying the foundations of 
civilized society there their aid was indis- 

The dwellings erected were built of logs, 
chinked and daubed with clay, roofed with clap- 
boards and floored with puncheons, the smooth 
side up, the round side down. A capacious fire- 
place was constructed of stone and clay at the 
side, and the broad chimney continued upward 
made of sticks and mud. 

Rev. J. L. Crane, author of "The Two Cir- 
cuits," thus refers to the interior of an old 
time cabin : "The door was left ajar, not for 
ventilation but light; poles were hanging a few 
inches from the ceiling, thickly encircled with 
ring, string and circular cuts of pumpkin, hung 
there to dry. On your left as you faced the 
fire, were three or four shelves, which contained 
queensware, tin-cups and pans. A small stool 
under the shelves held the water bucket, in 
which floated an old brown gourd. There was 
no window with glass in the house, but opposite 
the door a log was cut out, where a window was 
expected to be." A wood rail fence, rigged with 
stakes and riders for increased height and 
stability, enclosed plow land and door yard ; the 
latter was entered by a stile instead of a gate. 
Within the yard the householder dug his well 
and walled it with broken rock. A section from 
a large hollow tree-trunk served as a curb and 
the tall sweep stood by for lowering the iron- 



bound bucket to the water. So commonly it was 
in the beginning. 

In the process of occupation settlers became 
sufficiently numerous at attractive points to 
constitute distinctive neighborhods, which were 
named from some natural features of -the loeal- 
ity. Thus early became known the settlements 
of Richland, Fancy Creek, Wolf Creek and 
Buffalo Hart in the North, German Prairie and 
North Fork in the East, Sugar Creek and Lick 
Creek in the South and Island Grove in the 
West. But in April, 1821, when the temporary 
county-seat was located and named Springfield, 
it is said the Commissioners were largely in- 
fluenced in their choice by the discovery that 
tliis was the only settlement in the county large 
enough to entertain the officials, lawyers and 
litigants, who were expected to attend terms 
of court. At this date there were residing within 
two miles of the stake, set to mark the location 
of the county-seat, nine families, who are named 
by lies as follows: John Kelly, William Kelly, 
Andrew Elliot, Jacob Ellis, Levi Ellis, John 
Lindsay, Abram Lanterman, Samuel Little and 
Mr. Dagget. These were the families with 
whom it was hoped the Judge, practitioners and 
clients would find shelter until other accommo- 
dations were provided. The County Commis- 
sioners imparted an impetus of growth to the 
town by indulging in the extravagance of a 
Court House costing, complete and finished ac- 
cording to contract and specifications, the re- 
markable sum of seventy-two dollars and fifty 
cents. The jail ran into higher figures, having 
been constructed at an expense to the public of 
eighty-four dollars and seventy-five cents. This 
was not the work of children, but the achieve- 
ment of men struggling with limitations. 

The development of these neighborhood settle- 
ments called for other factors of civilization. 
It opened the way for the fixing of trading 
points, for the store, the mechanic, the school 
house, the church. Accordingly. Elijah lies 
erected the first merchandising establishment In 
the county near the historic stake fixing the 
county-seat. The store building was eighteen 
feet square with sheds on the sides for shelter; 
the sides were made of hewn logs, roofed with 
boards upon which heavy poles were laid "to 
keep the boards from blowing off." Mr. lies 
purchased a stock of goods in St. Louis, which 
was transported to the site of Beardstown by 
water, and thence by wagons to Springfield. His 

trade with the Indians was almost as large as 
with the whites, and extended over an area 
reaching from the Illinois River on the west, 
to Champaign County on the east, and from 
Trazewell County on the north to Macoupiu on 
the south. Many customers came eighty miles 
to trade. They were poor, says Mr. lies, and 
their purchases were light but a more honest 
and industrious class never settled a new 

The first mill was built by Daniel Liles on 
Horse Creek, a rude contrivance without a 
covering and operated in fair weather. Stones 
picked up in the vicinity functioned as burrs 
and a team of horses supplied the power. The 
capacity of the mill, intended for grinding corn 
only, was from eight to ten bushels per day. 
Farmers came thirty and forty miles, and in 
such numbers that often a wait of several days 
for a turn at the mill was necessary. 

Schools from the beginning were regarded as 
a prime necessity. In the absence of any pub- 
lic provision for educating children, subscription 
schools were started, in which a tuition fee was 
subscribed for each student, to be collected by 
the pedagogue, who was also entitled to the 
privilege of "boarding 'round," or by turns, 
among his patrons. "Keeping the teacher" was 
variously regarded as an honor or a burden, 
according to the temper or disposition of the 

Log school houses were provided by all the 
thriving settlements. One of them is thus de- 
scribed by a quondam pupil : "A rectangular 
building of logs, at one end of which was the 
teachers desk, at the other the indispensable 
great fire-place piled with blazing wood. The 
desks consisted of a wide board, extending 
across the room and supported at convenient 
height for books or writing. Along behind the 
desk was a puncheon seat, smooth side up. 
upheld by crossed sticks for legs and extending, 
like the desk, entirely across the room. Here 
the principles of rending, writing and ciphering 
were inculcated, and advanced pupils were in- 
structed in the mysteries of geography and 
Murray's grammar. Spelling matches afforded 
an opportunity for the ambitious to engage in 
combats of erudition, and the whole neighbor- 
hood turned out to see some champion spell 
down the school, and any outsiders, as well, 
who cared to risk their reputations rashly. At 
this school a custom had grown up among the 









big boys of locking out the teacher at Christinas 
holidays and keeping him out until he had 
treated all arouud to whisky and sugar. The 
teacher usually yielded and often the boys be- 
came unsteady on their feet. One day a gritty 
.\<mng Scot from Edinburg University, whom the 
whirligig of time had tossed out upon the 
frontier, came and offered to teach for the 
ensuing term. The customary measures were 
being taken to lock him out at Christmas, but 
the display of a pistol at the official desk and 
the stern countenance of the taciturn Scotchman 
induced an abandonment of the usual holiday 

Special subscription schools for writing or 
singing were common, the singing school being 
very popular with the young folks, where the 
social propensity received cultivation along with 
learning "to sing by note." 

The people of Sangamon County have always 
favored the thorough education of their chil- 
dren, but not always at public expense. When 
the public school system was established in 1854 
there was serious and excited opposition. 
There were many to whom the righteousness 
of taxing one man to educate another's children 
did not appear to be axiomatic. Happily the 
public school has now firmly entrenched itself 
in the esteem of the whole people. 

The church met -with cordial welcome from 
the early settlers. The Methodists led at Spring- 
field by organizing in 1821, soon followed by 
tbe Presbyterians. Baptists, Disciples and 
others. At meeting the men always sat on one 
side of the house (or aisle) and the women on 
the other; the minister lined out the hymns, and 
the congregation sang with right good will, and 
delighted thereafter to hear an hour and a half 
sermon. For they did not hear sermons every 
Sunday, and, with little to divert, the church 
perhaps held the general interest and drew the 
people together more than anything else. 
Churches sprang up in every part of the county 
and were loyally and affectionately main- 

Social life in the new community claimed its 
due. Neighbors felt for each other a sentiment 
of warm and cordial attachment. They en- 
joyed each other sincerely and sought occasions, 
in a thrifty way, to combine pleasure with 
practical profit. The ladies, for example, had at 
their homes gatherings called "bees," to which 
all nearby dames were invited to spend the day 

and assist at some household task requiring an 
enlarged force to perform. Such were the wool 
pickings, the sewing bee, the quilting of bed 
covers or sewing carpet rags; the husking bee. 
in which the young people joined with the 
understanding that the finder of the first red 
ear, if a youth, was entitled to kiss the girl 
of his choice; if a girl, the enterprising gentle- 
man who could catch her first might demand a 
similar salute. On these occasions most boun- 
tiful repast refreshed the laborers. 

The old play of the maiden and the swain 
was re-enacted yet more than a play. In 
their cabins, with captivating grace, young 
ladies entertained young gentlemen, albeit they 
were sturdy tillers of the soil. They were mar- 
ried and given in marriage as of old. The 
first wedding in the county or its territory was 
that of Philo Beers and Martha Stillman, cele- 
brated November 2, 1820, on Fancy Creek. 
Kev. Stephen England officiating as minister. 
Sangamon County had not then been legally 
constituted, but formed part of Madison County. 
A license to perform the ceremony was obtained 
at Edwardsville, the county seat of Madison 
County, sixty miles away. Tradition has it that 
both white and red men were guests at the 
bridal feast. 

The secret social orders were not neglected. 
Sangamo Lodge No. 9, of Free Masons, ob- 
tained a charter bearing date October 25, 1822. 
to meet at Springfield, Stephen Stillmau acting 
as Master, Dr. Gershom Jayne as Senior and 
John Moore as Junior Warden. Stillman ap- 
peared to be an active citizen in those early 
days. Beside having the honor of being brother 
to Martha Stillman, the first bride in the county, 
he was one of the Justices appointed upon the 
organization of the county, was Postmaster, 
served upon the grand jury that indicted Van 
Noy, Sangamon's first homicide, and represented 
the county as State Senator in the General 
Assembly which convened at Vandalia, the old 
capital, in 1824. Dr. Jayne opened the first 
doctor's office in Springfield in 1820. 

The pioneer did not suffer from want of food. 
Both forest and prairie contributed generously 
to his family table. A boarder (one of eight) 
at one of the nine cabins constituting Springfield 
when the historic stake was driven, notes the 
following as his bill of fare : "Fresh milk and 
butter, corn bread baked on a hoe (hence hoe- 
cake), honey, venison, turkey, prairie chicken. 



quail, squirrel, fish, occasionally pig, and all the 
vegetables raised in this climate. Deer were 
plentiful ; if we wanted venison one of the boys 
would go to the grove and kill a deer." 

The fowl and game mentioned above were 
wild, as was also the honey. A day's hunt in 
the woods would result in a rich reward of plun- 
der from the bee-tree's sweet store. Cattle and 
hogs gave little trouble. A bell was put on the 
cow, the pig was marked by cropping his ear 
and tail, each owner having a private mark, 
after which the live-stock grazed upon the wild 
grass, or munched herbs, acorns and nuts in the 
timber, until wanted by their masters at milk- 
ing or killing time. 

Health is a prime consideration, always and 
everywhere. The great foe of good health In 
new Illinois was commonly termed chills and 
fever. They were intermittent and tenacious. 
He was deemed a fortunate citizen who escaped 
his attack of ague and complete discomfiture 
as a consequence. After long and bitter ex- 
perience the populace grimly settled down to 
large doses of quinine in the fall and a two- 
weeks' course of sassafras tea in the spring, as 
the most effective remedial agencies to be 
adopted. Malarial conditions, probably arising 
from the decay of rank vegetation and stagnant 
water on the undrained flats, have been so cor- 
rected in later years as to cause this exasperat- 
ing scourge largely to disappear. 

The testimony borne by Major lies to the good 
character of the early settlers has been re- 
corded. Mr. Hay insists they possessed the 
average virtues of mankind. Kindness of dis- 
position was necessitated by the hardships many 
were called upon to endure and the meagerness 
of resources in time of trouble. But a few 
would steal, some were given to brawls and 
violence, some meanly slandered their neigh- 
bors ; the far greater number sincerely sought 
to lay the foundation of an orderly society, 
having respect to the laws both of heaven and 
earth. Multiplied schools and churches mingled 
their evidence with that of the somber whipping 
post, where tender hearted Sheriff Henry laid 
the lash on the bare back of the culprit thief 
as lightly as possible. 

Conditions generally tended to cultivate brav- 
ery, fortitude, self-reliance and shrewdness. 
The wolf prowled about, more alarming perhaps 
to children than men ; startled women encoun- 
tered panthers in the woods and bold hunters 

told of having slain the American lion close by, 
some specimens which measured eleven feet 
from tip to tip; an occasional Indian, approach- 
ing with stealthy tread suddenly appeared at 
the door, bringing to mind terrible tales of the 
cruelty and treachery of his race; and solitude, 
voiceless except with strange notes of the wilder- 
ness, gravely oppressed the isolated family when 
father was away. 

Under such circumstances it is not to be won- 
dered at that strong fearless men were conceded 
a kind of pre-eminence, nor that some of the 
coarser sort should boast of their prowess and 
swagger because of their strength. Now and 
then a bully would appear, and tyranically 
domineer over his associates, until compelled to 
observe a more rational behavior by some public- 
spirited Samson who could beat reason into him. 
No less a personage than Abraham Lincoln once 
officiated in an affair of this kind. It is re- 
lated as a legend of the olden time, that one 
Jerry Buckles, of the Lake Fork settlement, be- 
longing to a fighting family, had established his 
supremacy as "the best man in the country." 
Hearing that Andrew McCormick of Springfield 
bore the reputation of a powerful athlete and 
was the acknowledged chief at the game of 
fistcuffs about town, Buckles came to Springfield 
and challenged McCormick to a pugilistic en- 
counter. McCormick appeared reluctant to en- 
gage and requested his challenger not to bother 
him. But Buckles insisted they should fight. 
Suddenly McCormick seized his antagonist and 
threw him over a horse rack Into the street. 
As soon as he could rise from the ground after 
his signal discomfiture, Buckles put out his 
hand, acknowledged McCormick was the better 
man and asked him to take a drink. McCor- 
mick was later elected to the State Legisla- 
ture, and was one of "the Long Nine" so instru- 
mental in the removal of the capital from 
Vandalia to Springfield. 

Many In those days preferred settling their 
differences by a trial of physical strength to ad- 
justing their quarrels through the courts 'the 
latter procedure being regarded with contempt 
as indicative of the mollycoddle. 

Every portion of the North, South and East 
in our country contributed bo the peopling of 
Sangamon County. Their coalescence resulted 
in the establishment of a sane, intelligent and 
enterprising community, from which sprang 
men of distinguished parts, some of whom at- 



tained national fame. This chapter Is not in- 
tended to be biographical nor a chronicle of 
events, but purports rather to set forth some 
of the conditions and influences which molded 
the society of later days. It may be closed 
appropriately by quoting a suggestive paragraph 
from Clark E. Carr: 

"The great characters which Illinois has given 
to the world could never have been evolved 
from any other than a pioneer life. They will 
never again be equaled In our country until 
there appears some equally potential pioneer 
movement. It may be in morals, it may be in 
politics, it may be in society; but it must be 
such an awakening as takes men out of them- 
selves and beckons them toward new and un- 
explored regions of thought and aspiration." 














(By George E. Keys.) 

Sangamon County was organized by act of the 
Legislature, approved January 30, 1821, from 
portions of Madison and Bond Counties, its 
boundaries, as originally defined, being as 
follows : From the northeast corner of Town 12 
North, 1 West of the Third Principal Meridian, 
extending north with that meridian to the Illinois 
River; thence down the middle of the Illinois 
River to the mouth of Balance or Negro (now 

Indian) Creok ; up said creek to its head; thence 
through the middle of the prairie dividing the 
waters of the Sangamon and Mauvais Terre to 
the northwest corner of Town 12 North, 7 West 
of the Third Principal Meridian ; thence east 
along the north line of Town 12 to the place of 
beginning. This included all the territory in 
what constitutes the present counties of Cass, 
Menard, Logan, Mason, Tazewell, and parts of 
Christian, Macon, McLean, Woodford, Marshall 
and Putnam, making a total area of approxi- 
mately 4,800 square miles. This has been re- 
duced by successive changes resulting in the crea- 
tion, between 1S24 and 1841, of five entire new 
counties and parts of six others from the original 
territory of Sangamon County, and bringing the 
latter down to its present area of 875 square 

first election was held in the new county, April 
2, 1821, at the house of John Kelly, the first 
settler on the site of the present city of Spring- 
field, the definition of locality at that time be- 
ing "on Spring Creek." William Drennan, 
Zachariah Peter and Rivers Cormack were then 
elected County Commissioners and at once en- 
tered upon the duties of their office. Holding 
their first meeting the next day, they appointed 
Charles R. Matheny (head of the well-known 
Matheny family), Clerk of the County Commis- 
sioners' Court, a position which he held until 
his death in 1839. He also held, for a time by 
appointment, the offices of Circuit Clerk, Re- 
corder and Probate Judge. 

A week later, on April 10th, the Commission- 
ers held their second meeting, at which they 
proceeded "to fix a temporary seat of justice for 
the county," which they designated as "a certain 
point in the prairie near John Kelly's field, on 
the waters of Spring Creek, at a stake marked 
Z. V. D.," and adding that they "do further agree 
that the said county seat be called and known 
by the name of Springfield." This point is de- 
scribed as having been what is now the north- 
west corner of Second and Jefferson Streets in 
the present city of Springfield, the first court 
house being erected on the same spot. 

THE FIRST COURT HOUSE. This meeting was 
attended by Commissioners I'eter and Drennan, 
and on the same date they entered into a con- 
tract with Mr. Kelly to construct a building to 
be used as a court house. According to the 
specifications this was to be built of logs, twenty 



feet in length, one story high, with "plank floor, 
a good cabin roof, a door and window cut out, 
the work to be completed by the first day of 
May, next," for which Kelly was to receive a 
compensation of $42.50. As this part of the 
work approached completion, the Commissioners 
entered into a further contract with Jesse Bre- 
vard to finish the court house in the following 
manner, to-wit : "To be chinked outside and 
daubed inside ; boards sawed and nailed on the 
inside cracks ; a good, sufficient door shutter to 
be made with good plank and hung with good 
iron hinges, with a latch ; a window to be cut 
out faced and cased ; to contain nine lights, with 
a good sufficient shutter hung on the outside ; a 
fire-place to be cut out seven feet wide, and a 
good sufficient wooden chimney, built with a 
good sufficient back and hearth'' the whole to 
be finished by the first of September following. 
For this part of the work Brevard was allowed 
$20.50. which, with $9.00 for some other items, 
including the Judge's seat and bar, and the 
$42.50 on the Kelly contract, made the total cost 
of the structure $72.50. 

FIRST JAIL. The Commissioners' Court as- 
sembled in the newly constructed court house on 
June 4, 1821, and on the same day entered into 
an agreement with Robert Hamilton to build a 
county jail to be completed by the first Monday 
in September next, for which he was to receive 
in compensation $84.75. This building was to 
be twelve feet square, constructed of square 
hewed logs, with a good cabin roof and with a 
window cut eight inches square between two 
logs, and protected by iron bars, and otherwise 
strengthened for the confinement of persons ac- 
cused of crime. 

About this time the county was divided into 
four election districts or precincts named re- 
spectively, Sangamon, Springfield, Richland and 
T'nion, and two overseers of the poor were ap- 
pointed for each with three trustees to represent 
the county-at-large. 

The amount of taxable propery. as returned 
to the County Commissioners' Court in July, 
1823. was $129,112.50. 

Land Office was established at Springfield in 
1823 and the first laud entries on the site where 
the village was situated, were made the same 
year by Elijah lies, Pascal P. Enos, D. P. Cook 
and Thomas Cox Enos and Cox being. res[>ect- 
ively at that time, Receiver and Registrar of the 

Land Office. These lands embraced the four 
quarter-sections cornering at Second and Jeffer- 
son Streets. When the first town plat was 
made in 1822, the town was given the name 
Calhoun," but the Government having in the 
meantime established a postoffice there by the 
name of Springfield, the name Calhoun was 

BOUNDARIES CHANGED. By act of the General 
Assembly of December 23, 1824, the area of 
Sangamon County was modified and its bound- 
aries changed, by cutting off the portion of the 
original county north of Town 20, and a portion 
embracing the present County of Cass on the 
west, reducing the area by one-half. By this 
arrangement Sangamon County embraced what 
is now Menard County, a portion of Mason, 
about two-thirds of Logan and one-half of 

COUNTY SEAT CONTEST. About this time 
there arose a sharp struggle over the issue look- 
ing to the permanent location of the county seat. 
The contestants in this struggle were Spring- 
field, then in temjiornry iiossession of the prize, 
and Sangamo. a village favorably situated on the 
south bank of the Sangamon River about seven 
miles northwest of Springfield. In the cam- 
paign of 1824, J. H. Pugh and William S. Hamil- 
ton were competing candidates for Representa- 
tive in the General Assembly, Pugh as a cham- 
pion of Springfield and Hamilton as an advocate 
for Sangamo. While Hamilton was elected, 
I'ugh went to Vandal ia as a lobbyist and suc- 
ceeded in having the following citizens of other 
counties appointed commissioners permanently 
to locate the county seat, viz. ; James Mason, 
Rowland T. Allen, Charles Gear and John R. 
Sloo. A provision in the act authorizing the lo- 
cation required, that the proprietors of the site 
selected should make a donation to the county 
of at least thirty-five acres as the site of a 
county building and to assist in the cost of con- 
struction. The Commissioners met on March 
18, 1825, and after visiting and making an in- 
spection of the competing points, declared in 
favor of fixing the permanent location at Spring- 
field. Messrs. lies, Enos and Cox, already 
mentioned as having made entries of land on 
contiguous sections in what is now the heart of 
the city of Springfield, at the first land sale, 
made a donation of forty-two acres, thus exceed- 
ing the amount required by act of the Legis- 
lature. The land was deeded to the County 





























Commissioners, and after officially platted 
by Thomas M. Neal, an early lawyer of Spring- 
field, with the exception of one square (that 
which became the Capitol Square and is now 
occupied by the present court house), was or- 
dered to be sold, the sale taking place May 2 and 
3, 1825, with Xeale as crier and Erastus Wright 
as clerk, the prices of the lots then sold ranging 
from $10.25 to $40. 

A SECOND COURT HOUSE. In July, 1825, the 
County Commissioners passed an order provid- 
ing for the erection of a new Court house, the 
structure to he of brick and two stories in 
height, the cost not to exceed $3,000 a provision 
of the order being to the effect that one-half of 
the cost should be met by private subscriptions. 
This provision, however, failed and the project 
was abandoned. In September following a con- 
tract was entered into for the construction of a 
frame building at a cost of $449, and in addi- 
tion of $70 for the construction of flues raising 
the total cost to $519. This building was 
erected on the northeast corner of Adams and 
Sixth Streets, where the Farmers National 
Bank now stands. The old log court house of 
1821 was sold at auction about this time for $32, 
a little less than half the original cost. 

Incidentally, it may be mentioned that the 
schedule of the property to be assessed under 
the order of Commissioners' Court, issued in 
1827, included as taxable property "slaves and 
indentured or registered negro or mulatto 

THE THIRD COURT HOUSE. The second Court 
house having served for five years, in February, 
1830, steps were taken for the erection of a brick 
building, the County Court appointing three 
commissioners to have charge of the work. 
Contracts were entered into for this purpose, of 
which $4,041 was on account and $2,000 for wood 
work, making a total of $0,841. This edifice was 
completed early in 1831, being located in the 
center of the public square, which afterwards 
became the location of the State Capitol and is 
the seat of the present Court House. It is de- 
scribed as a square building, two stories in 
height, with a hip-roof and a cupola rising on 
the center. From this time there was a tendency 
for business houses to collect as a most desir- 
able location about the public squares. 

STATE CAPITAL. The location of the State 
Capital at Springfield in 1S37 brought another 
change in public buildings. To the pledge of the 

citizens of Springfield to contribute $50.000 to 
the cost of a capital building, there was added 
the resiKJiisibility of furnishing a site for the 
same. This was finally settled by the selection 
of the public square then occupied by the third 
court house upon which to erect a new State 
House. It was also prescribed by the same act 
that the State should have the use of the old 
State House until the new one should be com- 
pleted. The land for the new capitol site was 
secured at a cost to the city of $70,000 and con- 
veyed to the State, with the $200,000 paid by the 
county for State property, making the total cost 
to the city and county of the transfer of the 
capitol location $270,000. Although the property 
obtained from the State was paid for in 1SG7, 
the actual transfer did not take place until the 
partial completion of the new State House in 
January, 1876, the old building having been In 
use by the State, in the meantime, for nearly 
nine years. The original cost of the old State 
House was $240,000, of which Springfield con- 
tributed $50.000, besides the site. It is estimated 
that the interest on the sum paid for the old 
State House between the time paid and the date 
of actual possession, would have amounted to 
$140,000, increasing the actual cost to $340.000. 

In January, 1870, the new State Capitol hav- 
ing been so far completed as to make it possible 
to use it for office purposes, the old building was 
taken possession of by the county and, in 1899, 
was enlarged by raising the entire building in 
order that a lower story might be added without 
destroying the original form. The changes in- 
volved an expenditure of $175.000, making the 
total cost without interest on sum paid for the 
building while it remained in possession of the 
State $375,000. 

The building has three full stories besides 
ample basement for storage and heating pur- 
l>oses. with a hall on the fourth floor dedicated to 
the use of the Grand Army of the Republic. The 
other floors furnish ample accommodations for 
the Circuit and Probate Courts, Board of Super- 
visors and other county officers. The building is 
123 by 90 feet in dimensions, and 154 feet in 
height to the top of the flag-staff. It is of pure 
Doric style of architecture, and it is a matter of 
pride to the citizens of Sangamon County that 
the stone for its construction was obtained from 
quarries within the limits of the county. 

garding courts in Sangamou County will be 



found in chapters on "Bench and Bar" and "Po- 
litical Representation," in other portions of 
this volume. 

CITY OF SPRINGFIELD. Springfield was Incor- 
porated as a town in 1832 and as a city in 1840. 
It has an altitude of 599 feet, and according to 
statistics of 1911, has an area of 8.6 square 
miles ; 163.16 miles of surveyed streets, of which 
68.16 miles are paved; 68.33 miles of sewers; 
within its limits 36 miles of single track street 
railroads; 77 miles of gas mains; nine parks 
with a total area of 446.87 acres ; Water Works 
with a capacity for 8,000,000 gallons daily and 
102 miles of water mains, the value of the plant 
being $800,000. The assessed valuation of prop- 
erty within the city limits in 1910 was $47,088,- 
648, with a bonded indebtedness of $825,800. 












(By Paul Selby.) 

Some especially interesting reminiscences of 
early explorations in Illinois including a tour 
through the "Sangamon Country" are furnished 
in a volume from the pen of Mr. Ferdinand 
Ernst, a German traveler who visited this 

country in 1819, and a report of whose explora- 
tions was published in the German language 
in Berlin in 1823. For the following excerpts 
from this volume the writer is indebted to a 
translation contributed by Prof. E. D. Baker, of 
McKendree College, and published in "No. 8, 
Publications of the Historical Library of Illi- 
nois, 1903." 

After having spent some time at Edwards- 
ville, Vandalia, and other points in Southern 
Illinois, Mr. Ernst determined to extend his 
tour to the "Sangamon Country," of the beauties 
of which he had heard much in his travels. In 
a letter under date of Vandalia, September 10, 
1819, soon after the location of the State capi- 
tal there, and near the date of the Edwards- 
ville treaty, ceding the Indian lands in Central 
Illinois to the Government, he writes: 

"In the vicinity of this town (Vandalia) is a 
large amount of fine lands, but every one is 
full of praise for those which lie about sixty 
to eighty miles northward upon the river San- 

As the title to lands, including Vandalia had 
already been obtained from the Indians, Mr. 
Ernst concluded to build a log house there, 
about the same time having bought several lots 
in the future State capital. He then says: 

"As soon as the building was far enough 
advanced that my companion was able to finish 
it alone, I started upon a journey to view the 
wonderful land upon the Sangamon before I re- 
turned to Europe. On the 27th of August, I, ac- 
companied by a guide, set out upon this little 
journey. We were both mounted and had filled 
our portmanteaus as bountifully as possible with 
food for man and horse, because upon such a 
journey in those regions, one cannot count upon 
much. A fine, well-traveled road leads thither 
from Edwardsville. In order to reach this, we 
rode out from Vandalia across Shoal Creek, 
and then northward into the prairie. We left 
the forest about the sources of Sugar and Silver 
creeks to the south, and in the vicinity of the 
groves about the sources of the Macoupin we 
came upon this road. We now touched upon 
points of timber on some branches of this river, 
which extend from the Illinois River through 
the greater part of the State from west to east 
and disappear about the source of the Okaw 
(Kaskaskia) and upon the banks of the Wabash. 
This great prairie is the dividing line of the 
waters flowing southward to the Mississippi and 



northward to the Sangaruon; but it is, how- 
ever, of no considerable elevation. East of the 
road are some lakes or swamps, from which the 
two branches of Shoal Creek receive their first 
water. The entire region south of this prairie 
elevation is especially distinguished by the eleva- 
tion of the prairie and by the smoothness and 
fertility of the land; however, no spring or 
river water is to be found anywhere in it. In 
general the few springs which may possibly be 
there occur only in the bordering timber. . . . 

"As soon as one arrives upon the elevation and 
northern side of this prairie, the grass of the 
prairie changes and the ground becomes visibly 
better. The river banks decline in a gentle 
slope from the prairie to the water, and are 
likewise covered with woods, which also shows 
the greater fertility of the soil. We find here 
in the State of Illinois almost the same variety 
of woods that are found in Ohio ; and I found 
in addition to the soft maple, the sugar tree, 
which, in its leaves, differs but little from it. 
The inhabitants regard the latter as far better 
for the production of sugar. 

"On Sugar Creek, where'we passed the second 
night, we found, right at the point of timber, 
a family who had not yet finished their cabin. 
Half a mile farther three families had settled 
near an excellent spring, and here we passed 
the night. Upon this little stream, which, about 
fifteen miles to the north of its source, empties 
into the Sangamou, about sixty farms have been 
laid out, indeed all since this spring of 1819. 
They have only broken up the sod of the prairie 
with the plow and planted their corn, and now 
one sees these splendid fields covered, almost 
without exception, with corn from ten to fifteen 
feet high. It is no wonder that such a high 
degree of fruitfulness attracts men to bid defi- 
ance to the various dangers and inconveniences 
that might, up to this time, present themselves 
to such a settlement. And one can, therefore, 
predict that possibly no region in all this broad 
America will be so quickly populated as this. 
Nevertheless, one must regard as venturesome 
dare devils all settlers who thus early have lo- 
cated here, for they trespassed upon the posses- 
sions of the Indians and ran the risk of being 
driven out or killed during the great annual 
hunt of the Indians, if that treaty at Edwards- 
yille had not fortunately been made. . . . 
If now all these considerations and actual 
dangers could not restrain them from migrating 

to this territory, this, then, is the most con- 
vincing proof of its value, and that it is justly 
styled 'the beautiful land of the Sangamon.' " 

(The point visited by Mr. Ernst at this time 
was evidently in the immediate vicinity of the 
home of Robert Pulliam, the first settler of 
Sangamon County, who came to this region and 
erected a cabin on Sugar Creek In 1817, al- 
though he did not bring his family here until 
some two years later. Mr. Ernst's narrative 

"From Sugar Creek we turned immediately 
westward with the intention of reaching the 
point where the Sangamon empties into the 
Illinois, and there crossing the former to the 
north bank. We crossed Lake Creek (by 'Lake 
Creek' here mentioned is evidently meant what 
is now known as Lick Creek, which empties 
into Sugar Creek about six miles south of 
Springfield), then the two branches of Spring 
Creek, both of which flow in the open prairie 
a thing which I had never before seen here 
in America. On the other side of Spring Creek 
is a camping ground of Indians, whence the 
prairie rises to gentle hills, where we found 
two springs shaded simply by a few trees. The 
water of these brooks flows swift and clear 
through the luxuriant prairie, the high grass 
of which reaches above the head of the horse- 
man. From these two little brooks rises a plain 
which extends to Richland Creek." 

(The reference here to the two branches of 
Spring Creek Big Spring and Little Spring 
Branch indicates clearly the portion of Sanga- 
mon County through which Mr. Ernst's trip ex- 
tended, passing northwestwardly through the 
vicinity of the present town of Curran toward 
Richland Creek, which flows eastwardly from 
Pleasant Plains, in the northwest corner of the 
county, to Salisbury, and near there empties 
into the Sangamon. After spending the night 
at the home of a farmer named Shaffer, Mr. 
Ernst proceeded northward and in the vicinity 
of Richland Creek found three or four other 
farms, but owing to the intense heat and being 
compelled to travel through dense forests and 
underbrush, he found it necessary to abandon 
his projected trip to the mouth of the Sangamon, 
some twenty-five or thirty miles distant. His 
story is here continued:) 

"We were now obliged to proceed farther up 
the river, and between the mouths of Sugar and 
Spring Creeks we found a crossing where there 



was :\ canoe in which we crossed and let the 
horses swim alongside. The bank of the river 
is here about fifty feet high, measured from 
the surface of the Sangamon, where a broad 
plain is formed a grand spot for the founding 
of a city. ... As soon as we had left the 
timber of the Sangamon, upon the other bank, 
we came into another large prairie where a not 
insignificant hill covered with timber attracted 
our attention. It was Elkhart (Grove). This 
place is renowned on account of its agreeable 
and advantageous situation. A not too steep 
hill, about two miles in circuit, provided with 
two excellent springs, is the only piece of tim- 
bered land in a prairie from six to eight miles 

As Mr. Ernst's narrative says that his cross- 
ing of the Sangamon took place between the 
mouths of Sugar and Spring Creeks the loca- 
tion of the latter (the more westerly of the 
two) being directly north of the eastern portion 
of the city of Springfield it is evident that the 
crossing occurred at some point northeast of 
Springfield, and that in order to reach this 
point he must have passed near or over the 
site of the present city, where the Kelly broth- 
ers became the first settlers during the same 
year (1819). The Mr. Latham, whom Mr. Ernst 
met at Elkhart Hill, was James Latham, the 
head of the well-known Latham family, who 
settled there now the southwest corner of Lo- 
gan County in 1819, and two years later, after 
the organization of the original Sangamon 
County, became the first Probate Judge of the 
county. Except Peoria, Elkhart was then recog- 
nized as the most northly settlement in Illinois 
east of the Mississippi River, and it was not 
until this year that a final permanent settle- 
ment of Peoria was made. Elkhart later be- 
came the home of John Dean Gillett, a success- 
ful agriculturist and stock-grower of Illinois. 

From the conditions existing as he saw them 
at the time, Mr. Ernst took it for granted that 
the Sangamou River must be permanently navi- 
gable for a distance of "at least 300 miles from 
its union with the Illinois" although its head- 
waters had not then been explored. He was 
also deeply impressed (as were the French ex- 
plorers) with the possibilities of a water-way 
connection between the Illinois and Lake Michi- 
gan by the construction of "a 12-uiile canal," 
and as shown by the following quotation, took 

an especially optimistic view of the future of 
Illinois as a State: 

"By means of this canal' 1 (between the Illi- 
nois and Lake Michigan), "inlaid navigation 
would be opened up from New York to New 
Orleans, a distance of 3,000 English niiles^ 
Such an internal water-way not only does not 
exist at the present time in the whoie world, 
but it will never exist anywhere else. Besides, 
this State enjoys the navigation of its boundary 
and internal rivers amounting to 3,094 miles, 
and all are placed in communication with each 
other through the Mississippi. In short, I do not 
bclicrv that any one State in all America is so 
liiuMy favored, by nature in every respect as the 
State of Illinois." 

Later, after giving evidence of his faith in 
the future of Illinois and its future capital by 
the purchase of town lots at Vandalia, Mr. 
Ernst took a trip to the Missouri, and then 
up the Mississippi (past Alton) to the mouth 
of the Illinois and some distance up that stream. 
Of the latter he says : "There is certainly no 
river in North America better adapted to navi- 
gation up stream than the Illinois." Then, after 
again alluding to the possibilities of a union of 
Lake Michigan with the Illinois, he turns to the 
Missouri with the prediction 

"The Missouri River may possibly at some 
time become the channel through which the 
Americans will cany on their commerce in the 
Pacific Ocean with China. There is already 
much talk about the Government putting in 
shai>e the not very long road between the 
sources of the Missouri, over the AVhite (Rocky) 
Mountains, to the headwaters of the Columbia, 
which empties into the Pacific. ... In any 
event, this road to the "Pacific will be the short- 
est and, in the future, the safest and most pass- 
able. What flourishing cities St. Louis and 
New Orleans will become!" 

While, if the writer of this entertaining story, 
of more than ninety years ago, had lived to the 
present day, he might not have seen his picture 
of a road connecting the navigable waters of the 
Missouri and Columbia realized, he would have 
seen it more than transformed into a reality 
by the connecting of the shores of the Atlantic 
and the Pacific by more than one continental 
line of railroad then not dreamed of and the 
problem of uniting the waters of Lake Michigan 
and the Illinois already solved. And, although 
he foresaw with unerring accuracy the astonish- 

Henrv Tiylor. Jr. & C o. Chicago. 




ing development of St. Louis ami New Orleans. 
there was uot even a hint of the future inetroix)- 
lis of the Central West and the second city 
on the American continent except the mention 
of Cliicago River as the gateway to the lakes. 
Kxrept as a military station Chicago was not 
then iu existence. 

(By Clinton L. Colliding.) 

In the early days the water ways were the 
main avenues of communication and efforts were 
made to navigate every stream to the highest 
iwint possible. As attempts were made to navi- 
gate the Kaskaskia River, on whose banks the 
first and second capitals of the state were lo- 
cated, so were efforts made to navigate the 
Sangamon and with not dissimilar results. 

In the "Sangamo Journal" of January 26, 
1832, there appears a letter from Vincent A. 
Rogue, written In Cincinnati and addressed 
to Edward Mitchell, Esq.. of Springfield. Mr. 
Rogue says he will attempt tlie navigation of 
the Sangamon River if he can find a suitable 
boat, and expresses the opinion that if he suc- 
ceeds it will revolutionize the freight business. 
This is an editorial paragraph from the "Spring- 
field Journal" of February 16, 1832: 


following advertisement iu the 'Cincinnati Ga- 
zette' of the 19th ult v We hope such notices 
will soon cease to be novelties. We seriously be- 
lieve that the Sangamon River, with some little 
improvement, can be made navigable for steam- 
boats for several months iu the year." 

Here is the advertisement : 

upi>er cabin steamer, Talixman, J. M. Pollock, 
Master, will leave for Portland, Springfield, on 
the Sangamon River, and all the intermediate 
iwrts and landings, say Beardstown, Naples, St. 
Louis, Louisville, on Thursday, February 2. For 
freight or passage, apply to Capt. Vincent A. 
Bogue, at the Broadway Hotel, or to Allison 

The same boat was advertised iu the St. Louis 

After the above notices appeared in the "Jour- 
nal," the citizens of Springfield and surround- 
ing country held a public meeting, February 
14. 1832, and apiwinted a committee to meet 

Mr. Bogue with a suitable number of hands to 
assist in clearing the river of obstructions. 
Another committee was appointed to collect sub- 
scriptions to defray the expense. "The Journal" 
of March 8th announces the arrival of the 
steamer at Meredosia, where its further pro- 
gress was obstructed by ice. The "Saugamo 
Journal" of March 29, 1832, says : 

"On Saturday last the citizens of this place 
(Springfield) were gratified by the arrival of 
the steamboat Talixmtm-. 3. W. Pollock, Master, 
of 150 tons burthen, at the Portland landing, 
opposite this town. (Portland was at' the south 
side of the Sangamon River, between where the 
bridges of the Chicago & Alton and the Illinois 
Central Railroads now stand.) The safe arrival 
of a boat of the size of the Talisman, on a river 
never before navigated by steamer, had created 
much solicitude, and the shores for miles were 
crowded by our citizens. Her arrival at her 
destined port was hailed with loud acclamations 
and full demonstrations of pleasure. When 
Capt. Bogue located his steam-mill on Sangamon 
River, twelve months ago, and asserted his de- 
termination to land a steamboat there within a 
year, the idea was considered chimerical by 
some, and utterly impracticable by others. The 
experiment has been made, and the result has 
been as successful as the most enthusiastic 
could expect ; and this county owes a deep debt 
of gratitude to Oapt. Bogue for getting up the 
expedition, and his never tiring and unceasing 
efforts until the end was accomplished. Capt. 
Pollock, who is naturally warm and enthusiastic, 
entered fully into the feeling of our citizens, 
who visited the mouth of the river to render 
any and every assistance in their power ; and 
much credit is due him for his perseverance and 
success. The boat experienced some difficulty 
from drifts, and leaning timber on shore, which 
made her trip somewhat tedious. The result 
has clearly demonstrated the practicability of 
navigating the river by steamboats of a proper 
size ; and, by the expenditure of $2,000 iu re- 
moving logs and drifts and standing timber, a 
steamboat of 80 tons burthen will make the 
trip in two days from Beardstown to this place. 
The citizens of Beardstown manifested great 
interest for the success of the enterprise, and 
some of them accompanied the boat until the 
result was 110 longer doubtful. They proposed 
the cutting of a communication or canal from 
the bluffs to their landing about five miles 



whereby seventy-five miles of navigation may be 
saved, and offered one thousand dollars to assist 
in completing it. It is to be hoped that the next 
Legislature will afford some aid in making the 
river safe and pleasant in its navigation. 
Springfield can no longer be considered an in- 
land town. We have no doubt but within a few 
months a boat will be constructed for the special 
purpose of navigating the Sangamo River. The 
result which must follow the successful termina- 
tion of this enterprise, to our county and to 
those counties lying in its neighborhood, it would 
be impossible to calculate. Here is now open 
a most promising field for the exercise of every 
branch of honest industry. We congratulate 
our farmers, our mechanics, our merchants and 
professional men for the rich harvest in pros- 
pect, and w cordially invite emigrating citizens, 
from other States, whether rich or poor, if so be 
they are industrious and honest, to come hither 
and partake of the good things of Sangamo." 

A ball was gotten up in honor of the arrival, 
and several yards of machine poetry appeared in 
the next number of the "Journal," detailing the 
various incidents connected with the wondrous 
event. The boat was unloaded and immediately 
started on its return, but the river had so fallen 
and brought the water within so narrow a chan- 
nel, that it was impossible to turn it around, 
and the officers and crew were compelled to back 
it out the entire distance. The only mention 
ever made of the boat afterwards was a news- 
paper report that the Talisman was burned at 
the wharf in St. Louis in the latter part of the 
next April. No attempt was ever made after 
that to bring a boat up the river, and thus ended 
the dream of navigating the Sangamo. 








(By Clinton L. Conkling.) 

The first session of the General Assembly for 
the State of Illinois convened at Kaskaskia Octo- 
ber 5, 1818, remaining In session eight days, 
when it was adjourned to January 18, 1819. 
This body adopted the petition to Congress pre- 
scribed by the Constitution, requesting a grant 
of land, which was complied with by act of Con- 
gress on March 3, 1819, granting a tract of four 
sections the largest amount mentioned in the 
petition to be selected by the State for the 
establishment thereon of the seat of government 
for a period of twenty years. During this same 
session of the General Assembly, an act was 
passed (which was approved March 30, 1819) 
providing for removal of the State capital. This 
act, after expressing satisfaction with the com- 
pliance of Congress with the petition submitted 
by the State Legislature, provided as follows : 

1. For the appointment by joint ballot of 
both branches of the Legislature of five Com- 
missioners "to select a suitable site whereon to 
fix the seat of government of this State," each 
commissioner pledging himself "to be governed 
alone by the interest of this State" in discharg- 
ing the duties of his office. 

2. That the Commissionersi, "or a major 
part of them," should within not less than 
"three months from the official publication of the 
act of Congress," select the lands as prescribed, 
"said land to be situate on the Kaskaskia River, 
and as near as may be east of the Third Prin- 
cipal Meridian on said river." 

3. That "as soon as practicable" the descrip- 
tion of the land selected should be transmitted 
"to the Registrar and Receiver of the Land 
Office in whose district" the land should be sit- 
uated, or to any other officer as may be re- 
quired by act of Congress. 

4. That the Commissioners should have the 
power to employ a skillful surveyor to lay off a 
town on said land, choose a name for the same 
and draw upon the State treasury for compen- 
sation for the surveyor. 



5. The Commissioners were "authorized and 
required to sell oiie hundred and fifty lots (not 
more than ten lots to be on the public square) 
to the highest bidder," after advertising the sale 
not less than six weeks the lots to be paid for 
in cash, or on credit, with approved security of 
six, twelve or eighteen months; also that the 
Commissioners be empowered to receive money 
from the sale of lots, giving bond and security 
for the same (on approval of the Governor), in 
double the amount received, payable to the 
State within one month after receipt of the 

6. The Commissioners were empowered to 
give deeds of conveyance for all lots sold, with 
warranty on the part of the State. 

7. As soon as practicable after the platting 
of the town as a State capital, the Commission- 
ers were required to secure a contract for the 
erection of "a suitable house for the reception 
of the General Assembly at their next stated 
session," the building to be two stories in height 
with capacity for the accommodation of both 
houses, the House of Representatives in the 
lower story and the Senate in the upper, with 
rooms for clerks, etc. the same to be completed 
at least six months before the next session. 

8. The eighth section prescribed that the 
next session should be held in the new capital 
building, and that this place should remain the 
capital for twenty years. 

Sections 9 and 10 prescribed the methods of 
calling meetings of the Commission and the re- 
porting of proceedings of the same to the Gen- 
eral Assembly; the llth provided that the sum 
required for the erection of a temporary state 
house should be paid out of money received 
from the sale of lots; and the 12th (and last) 
fixed the compensation of the Commissioners, 
for the time actually spent in the public service, 
at three dollars per day. 

Under the act of March 30, 1819, Samuel 
Whiteside, of Madison County; Levi Compton, 
of Edwards County ; William Alexander of Mon- 
roe County ; Thomas Cox, of Union County, and 
Guy W. Smith, of Edwards County, were ap- 
pointed Commissioners to carry out its provi- 
sions, which they did by selecting Sections 8, 
9, 16 and 17, in Township 16 North, Range 1 
East of the Third P. M. and located the capitol 
thereon. They caused a portion of these tracts 
to be surveyed in July, 1819, into town lots re- 

serving a block on which the capitol building 
should be erected. 

It is said that while the Commissioners were 
making their way along the west bank of the 
Kaskaskia River (now the Okaw) in search of 
a site, that one of the party shot a deer which 
fell at the trunk of a large oak tree. They 
cooked a portion of the animal for their dinner 
and, while partaking of this repast, they de- 
cided that the new capitol building should stand 
on the exact spot where the deer fell. It was 
so located. 

The Commissioners named the town thus lo- 
cated in the midst of the wilderness, and twenty 
miles from any settlement, Vandalia. 

In reference to this incident, Gov. Ford, in his 
"History of Illinois," says: "After the place 
had been selected, it became a matter of great 
interest to give it a good sounding name, one 
which would please the ear, and at the same 
time have the classic merit of perpetuating the 
memory of the ancient race of Indians by whom 
the country had first been inhabited. Tradi- 
tion says that a wag, who was present, sug- 
gested to the Commissioners that the "Vandals" 
were a powerful nation of Indians, who once 
inhabited the banks of the Kaskaskia River, 
and that ."Vandalia," formed from their name, 
would perpetuate the memory of that extinct but 
renowned people. The suggestion pleased the 
Commissioners, the name was adopted and they 
thus proved that the name of their new city 
(if they were fit representatives of their con- 
stituents) would better illustrate the character 
of the modern than the ancient inhabitants of 
the country." 

The Commissioners reported their acts at the 
next General Assembly and the same were ap- 
proved by the following act of the Legislature : 


FOR OTHER PURPOSES, Approved January 27, 1821. 
"Section 1. Be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly, etc., That all the acts and proceedings 
of the Commissioners appointed by the last Gen- 
eral Assembly, to select four sections of land, 
granted to this State by the act of Congress of 
the 3d of March, 1819, "An Act for the removal 
of the seat of government of the State of Illi- 
nois," as well as such as relate to the selections 
made by them, of Sections 8, 9, 16 and 17 in 
Township 6 North of Range 1, East of the Third 
Principal Meridian, as those relating to other 
objects of their appointment, be and the same 
are hereby approved and confirmed ; and the 
said Town of Vandalia, laid out by the said com- 



missioners on i>nrt of said four sections, is here- 
by declared to be tbe ]>eriiiiiueiit sent of govern- 
ment of tbe State of Illinois, for twenty years 
from and after tbe first Monday of December, 

Tbe first capitol building was a plain two 
story frame house of rude architecture and lo- 
cated on tbe corner of Fifth and Johnson 
Streets in Vaudalia. The lower floor consisted 
of one room for the House of Representatives 
and a place for the passage and stairway to tbe 
second floor. The second floor consisted of two 
rooms the larger for the Senate Chamber and 
the smaller for the Council of Revision. The 
Secretary of State, Auditor and Treasurer oc- 
cupied rented offices elsewhere in the town. Xo 
ceremonies were observed in laying the corner- 
stone of this unsightly structure. 

The State Archives, constituting one small 
wagou load, were moved in December, 1820, 
from Kaskaskia to Vaudalia by Sidney Breese, 
then Clerk to the Secretary of State, but after- 
ward a Justice of the Supreme Court, for which 
service he received .$25. Tbe first session of the 
Second General Assembly met In the first capi- 
tol building owned by the State December 4, 
1820. After the removal of the capital Kaskas- 
kia rapidly declined in importance and, from a 
town of several thousand inhabitants, became a 
mere hamlet and has since almost entirely dis- 

Soon after the location of the capital at A'an- 
dalia, a bill was introduced into the Legis- 
lature providing for the navigation of the Kas- 
kaskia from Its mouth to Vaudalia. Quite a 
number of tbe members of the General Assem- 
bly were in favor of the measure. When the 
bill reached the Senate and had been considered 
for some time, pro and con, the Hon. Peter War- 
ren, then a Senator from Shelby County, arose 
and addressed the President of the Senate as 
follows : 

"Mr. President : What do these members 
know about tbe Kaskaskia River? I live on the 
banks of that stream, and I say to you and the 
members of this august body, that turtles have 
been known to run aground in that stream, and, 
further, that I can go on a six weeks carousal 
and lay flat on my belly, and drink it dry from 
its source to its mouth." 

This settled it and the Kaskaskia is not navi- 
gable to this day. In this respect it is not un- 
like tbe Sangamon River. 

In tbe Act of the General Assembly of 1821 

Incorporating the Town of Vaudalia the Board 
of Trustees of the Town were authorized "to 
employ some skillful i>ersou to paint the State 
House iu a neat and workmanlike manner, and 
to make such alterations in tbe chimneys of the 
house as they might deem necessary ; and it 
was also made their duty "to take possession of 
and keep in good repair the State House during 
each and every recess of the General Assembly." 

On December 0, 182:5, during the third session 
of the Legislature held at A'andalia. this build- 
ing was destroyed by fire. After tbe fire the 
Senate for the rest of its session occupied a 
building erected for divine worship by all de- 
nominations, but which was afterwards sold to 
tbe Presbyterian Church. This building was sit- 
uated on the north side of tbe public square but 
was afterwards removed to a side street and is 
still standing. 

It was afterwards in the tower of this first 
church edifice erected in Vaudalia. that the first 
Protestant church bell in Illinois was hung. 
The bell bears the following inscription: 


VANDALIA, 1830.'' 

Miss Riggs was a daughter of Romulus Riggs, 
a. merchant of Philadelphia who had extensive 
business dealings in Illinois and became the 
owner of a large amount of lands in the State. 
The French Catholics liad several bells in their 
monasteries and churches at Kaskaskia and in 
the neighboring villages. This Vaudalia hell is 
still in possession of the Presbyterian Church 
in that city. The donor, now Mrs. Illinois Riggs 
Graff, is (1910) still living in Philadelphia. 

This church building was erected pursuant to 
an act of the General Assembly, approved June 
12. 1823, by which the Governor was authorized 
to convey to certain persons as trustees, a tract 
of ground for a graveyard, and also to convey 
to them five lots in tbe town of Vandalia, "for 
the purpose of erecting a bouse for divine wor- 
ship, which shall be free to all denominations 
to preach in." On one of the lots the building 
was to be placed and tbe other lots were to be 
sold to pay for the cost of the building. 

After the burning of tbe first capitol building 
the House of Representatives finished their ses- 
sion in a private house. The General Assembly 
does not appear to have taken any steps imme- 
diately for re-building the capitol. Tbe second 



State House, however, was built by the citizens 
of Vamlalia iu the summer of 1824. and was a 
two-story brick structure, costing about $15,000, 
of which amount the citizens of Vandalia con- 
tributed $3,000. advancing the money for the bal- 
ance, which the State refunded in the fall of 
that year. The comer-stone of this edifice was 
also laid without public ceremony. In this 
building the General Assembly continued its ses- 
sions until the erection, iu the summer of 183G, 
of a third building, still standing in the public 
square in the City of Vandalia, and now occu- 
pied as a court house for Fayette County but 
known as the Old Capitol Building. 

Tliis last building was not erected by the 
State but was built by three private citizens 
of Vandalia on their own responsibility and, 
for the most part, out of their own private 
funds. Without warrant of law but by common 
consent, they tore down the old brick building 
erected twelve years before, and used the ma- 
terial, so far as it was available, iu the con- 
struction of the new capitol. 

Governor Duncan, in his message to the Tenth 
General Assembly (December, 1836), says: "In 
consequence of the dilapidated and falling con- 
dition of the Old State House, the public officers, 
mechanics and citizens of this place (Vandalia), 
believing that the Legislature would have no 
place to convene or hold their session, have 
built the house you now occupy. This work 
lias been done in a time and under circum- 
stances which evinces an industry, zeal and pub- 
lic-spirit that does honor to the place and com- 
mands our grateful acknowledgment; and I 
hope their services and expenses will be 
promptly remunerated." 

The cost of this building was about $16.000, of 
which amount $6,000 was repaid by Governor 
Duncan out of the contingent fund of the State 
and $10,000 advanced by three private citizens 
referred to. This was done by them in order 
to counteract a movement, then on hand, to re- 
move the capital from Vandalia. The State 
afterwards re-imbursed them, however. A 
goodly ]x>rtion of the constructive material, ex- 
cept the brick and shingles, is said to have 
been obtained without leave from the United 
States Government, which was at that time en- 
gaged in constructing the National Road and 
building bridges over the openings in the grad- 
ing across the bottom east of the town and 
across the Kaskaskia River at that point. 








(By Clinton L. Conkling.) 

In 1833 strong efforts were being made in the 
northern part of the State which was filling 
rapidly with settlers for the removal of the 
capital northward. The geographical center of the 
State was about twenty miles east of Springfield, 
wliere is now the Village of Illiopolis. a dis- 
tance of sixty miles north of Vandalia. By 
the terms of the Constitution and the first act 
of the General Assembly, this removal could not 
be made until the expiration of twenty years 
after the first day of December, 1820. This did 
not. however, prevent Vandalia from asserting 
her claim with a number of other cities. The 
following act was approved by the General As- 
sembly February 5, 1833: 


"Be it enacted, that at the next election to be 
held in the several counties of the State for 
members of the Legislature, there shall be 
opened at each place of voting a book, in which 
shall lie entered the votes of the qualified voters 
in favor of the following named places, as their 
choice for the permanent location of the seat of 
government of this State, after the expiration of 
the time prescribed by the constitution for its 



remaining at Vaudalia, to-wit : The geographi- 
cal center of the State, Jacksonville in Morgan 
County, Springfield in Sangamon County, Alton 
in Madison County, Vandalia in Fayette County, 
and Peoria in Peoria County. The place or 
point receiving the highest number of votes 
shall forever remain the seat of government for 
the State of Illinois." 

At the next general election held August 4, 
1834, in the several counties for members of the 
Legislature, the vote was as follows: The 
Geographical Center received 790 votes; Jack- 
sonville, 273; Springfield. 7,035.; Peoria, 423; 
Alton 8,157; Vandalia 7,730. Although Alton 
received the highest number of votes and was 
entitled under the Act of 1833 to be made the 
permanent seat of government, this fact was 
never officially declared, no appropriation for a 
new state house was made, and so far as the 
public records show, the vote was never can- 
vassed nor the matter referred to during the 
entire session of the Ninth General Assembly. 

During the year 1835 and 1836, the removal 
of the capital from Vandalia was freely dis- 
cussed. At that time the United States Gov- 
ernment was engaged in building the old Cum- 
berland or National Road through Illinois, and 
it was a question whether it should be built 
west from Vandalia to St. Louis or to Alton. 
The people of the southern portion of the State 
were nearly unanimous for St. Louis, while the 
people of the northern part of the State were 
in favor of Alton. The feeling became quite 
warm. The Vandalia people favored St. Louis, 
which so irritated the Alton people that, when 
the matter of the removal of the capital came 
up in the General Assembly of 1836-37 and 
they became convinced they could not get the 
capital, they threw their influence to Springfield 
in order to get even with Vandalia on account 
of the National Road question. They were also 
influenced by the help given by the members 
of the General Assembly from Sangamon County 
whereby the terminals of three railroads were 
located at Alton under the Internal Improve- 
ment Acts. 

In the Legislature of 1836-37 Sangamon 
County had two Senators and seven Representa- 
tives. They averaged six feet in height and 
were known as the "Long Nine." Archer G. 
Herndon and Job Fletcher were in the Senate 
and Abraham Lincoln, Ninian W. Edwards, 
John Dawson, Andrew McCormick, Dan Stone, 
William F. Elkin and Robert L. Wilson in the 
House. Their combined height was fifty-four 

leet. Mr. Lincoln was "six feet four inches, 

At that time Sangamon was the second county 
in point of population in the State, being ex- 
ceeded in 1840 by Morgan by nearly 5,000. 

For some time the people of Springfield had 
been preparing to urge its claims to become the 
capital city of the State, and these men were 
chosen, Senators and Representatives, with this 
purpose in view. Prior to the meeting of the 
Tenth General Assembly, a furore for public 
improvements swept over the State. The people 
at many public meetings demanded that rail- 
roads, canals and state highways be constructed 
and operated at public expense, utterly ignoring 
the fact that there was neither population nor 
commerce sufficient to support these enterprises. 
Under this pressure of public opinion, many leg- 
islators were elected to that General Assembly 
upon this issue of public improvements. 

The members from any given locality were 
ready to trade or "log roll" for votes favoring 
the construction of a railroad, canal or mail 
route through their own particular county. The 
members from Sangamon County gave their spe- 
cial attention to securing votes for the selection 
of Springfield as the capital. This singleness 
of purpose, with help judiciously given to others 
in the advancement of their projects, produced 
a favorable impression for Springfield. In Feb- 
ruary, 1837, the Legislature passed a bill entit- 
led "An Act to establish and maintain a general 
system of Internal Improvements." This was 
followed by two supplementary acts passed the 
next month. 

These acts appropriated upwards of ten mil- 
lions of dollars from the public treasury for the 
construction of railways and for the improve- 
ment of waterways and of the "Great Western 
Mail Route." The construction of the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal was also authorized. For 
many years the burden of this improvident and 
reckless legislation rested heavily upon the 
State, destroyed its credit, retarded its Improve- 
ment and gave opportunity for questionable 
transactions which tarnished its fair fame. 

This bill was disapproved by Governor Dun- 
can and the Council of Revision, but the friends 
of Springfield finally effected such a combina- 
tion that that city was selected as the capital 
while the Internal Improvement act was passed 
over the Governor's veto. 

While the internal improvement bill was pend- 



ing the "Long Nine' 1 were busy. They said lit- 
tle or nothing In reference to locating proposed 
railroads, but would assist other localities, 
where votes could be secured for locating the 
capital at Springfield. The result was tne pas- 
sage of "An act permanently to locate the seat 
of government for the State of Illinois," whicli 
was approved' at Vaudalia. February 25. 1837. 
This law provided for a joint session of the two 
houses, on the 28th of the same month, to select 
a situation. An appropriation of fifty thousand 
dollars was made to commence building the State 
house. The law also declared that no place 
should be chosen unless its citizens contributed 
at least $50,000 to aid in the work, and not less 
than two acres of land, as a site for the capitol 

This act was as follows : 


Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the 
State of Illinois represented in the General As- 
sembly, That the two Houses of the General As- 
sembly shall meet in the Hall of the House of 
Representatives on the 28th day of February, 
1837, at ten o'clock A. M. and then and there 
proceed by joint vote to select some suitable 
point or place for the permanent location of the 
seat of government for the State of Illinois; 
Provided further, that said election shall not 
continue more than one day. 

Sec. 2. Each member shall be at liberty to 
vote for whatever point or place he may choose; 
and no point or place shall be deemed selected 
until it shall have received a majority of all 
the votes given. 

Sec. 3. In case no point or place shall re- 
ceive a majority of all the votes given on the 
first vote, the two Houses shall continue to vote 
until some point or place shall receive such ma- 
jority; Provided, that this section shall not be 
construed to prevent an adjournment from day 
to day. 

Sec. 4. When any point or place shall have 
received a majority as aforesaid, such point or 
place shall be and remain the permanent loca- 
tion of the Seat of Government for the State of 
Illinois, from and after the time for which it is 
fixed at Vandalia shall have expired, and the 
sum of fifty thousand dollars is hereby appro- 
priated for the purpose of erecting a State 
House and other needful buildings (if any) 
which vshall be expended under the direction of 
three Commissioners to be appointed by the 
present General Assembly; Provided, that this 
act shall be null and void unless the sum of 
fifty thousand dollars be donated by Individuals 
and secured by bonds and security to be ap- 
proved of by the Governor and made payable to 
the State Treasurer, to become due at such 
times as the Governor shall direct ; which bonds 

shall be executed and filed with the State Treas- 
urer, on or before the first day of May next, 
and which donation is especially designed to 
meet the appropriation hereinbefore made, and 
shall be applied exclusively and immediately 
to that object, and also, unless sufficient quan- 
tity of ground not less than two acres, upon 
which to erect public buildings be donated and 
conveyed to the State without expenses to tho 
State of Illinois. 

Sec. 5. An Act entitled "An act permanently 
to locate the Seat of Government of Illinois " 
approved February 5, 1833, is hereby repealed: 
Provided, however, that if the General Assembly 
shall fail to select a point for the Seat of Gov- 
ernment as provided for in this act, then and In 
that case this section shall be void and of no 
effect. This General Assembly reserves the 
right to repeal this act at any time hereafter. 

Approved, February 25, 1837. 

Accordingly on February 28, 1837, at 10:00 
o'clock A. M., the two Houses met in joint ses- 
sion and, on the fourth ballot, Springfield was 
chosen as the new capital receiving 73 votes, a 
majority over all competitors. Altogether 
twenty-nine different places were voted for. 

The ballots were as follows: 

1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 
Springfield 35 43 53 73 

Jacksonville ............ 14 


Vandalia 16 15 16 15 

Peoria 16 12 11 6 

Alton 15 16 14 6 

Scattering 25 7 15 7 

Illiopolis 10 3 

Illiopolis at this time was a "paper town" of 
mammoth proportions, covering 8,000 acres laid 
out by Governor Duncan, John Taylor, Eli 0- 
Blankenship and the Sangamo Land Company 
near the site of the village of the same name. 

In the following month Commissioners to erect 
the new State House were appointed by the 
following act : 


"Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the 
State of Illinois represented in tlie General As- 
sembly, That the county commissioners' court of 
Sangamon County is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to convey to the Governor of the State 
of Illinois, for the use of the people of said State, 
all that piece or parcel of ground situate, lying 
and being in the town of Springfield, county of 
Sangamon and State of Illinois, known as the 
"public square," containing two and a half acres, 
be the same more or less, upon which piece or 
parcel of ground when conveyed as aforesaid 



shall be erected a State House and other neces- 
sary public buildings for the State of Illinois. 
Archibald Job, of the County of Morgan. A. G. 
Henry. Thomas Houghan. (Hogan), of Sanga- 
inon County, are hereby aj>i>ointed Commis- 
sioners to superintend the erection of the pub- 
lic buildings aforesaid, who, before they enter 
UIXHI the discharge of their duty, shall enter 
into lK>nd to the Governor of this State, with 
approved security in the penalty of ten thou- 
sand dollars each, conditioned for the faithful 
performance of their duties, and shall severally 
take an oath, that they will well and truly and 
diligently discharge all their duties as Commis- 
sioners to superintend the erection of public 
buildings. They shall cause to be erected a 
building of suitable size for a State House, upon 
the most approved and convenient plan and pro- 
viding the necessary offices and committee 
rooms for public use. Said commissioners shall 
stipulate for all payments to be made out of 
the fund appropriated for that purpose and no 
other, and they shall be allowed three dollars 
l>er day for their services, out of the same fund. 

Sec. 2. If the County Commissioners' Court of 
Sangamon County shall fail to convey the lot of 
land herein contemplated, the said Commission- 
ers shall procure a suitable and convenient lot 
of ground for the purposes aforesaid. 

Approved 3d March, 1837. 

Dr. Hogan dec-lined to act as Commissioner 
and in 183!), William Herndon was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. This commission was legislated 
out of office in 1840 and a new one appointed 
consisting of the Secretary of State, Auditor and 
Treasurer, who were then, James Shields-, Ly- 
mnn Trumbull and Milton Carpenter. 

At the last session of the Legislature held 
at Vandalia, the Act of February 10, 1839, was 
passed giving to the President and Trustees of 
the Town of Vandalia and to the County of Fay- 
ette, to be owned, occupied and used by the said 
corporation and county in severally, the house 
on the Public Square in Vandalia theretofore 
used as a State House. The west half was to be 
used as a court house and the east half for 
school purposes by the town of Vandalia. Some 
of the stoves, chairs and tables out of the State 
House were given to the county, and the re- 
mainder were to be sold by the President and 
Trustees of the Town and the proceeds to be 
invested in a library for the use of the inhabi- 
tants. The Square was to remain forever a 
Public Square. The remaining lots owned by 
the State situated on the original grant from the 
United States Government and not otherwise 
appropriated, were directed to be sold by the 
county and the proceeds to be used in the 'mak- 

ing or repairing of bridges in the county of 

At this time Vandalia had a population of 
about 2,500, but after the removal of the capital 
the imputation rapidly declined. During the in- 
terval between 181!) and 1855, the only means 
of transportation in and out of Vandalia was by 
the old wagon roads in wagons, carriages, bug- 
gies and stages. It was an important post on 
the Overland Stage Line, which conveyed pas- 
sengers and the mails in the old style six-horse 
Concord coaches. The approach of the mail 
coach was heralded by the blowing of a horn 
by the driver as it approached the town, and 
was the signal for the male population to as- 
semble at the postoftice and the stage stand. 
In January, 1855, the Illinois Central Railroad 
was completed to Vaudalia, and thereafter it 
had better means of communication with other 
parts of the state. 

In the early days the County Court licensed 
the taverns and fixed the charges of the land- 
lord to his customers. The following is an in- 
dication of the articles demanded and the prices 
at which they were served during the days that 
the members of the Legislature patronized the 
taverns in Vandalia : 

For breakfast or supper 25c 

For dinner 37%c 

For night's lodging 12%c 

For horse feed 18%c 

For horse for night 50c 

For % pt. rum, wine or French brandy 37M>c 

For */> pt. peach or apple brandy 25c 

For V 2 pt. gin 25c 

For % pt. cordial 25c 

For % pt. of cherry bounce 25c 

For % pt. of whisky 12M-C 

After the removal of the capital, the popula- 
tion of Vandalia declined until, in 1S50. it did not 
have more than 300 inhabitants. The only 
thing that kept it alive was the fact that it 
was the termination of the National Road, this 
road never having been brought farther west. 

At that time the old State House was in a 
very dilapidated condition. The floors In the 
lower part were largely gone and cattle and 
stock of all kinds sought shelter therein from 
the weather. The county in 1857 acquired the 
ownership of the whole building, which was re- 
modeled and is now in an excellent state of 
preservation. Since then various improvements 




luive been made and the building is still serving 
as the Court House for the county of Fayette. 

During the time the capital was at Vandalia 
it was the social center of the State. Its prom- 
inent residents were composed of families 
originating from the old Puritan stock of the 
Kast and from the wealthy and aristocratic 
tiunilies of the South. Taken altogether, a 
more cultured, refined and intelligent group of 
people was never congregated in so small a 
place as Vandalia was at that time. It was the 
custom of the society people from nearly every 
part of the State to spend their winters there 
during the sessions of the Legislature, during 
which time there was one continuous round of 
receptions, balls, parties and private theat- 

field Journal" of March 4, 1837, contains the fol- 
lowing reference to the act of the Legislature : 

"On Tuesday last the Legislature selected 
Springfield as the future seat of Government of 
the State a result which, as a matter of course, 
was hailed by our citizens with universal ac- 
clamation. Mingled with the natural re- 
joicing which is felt and manifested by our 
citizens is a feeling of gratitude to the members 
of the Legislature, and renews an Increased 
confidence in those who have made the selection 
with exclusive reference to the interests of the 
State and the convenience of its citizens. It is 
no slight ground for our confidence to have 
seen the Legislature deciding a question so ex- 
citing and involving so many interests with an 
entire disregard to party considerations ; and we 
cannot but exult that the representatives of 
the people have been just enough to determine 
the question on its merits, wise enough to per- 
ceive the propriety of the choice they have made, 
nnd firm enough to act on their convictions 
promptly and effectually." 

The "Chicago Advertiser," of that day, said: 
"We congratulate our friends at Springfield on 
the selection of that place as the future seat of 
Government, a selection no less judicious' from 
its central position than for the public spirit 
nnd enterprise of its inhabitants." 

The following is from the Chicago Democrat 
of about the same date : 

"LOCATION OF THE CAPITAL. Upon the fourth 
balloting Springfield, in Sangamon County, was 
selected as the future Capital of the State. No 
town could have satisfied a greater portion of 

our citizens. It is rather south of the geographi- 
cal center, but the salubrity of its climate, and 
its facilities for accommodation will amply repay 
a little extra traveling." 

At the other end of the State there was equal 
acquiescence in the change, as shown by the 
following from the "Shawneetown Journal :" 

"The Legislature has wisely settled the ques- 
tion of the seat of government It is perma- 
nently located at Springfield: and, not only from 
its central position, but from its situation in 
the heart of the richest part of Illinois, we ap- 
prehend that it will suit the entire approbation 
of the people of the State." 

Among the incidents in connection with the 
removal of the seat of government from Van- 
dalia to Springfield, was a "public dinner" given 
to the members of the Legislature and other 
distinguished citizens of the State, "as a tribute 
of respect for the faithful performance of their 
public duties." The dinner was prepared by 
Col. Spotswood, at the Rural Hotel. 

We copy the following in reference to it from 
the files of the Journal : 

"The cloth having been removed, the follow- 
ing among other toasts were offered and re- 
ceived with great glee: 

"The State of Illinois Fertile in her soil, 
rich in every . natural advantage ; when the 
measure of her greatness shall be full, she will 
stand the fairest and tallest of the Sisters of 
this Great Republic. 

"The Legislature of the State of Illinois 
Their duty has been nobly done; may smiling 
faces and joyful hearts greet them as they re- 
turn to their homes. 

"O. H. Browning, Senator from Adams County 
When the column and the dome of the Capitol 
shall be raised aloft, as we gaze upon its beauty 
and its grandeur, Sangamon in her gladness, 
will remember him as introducing into the 
Senate the bill locating the seat of Government. 
That pillar, that dome, shall be his monu- 

After the music had ceased and the cheering 
had subsided, Mr. Browning rose and answered 
this complimentary toast in the happiest man- 
ner. He had regarded the location of the seat 
of Government as a matter in which the people 
of the whole State were interested; that, from 
its central position, from the beauty and fer- 
tility of the country, from its great natural 
advantages, the people's interests required this 



location at Springfield. He believed a large 
majority of the people were in favor of its 
present location. He said on this subject he 
had voted solely with reference to his important 
duties as a representative of the people. "But, 
gentlemen," said he, "the sentiment just given 
does injustice to your own delegation. It was 
to their judicious management, their ability, 
their gentlemanly deportment, their unassuming 
manners, their constant and untiring labor for 
your interests, that you have now to congratulate 
yourselves and the State, that this long un- 
settled question is determined ; and that, in your 
beautiful town will soon arise the Capitol of 
Illinois alike your pride and the pride of all 
its citizens. And when it shall be accomplished 
when the column and the dome shall be reared 
aloft, the attention of the people from all the 
other States will be drawn to your capital, 
and you will feel its influence in developing the 
great advantage of your county and your town, 
will feel its effects in a growth and population 
which you can hardly anticipate." Mr. Brown- 
ing concluded by offering the following toast: 

"Springfield The magnificence of the Capitol, 
when completed, will make her the pride, as 
the hospitality of her citizens has already made 
her the favorite of our State.'" 

"The 'Long Nine' of Old Sangamon Well 
done good and faithful servants." 

"Col. McClernand The efficient Canal Com- 
missioner May he live to see the waters of 
Lake Michigan mingle with those of the 

Col. McClernand offered the following in 
reply : 

"Internal Improvements Identified with the 
prosperity of the State." 

"Old Sangamon United we stand, divided we 

"The Internal Improvement System Can 
only be sustained by wisdom and prudence." 

By A. Lincoln, Esq. : "All our Friends They 
are too numerous to be now named individually, 
while there is no one of them who is not too 
dear to be forgotten or neglected." 

By S. A. Douglas, Esq.: "The last winter's 
legislation may its results prove no less 
beneficial to the whole State than they have 
to our town." 

By S. T. Logan, Esq.: "The System of In- 
ternal Improvement adopted by the last Legis- 
lature. The best mode of rearing to perfection 

would be a liberal pruning of the superfluous 

Judge Thomas presided as President at the 
table, and Maj. lies as Vice President. The 
cordiality and good feeling on the occasion may 
have been equalled, but never was surpassed. 
The dinner was provided in haste; but it 
proved to be "a feast of reason and a flow of 

Tradition says that something stronger than 
water was used in drinking the toasts on that 
occasion, as there was not a man to be found 
after the festival who could tell who made the 
last speech. 









(By Clinton L. Conkliug.) 

The last General Assembly to meet in Van- 
dalia was the Eleventh, which convened in 
that city December 3, 1838, remaining in session 
until March 4, 1839, when it adjourned. During 
the latter part of the year the State archivesi 
were removed to the new State capital, the 

'In what purports to be a list of the State prop- 
erty left in the abandoned State house building In 
Vandalia, on the removal of the capital to Springfield, 
the following illustrates the simplicity of furnishings 
with which Abraham Lincoln. Stephen A. Douglas. 
Orville H. Browning. Edward D. Baker, John J. 
Hardin, James Shields and other statesmen of that 



work being accomplished by the use of wagons 
for transportation, there being then no railroads 
in operation in Illinois, although the Northern 
Cross Railroad (now the Wabash) was in 
course of construction between Meredosia and 

On December 9th of the latter year this Leg- 
islature reassembled at Springfield for a seconnd 
session, which was the first held in the new- 
State Capital, continuing until February 3d fol- 

As the new capitol building was not com- 
pleted in time for this session, the House of 
Representatives met in the Second Presbyterian 
Church on Fourth Street near Monroe, the 
locality being now known as Nos. 217 to 219 
South Fourth Street. The building was then 
quite new and was the largest church edifice 
in the whole central and northern part of the 
State. It was built of brick, had a square 
belfry and a gallery around three sides of the 
interior, but had not yet been occupied for 
church purposes. This building was torn down 
in 1875. 

The Methodist Church, a small frame struc- 
ture on the southeast corner of Fifth and Mon- 
roe Streets, was used as the meeting place for 
the Senate and St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 
then a wooden building, was used by the Su- 
I)reme Court. 

At the succeeding special session of the Leg- 
islature, begun November 23, 1840, the House 
of Representatives met in the Methodist Church, 
but on the second day a resolution was passed, 
"that the Senate be respectfully requested to ex- 
change places of convening with this House 
for a short time, on account of the impossibility 
of the House discharging its business in so small 
a place as the Methodist Church." The ex- 
change was made and the House moved over to 
the Second Presbyterian Church. 

period had been accustomed to disharge their duties 
as legislators : 

Twenty-nine tables for members of assembly. 

Four benches. 

Ninety-four chairs. 

One small chair. 

One press to preserve papers. 

Two desks for clerks. 

Three chairs and one bench. 

Two stoves, 

Twenty-five cork ink stands. 

One pewter ink stand. 

Twelve sand boxes. 

Twenty-three tin candle sticks and one iron candle 

Three tin pails and six tin cups. 

Three pairs iron tongs. 

Six pairs of andirons. 

At this special session the Whigs were in- 
terested in preventing a sine die adjournment,- 
(because they desired to protect the State Bank 
which had been authorized in 1838 to suspend 
specie payment until after the adjournment of 
the next session of the Genral Assembly), and 
to this end they sought to break the quorum. 
All the Whigs walked out, except Abraham Lin- 
coln and Joseph Gillespie, who were left be- 
hind to demand a roll-call when deemed ex- 
pedient. A few members were brought in by 
the Sergeant-at-arms. Lincoln and Gillespie 
perceiving that there would be a quorum if they 
remained, started to leave, but finding the doors 
locked, Lincoln raised a window and both 
jumped out an incident, as Mr. Herndou says, 
which Lincoln "always seemed willing to 

Springfield, at the time of the location of 
the seat of government, contained some eleven 
hundred inhabitants. 

It was not an easy matter to agree upon a 
location. If land was selected far enough from 
the existing business to be cheap, the fifty 
thousand dollars could not be raised. Those 
already in business around the Square refused 
to contribute, because the State House, being 
so much larger and more attractive, would draw 
business after it, thus depreciating the value 
of their property. It was finally determined 
that the only practical way was to demolish 
the court house and use the site for the State 

Under this arrangement the business men 
around the Square pledged themselves 'to con- 
tribute to the fund to the extent of their ability. 
The citizens as required by the act pledged 
the sum of $50,000. This was a very large sum 
for such a community to raise, besides fur- 
nishing the ground, and many of the mem- 
bers of the Legislature thought it to be un- 
reasonable to require so great an amount. 
During the special session of 1839 Stephen A. 
Douglas, then a member from Morgan County, 
proposed to bring in a bill releasing the citizens 
from the payment of the pledge. Abraham Lin- 
coln, however, objected and, though fully ap- 
preciating the kindly feelings that prompted 
the proposal, insisted that the money should 
and would be paid. The bill was not intro- 
duced. Arrangements were made for paying 
the amount in three installments. The two 
first payments were made without any great 



difficulty. In the meanwhile the hard times 
of 1837 had swept over the whole country and 
financial ruin had come to many of the citizens. 
Under these circumstances, the money to pay 
the last installment was borrowed from the 
State Bank of Illinois on a note signed by 
one hundred and one of the best citizens. Soon 
after this the State Bank failed but the note 
was finally paid off with internal improvement 
scrip, which, after the failure of the internal 
improvement system, at one time fell to four- 
teen cents on the dollar in the market. This 
scrip the State afterwards redeemed dollar 
for dollar. 

The original note is preserved in The Ridgely 
National Bank. The following is a copy: 

"$16,666.67 SPRINGFIELD, March 22, 1838. 

"One year after date, we, the undersigned, 
or either of us, promise to pay to the President, 
Directors and Company of the State Bank of 
Illinois, sixteen thousand, six hundred and 
sixty-six dollars and sixty-seven cents, for 
value received, negotiable and payable at the 
bank, in Springfield, with interest until paid, 
at the rate of six per centum per annum, pay- 
able semi-annually." 

John Hay 
L. Hlgby 
Joseph Thayer 
William Thornton 
M. O. Reeves 
W. P. Grimsley 
William Wallace 
John B. Watson 

C. H. Ormsby 
Moses Coffman 
Geo. Pasfleld 

B. C. Webster 
S. M. Tinsley 
Thomas Mather 
Thos. Houghau 

D. Prlckett 
J. Calhoun 
Josiah Francis 
Washington lies 
Joel Johnson 

C. B. Francis 
Wm. S. Burch 

J. M. Shackleford 
B. Ferguson 
Benjamin Talbott 
Jesse Cormack 

C. R. Matheny 
William Butler 
P. C. Canedy 
Jos. Klein 
P. C. Latham 
A. G. Henry 
Ninian W. Edwards 
John T. Stuart 
Jonas Whitney 
Erastus Wright 
John Todd 
E. D. Baker 
A. Lincoln 
Ephraim Darling 
Jona. Merriam 
Ira Sanford 
Charles Arnold 
John L. Turner 
Joshua F. Amos 
Sullivan Conant 
And. McClellan 
Alexander Shields 
A. Trailer 
C. C. Phelps 
R. B. Zimmerman 
William Hall 

James L. Lamb 
M. L. Knapp 
B. C. Johnson 
Thomas Moffett 
John F. Rague 
Simeon Francis 
Nathaniel Hay 
Robert Irwln 
Virgil Hickox 
George Trotter 
Stephen T. Logan 
Robert Allen 
James R. Gray 
J. Adams 
J. S. Britton 
W. B. Powell 
F. C. Thompson 
E. M. Henkle 
James W. Keyes 
Wm. Porter 
Wm. H. Marsh 
W. Ransdell 
Joshua S. Hobbs 
John G. Bergen 
B. S. Clement 

Garret Elkin 
John Capps 
Alexr. Garret 
Gershom Jayne 
T. M. Neale 
William G. Abrams 
Dewey Whitney 
M. Mobley 
Foley Vaughn 
Abner Y. Ellis 
N. A. Rankln 
S. H. Treat 
Elijah lies 
Henry F. Luckett 
James P. Langford 
Henry Cassequln 
J. M. Cabaniss 
James Maxcy 
Z. P. Cabaniss 
E. G. Johns 
Amos Camp 
Thos. J. Goforth 
Benj. F. Jewett 
W. M. Cogwlll 

This note appears to have been finally paid 
February 19, 1846. 

Nine plans for the new State House were sub- 
mitted to the commissioners. That of John F. 
Rague of Springfield, and Singleton, of St. 
Louis, was selected. Three hundred dollars was 
paid for these plans. The estimated cost of 
the building was $120,000. By the time It was 
finally completed in 1853 it Is said to have 
cost $260,000. In addition in 1854 $20,000 was 
appropriated for enclosing and embellishing the 
grounds about the building, so as to "correspond 
with and be equal to the courthouse square in 
the city of Chicago." 

As provided by the supplemental act the 
County Commissioners of Sangamon County, 
conveyed to Governor Joseph Duncan the block 
In Springfield known as the "public square. 1 ' 
The deed is recorded in Book K, page 503, in 
the Recorder's office. A subsequent deed to per- 
fect the title in the State was made to Gover- 
nor French in 1847 and is recorded in Book Y, 
page 581. The brick court house, erected in the 
middle of the Square in 1831 at a cost of about 
$7,000, was torn down to make room for the 
new State House. 

The stone for the new building was taken 






from what is known as the "State House 
Quarry." then the property of Leroy L. Hill, 
located on Sugar Creek, about six miles south 
of Springfield. It cost one dollar a load at the 
Quarry and was brought to the town by ox 
teams. It is said that there was barely enough 
rock in the quarry to finish the building. 

The corner stone of the State House was 
laid on the Fourth of July, 1837. The day was 
celebrated in Springfield with unusual eclat. 
The military companies of the town, and Capt. 
Neale's newly organized company of horse, 
under command of Major E. D. Baker, were 
early on parade. A feu de joic was fired at 
sunrise. After various evolutions of the mili- 
tary in the forenoon they partook of dinner in 
the grove, furnished by Mr. W. W. Watson. 

In the afternoon a procession was formed at 
the First Presbyterian Church of members of 
the Mechanics' Institute, with banner displayed, 
and citizens who were escorted to the Methodist 
Church by the military, where Mr. Wiley deliv- 
ered an appropriate address ; after which the 
procession again formed and moved to the public 
square. The imposing ceremony of laying the 
corner stone was then performed. The Com- 
mittee for that purpose were A. G. Henry, Act- 
ing Commissioner ; J. F. Rague, President of 
the Mechanics Institute ; B. Ferguson, Vice 
President ; Abner Benuet. Secretary ; Oapt. G. 
Elkin, of Sharp shooters; Capt. E. S. Phillips, 
Lieut. Win. M. Cowgill. J. S. Roberts, J. N. 
Francis of Artillery. 

The corner-stone being put in place. Major 
E D. Baker (afterwards United States Senator 
from Oregon, and who was killed at Balls 
Bluff near the beginning of the Civil War, 
being then a Colonel in the Union Army) de- 
livered an eloquent address. At the close "the 
welkin rang with huzzas a salute was fired, and 
the people and the military retired highly 
gratified with the proceedings of the day." 

When the building was completed it was 
looked upon with wonder and admiration by 
the people. It was considered to be a model of 
architectural beauty and to be amply sufficient 
for the needs of the State for all time to come. 
By many it was deemed a monument of ex- 
travagance and far beyond the needs of the 
Government. But in less than a generation it 
became wholly inadequate for the needs of 
the State, and was considered as unshapely and 
unworthy of the great State of Illinois. 

The architecture is of the Doric order. It 
is 123 feet long, 90 feet wide, with porticoes on 
the north and south projecting 11% feet. In 
the basement were storage rooms. On the first 
floor iu the northwest corner was the office of 
the Secretary of State. Next south was the 
State Library and in the southwest corner was 
the office of the Auditor of State. In the south- 
east corner was the Treasurer's office. Then 
came the Supreme Court Room, where also the 
Clerk of that Court had his desk, while the 
northeast corner room contained the law library. 
The west side of the second story was entirely 
taken up with the Hall of Representatives, a 
very fine room with a gallery on the east side. 
In the north part of the east side was the 
Senate Chamber, while in the southeast corner 
was the Governor's private office. On the north 
and south sides were small rooms for various 
purposes. The main entrances were on the 
north and south sides and opened into what was 
called the "rotunda," from which in the center 
rose two flights of stairs, meeting half way up 
and again dividing and so reaching the second 

The lower and upper rotundas and the legis- 
lative halls, when the General Assembly was not 
in session, were for many years used for public 
functions of many kinds. Horticultural Society 
shows, church fairs and suppers, revival and 
other religious meetings, public funerals, wan- 
dering lecturers, conventions of all sorts and, 
most of all, political conventions and meetings 
each had their turn. In the Hall of Represen- 
tatives Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas 
debated questions of state and the former de- 
livered, on the occasion of his nomination to 
the United States Senate in June, 1858, his 
memorable speech in which he said : 

"A house divided against itself cannot stand. 
I believe this government cannot endure per- 
manently, half slave and half free." 

In the Governor's room, Mr. Lincoln received 
his visitors after his nomination and before 
his departure for Washington in 1861, and in 
its anteroom U. S. Grant waited many an hour 
for his appointment in the volunteer army. In 
1865 Mr. Lincoln's remains lay in state in this 
same Hall of Representatives where he had so 
often addressed his fellow-citizens on matters 
of public concern. Here, too, John A. Logan, 
as a young man, the idol of the ladies who 



thronged the galleries to hear him speak, first 
carue into State-wide notice. 










(By Clinton L. Conkling.) 

During the period from 1837 to 1867 the 
population of Springfield increased from eleven 
hundred to seventeen thousand, and the State 
from less than half a million to nearly two and 
a half millions, while the wealth of the State 
increased in much greater proportion. The 
northern portion of the State pjjrticuarly had 
grown in population and wealth. Chicago, from 
a small town of four thousand people, had be- 
come a city of a quarter of a million. The 
capitol building was too small for the various 
officers and bureaus, many of whom had to 
occupy rented quarters in various places in 

For some years the question of moving the 
capital had been spoken of, and time and again 
members of the Legislature threatened to In- 
troduce bills for this purpose, but for years the 
diplomacy and good management of the mem- 
bers from Saugamon County, assisted by the 
citizens, averted the movement until in 1865, 

when a bill to remove the seat of government 
to Peoria was introduced in the Senate. Chi- 
cago, Jacksonville and Decatur, also, set up their 
claims. The "Chicago Tribune," witli many 
other papers, favored the removal. Lack of 
liotel accommodations and exorbitant charges 
were the main arguments, self-interest in each 
case was the chief motive. The Senate Special 
Committee, to whom the bill was referred, re- 
ported it back for favorable action, but when 
it reached the House it was laid on the table 
by a vote of 61 to 16. 

In the meanwhile the citizens of Springfield 
built, what, for that day, was a most elegant 
and commodious hotel, "the Leland,'' and thus 
removed one objection, but the agitation in- 
creased, and seeing that the question must be 
met, Sangamon County, in the fall of 1866. 
elected to the lower House one of her mo.*t 
capable and public-spirited citizens, the Hon. 
James C. Conkling. Back of and supporting 
him was a large and well organized body of 
the most influential citizens of Springfield. 
The Board of Supervisors agreed to purchase 
for $200.000 the old State House and square for 
a court house. The city offered to donate the 
Mather lot, some six or eight acres, which cost 
$02.000. The Legislature met on January 7, 
1867. The members received every attention. 
They were invited to numerous social gatherings 
and receptions arranged by the ladies of the 
city, who also attended the sessions of the two 
houses and made themselves agreeable to the 
members. The Leland was opened with a grand 
ball and supper to which all were invited. To 
the invitations to these private functions a few 
of the members, by way of regrets, sent un- 
signed notes saying, "Too late, the capital is 
moving." The bill for the erection of a new 
State House was introduced and, from the first, 
met much opposition, but its enemies could not 
combine effectively against its passage, because 
they were too much interested in the strife for 
the location of an Industrial University, for 
which a congressional grant had been made in 
1862. Jacksonville, Pekin, Lincoln, Blooming- 
ton and Chicago wanted to divide the fund ; 
while the eastern part of the State was for 
Champaign. The south wanted the new peni- 
tentiary and Chicago wanted many tilings. So 
finally the opposition was narrowed down to 
the efforts of Decatur. which offered ten acres 
of land and one million dollars in money from 



Macon County, which sum was nearly one-naif 
the assessed valuation of all the laud in the 
county. This great offer is said to have heeu 
backed by the Illinois Central Railroad. This 
effort to sell the location of the capital to the 
highest bidder was looked upon unfavorably by 
many. One member in derision introduced a 
bill to dislocate the capital, aud which pro- 
vided for a peregrinating Legislature by rail- 
road to stop at every place where a notice ap- 
peared that legislation was wanted. The very 
persons named to superintend the erection and 
disburse the fund were so distributed as to gain 
1'riends for the bill. Besides all else, Springfield 
was said to be historic ground, the home and 
last* resting place of Abraham Lincoln. 

On February 25, 1867, the General Assembly 
passed an Act for the erection of a new State 
House. The Governor was authorized to convey 
to the county of Sangarnon and the City of 
Springfield the existing capitol and square for 
$200,000 and the site for the new capitol. The 
cost was limited to three million dollars, and 
the act named a board of seven Commissioners 
to carry out its provisions in superintending the 
erection of the building. 

The "Chicago Times" and "Tribune" continued 
bitterly to denounce the measure ; nor was De- 
catur willing to accept the situation. On May 
13, 1867, at her suggestion and cost, the Superior 
Court at Chicago, in a proceeding by quo war- 
ranto, removed the Commissioners holding that 
they were officers whose appointment, under the 
constitution, should have been made by the 
Governor and confirmed by the Senate, aud 
who could not be designated in the bill as had 
been done, thus rendering the act void. On 
appeal the Supreme Court in the following 
September reversed the decision of the court 
at Chicago, and held that the Commissioners 
were not officers and were rightfully entitled 
to carry out the law. 

The act contained an emergency clause and 
the Commissioners proceeded to their work with- 
out delay. On March 11, 1868, ground was 
broken for the new building. On June llth the 
first stone was laid, and on October 5, 1868, 
the corner stone was laid by the Masonic Fra- 
ternity, Judge John D. Caton making the prin- 
cipal address an eloquent and scholarly essay 
of historic value. In September, 1869, the 
foundation was completed at a cost of nearly 
half a million dollars; in 1876 the Capitol was 

first occupied in an unfinished condition ; in 
1885 the final appropriation was made and it 
was completed in 1888. 

In response to an advertisement by the first 
Board of Commissioners offering a premium of 
$3,000 for the best design for the building, 
twenty-one designs were submitted, from which 
that of John C. Cochrane, of Chicago, was ac- 
cepted July 2, 1867, and in January, 1868, Mr. 
Cochrane was appointed Architect and Superin- 
tendent of the work, on a contract of two and 
one-half per cent, of the cost of the building, 
and \V. D. Clark, of Davenport, was appointed 
assistant superintendent. In 1886 Alfred H. 
Piuquenard, of the firm of Cochrane & Pinque- 
iiurd. undertook the personal supervision of the 
work, and acted as resident supervising archi- 
tect until his death, November 19, 1876. M. E. 
Bell, who had been appointed Assistant Superin- 
tendent in 1874, vice W. D. Clark, assumed the 
personal supervision after the death of Mr. 

The first appropriation, $450,000, made in 1867, 
was wholly exhausted before the completion of 
the foundation, which cost $465,686.67. In 1869, 
a further appropriation was made of $450,000; 
in 1871, $600,000 more; in 1873, $1,000,000, and 
in 1875, $800,000. These appropriations made a 
total of three and one-half million dollars, the 
limit fixed by the constitution of 1870, beyond 
which the Legislature could not go without a 
vote of the people ratifying further appropria- 
tion. In 1877, an appropriation of $531,712, 
contingent upon approval of the people, was 
made for the completion of the State House, and 
submitted at the November election of that year. 
The proposition received but 80,222 affirmative 
votes out of a total of 389,189 cast at the elec- 
tion. Again in 1881, a similar appropriation 
was made and again submitted at the election 
in November, 1882, and was again defeated, 
receiving but 231,632 votes out of a total of 
532,583. Again in 1884, the same proposition 
was one more submitted to a vote at the Novem- 
ber election, and secured the endorsement of 
the people, receiving 354,796 votes out of a total 
of 673,086. June 29, 1885, an act was passed 
to render effective the act of 1883, and the final 
appropriation of $531,712 was made available 
after October 1, 1885. A new State House com- 
mission was appointed by the Governor to super- 
intend its expenditure, and the Capitol was com- 
pleted in 1888, twenty-one years after its build- 



ing was authorized. The several appropriations 
enumerated above, together with smaller sums 
appropriated during the progress of the work, 
as well as during the years when work was 
practically suspended made for repairs, for 
protection and preservation of work already 
done, for vaults, laying walks upon the grounds, 
planting trees, and other items not, perhaps, 
properly chargeable to the first cost of building- 
amounted in the aggregate to nearly four and 
one-half million dollars. 

The first Board of State House Commission- 
ers, named in the act of 1867, consisted of seven 
members, as follows: John W. Smith, John J. 
S. Wilson, Philip Wadsworth, James C. Robin- 
son, Wm. T. Vandeveer, Wm. L. Hambleton, and 
James H. Beveridge. March 12, 1867, Jacob 
Bunn was appointed, vice John J. S. Wilson, 
and on the organization of the Board was elected 
President of the Commission. In 1869 the 
Board, by act of the General Assembly, was re- 
duced to three members, and the Governor re- 
appointed Jacob Bunn, James C. Robinson and 
James H. Beveridge, of the old commission, to 
constitute the new Board, of which Mr. Bunn 
was made President and Mr. Beveridge, Secre- 
tary. In 1871 Mr. Robinson resigned his ap- 
pointment and John T. Stuart was named to fill 
the vacancy. These Commissioners continued to 
act until 1877, at which time, there being no 
funds available for further work on the building, 
they were relieved by act of the General As- 
sembly from further duty. After the favorable 
vote of 1884, ratifying the legislative appropria- 
tion of 1883, Governor Hamilton appointed, 
December 30, 1884. a new Board, consisting of 
General John Cook. Rheuna D. Lawrence and 
John O'Neill ; but on the assembling of the 
Legislature, the Senate failed to confirm these 
appointments, and Governer Oglesby appointed 
George Kirk, William Jayne and John Mc- 
Creery, who directed the expenditure of the 
final appropriation and the completion of the 

This great work, continuing through twenty- 
one years, was not carried forward without 
delays and embarrassments. From the first 
there was a strong element in the State op- 
posed to the construction of the building. At 
first this opposition was confined to interested 
localities that sought the location of the capital 
elsewhere, but as times got "hard" and the ap- 
propriations began to mount into the millions, 

the opposition became more wide-spread and of 
deeper significance. As early as 1871, petitions 
carrying 40,000 names, were presented to the 
General Assembly, asking that further appro- 
priations be withheld until the questions of loca- 
tion and cost could be submitted to a vote of 
the people. 

Chicago, in protest against the inadequate 
accommodations of the old building and the slow 
progress of the new one, invited the Twenty- 
seventh General Assembly to hold its adjourned 
session in that city, offering suitable assembly 
halls, executive and committee rooms free of 
charge to the State. This offer, in spite of the 
constitutional provision that all sessions of the 
General Assembly must be held at the capital, 
was accepted by joint resolution of the Assem- 
bly. The great conflagration which, in 1871. 
swept away all the public buildings of Chi- 
cago, prevented the carrying out of this plan 
and avoided the possible complications which 
might have arisen on account of it. From 1875 
to 1885 no appropriation was made available for 
prosecuting the work, and for about eight years 
no progress was made toward the completion of 
the building, nothing being attempted between 
1877 and 1885 except to protect the work done 
previous to that time. The last of the appro- 
priation of 1885 was expended in 1888. 

While Sangamon County bought and received 
a deed for the old State House and Square in 
1867, it did not get possession until January, 
1876, when the State vacated the building. 

A further appropriation of $600,000 was asked 
in this year. The bill passed the Senate. The 
Chicago press, using the occasion as a lever 
to help the canal and Illinois River improve- 
ment, attacked the measure. Startling develop- 
ments in regard to the building contracts, the 
character of the work, etc., were threatened but 
never materialized. Indeed no real charge of 
fraud or graft was ever made in connection 
with the building of this State House. How- 
ever, the removal of the capital was advocated. 
Peorla offered to re-imburse the State the full 
amount ($805,303.08) already expended on the 
new building, to donate ten acres of land on the 
bluff overlooking the Illinois River and the lake 
for a new site, and to furnish rent free for 
five years' accommodations for the General As- 
sembly during the construction of a new build- 
ing in that city. The two houses accepted 
an invitation to Peoria and were dined and 



\viued and feted to the fullest extent, and all 
that money, influence and diplomacy could do 
were used at Springfield to defeat the appro- 
priation bill. 

Peoria had large delegations of her best 
citizens here. Springfield naturally was greatly 
stirred and again, as she had been compelled 
to do many times before under threat of the 
removal of the capital, mustered her friends, 
who constituted a majority in the House, but her 
opponents, by clever parliamentary tactics, ex- 
tended debates and speeches on wholly foreign 
matters, prevented action until the time of ad- 
journment, April 17th, came. 

A special session of the Legislature was 
called for May 24th to consider, among other 
matters, the appropriation for continuing the 
work on the State House. The Peoria lobby, 
aided by others from different parts of the 
State, were on hand. The people of Springfield 
were present in force. The fight was hard and 
prolonged. The same tactics as before were 
employed by the opposition. Slowly, day by 
day, the bills were advanced under the rules 
until, at 10 o'clock at night, June 7th, the bill 
was finally passed in the House by a vote of 
100 yeas to 74 nays. The next day the Senate 
passed the House bill which, being July ap- 
proved by Governor Palmer, became a law. This 
act provided for a bond of the citizens in the 
penal sum of $500,000, conditioned that the 
obligors procure such additional ground as the 
State might require, not exceeding four acres, 
to be demanded within two years after the 
building should be ready for use. 

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING. The present capitol 
building, in the form of a Latin cross, is of the 
composite order of architecture in which modern 
effects of utility and convenience are combined 
with the strength and beauty characteristic of 
ancient styles of building. The circular founda- 
tion, ninety-two and a half feet in diameter, 
upon which the great dome rests, starts twenty- 
five and a half feet below the grade line, based 
upon the solid rock ; and the walls supporting 
the dome are seventeen feet in thickness from 
the foundation to the floor of the first story. 
The foundation for the outer walls is eleven 
to sixteen feet below the grade line, these walls 
being nine feet thick up to the first floor. 
The foundation walls are all built of a granular 
niagnesiaii limestone of unquestioned strength 
and durability, obtained from the Sonora quar- 

ries of Hancock County. The outer walls of the 
superstructure are constructed of Niagara lime- 
stone, the lower story from the quarries of 
Joliet and the upper stories from Leniont. The 
labor of the convicts at the Joliet penitentiary 
was utilized under a special act of the Legis- 
lature in quarrying this stone. The extreme 
length of the building from north to south is 
379 feet, and from east to west 268 feet. The 
height from ground line to top of dome is 361 
feet, and to tip of flag staff, 405 feet higher, 
exclusive of the flag staff, by 74 feet, than the 
dome of the National Capitol at Washington. 
The building consists of basement, first, second 
and third stories, gallery floor and dome. The 
basement is used for vaults, engine rooms, car- 
penter shop, and store-rooms for various pur- 
poses. The first floor is devoted largely to 
offices for various State Boards, the War 
Museum and the offices of the Adjutant Gen- 
eral. The second floor (called the main floor 
by the architect, and originally reached from 
the outside by a broad flight of marble steps 
on the east front) contains the executive offices, 
the east wing being occupied by the Governor's 
suite of rooms on the north side and the Secre- 
tary of State's on the south ; the north wing 
by the State Board of Public Charities, the 
Board of Agriculture and Agricultural Museum 
on the east side, and the offices of the Auditor 
and Treasurer on the west; the west wing by 
the Attorney General's office on the north side, 
the Law Library in the west end, while the 
south side of this wing and the west side of 
the south wing were formerly devoted to the 
Supreme Court, which now occupies a magnifi- 
cent building of its own on the east side of 
Second Street, opposite the Capitol Square. 
The east side of the south wing is occupied by 
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
and various departments of the office of the Sec- 
retary of State. 

On the third floor the north wing is occupied 
by the Senate Chamber, the south wing by the 
Hall of the House of Representatives, the east 
wing by the State Historical Society and other 
offices, and the west wing by the State Library. 
There are also numerous committee rooms, 
while the gallery floor and mansard story are 
wholly occupied by committee rooms. 

The porticos of the east and north fronts, 
supported by massives arches and columns of 
Joliet limestone and stately pillars of polished 



Fox Island granite, with the gigantic but per- 
fectly proportioned and graceful dome, con- 
stitute the notable architectural features of 
the outer building, while the magnificent 
rotunda and grand stairway of the interior 
were the special pride of the architects and 
builders. The second, third and fourth floors 
are reached by two sets of elevators and stair- 
ways on opposite sides of the front (east) 
entrance, and on the east side of the main hall, 
furnishing convenient access to the Assembly 
Room and most important offices. 

The floors of the rotunda and of the corridors 
are mosaic work of different colored marble. 
The walls of the rotunda in the first and second 
stories and to the spring of ttfe arches, as well 
as the arches themselves, are of solid stone 
faced with Bedford blue limestone and Missouri 
red granite. The grand stairway, leading from 
the second floor to the third, constructed of 
solid marble, with columns, pilasters, arches, 
rails, balusters, wainscoting and soffits con- 
nected with it, also of solid marble, was, at the 
time of its construction, considered superior, in 
design, material and finish, to any similar stair- 
way in the world. The polished columns in the 
second story of the rotunda are of Missouri red 
granite, with bases of blue granite and rich 
foliated caps of Tuckahoe marble. The wain- 
scoting of the corridors of vari-colored marbles, 
domestic and imported (including white Italian, 
Alps green, Lisbon, Glens Falls, old Tennessee, 
Concord, and other varieties), artistically pan- 
eled, is a piece of work unexcelled for beauty 
and durability. The ceilings of the principal 
rooms are heavily paneled and tastefuly deco- 
rated, those formerly occupied by the Supreme 
Court room and the Assembly Halls being par- 
ticularly worthy of note. 

The paintings and statuary intended to adorn 
the interior are not in keeping with the archi- 
tectural beauty of the building, though some of 
the work is of unquestioned merit. The panels 
of the main corridor of the first floor are 
decorated with paintings illustrative of scenes 
and events closely connected with the early 
history of the State, such as old Fort Chartres 
on the Mississippi, Starved Rock on the Illinois, 
old Fort Dearborn, New Salem in the time of 
Ijiucoln, General Grant taking command of 
the troops at Cairo at the beginning of the Civil 
War, Marquette and Joliet in a conference with 
the Indians during the earliest recorded ex- 

ploration of Illinois in 1673 and .Governor Coles 
liberating his slaves as they drift down the 
Ohio river in a flat boat on their immigration 
to Illinois. A large painting, representing Col. 
George Rogers Clark negotiating a treaty with 
the Illinois Indians, fills the large panel on the 
wall above the landing of the grand stairway. 
Full length portraits of Lincoln and Douglas are 
found in the Hall of the House of Representa- 
tives, and of Washington and Lafayette in the 
State Library, while portraits of all the Gover- 
nors of the State are on the walls of the Gov- 
ernor's office. 

On the second floor are marble statues of 
Lincoln, Douglas and Governor Wood, and high 
up on the walls of the rotunda on pedestals near 
the base of the inner dome, are heroic bronze 
casts of eight men prominent in the civil and 
military history of the State : Ninian Edwards, 
Governor by appointment and re-appointment 
during the entire Territorial period, 1809 to 
1818, and third Governor of the State; Shad- 
rach Bond, the State's first Governor; Ed- 
ward Coles, the second Governor; Sidney 
Breese, Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
State for many years, and United States Sena- 
tor; Lyman Trumbull, United States Senator 
and eminent jurist; U. S. Grant, commander of 
all the armies of the Union at the close of the 
Civil War and afterwards twice elected to the 
presidency ; John A. Logan, Major General of 
Volunteers during the civil war, and afterwards . 
for many years United States Senator a 
brilliant figure in the military and political his- 
tory of the State; and William R. Morrison, 
eminent as a statesman and a soldier. 

Still above these statues, and just at the base 
of the inner Home, is a series of allegorical and 
historical pictures in bas-relief, of conceded 
artistic merit. Among them are the discussion 
of the stamp act, in the Virginia House of 
Burgesses, with Patrick Henry as the central 
figure, making his memorable address, and 
Washington and Richard Henry Lee among 
his attentive auditors ; the evacuation of York- 
town by the British forces; Peter Cartwright. 
the pioneer preacher, conducting a religious 
service in a "settler's" cabin; the surrender of 
Black Hawk at Prairie du Chien; and a joint 
debate between those giants of the political 
forum, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Doug- 
las, in their great campaign of 1858. In these 
historical representations all of the figures are 














supposed to be portraits of historical charac- 
ters. Many of them are easily recognized, but 
others it seems impossible to identity, as the 
u'it'ted artist, T. Nieolai, who designed and exe- 
cuted the work, dying before it was wholly com- 
pleted, left no key to the different groups so 
graphically represented. 

At the time of its construction there was no 
public building in the United States, except the 
Capitol at Washington, to compare with it in 
size, cost or elegance; and now thirty-five years 
after the drawing of the plans by which it was 
built not excepting the New York twenty- 
million State Capitol there are few buildings 
in the country surpassing it for architectural 
beauty or which more adequately serve the 
purpose for which they were intended. 










(By Ethan Allen Snively.) 

The removal of the State Capital to Spring- 
field from Vandalia is elsewhere discussed. With 
the removaV^aHftr the necessity of redeeming 
the obligations incurred in furnishing necessary 
ground for the erection of the capitol building. 
As the State grew and the necessity arose for 
the purchase of other grounds or the receipt 
of the same by donation, they were acquired 
until now the State is the most important land- 
holder in the county. 

The first piece of real estate owned by the 
Slate was the property in the center of the 
city of Springfield still known as the "Public 
Square." It was deeded to the State by the 

County Commissioners on March 11, 1837. 
Early in 1847 some defect was discovered in 
the deed, and the County Commissioners made a 
new deed covering the same property. In Feb- 
ruary, 1847, the Legislature passed an act legal- 
izing both deeds. 

The second piece of real estate owned in the 
county by the State was a lot in the old 
Hutchinson Cemetery. This was lot 182 and 
was deeded to the State on the 25th of March, 
1847, and was utilized for the burial of several 
citizens from other parts of the State who had 
been prominent in public affairs. 

The third piece of real estate owned by the 
State was the property now used as the loca- 
tion for the Governor's mansion. This was pur- \, 
chased on the 24th of May, 1853, from Nicholas 
Ridgely. The consideration for this property 
was $4,500. 

The fourth piece of real estate owned in the 
county was the property known as the old 
Arsenal. This was located on North Fifth 
Street, occupying fifty-seven and a half feet 
front on North Fifth Street by one hundred 
and fifty-two feet deep. It was purchased of 
Ninian Edwards, for the sum of $700, the deed 
bearing date June 13, 1855. 

The Legislature of 1867 decided to build a 
new State house, and the property upon which 
the present State capitol is located was donated 
to the State by the city of Springfield, the public 
square and old capitol building being sold to 
the county and the former State house being 
now occupied as a court house. The State in- 
curred no cost in the acquisition of the site for 
new State Capitol, but the City of Springfield 
paid seventy thousand dollars for the same. 
The total cost of the building, with later repairs 
and improvements has aggregated approximate- 
ly $4,500,000. (See preceding chapter.) 

The sixth piece of real estate owned by the 
State embraced lots 29, 30, 42 and 43 in Oak 
Ridge Cemetery, which were donated as a burial 
place for Governor William H. Bissell and 
family. This deed was executed April 23, 1867. 

The seventh piece of real estate within the 
county, owned by the State, was that upon which 
is situated the power plant used for furnishing 
heat and light for use in the State House and 
the Supreme Court building. This was pur- 
chased July 16, 1873. 

The eighth piece of real estate owned by the 
State in the county was the property known as 



Camp Lincoln. This comprises one hundred and 
sixty acres situated northwest of the city, and 
it cost over sixteen thousand dollars. 

The ninth piece of property owned by the 
State is that upon which the present State 
Arsenal and Armory are situated. It consists 
of an entire block except the part previously 
acquired by the State for the heating plant. 
This ground was donated to the State by citi- 
zens of Springfield, who paid for it the sum of 
forty-two thousand dollars. 

The tenth piece of property owned by the 
State is the site of the Supreme Court Build- 
ing. This property is situated on the south- 
east corner of Capitol Avenue and Second Street, 
fronting 257 feet on the former and 147 feet 
on the latter. The cost of the land was $16,000, 
with the cost of the building making a total of 

The eleventh piece of property owned by the 
State is a tract of land containing forty acres, 
located two miles north of the city and which 
is used as a State Biological Laboratory. 

These several acquisitions were authorized 
by special acts of the General Assembly, and 
the actual transfer in each case being made by 
formal deed of conveyance which is a matter 
of official record, it is not deemed necessary 
to quote these documents in this connection. 
The history of the acquisition of property for 
State Capitol purposes has also been treated 
quite fully in the chapters relating to the loca- 
tion and transfers of the State Capital at dif- 
ferent periods. 

While the State is the owner of extensive 
property in other districts including the Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal, Illinois University 
property, the sites and buildings used as State 
charitable, educational, reformatory and penal 
institutions, and the original Supreme Court 
(now Appellate Court) buildings at Ottawa and 
Mt. Vernon, these do not come within the scope 
intended to be covered by this chapter. 

This also applies to the "State Fair Grounds," 
which, from the name, might be assumed to be 
State property. These grounds, as shown by 
the following extracts from the Records of 
Sangamon County, were acquired as follows : 

" At a special meeting of the Board of Su- 
pervisors of Sangamon County, Illinois, held 
November 21, 1893, a resolution was adopted by 
a unanimous vote, authorizing the conveyance, 
in the name of the County of Sangamon, to the 

Illinois State Board of Agriculture of the west 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 15, 
Town 1(> North, Range 5 West of the Third 
Principal Meridian, except about one acre, used 
for school purposes. 

"Also a part of the east half of the south- 
east quarter of Section 15, Town 16 North, 
Range 5 West of the Third Principal Meridian, 
containing 75.68 acres, containing in all 154.68 
acres ; conditioned that there be held by the said 
State Board of Agriculture an annual State 
Fair, but in case it should neglect to hold the 
said Fair upon said grounds for two consecutive 
years, the title and full right of possession to 
said grounds, with the improvements thereon, 
shall 'ipso facto' revert to and vest in said 
county of Sangamon." 

In connection with the above conveyance, and 
as a part of the consideration for the location 
of the Fair at Springfield, the County Board of 
Supervisors made an appropriation of $50,000 
to the State Board of Agriculture, for the pur- 
pose of erecting buildings on said grounds, to 
be paid on or before the 1st of May, 1894. In 
pursuance of the above action, the conveyance 
was duly made, on January 2, 1894, and a deed 
executed by the Chairman of the Board of Su- 
pervisors, A. P. Lorton, attested by the Clerk 
of the Board. S. M. Rogers, ex-offlcio, and Coun- 
ty Clerk, of Sangamon County. 

(Recorded Deed Record. Volume 93, Page 401, 
Sangamon County Records.) 














(By Paul Selby.) 

From its central location geograpbically, and 
its political prominence as the State capital, it 
is but natural that Springfield should early have 
become a popular point for important conven- 
tions and mass meetings, especially of a polit- 
ical character. This was illustrated during 
the presidential campaign of 1840, the year 
following the removal of the State capital 
from Vandalia, William Henry Harrison being 
then, for a second time, the Whig candidate 
for the presidency and elected in opposition to 
Martin Van Bureii. Harrison then received 
2,000 votes in Sangamon County to 1,249 for Van 
Bureu. while the latter received a smaller 
plurality in the State of Illinois than any other 
Democratic candidate for the presidency be- 
tween 1824 and 1856. 

political parties in Illinois, as well as in West- 
ern States generally, were in a chaotic condition, 
the principal issues of a national character be- 
ing a protective tariff, a national bank and in- 
ternal improvements, the attitude on these ques- 
tions of what became the Whig party being in 
the affirmative, while that of their opponents 
was in the negative. These were measures sup- 
ported by Henry Clay, while Abraham Lincoln, 
in a brief speech made in the presence of his 
friends at New Salern, Menard County, after 
his first election to the General Assembly in 1834, 
announced that they expressed his "sentiments 
and political principles." On minor issues vot- 
ers were influenced largely by local interest or 
the personal popularity of the candidate. 

A PERIOD OF EVOLUTION. After the passing 
away of the "Federalists," which followed the 
election of James Monroe to the presidency in 
1816, it is generally conceded that for several 
years there was practically but one organized 
party, the "Republican," its principles, if not its 
name, largely inherited from Thomas Jefferson, 
but in 1828, the year of Andrew Jackson's first 
election to the presidency, there came a split in 
the party, the supporters of Jackson being 
known as "Jackson Republicans,' 'and their op- 
ponents (then supporters of John Quincy Ad- 
ams) as "National Republicans," Henry Clay be- 
coming principal leader of the latter. The is- 
sues most vigorously advocated by the Jackson 
Republicans during this period were the doctrine 

of "State Rights," as enunciated in the resolu- 
tion of 1798, and the right to "rotation in office" 
so vigorously enforced by Andrew Jackson, on 
the ground that "to the victors belong the spoils." 
In the campaign of 1832 the Jackson Republi- 
cans took on the name "Democratic," and, fol- 
lowing their example, the National Republicans 
before 1836 became the "Whig" party, the name 
having been freely used for some years pre- 

history of "Political Parties in Illinois," by J. 
McCan Davis, published in the "Illinois Blue 
Book" for 1907, the National Republicans are 
entitled to the distinction of having held the 
first State Convention in Illinois, which met at 
Vandalia September 19, 1832, and which had 
been preceded by the nomination of Henry Clay 
as the Republican candidate for the presidency 
at Baltimore in December, 1831. The Vandalia 
convention was composed of political friends of 
Mr. Clay, chosen as delegates by mass meetings 
of citizens of the several counties of the State, 
as was the case with most of the delegates to 
the first convention of the present Republican 
party at Bloomington in 1856. Besides indors- 
ing Henry Clay as their candidate for the Presi- 
dency, the Vandalia convention adopted a series 
of resolutions favoring the principles alluded to 
in a preceding paragraph in this chapter, and 
which, it has been claimed, "may be called the 
first party platform ever drafted in Illinois." 
It also appointed a Central Committee of five 
members, and nominated five candidates for 
Presidential Electors (one for each Congressional 
District and two for the State-at-large) , Elijah 
lies being named for the Sangamon District. 

It has also been claimed that a Democratic 
State Convention was held at Vandalia in 1835 
or 1836 (there being some discrepancy or In- 
definiteness of statement on this point), at which 
John Calhoun and Peter Cartwright were dele- 
gates from Sangamon County the latter a short 
time previously having abandoned the National 
Republican party. From this time^ on for the 
next twenty years, the Whig party uniformly 
secured a majority vote in Sangamon County 
for its candidates for President and State officers, 
as well as for members of the General Assem- 
bly and local offices. The same rule applied dur- 
ing this period to Congressmen for the Sanga- 
mon District from 1838 to 1854; with the excep- 
tion of one term (that of 1849-51) when Thomas 



L. Harris, a soldier of the Mexican War, de- 
feated Judge Stephen T. Logan, of Sangamon 
County, the latter, however, receiving a majority 
in his own county. At this election the State 
retained its rank with one Whig Congressman, 
by the election of Col. Edward S. Baker, also 
an ex-soldier of the Mexican War, and previously 
Congressman from the Springfield District. In 
1850 the Sangamon District resumed its place 
in the Whig column, which it retained for four 
years, with Richard Yates later the War Gov- 
ernor as its Representative. This was due to 
the rapid increase in population in the central 
part of the State, a large proportion of which, 
especially in Sangamon County, came from Ken- 
tucky and other border Southern States. (The 
roll of State officers and Congressmen from the 
district, of which Sangamon County formed a 
part, will be given in the succeeding chapter in 
this volume.) 

and the Free-Soil parties had respectively a brief 
existence as political organizations, the former 
taking part in the campaigns of 1840 and 1844, 
and the latter as Free-Soil Democrats in 1S4S 
and 1S52, but in 1856 being merged into the 
newly organized Republican party. Popularly 
known as "Abolitionists," neither of these organ- 
izations ever gained much numerical strength in 
Sangamou County, although a few prominent 
citizens, of whom Erastus Wright was one, were 
advocates of the abolition of slavery. In a few 
northern counties of the State this doctrine re- 
ceived a more zealous advocacy, and occasionally 
its supporters secured the election of a member 
of the Legislature. One of these was the late 
Judge Henry W. Blodgett, who in the early 
'50s was elected as an Anti-Slavery Representa- 
tive in the General Assembly from the Lake 
County District, while William B. Plato, as Sen- 
ator from the Kane County District, occupied a 
similar position. 

accession of Texas and other Mexican provinces 
as new territory of the United States following 
the Mexican War, there came an increased agi- 
tation on the subject of slavery. This was due 
largely to the belief in many of the Northern 
States, that the chief motive influencing the ad- 
ministration and its most zealous supporters in 
advocacy of the war policy of that period, was 
a desire for the acquisition of more slave terri- 
tory. The lack of unanimity in parties on this 

issue was strikingly illustrated in the votes 
taken in Congress, during the Mexican War, on 
what was called the "Wilmot Proviso," provid- 
ing that, "as an express and fundamental condi- 
tion to the acquisition of any territory from the 
Republic of Mexico . . . neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude shall exist in any part of 
said territory." This "proviso" was offered by 
David W'ilmot, of Pennsylvania, as an amend- 
ment to a bill making appropriations for secur- 
ing peace and the purchase of territory from 
Mexico, and the ballot in the House-Committee 
of the Whole stood 83 votes for to 64 against it, 
only three members (all Democrats) from free 
States voting in the negative. On the bill 
being reported to the House, the motion that 
it lie upon the table was defeated by 79 
yeas to 93 nays, and the bill finally passed that 
body without further division. Two of the three 
Democrats from free States voting against the 
measure were Stephen A. Douglas and John A. 
McClernand, of Illinois, while two Whigs from 
Kentucky ^evidently friends of Henry Clay) 
voted in its favor. The Senate failed to take 
any action on this measure, so the issue col- 
lapsed. This proposition was taken up in the 
subsequent session of Congress, and Abraham 
Lincoln claimed that he voted for it 42 times. 

The next step in this line consisted in the 
adoption of the Compromise Bill of 1850, Intrc 
duced by Henry Clay, while serving his last 
term in the United States Senate. One of the 
principal objects of this bill was to fix the status 
of territory acquired from Mexico, under it 
California being admitted as a free State, while 
other portions were organized as Territories, 
with the condition that their status as free or 
slave States should be subject to the will of 
the people as to the admission of slavery on 
adoption of State constitutions. 

While the object of the Compromise of is.'O 
was to establish more friendly relations between 
the northern and southern portions of the Union, 
the Fugitive Slave Law which was the fifth 
in a series of six different measures constituting 
what was called the "Omnibus Bill" -with its 
stringent provisions relating to the return of 
fugitive slaves from free States to their masters, 
produced a directly opposite effect in sections 
of the Union averse to slavery. As a conse- 
quence political agitation grew more earnest and 
the process of party disorganization assumed in- 
creased activity. Although for fourteen years 



the Whig representation iu Congress Lad been 
limited to one member, in 1852 it secured four 
out of a total of nine, indicating the popular 
change then going on, especially in the northern 
half of the State. 

It was during this year (1852) that the Whig 
party, as such, cast its last vote for President, 
the defeat of Gen. Winfield Scott as its candi- 
date and the passage by Congress, two years 
later, of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, with the 
chaotic conditions following, resulting in its dis- 
solution and the organization of a new party. 
For a time following this period what was known 
as the "American" or "Know Nothing" party had 
a brief but sensational existence. This was the 
outgrowth of a secret organization known as 
"Know-Nothings," made up of native-born citi- 
zens of the United States who were opposed to the 
election to office of persons of foreign birth, and 
requiring a residence of twenty-one years as a 
qualification for citizenship. This organization 
owed its existence largely to a class of local poli- 
ticians, who, foreseeing the dissolution of other 
parties, took advantage of the situation to be- 
come leaders of a new organization. Its devel- 
opment began about 1S54, and it became quite 
active, carrying local elections, especially in cit- 
ies, and in 1856 nominated, as its candidate for 
President, Millard Fillmore, who as Vice Presi- 
dent had filled out the unexpired term of Zach- 
ary Taylor, after the death of the latter in 1850. 
It secured the electoral vote of only one State 
Maryland and as its secret methods and princi- 
ples became more widely known, it dwindled 
into insignificance, although in the border and 
the Southern slave States, maintaining some ac- 
tivity through the support of former Whigs who 
were reluctant to identify themselves with the 
Democratic party. In 1860 it took on the name 
of the "Constitutional Union" party, with John 
Bell, of Tennessee, and Edward Everett, of 
Massachusetts, as candidates for President and 
Vice President. With the advent of the Civil 
War this new party went out of existence, its 
members identifying themselves with the Demo- 
cratic (or Secession) party, or, in a few In- 
stances, retaining the name of Unionists, though 
suppressing their opinions or compelled to move 

In I860 the Democratic party was divided into 
two factions. After an eight days' session of 
the regular Democratic Convention held at 
Charleston, S. C., in April of that year, with- 

out success in the nomination of a candidate 
for President, a majority of the delegates from 
Southern States (representing in whole or part 
nine States) withdrew, and the remainder be- 
ing unable to select a candidate under the two- 
thirds rule, adjourned to meet in Baltimore on 
June ISth following. At this time delegates 
from four other slave States and from one 
free State (Indiana) withdrew, with the re- 
sult that Senator Douglas was nominated for 
President by the remainder by an almost unani- 
mous vote, while John C. Breckinridge, who 
became a leader in the secession movement, re- 
ceived the nomination of the seceding faction. 
This, of course, proved an important factor in 
the Presidential election of that year, as the 
two factions of the party, if united, would have 
had a large plurality on the popular vote. This 
division in the ranks of the Democratic party 
continued during the war period, the southern 
branch of the party becoming almost unani- 
mously Secessionists, while the northern wing 
was divided into "War" and "Anti-War Demo- 
crats" some of the latter becoming members 
of the "Golden Circle," an organization iu sym- 
pathy with the rebellion. 

In 1872 came another breach in the party 
ranks, when a majority of the party, after 
repudiating their principles in opposition to the 
"reconstruction policy" and other measures of 
previous Republican administrations, accepted 
Horace Greeley, a former Anti-Slavery, or (as 
he had been called by his Democratic oppo- 
nents) "Abolition" leader, as their candidate for 
President under the name "Liberal Republican." 
This, as was to be expected, proved a failure, 
and, although the party won the Presidency in 
1884, it was uniformly defeated for National and 
State offices in Illinois until 1892, when it car- 
ried both in Illinois two years earlier, however, 
in what is called the "off-year," having elected 
its candidates in Illinois for State Treasurer and 
Superintendent of Public Instruction." 

In 1896 came another partial break. No. 3, in 
the Democratic party, this being the year of the 
first nomination for President of William J. 
Bryan, a native, and former popular citizen of 
Illinois. This division grew out of what was 
called the "16 to 1" or "free-silver" issue, the 
regular convention having adopted a platform 
demanding "the free and unlimited coinage of 
both silver and gold, at the present legal rate 
of sixteen to one." This proposition was vigor- 



ously opposed by a considerable branch of the 
party, with the result that Gen. John M. Pal- 
uier was nominated for President, "making the 
race" as a "Gold Democrat," although niaiiy of 
the most zealous advocates of the principle 
for which he stood, realizing the impossibility 
of his election, cast their votes for William Mc- 
Kiuley, the Republican candidate, for President. 
This condition continued in somewhat modified 
form during Mr. Bryan's second campaign in 
1900, many former Democrats thus becoming 
permanently allied with the Republican party. 

THE REPUBLICAN PAKTY. While hostility to 
the extension of slavery into free territory had 
been growing for years, as shown in the his- 
tory of the "Free-Soil" and "Abolition" parties, 
this took on an especially active character im- 
mediately after the passage, in May, 1854, of the 
Kansas-Nebraska act, which had been intro- 
duced by Senator Douglas, repealing the Mis- 
souri Compromise and opening the way for the 
spread of slavery into all territory not under 
State government north of 39 degrees 30 min- 
utes north latitude. According to the testimony 
of Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, afterwards 
Vice President of the United States, a group 
of Senators and Representatives in Congress met 
in the city of Washington on the evening after 
the final passage of the Nebraska bill, and de- 
cided that the time had arrived for the organ- 
ization of a new party, and are said to have 
favored the name Republican. It is also claimed 
that, as early as March 29th of the same year 
more than one month before the pasage of the 
Nebraska act Maj. Alvin E. Bovay, of Ripon, 
Wis., in a public meeting, had suggested the 
adoption of that name by the opponents of 
slavery extension, and it is a matter of record 
that the first State Convention to take this 
step was held at Jackson, Mich., on July 6th 
of that year. In Illinois, Senator Douglas' home 
State, the agitation was wide-spread, but espe- 
cially active in the northern section where the 
anti-slavery' element from Eastern and Northern 
Middle States was the largest. So, in anticipa- 
tion of the election of State Treasurer in No- 
vember following, and the election of United 
States Senator by the next General Assembly, 
a movement was started for the holding of a 
State Convention of opponents of the Nebraska 
act. In the absence of any party organization, 
this finally took the form of a proposition for 
the meeting of opponents of that measure, to be 

held in Springfield on October 4, 1854, this be- 
ing the period during which the Second State 
Fair was to be held, and which was considered 
a favorable occasion for securing a representa- 
tion from different parts of the State. When 
on the afternoon of the day mentioned, a num- 
ber of citizens who had contemplated taking 
part in the proposed convention met in the State 
House, they found the Hall of Representatives 
already occupied by a mixed assemblage who 
had gathered to listen to speeches by Senator 
Douglas and others, Hon. Lyman Trumbull, 
who was elected to the United States Senate 
during the next session of the General As- 
sembly, being a speaker on that afternoon in 
reply to Douglas, and Abraham Lincoln in the 
evening. The "extremists," as they have been 
called by some professed historians who knew 
nothing of the actual character of those who 
had come together to take part in the Anti- 
Nebraska meeting held a meeting in the Sen- 
ate Chamber late in the afternoon and effected 
an organization, with A. G. Throop, of Chicago, 
as President, also appointing a Committee to 
draft a series of resolutions and suggest a can- 
didate for State Treasurer, the only officer to 
be elected that year, after which they adjourned 
to meet the next morning. When the conven- 
tion reassembled on the morning of the 5th of 
October, the committee on resolutions submitted 
its report and Hon. John E. McClun, of Mc- 
Lean County, was named for State Treasurer, 
but later withdrew, Mr. James Miller, also of 
Bloomington, being accepted as his successor. 
Although then defeated, Mr. Miller was re- 
nominated two years later and elected. A State 
Central Committee was also appointed, of which 
Abraham Lincoln was named as a member, but 
it never formally organized. Both of the papers 
then published in Springfield being hostile to 
the movement, one being an organ of the Whig 
party and the other Democratic no accurate 
report of tbe proceedings was published by 
either, the former ignoring the convention al- 
together, and the latter, instead of the actual 
platform, publishing a series of radical resolu- 
tions favoring the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, which had been adopted 
by a county convention in the northern part of 
the State. It was this set of resolutions which 
Senator Douglas quoted against Lincoln in the 
first of his series of debates with the latter 
at Ottawa in 1858, but the bogus character of 



whicli Lincoln exposed lu the debute at Freeport 
one week later an event which proved a seri- 
ous embarrassment to Douglas during the re- 
mainder of that campaign. Briefly summarized 
tins platform covered the following points: (1) 
Condemnation of the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise; (2) Affirmation of the constitu- 
tional right of Congress to exclude slavery from 
the Territories; (3) "That, as freedom is Na- 
tional and slavery sectional and local, the ab- 
sence of all law on the subject of slavery 
presumes the existence of a state of freedom 
alone;'' (4). That "slavery can exist in a Terri- 
tory only by usurpation and violation of law ;" 
(5) Concession to all of the States of the rights 
"included in the sacred compact of the Con- 
stitution;" (6) Denial of antagonism or hos- 
tility towards citizens of Southern States; (7) 
Their recognition 'as kindred and brethren of 
the same family, having a common origin," with 
the hope for "a common and glorious destiny ;" 
(S) in "fraternal spirit," inviting the people of 
the South to aid "in restoring the action of the 
Government to its primitive usage," as "the only 
guaranty of future harmony" and "perpetuation 
of the Union." In conclusion the platform in- 
dorsed the policy of river and harbor improve- 
ments and urged cooperation of the States in 
behalf of free labor and free soil. In spite of 
the vituperation and denunciation with whicli 
the advocates of this policy were assailed it 
is doubtful if the convention of any party, Re- 
publican or otherwise, ever put forth a more 
conservative platform, one which would com- 
mand more general approval to-day or has been 
more thoroughly vindicated in national history. 
Although Mr. Lincoln did not immediately join 
in this organization, he was more thoroughly 
in sympathy with its opinions than he was then 
aware, while at the time he recognized Its sup- 
porters as "Republicans." 

The next important step toward the organ- 
ization of the Republican party in Illinois came 
In the holding of a convention of Anti-Nebraska 
editors at Decatur in 1856. Of this conven- 
tion an article on the history of "Political Par- 
ties in Illinois," by J. McCan Davis, In the 
"Blue Book" of Illinois (1907) says: 

"Early in 1856 it became clear to Lincoln, as 
it did to all of those opposed to the Nebraska 
act, that a new party must be formed. Late 
in December, 1855, the 'Morgan Journal,' edited 
by Paul Selby, suggested a meeting of Anti- 

Nebraska editors, to outline a policy to be pur- 
sued in the campaign of the year about to open. 
There was a ready response from the Anti- 
Nebraska newspapers. The convention was held 
in Decatur, February 22, 1856. Mr. Selby was 
made Chairman and W. J. Usrey, editor of the 
Decatur Chronicle, was Secretary. 

The call for this convention received the In- 
dorsement of twenty-five Anti-Nebraska editors, 
but owing to a heavy snow storm which oc- 
curred the night before the meeting, causing 
a blockade on some of the railroads, only about 
a dozen arrived in time to be present at the 
opening, although two or three came in later 
in the day, and were present at a banquet given 
in the evening by the citizens of Decatur, at 
which Richard J. Oglesby presided and Abra- 
ham Lincoln delivered the principal speech. Mr. 
Lincoln had been in conference during the day 
with the Committee on Resolutions of which 
Dr. Charles H. Ray, then editor of the "Chicago 
Tribune," was Chairman and, no doubt, exerted 
an influence in framing the platform reported 
to the convention and adopted by that body 
as a whole. On national issues this platform 
followed the general principles outlined in that 
adopted at Springfield two years earlier, pro- 
testing against the introduction of slavery In 
free territory and demanding the restoration 
of the Missouri Compromise. An additional feat- 
ure was a declaration In favor of the widest 
toleration in matters of religion and in prac- 
tical protest against the doctrines of "Know- 
Nothingism" a result which was due to the 
personal influence of Mr. Lincoln, after a per- 
sonal conference with Mr. George Schneider, 
a member of the Committee on Resolutions and 
then editor of the "Staats-Zeitung" of Chicago, 
a leading German anti-slavery paper of the 
West. A resolution recommending that "a State 
delegate convention be held in Bloomington on 
Thursday, the 29th day of May" following, and 
naming a "State Central Committee" to issue 
a call for the same, was also adopted. This 
committee, after a change of three of Its mem- 
bers on account of absence or other causes, dis- 
charged its duty in the manner prescribed. 
When the Bloomington convention met, it 
adopted a platform advocating the same prin- 
ciples which had been enunciated by the con- 
vention at Springfield in October, 1854, and 
had been indorsed by the editorial convention 
at Decatur in February. It was this conven- 



tion before which Mr. Lincoln delivered his cele- 
brated "lost speech," and which later nominated 
a State ticket, headed by Wm. H. Blssell, for 
Governor, which was elected in November fol- 
lowing. About the same time (1857) the Dred 
Scott decision, sustaining the right to hold 
slaves, like any other property, indefinitely in 
free territory, aroused a strong sentiment 
throughout the North against the further ex- 
tension of slavery. And thus it was that the 
Republican party in Illinois was born, and which 
has since won every general State election ex- 
cept that of 1892, and a majority in every Na- 
tional election except those of 1856 and 1892. 
It is a matter of curious interest that, while 
the name Republican in modern days has been 
regarded by its opponents as synonymous with 
"Abolition," the most zealous champions of the 
introduction of slavery in Illinois during the 
historic campaign of 1822-24 were known as 
Jackson "Republicans," and the leading organ 
in favor of that measure at Edwardsville, 111., 
was the "Illinois Republican." The only issue 
of the opponents of slavery at that time was 
simply retention of the provision of the Ordi- 
nance of 1787 and perpetuated in the enabling 
act of 1818, excluding slavery from Illinois ter- 
ritory. Coming down to a later period it is an 
equally curious fact that, while the Republi- 
can party of to-day owes its existence to the 
passage of the Nebraska Act of 1854, that meas- 
ure led to the final defeat of the party which 
was responsible for its enactment after a quar- 
ter of a century of almost uninterrupted control 
of the National Government, just as the policy 
of the advocates of secession, in the effort to 
perpetuate slavery, resulted in the total aboli- 
tion of that institution as the outcome of the 
Civil War. And thus it devolved upon the 
Republican party to preserve the Union and 
reestablish it on a basis of prosperity such 
as it never before had enjoyed, as shown by 
the development of the past half century. 

this connection to make some mention of several 
parties which, while at different periods they 
have received the support of a small proportion 
of voters in Saugauion County, have had a brief 
existence, or have exerted little influence on 
public affairs except in cooperation with some 
other party organizations. Owing to dissatisfac- 
tion on the part of a considerable number of 

Republicans with the administration of Presi- 
dent Grant during his first term, an attempt 
was made in 1872 to organize a Liberal Repub- 
lican party, which resulted in the nomination of 
Horace Greeley for President, a number of 
former Republicans in Illinois taking part in 
this movement. As this followed the defeat of 
the Democratic party in three successive elec- 
tions, including the Civil War period and the 
first four years thereafter a result attributed 
to the hostility of that party to the war policy 
of the Government Greeley was accepted as the 
candidate of the larger portion of the Demo- 
cratic party under the name of Liberal Republi- 
can-Democrat, with several other Republicans on 
the National and State tickets, while a smaller 
faction supported what was called a "Regular" 
or "Straight-out" Democratic ticket. The greater 
part of those who had been original Republi- 
cans resumed their party affiliations in the next 
campaign, while a considerable number who had 
been Democrats before the war period, retained 
their permanent association with that party. 

What was known as the "Independent Reform 
party,'' composed largely of former Democrats, 
was formed in 1874 and held a State Conven- 
tion in Springfield, its chief issues being oppo- 
sition to the National Banking law and advocacy 
of a tariff for revenue only. It nominated can- 
didates for State Treasurer, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and in the Springfield Dis- 
trict for Congress, which were later indorsed 
by the 'Democratic-Liberal" party, but failed of 

The "Greenback party" took on its organiza- 
tion in 1876, following promptly the enactment 
of a law under President Hayes' administration 
for resumption of specie payments. In a Na- 
tional Convention held in Philadelphia during 
that year, it took the name "Independent Na- 
tional party," indorsing the policy of making 
notes ("greenbacks") issued by the General Gov- 
ernment "full legal tender" for all obligations, 
except under special contracts. It maintained 
its existence through three national campaigns 
until 1SS4, when it practically went into dis- 
solution, its supporters generally retaining the 
name of "Greenbackers," however, for some time 

The "Prohibition party." having as its prin- 
cipal issue restriction of the liquor traffic, has 
maintained a more or less active organization, 



J I 


f 5 

S- w 

1 i 



I s 



Motto "Ready. Aye Ready" 


\lnttn "The Flvinir Snnr" 



with candidates for National and State offices 
sihce 3872. While the total vote has shown a 
moderate increase, and the main issue has ap- 
pealed to the sympathy of many members of 
other parties, the Prohibition party has met 
with success in Illinois only in the occasional 
election of one or two members of the Legisla- 
ture. The largest vote cast in Illinois was in 
1904, when its candidate for Governor received 
35,446 votes. 

The "Union Labor party" came into existence 
in 1888 as a successor of the Greenback party, 
nominating A. J. Streeter, of Illinois, as Its 
candidate for President, on a platform demand- 
ing a circulating medium to be "issued directly 
to the people without the intervention of banks, 
or loaned to citizens upon land security at a 
low rate of interest," also favoring the free 
coinage of silver. As its name indicates, its 
policy was to unite the Union Labor element in 
support of the measures of the Greenback party, 
while its declaration in favor of "free coinage 
of silver" came eight years in advance of the 
adoption of the "free-sjlver" platform by the 
Democratic party In 1896. 

The "People's" or "Populist" party was the 
outgrowth of a movement started in 1SS9 by 
a Farmers' Alliance Convention held in Florida. 
In 1890 it took on the name of "Farmers' Mutual 
Benefit Association" in Illinois, and by the elec- 
tion of three members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives held the balance of power in the 
General Assembly, which resulted in the election 
of Gen. John SI. Palmer to the United States 
Senate in 1891. In 1896 and in 1900 it ac- 
cepted William J. Bryan as its candidate for 
President, but in 1904 nominated a candidate 
of its own for President. 

Besides those already mentioned other parties 
which have had a brief or somewhat extended 
existence in Illinois, as shown by the election 
records of the past twenty years, include the 
following: The "Socialists" (with Eugene V. 
Debs as its regular leader), "Socialist Labor," 
"Independent Democratic," "Socialist Demo- 
cratic," "Continental" and "Independence." The 
vote received by each of these in Sangamon 
County at the highest has amounted to only a 
few hundred at any single election. 












(By J. McCan Davis.) 

As an appendix to the history of political par- 
ties, in which Sangamon County has been so 
important a factor, it is fitting that some men- 
tion should be made of the most notable cam- 
paigns and' events connected therewith. In the 
light of its influence on future history, the 
most important measure upon which a popular 
vote was cast in the early years of county his- 
tory was the question of calling a State Con- 
vention in 1824, which had for its object the 
legalization of slavery in Illinois. The total 
vote of the county on this issue was 875, of 
which only 153 votes were in favor of the meas- 
ure and 722 against a result indicating that, 
while the county was then strongly Democratic 
and its population composed largely of immi- 
grants from border slave States, popular senti- 
ment on this subject was independent. 

In the election campaigns of both 1824 and 
1828 Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams 
were the principal leaders, the former as the 
candidate for President of what was then the 
Republican party and the latter of the remnant 
of the Federalists. In 1832 Gen. Jackson won 
over Henry Clay in Saugamon County by a vote 
of 1,035 to 810 for the latter. Abraham Lin- 
coln was a candidate for the first time for 
Representative in the General Assembly during 
the year just mentioned, but for the only time 
in his life failed of election. (Other citizens of 



Sangaruou County who, duriug this period and 
later, were elected to National and State offices 
will be mentioned, as well as Representatives 
in Congress, later on in the succeeding chapter.) 

During that period and until the adoption of 
the Constitution of 1848, the office of Governor 
was filled by election in what is now called the 
"off-year" that is, the second year after the 
presidential election while the election of county 
officers occurred at more irregular periods, the 
State elections being then held every four years 
on the first Monday in August, and the Presi- 
dential in November. The first year in which 
the Democratic and Whig parties were fairly 
organized in the manner in which they continued 
to exist until the campaign of 1852. was 1836, 
when Van Buren was the candidate of the 
former for President and William Henry Harri- 
son of the latter, Harrison then receiving a 
majority in Sangamon County of 560 out of a 
total vote of 2,3GC. This marked the standing 
of Sangamon County in the Whig column, which 
continued until after the dissolution of the Whig 
party following the election of 1852. The most 
active campaign during this period was that of 
1840 known as the "Log-cabin and Hard-cider 
campaign" which resulted in the election of 
Harrison by the country at large, the vote of 
Sangamon County being then 2,000 for Harrison 
to 1,249 for Van Buren. A memorable incident 
of that campaign was a mass-meeting held in 
the city of Springfield in June, 1840, this being 
the year after Springfield had become the State 
capital. Of this meeting, Moses, in his "Illinois : 
Historical and Statistical," gives the following 
interesting account : 

"Twenty thousand people, nearly five per cent, 
of the entire population of the State, attended 
the meeting, among whom was a delegation from 
Chicago. . . . Securing fourteen of the best 
teams available and four tents, they captured 
the government yawl, which they rigged up as a 
two-masted ship and placed on a strong wagon 
drawn by six fine grey horses. Thus equipped, 
with four sailors on board, a band of music, and 
a six-pounder cannon to fire salutes, with Cap- 
tain (afterward Maj. Gen.) David Hunter in 
command as Chief Marshal, they started with 
flying colors on their journey. . . . They 
were seven days making the trip. Their vessel 
was a wonder to the inhabitants along the 
route, many of whom had never seen anything 
of the kind. At Springfield it divided the at- 
tention of the masses with a huge log-cabin, 

twelve by sixteen feet, constructed on an im- 
mense truck whose wheels were made of solid 
wood, cut from a large tree. The latter was 
driven by thirty yoke of oxen ; a couple of 
coons were playing in the branches of a hickory 
sapling at one corner; and a barrel of hard- 
cider stood by the door, whose latch-string was 
hanging out. The brig was presented to the 
Whigs of Sangamon County, in an able speech, 
by William Stuart, of the 'Chicago American,' 
in return for which the Chicago delegation was 
presented with a live grey eagle, in an eloquent 
address by E. D. Baker, at the critical por- 
tion of which, when he described the eagle's 
flight as emblematic of the election of Harri- 
son, the 'noble bird' responded to the sentiment 
by rearing its head, expanding its wings and 
giving a loud cry. The applause of the im- 
mense crowd was correspondingly wild and en- 
thusiastic. The entire trip consumed three 
weeks' time, but was enjoyed by the party from 
first to last." 

CAMPAIGNS OP 1848-56. An especially note- 
worthy campaign was that of 1848, when Zach- 
ary Taylor, a hero of the Mexican War, was 
elected as the Whig candidate for President over 
Lewis Cass, Democrat. The vote of Sangamon 
County then stood 1,843 for Taylor to 1,336 for 
Cass and 47 for Van Buren as, a Free-Soiler. 
The plurality in Illinois for the Democratic 
candidate in that campaign was 3,253 the 
smallest for a Democratic candidate for Presi- 
dent from the campaign of 1840 up to the final 
defeat of that party in 1860. 

A campaign of historic interest was that of 
1852 in which two soldiers of the Mexican War 
Gen. Winfield Scott, Whig, and Franklin 
Pierce, Democrat -were opposing candidates for 
the Presidency. Scott received a somewhat 
smaller majority in Sangamou County than 
that received by Taylor four years earlier, while 
the Democratic majority in the State was in- 
creased in the same proportion. The defeat 
of the Whig party in this campaign, with the 
chaotic condition produced by the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska act and the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise two years later, brought about 
the practical dissolution of the Whig party. 

The contest in the General Assembly in 1855 
for the seat in the United States Senate then 
occupied by James Shields, and following the 
first election after the passage of the Nebraska 
act, was the leading political event of this pe- 
riod. Abraham Lincoln was the choice of a 



large majority of the Anti-Nebraska members, 
including practically all the Whigs in that body, 
and on the first ballot in joint session of the 
two Houses received 45 votes to 41 for Shields, 
5 for Lymau Trumbull, 2 for Gustavus Koeruer 
and one each for six other candidates. The 
vote cast for Trumbull on the first ballot came 
from five Anti-Nebraska Democrats, and if added 
to that for Lincoln, would have been sufficient 
to insure his election. On the ninth ballot 
Truiubull's vote had increased to 35, while 
Lincoln's had been reduced to 18. In the mean- 
time Gov. Mattesou had become the Democratic 
candidate, receiving 47 votes. Lincoln, then 
foreseeing the possibility of Matteson's election, 
advised his friends to vote for Trumbull, which 
they did, the tenth ballot resulting in 51 votes 
for Trumbull to 47 for Matteson, and one for 
Archibald Williams of Quincy, an Anti-Nebraska 
Whig Mr. Trumbull thus winning his flrst elec- 
tion for the seat which, by two subsequent elec- 
tions, he filled for eighteen years. 

The election of 1856 marked the advent of 
the newly organized Republican party in both 
State and National affairs. While John C. Fre- 
mont as candidate for President was defeated 
by James Buchanan, Democrat, William H. Bls- 
sell, an ex-soldier of the Mexican War, and 
former Democratic Member of Congress, was 
elected Governor with the rest of the State 
ticket, thus marking the beginning of Republican 
rule in State affairs, which continued uninter- 
ruptedly (with the exception of State Treasurer 
and Superintendent of Public Instruction for 
a few terms) up to 1892. In this election the 
Democratic candidate for Governor received a 
plurality in Sangamon County over Bissell of 
only 387, against 803 for Buchanan (Democrat) 
for President. 

of especial interest in connection with Sangamon 
County history was the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln for United States Senator by the Re- 
publican State Convention which met at Spring- 
field June 17, 1858, for the purpose of nomi- 
nating candidates for State Treasurer and Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. After nomi- 
nating James Miller and Newton Bateman for 
these offices, respectively, the convention adopted 
the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That Abraham Lincoln is the first 
and only choice of the Republicans of Illinois 

for the United States Senate, as the successor 
to Stephen A. Douglas." 

It was in the evening following this con- 
vention that Mr. Lincoln delivered his celebrated 
"house-divided-against-itself" speech, in the old 
Hall of Representatives, before an audience of 
whom many were startled by his predictions and 
logical argument. His views were severely crit- 
icised by his political opponents and even by 
some of his friends, all of whom have since 
been compelled to recognize the foresight and 
sagacity then shown by the future President 
nothing short of a prophecy of future events 
in which he was destined to play a most con- 
spicuous part within the next seven years. This 
led directly to the famous Lincoln-Douglas de- 
bates within the next four months, and while 
Lincoln failed of election to the senatorship, 
these debates resulted In his election to the 
Presidency two years later and his final preser- 
vation of the Union. 

ical events undoubtedly that of deepest interest 
to citizens of Springfield up to the time it 
occurred, was the nomination of Mr. Lincoln 
for the Presidency in 1860. While he had made 
no active campaign in his own behalf, his can- 
didacy was vigorously launched in the State 
Convention which met at Decatur, May 9, of 
that year, and at which Richard Yates was 
nominated for Governor. This was just one 
week before the meeting of the National Con- 
vention in Chicago. That body remained in 
session three days, and on the third ballot taken 
on the third day Lincoln came within two and 
one-half votes of receiving the nomination. By 
consequent changes he had a decided majority, 
and his nomination was made unanimous. 

During the days when the Convention was 
in session, Mr. Lincoln remained at his home 
or In his office, in occasional consultation with 
his friends, discussing the situation and re- 
ceiving occasional intelligence from Chicago. Of 
an interview which took place In the office of 
the late James C. Conkling, one of Lincoln's 
closest friends, who had just returned from 
Chicago on the morning of May 18th the day 
the final vote was taken Mr. Clinton L. Conk- 
ling (the son of James C.), in a contribution 
to the Illinois State Historical Society, says : 

"There was an old settee by the front win- 
dow on which were several buggy cushions. Mr. 
Lincoln stretched himself upon this settee, his 



head on a cushion and his feet over the end 
of the settee. For a long time they talked 
about the convention. Mr. Lincoln wanted to 
know what had been done and what Mr. Conk- 
ling had seen and learned and what he believed 
would be the result of the convention. Mr. 
Conkling replied that Mr. Lincoln would be 
nominated that day ; that, after the conversa- 
tions he had had and the information he had 
gathered in regard to Mr. Seward's candidacy, 
he was satisfied that Mr. Seward could not 
be nominated, for he not only had enemies In 
other States than his own, but had enemies at 
home; that if Mr. Seward was not nominated 
on the first ballot, the Pennsylvania delegation 
and other delegations would immediately go 
to Mr. Lincoln and he would be nominated. 

"Mr. Lincoln replied that he hardly thought 
this could be possible and that, in case Mr. Se- 
ward was not nominated on the first ballot, it 
was his judgment that Mr. Chase of Ohio or 
Mr. Bates of Missouri would be the nominee. 
They both considered that Mr. Cameron of Penn- 
sylvania stood no chance of nomination. Mr. 
Conkling in response said that he did not think 
it was possible to nominate any other one ex- 
cept Mr. Lincoln under the existing conditions, 
because the pro-slavery part of the Republican 
party then in the convention would not vote 
for Mr. Chase, who was considered an aboli- 
tionist, and the abolition part of the party would 
not vote for Mr. Bates, because he was from a 
slave State, and that the only solution of the 
matter was the nomination of Mr. Lincoln. 

"After discussing the situation at some length, 
Mr. Lincoln arose and said, 'Well, Conkling, I 
believe I will go back to my office and practice 
law.' He then left the office. . . . 

"In a very few moments after Mr. Lincoln 
left I learned of his nomination (just how I 
do not now remember), and rushed after him. 
I met him on the west side of the Square before 
anyone else had told him and to my cry, 'Mr. 
Lincoln, you're nominated,' he said, 'Well, Clin- 
ton, then we've got it,' and took my outstretched 
hand in both of his. Then the excited crowds 
surged around him and I dropped out of sight." 

formal announcement which came to Lincoln the 
next day, Miss Tarbell, in her "Life of Abraham 
Lincoln," says : 

"Thirty-six hours after Lincoln received the 
news of his nomination, an evening train from 

Chicago brought to Springfield a company of dis- 
tinguished-looking strangers. As they stepped 
from their coach cannon were fired, rockets set 
off, bands played, and enthusiastic cheering went 
up from a crowd of waiting people. A long and 
noisy procession accompanied them to their hotel 
and later to a modest two-storied house in an 
unfashionable part of the town. The gentle- 
men whom the citizens of Springfield received 
with such demonstration formed the committee, 
sent by the Republican National Convention to 
notify Abraham Lincoln that he had been nomi- 
nated as its candidate for the President of the 
United States. 

"The delegation had in its number some of 
the most distinguished workers of the Repub- 
lican party of that day: Mr. George Ashmun, 
Samuel Bowles, and Governor Boutwell of 
Massachusetts, William M. Evarts of New York. 
Judge Kelley of Pennsylvania, David K. Cartter 
of Ohio, Francis P. Blair of Missouri, the Hon. 
Gideon Welles of Connecticut, Amos Tuck of 
New Hampshire, Carl Schurz of Wisconsin. 
Only a few of these gentlemen had ever seen 
Mr. Lincoln and to many of them his nomina- 
tion had been a bitter disappointment. 

"As the committee filed into Mr. Lincoln's 
simple house there was a sore misgiving in more 
than one heart, and as Mr. Ashmun, their chair- 
man, presented to him the letter notifying him 
of his nomination they eyed their candidate with 
critical keenness. . . . Mr. Ashmun finished 
his speech and Mr. Lincoln lifting his head be- 
gan to reply. The men who watched him 
thrilled with surprise at the change which passed 
over him. His drooping form became erect and 
firm. The eyes beamed with fire and intelli- 
gence. Strong, dignified and self-possessed, he 
seemed transformed by the simple act of self- 

"His remarks were brief, merely a word of 
thanks for the honor done him, a hint that he 
felt the responsibility of his position, st promise 
to respond formally in writing and the expres- 
sion of a desire to take each one of the com- 
mittee by hand, but his voice was calm and 
clear, his bearing frank and sure. His auditors 
saw in a flash that here was a man who was 
master of himself. For the first time they under- 
stood that he whom they had supposed to be 
little more than a loquacious and clever State 
politician, had force, insight, conscience, that 
their misgivings were vain. 'Why, sir, they 



told me he was a rough diamond,' said Gov- 
ernor Boutwell to one of Lincoln's townsmen, 
'Nothing could have been in better taste than 
that speech.' And a delegate who had voted 
against Lincoln in the convention, turning to 
Carl Schurz, said, 'Sir, we might have done a 
more daring thing, but we certainly could not 
have done a better thing,' and it was with that 
feeling that the delegation, two hours later, left 
Mr. Lincoln's home, and it was that report they 
carried to their constituents. 

"But one more formality now remained to 
complete the ceremony of Abraham Lincoln's 
nomination to the presidency, his letter of ac- 
ceptance. This was soon written. The candi- 
dates of the opposing parties all sent out letters 
of acceptance in 1860 which were almost polit- 
ical platforms in themselves. Lincoln decided 
to make his merely an acceptance with an ex- 
pression of his intention to stand by the party's 
declaration of principles. He held himself 
rigidly to this decision, his first address to the 
Republican party being scarcely one hundred 
and fifty words in length. Though so short, 
it was prepared with painstaking attention. He 
even carried it when it was finished to a Spring- 
field friend, Dr. Newton Bateman, the State 
Superintendent of Education, for correction. 

" 'Mr. Schoolmaster,' he said, 'here is my let- 
ter of acceptance, I am not very strong on gram- 
mar and I wish you to see if it is all right. I 
wouldn't like to have'any mistakes in it.' 

"The doctor took the MS. and, after reading 
it, said: 'There is only one change I should 
suggest, Mr. Lincoln; you have written, 'It 
shall be my care to not violate or disregard it 
in any part,' you should have written 'not to 
violate." Never split an infinitive, is the rule.' 

"Mr. Lincoln took the manuscript, regarding 
it a moment with a puzzled air, 'So you think 
I had better put those two little fellows end to 
end, do you?' he said as he made the change." 
(Miss Tarbell's "Life of Lincoln," pp. 359-361.) 

following is the letter, addressed to President 
Ashman, by which Mr. Lincoln, a few days 
later, formally announced his acceptance of the 
nomination : 

"Springfield, 111., May 23, 1860. 
"Hon. George Ashmun, 

President of the Republican National Conven- 

"Sir : I accept the nomination tendered me by 

the Convention over which you presided, and of 
which I am formally apprized in the letter of 
yourself and others, acting as a committee of 
the Convention, for that purpose. 

"The declaration of principles, and which ac- 
companies your letter, meets my approval ; and 
it shall be my care not to violate, or disregard 
it, in any part. 

"Imploring the assistance of Divine Provi- 
dence, and with due regard to the views and 
feelings of ail who were representatives in 
the Convention ; to the rights of all the States 
and Territories, and the people of the nation; 
to the inviolability of the Constitution, and the 
perpetual Union, harmony and prosperity of all, 
I am now happy to cooperate for the practical 
success of the principles declared by the Con- 

"Your obliged friend and fellow citizen, 


were immediately extensive organizations of the 
"Wide Awake" supporters of Lincoln through- 
out the. Northern States. Of a mass meeting 
held at Springfield in August, Miss Tarbell gives 
the following account: 

"In many of the States great rallies were 
held at central points, at which scores of Wide- 
Awake clubs and a dozen popular speakers were 
present. The most enthusiastic of all these was 
held in Mr. Lincoln's own home, Springfield, 
on August S. Fully 75,000 people gathered for 
the celebration, by far the greater number com- 
ing across the prairies on horseback or in wagons. 
A procession eight miles long filed by Mr. Lin- 
coln's door. Mr. E. B. Washburne, who was 
with Mr. Lincoln in Springfield that day, says 
of this mass meeting : 

" 'It was one of the most enormous and im- 
pressive gathei'ings I had ever witnessed. Mr. 
Lincoln, surrounded by some intimate friends, 
sat on the balcony of his humble home. It 
took hours for all the delegations to file be- 
fore him, and there was no token of enthusiasm 
wanting. He was deeply touched by the mani- 
festations of personal and political friendships, 
and returned all his salutations in that off-hand 
and kindly manner which belonged to him. I 
know of no demonstration of a similar char- 
acter that can compare with it except the re- 
view by Napoleon of his army for the invasion 
of Russia, about the same season of the year 



in 1812. "Miss Tarbell's "Life of Lincoln," i>. 

THE ELECTION. During the campaign which 
followed, Mr. Lincoln spent the time at his 
home in Springfield and in personal headquar- 
ters which had been assigned to him in the 
State House with the late John G. Nicolay as 
his private secretary, devoting his attention to 
the study of conditions to correspondence with 
friends and in some cases, replying to the in- 
quiries of sectional opponents. Besides Lincoln 
the candidates in the field were Stephen A. 
Douglas (Democrat), also a citizen of Illinois 
and former resident of Springfield, John Bell 
(Constitutional Unionist) and John C. Breck- 
iuridge (Democrat), residents of Southern 
States. The election in November resulted in 
the success of Mr. Lincoln, and after three 
months more spent at his home, on February 11, 
1861, he left Springfield to assume the duties 
of his office in Washington on March 4th fol- 
lowing. Of this event, Nicolay and Hay, in 
their "Abraham Lincoln : A History," give the 
following description: 

morning (the llth) found Mr. Lincoln, his fam- 
ily, and suite at the rather dingy little railroad 
station in Springfield, with a throng of at least 
a thousand of his neighbors who had come to 
bid them good-bye. It was a stormy morning, 
which served to add gloom and depression to 
their spirits. The leave-taking presented a scene 
of subdued anxiety, almost of solemnity. Mr. 
Lincoln took a position in the waiting-room, 
where his friends filed past him, often merely 
pressing his hand in silent emotion. 

"The half-finished ceremony was broken In 
upon by the ringing bells and rushing train. 
The crowd closed about the railroad car into 
which the President-elect and his party made 
their way. Then came the central incident of 
the morning. The bell gave notice of starting; 
but as the conductor paused with his hand lifted 
to the bell-rope, Mr. Lincoln appeared on the 
platform of the car, and raised his hand to 
command attention. The bystanders bared their 
heads to the falling snowflakes, and standing 
thus, his neighbors heard his voice for the last 
time, in the city of his home, in a farewell ad- 
dress so chaste and pathetic, that it reads as 
if he already felt the tragic shadow of fore- 
casting fate : 

" 'My friends : no one, not in my situation, 

can appreciate my feeling of sadness at this 
parting. To this place, and the kindness of 
these people, I owe everything. Here I have 
lived a quarter of a century, and have passed 
from a young to an old man. Here my children 
have been born and one is buried. I now leave, 
not knowing when or whether ever I may re- 
turn, with a task before me greater than that 
which rested upon Washington. Without the 
assistance of that Divine Being who ever at- 
tended him, I cannot succeed. With that as- 
sistance, I cannot fail. Trusting in Him, who 
can go with me and remain with you, and be 
everywhere for good, let us confidently hope 
that all will be well. To his care commend- 
ing you, as I hope in your prayers you will 
commend me, I bid you an affectionate fare- 

"The Presidential party which made the whole 
journey consisted of the following persons : Mr. 
Lincoln, Mrs. Lincoln, their three sons, Robert 
T., William and Thomas ; Lockwood Todd, Dr. 
W. S. Wallace, John G. Nicolay, John Hay, Hoii. 
N. B. Judd, Hon. David Davis, Col. E. V. Sum- 
ner, Maj. David Hunter, Capt. George W. Haz- 
ard, Capt. John Pope, Col. Ward H. Lamon, Col. 
E. E. Ellsworth, J. M. Burgess, George C. 
Latham, W. S. Wood and B. Forbes. Besides 
these a considerable number of other personal 
friends and dignitaries accompanied the Presi- 
dent from Springfield to Indianapolis, and places 

SUBSEQUENT EVENTS. The history of four 
years of Civil War which followed, covers too 
large a field for attempted description in this 
connection. The election of Lincoln in 1864 over 
George B. McClellan, his Democratic opponent, 
came as an indorsement by the loyal citizens of 
the Republic of his policy for the preservation 
of the Union, and this was further vindicated 
by the final triumph in the surrender of Lee 
at Appomattox on the 9th of April, 1865. This 
has been further vindicated by the development 
of a reunited Nation during the last half cen- 
tury, while his assassination five days after Lee's 
surrender, is now deplored by many who were 
his most bitter enemies. 

The election of Grant in 1868 as Lincoln's 
chosen successor, and again in 1872, in a time 
of peace, came as a further indorsement of 
Lincoln's policy, which Grant had so effectively 
supported as commander in the field. 




GOVERNOR, 1832-1908. As a rule since the war p or president 

period and up to 1S92 Sangamon County had Henry clay ( ^ 

recorded a majority vote for the Democratic James IC Polk (Denl } lBn 

candidates for President and Governor, but at 

the election of 1896, the record was changed, AUGUST, 1846 

and the majority has since been uniformly on p or Governor 

the other side. Until the adoption of the Con- F M Kilpatrick (Whjg) . 1421 386 

stitution of 1848, the elections of President and A c French (Dem ) 1 035 

Governor occurred on different years with a 

period of two years between them the election MARCH, 1848 

of State officials taking place on the first Mon- Qn New State Constitution 

day of August, and that of President on the For ....................... . 1,817 G17 

Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Against ................... 200 

Since 1848 these elections have taken place on 

the same day in November. NOVEMBER, 1848 

The following lists show the vote of Sanga- For President 

mon County for these two offices from 1832 to Zachary Taylor (Whig) .......... 1,943 607 

1908, with the plurality or majority for each Lewis Cass (Dem.) ............... 1,336 

candidate receiving the highest vote. Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil) ____ ' 22 


For President For President 

Andrew Jackson (Dem. ) .......... 1,035 225 Winfield Scott (Whig) ........... 2,125 519 

Henry Clay (Whig) .............. 810 Franklin Pierce (Dem.) .......... 1,606 

John P. Hale (Free-Soil) ......... 22 

AUGUST, 1834 

For Governor 

T ,. For Governor Edwin B. Webb (Whig) .......... 2,217 602 

Joaeph Duncan ................... 807 213 Joe l A. Matteson (Dem.) .......... 1,615 

William Kinney .................. 684 L B Knowlton (Free _ Soll) ....... 21 

James Adams .................... 593 

R. K. McLaughlin ................ 45 NOVEMBER, 1856 


For President 

Wm. Henry Harrison (Whig) ..... 1,463 560 
Martin Van Buren (Dem.) ........ 903 

AUGUST, 1838 
For Governor 

Cyrus Edwards (Whig) ........... 1,856 455 

Thomas Carlin (Dem.) ........... 1,401 

For President 

Wm. Henry Harrison (Whig) ..... 2,000 751 
Martin Van Buren (Dem.) ........ 1,249 

AUGUST, 1842 

For Governor 

Joseph Duncan (Whig) ........... 1,588 371 

Thomas Ford (Dem.) ............ 1,217 

James Buchanan (Dem.) ......... 2,475 863 

Millard Fillmore (Am.) . . 1,612 

John C. Fremont (Rep.) 1174 

For Governor 
Wm A Richardson (Dem.) ...... 2,519 287 

Wm. H. Bissell (Rep.) ........... 2,232 

B. S. Morris (Am.) .............. 390 


For President 
Stephen A. Douglas (Dem.) ....... 3,598 42 

Abraham Lincoln (Rep.) ......... 3,556 

John Bel1 ( Unl n ) ............... 130 

John C. Breckinridge (So. Dem.) .. 77 

For Governor 
Richard Yateg (Rep } ............ ^^ g 

J. C. Allen (Dem.) ................ 3601 

Scattering ........................ 131 




For President 

George B. McClellau (Dem.) 3,945 380 

Abraham Lincoln (Rep.) 3,565 

For Governor 

James C. Robinson (Dem.) 3,941 363 

Richard J. Oglesby (Union Rep.) .. 3,578 


For President 

Horatio Seymour (Dem.) 4,875 464 

Ulysses S. Grant (Rep.) 4,411 

For Governor 

John R. Eden (Dem.) 4,882 464 

John M. Palmer (Rep.) 4,418 


For President 
Horace Greeley (Liberal-Dem.) . . 4.382 233 

U. S. Grant (Rep.) 4,149 

Charles O'Connor (Dem.) 69 

For Governor 

Gustavus Koerner (Liberal-Dem.).. 4,483 312 
Richard J. Oglesby (Rep.) 4,171 


For President 

Samuel J. Tilden (Dem.) 5,847 996 

Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.) 4,851 

For Governor 

Lewis Steward (Dem.) 5.712 698 

Shelby M. Cullom (Rep.) 5,014 


For President 

Winfleld S. Hancock (Dem.) 6,196 720 

James A. Garneld ( Rep. ) 5,476 

James B. Weaver (Gr.'bk.) 238 

For Governor 

Lyman Trimibull (Dem.) 6,203 794 

Shelby M. Cullom (Rep.) 5,476 

A. J. Streeter (Gr.'bk.) 234 


For President 

Grover Cleveland (Dem.) 6,840 833 

James G. Blaine, (Rep.) 6.007 

John P. St. John (Pro.) 173 

Benj. F. Butler (Gr.'bk.) 72 

For Governor 

Carter ' H. Harrison (Dem.) 7,022 1,127 

Richard J. Oglesby (Rep.) 5,895 

J. B. Hobbs (Pro.) 173 

Jesse Harper (Gr.'bk.) 46 


For President 

Grover Cleveland (Dem.) 7,148 712 

Benj. Harrison (Rep. ) 6,436 

Clinton B. Fisk (Pro.) 681 

A. J. Streeter (Un. Lab.) 56 

For Governor 

John M. Palmer (Dem.) 7,397 1,109 

Joseph W. Fifer (Rep.) 6,288 

David H. Harts (Pro.) 

Willis J. Jones (Labor) 

'NOVEMBEB, 1892 
For President 

Grover Cleveland (Dem.) 7,665 656 

Benj. Harrison (Rep.) 6.009 

Bidwell (Pro.) 779 

James B. Weaver (Peo.) 181 

For Governor 

John P. Altgeld (Dem.) 7,608 511 

Joseph W. Fifer (Rep.) 6.097 

Robert R. Link (Pro.) 750 

Nathan M. Barnett (Peo.) 151 


For President 

William McKinley (Rep.) 8,998 432 

Win. Jennings Bryan (Dem.) 8,566 

Loveriug (Pro.) 243 

Palmer (Ind. Deui.) 98 

Scattering 39 

For Governor 

John R. Tanner (Rep.) 8,836 273 

John P. xVltgeld (Dem.) 8,563 

Geo. W. Gecre (Pro.) 279 

Wui. S. Forma n (Gold-Dem.) 93 

Scattering 13 


For President 

William McKinley (Rep.) 9,769 270 

Wni. Jennings Bryan (Dem.) 9,499 

Wooley (Pro.) ' 333 

Eugene V. Debs (Soc. Dem.) 38 

- Maloney (Soc. Lab.) 23 

Scattering 23 












For Governor lowing. While there was a sharp struggle over 

Richard Yates (Rep.) 9,798 339 the nomination for Governor, the leading is- 

Samuel Alschuler (Dem.) 9,459 sue was the choice of delegates to the National 

Vischer V. Barnes (Pro.) 275 Convention who would support Gen. U. S. Grant 

Herman C. Perry (Soc. Dem.) 33 for a third term for President. The late Gen. 

Louis P. Hoffman (Soc. Lab.) 20 Green B. Rauru presided, while Gen. John A. 

Scattering 21 Logan was the principal leader of the Grant 

forces, receiving the support of a majority of 
the ex-soldiers of whom a considerable number 

For President were members of the convention. The principal 
Theodore Roosevelt (Rep.) 10.C3S 3,007 contest occurred over the admission of contest- 
Alton B. Parker (Dem.) 7,571 ing delegates from three districts in Cook 

Swallow (Pro.) 818 County, this resulting in the admission of the 

Eugene V. Debs (Soc.) 637 Grant delegates by a vote of 341 to 261, and 

Corregan (Soc. Lab.) 89 st ;n j ater tne delegates appointed to the Na- 

Watson (Peo.) 130 tional Convention were instructed to vote for 

Halcomb (Continental) ..: 23 e en Grant by 399 for to 285 against. When 

For Governor the issue came before the National Convention, 
Charles S. Deneen (Rep.) 10.390 2,874 contesting delegates (18 in number) were ad- 
Lawrence H. Stringer (Dem.) .... 7,522 mitted to that body from nine districts, by a 

Robert H. Pattou (Pro.) 1,174 vote of 385 to 353 a difference of 32 votes. If 

John Collins (Soc.) 550 tne i8 Grant delegates bad been admitted, this 

Philip Veal (Soc Lab.) 83 would have increased the 306 votes which stood 

James Hogan (Peo.) 92 for Gen. Grant in the convention to 324, and re- 
Andrew G. Specht (Continental) .. 21 duced the opposition vote by the same number 

and thus secured the nomination of Grant for 

NOVEMBER, 1908 a third term. As a consequence of this struggle 

For President in the State Convention, that body remained in 

Wm. H. Taft (Rep.) 10.422 1,071 session three days before completing the nomi- 

Wm. J. Bryan (Dem.) 9,351 nation of candidates for State offices, while the 

Chafin (Pro.) 626 National Convention remained in session four 

E. V. Debs (Soc.) 458 days, completing its deliberations by the nomi- 

Gilhouse (Soc. Lab.) 31 nation of James A. Garfleld for President on 

Hisgen (Ind.) 25 the 34th ballot. 

Turney (Un. Chris.) 7 The second noteworthy State Convention, 

Watson (Peo.) 14 breaking all previous records for number of 

For Governor days in sessiou > was tnat of tue Republican 

Adlai E. Stevenson (Dem.) . ..10,581 1,409 l' art - v in 1904 ' Thls bo ^ met in tne State 

Charles S Deneen (Rep.) 9.172 Armory in Springfield on May 12th, and after 

Daniel R Sheen (Pro ) 7^3 remaining in session until May 20th (nine days) 

James H.' Brewer Sec!) '. 435 ' without result ' took a recess of ten davs ' On 

G. A. Jennings ( Soc. Lab. ) 28 the second A& * of the first session six candidates 

Geo. W. McCaskrin (Ind.) 22 were P ut in noHtloa for Governor, which 

later was increased by one. Frank O. Lowden, 

SOME NOTABLE STATE CONVENTIONS. With few Charles S. Deneen and Gov. Richard Yates be- 

exceptions, State Conventions of the two leading came the leading candidates, and by May 20th 

political parties for the last half century have fifty-eight ballots had been taken without suc- 

been held in the city of Springfield. One of cess. On reassembling May 31 the struggle was 

the most memorable of these was the Republi- renewed and continued quite actively until June 

can Convention which met on May 19, 1880, for 3, when after some negotiations, Gov. Yates 

the purpose of nominating candidates for State withdrew, Mr. Deneen then being nominated by 

offices, and naming delegates to the National a vote of 957^, to 522% for Lowden, 21 for 

Convention to be held in Chicago in June fol- Vespasian Warner and 1 for Yates. 

















(By Dr. William Jayne.) 

The political and official records of Sanganiou 
County are especially rich in the list of its dis- 
tinguished citizens who have served the county, 
the State or the Nation in positions of public 
trust. The name of Abraham Lincoln will al- 
ways stand in the front rank of this class. From 
the humble position o'f a pioneer farmer's boy, 
"rail-splitter," salesman in a country grocery, 
and flat boatman, he gradually rose to the rank 
of a leading lawyer, State legislator, member of 
Congress, distinguished debater on national is- 
sues and finally President during the most tragic 
period in the Nation's history, dying at the hand 
of an assassin as a martyr to the preservation 
of the Union, which, by unanimous judgment, 
he did so much to accomplish. 

STATE OFFICERS. Beginning with State offi- 
cers, Sangamon County has furnished only one 
Governor Shelby M. Culloin 1877 to 1883, 
when he became United States Senator. In this 
respect Sangamon County has fallen behind St. 
Clair and Madison Counties, each of which fur- 
nished two Governors, and Morgan and Cook, 
which, respectively, have been represented by 
three executives. 

Of other State officials the following were resi- 
dents of Sangamon County at the time of their 

election or appointment : Secretary of State 
George Forquer (by appointment), 1825-29; 
Auditor of Public Accounts Orlin H. Miner, 
1864-69 ; State Treasurer William Butler, 1859- 
63 ; Alex. Starne, 1863-65 ; Floyd K. Whittemore, 
1899-1901; Attorney General Niniau W. Ed- 
wards (by appointment), 1834-35; David B. 
Campbell, 1846-67 ; State Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction Ninian W. Edwards (by ap- 
pointment), 1854-57; John P. Brooks, 1863-65; 
Newton Bateman, 1865-75. Dr. Bateman had 
previously served two terms (1859-63) while a 
resident of Morgan County. 

United States Senators who have been residents 
of Sangamon County, embraces the names (with 
terms of incumbency, of James Shields (one 
term, 1849-55) ; Shelby M. Cullom, now serving 
his fifth term (1883-1913) ; and John M. Palmer, 
one term 1891-97). Others who have served in 
this capacity, and who have been intimately as- 
sociated with Springfield history, though not 
resident here at the time of their service, in- 
cluded Stephen A. Douglas and Lymau Trumbull. 
the latter being Senator for three terms and ex- 
ceeded only by Senator Cullom. 

Some of those already named and other former 
citizens of Sangamon County who have served 
in similar positions executive or Congres- 
sionalin other States, include the folowiug: 
James Shields, Governor (by appointment) of 
Oregon Territory, 1848-49, later (1856-59) 
United States Senator from Minnesota, and still 
later (for six weeks in 1879) United States Sen- 
ator by appointment from Missouri ; Col. Ed- 
ward D. Baker, United States Senator from 
Oregon, 1860-61, when he resigned to enter the 
Union Army, was killed at Ball's Bluff. Octo- 
ber 21, 1861 ; Alvin Saunders, appointed by Pres- 
ident Lincoln Territorial Governor of Nebraska 
serving 1861-66, and later (1877-83) United 
States Senator from that State; Dr. William 
Jayue, appointed by President Lincoln Governor 
of Dakota Teritory in 1861, in 1862 became Dele- 
gate to Congress from that Territory for one 
term ; Henry Clay Warmoth, after the Civil War, 
Congressman from Louisiana and later (1868-72) 
Governor of that State; Fred T. Dubois, son of 
former State Auditor, Jesse K. Dubois, served 
two terms as Delegate in Congress from Idaho 
Territory, and two terms as United States Sena- 
tor after Idaho became a State. Col. E. D. 
Baker, of this class was, in the judgment of the 



writer, the most picturesque character among 
nil the public men and political leaders who 
have represented Saugamou County on the field 
of battle, at the bar, in the lecture hall, on the 
stump and in the council chambers of the State 
and the Nation. Impulsive, brilliant and enthu- 
siastic, he was the best extemporaneous speaker 
he has listened to. Though not "to the manor 
born," he was a devoted and affectionate son 
of his State and Nation. He was a soldier in 
three wars and a member of Congress from three 
different constituencies, serving at different 
periods In both Houses of Congress and from 
two different States. The tragic and fatal end- 
ing of his career, which he met at Ball's Bluff 
In October, 1861, inflicted a calamity upon the 
Nation. One of the most brilliant speeches of 
his life was made in reply to the champions of 
secession in the early stage of the rebellion, and 
in favor of the preservation of the Union, and 
James G. Elaine, in his volume entitled, "Twenty 
Years in Congress," says of Senator Baker, 
"probably no member ever served in the Senate 
who, from so short a period, left so splendid a 

Constitution of 1818 and until 1832, Illinois con- 
stituted only one Congressional District, Sanga- 
mon County, from its period of organization in 
1821, being represented, as was the rest of the 
State, by David P. Cook (first a resident of 
Kaskaskia and later of Belleville and Edwards- 
ville) until 1827, and then by Joseph Duncan, of 
Morgan County. In 1832 the county became a 
part of the Third (northern) District, extending 
from Greene County on the south to Cook 
County on the north and embracing all the terri- 
tory north and west of the Illinois River. Sub- 
sequent apportionments made it successively a 
part of the following Districts: Apportionment 
of 1843. part of the Seventh (or last) District; 
that of 1852 dividing the State into nine Dis- 
tricts with Sangamon as part of the Sixth ; that 
of 1861, creating thirteen Districts with Sanga- 
mon in the Eighth; that of 1872, establishing 
nineteen Districts with Sangamon In the 
Twelfth ; in 1882, it became a part of the Thir- 
teenth, in a total of twenty ; in 1893, part of the 
Seventeenth out of twenty-two; and in 1901 
(the last apportionment up to tfce present time) 
a portion of the Twenty-first District out of a 
total of twenty-nVe. 


to the beginning of this period, besides those al- 
ready mentioned as having served as Represen- 
tatives in Congress from the District of which 
Sangamon then formed a part, it is fitting that 
special mention should be made of citizens of 
Sangamou County who have since served in the 
same capacity up to the present time. This list 
would include William L. May, an early lawyer, 
who came from Kentucky, served one year as 
Representative in the General Assembly from 
Morgan County and, in 1834, as a resident of 
Sangamon County, was elected Representative 
in Congress as successor to Joseph Duncan, of 
Jacksonville, who had resigned to accept the 
governorship. Mr. May was reelected succes- 
sively for two regular terms, serving in all five 
years (1834-39). Mr. May was succeeded by 
Col. John T. Stuart, who had won distinction 
as a leading lawyer in Illinois, and who served, 
in all, three terms (viz.: 1839-43 and 1863-65). 
Edward D. Baker, already mentioned as a prom- 
inent lawyer, soldier and United States Senator 
at a later period from Oregon, was elected in 
1844, but served only a part of his term (1845-47) 
when he resigned to become Colonel of the 
Fourth Illinois during the Mexican War. John 
Henry, of Jacksonville, by appointment served 
out the unexpired term of Col. E. D. Baker, his 
period of active service covering only four weeks 
when he was succeeded by Abraham Lincoln, 
who was elected In 1846 and whose term in the 
Thirtieth Congress expired March 3, 1849. 

The next period to be filled by a resident of 
Sangamon County, was occupied by John A. Me- 
Clernand, elected for two terms (1859-63), but 
resigned during his last term to enter the Union 
service. McClernand was succeeded by Col. 
John T. Stuart for a third term (1863-65) and 
the latter by Shelby M. Cullom, whose period of 
service covered three terms (1865-71). Other 
later Representatives from the Springfield Dis- 
trict have been : James C. Robinson, two terms 
(1871-75) ; William M. Springer, ten terms 
(1875-95) ; James A. Connolly, elected for two 
terms, first as successor to William M. Springer 
(1895-99), but twice declined a nomination, also 
served with distinction as United States Dis- 
trict Attorney for the Southern District of Illi- 
nois for thirteen years, and as a veteran of 
Civil War filled the office of Department Com- 
mander of the Grand Army of the Republic 
1910-11; Benjamin F. Caldwell, of Chatham. 
Sangamon County, four terms (1899-1905 and 



1007-00) ; and James M. Graham, the present 
incumbent (1012), elected for two terms (1909- 
13). In all, the aggregate incumbency of citi- 
zens of Sangamon County as Representatives in 
Congress within a period of ninety years (1823- 
1013) has covered a total of sixty-five years, 
while citizens of other counties in the District of 
which Sangamon formed a part, have served in 
same capacity, twenty-five years. The latter 
class include : Daniel P. Cook, two terms (1823- 
27) ; Joseph Duncan, of Morgan (1827-34) ; Col. 
John J. Hardiu, of Morgan (1843-45) ; Thomas 
L. Harris, of Menard, three terms (1840-51 and 
1855-50) ; Richard Yates, of Morgan, two terms 
(1851-55) ; and Zeno J. Rives, of Montgomery 
County, one term (1905-07). 

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS. The roster of Presi- 
dential Electors at different periods embraced 
the following names from Sangamon County: 
John Calhoun (Dem.) , 1844 and 1852 ; James C. 
Conkling (Rep.) 1860 and 1864; George A. San- 
ders (Rep.), 1872; J. Otis Humphrey (Rep.), 
1SS4. Gen. John M. Palmer, then a citizen of 
Macoupin County, but afterwards of Sangamon 
County, was a Presidential Elector for the 
the State-at-Large on the Republican ticket in 
1860, while Shelby M. Cullom was a candidate 
for Presidential Elector on the Fillmore (Amer- 
ican) ticket in 1856. An evidence of the wide 
recognition of Abraham Lincoln's influence in 
the ranks of his party is shown in the fact that 
he was three times the nominee of the Whig 
party, and once of the Republican party, for 
Presidential Elector, namely : as a Whig in 1840, 
'44 and '52, and as a Republican in 1856 a rec- 
ord probably not equaled by any other politician 
in State history. 

ments of Senators and Representatives in the 
General Assembly have been less uniform than 
those fixing representation in Congress, as 
they have been subject to changes in the State 
Constitutions and State laws at irregular inter- 
vals. Until the adoption of the Constitution of 
1870, Senatorial and Representative Districts 
were, as a rule, separate and distinct from each 
other, and, owing to irregular increase in popu- 
lation in different portions of the State and lack 
of uniformity in number of members and ratio 
of representation, frequent changes were made 
by special legislation between various census 
periods. Between 1821 and 1841 five different 
legislative apportionments were made, and in the 

absence of convenient records, it would be diffi- 
cult to trace the connection of Saugamou County 
with various districts. By the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848, Sangamon became a part 
of the Twelfth Senatorial District with Mason 
and Menard Counties entitled to one Senator; in 
1854 Sangamou and Morgan constituted the Fif- 
teenth District, and in 1861, with Logan and 
Tazewell it constituted the Eleventh District. 
During the same period (1848-01) the Repre- 
sentative Districts were as follows : Under 
two apportionments (1848 and 1854) the county 
constituted the Twenty-sixth District entitled 
to two Representatives, but in 1861, Sangamon 
and Logan were united as the Twentieth Dis- 
trict with two members. 

The Constitution of 1870 introduced a radical 
change, making the Senatorial and Representa- 
tive Districts identical as to territory and fixing 
the number of Districts within the State at fifty- 
one, each entitled to one Senator and three Rep- 
resentatives making a total for the State of 
51 Senators and 153 Representatives. Under 
this arrangement Sangamon County has stood by 
successive apportionments as follows : 1872-82, 
constituted the Thirty-fifth District; 1882-1901, 
as the Thirty-ninth District, and 1901-12, with 
Logan County constituting the Forty-fifth Dis- 

have served in different sessions of that body 
from Sangamon County since the date of county 
organization in 1821, have been as follows : 

Third General Assembly Representative, 
James Sims. 

Fourth General Assembly Senator, Stephen 
Stillmau ; Representative, William S. Hamilton. 

Fifth General Assembly Senator, Elijah lies; 
Representatives, Job Fletcher, Mordecai Mobley, 
Jonathan H. Pugh. 

Sixth General Assembly Senator, Elijah lies; 
Representatives, Peter Cartwright, William F. 
Elkin, Jonathan H. Pugh. 

Seventh General Assembly. Senator, Elijah 
lies; Representatives, John Dawson, Jonathan 
H. Pugh, Edmund D. Taylor. 

Eighth General Assembly. Senators George 
Forquer and Elijah lies ; Representatives. Peter 
Cartwright, Achilles Morris, John T. Stuart, Ed- 
mund D. Taylo 

Ninth General Asscmblii. Two Senators. Job 
Fletcher (vice E. D. Taylor, resigned), and 
Archer G. Herndon (vice Forquer, resigned) ; 




Representatives. William Carpenter, John Daw- 
sou, Abraham Lincoln, John T. Stuart. 

Tenth General Assembly. Senators, Job 
Fletcher, Archer G. Herndon; Representatives, 
John Dawson, Ninian W. Edwards, William F. 
Elkin. Abraham Lincoln, Andrew McCormack, 
Daniel Stone (resigned and succeeded by Thomas 
J. Nance), Robert L. Wilson. 

Eleventh General Assembly. Senators, Job 
Fletcher, Archer G. Herndon; Representatives, 
Edward D. Baker (vice N. W. Edwards), John 
Calhoun, John Dawson, Ninian W. Edwards, 
William F. Elkin, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Mc- 

Twelfth General Assembly. Senators, Edward 
D. Baker, Archer G. Herndon; Representatives, 
James M. Bradford, James N. Brown, John 
Darnielle, Josiah Francis, Abraham Lincoln. 

Thirteenth General Assembly. Senators, Ed- 
ward D. Baker, Reuben Harrison ; Representa- 
tives, James N. Brown, William Caldwell, Will- 
iam Hickman, Stephen T. Logan. 

Fourteenth General Assembly. Senator, Nin- 
ian W. Edwards; Representatives, Job Fletcher, 
William D. Herndon, Stephen T. Logan, Joseph 

Fifteenth General Assembly. Senator, Nin- 
ian W. Edwards; Representatives, James N. 
Brown. Rezin H. Constant, Stephen T. Logan, 
Benjamin West. 

Sixteenth General Assembly. Senator, John 
T. Stuart ; Representatives, Ninian W. Edwards. 
John W. Smith. 

Seventeenth General Assembly. Senator, 
John T. Stuart ; Representatives, Ninian W T . Ed- 
wards. Preston Breckenridge, James C. Conk- 
ling (vice Edwards, resigned). 

Eighteenth General Assembly. Senator, James 
M. Ruggles (of Mason County) ; Representatives, 
Pascal P. Enos. James N. Brown. 

Nineteenth General Assembly. Senator, Jo- 
seph Morton (of Morgan County) ; Representa- 
tives, Stephen T. Logan, Jonathan M. Daniel 
(vice Lincoln, who declineh election). 

Twentieth General Assembly. Senator, Cyrus 
W. VanDeren ; Representatives. James J. Me- 
gredy, Shelby M. Cullom. 

Twenty-first General Assembly. Sen&tor, C. 
W. VanDeren ; Representatives, James W. Bar- 
rett. Daniel Short. 

Twenty-second General Assembly. Senator, 
William Jayne: Representatives, Shelby M. Cul- 
lom. Norman M. Broadwell. 

Twenty-third General Assembly. Senator, 
Colby Kuapp (of Logan County) ; Representa- 
tives, Ambrose M. Miller (of Logan County), 
and Charles A. Keyes (of Saugamou). 

Twenty-fourth General Assembly. Senator, 
John B. Cohrs (of Tazewell) ; Representatives, 
Ambrose M. Miller (Logan), and James W. Pat- 
ton (Sangamon). 

T icenty-fifth General Assembly. Senator, 
John B. Cohrs (Tazewell) ; Representatives, 
James C. Conkling (Sangamon), Willis McGal- 
liard (Logan). 

Twenty-sixth General Assembly. Senators, 
Aaron B. Nicholson (Logan) ; Representatives, 
John Cook (Sangamon), Silas Beason (Logan). 

Twenty-seventh General Assembly. Senators, 
Aaron B. Nicholson, Alex Starne (vice Nichol- 
son) ; Representatives, Charles H. H. Rice, Will- 
iam M. Springer, Ninian R. Taylor. 

Twenty-eighth General Assembly. Senator, 
Alexander Starne; Representatives, Alfred Oren- 
dorff, Milton Hay, Shelby M. Cullom. 

Twenty-ninth General Assembly. Senator, 
William E. Shutt ; Representatives, Joseph L. 
Wilcox, Fred Gehring, Shelby M. Cullom. 

Thirtieth, General Assembly. Senator, Will- 
iam E. Shutt; Representatives, John Foutch, 
John Mayo Palmer, Dewitt W. Smith. 

Thirty-first General Assembly. Senator, Will- 
iam E. Shutt; Representatives, William L. 
Gross, John C. Snigg, Carter Tracy. 

Thirty -second General Assembly. Senator, 
William E. Shutt; Representatives, A. N. J. 
Crook, D. W. Smith, James M. Garland. 

Thirty-third General Assembly. Senator, 
Lloyd F. Hamilton ; Representatives, David T. 
Littler, Benjamin F. Caldwell, George W. Mur- 

Thirty-fourth General Assembly. Senator, 
Lloyd F. Hamilton ; Representatives, B. F. Cald- 
well, Charles A. Keyes, Charles Kern. 

Thirty-fifth General Assembly. Senator Will- 
iam E. Shutt; Representatives, Albert L. Con- 
verse, Wiley E. Jones, David T. Littler (re- 
signed ) . 

Thirty-sixth General Assembly. Senator, Will- 
iam E. Shutt ; Representatives, Andrew J. 
Lester. Wiley E. Jones, Albert L. Converse. 

Thirty-seventh General Assembly. Senator, 
Benjamin F. Caldwell ; Representatives, Edward 
L. Merritt, Frank H. Jones, John S. Lyrnan. 

Thirty-eighth General Assembly. Senator, 
Benjamin F. Caldwell ; Representatives, Edward 



L. Merritt, Langley St. A. Whitley, H. Clay 

Thirty-ninth General Assembly. Senator, Da- 
vid T. Littler ; Representatives, Charles E. Selby, 
Edward L. Merritt, William J. Butler. 

Fortieth General Assembly. Senator, David 
T. Littler ; Representatives, Charles E. Selby, 
Abner G. Murray, George L. Harnsberger. 

Forty-first General Assembly. Senator, George 
W. Punderburk ; Harry A. Kumler, John A. Vin- 
cent, S. P. V. Arnold. 

Forty-second General Assembly. Senator, 
George W. Funderburk ; Representatives, Sam- 
uel H. Jones, J. A. Wheeler, Redick M. Ridgely. 

Forty-third General Assembly. Senator, 
Thomas Rees ; Representatives, John A. Wheeler, 
Abner G. Murray, William S. Lurton (Morgan). 

Forty-fourth, General Assembly. Senator, 
Thomas Rees; Representatives, Frank J. Heiul 
(Morgan), Charles Fetzer, William S. Lurtou 
(Morgan) . 

Forty-flfth General Assembly. Senator, Logan 
Hay; Representatives, Frank J. Heinl (Morgan), 
Charles McBride, Charles Schennerhor,n. 

Forty-sixth General Assembly. Senator, Lo- 
gan Hay ; Representatives, Thomas E. Lyon, 
Harry W. Wilson, Benjamin F. Morris. 

Forty-seventh General Assembly. Senator, 
Logan Hay; Representatives, Thomas E. Lyon, 
James P. Morris, James M. Bell. 

SOME PERSONAL MENTION. The list of early 
members of the General Assembly includes many 
who bore an important part in the early history 
of Illinois and other States. One of these was 
William S. Hamilton, who served as the second 
Representative in the General Assembly from 
Sangamon County (1824-26), a son of Alexan- 
der Hamilton, one of the founders of the Ameri- 
can Republic, a close friend and adviser of 
George Washington and Secretary of the Treas- 
ury during Washington's administration. Will- 
iam S. Hamilton later became a prominent citi- 
zen of Wisconsin Territory, engaged In lead- 
mining in the southwestern part of the State, 
served In the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, 
but removed to California in 1849, where he died 
a year later, and where a monument was, some 
years later, erected to his memory. 

Elijah lies, the second and (for several years) 
State Senator, was Springfield's first merchant, 
a soldier in the Winnebago and Black Hawk 
Wars, and a public-spirited citizen of Spring- 

field, who left a deep impress upon the history of 
both the city and Sangamon County. 

George Forquer, early lawyer and half-brother 
of Gov. Thomas Ford, served as Secretary of 
State and Attorney General, and in each branch 
of the General Assembly from Sangamon County. 
In view of the number of official positions which 
he occupied, he was recognized as one of the 
able men of his time. 

Jonathan H. Pugh, the second lawyer to lo- 
cate in Springfield, was recognized as a man of 
brilliant parts and in the ten years of his resi- 
dence in Sangamon County (1823-33) served 
four terms in the General Assembly and was 
once a candidate for Congress in opposition to 
Joseph Duncan. His career was cut short by 
Ms death in 1833. 

Sangamon County has had few more promi- 
nent citizens than Peter Cartwright, who, as a 
pioneer citizen and Methodist minister, won a 
wide reputation. Although he served two terms 
as Representative in early General Assemblies, 
and was once a candidate for Congress (as the 
unsuccessful opponent of Abraham Lincoln in 
1846), he devoted his life to his profession as a 
zealous itinerant of the Methodist denomination. 

Of those who have served Sangamon County 
in both branches of the General Assembly, none 
have left a more lasting impression on local 
and State history than the famous "Long Nine" 
who, in the session of 1837, secured the removal 
of the State Capital from Vandalia to Spring- 
field. This body was made up of Job Fletcher 
and Archer G. Herndon, Senators, and John 
Dawson, Niuian W. Edwards, William F. Elkin, 
Abraham Lincoln, Andrew McCormack, Dan 
Stone and Robert L. Wilson, Representatives 
all citizens of Sangamon County, and constituting 
the largest number of Representatives in the 
two Houses that ever attended the same session 
from this county except that of two years later 
(the Eleventh General Assembly) which was 
composed of the same number. 

Of those who came into public life about the 
same time or soon after, none won higher dis- 
tinction than Col. E. D. Baker, whose career has 
already been referred to quite fully in connec- 
tion with the list of Illinois Congressmen ; Col. 
John T. Stuart, a leading lawyer, Congressman 
and member of both branches of the Legisla- 
ture; and Stephen T. Logan, lawyer, jurist, for 
five terms Representative in the General As- 
sembly, Member of the Constitutional Convention 




of 1847, delegate to repeated National Conven- 
tions, including that of 1860 in Chicago, by 
which Abraham Lincoln was nominated for his 
first term as President, and member of the 
Peace Conference called at Washington in Feb- 
ruary, 18U1. Judge Logan is conceded to have 
been one of the ablest lawyers connected with 
the Illinois State Bar, as well as member of 
the General Assembly, and it is worthy of men- 
tion in this connection that two of his sons-in- 
law (Milton Hay and Stephen T. Littler) served 
with distinction in the same body, while his 
grandson and namesake (Hon. Logan Hay) is 
present Senator (1911) from the same county. 

Referring more fully to the record of Milton 
Hay, it is safe to say that no one ever served his 
constituency more efficiently and unselfishly than 
he, both in the General Assembly and the Con- 
stitutional Convention of which he was a lead- 
ing member in 1869-70. For years a close ad- 
viser of successive occupants of the executive 
chair, he rendered the State most valuable serv- 
ice, without ever having his name mixed up, 
even by suspicion, with anything in the shape 
of modern "graft." 

In connection with agricultural interests no 
member ever rendered more valuable service 
than Hon. James N. Brown, for four years a 
Representative in the General Assembly for San- 
gamon County, and a leading factor in the 
founding of the Illinois State Agricultural So- 
ciety, which he served for two terms as its first 

County has been represented in successive State 
Constitutional Conventions since that of 1818, 
as follows: 

Convention of 1847. John Dawson, James H. 
Matheny, Niniau W. Edwards, Stephen T. Logan. 

Convention of 1862. Benjamin S. Edwards, 
James D. Smith. 

Convention of 1869-70. Milton Hay, Samuel 
C. Parks (of Logan County). 

DIPLOMATISTS. In the field of diplomacy no 
representative has ever served the Nation more 
ably and efficiently than the late Col. John Hay, 
for many years Secretary of Legation for the 
United States at various European Courts, and 
for nearly seven years (189S-1905) Secretary of 
State under the administrations of Presidents 
McKinley and Roosevelt. 

Robert T. Lincoln, son of President Lincoln, 
served as Secretary of War for one term by 
appointment of President Garfleld, and as Am- 

bassador to Great Britain under President Har- 

Edward L. Baker, for many years editor of 
the "Illinois State Journal," at Springfield, also 
served with special success for nearly twenty-five 
years as United States Consul at Buenos Ayres, 
South America. 

MUJTABY DEPARTMENT. It is impossible in 
this connection to present anything like a com- 
plete roster of citizens of Sangamon County, 
who, in various official positions, won distinction 
during the various wars in which citizens of the 
county participated. For this the reader is re- 
ferred to the chapter on "Indian and Mexican 
Wars" and "Civil and Spanish-American Wars." 
The following is a list of those who have served 
as Adjutant-General In connection with the State 
Government: Moses K. Anderson (1839-57); 
Thomas S. Mather (1858-61), became Colonel of 
the Second Artillery, and retired with the rank 
of Brigadier General; Hubert Dilger (1869-73) ; 
Edward L. Higgins (1873-75) ; Jasper N. Reece 
(1891-93) ; Alfred Orendorff (1893-96) ; Jasper 
N. Reece (1897-1902). 

Gen. Isham N. Haymie, who served as a Brig ; 
adier General during the latter years of the 
Civil War, was appointed Adjutant General as 
a citizen of Alexander County in 1865, and it 
devolved upon him to issue the first edition of 
the Adjutant General's report for the war period. 
He then became practically a citizen of Sanga- 
mon County and there died in 1868. 















(By Hon. James A. Connolly.) 

Under the constitution of 1818, the judicial 
powers of the State were "vested in one Su- 
preme Court and such inferior courts as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall, from time to time, ordain 
and establish." The Supreme Court was to 
hold its sessions at the seat of government, and 
to consist of a Chief Justice and three Asso- 
ciate Justices, chosen by joint vote of both 
branches of the General Assembly, this arrange- 
ment to remain in force until after the session 
of the General Assembly for the year 1824, when 
that body was empowered to increase the number 
of Justices, the members of both the Supreme and 
the inferior courts being elective in the same 
manner. Under this arrangement the State was 
divided into four Grand Divisions or Districts, 
each being under the jurisdiction of one Justice 
of the Supreme Court, and by an act approved 
February 11, 1821, Sangamon County, with St. 
Clair, Madison, Greene, Pike and Montgomery 
Counties, constituted the First Judicial Circuit. 
The first term of the Sangamon Circuit Court was 
held May 7th following, at the house of John 
Kelly, on the present site of Springfield, besides 
John Reynolds as presiding Justice, there being 
present Charles R. Matheny, Clerk ; John Taylor, 
Sheriff; and Henry Starr, Prosecuting Attorney, 
pro tern. 

The first suit was that of Samuel Irwin vs. 
Roland Shepherd, for trespass, but it was dis- 
missed at cost of plaintiff. Three indictments 
were returned by the Grand Jury, two for assault 
and battery and one for riot, but trials were 
postponed to the next term of court, and this 
ended the business. 

By act of the Legislature, approved February 
17, 1823, Montgomery County was detached from 
the original circuit and Morgan and Fulton 
Counties added, by further changes made 
December 29, 1824, the circuit becoming Sanga- 
mon, Pike, Fulton, Morgan, Greene and Mont- 
gomery Counties. At this time the State was 
divided into five circuits, and a Circuit Judge ap- 
pointed for each, John York Sawyer being as- 
signed as presiding Judge to the First Circuit. 

An incident in connection with Sawyer's ottit-ial 
life, related iu Palmer's History of the "Bench 
and Bar of Illinois," was the whipping (under 
the law then in force) of a man convicted of 
petty larceny, while the attorney for the alleged 
criminal was absent from the court room to ob- 
tain some authorities to support his claim for a 
new trial. On the return of the lawyer, the 
Judge listened to the appeal for a new trial 
until the convicted party informed his attorney 
that he had already received one punishment 
and did not wish to undergo another. 

Under the provisions of an act, approved 
January 12, 1827, the Circuit Judges were legis- 
lated out of office, the Justices of the Supreme 
Court then assuming jurisdiction of the circuit 
courts. The First Circuit then embraced the 
counties of Peoria, Fulton, Schuyler, Adams, 
Pike, Calhoun, Greene, Morgan and Sangamon, 
with Justice Samuel D. Lock-wood, of the Supreme 
Court, as presiding Justice for the circuit. An- 
other change came in 1829, when by act of 
January 8th of that year, the territory north- 
west of the Illinois River was organized as the 
Fifth Judicial Circuit, with Richard M. Young 
as Circuit Judge, the other circuits being still 
presided over by Justices of the Supreme Court. 
Under this arrangement Sangamon County still 
formed a part of the First Circuit, the other 
counties embraced in the circuit being Pike, Cal- 
houn, Greene, Macoupiu. Morgan, Macon and 
Tazewell, McLean being added thereto two years 
later. No further changes were made until 1835, 
when by a general reorganization Pike County 
was detached. At the same time (by act of 
January 7, 1835) the system of Circuit Judges 
was re-established, the State being then divided 
into six circuits, the First Circuit being other- 
wise unchanged. Stephen T. Logan, of Spring- 
field, became the first Circuit Judge under this 
arrangement, being elected by joint vote of the 
Legislature in 1835. Two years later he re- 
signed and was succeeded by William Brown, of 
Jacksonville, who held office only four months, 
being commissioned March 20th, and resigning 
July 20. 1837. His successor was Jesse Burgess 
Thomas, Jr., who resigned in 1839, being then 
succeeded by William Thomas, who was com- 
missioned February 25th of that year. 

During the latter year (by an act approved 
February 25) the State was divided into nine 
circuits, Sangamon County constituting a part 
of the Eighth, the other counties being McLean. 
Macon, Tazewell, Menard, Logan, Dane (now 



Christian) and Livingston. Stephen T. Logan 
was again chosen Circuit Judge, being commis- 
sioned February, 183!), but holding office only 
three months when he resigned and, on May 27th, 
was succeeded by Samuel H. Treat, who con- 
tinued in office until February 15, 1841, when 
he was promoted to Justice of the Supreme Court, 
the office of Circuit Judge having then (by act of 
February 11, 1841) been abolished This step 
resulted from the attitude of the partisan ma- 
jority in the State Legislature in opposition to 
two decisions of the Supreme Court (then con- 
sisting of a Chief Justice and three Associate 
Justices). One of these decisions denied the 
right of the Governor to appoint, without ap- 
proval of the Senate, a man to the office of 
Secretary of State, when the incumbent intended 
to be ousted had been appointed under the Con- 
stitution without defining its tenure, there being 
no direct charge questioning his good behavior. 
The other decision was a denial of the right of 
aliens a large majority of whom were pro- 
fessed Democrats- to vote under the State law 
without naturalization. This led to the passage 
of an act providing for the election (by joint vote 
of the .General Assembly) of five additional 
Justices of the Supreme Court, that body then 
assuming charge of the circuit courts. The addi- 
tional Judges selected under this act were 
Thomas Ford, Sidney Breese, Walter B. Scales, 
Samuel II. Treat, and Stephen A. Douglas all 
Democrats and all of them, with the exception 
of Douglas, then occupying seats on the circuit 
bench. Thomas Ford (one of the appointees and 
afterwards Governor), in his "History of Il- 
linois," mildly speaks of this act as "a confessedly 
violent and somewhat revolutionary measure, 
which could never have succeeded except in times 
of great party excitement." 

Under this "revolutionary" act the Justices of 
the Supreme Court again assumed jurisdiction of 
the circuit courts, Judge Treat, who was then a 
resident of Springfield, presiding over the courts 
of Sangamon County. This continued until 1848, 
when, by the adoption of the Constitution of that 
year, Circuit Judges were elective by popular 
vote, each for a term of six years, but not eli- 
gible to election "to any other office of public 
trust or profit in this State or the United States, 
during the term for which they are (were) 
elected, nor for one year thereafter." By the 
same Constitution the State was also divided 
into nine Judicial Circuits, Sangamon County 
again being assigned to the Eighth Circuit, in 

which there was no change. David Davis, of 
Bloomington, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, 
was elected as the first Judge under this organ- 
ization, retaining this position by successive re- 
elections until November, 1862, when he resigned 
to accept a seat on the Supreme Bench of the 
United States, to which he was appointed by Mr. 

In 1853 the Eighth Circuit Court was composed 
of Saugauion, Logan, McLean, Woodford, Taze- 
well, DeWitt, Champaign and Vermilion Coun- 
ties. On February 11, 1857, another change was 
made, Sangamoii County then becoming a part 
of the Eighteenth Circuit, with the counties of 
Macoupin, Montgomery and Christian, McLean 
County having thus been eliminated from the cir- 
cuit embracing Sangamou County, the connection 
of Judge David Davis with the Circuit Courts of 
the latter ceased, the position of presiding Justice 
being then occupied by Edward Y. Rice, of Mont- 
gomery County, who remained in office by re- 
election until August 20, 1870, when he resigned. 
In April, 1809, however, Sangamon, with Macou- 
piu County, constituted the Thirtieth Circuit, 
Benjamin S. Edwards, of Springfield, becoming 
the presiding Justice of the new circuit for fif- 
teen months, when he resigned, being succeeded 
by John A. McClernand, who filled out the un- 
expired term of Edwards, serving from July 12, 
1870, to June, 1873. 

By act of March 28. 1873, the State was divided 
into twenty-six circuits, with the counties of 
Sangamou, Macoupin, Shelby, Christian, Fayette 
and Montgomery constituting the Nineteenth Cir- 
cuit, and Charles S. Zane, of Springfield, was 
elected the first Judge of the new circuit. An- 
other change came in 1877, when the State was 
divided into thirteen circuits with three Judges 
in each, thus reducing the circuits to one-half the- 
original number by consolidating portions of ad- 
jacent circuits, and increasing the whole number 
of Justices to thirty-nine. Under this arrange- 
ment Sangamon County became a part of the 
Fifth Circuit, the other counties being Christian, 
Macoupin, Shelby and Montgomery. Horatio M. 
Vandeveer, of Taylorville, who was then a Judge 
of the Twentieth Circuit embracing Christian, 
thus became a Judge of the new circuit, while 
William R. Welch, of Carlinville, was elected 
during the same year (1877) as the third Judge. 
Judge Vandeveer retired at the close of his term, 
being then succeeded by Jesse J. Phillips, of 
Hillsboro, who served until 1893, when he became 
an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, his 


Immediate successor on the circuit bench being 
R. B. Shirley, of Carlinville. Judge Zane re- 
mained in office until 1884, when he resigned to 
accept the position of Chief Justice of Utah Ter- 
ritory, being then succeeded on the bench in 
Illinois by William L. Gross, by appointment of 
the Governor, to fill out Zane's uuexpired term 
of less than one year. Judge Welch, after one 
re-election, served until his death in 1888, his 
successor being Jacob Foulke, of Vandalia. In 
1885 James A. Oreighton was elected as successor 
of Judge Zane, and has remained in office by 
successive re-elections to the present time (1911), 
a period of twenty-seven years. Judge Foulke 
remained in office from 1888 to 1897, and Judge 
Shirley from 1893 to the present date. 

Under a reapportionment in 1897, the State 
was divided into seventeen circuits exclusive of 
Cook County, Sangamon County then becoming a 
part of the Seventh Circuit, the other counties 
embraced within the circuit being Macoupin, Mor- 
gan, Scott, Greene and Jersey. At the election 
held in June of the same year, James A. Creigh- 
ton of Springfield, Robert B. Shirley, of Oarlin- 
ville, and Owen P. Thompson, of Jacksonville, 
were elected Judges for the regular term of six 
years, and since that date no change has been 
made in the list of occupants of the bench for 
the Springfield Circuit, Judges Creighton, Shir- 
ley and Thompson having been re-elected in 1903 
and again in 1909. 

(For personal sketches of John Reynolds, 
Charles R. Matheny, Samuel D. Lockwood, Rich- 
ard M. Young, Stephen T. Logan, Jesse Burgess 
Thomas, Jr., William Thomas, Samuel H. Treat. 
Sidney Breese, Walter B. Scales, Stephen A. 
Douglas, Thomas Ford, David Davis, Abraham 
Lincoln, Edward Y. Rice, Benjamin S. Edwards. 
John A. McClernand, Charles S. Zane, Horatio 
M. Vandeveer, William R. Welch, Jesse J. Phil- 
lips, William L. Gross and James A. Creighton, 
mentioned in the order here named in the pre- 
ceding portion of this chapter, see the "Historical 
Encyclopedia," portion of this work.) 

was the first Probate Judge of Sangamon County, 
having been appointed by the Governor under an 
act of the Legislature approved February 10, 
1821, and held the first term of court June 4, 
1821. Mr. Latham was born in Loudoun County, 
Va., in 1768, emigrated to Kentucky when a 
young man, there married Mary Brlggs and In 
1819 came to Illinois, locating at Elkhart Grove, 

then a part of Sangamon County, but now in 
Logan County. Mr. Latham served as Probate 
Judge only a few months, being then appointed 
Superintendent of the Indians about Fort Clark 
(Peoria), whither he removed, and where he died 
December 4, 1826. 

Zachariah Peter, who was the successor of 
Judge Latham, was also a native of Virginia, 
but spent his boyhood in Kentucky and in 1818 
came to Sangamon County, locating in Ball Town- 
ship; was one of the three Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Legislature to locate the tempo- 
rary seat of justice of Sangamon County, also 
filling a number of important offices. He died in 
Springfield August 5, 1864. 

Charles R. Matheny succeeded to the office of 
Probate Judge in 1822, which he continued to 
occupy for three years, serving also as Circuit 
Clerk, Recorder and County Clerk. Before com- 
ing to Saugamon County he served in the Terri- 
torial Legislature and also in the Second State 
Legislature. He was head of one of the historic 
families of Springfield, dying there in 1839 while 
County Clerk, which oflice he had held for eigh- 
teen years. 

James Adams, reputed to be the first lawyer to 
come to Sangamon County, held the office of Pro- 
bate Judge from 1825 to 1843, being succeeded by 
James Moffett, also an early attorney, who held 
the office from 1843 to 1849, just after the adop- 
tion of the Constitution of 1848. 

Under this constitution counties not having 
adopted township organization were under local 
jurisdiction of a Board consisting of a County 
Judge and two Associate Justices, upon the former 
devolving the duties of Probate Judge, and Judge 
Moffett then became County Judge, serving four 
years. The Associate Judges had jurisdiction as 
Justices of the Peace for the county. -In 1853 
John Wickliffe Taylor was elected to succeed 
Judge Moffett. Judge Taylor was a native of 
Kentucky, and after coming to Springfield, 111., In 
1833, where he spent one year, located on a farm 
in Cartwright Township, where he lived at the 
time of his election. His immediate successor, 
elected in 1857, was Wm. D. Power, who was 
born in Bath County, Ky., in 1821, and the same 
year was brought to Sangamon County, where he 
grew to manhood. He was reelected County 
Judge in 1861, but died in office March 2, 1863, 
Norman M. Broadwell then being elected his suc- 
cessor and serving out his unexplred term of 
two years. 




William Prescott succeeded Judge Broadwell, 
serving from 1865 to 18G9, being succeeded by 
A. N. J. Crook 186D-73. 

By the adoption of township organization in 
Sanganion County in I860, the office of Associate 
Justice was abolished and the administration of 
local affairs was intrusted to a Board of Super- 
visors representing the respective townships, the 
County Judge, however, being still retained as 
Judge of Probate. Under provision of the Con- 
stitution of 1870, county courts were created 
having jurisdiction of all matters of probate, and 
made a court of record. A. N. J. Crook was, 
therefore, the first County Judge having juris- 
diction under the new law. 

James H. Matheny was elected County Judge, 
as successor to Judge Crook, in 1873, by successive 
reelections serving continuously up to the date 
of his death, September 7, 1890. Judge Matheny 
was born in St. Clair County, 111., In 1818, a son 
of Charles R. Matheny, the first County Clerk of 
Sangnmon County ; was a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1847, and for some time 
from 1852, was Clerk of the Circuit Court, after 
which he began the practice of law. During the 
Civil War he was commissioned Lieutenant Col- 
onel of the One Hundred Fourteenth Illinois Vol- 
unteers, and after the siege of Vicksburg served 
one year as Judge Advocate, when he resigned. 

The following is a list of County and Probate 
Judges, who have served in Sangamon since the 
death of Judge Matheny, with term of office: 


Robert L. McGulre. .Sept. 12, 1890, to Dec. 1, 1890 

Geo W. Murray Nov. 26, 1890, to Dec. 1, 1894 

Charles P. Kane Nov. 28, 1894, to Dec. 1, 1898 

Geo. W. Murray Dec. 3, 1898, to Dec. 1, 1910 

John B. Weaver. .. .Nov. 3, 1910, still In office. 



Wm H. Colby Nov. 19, 1902, to June 10, 1904 

Clarence A Jones. .Aug. 29, 1904, to June 30, 1908 
Henry A. Stevens ... Nov. 12, 1908, to July 26, 1910 
W. Edgar Sampson. July 30, 1910, to Nov. 6, 1910 
C. H. Jenkins Nov. 28, 1910, still In office. 

James Adams is reported to have been the first 
attorney-at-law to settle in Sangamon County. 
He was a native of Hartford, Conn., born in 1803, 
and, after having spent his boyhood in Oswego, 
N. Y., came to Springfield in 1821 ; in 1823 was 
appointed Justice of the Pence, later served in the 
Winnebago and Black Hawk Wars, and in 1841 
was elected Probate Judge, dying August 11, 

Jonathan H. Pugh, the second attorney in the 
county, came from Bath County, Ky., and in 
1823 located in Springfield, having previously 
spent some time in Bond County, 111., from which 
he served one term in the State Legislature. He 
was a man of much ability and after coming to 
Sangamon County, served two terms as Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly (1826-30), and 
later one term (1830-32) from Fayette County, 
having then taken up his residence at Vaudalla, 
the State capital. He was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for Congress in opposition to Joseph Dun- 
can in 1831, being then an advocate of the con- 
struction of a railroad instead of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal. He died in 1833. 

Thomas M. Xeale, a native of Fauquier County, 
Va., born in 1796, in boyhood was brought by his 
parents to Bowling Green, Ky., at sixteen years 
of age enlisted as a soldier in the War of 1812, 
and after studying law and being admitted to the 
bar at Bowling Green, in 1824 came to Spring- 
field and at once entered practice. During the 
Winnebago War of 1827, he served as Colonel of 
the infantry companies raised in Illinois, and 
after the Black Hawk War was elected Surveyor 
of Sanganion County, one of his first acts being 
the appointment of Abraham Lincoln as his 
deputy. His death occurred August 7, 1840. 

James M. Strode arrived in Sangamon County 
from Kentucky, in 1823 and, after spending a 
few years here, removed to Northern Illinois, 
being connected with the history of both Chi- 
cago and Galena, his death occurring at the 
latter place. He was the first State Senator from 
Cook County, serving from 1832 to 1836, also rep- 
resenting Jo Daviess County during the last half 
of his term. 

William S. Hamilton, son of the noted Alex- 
ander Hamilton, came to Sangamon County pre- 
vious to 1825, and although he had received his 
training at West Point, became connected with 
the courts at Springfield; also served one term 
(1825-26) as Representative in the General As- 
sembly from Sangamon County. 

Thomas Moffett, from Bath County, Ky., came 
to Springfield in 1826 and after being engaged 
in teaching two years, meanwhile devoting his 
leisure hours to studying law, was admitted to 
the bar, being the first person to receive such a 
license In the county. He also served as Ser- 
geant during the Winnebago "war scare," and as 
Captain in the Black Hawk War; was County 
Commissioner two years, Judge of Probate from 


1843 to the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, 
when he was elected County Judge for a four 
years' term. Judge Moffett, as he was always 
known in his later life, was a ruling elder in the 
Second Presbyterian church of Springfield, and a 
man of high reputation, his deatli occurring in 

William Mendall had a brief career in the 
Sangamon Courts, but little of a historic character 
concerning him has been preserved. 

George Forquer, the older half-brother of Gov. 
Thomas Ford, and a lawyer of recognized ability, 
was for sometime prominently connected with 
Sangarnon County, rather officially, however, than 
professionally. Coming from his native place in 
Western Pennsylvania, about 1804, after spend- 
ing some twenty years in Monroe County, 111., 
where he had once been elected Representative 
in the General Assembly, be later occupied the 
office of Secretary of State and Attorney -General, 
each for a period of four years (1825-33), and still 
later (1833-37) served one term as State Senator 
from Sangamon County. 

Benjamin Mills and Henry Starr, the former 
from Massachusetts and the latter from New 
Hampshire, both for a time residents of Edwards- 
vine, 111., were occasional practitioners before 
the Sangamon Circuit Courts about this time, and 
had a wide reputation for superior training and 
ability. Mills later went to Jo Daviess County 
and served one term in the Legislature from that 
county, and, in 1834, was the candidate on the 
Whig ticket for Congress from the Third (then 
the Northern Illinois) District, but was defeated 
by William L. May of Springfield. He is said to 
have died in 1835. 

John Todd Stuart, in his closing years head of 
the well-known law firm of Stuart, Edwards & 
Brown, and justly ranking as the Nestor of his 
profession in Sangamou County, was born in Fay- 
ette County, Ky., November 10, 1807, the son 
of Robert and Hannah (Todd) Stuart, the latter 
a relative of the Todd family of which Mrs. 
Mary (Todd) Lincoln was a member. Mr. Stuart 
spent his early life on the home farm, later en- 
tering Centre College at Danville, Ky., and grad- 
uating from the classical department at nineteen 
years of age. He then began the study of law 
with Judge Breck at Richmond, Ky.. continuing 
thus employed two years, when (in 1828) he 
started on horseback for the "Sangamo Country," 
going by way of Frankfort. Ky.. and there se- 
curing a license to practice, proceeded on his jour- 

ney, ten days later arriving at the future State 
capital. There he made his permanent home 
and built up an extensive practice, which was 
probably continued for as long a period as that 
of any other lawyer in the State of Illinois. He 
became an early associate of Abraham Lincoln, 
who began the study of law under his advice and 
in 1837 they entered into partnership, which was 
continued until 1841. He served two terms as 
Representative in the General Assembly (1832- 
36), was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress 
on the Whig ticket in 1830, but was elected as an 
opponent of Stephen A. Douglas in 1838 and re- 
elected two years later, served one term in the 
State Senate (1848-52), in 1860 was candidate 
for Governor on the Bell and Everett ticket, in 
1862 elected to Congress for a third term and 
in 1864 defeated for the same office by Shelby 
M. Culloui. Originally a Whig, on the dissolu- 
tion of that party he became identified with the 
Democratic party, but was conservative in his 
opposition to the policy of the Republican party. 
His death occurred November 28, 1885. 

One of the earliest comers after John T. Stuart 
was William L. May, a Keutuckian by birth, 
who came from his native State to Edwardsville, 
111., thence to Jacksonville, and from there to 
Springfield in 1829, by appointment as Receiver 
of the Land Office at the latter place. Before 
coming to Springfield he served one term as Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly and later 
(1834 and 1836) was twice elected to Congress, 
in 1838 was a law partner of Stephen T. Logan 
and the same year was defeated for renomina- 
tiou for Congress by Stephen A. Douglas, who 
was then just entering upon his political career 
but who was himself defeated as a candidate 
for Congress by John T. Stuart. Mr. May later 
became a resident of Peoria and finally died in 

David Prickett, who came soon after Mr. 
May. was a native of Franklin County, Ga., and 
a relative of the pioneer Priekett family of 
Edwardsville, 111., where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1821, became Probate Judge and served 
one term as Representative in the General As- 
sembly from Madison County, was aide-de-camp 
of Gen. John D. Whiteside in the Black Hawk 
"war scare" of 1831, and in 1837 was elected 
State's Attorney for the Sangamon District, later 
served as Treasurer of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal Commission, and occupied a number of 
other official positions, at the time of his death 




iu 1847 being Assistant Clerk of the House of 
Representatives at Springfield. 

Edward J. Phillips, who came about the same 
time as Prickett, is described by his contempo- 
raries as a man of prepossessing appearance, 
but remained in legal practice but a short time, 
then becoming an officer of the State Bank. Ed- 
ward Jones, another belonging to this period, 
was a native of Georgetown, D. C., was admitted 
to the Bar before reaching his nineteenth year, 
and the same year (1830) came to Springfield. 
111., and entered practice as the partner of 
George Forquer, took part in both campaigns of 
the Black Hawk War, in 1834 was appointed 
Clerk of the Circuit Court of Tazewell 'County 
and afterward engaged in the practice of his 
profession at Pekin; also served as Captain of 
a Company in Col. E. D. Baker's regiment during 
the first year of the Mexican War, finally dying 
December 20, 1857. 

Others who came after those just mentioned, 
and between 1830 and 1840, included Henry E. 
Dunimer, Stephen T. Logan, John D. Urquhart, 
Daniel Stone, Josephus Hewitt, Charles Emmer- 
son, Stephen A. Douglas, Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., 
Edward D. Baker, David B. and Antrim Camp- 
bell, A. T. Bledsoe, Schuyler Strong, Ninian W. 
Edwards, James C. Conkling and W. J. Gate- 
wood. Mr. Dummer, who was a native of 
Maine, came in 1832, soon after entered into 
partnership with John T. Stuart, a year or two 
later removed to Jacksonville and still later to 
Beardstown, where he spent several years, 
then returning to Jacksonville, where he died 
about 1877. He was a man of high character 
and superior ability, and left behind him a rep- 
utation for integrity and capability in his pro- 
fession. The career of Stephen T. Logan, in 
length of identification with Sanganion County 
legal history, comes second only to that of Col. 
John T. Stuart, of whom he was a compeer iu 
public and official life. Sketches of both can be 
found in the "Historical Encyclopedia" (Vol. I) 
of this work. The most important arrival 
(though not recognized as such at the time) 
was that of Abraham Lincoln, the future Eman- 
cipator of a race and Preserver of the Union, 
who came in 1836 and was admitted to the Bar 
during the following year. Daniel Stone, also 
mentioned in this list, was a close friend of Lin- 
coln, and listed as one of the "Long Nine," who 
became an important factor in securing the 

transfer of the State capital to Springfield dur- 
ing the session of the General Assembly of 1837. 

During the next decade were added to the 
roster of the Sangamon County Bar the follow- 
ing names : Silas W. Robbins, Charles R. Willis, 
Benjamin West, James Shields, Levi Davis, A. 
K. Smede, Benjamin S. Edwards, James H. 
Matheny, David Logan (son of Stephen T.), Wil- 
liam I. Ferguson, Elliott B. and William H. 
Herndon, William Walker and Vincent Ridgely, 
several of whom had spent their youth or early 
manhood in Springfield. Besides these two 
groups personally identified with the Sangamon 
Bar, it is fitting that mention should be made of 
those who, while residents of other cities, were 
accustomed to visit Springfield in connection 
with the practice of their profession, and were 
prominent in State history. These would in- 
clude such names as William Thomas and Col. 
John J. Hardin of Jacksonville ; Alfred W. Cav- 
arly,- of Carrollton ; Judge David Davis of 
Bloomiugton ; Orville H. Browning, Archibald 
Williams and William A. Richardson, of Quincy ; 
William A. Minshall of Rushville ; Cyrus Walker 
of Macomb ; Anthony Thornton of Shelbyville ; 
Joseph Gillespie of Edwardsville ; Mahlon D. 
Ogden, Hugh T. Dickey, Justin Butterfield, Eben- 
ezer Peek and J. Young Scammon of Chicago; 
Josiah Lamborn and Usher F. Linder, both At- 
torneys General of the State. Samuel McRob- 
erts; Sidney Brees'e and Lyman Trumbull, all of 
whom besides Douglas, Shields, Richardson, 
Baker and Davisi already mentioned 'became 
United States Senators, and all but one (Col. E. 
D. Baker, who fell at Ball's Bluff, during the first 
year of the Civil War) at different periods rep- 
resenting the State of Illinois. With the name 
of Abraham Lincoln heading this list, and those 
of Gov. Richard Yates, Shelby M. Cullom and 
Gen. John M. Palmer being added thereto at a 
later period, there are few cities iu any other 
State which could present such a galaxy of nota- 
ble names so closely identified with its local 

With the increase of Springfield and Central 
Illinois in population in the early 'fifties, lawyers 
practicing in the Sangamon Circuit Courts be- 
came more closely identified with the local Bar 
and largely increased in number. According to 
the Bar records for that period, the following 
names were added to the list between 1851 and 
1861, viz.: John A. McClernand, L. B. Adams, 
Norman M. Broadwell. David A. Brown, W. J. 



Black, W. J. Conkling, Primm & Gibson, J. E. 
Rosette, J. B. White, G. W. Shutt, Thomas Lewis, 
D. McWilliams, Charles W. Keyes, Shelby M. 
Cullom, L. Rosette, A. McWilliams, J. R. Thomp- 
son, Charles S. Zane, William Campbell, J. R. 
Bail, G. W. Besore, S. S. Whitehurst, J. D. Hall, 
Christopher C. Brown, John E. Denny, Milton 
Hay, L. F. McCrillis, J. W. Moffett, Charles B. 
Brown, S. C. Gibson, T. S. Mather, T. C. Mather, 
H. G. Reynolds, Eugene L. Gross, L. C. Boyn- 
ton, A. B. Ives, C. M. Morrison, Joseph Wallace, 
Speed Butler, Edward F. Leonard and William 
Prescott. The next decade (1861-71), including 
the Civil War period, showed a smaller increase, 
as indicated by the following list: Lawrence 
Weldon, William M. Springer, J. K. W. Bradley, 
W. P. Olden, A. N. J. Crook, James E. Dowling, 
A. W. Hayes, Richmond Wolcott, L. H. Bradley, 
J. A. Chestnut, J. C. Crowley, William Fowler, 
James W. Patton, George C. Marcy, William E. 
Shutt and Alfred Orendorff. 

The period between 1871 and 1881 saw a some- 
what larger increase, including the location of a 
number in Springfield from other points in the 
State and the addition of several who had re- 
sumed their legal studies after the close of the 
war. The list foots up as follows : David T. Lit- 
tler, J. A. Kennedy, L. F. Hamilton, James C. 
Robinson, Winfield S. Collins, A. L. Knapp, Ber- 
nard Stuve, Bluford Wilson, Loren Hasson, Rob- 
ert Allen, Thomas C. Austin, John F. Barrow, 
S. D. Scholes, W. P. Emery, Charles H. Rice, 
Charles D. Harvey, Robert H. Hazlett, Robert 
L. MeGuire, John M. Palmer and John Mayo 
Palmer, Alonzo W. Wood, Charles W. Brown, 
Clinton L. Conkling, Enoch Harpole, Wm. L. 
Gross, E. D. Matheny, J. C. Lanphier, Henry H. 
Rogers, George A. Sanders, J. C. Snigg, Ezra W. 
White, Charles P. Kane and Henry B. Kane. 
Others immediately connected with this group 
or closely following in date of admission to the 
Sangamon Bar included the following: 
Frank W. Bennett, Collins & Sprague, John H. 
Gunn, Ralph W. Haynes, W. F. Houston, Frank 
H. Jones, J. R. H. King, James H. Matheny, Jr., 
Albert Salzenstein, Larue Vredenburg, Joseph 
Wallace, Walter B. Wines, and Richmond Wol- 

Lawrence Weldon came to Springfield from 
Clinton, 111., In consequence of his appointment 
by President Lincoln, U. S. District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois in 1861 ; had 
served in the Legislature from Dewitt County 

the same year and was chosen a Presidential 
Elector In 1860. His later years were spent as 
Associate Justice of the United States Court of 
Claims in Washington, where he died April 10, 

John E. Rosette was a native of Delaware, 
Ohio, was admitted to the Bar at Columbus, 
Ohio, in 1850, and came to Springfield, 111., in 
1855, where he practiced his profession several 
years, meanwhile for a time editing a Republican 
paper in Springfield during the Civil War, but 
later removed and died some years since. 

After holding the office of Circuit Judge for ten 
years for the Springfield Circuit, Judge Charles 
S. Zane was appointed Chief Justice of Utah 
Territory in 1883, and at the first State election 
in Utah was chosen one of the Justices of the 
Supreme Court ; has since continued to reside in 
that State, practicing his profession at Salt Lake. 

Eugene L. Gross was a native of Starkville, 
Herkimer County, N. Y., born in 1836, came with 
his parents to Illinois in 1844, read law at Knox- 
ville and was admitted to the Bar in 1857, com- 
ing to Springfield a year later and in 1865 was 
chosen by the City Council to revise the city ordi- 
nances. Later in conjunction with his brother 
William L. he published a Digest of the Law 
of Illinois, which then became known as Gross' 
Revised Statutes. He was a man of superior 
literary training and ability, but died of consump- 
tion June 4, 1874. 

Maj. Bluford Wilson, born at Shawneetown, 
111., November 20, 1841, after taking a course 
in McKendree College, was a law student In the 
University of Michigan in 1862, when he enlisted 
in the One Hundred and Twentieth Illinois Vol- 
unteers, was appointed Adjutant and in May, 
1863, became Assistant Adjutant General on the 
staff of Gen. Michael N. Lawler, later serving in 
the same capacity on the staffs of Gens. Dana 
and Eugene A. Carr, and being brevetted as 
Major .for gallant service. After the war he re- 
sumed his legal studies, was admitted to the 
bar in 1867, and during the administration of Gen. 
Grant was appointed U. S. District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois and later Solic- 
itor of the Treasury in Washington, where he 
made a notable record as a supporter of the 
policy of Secretary B. H. Bristow in the war 
against the "Whisky Ring." On his retirement 
he engaged in practice in Springfield, but for a 
time has devoted considerable attention to the 



promotion of railroad enterprises in Southern 

Among those members of the Springfield Bar 
who established themselves in the practice of 
their profession just before the Civil War, none 
attained a higher rank than the late Christopher 
C. Brown, who was born near the village, of 
Athens, Menard County, but then in Sangainon 
County, October 21, 1834, a member of a well- 
known pioneer family. Mr. Brown obtained his 
academic education at Hillsboro and Springfield, 
later took a course In the Transylvania Law 
School at Lexington, Ky., and was admitted to 
the bar in 1857, three years later becoming a 
member of the firm of Stuart, Edwards & Brown, 
which partnership continued some twenty-five 
years until disrupted by the death of Col. John 
T. Stuart, the head of the firm, in 1885. With 
some changes in partnership, he continued the 
practice of his profession until his own death, 
May 6, 1904, an event deeply deplored by a large 
circle of friends. 

William E. Shutt, a native of Loudoun County, 
Va., born May 5, 1842, was admitted to the bar 
in 1862, and as partner of James C. Robinson and 
A. L. Knapp, both previous members of Congress, 
and later as a member of the firm of Palmer, 
Robinson & Shutt, became one of the most prom- 
inent members of the Sangamon County bar. 
Mr. Shutt held a number of important offices, 
including Mayor of the city of Springfield about 
1868, three terms as State Senator and in 1893 
was appointed by President Cleveland United 
States Attorney for the Southern District of 
Illinois, later, while in partnership with Gen. 
John M. Palmer, becoming district attorney for 
the Illinois Central Railroad, and still later as 
general counsel for the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road, also served for a time as Referee in Bank- 
ruptcy. His death occurred April 7, 1908. 

Lloyd F. Hamilton, belonging to the same pe- 
riod as Mr. Shutt, is a Kentuckian by nativity, 
but was reared in Tazewell County, 111., grad- 
uated from the Law Department of Michigan 
University in 1866, and was admitted to the bar 
during the same year, locating in Springfield. 
Mr. Hamilton served as City Attorney of the city 
of Springfield (1869-70), later one term as State's 
Attorney for Sangamon County and 1882-86 as 
State Senator is still in practice. 

Thomas C. Mather, for several years of the 
firm of Scholes & Mather, and who belonged to 
the post-war period, established for himself 

a high reputation as a lawyer, during his later 
years being the partner of Maj. James A. Con- 
nolly. His career was cut short unexpectedly 
by his death about 1889. 

Of the late Gen. Albert Oreudorff, who occu- 
pied a number of prominent positions, including 
one term as Representative in the General As- 
sembly, Adjutant-General during the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Altgeld, and candidate for State 
Treasurer, a fuller sketch will be found in the 
Biographical Department of this volume. 

Richmond Wolcott was a native of Jackson- 
ville, 111., was there educated and during the 
Civil War enlisted in the Tenth Illinois Infantry, 
being successively promoted to the rank of First 
Lieutenant and Captain ; after the war completed 
his studies and was admitted to the bar, locating 
at Springfield. He died several years ago. 

Others of a later date include William A. Vin- 
cent, who came to Springfield with his parents 
in 1868, received his literary education in the 
Ohio Wesleyan University, graduated from the 
law department of Columbia College, N. Y., In 
1879, and during the same year was admitted to 
the bar by the Supreme Court and began practice 
in Springfield ; about 1885 was appointed by Pres- 
ident Cleveland Chief Justice of the United 
States Court of New Mexico, and after retiring 
from that office removed to Chicago, where he 
still resides. 

James A. Oreighton, for twenty-five years a Jus- 
tice of the Circuit Court in the Springfield Dis- 
trict, is a native of White County, 111., was edu- 
cated in the Southern Illinois College at Salem, 
III., in March, 1870, was admitted to the bar, 
and in 1877 came to Springfield and for a time 
was a partner of the late Alfred Orendorff in the 
practice of his profession, in 1885 was elected 
Judge of the Circuit Court, vice Charles 
S. Zane, and has retained that office contin- 
uously to the present time. 

Charles P. Kane, born in Springfield December 
25, 1850, was educated in the public schools of 
his native city, graduating from the High School 
in 1868, then studied law with Messrs. Hay, 
Greene & Littler, and was admitted to the bat 
in 1877. In 1878 he was elected City Attorney, 
serving by successive reelections until 1881, later 
served one term (1884-88) as County Judge, and 
in 1892 was candidate on the Republican ticket 
for Congress. He is a prominent member of 
the Masonic fraternity and has served as Grand 
Commander of the Knights Templar. 



James M. Graham, a native of Ireland, was 
born April 14, 1852, came to America in 1867 
and was educated in the public schools, at Val- 
paraiso (Ind.) Normal School and the State 
University of Illinois, later being engaged in 
teaching for several years, when (in 1882) he 
removed to Macoii County, from that county 
served one term (1884-86) in the lower branch 
of the General Assembly, then came to Spring- 
field and in 1886 became a partner of S. IX 
Scholes in the practice of law, iu 1892 was 
elected State's Attorney on the Democratic 
ticket, serving one term. In 1908 he was elected 
Representative in Congress from the Spring- 
field District and reelected in 1910. (A fuller 
sketch will be found in the Biographical De- 
partment of this volume.) 

II. Clay Wilson, born iu Daviess County, Ky., 
July 2, 1856, removed with his parents to In- 
diana in 1858, was there educated in the local 
schools and Danville (Ind.) Normal College, 
graduating from the latter in 1882; then came 
to Sangamon County, 111., and after being en- 
gaged in teaching there some years, in 1886 be- 
gan reading law with Clinton L. Conkling, and 
in 1888 was admitted to the bar. He later con- 
tinued teaching for a time but in 1890 began 
practice ; in 1892 was elected Representative iu 
the General Assembly on the Republican ticket, 
serving one term, and has been twice (1908 and 
1910) the Republican candidate for Congress, 
being defeated by 1,500 to 1,700 plurality, but in 
each case carrying his own county. (See fuller 
sketch in Biographical Department.) 

Charles E. Selby, born in Lancaster, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 7, 1855, attended the common schools and 
Danville (Ind.) Normal School; for eight years 
was engaged in teaching, but in 1875 coming to 
Springfield, 111., read law with Conkling & Grout, 
iu 1888 was admitted to the bar, and in 1892 
entered into partnership with S. D. Scholes. The 
same year he was the Republican candidate for 
State's Attorney in Sangamon County, in 1894 was 
elected Representative in the General Assembly 
and was reelected two years later, serving two 

Did space permit some further personal notes 
would be added in this connection, but in view 
of the space already occupied and the fact that 
many individual sketches of surviving members 
of the Bar will be found in their proper place 
in the body of this volume, this is not deemed 

In addition to the members of the Sangamon 
County Bar, who during their career occupied 
positions upon the bench (and who have already 
been mentioned in connection with the history 
of Courts), personal sketches of a long list will 
be found in alphabetical order and convenient 
for reference in Volume I ("Historical Encyclo- 
pedia of Illinois") of this work. These will be 
found to include the following : Col. Edward D. 
Baker, Norman M. Broadwell, Antrim Campbell, 
John A. Chestnut, James C. Conkling, Clinton 
L. Conkling, James A. Connolly, Shelby M. Cul- 
lom, Levi Davis, Ninian W. Edwards, George For- 
quer, Norman L. Freeman, Henry S. Greene. 
William L. Gross, William S. Hamilton, Milton 
Hay, William H. Herndon, David T. Littler, 
James H. Matheny, Sr., William L. May, Ben- 
jamin Mills, Thomas M. Neale, John M. Palmer, 
David Prickett, Jonathan H. Pugh, Joseph C. 
Robinson, James Shields, William M. Springer, 
Daniel Stone, and Lawrence Weldon. Lawyers 
from other localities accustomed to practice before 
the Saugamon County Courts, and whose per- 
sonal records are given in the same connection, 
embrace the names of Orville H. Browning, Jus- 
tin Butterfield, John J. Hardin, Josiah Lamborn, 
Usher F. Linder, William A. Minshall, J. Young 
Scammon, Cyrus Walker, Archibald Williams and 

George A. Sanders, a native of Williamstown, 
Mass., born July 4, 1836, was there educated, 
graduating from Williams College, and then com- 
ing to Illinois engaged in educational work as 
Superintendent of Schools at Centralia. Later 
he began the study of law with Messrs. Swett & 
Orme at Bloomington, in December, 1860, was 
admitted to the bar and began practice at Cen- 
tralia, which he continued until 1869, when he 
became Assistant State Treasurer under State 
Treasurer Erastus N. Bates, with whom he re- 
mained two terms and with Edward Rutz, the 
successor of Bates, one term, making in all six 
years in the same capacity. On retiring from 
the State Treasurer's office in 1875, he resumed 
his practice in Springfield, which he continued 
until his death, April 8, 1909. Mr. Sanders was 
chosen Presidential Elector in 1872, and served 
one term as City Attorney of the city of Spring- 
field; was a member of both the State and Na- 
tional Bar Associations, having once served the 
former as delegate to the latter. 

J Otis Humphrey, present Justice of the United 
States District Court for the Southern District 



of Illinois, was born in Morgan County, 111., De- 
cember 30, 1850, grew up on a farm in Auburn 
Township, Sangamon County, received his lit- 
erary training iu the Virden High School and 
Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, then studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1880, for two 
years served as law clerk in the office of the 
Hallway and Warehouse Commission, and in 
1883 became the partner of Henry S. Greene, one 
of the leading attorneys of Central Illinois. 
From the beginning Judge Humphrey's develop- 
ment in his profession was rapid, and he soon at- 
tained a high rank as a lawyer and political 
leader ; in 1884 was chosen a Presidential Elector 
on the Blaine ticket, in 1896 was a delegate to 
the Republican National Convention, in 1897 was 
appointed by President McKinley United States 
District Attorney for the Southern District of 
Illinois, and in 1901 was commissioned Judge of 
the United States Court for the same District, a 
position which he still holds. Judge Humphrey 
is President of the Lincoln Centennial Associa- 
tion and presided at the Lincoln Centennial 
celebration in Springfield on February 12, 1909. 

John S. Schnepp, Mayor of the city of Spring- 
field, was born in Sangamon County near Spring- 
field, August 26, 1867, and there spent his boy- 
hood on a farm and for a time was a resident of 
Christian County. At eighteen years of age he 
came to Springfield and there attended a German 
school for a time, later became a student at the 
Central Normal University, Danville, Ind., from 
which he graduated in 1887 ; subsequently was 
engaged in teaching one year, after which he en- 
tered the law department of the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity at Bloomington, 111., graduating there- 
from and being admitted to the Bar in 1890. He 
then engaged in practice in Springfield, and in 
1909 was elected Mayor of the city, in 1911 was 
reelected under the municipal commission form 
of government and has established a record for 
independence and efficiency. 

Bernard Stuve, who was widely known as a 
physician, lawyer and author, was born in Vechta, 
Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, September 10, 
1829, at four years of age was brought by his 
parents to America and gained his early educa- 
tion at Minster, Auglaize County, Ohio, where the 
family first settled ; a few years after the death 
of his father from cholera in 1847, took a course 
in the Medical College iu Cincinnati, whence he 
went to Tennessee intending to engage in prac- 
tice, bnt not finding the situation as represented, 

returned north, locating at Benton, near Cape 
Girardeau, Mo., where he spent eighteen months 
in successful practice. Then, having completed 
his medical course at Cincinnati iu 1851, he re- 
moved to Evansville, Ind., and there engaged for 
a time in practice in partnership with a local 
physician, subsequently spending some time at 
Carmi, White County, 111., and still later at 
Hickman, Ky., whence he came about the begin- 
ning of the Civil War to Illiopolis, Sangamon 
County. Removing thence to Springfield in 1866, 
he took up the study of law, graduating from the 
Chicago Law School in 1868, and being then 
admitted to the bar in Sangamou County. Tak- 
ing a deep interest in historical matters, he soon 
afterward became associated with Alexander 
Davidson in the preparation of what is known as 
"Davidson & Stuve's History of Illinois," the 
most ample and comprehensive State history 
issued up to that time. A second and revised 
edition of this work was gotten out in 1884. Dr. 
Stuve's last years were spent in practical retire- 
ment in Springfield, meanwhile taking a deep 
interest in the Illinois State Historical Society, 
of which he was a member. 

In 1857, while a resident of Carmi. 111.. Dr. 
Stuve married Miss Mary Illinois Wilson, a 
daughter of Hon. William Wilson, a Justice of 
the Supreme Court of Illinois for some twenty- 
five years, and until the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of 1847. Dr. Stuve's death occurred 
April 11. 1903, and that of his wife on February 
7, 1904, leaving one son and three daughters, of 
whom only one of the latter is now living. Dr. 
Stuve was reared in the faith of the Roman 
Catholic church, but while still adhering to the 
principles of Christianity, he early dissolved his 
connection with that denomination, being known 
as a man of liberal views and high moral prin- 
ciples. His wife was a member of the Presby- 
terian church. 

Edmund Burke, attorney-at-law, and State's 
Attorney, Saugamon County, was born in Buf- 
falo, that county, in 1876, was educated in the 
public schools and in the law department of 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, graduating 
from the latter in the class of 1898. Then 
being admitted to the bar, he began practice 
in the city of Springfield, and at once took an 
active part iu politics, identifying himself with 
the Democratic party. After being engaged 
in practice for a period of ten years, in 1908 
he received the nomination as candidate for 



State's Attorney on the Democratic ticket, aud 
was elected for a term of four years (1908-12). 
With the aid of two assistants he has filled 
that office to the present time and has established 
for himself a reputation for ability arid independ- 

Of the members of the Sangamon County Bar, 
as it exists today, none has achieved a wider 
reputation in his profession and filled a larger 
place in official history than Maj. James Austin 
Connolly. Born in Newark, N. J., March 8, 
1842, he came with his parents to Morrow County, 
Ohio, there grew up on a farm, receiving his 
education in the public schools and Selby Acad- 
emy at Chesterville, and later beginning the 
study of law with Judge Dunn at Mt. Gilead in 
the same county. In 1859, between seventeen 
and eighteen years of age, he was admitted to 
the bar, and after practicing with his preceptor 
one year, in 1860 came to Charleston, 111., estab- 
lishing himself in his profession there, but two 
years later enlisted in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-third Illinois Infantry, holding success- 
ively the rank of Captain and Major, and after 
nearly three years of service, being finally mus- 
tered out with the brevet rank of Lieutenant 
Colonel, June 28, 1865. Among the noted engage- 
ments of the Civil War in which he took part 
was the memorable battle, of Chattanooga, 
in November 1863, later was assigned to 
duty as Division Inspector of the Four- 
teenth Army Corps, and participated in 
Sherman's March to the Sea and the 
Grand Review at Washington, which marked the 
close of the war. Then returning to his home 
at Charleston he resumed the practice of his 
profession, but seven years later entered into 
active politics, serving two terms (1872-76) as 
Representative in the General Assembly from 
the Coles County District; in 1876, by appoint- 
ment of President Grant became United States 
District Attorney for the Southern District of 
Illinois, by successive reappointments serving 
until 1885, when he retired after the accession of 
Grover Cleveland to the presidency, but in 1889 
was reappointed to the same position by Pres- 
ident Harrison serving in all thirteen and a 
half years. Among the important cases with 
which he had to deal while in the office of United 
States District Attorney was the celebrated 

Whisky Ring case, which he conducted on behalf 
of the Government personally and alone. In 
1886, Major Connolly was the Republican candi- 
date for Congress in the Springfield District, but 
was defeated by less than 1,000 votes in a district 
normally Democratic by more than 3,000. In 
1888 he declined a renomination, but in the Re- 
publican State Convention of that year received 
a highly complimentary vote for Governor. In 
1894 he was again nominated for Congress from 
the Springfield District and was this time elected 
over the late Win. M. Springer, who had held 
the position for twenty years. Two years later 
Maj. Connolly was reelected to Congress, but in 
1898 declined a renomination and has since de- 
voted his attention to the practice of his pro- 
fession, in the meantime, however, holding the 
honorable position of Department Commander of 
the Grand Army of the Republic one term 
(1910-11). Besides the G. A. R.. he is identified 
with the Masonic Fraternity, the Benevolent Pro- 
tective Order of Elks and the Loyal Legion. On 
February 9, 1863, while a soldier in the army, he 
was married at Gambler, Ohio, to Miss Mary 
Dunn, a lady of intelligence and refinement, and 
sister of Judge Dunn, his former preceptor and 
first law-partner. 



The following is a list of members of the San- 
gamon County Bar as it existed in 1910 : 

Adams, Alfred. 
Allen, Walter M. 
Andrus, Charles S. 
Armstrong, J. F. 
Ayres, George E. 
Barber, Clayton J. 
Barber, John A. 
Barnes, Carey E. 
Bartlett, E. R. 
Bean, William A. 
Bernard, Adolph F. 
Bierman, C. C. 
Bone, Eugene E. 
Bradford, William A. 
Branson, Edward R. 
Breese, Sidney S. 
Briggle, Charles G. 

Brown, Stuart. 

Burke, Edmund (State's 

Butler, William J. 
Caldwell, James E. 
Catron, Bayard L. 
Chapin, Edwin L. 
Child, Henry L. 
Christopher, Cornelius J. 
Ooleman, Louis G. 
Condon, Thomas J. 
Conkling, Clinton L. 
Connolly, James A. 
Converse, Henry A. 
Cummins, Stephen H. 
Dowling, James E. 
Drennan, Frank P. 



Eckstein, Michael. 
Faiu, William E. 
Ferns, Thomas F. 
Fitzgerald, Arthur M. 
Flood, John P. 
Friedmeyer, John G. 
Fullenwider, H. Ernest 
Galeeuer, Wilbur F. 
Galligan, Bart. 
Gard, Charles E. 
Garretson, James T. 
George, Gilbert J. 
Gibbs, Charles S. 
Gillespie, George B. 
Graham, James J. 
Graham, James M. 
Hall, Hubert R. 
Hamilton, Lloyd F. 
Harris, Oscar E. 
Harts, Harry B. 
Harts, Peter W. 
Hatch, Frank L. 
Hay, Logan. 
Haynes, Ralph W. 
Henkel, Myron F. 
Henry, Edward D. 
Herndon, Gray. , 
Hoff, Alonzo. 
Irvyiu, Edwin F. 
Irwin, Oramel B. 
Jarrett, Thomas L. 
Jones, Clarence A. 
Kane, Charles P. 
Kelly, James Y. Jr. 
Keuney, George W. 
Kilbride, Thomas M. 
King, John L. 
Laird, Orley E. 
Laird, Samuel. 
Lauphier, John C. 
Lawler, William J. 
Lewis, Warren E. 
Looinis, Webner E. 
Lyon, Thomas E. 
McAnulty, R. H. 
McGrath, Timothy. 
McGuire, Robert L. 
McKeown, Davis. 
Masters, Hardin W. 
Masters, Thomas D. 
Matheny, James H. 
Matheuy, Robert. 
Melin, Carl A. 

Milieu, Daisy. 
Monroe, Basil D. 
Monroe, Earl D. 
Morgan, George M. 
Mortimer, C. Fred. 
Murray, Abner G. 
Nelms, W. H. 
Northcott, William A. 
Nutt, Roy A. 
Orr, James R. 
Orr, Walter A. 
Patton, James H. 
Patton, Robert H. 
Patton, William L. 
Perkins, Joseph B. 
Perry, Elmer A. 
Pfeifer, John M. 
Putting, Oscar J. 
Quinian, T. William. 
Reilly, James. 
Robinson, Edward S. 
Salzensteiu, Albert. 
Sampson, W. Edgar. 
Schnepp, John S. 
Scholes, Samuel D. 
Scholes, Samuel D. Jr. 
Seeley, Roy M. 
Selby, Charles E. 
Sheehan, John W. 
Shelley, Wesley W. 
Shutt, William E. 
Smith, Elbert S. 
Suigg, John. 
Snigg, John P. 
Stevens, Albert D. 
Summer, Albert T. 
Summers, Charles P. 
Templeman, James W. 
Trutter, Frank L. 
Vancil, Burke. 
Warren, Phil B. 
Watson, Sidney P. 
Weaver, John B. 
Wight, Samuel A. 
Williams, A. Morse. 
Wilson, Bluford. 
Wilson, Henry C. 
Wines, William St. John, 
Wiuterbotham, Joseph E. 
Wood, George A. 
Woodruff, Marion O. 
Yates, Richard. 














In accordance with a petition submitted to the 
County Board, consisting of the County Judge 
and two Associate Justices, on June 5, 1860, an 
election was ordered to be held on November 6th 
of that year, on the question of the adoption of 
Township Organization under the general act of 
the Legislature of 1859. The result was a total 
of 4,050 votes for the measure to 3.191 against, 
and John S. Bradford, John Gardner, Sr., and 
Joseph Campbell were appointed Commissioners 
to divide the county into townships which were 
organized under the following names: Auburn, 
Ball, Buffalo Hart, Campbell, Cartwright, Clear 
Lake, Cooper, Cotton Hill, Curran, Gardner, 
Illiopolis, Island Grove, Loami, Mechanicsburg, 
Power (now Fancy Creek), Pawnee, Rochester, 
Sackett, Springfield, Talkington, Williams, Wood- 
side New Berlin Township being later formed 
out of a part of Island Grove, Wheatfleld from 
part of Illiopolis, and Capital Township from 
a part of Springfield Township. Other changes 
which have since been made include Divernon, 
Laneville and Maxwell Townships. 

The history of early schools In the several 
townships, having been treated quite fully in 
the chapter on "Public Schools," it has not been 
considered necessary to repeat it in this con- 

For convenience of reference, the sketches of 



individual township in this chapter are arranged 
in alphabetical order. 


Auburn Township, one of the southern tier of 
townships iu Sangamon County, is bounded on the 
north by Chatham Township, east by Divernon, 
west by Talkington and south by Macoupin 
County. As originally organized in 1861, the 
township embraced its present area of 36 square 
miles, consisting of Congressional Township 13 
N., R. 6 W., but iu 1869, two tiers of sections 
from the western part of Pawnee Township were 
added to Auburn. This arrangement continued 
until July 13, 189G, when on the organization of 
the new township of Divernon, these sections 
were transferred to the latter, constituting its 
western portion. Consisting largely of prairie 
laud with level or moderately undulating surface, 
Auburn Township occupies a part of the county 
especially well adapted to agricultural purposes, 
and being well supplied with transportation by 
the passing of the Chicago & Alton Railroad 
through its central portion, is one of the most 
prosperous portions of the county. The head- 
waters of Sugar Creek furnish the principal 
natural supplies of water for stock and irriga- 
tion purposes. 

The first settlement within the present limits of 
the township began in 1818, when John Ellis, 
James Black and Samuel Vancil came to this 
locality, the two first named settling on Sec- 
tions 15 and 14, respectively, and Mr. Vancil on 
Sectiou 11 southeast of the site of the present 
village of Auburn. John Wallace came about the 
same time and settled near the northeast corner 
of the township was about fifty years of age 
when he arrived in November, 1818, and died 
in 1828. Henry Gatlin, who came in 1818, settled 
near what was known as the "Gatlin Springs," 
now the "Hayden Springs." 

Among those who came in 1819 appear the 
names of George Lott, William Wood, Jesse 
Wilson, Joseph Thomas and Thomas Black. In 
1820 came James Nuckolls and Edward White, 
the latter soon after selling his claim to John 
Durley. Mr. Nuckolls was a native of Botetourt 
County, Va., born in 1777, came to Madison 
County, 111., in 1818, and two years later to 
Auburn Township, Sangamon County, where he 
died in 1859. James and George Wallace came 

from South Carolina in 1822, the former dying iu 
1840 and the latter in Macon County about 1845. 
Robert Crow, a native of Wythe County, Va., 
came from Christian County, Ky., also in 1822, 
and died September 23, 1840. 

Other early settlers in the township were : 
Robert Orr, George Winmer and John Kessler in 
1826, the latter establishing the first blacksmith 
shop in the township; James Fletcher, Samuel 
McElvaiu and Micajah Organ in 1828, and Jere- 
miah Abell and John Roach in 1829. Mr. 
McElvain was a soldier of the War of 1812 and 
engaged iu the Battle of New Orleans, was a 
prominent citizen and ruling elder of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Auburn from its organization 
in his house, in 1830, until his death in 1848. Mr. 
Organ came from Jessamine County, Ky., and 
after remaining in the township a number of 
years, removed to Virden, Macoupin County, 
where he died. Thomas Black, already men- 
tioned as one of the settlers in Auburn Town- 
ship iu 1819, was born in South Carolina in 1768, 
married Edith A. Pyle in Christian County, Ky., 
and moved thence to Southern Illinois iu 1811, 
shortly before the earthquake of that year. 
Alarmed by that phenomenon, they returned to 
Kentucky, but later came back to Southern Illi- 
nois, and finally to Sangamon County, settling 
in the northwest corner of Attburn Township. 
His wife died in 1822, and he subsequently mar- 
ried Mrs. Rebecca Viney (nee Sbiles), his own 
death occurring in 1851. Alvin Crous, born in 
Madison County, Ky., as a young man removed 
to Humphreys County, Tenn., where he married 
Margaret Forbes, subsequently moved to John- 
son County, Ky., and from there in January, 
1829, to Sanganiou County, III., settling iu Au- 
burn Township, where he died in 1849. 

One of the most notable early settlers of Au- 
burn Township was James Patton, who was born 
iu the city of Baltimore, March 17, 1791, in child- 
hood was taken by his parents to Staunton, Va., 
and in 1798 to Clark County, Ky. After having 
served an apprenticeship to the tanning business, 
in 1810, he joined his parents, who had preceded 
him to Christian County, Ky., where he married 
Polly Husband in 1815, five years later coming 
to Auburn Township, Sangamon Count}-, 111., 
arriving in the spring of 1820. His wife having 
died in 1844, he was twice married thereafter, 
first to Mrs. Lettie Nifong, who died in 1856, and 
second to Mrs. Elizabeth Gregory, who died in 
1875. Soon after coming to Sangaiuou County 




Col. Pattern established a tannery and supplied 
a wide extent of country with leather. An enter- 
prising, public-spirited citizen, he established a 
high reputation in his community. He died 
September 12, 3877, on the farm where he first 
settled on comug to Sangamou County, leaving 
a large number of descendants, most of whom re- 
side in Sangamon County. 

Johaii Jacob Rauch was born in Stuttgart, 
Germany, July 25, 1796, and came to America in 
1818, arriving in Philadelphia on a sailing vessel 
after a voyage of eleven weeks. After having 
been subjected to a species of fraud by a man 
to pay for his passage in return for labor, he was 
compelled to allow himself to be sold at auction 
in order to raise the necessary sum of $70. The 
lowest bid was for three years' service, and he 
was immediately taken to Alabama and there 
subjected to a condition more horrible than negro 
slavery. During much of the time he was em- 
ployed in boat-building, earning many times over 
the sum paid by his master. Conditions having 
become intolerable, some six months before the 
expiration of his term of service he managed to 
escape, finally reaching Muhlenberg, Ky., where 
he found some German people who gave him em- 
ployment, and he soon became able to clothe 
himself and began to save money. In 1824 he 
there married Pauline Poley, soon after built a 
saw-mill on a small stream, but desiring to 
avoid any further connection with the institu- 
tion of slavery, in October, 1829, he came to 
Sangamou County and bought three quarter- 
sections of land on the southern border of the 
county between Auburn and Virden. Here he 
built a saw-mill which proved a great benefit to 
the community. A man of industry and high 
moral principle, he achieved a wonderful success, 
at the time of his death on November 25, 1843, 
at the age of only a little more than forty-seven 
years, leaving enough land to make a good farm 
for each of his children. 

Joseph Poley was born in Logan County, Ky., 
where he married, and in 1829 came to Sangamou 
County, settling near his brother-in-law, Johan 
Jacob Rauch. He served as Justice of the Peace 
for a number of years and, at the time of his 
death on August 17, 1866, left his heirs the title 
to 3,000 acres of land, of which 2,500 acres were 
in one body. 

James Wallace was born in Pendleton District, 
S. C., in 1776. His parents, being Scotch Pres- 
byterians and Whigs or supporters of the Dec- 

laration of Independence were driven from their 
homes by the Tories, and his birth occurred in a 
camp. In early manhood he went to Nova 
Scotia and there married, but in 1816 returned 
to South Carolina. Having lived long enough 
in a free country to appreciate the perils of slav- 
ery, in November, 1822, he came to Sangamon 
County, 111., locating one mile south of the pres- 
ent village of Auburn. He later moved to Macon 
County, dying there in 1845. 

CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. The date of the first 
religious exercises in Auburn Township is not a 
matter of record, but Rev. James Simms, Rivers 
McCormack and Peter Cartwright, pioneer Metho- 
dists ; Elder Simon Lindley, a Baptist, and Rev. 
J. G. Bergen, a Presbyterian, were early church 
workers in this vicinity. The first church organi- 
zation is said to have been Old School Presby- 
terian, the organization being effected at the 
home of Samuel McElvain in 1830, while the first 
chu-rch building was erected by that denomination 
in 1845. It was a modest frame structure, lo- 
cated in the edge of the woods just west of 
Crow's Mill, but later was moved to the village 
of Auburn, where it was used as a dwelling house. 

RAILROADS. Three railroads enter Auburn 
Township, the Chicago & Alton, the Jackson- 
ville Southeastern branch of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy crossing the southwestern 
corner, and the Chicago & Illinois Midland, ex- 
tending from Auburn eastward, via Pawnee to 
Taylorville, Christian County. The iuterurban 
electric line of the Illinois Traction System also 
parallels the Chicago & Alton steam line. 

MILLS. The first grist-mill in the township (a 
horse-mill) was built by James Sims, on the 
north part of the Winemau farm, east of the pres- 
ent village of Auburn. 

The first water-mill for sawing lumber was 
erected in 1825-26 by Robert Crow on Sugar 
Creek, a mile northeast of Auburn village, and 
was subsequently rebuilt and a run of burrs 
added by E. and W. D. Crow, sons of Robert. 

A second water-mill (both saw and grist) was 
built by Jacob Rauch, about six miles above the 
Crow's mill, and soon after a third mill between 
the two by James Wallace. These have all dis- 

In 1838 Asa and George Eastman erected the 
first steam-mill (a grist-mill) on the branch a 
mile north of the village of Auburn. The ma- 
chinery was finally removed to Springfield. 

Messrs. Bond & Ely erected an extensive steam 



flouring mill within the village, in 1856, at a 
cost of $15,000, but It proved a financial failure, 
and in 1864 the machinery was used by J. U. 
Grove in fitting out a new mill in Carlinville. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. The first marriage in the 
township was that of Gideon Vancil to Phoebe 
Wilson in March, 1820, Rev. James Sims offi- 
ciating, and a daughter born to them in 1821 is 
supposed to have furnished the first birth in the 

The first death was that of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Walker, daughter of Samuel Vancil, who died in 
the fall of 1819, and was buried in the Winmer 
burying ground. An incident connected with the 
death of Mrs. Walker was the discovery of a 
prairie fire approaching the cabin in which she 
lay dying, surrounded by members of the family. 
By vigorous effort in beating out the fire in the 
grass and by the use of water, the fire was pre- 
vented from gettiug possession of the cabin, but 
all the hay that had been stacked for the winter 
feeding of stock was destroyed. 

The first tan-yard in the township was estab- 
lished by James Patton in 1826. 

The first orchards were planted in 1825 by 
Robert Crow and Philip Wineman. 

Auburn, the only incorporated village of Au- 
burn Township, has an interesting history. The 
original town of that name was laid out in 1835, 
by Asa and George Eastman on land purchased 
from Messrs. Godfrey & Gilman, merchants of 
Alton, and located near the northern border of 
the township, about a mile north of the site of 
the present village. It occupied a handsome lo- 
cation and, in 1840, had five or six dwellings and 
a two-story tavern, built by the Eastmans but 
managed by a man named Swaney, who traveled 
a great deal and is supposed to have been a pro- 
fessional gambler. During his last trip he mys- 
teriously disappeared, his remains being found 
some months later near Ewington, Effingham 
County, where it was supposed he had been mur- 
dered in revenge by some victim. 

The Eastmans and a number of other promi- 
nent citizens of Sangamon County resided at the 
original Auburn for a number of years, but fin- 
ally removed to other places, the Eastmans locat- 
ing in Springfield, where Asa Eastman was a 
prominent business man. On the contraction of 
the Alton & Sangamon Railroad (now the Chicago 
& Alton) the line was located some distance east 
of the village, and there was then a sharp struggle 
over the location of the railroad station, which 

finally resulted in the success of the younger 

The new village, a mile further south, was 
platted and recorded on February 24, 1853, by 
Philip Wineman, the proprietor, on the northeast 
quarter of Section 10, under the name of "Wine- 
man." In the meantime Asa Eastman, having 
become proprietor of the land embraced in the old 
village, secured the passage by the Legislature 
of an act vacating the corporation, sold the land 
to Madison Curvey, and it was transformed into 
a farm. 

Additions had been made to the new village by 
Wineman and others, but the popularity of the 
name "Auburn"' is shown by the fact that, during 
the session of the Legislature of 1864-65, an act 
was passed wiping out the name "Wineman," and 
incorporating the village under the name of its 
old rival, the first election under the new char- 
ter occurring in the spring of 1865. The census 
tables show a steady increase in population, the 
growth between 1890 and 1900 approximating 
fifty per cent. Auburn was incorporated as a 
city in 1905, and according to the census of 1910 
had a population of 1,814. 

There are two other railway stations within 
Auburn Township both on the line of the Chicago 
& Alton Railroad Sefton Station, north of Au- 
burn and near the northern border of the town- 
ship, and Thayer, about four miles south of Au- 
burn. Thayer was incorporated as a village in 
1901 and in 1910 had a population of 1,012. 

There are two banks in Auburn, the Auburn 
State Bank and the Farmers' State Bank, each 
having a capital stock of $25,000. The city also 
has one weekly paper, the "Auburn Citizen," 
which is the oldest paper in the county outside of 
Springfield, M. L. Gordon, editor and proprietor. 

Population of Auburn Township (1910), 3,851. 


Ball Township, situated directly south of 
Springfield, in the second tier of townships north 
of the southern border of Sangamon County, was 
organized in March, 1861, and named for James 
A. Ball, a citizen of the township who was a 
native of Madison County, Ky., came to Sanga- 
mon County in 1825, and was a soldier in the 
Winnebago and Black Hawk Wars. It contains an 
area of 33% square miles, including the whole of 
Town 14 N., R. 5 W. of the Third Principal 



Meridian, except two and a quarter sections from 
west side of the Congressional Township which 
has been attached to Chatham Township. To Ball 
Township has been accorded the credit of being 
the location chosen by the first white settler in 
Sangainon County. This is generally conceded to 
have been Robert Pulliam, although there has 
been sorue disagreement between writers on San- 
gainon County history as to the exact date of his 
coming to the county, some claiming that this 
was in the year 1816, and others one year later 
the fall of 1817. The Old Settlers' Society of 
Sangamon County, which, however, is re- 
garded as the best authority on questions of this 
character, have accepted the latter year as most 
probable, and had it inscribed on a bronze tablet 
attached to a column at the south front of the 
Court House in Springfield, and dedicated De- 
cember 2, 1911, in commemoration of that event 
and in honor of Mr. Pulliam's memory. 

Robert Pulliam was born in Henry, Va., April 
12, 1776, his father, William Pulliam, and family, 
emigrating to Kentucky, and thence to the New 
Design Settlement in what is now Monroe County, 
111., later spending some time at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., (then a part of the Spanish possessions) 
and finally locating in Randolph County, 111., 
where the town of Red Bud now stands. In 
1802 he began the improvement of a farm in 
St. Clair County, four miles east of the present 
site of the city of Belleville, but a year later 
settled in the American Bottom a few miles 
south of Alton, married Mary Stout in 1804, in 
1815 returned to St. Clair County, and In 1817, 
in company with two or three hired men, made 
a trip north, finally selecting a site on Sugar 
Creek, due south from the present city of Spring- 
field, where he built a cabin. In the spring of 
1818 he returned to his old home iu St. Clair 
County, where he remained one year when he 
came with his family to Sangamon County. He 
found the cabin he had built in 1817 occupied 
by Zachariah Peter, another early settler, but 
Mr. Pulliam obtained possession, and there re- 
sided until his death in the vicinity of Carlin- 
ville, July 31, 1838, his wife dying in 1847. He 
is described by Gov. Reynolds as a man of fine 
physique and strong character, as shown by his 
submission to the amputation of one of his legs 
by a country doctor without the aid of anaes- 
thetics. Originally a Baptist, he later united 
with the Methodist Church, and built one of the 
first mills in Sangamon County driven by a tread- 

wheel with motive power furnished by horses 
or oxen. He also installed probably the first 
cotton-gin in that locality. The first meeting of 
the Sangamon County Old Settlers' Association 
was held on the site of the Pulliam cabin, In 
August, 1859. 

The next group of early settlers in the Ball 
Township district came in 1818. These consisted 
of William Drennan and his half-brother, Joseph 
Drennan, his son-in-law, Joseph Dodds, and 
George Cox, who, leaving portions of their fam- 
ilies In the vicinity of Alton, came with their 
teams, farming implements and younger members 
of their families, fitted for manual labor, under 
the pilotage of William Moore, an Indian Ranger, 
and began opening up farms on Sugar Creek in 
the vicinity of the Pulliam Settlement. They 
built two cabins, one occupied by Joseph Cox and 
the other by the Drennans and Dodds, and as 
usual with settlers of that period, shunning the 
prairies, cleared and planted some fifteen acres of 
timber land, which they cultivated in common. 
Later they attempted to break some of the prairie 
soil with a wooden mold-board plow, but this 
proved a failure. Following the playful example 
of one of the boys, they cut off the grass from a 
small section of prairie that had been included in 
the field, and cutting holes in the sod, planted it 
with corn and pumpkin seeds. The result is 
claimed in some of the early histories to have been 
a surprising success, the crop proving twice as 
great as that obtained from the land that had 
been cleared of timber. The Dreunans, Cox and 
Dodds brought their families the next year, all 
except Dodds having previously erected cabins. 
The latter, however, was compelled to live in a 
rail-pen until a cabin was built. George Cox 
died in 1819. William Drennan, the head of this 
colony, died in 1847, while his wife survived him 
many years. Joseph Drennan passed away in 
1865 and his widow in 1866. Joseph Dodds, the 
son-in-law of William Drennan, survived until 
1869, his wife having passed away in 1853. Both 
of the Drennans and Dodds were influential cit- 
izens and left large families, and many of their 
descendants still survive in Sangamon County. 

After the coming of the Drennans and the 
Dodds, settlement in the region now embraced in 
Ball Township, increased quite rapidly, as its ad- 
vantages as an agricultural district, with favor- 
able water supplies for stock, had attracted wide 
attention. Among the arrivals in this period 
were those of Thomas Black, who came in 1819, 


settled near the Auburn Township line, and soon 
after built a distillery and a horse-mill which 
were widely patronized ; James Anderson, a na- 
tive of Virginia, who had spent some time in Ken- 
tucky and Indiana, caine in 1820, settled on Sec- 
tion 33, but later moved to the North Fork of the 
Saugamon, and there died in 1828 ; Louis Laugh- 
lin came with his family in 1821, settled on Sec- 
tion 29, where he remained fifteen years, when 
be removed to Wisconsin; leaving behind him 
the reputation of being one of the first Aboli- 
tionists in Sangamon County. Alexander and 
John Ritchie came in 1822, settled on Section 33, 
the former removing to Texas (where he died 
about 1844), and the latter to Iowa. 

One of the most noted comers about this time 
was Job Fletcher, Sr., who arrived in 1819, and 
on the night of his arrival was called upon to 
write the will of George Cox, who came to Sang- 
amon County with the Drennan and Dodds fam- 
ilies in 1818. This was the first will put on 
record from Sangamon County, but registered 
at Edwardsville, Sangamon County territory 
then composing a part of Madison County. 
Fletcher was born in Randolph County, Va., in 
1793, spent some years with his widowed mother 
in Kentucky ; served six months in the War of 
1812 and assisted to bury the dead on the battle- 
field of Tippecanoe; married Mary Kerchner, a 
native of Virginia in 1818, and came to what is 
now Ball Township November 11, 1819. Mr. 
Fletcher is said to have bought from Maj. Elijah 
lies the first window-glass sold in Springfield, 
and is believed to have taught the first school in . 
Sangamon County, being also a teacher in a Sun- 
day School organized in his neighborhood by the 
Rev. J. M. Peck. He served as Representative 
in the General Assembly from Sangamon County 
for two terms (the Fifth and Fourteenth General 
Assemblies), and three sessions (Ninth, Tenth 
and Eleventh General Assemblies) as Senator. 
While in the Tenth General Assembly he was 
classed as one of the famous "Long Nine," of 
which Abraham Lincoln was a prominent mem- 
ber, and during this period took a prominent 
part in securing the removal of the State Cap- 
ital from Vandalia to Springfield. Mr. Fletcher 
died September 4, 1872, within half a mile of the 
place where he settled In 1819. 

Others who came soon after Pulliam and the 
Drennans, and about the same time as Mr. 
Fletcher, were Abram Pease, born on the Island 
of Martha's Vineyard, in 1791, married Orpha 

Southwick in New York, served in the War of 
1812, and in 1818 came to the Ball Township 
district with the family of Jesse Southwiek ; John 
Taylor, a native of Danville, Ky., came first to 
Madison County, 111., and in 1819 to the Sugar 
Creek Settlement in Sangamon County ; John 
Brownell, born in Rhode Island in 1800, after 
spending his boyhood in Seneca, N. Y., came west 
with the family of William Seely and, in July, 
1819, reached Sangamon County, where, iu 1821, 
he married Nancy Pulliam; James Sims, born 
in Virginia, was taken by his parents to South 
Carolina, and after his marriage there, spent 
some time in Kentucky, thence coming to St. 
Clair County, and to Sangamon County in 1820. 
Mr. Sims built a mill, run by horse power ; quar- 
ried stone of the same kind of which the first 
State House in Springfield was built, and served 
as the first Representative in the State Legisla- 
ture from Sangamon County, later resided in 
Morgan County, and as a Methodist preacher 
organized the first circuit in Sangainou County. 
George Brunk, a native of Miami County, Ohio, 
came in 1821, at the age of seventeen years, 
later entered eighty acres of land to which he 
brought his mother and step-father, Thomas 
Royal, and the rest of the family in 1824; Job 
F. Harris, born in Rockbridge County, Va., in 
1798, spent his boyhood with his parents in 
Barreon County, Ky., there learned the cabinet- 
making trade and in 1816 came to St. Louis, 
later made a trip with a party of trappers from 
New Orleans to the Rocky Mountains, returning 
in the fall of 1818, and in 1822 came to Sauga- 
mon County, served in the Winnebago War of 
1827, and died July 29, 1866 ; Anthony Deardorff, 
a native of Pennsylvania, cainc from Franklin 
County. Ohio, in 1823. Arrivals in the Ball 
Township district during the year 1824 were 
quite numerous, including Thomas Royal, the 
step-father of George Brunk ; Joseph Logsdon, 
from Madison County, Ky., later went to Mis- 
souri and thence to Texas, dying in 1848 on the 
way to California; Peter Denrdorff, a brother 
of Anthony, and coming with his brother-in-law. 
George Brunk; David Brunk, a brother; Gilbert 
Dodds, a native of South Carolina, resided some 
years in Tennessee and Caldwell County, Ky., 
joined his brother Joseph, who had preceded him 
six years, served as pastor of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church on Sugar Creek, finally dy- 
ing near Petersburg, Menard County, May 3, 
1872. Other later comers were James A. Ball, 



for whom Hall Township was named, and who 
came in 1825 (see oi>eniug paragraph in this 
sketch of Ball Township) ; William Burtle, a 
native of Maryland who. after living many years 
in Kentucky, came with his family to Saugamon 
County in 1826, his son, William. Jr.. becoming 
a prominent citizen, a teacher, an office-holder 
and one of the early Presidents of the Sangamon 
County Old Settlers' Society ; Zachariah Ogden, 
originally from Frederick City, Md., came from 
Kentucky to Sangamon County in 1827, and 
there died in 1860 ; James Simpson, born in Mary- 
land, came from Kentucky in 1828 ; George Mof- 
fltt, a native of Augusta County, Va., came from 
Christian County, Ky., in 1829, and died in 
1860; Richard Simpson, a native of Maryland, 
spent some years in Kentucky, carne to Sanga- 
mon County in 1830, and a year later removed 
to Christian County, where he and his wife died ; 
David II. Hermon. born in Wilkes County, N. C., 
married iu Grant County, Ky., and came to San- 
gamon County in October, 1830, two months be- 
fore the "deep snow" and endured all the perils 
of that memorable winter ; Jacob Greenawalt, a 
native of Kentucky, also came in October, 1830, 
later spent some time in Putnam County, but re- 
turning to Sangamon in 1836. died there in 1863 ; 
John Fletcher, a younger brother of Job Fletcher, 
came from his native State of Virginia, and in 
1830 joined his elder brother who had preceded 
him eleven years ; Daniel Easley, born in Stokes 
County, N. C., October 18, 1773, spent some 
thirty years of his early life in Caldwell County, 
Ky., came to Sangamon County in 1830, and died 
at Auburn, that county, February 13, 1874, aged 
one hundred years, three mouths and twenty-five 
days. All the immigrants, so far mentioned, are 
understood to have settled in what is now Ball 
Township. In 1829 a colony consisting of over 
sixty persons from Ohio came to Ball Township. 
Some of the leading members of this colony- 
were Absalom Mereditli and family, Isaac and 
David Clark and their families, a Mr. Snell and 
others. Some other early settlers were Joseph 
Dixon, Joseph Gatlin, David Ford, Eddin Lewis 
and William Eads. 

One of the most widely known families of 
Sangamon County and Ball Township, of a later 
period, is that of Philemon Stout, whose father, 
Philemon Stout, Sr., came to Sangamon County 
in 1836 and died January 21, 1846, and the 
mother. Mrs. Penelope (Anderson) Stout, in No- 

vember, I860. The parents were natives of New 
Jersey, but emigrated to Scott County, Ky., where 
Philemon Stout, Jr., was born April 19, 1822, 
and married Melissa Shoup, also of a prominent 
Ball Township family. Philemon Stout, Jr., had 
been identified with Ball Township seventy-four 
years, where he became one of the largest laud- 
owners iu Saugamon County, and where he 
died October 1, 1910. 

The principal stream in Ball Township is Sugar 
Creek, which enters the township near the south- 
western corner, and flows through the township, 
passing out near the northeastern corner. Its 
tributaries. Grindstone, Panther and Lick Creeks, 
empty into Sugar Creek within the township, 
the main stream being a branch of the Sangamon 
River, while Bishop Creek, which passes through 
the southeast corner of the township, empties 
into the South Fork of the Sangamon. The first 
bridge across Sugar Creek was built by Thomas 
Black and his neighbors, of hewn timbers, about 
1827, but was located in Auburn Township near 
the Ball Township line. 

Ball Township being a strictly agricultural re- 
gion and there being no railroad line within its 
limits except a section of about two miles of 
the Chicago & Alton, passing through the north- 
western corner until the construction of the 
Springfield-St. Louis branch of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, which passes through the entire length of 
this township from north to south, there has 
been little tendency to the development of vil- 
lages. There was a village projected in the 
northeastern quarter of the township by George 
R. Spotswood, in 1837, under the name Mazeppa, 
but beyond the fact that it had a small store for 
a short time, there was little evidence of village 
life. Gleuarm, a railway station on the Illinois 
Central, near the southern border of the town- 
ship, is the only village in the township, although 
Chatham, a station on the Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road, is near the western border of the township, 
and Cotton Hill, on the Illinois Central, is just 
north of the line between Ball and- Woodside 

A neat frame building, for the purpose of a 
Town Hall, was erected in 1876, on the east 
bank of Sugar Creek, not far from the site of 
the Robert Pulliam cabin, and near the center 
of the township. The population of the town- 
ship according to the census of 1910. was 898. 




Buffalo Hart Township, In the northeastern 
part of Saugamon County, was organized, with 
its present dimensions, in 1861, receiving its 
name from Buffalo Hart Grove, where the first 
settlement was made. It comprises the southern 
half of Town 17 North, Range 3 West, with four 
sections from the next tier north, making a total 
of 22 sections, and is bounded on the north by 
Logan County, east by Lanesville Township, south 
by Mechanicsburg and west by Williams. It is 
watered by tributaries of Wolf Creek on the 
west and the headwaters of Clear Oreek on the 
south, and with the exception of Buffalo Hart 
Grove, consisting of less than one-sixth of the 
area, Is made up of prairie land. The name 
Buffalo Hart is claimed to be derived from the 
animals the Buffalo and the Hart which 
flourished in this region in aboriginal days. The 
surface, as it looks towards Lake Fork and Mt. 
Pulaski, in Logan County, is rather undulating. 
The first settlement was made in the township 
in 1824 by William Bridges and Charles Moore, 
who were followed a year later by Robert E. 
Burns. Others who came at a later period, 
most of them with families, were James Lynn, 
John Constant, Robert Cass, William P. Lawsou, 
Thomas Greening, John Robinson, James T. 
Robinson, Adam Starr, Robert McDaniel, Thomas 
Dunn, John St. Clair and Auburn Ridgeway. 

William Bridges, who was born in South Car- 
olina, April 28, 1787, spent his boyhood and his 
youth successively in Kentucky and Ohio, in the 
latter State marrying Martha Martin, whose par- 
ents were connected with the tragic history of 
Strode's fort, in Kentucky, from which they es- 
caped during an attack by the Indians, while 
other occupants, chiefly women and children, 
were massacred and the fort burned. Mr. 
Bridges served one year in the War of 1812, then 
moved to Fayette County, Ind., and in 1824 to 
Sangainon County, 111., settling in Buffalo Hart 
Grove. He was a gunsmith and blacksmith, but 
about 1830 moved to some other locality and 
died there. 

Charles Moore came from one of the Southern 
States, built a cotton-gin on the east side of 
Buffalo Hart Grove in 1823 or 1824, which he 
managed for a number of years, when he moved 
north. He had been a Revolutionary soldier, 
and while going to draw his pension, the stage 
in which he was riding upset, causing his death. 

Robert E. Burns was born in Washington 
County, Va., March 28, 1799, lived for a time in 
Clarke County, Ky., where, in 1825, he married 
Patsy Cass, and immediately set out for Sanga- 
mon County, 111., where he arrived in October of 
that year and settled in Buffalo Hart Grove. 
They had two children who grew to maturity, 
Robert Franklin, born July 11, 1832, and died 
July 11, 1852, and Elizabeth who married John 
T. Constant. Mr. Burns died May 24, 1880. 

James Lynn, who came in the fall of 1825, 
was a native of Rowan County, N. C., born Feb- 
ruary 24, 1788; in 1809 moved to Muhlenberg, 
Ky., later served eighteen months in the War of 
1812, and was severely wounded by a gunshot, in 
Canada. In 1814 he married Sarah DePoyster 
in Butler County, Ky., and after spending one 
year with his parents in North Carolina, in 1815 
removed to Barren County, Ky., and in the fall 
of 1825, to Sangainon County, 111., settling in the 
north part of Buffalo Hart Grove. Indians were 
still numerous in this region at that time, but 
gave the settlers no trouble. Mr. Lynn died 
March 11, 1860. 

John Constant, born in Clarke County, Ky., 
September 17, 1781, in 1802 married Susan Ed- 
nionston, and in October, 1826, came to Buffalo 
Hart Grove, Sangamon County, where he lived 
but nine years, dying November 18, 1835, his 
widow surviving him until March 18, 1864. 

Robert Cass, who came to Saugamon County 
with John Constant in October, 1826, was born 
in Iredell County, N. C., In 1768 or '69, the son 
of James Cass, a native of England, who in ac- 
cordance with the arbitrary methods of the 
British Government at that time, in his boyhood 
had been "pressed" into the naval service, in 
consequence of his early separation from his 
family even forgetting his own name, but being 
known as James Cast. After his separation 
from the British navy he came to Phil- 
adelphia, later settled in Iredell County, N. C., 
where he married and reared a famHy, and then 
moved to Clarke County, Ky. There he met two 
Englishmen by the name of Cass, one of whom 
proved to be his brother and the other his cousin, 
and he thus learned his true name. Robert Cass, 
the son and immigrant to Illinois, married in 
Iredell County, N. C., in 1790, Lucy Riley, and 
they had one child before coming to Clarke 
County, Ky., and four later. His wife died in 
February, 1809, and April 26, 1810, he married 
Mary Boggs, who bore him two children there. 



The family came to Sanganioii County in 182C, 
and there he died July 9, 1852, his wife having 
preceded him about twelve years. 

William P. Lawson, born in Kentucky in 1704, 
was there married in 1820 to Priscilla Duncan, 
who died in 1824, and in 1826 to Frances Uuun. 
In 1828 they came to Buffalo Hart Grove, Sanga- 
mon County, where they reared a large family, 
and where Mrs. Lawson died in 1867. Two of 
their daughters married members of the Cass 
family, and Mr. Lawsou spent the last years of 
his life with his children. 

Thomas A. Greening, born in Fauquier County, 
Va., November 19, 1798, in 1804 was taken by 
his parents to Cumberland Gap, Tenn., and in 
1808 to Clarke County, Ky. ; was a soldier in the 
War of 1812, and in 1816 married Elizabeth 
Dawson and finally moved to Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Mo., whence in the fall of 1830 they came to 
Sangamon County, 111., and spent the winter of 
the "deep snow" in what is now Buffalo Hart 
Township. In 1831 they moved to Loami Town- 
ship, where Mr. Greening died in 1855. 

John Robinson, who was a native of Virginia, 
married Nancy Robbins in Maryland, spent sev- 
eral years in Delaware and later in Kentucky, 
and thence came in 1830 to Sangamon, locating 
in Buffalo Hart Grove, where he died in 1841. 

James T. Robinson was born in Yorkshire, 
England, January 21, 1808, came to New York 
in 1829, and after traveling through New Eng- 
land and Canada, in December, 1830, came to 
Buffalo Hart Grove In Sangamon County, In 
time to witness the "deep snow." In the spring 
of 1832, having occasion to visit the East, he em- 
barked on the steamer "Talisman" at the time 
it made the famous trip up the Sangamon River 
to a point opposite the city of Springfield. Mr. 
Robinson died December 8, 1871. 

Barton Robinson, also a native of Yorkshire, 
England, studied medicine and obtained his de- 
gree from a medical college in London, and in 
December, 1831, joined his brother, James T., 
in Buffalo Hart Grove. He later assisted Jabez 
Capps in laying out the town of Mt. Pulaski in 
Logan County, but in 1858 moved to Lynn Coun- 
ty, Kan. 

Adam Starr, born in Culpeper County, Va., 
when a young man, went with his parents to 
Bourbon County, Ky., and later married Mary 
Carson in Clarke County, that State. In 1828, 
with his wife and their family of eight children, 
he came to Sangamon County, 111., becoming a 

resident of Buffalo Hart Grove, where he died 
in 1852. 

After 1852 immigration to the Buffalo Hart 
region became quite rapid. 

The Springfield St. Louis Division of Illinois 
Central Railroad crosses Buffalo Hart Township 
from southwest to northeast, Buffalo Hart Sta- 
tion on that line being the only village in the 

CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. The first religious 
services in the township were held in the summer 
of 1826 at the house of James Lynn, by a trav- 
eling minister of the Methodist church, the only 
persons present besides the preacher being Mr. 
and Mrs. Lynn and Mr. and Mrs. Burns. Sub- 
sequently ministers of other denominations vis- 
ited, holding services in private dwellings and 
school houses. In 1832 two ministers from 
England of the Episcopal denomination Dr. Bar- 
ton Robinson and a Mr. Davis having settled 
in this vicinity, proceeded to erect a chapel on 
Section 29, in which services were held by them, 
and later by representatives of other denomina- 
tions, but the attempt to effect church organi- 
zation proving unsuccessful, the building was 
later used by other denominations and for school 
purposes. No other church edifice was built in 
the township until 1867, when a union church 
was erected on the site of the old chapel at a 
cost of $2,400, and used for services by different 
denominations. A Methodist class was organ- 
ized at an early day. 

The first school in the township was taught 
by Kennedy Kincade in the summer of 1829, in 
one room of the first cabin erected by John Con- 
stant, and the next during the following summer 
by a Mr. Blue in a log house on the southeast 
quarter of Section 20. The first building for 
school purposes -a log cabin was erected on 
the farm of Mr. Constant in 1833, and the first 
school in it was taught by Eliza Hood. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. The first marriage In 
what is now Buffalo Hart Township was that 
of Isaac L. Skinner and Harriet L. Constant, 
which took place August 13, 1829, and their 
first child was born January 10, 1831, the winter 
of the "deep snow." During a visit to his father 
in August, 1831, Mr. Skinner died, and his 
widow later married James W. Langston, who 
died in 1860. 

The first birth in the township was that of 
Martha, daughter of James Lynn, born Decem- 
ber 29, 1826, but died September 25, 1830. 



The first death ill the township was that o 
John Ridgeway, in March, 1827. 

The first frame house was the chapel erected 
by Robinson and Davis in 1832. 

Robert E. Burns erected the first frame dwell- 
ing house in 1839, and it stood for many years. 

John Constant erected the first brick dwelling 
house in 1829, but it burned down in 1855. 

The first school was taught by Kennedy Kin- 
cade during the summer of 1829. 

The Methodists were the first denomination to 
organize a church in the township. 

James Haney opened the first store on Section 
31, in 1848. 

The first postoftice was established near what 
is now Buffalo Hart Station iu 1848 with James 
T. Robinson as first postmaster. Another office 
was located in the township on the Oilman, Clin- 
ton & Springfield Railroad (now the Springfield 
Division of the Illinois Central), in 1871. 

The first manufacturing concern was a horse- 
mill for grinding grain erected by Thomas Skinner 
at an early day, but in 1801 Robert Cass built 
a saw-mill near the center of the grove, which 
was removed to Buffalo Hart Station in 1874. 

Farnum Brothers began the manufacture of 
drain tiles here in 1879. 

A small village has grown up around , Buffalo 
Hart Station, which was established on the line 
of the Gilrnan, Clinton & Springfield (now Illinois 
Central) Railroad, but has never been incor- 
porated. About 1871 a general dry-goods store 
was established there by Messrs. Jack & Priest. 
The village has also had one or more groceries, 
blacksmith, carpenter and wagon-making shops, 
agricultural implement establishments, and con- 
siderable dealing in grain and livestock is done 

Being entirely an agricultural district and 
made up of large farms, Buffalo Hart township 
has a comparatively small population, amount- 
ing, according to the census of 1910, to 484. 


Capital Township was organized under the 
provisions of the General State Law, approved 
May 20, 1877, empowering the County Board of 
Supervisors of any county to organize the terri- 
tory embraced within the limits of any city hav- 
ing a population of not less than 3,000, as a 
separate town. Its present area is identical with 

that of the city of Springfield, hut before the 
date of its present organization, it was included 
within the original township of Springfield, while 
a small portion of the southern part of the city 
was taken from Woodside Township. Its local 
history, up to the date of organization, will, 
therefore, be found embraced in that of the 
original townships, and more fully in that of 
the city of Springfield, except as to township 
officials since 1878. 

The population of Capital Township, accord- 
ing to the census of 1910, was identical with that 
of the City of Springfield, viz. : 51,678. 

Other matters of history in connection with 
the city of Springfield, will be found in other 
chapters of this volume. 


Cartwright Township, situated in the north- 
west corner of Saugamoii County, and organized 
with its present limits on the adoption of town- 
ship organization iu 1861, has the distinction 
of being the largest township in the county, 
extending eight miles from north to south by 
nine miles from east to west, and embracing an 
area of seventy-two sections or square miles, 
being equivalent to two full congressional town- 
ships. It is bounded on the north by Menard 
County, east by Salisbury and Gardner Town- 
ships, south by Island Grove and west by Cass 
and Morgan Counties, and is watered by Rich- 
land Creek, iu the northern portion, Prairie 
Creek in the middle and eastern, and Spring 
Creek in the southeast corner. Except along the 
streams, the surface is generally level or mod- 
erately rolling prairie, embracing some of the 
richest soil n Sangamon County, and especially 
well adapted to the cultivation of grain and to 

The township received its name from Peter 
Cartwright, the celebrated Methodist itinerant, 
who settled on Richli>ud Creek in 1824, and re- 
sided near Pleasant Plains the rest of his life. 

The first settlement was made in 1819 along 
Richlaud Creek in the northern portion of what 
is now Cartwright Township. Among the first 
settlers, or those who came soon after, were: 
Roland Shepherd, Dallas Scott, Solomon Price, 
John B. Broadwell. Moses Broadwell, William 
Carson. Samuel Irwiu, Robert Milburn, William 
Crow, David S. I'urvines, Edward Pirkins, Hiram 



Penny, Maxwell Campbell, James H. Doherty; 
Richard Gaiues, Samuel M. Thompson, Moses K. 
Anderson, Wright Flynn, Robert Wilborn, David 
.Smith, Abraham Singard, Solomon Pearce, 
Samuel Newhouse, Bradley Vance, Evans Mar- 
tin, Ralph Morgan, Wilson Hamilton, John Pur- 
vines, Irwiu Masters, Joshua Crow, Buck Davis, 
Absalom Baker, Solomon Penny and Peter Cart- 
wright. In fact, with the exception of the city 
and township of Springfield, no other township 
in the country embraced within its limits a 
larger group of historic names than Cartwright. 

Dallas Scott, mentioned in the preceding list, 
was a native of Cumberland County, Ky., born 
April 6, 1791, married Sarah Foster in 1815, 
and in November, 1819, arrived ill what is now 
Cartwright Township, settling three miles east 
of the present town of Pleasant Plains, where 
he died in 1841. 

William Crow, born in Botetourt County, Va., 
March 5, 1793, was the sou of John Crow, a 
native of Ireland, who moved from Virginia to 
Barren County, Ky., where William married 
Miriam Enyart and in 1819 same to Madison 
County, 111., where he was ordained as a preacher 
of the Regular Baptist Church. In the fall of 
1820 he came to what is now Cartwright Town- 
ship, settling north of Richland Creek. Here 
his wife died in 1823, and in 1824 he married 
Susan Hall in Cumberland County, Ky., soon 
thereafter locating in the southeast corner of 
Cass County, but finally died at Brownsville, 
Neb., in 1865, after having been connected with 
the ministry some forty years. 

David Simpson Purvines, born in Cabarras 
County, N. C., December 25, 1790, married in his 
native State, and in the fall of 1820. came to 
Cartwright Township, settling on Richland 
Creek, where he died in 1852, having become 
the father of a large and influential family. 

Other members o