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Newton Batemax, LL. D. Paul Selby, A. M. 

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Ilistoiioal F.ii;yi-l())irilia ot Illiiuiis 

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STARNE, Alexander, Secretary of State and 
State Treasurer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Nov. 81, 1813; in the spring of 1836 removed to 
Illinois, settling at Griggsville, Pike Count}', 
where he opened a general store. From 1839 to 
'42 he served as Commissioner of Pike County, 
and, in the latter year, was elected to the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and re-elected in 
1844. Having, in the meanwhile, disposed of his 
store at Griggsville and removed to Pittsfield, he 
was appointed, by Judge Purple, Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, and elected to the same office for 
four years, when it was made elective. In 18.53 
he was elected Secretary of State, when he 
removed to Springfield, returning to Griggsville 
at the expiration of his term in 18.57, to assume 
the Presidency of the old Hannibal and Naples 
Railroad (now a part of the Wabash system). 
He repre-sented Pike and Brown Counties in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1803, and the same 
year was elected State Treasurer. He thereupon 
again removed to Springfield, where he resided 
until his deatli, being, with his sons, extensively 
engaged in coal mining. In 1870, and again in 
1873, he was elected State Senator from San- 
gamon County. He died at Springfield, March 
31, 18SG. 

ST.\TE BAXK OF ILLL\01S. The first legis- 
lation, having for its object the establishment of 
a bank within the territory which now consti- 
tutes the State of Illinois, was the passage, by 
the Territorial Legislature of 1816, of an act 
Incorporating the "Bank of Illinois at Shawnee- 
town, with branches at Edwardsville and Kas- 
kaskia. "' In the Second General Assembly of 
the State (1830) an act was passed, over the 
Governor's veto and in defiance of the adverse 
judgment of the Council of Revision, e.stablish- 
ing a State Bank at Vandalia with branches at 
Shawneetown, Edwardsville, and Brownsville in 
Jackson County. This was, in effect, a recharter- 
ing of the banks at Shawneetown and Edwards- 
ville. So far as the former is concerned, it seems 
to have been well managed; but the official 
conduct of the officers of the latter, on the basis 
of charges made by Governor Edwards in 1836. 
was made the subject of a legislative investiga- 
tion, which (although it resulted in nothing) 
seems to have had some basis of fact, in view of 
the losses finally sustained in winding up its 
affairs — that of the General Government amount- 
ing to S.54.000. Grave charges were made in this 
connection against men who were then, or 
afterwards became, prominent in State affairs, 
including one Justice of the Supreme Court and 
one (still later) a United States Senator. The 

experiment was disastrous, as, ten years later 
(1831), it was found necessary for the State to 
incur a debt of §100,000 to redeem the outstand- 
ing circulation. Influenced, however, by the 
popular demand for an increase in the "circu- 
lating medium," the State continued its experi- 
ment of becoming a stockholder in banks 
managed by its citizens, and accordingly we find 
it, in 1835, legislating in the same direction for 
the e.stabli.shing of a central "Bank of Illinois" 
at Springfield, with branches at other points as 
might be required, not to exceed six in number. 
One of these branches was established at Van- 
dalia and another at Chicago, furnishing the first 
banking institution of the latter city. Two 
years later, when the State was entering upon 
its scheme of internal improvement, laws were 
enacted increasing the capital stock of these 
banks to .S4, 000, 000 in the aggregate. Following 
the example of similar institutions elsewhere, 
they suspended specie payments a few months 
later, but were protected by "stay laws" and 
other devices until 1843, when the internal 
iaiprovement scheme having been finally aban- 
doned, they fell in general collapse. Tlie State 
ceased to be a stock-holder in 1843. and the banks 
were put in course of liquidation, though it 
required .several yeai's to comjilete the work. 

STATE CAPITALS. The first State capital of 
Illinois was Kaskaskia, where the first Territorial 
Legislature convened, Nov. 3.5, 1813. At that 
time there were but five counties in the State — 
St. Clair and Randolph being the most important, 
and Kaskaskia being the county-seat of the 
latter. Illinois was admitted into the Union as a 
State in 1818, and the first Constitution provided 
that the seat of government should remain at 
Kaskaskia until removed by legislative enact- 
ment. That instrument, however, made it obli- 
gatory upon the Legislature, at its first session, 
to petition Congress for a grant of not more than 
four sections of land, on which should be erected 
a town, which should remain the seat of govern- 
ment for twenty years. The petition was duly 
presented and granted; and, in accordance with 
the power granted by the Constitution, a Board 
of five Commissioners selected the site of the 
present city of Vandalia, then a point in the 
wilderness twenty miles north of any settle- 
ment. But so great was the faith of speculators 
in the future of the proposed city, that town lots 
were soon selling at SlOO to §780 each. The Com- 
missioners, in obedience to law, erected a plain 
two-story frame building — scarcely more than a 
commodious shanty — to which the State offices 
were removed in December, 1830. This building 



was burned, Dec. 9, 1823, and a brick structure 
erected in its place. Later, wlien tlie question of 
a second removal of the capital began to be agi- 
tated, the citizens of Vandalia assumed the risk 
of erecting a new, brick State House, costing 
§10,000. Of this amount ?G,000 was reimbursed 
by the Governor from the contingent fund, and 
the balance ($10,000) was appropriated in 1837, 
when the seat of government was removed to 
Springfield, Ijy vote of the Tenth General Assem- 
bly on the fourth ballot. The other places receiv- 
ing the principal vote at the time of the removal 
to Springfield, were Jacksonville, Vandalia, 
Peoria, Alton and Illiopolis — Springfield receiv- 
ing the largest vote at each ballot- The law 
removing the capital appropriated §.50,000 from 
the State Treasury, provided that a lilce amount 
should be raised by private subscription and 
guaranteed by bond, and that at least two acres 
of land should be donated as a site. Two State 
Houses have been erected at Springfield, the first 
cost of the present one (including furnishing) 
having been a little in excess of §4,000,000. 
Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the 
Legislature from Sangamon County at the time, 
was an influential factor in securing the removal 
of the capital to Springfield. 

STATE DEBT. The State debt, which proved 
so formidable a burden upon the State of Illinois 
for a generation, and, for a part of that period, 
seriously checked its prosperity, was the direct 
outgrowth of the internal improvement scheme 
entered upon in 1837. (See Internal Improvement 
Policy. ) At the time this enterprise was under- 
taken the aggregate debt of the State was less 
than §400.000 — accumulated within the preceding 
six years. Two years later (1838) it had increased 
to over §G,.500,000, while the total valuation of 
real and personal projierty, for the purpases of 
taxation, was less than §(i(),000,000, and the aggre- 
gate receipts of the State treasuiw, for the same 
year, amounted to less than §150,000. At the 
same time, the disbursements, for the support of 
the State Government alone, had grown to more 
than twice the receipts. This dis[)arity continued 
until the declining credit of the State forced upon 
the managers of public affairs an involuntary 
economy, when the means could no longer be 
secured for more lavish expenditures. The first 
bonds issued at the inception of the internal 
improvement scheme sold at a premium of 5 per 
cent, but rapidly declined until they were hawked 
in the markets of New York and London at a dis- 
count, in some cases falling into the hands of 
brokers who failed before completing their con- 

tracts, thus causing a direct loss to the State. If 
the internal improvement scheme was ill-advised, 
the time chosen to carry it into effect was most 
unfortunate, as it came simultaneouslj- with the 
panic of 1837, rendering the disaster all the more 
complete. Of the various works undertaken by 
the State, only the Illinois & Michigan Canal 
brought a return, all the others resulting in more 
or less complete loss. The internal improvement 
scheme was abandoned in 1839-40, but not until 
State bonds exceeding §13,000,000 had been 
issued. For two years longer the State struggled 
with its embarrassments, increased by the failure 
of the State Bank in February, 1842, and. by that 
of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, a few 
months later, with the proceeds of more than two 
and a half millions of the State's bonds in their 
possession. Thus left without credit, or means 
even of pa3'ing the accruing interest, there were 
those who regarded the State as hopelessly bank- 
rupt, and advocated rejiudiation as the only 
means of escape. Better counsels prevailed, how- 
ever; the Constitution of 1848 put the State on a 
basis of strict economy in the matter of salaries 
and general expenditures, with restrictions upon 
the Legislature in reference to incurring in- 
debtedness, while the beneficent "two-mill tax"' 
gave assurance to its creditors that its debts 
would be paid. While tlie growth of the State, 
in wealth and population, had previously been 
checked by the fear of excessive taxation, it now 
entered upon a new career of prosperity, in spite 
of its burdens— its increase in population, be- 
tween 1850 and 1860, amounting to over 100 per 
cent. The movement of the State debt after 1840 
— when the internal improvement scheme was 
abandoned — chiefly by accretions of unpaid inter- 
est, has been estimated as follows: 1842, §1.5,- 
637,9.50; 1844, §14,633,969; 1846. §16,389,817; 1848, 
§16,661.795. It reached its maximum in 1853 — 
the first year of Governor Matteson's administra- 
tion — when it was officiallj" reported at §16,724,- 
177. At this time the work of extinguishment 
began, and was prosecuted under sucoessive 
administrations, excei)t during the war, when 
the vast expense incurred in sending troops to 
the field caused an increase. Dvuing Governor 
Bissell's administration, the reduction amounted 
to over §3.000,000; during Oglesby's, to over five 
and a quarter million, besides two and a q\iarter 
million paid on interest. In 18S0 the debt had 
been reduced to §281.059.11, and. before the close 
of 1882, it had been entirely extinguished, except 
a balance of §18,500 in bonds, which, having lieen 
called in years previously and never presented fo» 



payment, are supposed to have been lost. (See 
Macalisler and Stebbins Bonch.) 

STATE (il ARDIANS FOR (ilRLS, a bureau 
organized for tlie care of female juvenile delin- 
quents, by act of June 2, 1893. The Board con.sists 
of seven members, nominated by the Executive 
and confirmed by the Senate, and who consti- 
tute a body politic and corporate. Not more than 
two of the members may reside in the same Con- 
gressional District and. of the seven members, 
four must be women. (See also Home for Female 
Juvenile Offenders.) The term of office is six 

STATE HOUSE, located at Springfield. Its 
construction was begun under an act passed by 
the Legislature in February, 18GT, and completed 
in 1887. It stands in a park of about eight acres, 
donated to the State by the citizens of Spring- 
field. A provision of the State Constitution of 
1870 prohibited the expenditure of any sum in 
excess of .?3,. 500,000 in the erection and furnishing 
of the building, without previous approval of such 
additional expenditure by the people. This 
amount proving insufficient, the Legislature, at 
its session of 1885, passed an act making an addi- 
tional appropriation of §531,712, which having 
been approved by popular vote at the general 
election of 1886, the expenditure was made and 
the capitol completed during the following year, 
thus raising the total cost of construction and fur- 
nishing to a little in excess of §4,000,000. The 
building is cruciform as to its ground plan, and 
classic in its stj-le of architecture; its extreme 
dimensions (including porticoes), from north 'to 
south, being 379 feet, and, from east to west, 286 
feet. The walls are of dressed Joliet limestone, 
while the porticoes, which are spacious and 
lofty, are of sandstone, supported by polished 
columns of graj' granite. The three stories of 
the building are surmounted by a Mansard roof, 
with two turrets and a central dome of stately 
dimensions. Its extreme height. t6 the top of 
the iron flag-staif, which rises from a lantern 
springing from the dome, is 364 feet. 

tion for the education of teachers, organized 
under an act of the General Assembly, passed 
Feb. 18, 1857. This act placed the work of 
organization in the hands of a board of fifteen 
persons, which was styled "The Board of Educa- 
tion of the State of Illinois, " and was constituted 
as follows; C. B. Denio of Jo Daviess County; 
Simeon Wright of Lee; Daniel Wilkins of Mc- 
Lean ; Charles E. Hovey of Peoria ; George P. Rex 
of Pike; Samuel W. Moulton of Shelby; John 

Gillespie of Jasper ; George Bunsen of St. Clair; 
Wesley Sloan of Pope; Ninian W. Edwards ol 
Sangamon ; John R. Eden of Moultrie ; Flavel 
Moseley and William Wells of Cook ; Albert R. 
Shannon of White; and the Superintendent oV 
Public Instruction, ex-officio. The object of the 
University, as defined in the organizing law, is 
to qualify teachers for the public schools of the 
State, and the course of instruction to be given 
embraces "the art of teaching, and all branches 
which jiertain to a common-school education ; in 
the elements of the natural sciences, including 
agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable 
physiology ; in the fundamental laws of the 
United States and of the State of Illinois in 
regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and 
such other studies as the Board of Education may, 
from time to time, prescribe." Various cities 
competed for the location of the institution, 
Bloomington being finally selected, its bid, in- 
cluding 160 acres of land, being estimated as 
equivalent to $141,725. The corner-stone was 
laid on September 29, 1857, and the first building 
was ready for permanent occupancy in Septem- 
ber, 1860. Previously, however, it had been 
sufficiently advanced to permit of its being used, 
and the first commencement exercises were held 
on June 29 of the latter year. Three years 
earlier, the academic department had been organ- 
ized under the charge of Charles E. Hovey. The 
first cost, including furniture, etc., was not far 
from §300.000. Gratuitous instruction is given to 
two pupils from each county, and to three from 
each Senatorial District. The departments are ; 
Grammar school, high school, normal department 
and model school, all of which are overcrowded. 
The whole number of students in attendance on 
the institution during tlie school year, 1897-98, 
was 1,197, of whom 891 were in the normal 
department and 306 in the practice .school depart- 
ment, including representatives from 86 coun- 
ties of the State, with a few pujjils from other 
States on the payment of tuition. The teaching 
faculty (including the President and Librarian) 
for the same year, was made up of twenty-six 
members — twelve ladies and fourteen gentlemen. 
The expenditures for the year 1897 98 aggregated 
.S47.020.92, against 866,528.69 for 1896-97. Nearly 
822,000 of the amount expended during the latter 
year was on account of the construction of a 
gymnasium building. 

STATE I'ROI'ERTY. The United States Cen- 
sus of 1890 gave the value of real and personal 
propert}' belonging to the State as follows: Pub- 
lic lands, §328,000; buildings, §22,164,000; mis- 



cellaneous property, S3, 050,000— total, 525.142,000. 
The land may be sulidivided thus: Camp-grouuds 
of the Illinois National Guard near Springfield 
(donated), $40,000; Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
$168,000; Illinois University lands, in Illinois 
(donated by the General Government), §41,000, in 
Minnesota (similarly donated), 879,000. Tlie 
buildings comprise those connected with the 
charitable, penal and educational institutions of 
the State, besides the Stata Arsenal, two build- 
ings for the use of the Appellate Courts (at 
Ottawa and Mount Vernon), the State House, 
the Executive Mansion, and locks and dams 
erected at Henry and Copperas Creek. Of the 
miscellaneous propert}', §120,000 represents the 
equipment of the Illinois National Guard; §1,9.59,- 
000 the value of tlie movable property of public 
buildings; 8550,000 the endowment fund of tlie 
University of Illinois; and §21,000 the movable 
property of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Tlie 
figures given relative to the value of the public 
buildings include only the first appropriations 
for their erection. Considerable sums have 
since been expended upon some of them in repairs, 
enlargements and improvements. 

STATE TREASl'RER.S. The only Treasurer 
of Illinois during the Territorial period was John 
Tliomas, who served from 1812 to 1818, and 
became the first incumbent under the State 
Government. Under tlie Constitution of 1818 
the Treasurer was elected, biennially, by joint vote 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly ; by 
the Constitution of 1848, this oftlcer was made 
elective by the people for the same period, witli- 
out limitations as to number of terms; under the 
Constitution of 1870, the manner of election and 
duration of term are unchanged, but the incum- 
bent is ineligible to re-election, for two years 
from expiration of the term for which he may 
have been chosen. The following is a list of the 
State Treasurers from 1818 to 1911, with term of 
each in office: John Thomas, 1818-19; Roljert K. 
McLaughhn, 1819-23; Abner Field, 1823-27; James 
Hall, 1827-31; John Dement, 1831-36; Charles 
Gregory, 1836-37; John D. ^^'hiteside, 1837-41; 
Milton Carpenter, 1841-48, John Moore, 1848-57; 
James Miller, 1857-59; William Butler, 1859-63; 
Alexander ,Starne, 1863-65; James H. Beveridge, 
1865-67; George W Smith, 1867-69; Erastus N. 
Bates, 1869-73; Edward Rutz, 1873-75; Thomas S. 
Ridgway, 1875-77; Edward Rutz, 1877-79, John C. 
Smith, 1879-81; Edward Rutz, 1881-83; John C. 
Smith, 1883-85; Jacob Gross, 188.5-87; John R. 
Tanner, 1887-89; Charles Becker, 1889-91; Edward 
S. Wilson, 1891-93; Rufus N. Ramsay, 1893-95; 

Henry Wulff, 1895-97; Henry L. Hertz, 1897-99; 
Floyd K. Whittemore, 1899-1901 ; Moses O. William- 
son, 1901-03; Fred .V. Busse, 1903-05; Len Small, 
1905-07; John F. Smulski, 1907-09; Andrew Russel, 
1909-11; E. E. Mitchell, 1911—. 

STAUNTON, a village in Macoupin County, on 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis and \\'abash Rail- 
ways, 36 miles northeast of St. Louis; an agricultural 
and mining region; has two banks, churches and a 
weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 2,786; (1910), 5.048. 

STEGER, a village in Cook and Will Counties, 
on the C. & E. I. R. R.; has some local industries 
and one weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 2,161. 

STEEL PRODUCTION. In the manufacture 
of steel, Illinois has long ranked as the second 
State in the Union in the amount of its output, 
and, during the period between 1880 and 1890, 
the increase in production was 241 per cent. In 
1880 there were but six steel works in the State ; 
in 1890 these had increased to fourteen ; and tlie 
production of steel of all kinds (in tons of 2,000 
pounds) had risen from 254,569 tons to 868,250. 
Of the 3,837,039 tons of Bessemer steel ingots, or 
direct castings, produced in the United States in 
1890, 22 per cent were turned out in Illinois, 
nearly all the steel produced in the State being 
made by that process. From the tonnage of 
ingots, as given above, Illinois produced 622,260 
pounds of steel rails, — more than 30 per cent of 
the aggregate for the entire countrj-. This fact 
is noteworthy, inasmuch as the competition in 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel rails, since 
1880, has been so great that many rail mills liave 
converted their steel into forms other than rails, 
experience having proved tlieir production to 
any considerable extent, during the past few 
years, unprofitable except in works favorably 
located for obtaining cheap raw material, or 
operated under the latest and most approved 
methods of manufacture. Open-hearth steel is 
no longer made in Illinois, but the manufacture 
of crucible steel is slightly increasing, the out- 
put in 1890 being 445 tons, as against 130 in 1880. 
For purposes requiring special grades of steel the 
product of the crucible process will be alwaj'S 
in demand, but the high cost of manufacture 
prevents it, in a majoritj' of instances, from 
successfully competing in price with the other 
processes mentioned. 

STEPHENSON, Benjamin, pioneer and early 
politician, came to Illinois from Kentucky in 
1809. and was appointed the first Slieriff of 
Ranilolph County by Governor Edwards under 
the Territorial Government; afterwards served 



as a Colonel of Illinois militia during the War of 
1812; represented Illinois Territory as Delegate 
in Congress, 1814-16, and, on his retirement from 
Congress, became Register of the Land Office at 
Edwardsville, finally dying at Edwardsville — Col. 
James W. (Stephenson) , a son of the preceding, 
was a soldier during the Black Ilawk War, after- 
wards became a prominent politician in the north- 
western part of the State, served as Register of 
the Land Office at Galena and, in 1838, received 
the Democratic nomination for Governor, but 
withdrew before the election. 

STEPHENSON, (Dr.) Benjamin Franklin, 
physician and soldier, was born in Wayne 
County, 111., Oct. 30, 1822, and accompanied his 
parents, in 1825, to Sangamon County, where the 
family settled. His early educational advantages 
were meager, and he did not study his profession 
(medicine) until after reaching his majority, 
graduating from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
in 1850. He began practice at Petersburg, but, 
in April, 1862, was mustered into the volunteer 
army as Surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry. After a little over two years service lie 
was mustered out in June, 1864, when he took up 
his residence in Springfield, and, for a year, was 
engaged in the drug business there. In 1865 he 
resumed professional practice. He lacked tenac- 
ity of purpose, however, was indifferent to money, 
and always willing to give his own services and 
orders for medicine to the poor. Hence, his prac- 
tice was not lucrative. He was one of the leaders 
in the organization of the Grand Army of tlie 
Republic (which see), in connection with which 
he is most widely known ; but his services in its 
cause failed to receive, during his lifetime, the 
recognition which they deserved, nor did the 
organization promptly flourish, as he had hoped. 
He finally returned with his family to Peters- 
burg. Died, at Rock Creek, Menard, County, 111., 
August 30, 1871. 

STEPHENSON COUNTY, a northwestern 
county, with an area of 573 square miles. The 
soil is rich, producti\'e and well timbered. Fruit- 
culture and stock-raising are among the chief 
industries. Not until 1827 did the aborigines quit 
the localit}', and the county was organized, ten 
years later, and named for Gen. Benjamin 
Stephenson. A man named Kirker, who had 
been in the employment of Colonel Gratiot as a 
lead-miner, near Galena, is said to have built the 
first cabin within the present limits of what was 
called Burr Oak Grove, and set himself up as an 
Indian-trader in 1826, but only remained a short 
time. He was followed, the next year, by Oliver 

W. Kellogg, who took Kirker's place, built a 
more pretentious dwelling and became the first 
permanent settler. Later came William Wad- 
dams, the Montagues, Baker, Kilpatrick, Preston, 
the Goddards, and others whose names are linked 
with the county's early history. The first house 
in Freeport was built by William Baker. Organi- 
zation was effected in 1837, the total poll being 
eighty-four votes. The earliest teacher was Nel- 
son Martin, who is said to have taught a school 
of some twelve pupils, in a house which stood on 
the site of the present city of Freeport. Popula- 
tion (1890), 31,338; (1900), 34,9.33; (1910), 30, 821. 

STERLING, a flourishing city on the n^rth 
bank of Rock River, in Whiteside County, 109 
miles west of Chicago, 29 miles east of Clinton, 
Iowa, and .52 miles east-northeast of Rock Island. 
It has ample railway facilities, furnished by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Sterling & 
Peoria, and the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
roads. It contains fourteen churches, an opera 
house, high and grade schools, Carnegie library, 
Government postoffice building, three banks, 
electric street and interurban car lines, electric 
and gas lighting, water-works, paved streets and 
sidewalks, fire department and four newspaper 
offices, two issuing daily editions. It has fine 
water-power, and is an important manufacturing 
center, its works turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages, paper, barbed-wire, school furni- 
ture, burial caskets, pumps, sash, doors, etc. It 
also has the Sterling Iron Works, besides foundries 
and machine shops. The river here flows through 
charming scenery. Pop. (1900), 6,309; (1910), 7,467. 

STEVENS, Bradford .1., ex-Congre.ssman, was 
born at Boscawen (afterwards Webster), N. H., 
Jan. 3, 1813. After attending schools in New 
Hampshire and at Montreal, he entered Dart- 
mouth College, graduating therefrom in 1835. 
During the six years following, he devoted him- 
self to teaching, at Hopkinsville. Ky., and New 
York City. In 1843 he removed to Bureau 
County, 111., where he became a merchant and 
farmer. In 1868 he was chairman of the Board 
of Supervisors, and, in 1870, was elected to Con- 
gress, as an Independent Democrat, for the Fifth 

STEVENSON, Adlai E., ex-Vice-President of 
the United States, was born in Christian County, 
Ky., Oct. 23, 1835. In 1853 he removed with his 
parents to Bloomington, McLean County, 111., 
where the family settled; was educated at the 
Illinois Wesleyan University and at Centre Col- 
lege, Ky., was admitted to the bar in 1858 and 
began practice at Metamora, W^oodford County, 



where he was Master in Chancery, 1861-65, and 
State's Attorney, 1865-69. In 186-4 he was candi- 
date for Presidential Elector on the Democratic 
ticket. In 1869 he returned to Bloomington, 
where he has since resided. In 1874, and again 
in 1876, lie was an unsuccessful candidate of his 
party for Congress, but was elected as a Green- 
back Democrat in 1878, though defeated in 1880 
and 1882. In 1877 he was appointed by President 
Hayes a member of the Board of Visitors to Point. During the first administration of 
President Cleveland (1885-89) he was First Assist- 
ant Postmaster General; was a member of the 
National Democratic Conventions of 1884 and 
1892, being Chairman of the Illinois delegation 
the latter jear. In 1892 he received his party's 
nomination for the Vice-Presidency, and was 
elected to that office, serving until 1897. Since 
retiring from office he has resumed his residence 
at Bloomington. 

STEWARD, Lewis, manufacturer and former 
Congressman, was born in Wayne Count}', Pa., 
Nov. 20, 1824, and received a common school 
education. At the age of 14 he accompanied his 
parents to Kendall County, 111., where he after- 
wards resided, being engaged in farming and the 
manufacture of agricultural implements at 
Piano. He studied law but never practiced. In 
1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, being defeated 
by Shelby M. Cullom. In 1890 the Democrats of 
the Eighth Illinois District elected him to Con- 
gress. In 1892 he was again a candidate, but was 
defeated by his Republican opponent, Robert A. 
Childs, by the narrow margin of 27 votes, and, 
in 1894, was again defeated, this time being pitted 
against Albert J. Hopkins. Mr. Steward died at 
his home at Piano. August 26, 1896. 

STEWARDSOX, a town of Shelby County, at 
the intersection of the Toledo, St. Louis & Kan- 
sas City Railway with the Altamont branch of 
the Wabash. 12 miles southeast of Shelby ville; 
is in a grain and lumlier region : has a bank and 
a weekly paper. Pop. (1900), 677: (1910), 720. 

STICKNEY, William H., pioneer lawyer, was 
born in Baltimore. Md. , Nov. 9, 1809, studied law 
and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati in 
1831, and, in Illinois in 1834, being at that time a 
resident of Shawneetown; was elected State's 
Attorney by the Legislature, in 1839, for the cir- 
cuit embracing some fourteen counties in the 
southern and southeastern part of the State ; for 
a time also, about 1835-36, officiated as editor of 
"The Gallatin Democrat," and "The Illinois 
Adverti.ser, " published at Shawneetown. In 1846 

Mr. Stickney was elected to the lower branch of 
the General Assembly from Gallatin County, and, 
twenty -eight years later — having come to Chi- 
cago in 1848 — to the same body from Cook 
County, serving in the somewhat famous Twenty- 
ninth Assembly. He also held the office of 
Police Justice for some thirteen years, from 1860 
onward. He lived to an advanced age, dying in 
Chicago, Feb. 14, 1898, being at the time the 
oldest surviving member of the Chicago bar. 

STILES, Isaac Newton, lawyer and soldier, 
born at Suffield, Conn., July 16, 1833; was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Lafayette, Ind., in 1855, 
became Prosecuting Attorne}', a member of the 
Legislature and an effective speaker in the Fre- 
mont campaign of 1856; enlisted as a private sol- 
dier at the beginning of the war, went to the 
field as Adjutant, was captured at Malvern Hill, 
and, after six weeks' confinement in Libby 
prison, exchanged and returned to dutj' ; was 
promoted Major, Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, 
and brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious 
service. After the war he practiced his profes- 
sion in Chicago, though almost totally blind. 
Died, Jan. 18, 1895. 

STILLMAX, Stephen, first State Senator from 
Sangamon County, 111., was a native of Massachu- 
setts who came, with his widowed mother, to 
Sangamon Count}' in 1820, and settled near 
Williamsville, where he became the first Post- 
master in the first postoffice in the State north of 
the Sangamon River. In 1822, Mr. Stillman was 
elected as the first State Senator from Sangamon 
County, serving four years, and, at his first session, 
being one of the opponents of the pro-slavery 
Convention resolution. He died, in Peoria, some- 
where between 1835 and 1840. 

STILLM.\>' VALLEY, village in Ogle County, 
on Chicago Great Western and the Chicago. Mil- 
waukee tt St. Paul Railways; site of first battle 
Black Hawk War; has graded schools, creameries, 
a bank and a newspaper. Pop. about 400. 

STITES, Samuel, pioneer, was born near 
Mount Bethel, Somerset County, N. J., Oct. 31, 
1776; died, August 16, 1839, on his farm, which 
subsequently became the site of the city of Tren- 
ton, in Clinton County, 111. He was descended 
from John Stites, M.D., who was born in Eng- 
land in 1595, emigrated to America, and died at 
Hempstead, L. I., in 1717, at the age of 122 years. 
The family removed to New Jersey in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Samuel was a 
cousin of Benjamin Stites, the first white man to 
settle within the present limits of Cincinnati, and 
various members of the family were prominent in 



the ssttlement of the upper Ohio Valley as early 
as 1788. Samuel Stites married, Sept. 14, 1794, 
Martha Martin, daughter of Ephraim Martin, 
and grand-daughter of Col. Ephraim Martin, both 
soldiers of the Xe%v Jersey line during the Revo- 
lutionary War — with the last named of whom 
he had (in connection with John Cleves Symmes) 
been intimately associated in the purchase and 
settlement of the Miami Valley. In 1800 he 
removed to Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1803 to 
Greene Covmty, and, in 1818, in company with his 
son-in-law. Anthony Wayne Casad, to St. Clair 
County, 111., settling near Union Grove. Later, he 
removed to O'Fallon, and, still later, to Clinton 
County. He left a large family, several members 
of which became prominent pioneers in the 
movements toward Minnesota and Kansas. 

STOLBRAND, Carlos John Mueller, soldier, 
was born in Sweden, May 11, 1821 ; at the age of 
18, enlisted in the Royal Artillery of his native 
land, serving through the campaign of Schleswig- 
Holstein (1848) ; came to the United States soon 
after, and, m 1861, enlisted in the first battalion 
of Illinois Light Artillery, finally becoming Chief 
of Artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. When 
the latter became commander of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps, Col. Stolbrand was placed at the 
head of the artillery brigade; in February, 186.5, 
was made Brigadier-General, and mustered out 
in January, 1866. After the vi'ar he went South, 
and was Secretary of the South Carolina Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1868. The same j'ear lie 
was a delegate to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago, and a Presidential Elector. 
He was an inventor and patented various im- 
provements in steam engines and boilers; was 
also Superintendent of Public Buildings at 
Charleston, S. C, under President Harrison. 
Died, at Charleston, Feb. 3, 1894. 

STOXE, Daniel, early lawyer and legislator, 
was a native of Vermont and graduate of Middle- 
bury College; became a member of the Spring- 
field (111.) bar in 1833, and, in 1836, was elected 
to the General Assembly — being one of the cele- 
brated "Long Nine" from Sangamon County, and 
joining Abraham Lincoln in his protest against 
a series of pro-slavery resolutions which had been 
adopted by the House. In 1837 he was a Circuit 
Court Judge and, being assigned to tlis north- 
western part of the State, removed to Galena, 
but was legislated out of office, when he left the 
State, dying a few j-ears later, in Essex County, 
N. J. 

STOXE, Horatio 0., pioneer, was born in 
Ontario (now Monroe) County, N. Y., Jan. 2, 

1811 ; in boyhood learned the trade of shoemaker, 
and later acted as overseer of laborers on the 
Lackawanna Canal. In 1831, having located in 
Wayne Count)-, Mich., he was drafted for the 
Black Hawk War, serving twenty-two days under 
Gen. Jacob Brown. In January, 1835, he came 
to Chicago and, having made a fortunate specu- 
lation in real estate in that early day, a few 
months later entered upon the grocerj- and pro- 
vision trade, which he afterwards extended to 
grain; finally giving his chief attention to real 
estate, in which he was remarkably successful, 
leaving a large fortune at his death, which 
occurred in Chicago, June 20, 1877. 

STONE, (Rev.) Luther, Baptist clergyman, 
was born in the town of Oxford, Worcester 
Count}-, Mass., Sept. 36, 181.'), and spent his boy- 
hood on a farm. After acquiring a common 
school education, he prepared for college at Lei- 
cester Acadenn-, and, in 1835, entered Brown 
University, graduating in the class of 1839. He 
then spent three years at the Theological Insti- 
tute at Newton, Mass. ; was ordained to the 
ministr}' at Oxford, in 1843, but, coming west the 
next year, entered upon evangelical work in 
Rock Island, Davenport, Burlington and neigh- 
boring towns. Later, he was pastor of the First 
BaptLst Church at Rockford, 111. In 1847 Mr. 
Stone came to Chicago and established "The 
Watchman of the Prairies," which survives to- 
day under the name of "The Standard," and has 
become the leading Baptist organ in the West. 
After six years of editorial work, he took up 
evangelistic work in Chicago, among the poor 
and criminal classes. During the Civil War he 
conducted religious services at Camp Douglas, 
Soldiers" Rest and the Marine Hospital. He was 
associated in tlie conduct and promotion of many 
educational and charitable institutions. He did 
much for the First Baptist Church of Chicago, 
and, during the latter years of his life, was 
attached to the Immanuel Baptist Church, 
which he labored to establish. Died, in July, 

STONE, Melville E., journalist, banker, Man- 
ager ot Associated Press, born at Hudson, 111., 
August 18, 1848. Coming to Chicago in 1860, he 
graduated from the local high school in 1867, 
and, in 1870, acquired the sole proprietorship of 
a foundry and machine shop. Finding himself 
without resources after the great fire of 1871, he 
embarked in journalism, rising, through the suc- 
cessive grades of repf)rter, city pditor, assistant 
editor and Washington correspondent, to the 
position of editor-in-chief of his own journal. 



He was connected with various Chicago dailies 
between 18T1 and 1875, and, on Christmas Day 
of the latter year, issued the first number of "The 
Chicago Daily News." He gradually disposed of 
his interest in this journal, entirel)' severing 
his connection therewith in 1888. Since that 
date he has been engaged in banking in the city 
of Chicago, and is also General Manager of the 
Associated Press. 

STONE, Samuel, ijhilanthropist, was born at 
Chesterfield, Mass., Dec. 6, 1798; left an orphan 
at seven years of age, after a short term in Lei- 
cester Academy, and several years in a wholesale 
store in Boston, at the age of 19 removed to 
Rochester, N. Y., to take charge of interests in 
the "Holland Purchase," belonging to his father's 
estate; in 1843-49, was a resident of [Detroit and 
interested in some of the early railroad enter- 
prises centering there, but the latter year re- 
moved to Milwaukee, being there associated with 
Ezra Cornell in telegraph construction. In 1859 
he became a citizen of Chicago, where he was 
one of the founders of the Chicago Historical 
Society, and a liberal patron of many enterprises 
of a public and benevolent character. Died, May 
4, 1876. 

STOCKTON, a village of Jo Daviess County, on 
the Chicago Great Western R.R. Pop. (1910), 1,096. 

STOXI>'(iTOX, a \illage of Christian County; 
on the Wabash Railroad in a farming and coal 
mining district. Pop. (1910), 1,118. 

STOREY, Wilbur F., journalist and news- 
paper publisher, was born at Salisbury-, Vt., Dec. 
19, 1819. He began to learn the printer's trade 
at 12, and, before he was 19, was part owner of a 
Democratic paper called "The Herald," published 
at La Porte, Ind. Later, he either edited or con- 
trolled journals published at Mishawaka, Ind., 
and Jackson and Detroit, Mich. In January, 
1861, he became the principal owner of "The 
Chicago Times," then the leading Democratic 
organ of Chicago. His paper soon came to -be 
regarded as the organ of the anti-war party 
throughout the Northwest, and, in June, 1863, 
was suppressed by a military' order issued by 
General Burnside, wliich was subsequently 
revoked by President Lincoln. The net result 
was an increase in "The Times" " notoriety and 
circulation. Other charges, of an equally grave 
nature, relating to its sources of income, its char- 
acter as a family new.spaper, etc., were repeatedly 
made. but to all these Mr. Storey turned a deaf 
ear. He lost heavil}- in the fire of 1871, but, in 
1872, appeared as the editor of "The Times." 
then destitute of political ties About 187G his 

health began to decline. Medical aid failed to 
afford relief, and, in August, 1884, he was ad- 
judged to be of unsound mind, and his estate was 
placed in the hands of a conservator. On the 
27th of the following October (1884), he died at 
his home in Chicago. 

STORRS, Emery Alexander, lawyer, was born 
at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus Coimt\-, N. Y., August 
12, 1835; began the study of law with his father, 
later pursued a legal course at Buffalo, and, in 
1853, was admitted to the bar ; spent two years 
(1857-59) in New York City, the latter year re- 
moving to Chicago, where he attained great 
prominence as an advocate at the bar. as well as 
an orator on other occasions. Politically a 
Republican, he took an active part in Presidential 
campaigns, being a delegate-at-large from Illinois 
to the National Republican Conventions of 1868, 
'72, and '80, and serving as one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents in 1872. Erratic in habits and a master of 
epigram and repartee, many of his speeches are 
quoted with relish and appreciation by those who 
were his contemporaries at the Chicago bar. 
Died suddenly, while in attendance on the Su- 
preme Court at Ottawa, Sept. 12, 1885. 

STRAWX, Jacob, agriculturist and stock- 
dealer, born in Somerset County, Pa., May 30, 
1800; removed to Licking County, Ohio, in 1817, 
and to Illinois, in 1831, settling four miles south- of Jacksonville. He was one of the first to 
demonstrate the possibilities of Illinois as a live- 
stock state. L'npretentious and despising mere 
show, he illustrated the virtues of industry, fru- 
gality and honesty. At his death — which occurred 
August 23, 186.5 — he left an estate estimated in 
value at about §1,000,000, acquired by industry 
and business enterprise. He was a zealous 
Unionist during the war, at one time contributing 
§10.000 to the Christian Commission. 

STREATOR, a city (laid out in 1868 and incor- 
porated in 1882) in tlie southern part of La Salle 
County, 93 miles southwest of Chicago; situated 
on the Vermilion River and a central point for 
five railroads. It is surrounded by a rich agri- 
cultural country, and is underlaid by coal seams 
(two of which are worked) and by shale and 
various clay products of value, adapted to the 
manufacture of fire and building-brick, drain- 
pipe, etc. The city is thoroughly modern, having 
gas, electric lighting, street railwaj-s, water- 
works, a good fire-department, and a large, im- 
proved public park. Churches and schools are 
numerous, as are also fine public and pri%-ate 
buildings. One of the chief industries is the 
manufacture of glass, including rolled-plate. 



window-glass, flint and Bohemian ware and glass 
bottles. Other successful industries are foundries 
and machine shops, flour mills, and clay working 
establishments. There are several banks, and 
three daily and weekly papers are published here. 
The estimated property valuation, in 1884, was 
§12,000,000. Streator boasts some handsome 
public buildings, especially the (iovernment post- 
ofBce and the Carnegie public libiary building, 
both of wliich have been erected within the past 
few years. Pop. (1S90), 11,414; (1910), 14,25.3, 

STREET, Joseph M., pioneer and early politi- 
cian, settled at Shawneetown about 1812, coming 
from Kentucky, though believed to have been a 
native of Eastern Virginia. In 1827 he was a 
Bi'igadier-General of militia, and appears to have 
been prominent in the affairs of that section of 
the State. His correspondence with Governor 
Edwards, about this time, shows him to have been 
a man of far more than ordinary education, with 
a good opinion of his merits and capabilities. He 
was a most persistent applicant for office, making 
urgent appeals to Governor Edwards, Henry Clay 
and other politicians in Kentucky, Virginia and 
Washington, on the ground of his poverty and 
large familj-. In 1827 he received the offer of 
the clerkship of the new county of Peoria, but, 
on vi.siting t!iat region, was disgusted with the 
prospect; returning to Sliawneetown, bouglit a 
farm in Sangamon County, but, before the close 
of the year, was appointed Indian Agent at 
Prairie du Chien. This was during the difficul- 
ties with the Winnebago Indians, upon whicli he 
made voluminous reports to the Secretary of 
War. Mr. Street was a son-in-law of Gen. 
Thomas Posey, a Revolutionary soldier, who was 
prominent in the early history of Indiana and its 
last Territorial Governor. (See Posey, (Gen.) 
nomas. ) 

STREETER, Alson J., farmer and politician, 
was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., in 1823; 
at the age of two years accompanied his father to 
Illinois, the family settling at Dixon, Lee Covmty, 
He attended Knox College for three years, and, 
in 1849, went to California, where he spent two 
years in gold mining. Returning to Illinois, he 
purcliased a farm of 240 acres near New Windsor, 
Mercer County, to which he has since added sev- 
eral thousand acres. In 1872 he was elected to 
the lower house of the Twenty-eighth General 
Assembly as a Democrat, but, in 1873, allied him- 
self with the Greenback party, whose candidate 
for Congress he was in 1878, and for Governor in 
1880, when he received nearly 3,000 votes more 
than his party's Presidential nominee, in Illinois. 

In 1884 he was elected State Senator by a coali- 
tion of Greenbackers and Democrats in the 
Twenty-fourth Senatorial District, but acted as 
an independent during his term. Died Nov. 24, 1901. 

STRO>'G, William Emerson, soldier, was born 
at Granville, N. Y., in 1840; from 13 years of age, 
spent his early life in Wisconsin, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at Racine in 1861. The 
same year he enlisted under the first call for 
troops, took part, as Captain of a Wisconsin Corn- 
pan}', in thfe first battle of Bull Run; was 
afterwards promoted and assigned to duty as 
Inspector-General in the West, participated in 
the Vicksburg and Atlanta campaigns, being 
finally advanced to the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. After some fifteen months spent in the 
position of Inspector-General of the Freedmen's 
Bureau (bSG.j-OG), he located in Chicago, and 
became connectSd with several important busi- 
ness enterprises, besides assisting, as an officer on 
the staff of Governor Cullom, in the organization 
of the Illinois National Guard. He was elected 
on tlie first Board of Directors of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and, while making a tour 
of Europe in the interest of that enterprise, died, 
at Florence, Italy, April 10, 1891. 

STUART, John Todd, lawyer and Congress- 
man, born near Lexington, Ky. , Nov. 10, 1807 — 
the son of Robert Stuart, a Presbyterian minister 
and Professor of Languages in Transylvania 
University, and related, on the maternal side, to 
the Todd family, of wliom ilrs. Abraham Lincoln 
was a member. He graduated at Centre College, 
Danville, in 1826, and, after studying law, re- 
moved to Springfield, 111., in 1828, and began 
practice. In 1832 he was elected Representative 
in the General Assembly, re-elected in 18.34, and, 
in 1836, defeated, as the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress, by Wm. L. May, though elected, two years 
later, over Stephen A. Douglas, and again in 1840. 
In 1837, Abraham Lincoln, who had been 
studying law under Mr. Stuart's advice and 
instruction, became his partner, the relation- 
ship continuing until 1841. He served in the 
State Senate, 1849-53, was the Bell-Everett 
candidate for Governor in 1860, and was 
elected to Congress, as a Democrat, for a third 
time, in 1862, but, in 1804, was defeated by 
Shelby M. Cullom, his former pupil. During the 
latter years of his life, Mr Stiiart was head of the 
law firm of Stuart, Ed"-ards & Brown. Died, at 
Springfield, Nov. 28. 188.-.. 

STURGES, Solomon, merchant and banker, 
was born at Fairfield, Conn., April 21, 1796, early 
manifested a passion for the sea and, in 1810, 



made a voyage, on a vessel of which his brother 
was captain, from New York to Georgetown, 
D. C, intending to continue it to Lisbon. At 
Georgetown he was induced to accept a position 
as clerli with a Mr. Williams, where he was 
associated with two other youths, as fellow-em- 
ployes, who became eminent bankers and 
capitalists— W. W. Corcoran, afterwards the 
weU-known banker of Washington, and George 
W. Peabody, who had a successful banking career 
in England, and won a name as one of the most 
liberal and public-spirited of philanthropists. 
During the War of 1812 young Sturges joined a 
volunteer infantry company, wliere he had, for 
comrades, George W. Peabody and Francis S. Key, 
the latter author of the popular national song, 
"The Star Spangled Banner." In 1814 Mr. 
Sturges accepted a clerkship in the store of his 
brother-in-law, Ebenezer Buckingham, at Put- 
nam, Muskingum County, Ohio, two years later 
becoming a partner in the concern, where he 
developed that business capacity which laid the 
foundation for his future wealth. Before steam- 
ers navigated the waters of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, he piloted flat-boats, loaded with 
produce and merchandise, to New Orleans, return- 
ing overland. During one of his visits to that 
city, he witnessed the arrival of the "Washing- 
ton," the first steamer to descend the Mississippi, 
as. in 1817, he saw the arrival of the "Walk-in- 
the- Water" at Detroit, the first steamer to arrive 
from Buffalo — the occasion of his visit to Detroit 
being to carry funds to General Cass to pay off 
the United States troops. About 1849 he was 
associated with the construction of the Wabash 
& Erie Canal, from the Ohio River to Terre Haute, 
Ind., advancing money for the prosecution of the 
work, for which was reimbursed by the State. In 
1854 he came to Chicago, and, in partnership 
with his brothers-in-law, C. P. and Alvah Buck- 
ingham, erected the first large grain-elevator in 
that city, on land leased from the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, following it, two years later, 
by another of equal capacity. For a time, sub- 
stantially all the grain coming into Chicago, by 
railroad, passed into these elevators. In 1857 he 
established the private banking house of Solomon 
Sturges & Sons, which, shortly after his death, 
under the management of his son, George Stur- 
ges, became the Northwestern National Bank of 
Chicago. He was intensely patriotic and, on the 
breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, used 
of his means freely in support of the Govern- 
ment, equipping the Sturges Rifles, an independ- 
ent company, at a cost of §20,000. He was also a 

subscriber to the first loan made by the Govern- 
ment, during this period, taking §100,000 in 
Government bonds. While devoted to his busi- 
ness, he was a hater of shams and corruption, and 
contributed freely to Christian and benevolent 
enterprises. Died, at the home of a daughter, at 
Zanesville, Ohio, Oct. 14, 1864, leaving a large 
fortune acquired by le.gitimate trade. 

STURTEYAXT, JuUan Munson, D.D., LL.D., 
clergj-man and educator, was born at Warren, 
Litchfield County, Conn., July 26, 1805; spent liis 
youth in Summit County, Ohio, meanwliile pre- 
paring for college; in 1822, entered Yale College 
as the classmate of the celebrated Elizur Wright, 
graduating in 1826. After two years as Princi- 
pal of an academy at Canaan. Conn., he entered 
Yale Divinity School, graduating there in 1829; 
tlien came west, and, after spending a year in 
superintending the erection of buildings, in De- 
cember, 1830, as sole tutor, began instruction to t, 
class of nine pupils in what is now Illinois Col- 
lege, at Jacksonville. Having been joined, the 
following year, by Dr. Edward Beecher as Presi- 
dent, Mr. Sturtevant assumed the chair of Mathe- 
matics, Natural Philosophj- and Astronomy, 
which he retained until 1844, when, by the 
retirement of Dr. Beecher, he succeeded to the 
offices of President and Professor of Intellectual 
and Moral Philosophy. Here he labored, inces- 
santly and unselfishly, as a teacher during term 
time, and, as financial agent during vacations, 
in the interest of the institution of which he had 
been one of the chief founders, serving until 1876, 
when he resigned the Presidency, giving his 
attention, for the next ten years, to the duties of 
Professor of Mental Science and Science of Gov- 
ernment, which he had discharged from 1870. 
In 1886 he retired from the institution entirely, 
liaving given to its service fifty -six years of his 
life. In 1863, Dr. Sturtevant visited Europe in 
the interest of the L'nion cause, delivering effec- 
tive addresses at a nmnber of points in England. 
He was a frequent contributor to the weeklj- 
religious and periodical press, and was the autlior 
of "Economics, or the Science of Wealth" (187G) 
— a text-book on political economy, and "Keys 
of Sect, or the Church of the New Testament" 
(1879), besides frequently occupying the pulpits 
of local and distant churches — having been early 
ordained a Congregational minister. He receiveil 
the degree of D.D. from the Universitj' of Mis- 
souri and that of LL.D. from Iowa L'niversity. 
Died, in Jacksonville, Feb. 11, 1886.— Julian JI. 
(Sturtevant), Jr.. son of the preceding, was born 
at Jacksonville, 111.. Feb. 2, 1834; fitted for col- 



lege in the preparatory department of Illinois 
College and graduated from the college (proper) 
in 1854. After leaving college he served as 
teaclier in the Jacksonville public scliools one 
year, then spent a year as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he began the study of theology at 
Andover Theological Seminary, graduating there 
in 1859, meanwhile having discharged the duties 
of Chaplain of the Connecticut State's prison in 
1858. He was ordained a minister of the Con- 
gregational Church at Hannibal, Mo., in 18G0, 
remaining as pastor in that city nine years. He 
has since been engaged in pastoral work in New 
York City (18G9-70), Ottawa, 111., (1870-73); Den- 
ver, Colo., (1873-77) ; Grinnell, Iowa, (1877-84); 
Cleveland, Ohio, (1884-90); Galesburg, 111., 
(1890-93), and Aurora, (1893-97). Since leaving 
the Congregational church at Aurora, Dr. Sturte- 
vant has been engaged in pastoral work in Chi- 
cago. He was also editor of "The Congrega- 
tionalist" of Iowa (1881-84), and, at different 
periods, has served as Trustee of Colorado, 
Marietta and Knox Colleges; being still an 
honored member of the Knox College Board. 
He received the degree of D.D, from Illinois 
College, in 1879. 

STKO.\(wHURST, a village of Henderson County 
on the A., T. & S. F. R. R.; in rich agricultural dis- 
trict; has a bank and weekly paper. Pop. (1910), 762. 

SUFFRAGE, in general, the right or privilege 
of voting. The qualifications of electors (or 
Voters), in the choice of public officers in Illinois, 
are fixed by the State Constitution (Art. VII.), 
except as to school officers, which are prescribed 
by law. Under the State Constitution the exer- 
cise of the right to vote is limited to persons who 
were electors at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848, or who are native or natu- 
ralized male citizens of the United States, of the 
age of 21 3'ears or over, who have been residents 
of the State one year, of the county ninety days, 
and of the district (or precinct) in which tliey 
offer to vote, 30 days. Under an act passed in 
1891, women, of 21 years of age and upwards, are 
entitled to vote for school officers, and are also 
eligible to such offices under the same conditions, 
as to age and residence, as male citizens. (See 
Elections; Australian Ballot.) 

SULLIVAN, a city and county-seat of Moultrie 
County, 25 miles southeast of Decatur and 14 
miles northwest of Mattoon; is on three lines of 
railway. It is in an agricultural and stock-rais- 
ing region; contains two State banks, flour and plan- 
ing mills and tluee weekly newspapers. Pop. 
(1890), 1,468; (1900), 2,399; (1910), 2,621. 

SULLIVAX, William K., journalist, was born 

at Waterford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1843; educated £.(, 
the Waterford Model School and in Dublin; came 
to the United States in 18G3, and, after teaching 
for a time in Kane County, in 1864 enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Forty-first Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers. Then, after a brief season spent in 
teaching and on a visit to his native land, he 
began work as a reporter on New York papers, 
later being employed on "Tlie Chicago Tribune" 
and "The Evening Journal," on the latter, at 
different times, holding the position of city edi- 
tor, managing editor and correspondent. He 
was also a Representative from Cook County in 
tlie Twenty-seventh General Assembly, for tliree 
years a member of the Chicago Board of Edu- 
cation, and appointed United States Consul to the 
Bermudas by President Harrison, resigning in 
1892. Died, in Chicago, January 17, 1899. 

SULLIVAM, Michael Lucas, agriculturist, 
was born at Franklinton (a suburb of Columbus, 
Ohio), August 6, 1807; was educated at Ohio 
University and Centre College, Ky., and — after 
being engaged in the improvement of an immense 
tract of land inherited from his father near his 
birth-place, devoting much attention, meanwhile, 
to the raising of improved stock — in 18.54 .sold his 
Ohio lands and bought 80,000 acres, chiefly in 
Champaign and Piatt Counties, 111., where he 
began farming on a larger scale than before. The 
enterprise proved a financial failure, and he wa.s 
finally compelled to sell a considerable portion of 
his estate in Champaign County, known as Broad 
Lands, to John T. Alexander (see Ale.vander, 
John T.), retiring to a farm of 40,000 acres at 
Burr Oaks, 111. He died, at Henderson, Ky., Jan. 
29, 1879. 

SUMMIT, a village m Cook County on the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad, 11 miles southwest of 
Chicago, in a farming and popular residence dis- 
trict. Pop. (1910), 949. 

SUMNER, a city of Lawience County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 19 miles 
west of Vincennes, Ind. ; has a fine school house, 
four churches, two banks, two flour mills, tele- 
phones, and one weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
1,037; (1900), 1,268; (1910)', l,4n. 

TION. The office of State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was created by act of the 
Legislature, at a special session held in 1854, its 
duties previous to that time, from 1845, liaving 
been discharged by the Secretary of State as 
Superintendent! ex-officio. The following is a list 
of the incumbents from the date of the formal 



creation of the oflSce down to the present time 
(1911), mth the date and duration of terra of 
eacli Ninian "\V. Edwards (by appointment of 
the Governor), 1854-57; William H. Powell (by 
election), 1857-59; Newton Bateuian, 1859-63; 
John P. Brooks, 1863-05; Newton Bateman, 
1865-75; Samuel W. Etter,_ 1875-79; James P. 
Slade, 1879-83; Henry Raab, 1883-87; Richard 
Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel 
M. Inglis, 1895-98; James H. Freeman, June, 
1898, to January, 1899 (by appointment of the 
Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof. 
Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898) ; Alfred 
Bayliss, 1899-1907; Francis G. Blair, 1907—. 

Previous to 1870 the tenure of the office was 
two years, but, by the Constitution adopted that 
year, it was extended to four years, the elections 
occurring on the even years between those for 
Governor and other State officers except State 

following is a list of Justices of the Supreme 
Court of Illinois who have held office since the 
organization of the State Government, with the 
period of their respective incumbencies: Joseph 
Phillips, 1818-23 (resigned); Thomas C. Browne, 
1818 48 (term expired on adoption of new Con- 
stitution); William P. Foster, Oct, 9, 1818, to 
July 7, 1819 (resigned), John Reynolds, 1818-25; 
Thomas Reynolds (vice Philliijs), 1832-25; Wil- 
liam Wilson (vice Foster) 1819-48 (term expired 
on adoption of new Constitution); Samuel D 
Lockwood, 1835-48 (term expired on adoption of 
new Constitution) ; Theophilus W. Smith, 1835-42 
(resigned); Thomas Ford, Feb. 15, 1841, to Au- 
gust 1, 1843 (resigned) ; Sidney Breese, Feb. 15, 
1841, to Dec. 19, 1843 (resigne<l) — also (by re-elec- 
tions), 1857-78 fdied in office) ; Walter B. Scates, 
1841-47 (resigned)— also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57 
(resigned) ; Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned) ; 
Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-43 (resigned); John D. 
Caton (vice Ford) August, 1843, to March, 1843— 
also (vice Robinson and by successive re-elec- 
tions). May, 1843 to January, 18C4 (resigned) ; 
James Semple (vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to 
April Ifi, 1843 (resigned) ; Richard M. Young (vice 
Smith), 1843-47 (resigned; ; Jolin M. Robinson 
(vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 37, 1843 (died 
in office); Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., (vice Douglas), 
1843-45 (resigned)— also (vice Young), 1847-48; 
James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned); 
Norman H. Purple (vice Thomas), 1843-48 (retired 
under Constitution of 1848) ; Gustaviis Koerner 
(vice Shields), 1845-48 (retired bj' Constitution) ; 
William A. Denning (vice Scates), 1847-48 (re- 

tired by Constitution) ; Lyman Trumbull, 1848-53 
(resigned); Ozias C, Skinner (vice Treat), 1855-58 
(resigned) ; Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner), 
1858-85 (deceased); Cory don Beck with (by ap- 
pointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6, 
1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1864-73; 
Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); John M. 
Scott (two terms), 1870-88; Benjamin R. Sheldon 
(two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAllister, 
1870-75 (resigned) ; John Scholfield (vice Thorn- 
ton), 1873 93 (died) ; T. Lyle Dickey (vice 
McAlUster), 1875-85 (died); David J. Baker (ap- 
pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 3, 
1879— also, 1888-97; John H. Mulkey, 1879-88; 
Damon O. Tunnicliffe (appointed, vice Walker), 
Feb. 15, 1885, to June 1, 1885; Simeon P. Shope, 
1885-94, Joseph M. Bailey, lSSS-95 (died in office), 
Alfred M. Craig, 1873-1900; Jesse J. Phillips (\'ice 
Scholfield), 1893-1901 (deceased); Joseph N. Carter, 
1894-1903; James B. Ricks (vice-Phillips), 1901-06; 
Carroll C. Boggs, 1897-1906; Benjamin M. Magruder, 
1885-1906; Jacob \V. Wilkin, 1888-1907 (deceased); 
Guy C. Scott, 1903-09 (deceased). The following 
are the present incumbents (1911) arranged in order 
of Districts, with period for which each has been 
elected: Alonzo K. Vickers; William H. Farmer, 
1906-15; Frank H. Dunn (vice Wilkin), 1907-15; 
George A. Cooke (vice Scott), 1909-12; John P. 
Hand, 1900-18; James H. Cartwright (nee Bailey), 
1895-15; Orrin N. Carter, 1906-15. Under the 
Constitution of 1818, Justices of the Supreme 
Court were chosen by joint ballot of the Legis- 
lature, but under the Constitutions of 1S48 and 
1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years 
each. (See Judicial System; also sketches of 
individual members of the Supreme Court under 
their proper names ) 

United States law passed on the subject of Gov- 
ernment siu-veys was dated. May 30, 1785. After 
reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of 
pensions and to be donated for school purjioses, 
it provided for the division of the remaining pub- 
lic lands among the original thirteen States. 
This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordi- 
nance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectan- 
gular system of surveys which, with but little 
modification, has remained in force ever since. 
Briefl}' outlined, the system is as follows: Town- 
ships, six miles square, are laid out from principal 
bases, each township containing thirty-six sec- 
tions of one square mile, numbered consecutively, 
the numeration to commence at the upper right 
hand corner of the township. The first principal 
meridian (84° 51' west of Greenwich), coincided 



with the line dividing Indiana and Ohio. Tlie 
second (1° 37' farther west) had direct relation 
to surveys in Eastern Illinois. The third (89° 10' 
30" west of Green wicli) and the fourth (90° 29' 
56" west) governed the remainder of Illinois sur- 
veys. The first Public Surveyor was Thomas 
Hutchins, who was called "the geographer." 
(See Hutchins, Tliomas.) 

SWEET, (Gen.) Benjamin J., soldier, was 
born at Kirkland, Oneida County, N. Y., April 
24, 1832; came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy- 
gan, Wis,, studied law, was elected to the State 
Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth 
Wisconsin Volunteers, being commissioned Major 
in 1862. Later, he resigned and, returning home, 
assisted in the organization of the Twenty-first 
and Twenty-second regiments, being elected 
Colonel of the former; and with it taking part in 
the campaign in Western Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. In 18G3 he was assigned to command at 
Camp Douglas, and was there on the exposure, 
in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release 
the rebel prisoners. (See Camp Douglas Conspir- 
acy.) The service which he rendered in the 
defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy 
evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of 
inestimable value to the country. After the 
war. General Sweet located at Lombard, near 
Chicago, was appointed Pension Agent at Chi- 
cago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal 
Revenue, and, in 1872, became Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died, 
in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874. — Miss Ada C. 
(Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the efficient 
Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's 

SWEETSER, A. C, soldier and Department 
Commander G. A. R., was born in Oxford County. 
Maine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, 111., in 
1857 ; enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War 
in the Eighth Illinois Volunteers and, later, in the 
Thirty -ninth , at the battle of Wierbottom 
Church, Va , in June, 1864, was shot tlirough 
both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of 
them. After the war he held several offices of 
trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom 
inijton and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue 
for the Springfield District , in 1887 was elected 
Department Comuiander of the Grand Army of 
the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington, 
March 23, 18%. 

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, was born near 
Turner, Maine, August 11. 1825, was educated at 
Waterville College (now Colby Univer.sity), but 
left before graduation , read law in Portland, and, 

while seeking a location in the West, enlisted in 
an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being 
attacked by climatic fever, was discharged before 
completing his term of enlistment. He soon 
after came to Bloomington, 111., wliere he became 
the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and 
David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for 
a number of years. He early became active in 
State politics, was a member of the Republican 
State Convention of 1856, was elected to the 
lower house of the General Assembly in 1858, 
and, in 1860, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lin- 
coln as a Presidential Elector for the State-at- 
large. In 1862 he received the Republican 
nomination for Congress in his District, but was 
defeated. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he 
gained increased distinction as a lawyer, espe- 
cially in the management of criminal cases. In 
1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for 
President, but later returned to the Republican 
party, and, in the National Republican Conven- 
tion of 1888, presented the name of Judge 
Gresham for nomination for the Presidency. 
Died, June 8, 1889. 

SWIGEIIT, Charles Philip, ex- Auditor of Pub- 
lic Accounts, was born in tlie Province of Baden, 
Germany. Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents 
to Chicago, 111., in childhood, and, in his boy- 
hood, attended the Scammon School in that city. 
In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kanka- 
kee County, whei-e, between the ages of 12 and 
18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between 
400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On tlie break- 
ing out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18 
years of age, he enlisted as a private in the Forty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantiy, and, in April, 
1862, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who 
ran the blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet, at 
Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduc- 
tion of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in 
tlie capture of 7.000 prisoners. At the battle of 
Farmingtou, Miss., during the siege of Corinth, 
in May, 1863, he liad his right arm torn from its 
socket by a si.x-pound cannon-ball, compelling his 
retirement from the army. Returning home, 
after manj' weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson 
Barracks and Quincy, 111., he received his final 
discharge, Dec. 21, 1862, spent a yuar in school, 
also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Com- 
mercial College in Chicago, and having learned 
to write with liis left hand, taught for a time in 
Kankakee County ; served as letter-carrier in Chi- 
cago, and for a j'ear as Deputy County Clerk of 
Kankakee County, followed by two terms (1867- 
69) as a student in the Soldiers" College at Fulton, 



111. The latter year he entered upon the duties 
of Treasurer of Kankakee County, serving, by 
successive re-elections, until ISHO, when he re- 
signed to take the position of State Auditor, to 
which he was elected a second time in 1884. In 
all these positions Mr. Swigert has proved him- 
self an upright, capable and liigh-minded public 
official. During his later years his residence was in 
Chicago, whore he died .June 30, 1903. 

SWINU, (Rev.) David, clergyman and pulpit 
orator, was born of Ciurman ancestry, at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, August 33, 1836. After 1837 (his 
father dying about tliis time), the family resided 
for a time at Reodsburgh, and, later, on a farm 
near AV'illianisburgli, in Clermont County, in the 
same State. In 18.52, having graduated from the 
Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the 
study of theology, but. in 1854, accepted the 
position of Professor of Languages in his Alma 
Mater, whicli he continued to fill for thirteen 
years. His first pastorate was in connection with 
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chi- 
cago, which he assumed in 18G6. His chvu-ch 
edifice was destroyed in the great Chicago fire, 
but was later rebuilt. As a jireacher he was 
popular; but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial, 
before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomi- 
nation, on charges of heresy. He was acquitted 
by the trial court, but, before the appeal taken by 
the prosecution could be heard, he personallj' 
withdrew from affiliation witli the denomination. 
Shortly afterward he became pastor of an inde- 
pendent religious organization known as the 
"Central Church," preaching, first at McVicker's 
Theatre and. afterward, at Central Music Hall, 
Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker 
on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor 
to numerous magazines, as well as the author of 
several volumes. Among his best known books 
are "Motives of Life," "Truths for To-day," and 
"Club Essays." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894. 
SYCAMORE, the county-seat of De Kalb 
County (founded in 183G), 56 miles west of Chi- 
cago, at the intersection of the Chicago & Xorth- 
western and the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
roads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture, 
dairying and .stock-raising. The city itself con- 
tains several factories, the principal products 
being agricultural implements, flour, insulated 
wire, brick, tile, varnish, furniture, soap and 
carriages and wagons. There are also works for 
canning vegetables and fruit, besides two creamer- 
ies. The town is lighted by electricity, and has 
high-pressure water-works. There are several 
churches, graded [jublic schools, two weekly 

papers and a young ladies' seminarj-. Population 
(1900), 3,053: "(1910). 3,926. 

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, was bom at Elmwood, 
Peoria County, III, April 29, 1860; at an early 
age evinced a predilection for sculpture and 
began modeling; graduated at the University of 
Illinois in 1880, then went to Paris and studied 
sculpture in the famous Ecole des Beaux Arts 
until 1885. The following year he settled in Chi 
cago, finally becoming associated with the Chi- 
cago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on 
art in the Cliicago University. Mr. Taft fur- 
nished the decorations of tlie Horticultural Build- 
ing on the "World's Fair Grounds, in 1893. 

TALCOTT, Mancel, business man, was born 
in Rome, N. Y., Oct. Vi, 1817; attended the com- 
mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set 
out for tlie West, traveling on foot from Detroit 
to Chicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he 
worked at farming until 1850. Then, having 
followed tlie occupation of a miner for some time, 
iu California, with some success, he united with 
■ Horace JI. Singer in establishing the firm of 
Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted dur- 
ing most of his life. He served as a member of 
tlie Chicago City Council, on the Beard of County 
Commissioners, as a member of the Police Board, 
and was one of the founders of the First National 
Bank, and President, for several years, of the 
Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and public- 
spirited, he contributed freely to works of 
charity. Died, June 5, 1878. 

TALCOTT, (Capt.) William, soldier of the 
War of 1812 and pioneer, was born in Gilead. 
Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida 
County, N. Y., in 1810, and engaged in farming; 
served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County 
militia during the War of 1812-14, being stationed 
at Sackett's Harbor \inder the command of Gen. 
Winfield Scott. In 1835, in company with his 
eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an ex- 
tended tour tlirough the West, finally .selecting a 
location in Illinois at the junction of Rock River 
and the Pecatonica, where the town of Rockton 
now stands — there being only two white families, 
at tliat time, within the present limits of Winne- 
bago County. Two years later (1837), he brought 
his family to this point, with his sons took up a 
considerable body of Government land and 
erected two mills, to which customers came 
from a long distance. In 1838 Captain Talcott 
took part in the organization of the first Congre- 
gational Church in that section of the State. A 
zealous anti-slavery man, he supported James G. 



Bimey (the Liberty candidate for President) in 
1S44, continuing to act witli tliat party until the 
organization of tlie Republican party in 1856; 
■was deeply interested in the War for the Union, 
but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 18G4. — 
Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott), oldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn , April 17, 
1806; was taken to Rome, N. Y., by his father in 
infancy, and, after reaching maturity, engaged 
in mercantile business with his brother in Che- 
mung County; in 1835 accompanied his father in 
a tour through the West, finall)- locating at 
Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On 
the organization of Winnebago County, in 1836, 
he was elected one of the first County Commis- 
sioners, and, in 1850, to the State Senate, serving 
four years. He also held various local offices. 
Died, Sept. 30, 1894.— Hon. Wait (Talcott), second 
son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at He- 
bron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807, and taken to Rome, 
N. Y., where he remained until his 19th year, 
when he engaged in busmess at Booneville and, 
still later, in Utioa; in 1838, removed to Illinoi.? 
and joined his father at Rockton, finally 
becoming a citizen of Rockford, where, in his 
later years, he was extensively engaged in manu- 
facturing, liaving become, in 1854, with his 
brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H. 
Manny & Co., in the manufacture of the JIanny 
reaper and mower. He was an original anti- 
slavery man and, at one time, a Free-Soil candidate 
for Congress, l)ut became a zealous Republiciin 
and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
employed as an attorney in the famous suit of 
McCormick vs. the Manny Reaper Compan}' for 
infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected 
to the State Senate, succeeding his brother, 
Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal 
Revenue in the Second District, appointed by Mr. 
Lincoln in 1862. and continuing in office some 
five years. Though too old for active service in 
the field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily 
hired a substitute to take his place. Mr. Talcott 
was one of the original incorporators and Trus- 
tees of Beloit College, and a foiinder of Rockford 
Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each 
for many years. Died, June 7, 1890.— Sylvester 
(Talcott), third son of William Talcott, born at 
Rome, N. Y., Oct. 14. 1810; when of age, engaged 
in mercantile business in Chemung County; in 
1837 removed, with other members of the family, 
to Winnebago County, III. , where he joined his 
father in the entry of Government lands and the 
erection of mills, as already detailed. He became 
one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne- 

bago County, also served as Supervisor for a 
number of years and, although a farmer, became 
interested, in 1854, with his brother Wait, 
in the Manny Reaper Company at Rockford. 
He also followed the example of his brother, 
just named, in furnishing a substitute for the 
War of the Rebellion, though too old for service 
liim-self Died, June 19, 1885 —Henry Walter 
(Talcott), fourth son of William Talcott, was 
born at Rome, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1814; came with 
his father to Winnebago County, 111., in 1835, and 
was connected with his father and brothers in busi- 
ness. Died, Dec. 9, 1870.— Dwi^ht Lewis (Tal- 
cott), oldest son of Henry Walter Talcott, born 
in Winnebago County; at the age of 17 years 
enlisted at Belvidere, in January, 1864, as a soldier 
in the Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry; served 
as provost guard some two months at Fort Picker- 
ing, near Memphis, and later took part in many 
of the important battles of that year in Missis- 
sippi and Tennessee. Having been captured at 
Campbellsville, Tenn., he was taken to Anderson- 
ville, Ga., where he sufi'ered all the horrors of 
that famous prison-pen, until March, 1865, when 
he was released, arriving at home a helpless 
skeleton, the day after Abraham Lincoln's assas- 
sination. Mr. Talcott subsequently settled in 
Muscatine Count}-, Iowa. 

TALLULA, a prosperous village of Menard 
County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chi- 
cago & Alton Railway, 24 miles northeast of 
Jacksonville; is in the midst of a grain, coal- 
mining, and stock-growing region; has a local 
bank and newspaper. Pop. (1900), 639; (1910). 742. 

TAM.iRO.V, a village in Perry County, situated 
at the junction of the Illinois Central with the 
Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad. 8 miles 
north of Duquoin, and 57 miles east-southeast of 
Belleville. It has a bank, a newspaper office, a 
large public school, five churches and two flour- 
ing mills. Coal is mined here and exported in 
large quantities. Pop. (1900), 8.53; (1910), 910. 

(See Wabash, Clicsfcr & Western Railroad.) 

TAXXER, Edward Allen, clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born of New England ancestry, at 
Waverly, 111., Nov. 29, 1837— being the first child 
who could claim nativity there; was educated 
in the local schools ahd at Illinois College, 
graduating from the latter in 1857; spent four 
years teaching in his native place and at Jack- 
sonville; then accepted the Professorship of 
Latin in Pacific University at Portland, Oregon, 
remaining four years, when he returned to his 
Alma Mater (1865), assuming there the chair of 



Latin and Rhetoric. In 1881 he was appointed 
financial agent of the latter institution, and, in 
1882, its President. While in Oregon he had 
been ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church, and, for a considerable period during 
his connection with Illinois College, ofiSciated as 
Chaplain of the Central Hospital for the Insane 
at Jacksonville, besides supplying local and 
other pulpits. He labored earnestly for the 
benefit of the institution under his charge, and, 
dui'ing his incumbency, added materially to its 
endowment and resources. Died, at Jackson- 
ville, Feb. 8, 1802. 

TAN?i'ER, John E., Governor, was born in 
Warrick Count}-, Ind., April 4, 1844, and brought 
to Southern Illinois in boyhood, where he grew 
up on a farm in the vicinitj' of Carbondale, 
enjoying only such educational advantages as 
were afforded by the common school; in 1863, at 
the age of 19, enlisted in the Ninety-eighth Illi- 
nois Volimteers, serving until June, I860, when 
he was transferred to the Sixty-first, and finally 
mustered out in September following. All the 
male members of Governor Tanner's family were 
soldiers of the late war, his father dying in a 
rebel prison at Columbus, Sliss., one of his bro- 
thers suffering the same fate from wounds at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and another brother dying in hospital 
at Pine Bluff, Ark. Only one of this patriotic 
family, besides Governor Tanner, still survives — 
Mr. J. M. Tanner of Clay County, who left the 
service with the rank of Lieutenant of the Thir- 
teenth Illinois Cavalry. Returning from the 
war, Mr. Tanner established himself in business 
as a farmer in Clay County, later engaging suc- 
cessfully in the milling and lumber business as 
the partner of his brother. The public positions 
held by him, since the war, include those of 
Sheriff of Clay County ( 1870-73), Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court (1872-76), and State Senator (1880-83). 
During the latter j-ear he received the appoint- 
ment of United States Marshal for the Southern 
District of Illinois, serving until after the acces- 
sion of President Cleveland in 188."). In 1886. he 
was the Republican nominee for State Treasurer 
and was elected by an unusually large majority ; 
in 1891 was appointed, by Governor Fifer, a 
member of the Railroad and Warehouse Commis- 
sion, but, in 1892, received the appointment of 
Assistant United States Treasurer at Chicago, 
continuing in the latter oflSce until December, 
1893. For ten 3-ears (1874-84) he was a member 
of the Republican State Central Committee, re- 
turning to that body in 1894, when he was chosen 
Chairman and conducted the campaign which 

resulted in the unprecedented Republican suc- 
cesses of that year. In 1896 he received the 
nomination of his party for Governor, and was 
elected over Gov. John P. Altgeld, his Demo- 
cratic opponent, b}- a plurality of over 113,000. 
Died after expiration of his term, May 23, 1901. 

TAN>'ER, Tazewell B., jurist, was born in 
Henry County, Va., and came to Jefferson 
County, 111., about 1846 or '47, at first taking a 
position as teacher and Superintendent of PubUc 
Schools. Later, he was connected with "The 
Jeffersonian," a Democratic paper at Mount Ver- 
non, and, in 1849, went to the gold regions of 
California, meeting with reasonable success as a 
miner. Returning in a year or two, he was 
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and, while in 
the discharge of his duties, prosecuted the study 
of law, finally, on admission to the bar, entering 
into partnership with the late Col. Thomas S. 
Casey. In 1854 he was elected Representative in 
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and was in- 
strumental in securing the appropriation for the 
erection of a Supreme Court building at Mount 
Vernon. In 1862 he served as a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of that year; was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1873, and, in 1877, was 
assigned to duty on the Appellate bench, but, at 
the expiration of his term, declined a re-election 
and resumed the practice of his profession at 
Mount Vernon. Died, March 25, 1880. 

T.iXATIOX, in its legal sense, the mode of 
raising revenue. In its general sense its purposes 
are the support of the State and local govern- 
ments, the promotion of the pubUc good by 
fostering education and works of public improve- 
ment, the protection of society by the preser- 
vation of order and the punishment of crime, and 
the support of the helpless and destitute. In 
practice, and as prescribed bj- the Constitution, 
the raising of revenue is required to be done "by 
levying a tax by valuation, so that every person 
and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to 
the value of his, her or its proi)erty — such value 
to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be 
elected or appointed in such manner as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise." 
(State Constitution, 1870 — Art. Revenue, Sec. 1.) 
The person selected under the law to make this 
valuation is the Assessor of the county or the 
township (in counties under township organiza- 
tion), and he is required to make a return to the 
Count}- Board at its July meeting each year — the 
latter having authority to hear complaints of tax- 
payers and adjust inequalities when found to 
exist. It is made the duty of the Assessor to 



include in liis return, as real-estate, all lands and 
the buildings or other improvements erected 
thereon; and, under the head of personal prop- 
erty, all tangible effects, besides moneys, credits, 
bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or 
corporations, investments, annuities, franchises, 
royalties, etc. Property used for school, church 
or cemetery purposes, as well as public buildings 
and other property belonging to the State and 
General Government, municipalities, public 
charities, public libraries, agricultural and scien- 
tific societies, are declared exempt. Nominally, 
all property subject to taxation is required to be 
assessed at its cash valuation ; but, in reality, the 
valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of 
twenty-five to thirty-three per cent of its esti- 
mated cash value. In the larger cities, liowever, 
the valuation is often much lower tlian this, 
while very large amounts escape assessment 
altogether. The Revenue Act, passed at the 
special session of the Fortieth General Assembly 
(1898), requires the Assessor to make a return of 
all property subject to taxation in his district, at 
its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Review 
fixes a tax on the basis of twenty per cent of 
such cash valuation. An abstract of the property 
assessment of each county goes before the State 
Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in 
August, for the purpose of comparison and equal- 
izing valuations between counties, but the Board 
has no power to modify the assessments of indi- 
vidual tax-payers. (See State Board of Equali- 
zation.) This Board lias exclusive power to fix 
the valuation for purposes of taxation of the 
capital stock or franchises of companies (except 
certain specified manufactm-ing corporations), in- 
corporated under tlie State laws, together with the 
"railroad track" and "rolling stock" of railroads, 
and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph 
lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter 
between counties in which they lie. — The Consti- 
tution of 1848 empowered the Legislature to 
impose a capitation tax, of not less than fifty 
cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free 
white male citizen entitled to the right of suf- 
frage, between tlie ages of 21 and 60 years, but tlie 
Constitution of 18T0 grants no such power, 
though it authorizes the extension of the "objects 
and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the 
principle contained in the first section of the 
Revenue Article. — Special assessments in cities, 
for the constniction of sewers, pavements, etc., 
being local and in the form of benefits, cannot 
be said to come under tlie head of general tax- 
ation. The same is to be said of revenue derived 

from fines and penalties, whicli are forms of 
punishment for siiecitic offenses, and go to the 
benefit of certain specified funds. 

TAYLOR, Abner, ex-Congres.sman, was a native 
of Maine, and a resident of C'liicago. He had lieen 
■ in active business all his life as contractor, builder 
and merchant, and, for some time, a member of 
the wliolesale dry-goods firm of J. V. Farwell & 
Co. , of Chicago. He was a member of the Thirty- 
fourth General Aosemblj', a delegate to the 
National Republican Convention of 1884, and 
represented tlie First Illinois District in the Fifty- 
first and Fifty-second Congre.sses, 1889 to 1893. 
He was one of the contractors for the erection of 
the new State Capitol of Texas. Died April 13, 1903. 
TAYLOR, BeDJamin Ffiinklin, journalist, poet 
and lecturer, was born at Lowville, N. Y , July 
19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in 
1839, the next year becoming literary and dra- 
matic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal" 
Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputa- 
tion as a journalist and poet, and was much in 
demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His 
letters from the field during the Rebellion, as 
war correspondent of "The Evening Journal," 
won for him even a greater popularity, and were 
complimented by translation into more than one 
European language. After the war, he gave his 
attention more unreservedlj- to literature, his 
principal works appearing after that date. His 
publications in book form, including both prose 
and poetry, comprise the following- "Attractions 
of Language" (1845); "January and June" 
(18.53); "Pictures in Camp and Field" (1871); 
"The World on Wheels" (1873); "Old Time Pic- 
tures and Sheaves of Rhyme" (1874); "Songs of 
Yesterday" (1877); "Summer Savory Gleaned 
from Rural Nooks" (1879) ; "Between the Gates" 
-—pictures of California life — (1881); "Dulce 
Domum, the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theo- 
philus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings." 
a novel (1887). The last was in the hands of the 
publishers at his deatli, Feb. 27. 1887. Among 
his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long 
Ago," "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of 
the River." "The London Times" complimented 
Mr. Taylor witli the title of "The Oliver Gold- 
smith of America." 

T.AY'LOR, Edmund Dick, early Indian-trader 
and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H. , Va.. 
Oct. 18, 1803 — the son of a commissary in the 
arm}- of the Revolution, under General Greene, 
and a cousin of General (later. President) Zachary 
Taylor; left his native State in his youth and. at 
an early day, came to Springfield, III, where he 



opened an Indian-trading post and general store ; 
was elected from Sangamon County to the lower 
branch of the Seventh General Assembly (1830) 
and re-elected in 1832 — the latter year being a 
competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
defeated. In 1834 he was elected to the State 
Senate and, at the next session of the Legislature, 
was one of the celebrated "Long Nine" who 
secured the removal of the State Capital to 
Springfield. He resigned before the close of his 
term to accept, from President Jackson, the ap- 
pointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at Chi- 
cago. Here he became one of the promoters of 
the Galena & Cliicago Union Railroad (1837), 
serving as one of the Commissioners to secure 
subscriptions of stock, and was also active in 
advocating the construction of the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel," by 
which he was known dui'ing most of his life, was 
acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff 
of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk 
War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel 
Taylor became one of the Trustees of the Chicago 
branch of the State Bank, and was later identified 
with various banking enterprises, as also a some- 
what extensive operator in real estate. An active 
Democrat in the early part of his career in Illi- 
nois, Colonel Taylor was one of the members of 
his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb 
raska bill in 18.^4, and advocated the election of 
General Bissell to the governorship in 18.56. In 
1800 he was again in line with his party in sup- 
port of Senator Douglas for the Presidency, and 
was an opponent of the war policy of the Govern- 
ment still later, as shown by his participation in 
the celebrated "Peace Contention" at Spring- 
field, of June 17, 1863. In the latter years of his 
life he became extensively interested in coal 
lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and, 
for a considerable time, served as President of the 
Northern Illinois Coal & ^lining Company, his 
home, during a part of this period, being at 
Mendc.ta. Died, in Cliicago, Dec. 4, 1891. 

TAYLORVILLE, a city and county-seat of 
Christian County, on the South Fork of the San- 
gamon River and on the Wabash Railway at its 
point of intersection with the Springfield Division 
of the B. & O. Southwestern; also C. I. & M. It 
is about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and 
28 miles southwest of Decatur. It has five 
banks, flour mills, paper mill, electric light and 
gas plants, water-works, two coal mines, carriage 
and wagon shops, a brick manufactory, two daily 
and weekly papers, nine churches and five graded 
schools and a township high school. Much 

coal is mined in this vicinity. Pop. (19C0), 
4,248; (1910), 5,446. 

TAZEWELL COUXTY, a central county on 
the Illinoi.s River; was fii-st settled in 1823 and 
organized in 1827 ; has an area of 0.50 square miles 
— was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia. 
It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers 
and traversed by several lines of railway. The 
surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and 
rich, but, requiring drainage, especially on the 
river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are 
found, but. generally speaking, Tazewell is an 
agricultural county. The cereals are extensively 
cultivated ; wool is also clipped, and there are 
dairy interests of some importance. Distilling is 
extensively conducted at Pekin, the county -seat, 
which is also the seat of other mechanical indus- 
tries. (See also Pekin.) Population of the 
county (1.S90), 20,. >5fi: (1900), 33,221; (1910). 34.027 

TEMPLE, Jolin Taylor, M.D., early Chicago 
physician, born in Virginia in 1804, graduated in 
medicine at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1830, and, 
in 1833, arrived in Chicago. At this time he had 
a contract for carrying the United States mail 
from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay, 
and the following jear undertook a similar con- 
tract between Chicago and Ottawa. Having sold 
these out three years later, he devoted his atten- 
tion to the practice of his profession, though 
interested, for a time, in contracts for the con- 
struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Dr. 
Temple was instrumental in erecting the first 
house (after Rev. Jesse Walker's missionary 
station at Wolf Point), for public religious 
worship in Chicago, and, although himself a 
Baptist, it was used in common by Protestant 
denominations. He was a member of the first 
Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College, 
though he later became a convert to homeopathy, 
and finally, removing to St. Louis, assisted in 
founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy, 
dying there, Feb. 24, 1877. 
'tEM'RE of OFFICE. (See Elections.) 

RAILROAD. (See St. Louis, Alton <& Tei-re 
Haute Railroad.) 

St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Ixailroad.) 

RO.\D, a corporation operating no line of its own 
within the State, but the lessee and operator of 
the following lines (which see): St. Louis, 
Vandalia & Terre Haute, 158.3 miles; Terre 
Haute & Peoria, 145.12 miles; East St. Louis 
& Carondelet, 12.74 miles — total length of leased 



lines in Illinois, 316.10 miles. The Terre Haute 
& Indianapolis Railroad was iucorjiorated in 
Indiana in 1847, as the Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond, completed a line between the points 
named in the title, in 1832, and took its present 
name in 1866. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany purchased a controlling interest in its stock 
in 1893. 

(Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from 
Terre Haute, Ind.. to Peoria, 111., 145.12 miles, 
with 28.78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9 
miles in operation, all being in Illinois — operated 
by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Com- 
pany. The gauge is standard, and the rails are 
steel. (History.) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887, 
successor to the Illinois 5Iidland Railroad. The 
latter was made up by the consolidation (Nov. 4, 
1874) of three lines; (1) The Peoria, Atlanta & 
Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened in 
1874; (2) the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered 
in 1801 and opened in December, 1872; and (3) the 
Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873 
and opened in 1874 — the consolidated lines 
assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Rail- 
road. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold under 
foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized 
as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1892 
it was leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is 
operated a& a part of the "Vandalia System.'' 
The capital stock (1898) was §3,764,200; funded 
debt, §2,280,000,total capital invested, 86,227,481. 
■ TEUTOPOLIS, a village of Effingham County, 
on the Vandalia Railroad line, four miles east of 
Effingham, is a strictly agricultural region and 
was originally settled by a colony of Germans 
from Cincinnati. Population (1900), 498; (1910), 

THOMAS, Horace H., lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Vermont, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at 
Middlebury College, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced 
practice. At the outbreak of the rebellion he 
enlisted and was commissioned Assistant Adju- 
tant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the 
close of the war he took up his residence in Ten- 
nessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff 
of Governor Brownlow. In 1867 he returned to 
Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected 
a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and 
re-elected in 1880, being chosen Speaker of the 
House during his latter term. In 1888 he was 
elected State Senator from the Sixth District, 
serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth 

and Thirty-seventh General As.semblies. In 
1897, General Thomas was appointed United 
States Ajipraiser in connection with the Custom 
House in Chicago. Died March 17, 1004. 

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United 
States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md., 
claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore. 
Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood 
and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, 
in 1803; in 1805 was Speaker of the Territorial 
Legislature and, later, represented the Territory 
as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of 
Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he 
removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the 
first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818, 
as Delegate from St. Clair County, presided over 
the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on 
the admission of the State, became one of the 
first United States Senators — Governor Edwards 
being his colleague. Though an avowed advo- 
cate of slavery, he gained no little prominence 
as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Com- 
promise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to 
the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He sub- 
sequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where 
he died by suicide. May 4, 1853. — Jesse Burgess 
(Thomas), Jr., nephew of the United States Sena- 
tor of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, 
July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania 
University, and, being admitted to the bar, 
located at Edwardsville, 111. He first appeared 
in connection witli public affairs as Secretary of 
the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1832; 
in 1834 was elected Representative in the General 
Assembly from Madison County, but, in Febru- 
ary following, was appointed Attorney-General, 
serving only one year. He afterwards held the 
position of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being 
then in Sj^ringfield; in 1843 he became Associ- 
ate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment 
of the Governor, as successor to Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and was afterwards elected to the same 
office by the Legislature, remaining until 1848. 
During a part of his professional career he was 
the partner of David Prickett and William L. 
May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of 
the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago, 
where he died, Feb. 21, 1850.— Jesse B. (Thomas) 
third, clergyman and son of the last named ; born 
at Edwardsville, 111., July 29, 1832; educated at 
Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.) 
Theological Seminary ; practiced law for a time 
in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist minis- 
try, serving churches at AVaukegan. Ill, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He 



then became pastor of the Michigan Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, in Chicago, remaining imtil 1874, 
when he returned to Brooklyn. In 1887 he 
became Professor of Biblical History in the 
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he 
has since resided. He is the author of several 
volumes, and. in 1806, received the degree of D.D. 
from the old Universitj' of Chicago. 

THOMAS, John, pioneer and soldier of the 
Black Hawk War, was born in Wythe County, 
Va., Jan. 11, 1800. At the age of 18 he accom- 
panied his parents to St. Clair County, 111., where 
the family located in what was then called the 
Alexander settlement, near the present site of 
Shiloh. ^Mien he was 22 he rented a farm 
(although he had not enough money to buy a 
horse) and married. Six years later he bought 
and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward, 
rapidly accumulated real property, until he 
became one of the most extensive owners of farm- 
ing land in St. Clair County. In earlj' life he 
was fond of military exercise, holding various 
offices in local organizations and serving as a 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1824 he was 
one of the leaders of the party opposed to the 
amendment of the State Constitution to sanction 
slaver}-, was a zealous opponent of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill in 1854, and a firm supporter of the 
Republican party from the date of its formation. 
He was elected to the lower house of the General 
Assembly in 1838, "62. "04, "72 and "74; and to the 
State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the 
latter body. Died, at Belleville, Dec. 16, 1894, in 
the 9.")th j-ear of his age. 

THOMAS, John R., ex-Congressman, was born 
at Motmt Vernon, 111., Oct. 11, 1840. He served 
in the Union Army during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, rising from the ranks to a captaincy. After 
his retiu-n home he studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1809. From 1873 to 1876 he was 
State's Attornej', and, from 1879 to 1889, repre- 
sented his District in Congress. In 1897, Mr. 
Thomas was appointed by President McKinley 
an additional United States District Judge for 
Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita, 
in that Territory. 

THOMAS, William, pioneer lawyer and legis- 
lator, was born in what is now Allen County, 
Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudimentary edu- 
cation, and served as deputy of his father (who 
was Sheriff), and afterwards of the County Clerk; 
studied law and was admitted to the liar in 1823; 
in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, 111., where he 
taught school, served as a private in the Winne- 
bago War (1827), and at the session of 1828-29, 

reported tlie proceedings of the General Assem- 
bly for "The Vandalia Intelligencer"; was State's 
Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan 
County ; served as Quartermaster and Commis- 
sary in the Black Hawk War (1831-32), first under 
Gen. Josejjh Duncan and, a j-ear later, under 
General Whiteside ; in 1839 was appointed Circuit 
Judge, but legislated out of office two j-ears later. 
It was as a member of the Legislature, however, 
that he gained the greatest prominence, first as 
State Senator in 1834-40, and Representative in 
1846-48 and 1850-52, when he was especially influ- 
ential in the legislation which resulted in estab- 
lishing the institutions for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane 
(the first in the State) at Jacksonville — serving, 
for a time, as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the latter. He was also prominent in connec- 
tion with many enterprises of a local character, 
including the establishment of the Illinois Female 
College, to which, although without children of 
his own, he was a liberal contributor. During 
the first year of the war he was a memi>er of the 
Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Gov- 
ernor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 22, 

THORNTON, Anthony, jurist, was born in 
Bourbon County, Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 — being 
descended from a Virginia family. After the 
usual primary instruction in the common schools, 
he spent two years in a high scbool at Gallatin, 
Tenn., when he entered Centre College at Dan- 
ville, Ky., afterwards continuing his studies at 
Miami University, Ohio, where he graduated in 
1834. Having studied law with an uncle at 
Paris, K}'., he was licensed to practice in 1836, 
when he left his native State with a view to set- 
tling in Jlissouri, but, visiting his uncle, Gen. 
William F. Thornton, at Shelby ville. 111., was 
induced to establish himself in practice there. 
He served as a member of tlie State Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1862. and as Represent- 
ative in the Seventeenth General Assembly 
(1850-52) for Shelby County. In 1864 he was 
elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress, and, in 
1870, to the Illinois Supreme Court, but served 
only until 1873, when he resigned. In 1879 
Judge Thornton removed to Decatur, 111., but 
subsequently returned to Shelbyville, where 
he cicd Sept. 10, 1904. 

THORNTON, William Fitzhugh, Commissioner 
of the Illinois & ilichigan Canal, was born in 
Hanover County, Va. , Oct. 4, 1789; in 1806, went 
to Alexandria, Va., where he conducted a drug 
business for a time, also acting as associate 



editor of "The Alexandria Gazette." Subse- 
quently removing to Wasliington City, lie con- 
ducted a paper there in the interest of John 
Quincy Adams for the Presidency. During the 
War of 1812-14 he served as a Captain of cavalry, 
and, for a time, as staff -oflScer of General Winder. 
On occasion of the visit of Marquis La Fayette to 
America (1824-25) he accompanied the distin- 
guished Frenchman from Baltimore to Rich- 
mond. In 1829 he removed to Kentucky, and, 
in 1833, to Shelby ville. 111., where he soon after 
engaged in mercantile business, to which he 
added a banking and brokerage business in 1859, 
with which he was actively associated until his 
death. In 1836, he was appointed, by Governor 
Duncan, one of the Commissioners of the Illinois 
& Michigan Canal, serving as President of the 
Board until 1842. In 1840, he made a visit to 
London, as financial agent of tlie State, in the 
interest of the Canal, and succeeded in making a 
sale of bonds to the amount of .51,000,000 on what 
were then considered favorable terms. General 
Thornton was an ardent Whig until the organi- 
zation of the Republican part}-, when he became 
a Democrat. Died, at Shelbyville, Oct. 21, 

TILLSOX, John, pioneer, was born at Halifax, 
Mass., March 13, 1790; came to Illinois in 1819, 
locating at Ilillsboro, Montgomery County, where 
he became a prominent and enterprising operator 
in real estate, doing a large business for eastern 
parties ; was one of the founders of Hillsboro 
Academy and an influential and liberal friend of 
Illinois College, being a Trustee of the latter 
from its establishment until his death; was sup- 
ported in the Legislature of 1827 for State Treas- 
urer, but defeated by James Hall. Died, at 
Peoria, May 11, 18.53.— Christiana Holmes (Till- 
son), wife of the preceding, was born at Kingston, 
Mass., Oct. 10, 1798; married to John Tillson in 
1823, and immediately came to Illinois to reside; 
was a woman of rare culture and refinement, and 
deeply interested in benevolent enterprises. 
Died, in New York City, May 29, 1872.— Charles 
Holmes (Tillson), son of John and Christiana 
Holmes Tillson, was born at Hillsboro, 111. . Sejit. 
15, 1823; educated at Hillsboro Academy and 
Illinois College, graduating from the latter in 
1844; studied law in St. Louis and at Transyl- 
vania University, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Louis and practiced there some years — also served 
several terms in the City Council, and was a 
member of the National Guard of Missouri in the 
War of tlie Rebellion. Died, Nov. 25, 18G5.— 
John (Tillson), Jr., another son, was born at 

Hillsboro, 111., Oct. 12, 1825; educated at Hills- 
boro Academy and Illinois College, but did not 
graduate from the latter; graduated from Tran- 
sylvania Law School, Kj'., in 1847, and was 
admitted to the bar at Quincy, 111., the same 
year; practiced two years at Galena, when he 
returned to Quincy. In 18G1 he enlisted in the 
Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, became its 
Lieutenant-Colonel, on the jjromotion of Col. J. D. 
Morgan to Brigadier-General, was advanced to 
the colonelcy, and, in Jul}-, 1865, was mustered 
out with the rank of brevet Brigadier-General ; 
for two years later held a commission as Captain 
in the regular army. During a portion of 1869-70 
he was editor of "Tlie Quincy Whig"; in 1873 
was elected Representative in the Twenty -eighth 
General Assembly to succeed Nehemiah Busliuell, 
who had died in office, and, during the same year, 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the Quincy District, serving until 1881. Died, 
August 6, 1892. 

TILLSON, Robert, pioneer, was born in Hali- 
fax County, Mass., August 12, 1800; came to Illi- 
nois in 1822, and was emjjloyed, for several years, 
as a clerk in the land agency of his brother, John 
Tillson, at Hillsboro. In 1826 he engaged in the 
mercantile business with Charles Holmes, Jr., In 
St. Louis, but, in 1828, removed to Quincy, 111,, 
where he ojiened tlie first general store in that 
city; also served as Postmaster for some ten 
years During this period he built the first two- 
story frame building erected in Quincy, up to 
that date. Retiring from the mercantile business 
in 1840 he engaged in real estate, ultimately 
becoming the proprietor of considerable property 
of this character; was also a contractor for fur- 
nishing cavalry accouterments to the Government 
during the war. Soon after the war he erected 
one of the handsomest business blocks existing 
in the city at that time. Died, in Quincy, Dec. 
27. 1802. 

TIN'CHER, John L., banker, was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1821 ; brouglit b}' his parents to Vermil- 
ion County, Ind., in 1829, and left an orphan at 
17; attended school in Coles Count}-, 111 , and 
was employed as clerk in a store at Danville, 
1843-53. He then became a member of the firm 
of Tinchcr & English, merchants, later establisli- 
ing r. b::;iik, which became the First National 
Bank of Danville. In 1864 Mr Tincher was 
elected Representative in the Twenty-fourth 
General Assembly and, two years later, to the 
Senate, being re-elected in 1870. He was also a 
member of the State Constitutional Convention 
of 1869-70. Died, in Springfield, Dec. 17, 1871, 



■nhile in attendance on the adjourned session of 
tliat year. 

TIl'TOX, Thomas F., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Franklin County, Oliio, August 29, 1833 ; 
and was a resident of McLean Count}', 111., from 
the age of 10 years, his last home being in 
Bloomington. He was admitted to the bar in 
IS.")?, and, from January, 1S07, to December, 1868, 
was State's Attorney for the Eighth Judicial 
Circuit. In 1870 he was elected Judge of the 
same circuit, and under the new Constitution, 
was chosen Judge of the new Fourteenth Circuit. 
From 18T7 to 1879 he represented the (then) 
Thirteenth Illinois District in Congress, but, in 
1878, was defeated by Adlai E. Stevenson, the 
Democratic nominee. In 1891 he was re-elected 
to a seat on the Circuit bench for the Bloomington 
Circuit, but resumed practice at the expiration 
of his term in 1&97. Died I'ub. 7, 1904. 

TISKILW.V, a village of Bureau County, on the 
Chicago, Rock Island it Pacific Railway, 7 miles 
southwest of Princeton; has creameries and 
cheese factories, churches, school, library, water- 
works, hank and a newspaper. Pop. (1910), 857. 

TODD, (Col.) John, soldier, was born in Mont- 
gomery County, Pa., in 1750; took part in the 
battle of Point Pleasant, Va., in 1774, as Adju- 
tant-General of General Lewis; settled as a 
lawj-er at Fincastle, Va., and, in 177.5, removed 
to Fayette County, Ky., the next year locating 
near Lexington. He was one of the first two 
Delegates from Kentucky County to the Virginia 
House of Burgesses, and, in 1778, accompanied 
Col. George Rogers Clark on his expedition 
against Kaskaskia and Vincennes. In Decem- 
ber, 1778, he was appointed by Gov. Patrick 
Henry, Lieutenant Commandant of Illinois 
County, embracing the region northwest of the 
Ohio River, .serving two years; in 1780. was again 
a member of the Virginia Legislature, where he 
procured grants of land for pul)Iic schools and 
introduced a bill for negro-einaiiciijation. He 
was killed by Indians, at the battle of Blue 
Licks, Ky., Augast 19, 1782. 

TODD, (Dr.) John, physician, born near Lex- 
ington, Ky., April 27, 1787, was one of the earli- 
est graduates of Transylvania University, also 
graduating at the Medical University of Phila- 
delphia; was appointed Surgeon-General of Ken- 
tucky troops in the War of 1812, and captured at 
tne battle of River Raisin. Returning to Lex- 
ington after his release, lie practiced there and 
at Bardstown, removed to EJwardsvillo, 111., in 
1817. and, in 1827, to Sjiringfield. v.-licre he had 
been appointed Register of the Land Office by 

President John Quincy Adams, but was removed 
by Jackson in 1829. Dr. Todd continued to reside 
at Springfield until his deatli, which occurred, 
Jan. 9, 1865. He was a grandson of John Todd, 
who was appointed Commandant of Illinois 
County by Gov. Patrick Henry in 1778, and an 
uncle of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln. — John DIair 
Smith (Todd), son of the preceding, was born at 
Lexington, Kj-., April 4, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1817; graduated at the United 
States Slilitary Academj- in 1837, serving after- 
wards in the Florida and Mexican wars and on 
the frontier; resigned, and was an Indian-trader 
in Dakota, 1856-61 ; the latter year, took his 
seat as a Delegate in Congress from Dakota, 
then served as Brigadier-General of Volun- 
teers, 1861-63; was again Delegate in Congress 
in 1863-65, Speaker of the Dakota Legislature 
in 1867, and Governor of the Territory, 1869-71. 
Died, at Yankton City, Jan. 5, 1872. 

TOLEDO, a village and the of 
Cumberland Countj-. on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road; founded in 1854 ; has five cliurches, a graded 
school, two banks, creamery, flour mill, elevator, 
and two weekly newspapers. There are no consider- 
able manufactories, the leading industry in the 
surrounding countrj' being agriculture. Pop. (1900), 
81S; (1910), 900. 

RO.iD. (See Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas Citg 
Jiailrodd. ) 

(See Toledo, Peoria d' Western Railtniy.) 

(See Toledo. Peoria tf- Western Eailway.) 

a line of railroad wholly within the State of Illi- 
nois, extending from Effner, at the Indiana State 
line, west to the Mississippi River at \Vars;iw. 
The length of the whole line is 230. 7 miles, owned 
entirely by the company. It is made U]) of a 
division from Effner to Peoria (110.9 miles) — 
whicli is practically an air-line throughout nearly 
its entire length — and the Peoria and Warsaw 
Division (108.8 miles) with branches from La 
Harpe to Iowa Junction (10.4 miles) and 0.6 of a 
mile connecting with the Keokuk bridge at 
Hamilton. — (History.) The original charter for 
this line was granted, in 1863, under the name of 
the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad ; the main 
line was completed in 1808, and the La Harpe & 
Iowa Junction branch in 1873. Default was 
made in 1873. the road sold under foreclosure, in 
1880, and reorganized as the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroad, and the line leased for 49^ 



years to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway 
Company. The latter defaulted in July, 1884, 
and, a year later, the Toledo, Peoria & Western 
was transferred to trustees for the first mortgage 
bond-holders, was sold under foreclosure in 
October, 1886, and, in March, 1887, the present 
company, under the name of the Toledo, Peoria 
& Western Railway Company, was organized for 
the purpose of taking over the property. In 1893 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company obtained a 
controlling interest in the stock, and, in 1894. an 
agreement, for joint ownership and management, 
was entered into between that corporation and 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany. The total capitalization, in 1898, was 
§9,712,433, of which §4,076,900 was in stock and 
$4,89.'>,000 in bonds. 

ROAD. This line crosses the State in a northeast 
direction from East St. Louis to Humrick, near 
the Indiana State line, witli Toledo as its eastern 
terminus. The length of the entire line is 450.73 
miles, of which 179V2 miles are operated in Illi- 
nois. — (History.) The Illinois portion of the 
line grew out of the union of charters granted to 
the Tuscola, Charleston & Vincennes and the 
Charleston, Neoga & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
panies, which were consolidated in 1881 with 
certain Indiana lines under the name of the 
Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad. During 
1882 a narrow-gauge road was constructed from 
Ridge Farm, in Vermilion County, to East St. 
Louis (172 miles). In 1885 this was sold under 
foreclosure and, in June, 1886, consolidated with 
the main line under tlie name of the Toledo. St. 
Louis & Kansas City Railroad. The whole line 
was changed to standard gauge in 1887-89, and 
otherwise materiallj' improved, but, in 1893, 
went into the hands of receivers. Plans of re- 
organization have been under consideration, but 
the receivers were still in control in 1898. 

ROAD. (See Wabasli Railroad.) 

TOLONO, a village in Champaign County, situ- 
ated at the intersection of the \\'abash and the 
Illinois Central Railroads, 9 miles south of Cham- 
paign and 37 miles east-northeast of Decatur. It 
is the business center of a j^rosperous agricultural 
region. The town has several churches, a graded 
school, a bank, some manufactories and a weekly 
newspaper; much grain is shipped here. Pop. 
(1890), 902; (1900), 845; (1910), 700. 

TOLUCA, a city of Marshall County, on the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and the Toluca, 
Marquette & Northern R. Rs., 10 miles southwest 

of ^^'enona; has two coal mines and two weekly 
papers, Poj). (1910), 2,407. 

TONTY, Chevalier Henry de, e.xplorer and sol- 
dier, born at Gaeta, Italy, about 16.50 "What is 
now known as the Tontine system of insurance 
undoubtedly originated with his father. The 
younger Tonty was adventurous, and, even as a 
youth, took part in nu:nerous land and naval 
encounters. In the course of his experience he 
lost a hand, which was replaced by an iron or 
copper substitute. He embarked with La Salle 
in 1678, and aided in the construction of a fort at 
Niagara. He advanced into the country of tlie 
Illinois and establislied friendly relations with 
them, only to witness the defeat of his putative 
savage allies by the Iroquois. After various 
encounters (chiefly under the direction of La 
Salle) with the Indians in Illinois, he returned 
to Green Bay in 1681. The same year — under La 
Salle's orders — he began the erection of Fort St. 
Louis, on what is now called ".Starved Rock" in 
La Salle County. In 1682 he descended the Mis- 
sissippi to its mouth, with La Salle, but was 
ordered back to Mackinaw for assistance. In 
1684 he returned to Illinois and successfully 
repulsed the Iroquois from Fort St. Louis. In 
1686 he again descended the Mississippi in search 
of La Salle. Disheartened by the death of his 
commander and the loss of his early comrades, 
he took up his residence with the Illinois Indians. 
Among them he was found by Iberville in 1700, 
as a hunter and fur-trader. He died, in Mobile, 
in Sei)tember. 1704. He was La Salle's most effi- 
cient coadjutor, and next to his ill-fated leader, 
did more than any other of the early French 
explorers to make Illinois known to tlie civilized 

TOPOGRAPHY. Illinois is, generally speak- 
ing, an elevated table-land. If low water at 
Cairo be adopted as the maximum depression, and 
the summits of the two ridges hereinafter men- 
tioned as the highest points of elevation, the alti- 
tude of this table land above the sea-level varies 
from 300 to 850 feet, the mean elevation being 
about 600 feet. The State has no mountain 
chains, and its few hills are probably the result 
of unequal denudation during the drift epoch. 
In some localities, particularly in the valley of 
the upper Mississippi, the streams have cut 
channels from 200 to 300 feet deep through the 
nearly horizontal strata, and here are found pre- 
cipitous scarps, but, for the most part, the 
fundamental rooks are covered by a thick layer 
of detrital material. In the northwest there is a 
broken tract of uneven ground; the central por- 



tion of the State is almost wholly flat prairie, 
and, in the alluvial lands in the State, there are 
many deep valleys, eroded by tlie action of 
stretims. The surface generally slopes toward 
the south and southwest, but the uniformity is 
broken by two ridges, which cross the State, one 
in either extremity. The northern ridge crosses 
the Rock River at Grand Detour and the Illinois 
at Split Rock, with an extreme altitude of 800 to 
850 feet above sea level, though the altitude of 
Jtount Jlorris, in Ogle County, exceeds 900 feet. 
That in the south consists of a range of hills in 
the latitude of Jonesboro, and extending from 
Shawneetown to Grand Tower. These hills are 
also about 800 feet above the level of the ocean. 
The highest point in the State is in Jo Daviess 
County, just south of the Wisconsin State line 
(near Scale's Mound) reaching an elevation of 
1,257 feet above sea-level, while the highest in 
the south is in the northeast corner of Pope 
County — 1,046 feet — a spur of the Ozark moun- 
tains. The following statistics regarding eleva- 
tions are taken from a report of Prof. C. W. 
Rolfe, of the University of Illinois, based on 
observations made under the auspices of the Illi- 
nois Board of World's Fair Commissioners: The 
lowest gauge of the Ohio river, at its mouth 
(above sea- level), is 268. 58 feet, and the mean 
level of Lake Michigan at Chicago 581.28 feet. 
The altitudes of a few prominent points are as 
follows: Highest point in Jackson Count}', 695 
feet; "Bald Knob" in Union County, 985; high- 
est point in Cook County (Harrington), 818; in La 
Salle County (Mendota), 747; in Livingston 
(Strawn), 770; in Will (Monee), 804; in Pike 
(Arden). 790; in Lake (Lake Zurich), 880; in 
Bureau, 910: in Boone, 1.010; in Lee (Carnahan), 
1,017; in Stephenson (Waddam's Grove), 1,018; 
in Kane (Briar Hill), 974; in Winnebago, 985. 
The elevations of important towns are: Peoria, 
465; Jacksonville, 602; .Springfield, 596; Gales- 
burg, 7.55; Joliet, 537; Rockford, 728; Blooming- 
ton, 821. Outside of tlie immediate valleys of 
the streams, and a few isolated groves or copses. 
little timber is found in the northern and central 
portions of the State, and such growth as there 
is. lacks the thriftiness characteristic of the for- 
ests in the Ohio valley. These forests cover a 
belt extending some sixty miles north of Cairo, 
and, while they generally include few coniferous 
trees, they abound in various species of oak, 
black and white walnut, white and yellow pop- 
lar, ash, elm, sugar maple, linden, honey locust, 
Cottonwood, mulberry, .=^ycamore, pecan, persim- 
mon, and (in the immediate valley of the Ohio) 

the cypress. From a commercial point of view, 
Illinois loses nothing through the lack of timber 
over three-fourtlis of the States area. Chicago 
is an accessible market for the product of the 
forests of the upper lakes, so that the supply of 
lumber is ample, while extensive coalfields sup- 
ply abundant fuel. The rich soil of the prairies, 
with its abundance of organic matter (see Geo- 
logical Formations) . more than compensates for 
the want of pine forests, whose soil is ill adapted 
to agriculture. About two-thirds of the entire 
boundary of the State consists of navigable 
waters. These, with their tributary streams, 
ensure sufficient drainage. 

for the registration of titles to. and incumbrances 
upon, land, as well as transfers thereof, intended 
to remove all unnecessary obstructions to the 
cheap, simple and safe sale, acquisition and 
transfer of realty. The system has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Canada. Australia. New Zea- 
land and British Columbia for many years, and 
it is also in force in some States in the American 
L*nion. An act providing for its introduction 
into Illinois was first passed by the Twenty- 
ninth General Assembly, and approved, June 13, 
1895. The final legislation in reference thereto 
was enacted b}' the succeeding Legislature, and 
was approved. May 1, 1897. It is far more elabo- 
rate in its consideration of details, and is believed 
to be, in many respects, much better adapted to 
accomplish the ends in view, than was the origi- 
nal act of 1895. The law is applicable only to 
counties of the first and second class, and can be 
adopted in no county except by a vote of a 
majority' of the qualified voters of the same — the 
vote '"for" or "against"' to be taken at either the 
November or April elections, or at an election 
for the choice of Judges. Thus far the only 
county to adopt the system has been Cook, and 
there it encountered strong opposition on the 
part of certain parties of influence and wealth. 
After its adoption, a test case was brought, rais- 
ing tlie question of the constitutionality of the 
act. The iss\io was taken to the Supreme Court, 
which tribunal finally upheld the law. — The 
Torrens system sulistitutes a certificate of regis- 
tration and of transfer for the more elaborate 
deeds and mortgages in use for centuries. Under 
if there can be no actual transfer of a title until 
the same is entered upon the public land legis- 
ter, kept in the office of the Registrar, in which 
case the deed or mortgage becomes a mere power 
of attorney to authorize the transfer to be made, 
upon the principle of an ordinary stock transfer. 



or of the registration of a United States bond, 
the actual transfer and public notice thereof 
being simultaneous. A brief synopsis of the pro- 
visions of the Illinois statute is given below; 
Recorders of deeds are made Registrars, and 
required to give bonds of either SoO, 000 or §200,- 
000, according to the population of the county. 
Any person or corjjoration, having an interest in 
land, may make application to any court having 
chancery jurisdiction, to have his title thereto 
registered. Such application must be in writ- 
ing, signed and verified by oath, and must con- 
form, in matters of specification and detail, with 
the requireuients of the act. The court may refer 
the application to one of the standing examiners 
appointed by the Registrar, who are required to 
be competent attorneys and to give bond to ex- 
amine into the title, as well as the truth of the 
applicant's statements. Immediately upon the 
filing of the application, notice thereof is given 
by the clerk, through publication and the issuance 
of a summons to be served, as in other proceed- 
ings in chancery, against all persons mentioned 
in the petition as having or claiming any inter- 
est in the property described. Any person inter- 
ested, whether named as a defendant or not, may 
enter an appearance within the time allowed. A 
failure to enter an appearance is regarded as a 
confession by default. The court, in passing 
upon the application, is in no case bound by the 
examiner's report, but mav' require other and 
furtherproof ; and, in its final adjudication, passes 
ujjon all questions of title and incumbrance, 
directing the Registrar to register the title in the 
party in whom it is to be vested, and making 
provision as to the manner and order in which 
incumbrances thereon shall appear upon the 
certificate to be issued. An appeal may be 
allowed to the Supreme Coui't. if praj-ed at the 
time of entering the decree, upon like terms as 
in other cases in chancer}-; and a writ of error 
may be sued out from that tribunal within two 
years after the entry of the oi-der or decree. 
The period last mentioned may be said to be the 
statutory period of limitation, after which the 
decree of the court must be regarded as final, 
although safeguards are provided for those who 
may have been defrauded, and for a few other 
classes of persons Upon the filing of the order 
or decree of the court, it becomes the duty of the 
Registrar to issue a certificate of title, the form 
ol which is prescribed by the act, making such 
notations at the end as shall show and preserve 
the priorities of all estates, mortgages, incum- 
brances and changes to which the owner's title is 

subject. For the purpose of preserving evidence 
of the owner's handwriting, a receipt for the 
certificate, duly witnessed or acknowledged, is 
required of him, which is preserved in the Regis- 
trar's office. In case any registered owner 
should desire to transfer the whole or any part of 
his estate, or any interest therein, he is required 
to execute a conveyance to the transferee, which, 
together with the certificate of title last issued, 
must be surrendered to the Registrar. That 
official thereupon issues a new^ certificate, stamp- 
ing the word ''cancelled" across the surrendered 
certificate, as well as upon the corresponding 
entry in his books of record. "When land is first 
brought within the operation of the act, the 
receiver of the certificate of title is required to 
pay to the Registrar one-tenth of one per cent of 
the value of the land, the aggregate so received 
to be deposited with and invested by the County 
Treasurer, and reserved as an indemnity fund 
for the reimbursement of persons sustaining any 
loss thi'OLigh any omission, mistake or malfea- 
sance of the Registrar or his subordinates. The 
advantage claimed for the Torrens system is, 
cliieflj", that titles registered thereunder can be 
dealt with more safely, quickl}''and inexjiensively 
than under the old system ; it being possible to 
close the entire transaction within an hour or 
two, without the need of an abstract of title, 
while (as the law is administered in Cook County) 
the cost of transfer is only 83. It is asserted that 
a title, once registered, can be dealt with almost 
as quickly and cheaply', and quite as safely, as 
shares of stock or registered bonds. 

TOULON, the county -seat of Stark Countj', on 
the Peoria & Rock Island Railroad, 37 miies north- 
northwest of Peoria, and 11 miles southeast of 
Galva. Besides the county court-house, the town 
has five churches and a high school, an academy, 
steam granite works, two banks, and one weekly 
paper. Population (1880), 967; (1890), 945; (1900), 
1,057; (1910), 1,208. 

TOWER HILL, a village of Shelby County, on 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and 
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroads, 7 
miles east of Pana; has bank, elevators, coal mines 
and one weekly paper. Pop. (1910), 1,040. 

TOWNSHEND, Richard W., lawyer and Con- 
gressman, was born in Prince George's County, 
Md., April 30, 1840. Between the ages of 10 
and 18 he attended public and private schools 
at Washington, D. C. In 1838 he came to 
Illinois, where he began teaching, at the same 
time reading law with S. B. Slarshall, at 3Ic- 
Leansboro, where he was admitted to the bar 



in 1862, and where he began practice. From 1863 
to 1868 he was Circuit Clerk of Hamilton County, 
and, from 1868 to 18T2, Prosecuting Attorney for 
the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. In 1873 he removed 
to Shawneetown, wliere he became an officer of 
tlie Gallatin National Bank. From 1104 to 187.5 
he was a member of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee, and a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention at Baltimore, in 1872. 
For twelve years (1877 to 1889) he represented 
his District in Congress; was re-elected in 1888, 
but died, March 9, 1889, a few days after the 
beginning of liis seventh term. 

TRACY, John M., artist, was born in Illinois 
about 1842; served in an Illinois regiment during 
the Civil War; studied painting in Paris in 
1866-70 ; established himself as a portrait painter 
in St. Louis and, later, won a high reputation as 
a painter of animals, being regarded as an author- 
ity on the anatomy of the horse and the dog. 
Died, at Ocean Springs, Miss., March 20, 1893. 

TREASURERS. (See State Treasurers.) 

TRE.VT, Samuel Huhbel, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Plainfiekl, Otsego Count}', N. Y., 
June 21, 1811, worked on his father's farm and 
studied law at Richfield, where he was admitted 
to practice. In 1834 he came to Springfield, 111., 
traveling most of the way on foot. Here he 
formed a partnership with George Forquer, who 
had held the offices of Secretary of State and 
Attorney-General. In 1839 he was appointed a 
Circuit Judge, and, on the reorganization of tlie 
Supreme Court in 1841, was elevated to the 
Supreme bench, being acting Chief Justice at the 
time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. 
Having been elected to the Supreme bench uudtr 
the new Constitution, he remained in office until 
March, 1855, when he resigned to take the posi- 
tion of Judge of the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of Illinois, to which he 
had been appointed by President Pierce. This 
position he continued to occupy until his death, 
which occurred at Springfield, March 27, 1887. 
Judge Treat's judicial career was one of the long- 
est in the history of the State, covering a period 
of forty-eight years, of which fourteen were 
spent upon the Supreme bench, and thirty-two 
in the position of Judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court. 

TREATIES. {See Greenville, Treaty of; Indian 

TREE, Lambert, jurist, diplomat and ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Washington, D. C, Nov. 
29, ltt32. of an ancestry distinguished in the War 
of the Revolution. He received a superior clas- 

sical and professional education, and was admit- 
ted to the bar, at Washington, in October, 185-5. 
Removing to Chicago soon afterward, his jn'ofes- 
sional career has been chiefly connected with 
that city. In 1804 he was chosen President of 
the Law Institute, and served as Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook Count}', from 1870 to 1875, 
when he resigned. The three following years lie 
spent in foreign travel, returning to Cliicago in 
1878. In that j'ear, and again in 1880, he was 
the Democratic candidate for Congress from the 
Fourth Illinois District, but was defeated by his 
Republican opponent. In 1885 he was the candi- 
date of his joarty for L'nited States Senator, but 
was defeated b}- John A. Logan, bj- one vote. In 
1884 he was a member of the National Democratic 
Convention which first nominated Grover Cleve- 
land, and, in July, 1885, President Cleveland 
appointed him Minister to Belgium, conferring 
the Russian mission upon him in September, 1888. 
On March 3, 1889, he resigned this post and 
returned home. In 1890 he was appointed by 
President Harrison a Commissioner to the Inter- 
national Monetary Conference at Washington. 
The year before he had attended (although not as 
a delegate) the International Conference, at Brus- 
sels, looking to the suppression of the slave-trade, 
where he exerted all his influence on the side of 
humanity. In 1892 Belgium conferred upon him 
the distinction of "Councillor of Honor" upon its 
commission to the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion. In 1896 Judge Tree was one of the most 
earnest opponents of the free-silver policy, and, 
after the Spanish-American War, a zealous advo- 
cate of the policy of retaining the territory 
acquired from S|)ain. Died October 9, 1910. 

TREMONT, a town of Tazewell County, on the 
Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cinoinrati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles southeast of 
Pekin; has two banks, two telephone exchanges, 
and one newspaper. Pop. (1910), 782. 

TRENTON, a town of Clinton County, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 31 miles 
east of St. Louis; in agricultural district; has 
creamery, milk condensery, two coal mines, six 
churches, a public scliool and one newspaper. Pop. 
(1890), 1.384; (1900), 1,700; (1910). 1,694. 

TROY, a city of Madison County, on the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 21 miles northeast 
of St. Louis; has coal mines, a bank and a news- 
paper. Pop. (1900), l.OSO; (1910), 1,447. 

TRUITT, James Madison, lawj-er and soldier, 
a native of Trimble Comity, Ky., was born Feb. 
12, 1S42, but lived in Illinois since 1843, his father 
having settled near CarroUton that year; was 



educated at Hillsboro and at MoKendree College ; 
enlisted in the One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Illinois Volunteers in lb03, and was promoted 
from the ranks to Lieutenant. After the war he 
studied law with Jesse J. Phillips, now of the 
Supreme Court, and, in 1872, was elected to the 
Twenty -eighth General Assembly, and, in 1888, a 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket. 
Mr. Truitt has been twice a prominent but unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the Republican nomination 
for Attorney-General. His home is at Hillsboro, 
where he is engaged in the jiractice of his profes- 
sion. Died July 26, 1900. 

TRUMBULL, Lyman, statesman, was born at 
Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813, descended from 
a historical family, being a grand-nephew of 
Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, from 
whom the name "Brother Jonathan" was derived 
as an appellation for Americans. Having received 
an academic education in his native town, at the 
age of 16 he began teaching a district school near 
his home, went South four years later, and en- 
gaged in teaching at Greenville, Ga. Here he 
studied law with Judge Hiram Warner, after- 
wards of the Supreme Court, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1837. Leaving Georgia the same year, he 
came to Illinois on horseback, visiting Vandalia, 
Belleville, Jacksonville, Springfield, Tremontand 
La Salle, and finally reaching Chicago, then a 
village of four or five thousand inhabitants. At 
Jacksonville he obtained a license to practice 
from Judge Lockwood, and, after visiting Michi- 
gan and his native State, he settled at Belleville, 
which continued to be his home for twenty years. 
His entrance into public life began with his elec- 
tion as Representative in the General Assembly 
in 1840. This was followed, in February, 1841, 
by his appointment by Governor Carlin, Secre- 
tary of State, as the successor of Stephen A. 
Douglas, who, after holding the position only two 
months, had resigned to accept a seat on the 
Supreme bench. Here he remained two years, 
when he was removed by Governor Ford-, March 
4, 1843, but, five years later (1848), was elected a 
Justice of the Supreme Court, was re-elected in 
1853. but resigned in 18.')3 on account of impaired 
health. A year later (18.54) he was elected to 
Congress from the Belleville District as an anti- 
Nebraska Democrat, but, before taking his seat, 
was promoted to the United States Senate, as the 
successor of General Shields in the memorable con- 
test of 1855, which resulted in the defeat of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Senator Trumbull's career of 
eighteen years in the United States Senate (being 
re-elected in 1861 and 1867) is one of the most 

memorable in the history of that body, covering, 
as it does, the whole history of the war for the 
Union, and the period of reconstruction which 
followed it. During this period, as Chairman of 
the Senate Committee on Judiciary, he had more 
to do in shaping legishition on war and recon- 
struction measures than any other single member 
of that body. While he disagreed with a large 
majority of his Republican associates on the ques- 
tion of Andrew Johnson's impeachment, he was 
always found in sympathy with them on the vital 
questions affecting tlie war and restoration of the 
Union. The Civil Rights Bill and Freedmen's 
Bureau Bills were shaped by his hand. In 1873 
he joined in the ''Liberal Republican" movement 
and afterwards co-operated with the Democratic 
party, being their candidate for Governor in 
1880. From 1863 his home was in Chicago, 
where, after retiring from the Senate, he con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until his 
death, whicli occurred in that city, June 25, 1890. 

TUG MILLS. These were a sort of primitive 
machine used in grinding corn in Territorial and 
early State days. The mechanism consisted of an 
upright shaft, into the upper end of which were 
fastened bars, resembling those in the capstan of 
a ship. Into the outer end of each of these bars 
was driven a pin. A belt, made of a broad strip 
of ox-hide, twisted into a sort of rope, was 
stretched around these pins and wrapped twice 
around a circular piece of wood called a trundle 
head, through which passed a perpendicular Hat 
bar of iron, which turned the millstone, usually 
about eighteen inches in diameter. From the 
upright shaft projected a beam, to which were 
hitched one or two horses, wliicli furnished the 
motive power. Oxen were sometimes employed 
as motive power in lieu of horses. These rudi- 
mentary contrivances were capable of grinding 
about twelve bushels of corn, each, per day. 

TULET, Murray Floyd, lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Louisville, Ky., March 4, 1827, of English 
extraction and descended from the early settlers 
of Virginia. His father died in 1832. and, eleven 
years later, his mother, having married Col. 
Richard J. Hamilton, for many years a prominent 
lawyer of Chicago, removed with her family to 
that city. Young Tuley began reailing law with 
his step-father and completed his studies at the 
Louisville Law Institute in 1847, the same year 
being admitted to the bar in Chicago. About the 
same time he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Volun- 
teers for service in the Jlexican War, and was 
commissioned First Lieutenant. Tlie war having 
ended, he settled at Santa Fe, N. JI., where he 



practiced law, also served as Attorney-General 
and in tlie Territorial Legislature. Returning to 
Chicago in IS'ii, he was associated in practice, 
successively, with Andrew Harvie, Judge Gary 
and J. N. Barker, and finally as head of the firm 
of Tuley, Stiles & Lewis. From 1869 to 1873 he 
was Corporation Counsel, and during this time 
framed the General Incorporation Act for Cities, 
under which the City of Chicago was reincor- 
porated. In 1879 he was elevated to the bench 
of the Circuit Court of Cook County, and re- 
elected every six years thereafter, his last election 
being in 1S07. He died Dec. 2o, 190.5, during his 
fourth term, some ten years of liis incumbency 
ha\'ing been spent as Chief Justice. 

XrNMCLIFFE, Damon (}., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., August 20, 
1829 ; at the age of 20, emigrated to Illinois, set- 
tling in Vermont, Fulton County, where, for a 
time, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
subsequently studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1853. In 1854 he established himself 
at Macomb, McDonough County, where he built 
up a large and lucrative practice. In 1868 he 
was chosen Pi-esidential Elector on the Repub- 
lican ticket, and. from February to June, 1885, 
by appointment of Governor Oglesby, occupied a 
seat on the liench of the Supreme Court, vice 
Pinkney H. Walker, deceased, who had been one 
of his professional preceptors. Died Dec. 20, 1901. 

TURCHIJf, John Basil (Ivan Vasilevitch Tur- 
chinoff), soldier, engineer and author, was born 
in Russia, Jan. 30, 1822. He graduated from the 
artillery school at St. Petersburg, in 1841, and 
was commissioned ensign; participated in the 
Hungarian campaign of 1849, and. in 1852, was 
assigned to the staff of the Imperial Guards; 
served through the Crimean War, rising to the 
rank of Colonel, and being made senior staff 
officer of the active corps. In 1856 he came to 
this country, settling in Chicago, and, for five 
years, was in the service of the Illinois Central 
Railway Company as topographical engineer. In 
ISGl he was commissioned Colonel of the Nine- 
teentli Illinois Volunteers, and, after leading his 
regiment in Missouri, Kentucky and Alabama, 
was, on July 7, 1862, promoted to a Brigadier- 
Generalship, being attached to the Army of the 
Cumberland until 1864, when he resigned. After 
the war he was, for six years, solicitor of patents 
at Chicago, but, in 1873, returned to engineering. 
In 1879 he established a Polish colony at Radom, 
in Washington County, in this State, and settled 
as a farmer. He was an occasional contributor to 
the press, writing usually on military or scientific 

sulijocts-; was the author cf the "Campaign and 
Battle of riiick-imauga." Pi-d June IS, 1901. 

TURXER (now WEST CHICAGO), a town and 
manufactiiiing center in Win fidd Township, Du 
Page County, 30 miles west of Chicago, at the 
junction of two divisions of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton it Quincy, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and the 
Chicago & Not th western Railroads. The town 
has a rolling mill, manufactories of wagons and 
pumps, and railroad repair shops. It also has five, 
churches, a traded school and two newspapers. 
Pop. (1900), 1,877; with suburb, 2,270. 

TURNER, (Col.) Henry L., soldier and real- 
estate ojierator, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, 
August 26, 1845, and received a part of his edu- 
cation in the college there. During the Civil 
War lie served as First Lieutenant in the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Ohio Volunteers, and 
later, with the same rank in a colored regiment, 
taking part in the operations about Richmond, 
the capture of Fort Fisher, of Wilmington and of 
Gen. Joe Johnston's army. Coming to Chi- 
cago after the close of the war, he became con- 
nected with the business office of "The Advance," 
but later was employed in the banking house of 
Jay Cooke & Co., in Philadelphia. On the failure 
of that concern, in 1872, he returned to Chicago 
and bought "The Advance," which he conducted 
some two years, when he sold out and engaged in 
the real estate business, with which he has since 
been identified — being President of the Chicago 
Real Estate Board in 1888. He has also been 
President of the Western Publishing Company 
and a Trustee of Oberlin College. Colonel Turner 
is an enthusiastic member of the Illinois National 
Guard and, on the declaration of war between the 
United States and Spain, in April, 1898, promptly 
resumed his connection with the First Regiment 
of the Guard, and finally led it to Santiago de 
Cuba during the fighting there — his regiment 
being the only one from Illinois to see actual serv- 
ice in the field during the progress of the war. 
Colonel Turner won the admiration of his com- 
mand and the entire nation bj- the manner in 
which he discharged his duty. The regiment 
was mustered out at Chicago, Nov. 17, 1898, when 
he retired to jirivate life. 

TURNER, John Bice, Railway President, was 
born at Colchester, Delaware County, N. Y., Jan. 
14, 1799; after a brief business career in his 
native State, he became identified with the con- 
struction and operation of railroads. Among the 
works with which he was thus connected, were 
the Delaware Division of the New York & Erie 
and the Troy & Schenectady Roads. In 1843 he 



came to Chicago, having previously purchased a 
large body of land at Blue Island. In 1S47 he 
joined with W. B. Ogden and others, in resusci- 
tating the Galena & Chicago Union Railway, 
which had been incorporated in 1836. He became 
President of the Company in 1850, and assisted in 
constructing various sections of road in Northern 
Illinois and Wisconsin, which liave since become 
portions of the Cliicago & Northwestern sy.stem. 
He was also one of the original Directors of the 
North Side Street Railway Company, organized 
in 1859. Died, Feb. 3(5, 1871. ~ 

TURNER, Joiiatliiiii Baldnin, educator and 
agriculturist, was born in Templeton, Mass., Dec. 
7, 1805 ; grew up on a farm and, before reaching 
his majority, began teacliing in a country school. 
After spending a short time in an academy at 
Salem, in 1837 he entered the preparatory depart- 
ment of Yale College, supporting himself, in part, 
by manual labor and teaching in a gymnasium. 
In 1839 he matriculated in the classical depart- 
ment at Yale, graduated in 1833, and the same 
year accepted a position as tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege at Jacksonville, 111., which had been opened, 
three years previous, by the late Dr. J. M. Sturte- 
vant. In the next fourteen 3'ears he gave in- 
struction in nearly every branch embraced in the 
college curriculum, though holding, during most 
of this period, the chair of Rhetoric and English 
Literature. In 1847 he retired from college 
duties to give attention to scientific agriculture, 
in which he had always manifested a deep inter- 
est. The cultivation and sale of the Osage orange 
as a hedge plant now occupied his attention for 
many years, and its successful introduction in 
Illinois and other Western States — where the 
absence of timber rendered some substitute a 
necessity for fencing purposes — was largelj' due 
to his efforts. At the same time he took a deep 
interest in the cause of practical scientific edu- 
cation for the industrial classes, and, about 1850, 
began formulating that system of industrial edu- 
cation which, after twelve years of labor and 
agitation, he had the satisfaction of seeing 
recognized in the act adopted by Congress, and 
approved by President Lincoln, in July, 1862, 
making liberal donations of public lands for the 
establishment of "Industrial Colleges" in the 
.several States, out of which grew the LTniversity 
of Illinois at Champaign. While Professor Tur- 
ner had zealous colaborers in this field, in Illinois 
and elsewhere, to him, more than to any other 
single man in the Nation, belongs the credit for 
this magnificent achievement. (See Education. 
and University of Illinois.) He was also one of 

the chief factors in founding and building up 
tlie Illinois State Teachers' Association, and the 
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. 
His address on "The Millennium of Labor,"' 
delivered at the first State Agricultural Fair at 
Springfield, in 1853, is still i-emembered as mark- 
ing an era in industrial i)rogress in Illinois. A 
zealous champion of free thought, in both political 
and religious affairs, he long bore the reproach 
which attached to the radical Abolitionist, only 
to enjoy, in later years, the respect universally 
accorded to those who had the courage and 
independence to avow their honest convictions. 
Prof. Turner was twice an unsuccessful candidate 
for Congress — once as a Republican and once as 
an "Independent" — and wrote much on political, 
religious and educational toi^ics. The evening of 
an honored and useful life was spent among 
friends in Jacksonville, which was his home for 
more than sixty years, his death taking place in 
that city, Jan. 10, 1899, at the advanced age of 
93 years.— Mrs. Mary Turner Carriel, at the pres- 
ent time (1899) one of the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, is Prof. Turner's only daughter. 

TURNER, Thomas J., lawyer and Congress- 
man, born in Trumbull County, Ohio, April 5, 
181.5. Leaving home at the age of 18. he spent 
three years in Indiana and in the mining dis- 
tricts about Galena and in Southern Wisconsin, 
locating in Stephenson County, in 1836, where he 
was admitted to the bar in 1840, and elected 
Probate Judge in 1841. Soon afterwards Gov- 
ernor Ford appointed him Prosecuting Attorney, 
in which capacity he secured the conviction and 
punishment of the murderers of Colonel Daven- 
port. In 1846 he was elected to Congress as a 
Democrat, and, the following year, founded "The 
Prairie Democrat" (afterward "The Freeport 
Bulletin"), the first newspaper published in the 
county. Elected to the Legislature in 1854, he 
was chosen Speaker of the House, the next year 
becoming the first Mayor of Freeport. He was a 
member of the Peace Conference of 1861, and, in 
May of that year, was commissioned, by Governor 
Yates, Colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volun- 
teers, but resigned in 1863. He served as a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, 
and, in 1871, was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, where he received the Democratic caucus 
nomination for United States Senator against 
General Logan. In 1871 he removed to Chicago, 
and was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the 
office of State's Attorney. In February, 1874, lie 
went to Hot Springs, Ark., for medical treatment, 
and died there, Ajiril 3 following. 



'rrSCOLA, a city and the county-seat of 
Douglas County, located at the intersection of the 
Illinois Central and two other trunk lines of rail- 
way. 2'^ miles south of Champaign, and 30 miles 
east of Decatur. Besides a brick court-house it 
lias five churches, a graded school, a national 
bank. t«'o weekl.y newspajiers and two establish- 
ments for the manufactui'e of carriages and 
wagons; in a farming district. Pop. (1S90), 1,897; 
(1900), 2..569; (1910), 2,4.5:?. 

RAILROAD. (See Toledo. St. Umis cfr Kansas 
City l\(ii!i-oad.) 

TUTHILL, Richard Stanley, jurist, was born 
at Vergennes, Jackson County, 111., Nov. 10, 1841. 
After passing through the common schools of his 
native county, he took a preparatory course in a 
high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, when he entered Middleburj' Col- 
lege, Vt., graduating there in 1863. Immediately 
thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vicks- 
burg, and, after serving for some time in a com- 
pany of scouts attached to General Logan's 
command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 
First Michigan Light Artillery, with which he 
served until the close of the war, meanwhile 
being twice i>romoted. During this time he was 
with General Sherman in the march to Meridian, 
and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with 
General Thomas in the operations against the 
rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the 
battle of Nashville. Ilaving resigned his com- 
mission in May, 18G.J, he took up the study of 
law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportu- 
nity while in the army, and was admitted to the 
bar at Nashville in 1860, afterwards serving for 
a time as Prosecuting Attorney on the Nashville 
circuit. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, two 
years later was elected City Attorney and re- 
elected in 1877; was a delegate to the Reijublican 
National Convention of 1880 and, in 1884, was 
appointed United States District Attorney for 
the Northern District, serving until 1880. In 
1887 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Cook County to fdl the vacancy caused by the 
death of Judge Kogers, was re-elected for a full 
term in 1891, ,-ind again in 1S97. 

TYXU.VLE, Sharon, Secreta.ry of State, born in 
Philadelphia. Pa., Jan. 19, 1816; at the age of 17 
came to Belleville, 111., and was engaged for a 
time in mercantile business, later being employed 
in a surveyor's corps under the internal improve- 
ment system of 1837. Ilaving married in 1839, 
he returned soon after to Philadelphia, where he 

then came to Illinois, a second time, in 1845, spend- 
ing a year or two in business at Peoria. About 
1847 he returned to Belleville and entered upon a 
course of mathematical study, with a view to 
fitting himself more thoroughly for the profession 
of a civil engineer. In 18.51 he graduated in 
engineering at Cambridge, Mass., after which he 
was employed for a time on the Suubuiy & Erie 
Railroad, and later on certain Illinois railroads. 
In 1857 he was elected County Surveyor of St. 
Clair County, and, in 1861, by appointment of 
President Lincoln, became Postmaster of the city 
of Belleville. He held this position until 1804, 
when he received the Republican noniiiiation for 
Secretary of State and was elected, remaining in 
office four years. He was an earnest advocate, 
and virtually author, of the first act for the regis- 
tration of voters in Illinois, passed at the session 
of 1865. After retiring from office in 1809, he 
continued to reside in Springfield, and was em- 
ployed for a time in the survey of the Gilman, 
Clinton & Springfield Railway — now the Spring- 
field Division of the Illinois Central. At an early 
hour on the morning of April 29, 1871, while 
going from his home to the railroad station at 
Springfield, to take the train for St. Louis, he was 
assassinated upon the street bj' shooting, as sup- 
posed for the of robbery — his dead bodj' 
being found a few hours later at the scene of the 
tragedy. Mr. Tyndale was a brother of Gen. 
Hector Tyndale of Pennsylvania, who won a 
high reputation by his services during the war. 
His second wife, who survived him, was a 
daughter of Shadrach^ Penn, an editor of con- 
siderable reputation who was the contemjwrary 
and rival of George D. Prentice at Louisville, for 
some years. 

history of Illinois would be incomplete without 
reference to the unique system which existed 
there, as in other Northern States, from forty to 
seventy years ago, known by the somewhat mys- 
terious title of "The Underground Railroad." 
The origin of the term has been traced (probably 
in a sjjirit of faeetiousiiess) to the expre-ssion of 
a Kentucky planter who. having pursued a fugi- 
tive slave across the Ohio River, was so surprised 
b}- his sudden disappearance, as soon as he had 
reached the opposite shore, that he was led to 
remark, "The nigger must have gone off on an 
underground road." From "underground road" 
to "underground railroad." the transition would 
appear to have been easy, especial!}' in view of 
the increased facility with which the work was 
performed when railroads came into use. For 



readers of the present generation, it may be well 
vo explain what "The Underground Railroad" 
really was. It may be defined as the figurative 
appellation for a spontaneous movement in the 
free States — extending, sometimes, into the 
slave States themselves — to assist slaves in their 
efforts to escape from bondage to freedom. The 
movement dates back to a period close to the 
Revolutionary War, long before it received a 
definite name. Assistance given to fugitives 
from one State by citizens of another, became a 
cause of complaint almost as soon as the Govern- 
ment was organized. In fact, the first President 
himself lost a slave who took refuge at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., where the public sentiment was 
so strong against his return, that the patriotic 
and philosophic "Father of his Country" chose 
to let him remain unmolested, rather than "excite 
a mob or riot, or even uneasy sensations, in the 
minds of well-disposed citizens. " That the mat- 
ter was already one of concern in the minds of 
slaveholders, is shown by the fact that a provision 
was inserted in the Constitution for tlieir concili- 
ation, guaranteeing the return of fugitives from 
labor, as well as from justice, from one State to 

In 179-3 Congress passed the first Fugitive Slave 
Law, which was signed by President Washing- 
ton. This law provided that the owner, his 
agent or attorney, might follow the slave into 
any State or Territory, and, upon oath or afK- 
davit before a court or magistrate, be entitled 
to a warrant for his return. Any person who 
should hinder the arrest of the fugitive, or who 
should harbor, aid or assist him, knowing him 
to be such, was subject to a fine of §500 for each 
offense. — In 18.50, fifty -seven years later, the first 
act having proved inefficacious, or conditions 
having changed, a second and more stringent 
law was enacted. This is the one usually referred 
to in discussions of the subject. It provided for 
an increased fine, not to exceed §1,000, and im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, with 
liability for civil damages to the part}' injured. 
No proof of ownership was required beyond the 
statement of a claimant, and the accused was not 
permitted to testify for himself. The fee of the 
United States Commissioner, before whom the 
case was tried, was ten dollars if he lound for 
the claimant: if n.ot, five dollars. This seemed 
to many an indirect form of liribery ; clearly, it 
made it to the Judge's pecuniary advantage to 
decide in favor of the claimant. The law made 
it possible and easy for a white man to arrest, 
and carry into slavery, any free negro who could 

not immediately prove, by other witnesses, that 
he was born free, or had purchased his freedom. 

Instead of discouraging the disposition, on 
the part of the opponents of slavery, to aid fugi- 
tives in their efforts to reach a region where 
they would be secure in their freedom, the effect 
of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (as that of 1793 
had been in a smaller degree) was the very oppo- 
site of that intended by its authors — unless, 
indeed, the)- meant to make matters worse. The 
provisions of the act seemed, to many people, so 
unfair, so one-sided, that they rebelled in spirit 
and refused to be made parties to its enforce 
ment. The law aroused the anti-slavery senti- 
ment of the North, and stimulated the active 
friends of the fugitives to take greater risks in 
their behalf. New efforts on the part of the 
slaveholders were met by a determination to 
evade, hinder and nullify the law. 

And here a strange anomaly is presented. The 
slaveholder, in attempting to recover his slave, 
was acting within his constitutional and legal 
rights. The sla%"e was his property in law. He 
had purchased or inherited his bondman on the 
same plane with his horse or his land, and, apart 
from the right to hold a human being in bond- 
age, regarded his legal rights to the one as good 
as the other. From a legal standpoint his posi- 
tion was impregnable. The slave was his, repre- 
senting so much of money value, and whoever 
was instrumental in the loss of that slave was, 
both theoretically and technically, a partner in 
robbery. Therefore he looked on "The Under- 
ground Railway" as the work of thieves, and en- 
tertained bitter hatred toward all concerned in ita 
operation. On the other hand, men who were, 
in all other respects, good citizens — often rebg 
iously devout and pillars of the church — became 
bold and flagi-ant violators of the law in relation 
to this sort of property. They set at nought a 
plain provision of the Constitution and the act of 
Congress for its enforcement. Without hope of 
personal gain or reward, at the risk of fine and 
imprisonment, with tlie certainty of social ostra- 
cism and bitter opposition, they harbored the 
fugitive and heljied him forward on every 
occasion. And why? Because they saw in him 
a man, with the same inherent right to "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness" that they 
themselves posses.sed. To them this was a higher 
law than any Legislature, State or National, could 
enact. They denied that there could be truly 
such a thing as property in man. Believing that 
the law violated human rights, they justified 
themselves in rendering it null and void. 



For the most jjart, the "Underground Rail- 
riiiid" operators and promoters were jjlain, 
obscure meu, without hope of fame or desire for 
notoriety. Yet tliere were some wliose names 
are conspicuous in history, such as Wendell 
Philhps, Thomas Wentworth Higginson and 
Theodore Parker of Massachusetts: Gerrit Smith 
and Thurlow Weed of New York: Joshua K. 
Oiddings of Ohio, and Owen Lovejoy of Illinois. had their followers and sympathizers in 
all the Northern States, and even in some por- 
tions of the South. It is a curious fact, that 
some of the nn)st active spirits coimected with 
the "Underground Railroad" were natives of the 
South, or had resided there long enough to 
Jecome thoroughly acquainted with the "insti- 
tution." Levi Coffin, who had the reputation of 
being the "President of the Underground Rail- 
road" — at least so far as the region west of the 
Ohio was concerned — was an active operator on 
the line in North Carolina before his removal 
from that State to Indiana in IsiG. Indeed, as a 
.>iystem, it is claimed to have had its origin at 
(luilford College, in the "Old North State" in 
1~-:19, though the evidence of this may not be 

Owing to the peculiar nature of their business, 
no official reports wei"e made, no lists of officers, 
conductors, station agents or operators preserved, 
and few records kept which are now accessible. 
Consequently, we are dependent chiefly upon the 
personal recollection of individual operatt)rs for 
a history of their transactions. Each station on 
the road was the house of a "friend" and it is 
s-iguificant, in this connection, that in every 
settlement of Friends, or Quakers, there was 
ture to be a house of refuge for the slave. For 
this reason it was, perhaps, that one of the most 
O'equently traveled lines extended from Vir- 
ginia and Maryland t!irough Eastern Pennsyl- 
Viinia, and then on towards New York or directly 
to Canada. From the proximity of Ohio to 
Virginia and Kentucky, and the fact that it 
offered the shortest route through free soil to 
Canada, it was traver.sed by more lines than any 
other State, although Indiana was pretty 
thoroughly "grid ironed" by I'oads to freedom. 
In all, however, the routes were irregular, often 
zigzag, for purposes of security, and the "con- 
ductor" was any one who conveyed fugitives from 
one station to another The "train" was some- 
times a farm-wagon, loaded with produce for 
market at some town (or depot) on the line, fre- 
(jiK^ntly a closed oarri:i';e. and it is related that 
once, in Ohio, a number of carriages conveying 

a large party, were made to represent a funeral 
procession. Occasionally the train ran on ft)Ot, 
for convenience of side-tracking into the wooda 
or a cornfield, in case of pursuit by a wild loco- 

Then, again, there were not wanting hiwyers 
who, in case the operator, conductor or station 
agent got into trouble, were ready, without fee or 
reward, to defend either him or his human 
freight in the courts. These included such 
names of national repute as Salmon P. Cliase, 
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, William IL 
Seward, Rutherford B. Hayes, Richard II. Dana, 
and Isaac N. Arnold, while, taking the whole 
country over, their "name was legion " And 
there were a few men of wealth, like Thomas 
Garrett of Delaware, willing to contribute money 
by thousands to their assistance. Although 
technically acting in violation of law — or, as 
claimed by themselves, in obedience to a "higher 
law" — the time has already come when there is a 
disposition to look upon the actors as, in a certain 
sense, heroes, and their deeds as fitly belonging 
to the field of romance. 

The most comprehensive collection of material 
relating to the liistory of this movement has 
been furnished in a recent volume entitled, "The 
Underground Railroad from Slavery to Free- 
dom," by Prof. Wilbur H. Siebert, of Ohio State 
University ; and, while it is not wholly free from 
errors, both as to individual names and facts, it 
will probably remain as the best compilation of 
historj- bearing on this subject — especially as the 
principal actors are fast passing away. One ot 
the interesting features of Prof. Sieberfs book is 
a map purixirting to give the principal routes 
and stations in the States northwest of the Ohio, 
yet the accuracy of this, as well as the correct- 
ness of personal names given, has been questioned 
by some best informed on the subject. A? 
might be expected from its geographical position 
between two slave States — Kentucky and Jlis- 
souri — on the one hand, and the lakes offering 3- 
highway to Canada on the other, it is naturally 
to be assumed that Illinois would be an attract- 
ive field, both for the fugitive and his sympa- 

The period of greatest activity of the sj"stem in 
this State was between 1840 and 1861 — the lattej 
being the year when the pro-slavery party in the 
South, by their attempt forcibly- to dissolve the 
Union, took the business out of the hauds of the 
secret agents of the "Underground Railroad,' 
and — in a certain sense — placed it in the hands 
of the Union armies. It was in 1841 that Abra- 



ham Lincoln — then a conservativr opponent of 
the extension of slavery — on an appeal from a 
judgment, rendered by the Circuit Ccurt in Taze- 
well County, in favor of the holder of a note 
given for the service of the indentured slave- 
girl "Nance," obtained a decision from the 
Supreme Court of Illinois uplioldiug the doctrine 
tliat the girl was free under the Ordinance of 
1787 and the State Constitution, and that the 
note, given to the person who claimed to be her 
owner, was void. And it is a somewhat curious 
coincidence that the same Abraham Lincoln, as 
President of the United States, in the second 
year of the War of the Rebellion, issued the 
Proclamation of Emancipation wliich finally 
resulted in striking the shackles from the limbs 
of every slave in the Union. 

In the practical operation of aiding fugitives 
in Illinois, it was natural that the towns along 
the border upon the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 
should Iiave served as a sort of entrepots, or 
initial stations, for the reception of tliis class of 
freight — especially if adjacent to some anti- 
slavery community. Tliis was the case at Ches- 
ter, from wliich access was easy to Sparta, where 
a colony of Covenanters, or Seceders, was 
located, and whence a route extended, by way of 
Oakdale, Nashville and CentraUa, in the direction 
of Chicago. Alton offered convenient access to 
Bond County, where there was a community of 
anti-slavery people at an early day, or the fugi- 
tives could be forwarded northward by way of 
JerseyviUe, Wav^rly and Jacksonville, about 
«ach of which there was a strong anti-sla%'erj- 
sentiment. Quincv, in spite of an intense ho.s- 
tiUty among the r«ass of the community to any- 
thing savoring of abolitionism, became the 
tiieater of gre^ji- activity on the part of the 
opponents of the institution, especially after the 
advent thtire of Dr. David Nelson and ,Dr. Rich- 
ard Eells, both of whom had rendered themselves 
obnoxious to the people of Missouri by extending 
aid to fugitives. The former was a practical 
abolitionist who, having freed his slaves in his 
native State of Virginia, removed to Missouri and 
attempted to establish Marion College, a few miles 
from Palmyra, but was soon driven to Illinois 
Locating near Quincy, he founded the "Mission 
Institute" there, at which he continued to dis- 
seminate his anti-slavery views, while educating 
young men for missionary work. The "Insti- 
tute" was finally burned by emissaries from Mis- 
souri, while three young men wlio had been 
connected with it, having been caught in Mis 
,souri, were condemned to twelve years" confine 

ment in the penitentiary of that State — partly on 
the testimony of a negro, although a negro was 
not then a legal witness in tlie courts against a 
white man. Dr. Eells was prosecuted before 
Stephen A. Douglas (then a Judge of the Circuit 
Court), and fined for aiding a fugitive to escape, 
and tlie judgment against him was finally con- 
firmed by the Supreme Court after his death, in 
18.'32, ten years after the original indictment. 

A map in Professor Siebert's book, showing the 
routes and principal stations of the "Undergound 
Railroad," makes mention of the following places 
in Illinois, in addition to those already referred 
to Carlinville, in Macoupin County; Payson 
and Menaon, in Adams, Washington, in Taze- 
well; Metamora, in Woodford, Magnolia, in Put- 
nam; Galesburg, in Knox. Princeton (the home 
of Owen Lovejoy and the Bryants), in Bureau; 
and many more. Ottawa appears to have been 
tlie meeting point of a number of lines, as well 
as the home of a strong colony of practical abo- 
litionists. Cairo also became an important 
transfer station for fugitives arriving by river, 
after the completion of the Ilhnois Central Rail- 
road, especially as it offered the speediest way of 
reaching Chicago, towards which nearly all the 
lines converged. It was here that tlie fugitives 
could be most safely disposed of bj- placing them 
upon vessels, which, without stopping at inter- 
mediate ports, could soon land them on Canadian 

As to methods, these differed according to cir- 
cumstances, the emergencies of the occasion, or 
the taste, convenience or resources of the oper- 
ator. Deacon Levi Morse, of Woodford County, 
near Metamora, had a route towards Magnolia, 
Putnam Count}'; and liis favorite '"ear" was a 
farm wagon in which there was a double bottom. 
Tlie passengers were snugly placed below, and 
grain sacks, filled with bran or other light material, 
were laid over, so that the whole presented the 
appearance of an ordinary load of grain on its 
« ay to market. The same was true as to stations 
and routes. One, who was an operator, says; 
"Wherever an abolitionist happened on a fugi- 
tive, or the converse, there was a station, for the 
time, and the route was to the next anti-slavery 
man to the east or the north. As a general rule, 
the agent preferred not to know anything bej'ond 
the operation of his own immediate section of the 
road. If he knew nothing about the operations 
of another, and the other knew notliing of his, 
they could not be witnesses in court. 

W^e have it on the authority of Judge Harvey B. 
Ilm-d. of Chicago, that runaways were usually 



forwarded from that city to Canada by way of the 
Lakes, there being several steamers available for 
that purjjose. On one occasion thirteen were 
put aboard a vessel under the eyes of a United 
States ilaishal and his deputies. The fugitives. 
secreted in a woodshed, one by one took the 
places of colored stevedores carrying wood 
aboard the ship. Possibly the term, "There's a 
nigger in the woodpile," may have originated in 
this incident. Thirteen was an "unluckj- num- 
ber" in this instance — for tlie masters. 

Among the notable trials for assisting runaways 
in violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, in addi- 
tion to the case of Dr. Eells. already mentioned, 
were those of Owen Lovejoy of Princeton, and 
Deacon Gushing of Will Count}', both of whom 
were defended by Jutlge H. Collins of Chi- 
cago. John Hossack and Dr. Joseph Stout of 
Ottawa, with some half-dozen of their neighbors 
and fi'iends, were tried at Ottawa, in 18.59. for 
assisting a fugitive and acquitted on a techni- 
cality. A strong array of attorneys, afterwards 
widely known through the northern part of the 
State, appeared for the defense, including Isaac 
N. Arnolil, Joseph Knox, B. C. Cook, J. V. Eus- 
tace, Edward S. Leland and E. C. Earned. Joseph 
T. Jlorse, of Woodford County, was also arrested, 
taken to Peoria and committed to jail, but 
acquitted on trial. 

Another noteworthy case was that of Dr. 
Samuel Willard (now of Chicago) and his father, 
Julius A. Willard, charged with assisting in the 
escape of a fugitive at Jacksonville, in 18-13, when 
the Doctor was a student in Illinois College. 
"The National Corporation Eeporter, " a few 
years ago, gave an account of this affair, together 
with a letter from Dr. Willard. in wliich he states 
that, after protracted litigation, during which 
the case was carried to the Supreme Court, it was 
ended by his pleading guilty before Judge .Samuel 
D. Lockwood. when he was fined one dollar and 
costs— the latter amounting to twenty dollars. 
The Doctor frankly adds: "My father, as well 
as myself, lielped many fugitives afterwards." 
It did not always liapjien, however, that offenders 
escaped so easily. 

Judge Harvey B. Hurd, alreadj- referred to, 
and an active anti-slavery man in the days of the 
Fugitive Slave Law, relates the following: Once, 
when the trial of a fugitive was going on before 
Justice Kercheval, in a room on the second floor 
of a two-story frame building on Clark Street in 
the city of Chicago, the crowd in attendance 
filled the room, the stairway and the adjoining 
sidewalk. In some way the prisoner got mixed 

in with the audience, and passed down over the 
heads of tliose on the stairs, where the officers 
were unable to follow. 

In another case, tried before United States 
Commissioner Geo. W. Meeker, the result was 
made to hinge iqjon a point in the indictment to 
the effect that the fugitive was "copper-colored." 
The Commissioner, as the story goes, being in- 
clined to favor public sentiment, called for a large 
copper cent, that he might make comparison. 
The decision was, that the prisoner was "off 
color," so to speak, and he was hustled out of the 
room before the officers could re-arrest him, as 
they had been instructed to do. 

Dr. Samuel Willard, in a review of Professor 
Sieberfs book, published in "The Dial" of Chi 
cago, makes mention of Henry Irving and Will- 
iam Chauncey Carter as among his active allies 
at Jacksonville, with Rev. Bilious Pond and 
Deacon Lyman of Farmington (near the present 
village of Farmingdale in Sangamon County), 
Luther Ransom of Springfield, Andrew Borders 
of Randolph County, Joseph Gerrish of Jersey 
and William T. Allan of Henry, as their coadju- 
tors in otlier parts of the State. Other active 
agents or promoters, in the same field, included 
such names as Dr. Charles V. Dyer, Philo Carpen- 
ter, Calvin De Wolf, L. C. P. Freer, Zebina East- 
man. James II. Collins, Harvey- B. Ilurd, J. Young 
Scammon, Col. J. F. Farnsworth and otiiers of 
Chicago, whose names have already been men- 
tioned ; Rev. Asa Turner, Deacon Ballard, J. K. 
Van Dorn and Erastus Benton, of Quincy and 
Adams County : President Ruf us Blanchard of 
Knox College, Galesburg; John Leeper of Bond; 
the late Prof. J. B. Turner and Elihu Wolcott of 
Jacksonville; Capt. Parker Jlorse and his four 
sons — Joseph T., Levi P., Parker, Jr.. and Mark 
— of Woodford County; Rev. William Sloane of 
Randolph ; William Strawn of La Salle, besides a 
host who were willing to aid their fellow men in 
their aspirations to freedom, without advertising 
their own exploits. 

Among the incidents of "Underground Rail- 
road" in Illinois is one which had some importance 
politically, liaving for its climax a dramatic scene 
in Congress, but of wliich, so far as known, no 
full account has ever been written. About 1855, 
Ephraim Lombard, a Missi.^sijipi plantei', but a 
New Englauder by birth, purchased a large body 
of prairie land in tlie northeastern part of Stark 
County, and, taking vq) his residence temporarily 
in the village of Bradford, began its improve- 
ment. He had lirought with him from Slississippi 
a negro, gray-haired and bent with age, a slave 



of probably no great value. "Old Mose, " as he 
was called, soou came to be well known and a 
favorite in the neighborhood. Lombard boldly 
stated that lie had brought liim there as a slave; 
that, by virtue of the Dred Scott decision (then 
of recent date), he had a constitutional right to 
take his slaves wherever he pleased, and that 
"Old Mose" was just as much his property in 
Illinois as in Mississippi. It soon became evident 
to some, that liis bringing of the negro to Illinois 
was an experiment to test the law and the feel- 
ings of the Northern people. This being the case, 
a shrewtl play would have been to let him have 
his way till other slaves should have been 
brought to stock tlie new plantation But this 
was too slow a process for the abolitionists, to 
whom the holding of a slave in the free State of 
Illinois appeared an unbearable outrage. It was 
feared that he might take the old negro back to 
Mississippi and fail to bring anj- others. It was 
reported, also, that "Old Mose" was ill-treated; 
that he was given only the coarsest food in a 
back shed, as if he were a liorse or a dog, instead 
of being permitted to eat at table with the family. 
The prairie citizen of that time was very par- 
ticular upon this point of etiquette. The hired 
man or woman, debarred from the table of his or 
her employer, would not have remained a day. 
A quiet consultation with "Old Mose" revealed 
the fact that he would hail the gift of freedom 
joyously. Accordingly, one Peter Risedorf, and 
another equally daring, met him by the light of 
the stars and, before morning, he was placed in 
the care of Owen Lovejoy, at Princeton, twenty 
miles away. From there he was speedily 
"franked" by the member of Congress to friends 
in Canada. 

There was a great commotion in Bradford over 
the "stealing" of "Old Mose. " Lombard and his 
friends denounced the act in terms bitter and 
profane, and threatened vengeance upon the per- 
petrators. The conductors were known only to a 
few, and they kept their secret well. Lovejoy's 
part in the affair, however, soon leaked out. 
Lombard returned to Mississippi, where he 
related his experiences to Mr. Singleton, the 
Representative in Congress from his district. 
During the next session of Congress, Singleton 
took occasion, in a speech, to sneer at Lovejoj" as a 
"nigger-stealer, " citing the case of "Old" 
Mr. Lovejoy replied in his usual fervid and 
dramatic style, making a speech which enssured 
his election to Congress for life — "Is it desired to 
call attention to this fact of mj' assisting fugitive 
slaves'?" he said. "Owen Lovejoy lives at Prince- 

ton, 111., three-quarters of a mile east of the 
village, and he aids every slave that comes to his 
door and asks it. Thou invisible Demon of 
Slaverj', dost thou think to cross my humble 
threshold and forbid me to give bread to the 
hungry and shelter to the I bid you 
defiance, in the name of my God!" 

With another incident of an amusing charac- 
ter this article may be closed: Hon. J. Young 
Scammon, of Chicago, being accused of conniving 
at the escape of a slave from officers of the law, 
was asked by the court what he would do if sum- 
moned as one of a posse to pursue and capture a 
fugitive. "I would certainly obey the summons," 
he replied, "but — I should probably stub my toe 
and fall down before I reached him." 

Note.— These who wish to pursue the subject of the 
" Underground Kailroad " in Illinois further, are referred 
to the work of Dr. Slebert, already mentioned, and to the 
various County Histories wliieh have been Issued and may 
befoimdinthe ijublic libraries; also for interesting inci- 
dents, to "Keminiscences of Levi Coffin," Johnson's 
" From Dixie to Canada." Tetit's Sketches, "Still, Under- 
groimd Railroad," and a pamphlet of the same title by 
James H. Fairchild, ex-President of (iberliu College. 

UNDERWOOD, William H., lawyer, legislator 
and jurist, was born at Scholiarie Court House, 
N. Y., Feb. 21, 1818, and, after admission to the 
bar, removed to Belleville, 111., where he began 
practice in 1840. The following year he was 
elected State's Attorney, and re-elected in 1843. 
In 1846 he was chosen a member of the lower 
house of the General Assembly, and, in 1848-54, 
sat as Judge of the Second Circuit. During this 
period he declined a nomination to Congress, 
although equivalent to an election. In 1856 he 
was elected State Senator, and re-elected in 1860. 
He was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1869-70, and, in 1870. was again elected to 
the Senate, retiring to private life in 1872. Died, 
Sept. 23, 1875. 

UNION COUNTY, one of the fifteen counties 
into which Illinois was divided at the time of its 
admission as a State — having been organized, 
under the Territorial Government, in January, 
1818. It is situated in the southern division of 
the State, bounded on the west by the Mississippi 
River, and has an area of 400 square miles. The 
eastern and interior portions are drained by the 
Cache River and Clear Creek. Tlie western part 
of the county comprises the broad, rich bottom 
lands lying along the Mississippi, but is subject 
to frequent overflow, while the eastern portion is 
hilly, and most of its area originally heavily tim- 
bered. The county is especially rich in minerals. 
Iron-ore, lead, bituminous coal, chalk, alum and 



potter's clay are found in considerable abun- 
dance. Several lines of railway (the most impor 
tant being the Illinois Central) either cross or 
tap the county. The chief occupation is agri- 
culture, although manufacturing is carried on to 
a limited extent. Fruit is extensively cultivated. 
Jonesboro is the county -seat, and Cobden and 
Anna important shipjiing stations. The latter is 
tlie location of the Southern Hospital for the 
Insane. The population of the county, in 1890, 
was 21,529. Being next to St. Clair, Randolph 
and Gallatin, one of the earliest settled counties 
in the State, many prominent men found their 
first home, on coming into the State, at Jones- 
boro. and this region, for a time, exerted a strong 
influence in public affairs. Pop. (1910), 21,8.36. 

UNION LE.VGUE OF .\5IERICA, a secret polit- 
ical and patriotic order which had its origin 
early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pur- 
pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and 
counteracting the, machinations of the secret 
organizations designed to promote the success of 
the Rebellion. The first regular Council of the 
order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County, 
June 25, 1862, consisting of eleven members, as 
follows John \V. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever, 
Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. CuUoni 
(father of Senator CuUom), Alexander Small, 
Rev. J. W. 51. Vernon, George 11. Harlow (after- 
ward Secretary of State), Charles Turner, Col. 
Jonathan Merriam, Henry Pratt and L. F. Gar- 
rett. One of the number was a Union refugee 
from Tennessee, who dictated the first oath from 
memory, as administered to members of a some- 
what similar order which had been organized 
among tlie Unionists of his own State. It sol- 
emnlj- pledged the taker, (1) to preserve invio- 
late the secrets and business of the order; (2) to 
"support, maintain, jirotect and defend the civil 
liberties of the Union of these United States 
against all enemies, either domestic or foreign, 
at all times and under all circumstances," even 
"if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"; (3) to aid 
in electing only true Union men to oflices of 
trust in the town, county. State and General 
Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend 
any member of the order who might be in peril 
from his connection with the order, and (5) to 
obey all laws, rules or regulations of any Council 
to which the taker of the oath might be attached. 
The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Decla- 
ration of Independence and Constitution of the 
United States, the taker pledging his sacred 
honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the 
organization existed in the activity, about this 

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a 
disloyal organization which had been introduced 
from the South, and which afterwards toQk the 
name, in the North, of "American Knights" and 
"Sons of Liberty. " (See Secret Treasonable Soci- 
eties.) Three months later, the organization had 
extended to a number of other counties of the 
State and, on the 25th of September following, 
the first State Council met at Bloomington — 
twelve counties being represented — and a State 
organization was effected. At this meeting the 
following general officers were chosen: Grand 
President — Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall 
County (now of Chicago); Grand Vice-President 
— Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean ; Grand Secre- 
tary — George H. Harlow, of Tazewell; Grand 
Treasurer — H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Mar- 
shal— J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald — 
A. Gould, of Ilenr}-; Grand Sentinel — John E. 
Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee 
was also appointed, consisting of Joseph MediU 
of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFar- 
land, of Morgan County ; J. K. Warren, of JIacon ; 
Rev. J. C. Rybolt, of La Salle ; the President, 
Jutlge Bangs ; Enoch Emery, of Peoria ; and 
John E. Rosette. Under the direction of this 
Committee, with Mr. MediU as its Chairman, 
the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly 
revised and a new ritual adopted, which materi- 
ally changed the phraseology and removed some 
of the crudities of the original obligation, as well 
as increased the beauty and impressiveness of 
the initiatory ceremonies. New signs, grips and 
pass-words were also adopted, which were finally 
accepted by the various organizations of the 
order throughout the Union, which, by this time, 
included many soldiers in the army, as well as 
civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council 
was held at Springfield, January 14, 1803, with 
only seven counties represented. The limited 
representation was discouraging, but the mem- 
bers took heart from the inspiring words of Gov- 
ernor Yates, addressed to a committee of the 
order who waited upon him. xVt a si^ecial ses- 
sion of the Executive Committee, held at Peoria, 
six daj's later, a vigorous campaign was 
mapped out, under which agents were sent 
into nearly every county in the State. In Oc- 
tober, 1862, the strength of the order in Illi- 
nois was estimated at three to five thousand; 
a few months later, the number of enrolled 
members had increased to 50,000 — so rapid 
had lieen the growth of the order. On March 
25. I860, a Grand Council jnet in Chicago — 
4U4 Coimcils in lUiuois being represented, with 



a number from Oliio, Indiana, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa and Minnesota. At this meeting a 
Committee was appointed to prepare a plan of 
organization for a National Grand Council, which 
■was carried out at Cleveland, Ohio, on the 20tli 
of May following — the constitution, ritual and 
signs of the Illinois organization being adopted 
with slight modifications. The lovised obligation 
— taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and t'lie Constitution of tlie United 
States — bound members of the League to "sup- 
port, protect and defend the Government of the 
United States and the flag thereof, against all 
enemies, foreign and domestic," and to" 'bear true 
faith and allegiance to the same"; to "defend 
the State against invasion or insurrection"; to 
sujiport only "true and reliable men" for offices 
of trust and profit; to protect and defend 
worthy members, and to preserve inviolate the 
secrets of the order. The address to new mem- 
bers was a model of impressiveness and a powerful 
appeal to their patriotism. The organization 
extended rapidly, not only throughout the North- 
west, but in the South also, especially in the 
army. In 1864 the number of Councils in Illinoi.s 
was estimated at 1,300, with a membership of 
175,000; and it is estimated that the total mem- 
bership, throughout the Union, was 2,000,000. 
The influence of the silent, but zealous and effect- 
ive, operations of the organization, was shown, 
not only in the stimulus given to enlistments and 
support of the war policy of the Government, 
but in the raising of supplies for the sick and 
wovmded soldiers in the field. Within a few 
weeks before the fall of Vicksburg, over $35,000 in 
cash, besides large quantities of stores, were sent 
to Col. John Williams (then in charge of the 
Sanitary Bureau at Springfield), as the direct 
result of appeals made through circulars sent out 
by the officers of the "League." Large contri- 
butions of money and supplies also reached the 
sick and wounded in hospital through the medium 
of the Sanitary Commission in Chicago. Zealous 
efforts were made by the opposition to get at the 
secrets of the order, and, in one case, a complete 
copy of the ritual was published by one of their 
organs; but the effect was so far the reverse of 
what was anticipated, that this line of attack was 
not continued. During the stormy session of the 
Legislature in 1883, the League is said to have 
rendered effective service in protecting Gov- 
ernor Yates from tlireatened assassination. It 
continued its silent but effective operations until 
the complete overthrow of the rebellion, when it 
ceased to exist as a political organization. 

ing is a list of United States senators from Illinois, 
from the date of the admission of the State into 
the Union until 1899, with tlie date and duration 
of the term of each: Ninian Edwards, 1818-24; 
Jesse B. Thomas, Sr., 1818-29; John McLean, 
1824-25 and 1829-30; Elias Kent Kane, 1825-35; 
David Jewett Baker, Nov. 12 to Dec. 11, 1830; 
John M. Robinson, 1830-41 ; William L. D. Ewing, 
1835-37 ; Richard M. Young, 1837-43 ; Samuel Mc- 
Roberts, 1841-43; Sidney Breese, 1843-49; James 
Semple, 1843-47; Stephen A. Douglas, 1847-61; 
James Shields, 1849-55; Lyman Trumbull, 1855-73; 
Orville H. Browning, 1861-63; William A. Rich- 
ardson, 1863-65; Richard Yates, 1865-71; John A. 
Logan, 1871-77 and 1879-86; Richard J. Oglesby, 
1873-79; David Davis, 1877-83; Shelby M. Cullom, 
first elected in 1883, and re-elected four times, his 
fifth term expiring in 1912; Charles B. Farwell, 
1SS7-91; John Mc.\uley Palmer, 1891-97; William 
E.Mason, 1897-1903; Albert J. Hopkins, 1903-09; 
William Loriiner, 1909 — . 

of the leading educational institutions of the 
countrj', located at Chicago. It is the outgrowth 
of an attempt, put forth by the American Educa- 
tional Society (organized at Washington in 1888), 
to supply the place whicli the original institution 
of the same name had been designed to fill. (See 
University of Chicago — Tlie Old.) The following 
year, Mr. John D. Rockefeller of New Y'ork ten- 
dered a contribution of §600,000 toward the endow- 
ment of the enterprise, conditioned upon securing 
additional pledges to uhe amount of §400,000 by 
June 1, 1890. The offer was accepted, and the 
sum promptly raised. In addition, a site, covering 
four blocks of land in the city of Chicago, was 
secured — two and one-half blocks being acquired 
by purchase for 5283,500, and one and one-half 
(valued at .5135,000) donated by Mr. Marshall 
Field. A charter was secured and an organiza- 
tion effected, Sept. 10, 1890. The Presidency of 
the institution was tendered to, and accepted by, 
Dr. William R. Harper. Since that time the 
University has been the recipient of other gener- 
ous benefactions by Mr. Rockefeller and others, 
until the aggregate donations (1898) exceed $10,- 
000,000. Of this amount over one-half has been 
contributed by Mr. Rockefeller, while he has 
pledged himself to make additional contributions 
of §3,000.000, conditioned upon the raising of a 
like sum, from other donors, by Jan. 1, 1900. The 
buildings erected on the campus, prior to 1896, 
include a chemical laboratory costing §183,000, a 
lecture hall, §150,000; a physical laboratory 



8150,000; a museum, §100,000; au academy dor- 
mitory, §30,000; three dormitories for women, 
§150,000; two dormitories for men, §100,000, to 
which several important additions were made 
during 1896 and 97. The faculty embraces over 
150 instructors, selected with refei^euce to their 
fitness for their respective departments from 
among tlie most eminent scholars in America and 
Europe. Women are admitted as students and 
graduated upon an equality with men. The work 
of practical instruction began in October, 1893, 
witli 589 registered students, coming from nearly 
every Northern State, and including 250 gradu- 
ates from otlier institutions, to whicli accessions 
were made, during the year, raising the aggregate 
to over 900. Tlie second year the number ex- 
ceeded 1,100; the third, it rose to 1,750, and the 
fourth (1895-90), to some 2,000, including repre- 
sentatives from every State of the Union, besides 
many from foreign countries. Special features 
of the institution include the admission of gradu- 
ates from other institutions to a post-graduate 
course, and the University Extension Division, 
whicli is conducted largelj' by means of lecture 
courses, in other cities, or through lecture centers 
in the vicinity of the University, non-resident 
students having tlie privilege of written exami- 
nations. The various libraries embrace over 
300,000 volumes, of which nearly 60,000 belong 
to what are called the "Departmental Libraries,'" 
besides a large and valuable collection of maps 
and pamphlets. 

educational institution at Chicago, under the 
care of the Baptist denomination, for some years 
known as the Douglas University. Senator 
Stejihen A. Douglas offered, in 185-t, to donate ten 
acres of land, in what was then near the southern 
border of the city of Chicago, as a site for an 
institution of learning, provided buildings cost- 
ing $100,000, be erected thereon within a stipu- 
lated time. The corner-stone of the main building 
was laid, July 4, 1857, but the financial panic of 
that year prevented its coniisletiou, and Mr. Doug- 
las extended tlie time, and finally deeded the 
land to tlie trustees without reserve. For eighteen 
years the institution led a precarious existence, 
struggling under a heavy debt. By 1885, mort- 
gages to the amount of §320,000 having accumu- 
lated, the trustees abandoned further effort, and 
acquiesced in the sale of the projierty under fore- 
closure proceedings. The original plan of the 
institution contemplated preparatory and col- 
legiate departments, together with a college of 
law and a theological school. 

UMVERSITV OF ILLINOIS, the leading edu- 
cational institution under control of the State, 
located at Urbana and adjoining the city of 
Champaign. The Legislature at the se-ssion of 1863 
accepted a grant of 480,000 acres of land under 
Act of Congress, approved July 3, 1862, making an 
appropriation of public lands to States — 30,000 
acres for each Senator and each Representative in 
Congress — establisliing colleges for teaching agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, though not to the 
exclusion of classical and scientific studies. Land- 
scrip under this grant was issued and placed in 
the hands of Governor Yates, and a Board of 
Trustees appointed underthe State law wasorgan- 
ized in Man-li, 1867, the institution being located 
the same year. Departments and courses of study 
were established, and Dr. John M. Gregory, of 
Michigan, was cho.sen Regent (President). — The 
landscrip issued to Illinois was sold at an early 
day for what it would bring in open market, 
except 25,000 acres, which was located in Ne- 
braska and Minnesota. This has recently been 
sold, realizing a larger sum than was received 
for all the scrip otherwise disposed of. The entire 
sum thus secured for permanent endowment ag- 
gregates §613,036. Tlie University revenues were 
further increa.sed by donations from Congress to 
each institution organized under the Act of 1863, 
of §15,000 per annum for tlie maintenance of an 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and, in 1890, of 
a similar amount for instruction — the latter to be 
increased §1,000 annually until it should reach 
§25.000.— A mechanical building was erected in 
1871, and this is claimed to have been the first of 
its kind in America intended for strictly educa- 
tional purposes. What was called "the main 
building" was formally opened in December, 
1873. Other buildings embrace a "Science Hall,"' 
opened in 1892; a new "Engineering Hall,"' 1894; 
a fine Library Building, 1897. Eleven other prin- 
cipal structures and a number of smaller ones 
have been erected as conditions ■■equired. The 
value of property aggregates nearly §3, .500, 000, and 
appropriations from the State, for all purposes, 
previous to 1904, foot up §5,123,517.90.— Since 
1871 the institution has been open to women. 
The courses of study embrace agriculture, chem- 
istry, polytechnics, military tactics, natural and 
general sciences, languages and literature, eco- 
nomics, household science, trade and commerce. 
The Graduate School dates from 1891. In 1896 
the Chicago College of Piiarmacy was connected 
with the University: a College of Law and s. 
Library School were opened in 1897, and the same 
year the Chicago College of Physicians and ,Sur- 

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germs n"as affiliated as the College of Medicine — a 
School of Dentistry being added to the latter in 
1901. In 1885 the State Laboratoryof Natural 
History was transferred from Normal, 111., and an 
Agrioultui-al Experiment Station entablished in 
1888, from which bulletins are sent to farmers 
throughout the State who may desire them. — The name of the Institution was '"Illinois Indus- 
trial University," but, in 1885, this was changed 
to "University of Illinois."' In 1887 the Trustees 
Cof whom there are nine) were made elective by 
popular vote — three being elected every tv.-o 
years, each holding office six years. Dr. Gregory, 
having resigned the office of Regent in 1880, was 
succeeded by Dr. Selim H. Peabody, who had 
been Professor of Mechanical and Civil Engineer- 
ing. Dr. Peabody resigned in 1891. The duties 
of Regent were then discharged by Prof. Thomas 
J. Burrill until August, 1891, when Dr. Andrew 
Sloan Draper, former State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction of the State of New York, was 
installed as President, serving until 1901. — The 
corps of instruction (1901) includes over 100 Pro- 
fessors, 60 Associate and Assistant Professors and 
200 Instructors and Assistants, besides special 
lecturers, demonstrators and clerks. The num- 
ber of students has increased rapidly in recent 
years, as shown by the following totals for suc- 
ces.sive years from 1890-91 to 1903-01, inclusive: 
519; 583; 714; 713; 810; 853; 1,075: 1,582; 1,831; 
2,231; 2,505; 2,932; 3,289; 3,589. Of the last num- 
ber, 2,271 were men and 718 women. During 
1903-04 there were in all departments at Urbana, 
2,517 students (256 being in the Preparatory Aca- 
demy) ; and in the three Professional Departments 
in Chicago, 1,043, of whom 694 were in the Col- 
lege of Medicine, 185 in the School of Pharmac}-, 
and 163 in the School of Dentistry. The Univer- 
sity Library contains 63,700 volumes and 14,500 
pamphlets, not including 5.350 volumes and 
15,8.50 pamphlets in the State Laboratory of Nat- 
ural History. — The Uuiver.sity occupies a con- 
spicuous and attractive site, embracing 220 acres 
adjacent to the line between Ui bana and Cham- 
paign, and near the residence portion of the two 
cities. The athletic field of 11 acres, on which 
stand the gymnasium and armory, is enclosed 
with an ornamental iron fence. The campus, 
otherwise, is an open and beautiful park with 
fine landscape effects. 

UNORCiANIZEl) COUNTIES. In addition to 
the 103 counties into which Illinois is divided, 
acts were passed by the General Assembly, 
at diiferent times, providing for the organiza- 
tion of a number of others, a few of which 

were subsequently organized under different 
names, but the majority of which were never 
organized at all — the proposition for such or- 
ganization being rejected by vote of the people 
within the proposed boundaries, or allowed to 
lapse by non-action. These unorganized coun- 
ties, with the date of the several acts authorizing 
them, i.nd the territory which they were in- 
tended to include, were as follows: Allen 
County (1841) — comprising portions of Sanga- 
mon, Morgan and Macoupin Counties; Audobon 
(Audubon) County (1843) — from portions of Mont- 
gomery, Fayette and Shelby ; Benton County 
(1843) — from Morgan, Greene and Macoupin; 
Coffee County (1837) — with substantially the 
same territory now comprised within the bound- 
aries of Stark County, authorized two years 
later; Dane County (1839) — name changed to 
Christian in 1840; Harrison County (1855) — 
from McLean, Champaign and Vermilion, com- 
prising territory since partially incorporated 
in Ford County; Holmes County (1857) — from 
Champaign and Vermilion; Marquette County 
(1843), changed (1847) to Highland — compris- 
ing the northern portion of Adams, (tliis act 
was accepted, with Columbus as the county- 
seat, but organization finally vacated); Michi- 
gan County (1837) — from a part of Cook; Milton 
County (1843) — from the south part of Vermil- 
ion; Okaw County (1841) — comprising substan- 
tially the same territory as Moultrie, organized 
under act of 1843; Oregon County (1851) — from 
parts of Sangamon, Morgan and Macoupin Coun- 
ties, and covering substantially the same terri- 
tory as proposed to be incorporated in Allen 
County ten years earlier. The last act of this 
character was passed in 1867, when an attempt 
was made to organize Lincoln County out O-' 
parts of Champaign and Vermilion, but whicn 
failed for want <if an afHrmative vote. 

UPPER ALTON, a city of Madison County, 
situated on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, about 
1^ miles northeast of Alton— laid out in 1816. It 
has several churches, and is the seat of Shurtleff 
College and the Western Military Academy, the 
former founded about 1831, and controlled by the 
Baptist denomination. Beds of excellent clay are 
found in the vicinity and utilized in pottery 
manufacture. Pop. (19(10), 2.373: (1910), 2,918. 

UPTOX, George Putnam, journalist, was born 
at Roxbury. Mass., Oct. 25, 18:34; graduated from 
Brown University in 18.54, removed to Chicago 
in 1855, and began newspaper work on ''The 
Native American," the following year taking 
the place of city editor of "The Evening Jour- 



nal." In 1863, Mr. Upton became musical critic 
oil "The Cliicago Tribune." serving for a time 
also as its war correspondent in the field, later 
(about 1881) taking a place on the general edi- 
torial staff, which he still retains. He is regarded 
as an authority on musical and dramatic topics. 
Mr. Upton is also a stockholder in, and, for sev- 
eral years, has been Vice-President of the "Trib- 
une" Company. Besides numerous contributions 
to magazines, his works include: "Letters of 
Peregrine Pickle" (1869) ; "Memories, a Story of 
German Love," translated from the German of 
Ma.M Muller (1879); "Woman in Music" (1880); 
"Lives of German Composers" (3 vols. — 1883-84); 
besiiles four volumes of standard operas, oratorios, 
cantatas, and symphonies (1885-88). 

UBB.-iNA, a flourishing city, the county-seat 
of Champaign County, on Ihe "Big Four," the 
Illinois Central and tlie W.iha«li Railways: 130 
miles .south of Chicago nn.l 31 miles west of Dan- 
ville; in agricultural and ccal-mining region. 
The mechanical industries include extensive rail- 
road sliops, manufacture of brick, suspenders and 
Iawn-;nowerR. Tlie Cunningham Deaconesses' 
Home and Orphanage is located here. The city 
lias water-works, gns and electric light plants, 
electric car-liups (local and interurban), superior 
scliocls. nine churches, three banks and three 
newspapers Ur bRna is tlie seat of the University 
of Ii:i:i. i;. Po;!. (1900), .5,72,8; (1910), S,24.5. 

CSREY, William J., editor and soldier, was 
born at Washington (near Natchez),, May 
16, 1827; was educated at Natchez, and, before 
reaching manhood, came to Macon County, 111., 
where he engaged in teaching until 1846, when 
he enlisted as a private in Comjiany C, Fourth 
Illinois Volunteers, for the Mexican War. In 
18.5.'), he joined with a Jlr. Wingate in the estab- 
lishment, at Decatur, of "The Illinois State Chron- 
icle," of which he soon after took sole charge, 
conducting the paper until 1861, when he enlisted 
in the Thirty-fifth Illinois Volunteers and was 
appointed Adjutant. Although born and edu- 
cated in a slave State. Mr. Usrey was an earnest 
opponent of slavery, as proved by the attitude of 
his paper in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill. He was one of the most zealous endorsers 
of the proposition for a conference of the Anti- 
Nebraska editors of the State of Illinois, to agree 
upon a line of policy in opposition to the further 
extension of slavery, and. when that body met at 
Decatur, on Feb. 23, IS.'iG. he served as its Secre- 
tary, thus taking a prominent part in the initial 
steps wliich resulted in the organization of the 
Republican party in Illinois. (See Anti-Xebraska 

Editorial Convention.) After returning from 
the war he resumed his place as editor of "The 
Chronicle," but finally retired from newspaper 
work in 1871. He was twice Postmaster of the 
citj' of Decatur, first previous to 1850, and again 
under the administration of President Grant; 
served also as a member of the City Council and 
was a member of the local Post of the G. A. R., 
and Secretary of the Macon County Association 
of Mexican War Veterans. Died, at Decatur, 
Jan. 20, 1894. 

UTIC.4, (also called North LTtica), a village of 
La Salle Count}', on the Illinois & Michigan 
Canal and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railway, 10 miles west of Ottawa, situated on the 
Illinois River opposite "Starved Rock," also 
believed to stand on the site of the Kaskaskia 
village found by the French Explorer, La Salle, 
when he first visited Illinois. "Utica cement" is 
produced here; it also has several factories or 
mills, besides banks and a weekly paper. Popu- 
lation (1S90), 1,094; (1900), 1,1.50; (1910), 976. 

VAN ARNASI, John, lawyer and soldier, was 
liorn at Plattsburg, N. Y., March 3, 1820. Hav- 
ing lost his father at five years of age, he went to 
live with a farmer, but ran away in his boyhood; 
later, began teaching, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in New York City, beginning 
practice at Marshall, Mich. In 1858 he removed 
to Chicago, and, as a member of the firm of 
Walker, Van Arnam & Dexter, became promi- 
nent as a criminal lawyer and railroad attorney, 
being for a time Solicitor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad. In 1862 he assisted in 
organizing tlie One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry and was commissioned 
its Colonel, but was compelled to resign on 
account of illness. After spending some time in 
California, he resumed practice in Chicago in 
1865. His later years were spent in California, 
dying at San Diego, in that State, April 6, 1890. 

VANDALIA, tlie principal city and county -seat 
of Faj'ette County. It is situated on the Kas- 
kaskia River, 30 miles north of Centralia, 63 
miles south by west of Decatur, and 68 miles 
east-northeast of St. Louis. It is an intersecting 
point for the Illinois Central and the St. Louis, 
Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroads. It was the 
capital of the State from 1820 to 1839, the seat of 
government being removed to Springfield, the 
latter year, in accordance with act of the General 
Assembly passed at the session of 1837. It con- 
tains a court house (old State Capitol building), 
six churches, two banks, three weekly papers, a 



graded school, flour, saw and paper mills, foundry, 
stave and heading mill, carriage and wagon 
and lirick works. Pop. (lOOt)), 2,665; (1910), 2,974. 

VANDEVEEI!, Horatio M., pioneer lawyer, 
was born in Washington County, Ind., March 1, 
1816; came with his family to Illinois at an early 
age, settling on Clear Creek, now in Christian 
County; taught school and studied law, using 
books borrowed from the late Hon. John T. Stuart 
of Springfield ; was elected first County Recorder 
of Christian Count}' and, soon after, appointed 
Circuit Clerk, filling both offices three years. 
He also held the office of County Judge from 1848 
to 18:)7 ; was twice chosen Representative in the 
General Assembly (1843 and 1S50) and once to the 
State Senate (18G2); in 1846, enlLsted and was 
chosen Captain of a company for the Mexican 
War, but, having been rejected on account of the 
quota being full, was appointed Assistant-Quarter- 
master, in this capacity serving on the staff of 
General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. 
Among other offices held by Mr. Vandeveer, were 
those of Postmaster of Taylorville. Master in 
Chancery, Presidential Elector (184H), Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1803, and 
Judge of the Circuit Court (1870-79). In 1868 
Judge Vandeveer established the private banking 
firm of H. M. Vandeveer & Co., at Taylorville, 
which, in conjunction with his sons, he continued 
successfully during the remainder of his life. 
Died, March 13, 1894. 

VAN HORKE, William C, Railway Manager 
and President, was born in Will County, 111., 
February, 1843 ; began his career as a telegraph 
operator on the Illinois Central Railroad in 1856, 
was attached to the Michigan Central and Chi- 
cago & Alton Railroads (18.'J8-72), later being 
General Manager or General Superintendent of 
various other lines (1872-79). He next served as 
General Superintendent of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul, but soon after became General 
Manager of tlie Canadian Pacific, which he 
assisted to construct to the Pacific Coast; was 
elected Vice-President of the line in 1884, and its 
President in 1888. His services have been recog- 
nized by conferring upon bim the order of 
knighthood by the British Government. 

VASSEl'R, Noel C, pioneer Indian-trader, was 
born of French parentage in Canada, Dec. 2.'j, 
1799; at the age of 17 made a trip with a trading 
party to the West, crossing Wisconsin by way of 
the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, the route pursued 
by Joliet and JIarquette in 1673 ; later, was associ- 
ated with Gurdon S. Hubbard in the service of 
the American Fur Company, in 1830 visiting the 

region now embraced in Iroquois County, where 
he and Hubbard subsequently established a trad- 
ing post among the Pottawatomie Indians, 
believed to have been the site of the present town 
of Iroquois. The way of reaching their station 
from Chicago was by the Chicago and Des 
Plaines Rivers to the Kankakee, and ascending 
the latter and the Iroquois. Here Vasseur re- 
mained in trade until the removal of the Indians 
west of the Missi.ssippi, in which he served as 
agent of the Government. While in the Iroquois 
region he married Watseka, a somewhat famous 
Pottawatomie woman, for whom the town of 
Watseka was named, and who had ijreviously 
been the Indian wife of a fellow-trader. His 
later years were spent at Bourbonnais Grove, in 
Kankakee County, where he died, Dec. 13, 1879. 

VENICE, a city of Madison County, on the 
Mississii'pi River opposite St. Louis and 3 miles 
north of East St. Louis; is touched by six trunk 
lines of railroad, and at the eastern apjjroach to 
the new "Merchants' Bridge," with its rouml- 
house, has two ferries to St. Louis, street oar line, 
electric lights, water-works, some manufirntures 
and a newspappr. Pop. (lODO), 2,4.53; (1910), 3,713. 

LdiiisviUe. EiviisviUc cf' St. Louis {Consolidated) 

VERMILION COUNTY, an eastern county, 
bordering on the Indiana State line, and drained 
!)}• tlie Vermilion and Little Vermilion River^ 
from which it takes its name. It was originally 
organized in 1826, when it extended north to 
Lake Michigan. Its present area is SS2 square 
miles. The discovery of salt springs, in 1819, 
aided in attracting immigration to this region, 
but the manufacture of salt was abandoned 
many years ago. Early settlers were Se3'mour 
Treat, James Butler, Henry Johnston, Harvey 
Lidiugton, Gurdon S. Hubbard and Daniel W. 
Beckwith. James Butler and Achilles Morgan 
were the first County Commissioners. Many 
interesting fossil remains have been found, 
among them the skeleton of a mastodon (1868). 
Fire clay is found in large quantities, and two 
coal seams cross the county. The surface is level 
and the soil fertile. Corn is the chief agricultural 
product, although oats, wheat, rye, and potatoes 
are extensively cultivated. Stock-raising and 
wool-growing are important industries. There 
are also several manufactories, chiefly at Dan- 
ville, which is the county-seat. Coal mining 
is carried on extensively, especially in the vicin- 
ity of Danville. Population (1880).'41, 588; (1890), 
49,905; (1900), 6.5,635; (1910), 77,996. 



VERMILION RITER, a tributary of the Illi- 
nois; rises in Ford and the northern part of 
McLean Countj", and, running northwestward 
through Livingston and the southern part of 
La Salle Counties, enter.s the Illinois Eirer 
nearly opposite the city of La Salle ; has a length 
of about 80 miles. 

YERMILIOX RITER, an affluent of the Wa- 
bash, formed by the union of the North, Middle 
and South Forks, which rise in Illinois, and 
come together near Danv".lle in this State. It 
flows southeastward, and enters the Wabash in 
Vermilion County, Ind. The main stream is 
about 28 miles long. The South Fork, however, 
which rises in Oiampaign County and runs east- 
ward, has a length of nearlj- 75 miles. The 
Little Vermilion River enters the Wabash about 
7 or 8 miles below the Vermilion, which is some- 
times called the Big Vermilion, bj' way of 

TERMONT, a village in Fulton County, at 
junction of Galesburg and St. Louis Division of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 24 
miles north of Beardstown; has a carriage manu- 
factory, flour and saw-mills, brick and tile works, 
electric light plant, besides two banks, four 
churches, two graded schools, and one weekly 
newspaper. An artesian well has been sunk here 
to the depth of 2,600 feet. Pop (1910), 1,11S. 

VERSAILLES, a town of Brown County, on 
the ^\'a1),'lsh Railway, 48 miles east of Quincy; is 
in a timijer and agricultural district; has a bank 
and weekly newspaper. Pop. (1910), 557. 

VIENNA, the county -seat of Johnson County, 
situated on the Cairo and Vincennes branch of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad, 36 miles north-northwest of Cairo. It 
has a court house, several churches, a graded 
school, banks and two weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1890), 828; (1900), 1.217; (1910), 1,124. 

VKtO, Francois, pioneer and early Indian- 
trader, was born at Mondovi, Sardinia (Western 
Italy), in 1747, served as a private soldier, first at 
Havana and afterwards at Xew Orleans. AVheu 
he left the Spanish army lie came to St. Louis, 
then the military headquarters of Spain for L^i>per 
Louisiana, where he became a partner of Com- 
mandant de Leba, and was extensively engaged 
in the fur-trade among the Indians on the Ohio 
and Mississippi Rivers. On the occupation of 
Kaskaskia by Col. George Rogers Clark in 177S, 
he rendered valuable aid to the Americans, turn- 
ing out supplies to feed C'lark"s destitute soldiers, 
and accepting Virginia Continental money, at 
par, in payment, incurring liabilities ia excess of 

§30,000. This, followed by the confiscation policy 
of the British Colonel Hamilton, at Vincennes, 
where Vigo had considerable property, reduced 
him to extreme penury. H. W. Beckwith says 
that, towards the close of his life, he lived on his 
little homestead near Vincennes. in great poverty 
but cheerful to the last He was never recom- 
pensed during his life for his sacrifices in behalf 
of the American cause, though a tardy restitution 
was attempted, after his death, by the United 
States Government, for the benefit of his heirs. 
He died, at a ripe old age, at Vincennes, Ind., 
March 22, 1835. 

VILLA GROVE, a village of Douglas County on 
tlie Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, eight miles 
northeast of Tuscola. Pop. (1910). 1,S28. 

VIXCEN'XES, Jean Baptiste Bissot, a Canadian 
explorer, born at Quebec, January, 1G88, of aris- 
tocratic and wealthy ancestry. He was closely 
connected with Louis Joliet — probably his 
brother-in-law, although some historians .say that 
he was the latter"s nephew. He entered the 
Canadian army as ensign in 1701, and had a long 
and varied experience as an Indian fighter. 
About 1725 he took up his residence on what is 
now the site of the present city of Vincennes, 
Ind., which is named in his honor. Here he 
erected an earth fort and established a trading- 
post. In 1726, under orders, he co-operated with 
D'Artaguiette (then the French Governor of Illi- 
nois) in an expedition against the Chickasaws. 
The expedition resulted disastrously. Vincennes 
and D'Artaguiette wei-e captured and burned 
at the stake, together with Father Senat (a 
Jesuit priest) and others of the command. 
(See also D'Artaguiette; Freiich Goi'ernors of 

VIRDEN, a city of Macoupin County, on the 
Chicago & Alton and the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroads, 21 miles south by west from 
Springfield, and 31 miles east-southeast of Jack- 
sonville. It has five churches, two banks, two 
newspapers, telephone service, electric lights, 
grain elevators. luachine shop, and extenisive coal 
mines. Pop. (1900), 2,2S0; (1910), 4,000. 

VIRGIM.\,an incorporated city, the county- 
seat of Cass County, situated at the intersection of 
the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis, with the Spring- 
field Division of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western Railroad, 15 miles north of Jacksonville, 
and 33 miles west-northwest of Springfield. It 
lies in the heart of a rich agricultural region. 
There is a flouring mili here, besides manu- 
factories of wagons and cigars. The city has two 
National and one State bank, five churches, a 



high school, and'two weekly papers. Pop (1890), 
1,602; (1900), 1,600; (1910), 1,301. 

VOCKE, William, lawyer, was boru at Min- 
den, Westphalia (Germany), in 1839, tlie son of a 
Government Secretary in the Prussian service. 
Having lost his father at an early age, he emi- 
grated to America in 1806, and, after a short 
stay in New York, came to Chicago, where he 
found employment as a paper-carrier for "The 
Staats-Zeitung," meanwhile giving his attention 
to the study of law. Later, he became associated 
with a real-estate firm ; on the commencement 
of the Civil War, enlisted as a private in a 
three months' regiment, and, finally, in the 
Twenty-fourth Illinois (the first Hecker regi- 
ment), in which he rose to the rank of Captain. 
Returning from the army, he was emploj-ed as 
city editor of "The Staats-Zeitung," but, in 
1865, became Clerk of the Chicago Police Court, 
serving until 1869. Meanwhile he had been 
admitted to the bar, and, on retirement from 
ofl5ce, began practice, but, in 1870, was elected 
Representative in tlie Twenty-seventh General 
Assembly, in which he bore a leading part in 
framing "the burnt record act" made necessary 
by the fire of 1871. He was still later engaged 
in the practice of his profession, having been, 
for a number of years, attorney for the German 
Consulate at Chicago, also ser\-ing, for several 
years, on the Chicago Board of Education. Mr. 
Vocke was a man of hii;h literary tastes, as shown 
b}' his publication, in 1869, of a volume of poems 
translated from the German, which has been 
highly commended, besides a legal work on 
"The Administration of Justice in the United 
States, and a Synopsis of the :Mode of Procedure 
in our Federal and State Courts and All Federal 
and State Laws relating to Subjects of Interest 
to Aliens,'' which has been published in the Ger- 
man Language, and is highly valued by German 
lawyers and business men. Mr. Vocke was a 
member of the Republican National Convention 
of 1872 at Philadelphia, which nominated General 
Grant for the Presidency in 1S72. Died May 3, 1907. 
YOLK, Leonard Wells, a distinguished Illinois 
sculptor, born at Wellstown (afterwards Wells), 
N. Y., Nov. 7, 1828. Later, his father, who was 
a marble cutter , removed to Pittsfield, Mass., 
and, at the age of 16, Leonard began work in his 
shop. In 1848 he came west and began model- 
ing in clay and drawing at St. Louis, being only 
self-taught. He married a cousin of Stephen A. 
Douglas, and the latter, in 1855, aided him in 
the prosecution of his art studies in Italy. Two 
years afterward he settled in Chicago, where he 

modeled the first portrait bust ever made in the 
city, having for his subject his first patron — the 
"Little Giant." The next year (1858) he made a 
life-size marble statue of Douglas. In 1860 he 
made a portrait bust of Abraham Lincoln, which 
passed into the possession of the Chicago His- 
torical Society and was destroyed in the great fire 
of 1871. In 1868-69, and again in 1871-72, he 
revisited Italy for purposes of study. In 1867 he 
was elected academician of the Chicago Academy, 
and was its President for eight years. He was 
genial, companionable and charitable, and always 
ready to assist his younger and less fortunate pro- 
fessional brethren. His best known works are the 
Douglas Monument, in Cliicago, several soldiers' 
monuments in different parts of the country, 
the statuary for the Henry Keep mausoleum at 
Watertown, N. Y., life-size statues of Lincoln 
and Douglas, in the State House at Springfield, 
and numerous portrait busts of men eminent 
in political, ecclesiastical and commercial life. 
Died, at Osceola, Wis., August 18, 1895. 

VOSS, Arno, journalist, lawyer and soldier, 
born in Prussia, April 16, 1821 ; emigrated to the 
United States and was admitted to the bar in 
Cliicago, in 1848, the same year becoming editor 
of "The Staats-Zeitung"; was elected City 
Attorney in 1852, and again in 1853; in 1861 
became Major of the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, but 
afterwards assisted in orgcinizing the Twelfth 
Cavalry, of which he was commissioned Colonel, 
still later serving with his command in Vir- 
ginia. He was at Harper's Ferry at the time of 
the capture of that place in September, 1862, but 
succeeded in cutting his way, with his command, 
through the rebel lines, escaping into Pennsyl- 
vania. Compelled by ill-health to leave the serv- 
ice in 1863, he retired to a farm in Will County, 
but, in 1869, returned to Chicago, where he served 
as Master in Chancery and was elected to the 
lower branch of the General Assembly in 1876, 
but declined a re-election in 1878. Died, in Chi- 
cago, March 23, 1888. 

ROAD, a railway running from Chester to Mount 
Vernon, 111., 63.33 miles, with a branch extend- 
ing from Chester to Menard. 1.5 miles; total 
mileage, 64.83. It is of standard gauge, and 
almost entirely laid with 60-pound steel rails. — 
(History.) It was organized, Feb. 20, 1878, as 
successor to the Iron Mountain, Chester & East- 
ern Railroad. During the fiscal j-ear 1893-94 the 
Company purchased the Tamaroa & Mount Ver- 
non Railroad, extending from Mount Vernon to 



Tamaroa, 23.5 miles. Capital stock (1898), Sl,- 
250,000; bonded indebtedness, §690,000; total 
capitalization, §2,038.573. 

WABASH COUNTY, situated in the southeast 
corner of the State ; area 230 square miles. The 
county was carved out from Edwards in 1824, 
and the first court house built at Centerrille, in 
May, 1826. Later, Mount Carmel was made the 
county-seat. (See Mount Carmel.) The Wabash 
River drains the county on the east; other 
streams are the Bon Pas, Coffee and Crawfish 
Creeks. The surface is undulating with a fair 
growth of timber. The chief industries are the 
raising of live-stock and the cultivation of cere- 
als. The wool-crop is likewise valuable. The 
county is crossed by the Louisville. Evansville & 
3t. Louis and the Cairo and Viucennes Division 
of the Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Raib-oads. Population (1880), 4,945; fl890), 
11,866; (1900), 12,.tS.3; (1910), 14,913. 

WABASH RAILROAD, an extensive railroad 
system connecting the cities of Detroit and 
Toledo, on the east, with Kansas City and Covmcil 
Bluffs, on the west, with branches to Chicago, St. 
Louis, Quincy and Altamont, 111., and to Keokuk 
and Des Moines, Iowa. The total mileage (1898) 
is 1,874.96 miles, of which 677.4 miles are in Illi- 
nois — all of the latter being the property' of the 
company, besides 176.7 miles of yard-tracks, sid- 
ings and spurs. The company has trackage 
privileges over the Toledo, Peoria & Western (6.5 
miles) between Elvaston and Keokuk bridge, and 
over the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (21.8 
miles) between Camp Point and Quinc}-. — (His- 
tory.) A considerable portion of this road in 
Illinois is constructed on the line upon which the 
Northern Cross Railroad was projected, in the 
"internal imiirovement"' scheme adopted in 1837, 
and embraces the only section of road completed 
under that scheme — that between the Illinois 
River and Springfield. (1) The construction of 
this section was begun by the State, May 11, 
1837, the first rail laid. May 9, 1838, the road 
completed to Jacksonville, Jan. 1, 1840, and to 
Springfield, May 13, 1842. It was operated for a 
time by "mule power." but the income was in- 
sufficient to keep the line in repair and it was 
finally abandoned. In 1847 the line was sold for 
531,100 to N. H. Ridgely and Thomas Mather of 
Springfield, and by them transferred to New 
York capitalists, who organized the Sangamon & 
Morgan Railroad Company, reconstructed the 
road from Springfield to Najjles and opened it for 
business in 1849. (2) In 1853 two corporations 
were organized in Ohio and Indiana, respectively, 

under the name of the Toledo & Illinois Railroad 
and the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad, 
which were consolidated as the Toledo, Wabash 
& Western Railroad, June 25, 1856. In 1858 
these lines were sold separately under foreclo- 
.sxu-e, and finally reorganized, under a special char- 
ter granted by the Illinois Legislature, under the 
name of the Great Western Railroad Company. 
(3) The Quincy & Toledo Railroad, extending 
from Camp Point to the Illinois River opposite 
Jleredosia, was constructed in 1858-59, and that, 
with the Illinois & Southern Iowa (from Clay- 
ton to Keokuk), was united, July 1, 1865, with 
the eastern divisions extending to Toledo, the 
new organization taking the name of the main 
line, (Toledo, Wabash & Western). (4) The 
Hannibal & Naples Division (49 6 miles), from 
Bluffs to Hannibal, Mo., was chartered in 1863, 
opened for business in 1870 and leased to the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western. The latter defaulted 
on its interest in 1875, was placed in the hands 
of a receiver and, in 1877, was turned over to a 
new company under the name of the Wabash 
Railway Company. (5) In 1868 the companj', 
as it then existed, promoted and secured the con- 
struction, and afterwards acquired the owner- 
ship, of a line extending from Decatur to East St. 
Louis (110.5 miles) under the name of the Deca- 
tur & East St. Louis Railroad. (6) The Eel River 
Railroad, from Butler to Logansport, Ind., was 
acquired in 1877, and afterwards extended to 
Detroit under the name of the Detroit, Butler & 
St. Louis Railroad, completing the connection 
from Logansport to Deti'oit. — In November, 1879, 
the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany was organized, took the property and con- 
solidated it with certain lines west of the 
Jlississippi, of which tlie chief was the St. Louis, 
Kansas City & Northern. A line had been pro- 
jected from Decatur to Chicago as early as 1870, 
but, not having been constructed in 1881, the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific purchased what was 
known as the Chicago & Paducah Railroad, 
imiting with the main line at Bemeut, and (by 
way of the Decatur and St. Louis Division) giv- 
ing a direct line between Chicago and St. Louis. 
At this time the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific wal 
operating the following additional leased lines: 
Pekin, Lincoln & Decatui- (67.2 miles) ; Hannibal 
& Central Missouri (70.2 miles); Lafayette, Mun- 
cie & Bloomington (36.7 miles), and the Lafayette 
Bloomington & Muncie (80 miles). A connection 
between Chicago on the west and Toledo and 
Detroit on the east was established over the 
Grand Trunk road in 1882, but, in 1890, the com- 



pany constructed a line from Montpelier, Ohio, to 
Clark, Ind. (149.7 miles), theuce by track lease 
to Chicago (17.5 miles), giving an independent 
line between Chicago and Detroit by what is 
known to investors as the Detroit & Chicago 

The total mileage of the Wabash, St. Louis & 
Pacific system, in 188-1, amounted to over 3,600 
miles; but, iu May of that year, default having 
been made in the payment of interest, the work 
of disintegration began. The main line east of 
the Mississippi and that on the west were sepa- 
rated, the latter taking the name of the "Wabash 
Western." The Eastern Division was placed in 
the hands of a receiver, so remaining until Slay, 
1889, when the two divisions, having been 
bought in by a purchasing committee, were 
consolidated under the present name. The total 
earnings and income of the road in Illinois, for 
the fiscal year 1898, were §4,402,G':i, and the 
expenses §4,836,110. The total capital invested 
(1898) was $139,889,643, including capital stock 
of §53,000,000 and bonds to the amount of §81,- 

WABASH BIVER, rises in northwestern Ohio, 
passes into Indiana, and runs northwest to Hun- 
tington. It then flows nearly due west to Logans- 
port, thence southwest to Covington, finally 
turning southward to Terre Haute, a few miles 
below which it strikes the western boundary of 
Indiana. It forms the boundary between Illinois 
and Indiana (taking into account its numerous 
windings) for some 200 miles. Below Vincennes 
it runs in a south-southwesterly direction, and 
enters the Ohio at the south-west extremity of 
Indiana, near latitude 37° 49' north. Its length 
is estimated at 557 miles. 

(See Illinois Central Railroad.) 

ROAD. (See Wabash Eailroad. ) 

Wabash Railroad.) 

WAIT, William Smith, pioneer, and original 
suggestor of tlie Illinois Central Railroad, was 
born in Portland, Maine, March 5, 1789, and edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native place. 
In his youth he entered a book-publishing house 
in which his father was a partner, and was for a 
time associated with the publication of a weekly 
paper. Later the business was conducted at 
Boston, and extended over the Eastern, Middle, 
and Southern States, the subject of this sketch 
making extensive tours in the interest of the 
firm. In 1817 he made a tuur to the West, 

reaching St. Louis, and, early in the following 
year, visited Bond County, 111., where he made 
his first entry of land from the Government. 
Returning to Boston a few months later, he con- 
tinued in the service of the publishing firm until 

1820, when he again came to Illinois, and, in 

1821, began farming in Ripley Township, Bond 
County. Returning East in 1824, he spent the 
next ten years in the employment of the publish- 
ing firm, with occasional visits to Illinois. In 
1835 he located jiermanently near Greenville, 
Bond County, and engaged extensively in farm- 
ing and fruit-raising, planting one of the largest 
ap]ile orchards in the State at that early day. In 
1845 he presided as chairman over tlie National 
Industrial Convention in New York, and, iu 
1848, was nominated as the candidate of the 
National Reform Association for Vice-President 
on the tic^ket with Gerrit Smith of New York, 
but declined. He was also prominent iu County 
an<l State Agricultural Societies. Mr Wait has 
been credited with being one of the first (if not 
the very first) to suggest the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, which he did as early 
as 1835 ; was also one of the prime movers in the 
construction of the Mississippi & Atlantic Rail- 
road — now the "Vandalia Line" — giving much 
time to the latter enterprise from 1846 for many 
years, and was one of the original incorporators 
of the St. Louis & Illinois Bridge Company. 
Died, July 17, 1865. 

WALKER, Cyrus, pioneer, lawyer, born in 
Rockbridge County, Va., May 14, 1791 ; was taken 
while an infant to Adair Count)-, Ky., and came 
to Macomb, 111., in 1833, being the second lawyer 
to locate in McDonough County. He had a wide 
reputation as a successful advocate, especially in 
criminal cases, and practiced extensivel}- in the 
courts of Western Illinois and also iu Iowa. Died, 
Dec. 1, 1875. Mr. Walker was uncle of the late 
Pinkney H. Walker of the Supreme Court, who 
studied law with him. He was Whig candidate 
for Presidential Elector for the State-at-large in 

WALKER, James Burr, clergyman, wa.s born 
in Philadelphia, July 29, 1805; in his youth 
served as errand-boy in a country store near 
Pittsburg and spent four years in a printing 
office ; then became clerk in the office of Mordecai 
M. Noah, in New York, studied law and gradu- 
ated from Western Reserve College, Ohio; edited 
various religious papers, including "The Watch- 
man of the Prairies" (now "The Advance") of 
Clncago, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Chicago, and for some time was lecturer on 



"Harmony between Science and Revealed Reli- 
gion" at Oberlin College and Chicago Theological 
Seminary. He was author of several volumes, 
one of which — "The Philosophy of the Plan of 
Salvation," published anonj-mously under the 
editorship of Prof. Calvin E. Stowe (185.5) — ran 
through several editions and was translated into 
five different languages, including Hindustanee. 
Died, at Wheaton, 111., March 6, 1887. 

WALKER, James Monroe, corporation lawyer 
and Railway President, was born at Claremont, 
N. H., Feb. 14, 1820. At fifteen he removed with 
his parents to a farm in Michigan ; was educated 
at Oberlin, Ohio, and at the University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, graduating from the latter in 
1849. He then entered a law office as clerk and 
student, was admitted to the bar the next year, 
and soon after elected Prosecuting Attorney of 
"Washtenaw County ; was also local attorney for 
the Michigan Central Railway, for which, after 
his removal to Chicago in 1853, he became Gen- 
eral Solicitor. Two years later the firm of Sedg- 
wick & Walker, which had been organized in 
Michigan, became attorneys for the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and, until his 
death, Mr. AValker was associated with this com- 
pany, either as Greneral Solicitor, General Counsel 
or President, filling the latter position from 1870 
to 1875. Mr. Walker organized both the Chicago 
and Kansas Citj' stock-yards, and was President 
of these corporations, as also of the Wilmington 
Coal Company, down to the time of his death, 
which occurred on Jan. 23, 1881, as a result of 
heart disease. 

WALKER, (Rev.) Jesse, Methodist Episcopal 
missionary, was born in Rockingham County, 
Va., June 9, 1766; in 1800 removed to Tennessee, 
became a traveling preacher in 1802, and, in 
1806, came to Illinois under the presiding-elder- 
ship of Rev. William McKendree (afterwards 
Bishop), locating first at Turkey Hill, St. Clair 
County. In 1807 he held a camp meeting near 
Edwardsville — the first on Illinois soil. Later, 
he transferred his labors to Northern Illinois; 
was at Peoria in 1824; at Ottawa in 1825, and 
devoted much time to missionary work among 
the Pottawatomies, maintaining a school among 
them for a time. He visited Chicago in 1826, and 
there is evidence that he was a prominent resident 
there for several j-ears, occupying a log house, 
which he used as a church and living-room, on 
"Wolf Point" at the junction of the North and 
South Branches of the Chicago River. While 
acting as superintendent of the Fox River mis- 
sion, his residence appears to have been at Plain- 

field, in the northern part of WiU County. Died, 
Oct. 5, 1835. 

WALKER, Pinkney H., lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Adair County, Ky., June 18, 1815. 
His boj'hood was chiefly passed in farm work and 
as clerk in a general store ; in 1834 he came to Illi- 
nois, settling at Rushville, where he worked in a 
store for four years. In 1838 he removed to 
Macomb, where he began attendance at an acad- 
emy and the study of law with his uncle, Cyrus 
Walker, a leading law3'er of his time. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1839. practicing at Macomb 
until 1848, when he returned to Rushville. In 
1853 he was elected Judge of the Fifth Judicial 
Circuit, to fill a vacancy, and re-elected in 1855. 
This position he resigned in 1858, having been 
appointed, by Governor Bissell, to fill the vacancy 
on the bench of the Supreme Comt occasioned bj' 
the resignation of Judge Skinner. Two months 
later he was elected to the same position, and 
re-elected in 18G7 and '76. He presided as Chief 
Justice from January, 1864, to June, "67, and 
again from June, 1874, to June, '75. Before the 
expiration of his last term he died, Feb. 7, 18S5. 

WALL, George Willard, la%vyer, pohtician and 
Judge, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 23, 
1839; brought to Peny Countj', 111., in infancy, 
and received his preparatory education at McKen. 
dree College, finally graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1858, and from the 
Cincmnati Law School in 1859, when he began 
practice at Duquoin, 111. He was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1802, and, from 
1864 to "68, served as State's Attorney for the 
Third Judicial Di-strict ; was also a Delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 
1872 he was an unsuccessful Democratic candi- 
date for Congress, although running ahead of his 
ticket. In '1877 he was elected to the bench of 
the Third Circuit, and re-elected in "79, '85 and 
'91, much of the time since 1877 being on duty 
upon the Appellate bench. His home is at 

WALLACE, (Rev.) Peter, D.D., clergyman 
and soldier; was born in Mason County, Ky., 
April 11, 1818; taken in infancy to Brown 
Count}', Ohio, where he grew up on a farm until 
15 years of age, when he was apprenticed to a 
carpenter; at the age of 20 came to Illinois, 
where he became a contractor and builder, fol- 
lowing this occupation for a number of years. He 
was converted in 1835 at Springfield, III, and, 
some }"ears later, having decided to enter the 
ministrj-, was admitted to the Illinois Conference 
as a deacon by Bishop E. S. Janes in 1855, and 



placed in charge of the Danville Circuit. Two 
years later he was ordained by Bishop Scott, and, 
in the next few j-ears, held pastorates at various 
places in the central and eastern parts of the 
State. From 1867 to 1874 he was Presiding Elder 
of the Mattoon and Quincy Districts, and, for six 
years, held the position of President of the Board 
of Trustees of Chaddock College at Quincy, from 
which he received the degree of D.D. in 1881. 
In the second year of the Civil War he raised a 
company in Sangamon County, was chosen 
its Captain and assigned to the Seventy-third 
Illinois Volunteers, known as the "preachers' 
regiment" — all of its oflQcers being ministers. In 
1864 he was compelled by ill-health to resign his 
commission. While pastor of the church at Say- 
brook, 111., he was offered the position of Post- 
master of that place, which he decided to accept, 
and was allowed to retire from the active minis- 
try. On retirement from office, in 1884, he 
removed to Chicago. In 1889 he was appointed 
by Governor Fifer the first Cliaplain of the Sol- 
diers" and Sailors' Home at Quincy, but retired 
some four years afterward, when he returned to 
Chicago. Dr. Wallace was an eloquent and 
effective preacher and continued to preach, at 
intervals, until within a short time of his decease, 
which occurred in Chicago, Feb. 21, 1897, in his 
84th year. A zealous patriot, he frequently 
spoke very effectively upon the political rostrum. 
Originally a Whig, he became a Republican on 
the organization of that party, and took pride in 
the fact that the first vote he ever cast was for 
Abraham Lincoln, for Representative in the Legis- 
lature, in 1834. He was a Knight Templar. Vice- 
President of the Tippecanoe Club of Chicago, 
and, at his death, Chaplain of America Post, No. 
708, G. A. R. 

WALLACE, William Henry Lamb, lawyer and 
soldier, was born at Urbana, Ohio, July 8, 1831 ; 
brought to Illinois in 1833, his father settling 
near La Salle and, afterwards, at Jlovmt Morris, 
Ogle County, where j-oung Wallace attended the 
Rock River Seminary ; was admitted to the bar in 
184o ; in 1S4G enlisted as a private in the First Illi- 
nois Volunteers (Col. John J. Hardin's regiment), 
for the Mexican War, rising to the rank of Adju- 
tant and participtingin the battle of Buena Vista 
(where his commander was killed), and in other 
engagements. Returning to his profession at 
Ottawa, he served as District Attorney (1852-56), 
then became partner of his father-in-law. Col. 
T. Lyle Dickey, afterwards of the Supreme Court. 
In April, 1861, lie was one of the first to answer 
the call for troops by enlisting, and became Colo- 

nel of the Eleventh Illinois (three-months' 
men), afterwards re-enlisting for three years. 
As commander of a brigade he participated in 
the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, in Feb- 
ruary, 1863, receiving promotion as Brigadier- 
General for gallantry. At Pittsburg Landing 
(Shiloh), as commander of Gen. C. F. Smith's 
Division, devolving on him on account of the 
illness of his superior officer, he showed great 
courage, but fell mortally wounded, dying at 
Charleston, Tenn., April 10, 1862. His career 
promised great brilliancy and his loss was greatly 
deplored.— Martin U. M. ( Wallace), brother of 
the preceding, was born at Urbana. Ohio, Sept. 
29, 1829, came to La Salle County, 111., with his 
father's family and was educated in the local 
schools and at Rock River Seminary ; studied law 
at Ottawa, and was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
soon after locating in Chicago. In 1861 he 
assisted in organizing the Fourth Regiment Illi- 
nois Cavalry, of which he became Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and was complimented, in 1865, with the 
rank of brevet Brigadier-General. After the 
war he served as A.ssessor of Internal Revenue 
(1866-69) ; County Judge (1869-77) ; Prosecuting 
Attorney (1884); and, for many years was one of 
the Justices of the Peace of the city of Chicago. 
Died March 6, 1902. 

WALNUT, a town of Bureau County, on the 
Mendota and Fulton branch of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad, 26 miles west of 
Mendota; is in a farming and stock-raising dis- 
trict; has two banks and two newspapers. Popu- 
lation (1900), 791; (1910), 763. 

WAR OF 1813. Upon the declaration of war 
by Congress, in June, 1812, the Pottawatomies, 
and mast of the other tribes of Indians in the 
Territory of Illinois, strongly sympathized with 
the British. The savages had been hostile and 
restless for some time previous, and blockhouses 
and family forts had been erected at a number 
of points, especially in the settlements most 
exposed to the incursions of the savages. Gov- 
ernor Edwards, becoming apprehensive of an 
outbreak, constructed Fort Russell, a few miles 
from Edwardsville. Taking the field in person, 
he made this his headquarters, and collected a 
force of 250 mounted volunteers, who were later 
reinforced by two companies of rangers, under 
Col. William Russell, numbering about 100 men. 
An independent company of twenty-one spies, of 
which John Reynolds — afterwards Governor — 
was a member, was also formed and led by Capt. 
Samuel Judy. The Governor organized his little 
army into two regiments under Colonels Rector 



and Stephenson, Colonel Russell serving as 
second to tlie commander-in-chief, other mem- 
bers of his staff being Secretarj- Nathaniel Pope 
and Robert K. McLaughlin. On Oct. 18, 1812, 
Governor Edwards, with his men, set out for 
Peoria, where it was expected that their force 
would meet that of General Hopkins, who had 
been sent from Kentucky with a force of 2,000 
men. En route, two Kickapoo villages were 
burned, and a number of Indians unnecessarily 
slain by Edwards' party. Hopkins had orders to 
disperse the Indians on the Illinois and Wabash 
Rivers, and desliroy their villages. He deter- 
mined, however, on reaching the headwaters of 
the Vermilion to proceed no farther. Governor 
Edwards reached the head of Peoria Lake, but, 
failing to meet Hopkins, returned to Fort Russell. 
About the same time Capt. Thomas E. Craig led 
a party, in two boats, up the Illinois River to 
Peoria. His boats, as he alleged, having been 
fired upon in the night by Indians, who wei'e har- 
bored and protected by the French citizens of 
Peoria, he burned the greater part of the village, 
and capturing the population, carried them down 
the river, putting them on shore, in the early part 
of the winter, just below Alton. Other desultory 
expeditions marked the campaigns of 1813 and 
1814. The Indians meanwhile gaining courage, 
remote settlements were continually harassed 
by marauding bands. Later in 1814, an expedi- 
tion, led by Major (afterwards President) Zachary 
Taylor, ascended the Mississijipi as far as Rock 
Island, where he found a large force of Indians, 
supported by British regulars with artillery. 
Finding himself unable to cope with so formida- 
ble a foe. Major Taylor retreated down the river. 
On the site of the present town of AVarsaw he 
threw up fortifications, which he named Fort 
Edwards, from which point he was subsequently 
ccmpelled to retreat. The same j'ear the British, 
with their Indian allies, descended from Macki- 
nac, captured Prairie du Chien, and burned Forts 
Madison and Johnston, after which they retired 
to Cap au Gris. The treaty of Ghent, signed 
Dec. 24, 1814, closed the war, although no formal 
treaties were made with the tribes until the year 

WAR OF THE REBELLION'. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the executive chair, in Illinois, 
was occupied by Gov. Richard Yates. Immedi- 
ately upon the issuance of President Lincoln's 
first call for troops (April 15, 1861), the Governor 
issued his proclamation summoning the Legisla- 
ture together in special session and, the same 
day, issued a call for "six regiments of militia," 

the quota assigned to the State under call of the 
President. Public excitement was at fever heat, 
and dormant patriotism in both sexes was 
aroused as never before. Party lines were 
broken down and, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, the mass of the people were actuated by a 
common sentiment of patriotism. On April 19, 
Governor Yates was instructed, by the Secretary 
of War, to take possession of Cairo as an important 
strategic point. At that time, the State militia 
organizations were few in number and poorly 
equipped, consisting chiefly of independent com- 
panies in the larger cities. The Governor acted 
with great promptitude, and, on April 21, seven 
companies, numbering 595 men, commanded by 
Gen. Richard K. Swift of Chicago, were en route 
to Cairo. The first volunteer company to tender 
its services, in response to Governor Yates' proc- 
lamation, on April 16, was the Zouave Grays of 
Springfield. Eleven other companies were ten- 
dered the same day, and, by the evening of the 
18th, the number had been increased to fifty. 
Simultaneously with these proceedings, Chicago 
bankers tendered to the Governor a war loan of 
§500,000, and those of Springfield, 8100,000. The 
Legislature, at its special session, passed acts in- 
creasing the eflSciency of the militia law, and 
provided for the creation of a war fund of §2,- 
000,000. Besides the six regiments alreadj- called 
for, the raising of ten additional volunteer regi- 
ments and one battery of light artillery was 
authorized. The last of the six regiments, 
apportioned to Illinois under the first presidential 
call, was dispatched to Cairo early in May. The 
six regiments were numbered the Seventh to 
Twelfth, inclusive — the earlier numbers. First to 
Sixth, being conceded to the six regiments which 
had served in the war with Mexico. The regi- 
ments were commanded, respectively, by Colonels 
John Cook, Richard J. Oglesby, Eleazer A. Paine, 
James D. Morgan, William H. L. Wallace, and 
John Mc Arthur, constituting the "First Brigade 
of Illinois Volunteers." Benjamin M. Prentiss, 
having been chosen Brigadier-General on arrival 
at Cairo, assumed command, relieving General 
Swift. The quota under the second call, consist- 
ing of ten regiments, was mustered into service 
within sixty days, 200 companies being tendered 
immediately. Many more volunteered than could 
be accepted, and large numbers crossed to Mis- 
souri and enlisted in regiments forming in that 
State. During June and July the Secretary of 
War authorized Governor Yates to recruit twenty- 
two additional regiments (seventeen infantry and 
five cavalry), which were promptly raised. On 



July 32, the day following the defeat of the Union 
army at Bull Run, President Lincoln called for 
500,000 more volunteers. Governor Yates im- 
mediately responded with an offer to the War 
Department of sixteen more regiments (thirteen 
of infantry and three of cavalry), and a battalion 
of artillery, adding, that the State claimed it as 
her right, to do her full share toward the preser- 
vation of the Union. Under supplemental author- 
ity, received from the Secretary of War in 
August, 1861, twelve additional regiments of in- 
fantry and five of cavalry were raised, and, by De- 
cember, 18C1, the State had 43,000 volunteers in 
the field and 17,000 in camps of instruction. 
Other calls were made in Julj' and August, 1802, 
each for 300,000 men. Illinois" quota, under both 
calls, was over 52,000 men, no regard being paid 
to the fact that the State had already furnished 
16,000 troops in excess of its quotas under previ- 
ous calls. Unless this number of volunteers was 
raised by September 1, a draft would be ordered. 
The tax was a severe one, inasmuch as it would 
fall chiefly upon the prosperous citizens, the float- 
ing population, the idle and the extremely poor 
having already followed the army's march, either 
as soldiers or as camp-followers. But recruiting 
was actively carried on, and, aided by liberal 
bounties in many of the counties, in less than a 
fortnight the 52,000 new troops were secured, the 
volunteers coming largelj' from the substantial 
classes — agricultural, mercantile, artisan and 
professional. By the end of December, fifty nine 
regiments and four batteries had been disiMitched 
to the front, besides a considerable number to fill 
up regiments already in i;he field, which had suf- 
fered severely from battle, exposure and disease. 
At this time, Illinois had an aggregate of over 
135,000 enlisted men in the field. The issue of 
President Lincoln's preliminar}' proclamation of 
emancipation, in September, 1862, was met by a 
storm of hostile criticism from his political 
opponents, who — aided by the absence of so 
large a proportion of the loyal population of the 
State in the field — were able to carry the elec- 
tions of that year. Consequently, when the 
Twenty-third General Assembly convened in 
regular session at Springfield, on Jan. 5, 1863. a 
large majority of that body was not only opposed 
to both the National and State administrations, 
but avowedly opposed to the further prosecution 
of the war under the existing policy. The Leg- 
islature reconvened in June, but was prorogued 
by Governor Yates Between Oct. 1, 1863, and 
July 1, 1864, 16,000 veterans re-enlisted and 
37,000 new volunteers were enrolled; and, by the 

date last mentioned, Illinois had furnished to the 
Union army 244,490 men, being 14,596 in ex- 
cess of the allotted quotas, constituting fifteen 
per cent of the entire population. were 
comprised in 151 regiments of infantry, 17 of 
cavalry and two complete regiments of artillery, 
besides twelve independent batteries. The total 
losses of Illinois organizations, during the war, 
has been reported at 34,834, of which 5,874 were 
killed in battle, 4,020 died from wounds, 22,786 
from disease and 2,154 from other causes — being 
a total of thirteen per cent of the entire force of 
the State in the service. The part which Illinois 
played in the contest was conspicuous for patriot- 
ism, promptness in response to every call, and 
the bravery and efficiency of its troops in the 
field — reflecting honor upon the State and its his- 
tory. Nor were its loyal citizens — who, while 
staying at home, furnished moral and material 
support to the men at the front — less worthy of 
praise than those who volunteered. By uphold- 
ing the Government — National and State — and 
by their zeal and energy in collecting and sending 
forward immense quantities of supplies — surgical, 
medical and other — often at no little sacrifice, 
they contributed much to the success of the 
Union arms. (See also Camp Douglas; Camp 
Douglas Conspiraci/; Secret Treasonable Soci- 

WAR OF THE REBELLIOiX (History op Illi- 
nois Regiments). The following is a list of the 
various military organizations mustered into the 
service during the Civil War (1861-65), with the 
terms of service and a summary of the more 
important events in the history of each, while 
in the field: 

Seventh Ixf.\xtry. Illinois having .sent six 
regiments to the Mexican War, by courtesy the 
numbering of the regiments which took part in 
the war for the Union began with number 
Seven. A number of regiments which responded 
to the first call of the President, claimed the right 
to be recognized as the first regiment in the 
field, but the honor was finally accorded to that 
organized at Springfield b_y Col. John Cook, and 
hence his regiment was numbered Seventh. It 
was mustered into the service, April 25, 1.861. and 
remained at Mound City during the three months' 
.service, the period of its first enlistment. It was 
subsequently reorganized and mustered for the 
three years' service, July 25, 1861, and was 
engaged in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Corinth, Cherokee, Allatoona Pass, Salkahatchie 
Swamp, Bentouville and Columbia. The regi- 
ment re-enlisted as veterans at Pulaski, Tenn., 



Dec. 22, 1863; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 9, 1865, and paid off aud discharged at 
Springfield, Jul}- 11. 

Eighth Infantry. Organized at Springfield, 
and mustered in for three months' service, April 
26, 1861, Ricliard J. Oglesby of Decatur, being 
appointed Colonel. It remained at Cairo during 
its term of service, when it was mustered out. 
July 25, 1861, it was reorganized and mustered in 
for three years' service. It iiarticipated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Port Gibson, . 
Thompson Hill, Raymond, Champion Hill, Vicks- 
burg, Brownsville, and Spanish Fort; re-enlisted 
as veterans, March 24, 1864 ; was mustered out at 
Baton Rouge, May 4, 1866, paid off and dis- 
charged. May 13, having served five years. 

Ninth Infantry. Mustered into the service 
at Springfield, April 26, 1861. for the term of 
three months, under Col. Eleazer A. Paine. It 
was reorganized at Cairo, in August, for three 
years, being composed of companies from St. 
Clair, Madison, Slontgomery, Pulaski, Alexander 
and Mercer Counties ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, Jackson (Tenn.), Meed Creek 
Swamps, Salem, Wyatt, Florence, Montezuma, 
Atliens and Grenada. The regiment was mounted, 
March 15, 1863, and so continued during the 
remainder of its service. Mustered out at Louis- 
ville, July 9, 1865. 

Tenth Infantry-. Organized and mustered 
into the .service for three months, ou April 29, 
1861, at Cairo, aud on July 29, 1861, was mustered 
into the service for three years, with Col. James 
D. Morgan iu command. It was engaged at 
Sykeston, New Madrid, Corinth, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, Keuesaw, 
Chattahoochie, Savannah and Bentonville. Re- 
enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, and mustered 
out of service, July 4, 1865, at Louisville, and 
received final discharge and jiay, July 11, 1865, 
at Chicago. 

Eleventh Infantry-. Organized at Spring- 
field and mustered into service, April 30, 1861, 
for three months. July 30, the regiment was 
mustered out, and re-enlisted for three years' 
service. It was engaged at Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, Corinth, Tallahatchie, Vicksburg, Liver- 
pool Heights, Yazoo City, Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely. W. H. L. Wallace, afterwards 
Brigadier-General and killed at Shiloh, was its 
first Colonel. Mustered out of service, at Baton 
Rouge, July 14, 1865; paid off and discharged at 

Twelfth Infantry. Mustered into service 
for three years, August 1, 1861 ; was engaged at 

Columbus, Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Lay's 
Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw, 
Nickajack Creek, Bald Knob, Decatur, Ezra 
Church, Atlanta, AUatoona and Goldsboro. ■ On 
Jan. 10, 1804, the regiment re-enlisted as veter' 
ans. John McArthur was its first Colonel, suc- 
ceeded by Augustus L. Chetlain, both being 
promoted to Brigadier-Generalships. Mustered 
out of service at Louisville, Ky., July 10, 1865, 
and received final pay and discharge, at Spring- 
field, July 18. 

Thirteenth Infantry. One of the regiments 
organized under the act known as the "Ten Regi- 
ment Bill"; was mustered into service on May 24, 
1861, for three years, at Dixon, with John B. 
Wyman as Colonel; was engaged at Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rossville and Ringgold Gap. 
Mustered out at Springfield, June 18, 1864, hav- 
ing served three years and two months. 

Fourteenth Infantry. One of the regiments 
raised under the "Ten Regiment Bill," which 
anticipated the requirements of the General 
Government by organizing, equipping and dril- 
ling a regiment in each Congressional District in 
the State for thirty days, unless sooner required 
for service by the United States. It was mustered 
in at Jacksonville for three years. May 25, 1801, 
under command of John IM. Palmer as its first 
Colonel; was engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, Meta- 
mora, Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Beauregard and 
Meridian ; con.solidated with the Fifteenth Infan- 
try, as a veteran battalion (both regiments hav- 
ing enlisted as veterans), on July 1, 1864. In 
October, 1864, the major part of the battalion 
was captured by General Hood and sent to 
Andersonville. The remainder participated in 
the "March to the Sea," and through the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas. In the spring of 1865 the 
battalion organization was discontinued, botk 
regiments having been filled up by recruits. The 
regiment w-as mustered ovit at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., Sept. 16, 1865; and arrived at 
Springfield, 111., Sept. 22, 1865, where it received 
final payment and discharge. The aggregate 
number of men who belonged to this organization 
was 1,980, and the aggregate mustered out at 
Fort Leavenworth, 480. During its four years 
and four months of service, the regiment 
marched 4,490 miles, traveled by rail, 2,330 miles, 
and, by river, 4,490 miles — making an aggregate 
of 11,670 miles. 

Fifteenth Infantry. Raised imderthe "Ten 
Regiment Act," in the (then) First Congressional 
District; was organized at Freeport, and mus- 



tered into service, May 34, 1861. It was engaged 
at Sedalia, Shiloh, Corinth, Metamora Hill, 
Vicksburg, Fort Beauregard, Champion Hill, 
AUatoona and Bentonville. In March, 1864, the 
regiment re-enlisted a.s veterans, and, in July, 
1864, was consolidated %vith the Fourteenth Infan- 
try as a Veteran Battalion. At Big Slianty and 
Ackworth a large portion of the battalion was 
captured by General Hood. At Raleigh the 
Veteran Battalion was discontinued and the 
Fifteenth reorganized. From July 1, to Sept. 1, 
186.5, the regiment was stationed at Forts Leaven- 
worth and Kearney. Having been mustered out 
at Fort Leavenworth, it was sent to Springfield 
for final payment and discharge — having served 
four years and four months. Miles marched, 
4,299; miles by rail, 2.403. miles by steamer, 
4,310; men enlisted from date of organization, 
1,963; strength at date of muster-out, 640. 

Sixteenth Infantry. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Quincy under the "Ten-Regi- 
ment Act," May 24, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid. Tiptonville, Corinth, 
Buzzards' Roost. Resaca, Rome, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Chattahoocbie River. Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Savannah, Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Averysboro and Bentonville. In December, 
1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans; was 
mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 8, 186.5, 
after a terra of service of four years and three 
months, and, a week later, arrived at Spring- 
field, where it received its final pay and discharge 

Seventeenth Infantry. Mustered into the 
service at Peoria, 111., on May 24, 1861; was 
engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Greenfield 
(Ark.), Shiloh, Corinth. Hatchie and Vicksburg. 
In May, 1864, the term of enlistment having 
expired, the regiment was ordered to Sjiringfield 
for pay and discharge. Those men and officers 
who re-enlisted, and those whose term had not 
expired, were consolidated with the Eighth Infan- 
try, which was mustered out in the spring of 1866. 

Eighteenth Infantry. Organized under the 
provisions of the "Ten Regiment Bill," at Anna, 
and mustered into the service on May 28, 1861, 
the term of enlistment being for three years. 
The regiment participated in the capture of Fort 
McHenry, and was actively engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth. It was mustei-ed 
out at Little Rock. Dec. 16, 1865, and Dec. 31, 
thereafter, arrived at Springfield, 111., for pay- 
n?.?nt and discharge. The aggregate enlistments 
in the regiment, from its organization to date of 
discharge (rank and file), numbered 2,043. 

Nineteenth Infantry^. Mu.stered into the 
United States service for three years, June 17, 
1861, at Chicago, embracing four companies 
which had been accepted under the call for three 
months' men; participated in the battle of 
Stone River and in the Tullahoma and Chatta- 
nooga campaigns; was also engaged at Davis' 
Cross Roads, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and 
Resaca. It was mustered out of service on July 
9, 1864, at Chicago. Originally consisting of 
nearly 1,000 men, besides a large number of 
recruits received during the war, its strength at 
the final muster-out was less than 350. 

Twentieth Infantry-. Organized, May 14, 
1861, at Joliet, and June 13, 18G1, and mustered 
into the service for a term of three years. It 
participated in the following engagements, bat- 
tles, sieges, etc.: Fredericktown (Mo.), Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Thompson's Planta- 
tion, Champion Hills, Big Black River, Vicks- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain and Atlanta. After 
marching through the Carolinas, the regiment 
was finally ordered to Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, July 16, 1865, receiving its final 
discharge at Chicago, on July 24. 

Twenty-first Infantry. Organized under 
the "Ten Regiment Bill," from the (then) Sev- 
enth Congressional District, at Mattoon, and 
mustered into service for three years, June 28, 
1861. Its first Colonel was U. S. Grant, who was 
in command until August 7, when he was com- 
missioned Brigadier-General. It was engaged 
at Fredericktown (Mo. ), Corinth, Perry ville. Mur- 
freesboro. Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans, at Chattanooga, in February, 1864. 
From June, 1864, to December, 1865, it was on 
duty in Texas. Mustered out at San Antonio, 
Deo. 16, 1865, and paid oil and discharged at 
Springfield, Jan. 18, 1866. 

Twenty-second Infantry. Organized at 
Belleville, and mustered into service, for three 
years, at Ca.sey ville. III., June 25, 1861; was 
engaged at Belmont, Charleston (Mo.). Sikestown, 
Tiptonville, Farmington, Corinth, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hojie Church, and all the battles of the Atlanta 
campaign, except Rocky Face Ridge. It was 
mustered out at Springfield, July 7, 1864, the vet- 
erans and recruits, whose term of service had not 
exijired. being consolidated with the Forty-second 
Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers. 

Twenty-third Infantry'. The organization 
of the Twenty-third Infantry Volunteers com- 
menced, at Chicago, under the popular name of 



the "Irish Brigade," immediately upon the 
opening of hostilities at Sumter. The formal 
muster of the regiment, under the command of 
Col. James A. Mulligan, was made. June 15, 1861, 
at Chicago, when it was occupying barracks 
known as Kane's brewery near the river on 
West Polk Street. It was early ordered to North- 
ern Missouri, and was doing garrison duty at 
Lexington, when, in September, 1861, it surren- 
dered witli the rest of the garrison, to the forces 
under the rebel General Price, and was paroled. 
From Oct. 8, 1861, to June 14, 1862, it was detailed 
to guard prisoners at Camp Douglas. Thereafter 
it participated in engagements in the Virginias, 
as follows: at South Fork, Greenland Gap, Phi- 
lippi, Hedgeville, Leetown, Maryland Heights, 
Snicker's Gap, Kernstown, Cedar Creek, Win- 
cliester, Charlestown, Berryville, Opequan Creek, 
Fisher's Hill, Harrisonburg, Hatcher's Run and 
Petersburg. It also took part in the siege of 
Richmond and the pursuit of Lee. being present 
at the surrender at Appomattox. In January 
and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans, at Greenland Gap, W. Va. In August, 
1864. the ten companies of the Regiment, then 
numbering 440. were consolidated into five com- 
panies and designated, "Battalion, Twenty-third 
Regiment, Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry." 
The regiment was thanked by Congress for its 
part at Lexington, and was authorized to inscribe 
Lexington upon its colors. (See also Mulligan, 
James A.) 

Twenty-fourth Infantry, (known as the 
First Hecker Regiment). Organized at Chicago, 
with two companies^to-wit: the Union Cadets 
and the Lincoln Rifles — from tlie three months' 
service, in June, 1861, and mustered in, July 8, 
1861. It participated in the battles of Perry ville, 
Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain and other engagements in the Atlanta 
campaign. It was mustered out of service at 
Chicago, August 6, 1864. A fraction of the regi- 
ment, which had been recruited in the field, and 
whose term of service had not expired at the date 
of muster-out, was organized into one company 
and attached to the Third Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Fourteenth Army Corps, and mustered out 
at Camp Butler, August 1, 1865. 

Twenty-fifth Infantry. Organized from 
the counties of Kankakee, Iroquois, Ford, Vermil- 
ion, Douglas, Coles, Champaign and Edgar, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, 4, 1861. 
It participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, in the 
siege of Corinth, the battle of Kenesaw Moun- 

tain, the siege of Atlanta, and innumerable skir- 
mishes ; was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 5, 
1864. During its three years' service the regi- 
ment traveled 4,962 miles, of which 3,252 were on 
foot, the remainder by steamboat and railroad. 

Twenty'-sixth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice, consisting of seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 31, 1861. On Jan. 1, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans. It was authorized by the 
commanding General to inscribe upon its ban- 
ners "New Madrid"; "Island No. 10;" "Farming- 
ton;" "Siege of Corinth;" "luka;" "Corinth — 
3d and 4th, 1863;" "Resaca;" "Kenesaw;" "Ezra 
Church;" "Atlanta;" "Jonesboro;" "Griswold- 
ville;" "McAllister;" "Savannah;" "Columbia," 
and "Benton ville." It was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 20, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged, at Springfield, July 28 — the regiment 
having marched, during its four years of service, 
6,931 miles, and fought twenty-eight hard battles, 
besides innumerable skirmishes. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry^. First organized, 
with only seven companies, at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861, and organization completed by 
the addition of three more companies, at Cairo, 
on September 1. It took part in the battle of Bel- 
mont, the siege of Island No. 10, and the battles 
of Farmington, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Calhoun, Adairsville, Dallas, Pine Top 
Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain, as well as in 
the investment of Atlanta; was relieved from 
duty, August 25, 1864, while at the front, and 
mustered out at Springfield, September 20. Its 
veterans, with the recruits term of serv- 
ice had not expired, were consolidated witli the 
Ninth Infantry. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry'. Composed of 
companies from Pike, Fulton, Schuyler, Mason, 
Scott and Jlenard Counties; was organized at 
Springfield, August 15, 1861, and mustered into 
service for three years. It participated in the 
battles of Shiloh and Metamora, the siege of 
Vicksburg and tlie battles of Jackson, Mississippi, 
and Fort Beauregard, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. From 
June, 1864, to March, 1866, it was stationed in 
Texas, and was mustered out at Brownsville, in 
tliat State, March 15, 1866, having served four 
years and seven months. It was discharged, at 
Springfield, May 13, 1866. 

Twenty'-ninth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice at Springfield, August 19. 1861. and was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
sieges of Corinth, Vicksburg and Mobile. Eight 



companies were detailed for duty at Holly Springs, 
and were tliere captured by General Van Dorn, 
in December. 18G3. but were exchanged, .six 
months later. In January, 1SC4, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, from June, 18G4, to 
November, 1865, was on duty in Texas. It was 
mustered out of service in that State, Nov. 6, 
186.5, and received final discharge on November 28. 

Thirtieth Inf.^ntry. Organized at Spring- 
field, August 28, 18G1 ; was engaged at Belmont, 
Fort Donelson, the siege of Corinth, Medan 
Station, Raymond, Champion Hills, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, Big Shanty, Atlanta, 
Savannah, Pocotaligo, Orangeburg, Columbia, 
Cheraw, and Fayetteville; mustered out, July 
17, 186.5, and received final payment and discharge 
at Springfield, July 37, 186.5. 

Thirty-first Infantry. Organized at Cairo, 
and there mustered into service on Sept. 18, 
1861 ; was engaged at Belmont, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, in the two expeditions against Vicks- 
burg, at Tliompson's Hill, Ingram Heights, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hill, Big Shanty, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station and 
Jonesboro; also participated in the "March to 
the Sea" and took part in the battles and skir- 
mishes at Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville and 
Bentonville. A majority of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans in March, 1864. It was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 19, 1865, and 
finally discharged at Springfield, July 23. 

Thirty-second Inf.\ntry. Organized at 
Springfield and mustered into .service. Dec. 31, 
1861. By special authority from the War Depart- 
ment, it originally consisted of ten companies of 
infantry, one of cavalry, and a battery. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in the sieges 
of Corinth and Vicksburg, and in the battles of 
La Grange, Grand Junction, Metamora, Harrison- 
burg, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, 
AUatoona, Savannah, Columbia, Cheraw and 
Bentonville. In January, 1864, the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, and, in June, 1865. was 
ordered to Fort Leavenworth. Mustered out 
there, Sept. 16, 1865, and finally discharged at 

Thirty-third Infantry. Organized and mus- 
tered into service at Springfield in Septemljer, 
1861; was engaged at Fredericktown (Mo.), Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills. Black River Bridge, the 
assault and siege of Vicksburg, siege of Jackson, 
Fort Esperanza. and in the expeditii:>n against 
Mobile. Tlie regiment veteranized at Vicksburg. 
Jan. 4, 1804; was mustered out, at the same point, 
Nov. 34, 1865, and finally discharged at Spring- 

field, Dec. 6 and 7, 1865. The aggregate enroll- 
ment of the regiment was between 1,900 and 

Thirty-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Springfield. Sept. 7, 1861 ; was engaged at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Murfreesboro, Rocky Face Ridge, Re- 
saca. Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, 
Joneshoi'o, and, after participating in the "March 
to the Sea" and through the Carolinas, took part 
in the battle of Bentonville. After the surrender 
of Johnston, the regiment went with Sherman's 
Army to Washington, D. C, and took part in the 
grand review. May 24, 1865; left Washington, 
June 13, and arrived at Louisville, Ky., June 18, 
where it was mustered out, on July 13; was dis- 
charged and paid at Chicago, July 17, 1865. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry. Organized at De- 
catur on July 3, 1861, and its services tendered to 
the President, being accepted by the Secretary of 
War as "Col. G. A. Smith's Independent Regi- 
ment of Illinois Volunteers," on July 23, and 
mustered into service at St. Louis, August 13. It 
was engaged at Pea Ridge and in tlie siege of 
Corinth, also participated in the battles of Perry- 
ville. Stone River, Cliickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Re.saca. Dallas and 
Kenesaw. Its final muster-out took place at 
Springfield, Sept. 37, 1864, the regiment having 
marched (exclusive of railroad and steamboat 
transportation) 3,0.56 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Hammond, near Aurora, 111., and mustered into 
service, Sept. 23, 1861, for a term of three years. 
The regiment, at its organization, numbered 965 
officers and enlisted men, and had two companies 
of Cavalry ("A" and "B"), 186 officers and 
men. It was engaged at Leetown, Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, the siege 
of Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, Rock}' Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Nesv Hope Church, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Jones- 
boro, Franklin and Nashville. Mustered out, 
Oct. 8. 1865, and disbanded, at Springfield, Oct. 
27. having mart^hed and been transported, during 
its term of service, more than 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. Familiarly known 
as "Fremont Rifies"; organized in August, 1861, 
and mustered into service, Sept. 18. The regi- 
ment was presented with battle-flags by the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade. It participated in the 
battles of Pea Ridge, Neosho. Prairie Grove and 
Chalk Bluffs, the siege of Vicksburg. and in the 
battles of Yazoo City and Jlorgan's Bend. Id 
October, 1863, it was ordered to the defense of the 
frontier along the Rio Grande; re-enlisted as 



veterans in Februarj-, 1864; took part in the 
siege and storming of Fort Blakely and the cap- 
ture of Mobile; from July, 1865, to May, 1866, 
was again on duty in Texas ; vca-s mustered out 
at Houston. Slay 15, 1866, and finally discharged 
at Springfield, May 31, having traveled some 
17,000 miles, of which nearly 3,300 were by 

Thirty-eighth Infantry. Organized at 
Springfield, in September, 1861. The regiment 
was engaged in the battles of Fredericktown, 
Perry vi He, Knob Gap, Stone River, Liberty Gap, 
Chickamauga, Pine Top, Kenesaw Jlountain, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville; 
re-enlisted as veterans in February, 1864; from 
June to December, 1865, was on duty in Louisi- 
ana and Texas; was mustered out at Victoria, 
Texas, Dec. 81, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Springfield. 

Thirty-ninth Inf.\ntry. The organization of 
this Regiment was commenced as soon as the 
news of the firing on Fort Sumter reached Chi- 
cago. General Thomas O. Osborne was one of its 
contemplated field oflScers, and labored zealously 
to get it accepted under the first call for troops, 
but did not accomplish his object. The regiment 
had already assumed the name of the "Yates 
Phalanx" in honor of Governor Yates. It was 
accepted by the War Deiiartment on the day 
succeeding the first Bull Run disaster (Juh- 23. 
1861), and Austin Light, of Chicago, was appointed 
Colonel. Under his direction the organization was 
completed, and the regiment left Camp Mather, 
Chicago, on the morning of Oct. 13, 1861. It jmr- 
ticipated in the battles of Winchester, Malvern 
Hill (the second), Morris Island, Fort Wagner, 
Drury's Bluff, and in numerous engagements 
before Petersburg and Richmond, including the 
capture of Fort Gregg, and was present at Lee's 
surrender at Appomattox. In the meantime the 
regiment re-enlisted as veterans, at Hilton Head, 
S. C. , in September, 1863. It was mustered out 
at Norfolk, Dec. 6, 1865, and received final dis- 
charge at Chicago, December 16. 

Fortieth Infantry. Enlisted from the coun- 
ties of Franklin. Hamilton. W^ayne, White, 
Wabash, Marion, Clay and Fayette, and mustered 
into service for three years at Springfield, 
August 10, 1861. It was engaged at Shiloh, in 
the siege of Corinth, at Jackson (Miss.), in the 
siege of Vicksburg. at Missionary Ridge, New 
Hope Church, Black Jack Knob, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Ezra Chapel, Gris- 
woldville, siege of Savannah, Columbia (S. C), 
and Bentonville. It re-enlisted, as veterans, at 

Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1, 1864, and was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 24, 1865, receiving final 
discharge at Springfield. 

Forty-first Infantry. Organized at Decatur 
during July and August, 1861, and was mustered 
into service, August 5. It was engaged at Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, the second 
battle of Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg and 
Jackson, in the Red River campaign, at Guutown, 
Kenesaw Mountain and Allatoona, and partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea." It re-enlisted, 
as veterans, March 17, 1864, at Vicksburg, and 
was consolidated with the Fifty-third Infantry, 
Jan. 4, 1865, forming Companies G and H. 

Forty'-second Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, July 22, 1861 ; was engaged at Island No. 10, 
the siege of Corinth, battles of Farmington, 
Columbia (Tenn.), was besieged at Nashville, 
engaged at Stone River, in the TuUahoma cam- 
paign, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope 
Church, Pine and Kenesaw Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, 
Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. It re- 
enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864; was stationed 
in Texas from July to December, 1865 ; was mus- 
tered out at Indianola, in that State, Dec. 16, 
1865. and finally discharged, at Springfield, Jan. 
12. 18G6. 

Forty-third Infantry'. Organized at Spring- 
field in September, 1861, and mustered into 
service on Oct. 12. The regiment took part in 
the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and in the 
campaigns in West Tennessee, Mississippi and; was mustered out at Little Rock, 
Nov. 30. 1865. and returned to Springfield for 
final pay and discharge, Dec. 14, 1865. 

FoRTY-FOUKTH INFANTRY. Organized in Au- 
gust, 1861, at Chicago, and mustered into service, 
Sept. 13, 1861 ; was engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Stone River, Hoover's Gap, Shelbj'- 
ville, Tullahoma, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochie 
River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted 
as veterans in Tennessee, in January, 1864. 
From June to September, 1865, it was stationed 
in Louisiana and Texas, was mustered out at 
Port Lavaca, Sept. 25, 1865, and received final 
discharge, at Springfield, three weeks later. 

FORTY'-FIFTH INFANTRY. Originally called 
the "Washburne Lead Mine Regiment" ; was 
organized at Galena, July 23, 1861, and mustered 



into service at Chicago, Dec. 2.5, 1861. It was 
engaged at Fort Donelson. Shiloh, the siege of 
Corinth, battle of Medan, the campaign against 
Vicksburg, tlie Meridian raid, the Atlanta cam- 
paign, the "March to the Sea," and the advance 
through the Carolinas. The regiment veteran- 
ized in January, 18Gi; was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 18G.5, and arrived 
in Chicago, July 1^, 186.5, for final pay and dis- 
charge. Distance marched in four years, 1,7.50 

Forty-sixth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, Dec. 28, 18G1 ; was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, battle of 
Metamora, siege of Vicksburg (where five com- 
panies of the regiment were captured), in the 
reduction of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley, 
and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered in 
as a veteran regiment, Jan. 4, 1864. From May. 

1865, to January, 1866, it was on duty in Louisi- 
ana ; was mustered out at Baton Rouge, Jan. 20, 

1866, and, on Feb. 1, 1866, finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield. 

mustered into service at Peoria, 111., on August 
16, 1861. The regiment took part in the expe- 
dition against New Madrid and Island No. 10; 
also participated in the battles of Farmington, 
luka, the second battle of Corinth, the capture 
of Jackson, the siege of Vicksburg, the Red 
River expedition and the battle of Pleasant Hill, 
and in the struggle at Lake Chicot. It was 
ordered to Chicago to assist in quelling an antici- 
pated riot, in 1864, but, returning to the front, 
took part in the reduction of Spanish Fort and 
the capture of Mobile; was mustered out, Jan. 
21, 1866, at Selma, Ala., and ordered to Spring- 
field, where it received final paj' and discharge. 
Those members of the regiment who did not re-en- 
list as veterans were mustered out, Oct. 11, 18G4. 

FORTY'-EIGHTH INFANTRY. Organized at Spring- 
field, September, 1861, and participated in battles 
and sieges as follows: Fort Henry and Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (siege of), Vicksburg 
(first expedition against). Missionarj' Ridge, as 
well as in the Atlanta campaign and the "^larch 
to the Sea." The regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, at Scottsboro, Ala., Jan. 1. 1864; was mus- 
tered out, August 15, 1.8G5, at Little Rock, Ark., 
and ordered to Springfield for final discharge, 
arriving, August 21, 1865. The distance marched 
was 3,000 miles; moved by water, 5,000; by rail- 
road, 3,450~total, 11,450. 

FORTY-NINTH INFANTRY". Organized at Spring- 
field, 111., Dec. 31, 1861; was engaged at Fort 

Donelson, Shiloh and Little Rock; took part in 
the campaign against Meridian and in the Red 
River expedition, being in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, Jan. 15, 1864; three-fourths of the regiment 
re-enlisted and were mustered in as veterans, 
returning to Illinois on furlough. The non- 
veterans took part in the battle of Tupelo. The 
regiment participated in the battle of Nashville, 
and was mustered out, Sept. 9, 1865, at Paducah, 
Ky., and arrived at Springfield, Sept, 15, 1865, 
for final payment and discharge. 

Fiftieth Infantry. Organized at Quincy. in 
August, 18G1, and mustered into service. Sept, 12, 
18()1 ; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Sliiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, the second battle of Corinth, 
Allatoona and Bentonville, besides many minor 
engagements. The regiment was mounted. Nov. 
17, 1803; re-enlisted as veterans, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 1865, and 
reached Springfield, the following day, for final 
paj' and discliarge. 

Fifty-first Infantry-. Organized at Chi- 
cago, Dec. 24, 18G1 ; was engaged at New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Farmington, the siege of Corinth, 
Stone River, Chickamauga, JIi.ssionary Ridge, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jones- 
boro. Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. The 
regiment was mustered in as veterans, Feb. 16, 
1864 ; from July to September, 1865, was on duty 
in Texas, and mustered out, Sept. 25. 1865, at 
Camp Irwin, Texas, arriving at Springfield, 111., 
Oct. 15. 1865, for final payment and discharge. 

Fifty'-secoxd Infantry-. Organized at Ge- 
neva in November, 1861, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Nov. 10. The regiment participated in the 
following battles, sieges and expeditions ; Shiloh, 
Corinth (siege and second battle of), luka, Tou-n 
Creek, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, 
Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek, Decatur, Atlanta, Jonesboro 
and Bentonville. It veteranized, Jan. 9, 18G4; 
was mustered out at Louisville, Julj- 4, 18G5, 
and received final payment and discharge at 
Springfield, July 12. 

Fifty-third Infantry*. Organized at Ottawa 
in the winter of 1861-62, and ordered to Chicago, 
Feb 27, 1.862, to complete its organization. It 
took part in the siege of Corinth, and was engaged 
at Davis" Bridge, the siege of Vicksburg, in the 
Jleridian campaign, at Jackson, the siege of 
Atlanta, the "March to the Sea," the capture of 
Savannah and the campaign in the Carolinas, 
including the battle of Bentonville. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of service at Louisville. 



July 22, 1865, and receiTed final discharge, at 
Chicago, July 28. It marched 2,855 miles, and 
was transported bj' boat and cars, 4,168 miles. 
Over 1,800 officers and men belonged to the regi- 
ment during its term of service. 

Fifty-fourth Infantry. Organized at Anna, 
in November, 1861, as a part of the "Kentucky 
Brigade," and was mustered into service, Feb. 
18, 1862. No complete history of the regiment 
can be given, owing to the loss of its official 
records. It served mainly in Kentuckj-, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi and Arkansas, and alvrays effect- 
ively. Three-fourths of the men re-enlisted as 
veterans, in Januar}', 1864. Six companies were 
captured by the rebel General Shelby, in August, 
1864, and were exchanged, the following De- 
cember. The regiment was mustered out at 
Little Rock, Oct. 15, 1865; arrived at Springfield, 
Oct. 26, and was discharged. During its organi- 
zation, the regiment had 1,343 enlisted men and 
71 commissioned officers. 

Fifty-fifth Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered into service, Oct. 31, 1861. 
The regiment originally formed a part of the 
"Douglas Brigade." being chiefly recruited from 
the young farmers of Fulton, McDonough, 
Grundy, La Salle, De Kalb, Kane and Winnebago 
Counties. It participated in the battles of Shiloh 
and Corinth, and in the Tallahatchie campaign; 
in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas 
Post, around Vicksbui-g, and at Missionary Ridge ; 
was in the Atlanta campaign, notably in the 
battles of Kenesaw Mountain and Jonesboro. In 
all, it was engaged in thirt3--one battles, and was 
128 days under fire. The total mileage traveled 
amounted to 11,905. of which 3.240 miles were 
actually marched. Re-enlisted as veterans, while 
at Larkinsville, Tenn. ,was mustered out at Little 
Rock, August 14, 1865, receiving final discharge 
at Chicago, the same month. 

Fifty-sixth Ixf.\ntry'. Organized with com- 
panies jirincipally enlisted from the counties of 
Massac, Pope, Gallatin, Saline, White, Hamilton, 
Franklin and Wayne, and mustered in at Camp 
Mather, near Shawneetown. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the siege, and second battle, of 
Corinth, the Yazoo expedition, the siege of 
Vicksburg — being engaged at Champion Hills, 
and in numerous assaults; also took part in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge and Kesaca, and in 
the campaign in the Carolinas, including the 
battle of Bentonville. Some 200 members of the 
regiment perished in a wreck off Cape Ilatteras, 
March 31, 1865. It was mustered out in Arkan- 
sas, August 12, 1865. 

Fifty-seventh Inf.\ntey. Mustered into serv- 
ice, Dec. 26, 1861, at Chicago; took part in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh. the siege of 
Corinth, and the second battle at that point ; was 
also engaged at Resaca, Rome Cross Roads and 
Allatoona; participated in the investment and 
capture of Savannah, and the campaign through 
the Carolinas, including the battle of Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 7, 
1865, and received final discharge at Chicago, 
July 14. 

Fifty-eighth Infantry. Recruited at Chi- 
cago, Feb. 11, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh. a large number of the 
regiment being captured during the latter engage- 
ment, but subsequently exchanged. It took part 
in the siege of Corinth and the battle of luka, 
after which detachments were sent to Springfield 
for recruiting and for guarding prisoners. 
Returning to the front, the regiment was engaged 
in the capture of Meridian, the Red River cam- 
paign, the taking of Fort de Russey, and in many 
minor battles in Louisiana. It was mustered out 
at Montgomery, Ala., April 1, 1866, and ordered 
to Springfield for final paj'ment and discharge. 

Fifty-ninth Infantry-. Originally known as 
the Ninth Missouri Infantry, although wholly 
recruited in Illinois. It was organized at St. 
Louis. Sept. 18, 1861, the name being changed to 
the Fifty-ninth Illinois, Feb. 12, 1862, by order of 
the War Department. It was engaged at Pea 
Ridge, formeii part of the reserve at Farmington, 
took part at Perryville. Nolansville, Knob Gap 
and Murfreesboro, in the Tullahoma campaign 
and the siege of Chattanooga, in the battles of 
Missionary Ridge. Resaca, Adairsville, Kingston, 
Dallas, Ackworth, Pine Top, Kenesaw ^lountain, 
Smyrna, Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin and 
Nashville. Having re-enlisted as veterans, the 
regiment was ordered to Texas, in June, 1865, 
where it was mustered ovit, December, 1865, 
receiving its final discharge at Springfield. 

Sixtieth Infantry. Organized at Anna, 111., 
Feb. IT, 18G2: took part in the siege of Corinth 
and was besieged at Na.shville. The regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans while at the front, in 
Januarj', 1864; participated in the battles of 
Buzzard's Roost, Ringgold, Dalton, Resaca, 
Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Nickajack, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Averysboro and Benton-.'ille ; was 
mustered out at Louisville, July 31, 1865, and 
received final discharge at Springfield. 

Sixty-first Infantry. Organized at Carroll- 
ton, 111., three full companies being mustered 



in, Feb. 5, 1862. On February 21, the regiment, 
being still incomplete, moved to Benton Bar- 
rack.s. Mo. , where a sufficient number of recruits 
joined to make nine full companies. The regiment 
was engaged at Shiloh and Bolivar, took part 
in the Yazoo expedition, and re-enli.sted as veter- 
ans early in 18G4. Later, it took part in the battle 
of Wilkinson's Pike (near Murfreesboro), and 
other engagements near that point ; was mustered 
out at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 8, 180.5, and paid 
off and discharged at Springfield, Septem- 
ber 27. 

Sixty-second Infantry. Organized at Anna, 
111., April 10, 1802; after being engaged in several 
skirmi.shes, the regiment sustained a loss of 170 
men, who were captured and paroled at Holly 
Springs, Miss., by the rebel General Van Dorn, 
where the regimental records were destroyed. 
The regiment took part in forcing the evacuation 
of Little Rock; re-enlisted, as veterans, Jan. 9, 
18G4 ; was mustered out at Little Rock, March 6, 
1866, and ordered to Springfield for final payment 
and discharge. 

Sixty-third Infantry. Organized at Anna, 
in December. 1801, and mustered into service, 
April 10, 1802. It participated in the first 
ment of Vicksburg, the capture of Richmond 
Hill, La. , and in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 
On Jan. 1, 1864, 272 men re-enlisted as veterans. 
It took part in the capture of Savannah and in 
Sherman's march through the Carolinas. partici- 
pating in its important battles and skirmishes; 
was mustered out at Louisville, July 13, 186.5, 
reaching Springfield, July 16. The total distance 
traveled was 6,453 miles, of which 2,2.50 was on 
the march. 

Sixty-fourth Infantry. Organized at Spring- 
field, December, 1861, as the "First Battalion of 
Yates Sharp Shooters." The last comjiany was 
mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861. The regiment was 
engaged at New Madrid, the siege of Corinth, 
Chambers' Creek, the second battle of Corinth, 
Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, the 
siege of Atlanta, the investment of .Savannah and 
the battle of Bentonville ; re-enlisted as veterans, 
in Janiiaiy, 1864 ; was mustered out at Louisville, 
July 11, 1865, and finally discharged, at Chicago, 
July 18. 

Sixty-fifth Infantry. Originally known as 
the "Scotch Regiment"; was organized at Chi- 
cago, and mustered in. May 1, 1862. It was cap- 
tured and paroled at Harper's Ferry, and ordered 
to Chicago; was exchanged in April, 1863; took 
part in Burnside's defense of Knoxville; re-en- 
listed as veterans in March, 1804, and participated 

in the Atlanta campaign and the "March to the 
Sea." It was engaged in battles at Columbia 
(Tenn.), Franklin and Nashville, and later, near 
Federal Point and Smithtown, N. C, being mus- 
tered out, July 13, 1865, and receiving final pay- 
ment and discharge at Chicago, July 26, 1865. 

Sixty-sixth Infantry. Organized at Benton 
Barracks, near St. Louis, Mo., during Septemter 
and October, 1861 — being designed as a regiment 
of "Western Sharp Shooters" from Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minne.sota, Indiana and 
Ohio. It was mustered in, Nov. 23, 1861, was 
engaged at Mount Zion (Mo.), Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, luka, the second 
battle of Corinth, in the Atlanta campaign, the 
"March to the Sea" and the campaign through 
the Carolinas. The regiment was variously 
known as the Fourteenth l\Iis.souri Volunteers, 
Birge's Western Sharpshooters, and the Sixty- 
sixth rUnois Infantry. The latter (and final) 
name %vas conferred by the Secretary of War, 
Nov. 20, 1862. It re-enlisted (for the veteran 
service), in December, 1863, was mustered out at 
Camp Logan, Ky., July 7, 1865, and paid off and 
discharged at Springfield, July 15. 

SixTY-SETENTH INFANTRY. Organized at Chi- 
cago, June 13, 1862, for three months' service, in 
response to an urgent call for the defense of 
Washington. The Sixty -seventh, by doing guard 
dut}- at the camps at Chicago and Springfield, 
relieved the veterans, who were sent to the front. 

Sixty-eighth Infantry. Enlisted in response 
to a call made by the Governor, early in the sum- 
mer of 1862, for State troops to serve for three 
months as State Militia, and was mustered in 
early in June, 1862. It was afterwards mustered 
into the United States service as Illinois Volun- 
teers, by petition of the men, and received 
marching orders, July 5, 1862 ; mustered out, at 
Springfield, Sept. 26, 1862 — many of the men re- 
enlisting in other regiments. 

Sixty-ninth Inf.\ntry. Organized at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into service for 
three months, June 14, 1862. It remained on 
duty at Camp Douglas, guarding the camp and 
rebel prisoners. 

Seventieth Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Butler, near Springfield, and mustered in, July 4, 
1862. It remained at Camp Butler doing guard 
duty. Its term of service was three months. 

Seventy-first Infantry. Mustered into .serv- 
ice. July 26, 1862, at Chicago, for three months. 
Its service was confined to garrison duty in Illi- 
nois and Kentucky, being mustered out at Chi- 
cago, Oct. 29, 1862. 



Seventy-second Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, as the First Regiment of the Chicago Board 
of Trade, and mustered into service for three 
years, August 23, 1862. It was engaged at Cham- 
pion Hill, Vicksburg, Natchez, Franklin, Nasli- 
ville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely; mustered 
out of service, at Vicksburg, August 6. 1865, and 
discharged at Chicago. 

Seventy-third Infantry. Recruited from 
the counties of Adams, Cliarapaign, Cliristian, 
Hancock, Jackson, Logan, Piatt, Pike, Sanga- 
mon, Tazewell and Vermilion, and mubterad into 
service at Springfield, August 21, 1862, 900 strong. 
It participated in the battles of Stone River, 
Perryville, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Burnt Hickory, Pine and 
Lost Mountains, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Sjiring Hill. Frank- 
lin and Nashville; was mvistered out at Nashville, 
June 13, 1865, and, a few days later, "vent to 
Springfield to receive pay and final discharge. 

Seventy-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Rockford, in August, 1862, and mustered into 
service September 4. It was recruited from Win- 
nebago, Ogle and Stephenson Counties. This regi- 
ment was engaged at Perryville, Murfreesboro 
and Nolansville. took part in the Tullahoma 
campaign, and the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Tunnel Hill, and Rocky Face Ridge, the siege of 
Atlanta, and the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin 
and Nashville. It was mustered out at Nashville, 
June 10, 1865, with 343 officers and men, the 
aggregate number enrolled having been 1,001. 

Seventy-fifth Infantry. Organized at 
Dixon and mustered into service, Sept. 2, 1862. 
The regiment jiartioipateil in tlie battles of Perry- 
ville, Nolansville, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, 
Dalton, Resaca, Marietta, Kenesaw, Franklin and 
Nashville; was mustered out at Nashville, June 
12, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, July 
1, following. 

Seventy-sixth Infantry-. Organized at Kan- 
kakee, 111., in August, 1862, and mustered into the 
service, August 23, 1862 ; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the engagement at Jackson, the cam- 
paign Meridian, the expedition to Yazoo 
City, and the capture of Mobile, was ordered to 
Texas in June, 1865, and mustered out at Galves- 
ton, July 22, 1865, being paid off and disbanded 
at Chicago, August 4, 1805 — having traveled 
10,000 miles. 

Seventv-sf.vfnth Infantry. Organized and 
mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1863, at Peoria; 
was enK'TfT'^d in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 

Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg (including 
the battle of Champion Hills), the capture of 
Jackson, the Red River expedition, and the bat- 
tles of Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill ; the 
reduction of Forts Gaines and Morgan, and the 
capture of Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. 
It was mustered out of service at Jlobile, July 
10, 1865, and ordered to Springfield for final pay- 
ment and discharge, where it arrived, Julj' 22, 1865, 
having participated in sixteen battles and sieges. 

Seventy-eighth Infantry-. Organized at 
Quincy, and mastered into service, Sept. 1, 1863; 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Averysboro and 
Bentonville; was mustered out, June 7, 1865, and 
sent to Chicago, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged, June 12, 1.865. 

Seventy-nixth Infantry-. Organized at Mat- 
toon, in August, 1802, and mustered into service, 
August 28, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Dallas. Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin and Nashville; was 
mustered out, June 12, 1865; arrived at Camp 
Butler, June 15, and, on June 33, received final 
jjay and discharge. 

Eightieth Infantry". Organized at Centralia, 
111., in August, 1863, and mustered into service, 
August 35, 1863. It was engaged at Perryville, 
Dug's Gap, Sand Mountain and Blunt's Farm, 
surrendering to Forrest at the latter point. After 
being exclianged, it participated in the battles of 
Wauhatcliie, Missionary Ridge, Dalton, Resaca, 
Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The regiment traveled 6,000 miles and 
participated in more than twenty engagements. 
It was mustered out of service, June 10, 1865, and 
proceeded to Camp Butler for final pay and 

Eighty-first Inf.^ntry-. Recruited from the 
counties of Perry, Franklin, Williamson, Jack- 
son, Union, Pulaski and Alexander, and mustered 
into service at Anna, August 26, 1863. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, 
Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, and 
in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. Later, 
the regiment was engaged at Fort de Russey, 
Alexandria, Guntown and Nashville, besides 
assisting in the investment of Mobile. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, August 5, 186-1. 



irauHTY-SECOND INFANTRY. Sometimes called 
the '"Second Hecker Regiment," in honor of Col- 
onel Frederick Hecker, its first Colonel, and for 
merly Colonel of tlie Twenty-fovirth Illinois 
Infantry — being chiefly composed of German 
members of Chicago. It was organized at Spring- 
field, Sept. 26, 1863, and mustered into service, 
Oct. S3, 1862; participated in the battles of 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Or- 
chard Knob, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New 
Hope Church, Dallas, JIarietta, Pine Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Bentonville ; was 
mustered out of service, June 9, 186.5, and 
returned to Chicago, June 16 — having marched, 
during its time of service, 2,.503 miles. 

Eighty-third Infantry. Organized at Mon- 
mouth in August, 1863, and mustered into serv- 
ice, August 21. It participated in repelling the 
rebel attack on Fort Donelson, and in numerous 
hard-fought skirmishes in Tennessee, but was 
chiefly engaged in the performance of heavy 
guard duty and in protecting lines of communi- 
cation. The regiment was mustered out at Nash- 
ville, June 36, 1865, and flnallj' paid off and 
discharged at Chicago, July 4, following. 

Eighty-fourth Infantry. Organized at 
Quincy, in August, 1862, and mustered into serv- 
ice, Sept. 1, 1862, with 939 men and officers. The 
regiment was authorized to inscribe upon its 
battle-flag the names of Perryville, Stone River, 
Woodbury, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, 
Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Dalton, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Sta- 
tion, Franklin, and Nashville. It was mustered 
out, June 8, 1865. 

Eighty-fifth Infantry. Organized at Peoria, 
about Sept. 1, 1862, and ordered to Louisville. It 
•look part in the battles of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, Dalton, Rocky-Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah, Ben- 
tonville, Goldsboro and Raleigh; was mustered 
out at ■yVashiiigton, D. C. , June 5, 1865, and 
sent to Springheia, wnere the regiment was 
paid off and discharged on the 20th of the same 

Eighty-sixth Infantry. Mustered into serv- 
ice, August 27, 1863, at Peoria, at which time it 
numbered 933 men, rank and file. It took part 
in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, IMis- 
sionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro, 
Averysboro and Bentonville; was mustered out 
CO June 6, 1865, at Washington, D. C, arriving 

on June 11, at Cliicago, where, ten days later, the 
men received their pay and final discharge. 

Eighty-seventh Infantry. Enlisted in Au- 
gust, 1862; was composed of companies from 
Hamilton, Edwards, Wayne and White Counties ; 
was organized in the latter part of August, 1863, 
at Shawneetown ; mustered in, Oct, 3, 1863, the 
muster to take effect from August 2. It took 
part in the siege and captui'e of Warrenton and 
Jack.son, and in the entire campaign through 
Louisiana and Southern Mississippi, participating 
in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads and in numer- 
ous skirmishes among the bayous, being mustered 
out, June 16, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, 
where it arrived, June 24, 1865, and was paid off 
and disbanded at Camp Butler, on July 2. 

Eighty-eighth Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, in September, 1863, and known as the 
"Second Board of Trade Regiment." It was 
mustered in, Sept. 4, 1862 ; was engaged at Perry- 
ville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary 
Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, 
New Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Mud Creek, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Franklin 
and Nashville; was mustered out, June 9, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 13, 1865, where it received final pay and 
discharge, June 33, 1865. 

Eighty-ninth Infantry. Called the "Rail- 
road Regiment" ; was organized b}' the railroad 
companies of Illinois, at Chicago, in August, 
1863, and mustered into service on the 2Tth of 
that month. It fought at Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Knoxville, Resaca, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Pickett's Mills, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Lovejoy's Station, Spring Hill, Columbia, Frank- 
lin and Nashville; was mustered out, June 10, 
1865, in the field near Nashville, Tenn. ; arrived 
at Chicago two days later, and was finally dis- 
charged, June 34, after a service of two years, 
nine months and twenty -seven days. 

Ninetieth Inf.vntry. Mustered into service 
at Chicago, Sept. 7, 1863 ; participated in the siege 
of Vicksburg and the campaign against Jackson, 
and was engaged at Missionary Ridge. Resaca, 
Dallas, New Hope Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Nickajack Creek, Rosswell, 
Atlanta, Jonesboro and Fort McAllister. After 
the review at Washington, the regiment was 
mustered out, June 6, and returned to Chicago, 
June 9, 1865, where it was finally discharged. 

Ninety-first Infantry. Organized at Camp 
Butler, near Springfield, in August, 1863, and 



mustered in on Sept. 8, 1863; participated in the 
campaigns against Vicksburg and New Orleans, 
and all along the southwestern frontier in 
Louisiana and Texas, as well as in the investiture 
and capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at 
Mobile, July 12, 186.5, starting for home the same 
da.v, and being finally paid off and discharged on 
July 28, following. 

Nlnety-second Inf.^ntry (Mounted). Organ- 
ized and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862, 
being recruited from Ogle, Stephenson and Car- 
roll Counties. During its term of service, the 
Ninety-second was in more than sixty battles and 
skirmi-shes. including Ringgold, Chickamauga, 
and tlie numerous engagements on the "March 
to the Sea."' and during the pursuit of Johnston 
through the Carolinas. It was mustered out at 
Concord, N. C. , and paid and discharged from the 
service at Chicago, July 10, 1865. 

Ninety-third Infantry. Organized at Chi- 
cago, in September, 1862, and mustered in, Oct. 
13, 998 strong. It participated in tlie movements 
against Jackson and Vicksburg, and was engaged 
at Cliampion Hills and at Fort Fisher; also was 
engaged in the battles of Missionary Ridge, 
Dallas. Resaca, and many minor engagements, 
following Sherman in his campaign though tlie 
Carolinas. Mustered out of service, June 23, 
1865. and, on the 25th, arrived at Chicago, receiv- 
ing final payment and discharge, July 7, 1865, the 
regiment liaving marched 2,554 miles, traveled 
by water, 2,296 miles, and. by railroad, 1,237 
miles — total, 6,087 miles. 

Ninety-fourth Infantry*. Organized at 
Bloomington in August, 1862, and enlisted wholly 
in McLean County. After some warm experi 
ence in Southwest Missouri, the regiment took 
part in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and 
was, later, actively engaged in the campaigns in 
Louisiana and Texas. It participated in tlie cap- 
ture of Mobile, leading the final assault. After 
several months of garrison duty, tlie regiment was 
mustered out at Galveston, Texas, on July 17, 
1865. reaching Bloomington on August 9, follow- 
ing, having served just tliree years, marched 1.200 
miles, traveled by railroad 610 miles, and. by 
steamer, 6,000 miles, and taken part in nine bat- 
tles, sieges and skirmishes. 

Ninety-fifth Infantry. Organized at Rock- 
ford and mustered into service, Sept. 4, 1862. It 
was recruited from the counties of JIcHenry and 
Boone — tliree companies from the latter and 
seven from the former. It took part in the cam- 
paigns in Northern Mississippi and against Vicks- 
burg. in the Red River expedition, the campaigns 

against Price in Missouri and Arkansas, against 
Mobile and around Atlanta. Among tlie battles 
in which the regiment was engaged were those 
of the Tallahatchie River, Grand Gulf, Raymond, 
Champion Hills, Fort de Russey, Old River, 
Cloutierville, Mansura, Yellow Bayou, Guntown, 
Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Chattahoochie River, Atlanta, Ezra 
Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station and Nash- 
ville. The distance traveled by the regiment, 
while in the service, was 9,960 miles. It was 
transferred to the Forty-seventh Illinois Infan- 
try, August 25, 1865. 

Ninety-sixth Infantry'. Recruited during 
the months of July and August, 18G2, and mus- 
tered into service, as a regiment, Sept. 6, 1863. 
The battles engaged in included Fort Donelson, 
Spring Hill, Franklin, Triune, Liberty Gap, 
Shelbyville, Chickamauga, Wauhatchie, Lookout 
Mountain, Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Resaca, Kingston, New Hope Church, Dallas, 
Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna 
Camp Ground, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Rough 
and Read}^ Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. Its date of final pay and dis- 
cliai'ge was June 30, 1865. 

Ninety-seventh Infantry. Organized in 
August and Seiitember, 1863, and mustered in on 
Sept. 16; participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Black River, Vicksburg, Jackson and 
Mobile. On July 29, 1865, it was mustered out 
and proceeded homeward, reaching Springfield, 
August 10, after an absence of three years, less a 
few days. 

Ninety'-eighth Infantry-. Organized at Cen- 
tralia, September, 1862, and mustered in, Sept. 3; 
took part in engagements at Chickamauga, Mc- 
Minnville, Farmington and Selma, besides many 
others of less note. It was mustered out, June 
27, 1865, the recruits being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Illinois Volunteers. Tlie regiment 
arrived at Springfield, June 30, and received final 
payment and discliarge, July 7. 1865. 

Ninety"-ninth Inf.^ntry. Organized in Pike 
County and mustered in at Florence, August 23, 
1862; participated in the following battles and 
skirmishes: Beaver Creek, Hartsville, Magnolia 
Hills, Raymond, Champion Hills, Black River, 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Fort Esperanza, Grand 
Coteau, Fish River, Spanish Fort and Blakely: 
days under fire, 63; miles traveled, 5,900; men 
killed in battle, 38; men died of wounds and 
disease, 149; men discharged for disability, 127; 
men deserted, 35; officers killed in battle, 3; 



ofl5(!ers died, 3; officers resigned, 26. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Baton Rouge, July SI, 
1865, and paid off and discharged, August 9, 

One Hundredth Infantry. Organized at 
Joliet, in August, 1863, and mustered iu, August 
30. The entire regiment was recruited in Will 
County. It was engaged at Bardstown, Stone 
Eiver, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and 
Nashville ; was mustered out of service, June 13, 
186.5, at Nashville, Tenn., and arrived at Chicago, 
June 15, where it received final payment and 

One Hundred and First Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Jacksonville during the latter part of the 
month of August, 1862, »nd, on Sept. 3, 1863, 
■was mustered in. It participated in the battles 
of Wauhatchie, Chattanooga, Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averj-sboro and Bentonville. 
On Deo. 20, 1862, five companies were cajitured 
at Holly Springs, Miss., paroled and .sent to 
Jeffer.son Barracks, Mo., and formally exchanged 
in June, 1863. On the Tth of June, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and started for Springfield, where, 
on the 21st of June, it was paid off and disbanded. 

One Hundred and Second Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Knoxville, in August, 1862, and mustered 
in, September 1 and 2. It was engaged at Resaca, 
Camp Creek, Burnt Hickory, Big Shanty, Peach 
Tree Creek and Averysboro; mustered out of 
service June 6, 1865, and started home, arriving 
. at Chicago on the 9th, and, June 14, received 
final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Third Infantry. Re- 
cruited wholly in Fulton Count3', and mustered 
into the service, Oct. 3, 1863. It took part in 
the Grierson raid, the sieges of Vicksburg. Jack- 
son, Atlanta and Savannah, and the battles of 
Slissionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dal- 
las, Kenesaw Mountain and Griswoldsville; was 
also in the campaign through the Carolinas. 
The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, 
June 21, and received final discharge at Chi- 
cago, July 9, 1865. The original strength of 
the regiment was 808, and 84 recruits were 

One Hundred and Fourth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Ottawa, in August, 1863. and comjiosed 
almost entirely of La Salle County men. The 
regiment was engaged in the battles of Harts- 
ville, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy 
Creek, Jonesboro and Bentonville, besides many 
severe skirmishes; was mustered out at Washing- 

ton, D. C. , June 6, 1865, and, a few days later 
received final discharge at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Fifth Infantr.y. Mus- 
tered into service, Sept. 2, 1862, at Dixon, and 
participated in the Atlanta campaign, being 
engaged at Resaca, Peach Tree Creek and 
Atlanta, and almost constantly skirmishing, 
also took part in the "March to the Sea" and the 
campaign in the Carolinas, including the siege of 
Savannah and the battles of Averysboro and 
Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 7, 1865, and paid off and dis- 
charged at Chicago, June 17. 

One Hundred and Sixth Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1862, 
eight of the ten companies having been recruited 
in Logan County, the other two being from San- 
gamon and Menard Counties. It aided in the 
defense of Jack.son, Tenn., where Company "C" 
was captured and paroled, being exchanged in 
the summer of 1863; took part in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the Yazoo expedition, the capture of 
Little Rock, the battle of Clarendon, and per- 
formed service at various points in Arkansas. It 
was mustered out, July 12, 1865, at Pine Bluff, 
Ark., and arrived at Springfield, July 24, 1865, 
where it received final payment and discharge 

One Hundred and Seventh Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Springfield, Sept. 4, 1862; 
was composed of six companies from DeWitt and 
four companies from Piatt County. It was 
engaged at Campbell's Station, Dandridge, 
Rocky- Face Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and 
Fort Anderson, and mustered out, June 21, 1865, 
at Salisbury, N. C, reaching Springfield, for 
final payment and discharge, July 3, 1865, 

One Hundred and Eighth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Peoria, and mustered into service, August 
28, 1863 ; took part in the first expedition against 
Vicksburg and in the battles of Arkansas Post 
(Fort Hindman), Port Gibson and Champion 
Hills ; in the capture of Vicksburg, the battle of 
Guntown, the reduction of Spanish Fort, and the 
capture of Mobile. It was mustered out at Vicks- 
burg, August 5, 1865, and received final discharge 
at Chicago, August 11. 

One Hundred and Ninth Infantry. Re- 
cruited from Union and Pulaski Counties and 
mustered into the service, Sept. 11, 1863. Owing 
to its number being greatly reduced, it was con- 
solidated witli the Eleventh Infantry in April, 
1863, (See Eleventh Infantry.) 

One Hundred and Tenth Infantry. Organ- 
ized at Anna and mustered in, Sept. 11, 1862; was 



engaged at Stone River, Woodbury, and in 
numerous skirmishes in Kentuokj' and Tennessee. 
In May, 1803, the i-cgimeut was consolidated, its 
numbers having been greatly reduced. Subse- 
quently it participated in the battles of Cliicka- 
mauga and Jlissionary Ridge, the battles around 
Atlanta and the campaign through the Carolinas, 
being present at Jolmston's surrender. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Washington, D. C, 
June 5, 1865, and received final discharge at 
Chicago, June 15. The enlisted men whose term 
of service liad not expired at date of muster-out, 
were consolidated into four companies and trans- 
ferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veteran Volunteer 

One Hundred .\nd Eleventh Infantry. Re- 
cruited from Marion, Clay. Washington, Clinton 
and Waj'ne Counties, and mustered into the serv- 
ice at Salem, Sept. 18, 1863. The regiment aided 
in the capture of Decatur, Ala. ; took part in the 
Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesavv, Atlanta and Jonesboro ; partici- 
pated in the "March to the Sea"' and the cam- 
paign in the Carolinas, taking part in the battles 
of Fort McAllister and Bentonville. It was mus- 
tered out at Washington, D. C, June 7, 1865, 
receiving final discharge at Springfield, June 27, 
having traveled 3,736 miles, of which 1,836 was 
on the march. 

One Hundred and Twelfth Infantry. Mus- 
tered into service at Peoria, Sept. 20 and 22, 
1862 ; participated in the campaign in East Ten- 
nessee, under Burnside, and in that against 
Atlanta, under Sherman; was also engaged in 
the battles of Columbia, Franklin and Nashville, 
and the capture of Fort Anderson and Wilming- 
ton. It was mustered out at Goldsboro, N. C, 
June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago, 
July 7, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Infantry. 
Left Camp Hancock (near Chicago) for the front, 
Nov. 6, 1862; was engaged in the Tallahatchie 
expedition, participated in the battle of Chicka- 
saw Bayou, and was sent North to guard prison- 
ers and recruit. The regiment also took part in 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, was mustered 
out, June 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Chi- 
cago, five days later. 

One Hundred and Fourteenth Infantry. 
Organized in July and August, 1862, and mustered 
in at Springfield, Sept. 18, being recruited from 
Cass, Menard and Sangamon Counties. The regi- 
ment participated in the battle of Jackson (Miss. ), 
the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and in the 
battles of Guntown and Harrisville, the pui-suit 

of Price through Missouri, the battle of Nash- 
ville, and the capture of Mobile. It was mustered 
out at Vicksburg, August 3, 1865. receiving final 
payment and discharge at Springfield. August 15, 

One Hundred and Fifteenth Infantry. 
Ordered to the front from Sjn-ingfield, Oct. 4, 
1802 ; was engaged at Chickamauga. Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, Tunnel Hill, Resaca and in all 
the principal battles of the Atlanta campaign, 
and in the defense of Nashville and pursuit of 
Hood; was mustered out of service, June 11, 
1865. and received final pay and discharge, June 
23, 1865, at Springfield. 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Infantry. 
Recruited almost wholly from JIacon County, 
numbering 980 officers and men when it started 
from Decatur for the front on Nov. 8, 1862. It 
participated in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Stone Mountain, 
Atlanta, Fort McAllister and Bentonville, and 
was mustered out, June 7, 1865, near Washington, 
D. C. 

One Hundred and Seventeenth Infantry. 
Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Sept. 
19, 1862; participated in the Meridian campaign, 
the Red River expedition (assisting in the cap- 
ture of Fort de Russey), and in the battles of 
Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Franklin 
Nashville, S])anish Fort and Fort Blakely. It 
was mustered out at Springfield, August 5, 1865. 
having traveled 9,276 miles, 2,307 of which were 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry. 
Organized and mustered into the service at 
Springfield, Nov. 7, 1862; was engaged at Chicka- 
saw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Black River Bridge, Jackson (Miss.), 
Grand Coteau, Jackson (La. ), and Amite River. 
The regiment was mounted, Oct. 11, 1863, and 
dismounted, May 23, 1805. Oct. 1, 1865, it was 
mustered out, and finally discharged, Oct. 13. 
At the date of the muster-in, the regiment num- 
bered 820 men and oflicers, received 283 recruits, 
making a total of 1,103; at muster-out it num- 
bered 523. Distance marched, 3,000 miles; total 
distance traveled, 5,700 miles. 

One Hundred and Nineteenth Infantry. 
Organized at Quincy, in September, 1863, and 
was mustered into the United States service, 
October 10 ; was engaged in the Red River cam- 
paign and in the battles of Shreveport, Yellow- 
Bayou, Tupelo, Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort 



Blakely. Its final muster-out took jjlace at 
Mobile, August 26, 186.5, and its discharge at 

One Hundred and Twentiety Infantry. 
Miistered into the sen-ice, Oct. 28, 1862, at Spring- 
field ; was mu-stered out, Sept. 7, 186.5, and received 
final payment and discharge, September 10, at 

One Hundred and Twenty-first Infan- 
try. (The organization of this regiment was not 

One Hundred and Twenty-second Infan- 
try. Organized at Carlinville, in August, 1862, 
and mustered into the service, Sept. 4, with 960 
enlisted men. It participated in tlie battles of 
Tupelo and Nashville, and in the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and was mustered 
out, July 15, 1865, at Mobile, and finally dis- 
charged at Springfield, August 4. 

One Hundred and Twenty'-third Infan- 
try. Mustered into service at Mattoon, Sept. 6. 
1862; participated in the battles of Perry ville, 
Milton, Hoover's Gap, and Farmington ; also took 
part in the entire Atlanta campaign, marching 
as cavalry and fighting as infaniry. Later, it 
served as mounted infantrj' in Kentucky, Tennes- 
see and Alabama, taking a prominent part in tlie 
captm-e of Selma. The regiment was discharged 
at Springfield, July 11, 186.5 — the recruits, whose 
terms had not expired, being transferred to the 
Sixty-first Volunteer Infantry. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Infan- 
try. Mustered into the service, Sept. 10, 1862, at 
Springfield ; took part in the Vicksburg campaign 
and in the battles of Port Gib.son, Raymond and 
Champion Hills, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
Meridian raid, the Yazoo expedition, and the 
capture of Mobile. On the 16th of August, 1865, 
eleven days less than three years after the first 
company went into camp at Springfield, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Chicago. Colonel 
Howe's history of the battle-flag of the regiment, 
stated that it had been borne 4,lO0 miles, in four- 
teen skirimishes, ten battles and two sieges of 
fortj'-seven days and nights, and thirteen days 
and nights, respective!}'. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Infan- 
try. Mustered into service, Sept. 3, 1862: par- 
ticipated in the battles of Perryville, Chicka- Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain. 
Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Joneshoro. and in 
the "Ma'-ch to the Sea" and the Carolina cam- 
paign, being engaged at Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It was mustered out at Washington, D. C, 
June 9, 186.5, and finally discharged at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Infan- 
try. Organized at Alton and mustered in, Sept. 4, 
1862, and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. 
Six companies were engaged in skirmish line, near 
Humboldt, Tenn., and the regiment took part in 
the capture of Little Rock and in the fight at 
Clarendon, Ark. It was mustered out July 12, 186.5. 

One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Infan- 
try. Mustered into service at Chicago, Sept. 6, 
1862; took part in the first campaign against 
Vicksburg, and in the battle of Arkansas Post, 
the siege of Vicksburg under Grant, the capture 
of Jackson (Miss.), the battles of Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, the Meridian raid, 
and in the fighting at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro; also accom- 
panied Sherman in his march through Georgia 
and the Carolinas, taking part in the battle of 
Bentonville ; was mustered out at Chicago. June 
17. 186.5. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infan- 
try. Mustered in, Dec. 18, 1862, but remained 
in service less than five months, when, its num- 
ber of officers and men having been reduced from 
860 to 161 (largely by de.sertions) , a number of 
officers were dismissed, and the few remaining 
officers and men were formed into a detachment, 
and transferred to another Illinois regiment. 

One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infan- 
try*. Organized at Pontiac, in August, 1862, and 
mustered into the service Sept. 8. Prior to Maj*, 
1864, the regiment was chiefly engaged in garri- 
son duty. It marched with Sherman in the 
Atlanta campaign and through Georgia and the 
Carolinas, and took part in the battles of Resaca, 
Buzzard's Roost, Lost JMountain, Dallas, Peach 
Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Benton- 
ville. It received final pay and discharge at Chi- 
caf-o, June 10, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry. 
Organized at Springfield and mustered into 
service, Oct. 2.5, 1802; was engaged at Port Gib- 
son. Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicks- 
burg, Jackson (Miss.), and in the Red River 
expedition. 'While on this expedition almost the 
entire regiment was captured at the battle of 
JIausfield, and not paroled until near the close of 
the war. The remaining oflicers and men were 
consolidated with the .Seventy-seventh Infantry 
in January-, 1865, and participated in the capture 
of Mobile. Six months later its regimental re- 
organization, as the One Hundred and Thirtieth, 
was ordered. It was mustered out at New- 
Orleans, August 15, 186.5, and discharged at 
Springfield, August 31. 



One Hundred and Thirty-first Infan- 
try. Organized in September, 1862, and mus- 
tered into the service, Nov. 13, with 815 men, 
exclusive of officers. lu October, 1863, it was 
consolidated with the Tweutj-niutli Infantry, 
and ceased to exist as a separate organization. 
Up to that time tlie regiment liad been in but a 
few conflicts and in no pitched battle. 

One Hundred and Thirty-second Inf-^n- 
TRY'. Organized at Chicago and mustered in for 
100 days from June 1, 1864. The regiment re- 
mained on duty at Paducah until the expiration 
of its service, when it moved to Chicago, and 
■was mustered out, Oct. 17, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-third Infan- 
try'. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in 
for one hundred days, May 31, 1864; was engaged 
during its term of service in guarding prisoners 
of war at Rock Island ; was mustered out, Sept. 
4, 1804, at Camp Butler. 

One Hundred .\nd Thirty'-fourth Inf.«- 
TRY^. Organized at Chicago and mustered in. 
May 31, 1864, for 100 days; was assigned to 
garrison duty at Columbus, Ky., and mustered 
out of .service, Oct. 2.j, 1864, at Chicago. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infan- 
try. Mustered in for 100-days' service at 31at- 
toon, June 6, 1864, having a strength of 853 men. 
It was chiefly engaged, during its term of service, 
in doing garrison duty and guarding railroads. 
It was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 28, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Infan- 
try. Enlisted about the first of May, 1864, for 
100 days, and went into camp at Centralia, 111., 
but was not mustered into service until June 1, 
follo\ving. Its principal service was garrison 
duty, with occasional scouts and raids amongst 
guerrillas. At the end of its term of service the 
regiment re-enlisted for fifteen days; was mus- 
tered out at Springfield, Oct. 22, 1864, and dis- 
charged eight days later 

Ont: Hundred .^nd Thirty-seventh Infan- 
try. Organized at Quincy, with ex-Gov John 
Wood as its Colonel, and mustered in, June 5, 
1864, for 100 days. Was on duty at Sleniphis, 
Tenn , and mustered out of service at Spring- 
field. 111.. Sept. 4, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Infan- 
try Organized at Quincy, and mustered in, 
June 21, 1S64, for 100 days ; was assigned to garri- 
son duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., and in 
Western Missouri. It was mustered out of serv- 
ice at Springfield, 111., Oct. 14, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Infan- 
try'. Mustered into service as a 100-day's regi- 

ment, at Peoria, June 1, 1864; was engaged in 
garrison duty at Columbus and Cairo, in making 
reprisals for guerrilla raids, and in the pursuit of 
the Confederate General Price in Missouri. The 
latter service was rendered, at the President's 
request, after the term of enlistment had expired. 
It was mustered out at Peoria, Oct. 25, 1864, hav- 
ing been in the service nearly five months. 

One Hundred and Fourtieth Inf.^ntry. 
Organized as a 100-daj's' regiment, at Springfield, 
June 18, 1864, and mustered into service on that 
date. The regiment was engaged in guarding 
railroads between Memphis and Holly Springs.and 
in garrison duty at Memphis. After the term of 
enlistment had expired and the regiment had 
been mustered out, it aided in the pursuit of 
General Price through Missouri; was finally dis- 
cliarged at Chicago, after serving about five 

One Hundred and Forty-first Infan- 
try'. Mustered into service as a 100- days' regi- 
ment, at Elgin. June 16, 1864 — strength, 842 men; 
departed for the field, June 27, 1804; was mus- 
tered out at Chicago, Oct. 10, 1864. 

One Hundred and Forty'-second Infan- 
try". Organized at Freeport as a battalion of 
eight companies, and sent to Camp Butler, where 
two companies were added and the regiment 
mustered into service for 100 days, June 18, 1834. 
It was ordered to Memphis, Tenn. , five days later, 
and assigned to duty at White's Station, eleven 
miles from that city, where it was employed in 
guarding tlie Jlemphis & Charleston railroad. 
It was mustered out at Chicago, on Oct, 27, 1864, 
the men having voluntarily served one month 
be3'ond their term of enlistment. 

One Hundred and Forty'-third 
TRY. Organized at Mattoon, and mustered in, 
June 11, 1804, for 100 daj-s. It was assigned to 
garrison duty, and mustered out at Mattoon. 
Sept. 26, 1864. 

One Hundred and Forty-fourth Inf.wj- 
TRY. Oi'ganized at Alton, in 1864, as a one-year 
regiment ; was mustered into the service, Oct. 21, 
its strength being 1,159 men. It was mustered 
out, July 14, 1805. 

O.NE Hundred and Forty'-fifth Infan- 
try. Mustered intc service at Springfield, June 
9, 1864 ; strength, 880 men. It departed for the 
field, June 12, 1864; was mustered out, Sept. 23, 

One Hundred .\nd Forty-sixth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Sept. 18, 1864, for 
one year. Was assigned to the duty of guarding 
drafted men at Brighton, Quincy, Jacksonville 



and Springfield, and mustered out at Springfield, 
July 5, 1865. 

One Hundred and Forty-seventh Infan- 
try. Organized at Chicago, and mustered into 
service for one year, Feb. 18 and 19, 1865; was 
engaged chiefly on guard or garrLson duty, in 
scouting and in .skirmishing with guerrillas. 
Mustered out at Nashville, Jan. 22, 1866, and 
received final discharge at Springfield, Feb. -1. 

One Hundred and Forty-eighth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, for 
the term of one year; was assigned to garrison 
and guard duty and mustered out, Sept. 5, 1865, 
at Nashville, Tenu ; arrived at Springfield, Sept. 
9, 1865, where it was paid off and discharged. 

One Hundred and Forty-ninth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 11, 1865, 
and mustered in for one year; was engaged in 
garrison and guard duty ; mustered out, Jan. 27, 
1866, at Dalton, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, 
where it received final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Inf.yntry. 
Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Feb. 14, 
1865, for one year ; was on duty in Tennessee and 
Georgia, guarding railroads and garrisoning 
towns. It was mustered out, Jan. 16, 1866, at 
Atlanta, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, where it 
received final pa3'ment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. 
This regiment was organized at Quincy, 111., 
and mustered into the United States service, 
Feb. 23, 1865, and was composed of companies 
from various parts of the State, recruited, under 
the call of Dec. 19, 1864. It was engaged in 
guard duty, with a few guerrilla skirmishes, and 
was present at the surrender of General War- 
ford's army, at Kingston, Ga. ; was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ga., Jan. 24, 1866, and ordered to 
Springfield, where it received final payment and 
discharge, Feb. 8, 1866. 

One Hundred and Fifty-second Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield and mustered in, 
Feb. 18, 1865, for one year; was mustered out of 
service, to date Sept. 11, at Memphis, Tenn., and 
arrived at Camp Butler, Sept. 9, 1865, where it 
received final payment and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Infan- 
try. Organized at Chicago, and mustered in, 
Feb. 27, 1865, for one year; was not engaged in 
any battles. It was mustered out, Sept. 15. 1865, 
and moved to Springfield. 111., and. Sept. 24, 
received final pay and discharge. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, 
for one year. Sept. 18, 1865, the regiment was 

mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., and ordered to 
Springfield for final jmyment and discharge, 
where it arrived, Sept. 22 ; was paid oft and dis- 
charged at Camp Butler, Sept. 29. 

One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Infan- 
try. Organized at Springfield and mustered in 
Feb. 28, 1865, for one year, 9U4 strong. On Sept. 
4, 1865, it was mustered out of service, and moved 
to Camp Butler, where it received final pay and 

One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Infan- 
try. Organized and mustered in during the 
months of February and March, 1865, from the 
northern counties of the State, for the term of 
one year. The officers of tlie regiment have left 
no written record of its history, but its service 
seems to have been rendered chiefly in Tennessee 
in the neighborhood of Memphis, Nashville and 
Chattanooga. Judging by the muster-rolls of 
the Adjutant-General, the regiment would appear 
to have been greatly depleted by desertions and 
otherwise, the remnant being finally mustered 
out, Sept. 20, 1865. 

First Cav.^lry-. Organized — consisting of 
seven companies. A, B, C, D, E, F and G — at 
Alton, in 1861, and mustered into the United 
States service, July 3. After some service in 
Missouri, the regiment participated in the battle 
of Lexington, in that State, and was surrendered, 
with the remainder of the garrison, Sept. 20, 1861. 
The officers were paroled, and the men sworn not 
to take up arms again until discharged. No ex- 
change having been elTected in November, the 
non-commissioned officers and privates were 
ordered to Springfield and discharged. In June, 
1862, the regiment was reorganized at Benton 
Barracks, Mo., being afterwards emploj-ed in 
guarding supply trains and supply depots at 
various points. Mustered out, at Benton Bar- 
racks, July 14, 1862. 

Second Cavalry. Organized at Springfield 
and mustered into service, August 12, 1861, with 
Company M (which joined the regiment some 
months later), numbering 47 commissioned offi- 
cers and 1,040 enlisted men. This nmnber was in- 
creased by recruits and re-enlistments, during its 
four and a half year's term of service, to 2,236 
enlisted men and 145 commissioned officers. It 
was engaged at Belmont ; a portion of the regi- 
ment took part in the battles at Fort Henry, 
Fort Donelson and Shiloh, another portion at 
Merri weather's Ferry, Bolivar and Holly Springs, 
and participated in the investment of Vicksburg. 
In January. 1864, the major part of the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, later, participating in the 



Eed River expedition and the investment of Fort 
Blakely. It was mustered out at San Antonio, 
Tex., Xov. 22, 1860, and finally paid and dis- 
charged at Springfield, Jan. 3, 1866. 

Third Cavalry. Composed of twelve com- 
panies, from various localities in the State, the 
grand total of company officers and enlisted men, 
under the first organization, being 1,4.33. It was 
organized at Springfield, in August, 1861; partici- 
pated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Haines' Bluff, 
Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicksburg. 
In July, 1864, a large portion of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans. The remainder were mus- 
tered out, Sept. 5, 1864. The veterans participated 
in the repulse of Forrest, at Memphis, and in the 
battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbells- 
ville and Franklin. From 3Iay to October, 1865, 
engaged in service against the Indians in the 
Northwest The regiment was mustered out at 
Springfield, Oct. 18, 1865. 

Fourth Cavalry. Mustered into service, 
Sept. 26, 1861, and participated in the battles of 
Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh; in the 
siege of Corinth, and in many engagements of 
less historic note ; was mustered out at Springfield 
in November, 1864. By order of the War Depart- 
ment, of June 18, 1865, the members of the 
regiment wliose terms had not expired, were con- 
solidated with the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. 

Fifth Cavalry, Organized at Camp Butler, 
in November, 1861; took part in the Meridian 
raid and the expedition against Jackson, Miss., 
and in numerous minor expeditions, doing effect- 
ive work at Canton, Grenada, "Woodville, and 
other points. On Jan. 1, 1864, a large portion of 
the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. Ite final 
muster-out took place, Oct. 27, 186.5, and it re- 
ceived final pa^'ment and discharge, October .30. 

Sixth C.vv.vlry. Organized at Springfield, 
Nov. 19, 1861 ; participated in Sherman's advance 
upon Grenada ; in the Grierson raid through Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana, the siege of Port Hudson, 
the battles of Moscow (Teun), West Point (Miss.), 
Franklin and Nashville; re-enlisted as veterans, 
March 30, 1864; was mustered out at Se'lma, Ala., 
Nov. 5, 18G5, and received discharge, November 
20, at Springfield. 

Seventh C.vvalry". Organized at Springfield, 
and was mustered into service, Oct. 13, 1S61. It 
participated in the battles of Farmington, luka, 
Corinth (second battle) ; in Grierson's raid 
through Mississippi and Louisiana; in the en- 
gagement at Plain's Store (La.), and the invest- 
ment of Port Hudson. In March, 1864, 288 

officers and men re-enlisted as veterans. The 
non-veterans were engaged at Guntown, and tha 
entire regiment took part in the battle of Frank- 
lin. After the close of hostilities, it was stationed 
in Alabama and Jlississippi, iintil the latter part 
of October, 1865 ; was mustered out at NashviUe, 
and finally discharged at Springfield, Nov. 17, 

Eighth Cavalry. Organized at St. Charles, 
111., and mustered in, Sept. 18, 1S61. The regi- 
ment was ordered to Virginia, and participated 
in the general advance on Manassas in JIarch, 
1862; was engaged at Mechanicsville, Gaines' 
Hill, JIalvern Hill, Sugar Loaf Mountain, Jliddle- 
town, Soutli Mountain, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Suljihur Springs, Warrenton, Rapidan 
Station, Northern Neck, Gettj-sburg, Williams- 
burg, Funkstown, Falling Water, Che.ster Gap 
Sandy Hook, Culpepper, Brandy Station, and in 
many raids and skirmishes. It was mustered 
out of service at Benton Barracks, Mo., July 17, 
1865, and ordered to Chicago, where it received 
final paj-ment and discharge. 

Ninth Cavalry Organized at Chicago, in 
the autumn of 1861, and mustered in, November 
30 ; was engaged at Cold water, Grenada, Wj-att, 
Saulsbury, Moscow, Guntown, Pontotoc, Tupelo, 
Old Town Creek, Hurricane Creek, Lawrence- 
burg, Campellsville, Franklin and Nashville. 
The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, March 16, 
1864; was mustered out of service at Selma, Ala., 
Oct. 81, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, where 
the men received final payment and discharge. 

Tenth Cavalry. Organized at Springfield in 
the latter part of September, 1861, and mustered 
into service, Nov. 25, 1861 ; was engaged at Prairie 
Grove, Cotton Plant, Arkansas Post, in the 
"V'azoo Pass expedition, at Richmond (La.), 
Brownsville, Raj-ou Metoe. Bayou La Fourche 
and Little Rock. In Februar}-, 1864, a large 
portion of the regiment re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, the non-veterans accompanying General 
Banks in his Red River expedition. On Jan. 27, 
1865, the veterans, and recruits were consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavalry, and all reorganized 
under the name of the Tenth Illinois Veteran 
Volunteer Cavalry. Blustered out of service at 
San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 22, 1865, and received 
final discharge at Springfield, Jan. 6, 1866. 

Eleventh Cavalry. Robert G. IngersoU of 
Peoria, and Basil D. Meeks, of Woodford Coimty, 
obtained permission to raise a re.giment of 
cavalry, and recruiting commenced in October, 
1861. The regiment was recrviited from the 
counties of Peoria, Fulton, Tazewell, Woodford, 



Marshall, Stark, Knox, Henderson and Warren; 
was mustered into tlie service at Peoria, Dec. 20, 
1861, and was first under fire at Shiloh. It also 
took part in the raid in the rear of Corinth, and 
in the battles of Bolivar, Corinth (second battle), 
luka, Lexington and Jackson (Tenn.); in Mc- 
Pherson's expedition to Canton and Sherman's 
Meridian raid, in the relief of Yazoo City, and in 
numerous less important raids and skirmishes. 
Most of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans in 
December, 1863; the non-veterans being mus- 
tered out at Memphis, in the autumn of 1864. The 
Teterans were mustered out at the same place, 
Sept. 30, 1865, and discharged at Springfield, 
October 20. 

Twelfth Cavalry. Organized at Spi-ingfield, 
in February, 1862, and remained there guarding 
rebel prisoners until June 2.5, when it was 
mounted and sent to Martinsburg, Va. It was 
engaged at Fredericksburg, Williamsport, Falling 
Waters, the Rapidan and Stevensburg. On Nov. 
26, 1863, the regiment was relieved from service 
and ordered home to reorganize as veterans. 
SuUsequently it joined Banks in the Red River 
expedition and in Davidson's expedition against 
Mobile. While at Memphis the Twelfth Cavalry 
was consolidated into an eight-company organi- 
zation, and the Fourth Cavalry, having pre vioush- 
been consolidated into a battalion of five com- 
panies, was cou.solidated with the Twelfth. The 
consolidated regiment was mustered out at 
Houston, Texas, May 29. 1866, and, on June 18, 
received final pay and discharge at Springfield. 

Thirteenth Cavalry. Organized at Chicago, 
in December, 1861 ; moved to the front from 
Benton Barracks, Mo., in February, 1862, and 
was engaged in the following battles and skir- 
mishes (all in Missouri and Arkansas) : Putnam's 
Ferry, Cotton Plant, Union City (twice), Camp 
Pillow, Bloomfield (first and second battles). Van 
Buren, Allen, Eleven Point River, Jackson, 
White River, Chalk Bluff, Bushy Creek, near 
Helena, Grand Prairie, White River, Deadnian's 
Lake. Brownsville, Ba3-ou Metoe. Austin, Little 
Rock, Benton, Batesville, Pine Bluff, Arkadel- 
phia, Okolona, Little Missouri River, Prairie du 
Anne, Camden, Jenkins' Ferry, Cross Roads, 
Mount Elba, Douglas Landing and Monticello. 
The regiment was mustered out, August 31, 186.5, 
and received final jmy and discharge at Spring- 
field, Sept. 13, 186.'i. 

Fourteenth Cavalry. Mustered into service 
at Peoria, in January and February, 1868; par- 
ticipated in the battle of Cumberland Gap. in the 
defense of Knoxville and the pursuit of Long- 

street, in the engagements at Bean Station and 
Dandridge, in the Macon raid, and in the cavalry 
battle at Sunshine Church. In the latter Gen- 
eral Stoneman surrendered, but the Fourteenth 
cut its way out. On their retreat the men were 
betrayed by a guide and the regiment badly cut 
up and scattered, those escaping being hunted by 
soldiers with bloodhounds. Later, it was engaged 
at Waynesboro and in the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville, and was mustered out at Nashville, 
July 31, 186.5, having marched over 10,000 miles, 
exclusive of dutj' done by detachments. 

Fifteenth Cavalry. Composed of companies 
originally independent, attached to infantry regi- 
ments and acting as such; participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the 
siege and capture of Corinth. Regimental or- 
ganization was effected in the spring of 1863, and 
thereafter it was engaged chiefly in scouting and 
post duty. It was mustered out at Springfield, 
August 25, 1864, the recruits (whose term ot 
service had not expired) being consolidated with 
the Tenth Cavalry. 

Sixteenth Cavalry*. Composed principally 
of Chicago men — Thieleman's and Schambeck's 
Cavalry Companies, raised at the outset of the 
war, forming the nucleus of the regiment. The 
former served as General Sherman's body-guard 
for some time. Captain Thieleman was made a 
Major and authorized to raise a battalion, the 
two companies named thenceforth being knowr- 
as Thieleman's Battalion. In September, 1862, 
the AVar Department authorized the extension of 
the battalion to a regiment, and, on the 11th of 
June, 1863, the regimental organization was com- 
pleted. It took part in the East Tennessee cam- 
paign, a portion of the regiment aiding in the 
defense of Knoxville, a part garrisoning Cumber- 
aud Gap, and one battalion being captured by 
Longstreet. The regiment also participated in 
the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, Carterville, 
Allatoona, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Mines 
Ridge, Powder Springs, Chattahoochie, Atlanta, 
Jouesboro, Franklin and Nashville. It arrived 
in Chicago, August 23, 1865, for final payment 
and discharge, having marched about 5,000 miles 
and engaged in thirty-one battles, besides numer- 
ous skirmishes. 

Seventeenth Cavalry'. Mustered into serv- 
ice in January and February, 1864; aided in the 
repulse of Price at Jefferson City, Mo., and was 
engaged at Boonevilie, Independence, Mine 
Creek, and Fort Scott, besides doing garrison 
duty, scouting and raiding. It was mustered 



out in November and December, 1865, at Leaven- 
worth, Kan. Gov. John L. Beveridge, who had 
previously been a Captain and Major of tlie 
Eighth Cavalry, was the Colonel of this regi- 

First Light Artillery. Consisted of ten 
batteries. Battery A was organized under the 
first call for State troops, April 21. 1861, but not 
mustered into the tliree years' service until July 
16; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was in reserve at Champion Hills and 
Nashville, and mustered out July 3, 1865, at 

Battery B was organized in April, 1861, en- 
gaged at Belmont. Fort Donelson, Shiloh, in tlie 
siege of Corinth and at La Grange, Holly Springs, 
Memphis, Cliickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the 
siege of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond 
(La.), the Atlanta campaign and the battle of 
Nashville. The Battery was reorganized by con- 
solidation with Battery A, and mustered out at 
Chicago, July 2, 18G5. 

Battery D was organized at Caii-o, Sept. 2, 1861 ; 
was engaged at Fort Donelson and at Sliiloh, 
and mustered out. July 28, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery E was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into service, Dec. 19, 1861 ; was engaged 
at Shiloh, Corintli, Jackson, Vicksburg, Gun- 
town, Pontotoc, Tupelo and Nasliville, and mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Dec. 24. 1864. 

Battery F was recruited at Dixon and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, Feb. 25, 1862. It took 
part in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona 
expedition, and was consolidated with the other 
batteries in the regiment, March 7, 1865. 

Battery G was organized at Cairo and mus- 
tered in Sept. 28, 1861 ; was engaged in the siege 
and the second battle of Corinth, and mustered 
out at Springfield, July 24, 1865. 

Battery H was recruited in and about Chicago, 
during January and February, 1862; participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg, and 
in the Atlanta campaign, the "March to the 
Sea," and through the Carolinas with Sherman. 

Battery I was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered in, Feb. 10, 1862; was engaged at 
Shiloh, in the Tallahatchie raid, the sieges of 
Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the battles of 
Chattanooga and Vicksburg It veteranized, 
Jlarch 17, 1864, and was mustered out, July 26, 

Battery K was organized at Shawneetown and 
mustered in, Jan. 9, 1862, participated in Burn- 

side's campaign in Tennessee, and in the capture 
of Knoxville. Part of the men were mustered 
out at Springfield in June, 1865, and the re- 
manider at Chicago in July. 

Battery M was organized at Camp Douglas and 
mustered into the service, August 12, 1862, for 
three 3-ears. It served through the Chickamauga 
campaign, being engaged at Chickamauga; also 
was engaged at Missionary Ridge, was besieged 
at Chattanooga, and took part in all the impor- 
tant battles of the Atlanta campaign. It was 
mustered out at Chicago, July 24, 1864, having 
traveled 3,102 miles and been under fire 178 days. 

Second Light Artillery. Consisted of nine 
batteries. Battery A was organized at Peoria, 
and mustered into service. May 23, 1861 ; served 
in Missouri and Arkansas, doing brilliant work 
at Pea Ridge. It was mustered out of service at 
Springfield, July 27, 1865. 

Battery D was organized at Cairo, and mustered 
into service in December, 1861 ; was engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Meridian and Decatur, and mustered out at 
Louisville, Nov. 21, 1864. 

Battery E was organized at St. Louis, Mo., in 
August, 1861. and mustered into service, August 
20, at that jjuint. It was engaged at Fort Donel- 
son and Shiloh, and in the siege of Corinth and 
the Yocona expedition — was consolidated with 
Battery A. 

Battery F was organized at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., and mustered in, Dec. 11, 1861; was engaged 
at Shiloh, in the siege and second battle of 
Corinth, and the Meridian campaign; also 
at Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It was 
mustered out, July 27, 1865, at Springfield. 

Battery H was organized at Springfield, De- 
cember, 1861, and mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861; was 
engaged at Fort Donelson and in the siege of 
Fort Pillow; veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, was 
mounted as cavalry the following summer, and 
mustered out at Springfield, Jul}' 29, 18G5. 

Battery I was recruited in Will County, and 
mustered into service at Camp Butler, Dec. 31, 
1861. It participated in the .siege of Island No. 
10, in the advance ui^on Coruith, and in the 
battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Chattanooga. 
It veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, marched with Sher- 
man to Atlanta, and thence to Savannah and 
through the Carolinas, and was mustered out at 

Batter}- K was organized at Springfield and 
mustered in Dec. 31, 1863; was engaged at Fort 
Pillow, the capture of Clarkston, Mo., and the 



siege of Vicksburg. It was mustered oat, July 
14, 1865, at Chicago. 

Battery L was organized at Chicago and mus- 
tered in, Feb. 28, 1863; participated iu tlie ad- 
vance on Corinth, the battle of Hatchie and tlie 
advance on the Tallahatchie, and was mustered 
out at Chicago, August 9, 1865. 

Battery JI was organized at Chicago, and mus- 
tered in at Springfield, June, 1862 ; was engaged 
at Jonesboro, Blue Spring, Blountsville and 
EogersviUe, being finallj- consolidated with 
other batteries of the regiment. 

Chicago Board of Trade Battery. Organ- 
ized through the efforts of the Chicago Board of 
Trade, which raised 915,000 for its equipment, 
within forty-eight hours. It was mustered into 
service, August 1, 1862, was engaged at Law- 
renceburg, Murfreesboro, Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Farmington, Decatur (Ga.), Atlanta, 
Lovejoy Station, Nashville, Selma and Columbus 
(Ga. ) It was mustered out at Chicago, June 30, 
1865, and paid in full, July 3, having marched 
5,268 miles and traveled bj' rail 1,231 miles. The 
battery was in eleven of the hardest battles 
fought in the West, and in twenty-six minor 
battles, being in action forty-two times while on 
scouts, reconnoissances or outpost duty. 

Chicago Mercantile Battery. Recruited 
and organized under the auspices of the Mercan- 
tile Association, an association of prominent and 
patriotic merchants of the Cit}' of Chicago. It 
was mustered into service, August 29, 1862, at 
Camp Douglas, participated in the Tallahatchie 
and Yazoo expeditions, the first attack upon 
Vicksburg, the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege 
of Vicksburg, the battles of Magnolia Hills, 
Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and Jackson 
(Miss.); also took part in Banks' Red River ex- 
pedition; was mustered out at Chicago, and 
received final payment, July 10, 1865, having 
traveled, by river, sea and land, over 11,000 

Springfield Light Artillery. Recruited 
principally from the cities of Springfield, Belle- 
ville and Wenona, and mustered into service at 
Springfield, for the term of three years, August 
21, 1862, numbering 199 men and officers. It 
participated in the capture of Little Rock and iu 
the Red River expedition, and was mustered out 
at Springfield, 114 strong. June 30. 1805. 

Cogswell's Battery, Light Artillery. 
Organized at Ottawa, 111., and mustered in, Nov. 
11, 1861, as Company A (Artillery) Fifty-third 
Illinois Volunteers, Colonel Cushman command- 
ing the regiment. It participated in the 

advance on Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, and the capture of 
Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile. The 
regiment was mustered out at Springfield, August 
14, 1865, having served three years and nine 
months, marched over 7,500 miles, and partici- 
pated in seven sieges and battles. 

Sturges Rifles. An independent company, 
organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and sub- 
sisted for nearly two months, by the patriotic 
generosity of Mr. Solomon Sturges ; was mustered 
into service, May 6, 1861 ; in June following, was 
ordered to West Virginia, serving as body- 
guard of General McClellan; was engaged at 
Rich Mountain, in the siege of Yorktown, and in 
tlie seven daj-s' battle of the Chickahominy. A 
portion of the company was at Antietam, the 
remainder having been detached as foragers, 
scouts, etc. It was mustered out at Washington, 
Nov. 25, 1863. 

oppressions and misrule whicli had character- 
ized the administration of affairs by the Spanish 
Government and its agents for generations, in the 
Island of Cuba, culminated, in April, 1898, in 
mutual declarations of war between Spain and 
the United States. The causes leading up to this 
result were the injurious effects upon American 
commerce and the interests of American citizens 
owning property in Cuba, as well as the constant 
expense imposed upon the Government of the 
United States in the maintenance of a large navy 
along the South Atlantic coast to suppress fili- 
bustering, superadded to the friction and unrest 
produced among the people of this country by the 
long continuance of disorders and abuses so near 
to our own shores, which aroused the sympathy 
and indignation of the entire civilized world. 
For three years a large proportion of the Cuban 
population had been in open rebellion against the 
Spanish Government, and, while the latter had 
imported a large army to the island and sub- 
jected the insurgents and their families and 
sympathizers to the grossest cruelties, not even 
excepting torture and starvation itself, their 
policy had failed to bring the insurgents into 
subjection or to restore order. In this condition 
of affairs the United States Government had 
endeavored, through negotiation, to secure a miti- 
gation of the evils complained of, by a modifica- 
tion of the .Spanish policj' of government in the 
island ; but all suggestions in this direction had 
either been resented by Spain as unwarrantalile 
interference in her affairs, or promises of reform, 
when made, had been as invariably broken. 



In the meantime an increasing sentiment had 
been growing up in the United States in favor of 
conceding belligerent rights to the Cuban insur- 
gents, or the recognition of their independence, 
which found expression in measures proposed in 
Congress— all offers of friendly intervention by 
the United States having been rejected by Spain 
with evidences of indignation. Compelled, at 
last, to recognize its inability to subdue the insur- 
rection, the Spanish Government, in November, 
1897, made a pretense of tendering autonomy to 
the Cuban people, with the privilege of amnesty 
to the insurgents on laying down their arms. 
The long duration of the war and the outrages 
jserpetrated upon the helpless "reconcentrados," 
coupled with the increased confidence of the 
insurgents in the final triumjjh of their cause, 
rendered this movement — even if intended to be 
carried out to the letter — of no avail. The 
proffer came too late, and was promptly rejected. 
In this condition of affairs and with a view to 
greater security for American interests, the 
American battleship Maine was ordered to 
Havana, on Jan. 24, 1898. It arrived in Havana 
Harbor the following day, and was anchored at a 
point designated bj- the Spanish commander. On 
the night of February 15, following, it was blown 
up and destroyed by some force, as shown by after 
investigation, applied from without. Of a crew 
of 3.54 men belonging to the vessel at the time, 
266 were either killed outright by the explosion, 
or died from their wounds. Not only the Ameri- 
can people, but the entire civilized world, was 
shocked by the catastrophe. An act of horrible 
treacheiy had been perpetrated against an 
American vessel and its crew on a peaceful mis- 
sion in the harbor of a professedly friendly na- 

The successive steps leading to actual hostili- 
ties wei'e I'ajiid and eventful. One of the earliest 
and most significant of these was the passage, by 
a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, on 
March 9, of an appropriation placing §50.000,000 
in the hands of the President as an emergency 
fund for purposes of national defense. This was 
followed, two days later, by an order for the 
mobilization of the army. The more important 
events following this step were: An order, under 
date of April 5, withdrawing American consuls 
from Spanish stations ; the departure, on April 9, 
of Consnl-Oeneral Fitzhugh Lee from Havana; 
April 19. the adoption by Congress of concurrent 
resolutions declaring Cuba independent and 
directing the President to use the land and naval 
forces of the United States to put an end to 

Spanish authority in the island; April 20, the 
sending to the Spanish Government, by the Presi- 
dent, of an xiltimatum in accordance with [his 
act; April 21, the delivery to Minister Woodford, 
at Madrid, of his passports without waiting for 
the presentation of the ultimatum, with the 
departure of the Spanish Minister from Washing- 
ton ; April 23, the issue of a call by the President 
for 125,000 volunters; April 24, the final declara- 
tion of war by Spain ; April 25, the adoption by 
Congress of a resolution declaring that war had 
existed from April 21; on the same date an order 
to Admiral Dewey, in command of the Asiatic 
Squadron at Hongkong, to sail for Manila with a 
view to investing that city and blockading 
Philippine ports. 

The chief events subsequent to the declaration 
of war embraced the following: May 1, the 
destruction by Admiral Dewey's squadron of the 
Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila; May 19, 
the arrival of the Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet 
at Santiago de Cuba; May 25, a second call by 
the President for 75,000 volunteers; July 3, the 
attempt of Cervera's fleet to escape, and its 
destruction off Santiago; July 17, the surrender 
of Santiago to the forces under General Shafter; 
July 30, the statement by the President, through 
the French Ambassador at Washington, of the 
terms on which the United States would consent 
to make peace ; August 9, acceptance of the peace 
terms by Spain, followed, three days later, by the 
signing of the peace protocol ; September 9, the 
appointment by the President of Peace Commis- 
sioners on the part of the United States ; Sept. 18, 
the announcement of the Peace Commissioners 
selected by Spain; October 1, the beginning of the 
Peace Conference by the representatives of the 
two powers, at Paris, and the formal signing, on 
December 10, of the peace treaty, including the 
recognition by Spain of the freedom of Cuba, 
with the transfer to the United States of Porto 
Rico and her other West India islands, together 
with the surrender of the Philippines for a con- 
sideration of .§20, 000, 000. 

Seldom, if ever, in the history of nations have 
such vast and far-reaching results been accom- 
plished within so short a period. The war, 
which practically began with the destruction of 
the Spanish fleet in Manila Harbor — an event 
which aroused the enthusiasm of the whole 
American people, and won the respect and 
admiration of other nations — was practically 
ended by the surrender of Santiago and the 
declaration by the President of the conditions of 
peace just three months later. Succeeding 



events, up to the formal signing of the peace 
trejvty, were merely the recognition of results 
previously determined. 

History of Illinois Eegiments.— The part 
played by Illinois in connection witli tliese events 
may be briefly summarized in the history of Illi- 
nois regiments and other organizations. Under 
the first call of the President for 12.5,000 volun- 
teers, eight regiments — seven of infantry and one 
of cavalry — were assigned to Illinois, to which 
was subsequently added, on application through 
Governor Tanner, one battery of light artil- 
lery. The infantry regiments were made up 
of the Illinois National Guard, numbered 
consecutively froni one to seven, and were 
practically mobilized at their home stations 
within forty -eight hours from the receipt of the 
call, and began to arrive at Camp Tanner, near 
Springfield, the place of rendezvous, on April 26, 
the day after the issue of the Governor's call. 
The record of Illinois troojis is conspicuous for 
the promptness of their response and the com- 
pleteness of tlieir organization — in this respect 
being unsurpassed by tliose of any other State. 
Under the call of May 25 for an additional force 
of 75,000 men, the quota assigned to Illinois was 
two regiments, which were promptly furnished, 
taking the names of the Eighth and Ninth. The 
first of these belonged to the Illinois National 
Guard, as the regiments mustered in under the 
first call had done, while the Ninth was one of a 
number of "Provisional Regiments" which had 
tendered their services to the Government. Some 
twenty-five other regiments of this class, more or 
less complete, stood ready to perfect their organi- 
zations should there be occasion for their serv- 
ices. The aggregate strength of Illinois organi- 
zations at date of muster out from the United 
States service was 13,280—11,789 men and 491 

First Regiment Illinois Volunteers (orig- 
inally Illinois National Guard) was organized at 
Chicago, and mustered into the United States 
service at Camp Tanner (Springfield), under the 
command of Col. Henry L. Turner, May 13, 1898 ; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas (Chickamauga) 
May 17; assigned to First Brigade, Third 
Division, .of the First Army Corps; started for 
Tampa, Fla., June 2, but soon after arrival there 
was transferred to Picnic Island, and assigned to 
provost duty in place of the First United States 
Infantry. On June 30 the bulk of the regiment 
embarked for Cuba, but was det.ained in the har- 
bor at Key West until July 5, when the vessel 
sailed for Santiago, arriving in Guantanamo Bay 

on the evening of the 8th. Disembarking on 
the loth, the whole regiment arrived on the 
firing line on the 11th, spent several days and 
nights in the trenches before Santiago, and 
were present at the surrender of that city 
on the 17th. Two companies had previously 
been detached for the scarceh' less perilous duty 
of service in the fever hospitals and in caring 
for their wounded comrades. The next month 
was spent on guard duty in the captured city, 
until August 25, when, depleted in numbers and 
weakened by fever, the bulk of the regiment was 
transferred by hospital boats to Camp Wikuff, oa 
Montauk Point, L. I. The members of the regi- 
ment able to travel left Camp Wikoff, September 
8, for Chicago, arriving two days later, where they 
met an enthusiastic reception and were mustered 
out, November 17, 1,235 strong (rank and file) — a 
considerable number of recruits having joined the 
regiment just before leaving Tampa. The record 
of the First was conspicuous by the fact that it 
was the only Illinois regiment to see service in 
Cuba during the progress of actual hostilities. 
Before leaving Tampa some eighty members of the 
regiment were detailed for engineering duty in 
Porto Rico, sailed for that island on July 12, and 
were among the first to perform service there. 
The First suffered severely from yellow fever 
while in Cuba, but, as a regiment, while in the 
service, made a brilliant record, which was highly 
complimented in the official reports of its com- 
manding officers. 

Second Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry (originally Second I. N. G.). This regi- 
ment, also from Chicago, began to arrive at 
Springfield, April 27, 1898 — at that time number- 
ing 1,202 men and 47 officers, under command of 
Col. George M. Moulton; was mustered in 
between May 4 and May 15; on May 17 started 
for Tampa, Fla., but en route its destination was 
changed to Jacksonville, wliere, as a part of the 
Seventh Army Coi'ps, under command of Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee, it assi.sted in the deilieation of 
Camp Cuba Libre. October 25 it was transferred 
to .Savannah, Ga., remaining at "Camp Lee" until 
December 8, when two battalions embarked for 
Havana, landing on the 15tli, being followed, a 
few days later, bj' the Third Battalion, and sta- 
tioned at Camp Columlna. From Dec. 17 to Jan. 
11, 1899, Colonel Moulton serveil as Chief of 
Police for the city of Havana. On March 28 to 30 
tlie regiment left Camp Columljia in detach- 
ments for Augusta, Ga., where it arriveil April 
5, and was mustered out, April 2(5, 1,051 strong 
(rank and file), and returned to Chicago. Dur- 



ing its stay in Cuba the regiment did not lose a 
man. A liistory of tliis regiment lias been 
written by Rev. H. W. Bolton, its late Chaplain. 
Third Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, composed of companies of the Illinois 
National Guard from tlie counties of La Salle. 
Livingston, Kane, Kankakee, McHenry, Ogle, 
Will, and Winnebago, under command of Col. 
Fred Bennitt, reported at Springfield, with 1,170 
men and 50 officers, on April 27; was mustered 
in May 7, 1898; transferred from Springfield to 
Camp Thomas (Chickamauga), May li; on July 
22 left Chickamauga for Porto Rico ; on the 28th 
sailed from Newport News, on the liner St. Louis, 
an-ivingat Ponce, Porto Rico, on July 31; soon 
after disembarking captured Arroyo, and assisted 
in the capture of Guayama, which was the 
beginning of General Brooke's advance across 
the island to San Juan, when intelligence was 
received of the signing of the peace protocol by 
Spain. From August 13 to October 1 the Third 
continued in the performance of guard duty in 
Porto Rico ; on October 22, 986 men and 39 offi- 
cers took transport for home by way of New York, 
arriving in Chicago, November 11, the several 
companies being mustered out at their respective 
home stations. Its strength at final muster-out 
was 1,273 men and officers. This regiment had 
the distinction of being one of the first to see 
service in Porto Rico, but suffered severelj- from 
fever and other diseases during the three montlis 
of its stay in the island. 

Fourth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, com- 
posed of companies from Champaign, Coles, 
Douglas, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Jackson, 
Jefferson, Montgomery, Richland, and St. Clair 
counties; mustered into the service at Spring- 
field, 'May 20, under command of Col. Casimer 
Andel; started immediately for Tampa, Fla., but 
en route its destination was changed to Jackson- 
ville, where it was stationed at Camp Cuba Libre 
as a part of the Seventh Corps under command of 
Gen. Fitzhugh Lee; in October was transferred 
to Savannah, Ga., remaining at Camp Onward 
until about the first of January, when the regi- 
ment took ship for Havana. H6re the regiment 
was stationed at Camp Columbia until April 4, 
1899, when it returned to Augusta, Ga., and was 
mustered out at Camp ^Mackenzie (Augusta), May 
2, the companies returning to their respective 
home stations. During a part of its stay at 
Jacksonville, and again at Savannah, the regi- 
ment was employed on guard duty. While at 
Jacksonville Colonel Andel was suspended by 
court-martial, and finally tendered his resigna- 

tion, his place being supplied by Lieut. -Col. Eben 
Swift, of the Ninth. 

Fifth Regiment Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry was the first regiment to report, and was 
nmstered in at Springfield, May 7, 1898, under 
command of Col. James S. Culver, being finally 
composed of twelve companies from Pike, Chris- 
tian, Sangamon, McLean, Jlontgomery, Adams, 
Tazewell, Macon, Morgan, Peoria, and Fulton 
counties; on May 14 left Springfield for Camp 
Thomas (Chickamauga, Ga. ), being assigned to 
the command of General Brooke; August 3 left 
Chickamauga for Newport News, Va., with the 
expectation of embarking for Porto Rico — a 
previous order of Jul}' 26 to the same purport 
having been countermanded; at Newport News 
embarked on the transport Obdam, but again the 
order was rescinded, and, after remaining on 
board thirty-six hours, the regiment was disem- 
barked. The next move was made to Lexington, 
Kj'., where the regiment — having lost hope of 
reaching "the front" — remained until Sept. 5, 
when it returned to Springfield for final muster- 
out. This regiment was composed of some of the 
best material in the State, and anxious for active 
service, but after a succession of disappoint- 
ments, was compelled to return to its home sta- 
tion without meeting the enemy. After its arrival 
at Springfield the regiment was furloughed for 
thirt}' days and finally mustered out, October 16, 
numbering 1.213 men and 47 officers. 

Sixth Reglment Illinois Volunteer In- 
F.\NTRY, consisting of twelve companies from the 
counties of Rock Island, Knox, Whiteside, Lee, 
Carroll, Stephenson, Henry, Warren, Bureau, and 
Jo Daviess, was mustered in May 11, 1898, under 
ciinnnand of Col. D. Jack Foster; on Maj' 17 left 
SiJringfleld for Camp Alger, Va. ; July 5 the 
regiment moved to Charleston, S. C, where a 
part embarked for Sibonej', Cuba, but the whole 
regiment was soon after united in General 
Miles' expedition for the invasion of Porto Rico, 
landing at Guanico on July 25, and advancing 
into the interior as far as Adjunta and Utuado. 
After several weeks' service in the interior, the 
regiment returned to Ponce, and on September 7 
took transport for the return home, arrived at 
Springfield a week later, and was mustered out 
November 25, the regiment at that time consist- 
in,g of 1,239 men and 49 officers. 

Seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
(known as the "Hibernian Rifles"). Two 
battalions of this regiment reported at Spring, 
field, April 27, with 33 officers and 765 enlisted 
men, being afterwards increased to the maxi- 



mum ; was mustered into the United States serv- 
ice, under command of Col. Marcus Kavanagh, 
May 18, l.s98 ; on May 28 started for Camp Alger, 
Va. ; was afterwards encamped at Thoroughfare 
Gap and Camp Meade ; on September 9 returned 
to Springfield, was furloughed for thirty days, 
and mustered out, October 20, numbering 1,260 
men and 49 officers. Like the Fifth, the Seventh 
saw no actual service in the field. 

Eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry (col- 
ored regiment), mustered into the service at 
Springfield under the second call of the 
dent, July 23, 1898, being composed whollj- of 
Afro- Americans under officers of their own race, 
with Col. John R. Marshall in command, the 
muster-roll showing 1,195 men and 76 officers. 
The six companies, from A to F, were from Chi- 
cago, the other five being, respectively, from 
Bloomington, Springfield, Quincy, Litchfield, 
Mound City and Metrojjolis, and Cairo. The 
regiment having tendered their services to 
relieve the First Illinois on dutj- at Santiago de 
Cuba, it started for Cuba, August 8, by way of 
Kew York ; immediately on arrival at Santiago, 
a week later, was assigned to duty, but subse- 
quently transferred to San Luis, where Colone, 
Marshall was made military governor. The 
major part of the regiment remained here until 
ordered home early in March,_ 1899, arrived at 
Chicago, March 15, and was mustered out, April 
3, 1,226 strong, rank and file, having been in 
service nine months and six days. 

Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry was 
organized from the counties of Southern Illinois, 
and mustered in at Springfield under the second 
call of the President, July 4-11, 1898, under com- 
mand of Col. James R. Campbell; arrived at 
Camp Cuba Libre (Jacksonville, Fla.), August 9; 
two months later was transferred to Savannah, 
Ga. ; was moved to Havana in December, where 
it remained until May, 1899, when it returned to 
Augusta, Ga., and was mustered out there, JIa\- 
20, 1899, at that time consLsting of 1,095 men and 
46 officers. From Augusta the several companies 
returned to their respective home stations. The 
Ninth was the only "Provisional Regiment" from 
Illinois mustered into the service during the 
war, the other regiments all belonging to tlie 
National Guard. 

First Illinois Cavalry was organized at Clii- 
cago immediately after the President's first call, 
seven companies being recruited from Chicago, 
two from Bloomington, and one each from 
Springfield. Elkhart, and Lacon ; was mustered in 
at Springfield, May 21, 1898, under command of 

Col. Edward C. Young; left Springfield for Camp 
Tlionias, Ga., Maj' 30, remaining there until 
August 24, when it returned to Fort Slieridan, 
near Chicago, where it was stationed until October 
11, when it was mustered out, at that time con- 
sisting of 1,158 men and 50 officers. Although 
the regiment saw no active service in the field, it 
established an excellent record for itself in respect 
to discipline. 

First Engineering Corps, consisting of 80 
men detailed from tlie First Illinois Volunteers, 
were among the first Illinois soldiers to see serv- 
ice in Porto Rico, accompanying General Miles' 
exjjedition in the latter jiart of July, and being 
engaged for a time in the construction of bridges 
in aid of the intended advance across the island. 
On September 8 they embarked for the return 
home, arrived at Chicago, September 17, and 
were mustered out November 20. 

Battery A (I. N. G.), from Danville, III., was 
mustered in under a special order of the War 
Department, May 12, 1898, under command of 
Capt. 0.scar P. Yaeger, consisting of 118 men; 
left Springfield for Camp Thomas, Ga., May 19, 
and, two months later, joined in General Miles' 
Porto Rico expedition, landing at Guanico on 
August 3, and taking part in the affair at Gua- 
yama on the 12th. News of peace having been 
received, the Battery returned to Ponce, where 
it remained until September 7, when it started 
on tlie return home by way of New York, arrived 
at Danville, September 17, was furloughed for 
sixty days, and mustered out November 25. The 
Battery was equipiJed with modern breech-load- 
ing rapid-firing guns, operated by practical artil- 
lerists and prepared for effective service. 

Naval Reserves. — One of the earliest steps 
taken by the Government after it became ap- 
parent that hostilities could not be averted, was 
to begin preparation for strengthening the naval 
arm of tlie service. The existence of the "Naval 
Militia," first organized in 1893, placed Illinois in 
an exceptionally favorable position for making a 
prompt response to the call of the Government, as 
well as furnishing a superior class of men for 
service — a fact evidenced during the operations 
in the West Indies. Gen. John McNulta, as head 
of the local committee, was active in calling the 
attention of the Navy Department to the value of 
the service to be rendered by tliis organization, 
which re.sulted in its being enlisted practically as 
a body, taking the name of "Naval Reserves" — 
all but eighty -eight of the number passing the 
physical examination, the places of these beirg 
promptly filled by new recruits. The first de* 



tachment of over 200 left Chicago May 2, under 
the command of Lieut. -Com. John M. Hawley, 
followed soon after by the remainder of the First 
Battalion, making the whole number from Chi- 
cago 400, with 207, constituting the Second Bat- 
talion, from other towns of the State. The latter 
■was made up of 1-17 men from Moline, 58 from 
Quincy, and 62 from Alton — making a total from 
the State of 667. This does not include others, 
not belonging to this organization, who enlisted 
for service in the navy during the war, which 
raised the whole number for the State over 1,000. 
The Reserves enlisted from Illinois occupied a 
different relation to the Government from that 
of the "naval militia" of other States, which 
retained their State organizations, wliile those 
from Illinois were regularly mustered into the 
United States service. The recruits from Illinois 
were embarked at Key West, Norfolk and New 
York, and distributed among fifty-two different 
vessels, including nearlj' every vessel belonging 
to the North Atlantic Squadron. They saw serv- 
ice in nearlj' every department from the position 
of stokers in the hold to that of gunners in the 
turrets of the big battleships, the largest number 
(60) being assigned to the famous battleship Ore- 
gon, while the cruiser Yale followed with 47; the 
Harvard with 35; Cincinnati, 27; Yankton, 19; 
Franklin, 18; Montgomery and Indiana, each, 17; 
Hector, 14; Marietta, 11; Wilmington and Lan- 
caster, 10 each, and others down to one each. 
Illinois sailors thus had the privilege of partici- 
pating in the brilliant affair of July 3, which 
resulted in the destruction of Cervera's fleet off 
Santiago, as also in nearh' every other event in 
the West Indies of less importance, without the 
loss of a man while in the service, although 
among the most exposed. They were mustered 
out at different times, as they could be spared 
from the service, or the vessels to which they 
were attached went out of commission, a portion 
serving out their full term of one year. The 
Reserves from Chicago retain their organization 
under the name of "Naval Reserve Veterans," 
with headquarters in the Masonic Temple Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WARD, James H., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Chicago, Nov. 30, 1853, and educated in the 
Chicago public schools and at the University of 
Notre Dame, gi'aduating from the latter in 1873. 
Three years later he graduated from the Union 
College of Law, Chicago, and was admitted to 
the bar. Since then he has continued to practice 
his profession in his native city. In 1879 he was 
elected Supervisor of the town of West Chicago, 

and, in 1884, was a candidate for Presidential 
Elector on the Democratic ticket, and the same 
year, was the successful candidate of his party 
for Congress in the Third Illinois District, serv- 
ing one term. 

WIXXEBAGO INDI.4.NS, a tribe of the Da- 
cota, or Sioux, stock, which at one time occupied 
a part of Northern Illinois. The word Winne- 
bago is a corruption of the French Ouinebe- 
goutz, Ouimbegouo, etc., the diphthong "ou" 
taking the jjlace of the consonant "w," which is 
wanting in the French alphabet. These were, 
in turn, French naisspellings of an Algonquin 
term meaning "fetid," which the latter tribe 
applied to the Winnebagoes because they had 
come from the western ocean — the salt (or 
"fetid") water. In their advance towards the 
East the Winnebagoes early invaded the country 
of the Illinois, but were finally driven north- 
ward by the latter, who surpassed them in num- 
bers rather than in bravery. The invaders 
settled in Wisconsin, near the Fox River, and 
here they were first visited by the Jesuit Fathers 
in the seventeenth century. (See Jesuit Rela- 
tions.) The Winnebagoes are commonly re- 
garded as a Wisconsin tribe; yet, that they 
claimed territorial rights in Illinois is shown by 
the fact that the treaty of Prairie du Chien 
(August 1, 1829), alludes to a Winnebago village 
located in what is now Jo Daviess County, near 
the mouth of the Pecatonica River. While, as a 
rule, the tribe, if left to itself, was disjjosed to 
live in amity with the whites, it was carried 
away by the eloquence and diplomacy of 
Tecumseh and the cajoleries of "The Prophet. "' 
General Harrison especially alludes to the brav- 
ery of the Winnebago warriors at Tippecanoe' 
which he attributees in part, however, to a super- 
stitious faith in "The Prophet." In June or 
July, 1827, an unprovoked and brutal outrage by 
the whites upon an unoffending and practically 
defenseless party of Winnebagoes, near Prairie 
du Chien brought on what is known as the 
'Winnebago War." (See Winnebago War.) 
The tribe took no part in the Black Hawk War, 
largely because of the great influence and shrewd 
tactic of their chief, Naw-caw. By treaties 
executed in 1832 and 1837 the Winnebagoes ceded 
to the United States all their lands lying east of 
the Mississippi. They were finalh- removed west 
of that river, and, after many shiftings of loca- 
tion, were placed upon the Omaha Reservation in 
Eastern Nebraska, where their industry, thrift 
and peaceable disposition elicited high praise 
from Government oflicials. 



WAEXER, Vespasian, lawyer and Member of 
Congress, was born in De Witt County, III., April 
23, 1842, and has lived all his life in his native 
county — his present residence being Clinton. 
After a short course in Lombard University, 
while studying law in the office of Hon. Law- 
rence Weldon, at Clinton, he enlisted as a private 
soldier of the Twentieth Illinois Volunteers, in 
June, 1861, serving until July, 186(5, when he was 
mustered out with the rank of Captain and 
brevet Major. He received a gunshot wound at 
Shiloh, but continued to serve in the Army of 
the Tennessee until the evacuation of Atlanta, 
when he was ordered North on account of dis- 
ability. His last service was in fighting Indians 
on the plains. After the war he completed his 
law studies at Harvard TTuiversity, graduating in 
1868, when he entered into a law partnership 
with Clifton H. Moore of Clinton. He served as 
Judge- Advocate General of the Illinois National 
Guard for several year.s, with the rank of Colonel, 
under the administrations of Governors Hamil- 
ton, Oglesby and Fifer, and, in 1894, was nomi- 
nated and elected, as a Republican, to the 
Fifty-fourth Congress for the Thirteenth District, 
being re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898. In 
the Fifty-fifth Congress, Jlr. Warner was a mem- 
ber of the Committees on Agi-iculture and Invalid 
Pensions, and Chairman of the Committee on 
Revision of the Laws. 

TVARKEN, a village in Jo Daviess County, at 
intersection of the Illinois Central and the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways, 26 miles 
west-northwest of Freeport and 21 miles east by 
north of Galena. The .surrounding region is 
agricultural and stock-raising ; there are also lead 
mines in the vicinity. Tobacco is grown to some 
extent. Warren has a flouring mill, tin factory, 
creamery and stone quarries, a State bank, water 
supply from artesian wells, fire department, gas 
plant, two weekly newspapers, five churches, a 
high school, an academy and a public library. 
Pop. (1890), 1,172: (1900), 1,327. 

AVARREX, Calvin A., lawyer, was born in 
Essex County, N. Y. , June 3, 1807; in his youth, 
worked for a time, as a typographer, in the oflice 
of "The Northern Spectator," at Poultney, Vt., 
side by side with Horace Greeley, afterwards the 
founder of "The New York Tribune." Later, he 
became one of the publishers of "The Palladium" 
at Ballston, N. Y., but, in 1832, removed to 
Hamilton County, Ohio, where he began the 
study of law, completing his course at Transyl- 
vania University, Ky., in 1834, and beginning 
practice at Batavia, Ohio, as the partner of 

Thomas Morris, then a United States Senator 
from Ohio, whose daughter he married, thereby 
becoming the brother-in-law of the late Isaac N. 
Morris, of Quincy, 111. In 1836, Mr. Warren 
came to Quincy, Adams County, 111., but soon 
after removed to Warsaw in Hancock County, 
where he resided until 1839, when he returned to 
Quincy. Here he continued in practice, either 
alone or as a partner, at different times, of sev- 
eral of the leading attorneys of that city. 
Although he held no office except that of Master 
in Chancery, which he occupied for some sixteen 
years, the possession of an inexhaustible fund of 
humor, with strong practical sense and decided 
ability as a speaker, gave him great popularity 
at the bar and upon the stump, and made him a 
recognized leader in the ranks of the Democratic 
party, of which he was a life-long member. He 
served as Presidential Elector on the Pierce 
ticket in 18.52, and was the nominee of his party 
for the same position on one or two other occa- 
sions. Died, at Quincy, Feb. 22, 1881. 

WARREX, Hooper, pioneer journalist, was 
born at Walpole, N. H., in 1790; learned the print- 
er's trade on the Rutland (Vt.) "Herald"; in 
1814 went to Delaware, whence, three years later, 
he emigrated to Kentucky, working for a time 
on a paper at Frankfort. In 1818 he came to St. 
Louis and worked in the office of the old "Mis- 
souri Gazette" (the i)redecessor of "The Repub- 
lican"), and also acted as the agent of a lumber 
company at Cairo, 111., when the whole popula- 
tion of that place consisted of one family domi- 
ciled on a grounded flat-boat. In March, 1819, 
he established, at Edw-ardsville, the third paper 
in Illinois, its predecessors being "The Illinois 
Intelligencer," at Kaskaskia, and "The Illinois 
Emigrant," at Shawneetown. The name given 
to the new paper was "The Spectator," and the 
contest over the effort to introduce a pro-slavery 
clause in the State Constitution soon brought it 
into prominence. Backed by Governor Coles, 
Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Judge S. D. Lock- 
wood, Rev. Thomas Lippincott, Judge Wm. H. 
Brown (afterwards of Chicago), George Churchill 
and other opponents of slavery, "The Spectator" 
made a sturdy fight in opposition to the scheme, 
which ended in defeat of the measure by the 
rejection at the polls, in 1824, of the proposition 
for a Constitutional Convention. Warren left 
the Edwardsville paper in 182.5, and was, for a 
time, associated with "The National Crisis," an 
anti-slavery paper at Cincinnati, but soon re- 
turned to Illinois and established "The Sangamon 
Spectator" — the first paper ever published at the 



present State capital. This he sold out in 1829. 
and, for the next three j-ears. was connected 
with "The Advertiser and Upper Mississippi Her- 
ald," at Galena. Abandoning this field in 1833, 
he removed to Hennepin, where, within the next 
five years, he held the offices of Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit and County Commissioners' Courts and ex- 
officio Recorder of Deeds. In 1836 he began the 
publication of the third paper in Chicago — "The 
Commercial Advertiser" (a weekly) — which was 
continued a little more than a year, wlien it was 
abandoned, and he settled on a farm at Henry, 
Marshall County. His further newspaper ven- 
tures were, as the associate of Zebina Eastman, in 
the publication of "The Genius of Liberty," at 
Lowell, La Salle County, and "The Western 
Citizen" — afterwards "The Free West" — in Chi- 
cago. (See Eastman, Zebina, and Lundy. Ben- 
jamin.) On the discontinuance of "The Free 
West" in 1856, he again retired to his farm at 
flenry, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
While returning home from a visit to Chicago, 
in August, 1864, he was taken ill at Mendota, 
dj'ing there on the 22d of the month. 

WARREN, John Esaias, diplomatist and real- 
estate operator, was born in Troy, N. Y., in 1826, 
graduated at Union College and was connected 
with the American Legation to Spain during the 
administration of President Pierce: in 1859-60 
was a member of the Minnesota Legislature and, 
in 1861-62, Mayor of St. Paul; in 1867, came to 
Chicago, where, while engaged in real-estate 
business, he became known to the press as the 
author of a series of articles entitled "Topics of 
the Time." In 1886 he took up his residence in 
Brussels, Belgium, where he died, July 6, 1896. 
Mr. Warren was author of several volumes of 
travel, of which "An Attache in Spain" and 
"Para" are most important. 

WARREN COUNTY. A western county, 
created by act of the Legislature, in 1825, but 
not fully organized until 1830, having at that time 
about 350 inhabitants ; has an area of 540 square 
miles, and was named for Gen. Joseph Warren. 
It is drained by the Henderson River and its 
affluents, and is traversed by the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy (two divisions), the Iowa 
Central and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroads. Bituminous coal is mined and lime- 
stone is quarried in large quantities. The county's 
earl}- development was retarded in consequence 
of having become the "seat of war," during the 
Black Hawk War. The principal products are 
grain and live-stock, although manufacturing is 
carried on to some extent. The county-seat and 

chief city is Monmouth (which see). Roseville 
is a shipping point. Population (1880), 22,933. 
(1890), 21,281; (1900), 23,163; (1910), 23,313. 

WARREX, a village of Jo Da^^ess County on 
the 111. Cent, and the Chi., Mil. & St. Paul Rys.; 
lead is extensively mined in vicinity; has a large 
creamery and some factories. Pop. (1910), 1,331. 

WARSAW, a principal town in Hancock 
County, and admirably situated for trade. It 
stands on a bluff on the Mississippi River, some 
three miles below Keokuk, and about 40 miles 
above Quincy. It is the western terminus of the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway, and lies 116 
miles west-southwest of Peoria. Old Fort 
Edwards, established by Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
during the War of 1812, was located within the 
limits of the present city of Warsaw, opposite the 
mouth of the Des Moines River. An iron 
foundry, a large woolen mill, a plow factory 
and cooperage works are its principal manufac- 
turing establishments. The channel of the Missis- 
sippi admits of the passage of the largest steamers 
up to this point. Warsaw has several churches, a 
system of common schools comprising one high 
and three grammar schools, a national bank and 
one weekly newspaper. Population (1880), 3,105; 
(1890), 2,721; (1900), 2,335; (1910), 2,254. 

W.VSHBURJi, a \-illage of Woodford County, on 
a branch of the Chicago & Alto.i Railway 25 miles 
northeast of Peoria; has banks and a weekly paper; 
the district is agricultural. Population (1890), 
598; (1900), 703; (1910), 777. 

WASHBURXE, Ellhu Benjamin, Congressman 
and diplomatist, was born at Livermore, Maine, 
Sept. 23, 1816 ; in early life learned the trade of a 
printer, but graduated from Harvard Law School 
and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Coming 
west, he settled at Galena, forming a partnership 
with Charles S. Hempstead, for the practice of 
law, in 1841. He was a stalwart Whig, and, as 
such, was elected to Congress in 1852. He con- 
tinued to represent his District until 1869, taking 
a prominent position, as a Republican, on the 
organization of that part}'. On account of his 
long service he was known as the "Father of the 
House," administering the Speaker's oath three 
times to Schuyler Colfax and once to James G. 
Blaine. He was appointed Secretary of State by 
General Grant in 1869, but surrendered his port- 
folio to become Envoy to France, in whioli ca- 
pacity he achieved great distinction. He was the 
only official representative of a foreign govern- 
ment who remained in Paris, during the siege of 
that city by the Germans (1870-71) and the reign 
of the "Commune." For his conduct lie was 



honored by the Governments of France and Ger- 
many alike. On his return to the United States, 
he made his liome in Chicago, where he devoted 
his latter j-ears chiefly to literary labor, and 
where he died, Oct. 22, 1887. He was strongly 
favored as a candidate for the Presidency in 1880. 
WASHINGTON, a city in Tazewell County, 
situated at the intersection of the Chicago & 
Alton, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroads. It is 31 
miles west of El Paso, and 12 miles east of Peoria. 
Carriages, plows and farming implements con- 
stitute the manufactured output. It is also an 
important shipping-point for farm products. It 
has electric light and water-works plants, eight 
churches, a graded school, two banks and two 
weekly papers. Pop. (1900), 1,459; (1910), 1,530. 
WASHINGTON COUNTY, an interior county of 
Southern Illinois, east of St. Louis; is drained by 
the Kaskaskia River and the Elkhorn, Beaucoup 
and Muddy Creeks; was organized in ISIS, and 
has an area of 557 square miles. The surface is 
diversified, well watered and timbered. The soil 
is of variable fertility. Com, wheat and oats 
are the chief agricultural products. Manufactur- 
ing is carried on to some extent, among the products 
being agricultural implements, flour, carriages 
and wagons. The most important town is Nash- 
ville, which is also the county-seat. Popula- 
tion (1900), 19,526; (1910), 18,759. Washing- 
ton was one of the fifteen counties into which 
Illinois was di\'ided at the organization of the 
State Government, being one of the last three 
created during the Territorial period^the other 
two being Franklin and Union. 

WATERTOWN, a village in Rock Island County, 
on the Mississippi, 5 miles east of Moline. The 
Illinois Western Hospital for the Insane, located 
here on an elevation a (luarter of a mile from the 
river, is reached by a switch from the C, B. & Q. 
Ry. Pop. of the village (1910), 525. 

WEST CHICAGO, in Du Page County, on the 
C, B. & Q. and C. & N. W. Rys., 30 miles west of 
Chicago; has railroad repair shops, various manu- 
factures and two weekly papers. Pop. (1910), 2,378. 
WATERLOO, the county-seat and chief town 
of Monroe County, on the Illinois Division of the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, 24 miles east of south 
from St. Louis. The region is chiefly agricultural, 
but underlaid with coal. Its industries embrace 
two flour mills, a plow factory, distillery, cream- 
ery, two ice plants, and some minor concerns. 
The city has municipal water and electric light 
plants, four churches, a graded school and two 
newspapers. Pop. (1900), 2,114; (1910), 2,091. 

WATERMAN, Arba Nelson, lawyer and jurist, 
was born at Greensboro, Orleans County, Vt., 
Feb. 3, 1830. After receiving an academic edu- 
cation and teaching for a time, he read law at 
Montpelier and, later, passed through the Albany 
Law School. In 1861 he was admitted to the 
bar, removed to Joliet, 111., and opened an ofiice. 
In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the One Hun- 
dredth Illinois Volunteers, serving with the 
Army of the Cumberland for two years, and 
being mustered out in August, 1864, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. On leaving the 
army. Colonel Waterman commenced practice in 
Chicago. In 1873-74 he represented the Eleventh 
Ward in the City Council. In 1887 he was elected 
to the bench of the Cook County Circuit Court, 
and was re-elected in 1891 and, again, in 1897. In 
1890 he was assigned as one of the Judges of the 
Appellate Court. 

WATSEKA, the county-seat of Iroquois County, 
situated on the Iroquois River, at the mouth of 
Sugar Creek, and at the intersection of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois and the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western Railroads, 77 miles south of Chicago, 46 
miles north of Danville and 14 miles east of 
Gilman. It has flour-mills, brick and tile works 
and foundries, besides several churches, banks, a 
graded school and two weekly newspapers. Artesian 
well water is obtained by boring to the depth 
of 100 to 160 feet, and some 200 flowing streams 
from these shafts are within the city limits. Pop. 
(1890), 2,017; (1900), 2,.505; (1910),' 2,476. 

WATTS, Amos, jurist, was born in St. Clair 
County, 111., Oct. 25, 1821, but removed to Wash- 
ington County in boj'hood, and was elected County 
Clerk in 1847, '49 and '53, and State's Attorney 
for the Second Judicial District in 1856 and '60; 
then became editor and proprietor of a news- 
paper, later resuming the practice of law, and, in 
1873, was elected Circuit Judge, remaining in 
office until his death, at Nashville, 111. Dec. 6, 

WAUKEGAN, the county-seat and principal 
city of Lake County, situated on the shore of 
Lake Michigan and on the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad, about 36 miles north by west 
from Chicago, and 50 miles south of Milwaukee; 
is also the northern terminus of the Elgin, Joliet 
& Eastern Railroad and connected by electric 
lines with Chicago and Fox Lake. Lake Michigan 
is about 80 miles wide opposite this point. 
Waukegan was first known as "Little Fort," 
from the remains of an old fort that stood on its 
site. The principal part of the city is built on a 
bluflf, which rises abruptly to the height of about 



fiftj' feet. Between tlie bluff ami the shore is a 
flat tract about 400 yanls wide which is occupied 
by gardens, dwellings, warehouses and manu- 
factories. The manufactui-es include steel-wire, 
refined sugar, scales, agricultural implements, 
brass and iron products, sash, doors and blinds, 
leather, beer, etc. ; the city has paved streets, gas 
and electric light plants, three banks, eight or 
ten churches, graded and high schools and two 
daily and one weekly newspaper. A large trade in 
grain, luml^er, coal and dairj- products is carried 
on. Pop. (1900), 9,426; (1910), 10,009. 

WAY. (See Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Eailway.) 

Waves LY, a city in Morgan County, 18 miles 
southeast of Jacksonville, on the Jacksonville & 
St. Louis and the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis 
Railroads. It was originally settled by enter- 
prising emigrants from New England, whose 
descendants constitute a large proportion of the 
population. It is the center of a rich agricultural 
region, has a fine graded school, six or seven 
churches, two banks, one weekly newspai>er; also 
brick and tile works, flour mills and elevators. 
Pop. (1S90), 1,.3.37; (1900), 1,57.3; (1910), 1,.538. 

WAYNE, (Gen.) Anthony, soldier, was born in 
Chester County, Pa., Jan. 1, 1745, of Anglo-Irish 
descent, graduated as a Surveyor, and first prac- 
ticed his profession in Nova Scotia. During the 
years immediately antecedent to the Revolution 
he was prominent in the colonial councils of his 
native State, to which he had returned in 17G7, 
where he became a member of the "Committee of 
Safety." On June 3, 1776, he was commissioned 
Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Pennsylvania 
troops in the Continental armj-, and, during the 
War of the Revolution, was conspicuous for his 
courage and ability as a leader. One of his most 
daring and successful achievements was the cap- 
ture of Stony Point, in 1779, when — the works 
having been carried and Wayne having received, 
what was supposed to be. his death- wound— he 
entered the fort, supported by his aids. For this 
service he was awarded a gold medal by Con- 
gress. He also took a conspicuous part in the 
investiture and capture of Yorktown In October, 
1783, he was brevetted Major-General. In 1784 
he was elected to the Penn.S3'lvania Legislature. 
A few j-ears later he settled in Georgia, which 
State he represented in Congress for seven 
months, when his seat was declared vacant after 
contest. In April, 1792, he was confirmed as 
General-in-Chief of the United States Army, on 
nomination of President Washington. His con- 
nection with Illinois history began shortly after 

St. Clair's defeat, when he led a force into Ohio 
(1783) and erected a stockade at Greenville, 
which he named Fort Recovery ; his object being 
to subdue the hostile savage tribes. In this he 
was eminently successful and, on August 3, 
1793, after a victorious campaign, negotiated the 
Treaty of Greenville, as broad in its provisions as 
it was far-reaching in its influence. He was a 
daring fighter, and although Washington called 
him "prudent," his dauntlessness earned for him 
the sol)riquet of "Mad Anthony." In matters of 
dress he was punctilious, and, on this account, 
he was sometimes dubbed "Dandy Wayne.'' He 
was one of the few white oflioers whom all the 
Western Indian tribes at once feared and re- 
spected. They named him "Black Snake" and 
"Tornado." He died at Presque Isle near Erie, 
Dec. 15, 1796. Thirteen years afterward his 
remains were removed by one of his sons, and 
interred in Badnor churchyard, in his native 
county. The Pennsylvania Historical Society 
erected a marble monument over his grave, and 
appropriately dedicated it on July 4 of the same 

WAYNE COUNTY, in the southeast quarter of 
the State ; has an area of 720 square miles ; was 
organized in 1819, and named for Gen. Anthony 
Wa3-ne. Thf- county is watered and drained bj- 
the Little Wabash and its branches, notably the 
Skillet Fork. At the election held in the 
count}-, only fifteen votes were cast. Early life 
was exceedingly primitive, the first settlers 
pounding corn into meal with a wooden pestle, 
a hollowed stump being used as a mortar. The 
first mill erected (of the antique South Carolina 
pattern) charged 25 cents per bushel for grinding. 
Prairie and woodland make up the surface, and 
the soil is fertile. Railroad facilities are furnished 
bj' the Louisville. Evansville & St. Louis and the 
Baltimore & Ohio (Southwestern) Railroads. 
Corn, oats, tobacco, wheat, hay and wool are the 
chief agricultural products. Saw mills are numer- 
ous and there are also carriage and wagon facto- 
ries. Fairfield is the county-seat. Population 
(1890), 23,806; (1900), 27,626; (1910), 2r>fi97. 

WEAS, THE, a branch of the Miami tribe of 
Indians. They called themselves "We-wee- 
hahs," and were spoken of bj' the French as "Oui- 
at-a-nons" and "Oui-as." Other corruptions of 
the name were common among the British and 
American colonists. In 1718 they had a village 
at Chicago, liut abandoned it through fear of 
their hostile neighbors, the Chippewas and Potta- 
watomies. The Weas were, at one time, brave 
and warlike : but their numbers were reduced by 



constant warfare and disease, and, in the end, 
debauchery enervated and demoralized them. 
They were removed west of the Mississipjji and 
given a reservation in Jliami County, Kan. This 
the}' ultimately sold, and, under the leader.?hip 
of Bapti-ste Peoria, united witli their few remain- 
ing brethren of the Miamis and with the remnant 
of the Ill-i-ni under the title of the "confederated 
tribes," and settled in Indian Territory. (See also 
Mia m is: Pia n kesJi a ws. ) 

WEBB, Edwin B., early lawyer and politician, 
was born about 1802, came to the vicinity of 
Carmi, White County, 111., about 1828 to 1830, 
and, still later, studied law at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He held the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney of White County, and, in 1834. was 
elected to the lower branch of the General 
Assembly, serving, by successive re-elections, 
imtil 1842, and, in the Senate, from 1842 to "40. 
During his service in the House he was a col- 
league and political and personal friend of 
Abraham Lincoln. He opposed the internal 
improvement scheme of 1837, predicting many 
of the disasters which were actually realized a 
few years later. He was a candidate for Presi- 
dential Elector on the Whig ticket, in 1S44 and 
'48, and, in 18.52, received the nomination for 
Governor as the opponent of Joel A. Matte.son, 
two years later, being an unsuccessful candidate 
for Justice of the Supreme Court in opposition to 
Judge W. B. Scates. While practicing law at 
Carmi, he was also a partner of his brother in 
the mercantile basiness. Died, Oct. 14, 1858. in 
the ■'iGth year of his age. 

WEBB, Henry Liviiigrston, soldier and pioneer 
(an elder brother of James Watson Webb, a noted 
Ne%v York journalist), was born at Claverack, 
N. Y., Feb. 6, 179.5; served as a soldier in the 
War of 1812, came to Southern Illinois in 1817, 
and became one of the founders of the town of 
America near the mouth of the Ohio ; was Repre- 
sentative in the Fourth and Eleventh General 
Assemblies, a Major in the Black Hawk War and 
Captain of volunteers and, afterwards. Colonel of 
regulars, in the Mexican War. In 1860 he went 
to Texas and served, for a time, in a semi-mili- 
tary capacity under the Confederate Govern- 
ment; returned to Illinois in 18G9, and died, at 
Makanda. Oct. .5, 1876. 

WEBSTER, Fletcher, lawyer and .soldier, was 
born at Portsmouth, N. H., July 28, 1813; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1833, and studied law with 
his father (Daniel Webster) ; in 1837, located at 
Peru, 111., where he practiced three years. His 
father having been appointed Secretary of State 

in 1841, the son became his private secretary, 
was also Secretary of Legation to Caleb Gushing 
(Minister to China) in 1843, a member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature in 1847, and Surveyor 
of the Port of Boston, 1850-61 ; the latter year 
became Colonel of the Twelfth Massachusetts 
Volunteers, and was killed in the second battle 
of Bull Run, August 30, 1862, 

WEIWTER, Joseph Dana, civil engineer and 
soldier, was born at Old Hampton, N. H., 
August 25, 1811. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1832, and afterwards read 
law at Newburyport, Mass. His natural incli- 
nation was for engineering, and, after serv- 
ing for a time in the Engineer and War offices, 
at Washington, was made a United .States civil 
engineer (1835) and, on July 7, 1838, entered the 
armj' as Second Lieutenant of Topographical 
Engineers. He served through the Mexican 
War, was made First Lieutenant in 1849, and 
promoted to a captaincy, in March, 1853. Thir- 
teen months later he resigned, removing to Chi- 
cago, where he made his permanent home, and 
soon after was identified, for a time, with the 
proprietorship of "The Chicago Tribune." He 
was President of the commission that perfected 
the Chicago sewerage system, and designed and 
executed the raising of the grade of a large por- 
tion of the city from two to eight feet, whole 
blocks of buildings being raided by jack screws, 
while new foundations were inserted. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War he tendered his serv- 
ices to the Government and superintended the 
erection of the fortifications at Cairo, 111., and 
Paducah, Ky. On April 7, 1861, he was com- 
missioned Paymaster of Volunteers, with the 
rank of Major, and, in Februaiy, 1862, Cidonel of 
the First Illinois Artillery. For several months 
he was chief of General Grant's staff, participat- 
ing in the capture of Forts Donelson and Henry, 
and in the battle of Shiloh, in the latter as Chief 
of Artillery. In October, 1802, the War Depart- 
ment detailed him to make a survey of the lUi 
nois & Michigan Canal, and, the following month, 
he was commissioned Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, .serving as Military Governor of Mem- 
phis and Sui^erintendent of military railroads. 
He was again chief of staff to General Grant 
during the Vicksburg campaign, and, from 1864 
until the close of the war, occupied the same 
relation to General Sherman. He was brevetted 
Major-General of Volunteers, March 13, 186.5, but, 
resigning Nov. 6, following, returned to Chicago, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. From 
1869 to 1872 he was Assessor of Internal Revenue 



there, and, later. Assistant United States Treas- 
urer, and, in July, 1872, was aj>pointed Collector 
of Internal Revenue. Died, at Chicago, March 
12, 1876. 

WELCH, William R., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in Jessamine County, Ky., Jan. 22, 1828, 
educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, 
graduating from the academic <iepartment in 
1847. and, from tlie law school, in 1851. In 1864 he 
removed to Carlinville, Macoupin County, III., 
which place he made his permanent home. In 
1877 he was elected to the bench of the Fifth 
Circuit, and re-elected in 1879 and '85. In 1884 
he was assigned to the bench of the Appellate 
Court for the Second District. Died, Sept. 1, 

WELDON, Lawrence, one of the Judges of the 
United States Court of Claims. 'Washington, 
D. C, was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, in 
1829; while a child, removed witli his parents to 
Aladison County, and was educated in the com- 
mon schools, the local academy and at Wittenberg 
College, Springfield, in the same State ; reiid law 
with Hon. R. A. Harri.son, a prominent member 
of the Ohio bar, and was admitted to practice in 
1854, meiinwhile, in 18.52-53, having served as a 
clerk in the office of the Secretary of State at 
Columbus. In 1854 he removed to Illinois, locat- 
ing at Clinton, DeWitt County, where he engaged 
in practic^e; in 180(1 was eUuted a Representative 
In the Twenty-second General Assembly, was 
also chosen a Presidential Elector the same year, 
and assisted in the first electicm of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency. Early in 1801 he 
resigned his seat in the Legislature to accept the 
position of United States District Attorney for 
the Southern District of Illinois, tendered him by 
President Lincoln, but resigned the latter office 
in 1800 an<l, the following year, removed to 
Bloomington, where lie continued the practice of 
his profession until 1883, when he was appointed, 
by President Arthur, an Associate Justice of the 
United States Court of CUiims at Washington — 
a position which he occupied until his deatli. 
Judge Wolilon wa.s anionji the last of those who 
rode the circuit and practiced law with Jlr. Lin- 
coln. From the time of coming to the State in 
1854 to 1800, he was one of Mr. Lincoln's most 
intimate traveling companions in the old 
Eighth Circuit, which extended from .Sangamon 
County on the west to Vermilion on the east, and 
of which Judge David Davis, afterwards of the 
Supreme Court of the United .States and United 
States Senator, was the presiding Justice. The 
Judge held in his memory many pleasant remi- 

niscences of that day, especially of the eastern 
portion of the District, where he was accustomed 
to meet the late Senator Voorhees, Senator Mc- 
Donald and other leading lawyers of Indiana, as 
well as the historic men whom he met at the 
State ca])it:U. Died April 1(1, 190.5. 

WELLS, -Vlbert W., lawyer and legislator, was 
born at Woodstock, Conn., May 9, 1839, and 
enjoyed only such e<lucational and other advan- 
tages as belonged to the average New England 
boy of that period. During his boyhood his 
family removed to Xew Jersey, where he attended 
an academy, later, graduating from Columbia 
College and Law School in New York City, and 
began practice with State Senator Robert Allen 
at Red Bank, N. J. During the Civil War he 
enlisted in a New Jersey regiment and took part 
in the battle of Gettysburg, resuming his profes- 
sion at the close of the war. Coming west in 
1870, he settled in Quincy, 111., where he con- 
tinued practice. In 1880 he was elected to tlie 
House of Rejiresentatives from Adams County, 
as a Democrat, and re-elected two years later. 
In 1890 he was advanced to the Senate, where, 
by re-election in 1894, he served continuously 
until his death in office, March 5, 1897. His 
abilities and long service — covering the sessions 
of the Thirty lifth to the Fortieth General .rVssem- 
blie.s — placed him at the head of the Democratic 
side of the .Senate during the latter part of his 
legislative career. 

WELLS, Williuni, .soldier and victim of the 
Fort Dearborn m;issacre, was born in Kentucky, 
about 1770. When a boy of 12, he was captured 
by the Miami Indians, whose chief. Little Turtle, 
adopted him, giving him his daugiiter in mar- 
riage when he grew to manhood. He was highly 
esteemed by the tribe as a warrior, and. in 1790, 
was pre.sent .at the battle where Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair was defeated. He then realized that he 
was fighting against his own race, and informed 
his father-in-law that he intended to ally liimself 
with the whites. Leaving the Jliamis. he made 
his way to General Wayne, who made him Cap- 
tain of a company of scouts. After the treaty of 
Greenville (1795) he settled on a farm near Fort 
Wayne, where he was joined by his Indian wife. 
Here he acteil .as Indian Agent and Justice of tlie 
Peace. In 1812 he learned of the contemplated 
evacuation of Fort Dearborn, and, at the head of 
thirty Miamis, he set out for the post, his inten- 
tion being to furnish a body-guard to the non- 
comliatants on their proposed inarch to Fort 
Wayne. On August 13. he marched out of the 
fort with fifteen of his duskv warriors behind 



him, the remainder bringing up the rear. Before 
a mile and a half had been traveled, the party fell 
into an Indian ambuscade, and an indiscrimi- 
nate massacre followed. (See Fort Dearborn.) 
The Miamis fled, and Captain Wells' body was 
riddled with bullets, his head out off and his 
heart taken out. He was an uncle of Mrs. Heald, 
■wife of the commander of Fort Dearborn. 

WELLS, William Harvey, educator, was born 
in Tolland, Conn., Feb. 37, 1813; lived on a farm 
until 17 years old, attending school irregularly, 
but made such progress that he became succes- 
sively a teacher in the Teachers" Seminary at 
Andover and Newburyport, and, finally, Principal 
of the State Normal School at Westfield, Mass. 
In 18.56 he accepted the position of Superintend- 
ent of Public Schools for the city of Chicago, 
serving till 1864, when he resigned. He was an 
organizer of the Massachusetts State Teachers' 
Association, one of the first editors of "The 
Massachusetts Teacher'' and prominently con- 
nected with various benevolent, educational and 
learned societies : was also author of several text- 
books, and assisted in the revision of "Wehster's 
Unabridged Dictionary." Died, Jan. 31, 1885. 

WENONA, city on the eastern border of Mar- 
shall County, 20 miles south of La Salle, has 
zinc works, public and parochial schools, a 
weekly paper, two banks, and five churches. A 
good quality of soft coal is mined here. Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,0.5.3; (1900), 1,486; (1910), 1,442. 

WENTWORTH, John, early journalist and 
Congressman, was born at Sandwich, N. H., 
March 5, 1815, graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1836, and came to Chicago the same year, 
where he became editor of ' 'The Chicago Demo- 
crat,"' which had been estabUshed by John Cal- 
houn three years previous. He soon after became 
proprietor of "The Democrat,"" of which he con- 
tinued to be the publisher until it was merged 
into "The Chicago Tribune,"" July 24, 1864. He 
also studied law, and was admitted to the Illinois 
bar in 1841. He served in Congress as a Demo- 
crat from 1843 to 1851, and again from 1853 to 
1855, but left the Democratic party on the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise. He was elected 
Mayor of Chicago in 1857, and again in 18G0, 
during his incumbency introducing a number of 
important municipal reforms ; was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1862, and twice 
served on the Board of Education. He again 
represented Illinois in Congress as a Republican 
from 1865 to 1867 — making fourteen years of 
service in that body. In 1873 he joined in the 
Greelej' movement, but later renewed his alle- 

giance to the Republican party. In 187i ylr. Went- 
worth published an elaborate genealogical work 
in three volmues, entitled "History of the Went- 
worth Family." A volume of "Congressional 
Reminiscences" and two by him on "Early Chi- 
cago,'" published in connection with the Fergus 
Historical Series, contain some valuable informa- 
tion on early local and national history. On 
account of his extraordinary height he received 
the sobriquet of "Long John,"' by which he was 
familiarly known throughout the State. Died, 
in Chicago, Oct. 16, 1888. 

WEST, Edward M., merchant and banker, was 
bom in Virginia, May 2, 1814; came with his 
father to Illinois in 1818 ; in 1829 became a clerk 
in the Recorder's office at Edwardsville, also 
served as deputy postmaster, and, in 1833, took a 
position in the United States Land Office there. 
Two years later he engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, which he prosecuted over thirty years — 
meanwhile filling the office of County Treasurer, 
ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, and Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention of 1847. In 1867, 
in conjunction with W. R. Prickett. he established 
a bank at Edwardsville, with which he was con- 
nected until his death, Oct. 31, 1887. Mr. "R^est 
officiated frequently as a "local preacher" of the 
Methodist Church, in which capacity he showed 
nuicli ability as a public speaker. 

WEST, Mary Allen, educator and philanthro- 
pist, was born at Galesburg, lU., July 31, 1837; 
graduated at Knox Seminary in 1854 and taught 
until 1873, when she was elected County Super- 
intendent of Schools, serving nine j-ears. She 
took an active and influential interest in educa- 
tional and reformatory movements, was for two 
years editor of "Our Home Monthly," in Phila- 
delphia, and also a contributor to other journals, 
besides being editor-in-chief of "The Union Sig- 
nal," Chicago, the organ of the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union — in which she held the 
position of President ; was also President, in the 
latter days of her life, of the Illinois Woman's 
Press Association of Chicago, that city having 
become her home in 1885. In 1892, Miss West 
started on a tour of the world for the benefit of 
her health, but died at Tokio. Japan, Dec. 1, 1892. 
an institution for the treatment of the insane, 
located at Watertown, Rock Island County, in 
accordance with an act of the General Assembly, 
approved. May 22, 1895. The Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly made an appropriation of $100,000 
for the erection of fire-proof buildings, while • 
Rock Island County donated a tract of 400 acres 



of land valued at S4n.0()(), The site selected by tlie 
Commissioners, is a commanding one overlooking 
tlie Mississijipi River, eight miles above Rock 
Island, and five and a half miles from Moline, and 
the buildings are of the most modern style of con- 
struction. Watertown is reached bj- two lines of 
railroad— the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul and 
the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy — besides the 
Mississippi River. Tlie erection of buildings was 
begun in 1890, and they were opened for the 
reception of patients in 1898. They liave a ca- 
pacity for 800 patients. 

tution located at Upper Alton, Madison County, 
incorporated in 1892 ; has a faculty of eight mem- 
bers and reports eighty pupils for 1897-98, with 
property valued at §70,000. The institution gives 
instruction in literary and scientific brandies, 
besides preparatory and business courses. 

WESTERN NOK.MAL l'OLLE(JE, located at 
Bushnell, McDoncnigh County; incorporated in 
1888. It is co-educational, has a corps of twelve 
instructors and reiiorted .500 pupils for 1897-98, 
300 males and 200 females. 

WESTERN SPRINGiS, a village of Cook 
County, and residence suburb of the city of Chi- 
cago, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, 15 miles of the initial station. 
Pc)]). (Kinov m-2: (I9in\ oo.'). 

located in Chicago and controlled by tlie Protes- 
t»uit E])iscnpal Church. It was founded in 1883 
through the munificence of Dr. Tolman Wheeler, 
and was opened for students two years later. It 
has two buildings, of a superior order of archi- 
tecture — one including the school and lecture 
rooms and the other a dormitory. A hospital 
and gymnasium are attacheil to the latter, and a 
school for boys is conducted on the first floor of 
the main building, which is known as AVlieeler 
Hall. The institution is under the general super- 
vision of Rt. Rev. William E. McLaren. Protes- 
tant Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Illinois. 

WESTKIELfl, village of Clark County, on Cin., 
Ilam. i^ Dayton R. R., 10 m. s.-e. of Charleston; 
.seat of Westfield College; has a bank, five 
churches and one newspaper. Pop. (1910), 927. 

WEST SALEM, a town of Edwards County, on 
the Peoria-Evansville Div. 111. Cent. R. R., 12 
miles northeast of Albion; has a bank and a weekly 
paper. Poii. (1000), TOO; (1010), 72.5. 

WETHERELL, Emma Abbott, vocalist, was 
born in Chicago. Dec. 9, 1849: in her childhood 
attracted attention while singing with her father 
(a poor musician) in hotels and on the streets in 

Chicago, Peoria and elsewhere; at 18 years of 
age, went to New York to study, earning her way 
by giving concerts en route, and receiving aid 
and encouragement from Clara Louisa Kellogg; 
in New York was patronized by Henry Ward 
Beecher and others, and aided in securing the 
training of European masters. Compelled to sur- 
mount many obstacles from poverty and other 
causes, her after success in her profession was 
phenomenal. Died, during a professional tour, 
at Salt Lake City, Jan. 5, 1891. Miss Abbott 
married her manager, Eugene Wetherell, who 
died befcirc her. 

WH EATON, a city and the county-seat of Du 
Page County, situated on the Chicago & North- 
western Railway. 2.5 miles west of Chicjigo. .Vgri- 
culture and stock-raising are the chief industries 
in the surrounding region. The city owns a new 
water-v.orks plant (co.sting 860.000) and has a 
public library valued at §75 000. the gift of a 
resident, Jlr. John Quincy Adams; has a court 
house, electric light plant, sewerage and drainage 
system, seven churches, three gradeil schools, 
two weekly news|iapers and a State bank. Wheaton 
is tlie seat of Wheaton College (which see). Popu- 
lation (18S0), 1,160; (1890), 1,622; (1900), 2,345; 
(1010), 3,423. 

WHEATON COLLEGE, an educational insti- 
tution located at Wheaton, Du Page County, and 
under Congregational control. It was founded 
in 1853, as the Illinois Institute, and was char- 
tered under its present name in 1860. Its early 
existence was one of struggle, but of late years it 
has been estal)lished on a better founelation. in 
1898 having $.54,000 invested in productive funds, 
and property aggregating §136,000. The faculty 
comprises fifteen professors, and, in 1898, there 
were 321 students in attendance. It is co-edu- 
cational and instruction is given in business and 
preparatory studies, as well as the fine arts, 
music and classical literature. 

WHEELER, David Hilton, D.D., LL.D.,clergy- 
man. was born at Ithaca. N. Y.. Nov. 19, 1829; 
graduated at Rock River Seminary, Mount 
Morris, in 1.851; edited "The Carroll County 
Reiniblican"' and held a professorship in Cornell 
College, Iowa, (1857-61); was United States Con- 
sul at Geneva, Switzerland, (1861-66) ; Professor of 
English Literature in Northwestern University 
(1867-75); edited "The Methodist" in New York, 
seven j-ears, and was President of Allegheny 
College (1883-87); received the degree of D.D. 
from Cornell College in 1867. and that of LL.D. 
from the Northwestern University in 1881. He 
is the author of "Brigandage in South Italy" 



(two volumes, 1864) and "By-Ways of Literature" 
(1883), besides some translations. 

WHEELER, Haiuiltou K., ex-Congressman, 
was born at Ballston, N. Y., August 5, 1848, but 
emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1853; 
remained on a farm until 19 years of age, his 
educational advantages being limited to three 
months' attendance upon a district school each 
year. In 1871, he was admitted to the bar at 
Kankakee, where lie has since continued to prac- 
tice. In 1884 he was elected to represent the Six- 
teenth District in the State Senate, where he 
served on many important committees, being 
Chairman of that on the Judicial Deiiartment. 
In 1893 he was elected Representative in Con- 
gress from the Ninth Illinois District, on the 
Republican ticket. 

WESTVILLE, a village of Vermilion County, on 
the C. & E. I. and ''Big Four" Rys., 8 miles north 
of Danville; a coal mining region. Pop. (1910), 3,007. 

WHISTLER, (Maj.) John, soldier and builder 
of the tirst Fort Dearborn, was born in Ulster, Ire- 
land, about 17.56; served under Burgoyne in the 
Revolution, and was with the force surrendered 
by that officer at Saratoga, in 1777. After the 
peace lie returned to the United States, settled at 
Hagerstown, Md., and entered the United States 
Army, serving at first in the ranks and being 
severely wounded in the disastrous Indian cam- 
paigns of 1791. Later, he was promoted tc^a 
captaincy and, in the summer of 1803, sent with 
his company, to the head of Lake- Michigan, 
where he constructed the first Fort Dearborn 
within the limits of the present city of Chicago, 
remaining in command until 1811, when he was 
succeeded by Captain Heald. He received the 
brevet rank of Major, in 1815 was appointed 
military store-keeper at Newport, Ky., and after- 
wards at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, 
where he died, Sept. 3, 1839. Lieut. William 
Whistler, his son, who was with his father, for a 
time, in old Fort Dearborn — but transferred, in 
1809, to Fort Wayne — was of the force included 
in Hull's surrender at Detroit in 1813. After 
his exchange he was promoted to a captaincj-, to 
the rank of JIajor in 1836 and to a Lieutenant-Colo- 
nelcy in 1845, dying at Newport, Ky., in 1863. 
James Abbott McNiel Whistler, the celebrated, 
but eccentric artist of that name, is a grandson 
of the first Major W^histler. 

WHITE, Georare E., ex-Congressman, was born 
in Massachusetts in 1848; after graduating, at the 
age of 16, he enlisted as a private in the Fifty- 
seventh Jlassachusetts Veteran Volunteers, serv- 
ing under General Grant in the campaign 

against Richmond from the battle of the Wilder- 
ness until the surrender of Lee. Having taken a 
course in a commercial college at Worcester, 
Mass., in 1.867 he came to Chicago, securing em- 
ployment in a lumber yard, but a year later 
began business on his own account, which he has 
successfully conducted. In 1878 he was elected 
to the State Senate, as a Republican, from one of 
the Chicago Districts, and re-elected four years 
later, serving in that body eight years. He 
declined a nomination for Congress in 1884, but 
accepted in 1894, and was elected for the Fifth 
District, as he was again in 1896, but was 
defeated, in 1898, by Edward T. Noonan, Demo- 

WHITE, Horace, journalist, was born at Cole- 
brook, N. H., August 10, 1834; in 1853 graduated 
at Beloit College, Wis., whither his father had 
removed in 1837 ; engaged in journalism as city 
editor of "The Chicago Evening Journal," later 
becoming agent of the Associated Press, and, in 
1857, an editorial writer on "The Chicago Trib- 
une," during a part of the war acting as its 
Washington correspondent. He also served, in 
1856, as Assistant Secretary of the Kansas 
National Committee, and, later, as Secretary of 
the Republican State Central Committee. In 
1864 he purchased an interest in "The Tribune," 
a year or so later becoming editor-in-chief, but 
retired in October, 1874. After a protracted 
European tour, he united with Carl Schurz and 
E. L. Godkin of "The Nation," in the purchase 
and reorganization of "The New York Evening 
Post," of which he is now editor-in-chief. 

WHITE, JiiHus, soldier, was born in Cazen- 
ovia, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1816; removed to Illinois 
in 1836, residing there and in Wisconsin, where 
he was a member of the Legislature of 1849 ; in 
1861 was made Collector of Customs at Chicago, 
but resigned to assume the colonelcy of the 
Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, which he 
commanded on the Fremont expedition to South- 
west Missouri. He afterwards served with Gen- 
eral Curtiss in Arkansas, participated in the 
battle of Pea Ridge and was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General. He was subsequently 
assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah, 
but finding his position at Martinsburg, W. Va., 
untenable, retired to Harper's Ferry, voluntarily 
serving under Colonel Miles, his inferior in com- 
mand. When this post was surrendered (Sept. 
15, 1863), he was made a prisoner, but released 
under parole; was tried by a court of inquiry at 
his own request, and acquitted, the court finding 
that he had acted with courage and capability 



lie resigned in 1801. anJ, in Marcli. 186.», \v:is 
brevetteil Major-CJeneial of Volunteers. Died, 
at Kvaiiston, Jlay Vi, ISIIO. 

WHITE COINTY, .situated in the southeastern 
quarter of the State, and bounded on the eiist by 
the Wabash River; was organized in 1810. being 
the tenth county orgjinized during the Territorial 
period: area. 500 sijuare miles. The county is 
crossed by three railroads and drained by the 
Wabash and Little Wabiish Rivers. The surface 
consists of prairie and \vo<idland. and the soil is, 
for the most part. lii;,'lily jiroductive. The princi- 
pal agricultural i)roducts are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, fruit, butter, sorglium and 
wool. The principal industrial establishments 
are carriage factories, saw mills and Hour mills. 
Carmi is the county-seat. Other towns are Kn- 
field, Grayville and Norris City. Population 
(I.SOO), •2r>,Q0ry, (1900), 25,3S0; (1910), 2,3,052. 

WHITEHALL, a city in Greene County, at the 
intersection of the Cliicago & Alton and the 
Chicago, Burlington & '^uincy Rjiilroads, Go miles 
north of St. Louis and 24 miles south-.southwest 
of Jacksonville; in rich farming region; has 
stoneware and sewer-iiipe fa<'tories. foundry and 
macliine shop. Hour mill, elevators, wagon shops. 
creamery, water system, sanitarium, heating, 
electric light and power system nurseries and 
fruit-supply houses, and two poultry packing; also lias five churches, a graded school, 
two banks and two nowspaiwrs — one issuing daily 
edition. Pop. (1000), 2,0:«): (10101, 2.S.")4. 

WHITEHOl'SE, Henry John, Protestant Epis 
copal liishoi), was burn in New York City. August 
19, IWKi; graiUiated from C'idumbi.a L'ollege in 
1821, and from the (New York) General Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1824. After ordination he was 
rector of various parishes in Pennsylvania and 
New Y'ork until 18,">1, when he was i-hosen Assist- 
ant Bishop of Illinois, succeeding Bishop Cha,se 
in 18.")2. In 1807, bj- invitation of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, he delivered the opening sermon 
before the Pan-Anglican Conference held in 
England. During this visit he received the 
degree of D. D. from Oxford University, and that 
of LL.D. from Cambridge. His rigid views as a 
churchman an<l a disciplinarian, were illu.'itrateil 
in his prosecution of Rev. Charles Edward 
Cheney, which resulted in the formation of the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. He wius a brilliant 
orator and a trenchant and unyielding controver- 
sialist. Died, in Chicago. August 10, 1874. 

WHITESinr, COINTY, in the northwestern 
portion of the Slate bordering on the Mississippi 
River; created bj- act of the Legislature jMissed in 

1830. and named for Capt. Samuel White-side, a 
noted Indian tigliter; area. 070 si|U;ire miles. Tlie 
surface is level, diversified by prairies and wood- 
land, and the soil is extremely fertile. The wiis first fixed at Lyndon, then at 
Sterling, and finally at Morrison, its present 
location. The Rock River crosses the county 
and furnishes abundant water power for numer- 
ous factories, turning out agricultural imple- 
ments, carriages and wagons, furniture, woolen 
goods, flour and wrai)i)ing paper. There are also 
distilling ami brewing interests, besides saw and 
planing mills. Corn is the staple agricultural 
product, althougli all the leading cereals are 
extensively grown. Tlie principal towns are 
Morrison, Sterling, Fulton and Hock Falls. Popu- 
lation (l.SOO). 30..S.VI; (1900), 31.710; (1910), 34..507. 
WHITKSIDE, Hilliaiu, pioneer and soldier of 
the Kevolution, eniigrateil from the frontier of 
North Carolina to Kentucky, and thence, in 1793, 
to tlie present limits of Monrce County, 111., 
erecting a fort between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
which became widely known as "AVhiteside 
Station." He served as a Justice of the Peace, 
and was active in organizing the militia during 
the War of 1812-14. ilying at the old Station in 
181,").— John (Whiteside), a brother of the preced- 
ing, and .also a Revolutionary soldier, came to 
Illinois at the same time, as also did William B, 
anJ Samuel, sons of the two brothers, respec- 
tively. All of them Iwcame famous as Indian 
fighters. The two latter served as Captains of 
companies of "Rangers" in the War of 1812, 
Samuel taking jiart in the battle of Rock Island 
in 1814. and contributing greatly to tlie success 
of the day. During the Black Ilawk War (1832) 
he attained the rank of Brigadier Cieneral. 
Whiteside County was named in his honor. He 
made one of the earliest improvements in Ridge 
Prairie, a rich section of Madison County, and 
represented that county in the First General 
Assembly. William B. served as Sheriff of Madi- 
son County for a number of years. — John I). 
(Whiteside), another member of this historic 
family, became very prominent, .serving in the 
lower House of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and 
Fouiteenth General As.seniblies, and in the Sen- 
ate of the Tenth, from Jlonroe County; was a 
Presidential Elector in 1830, State Treasurer 
(1837-411 and a member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847. General Whiteside, as 
he was known, w;us the second of James Shields 
in the famous Shields and Lincoln duel (so-called) 
in 1.S42. and. as such, c^irried the challenge of the 
former to Mr. Lincoln. (See Duels.) 



WHITING, Lorenzo D., legislator, was born 
in Wayne County, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1819; came to 
Illinois in 1838, but did not settle there perma- 
nently until 1849, when he located in Bureau 
County. He was a Representative from that 
county in the Twenty-si.xth General Assembly 
(1869), and a member of the Senate continuously 
from 1871 to 1887, serving in the latter through 
eight General Assemblies. Died at his home 
near Tiskilwa, Bureau County, 111., Oct. 10, 

WHITING, Richard H., Congressman, was 
born at West Hartford, Conn., June 17, 1826, and 
received a common school education. In 1862 he 
was commissioned Paymaster in the Volunteer 
Army of the Union, and resigned in 1866. Hav- 
ing removed to Illinois, he was appointed Assist- 
ant Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Fifth 
Illinois District, in February, 1870, and so contin- 
ued until the abolition of the office in 1873. On 
retiring from the Assessorship he was appointed 
Collector of Internal Revenue, and served until 
March 4, 1875, when he resigned to take his seat 
as Republican Representative in Congress from 
the Peoria District, to which he had been elected 
in November, 1874. After the expiration of his 
terni he held no public office, but was a member 
of the Republican National Convention of 1884. 
Died, at the Continental Hotel, in New York 
City, May 34, 1888. 

WHITNEY, James W., pioneer lawyer and 
early teacher, known by the nickname of "Lord 
Coke"; came to Illinois in Territorial days (be- 
lieved to have been about 1800) ; resided for some 
time at or near Edwardsville, then became a 
teacher at Atlas, Pike County, and, still later, the 
first Circuit and County Clerk of that county. 
Though nominally a lawyer, he had little if any 
practice. He acquired the title, by which he was 
popularly known for a quarter of a century, by 
his custom of visiting the State Capital, during 
the sessions of the General Assembly, when 
he would organize the lobbyists and visit- 
ors about the capital — of which there were an 
unusual number in those days — into what was 
called the "Third House." Having been regu- 
larly chosen to preside under the name of 
"Speaker of the Lobby," he would deliver a mes- 
sage full of practical hits and jokes, aimed at 
members of the two houses and others, which 
would be received with cheers and laughter. 
The meetings of the "Third House," being held 
in the evening, were attended ))y many members 
and visitors in lieu of other forms of entertain- 
ment. Mr. Whitney's home, in his latter years, 

was at Pittsfield. He resided for a time at 
Quincy. Died, Dec. 1.3, 1860, aged over 80 years. 

WHITTEMORE, Floyd K., State Treasurer, is 
a native of New York, came at an earlj' age, with 
his parents, to Sycamore. 111., where he was edu- 
cated in the high school there. He purposed 
becoming a lawyer, but. on the election of the 
late James H. Beveridge State Treasurer, in 1864, 
accepted the position of clerk in the office. 
Later, he was employed as a clerk in the banking 
house of Jacob Bunn in .Springfield, and, on the 
organization of the State National Bank, was 
chosen cashier of that Institution, ret3,ining the 
position some twenty years. After the appoint- 
ment of Hon. John R. Tanner to the position of 
Assistant Treasurer of the United States, at Chi- 
cago, in 1893, Mr. Whittemore became cashier in 
that office, and, in 186,5, Assistant State Treas- 
rure under the administration of State Treasurer 
Henry Wulff. In 1898 he was elected State 
Treasurer, receiving a plurality of 43,450 over 
his Democratic opponent. Died March 4, 1907. 

WICKERSHAM, (Col.) Dudley, soldier and 
merchant, was born in Woodford County, Ky., 
Nov. 33, 1819; came to Springfield, 111., in 1843, 
and served as a member of the Fourth Regiment 
Illinois Volimteers (Col. E. D. Baker's) through 
the Mexican War. On the return of peace he 
engaged in the drj'-goods trade in Springfield, 
until 1861, when he enlisted in the Tenth Regi- 
ment Illinois Cavalry, serving, first as Lieutenant- 
Colonel and then as Colonel, until May, 1864, 
when, his regiment having been consolidated 
with the Fifteenth Cavahy, he resigned. After 
the war, he held the office of Assessor of Internal 
Revenue for several j'ears, after wliich he en- 
gaged in the grocery trade. Died, in Springfield, 
August 8, 1898. 

WIDEN, Raphael, pioneer and early legislator, 
was a native of Sweden, who, having been taken 
to France at eight years of age, was educated for 
a Catholic priest. Coming to the United States 
in 1815, he was at Cahokia, III. in 1818, where, 
during the same year, he married into a French 
family of that place. He served in the Hoase of 
Representatives from Randolph County, in the 
Second and Third General Assemblies (1830-24), 
and as Senator in the Fourth and Fifth (1834-38). 
During his last term in the House, he was one of 
those who voted against the pro-slavery Con- 
vention resolution. He died of cholera, at Kas- 
kaskia, in 1833. 

WIKE, Scott, lawyer and ex-Congressman, was 
born at Meadville, Pa., April 6, 1834; at 4 years 
of age removed with his parents to Quinej', 111., 



anil, in ISW. to Pike County. Having Krailuateil 
from LoniUird University. Ualesburg, in IS.JT, he 
began reading law with Judge O. C. Skinner of 
Quincy. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, 
but. before commencing practice, spent a year at 
Harvard Law School, gi-aduatiug there in 18.59. 
Immediately thereafter he opened an office at 
Pittsfield, 111., and has resided there ever since. 
In politics lie lias always been a strong Democrat. 
He .served two terms in the Legislature (18G3-6T) 
and, in 1874. was chosen Representative from his 
District in Congress, being re-elected inl8S8and, 
again, in 18!)0. In 1893 he was ajipointed by 
President Cleveland Tliinl Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury, which position he continued 
to fill until Marcli, 1897, wlien he resumed the 
practice of law at Pittsfield. Died Jan. 1.", 1901 

WILEY, (Col.) ISenjaniiii Ladd, soldier, was 
born in Smithlield, JelTerson County, Ohio, 
March 2~>. 1821. came to Illinois in 184.5 and began 
life at Vienna, Johnson County, as a teacher. 
In 184G he enlisted for the Mexican War, as a 
member of the Fifth (Colonel Xewby's) Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers, serving chiefly in Xew 
Mexico until mustered out in 1848. A year later 
he removed to Jonesboro, where he spent some 
time at the cari)enter"s trade, after which he 
became clerk in a store, meanwhile assisting to 
edit "The Jonesboro Gazette" until IS.")."); then 
became traveling salesman for a St. Louis firm, 
but later engaged in the hardware trade at 
Jonesboro, in which he continued for several 
years. In 18.50 he was the Republican candidate 
for for the Ninth District, receiving 
4,000 votes, while Fremont, the Republican can- 
didate for President, received only 825 in the 
same district. In 1857 he opened a real estate 
office in Jonesboro in conjunction with David L. 
Phillips and Col. J. W. Ashley, with which he 
was connected until 1800. when he removeil to 
Makanda, Jackson County. In September, 180 1, 
he was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, later .serving in Missouri 
and Arkansiis under Generals Steele and Curtiss. 
being, a part of the time, in conimandof the First 
Brigade of Cavalry, and. in the advance on Vicks- 
burg, having commaml of tlie right wing of 
General Gnint's cavalry. Being disabled by 
rheumatism at the end of the siege, he tendered 
liis resignation, and was immediately appointed 
Enrolling Officer at Cairo, serving in this capac- 
ity until May, 1805, when he was mustered out. 
In 1809 he was appointed by Governor Palmer 
one of the Commissioners to locate the Southern 
Illinois Ho.spital for the Insiine. and served as 

Secretary of the Board until the institution vras 
opened at Anna, in May, 1871. In 1.S09 he was 
defeated as a candidate for County Judge of 
Jackson County, and, in 1872, for the State Sen- 
ate, by a small majority in a strongl3' Democratic 
District; in 1870 was the Republican candidate 
for Congress, in the Eighteenth District, against 
William Hartzell, but was defeated by only 
twenty votes, while carrying six out of the ten 
counties comprising the District. In the latter 
years of his life. Colonel Wiley was engaged quite 
extensively in fruit-growing at Makanda, Jack- 
son County, where he died. March 22, 1890. 

WILKIF, Franc ISanurs, journalist, was born 
in Saratoga (.'ounty, N. Y.. July 2, 1830; took a 
I)artial course at Union College, after which he 
edited papers at Scbenectadj-, N. Y., Elgin, 111., 
and Davenport and Dubuque. Iowa; also serving, 
during a part of the Civil War, as the western 
war correspondent of "The New York Times." 
In 1803 he became an editorial writer on "The 
Chicago Times." remaining with that paper, 
with the exception of a brief interval, until 1888 
— a part of the time as its European correspond- 
ent. He was the author of a series of sketches 
over the uom de plume of "Poliuto," and of a 
volume of reminiscences under the title, 
"Thirty-five Years of Journalism," published 
shortly before his death, which took place, April 

WIIiKiX, Jac(il) W., Justice of the Supreme 
Court, wivs liorn in Lickiug County. Ohio, June 
7, 1837; removed with his parents to Illinois, at 
12 years of age, and was educated at McKendree 
College; served three years in tlie War for the 
Union ; studied law witli Judge Scholfield and 
was admitted to the bar in 1800. In 1872, he was 
chosen Presidential Elector on the Republican 
ticket, and. in 1879, elected Judge of the Circuit 
Court and re-elected in 1885 — the latter year 
being assigned to the Appellate bench for the 
Fourth District, where he remained until his 
election to the Supreme bench in 18S8, being 
re-elected to the latter office in l.'<97. His home 
was at I):iiivilU\ Hied April 3, 1007. 

WII.KIXSOX, Ira 0., lawyer and Judge, was 
born in Virginia in 1822, and accompanied his 
father to Jacksonville (1835), where he was edu- 
cateil. During a short .service as Deputy Clerk of 
Morgan County, he conceived a fondness for the 
l>rofession of the law, and. after a of study 
under Judge William Thomas, was admitted to 
practice in 1847. Richard Yates (afterwards Gov- 
ernor and Senator* was his first partner. In 1845 
he removed to Rock Island, and, six years laier, 



was elected a Circuit Judge, being again closen 
to the sauie position in 1861. At the expiration 
of his second term he removed to Chicago. 
Died, at Jacksonville, August 24, 1894. 

WILKINSON, John P., early merchant, was 
born, Dec. 14, 1790, in New Kent County, Va., 
emigrated to Kentucky, and, in 1828, .settled 
in Jacksonville, 111., where he engaged in mer- 
cantile business. Mr. Wilkinson was a liberal 
friend of Illinois College and Jacksonville Female 
Academy, of each of which he was a Trustee 
from their origin until his death, which occurred, 
during a business visit to St. Louis, in December, 

WILL, Conrad, pioneer physician and early 
legislator, was born in Philadeli^hia, June 4, 1TT8; 
about 1804 removed to Somerset County Pa., and, 
in 1813, to Kaskaskia. 111. He was a physician 
by profession, but having leased the saline lands 
on the Big Muddy, in the vicinity of what after- 
wards became the town of Brownsville, he 
engaged in the manufacture of salt, removing 
thither in 1815, and becoming one of the founders 
of Brownsville, afterwards the first county-seat 
of Jackson Count}-. On the organization of 
Jackson County, in 1816, he became a member of 
the first Board of Count}' Commissioners, and, in 
1818, served as Delegate from that county in the 
Convention which framed the first State Consti- 
tution. Thereafter he served continuously as a 
member of the Legislature from 1818 to '34 — first 
as Senator in the First General Assembly, then 
as Representative in the Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth, and again as Senator in the Sixth, 
Seventh, Eighth and Ninth — his career being 
conspicuous for long service. He died in ofl3ce, 
June 11, 1834. Dr. Will was short of stature. 
fleshy, of jovial disposition and fond of playing 
practical jokes upon his associates, but very 
popular, as shown by his successive elections to 
the Legislature. He has been called "The Father 
of Jackson County." Will County, organized by 
act of the Legislature two years after his death, 
was named in his honor. 

WILL COUNTY, a northeastern county, em- 
bracing 800 square miles, named in honor of Dr. 
Conrad Will, an early politician and legislator. 
Early explorations of the territory were made 
in 1829, when white settlers were few. The bluff 
west of Joliet is said to have been first occupied 
by David and Benjamin Maggard. Joseph 
Smith, the Mormon "apostle," expounded his 
peculiar doctrines at "the Point" in 1831. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers fled from the country 
during (or after) a raid by the Sao Indians. 

There is a legend, seemingly well supported, to 
the effect that the first lumber, sawed to build 
the first frame house in Chicago (that of P. F. W. 
Peck), was sawed at Plainfield. Will County, 
originally a part of Cook, was separately erected 
in 1836, Joliet being made the county-seat. 
Agriculture, quarrying and manufacturing are 
the chief indiLstries. Joliet. Lockport and Wil- 
mington are the principal towns. Population 
(1890), 62,007; (1900), 74,764; (1910), 84,371. 

WILLARD, Frances Elizabeth, teacher and 
reformer, was born at Churchville, N. Y., Sept. 
28, 1839, graduated from the Northwestern 
Female College at Evanston, 111., in 18.')9, and, in 
1862, accepted the Professorship of Natural 
Sciences in that institution. During 1866-67 she 
was the Principal of the Genessee Wesleyan 
.Seminary. The next two years she devoted to 
travel and study abroad, meanwhile contribut- 
ing to various periodicals. From 1871 to 1874 slie 
was Professor of ^-Esthetics in the Northwestern 
University and dean of the Woman's College. 
She was always an enthusiastic champion of 
temperance, and, in 1874, abandoned her profes- 
sion to identify herself with the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. For five years she was 
Correspondmg Secretary of the national body, 
and, from 1879, its President. While Secretary 
she organized tlie Home Protective Association, 
and i^repared a petition to the Illinois Legislature, 
to which nearly 200,000 names were attached, 
asking for the granting to women of the right to 
vote on the license question. In 1878 she suc- 
ceeded her brother, Oliver A. Willard (who had 
died), as editor of "The Chicago Evening Post," 
but, a few months later, withdrew, and, in 1882, 
was elected as a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Prohibition party. In 
1886 she became leader of the White Cross Move- 
ment for the protection of women, and succeeded 
in securing favorable legislation, in this direc- 
tion, in twelve States. In 1883 she founded the 
World's Christian Temperance Union, and, in 
1888, was chosen its President, as also President 
of tlie International Council of Women. The 
latter years of her life were spent chiefly abroad, 
much of the time as the guest and co-worker of 
Lady Henry Somerset, of England, during which 
she devoted much attention to investigating the 
condition of women in the Orient. Miss Willard 
was a prolific and highly valued contributor to 
the magazines, and (besides numerous pamphlets) 
published several volumes, including "Nineteen 
Beautiful Years" (a tribute to her si.ster) ; 
"Woman in Temperance"; "How to Win," and 



"Woman in the Pulpit." Died, in New York, 
Feb. IS. ISflH. 

WILL.VUI), Samiu'l, A.M., M.D., IX.I)., phy- 
sician ami educator, \v;us born in Luneuberg, 
Vt., Dec. 30, 1821— the lineal descendant of Maj. 
Simon Willard, one of the founders of Concord, 
Mas.s., and i)rominent in "King Pliilip's War," 
and of his son, Rev. Dr. Samuel Willard, of the 
Old South Church. Boston, and seventh President 
of Harvard College. The .subject of this sketch 
was taken in his infancy to Boston, and, in 1831, 
to CarroUton, 111., where his father pursued the 
avocation of a druggist. After a preparatory 
course at Shurtlelf College, Upper Alton, in 1836 
he entered the freshman class in Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, but withdrew the following year, 
re-entering college in lfS4() and graduating in the 
class of 1843, as a cla.ssmate of Dr. Newton Bate- 
man, afterwards State Sn|)erintendent of Public 
Instruction an<l Pre.sident of Knox College, and 
Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, now of Elmira. N. Y. 
The next year lie spent as Tutor in Illinois Col- 
lege, when he l>egan tlie study of medicine at 
Quincy, graduating from the Medical Department 
of Illinois College in 1848. During a part of the 
latter year he edited a Free-Soil campaign paper 
("The Tribune") at Quincy, and, later, "The 
Western Temperance Magazine" at the same 
place. In 1849 lie began the practice of his pro- 
fession at St. Louis, but the next year removed 
toCollinsville. 111., remaining until 1S.")T, when he 
took charge of the Department of Languages in 
the newly organized State Normal University at 
Normal. The secoml year of the Civil War (1862) 
he enlisted as a private in tlie Ninety-seventh 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon after 
commissioned as Surgeon with the rank of Major, 
partici])ating in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
in the first attack upon Vicksburg. Being dis- 
abled by an attack of i)aralysis, in February, 1863, 
he was compelled to resign, when he had suflici- 
ently recovei;ed accepting a jmsition in the office 
of Provost Mai-shal General Oakes, at Spring- 
field, where he remained until the close of the 
war. Me then became Grand Secretary of the 
Inde])endent Order of Odd-Fellows for the State 
of Illinois— a position which he had held from 
1856 to 1863— remaining under his second appoint- 
ment from 1805 to '69. The next year he served 
as Sujierintendent of Schools at Springfield, 
meanwhile assisting in founding the Springfield 
public library, and serving as its first librarian. 
In ISTO he accepted the profc.s.sorship of History 
in the West Side High School of Chicago, 
which, with the exception of two years (1884-86), 

he continued to occupy for more than twenty- 
five years, retiring in 1898. In the meiintime. 
Dr. Willard has been a laborious literary worker, 
liaving been, for a considerable period, editor, or 
assistant editor, of "The IlUnois Teacher," a con- 
tributor to "The Century Magazine" and "The 
Dial" of Chicago, besides having published a 
"Digest of tlie Laws of Odd Fellowship" in six- 
teen volumes, begun while he was Grand Secre- 
tary of the Order in 18C4, and continued in 1873 
and "82; a "Synopsis of History and Historical 
Chart," covering the period from B. C. 800 
to A. D. 1876— of which he has had a second 
edition in course of preparation. Of late years 
he has been engaged upon a "Historical Diction- 
ary of Names and Places," which will include 
some 12,000 topics, and which promises to be the 
most important work of his life. Previous to the 
war he was an avowed Abolitionist and operator 
on the "L'nderground Railroad," who made no 
concealment of his opinions, and, on one or two 
occasions, was called to answer for them in 
prosecutions under the "Fugitive Slave Act." 
(See " Underground Railroad.") His friend 
and classmate, the late Dr. Bateman, says of 
him; "Dr. Willard is a sound thinker; a clear 
and forcible writer; of broad and accurate 
scholarship; conscientious, genial and kindly, 
and a most estimable gentleman." 

WILLI.VMS, Archilmld, lawyer and JMrist, 
was born in Moiitg(Jiiiery County, Ky., June 10, 
1801 ; with moderate advantages but natural 
fondness for study, he chose tlie profession of 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Tennessee 
in 1828, coming to Quincy, 111., the following 
year. He was elected to the General Assembly 
three times — serving in the Senate in 1832-36, and 
in the, 1830-40; was United States District 
Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois, by 
appointment of President Taylor, 1849,';3; wa-s 
twice the candidate of his party (the Whig) for 
United States Senator, and ajjpointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, in 1861. United States District 
Juilge for the State of Kansas. His abilities and 
high character were widely recognized. Died, 
in Quincy. Sept. 21, 1863— His son, John H., an 
attorney at Quincy, served as Judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court 1879-85. — Another son, Abraham Lin- 
coln, was twice elected Attorney-General of 

WILLIAMS, F,rastu8 Smith, lawyer and ju 
rist, was Uirn at Salem, N. Y., May 22, 1821. In 
1843 he removed to Chicago, where, after reading 
law. he W.1S admitlL'<l to the bar in 1844. In 1854 
he was appointed Master in Chancery, which 



office he filled until 1863, when he was elected a 
Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. 
After re-election in 1870 he became Chief Justice, 
and, at the same time, heard most of the cases on 
iihe equity side of the court. In 1879 he was a 
candidate for re-election as a Republican, but 
was defeated with the party ticket. After his 
retirement from the bench he resumed private 
practice. Died, Feb. 34, 1884. 

WILLIAMS, James R., Congressman, was 
born in White County, 111., Dec. 27, 1850, at the 
age of 25 graduated from the Indiana State Uni- 
versity, at Bloomington, and, in 1876, from the 
Union College of Law, Chicago, since then being 
an active and successful practitioner at Carmi. 
In 1880 be was appointed Master in Chancery and 
served two years. From 1882 to 1886 he was 
County Judge. In 1892 he was a nominee on 
the Democratic ticket for Presidential Elector. 
He was elected to represent the Nineteenth Illi- 
nois District in the Fifty-first Congress at a 
special election held to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of R. W. Townshend, was re-elected 
in 1890 and 1892, but defeated by Orlando Burrell 
(Republican) for re-election in the newly organ- 
ized Twentieth District in 1894. In 1898 he was 
again a candidate and elected to the Fifty sixth 

WILLI.i3IS, John, pioneer merchant, was 
born in Bath County, Ky., Sept. 11, 1808; be- 
tween 14 and 16 years of age was clerk in a store 
in his native State; then, joining his parents, 
who had settled on a tract of land in a part of 
Sangamon (now Menard) County, 111., he found 
employment as clerk in the store of Slajor Elijah 
lies, at Springfield, whom he succeeded in busi- 
ness at the age of 22, continuing it without inter- 
ruption until 1880. In 1856 Mr. Williams was 
the Republican candidate for Congress in the 
Springfield District, and, in 1861, was appointed 
Commissary-General for the State, rendering 
valuable service in furnishing supplies for State 
.troops, in camps of instruction and while proceed- 
ing to the field, in the first years of the war ; was 
also chief ofiicer of the Illinois Sanitary Commis- 
sion for two years, and, as one of the intimate 
personal friends of Mr. Lincoln, was chosen to 
accompany the remains of tlae martyred President, 
from Washington to Springfield, for burial. 
Liberal, entei-prising and public-spirited, his name 
was associated with nearly every public enter- 
prise of importance in Springfield during his 
business career — being one of tlie founders, and, 
for eleven years President, of the First National 
Bank; a chief promoter in the construction of 

what is now the Springfield Division of the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad, and the Springfield and 
Peoria line; a Director of the Springfield Iron 
Company ; one of the Commissioners who con- 
structed the Springfield water-works, and an 
oflScer of the Lincoln Monument Association, 
from 1865 to his death, May 29, 1890. 

WILLIAMS, >'oriiian, lawyer, was born at 
AVoodstock, Vt., Feb. 1, 1833, being related, on 
both the paternal and maternal sides, to some of 
the most prominent families of New England. 
He fitted for college at Union Academy, Meriden, 
and graduated from the University of Vermont 
in the class of 18.55. After taking a course in 
the Albany Law School and with a law firm in 
his native town, he was admitted to practice in 
both New York and Vermont, removed to Chi- 
cago in 18.58, and, in 1860, became a member of 
the firm of King, Kales & Williams, still later 
forming a partnership witli Gea. John L. Thomp- 
son, which ended with the death of the latter in 
1888. In a professional capacity he assisted in 
the organization of the Pullman Palace Car Com- 
pany, and was a member of its Board of Directors ; 
also assisted in organizing the Western Electric 
Company, and was prominenth' identified with 
the Chicago Telephone Company and the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. In 1881 he served as 
the United States Commissioner to the Electrical 
Exposition at Paris. In conjunction with his 
brother (Edward H. W^illiams) he assisted in 
founding the public library at Woodstock, Vt., 
which, in honor of his father, received the name 
of "The Norman Williams Public Library." 
With Col. Huntington W. Jackson and J. Mc- 
Gregor Adams, Mr. Williams was named, in the 
will of the late John Crerar, as an executor of the 
Crerar estate and one of the Trustees of the 
Crerar Public Library, and became its first Presi- 
dent; was also a Director of the Chicago Pub- 
lic Library, and trustee of a number of large 
estates. Mr. Williams was a son-in-law of the 
late Judge John D. Caton. and his oldest daughter 
became the wife of Major-General Wesley Mer- 
ritt. a few months before his death, which oc- 
curred at Hampton Beach. N. H., Juue 19, 1899 
— his remains being interred in his native town 
of Woodstock, Vt. 

WILLI.\MS, Robert Ebenezer, lawyer, born 
Dec. 3, 1825. at Clarksville, Pa., his grandfathers 
on both sides being soldiers of the Revolutionary 
War. In 1830 his parents removed to Washing- 
ton in the same State, where in boyhood he 
worked as a mechanic in his father's shop, 
attending a common school in the is inter until 



he reached the ap;e of 17 years, when he entered 
AV;ushin};ton College, remiiining for more than a 
year. He tlien l)e>r<in teaching, and. in 1845 
went to Kentucky, where he pursued the business 
of a teacher for four years. Then he entered 
Bethany College in West Virginia, at the same 
time prosecuting his law studie.s, but left at the 
close of his junior year, when, having been 
licensed to practice, he removed to Clinton, 
Texas. Here he accepted, from a retired lawyer, 
the loan of a law library, wliich he afterwards 
purchased ; served for two years as State's Attor- 
ney, and. in IS.JC, came to Blooniington. 111., 
where he spent the remainder of his life in tlie 
practice of his prt>fession. Much of his time was 
devoted to practice as a railroad attorney, espe- 
cially in connection with the Chicago & Alton and 
the Illinois Central Railroads, in which he 
acquired prominence and wealtli. He was a life- 
long Democrat and, in lyGS, was the unsuccessful 
candidate of his i)arty for Attornej--Cieneral of 
the Stivte. The last tliree years of his life he liad 
been in bad health, dying at Bloomington, Feb. 
l.j. 1899. 

WILLI.VMS, Samuel, Bank President, was born 
in Adams I'ciuiity, Oluo. July 11, 1820; came to 
Wiuueliago County, 111., in 1835, and, in 1842, 
removed to Iroquois Count}', where lie held vari- 
ous local offices, including that of County Judge, 
to wliich he was elected in 1861. During his 
later years lie liad been President of the Watseka 
Citizens" Bank. Died. June V>. 1896. 

WILLIAMSON, KoUin Samuel, legislator and 
jurist, was born at Cornwall, Vt.. Maj- 23. 1839. 
At the age of 14 he went to Boston, where lie 
began life as a telegrapli mes,senger boy. In 
two years he had become a skillful operator, and, 
as such, was employed in various offices in New 
England and New York. In 1857 he came to 
Chicago seeking emploj'ment and, through the 
fortunate correction of an error on the part of 
the receiver of a message, secured the position of 
ojierator and .station agent at Palatine, Cook 
County. Here he read law during his leisure 
time without a preceptor, and, in 1870. was 
ailmitted to the Uir. The same year he was 
elected to the lower House of the General 
Assembly and, in 1872, to tlie Senate. In 1880 he 
was elected to the bench of the Superior Court of 
Cook County, and, in 1887, was chosen a Judge 
of the Cook County Circuit Court. Died, Au- 
gust 10. 1889. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTT, in the southern part 
of the State, originally set off from Franklin and 
organized in 1839. The county is well watered, 

the principal streams being the Big Muddy and 
the Soutli Fork of the Saline. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. The region was 
originally well covered with forests. All the 
cereals (as well as potatoes) are cultivated, and 
ricli meadows encourage stock-raising. Coal and 
sandstone underlie the entire county. Area, 440 
square miles; population (1880). 19,324: (1890) 
22,220; (1900), 27.700; (1010), 45.098. 

T>'ILLI.VMSVILLE, village of Sangamon Coun- 
ty, on Chicago & .\lton Railroad. 12 niilos north 
of Siiringfu'ld; has a bank, elevator. 3 churches, a 
new.-spapor and coal-minos. Pop. (1910), 000. 

WILLIS, Jonathan Clay, soldier and former 
Railroad and Warehouse Commissioner, wa.s born 
in Sumner County, Tenn., June 27, 1826; brought 
to Gallatin Countj-, 111., in 1834, and settled at 
Golconda in 1843; was elected Sheriff of Pope 
County in 1856, removed to Metropolis in 1859, 
and engaged in the wharf-boat and commission 
business. He entered the service as Quarter- 
master of the Forty -eighth Illinois Volunteers in 
18G1, but was compelled to resign on account of 
injuries, in 1863; was elected Representative i" 
the Twenty-sixth General Assembly (1808), 
appointed Collector of Internal Revenue in 1869, 
and Railway and Warehouse Commissioner in 
1892. as tlie successor of John R. Tanner, serving 
until 1893. 

WILMETTE, a village in Cook County, 14 miles 
north of Chicago, on the Chicago it Northwestern 
Railroad, a handsome suburb of Chicago on the 
sliore of Lake Michigan; principal streets paved 
and shaded with fine forest trees: has public 
library and good schools. Pop. (1910). 4.943. 

WILMINGTON, a city of Will County, on the 
Kankakee River and the Chicago it Alton Rail- 
road, 53 miles from Chicago and 15 south-south- 
west of Joliet: has considerable manufactures, 
two National banks, a graded school, churches 
and one newspaper. Wilmington is the location 
of the Illinois Soldiers" Widows' Home. Popu- 
lation (ISOO), 1..57r.; (1000). 1,420; (1010), 1,4.50. 

WILSON, Charles Lush, journalist, was bom 
in Fairfield County, Conn., Oct. 10, 1818, edu- 
cated in the common schools and at an academy 
in his native State, and, in 1835, removed to Chi- 
cago, entering tlie employment of his older 
brothers, who were connected with the construc- 
tion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal at Joliet. 
His brother, Richard L., having assumed charge 
of "The Chicago Daily Journal"' (the successor 
of "The Chicago American""). in|lS44, Charles L. 
took a jxisition in the office, ultimately securing 
a partnership, which continued until the death 



of his brother in 1856, when he succeeded to the 
ownership of the paper. Mr. Wilson was an 
ardent friend and supporter of Abraham Lincoln 
for the United States Senate in 1858, but, in 1860, 
favored the nomination of Mr. Seward for the 
Presidency, thougli earnestly supporting Mr. Lin- 
coln after liis nomination. In 1861 he was 
appointed Secretary of the American Legation at 
London, serving with the late Minister Charles 
Francis Adams, until 1864. when he resigned and 
resumed his connection with "The Journal."' In 
1875 his health began to fail, and three years 
later, having gone to San Antonio, Tex., in the 
hope of receiving benefit from a change of cli- 
mate, he died in that city, March 9, 1878. — 
Richard Lush (Wilson), an older brother of the 
preceding, the first editor and publisher of "The 
Chicago Evening Journal," the oldest paper of 
consecutive publication in Chicago, was a native 
of New York. Coming to Chicago with his 
brother John L., in 1834, they soon after estab- 
lished themselves in business on the Illinois & 
Michigan Canal, then in course of construction. 
In 1844 he took charge of "The Chicago Daily 
Journal" for a publishing committee wliich Iiad 
purchased tlie material of "The Chicago Ameri- 
can," but soon after became principal proprietor. 
In April, 1847, while firing a salute in honor of 
the victory of Buena Vista, he lost an arm and 
was otherwise injured by the explosion of the can- 
non. Early in 1849, he was appointed, by Presi- 
dent Taylor, Postmaster of the city of Chicago, 
but, having failed of confirmation, was compelled 
to retire in favor of a successor appointed by 
Millard Fillmore, eleven months later. Mr. 
Wilson publislied a little volume in 184i entitled 
"A Trip to Santa Fe," and, a few years later, 
a story of travel under the title, "Short Ravel- 
lings from a Long Yarn." Died, December, 18.j0. 
— John Lush (Wilson), another brother, also a 
native of New York, came to Illinois in 1834, was 
afterwards associated with his brothers in busi- 
ness, being for a time business manager of "Tlie 
Chicago Journal;" also served one term as Sher- 
iff of Cook County. Died, in Chicago, April 13, 

AVILSON, Isaac Grant, jurist, was born at 
Middlebury, N. Y., April 26, 1817, graduated 
from Brown University in 1838, and the same 
year came to Chicago, whither his father's 
family had preceded liim in 1835. After reading 
law for two years, he entered the senior class at 
Cambridge (Mass.) Law School, graduating in 
1841. In August of that year he opened an 
oflBce at Elgin, and, for ten years "rode the cir- 

cuit." In 1851 he was elected to the bench of 
tlie Thirteentli Judicial Circuit to fill a vacancy, 
and re-elected for a full term in 1855, and again 
in '61. In November of the latter year he was 
commissioned the first Colonel of the Fifty- 
second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but resigned, 
a few weeks later, and resumed his place upon 
the bench. From 1867 to 1879 he devoted him- 
self to private practice, which was largely in 
the Federal Courts. In 1879 he resumed his seat 
upon the bench (this time for the Twelfth Cir- 
cuit), and was at once designated as one of the 
Judges of the Appellate Court at Chicago, of 
which tribunal he became Chief Ju.stice in 1881. 
In 1885 he was re-elected Circuit Judge, but died, 
about the close of his term, at Geneva, June 8, 

WILSON, James Grant, soldier and author, 
was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, April 28, 1833, 
and, when only a year old, was brought by his 
father, William Wilson, to America. The family 
settled at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where James 
Grant was educated at College Hill and under 
private teachers. After finishing his studies he 
became his father's partner in business, but, in 
1855, went abroad, and, shortlj' after his return, 
removed to Chicago, where he founded the first 
literary paper established in the At 
the outbreak of the Civil War, he disposed of his 
journal to enlist in the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, 
of which he was commissioned Major and after- 
wards promoted to the colonelcy. In August, 
1863, while at New Orleans, by advice of General 
Grant, he accepted a commission as Colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment United States Colored 
Cavalry, and was assigned, as Aid-de-camp, to 
the staff of the Commander of the Department of 
the Gulf, filling this post until April, 1865. 
When General Banks was relieved. Colonel AVil- 
son was brevetted Brigadier-General and placed 
in command at Port Hudson, resigning in July, 
1865, since which time his home has been in New 
York. He is best known as an author, having 
published numerous addresses, and being a fre- 
quent contributor to American and European 
magazines. Among larger works which he has 
written or edited are "Biographical Sketches of 
Illinois Officers"; "Love in Letters"; "Life of 
General U. S. Grant"; "Life and Letters of 
Fitz Greene Halleck"; "Poets and Poetry o-f 
Scotland"; "Bryant and His Friends", and 
"Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. " 

WILSOX, James Harrison, soldier and mili- 
tary engineer, was born near Shawneetown, 111,, 
Sept. 3, 1837. His grandfather, Alexander WMI.- 



son, was one of tlie pioneers of Illinois, and 
his father (Harrison Wilson) was an ensign dur- 
ing the War of 1812 and a Captain in the Black 
Hawk War. His brother (Bluford Wilson) 
served as Assistant Adjutant-Genei'al of Volun- 
teers during the Civil War. and a.s Solicitor of the 
United States Treasury during the "whisky ring" 
prosecutions. James H. was educated in the 
common schools, at McKendree College, and 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, graduating from the latter in 18G0, and 
being assigned to the ToiHigrajihical Engineer 
Corps. In September, 18G1, he w;vs promoted to 
a First Lieutenancy, then served as Chief Topo- 
graphical Engineer of the Port Royal expedition 
until March, 1802; was afterwards attached to 
the Department of the South, being present at 
the bombardment of Fort Pulaski; was Aid-de- 
camp to McClellan, and participated in the bat- 
tles of South Jiduutain and Antietam; was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers in Noveml)er, 
1802; was Chief Topographical Engineer and 
Inspector-(ieneral of the Army of the Tennes.see 
until October. 1803, being actively engaged in 
the operations around Vicksburg; was made 
Captain of Engineers in Slay, 18G3, and Brigadier- 
General of Volunteers, Oct. 31, following. He 
also conducted operations preliminary to the 
battle of Chattanooga and Missionary Kidge. and 
for the relief of Knoxville. Later, lie was placed 
in command <if the Third Division of the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Potomac, serving from 
May to, 1804, under General Sheridan. 
Subse(iuently he wa.s transferred to the Depart- 
ment of the Mississippi, where he so distinguished 
himself that, on April 20, 1865, he was made 
Major-General of Volunteers. In twenty-eight 
days he captured five fortified cities, twenty- 
three stands of (colors, 288 guns and 6,820 jirison- 
ers — among the latter being .letTerson Davis. Ho 
was mustereil out of the volunteer service in 
January. is(i(), and, on July 28, following, was 
commi.ssioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Thirty- 
fifth United States Infantry, being also brevetted 
Major-General in the regular army. On Dec. 31, 
1870, lie returned to civil life, and was afterwards 
largely engaged in railroad and engineering oper- 
ations, especially in West Virginia. Promptly 
after the declaration of war with Spain (1898) 
General Wilson was apixiinted, by the President, 
Major-General of Volunteers, serving until its 
close. He is the author of "China: Travels and 
Investigations in the Middle Kingdom" ; "Life of 
Andrew J. Alexan<ler"; and the "Life of Gen. 
U. S. Grant," in conjunction with Charles A. 

Dana. His home, in recent years, has been in 
New York. 

WILSOX, John M., lawyer and jurist, was 
born in New Hami)shire in 1802, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1824 — the classmate of Frank- 
lin Pierce and Xathaniel Hawthorne ; studied law 
in New Ham|)shire and came to Illinois in 1833, 
locating at Joliet; removed to Chicago in 1841, 
where he was the partner of Norman B. Judd, 
serving, at different periods, as attorney of the 
Chicago & Rock Island, the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern and the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railways; was Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Cook County, 18.53-.')9, when he became 
Presiding Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, 
serving until 1808. Died, Dec. 7, 1883. 

WILSOX, John P., lawyer, was born in White- 
side County, 111., July 3, 1844; educated in the 
common schools and at Knox College, Galesburg, 
graduating from the latter in 180.5; two j-ears 
later was a<lmitted to the bar in Chicago, and 
.speedily attained jirominence in his profession. 
During the World's Fair period he was retained 
as counsel by the Committee on Grounds and 
Buildings, and was prominently connected, as 
counsel for the city, with the Lake Front litiga- 

AVILSOX, Kohort L., early legislator, was born 
in Washington t'ounty. Pa., Sept. 11, 1805, taken 
to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1810, graduated at Frank- 
lin College in 1831, studied law and, in 1833, 
removed to Athens (now in Menard County). 111. ; 
was elected Keiiresentative in 1830, and was one 
of the members from Sangamon County, known 
as the "Long Nine," who assisted in securing the 
removal of the State Capital to Springfield. Mr. 
Wilson removed to Sterling, Whiteside County, 
in 1840, was elected five times Circuit Clerk and 
served eight years as Probate Judge. Immedi- 
ately after the fall of Fort Sumter, he enlisted as 
private in a battalion in Washington City under 
command of Cassius M. Clay, for guard duty 
until the arrival of the Seventh New York Regi- 
ment. He subsequently assisted in raising 
troops in Illinois, was appointed Paymaster by 
Lincoln, serving at Wsisliington, St. Louis, and, 
after the fall of Vicksburg, at Springfield — being 
mustered out in November, 1865. Died, in White- 
.>;ido County, 18S0. 

WlliSOX, Robert S.. lawyer and jurist, was 
born at Montrose, Susipu'hanna County. Pa., Nov. 
6, 1812; learned the printer's art, then studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in Allegheny 
County, about 1833; in 1836 removed to Ann 
Arbor, Mich., where he served as Probate Judge 



and State Senator ; in 1850 came to Chicago, was 
elected Judge of the Recorder's Court in 1853, 
and re-elected in 1858, serving ten years, and 
proving "a terror to evil-doers." Died, at Law- 
rence, Mich., Dec. 23, 1882. 

WILSON, William, early jurist, was born in 
Loudoun Comity, Va., April 27, 1794; studied law 
with Hon. John Cook, a distinguished lawyer, 
and minister to France in the early part of the 
century ; in 1817 removed to Kentucky, soon after 
came to Illinois, two years later locating in White 
County, near Carmi, which continued to be his 
home during the remainder of his life. In 1819 
he was appointed Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court as successor to William P. 
Foster, who is described by Governor Ford as 
"a great rascal and no lawyer," and who held 
office onl}' about nine months. Judge Wilson 
was re-elected to the Supreme bench, as Chief- 
Justice, in 1825, being then only a little over 30 
years old, and held office until the reorganization 
of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 
1843 — a period of over twentj'-nine j'ears, and, 
with the exception of Judge Browne's, the long- 
est term of service iu the history of the court. 
He died at his home in White County, April 29, 
1857. A Whig in early life, he allied himself 
with the Democratic party on the dissolution of 
the former. Hon. James C. Conkling, of Spring- 
field, says of him, "as a writer, his style was clear 
and distinct; as a lawyer, his judgment was 
sound and discriminating." 

WINCHESTER, a city and county-seat of Scott 
County, founded in 1839, situated on Big Sandy 
Creek and on the line of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad, 29 miles south of Beardstown 
and 84 miles north by west of St. Louis. AVhile 
the surrounding region is agricultural and largely 
devoted to wheat growing, there is some coal 
mining. Winchester is an important shipping- 
point, having three grain elevators, two flouring 
mills, and a coal mine employing fifty miners. 
There are four Protestant and one Catholic 
church, a court house, a high school, a graded 
school building, two banks and two weekly news- 
papers. Population (1880), 1,626; (1890), 1,542; 
(1900), 1,711; (1910), 1,039. 

WINDSOR, a city of Shelby County at the 
crossing of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis and the Wabash Railways, 11 miles 
northeast of Shelby ville; in district; has 
bank and one paper. Pop. (1900), 866; (1910), 987. 
WINES, Frederick Howard, clergynian and 
sociologist, was born in Philadelphia. Pa., April 
9, 1838, graduated at Washington (Pa. ) College 

in 1857, and, after serving as tutor thei-e for a 
short time, entered Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, but was comiielled temporarily to discon- 
tinue his studies on account of a weakness of 
the eyes. The Presbytery of St. Louis licensed 
him to preach in 1860, and, in 1862, he was com- 
missioned Ho.spital Chaplain in the Union army. 
During 1862-64 he was stationed at Springfield, 
Mo., participating in the battle of Springfield on 
Jan. 8, 1863, and being personally mentioned for 
bravery on the field in the official report. Re- 
entering the seminary at Princeton in 1864, he 
graduated in 1805, and at once accepted a call to 
the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Springfield, 111., which he filled for four j ears. 
In 1869 he was appointed Secretary of the newly 
created Board of Commissioners of Public Chari- 
ties of Illinois, in which capacity he continued 
until 1893, when he resigned. For the next four 
years he was chiefly engaged in literary work, in 
lecturing before universities on topics connected 
with social science, in aiding in the organization 
of charitable work, and in the conduct of a 
thorough investigation into the relations between 
liquor legislation and crime. At an early period 
he took a prominent part in organizing the 
various Boards of Public Charities of the United 
States into an organization known as the National 
Conference of Charities and Corrections, and, at 
the Louisville meeting (1883), was elected its 
President. At the International Penitentiary 
Congress at Stockholm (1878) he was the official 
delegate from Illinois. On his return, as a result 
of his observations while abroad, he submitted 
to the Legislature a report stronglj' advocating 
the construction of the Kankakee Hospital for 
the Insane, then about to be built, upon the 
"detached ward'' or "village"' plan, a departure 
from then existing methods, which marks an era 
in the treatment of insane in the United States. 
Mr. Wines conducted the investigation into the 
condition and number of the defective, depend- 
ent and delinquent classes throughout the coun- 
try, his report constituting a separate volume 
under the "Tenth Census," and rendered a simi- 
lar service in connection with the eleventh 
census (1890). In 1887 he was elected Secretary 
of the National Prison Association, succeeding to 
the post formerly held by his father, Enoch Cobb 
Wines, D.D., LL.D. After the inauguration of 
Governor Tanner in 1897, he resumed his former 
position of Secretary of the Board of Public 
C'harities, remaining until 1899, when he again 
tendered his resignation, having received the 
appointment to the position of Assistant Director 



of the Twelftli Census, which he held 2 years. He 
is the author of "Crime and Reformation" ' (1895); 
of a vohuninous series of reports; also of numer- 
our. pamphlets and brochures, among which may 
be mentioned "The County Jail S3-stem; An 
Argument for its Al)olition" (1878), "The Kanka- 
kee Hospital" (l8Si); "Provision for the Insane 
in the United States" (1885); "Conditional 
Liberation, or the Paroling of Prisoners" (1886), 
and "American Prisons in the Tenth Census" 
(1S88). Died Jan. '.U, 1912. 

WIXES, Walter B., lawyer (brother of Freder- 
ick n. Wines), was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 
10, 1848, received his primary education at Willis- 
ton Academy, East Hamn^on, Mass., after which 
he entered Middlebury College, Vt., taking a 
classical course and graduating there. He after- 
wards became a student in the law department 
of Columbia College. X. Y., graduating in 1871, 
being admitted to the bar the same year and 
commencing practice in New York City. In 1879 
he came to Springfield, 111., and was, for a time, 
identified with the bar of that city; was engaged 
some years in literary and journalistic work in 
Chicago; died at Minneapolis, Minn., July 31, 1901. 
WIXNEBAOO COUXTY, situated in the 
"northern tier." bordering on the Wisconsin 
State line; was organized, under an act pa.ssed in 
1836, from La Salle and Jo I)avie.-;.s Counties, and 
has an area of 540 square miles. The county is 
drained by the Rock and Pecatonica Rivers. 
The surface is rolling prairie and the .soil fertile. 
The geology is simple, the quaternary deposits 
being underlaid by the Galena blue and buff 
limestone, adapted for building purposes. All 
the cereals are rai.sed in abundance, the chief 
product being corn. The Winnebago Indians 
(wlio gave name to the county) formerlj* lived 
on the side of the Rock River, and the Potta- 
watoraies on the ea,st, but both tribes removed 
westward in 183.5. (As to other loading inter- 
ests, see Rockford.) Population (1.SS0), 3(),.W5; 
(1890), 3<),'.):!S; (l(H)O), 47.S4.">; (1910), 63,153. 
WINNEBAGO WAR. The name given to an 
Indian disturbance which had its origin in 1827, 
during the administration of Gov. Ninian 
Edwards. The Indians had been quiet sine* the 
conclusion of the War of 1812, but a few isolated 
outrages were sufficient to start terrified "run- 
ners" in all directions. In the northern portion 
of the State, from Galena to Chicago (then Fort 
Dearborn) the alarm was intense. The meiigre 
militia force of the State was summoned and 
volunteers i-ere called for. Me.inwhile, COO 
Uuiled States Regular Infantry, under command 

of Gen. Henry Atkinson, put in an appearance. 
Besides the infantry, Atkinson had at his disposal 
some 130 mounted sharpshooters. The origin of 
the disturbance was as follows: The Winne- 
bagoes attacked a band of Chippewas, who were 
(by treaty) under Government potection, several 
of the latter being killed. For participation in 
this offense, four Winnebago Indians were sum- 
marily apprehended, surrendered to the Chippe- 
was and shot. Meanwhile, some dispute had 
arisen as to the title of the lands, claimed by the 
Winnebagoes in the vicinity of Gale'ia, which 
liail been occupied bj- white miners. Repeated 
acts of hostility and of reprisal, along the Upper 
Jlississippi, intensified mutual distrust. A gather- 
ing of the Indians around two keel-boats, laden 
with supplies for Fort Snelling, which had 
anchored near Prairie du Chien and opposite a 
Winnebago camp, w;us regarded bj- the whites as 
a hostile act. Liquor was freely distributed, and 
there is historical evidence that a half-dozen 
drunken squaws were carried off and shamefully 
maltreated. Several linndred warriors assembled 
tc avenge the deception which had been practiced 
upon them. They laid in ambush for the boats 
on their return trip. The first passed too rapidly 
to be successfully a.ssailed, but the second 
grounded and was savagelj', yet unsuccessfully, 
attacked. The presence of General Atkinsou"s 
forces prevented an actual outbreak, and, on his 
demand, the great Winnebago Chief. Red Bird, 
with si.'c other leading men of the tribe, sur- 
rendered themselves as hostages to save their 
nation from e.vtermination. A majoritj' of 
were, after trial, acquitted. Red Bird, however, 
unable to endure confinement, literallj- pined to 
death in prison, dying on Feb. 16, 1828. He is 
described as liaving I)een a savage of superior 
intelligence and noble character. A treaty of 
peace was concluded with the Winnebagoes in a 
council held at Prairie du Chien, a few months 
later, but the affair seems to have produced as 
much alarm among the Indians as it did among 
the whites. (For ^Vinnebago Indians see y<a,ge!i76.) 

WIXXETKA, a village of Cook County, on the 
Chicago & Kortliwcstern Railway, IG'/j miles 
north of Chicago. It stands eighty feet above 
the level of Lake Michigan, has good schools 
(being the seat of the M'iniietka Institute), sev- 
eral churches, and is a popular residence town. 
Pop. (1S90), 1.079; (1900), 1.S.33: (1910), 3,1()S. 

WINSTON, Froilcrifk Hampton, lawyer, was 
born in Liberty County, Ga., Nov. 20. lS:iO, 
brought to Woodford County, Ky., in 1835. left 
an orphan at 12. and attended the common 



sciiools until 18, when, returning to Georgia, he 
engaged in cotton manufacture. He finally 
began the study of law with United States Sena- 
tor W. C. Dawson, and graduated fi'om Harvard 
Law School in 1852; spent some time in the office 
of W. M. Evarts in New York, was admitted to 
the bar and came to Chicago in 1853, where he 
formed a partnership with Norman B. Judd, 
afterwards being associated with Judge Henry 
W. Blodgett; served as general solicitor of the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific and the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railwaj-s — remaining with the 
latter twenty j-ears. In 1885 he was appointed, 
by President Cleveland, Minister to Persia, but 
resigned the following year, and traveled exten- 
sively in Russia, Scandinavia and other foreign 
countries. Mr. Winston was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Conventions of 1868, "76 and 
"84 ; first President of the Stock Yards at Jersey 
City, for twelve years President of the Lincoln 
Park Commission, and a Director of the Lincoln 
National Bank. Died Feb. 19, 1904. 

sin Central Company was organized, June 17, 
1887, and subsequently acquired the Minnesota, 
St. Croix & Wisconsin, the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota, the Chippewa Falls & Western, the St. 
Paul & St. Croix Falls, the Wisconsin Central, the 
Penokee, and the Packwaukee & Montebello Rail- 
roads, and assumed the leases of the Milwaukee 
& Lake Winnebago and the Wisconsin & Minne- 
sota Roads. On July J. 1888, the company began 
to operate the entire Wisconsin Central system, 
with the exception of the Wisconsin Central 
Railroad and the leased Slilwaukee & Lake Win- 
nebago, which remained in charge of the AVis- 
consin Central Railroad mortgage trustees until 
Nov. 1, 1889, when these, too, passed under the 
control of the Wisconsin Central Company. The 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Company is a re- 
organization (Oct. 1, 1879) of a company formed 
Jan. 1, 1871. The Wisconsin Central and the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Companies, though 
differing in name, are a financial unit; the 
former holding most of the first mortgage bonds 
of the latter, and substantially all its notes, stocks 
and income bonds, but, for legal reasons (such as 
the protection of land titles), it is necessary that 
separate corporations be maintained. On April 
1, 1890, the Wisconsin Central Company executed 
a lease to the Northern Pacific Railroad, but this 
was set aside by the courts, on Sept. 27, 1893, for 
non-payment of rent, and was finally canceled. 
On the same day receivers were appointed to 

insure the protection of all interests. The total 
mileage is 415.46 miles, of which the Company 
owns 2.58.90— only .10 of a mile in Illinois. A 
line, 58.10 miles in length, with 8.44 miles of 
side-track (total, 66.54 miles), lying wholly within 
the State of Illinois, is operated by the Chicago & 
Wisconsin and furnishes the allied line an en- 
trance into Chicago. 

WITHROW, Thomas F., lawyer, was born in 
Virginia in March, 1833, removed with his parents 
to Ohio in childhood, attended the Western 
Reserve College, and, after the death of his 
father, taught school and worked as a printer, 
later, editing a paper at Mount Vernon. In 1855 
he removed to Janesville. Wis. , where he again 
engaged in journalistic work, studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in Iowa in 1857, settled at 
Des Moines and served as private secretary of 
Governors Lowe and Kirkwood. In 1860 he 
became Supreme Court Reporter; served as 
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee in 1863 and, in 1866, became associated 
with the Rock Island Railroad in the capacity of 
local attorney, was made chief law oflrcer of the 
Company in 1873, and removed to Chicago, and, 
in 1890, was promoted to the position of General 
Counsel. Died, in Chicago, Feb. 3, 1893. 

WOLCOTT, (Dr.) Alexander, early Indian 
Agent, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Feb. 
14, 1790; graduated from Y'ale College in 1809, 
and, after a course in medicine, was commis- 
sioned, in 1812, Surgeon's Mate in the United 
States Army. In 1820 he was appointed Indian 
Agent at Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), as suc- 
cessor to Charles Jouett — the first Agent — who 
had been appointed a United .States Judge in 
Arkansas. The same year he accompanied Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass and Henry Schoolcraft on their 
tour among the Indians of the Northwest; was 
married in 1823 to Ellen Marion Kinzie, a 
daughter of Col. John Kinzie, the first perma- 
nent settler of Chicago; in 1825 was appointed a 
Justice of the Peace for Peoria County, which 
then included Cook County; was a Judge of 
Election in 1830, and one of the purchasers of a 
block of ground in the heart of the pi-esent city 
of Chicago, at the first sale of lots, held Sept. 27, 
1830. but died before the close of t'le year. Dr. 
Wolcott appears to have been a high-minded and 
honorable man, as well as far in advance of the 
mass of pioneers in point of education and intel- 

CAGO. (See Northwestern University Woman's 
Medical School.) 



WOMAN srFFRA(iE. (See Suffrage.) 

>VO()l>, I5('n>iiiii, kiwver and Congressman, was 
born in Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1)^39; re- 
ceived a common school and academic education; 
at the age of 20 came to Illinois, and, for two 
years, taught school in Lee County. He then 
enlisted as a soldier in an Illinois regiment, 
attaining the rank of Captain of Infantry; after 
the war, graduated from the Law Department of 
the old Chicago University, and has since been 
engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
was elected a member of the Twenty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly (1872) and was a delegate to the 
Republican National Conventions of 1876 and 
1888 ; also served as JIayor of the city of Effing- 
ham, where he now resides. In 1894 he was 
elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the 
Republicans of the Nineteenth District, which has 
uniformly returned a Democrat, and, in office, 
proved himself a most indu.strious and efficient 
member. Jlr. Wood was defeated as a candidate 
for re-election in 189(>. 

WOOD, John, pioneer, Lieutenant-Governor 
and Governor, was born at Moravia, N. Y., Dec. 
20, 1798— his father being a Revolutionary soldier 
who had served as Surgeon and Captain in the 
army. At the age of 21 years j-oung Wood re- 
moved to Illinois, settling in what is now Adams 
County, and building the first log-cabin on the site 
of the i)resent city of (^uincj'. He was a memlier 
of the upper house of the Seventeenth and Eight- 
eenth General As.semlilies, and was elected Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in ls.')9 on the same ticket with 
Governor Bissell. and served out the unexpired 
term of the latter, who died in office. (See Bis- 
sell. William II.) He was succeeded by Richard 
Yates in 1801. In February of that year he was 
ajipointed one of the five Commissioners from 
Illinois to the "Peace Conference" at Wash- 
ington, to consider methods for averting 
civil war. The following May he was appointed 
Qviarterniaster-General for the State by Governor 
Yates, and assisted most efficiently in fitting out 
the troops for the field. In June, 18G4. he was 
commi.ssioned ('nlonel of the One Hundred and 
Tliirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers (100-days' men) 
and mustered out of service the following Sep- 
tember. Died, at Quincy, June 11, 1880. He 
was liberal, patriotic and public-spirited. His 
fellow-citizens of Quincy erected a monument to 
his memory, which was appropriately dedicated, 
July 4. 1S8:!. 

WOODFORD COUNTY, situated a little nortli 
of the center of the State, bounded on the west 
by the Illinois River ; organized in 1841 ; area, 

556 square miles. The surface is generally level, 
except along the Illinois River, the soil fertile 
and well watered. The county lies in tlie nortli- 
ern section of the great coal field of the State. 
Eureka is the county-seat. Other thi-iving cities 
and towns are Metamora, Minonk, El Paso and 
Roanoke. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes and barley 
are the principal crops. The chief mechanical 
industries are Hour manufacture, carriage and 
wagon-making, and saddlery and harness work. 
Pop. (1900), 21.822; (1910), 20..506. 

WOODHl'LL, a village of Henr County, on 
Ki'ith>liuif: l)ranch Chicago, Burlington & (Quincy 
Railroad. l.'> miles west of Galva; has a bank, 
electric lights, water works, brick and tile works, 
six churclic.-; and weekly i)a|>er. Pop. (1910), 692. 

WOODMAX, Charles W., lawyer and Congress- 
man, was born in Aalborg, Denmark. March 11, 
1844 ; received his early education in the schools 
of his native country, but took to the sea in 1800, 
following the life of a sailor until 1863, when, 
coming to Philadelphia, he enlisted in tlie Gulf 
Squadron of the United States. After the war, 
he came to Chicago, and, after reading law for 
some time in the office of James L. High, gradu- 
ated from the Law Department of the Chicago 
University in 1871. Some 3ears later he was 
appointed Prosecuting Attorney for some of the 
lower coiu-ts, and, in 1881, was nominated by the 
Judges of Cook County as one of the Justices of 
the Peace for the city of Chicago. In 1894 he 
became the Republican candidate for Congress 
from the Fourth District and was elected, but 
failed to secure a renomiuation in 1896. Died, in 
Elgin A.sylum for the Insane. March 18. 1898. 

WOODS. Robert Mann, was born at Greenville, 
Pa., April 17, 184(1; came with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1842, the family settling at Barry, Pike 
County, but subsequently residing at Pittsfield, 
Canton and Galesburg. He was educated at 
Knox College in the latter place, whiclftwas his 
home from 1849 to ".W; later, taught school in 
Iowa and Misso\iri vintil 1861. when he went to 
Springfield and began the study of law with 
Milton Hay and Shelby M. CuUom. His law 
studies having been interrupted by the Civil 
War, after spending some time in the mustering 
and disbursing office, he was promoted by Gov- 
ernor Yates to a place in the executive office, 
from which he went to the field as Adjutant of 
the Sixt3"-fourth Illinois Infantry, known as the 
"Yates Sharp-Shooters." After participating, 
with the Army of the Tennessee, in the Atlanta 
campaign, he took part in the "March to the 
Sea,"' and the campaign in the Carolinas, includ- 



ing the siege of Savannah and the forcing of the 
Salkahatchie, where he distinguished himself, as 
also in the taking of Columbia, Fayetteville, 
Cheraw, Raleigh and Bentonville. At the latter 
place he had a horse shot under him and won the 
brevet rank of Major for gallantrj' in the field, 
having previously been commissioned Captain of 
Company A of his regiment. He also served on 
the staffs of Gens. Giles A. Smith, Benjamin F. 
Potts, and William W. Belknap, and was the last 
mustering officer in General Sherman's army. 
In 1867 Major Woods removed to Chicago, where 
he was in business for a number of years, serving 
as chief clerk of Custom House construction 
from 1872 to 1877. In 1879 he purchased "The 
Daily Republican" at Joliet, which he conducted 
successfully for fifteen years. While connected 
with "The Republican," he served as Secretary of 
the Illinois Republican Press Association and in 
various other positions. 

Major Woods was one of the founders of tlie 
Grand Army of the Republic, whose birth-place 
was in Illinois. (See Orand Army of the Rejiub- 
lic; also Stej^hensoii. Dr. B. F.) When Dr. 
Stephenson (who had been Surgeon of the Four- 
teenth Illinois Infantry), conceived the idea of 
founding such an order, he called to his assist- 
ance Major Woods, who was then engaged in 
writing the histories of Illinois regiments for the 
Adjutant-General's Report. The Major wrote 
the Constitution and By-laws of the Order, the 
charter blanks for all the reports, etc. The first 
official order bears his name as the first Adjutant- 
General of the Order, as follows: 

Headquarters Department of Illinois 
Grand Army op the Republic. 

Springfield, III., April 1, 1866. 

General Orders ' 

No. 1. \ The following named officers are hereby 

appointed and aasigned to duty at these headquarters. They 

wiU be obeyed and respected accordingl-y: 

Colonel Jules C. Webber, A.D.C. and Chief of Staff. 

Colonel John M. Snyder, Quartermaster-General. 

Major Robert M. Woods. Adjutant-General. 

Captain John A. Lightfoot. Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Cap'ain John S. Phelps, Ald-de-Camp. 

By order of B. F. Stephenson, Department Commander. 

Robert M. Woods, 


Major Woods afterwards organized the various 
Departments in the West, and it has been con- 
ceded that he furnished the money necessary to 
carry on the work during the first six months of 
the existence of the Order. He has never 
accepted a nomination or run for any political 
office, but is now engaged in financial business in 
Joliet and Chicago, with his residence in the 
former place. 

WOODSON, David Meade, lawyer and jurist, 
was born in Jessamine County, Ky., May 18, 
1806; was educated in private schools and at 
Transylvania University, and read law with his 
father. He served a term in the Kentucky Legis- 
lature in 1832, and, in 1834, removed to Illinois, 
settling at Carrollton, Greene County. In 1839 
he was elected State's Attorney and, in 1840, a 
member of the lower house of the Legislature, 
being elected a second time in 1868. In 1843 he 
was the Whig candidate for Congress in the 
Fiftli District, but was defeated by Stephen A. 
Douglas. He was a member of the Constitutional 
Conventions of 1847 and 1869-70. In 1848 he was 
elected a Judge of the First Judicial Circuit, 
remaining in office until 1867. Died, in 1877. 

WOODSTOCK, tlie county-seat of McHenry 
County, situated on the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway, about .51 miles of Chicago 
and 32 miles east of Rockford. It contains a 
court house, eight churches, four banks, three 
newspaper offices, foundry and machine sliops, 
planing mills, canning works, pickle, cheese and 
butter factories. The Oliver Typewriter Factory 
is located here; the town is also the seat of the 
Todd Seminary for boys. Population (1890), 
1,683; (1900), 3,502; (1910), 4,.331. 

WORCESTER, Liiuis E., State Senator, was 
born in Windsor, Vt., Dec. 5, 1811, was educated 
in the common schools of his native State and at 
Chester Academy, came to Illinois in 1836, and, 
after teaching three years, entered a dry-goods 
store at Whitehall as clerk, later becoming a 
partner. He was also engaged in various other 
branches of business at different times, including 
the drug, hardware, grocerj', agricultural imple- 
ment and lumber business. In 1843 he was 
appointed Postmaster at Wliitehall, serving 
twelve years ; was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847, served as County Judge for 
six years from 1853, and as Trustee of the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville, 
from 1859, by successive reappointments, for 
twelve years. In 1856 he was elected, as a Demo- 
crat, to the State Senate, to succeed Jolm M. 
Palmer, resigned ; was re-elected in 1860, and, at 
the session of 1865, was one of the five Demo- 
cratic members of that body who voted for the 
ratification of the Emancipation Amendment of 
the National Constitution. He was elected 
County Judge a second time, in 1863, and re- 
elected in 1867. served as delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention of 1876, and, for more 
than thirty j-ears, was one of the Directors of the 
Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton 



Railroad, serrinR from the organization of the 
foriK)ration until his deatli, wliich occurred Oct. 
11), IS91. 

WOKDEX, a village of Madison County, on the 
Wabash and the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. 
Louis Railways, 32 miles northeiust of St. Louis. 
Po|.. (ISl)U), 022: (1900), 54!; (I'tld), 1,082. 

exhibition of the sciciititic, lilu-nil and nu'cliiin- 
ical arts of all nations, held at Chicago, between 
May 1 and Oct. 31, 1893. Tlie project had its 
inception in Xoveml^er, 188.'), in a re.solution 
adopted by the directorate of the Chicago Inter- 
State E-tixisition Company. On July 6, 1888, the 
first well defined action wiis taken, the Iroquois 
Club, of Chicago, inviting the co-operation of six 
other leading clubs of that city in "securing the 
location of an international celebration at Chi- 
cago of the -lIKItli anniversiiry of the discovery of 
America by Columbus."' In July, 1889, a decisive 
step was taken in the appointment by Jlayor 
Cregier, under resolution of the City Council, of 
a committee of K'O (afterwards increased to 2.50) 
citizens, who were charged witli the duty of 
promoting the selection of Cliicago as the site for 
the Exposition. New York, 'Washington and St. 
Louis were competing points, but the choice of 
Congress fell ujjon Chicago, and the act establish- 
ing the World's Fair at that city was signed by 
President Harrison on April 2.5, 1890. Under the 
reciuirenients of the law, the President appointed 
eight Commis-sioners-at-large, with two Commis- 
sioners and two alternates from each Stiite an<l 
Territory and the District of Columbia. Col. 
George R. Davis, of Chicago, was elected Direc- 
tor-Genenil by the body thus constituted. Ex- 
Senator Thomas M. Palmer, of Michigan, was 
chosen President of the Commission and Jolm T. 
Dickinson, of Texas, Secretary. This Commis- 
sion delegated nuich of its power to a Board of 
Reference and Control, who were instructed to 
act with a similar number appointed by the 
AVorld's Columbian Ex|K)sition. The latter 
organization was an incorix)rati<>n. with a direc- 
torate of forty-live members, elected annually l>y 
the stockholders. Lyman J. Gage, of Chicago, 
was the first President of the corporati<in, and 
was succeeded by W. T. Baker and Harlow N. 

In addition to these bodies, certain powers were 
Tested in a Board of Lady JIanagers, composed 
of two meml)ers, with aUernate-s, from each 
State and Territorj-, besides nine from the city 
of Chicago. Mrs. Potter Palmer was chosen 
President of the latter. This Board was particu- 

larly charged with supervision of women's par- 
ticipation in the Exi)osition, and of the exhibits 
of women's work. 

The supreme executive power was vested in 
the Joint Board of Control. The site selected 
was Jackson Park, in the Soutli Division of Chi- 
cago, with a strip connecting Jackson and 
Washington Parks, known as the "Midway 
Plaisance,'' which was surrendered to "conces- 
sionaires"' who purchased tlie jirivilege of giving 
exhibitions, or conducting restaurants or selling- 
booths thereon. The total area of the site was 
G33 acres, and that of tlie buildings — not reckon- 
ing those erected liy States other than Illinois, 
and by foreign governments — was about 200 
acres. When to this is added the acreage of the 
foreign and State buildings, the total space 
under roof approximated 250 acres. These fig- 
ures do not include the buildings erected by 
private exhibitors, caterers and venders, wliich 
would add a small percentage to the grand total. 
Forty-seven foreign Governments made appropri- 
ations for the erection of their own buildings and 
other expenses connected with official represen- 
tation, and there were exhibitors from eighty-six 
nations. Tlie L'nited States Ciovernment erected 
its own building, and appropriated $500,000 to 
defray the expenses of a national exhiljit, besides 
$2. .500, 000 toward the general cost of the 
tion. The appropriations by foreign Governments 
aggregated about $(i.5()0,000, and tliose by the 
States and Territories, §0,120,000— that of Illinois 
being §800,000. The entire outlay of the World"s 
Coluniliian Exposition Company, up to JIarch 31, 
1894, including the cost of preliminary organiza- 
tion, construction, operating and post Exposition, was §27,151,800. This is, of course, 
exclusive of foreign and State expenditures, 
which would swell the aggregate cost to nearly 
§45,000,000. Citizens of Chicago subscribed 
§5,008,206 toward the capital stock of the ExiJosi- 
tion Company, and the municipality, .§5.000,000, 
which wiis raised by the sale of lionds. (See 
Tliirlyni.rfh Ooicral Assembly.) 

The sit«, while admirably adapted to the pur- 
pose, W!vs, when chosen, a marshy flat, crossed 
by low sand ridges, ujion which stood occasional 
clumps of stunted scrub oaks. Before the gates 
of the great fair were opened to the public, the 
entire area had been transformed into a dream of 
beauty. Mar.shes had been drained, filled in and 
sodded ; driveways and broad walks constructed ; 
artificial ponds and lagoons dug and embanked, 
and all the bigliest skill of the landscape garden- 
• er's art had been called into play to produce 





Jackson Park 

showing the General Arrangement 


Buildings and Grounds 





laznar of I JL 
Nations j y— 

I German Village 

Bazaar of 
, Nations 


I] iMoof'sh, I Turk 





varied and striking effects. But tlie task had 
been a Herculean one. There were seventeen 
principal (or, as they may be called, depart- 
mental) buildings, all of beautiful and ornate 
design, and all of vast size. They were known 
as the JIanufacturers" and Liberal Arts, the 
Machinery, Electrical, Transportation, Woman's, 
Horticultural, Mines and Mining, Anthropolog- 
ical, Administration, Art Galleries, Agricultural. 
Art Institute, Fisheries, Live Stock, Dairy and 
Forestry buildings, and the Music Hall and Ca- 
sino. Several of had large annexes. The 
Manufacturers" Building was the largest. It was 
rectangular (lG87xT8T feet), having a ground 
area of 31 acres and a floor and gallery area of 
44 acres. Its central chamber was 1280x380 
feet, with a nave 107 feet wide, both hall and 
nave being surrounded by a gallery .'JD feet wide. 
It was four times as large as tlie Roman Coliseum 
and three times as large as St. Peter's at Rome: 
17,000,000 feet of lumber, 13,000,000 pounds of 
steel, and 3,000,000 pounds of iron had been used 
in its construction, involving a cost of 81,800,000. 

It was originally intended to open the Exposi- 
tion, formally, on Oct. 21, 1892, the quadri-centen- 
nial of Columbus' discovery of land on the 
Western Hemisphere, but the magnitude of the 
undertaking rendered this impracticable. Con- 
sequently, while dedicatory ceremonies were held 
on that day, preceded by a monster procession and 
followed l)y elaborate pyrotechnic displays at 
night, May 1, 1893, was fixed as the opening day 
— the machinery and fountains being put in oper- 
ation, at the touch of an electric button by Presi- 
dent Cleveland, at the close of a short address. 
The total number of admissions from that date 
to Oct. 31, was 37,.530,4G0 — the largest for any 
single day being on Oct. 9 (Chicago Day) amount- 
ing to 101,944. The total receijjts from all .sources 
(including National and State appropriations, 
subscriptions, etc.), amounted to .$2S,1.51,1G8.7.'5, 
of which 310,620,330.70 was from the sale of tick 
ets, and §3,699,581.43 from concessions. The 
aggregate attendance fell short of that at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889 by about 500,000, while 
the receipts from the sale of tickets and con- 
cessions exceeded the latter bj- nearly §5,800,000. 
Subscribers to the Exposition stock received a 
return of ten per cent on the same. 

The Illinois building was the first of the State 
buildings to be completed. It was also the 
largest and most costly, but was severely criti- 
cised from an architectural standpoint. The 
exhibits showed the internal resources of the 
State, as well as the development of its govern- 

mental system, and its progress in civilization 
from the days of tlie first pioneers. The entire 
Illinois exhibit in the State building was under 
charge of the State Board of Agriculture, who 
devoted one-tenth of the appropriation, and a like 
l^roportion of floor space, to the exhibition of the 
work of Illinois women as scientists, authors, 
artists, decorators, etc. Among special features 
of the Illinois exhibit were: State trophies and 
relics, kept in afire-proof memorial hall; the dis- 
play of grains and minerals, and an immense 
topogi-aphical map (prepared at a cost of Slo.OOO), 
drafted on a scale of two miles to the inch, show- 
ing the character and resources of the State, and 
correcting many serious cartographical errors 
previously undiscovered. 

WORTHEX, Amos Henry, scientist and State 
Geologist, was born at Bradford, Vt., Oct. 31, 
1813, emigrated to Kentucky in 1834, and, in 1836, 
removed to Illinois, locating at Warsaw. Teach- 
ing, surveying and mercantile business were his 
pursuits until 1842, when he returned to the 
East, spending two years in Boston, but return- 
ing to Warsaw in 1844. His natural predilections 
were toward the natural sciences, and, after 
coming west, he devoted most of his leisure time 
to the collection and study of specimens of 
mineralogy, geology and conchology. On the 
organization of the geological sirrvey of IlUnois 
in 1851, he was appointed assistant to Dr. J. G. 
Norwood, then State Geologist, and, in 1858, suc- 
ceeded to the office, having meanwhile spent 
three years as Assistant Geologist in the first Iowa 
survey. As St:ite Geologist lie published seven 
volumes of reports, and was engaged upon the 
eighth when overtaken by death. May 6, 1888. 
These reports, which are as comprehensive as 
they are volmninous, have been reviewed and 
warmly commended by the leading scientific 
periodicals of this country and Europe In 1877 
field work was discontinued, and the State His- 
torical Library and Natural Historj- Museum were 
established, Professor Worthen being placed in 
charge as curator. He was the author of various 
valuable scientific papers and member of numer- 
ous scientific societies in this country and in 

WORTHI>GTO\, Mcholas Ellsworth, ex-Con- 
gressman, was born in Brooke County, W. Va., 
Jlarch 30, 1836, and comj^leted his education at 
Allegheny College, Pa., studied Law at ilorgan- 
town, 'Va., and was admitted to tlie bar in 1860 
He is a resident of Peoria, and, by profession, a 
lawyer; was County Superintendent of Schools 
of Peoria County from 1868 to 1872, and a mem- 



ber of tlie State Board of Education from 1869 to 
1872. In 18y.J he was elected to Congress, as a 
Democrat, from the Tenth Congre-ssional District, 
and re-elected in 1S,S4. In 18SG lie was again a 
candidate, but was defeated by his Republican 
opponent, Philip Sidney Post. He was elected 
Circuit Judge of the Tenth Judicial District in 
1891, and re-elected in 1897. In 1894 he served 
upon a commission appointed by President Cleve- 
land, to investigate the labor strikes of that year 
at Chicago. 

WRUiHT, John Stephen, manufacturer, was 
born at Shellield, Mivs.s., July 16, 1815; came to 
Chicago in 1832, with his father, who opened a 
store in that city ; in 18;!7, at his own expense, 
built the school building in Chicago; in 1840 
established "The Prairie Farmer," which he con- 
ducted for many years in the interest of popular 
education and progressive agriculture. In 1853 
he engaged in the manufacture of Atkins' self- 
raking reaper and mower, was one of the pro- 
moters of the Galena & Chicago Union and the 
Illinois Central Railways, and wrote a volume 
entitled, "Chicago: Past, Present and Future," 
published in 187(1. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 26, 1874. 

WULFF, Henry, ex-State Treasurer, was born 
in Jleldorf, liermany, August 24, 1854; came to 
Chicago in 1863, and began his ix)litical career as 
a Trustee of the town of Jefferson. In 1866 he 
was elected County Clerk of Cook County, and 
re-elected in 1890; in 1894 became the Republican 
nominee for State Treasurer, receiving, at the 
November election of that year, the unprece- 
dented plurality of 133,427 votes over his Demo- 
cratic op|>onent. Died Dec. 27, 1907. 

WTANET, a town of Bureau County, at the 
intersection of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railways, 
7 miles southwest of Princeton. Population (1900), 
902: (1910), 872. 

WYLIE, (Rev.) Samuel, domestic missionary, 
born in Ireland and came to America in boyhood ; 
was educjited at the University of Pennsylvania 
and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, and ordained in 1818. 
Soon after this he came west as a domestic mis- 
sionary and, in 1820, became jjiistor of a church 
at Siiarta, 111., where he remained until his death, 
March 20, 1872, after a piustorate of 52 years. 
During his pastorate the church sent out a dozen 
colonies to form new cluireh organizations else- 
where. He is descril)ed as able, elotjuent and 

WTMAX, (Col.) John B., soldier, was born in 
Massachusetts, July 12, 1817, and educated in the 

schools of that State imtil 14 years of age, when 
he became a clerk in a clothing store in his native 
town of Shrewsbury, later being associated with 
mercantile establishments in Cincinnati, and 
again in his native State. From 1846 to 18.50 he 
was employed successively as a clerk in the car 
and machine shops at Springfield. Mass., then as 
Superiuteudentof Construction, and. later, as con- 
ductor on the New York & New Haven Railroad , 
finally, in 18.50, becoming Superintendent of the 
Connecticut River Railroad. In 1852 he entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
panj-, assisting in the survey and construction of 
the line under Col. R. B. Ma.son. the Chief Engi- 
neer, and tinally liecoming Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the Northern Division. He was one 
of the original i)roprietors of the town of Amboy, 
in Lee County, and its first Mayor, also serving 
a second term. Having a fondness for military 
affairs, he was usually connected with some mili- 
tary organization — while in Cincinnati being 
attached to a company, of which Prof. 0. M. 
Jlitchell. the celebrated astronomer (afterwards 
Major-General Mitchell), was Captain. After 
coming to Illinois he became Captain of the Clii- 
cago Light Guards. Having lef» the employ of 
the Railroad in 1858, he was in private business 
at Amboy at the teginning of the Civil War in 
1861. As Assistant- Adjutant General, by appoint- 
ment of Governor Vates, he rendered valuable 
service in the earlj- weeks of the war in securing 
arms from Jefferson Barracks and in the organi- 
zation of the three-months' regiments. Then, 
having organized the Thirteenth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry — the first org-anized in the State 
for the three years' service — he was commis- 
sioned its Colonel, and, in July following, entered 
upon the duty of guarding the railroad lines in 
Southwest Jlissouri and Arkansas. The follow- 
ing year his regiment was attached to General 
Sherman's command in the first campaign 
against Vicksburg. On the second day of the 
Battle of Chicka-saw Bayou, he fell mortally 
wounded, dying on the field, Dec. 28, 1862. Colo- 
nel Wyman was one of the most accomplished 
and promising of the vidunteer soldiers sent to 
the field from Illinois, of whom so manv were 
former employes of the Illinois Central Rail- 

WYOMING, a town of Stark County, 31 miles 
north-northwest from Peoria, at the junction of 
the Peoria branch Rock Island & Pacific and the 
Rushville branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway; has two high schools, churches, 
two banks. Hour mills, water-works, machine 



shop, and two weekly newspapers. Coal is mined 
here. Population (1900), 1,277; (1910), 1,500. 

XEMA, a -lallage of Clay County, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Southw-estern Railroad, 87 miles 
east of St. Louis. Pop. (1900), 800; (1910), 634. 

YATES CITY, a village of Knox County, at the 
junction of the Peoria Division of the Cliicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, with the Riishville 
branch, 23 miles southeast of Galesburg. The 
to%vn has banks, a coal mine, telephone exchange, 
school, churches and a newspaper. Pop. (1890), 
687: (1900), 0.50; (1910), 380. 

YATES, Henry, pioneer, was born in Caroline 
County, Va., Oct. 29, 1786 — being a grand-nephew 
of Chief Justice John Marshall ; removed to Fa- 
yette County, Ky., where he located and laid out 
the town of Warsaw, which afterwards became 
the county-seat of Gallatin County. In 1831 he 
removed to Sangamon Coimty, III. , and. in 1832, 
settled at the site of the present town of Berlin, 
which he laid out the following j-ear, also laying 
out the town of New Berlin, a few years later, on 
the line of the Wabash Railway. He was father 
of, Gov. Richard Yates. Died, Sept. 13, 1865.— 
Henry (Yates), Jr. , son of the preceding, was boi'u 
at Berlin. 111. , March 7, 183.5 ; engaged in merchan- 
dising at New Berlin; in 1862, raised a company 
of volunteers for the One Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment Illinois Infantry, was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel and brevetted tolonel and Briga- 
dier-General. He was accidentally shot in 18G3, 
and suffered sun-stroke at Little Rock, from 
which he never fidly recovered. Died, August 
8, 1871. 

YATES, Richard, former Governor and United 
States Senator, was born at Warsaw, Ky., Jan. 
18, 1815, of English descent. In 1831 he accom- 
panied his father to Illinois, the family settling 
first at Sijringfield and later at Berlin, Sangamon 
County. He soon after entered Illinois College, 
from which he graduated in 1835. and subse- 
quently read law with Col. John J. Hardin, at 
Jacksonville, which thereafter became his home. 
In 1842 he was elected Representative in the Gen- 
oral Assembh' from Morgan County, and was 
re-elected in 1844, and again in 1848. In 1850 he 
was a candidate for from the Seventh 
District and elected over Maj. Thomas L. Harris, 
the previous incumbent, being the only Whig 
Representative in the Thirty-second Congress 
from Illinois. Two j'ears later he was re-elected 
over John Calhoun, but was defeated, in 1854, 
by his old opponent, Harris. He was one of the 

most vigorous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill in the Thirty -third Congress, and an early 
participant in the movement for the organization 
of the Republican party to resist the further 
extension of slaverj', being a prominent speaker, 
on the same platform with Lincoln, before the 
first Republican State Convention held at Bloom- 
ington, in May, 1856, and serving as one of the 
Vice-Presidents of that body. In 1860 he was 
elected to the executive chair on the ticket 
headed by Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 
aud, by his energetic support of the National 
administration in its measures for the suppression 
of the Rebellion, won the sobriquet of "the Illi- 
nois War-Governor." In 1865 he was elected 
United States Senator, .serving until 1871. He 
died suddenly, at St. Louis, Nov. 27, 1873, while 
returning from Arkansas, whither he had gone, 
as a LTnited States Commissioner, by appointment 
of President Grant, to inspect a land-subsidy 
railroad. He was a man of rare ability, earnest- 
ness of purpose and extraordinary jiersonal mag- 
netism, as well as of a lofty order of patriotism. 
His faults were those of a nature generous, 
impulsive and warm-hearted. 

YORKVILLE, the county-seat of Kendall 
County, on Fo.x River and Streator Division of 
Chicago, Burlington it Quincy Railroad, 12 miles 
southwest of Aurora; on interurban electric line; 
has water-power, electric lights, a bank, churclies 
and weekly papur. Pop. (1900), 413; (1910), 431. 

YOL'Mi, Brigliam, Mormon leader, was born 
at Whittingham, Vt., June 1, 1801, joined the 
Jlormons in 1831 and, the next year, became asso- 
ciated with Joseph Smith, at Kirtland, Ohio, and, 
in 1835, an "apostle." He accompanied a con- 
siderable body of that sect to Independence, Mo., 
but was driven out with them in 1837, settling 
for a short time at Quincy, 111., but later remov- 
ing to Nauvoo, of which he was one of the foun- 
ders. On the assassination of Smith, in 1844, he 
became the successor of the latter, as head of the 
Mormon Church, and, the following year, headed 
the exodus from Illinois, which finally resulted in 
the Mormon settlement in Utah. His subsequent 
career there, where he was appointed Governor 
by President Fillmore, and, for a time, success- 
fully defied national authorit}', is a matter of 
national rather than State history. He remained 
at the head of the Mormon Church until his 
death at Salt Lake City, August 29, 1877. 

YOUXtJ, Bichard Montgomery, LTnited States 
.Senator, was born in Kentucky in 1796, studied 
law and removed to Jonesboro, III., where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1817; served in the Second 



General Assembly (1820-23) as Representative 
from Union County; was a Circuit Judge, 1825-27; 
Presidential Elector in 1S28; Circuit Judge again, 
1829-157; elected United States Senator in 1837 as 
successor to W. L. D. Ewing, serving until 1843, 
when he was commissioned Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, but resigned in 1!^47 to become 
Commissioner of the General Land Office at 
Wa-shington. During the session of 1850-51, he 
served as Clerk of tlie National House of Eepre- 
sentatives. Died, in an insane asylum, in Wash- 
ington, in 1853. 

first ])ermanently organized at Cluc.ago, in 1858, 
although desultory movements of a kindred char- 
acter had previously been started at Peoria, 
Quincy, Chicago and Springfield, some as early 
as 18.54. From 1858 to 1872, various associations 
were formed at different points tliroughout the 
State, wliich were entirely independent of each 
other. The first effort looking to union and 
mutual aid, was made in 1872, when Robert 
Weidensall, on behalf of the International Com- 
mittee, called a convention, to meet at Blooming- 
ton, Noveml>er 6-9. State conventions have been 
held annually since 1872. In that of 1875, steps 
were taken looking to the appointment of a 
State Secretary, and, in 1870, Charles M. Morton 
assumed the office. Much evangelistic work was 
done, and new a.ssociations formed, the total 
number reported at tlie Champaign Convention, 
in 1877, being si.xtytwo. After one year's work 
Mr. Morton resigned the secretaryship, tlie office 
remaining vacant for three years. The question 
of the .ipiKiintment of a succes.sor was discussed 
at the Decatur Convention in 1879. and, in April, 
1880. I. B. Brown was made State Secretary, and 
has occupied the position to the present time 
(1899). At the date of his api>ointment the 
ofllcial figures showed si.xteen associations in Illi- 
nois, with a total membership of 2,443. and prop- 
erty valued at .?12ti.,500, including building funds, 
tlie associations at Chicago and Aurora owning 
buildings. Thirteen officers were employed, 
none of them being in Chicago. Since 1880 the 
work ha-s steadily grown, so that five Assistant 
State Secretaries are now employed. In 1880, a 
plan for arranging the State work under depart- 
mental administration was devised, but not put 
in o|H>ration until ISOO. The jiresent six depart- 
ments of sujiervision are: General Supervision, 
in charge of the State Secretary and his Assist- 
ants; railroad and city work; counties and 
towns; work among students; corresponding 
membership deimrtment, and office work. The 

two last named are under one executive head, 
but each of the others in charge of an Assistant 
Secretary, who is responsible for its development 
The entire work is under the supervision of a 
State Executive Committee of twenty-seven 
members, one-third of wliom are elected annually. 
Willis H. Herrick of Chicago has been its chair- 
man for several years. This body is appointed 
by a State convention comjiosed of delegates 
from tlie local Associations. Of these there were, 
in October, 1898, 110, with a membership of 
15,888. The value of the property owned was 
82,500,000. Twenty-two occupy their own build- 
ings, of which five are for railroad men and one 
for .students. Weekly gatherings for young men 
numbered 248, and there are now representatives 
or corres[H)ndents in G(i5 communities where no 
oi-ganization has been effected. Scientific phys- 
ical culture is made a feature by 40 associations, 
and educational work has been largely developed. 
The enrollment in evening classes, during 1898-99, 
was 978. The building of the Chicago branch 
(erected in 1893) is the finest of its class in the 
world. Recently a successful association has 
been formed among coal miners, and another 
among the first grade boys of the Illinois State 
Reformatory, while an extensive work has lieen 
conducted at the camps of the Illinois National 

Z.IXE, Charles S., lawyer and jurist, was born 
ill Ciimbcrhmd County, X. J., March 2, 1831, of 
English and New England stock. At the age of 
19 he emigrated to Sangamon County, 111., for a 
time working on a farm and at brick-making. 
From 1852 to "55 he attended JIcKendree College, 
but did not graduate, and, on leaving, 
engaged in teaching, at the same time reading 
law. In 1857 he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice at Springfield. The follow- 
ing year he was elected City .\ttorney. He had 
for partners, at different times, AVilliam H. 
Herndon (once a partner of Abraham Lincoln) 
and Senator Shelby 51. CuUom. In 1873 he was 
elected a Judge of the Circuit Court for the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, and w;is re-elected in 1879. In 
1883 President Arthur appointed him Chief Jus- 
tice of Utah, where lie has since resided, though 
superseded by the appointment of a successor by 
Presiilent Cleveland. At the first State elec- 
tion in Utah, held in November, 1895, he was 
chosen one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the new Commonwealth, but was defeated 
for re-election, by his Democratic opponent, in 



The Peristyle. Admitiistratioa BniUliiiK. Oerman Ruikling. 

'"he Fisheries. 


Tlie following matter, received too late for Insertion In the body of this work. Is added In the form of a supplement 

COGHLAX, (Capt.) Joseph Bullock, naval 
•fficer, was born in Kentucky, and, at the age of 
to years, came to lUinoLs, living on a farm for a 
time near Carlyle, in Clinton County. In 18G0 he 
was appointed by his uncle, Hon. Philip B. 
Fouke — then a Representative in Congress from 
the Belleville District — to the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, graduating in 1863, and being pro- 
moted through the successive grades of Ensign, 
Master, Lieutenant, Lieutenant-Commander, and 
Commander, and serving upon various vessels 
Hntil Nov. 18, 1893, when he was commissioned 
Captain and, in 1897, assigned to the command 
of the battleship Raleigh, on the Asiatic Station. 
He was thus connected with Admiral Dewey's 
squadron at the beginning of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, and took a conspicuous and brilliant part 
in the affair in Manila Bay, on May 1, 1898, which 
resulted in the destruction of the Spanish fleet 
Captain Coghlan's connection with subsequent 
events in the Philippines was in the highest 
degree creditable to himself and the country. 
His vessel (the Raleigh) was the first of Admiral 
Dewey's squadron to return home, coming by 
way of the Suez Canal, in the summer of 1899, he 
and his crew receiving an immense ovation on 
their arrival in New York harbor. 

CRANE, (Rev.) James Lyons, clergyman, 
army chaplain, was born at Mt. Eaton, "Wav-ne 
County, Oliio, August 30, 1823, united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Chvirch at Cincinnati in 
1841, and, coining to Edgar County, Illinois, in 
1843, attended a seminary at Paris some three 
years. He joined the Illinois Conference in 1846, 
and was assigned to the Danville circuit, after- 
wards presiding over charges at Grandview, Hills- 
boro, Alton, Jacksonville, and Springfield — at the 
last two points being stationed two or more 
times, besides serving as Presiding Elder of the 
Paris, Danville, and Springfield Districts. The 
importance of the stations which he filled during 
his itinerant career served as evidence of his 
recognized ability and popularity as a preacher. 

In July, 18G1, he was appointed Chaplain of the 
Twentj'-first Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at 
that time commanded by Ulysses S. Grant as 
Colonel, and, although he remained with the 
regiment only a few months, the friendship then 
established between liim and the future com- 
mander of the armies of the Union lasted through 
their lives. Tliis was shown by his appointment 
by President Grant, in 1809, to the position of 
Postmaster of the city of Springfield, which came 
to him as a personal compliment, being re- 
appointed four years afterwards and continuing 
in oflice eight years. After retiring from the 
Springfield postofEce, he occupied charges at 
Island Grove and Shelby ville, his death occurring 
at the latter place, July 29, 1879, as the result of 
an attack of paralysis some two weeks previous. 
Mr. Crane was married in 1847 to Miss Elizabeth 
Mayo, daughter of CoL J Mayo — a prominent 
citizen of Edgar County, at an early day — his 
wife surviving him some twenty years. Rev. 
Charles A. Crane and Rev. Frank Crane, pastors 
of prominent Methodist chiu-ches in Boston and 
Chicago, are sons of the subject of this sketch. 

DAWES, Charles Gates, Comptroller of the 
Treasur}', was born at Marietta, Ohio, August 27, 
1805; graduated from Marietta College in 1884, 
and from the Cincinnati Law School in 1886; 
worked at civil engineering during his vacations, 
finally becoming Chief Engineer of the Toledo & 
Ohio Railroad. Between 1887 and 1894 he was 
engaged in the practice of law at Lincoln, Neb., 
but afterwards became interested in the gas busi- 
ness in various cities, including Evanston, IlL, 
which became his home. In 1890 he took a lead- 
ing part in securing instructions by the Republi- 
can State Convention at Springfield in favor of 
the nomination of Mr. McKinley for the Presi- 
dency, and d'u-ing the succeeding campaign 
served as a member of the National Republican 
Committee for the State of Illinois. Soon after 
the accession of President JIcKinley, he was 
appointed Comptroller of the Treasury, a position 




wliich he now lioKls. Mr. Dawes is the son of 
R. B. Dawes, a former Congres-sniiiii from Oliio, 
and the gre;vt-griiinls;)n of Manasseli Cutler, who 
■was an influential factor in tlie early history of 
the Northwest Territory, and has been creiliteil 
with exerting a strong influence in shaping and 
securing the atloption of the Ordinance of 17S7. 

DISTIJf, (Col.) William L., former Depart- 
ment Commander of Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic for the State of Illinois, was born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. 9, 1843, his father being of 
English descent, while his maternal grandfather 
was a Colonel of the Polish Lancers in the army 
«f the first Xapoleon, who, after the exile of his 
lei>der. came to America, settling in Imliana. 
The father of the subject of this sketch settled at 
Keokuk, Iowa, wliere the son grew to manhood 
and in February, 1863, enlisted as a private in the 
Seventeenth Iowa Infantry, having been twice 
rejected previously on account of physical ail- 
ment. Soon after enlistment he was detailed for 
provost-marshal duty, but later took part with 
his regiment in the campaign in Alabama. He 
served for a time in the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
under Gen. John A. Ix>gan, was subsequently 
detailed for <luty on the Staff of General Rium, 
and participated in tlie battles of Resaca and 
Tilton, Ga. Having been captured in the latter, 
he was imprisoned successively at Jacksonville 
^Ga.), Montgomery, Savannah, and finally at 
Anderson ville. From the latter he succeeded in 
effecting his escape, but was recaptured and 
returned to that famous prison-pen. Having 
escaped a second time by as,suming the name of 
a dead man and bribing the guard, he was again 
captured and imprisoned at various points in Mi.s- 
8issipi>i until excluvnged about the time of the 
assa.ssination of Pre.-iident Lincoln. He was then 
so weakened by his long confinement and scanty 
fare that he had to be carried on board the 
steamer on a stretcher. At this time lie narrowly 
escaped being on board the steamer Sultana, 
which was blown up below Cairo, with 2,100 
soldiers on board, a large jiroportion of whom lost 
their lives. After being mustered out at Daven- 
port, Iowa, June 28, IsG.'i, lie was employed for a 
time on the Des Moines Valley Railroad, and as a 
messenger and route agent of tlie United .States 
Express Company. In 1872 he established him- 
self in business in Quincy, 111., in which he 
proved very successful. Here he became prom- 
inent in local Grand Army circles, and, in 1800, 
was unanimously elected Commander of the 
Department of Illinois. Previous to this he had 
been an olEcer of the Illinois National Guard, and 

served as Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of 
Colonel, on the staff of Governors Hamilton, 
Oglesby and Fifer. In 1897 Colonel Distin was 
aiiiiointed by President McKinley Surveyor-Gen- 
eral for the Territory of Alaska, a position which 
(1899) he .still holds. 

DDMMEK, Henry E., lawyer, was born at 
Hallowell, Maine, April 9. 1SU8, was educated in 
Bowdoin College, graduating there in the class of 
1827, after which he took a course in law at Cam- 
bridge Law School, and was soon after admitted 
to the bar. Then, having spent some two years 
in his native State, in 1832 he removed to Illinois, 
settling first in Springfield, where he remained six 
years, being for a part of the time a partner of 
John T. Stuart, who afterwards became the first 
partner in law of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Dum- 
mer had a brother, Richard AVilliam Dummer, 
who had preceded him to Illinois, living for a 
time in Jacksonville. In 1838 he removed to 
Beardstown, Cass Count}', which continued to be 
his home for more than a quarter of a century. 
During his residence there he served as Aliler- 
man. City Attorney and Judge of Probate for 
Civss County; also represented Cass County in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1847, and, in 1800, 
was elected State Senator in the Twenty-second 
General Assemblj', serving four years. BIr. 
Dummer was an earnest Republican, and served 
that party as a delegate for the State-at-large to 
the Convention of 1864, at Baltimore, which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidenc}' a 
second time. In 1804 he removed to Jackson- 
ville, and for the next year was the law partner 
of David A. Smith, until the death of the latter 
in 1805. In the summer of 1878 Mr. Dummer 
went to Mackinac, Mich., in search of health, but 
died there .Vugust 12 of that year. 

ECKELS, James H., ex-Comptroller of the 
Currency, was born of Scotch-Irish parentage at 
Princeton, 111., Nov. 22, 1858, was educated in 
the common schools and the high school of his 
native town, graduated from the Law School at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1881. and the following year 
began jiractice at Ottawa, 111. Here he con- 
tinued in active practice until 1893, when he was 
appointed by President Cleveland Comptroller of 
the Currency, serving until May 1, 1898, when he 
resigned to accept the presidency of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Chicago. Mr. Eckels 
manifested such distinguished ability in the dis- 
charge of his duties as Comptroller that he 
received the notalile compliment of being 
retained in office by a Republican administration 
more than a year after the retirement of Presi- 



dent Cleveland, while his selection for a place at 
the head of one of the leading banking institu- 
tions of Chicago was a no less marked recognition 
of his abilities as a financier. He was a Delegate 
from the Eleventh District to the National 
Democratic Convention at Chicago in 1892, and 
repiesented the same district in the Gold Demo- 
cratic Convention at Indianapolis in 189G, and 
assisted in framing the platform there adopted — 
wliich indicated his views on the financial ques- 
tions invdivcil in that camiiaign. Died Apr. 14, 190S. 

FIELD, Daniel, early merchant, was born in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, Nov. 30, 1790, and 
settled at Golconda, 111., in 1818, dying there in 
1855. He was a man of great enterprise, engaged 
in merchandising, and became a large land- 
holder, farmer and stock-grower, and an extensive 
shipper of stock and produce to lower Jlississippi 
markets. He married Elizabeth Dailey of 
Charleston, Ind., and raised a large family of 
children, one of whom, Philip D., became Sheriff, 
while another, John, was County Judge of Pope 
County. His daughter, Maria, married Gen. 
Green B. Raum, who became prominent as a 
soldier during the Civil War and, later, as a mem- 
ber of Congress and Commissioner of Internal 
Revenue and Pension Commissioner in Wash- 

FIELD, Green B., member of a pioneer family, 
was born within the present limits of the State of 
Indiana in 1787, served as a Lieutenant in the 
War of 1812, was married in Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, to Miss Mary E. Cogswell, the 
daughter of Dr. Joseph Cogswell, a soldier of the 
Revolutionary War, and, in 1817, removed to 
Pope County, Illinois, where he laid off the town 
of Golconda, which became the county-seat. He 
served as a Representative from Pope County in 
the First General Assembly (1818-20), and was 
the father of Juliet C. Field, who became the 
wife of John Raum ; of Edna Field, the wife of 
Dr. Tarlton Dunn, and of Green B. Field, who 
was a Lieutenant in Third Regiment Illinois 
Volunteers during the Mexican War. Mr. Field 
was the grandfather of Gen. Green B. Raum, 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. He died 
of yellow fever in Louisiana in 1823. 

GtALE, Stephen Francis, first Chicago book- 
e&Uer and a railway promoter, was born at 
Exeter, N. H., March 8, 1812; at 15 years of age 
became clerk in a leading book-store in Boston; 
came to Chicago in 1835, and soon afterwards 
opened the first book arid stationery establish- 
ment in that city, which, in after years, gained 
an extensive trade. In 1842 the firm of S. F. 

Gale & Co. was organized, but Mr. Gale, having 
become head of the Chicago Fire Department, 
retired fro:u business in 1845 As early as 1846 
he was associated with W m. B. Ogden and John 
B. Turner in the steps then being taken to revive 
the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (now a 
part of the Chicago & Northwestern), and, in 
conjunction with these gentlemen, became 
responsible for tlie means to purchase the charter 
and assets of the road from the Eastern bond- 
holders. Later, he engaged in the construction 
of the branch road from Turner Junction to 
Aurora, became President of the line smd ex- 
tended it to Mendota to connect with the Illinois 
Cential at that Point. These roads afterwards 
became a part of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy line. A number of years ago Mr. Gale 
returned to his old home in New Hampshire, 
where he has since resided. 

HAY, John, early settler, came to the region of 
Kaskaskia between 1790 and 1800, and became a 
prominent citizen of St. Clair County. He was 
selected as a member of the First Legislative 
Council of Indiana Territory for St. Clair County 
in 1805. In 1809 he was appointed Clerk of the 
Common Pleas Court of St. Clair County, and 
was continued in office after the organization of 
the State Government, serving until his death at 
Belleville in 1845. 

HAYS, John, pioneer settler of Northwest Ter- 
ritory, was a native of New York, who came to 
Cahokia, in the "Illinois Country," in 1793, and 
lived there the remainder of his life. His early 
life had been spent in the fur-trade about Macki- 
nac, in the Lake of the Woods region and about 
the sources of the Jlississippi. During the War 
of 1812 he was able to furnisli Governor Edwards 
valuable information in reference to the Indians 
in the Northwest. He filled the office of Post- 
master at Cahokia for a number of years, and was 
Sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 1818. 

MOULTON, (Col.) George M., soldier and 
building contractor, was born at Readsburg, Vt., 
March 15, 1851, came early in life to Chicago, and 
was educated in the schools of that city. By pro- 
fession he is a contractor and builder, the firm of 
wliicli he is a member having been connected 
with the construction of a number of large build- 
ings, including some extensive grain elevators. 
Colonel Moulton became a member of the Second 
Regiment Illinois National Guard in June, 1884, 
being elected to the office of Major, which he 
retained until January, 1893, when he was 
appointed Inspector of Rifle Practice on the staff 
of General Wheeler. A year later he was con> 



missioned Colonel of the regiment, a position 
whicli he occupied at tlie time of the call b)' the 
President for troops to serve in the Spanisli- 
American War in April, 1898. He pronijitly 
answered the call, and was sworn into the United 
States service at the head of his regiment early 
in May. The regiment was almost immediately 
ordered to Jacksonville, Fla., remaining there 
and at Savannah, Ga., imtil early in December, 
when it was transferred to IIa\ana, Cuba. Here 
he was stwn after appointed Chief of Police for 
the city of Havana, remaining in office until tlio 
middle of January, 1809, when lie retiirneil to his 
regiment, then stationed at Camp Columbia, near 
the city of Havana. In the latter part of March 
he returned with his regiment to Augusta, Ga., 
where it was mustered out, April 26, 1899, one 
year from the date of its arrival at Springfield. 
After leaving the service Colonel Moulton 
rosunieil liis business as a contractor. 

SHERMAN, Lawrence Y., legislator and 
Si>eaker of tlie Forty -lirst General Assembly, was 
born in Miami County, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1858; at :i 
years of age came to Illinois, his parents settling 
at Industry, SIcDoiiough County. Wlien lie had 
reached the age of 10 years he went to Jasper 
County, wlioro he grew to manhood, received his 
education in the common schools and in the law 

department of JIcKendree College, graduating 
from tlie latter, and, in 1881, located at Macomb. 
McUonough County. Here he began his career 
by driving a team upon the street in order to 
accumulate means enabling him to devote his 
entire attention to his chosen profession of law. 
He soon took an active interest in politics, was 
elected County Judge in 1886, and, at the expira- 
tion of his term, formed a partnership with 
George D. Tunniclilfe and D. G. Tunnicllffe, 
ex-Justice of the .Supreme Court. In 1891 he was 
a candidate for the Republican nomination for 
Representative in the General As.sembly, but 
witlidiew to prevent a split in the party; was 
iioiiiiiiated and elected in 1S96, and re-elected in 
1898, and, at tlie succeeding session of the 
Forty-first General Assembly, was nominated 
by the Republican caucus and elected Speaker, 
as he was again of the Forty-second in 1901. 

A'INYAKD, Philip, early legislator, vi-as born 
in Pennsylvania in 1800, came to Illinois at an 
early day, and settled in Pope County, which he 
represented in the lower branch of the Thirteentli 
and Fourteenth General Assemblies. He married 
Miss Matilda McCoy, the daughter of a prominent 
Illinois ])ioneer, and served .as Sheriff of Pope 
County for a number of years. Died, at Gol- 
couda, in 166)2, 


BLACK HAWK TVAB, THE. The episode 
known in history under the name of "The Black 
Hawk War," was the most formidable conflict 
between the whites and Indians, as well as the 
most far-reaching in its re.sults. that ever oc- 
curred upon the soil of Illinois. It takes its 
name from tlie Indian Chief, of the Sac tribe. 
Black Hawk (Indian name, M.akatai Mesliekia- 
kiak, meaning "Black Sparrow Hawk"), who 
was the leader of the hostile Indian band and a 
principal factor in the struggle. Black Hawk 
had been an ally of the British during the War 
of 1810-15, served with Tecumseh when the lat- 
ter fell at the battle of the Tliames in 1813, and, 
after the war, continued to maintain friendly re- 
lations with his "British father." The outbreak 

in Illinois had its origin in the construction 
put upon the treaty negotiated by Gen. William 
Henry Harrison with the Sac and Fox Indians 
on belialf of tlie United States Government, Xo- 
vember 3,' 1804. under which the Indians trans- 
ferred to the Government nearly 15,000,000 acres 
of land comprising the region lying between the 
Wisconsin River on the north. Fox River of Illi- 
nois on the east and southeast, and the Jlississii^pi 
on the west, for which the Government agreed to 
pay to the confederated tribes less than §3,500 in 
goods and the insignificant sum of §1,000 per an- 
num in i)erpetuity. While the validity of the 
treaty was denied on the part of the Indians on the 
ground that it had originally been entei'ed into by 
their chiefs under duress, while held as prisoners 



under a charge of murder at Jefferson Barracks, 
during which they had been kept in a state of con- 
stant intoxication, it had been repeatedly reaf- 
firmed by parts or all of the tribe, especially in 
1815, in 1816, in 1822 and in 1823, and finally recog- 
nized by Black Hawk himself in i831. Tlie part of 
the treaty of 1804 which was the immediate cause 
of the disagreement was that which stipiilated 
that, so long as the lands ceded under it remained 
the property of the United States (that is, should 
not be transferred to private owners), "the Indians 
belonging to the said tribes shall enjoy the jiriv- 
ilege of living or hunting upon them." Al- 
though these lands had not been put upon the 
market, or even surveyed, as "squatters" multi- 
plied in this region little respect was paid to the 
treaty rights of the Indians, particularly with 
reference to those localities where, by reason of 
fertility of the soil or some other natural advan- 
tage, the Indians had established something like 
permanent homes and introduced a sort of crude 
cultivation. This was especially the case with 
reference to the Sac village of "Saukenuk" on 
the north bank of Rock River near its mouth, 
where the Indians, when not absent on the chase, 
had lived for over a century, had cultivated 
fields of corn and vegetables and had buried their 
dead. In the early part of the last century, it is 
estimated that some five hundred families had 
been accustomed to congregate here, making it 
the largest Indian village in the West. As early 
as 1823 the encroachments of squatters on the 
rights claimed by the Indians under the treaty 
of 1804 began; their fields were taken possession 
of by the intruders, their lodges burned and their 
^omen and children whipped and driven away 
during the absence of the men on their annual 
hunts. The dangers resulting from these con- 
flicts led Governor Edwards, as early as 1828, to 
demand of the General Government the expul- 
sion of the Indians from Illinois, which resulted 
in an order from President Jackson in 1S29 for 
their removal west of the Mississippi. On appli- 
cation of Col. George Davenport, a trader of 
much influence with the Indians, the time was 
extended to April 1, 1830. During the preceding 
year Colonel Davenport and the firm of Davenport 
and Farnham bought from the United States Gov- 
ernment most of the lands on Rock River occupied 
by Black Hawk's band, with the intention, as has 
been claimed, of permitting the Indians to remain. 
This was not so understood by Black Hawk, who 
was greatly incensed, although Davenport offered 
to take other lands from the Government in ex- 
change or cancel the sale — an arrangement to 

which President Jackson would not consent. On 
their return in the spring of 1830, the Indiana 
found whites in possession of their village. Pre- 
vented from cultivating their fields, and their 
annual hunt proving unsuccessful, the following 
winter proved for them one of great hardship. 
Black Hawk, having made a visit to his " British 
father" (the British Agent) at Maiden, Canada, 
claimed to have received words of sympathy and 
encouragement, which induced him tc determine 
to regain possession of their fields. In this he 
was encouraged bj' Neapope, his second in com- 
mand, and by assurance of support from "White 
Cloud, a half Sac and half Winnebago — known 
also as "The Prophet " — whose village (Prophet "a 
Town) was some forty miles from the mouth 
of Rook River, and through whom Black Hawk 
claimed to have leoeived promises of aid in guns, 
ammunition and provisions from the British. 
The reappearance of Black Hawk's band in the 
vicinity of his old haunts, in the spring of 1831, 
produced a wild panic among the frontier settlers. 
Messages were hurried to Governor Reynolds, 
who had succeeded Governor Edwards in De- 
cember previous, appealing for protection against 
the savages. The Governor issued a call for 700 
volunteers " to remove the band of Sac Indians " 
at Rock Island beyond the Mississippi. Al- 
though Gen. E. P. Gaines of the regular army, 
commanding the military district, thought the 
regulars sufliiciently strong to cope with the situa- 
tion, the Governor's proclamation was responded 
to by more than twice the number called for. 
The volunteers assembled earlj' in June, 1831, at 
Beardstown, the place of rendezvous named in 
the call, and having been organized into two regi- 
ments under command of Col. James D. Henr} and 
Col. Daniel Lieb. with a spy battalion under Gen. 
Joseph Duncan, marched across the country and, 
after effecting a junction with General Gaines' 
regulars, appeared before Black Hawk's village on 
the 2.jth of June. In the meantime General 
Gaines, having learned that the Pottawatomies, 
Winnebagos and Kickapoos had promised to join 
the Sacs in their uprising, asked the assistance of 
the battalion of mounted men previously offered 
by Governor Reynolds. The combined armies 
amounted to 2,.500 men, while the fighting force 
of the Indians was 300. Finding himself over- 
whelmingly outnumbered. Black Hawk withdrew 
under cover of night to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi. After burning the village, General Gaines 
notified Black Hawk of his intention to pursue 
and attack his band, which had the effect to 
bring the fugitive chief to the General's head- 



quarters, where, on June 30, a new treaty was 
entered into by whicli he bound himself and his 
people to remain west of the Mississii)pi unless 
permitted to return by the United .States. This 
ended the camjjait^, and the volunteers returned 
to their homes, although the alTair had produced 
an intense excitement alon;; tlie whole frontier, 
and involved a heavy expense. 

The next winter was spent by Black Hawk and 
his band on the site of old Fort Madison, in the 
present State of Iowa. Dissatisfied and humil- 
iated b}- his repulse of the previous year, in disre- 
gard of his pledge to General Games, on April 6, 
1832, at the head of 500 warriors and their fam- 
ilies, he again crossed the Mississippi at Yel- 
low Banks about the site of the present city of 
Oquawka, fifty miles below Rock Island, with the 
intention, as claimed, if not permitted to stop at 
his old village, to proceed to tlie Prophet's Town 
and raise a crop with the Winnebagoes. Here he 
was met by The Prophet with renewed assurances 
of aid from the Winnebagoes, which was still 
further strengthened by promises from the Brit- 
ish Agent received through a visit by Xeapope to 
Maiden the previous autunm. An inciilent of this 
Invasion was the effective warning given to the 
white settlers by Shabona. a friendly Ottawa 
chief, which probably had the effect to prevent 
a widespread massacre. Besides the towns of 
Galena and Chicago, the settlements in Illinois 
north of Fort Clark (Peoria) were limited to some 
thirty families on Bureau Creek with a few 
cabins at Hennepin. Peru, LaSalle. Ottawa, In- 
dian Creek, Dixon, Kellogg's Grove, Apple Creek, 
and a few other points. Gen. Henrj- Atkinson, 
commanding tlie regulars at Fort Armstrong 
(Rock Island), having learned of the arrival of 
Black Hawk a week after he crossed the Missis- 
sippi, at once took stops to notify Governor Rey- 
nolds of the situation with a reijuisition for an 
adequate force of militia to co<">|>erate with the 
regulars. Under date of April 10, 1832, the Gov- 
ernor issued his call for "a strong det.ichment of 
militia " to meet by April 22, Beardstown again 
being named as a place of rendezvous. The call 
resulted in the asseml)ling of a force which was 
organized into four regiments under command of 
Cols John DuWitt, Jacob Fry. Jolin Thomas and 
Samuel M. Thompson, together with .a sjiy bat- 
talion under Maj. James 1). Henry, an odd l)at- 
talion under Maj. Thomas James and a foot 
battalion under Maj. Thomas Long. To these were 
subse<)uently added two independent battalions 
of mounted men, under command of Majors 
Isaiah Stillmau and David Bailey, which were 

finally consolidated as the Fifth Regiment under 
command of Col. James Johnson. The organiza- 
tion of the first four regiments at Beardstown 
was completed by April 27, and the force under 
command of Brigadier General Whiteside (but 
accompanied bj- Governor Reynolds, who was 
allowed pay as Major General by the GeneraV 
Government) began its march to Fort Armstrong, 
arriving there May "and being mustered into the 
United States service. Among others accompanj-- 
ing the expedition who were then, or afterwards 
became, noted citizens of the State, were Vital 
Jarrot, Adjutant-General; Cyrus Edwards, Ord- 
nance Officer; Murray McConnel, Staff Officer, 
and Abraham Lincoln, Captain of a company of 
volunteers from Sangamon County in the Fourth 
Regiment. Col. Zacliary Taylor, then commander 
of a regiment of regulars, arrived at Fort Arm- 
strong about the same time with reinforcements 
from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Crawford. The 
total force of militia amounted to 1,935 men, and 
of regulars about 1,000. An interesting story is 
told concerning a speech delivered to the volun- 
teers by Colonel Taylor alx)ut this time. After 
ren.inding them of their duty to obey an order 
promptly, the future hero of the Mexican War 
added: "The safety of all depends upon the obe- 
dience and courage of all. You are citizen sol- 
diers; .some of }-ou may till higli offices, or even be 
Presidents some daj- — but not if jou refuse to do 
your duty. Forward, march!" A curious com- 
mentary upon this speecli is furnished in the fact 
that, while Taylor himself afterwards became 
President, at least one of his hearers — a volunteer 
who probably then had no aspiration to that dis- 
tinction (Abraham Lincoln) — reached the same 
position during the most dramatic period in the 
nation's history. 

Two days after the arrival at Fort Armstrong, 
the advance up Rock River began, the main force 
of the volunteers proceeding by land under Gen- 
eral Whiteside, while General Atkinson, with 
400 regular and 300 volunteer foot soldiers, pro- 
ceeded by, carrying with him the .artillery, 
provisions and bulk of the Whiteside, 
advancing by the east bank of the river, was the 
first to arrive at the Prophet's Town, which, 
finding deserted, he pushed on to Dixon's Ferry 
(now Dixon), where he arrived Jlay 12. Here he 
found the independent battalions of Stillman and 
Bailey with ammunition and supplies of wliich 
AVliiteside stood in need. The mounted battalions 
under command of Major Stillman, having been 
sent forward by Whiteside as a scouting party, 
left DixoD on the 13th and, on the afternoon of 



the next day, went into camp in a strong position 
near the mouth of Sycamore Creek. As soon dis- 
covered, Black Hawk was in camp at the same 
time, as he afterwards claimed, with about forty 
of his braves, on Sycamore Creek, three miles 
distant, while the greater part of his band were en- 
camped with the more war-like faction of the Pot- 
tawatomies some seven miles farther north on the 
Kishwaukee River. As claimed by Black Hawk 
in his autobiography, having been disappointed in 
his expectation of forming an alliance with the 
Winnebagoea and the Pottawatomies, he had at 
this juncture determined to return to the west 
side of the Mississippi. Hearing of the aiTival of 
Stillman's command in the vicinity, and taking 
it for granted that this was the whole of Atkin- 
son's command, he sent out three of his young 
men with a white flag, to arrange a parlej- and 
convey to Atkinson his offer to meet the latter in 
council. Tliese were captured by some of Still- 
man's band regardless of their flag of truce, while 
a party of five other braves vrho followed to ob- 
serve the treatment received by the flagbearers, 
were attacked and two of their number killed, the 
the other three escaping to their camp. Black 
Hawk learning the fate of his truce party was 
aroused to the fiercest indignation. Tearing the 
flag to pieces with which he had intended to go 
into council with the whites, and appealing to his 
followers to avenge the murder of their comrades, 
he prepared for the attack. The rangers num- 
bered 375 men, while Black Hawk's band has been 
estimated at less than forty. As the rangers 
caught sight of the Indians, they rushed forward 
in pell-mell fashion. Retiring behind a fringe 
of bushes, the Indians awaited the attack. As 
the rangers approached. Black Hawk and his 
party rose up with a war whoop, at the same time 
opening fire on their assailants. The further 
history of the affair was as much of a disgrace to 
Stillman's command as had been their desecra- 
tion of the flag of truce. Thrown into panic by 
their reception by Black Hawk's little band, the 
rangers turned and, without firing a shot, began 
the retreat, dashing through their own camp and 
abandoning everything, which fell into the hands 
of the Indians. An attempt was made by one or 
two oflSeers and a few of their men to check the 
retreat, but without success, the bulk of the fu- 
gitives continuing their mad rush for safety 
through the night until ' they reached Dixon, 
twenty-five miles distant, while many never 
stopped until they reached their homes, forty 
or fifty miles distant. The casualties to the 
rangers amounted to eleven killed and two 

wounded, while the Indian loss consisted of two 
spies and one of the flag-bearers, treacherously 
killed near Stillman's camp, ihis ill-starred af- 
fair, which has passed into history as "Stillman's 
defeat, " produced a general panic along the fron- 
tier by inducing an exaggerated estimate of the 
strength of the Indian force, while it led Clack 
Hawk to form a poor opinion of the courage ct 
the white troops at the same time that it led to 
an exalted estimate of the prowess of his own 
little band — thus becoming an important factor 
in prolonging the war and in the bloody massacres 
which followed. Whiteside, with his force of 
1,400 men, advanced to the scene of the defeat 
the next day and buried the dead, while on the 
19th, Atkinson, with his force of regulars, pro- 
ceeded up Rock River, leaving the remnant of 
Stillman's force to guard the wounded and sup- 
plies at Dixon. No sooner had he left than the 
demoralized fugitives of a few days before de- 
serted their post for their homes, compelling At- 
kinson to return for the protection of his base of 
supplies, while Whiteside was ordered to follow 
the trail of Black Hawk who had started up the 
Kishwaukee for the swamps about Lake Kosh- 
konong, nearly west of Milwaukee within the 
present State of Wisconsin. 

At this point the really active stage of the 
campaign began. Black Hawk, leaving the 
women and children of his band in the fastnesses 
of the swamps, divided his followers into two 
bands, retaining about 200 under his own com- 
mand, while the notorious half-breed, MikeGirty, 
led a band of one hundred renegadePottawatomies. 
Returning to the vicinity of Rock Island, he 
gathered some recruits from the Pottawatomies 
and Winnebagoes, and the work of rapine and 
massacre among the frontier settlers began. One 
of the most notable of these was the Indian 
Creek Massacre in LaSalle County, about twelve 
miles north of Ottawa, on May 21, when sixteen 
persons were killed at the Home of William 
Davis, and two young girls — Sylvia and Rachel 
Hall, aged, respectively, 17 and 15 years — were 
carried away captives. The girls were subse- 
quently released, having been ransomed for $2,000 
in horses and trinkets through a Winnebago 
Chief and surrendered to sub-;vjent Henry 
Gratiot. Great as was the emergency at this 
juncture, the volunteers began to manifest evi- 
dence of dissatisfaction and, claiming that they 
had served out their term of enlistment, refused 
to follow the Indians into the swamps of Wis- 
consin. As the result of a council of war, the 
volunteers were ordered to Ottawa, where they 



were mustered out on May 28, by I^ieut. Robt. 
Aiiilersoii, afterwards General Anderson of Fort 
Sumter fame. Meanwhile ( iovernor Reynolds had 
issued his call (with that of 1831 the third,) for 
2,0(10 men to serve during the war. Gen. 
"Win field Scott was also ordered from the East 
with 1,000 regulars although, owing to cholera 
breaking out among the troops, they did not 
arrive in time to take part in the campaign. The 
rank and file of volunteers responding under the 
new call was ;!, 118, with recruits and regulars 
then in Illinois niaking an army of 4,000. Pend- 
ing the arrival of the tr(ioi)S under the new call, 
and to meet an inuuediate emergency, 300 men 
were enlisted from the disbanded i^angers for a 
period of twenty days, and organized into a 
regiment under command of Col. Jacob Fry, 
with James D. Henry as Lieutenant Colonel and 
John Thomas as Major. Among those who en- 
listed as privates in this regiment were Brig.- 
Gen. Whiteside and Capt. Abraham Lincoln. A 
regiment of five companies, numbering lO.^j men, 
from Putnam County under command of Col. 
John Strawn, and another of eight companies 
from Vermilion County under Col. Isaac R. 
Moore, were organized and assigned to guard 
duty for a i)eriod of twenty days. 

The new volunteers were rendezvoused at Fort 
Wilbourn, nearly opposite Peru, June 15, and 
organized into three brigades, each consisting of 
three regiments and a spy battalion. The First 
Brigade (Ol.'j strong) was placed under command 
of Brig. -Gen. Alexander Posey, the Second 
muler Gen. Milton K. Alexander, and the third 
under Gen. James I), Henry. Others who served 
as officers in some of several organizations, 
and afterwards became prominent in State his- 
tory, were Lieut.-Col. Gurdon S. Hubbard of the 
Vermilion County regiment; John A. McClern- 
and, on the staff of (ieneral Posey; Maj. John 
Dement; thou State Treasurer; StinsonH. Ander- 
son, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; Lieut.- 
Gov. Zadoc Casey; Maj., William McHenry; 
Sidney Breese (afterwards Judge of the State 
Supreme Court and United States Senator): W. 
L. D. Ewing (as Major of a spy battalion, after- 
wards United States Senator and State Auditor) ; 
Alexander W. Jenkins (afterwards Lieutenant- 
Governor) : James W. Semple (afterwards United 
States Senator) ; and William Weatherford (after- 
wards a Colonel in the Mexican War), and many 
more. Of the Hlinois troops, Posey's brigade 
was assigned to the duty of dispersing the Indians 
between Galena and Rock River, Alexander's sent 
to intercept Black Hawk up the Rock River, 

while Henry's remained with Gen. Atkinson at 
Dixon. During the next two weeks engage- 
ments of a more or less serious charactei « ere 
had on the Pecatonica on the soutliern border of 
the present State of Wiscon.sin; at Apple River 
Fort fourteen miles east of Galena, wliich was 
successfully defended against a force under Black 
Hawk himself, and at Kellogg's Grove the next 
day (June 25), when the same band ambushed 
Maj. Demenfs spy battalion, and camo near in- 
flicting a defeat, which was prevented by 
Demerit's coolness and the timely arrival of re- 
inforcements. In the latter engagement the 
whites lost live killed be,sides47 horses which had 
been tethered outside their lines, the loss of the 
Indians being sixteen killed. SkirmLshes also 
occurred with varying results, at Plum River 
Fort, Burr Oak Grove, Sinsiniwa and Blue 
Mounds — the la,st two within the present State of 

Believing the bulk of the Indians to be camped 
in the vicinity of Lake Koshkonong, General 
Atkinson left Dixon June 27 with a combined 
force of regulars ;knd volunteers numbering 2, GOO 
men — the volunteers being under the command 
of General Henry. They reached the outlet of the 
Lake Julj' 2, but found no Indians, being joined 
two daj-s later by General Alexander's brigade, and 
on the Cth by Gen, Posey's. From here the com- 
mands of Generals Henry and Alexander were 
sent for supjilies to Fort Winnebago, at the Port- 
age of the Wisconsin ; Colonel Ewing, with the 
Second Regiment of Posey's brigade descending 
Rock River to Dixon, Posey with the remainder, 
going to Fort Hamilton for the protection of 
settlers in the leail-mining region, while Atkin- 
son, advancing with the regulars up Lake Koshko- 
nong, began the erection of temporary fortifica- 
tions on Bark River near the site of the present 
village of Fort Atkinson. At Fort Winnebago 
Alexander and Henry obtained evidence of the 
actual location of Black Hawk's camp through 
Pierre Poquette, a half-breed scout and trader 
in the employ of the American Fur Company, 
whom they employed with a number of Winne- 
bagos to act as guides. From this point Alex- 
ander's command returned to General Atkin.son's 
headquarters, carrying with them twelve day's 
provisions for the main army, while General 
Henry's(600strong), with Major Dodge'sbattalion 
numbering 150, with an equal quantity of supplies 
for themselves, started under the guidance of 
Poquette and his Winnebago aids to find Black 
Hawk's camp. Arriving on the 18th at the 
Winnebago village on Rock River where Black 



Hawk and his band had been located, their camp 
was found deserted, the Winnebagos insisting 
that tliey had gone to Cranberrj- ( now Horicon) 
Lake, a lialf-da3's march up the river. Messen- 
gers were immediately dispatched to Atkinson's 
headquarters, thirty-five miles distant, to ap- 
prise him of this fact. When they had proceeded 
about half the distance, they struck a broad, 
fresh trail, which proved to be that of Black 
Hawk's band lieaded westward toward the Jlis- 
sissippi. The guide having deserted them in 
order to warn his tribesmen that further dis- 
sembling to deceive the whites as to 
the whereabouts of the Sacs was use- 
less, the messengers were compelled to follow 
him to General Henry's camp. The discovery pro- 
duced the wildest enthusiasm among the volun- 
teers, and from this time-events followed in rapid 
succession. Leaving as far as possible all incum- 
brances behind, the pursuit of the fugitives was 
begun without delay, the troops wading through 
swamps sometimes in water to their armpits. 
Soon evidence of the character of the flight the 
Indians were making, in the shape of exhausted 
horses, blankets, and camp equipage cast aside 
along the trail, began to appear, and straggling 
bands of Winnebagos, who had now begun to 
desert Black Hawk, gave information that the 
Indians were only a few miles in advance. On 
the evening of the 20th of July Henry's forces 
encamped at "The Four Lakes," the present 
site of the city of Madison, Wis., Black Hawk's 
force lying in ambush the same night seven or 
eight miles distant. During the next afternoon 
the rear-guard of the Indians under Neapope was 
overtaken and skirmishing continued until the 
bluffs of the Wisconsin were reached. Black 
Hawk's avowed object was to protect the passage 
of the main body of his people across the stream. 
The loss of the Indians in these skirmishes has 
been estimated at 40 to 68, while Black Hawk 
claimed that it was only six killed, the loss of 
the whites being one killed and eight wounded. 
During the night Black Hawk succeeded in 
placing a considerable number of the women and 
children and old men on a raft and in canoes 
obtained from the Winnebagos, and sent them 
down the river, believing that, as non-combat- 
ants, they would be permitted by the regulars 
to pass Fort Crawford, at the mouth of the Wis- 
consin, undisturbed. In this he was mistaken. 
A force sent from the fort under Colonel Ritner to 
intercept them, fired mercilessly upon the help- 
less fugitives, killing fifteen of their number, 
while about fifty were drowned and thirty-two 

women and children made prisoners. The re- 
mainder, escaping into the woods, with few ex- 
ceptions died from starvation and exposure, or 
were ma.ssacred by their enemies, the Menomi- 
nees. acting under white officers. Dviring the 
night after the battle of Wisconsin Heights, a 
loud, shrill voice of some one speaking in an un- 
known tongue was heard in the direction where 
Black Hawk's band was supposed to be. This 
caused something of a panic in Henry's camp, as 
it was supposed to come from some one giving 
orders for an attack. It was afterwards learned 
that the speaker was Neapope speaking in the 
Winnebago language in the hope that he might 
be heard by Poquette and the Winnebago guides. 
He was describing the helpless condition of his 
people, claiming that the war had been forced 
upon them, that their women and children were 
starving, and that, if permitted peacefully to re- 
cross the Mississippi, they would give no further 
trouble. Unfortunately Poquette and the other 
guides had left for Fort Winnebago, so that no 
one was there to translate Neapope's appeal and 
it failed of its object. 

General Henry 's force having discovered that the 
Indians had escaped — Black Hawk heading with 
the bulk of his warriors towards the Mississippi — 
spent the next and day night on the field, but on 
the followingday (July 23) started to meet General 
Atkinson, who had, in the meantime, been noti- 
fied of the pursuit. The head of their columns 
met at Blue Mounds, the same evening, a com- 
plete junction between the regulars and the 
volunteers being effected at Helena, a deserted 
village on the Wisconsin. Here by using the 
logs of the deserted cabins for rafts, the army 
crossed the river on the 27th and the 28th and the 
pursuit of black Hawk's fugitive band was re- 
newed. Evidence of their famishing condition 
was found in the trees stripped of bark for food, 
the carcasses of dead ponies, with here and there 
the dead body of an Indian. 

On August 1, Black Hawk's depleted and famish- 
ing band reached the Mississippi two miles below 
the mouth of the Bad Ax, an insignificant 
stream, and immediately began trying to cross 
the river; but having only two or three canoes, 
the work was slow. About the middle of the 
afternoon the steam transport, "Warrior," ap- 
peared on the scene, having on board a score of 
regulars and volunteers, returning from a visit 
to tlie village of the Sioux Chief, Wabasha, to 
notify him tliat his old enemies, the Sacs, were 
headed in that direction. Black Hawk raised the 
white flag in token of surrender but the oflSoer 



in command cLiiminR tliat he feared treacher}- or 
an amliusli, deniamlcHl that Black Hawk should 
come on board. This lie was unable to do, as he 
had no canoe. After waiting a few minutes a 
murderous fire of canister and musketry was 
opened from the steamer on the few Indians on 
shore, wlio made such feeble resistance as tliey 
were able. The result w;is the killing of one 
white man and twenty-three Indians. After this 
exploit the "Warrior" proceeded to Prairie du 
Chien, twelve or fifteen miles distiint, for fuel. 
During the night a few more of the Indians 
crossed the river, but Black Hawk, seeing the 
hopelessness of furtlier resistance, accompanied 
by the Prophet, and taking with him a party of 
ten warriors and thirty-five squaws and children, 
fled in the direction of "the delLs " of the Wis- 
consin. On the momingof the2d General Atkinson 
arrived within four or five miles of the Sac 
position. Disposing his forces with the regulars 
and Colonel Dodge's rangers in the center, the brig- 
ades of Posey and Alexander on the right and 
Henry's on the left, he began tlie pursuit, but 
was drawn by the Indian decoys up the river 
from the place where the main body of the 
Indians were trying to cross the stream. This 
had the effect of leaving General Henry in the rear 
practically without orders, but it became the 
means of making his command the prime factors 
in the climax which followed. Some of the spies 
attached to Henry's command having accidental- 
ly discovered the trail of the main body of the fu- 
gitives, he began the pursuit without waiting for 
orders and soon found himself engageil with some 
300 savages, a force nearly equal to his own. It here that the only thing like a. regiilar liattle 
occurred. The savages fought with the fury of 
despair, while Henry's force was no doubt nerved 
to greater deeds of courage by the insult which 
they conceived had Iteen put upon them by Gen- 
eral Atkinson. Atkinson, hearing tlie battle in 
progress and discovering that he was being led 
off on a scent, soon joined Henry's force 
with his main army, and the steamer '• Warrior," 
arriving from Prairie du Chien, opened a fire of 
canister upon the i)ent-up Indians. The battle 
soon degenerated into a massacre. In the course 
of the three hours through which it la,sted, it is es- 
timated that 150 Indians were killed by fire from 
the troops, an equal number of both .sexes and 
all ages drowned while attempting to cross the 
river or by being driven into it, while about .'iO 
(chiefly women and cliildren) were made prison- 
ers. The loss of the whites was 20 killed and 13 
wounded. When the "battle" was nearing its it is said that Black Hawk, having repented 
the abandonment of his people, returned within 
sight of the battle-ground, but seeing the slaugh- 
ter in progress which he was powerless to avert, he 
turned and, with a howl of rage and horror, fle<l 
into the forest. About 300 Indians (mo.stly non- 
combatants) succeeded in crossing the river in a 
condition of exhaustion from hunger and fatigue, 
but these were set upon by the Sioux under Chief 
Wabasha, through the suggestion and agency of 
General Atkinson, and nearly one-half their num- 
ber exterminated. Of the remainder many died 
from wounds and exhaustion, while still others 
perished while attempting to reach Keokuk's band 
who had refused to join in Black Hawk's desper- 
ate venture. Of one thousand who crossed to the 
east side of the river with Black Hawk in April, 
it is estimated that not more than 150 survived 
the tragic events of the next four months. 

General Scott, having arrived at Prairie du Chien 
earh' in August, assumed command and, on 
August 15, mustered out the volunteers at Dixon, 
HI. After witnessing the bloody climax at the 
Bad Axe of his ill-starred invasion. Black Hawk 
fled to the dells of the Wisconsin, where he and 
the Prophet surrendered themselves to the Win. 
nebagos, by whom they were delivered to the 
Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien. Having been 
taken to Fort Armstrong on September 21, he 
there signed a treaty of peace. Later he was 
taken to Jefferson Barracks (near St. Louis) in 
the custody of Jefferson Davis, then a Lieutenant 
in the regular army, where he was held a captive 
during the following winter. The connection of 
Davis with the Black Hawk War, mentioned by 
many historians, seems to have been confined to 
this act. In April, 1833, with the Prophet and 
Neapope, he was taken to Washington and then 
to Fortress Monroe, where they were detained as 
prisoners of war until June 4, when they were 
released. Black Hawk, after being taken to many 
principal cities in order to impress him with the 
strength of the American nation, was brought to 
Fort Armstrong, and there committed to the 
guardianship of his rival, Keokuk, but survived 
this humiliation only a few years, dying on a 
small reservation set apart for him in Davis 
County, Iowa, October 3, 1838. 

Sueli is the story of the Black Hawk War, the 
most notable struggle with the aborigines in Illi- 
nois history. At its beginning both the State 
and national autliorities were grossly misled by 
an exaggerated estimate of the strength of Black 
Hawk's force as to nmnbers and his plans for 
recovering the site of his old village, while 



Black Hawk had conceived a low estimate of the 
numbers and courage of liis white enemies, es- 
pecially after the Stillman defeat. The cost of 
the war to the State and nation in money has been 
estimated at S'2,000,000, and in sacrifice of life 
on both sides at not less than 1,200. The loss of 
life by the troops in irregular skirmishes, and in 
massacres of settlers by the Indians, aggregated 
about 250, while an equal number of regulars 
perished from a visitation of cholera at the 
various stations within the district affected by 
the war, especially at Detroit, Chicago, Fort 
Armstrong and Galena. Yet it is the judgment 
of later historians that nearly all this sacrifice of 
life and treasure might have been avoided, but 
for a series of blunders due to the blind or un- 
scrupulous policy of officials or interloping squat- 
ters upon lands which the Indians had occupied 
under the treaty of 1804. A conspicious blunder — 
to call it by no harsher name — was 
the violation by Stillman's command of the 
rules of civilized warfare in the attack made 
upon Black Hawk"s messengers, sent under 
flag of truce to request a conference to settle 
terms under which he might return to the west 
side of the Mississippi — an act whicli resulted in 
a humiliating and disgraceful defeat for its 
authors and proved the first step in actual war. 
Another misfortune was the failure to understand 
Neapope's appeal for peace and permission for his 
people to pass beyond the Mississippi the night 
after the battle of Wisconsin Heights; and the 
third and most inexcusable blunder of all, was 
the refusal of the officer in command of the 
"Warrior " to respect Black Hawk's flag of truce 
and request for a conference just before the 
bloody massacre which has gone into history 
under the name of the " battle of the Bad Axe." 
Either of these events, properly availed of, would 
have prevented much of the butchery of that 
bloody episode which has left a stain upon the 
page of history, although this statement implies 
no disposition to detract from the patriotism and 
•courage of some of the leading actors upon whom 
She responsibility was placed of protecting the 
frontier settler from outrage and massacre. One 
of the features of the war was the bitter jealousy 
engendered by the unwise policy pursued by 
General Atkinson towards some of the volun- 
teers — especially the treatment of General James 
D. Henry, who, although subjected to repeated 
slights and insults, is regarded by Governor Ford 
and others as the real hero of the war. Too 
brave a soldier to shirk any responsibility and 
too modest to exploit his own deeds, he felt 

deeply tlie studied purpose of his superior to 
ignore him in the conduct of the campaign — a 
purpose which, as in the affair at the Bad Axe, 
was defeated by accident or by General Henrj''s 
soldierly sagacity and attention to duty, although 
he gave out to the public no utterance of com- 
plaint. Broken in health bj- the hardships and 
exposures of tlie campaign, he went South soon 
after the war and died of consumption, unknown 
and almost alone, in the city of New Orleans, less 
two years later. 

Aside frorj contemporaneous newspaper ac- 
counts, monographs, and manuscripts on file 
in public libraries relating to this epoch in State 
history, the most comprehensive records of the 
Black Hawk War are to be found in the " Life of 
Black Hawk," dictated by himself (1834) ; Wake- 
field's "History of the War between the United 
States and the Sac and Fox Nations" (1834); 
Drake's" Life of Black Hawk" (1854); Ford's 
"History of Illinois" (1854); Reynolds' "Pio- 
neer History of Illinois; and "My Own Times"; 
Davidson & Stuve's and Moses' Histories of Illi- 
nois ; Blanchard's ' ' The Northwest and Chicago" ; 
Armstrong's "The Sauks and the Black Hawk 
War, ' and Reuben G. Thwaite's "Story of the 
Black Hawk War" (1892.) 

CHICAGO HEIGHTS, a village in the southern 
part of Cook County, twenty-eight miles south of 
the central part of Chicago, on the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern and 
the Michigan Central Railroads; is located in an 
agricultural region, but has some manufactures 
as well as good schools — also has two weekly news- 
papers. Pop. (1900), 5,100; (1910), 14,525. 

GRAXITE CITY, in Madison County, located 
five miles north of St. Louis on the lines of the 
Burlington; the Chicago & Alton; Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis; Chicago, Peoria 
& St. Louis (Illinois), and the Wabash Railways. 
It is adjacent to the Merchants' Terminal Bridge 
across the Mississippi and has considerable manu- 
facturing and grain-storage business; has two 
newspapers. Pop. (1900), 3,122; (1910), 9,903. 

CICEROj a city and towTiship of Cook County, 
adjacent to and west of the city of Chicago, and 
lies between Oak Park on the north and Ber\\-T,-n on 
the south; is a popular residence section and has long 
resisted annexation to Chicago. Pop. (1910), 14,557. 

FOREST PARK (formerly Harlem), a ^-illage 
and suburb of Chicago, on the line of the C. & N. W. 
R. R., 9 miles west of the terminal station: is a 
favorite residence section. Pop. (1910), 6,594. 

HARVEY, a city of Cook County, and an im- 
portant manufacturing suburb of the city of Chi- 



ongo, three miles southwest of the southern city 
limits It is on the line of the Illinois Central 
and the Chicago iS: (Jriuul Trunk Riiihvays. and 
has extensive man u fact ur(« of harvesting, street 
and steam railway macliinery, gasoline stoves, 
enameled ware. etc. ; also has one newspaper and 
ample school facilitie.s. Population (1900), 5,395. 

IOWA CKXTR.VL RAILWAY, a railway line 
having its [>rincipal termini at Peoria, 111., and 
Manly Junction, nine miles north of Mason City, 
Iowa, with .several lateral hranches making con- 
nections with Centerville, Newton, State Center, 
Story City, Algona and Northwood in the latter 
State. The total length of line owned, leased 
and operated by the Company, officially reported 
in 1899, was 508.98 miles, of which 89,76 miles- 
including 3.5 miles trackage facilities on the 
Peoria & Pekin Union l>etween Iowa Junction 
and Peoria — were in Illinois. The Illinois divi- 
eion e.\tends from Keithshurg — where it enters 
the State at the crossing of the Mississippi — to 
Peoria.— (History.) The Iowa Central Railway 
Company was originally chartered as the Central 
Railroad Company of Iowa and the road com- 
pleted in Octol)er, 1871. In 1873 it passed into 
the hands of a receiver and, on June 4, 1879, was 
reorganized under the name of the Central Iowa 
Railway Company. In May, 1883, this company 
purcha.sed the Peoria & Farmington Railroad, 
which was incorporated into the main line, but 
defaulted and pas.sed into the hands of a receiver 
December 1, 18sfl; tlie line was sold under fore- 
closure in 1887 and ls88, to the Iowa Central 
Railway Company, wliich had effected a new 
organization on the basis of .$11,000,000 common 
stock, $0,000,000 preferred stock and $1,379,625 
temporary debt certificates convertible into pre- 
ferred stock, and $7,500,000 first mortgage bonds. 
The transaction was completeil, the receiver dis- 
charged and the road turned over to the new 
company. May 15, 1889. — (Financi.\l). The total 
capitalization of the road in 1899 was .$21,337,5,58, 
of wliich $ wa.s in stock, .$ in 
bonils and $.528,283 in other forms of indebtedness. 
The total earnings ami income of the line in Illi- 
nois for the same year were -$532,568, and the ex- 
penditures $.5fiG,,333. 

SPAKTA, acity of liandolph County, situated 
on the Centralia & Chester and the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroads, twenty miles northwest of Ches- 
ter and tifty miles southeast of St. Louis. It has 

a number of manufacturing establishments, in- 
cluding plow factories, a woolen mill, a cannery 
and creameries; also luus natural gas. The first 
settler was James JlcC'lurken, from South Caro- 
lina, who .settled here in 1818. He was joined by 
James Armour a few years later, who bought 
land of McClurken, and together they laid out 
a village, which first received the name of Co- 
lumlms. About the same time Robert G. Shan- 
non, who had been conducting a mercantile busi- 
ness in the vicinity, located in the town and 
became the first Postmaster. In 1839 the name 
of the town was changed to Sparta. Mr. McClur- 
ken, its earliest settler, appears to have been a 
man of considerable enterprise, as he is credited 
with having built the first cotton gin in this vi- 
cinity, besides still later, erecting saw and flour 
mills and a woolen mill. Sparta was incorporated 
as a village in 1837 and in 1859 as a city. A col- 
ony of members of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church (Covenanters or "Seceders") established 
at Eden, a beautiful site about a mile from 
Sparta, alx)ut 1822, cut an important figure in 
the history of the latter place, as it became the 
means of attracting here an industrious and 
thriving population. At a later period it became 
one of the most important stations of the "Under- 
ground Railroad" (so called) in Illinois (which 
see). The population of Sparta (1890) was 1,979; 
(1000). 2,041: (lOin) 3,081. 

WEST FRANKFORT, a city of Franklin County, 
on the line of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Rail- 
road; is a rich coal mining region and has some 
manufactures. Pop. (1910), 2,111. 

WITT, a city of Montgomery County on the " Big 
Four" and C. & E. I. R. R., 10 miles northeast of 
Hillsboro; in mining district. Pop. (1910), 2,170. 

WEST HAMMOND, a village situated in the 
northeast corner of Thornton Township, Cook 
County, adj<acent to Hammond, Ind., from which 
it is sep.arated by the Indiana State line. It is on 
the Michigan Central Railroad, one mile south of 
the Chicago City limits, an<l has convenient ac- 
cess to several other lines, including the Chicago 
& Erie; New York, Chicago & St. Louis, and 
Western Indiana Railroads. Like its Indiana 
neighbor, it is a m.inufacturing center of much 
importance, was incorporated as a village in 
1892, and has grown rapidly within the last few 
years, having a jiopulation, according to the cen- 
sus of 1900, of 2,935. 


great agricultural district of Illinois has been 
immensely imjiroved from the state of nature, 
hy expensive drainage ditches and levees, or 
iiy the instjillation, in some instances, of pump- 
ing machinery. Millions of acres of former wet 
or overflowed lands have thus been redeemed 
from swamps, sloughs or almost worthless river 
bottoms. In the years from 1S70 to 1874, the . 
great Sny Island Levee and Drainage District 
of Adams, Pilce and Calhoun counties, was im- 
proved by a levee .""lO miles in length along the 
east bank of the Mississippi Kiver. This stream 
called the Sny, or ".Snycarte," which was really 
a bayou of the Mississippi River, flowed from 
an opening in that stream in Adams County, 
through the enormously rich valley lands lying 
between the Mississippi River and the parallel 
line of bluffs, and emptied itself into the main 
stream in CUlhoun County. Upon the organiza- 
tion of this drainage and levee district, a dam 
was constructed in Adams County at the head 
of the Sny, and by the building of the levee 
along the main river bank, all of the upper part 
of the bottom land of this large district was 
enclosed. The channel of the Sny was left o|)en 
at the lower end and ordinary floods were car- 
ried off into the Mississipiii thereby, and over 
100,000 acres were thus preserved from over- 
flow. This work was constructed under drain- 
age laws which were supposed, under the con- 
stitution of 1S70. to give authority for the issue 
of bonds to be assessed upon the land benefited. 
After the completion of the work and the sale 
of the bonds, the courts decided the bonds were 
issued under a law which violated the constitu- 
tion of the state, and the $600,000 worth of 
bonds were decided to be worthless and have 
proved a loss to their owners. 

In 187S, the people of Illinois adopted an 
amendment to the constitution, and in agree- 
ment with this carefully worded amendment, 
various acts of the legislature have since been 

passed, and in accordance with some of these, 
this unfortunate district has been greatly im- 
proved. Tnder the diflerent acts of the legisla- 
ture which have been enacted at various times, 
a great number of drainage and levee projects 
have been carried out and others are still being 
lilanned. Immense tracts of swamps and over- 
flowed lauds, considered almost worthless by 
our early pioneers, have since been brought to 
a high state of cultivation and are now by far 
the richest farm lands in Illinois. Large areas 
of these wet lands, once called sloughs, which 
yielded only coarse grass, reeds or rushes, have 
been improved by what are called "dredge 
ditches," excavated by powerful steam dredge 

The report of the State of Illinois Rivers and 
Lakes Commission furnishes a tabulated list 
of all the drainage and levee districts in this 
state. It gives the titles of 505 of these dis- 
tricts, situated in 81 different counties, and 
embracing 2,n57.000 acres, with enough more 
land under contract to bring the total much 
above 3,000,0(10 acres. There are 21 counties 
which do not report any ditches or levees. The 
cost of all this work is given at nearly $10,000,- 
000. It includes 3,118 miles of open dredged 
ditches and 1,322 miles of levee. These 3,000,- 
000 acres are easily worth $100 more per acre 
on account of the improvement by drainage and 
levees which, for the whole .state, amounts to 
.$;!00,000,000. Nearly all of this additional value 
has come from the intelligent action of the 
voters of Illinois in the adoption of the drain- 
age amendment to our state constitution in 1S7S, 
supplemented as it was by the pronijit and care- 
ful action of the state legislature. 

The Cairo District, owned almost entirely by 
the Halliday family, consisting of fi,400 acres, 
is a sample of districts constructed on over- 
flowed river bottom land wholly surrounded by 
levees, and freed from water b.v powerful jnimp- 
ing machines. The Kask.iskia Island Drainage 




and he^ee Pistriet is liein;; constructed on tliis 
plan of plain Icvce construction. Wlien com- 
pleted, it will contain about 11,000 acres of the 
Great American Bottom, wholly surrounded by 
a very hi:i;h levee. The Mississippi River, in 
ISSl, broke through the KasUasUia River a few 
miles above the old town of KasUaskia. and has 
widened that stream so that the entire current 
from the Mississippi River flows throuiih the en- 
larged channel, and the town has almost en- 
tirely disajipeared. The old river channel 
around the west side of the island is now closed, 
and the Kaskaskia Commons and Common 
Lands, amounting to about 11,000 acres, includ- 
ing some iirivate property, under recent legisla- 
tion, are about to be included in a district to be 
surrounded by a very high and costly levee, and 
powerful puni])s will drain the enclosed area. 
Our drainage laws have been gradually adapted 
to a coniliination of land and sanitary drainage 
which will allow cities or villages or both, to 
be assessed for sanitary improvements in com- 
pany with adjacent or included territory, to be 
Improved for agricultural purposes. It is al- 
most impossible, in general statements, to 
Indicate clearly all of the peculiar legal pro- 
visions for the various conditions of drainage 
required, all of whiih provisions have been based 
upon the constitutional amoniluient of IsTS. 

The Ilillview Iirain.ige and Levee District of 
Greene and .Scott counties, may be taken as an 
Illustration of a very common variety of dis- 
tricts which are peculiar to Illinois River bot- 
toms, although they can be found along the 
Mississippi and in other parts of the state. The 
Hillview district is about 7 miles long from 
north to south and 3 miles from east to west 
and contains 12..VI0 acres of land. It lies nn the 
east side of the Illinois River. Like many other 
river bottom districts, it formerly contained 
several lakes which had been leased to hunting 
and fishing club.s. Hurricane Creek in Greene 
County, which issues from the bluffs at Ilill- 
view, is kept out of the district by the three- 
mile embankment of the Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road which forms the levee along the south side 
of the district. The Big Sandy Creek in S( ott 
County, is leveed on both of its banks, carrying 
Its water out to the Illinois River, and the levee 
on the north bank forms the south levee of the 
next district in Scott County, while the levee on 
its south bank is the north levee of the Ilillview 
district. The west levee of this district is along 
the west bank of the Illinois River while the 

east side of the river consists entirely of liigh 
hills or bluffs. As none of the streams coming 
from hills are very large, the flood waters 
of the district are quite easily handled by its 
Iiumps. There are about 10 miles of small 
lateral dredge ditches conveying the drainage all 
to one main ditch and the pumping plant is 
located at its outlet. The whole assessment on 
the district, which included all expenses, except- 
ing such tile drains as the land owner may 
desire, was in the neighborhood of .$300,000, 
making an average assessment of about $2.j per 
acre. In this district, as in many others, there 
was quite a large area of practically waste land 
before the conunencement of the work, and an- 
other very large area which had long been culti- 
vated and which possessed considerable value, 
its owners running the risk of occasional over- 
flows. Districts like the Hillview district are 
very connnon, esjieciall.v along the Illinois River. 
Xow that the flow of water from the Chicago 
Sanitary District has been quite fully estab- 
lished, it is believed that districts of ths char- 
acter combining very similar features with 
those here illustrated, will prove to be of great 
permanent importance. The drainage 
project in this state, outside of Cook Count.v, is 
the East Side Levee and Sanitary District of 
ICast St. Louis. It has been in process of or- 
ganization for several years and work has been 
in progress for over three years. It is about IS 
miles in length, and its western bonndary is the 
levee along th(> Mississijipi River, much of which 
is the old levee raised, enlarged and strength- 
ened. Its average width is 7 miles and it will 
enclose the cities of East St. Louis, Granite City 
and Venice, besides .several villages. 

Cahokia Creek, which is about 5.5 miles in 
length, with a drainage area of jibout 300 square 
miles, flows through the central portion of East 
St. Louis and has hitherto been an almost 
insuperable l)arrier to modern improvements. 
Near the jioint where this large creek comes out 
of the bluffs and encounters the Great Amer- 
ican Bottom, quite a number of miles above 
Granite Cit.v, a large canal or outlet has been 
dredged to the Mississippi bank. It is 100 feet 
in width at the bottom and on its south bank 
has been thrown up a levee which will resist the 
Mississijipi River at times of overflow, and 
forms the north levee of the district. The south 
levee will extend from the line of bluffs at the 
southeast corner of the district to its intersec- 
tion with the southwest corner of the district 



at the river levee, at some distance below the old 
towu of Cahokia. The east side of the district 
will consist of the uiilands and bluffs outside of 
the lowlands ui.iou which the cities and villages 
are situated. The drainage water from this 
high laud, and also from the old bed of Cahokia 
Creek, will be carried in a southerly direction 
near the line of upland, away from most of the 
area of the cities, draining some of the lakes 
and sloughs and having its lower end near the 
southwest corner, where ^"ill be situated the 
great pumping machinery. This ditch or canal 
starts at the northwest corner near where the 
Cahokia Creek is thrown outside of the north- 
east corner of the district. It will be SO feet 
wide, and will carry all the surface water of the 
enclosed district, and will have lateral ditches 
and connections with the sewers, unless the dif- 
ferent cities have separate sewer connections 
near their several old outlets. The estimated 
cost of this immense undertaking is over $6,000,- 
000, and the work is one of untold importance 
to the region benefitted. The cities and villages 
included already contain a population of over 
100,000 and are growing with great rapidity. 
The importance of this grand improvement can 
not at present be fully estimated. 



Beginning with ls27, various attempts were 
made to establish a state historical society in 
the state of Illinois, but all were short lived, 
however, until 1S99. when the present Illinois 
State Historical Society was organized. In re- 
sponse to a call signed by Judge Hiram W. 
Beckwith, Dr. Edunind Janes James and George 
N. Black, then trustees of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library, and J. H. Burnham, E. M. 
Prince, George P. Davis, David JlcCulloch, and 
other citizens interested in historical work, a 
preliminary meeting was held at the T'niversity 
of Illinois. On May 23, 1000. the Illinois State 
Historical Society was chartered as a corpora- 
tion under the laws of the state. The objects 
of the society were thus set forth in the articles 
of incorporation: "To excite and stimulate a 
general interest in the history of Illinois: to 
encourage historical research and investigation 
and to secure its promulgation : to collect and 
preserve all forms of historical data in any 
way connected with Illinois and its peoples." 
Hon. Hiram W. Beckwith of Danville, 111., 
served as president of the society from 1S09 to 

1!j03. He was succeeded by Dr. J. F. Snyder 
of Virginia, 111., who served until 1U05, when 
he resigned and was succeeded by Gen. Alfred 
Orendorff, of Springfield. On the death of 
General Orendorff in 1009, Col. Clark E. Carr 
of Galesburg, 111., was elected as president and 
served in that capacity until 1013, when, on 
account of ill health he was made honorary 
president for life, and Dr. Otto L. Schmidt was 
elected president. The society has been served 
by the following as seci'etary: Evarts Boutell 
Greene, J. W. Putnam, J. J. McCan Davis, and its 
present secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 

By an act of the legislature approved May 
16, 1903, a new section was added to the origi- 
nal act by which the State Historical Lilirary 
was organized in 18S9. By the provisions of 
this section (60) the State Historical Society 
is declared to be a department of the Illinois 
State Historical Library and the board of tru.s- 
tees is authorized to pay certain expenses of 
the society out of funds appropriated by the 
legislature to the library for this purpose. In 
accordance with the provision of this statute 
the General As.semlily has, from time to time, 
made special appropriations for expenses for 
the State Historical Society. 

The first annual meeting of the society was 
held in Peoria, 111., June 5-6, 1000. These an- 
nual meetings, which were comparatively small 
at the beginning, have grown in attendance and 
general interest until they now constitute an im- 
I>ortant means of bringing together the scat- 
tered workers in this field from various jiarts 
of the state. The membership in the society 
now numbers over sixteen hundred and in point 
of membership and interest it ranks as the 
largest historical .society in the United States. 
When the society was first organized the three 
trustees of the library were made directors and 
the president of the board was also made the 
president of the society. The society as now 
organized has a hoard of officers consisting of 
an honorary president, a president, four vice 
presidents and a board of directors of fifteen 
members, elected at the annual meeting of the 
society. The present officers of the society are : 
honorary president, Hon. Clark E. Carr, Gales- 
burg; president, Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago; 
first vice president. W. T. Xorton, Alton ; second 
vice president, L. Y. Sherman. Springfield : third 
vice president, Richard Yates, Springfield: 
fourth vice president, George A. Lawrence. 
Galesburg; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Jessie 



rainier Wolior. The lioanl of directors are: 
Kdinuml J. James, I'rbaua-Cliamiiaigu ; J. H. 
r.iirnliain, HlouiiiinKtiui; K- B. Greene, frliaua- 
("liaiMiiai^'n ; Mrs. Jessie I'almer Welier, Sprius- 
lii'.il; Cliarli'S II. ltaniniell;aiiiii, Jaelisonville ; J. 
<). t iinniugliani, I'rliana; Georfre W. Smitli, Car- 
lioiidale: William A. Meese, Moline; Kichard 
V. larpentcr. I'.iOvidcre ; Kdward ('. I'ase, De- 
Kalli; J. W. I'liiitoii. Toio; Andrew Kiissol, 
Jacksonville ; Walter Col.ver, AUiion : James A. 
James. Kvanston: 11. \V. Clendenin, S|irin:.;lield. 
The iinlilications issued hy the society are Its 
"TransjK'tions," which contain the papers read 
at the annual nieetinss and contributions to 
state history, and the Journal of the society, 
which was liesun in April, liiOS, and it Is now 
Lssued quarterly under the nianasement of a 
committee. .Mrs. Jessie Talmer Weber is chair- 
man of this committee and editor-in-chief of 
the Journal. Iieins also secretary of the Histori- 
cal Society and librarian of the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Mrs. Weber has been ex- 
tremely helpful in maintaining a vital relation 
between the two organizations. 

Jkssie r.\I..MER WEnEIt. 

BRARY was created by an act of the General 
.\sscnilily of Jlay 2."i, ISSO. The first board of 
trustees, consistins of Ilirnm W. Beckwith of 
Danville, Dr. Arthur Kdwards of Ghicajro, and 
Edward F. Leonard of Peoria, organized Novem- 
ber 25, 1SS9, by electing Mr. Beckwith president, 
Mr. Leonard, secretary, and Miss Josephine P. 
Cleveland, librarian. Complying with a re<iuest 
made at the first meeting of the board, the 
Secretar.v of State, as ex-officio state librarian, 
transferred from the Illinois State Library, 442 
volumes relating distinctively to the history of 
the state. The books formed the nucleus of 
the State Historical>rary of today, which 
now contains .30,700 volumes, besides an inter- 
esting collection of manuscripts. It has a large 
and rare collection of books, pictures and manu- 
scripts relating to Abraham Lincoln, Illinois' 
greatest citizen. It has a fine collection of 
newspaper files which are constantly in use by 
all classes of citizens. The libraiy is building 
up a fine collection of genealogic-al material 
which is of great assistance to, and much used 
by. persons interested in the stud,v of ancestr.v 
and by those seeking admissioa to patriotic 
hereditary societies. The library collects ma- 

terial along all lines of state history, natural 
history, histories of counties, town.s, cities, vil- 
lages, churches, travels, biographies of prom- 
inent citizens, and the part taken by the state 
In various wars, In short any material that in 
any way touches ui)on the history of the state 
or its people. The of the library as 
defined b.v the act creating it is "to procure from 
time to time, books, pamphlets, manuscripts, 
monographs, writings and other material bear- 
ing u|>on the j)oIitical. physical, religious or 
social history of the state." 

The labors of the trustees have resulted in the 
collection of a well .selected library relating to 
Illinois, the Mississippi Valley and the old 
Northwest Territory. In 1899, there began a 
series of small volumes designated as "Publica- 
tions of the Illinois State Historical Library." 
Tlicy were prepared largely under the super- 
vision of Dr. Edmund J. James, then a pro- 
fessor at the Iniversity of Chicago, and In- 
cluded a bibliograph.v of Illinois newspapers and 
two volunu's dealing with the "Territorial Rec- 
ords of Illinois." In 1003 a more ambitious 
series was undertaken under the title of the 
"Collections of the Illinois State Historical 
Library," the first volume of which was edited 
by Judge II. W. Beckwith. In the year 1005, 
the work of publication was given a new im- 
l>etus by the more liberal action of the General 
Assembl.v. Prior to that date, beginning with 
isoo, small apjiropriations had lieen made to the 
library specifically for publication. In 1005, this 
amount was Increased and In addition an appro- 
]iriation was made for procuring documents, 
papers and materials and publications relating 
to the Northwest and the State of Illinois. This 
appropriation made possible for the first time 
tlml examination of archives within and with- 
out the state without which a comprehensive 
policy of publication could not be carried out. 
For the purpose of securing the services of 
historical students in shaping this larger plan 
of publication, the library board aiiixnnted an 
Advisory Commission, and acting on the advice 
of this commission, the board accepted a plan of 
publication in series, each series to consist 
usually of material belonging to a particular 
period in the political history of the state, as. 
for instance, the Virginia .series, dealing with 
the period when the sovereignty In the Illinois 
Country was claimed by the State of Virginia. 
In some cases, however, a topical arrangement 



is also provided as in the Lincoln series. Nine 
volumes of the collections have been published 
as follows : 

Historical Collections of the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Ed. by H. W. Becliwith ; 
A'irgluia Series. Vol. I. Oaliokla Records, 177S- 

1700. Ed. by Clarence Walworth Alvord ; 
Lincoln Series. Vol. I. Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates. Ed. by Edwin Earle Sparks: 
Executive Series. The Governor's Letter Books, 

1N18-1S34. Ed. by Evarts Boutell Greene and 

Clarence Walworth Alvord ; 
Virginia Series. Vol. II. Kaskaskia Records, 

1778-1700. Ed. by Clarence Walworth Alvord ; 
Executive Series. The Governor's Letter Books. 

1S40-1S5.3. Ed. by Evarts Boutell Greene and 

Manfred Thompson ; 
Virginia Series. III. George Rogers Clark 

Papers, 1771-17S1. Ed. by James Alton 

James ; 
Biographical Series. Vol. I. Newspapers and 

Periodicals of Illinois 1814-1879. Ed. by 

Franklin William Scott : 
Bibliographical Series. Vol. II. Travel and 

Description, 17(iii-lNfi5. By Solon Justus Buck. 

The volumes so far i>u1ilished have attracted 
favorable notice from the general public and 
from scientific historians as well. In carrying 
-forward the work of pulilication the trustees 
have had the cooperation of some of the leading 
educational institutions of the state. This has 
been done chiefly through the agency of the Ad- 
visory Commission, which was organized by the 
board in 100.5. aiid included, at that time. Prof. 
E. E. Sparks, of the T'niversity of Chicago: J. 
A. James of Northwestern T'niversity: Cliarles 
H. Ramnielkamp. of Illinois College : E. C. Page, 
of the De Kalli Normal School : Henry Johnson, 
of the Eastern Illinois Normal School and 

Evarts B. Greene, chairman. Since the organiza- 
tion of the commission changes in the personnel 
of the board have taken place, Prof. Sparks 
leaving to accept the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania State College, his place lieing taken by 
I'rofessor A. C. McLaughlin, head professor of 
history in the I'niversity of Chicago. On the 
resignation of Professor Henry Johnson, of the 
Eastern Normal School, tliis vacancy was filled 
by the appointment of William A. Meese, of 
Moline, a well known writer and si)eaker on 
Illinois histor.v. The annual Transactions of 
the Historical Society are issued as publications 
of the lilirary : these volumes contain the jiapers 
read at the annual meeting of the society and 
additional contributions to state history. The 
imlilications of the lilirary and societ.v are used 
ly students and clubs throughciut the .state and 
in many schools they are used as text Iwoks for 
students in state history. During the years of 
its existence the library board has had init four 
lire.sidents. Judge Lambert Tree occupied the 
jiositidu for four .vears. Judge Beckwith until 
his death in lOOIl. Dr. Eilmund Janes James 
resigned, and Dr. Evarts Boutell Greene was 
elected. The present board of trustees consists 
of three members. 

Dr. Evarts Boutell Greene, L'rbana. 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt. Chicago, 


Cliarles H. Ramnielkamp, President Illinois 
College, Jacksonville. 

But two librarians have been appointed. Miss 
.Josephine P. Cleveland, who served in that 
capacity for eight years or until her death in 
INti". and Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, the pres- 
ent librarian. 

Jessie Palmer Webee. 




T. 2; N. 

T" 20 N. 

r. 19 N. 

T. n N . 

y 1 '-=y^i~v>y^- j)/<~- ry*- j ^ 
/•J I to li/ I ?• ••'Np'''jj 

f J.;li 1 "' ' !^""d 


I believe the publication, at this time, of a history of Piatt County will be 
appreciated by our people. With the exception of Miss Emma C. Piatt's excel- 
lent history, published in 1883, no extended general work treating of the progress 
and development of the county, and giving an account of its social, religious and 
business institutions, has appeared. For this and other reasons, I feel that this 
work will be welcomed by the people of the county. 

I have endeavored to obtain correct information, but it is probable that some 
mistakes will be discovered. However, I think it will be found to be generally 

I acknowledge my indebtedness to Miss Piatt's historj', and to a large 
number of citizens of the county who were most obliging in furnishing me with 
authentic data and valuable information. 

Monticello, Illinois, June, 1917. 




Earliest Annals — Religious Persecution Led to Early Colonization in 
America — Coast Settlements First — English and French — Many- 
Conflicts over Possessions — French and Indian War — The Clark 
Expedition — Illinois Country Organized — Made Part of the North- 
west Territory — Becomes Portion of Indiana Territory — Made Sep- 
arate Territory in 1809— Admitted to Union in 1818 623-625 



Location — Area — Population — Great Fertility — Exceptional Market Ad- 
vantages — Natural Drainage — A Water Shed Ridge — Sangamon and 
Kaskaskia Rivers and Tributaries — Present Drainage Districts — 
Time, Money and Effort Well Expended — Coon's Spring — Climate 
and Geology — Flora — Fauna — Few Snakes 625-628 



The American Indian — His Early Treatment Unjust — Many Times a Vic- 
tim of Ignorance — Lands Wrested from Him — Present General 
Status — Pacts of History — Early Indian Troubles in Illinois — Win- 
nebago War — Black Hawk War — Treaty with Sacs and Foxes — 
Death of Black Hawk — Indians in Piatt County — Friendly with 
Piatt Family 628-632 



The First Settler— Builder of Second Cabin— Settlers in 1824 — A Promi- 
nent Pioneer — A Notable Event in Illinois — -Winter of the Deep 
Snow — The Big Freeze — A Personal Experience — Settlers Between 
1830 and 1840— First Births in County— First Deaths— The "Coffin 
Tree" — Early ]\Iills — Examples of Pioneer Ingenuity — First Grist 
Mill — Pioneer Characteristics — Early Postal Annoyances — Much 
Tvphoid Fever — Chills and Fever Often Prevailed — Green Flv Pest 
—A Defender of Pioneer Life '. 632-636 



Piatt First a Part of .Maeoii aiul DeWitt — Separated in 1841 — Given Its 
Present Name — Boundaries — Population — No County Seat Struggles 
— First County Election — Division into Townsiiips — Courthouses — 
First One Destroyed by Fire — Secontl Dismantled by Storm — Pres- 
ent Courthouse — Corner Stone Laid in Fall of 1903 — Occupied Jan- 
uary, 1905 — Circuit Judges Who Have Presided Here — County Jail 
— County Poor Farm — Pearly I'rovision ^Made — New Buildings Com- 
pleted in 1902 — Adecjuate Accommodations — List of Stewards — Value 
of Countv's Public Buildings— Much Local Pride 636-640 



Presidential Elections Iiiii)ortaMt Kvcnts — Piatt Voted First in 1844 — 
Three Party Organiaztions .Sought Power — Democrats Successful — 
Whigs Won in 184S and Democrats in 1852— In 1856 the Republi- 
can Party Entered the Field — How Piatt Treated Abraham Lincoln 
—Presidential Election of 1860— Re-election of Mr. Lincoln in 1864— 
Results as to Leading Parties in Piatt in 1868-1872-1876-1880-1884- 
1888-1892-1896-1900-1904-1908-1912-1916- Piatt Legislator.s— Local 
Repres<'iitation — State's Attorney.s — County Judges — County Clerks 
— Circuit Clerks — County Treasurers — Sheriffs — County School 
Superintendents — Surveyoi's — Coroners — -Alasters in Chancery 640-643 



Early Administration of Justice — Formation of Committees of Safety 
— Necessary Organizations — First Court Held in Piatt ("ounty — 
First Presiding .ludge Was lion. Samuel II. Treat — Early Law- 
yers — Present .Attorneys — An Able Body — Justices of the Peace 
by TovvTishij)s — Bemeiit — Ceri-o (iordo — Blue Ridge — Goose Creek — 
Monticello — Sangamon — Willow Branch — Unity 643-644 



Patriotism of Piatt County — Civil War Records Prove It — No Conscrip- 
tion in This County — AppeTidcd Military Reeortl — List of Regiments 
in Which Piatt County ilen Served — Ninth Illinois Infantry — Four- 
teenth Illinois Infantry Reorganized — Seventeenth Illinois Infantry 
— Tweuty-drst Illinois Infantry — This Regiment Organized by 
Capt. U. S. Grant— Twenty-si.xth Illinois Infantry— Thirtv-fourth 
Illinois Infantry— Thirty-fifth Illinois Infantry— Thirty-eighth Illi- 
nois Infantry — Thii-ty-ninth Illinois Infantry — P^orty-lirst Illinois 
Infantry — Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry — Fiftv-fourth Illinois In- 

fantry— Sixty-second Illinois Infantry— Sixty-third Illinois Infan- 
try — Sevety-seeond Illinois Infantry— Seventy-third Illinois Infan- 
try — Many Piatt Soldiers in This Regiment— Ninety-ninth Illinois 
Infantry— One Hundred and Seventh Illinois Infantry with Long 
Roster of Piatt County Soldiers— One Hundred and Fifteenth Illi- 
nois Infantry— One Hundred and Sixteenth Illinois Infantry— One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Illinois Infantry— Second Illinois Cavalry- 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry— Seventh Illinois Cavalry— Tenth Tlinois Cav- 
alry—Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry— First Illinois Light Artillery— 
Spanish-American War Not Heavily Represented — Grand Army of 
the Republic — Its Inception and Organization — The First Grand 
Army Post— First Encampment— Harker Post at Atwood — Three 
Charter Jlembers Surviving— Cerro Gordo Post Has Twenty-five 
Members— History of Mansfield Post— One Charter :\Iember Living 
at Mansfield — Franklin Post at :\Ionticello — Posts Were Also Organ- 
ized at Bemcnt and La Place 644-665 



A Universal Imiiulse — Neighborly Helpfulness — First Permanent Physi- 
cian in County — Early Successors — Well Remembered Practitioners 
— Trials of Pioneer Physicians — An Amusing Anecdote — Conditions 
All Changed — Profession Now Ably Represented — List of Leading 
Physicians and Surgeons — Piatt County Jledieal Society — Date of 
Organization — First Officials — Present Officers — Piatt County Has 
No Hospitals ! 665-667 



Power of the Press — First Editor — First Newspaper — The Montieello 
Times — Subsequent C'hanges in Name — The Sucker State — The Con- 
servative — The Piatt County Union — The Piatt Independent — The 
Piatt Republican— The Montieello Bulletin the Present Title— Oldest 
Paper in County — Present Owners — Piatt County Herald — Piatt 
County Republican — Piatt County Pilot — Benient Union — The Farm- 
ers Advocate — Bement Gazette — Cerro Gordo Times — Bement Regis- 
ter — Cerro Gordo News — Deland Tribune — Mansfield Express — At- 
wood Herald — Cisco Review — Hammond Courier — A Word of Appre- 
ciation 667-668 



Excellent Schools — Subscription Schools at First — Cabin Sehoolhouses 
Social Centers — Various Buildings Utilized — The Typical Pioneer 
Schoolhouse — Development of Schools by Townships — IMonticello — 
Earliest Schools — Present Fine Building — High School ('ourse — List 
of Educators — Valuation of School Property — In City — Schools Out- 
side of City— All Well Equipped— Bement— First "School in 1856 
— Present Fine Building — List of Educators — Bement Rural Schools 
— Cerro Gordo City School Facilities — On Accredited List of Univer- 
sity of Illinois . . .' 668-672 



General Financial CniKlitioiis — Noees.sity for Banks — Power of Finan- 
cial Instifntions — First Banks — Moore State Bank of Montieello — 
P'ir-st National Bank of Montieello — Farmers National Bank of ;\Ionti- 
eello — First National Bank of Atwood — State Bank of Hammond — 
State l^ank of Cerro Gordo — Citizens Bank of Cerro Gordo — State 
Bank of La Plaee — Bank of Milmine — State Bank of Cisco — State 
Bank of De Land — First National Bank of De Land — Pierson Bank — 
Peoples State Bank of Mansfield— State Bank of Mansfield— S. L. 
Sievers & Company Bank of White Heath — First National Bank of 
Bement — State Bank of Bement — Other Financial Institutions — 
Mortgage Investments — Remarkable Financial Condition 672-676 



Transportation Prolilems — First Roads Buffalo and Indian Trails — Old- 
est Made Road — First State Road— Stage Routes Established — Ac- 
commodated Travelers for Many Years — Railroads Sounded Their 
Knell — First Railroad Construction "Work in 1855 — Wabash Rail- 
road Began Operating as the Chicago & Paducah — Stations on the 
Waliash in I'iatt County — Illinois Central Railroad — Branch Line 
First Bore Name of the Montieello Railroad — Many Changes in 
Ownership — Piatt Stations Along This Road — Chicago, Cleveland, 
Cincinnati & St. l/ouis Railroad — ilansfield Only Station in Piatt 
County — Chicago. Indianapolis & Western — Piatt Stations on This 
Line — McKinley Traction System — Bloomington, Decatur & Cham- 
paign Railroad — Automobiles — ilanv Valuable .Alotors Owned in 
County ■ 676-678 



Women's Clubs — Influence of Clubs — Advancement of Women — Monti- 
cello Women's Club; Organization, Work, Officers — Bement W^oman's 
Club; Organization, Work, Oflicers — De Land Woman's Club; Or- 
ganization, Work, t)fficers — Fraternities 678-680 



Importance of Agriculture — Stock Raisiiig--Corn Growing — Other Grains 

—Land Values— Farm ^Machinery 680-681 



First Telephone Line — The Telerema — Invented, Patented and ^lanu- 
factui-ed in Piatt Countv — Large Demand Prior to Introduction of 

the Bell Telephone — First Private Telephone Line — Organization of 
the Mutual Telephone Company — First Toll Telephones — Organiza- 
tion of Piatt County Telephone Company — Exchanges at Monticello, 
Bement and De Land — First Exchange at Cerro Gordo — Exchange at 
La Place — Telephone Line with Exchanges at Hammond, Burrows- 
ville and La Place Built in 1900 — Atwood Mutual Telephone Company 
— The National Telephone Company Has Exchanges at Mansfield, 
Clinton, Parmer City, Cisco and Argenta — Excellent Service Given 
All Over the County — Electrical Works — First OflBeials — Present 
Equipment — Other Lighting Interests 681-682 



First Agricultural Society Organized — Accomplished Little During the 
First Five Years — Representative Men Accept Official Position in 
1861 — Through Concerted Effort Fair Grounds Were Prepared — 
Character of the Early Pairs — The Centennial Exposition Awakens 
Interest — Change of Name in 1903 — Lists of Officials — Equipment 
and Valuation — Recent Features and Exhibits — Importance of 
County Fairs 682-683 



Boundaries — Natural Drainage — Early Settlers — Village of Bement — 
Origin — Pounders Bement Post Office — Bement Postmasters — Pio- 
neer Incidents — Public Improvements — Churches— Civic History — 
Ivesdale — Officials — Highway Commissioner — Justice of the Peace 
— Constable — Supervisors 683-687 



Boundaries — Natural Drainage — Railroads — Early Settlers — First Elec- 
tion — Stringtown — Mansfield — General Mansfield — Incorporatiori of 
City — Churches — Blue Ridge — Officials — Highway Commissioner — 
Justice of the Peace — Constable — Supervisors 687-688 



Boundaries — Natural Drainage — Origin of Name — Railroads — Early 
Settlements — Village of Cerro Gordo — Village Officials — Public Im- 
provements — Churches — Business Interests — La Place — Churches — 
Milmine — Litner — Burrowsville — Officials — Supervisors 688-690 



Boundaries — Origin of Name — Railroads — De Land — Churches — Chris- 
tian — Methodist Episcopal — Carnegie Library — Two-Mill Tax — Vil- 
lage Board — Officials of Township — Highway Commissioner — Justice 
of the Peace — Constable — Poundinaster — Supervisors 690-691 



Boundaries — First Settlements — Railroads — City of Monticello — First 
Settlers — First Hu'^iness Houses — No Controversy Over Location of 
County Seat — Inccrporation — Present City OfKcials — Post Office — 
Public Buildings — Public Improvements — Water Works — Sewerage 
— Fire Department — Cemeteries — Manufactures — Allerton Library 
— Churches — Methodist — Presbyterian — Christian — Catholic — An 
Old Proclamation — Monticello of Today — Officials — Town Clerk — 
Assessor — Collector — Highway Commissioner — Justice of the Peace 
— Constable — Supervisors 691-697 



Boundaries — Ha 11 roads — Early Settlements — Centerville — Lickskillett — 
Present Coiulitioiis — VViiite Heath — Origin of Name — Present Condi- 
tion — Churches — CJalesville — Origin of Name — Present Condition — 
Lodge — Officials — Highway Commissioner — Justice of the Peace — 
Constable — Supervisors 697-698 



Boundaries — Mound Builders — Railroads — Early Settlements — Mack- 
ville — Hammond — Pierson — Atwood — Origin of Name — Early Set- 
tlers — Organization of Village — Organization of City — Mayors — 
Public Improvements — Atwood Townshij) High School — Odd Fel- 
lows — Officials — Highway Commissioners — -Justices of the Peace — 
Constable — Supervisors 698-700 



Boundaries — Soil — Natural Drainage — Origin of Name— Early Settlers — 
Stringtown — Railroatls — Siseo — Churches — Officials — Commissioners 
of Highway — Justice of the Peace — Constable — Supervisors 701-702 



The Part of Biography in General History — Citizens of Piatt County 
and Outlines of Personal History — Personal Sketches Arranged in 
Encyclopedic Order 703-818 


Alexander, Jennie M 624 

Alexander, Ora V 624 

Armsworth, Sarah 630 

Armsworth, Willis 62S 

Ater, John S 636 

Baumann, Herman B 642 

Baumann, Sarah C 642 

Bensyl, John A 646 

Bensyl, Nellie F 646 

Bondurant, Thomas E 650 

Burr, Amos S 654 

Caldwell, Alvin L 658 

Croninger, Charles L., and Family 662 

Dighton, John X 666 

Grason, Cliarles F 672 

Grason, ilartha E 674 

Hadden, Benjamin, and Family 682 

Hallstead, John 686 

Heath, Noble P 690 

Kilton, Obert L 698 

Kingston, John W 702 

Leischner, Daniel 706 

Leischner, John '''12 

Leischner, L. Annie '^08 

Leischner, Mrs. John '''12 

lycmen, James M 'i'16 

Llestman, Frederick '''SO 

Liestman, Minnie ' -0 

Lodge, Samuel A '^24 

Lum-sden, IDdmond W ''^28 

Lumsden, Mrs. Edmond W 1'28 

Lyons, Elizabeth '^'^- 

Lyons, William '^"'■^ 

Martin, Francis 736 

Martin, Henry I' 740 

McBride, Da\"id 744 

McBride, Mrs. David 744 

McFadden, Mrs. Mary A 748 

Mitchell, James II 752 

Mitchell, Myrtle B 752 

Parr, Ajidrew E 756 

Parr, Caroline 756 

Peck, James K., and Granddaughter 760 

Phillips, J. Madison 764 

Phillips, Mrs. J. Madison 764 

Phillips, Mr. and Mrs. J. M., Children of..764 

Piatt, James A 768 

Piatt, Mrs. James A 768 

Plnnk, Emma E 772 

Plunk, Maria M 778 

Plunk, William A 772 

Plunk, William H 776 

Quick, Daniel 782 

Shively, John J 786 

Shonkwiler, Francis M 

Frontispiece, Piatt County 

Smock, Samuel, and Family 790 

Sprinkle, Simon 7(H 

Traxler, Samuel J., and Family 798 

Tucker, Tliomas J., and Family 802 

Van Vickie, Henry 804 

Warner, Jesse W 806 

Wilson, Jacob G 808 

Wilson, Joseph 808 

Wolfe, Eli F., and Family 812 

Wolfe. Frank, and Family SIO 

Wood, John W 814 


Baling Threshed Straw 678 

Breakins tlie Soil 678 

Court House ( Old) 632 

Court House ( I'reseut ) 638 

Biskiu}; the Stiihlile Field 678 

Farm Team al Work 678 

High School 668 

Honselmaii Cabin 694 

Library 694 

Lincoln School 668 

Map of Piatt County 623 

Oiiera House ' G94 

Residence of Daniel I>eischner 710 

Residence of James A. Piatt ( Sr. ) C32 

Steam Threshinj; Outfit 678 

Wheat and Corn Fields i 678 

Wheat in the Stack 678 



II I I III -l ■■■■III > 











It has been truly said that the history of a 
country or community dates back to the begin- 
ning of time, for each happening has its cause 
in those that preceded it from the time that 
creation was accomplished. Therefore it is 
proper and reasonable to liriefly trace the 
sequence of events that led to the evolving of 
the great state of which Piatt County is an 
important section, in order to show how these 
historical issues had their bearing upon the 
settlement and subsequent development of Piatt 
County. Had it not been for these occurrences 
and the later achievements of the men whose 
names are enrolled upon the scroll of Illinois' 
heroes and statesmen, it is very probable that 
the Piatt County of today would be very dif- 
ferent, mayhap be yet a prairie, given over to 
wild vegetation and the home of domesticated 
animals, and the nation thereby would be the 

When the earliest settlers, many being refu- 
gees, from the older countries ventured forth, 
with confidence in Providence and a brave con- 
sciousness of the justice of their desire to escape 
religious persecution, or, hoping to find, across 
the mighty Atlantic, better opportunities to 
develop their natural talents unoppressed by 

tyrannical rulers and their favorites, they had 
no idea of the vast territory they were entering, 
nor had any, even those of the broadest minds 
and most optimistic views, any conception of the 
magnitude of their undertaking, nor could they 
foresee what a few centuries would bring forth. 
In their tiny vessels that crossed the Atlantic 
at the mercy of wind and wave, propelled only 
by the sails that crowned them, they took weeks 
in their voyages, and doubtless many perished 
in storms, or were shipwrecked upon barren 
shores, where the remainder of their lives were 
sperrtr'Tofttnmtely, however, for the stability 
of..tlj^ nevv^natiou' they were helping to found, 
a majority, strange <as it seems today consider- 

. ji^ the iOp^ity ^of their equipment, reached the 
shoreg^ pl^ tii£-j^w continent in safety, and while 

• liCHie-, 'perhapSr fpjjn'd here a full realization of 
their hopes, few were abls to return and 
enough were .sufficiently satisfied to remain and 
make tlie best of conditions as they found them. 
Without doubt their characters were developed, 
their virtues multiplied, and their ability 
increa.sed by the very hardshijis encountered, 
and from them, the forbears of the Auierieaa 
people of today, have come the characteristics 
which have placed the United States in its 
present irosition. 


As the newcomers were comparatively few in 
number, and restricted as to means, they had 
little or no interest in the lands which lay 
beyond the strip lying along the coast. Few, 
perhaps, would have believed it possible that 
the time would ever come when there would be 
any need of traveling many miles from the sight 
and sound of the ocean, which formed tlie sole 
connection between them and the mother coun- 
try. These pioneers found it dilticult enough to 
maintain their holdings, wrested from the 
Indians, and long had no desire to try to pene- 
trate the fastnesses which they believed were 
peopled by savages, and covered by vast forest 




growths that the axe of mau could not hope to 
fell. They had uo appreciation of the great 
regions of prairie laud which later would be 
developed into such fertile fields that the rock- 
bound farms of Xew England would be aban- 
doned for them. They did not imagine that the 
day would come when their descendants could 
travel in greater comfort and luxury than was 
then enjoyed by any of the reigning kings upon 
their thrones or in their palaces, from the ocean 
they had crossed with such peril, to another one 
much larger, in less time than it then took them 
to journey from one little settlement to another 
along the coast line. 

Credit is due to the French voyageurs and the 
Catholic missionaries for their exploration of 
the Mississippi Valley, and it is in their work 
that the people of Piatt County are interested, 
for they gave to the world the first idea of the 
richness of the lands adjacent to the Father of 
Waters. Xo history of this region can be writ- 
ten without mention being made of Marquette 
and Joliet, the intrepid missionaries who not 
only succeeded in penetrating the fastnesses of 
the wilderness, but through their patience and 
Christian virtues made friends with the savage 
Indians and converted many of them to the 
worship of the white man's God. 

England had been content with her occupancy 
of the eastern coast until France sought to 
extend her territory eastward, when that nation 
awoke to the necessity of not only defending 
her possessions, but of extending her domain so 
as to avoid further trouble along this line, and 
during the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the colonists of both English and French 
extraction were distressed by various conflicts, 
which took place coincident with those which 
were waged between the mother countries. Eng- 
land maintained her supremacy in the east, but 
France founded a series of fortified posts which 
connected the Mississippi Valley with the 
Great Lakes, among them being Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia. Vincennes and Detroit, all of which 
were later developed into towns, and the first 
three had a very inii)ortant bearing upon Illinois 

Other trouble followed during the early part 
of the eighteenth century, but the English 
colonists were not favored justly by the mother 
countr.v, and a realization of this was the 
foundation of the bitter feeling that culminateil 
in the mighty protest that goes down in history 
as the American Revolution. While, however. 

the English possessions were not materially 
increased, in spite of the brave and capable 
warfare of the settlers, an appreciation of the 
\alue of the lands to the west of them was 
awakened, and they sought to obtain some right 
to them. Colonial population was increasing, 
and the more advanced among them saw the 
necessity of providing for the future in opening 
up to the younger generation the fertile regions 
along the great water courses between the coast 
on the east and the Mississippi River on the 
west. To the reader in the twentieth century 
it seems strange to learn that in the middle of 
the eighteenth century the present site of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., was regarded as and spoken of as 
"The Gateway to the West." The French sought 
to prevent the English from obtaining jwsses- 
sion of this strategic point, and defeated the 
latter in their attempt to fortify this place, 
building a fort of their own which they called 
Fort Duquesne. In moving against this strong- 
hold of the enemy, the English troops were com- 
manded by a Virginia youth by the name of 
Washington. He fired the first shot of the 
attaclv on May 2!<, 1754, thus coming into promi- 
nence in the history of a country of which he 
was later to become known as "the Fatlier.'" 
Then ensued what history has designated the 
French and Indian War, and during the years 
it raged, various conquests were made by the 
English, the most important with reference to 
Illinois, and consequently to Piatt County, being 
that which gave over to the English the French 
possessions which had hitherto been held by 
France, and wliich included all of the present 
stiite of Illinois. Thus ended the dominion of 
the French in our present comnaonwealth. While 
the French flag floated no longer over the for- 
tified settlements, being replaced by the English 
ensign, there was little change in the few 
settlers who had gathered about these posts in 
the wilderness. The Indians still practically 
owned the land, and used it as hunting grounds. 
The Revolutionary War had jjut little effect 
upon this .section, except that a third change 
was made, and the English flag was lowered to 
make way for the new one that the American 
colonists had given the world. 

In 1777-8 Col. George Rogers Clark made 
what is now known as the Clark Expedition, 
and through it much was discovered about what 
was then called the Illinois Country. Its name 
had been given it from an Algonquin Indian 
won]. I Mini, signifying "the men," which the 



French clianged into Illini, meaiiinf; "tbe trilie.' 
In the latter year. 177S, Virginiii a.sserted its 
dominion over the territory covered by the Clarli 
Expe<lition, and organized tlie Illinois Country, 
lu 1TS7, however, Illinois was made part of the 
Northwest Territory, and in 1800 became a por- 
tion of Indiana Territory, with its seat of gov- 
ernment at Vinceunes. 

The beginning of Illinois as a separate politi- 
cal division had its beginning in its organization 
as a territory on February 3, 1809. witli the 
capital at KaskasUia. The first territorial legis- 
lature was held in 1S12. Illinois came into the 
Union as a state December 3, 1818, with the 
capital remaining at Kaskaskia. A complete 
and detailed history of Illlinois as a state Is 
found elsewhere in this work, it being the pur- 
pose of this chapter to give merely an outline 
of the leading historical events that led up to 
the opening of the state to settlers and the 
encouragement of the development of the 
natural re.'^ources of this great commonwealth. 






Piatt Cougty is located almost in the center of 
the State, and is bounded on the north by 
McLean County, on the. east by Champaign and 
Douglas counties, on the south by Moultrie 
County, and on the west by Macon County. Its 
area is 50,000 square miles, or 280,320 acres of 
land, and its population according to the last 
census was 10,370. The greater jiortion of the 
land is undulating, the northern portion being 
more rolling than that of the southern part. 
The county is about evenly divided as to 
prairie and timber land, and in its early history 
had some very valuahle timber, but the greater 

part of this has been cleared away. It is one 
of the most fertile of the agricultural counties 
of the state, and its agricultural interests are 
lully developed. Located about midway between 
Chicago and St. Louis, it has had two of the 
best markets in the country to which to sell its 
produce and from which to obtain its necessities 
and luxuries, the latter increasing annually as 
the wealth and ideas of the people have 


Piatt County has been favored by nature in 
being remarkably well drained, a ridge running 
a little north of Cerro Gordo in a northeasterly 
direction through the county, between Bement 
and Monticello, and passing into Champaign 
County, is the water shed for the valley between 
the Illinois and Kaskaskia rivers, both of which 
are tributaries of the Mississippi River. From 
the summit of this ridge a beautiful view can 
be ■ obtained of the surrounding country for 
many mUes, and the scenery in Piatt County, 
especially along this ridge, is as fine as any in 
the state. North of the ridge is the Sangamon 
River, along which lay heavy timber before the 
days of forest sacrifices, and before those of 
conservation of natural resources. This water 
course has a number of tributaries, including 
Madden's Run, Goose Creek, Wild Cat Creek 
and Friend's Creek on the north ; Camp Creek 
and Willow Branch on the south. Salt Creek 
is another tributary of the Sangamon River to 
the extreme north. The Kaskaskia River drains 
the southern and .southeastern by means of the 
West Okaw and Lake Fork of the Okaw, its 
tributiiries. As the fall of country along Lake 
Fork was very slight, the drainage in the south- 
eastern part was totally insufficient until the 
project of deepening the channel of the Lake 
Fork in eastern Bement Township and southern 
Monticello Township was taken up, which 
resulted in the establishing of a drainage dis- 
trict, which redeemed many acres of the richest 
land in the county. The history of this move- 
ment may be briefly toM. 


On October 7. 1SS2, at an election held in the 
Concord schoolhouse, the following board of 
drainage commissioners was elected : Alfred 
Jay. Samuel L. Busich and Anthony Clark. The 
purpose of this movement was to dredge the 
Lake Fork sufficiently to drain the surrounding 



district. The name of tUis water course was 
talii'ii from the fact that durlug the rainy sea^^on 
the water overllowed its banks to such an extent 
that a hirgc lake was formed each year, utterly 
submerging the lauds adjacent, and remleriuf; 
others too moist for practical puriKise.s. 
Although the measure had been imt before the 
licoiile at a general election prior to tlie electiou 
of the drainage l»ard, many objections were 
raised as to the decisions of the drainage com- 
missioners relative to the assessments and bene- 
fits proiwsed, and the project dragged because 
of various court proceedings. Finally on Sep- 
tonilier 21, 18S3, the county surveyor, C. D. 
Moore, was instructeil to survey the ditch, pre- 
pare a plat and profile. Accoixling to liis original 
plans, the drainage ditch oxtendt'd from the 
northern boundary of section 36, township 18, 
range (J, to the Crain bridge, a distance of 
eleven miles. 

This plat was submitted to the drainage board 
at their March meeting, 1884, and received their 
approval. l!ids were advertised for, but none 
were submitted by the time of the next meeting, 
and nothing more was accomplished until the 
September meeting, 1884, when the original 
plans were amended to read as follows: 

"The width from Grain's bridge to the south 
line of section 1, township 17, range C, be thirty 
feet at the top, twenty-five feet from thence to 
tbe south line of section .SO, township IS, range 
0, and twenty feet from thence to the north 
line of said ilitch to be one-fourth as wide as 
the top. and the depth one foot more, at all 
points thaiij the de|)th fixed by V. D. Moore in 
the profile approved -March 1, 1884." 

It was the intention that the bid be awarded 
for the contract by October 10. 1884. so that 
worla might be begun that year, but the boaixl 
adjourned, and the contract was not let until 
the spring of ]S8.". when it was awarded to 
McCillis & Company at 11 0/10 cents per cubic 
yard, with the proviso that if the ditch were 
completed by Ajiril 1. l.lsc, Hio contractors were 
to receive a bonus of 1 0/10 cents per cubic yard. 
Not long after .securing tlie contract, the con- 
tractors let it to Pollard, Ooff & Company, and 
the new firm consented, at a meeting of the 
drainage board held .Tuly 22, ISS.", to make the 
ditch feet wide on the bottom from one end 
to the other, ami 2 feet deeper than the bottom 
of the ditch as proposed by C. D. Moore, from 
the north end to within one mile of the south 
end, and from Hint jxiint the clo]ith to increase 

gradually until it was 3 feet deeper than the 
bottom of the ditch as shown by the plans and 
specifications. The width of the top of the 
ditch was to remain as origiually contracted. 
The time was extended to June 1, 1880, for the 
completion of tlie ditch. 

Active work was begun during the summer 
of 1885 at the north end of the proposed chan- 
nel, in Monticello Township, and continued until 
November, 18SG. At that time the ditch reached 
the Moore graveyard in I'nity Township, and 
on February 2, 188", the boat was burned. The 
completed ditch is about 45 miles in length, 
and cost about .$300,000. This ditch was after- 
wards extended for a distance of three mile.s 
by a special mutual .drainage district, formed 
by the farmers in the vicinity of Mackville. 

Thirty-three sub-districts have been organized 
in the Lake Fori; Special Drainage District, and 
the entire system drains about 155,000 acres in 
Champaign, Douglas and Piatt counties. The 
total cost was near $1,000.(X)0. but it was money 
well spent, as it resulted in the reclamation of 
many thousands of acres of very fertile laud. 

coon"s spring. 

Piatt County has very few living springs, but 
one that has attained more than local reputa- 
tion is that named Coon's Spring, on the south 
bank of the Sangamon Kiver. As It is located 
in the midst of pleasant surroundings, it has 
long been the gathering place for camp meet- 
ings, picnics and similar meetings. 

I'cw roinities in the stale have a more eciiiable 
climate than Piatt, for as it is out of the direct 
route of the trade winds from the southwest. 
and little subject to the cold currents from the 
polar regions that press down the valley of 
the upper Mississippi, this section is singularly 
fortunate, and these conditions mike it pecu- 
liarly suited for agricultural purposes and fruit 

There are no formations shown in Piatt 
County older than the Drift Period. Accoi-ding 
to the survey taken by the state government of 
the county in 1808. the following observations 
are given : 

"Appearance of the (hill at the Sangamon 
Kiver bridge near Monticello: 



1 Yellowish-brown clay 5 feet 

2 Clay, sand and boulders 5 feet 

3 Dark asb, brown clay, fine sand 

and pebbles 4 feet 

4 Black clay 1 foot 

5 Clay streaked brown and black 

with ochery red 8 feet 

Sangamon bluffs : 

1 Brown clay C feet 

2 Pebbles and clay 10 feet 

3 At top dark-brown clay, below 

reddish brown finely com- 
niingled with sand and clay. . . .14 feet 

"Between Monticello and Centerville the 
road washings disclose .3 to 4 feet of liright 
brown clay, sometimes brown sand, pebbles and 
boulders. On the prairies there are boulders of 
granite of various colors, gray, red, sienitic, 
granite, quartzite and altered sandstone, gneiss 
and greenstone ; and in the altered drift, Devo- 
nian fossils and fragments of coal mea.sure. 

"Springs highly colored with oxide of iron 
are found. On section 29, township 19, N., range 
5, E., there are many such springs. Some of 
them are strongly chalybeate. In one, gas arises 
and a quantity of brown sediment is deposited 
on its sides, and it is marshy ground. Some of 
the wells dug and bored from 60 to 100 feet 
are supplied with a seemingly e.vhaustless 
amount of water. This great vein of water is 
thus reached at various depths throughout the 
county. In Goose Creek Township a well was 
bored lliO feet, Ijut the vein was not reached. 
On the fair-grounds it was reached at 52." 
According to the report, other wells in the 
northern part of the county reached water at 
a depth from 12 to 20 feet. For surface water, 
wells in the timber have to be dug deeper than 
those on the jirairie. but when it is desired to 
reach this underlying stream the case is 


It is almost impossible in a work of this kind 
to give at length the plants that are indigenous 
to Piatt County, but a few of the best known 
may be mentioned. Clematis, anemone, hepatica. 
wild columbine, larkspur, white and red bane- 
berry, custard apple family, monseed family, 
may apple, water lily, poppy, blood root, Dutch- 
man's breeches, mustard family, mallow family, 
sumac, summer grape. Virginia creeper, buck- 
tliorn, burning bush, sugar or rock maple, red 

clover, sweet clover, tick-trefoil, bush clover, 
ground nut, kidney bean, hog peanut, red bud, 
wild senna, honey locust, wild yellow or red 
plum, wild strawberry, wild raspberry, wild rose, 
crab apple, pear thorn, wild gooseberry, stone- 
crop, witchhazel, evening primrose, gourds, black 
snakeroot, wild carrot, cowparsnip, cowbane, 
meadow parsnip, spotted cowbane (deadly 
poison), water parsnip, honeyroot. ginseug, dog- 
root, honeysuckle, aster, goldenrod, daisies, sun- 
flower, thistle, ironweed, button snakeroot, 
trumpet weed, boneset, butter weed, ragweed, 
cocklebur, ox eye, beggar ticks, fetid marigold, 
sneeze weed, fire weed, Indian plantain, bur- 
dock, dandelion, wild lettuce, Indian tobacco, 
common mullein, figwort, beards-tongue, purs- 
lane, wild mint, water horehound, Aniericau 
jiennyroyal, wild bergamot, catnip, hedge nettle, 
motherwort, wild morning glory, horse nettle, 
thornapple, milkweed, white ash. wild ginger, 
pigweed, smartweed, pale, swamp, curled and 
bitter dock, sassafra.?, spice bush, toadwax, 
lizard tail, slippery elm, hackberry, red mul- 
berry, nettle, clearweed, hoji, plane tree, syca- 
more, buttonwood, butternut, shellbark hickory, 
white, burr, laurel, sbingle, black-jack, barren, 
yelUow-bark, black and red oak, hazelnut, iron 
wood, heart leaved, black and long-leaved wil- 
low, Cottonwood, red cedar, Indian turnip, 
dragon root, duckweed, cat tail, bur reed, blue 
flag, wild yam, trillium, bellwort. white dog- 
tooth violet, wild hyacinth, wild onion and wild 
garlic, spiderwort, spikeljusb, bullrush, white 
grass, water oats, reed grasscord, drop seed, 
orchard and porcupine grass, wire and fowl 
meadow grass, wild rye, common horsetail, and 
maiden hair, lady, marsh, brittle and ostrich 
ferns. The connnon or local names of the above 
mentioned flora are given in order that these 
Iilants may be readily recognized. Some of these 
have been eliminated, but when the pioneers 
reached Piatt County, they found all of them 
and many others, and soon learned the various 
uses to which they could be put. either as food 
for themselves and stock, or as medicine to cor- 
rect the diseases to which they were subject. 
Some of the above have been cultivated and 
developed to a considerable extent, especially 
the fruits, as Piatt County is well adapted for 


In naming the fauna of Piatt County only the 
(•(inuiionly used name is here siven. and it is 



practically impossible to mention every species 
in an article like tbis. The aim is to cover in 
a general way the subject so that succeeding 
generations will have a fair idea of I'iatt 
County fauna as it was originally. Before the 
county was settled the buffalo and black bear 
may have been found, and there wore plenty of 
Virginia deer, Canada lynx, wild cat, gray or 
prairie wolf, red and gray fox, common weasel, 
mink, otter, skunk, raccoon, brown and silver 
back bat, prairie mole, flying fox, gray squirrel, 
chipmunk, strii)ed goplier, gray gopher, wood- 
chuck, Norway rat. comuion mouse, hare and 

Among the most widely distributed birds may 
be named tlie following: Robin., 
olive-backed thrush, brown thrush, mocking bird, 
cat bird, blue bird, titmouse, nut hatch, brown 
creeper, house wren, shore lark, golden, yellow- 
rumped, magnolia, red-start and chestnut 
warblers, scarlet tanager, summer red bird, barn, 
eave and bank swallows. i]urple martin, wax 
wing, warbling vireo. yellow-throatetl vireo, 
shrike, wild canary, goldfinch, English sparrow, 
lark, finch, field sparrow, chippy, song sparrow, 
swamp sparrow, snow bird, fox sparrow, black- 
throated bunting, indigo bird, ground robin, 
bobolink, cow bird, red-winged blackbird, mead- 
ow lark, oriole, orchard oriole, rusty grackle, 
purjjle grackle. crow, blue jay, king bird, pewee. 
fly catcher, whippoorwill. night hawk, chimney 
swallow, luliy throated humming bird, kiui;- 
fisher, yellow-liilled cuckoo, red-headed wofid- 
pecker, goldon-wiiigod woodpecker, short-eared, 
screech and great-horned owl, sparrow hawk, 
chicken hawk, hen hawk, golden eagle, turkey 
buzzard, wild pigeon, mourning dove, rufTed 
grouse, prairie hen, quail, golden plover, kill- 
deer plover, woodcock. Wilson's snitJo. sandpiper, 
great bine heron, groat white egret, stake driver, 
white crane, sandhill crane, brant goose. Canada 
goose, mallard duck, blue winged teal, green- 
winged teal, wood duck and pied-billed grebe. 

There are three species of turtle, the snap- 
ping, mud and soft-shelled. While there are no 
lizards, a ■ li/.ard-like reptile has been found, 
known as a salamander, and what is called a 
glass snake, but belongs to the lizard family, 
for it has movable eyelids, which the true snake 
has not. Of the true snakes, there were two 
species of the rattlesnake found in IMatt 
County, the only poisonous kind here. Other 
snakes still found here are the black, the blue 
racer, the fox. the milk, and three or four 

kinds of garter, and water snakes. Two or 
three kinds of frogs, the toad and the mud 
puppy have been found here. The fish are repre- 
sented by two species of cat fish, the buffalo, 
one or two kinds of sun fish, bass, pike, perch 
and gar pike. 

Insect life injurious to crops formerly was 
well represented in I'iatt County, as in other 
sections. At one time the Colorado potato beetle 
was found in countless numbers, but has now 
nearly entirely disappeared. The wild potato 
bug is also found, the cabbage butterflies, cut 
worm and white grub. The ground squirrel 
may destroy the corn, but he is an enemy to 
beetles. Tlie army worm, the cinch bug, the 
Hessian fly, have been enemies of the farmer 
here, but these are pretty well eliminated. 








Without d<iubt the .American Indian has been 
one of the most misunderstcxid and al)used of 
mankind. Inheriting the continent of which 
his white brethren have largely dispossessed 
him, by right of prior occupation that extends 
back into the dim recesses of history, his rights 
have been disregarded, his possessions wrested 
from him. and he. who is the original American, 
is now the ward of the government which con- 
quered him. It is imiios.sible. perhaps, for 
people to take a dispassionate view of current 
events. They are always influenced more or 
less by personal matters and the trend of public 
opinion. It is not until a future generation, 
entirely removed from the effects of any great 
mo\ement. can look back upon such events, that 
a clear, neutral and fair judgment can be ren- 





dered. Although it is many years since the 
Indian was a menace to others, recollections of 
dire deeds of violence and injustice on both 
sides, still, in some sections, inflame public 
opinion, and the wise man reserves his com- 
ments, unless certain of not rousing old issues. 
The day, however, is not far distant when the 
white race will look back with astonishment, if 
not shame, upon the methods by which white 
supremacy was flrst secured over an innocent 
and ignorant people. 


We are told that with the landing of the 
white strangers in the New World, came a 
warm welcome from the native red men, who 
saw in the visitors nothing to fear, but rather 
superiors to be reverenced. How rude must 
have been their awakening when they discovered 
that those whom they regarded as gods, were 
made of the same clay, although differently 
colored, as that from which they were fashioned, 
and that beneath the fairer texture of their 
skin dwelt often a savagery no Indian then 
comprehended. It is an admitted fact, thougli, 
that evil qualities are more easily imitated than 
good ones, and so it was that the simple Indians 
soon learned to return evil for evil, and when 
treated treacherously, responded in kind. By 
the time Illinois was looked upon as a desirable 
place for settlement, the Indians bad advanced 
very far on the path of retaliation, and had far 
distanced the worst of the white men in their 
barbaric resentments. Not comprehending the 
ways of white men, they had ignorantly signed 
away their rights to the lands which had come 
down to them through countless ancestors, tak- 
ing in payment what was practically worthless 
to them. The white men who arranged such 
treaties, however, must not be unduly blamed, 
for they were influenced and governed by public 
sentiment and the trend of their times. The 
Indian had grown so savage and worthless, from 
their standpoint, that it was regarded liut the 
duty of competent, patriotic and intelligent oth- 
cials to send the warring tribes as far west as 
possible, and make way for the oncoming wave 
of civilization, whose crest bore the intrepid 
pioneers who were to blaze the trail for future 

Fortunately for those who had to live in the 
Prairie State during Indian days, the triljes 
found on its hunting grounds were not nearly 
as savage as those to the north, west or south. 

and but few of the terrible atrocities which are 
chalked up against the red man had Illinois for 
their scene of action. The Indians of the Illini 
were fortunate probably in having wise men in 
charge of their affairs ; men who tried as far 
as lay in their power to mingle justice with 
power, and certain it is that among the earliest 
settlers were found a number who understood 
the Indian character enough to malvc friends 
of their savage neighbors. It was no unusual 
thing in the pioneer days here to find one or 
more of the red men trusted members of the 
settler's family, while the interchange of fron- 
tier commodities and game was common. Many 
are the instances to be found on record where 
the friendly Indians rendered services of 
iucalculalile value to their white friends, and it 
was an admitted fact that once an Indian made 
a "blood l)rother'' of a white man. lie would 
serve him at the risk of his own life. 


_ The historical page of the savage Indian has 
been turned, and indeed in this twentieth cen- 
tury, some of the most responsible, wealthy and 
best educated people in certain sections of the 
country are full-blooded Indian.s, or can proudly 
trace Indian blood back to some ancestor, who, 
when this country was young in the ways of the 
whites, held royal sway over mighty tribes. 
Many characteristics possessed by the Indian are 
worthy of emulation, and when they are assimi- 
lated by other races, a country profits as to its 
sturdy citizenship. However, during that period 
of Illinois history when the Indian was still 
regarded as an enemy and savage, certain events 
took place which must be set down in all his- 
tories of that time in order that a true and 
complete account be rendered of prevailing con- 
ditions and events. 

The confederacy of tribes composing the Illi- 
nois division of the Indians eniliraced the Kas- 
kaskias, Cahokias and Tamaroas. but the Pot- 
tawatomies, Sacs, Foxes, and KicUapoos witli 
the Winnebagoes were all to be found in the 
territory now embraced in the state of Illinois. 
The two Indian disturbances in which Illinois 
was especially interested were those bearing 
the name of the Winnebago War, and the Black 
Hawk War. 


From 1S12 to 1827 the Indians of the north- 
western frontier gave the government but little 



trouble, ;iltlioiigh liere and there were local 
disturbauees which were generally handled by 
the persons most concerned. Forts were estab- 
lished and surrounded by stockades, and every 
man and woman, and many of the children 
among the whites, were taught the use of fire- 
arms. In 1825 the Winnebago Indians became 
dissatisfied with the terms of the treaty of 
1S04 because in it they were not mentioned, and 
the United States commissioners made arrange- 
ment admitting that the Winnebagoes were 
entitled to a portion of the laud ceded by that 
treaty to the Sacs and Foxes. Acting in accord- 
ance with this admission, the Winnebagoes laid 
claim to lands lying in the vicinity of Galena, 
and when, in 1S27, white settlers began to 
work the lead mines which were there dis- 
covered, the Indians made very emphatic remon- 
strances, which were not heeded. Not being 
able to obtain what they believed was justice, 
they sought assistance from their own people, 
and were joined by some of the Sioux. In the 
meanwhile an encounter between some of the 
Indians and the whites in the vicinity of Prairie 
du Chien, resulted in the killing of a few of the 
whites and the wounding of a number. The 
residents about Galena obtained help from the 
state government, and General Atkinson with 
some of the regular troops, in conjunction with 
the Galena militia under General Dodge, in an 
engagement in the neighborhood of the Fox and 
Wisconsin rivers, so routed the Indians as to 
compel them to sue for peace. In this engage- 
ment Red Bird and Black Hawk and several 
others of the leading Indian chiefs were taken 
prisoners, but later were released. 

While this disturbance was of short duration, 
and resulted in victory for the whites, a feeling 
of unrest was felt among all the tribes, and ani- 
mosities were cngenderetl that Anally resulted 
in the Black Hawk AYar. Therefore, while as 
a war the Winnebago campaign is of little his- 
toric value, its importance is recognized in that 
it was one of the leading causes that contributed 
to the much more serious hostilities between the 
government and the Sacs and Foxes. 


The beginning of the conflict which bears the 
name of the chief of the Sac and Fox tribes, 
dates back to the treaty of 1804, with which 
the Indians were not satisfied, so that they 
readily were induced to join forces with the 
English during the War of 1812-14. This action 

was regarded by the United States government 
as a violation of the treaty, and a new one was 
made in ISlti, and another in 1825. Still another 
was signed in 1830 in which the Sacs and Foxes 
agreed to remove to territory provided for them 
west of the Mississippi River. This and all 
other treaties. Black Hawk declared void in 
ISol, and with his family and connections, some 
ICickapoo aud Pottawatomie allies, and 300 
warriors, recrossed the Mississippi River to 
retake his village which stood on the present 
site of Rock Island. The Indian village at that 
point had Iieen one of the largest and most 
important in the Northwest Territory, and there 
is no doubt liut that homesickness played some 
part in the desire of the Indians to return to 
their former home. Black Hawk declared that 
the treaties had been obtained through fraud, 
and he and his warriors began destroying the 
property of the white settlers. 

The whites immediately complaiued to Gov- 
ernor Reynolds, who notified General Gaines of 
the regular army, and superintendent of Indian 
affairs, and volunteers responded to the general 
call to the number of 1,000. The forces were 
divided into two regiments, an odd battalion and 
a spy battalion, with Col. James D. Henry com- 
manding the first regiment; Col. Dan Lieb, the 
second; Maj. Nathan Buclunaster, the odd bat- 
talion ; and Maj. Gen. Joseph Duncan of the 
state militia was in command of the entire 
brigade. JIaj. Sanniel Whiteside lieing in charge 
iif the spy battalion. The fact of the gathering 
of this force is interesting to the people of Illi- 
nois, as it was the largest force the state had 
then raised, and records show that it was 
regarded as truly imposing as it marched to 
the scene of the disturbance. 

So large a force of armed whites could not 
advance unobserved upon an enemy as well 
versed iii frontier warfare as the Indians, and 
l)efore the brigade reached them the Indians 
quietly went back across the river, not caring 
to match their strength against the troops. The 
government was not willing to allow matters to 
rest, however, and General Gaines, quartering 
his troops at Fort Armstrong, now Rock Island 
.Vr.seual. sent word to Black Hawk that unless 
he would consent to a peace council, he would 
pursue his tribes into their reservation. Once 
more the Sacs and Foxes went into a treaty 
with the government, promising to remain on the 
west bank of the Mississippi River, and not to 
cross it except by permission of the Governor 

<lcU^ cM of <^-^^^i^lAAA c^-^MZ 




of Illinois, or the President of the United States. 
Having, as he thought, satisfactorily adjusted 
mattei-s. General Gaines withdrew his forces. 

The following year Black Hawk again crossed 
the Mississippi River, bringing with him 500 
warriors, and Governor Reynolds was again 
confronted with the necessity of protecting the 
people of his state from the encroachments of 
the Indians. Naturally feeling was .strong, for 
the ofiicials as well as the settlers felt that all 
agreements were disregarded, but Black Hawk 
claimed then and later that he only crossed tlie 
river to join his friend. White Cloud, who had 
located in the vicinity of Prophetstown, this 
state, citing in proof that he and his men 
brought their wives and families with them, 
something they never did when on the war 
path, ^'olunteers, 1,800 strong, met at Beacd.s- 
town. where they were formed into four regi-. 
ments and a spy battalion, commanded by 
Colonels DeWitt, Fr.v, Thomas and Thompson, 
in the order named, while Col. James D. Henry 
commanded the spy battalion. Brigadier-Gen. 
Samuel W. Whiteside commanded the entire 
bi-igade. The line of march was taken up April 
27, 18.32, and General Whiteside, after firing the 
Indian encampment at Prophetstown, proceeded 
to Dixon, where he joined Majors Stillman and 
Bailey, with .SOD men. Shabhona, chief of the 
Pottawatouiies. was not in favor of any further 
conflict lietween the Indians and the whites, and 
endeavored to warn the latter of probable trou- 
ble, and in many cases prevented serious engage- 
ments. There were some massacres, however, 
but in looking back from a distance of nearly a 
century, the reader is amazed at the small loss 
of life, under all the circumstances. 

The first quota of volunteers was discharged, 
but a new contingent had lieen raised, and many 
of the veterans re-enlisted, so that the force 
numbered 3,000 strong by June 15, when the 
Indians attacked settlers on Apple River, near 
Galena, and at Fort Hamilton, in the lead mine 
district. Colonel Dement attacked the Indians 
at Kellogg's Grove and defeated them. Troops 
were stationed at various points in the northern 
part of the state where it was believed there 
was danger of an attack, and Generals .\tkin- 
son and Henry marched upon the supposed en- 
campment of Black Hawk. After many 
disappointments, the command finally en- 
countered the Indians on the borders of Wis- 
consin and the fight was kept up until the foe 
crossed the line. Owing to lack of provisions. 

General Henry fell back to Blue Mounds, where 
he joined General Atkinson, who had been 
guarding other points, and a march was begun 
to the Mississippi River. An engagement was 
liad with a small force of the Indians which 
was driven into the river, and a severe engage- 
ment followed on Rock Island, in which the 
Indian loss was heavy. While Black Hawk 
escaped, he was later captured by some Winne- 
bago chiefs, wlio delivered him into the hands 
of the white officials. The troops were sent to 
Prairie du Chien, where they were met by 
Gener;!! Scott, he having been sent with an 
army from the East, to assume charge of the 
war. As travel was extremely slow in those 
days, the trouble was over before he arrived at 
the scene. His army, while not participating in 
the engagements, suffered severe loss from 
-Vsiatic cholera. Hostilities being over, the vol- 
•Tinteers were sent to Dixon, and there dis- 
charged. The prisoners were first sent to Rock 
Island and thence to Jefferson Barracks. 

Following a cessation of hostilities, a treaty 
was made at Jefferson Barracks with the Sacs 
and Foxes which ceded to the United States a 
large portion of the territory between the Des 
Moines and Turkey rivers in Iowa. From the 
liarracks the prisoners were sent to Washington, 
thence to Baltimore, Philadelphia. New York 
.Tnd other cities, it being the purpose to impress 
upon them the power and importance of the 
licople they were defying, and they were then 
returned to their reservation in June, 183.3. 
Black Hawk lived to be eighty years old, dying 
in 1840, and he was laid to rest on the west 
liank of the river that .separated him from his 
beloved home. 


The Pottawatomie and Kickapoo Indians were 
the most numerous in Piatt County, although 
representatives of other tribes frequented this 
section. Shabhona and Shawnessah, chiefs of 
the Pottawatomies, were well known here and 
generally liked, for both had many admirable 
characteristics and were fine examples of the 
Indian race. One of the survivors, who was a 
liublic character, went by the name of Captain 
John. He spent several winter seasons near 
Montirello, and held the family of James Piatt 
in warm esteem. There is an interesting stor.v 
told by the Piatt family which shows that even 
in pioneer days some of the Indians were well 
educated. .•Vocording to it several Indians called 



at the home of James I'iatt. and after beius feil 
as was tlie custom, asked William Piatt to read 
to them from a booii on the shelf. After Mr. 
I'latt had complied with the request, one of 
the Indians took the ImjuU and continued reading 
as fluently as his white friend. He then drew 
a New Testament from his pocket and showed 
that he was well acquainted with its contents. 
The Piatts were very friendly with the Indians, 
and they responded to this kindness. One 
bestowed uikiu James Piatt a part of a deer to 
show that he had not forgotten the food given 
him during the War of 1812. Huck's I'oud, 
north of Monticello, is named for a Delaware 
brave who was banished for marrying a squaw 
who had killed two children. They located on 
the banks of the Sangamon Uiver, later moving 
to a pond on land owned by C. W. Piatt Here 
in time the Indian squaw was talven sick and 
died and her husband and ten-year-old son, 
Calish, buried her on its banks, and there con- 
tinued to camp. From then on the uanie of lUick 
has been retaiueil, although long ago the grave 
was opened and the bones of the squaw scat- 
tered broadcast. 

When one of the Indian agents was moving a 
band of from 500 to 600 Indians westward, he 
encamped them in the neighborhood of James 
Piatt, from whom he obtained food for his 
charges. The money Mr. Piatt received for this 
food, he invested in land ad.joining that which 
he had already .secured, tlius proving his faith 
in the future of the section he had chosen for 
his permanent home. 








The lirst whit(> settler to locate witliin the 
Ijresent limits of Piatt County was George Hay- 
worth, who came to Illinois from Tennessee in 
1822 and erected the first cabin, a primitive 
affair, on the present Lodge filace in what is 
now Monticello. A little later Mr. Hayworth 
replaced his first residence by another cabin a 
little more substantial, having the assistance 
of some friendly Indians in its construction. 
He left in lS2.j. 

Following Mr. Hayworth. as the second 
settler, was James Martin, who arrived in the 
county in the fall of 1822 from Ohio. Ilis was 
the second cabin to be built and he proposed 
becoming a permanent resident. However, after 
Mrs. Martin died in the cabin, which stood on 
the Rhoades place, north of Monticello, Mr. 
Martin went to Indiana, selling hLs property to 
a Mr. Daggott. The next spring he and his 
nephew, with the tatter's wife, returned to Piatt 
County, and they built a cabin in the vicinity 
of White Heath. In the meanwhile Mr. Dag- 
gott continued to live on the property he bought 
from Mr. Martin until his removal itito Cham- 
paign County. 111., two years later. 


The year 1824 brought a Mr. HoUiday, whose 
labin was built near Mr. Hayworth's. and its 
site is now included in the city of Monticello. 
.\fter a short time he sold this cabin to Solomon 
Carverm, and the latter in turn disposed of it, 
after using it for a period, to a Mr. Cordell. 
who moved into it in 1S20. In this way the 
cabins passed from one owner to the other. 
While wood was plentiful in the growing state, 
time and tools were required to transform the 
standing trees into material for even the 
simplest home. When a man's famil.y or means 
outgrew his first cabin, he usually sold it to one 
whose requirements were less, and built for him- 
self a home more commodious. The little log 
shacks were easily moved from one claim to 
another, and some of them stood for many years 
after the surrounding country had l)een built 
up. Another settler of 1824 was Abraham Han- 
line, w'ho came to Piatt County in April of that 
year, accompanied by his four sons. Abraham, 
Jacob, James and Xathan. Tlie good wife and 
mother of the family had died, and perhaps the 
father and sons sought a change of home to 
divert their minds from their great loss. Abra- 
ham Hanline the elder took up a claim of 160 

niL .lA.MI.S A. I lATI, (hR.) RLSIDLMl.. I IRM IlOl Si. IN llAiT tOlXTY 



I i^S 

A3TOr> \|r,Nn 

i^lLnsK .FC< 



acres in the neighborhood, of Coon Spring, north 
of Monticello, and began at once the usual tasli 
of the pioneer of clearing the land and erecting 
a cabin. A Mr. York built a cabin in 1824, 
whicli was a historic one, in that it was the first 
to be put up within what is now Goose Creek 


I'or several years there appear to have been 
no further settlements, but in 1829 there came 
into this region a man who was destined to play 
an important part in the history of the county, 
for he was James A. Piatt. Mr. Piatt was a 
man of more than usual intelligence, and pos- 
sessed some means. Having traveled through 
this part of the state he became so favorably 
impressed with the section which embraces the 
larger portion of the present city of Monticello, 
he bought (Ml acres of land and brought his 
family to it from Indiana. The history of this 
typical pioneer and his family will be taken 
up at length further on in this work, in con- 
.lunetion with the development of the county. 
The original home of the Piatt family in the 
county that bears its name was the cabin built 
by Mr. Ilayworth, bought by Mr. Piatt in 1820. 

In 1830 Mr. Cordell. whose son, William, be- 
came one of Piatt's reliable co-laborers, built a 
cabin on what is now known as Madden's Run, 
and It was the first in that section. Later a 
Mr. Stout bought this home, and the stream for 
a time boi'e his name, being called Stout's 
Branch. That same year David Cordell Iniilt a 
cabin on what was later known as the Welling- 
ton place, and his cabin, with that of Mr. York's. 
were said to be then the only two north of the 
Sangamon River between Friend's Creek and 
Cheney's Grove. The year 18.30 also brought a 
Mr. Fry, whose cabin was built north of the 
mouth of Goose Creek ; and a Mr. Terry also 
came to the county in this same year, and not 
only built his own cabin, but one for his mother- 
in-law, Mrs. Randolph, and these were in what 
is now the southern part of the fair grounds. 


During the winter of 1S30-1 occurred what 
was known as the "deep snow," a condition 
being brought about that has not since been 
equaled in this state. In the late fall the snow 
began to fall, and the preciiiitation continued 
with but brief intervals during the entire winter. 
In addition to the snow, conditions were made 

worse by storms of sleet, so that there were 
alternate layers of ice and snow from 3 to 4 
feet deep on a level, and many feet deep in 
drifts. As the weather was extremely cold, the 
ice and snow had no chance to melt, and the 
settlers suffered extremely, some dying from 
e.Kposure, as the cabins were not built to with- 
stand any such extremes of climate. So hard 
did the snow become packed that heavily loaded 
wagons could be drawn over the crust without 
breaking through, and it appeared as though 
nothing could be done to bring about normal 
conditions of living. Owing to the unusual 
severity of the winter, the wild animals either 
sought hibernating places or perished from the 
cold, and the settlers who had relied upon the 
animals they could kill to supply them with 
meat almost starved for lack of sufficient food. 
The effects of the deep snow were felt in the 
lack of game for several seasons afterward, but 
at no time until they were exterminated were 
the.wild denizens of tlie woods and prairies as 
scarce as during the winter of 1830-1. 

With the opening up of spring, and the in- 
creasing heat of the sun, the snow melted, 
swelling the streams and covering nearly all 
of the surrounding land with so much water 
that for a time it appeared that the settlers 
would suffer as severely from an overflow of 
water as they had from the surplus of snow. 
While Piatt County has never experienced since 
such a heavy fall of snow, the winter of 1836 
was very severe, and it was marked by the "big 
freeze," as it was locally called. It was during 
.Tanuary of that year that the snow then on the 
ground was turned by rain into a heavy slush, 
several inches in depth. .V sudden change in 
temperature, almost Instantaneous, from tem- 
perate to frigid, congealed the slush and froze 
the feet of wild and domestic animals and the 
human beings unf<irtunate enough to lie caught 
out in the storm. An authentic aicount of the 
change was told by one of the old settlers. Ezra 
Marquiss, now deceased, as follows: 

"It was raining the fore part of the day and 
I had been gathering hogs. I reached home 
about ten o'clock, ate my dinner, and started 
out to see how the weather looked. As I went 
out of the south side of the house, which was 
16x18 feet square, it was still raining. I walked 
slowly to the west side of the house to find it 
snowing, and by the time I liad I'eached the 
north side the slush on the ground was frozen 
over. The second or tliird day after the freeze, 



a hired man antl I started to take our horses 
over to Salt Creek to be shod. Father helped 
us to start and we got the horses over the creek, 
v^hich was from bluff to bluff, quite easily, by 
carrying ashes and scattering for them to walk 
on ; but when we reached the prairie tlie horses 
could scarcely move in some places. In order 
to get them over sloughs and ponds one of us 
would take hold of the bridle rein while the 
other would push the horse; but though the 
start was made early in the mornin.g, and not- 
withstanding the pushing and pulling, night 
found us only about half way over, five or six 
miles from home. We left the horses standing 
on the icy plain and returned home for the 
night. In the morning we returned to the 
horses, and the remainder of the journey seemed 
less difficult.'' 

During 1831, Captain Olney built a cabin on 
the place later owned by Ezra Marquiss quoted 
as an authority above. A son-in-law, a Mr. 
Lawrence, built the cabin that was the first 
house owned by Mr. Marquiss. Captain Olney's 
sons also became .settlers for a time. Their 
parents died in the county and were Inuied at 
Hickory Point, but the sons later moved away. 
The year 1833 brought Abraliam .Marcjuiss and 
his family to the county. 

SETTLERS FUOM 1830 TO 1840. 

Among the settlers of Piatt County from 1830 
to 1840 the following may be mentioned in addi- 
tion to the above: William Barnes, John and 
Richard Madden, Samuer Olney, Joseph Mallory, 
Isaac Williams, Samuel Suver, Cyrus Widick, 
and Michael Dillow. A little later on came the 
Aters, the Baileys, James Hart, Jesse, William 
and Richard Monroe, Samuel Harshbarger, 
James Utterback, Joseph and Luther Moore, 
Ezra Fay, Daniel Har.shiiarger, Simon and 
Nathaniel Shonkwiler, and Samuel Havely. Not 
so very long afterward Piatt County's popula- 
tion was increased by the arrival of Abraham 
Collins, John Tenbrook, Samuel West, A. J. 
Wiley, A. Rizeor. John Argo, John Welsh, Wil- 
liam Smock, Peter Adams, George and Silas 
Evans, the .\rnisworths, the Coons, Dr. Burrill, 
and others. The majority of these early settlers 
were native Americans, but later on in the his- 
tory of the county England, Ireland and Ger- 
many contributed some very desirable and sub- 
stantial citizens. 


The first white child in Piatt County was one 
born to a family which had temporarily located 
near Camp Creek bridge, but as these people 
soon «eut out of t;he county, no record has been 
kept of either the name or date. The first re- 
corded birth was that of a daughter of Henry 
Sadorus, who was born at the home of James 
Piatt in the spring of 1830. Tlie first male child 
horn in the county was Jacob Piatt, whose 
birth occurred in January, 1831. Probably the 
ne.xt children born to white settlers in the 
county were: Frances Williams, daughter of 
Isaac Williams, and Mary E. Monroe, who be- 
came Mrs. Gamaliel Gregory. 


The first person to die in Piatt County as far 
as known, was a Mrs. JIartin. The material 
for her coffin, made liy the neighbors, was taken 
from a walnut tree which stood on an island a 
little below the Bender ford of the Sangamon 
River. Coffins for Mrs. Randolph, Mrs. Terry 
and Mrs. Olney, who early passed away, were 
also made from this tree, as were those for Mrs. 
York, Jlr. Holliday and Mr. Ayers, and it gained 
the grew.some name of the "coffin tree." It not 
only furnished wood for coffins, but .\brahani 
Marquiss and Ezra Marquiss made a substantial 
table from some of its branches, while William 
Piatt secured material for several bedsteads. 


AVhen the pioneers located in Piatt County 
they found none of the necessary aOjuncts to 
civilization. Not only were they forced to raise 
the commodities needed for food, but they had 
to crush or grind their grain for use on the 
table, as there were no mills within a distance 
that would permit the hauling of the grain. In 
order to crush the corn and wheat into a coarse 
flour, the settlers used what was called a hom- 
iny iilock. .\ccording to the description of this 
rude hand, mill, given by those who once used 
it, a hominy block was made by making a hole 
about 1% feet deep in a block of wood 3 feet 
long and about 2Vj feet wide. A block of wood, 
in which a wedge had been forced was then 
fastened to a joint of the cabin, the board with 
its hole was placed beneath the sweep so that 
when it was forced to the bottom of the hole 
it would pound the grain and then spring back 
into position. The finest portion was made into 



bread, and the coarse part of tbe corn was used 
for hominy. A little less crude than this ap- 
pliance was the regular hand mill that had mill 
stones. Mr. Ilanline made a mill with two 
stones 10 inches in diameter, which he fixed 
in a section of a hollow tree. The top stone 
had a hole iu its center and another one near 
its circumference, and in the latter a staff was 
fastened, its other end being fastened to a cabin 
joist. This shaft could be moved so as to mal^e 
the upper stone rotate upon the lower, but as 
only a handful of corn could be ground at once, 
it took three men to grind three bushels of corn 
a day. 


A very interesting description of the first mill 
erected in Piatt is given by one of the his- 
torians of the county, who quotes William Mon- 
roe as saying of the one he assisted in 
building in Unity Township : 

'•When we had returned home after the sud- 
den freeze, Mr. Christopher Mosbarger, who was 
a millwright, and who had brought his tools 
along, was at our house. We were without 
breadstuff, and he said to us: 'Boys, get your 
axes and grub-hoes and cut the ice, and by 
gracious, we makes a mill with prairie nigger- 
heads.' All went to work and in about four 
days a mill was made. This mill was afterward 
moved from Mr. Jesse Jlonroe's to where Atwood 
is, and was run by horse-power, grinding ten 
to twenty bushels a day." 

The above mill, was, of course, only a small 
one, and the first mill of any size was not built 
untU 1838, when Major McRaynolds, James 
Piatt, Abraham Marquiss, William Barnes, Mr. 
Sadorus and William Piatt formed a stock 
company and erected the mill that was run by 
water power, on the site later occupied by the 
mill owned by a Mr. Mcintosh. 


Tlie pioneers of Piatt County passed through 
experiences during the early days that were 
similar to those of other frontiersmen of the 
Middle West. As has been stated; they were 
fortunate in escaping any serious difficulties 
with the Indians, but endured many privations 
and when the inclemency of the weather brought 
unusual conditions for which they were not pre- 
pared, there was much suffering. They were a 
hardy people, however, and had come to this 
region fully prepared to give of their best to 

develop the new country-. Had they been less 
brave and hardy, willing to work and endure, 
very probably I'iatt County's history would have 
been entirely different, and much of its present 
prosperity would never have come into being. 

The record of many i)leasant incidents is pre- 
served, as well as those of graver import, for 
the pioneers naturally enjoyed mingling with 
their kind, and the interchange of opinions was 
as interesting then as now. They were of a 
practical turn of mind, and oftentimes made 
their friendly gatherings yield benefit to the 
community, or some individual. When a house 
or barn was to be "raised," the neighbors would 
gather, the men doing the outside work, the 
wives perparing a bountiful meal, and afterward 
all would join in the social recreations that were 
then popular. At other times, when fruit be- 
came plentiful, perhaps apple-paring bees would 
bring the people together, and a traveling 
preacher or political speaker always met with a 
warm welcome. When sickness visited a fam- 
ily, the real kindness of the community was 
called forth, and friendships were formed and 
cemented that have been carried down into the 
present generation. 

There was little wealth in the county during 
pioneer days, but neither was there dire poverty, 
perhaps because then one neighbor shared with 
another, and there were none of the violent 
contrasts offered in a modern community. Money 
was scarce, but the greater part of the food- 
stuffs were raised on the farm, and such as were 
not needed were traded about among the neigh- 
bors, or for store goods at the nearest trading 
point. Thus it was that as their needs were 
few, their desire for wealth was not strong, 
although all were possessed with the laudable 
ambition of lU'ovidlng well for their families, 
and their hospitality was unbounded. They, as 
a class, seemed to desire to amass enough to 
give the growing children a better chance than 
was vouchsafed themselves, and when such a 
spirit prevails, a community is bound to 
flourish, and its people grow in character and 
worldly possessions, for it urges to industry and 
thrift, and guards against idleness and dis- 

The early settlers liad many annoyances with 
which to contend that would seem very irksome 
in the twcntietli century. Government jwstal 
service was practically unknown, the mails 
being carried on horseback in saddlebags by 
one or another neighbor from the nearest trad- 



iiifi point. 111:1 iiy niilps away. IVstage was very 
high, being from 10 to 25 cents a letter, accord- 
ing to tlie distance it was sent, and it was 
usually paid by the one wlio received the 
epistle, although the sender could also pay it if 
lie so desired. Of course when the stage lines 
began to run through the county, tlie mails were 
carried by tlieiii. and letters were much more 
sure of delivery. It is easy to see what these 
harily people sulTered from Iiomesicknos.s and 
an.\iety. None came into the county witliout 
leaving relatives and friends behind, with w honi 
there could lie only limited communication. 
Little wonder is it that once a memlier of a 
family became estalilishetl in the new home, he 
sought in every way to have his near and dear 
ones join him, so that it often happened that 
there were whole communities corapo.^d of 
those- who were bound together by bonds of 
kinship or warm friendship, and intermarriage.<! 
were frequent. 

In addition to the severity of the winter 
weather, the settlers had to contend with the 
vagaries of other sea.sons, suffering in the late 
sununer and early fall from the infections 
caused by malarial exhalations which arose from 
the swauips and low lands. As they knew noth- 
ing atwtut modern sanitation or preventive meth- 
o<ls. typhoid fever was very frequent, and 
sometimes the visitation of the disease was so 
heavy as to become a plague, while "ague"' was 
generally iirevalent. Green flies tormented not 
only the cattle and horses, but people as well, 
there lieing well authenticated cases where death 
resulted from the effects of the sting of these 
pestiferous insects. To avoid these pests, 
during the late summer, nearly all traveling was 
done at night. Prairie fires were of frefpient 
occurrence, and the settlers often lost everything 
they possessed liy the ravening Hames whicli 
they were but jxiorly prepare<l to overcome. 

I'ioneer life, however, has its defenders. One 
of the aged settlers of the county, who vividly 
recalls the early days when his fatlier's house 
was the stopping place for all travelers, declares 
that while people now have more luxuries and 
their homes are filled with comforts not in ex- 
istence during his boyhood, the generous, open- 
hearted liospitalit.v of pioneer days is one of the 
disai>|)earing virtues. When he was a lad, 
according to his statement, none asked who a 
man was. but welcomed him and gave him of 
tlieir best, hospitality, as said above, being 
almost a religion. Tliis spirit of kindly charity. 

however, it must be confessed, met sometimes 
witli base return, as is evidenced by the case of 
the generous settler who sheltered a man and 
Ills family, only to have him deprive his host of 
the very home in which they had visited. Per- 
haps human nature was much the same then 
as now, both good and bad prevailed in those 
early days, just as at present. 

With the further opening up of the county, 
and the coming into it of more peoiile. I'iatt 
Count.v emerged from its pioneer state and took 
upon itself the re.siwnsibilities of a .separate 
organization, and instituted and supported 
various private and public movements calculated 
to keep pace with tlie growth of similar coun- 
ties. That its people have succeeded, the 
remainder of this volume is ample proof. 













When the first settlers came to Piatt County, 
it formed a part of Macon and DeWitt counties, 
and for some years the affairs of this region 
were administered from a far distant county 
seat, entailing considerable inconvenience upon 
those who had to repair to a central seat of 
government, in times when travel was done in a 
very primitive miinner. 

.\ltliough there was considerable discussion 
among individuals as to remedial measures, 
nothing of a public nature was done until about 
1S.'!7. when a meeting was called to take up the 

Fn^ c fc V CampheU BrothBt's N Y 

A -■''■' 




luatttT aud deckle upou some definite plan to 
obtain a separate division for the territoi-y now 
comprised in Piatt County. Tlie result of this 
meeting was that Isaac Demorest and William 
Wright were appointed to carry a petition, 
which was written by George A. Patterson, an 
able man of Champaign County, among the 
people who were to be affected by the proposed 
legislation. Mr. Demorest circulated his peti- 
tion in Champaign County to but little purpose, 
as the people of that locality were apparently 
satisfied with affairs as they were, but George 
A. Patterson, securing the assistance of James 
Piatt and John I'iatt, was very successful in 
that part of Macon County now forming the 
southern part of Piatt County ; while Abraham 
and Ezra Marquiss aud William Barnes can- 
vassed DeWitt County, aud they too succeeded 
in getting their petitions well filled with names. 
Having thus obtained the expression of the 
majority of the people, Mr. Patterson was 
appointed to take the matter up with the legis- 
lature. He called a meeting, which was held 
at the home of Abraham Marquiss, at which a 
discussion was held as to the name. Isaac 
Demorest favored naming the new county for 
Daniel Webster, while William Barnes proposed 
that of Piatt, and both men spoke at length in 
favor of their choice. The name of I'iatt was 
selected by the meeting, and Mr. Patterson 
went to Springfield, from which he wrote back 
as follows, under date of Januai-y 7, 1841 : 

"I had the privilege of drawing the bill and 
witli only one amendment it was presented and 
read yesterday for the first time. One gentle- 
man has hintecl that he would to alter 
the name of our county to that of Grundy, but 
I have opposed it, because we agreed to have no 
party political name, and so the name of Piatt 
will be sustained." In this connection it is 
interesting to note that later on in the history 
of Illinois another county took the name of 
Grimdy, which it bears to this day. 

As a result of Mr. Patterson's efforts, through 
an act of legislature, Piatt County was formed 
in January, 1841, aud the following e.\;tract from 
the record gives the boundaries of the new 
county : 

"Be it enacted by the People of the State of 
Illinois represented in the General Assembly : 
That all of that part of Macon and DeWitt 
counties, included within the following boun- 
daries to-wit : Beginning where the north line 
of town 15, north, intersects the middle of range 
4, east, and running thence north through the 

middle of range 4 to the middle of town 19; 
thence east to the west line of range 5 ; thence 
north to the uortluvest corner of town 19, north, 
range o, east; thence by a direct line to the 
southwest corner of section T, town 21, north, 
range U ; thence to the east line of range 
; thence south along the east line of range 6 
to the north line of town 15, north ; thence 
west along the north line of town 15 to the place 
of beginning, shall constitute a new county of 
I'iatt." The population of the territory included 
in the above given boundaries was then between 
UOO and 700. 

With the quoting of the naming of the new 
county it is but just to give a slight account of 
the family for which it was named, and the part 
its members have taken in its history. 


James A. Piatt, whose name was given to 
Piatt County; was born April 21, 17S9, probably 
in -Pennsylvania, and he was a son of Abraham 
I'iatt who went at a very early day to New 
Jersey, and thence to Penn's Valley, Pa., he 
dying when James A. Piatt was a child. The 
family subsequently went to Ohio. After return- 
ing to Pennsylvania in young manhood, Mr. 
Piatt came hack to Ohio, married, and then 
went to Brookville, lud., where he was a mer- 
chant. A man of enterprise even then, he made 
several changes, finally going to Indianapolis, 
where he became a tinner, and began traveling 
out from that city in the interests of this line 
of busiuess. His travels took him through Illi- 
nois, and he was so pleased with conditions and 
the opportunities he saw would be afforded by 
the country when it was opened up that he 
bought land aud moved to the present site of 
Monticello in the spring of 1S29, and from then 
until his death. October 22, 1S3S, he was prob- 
ably one of, if not the leading man of Piatt 
County. His children were William H.. John, 
James A.. Richard F., Anna Belle. Noah N. and 
Jacob, who were born of his marriage with 
Jemima Ford, who died March IG. 1S36 ; and a 
posthumous child, Mary J., whom his second 
wife, Mahala O.xley, whom he married Decem- 
ber 12, 1837, bore him a few months after his 
death. The second Mrs. I'iatt died Novemlicr 
IG, 1S50. 


Piatt County is unique in one respect. Fnlike 
UKUiy of its sister counties, it has never had any 
iiiunty seat contest, and thus has liccn preserved 



from the evils of civil conflict over tbe location 
of the local seat of government, which has 
wrought so much dissension in some localities. 
As soon as the new county was created, Monti- 
cello was named the county seat, and has since 
held this distinction. 


The first county election of Piatt County was 
held in April, 1841, and John Hughes, W. BaUey 
and E. Peck were elected as the first county 
commissioners' court. Joseph King was elected 
circuit clerli, James Pieber, judge, and John 
Piatt, sheriff. The Piatt family gave the new 
county its first sheriff, who proved an able offi- 


For a number of years the county was divided 
into four precincts : Liberty, Montlcello, San- 
gamon and Okaw, but in 18G1 the township 
organization was adopted, and Piatt County was 
divided into Montlcello. Bement, Unity, Cerio 
Gordo, Willow Branch, Sangamon. Goose Creek, 
Blue Ridge townships, whose history will be 
taken up at length in a subsecjuent chapter. 


The first courthouse owned by Piatt County 
was erected in 1S43 by Judge Rickets, on the 
site of the prescfnt courthouse. This little build- 
ing was built of wood, and after it was moved 
to the west side of the sipiare, was destroyed 
by a fire. In 1856 a substantial brick courthouse 
was erected by Judge Rickets, George Dempsey 
and John Lowry. When it was built it was 
regarded as being one of the best of its kind in 
this part of the state, but after it had suffered 
severely from storms which tore off the cupola 
and a portion of the gable end and roof of the 
building, the more progressive people of the 
county felt that a new building was absolutely 
neces.sary. In addition, it had become inade- 
quate for the needs of count.y business. The 
first floor was devoted to the county ofticials, 
all of whom were crowded, while the courtroom 
proper, and two small rooms adjoining were on 
the second floor. 

Although it was recognized that a new court- 
house was an imperative necessity, no definite 
action was taken until at the Seirtember meeting 
in 1002 of the county board, William L. Plunk 
of Sangamon Township proposed a motion to 
submit to the people, at the next general elec- 

tion, a proposition to issue county bonds for 
$100,000, for the purpose of erecting a court- 
house not to cost over $75,000, and to make nec- 
essary repairs upon the jail at a cost not to 
exceed $25,000. The motion met with the ap- 
proval of his fellow members and was carried. 
Such a radical proposition naturally awakened 
much interest, and the subject was thoroughly 
discussed at public meeting.s, in the press and 
by individuals, so that when the proposition 
came before the voters at the November election, 
1902, the people understood its value, and the 
importance of voting intelligently upon it. As a 
result of the publicity given the measure, it was 
carried by a majority of 107 votes. The bond 
issue was made and .sold January 20, 11)03, to the 
First National Bank of Montlcello at a premium 
of $1,050 and accnied interest. 

Matters thus being satisfactorily adjusted, the 
supervisors of the coimty visited a number of 
county seats and carefully inspected standing 
courthouses in order to gain an idea of the best 
style of architecture to adopt, and what con- 
veniences and improvements were most needed. 
In March. liiO:!, the plans which had been pre- 
pared by Joseph W. Royer, of Urbana, were 
accepted and the architect was instructed to 
prepare plans and specifications upon which the 
contract was let July 8, 1903, to H. B. Walters 
of Danville for $75,000, with the stipulation 
that the building be completed by July 15, 1904. 
The old courthouse was sold at public auction 
on Jlay 20, 1903. and was bought by Lodge Bros, 
for $138.01, which included the heating plant 
and the plumbing. The building was entirely 
removed by the first of August. 


The corner stone of the new building was laid 
b.v tbe Masonic fraternity with imposing cere- 
monies on September 22. 1903. Ex-Congressman 
Owen Scott of Decatur was the principal speaker 
and he delivered a very able address. 

The building, which is a modern three-story 
brick structure, has on the east side of the lower 
floor, the office and vault of the county treasurer, 
and in the southeast corner the room for the 
hoard of supervisors. In the northwest corner 
of this floor are the rooms for the county school 
superintendent, and south of them Is the vault of 
the county clerk, while in the southwest corner is 
the public waiting room. On the second floor, 
above the room of the county superintendent, is 
that of the sheriff, while south of it are the 



iS \ ^ pU, 



rooms of the county clerk. The countj- court 
room extends across the south end of the second 
floor, and in the southeast corner is the office 
of the county judge. Just north of this is the 
state's attorney's otliee, and north of it is the 
office and vault of the circuit clerk. On the third 
floor is the circuit court room, a room devoted 
to the law lihrary. the circuit .iudge's jirivate 
room, the attorneys' consultation room, the petit 
jury room, tlie grand jury rtxim, and the ladies' 
and gentlemen's waiting rooms. 

The new courthouse was occupied by the 
county officials the fore part of January, 1905. 
The first judicial order was entered by County 
Judge F. M. Shortwiler, in a proceeding for the 
condemnation of land for right of way. 

Judges Solon I'hilbriek, W. C. .Tohns, W. G. 
Cochran, F. H. Boggs, Wm. H. Whitfield and 
Geo. A. Sentel have presided at ternis of the 
Circuit court held in the new courthouse. 


Until llJOo, the jail erected in 1SG7 served 
Piatt County very adequately for all purposes 
for which it was designed. It was in the rear 
of the sheriff's bouse, and provision was made 
for the detention of female pri.soners. as well as 
six iron cells for male prisoners. In 190.3 the 
contiact for the repairing of the jail was let to 
V. Jobst & Son, of Peoria, for .$12,4SS, \vliile the 
contract for call work was let to the A'an Dorn 
Iron Works Comjiany. of Cleveland, Ohio, for 
$8,000. The contract for heating plants for the 
courthouse and jail, and for the laying of mains, 
was awarded to Field. Shorb & Co., of Decatur, 
for $1,500, at .$1 per lineal foot for laying the 
mainis. The grand jury at the October term, 
1916. of the Circuit court reported that the jail 
was in excellent condition. 


To provide for its depemlents, I'iatt Couuly 
bought 293 acres of land in Monticello and Wil- 
low Branch townships, and of this property, 
sixty acres was in timber. The first almshouse 
was built of brick, two-story and basement in 
height, and contained six rooms on each floor, 
or eighteen in all. The building for the insane 
originally was 14x24 feet, and contained two 

For some time prior to IDiil. tlie jieople of 
Piatt County had felt that they ought to provide 
better housing an<l modern conveniences for 
their unfortunates, and the matter was finally 


lirought to the notice of the publi<- .so effectually, 
that in June, 1901, the county board visited the 
lK)or farm officially and after a thorough investi- 
gation, decided that it was necessary to rebuild 
and remodel. C. S. Baiuum, an architect, pre- 
jiared plans and specifications which were ac- 
cepted, after some modifications, and bids were 
advertised for 2(5, 1901. Tlie liid was let 
to George Lux. for $11,7.50. The buildings were 
completed the following year and formally ac- 
ccjited by the board. The present buildings com- 
prise : The main residence, three cottages, three 
liarns, and the engine house. The farm is main- 
tained by a steward under the supervision of the 
Poor Farm Committee of the Board of Super- 

The following men have been stewards of the 
poor farm: .lames G. Miner, 1S03-G7 ; W. E. 
Dt-ivis, 1807-69; Mrs. E. Davis. ] 809-70; E. Car- 
ver, 1870-75 ; G. Turk. 1875-77 ; Solomon Leitz, 
1877-88 ; W. R. Hyde, iaS8-91 ; John Lohr, 1891- 
92 ; W. R. Hyde, 1892-94 ; D. R. Kemi^er, 1894-98 ; 
George A. Lindsley. 1898-1901; Ben Cole, 1901- 
13; and Charles De Vaux. the present .steward. 


Piatt Count.T values its jiublic Iniildings as 
foUlows : 

Courthouse and furnishings, .');i3(),0IMt ; .sheriff's 
house and jail. .?.3.5,000; poor farm. $55,000; 
houses and equipment on poor farm, $40,000. 

While Piatt Count.v is not! one of the larger 
divisions of the state, it has always been re- 
gardeil as one of importance as its people have 
lieen so reliable and dependable. They have 
taken an interest in sbite and national affairs, 
while maintaining a proper pride in local events, 
so that those who have gone from the county 
can look back upon its history and their resi- 
dence in it with pride. Its organization was 
accomplished without any of the difliculty other 
sections so often exiierienced. The people ask- 
ing for a new division knew exactly what the.v 
wanted, went about securing the necessary 
names to their petition in ;in intellligent and 
oiderly «a.v, and when these were secureil, sent 
an able and upright man to represent them be- 
fore the legislature. That body, recognizing all 
these facts, granttnl the request of the petition- 
ers quickly and without controversy, and thus it 
is that Piatt County was born, and since then 
it has been developed in the same, quiet unos- 
tentatious manner. Its leading men have never 
sought to bring it into undue i)roniinence, pre- 



ferriiig to have it known as a solid, conserva- 
tive region, tile home of men of probity, and not 
one that invited the entrance of industries that 
were not proi^erly backed. The results speak 
for themselves. 





18.S0-18S4-18S8-1S92-1S9C-1900-1904- 1908 - 3912- 
lOUi — piArr ij-;gislators — local representa- 
tion — state's attorneys county- JUDGES — • 



I'iatt County, like other counties of Illi- 
nois, was affected liy the various national cam- 
paigns. As the county was not organized as a 
separate unit of the stiitc until after the election 
of 1840, the lirst jiresidential election in which 
Its people participate*! as citizens of I'iatt 
County, was that of 1844, when there were three 
parties in the field, the Dentoci-atic, Whig, and 
Liberty or Anti-Slavery. The Democrats elected 
James Knox Polk president, and George M. Dal- 
las vice iiresidcnt. Henry Chiy and T. Krcling- 
luiysen headed the Whig ticket, and James G. 
Blrnwy and Thcmias Morris, the Liberty ticket. 

The year 1848 brought the Whigs again into 
power. Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore 
being elected on that ticket. The Democratic 
candidates were I,ewis Cass and William O. But- 
ler, .and the Free Soil party candidates were 
Martin Van Buren and Charles F. Adams. The 
Democrats were again successful in 18.")2. elect- 
ing Franklin Pierce and William K. King, as 
against the Whig candidates, WinfieUl Scott and 

WilUaiii A. (irahaiij; and the Free Democracy 
t-andidates, John 1'. Hale and George W. Julian. 


In isr>(i there came into being a party that was 
to e.xert a power over the country second to none 
in the history of the United States. Although 
its candidates in that year were unsuccessful, it 
gathered strength and four years later brought 
into the presidential chair the man who was to 
carry the nation through its greatest struggle, 
and free the laud from the curse of slavery. 
The Democrats came into power with James 
Buchanan as president, and J. C. Breckinridge 
as vice president, as against John C. Fremont 
and William L. Dayton, candidates of the Repub- 
lican party. 


Before giving the result of the campaign of 
1800, the editor quotes interesting matter rela- 
tive to Mr. Lincoln, from a former history of 
Piatt County, written by MLss Piatt. 

"In IS.-.O, during the presidential campaign, 
Lincoln came to Mouticello to make a speech 
The speaking was to be in the courthouse, and 
when the time came to proceed to the said place, 
only two persons were fovnid who were willing 
to walk with .Vbraham Lincoln through the 
streets and to the courthouse. These men were' 
Ezra Marquiss, Sr., and Joseph Guy. who carried 
the flag. The speaking began with these two 
men for audience, but gradually the niunber in- 
crea.sed until the courtroom was nearly full. 

"During the sen.itorial campaign in 1858, a 
very dift'erenl greeting awaited Lincoln, who was 
called by his party to speak at Mouticello. A 
prot'ession nearly a mile long, came down from 
Champaign County, and another delegation ar- 
rive<l from DeWitt County, with the Piatt 
County delegation in addition. .V magnificent 
(lispla.v was made as the throng proceeded to 
meet Lincoln as he came from Hement. Doug- 
las, who had just fulfille<l an apiiointment made 
li.v his party in Mouticello. met Lincoln on the 
hill, one mile south of Mouticello. and according 
to Judge Spear, they arranged to meet at Be- 
ment, in F. E. Bryant's house, upon Lincoln's 
return to the place. At the time of their meet- 
ing arrangements were concluded for the great 
senatorial debate wliich soon followed. 

"In the [irocession that went to meet Lincoln 
were carried many banners with suggestive mot- 
toes. One was: 'Cham-paign for .\be: real jiain 



for Dug.' After the crowd of some 5,0(J0 persons 
reached the old park, just west of Monticello, 
Lawrence Weldou of DeWltt County, made the 
first speech. Lincoln followed him with a two 
hours" concise and logical speech. Dinner was 
sumptuously served in the park. .Vltogether 
'twas the greatest day Piatt County had ever 

"It seems almost incredible that so great a 
change could come over the public sentiment of 
the people of the county during tn-o short years. 
In 1S5G the people would scarcely pause in their 
work to look at him, while in 1858, they were 
ready to literally carry him in their arms." 


In ISCO the new Republican party elected 
Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, as 
against the Democratic candidates, .T. C. Breck- 
enridge and Joseph Lane ; the Independent 
Democratic candidates. Stephen A. Douglas and 
H. V. .lohuson : and the Constitutional Tnion 
candidates. .John Bell :in<l Edward Everett. 


The wise handling of the grave issues of the 
Civil War endeared Jlr. Lincoln to the people 
and he was the logical and successful candidate 
of the Uepulilican party in 1864, with Andrew 
Johnson as vice lu'esident. The Democrats chose 
George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton 
as their candidates: while the southern Seces- 
sionists elected Jefferson Davis and Alexander 
H. Stephens president and vice president of the 


In 1S6S the Republicans placed S. 
Grant and Schuyler Colfa.x at the head of their 
ticket, which was successful at the polls by an 
overwhelming majority. The Democratic candi- 
dates were Horatio Seymour and F. P. Blair. 
The Republicans carried the county by 4.50 ma- 
jority and the entire county ticket was elected. 
General Grant, with Henry Wilson as vice presi- 
dent, was re-elected on the Republican ticket in 
1872 : while the Democrats and Liberal Repub- 
licans put Horace Greeley and B. Gratz Brow-n 
on their ticket: the Straight-Out Democrats 
nominated Charles O'Connor and John Quincy 
Adams: the Labor Reform party nominated 
David Davis and Charles O'Connor; and the 
Prohibitionists nominated .Tames Blaik and John 

Rus.sell. Piatt County went Republican by about 
000 majority. 

ELECTIONS OF 1876 AND 1880. 

Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler 
were tlie successful candidates of the Republican 
party for 1876 ; while the Democ-rats had Samuel 
J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks before the 
country ; the Independent Greenbackers had as 
candidates Peter Cooper and Samuel F. Cary ; 
the American National had as candidates James 
B. Walker and D. I"itzpatrick ; and the Prohi- 
liitionists had as candidates Green Clay Smith 
and Gideon T. Stewart. I'iatt County gave a 
Republican majority of about 550. 

In ISSO James A. Garfield and Chester A. 
.Vrthur were elected on the Republican ticket, as 
against Winfield Scott Hancock and William H. 
English, the Democratic candidates : James B. 
Weaver and B. J. Chambers, the Greenback can- 
didates ; and Xeal Dow and H. A. Thompson, the 
Prohibitionist candidates. Piatt County gave a 
majority for the Republican ticket. 


For the first time since 1856, the Democrats 
were successful in 1884, electing G rover Cleve- 
Umd and Thomas X. Hendricks, as against 
James (i. Blaine and John A. Logan on the 
Republican ticket ; Benjamin F. Butler and 
A. M. West on the Greenback ticket: and John 
1'. St. John and William Daniel of the Prohibi- 
tion party. Piatt County went Republican. 


In 1888 tlie Republicans retunutl to power, 
electing Benjamin F. Harrison and Levi P. 
.Morton, as against the Democratic candidates, 
(J rover Cleveland and Allen G. Thurman ; the 
Prohibitionist candidates. Clinton B. Fisk and 
John .V. Brooks; the Union Lalior candidates, 
.\l.son J. Streeter and C. E. Cunningham ; the 
United Labor candidates. Robert H. Cowdry 
and W. H. T. Wakefield ; and the American 
liarty candidates. James L. Curtis and James B. 
Greer. Piatt County's returns on this election 
were: Republicans, 2.174; Democrats, 1.030. 


In 1802 Grover Cleveland and Adlai E. Stev- 
c iison were electetl on the Democratic ticket, as 
.igainst Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid 
of the Republican party; James B. Weaver and 
James J. Field of the People's party; John Bid- 



well and James I'.. C'ranliill of tlio Pioliilutidii 
party; Simon Wins; and ("Uarles II. .Matcliott ol 
the Socialist I^alHir party. I'latt County returns 
on this election show Democrats, 1,890; Itepnl)- 
licans. 2,13S. 

KI.KITION Ol' 1890. 

In \s[»; William .McKinley and »!airet A. 
Ilobnrt. the Heimlilican candidutos, were elected, 
as afrainst the Free Silver Democratic candi- 
dates. William .Tenninss HryaTi and Arthur 
Sewall; the ropnlist candid.ites, William .Ten- 
nin^is Bryan and Thomas K. Wat.son ; the I'ro- 
hibition candidates, .Toshua Levering and Hale 
•Tolinson : the Xational D(>mocratic candidates, 
.Tolin M. I'almer and Simon B. Buckner ; the 
Xational Silver candidates. William .Tennings 
Bryan and .\rthur Sewall ; the Socialist Lahor 
candidates. Charles II. Matchett and Matthew 
Mc(iuirc: and the Xational party candidates, 
C^iarles K. Benlly and .Tames II. Southgate. The 
Piatt County votes were as follows; Republi- 
can. L'..">7T : Free Silver Demixrat. 1.020. 

ELECTION.S OF 100(> A.Mi I'.KM. 

In 1900 William McKinley and Theodore 
Roosevelt were elected on tlie Republican ticket, 
as against William Jeiniings Bryan and Adiai 
E. Stevenson, the Democratic candidates; John 
G. Woolley and Henry B. Metealf, the Prohibi- 
tion candidates ; William .Tennings Bryan and 
Adiai E. Steven.son. the People's party candi- 
dates; Wharton Barker and Ignatius Donnelly 
of tlie Middle of the Road party ; Eugene V. 
Debs and .Tob Ilarriman. the Social Democratic 
candidates: .To.seph F. Maloney and Valentine 
Remmel. the Socialist T.abor candidates: and 
Seth H. Ellis and Sam T. Nicholson, the Fnion 
Reform candidates. The vote of Piatt County 
was: Republican, 2.045; Democrat. 1,902. 

In 1904 Theodore Roosevelt and Charles W. 
Fairbanks were elected on the Republican ticket. 
Piatt County giving the Repuhlic.nis 2.."1." votes 
and the Democrats l.:!;il. 


In I'.HiS Wllli.nii II. 'I'aft and .lames S. Sher- 
man were elecleil on the Republican ticket. Wil- 
liam .T. Br.van and .Tames .T. Kern being the 
Democnitic candidates. The Piatt County re- 
turns in 190S showed the following figures: 
Retiublican. 2.:'.49 ; Democrat. 1.."o(V 

ELECTIONS OF 1912 .\ND 1910. 

The Democrats came once more into iiower in 
1912, electing Woodrow Wilson and Thomas R. 
Marsliall president and vice i)resident. The can- 
didates of other parties were: Theodore Roose- 
velt and Iliram W. Johnson. Progressive; Wil- 
liam II. Taft. Republican: Eugene Debs, Social- 
ist; Challn. Prohibitionist; and Reimer, Socialist 
Ijabor. Piatt County nuide the following returns 
on this election: Democrats, 1.399; Progres- 
sives, 1,142: Republicans, 1,0.55. 

In 1910 both President Wilson and Vice Presi- 
dent .Marshall were re-elected. 


The lolhiwing Piatt County men have served 
in the State Assembly: F. E. Bryant. C. F. 
Tenn<'y. V. S. Ruby. J. .\. Hawks. A. I-. Rodgers. 
C. P. Davis. W. ('. Hubbard. Oscar Mansfield, 
Jas. P. Ownby. Thomas I.amb, J. .X. Rodman, 
II. E. Shaw. 


The following name<l men have servwl in the 
several oHices since Piatt County was organized: 

state's attor.neys. 

James, David Campbell. M. I{. Rust. 
John R. Eden. J. P. Boyd. D. L. Bunn, M. V. 
Thompson. Sanuiel R. Reed. Peter A. Hamilton. 
AllMTl Emerson. Charles Hughes. James Hicks. 
II, II. Crea. Charles F. Mansfield. .V. C. Edie. 
Wm. A. Sloss. T. J. Kastel. The present incum- 
bent is Chas. W. l''irke. 

county .UllGES. 

James IJeber. John Hughes. A. (i. Boyer, H. 
C. McComas. (J. L. Spear. Iliram Jackson. Will- 
i.mi McReynolds. W. (!. Cloyd. II. E. Huston, 
M. R. Davidson. F. M. Slionkwiler. E. J. Haw- 
b.-iker and Wm. \. Doss. 

COrNTV ( I.KliKS. 

Joseph ICing. .1 D. llillis. James F. Ontten. 
J. E. Miller. W. F. Cox. J. A. Helman. W. L. 
Ryder, .Tolin Porter. A. E. Rodgers. B. F. ICagey 
and Harvey Fay. 


James S. Reber. J. C. .Johnson. .\. <■. Royer. 
E. J. Bond. W. T. Foster. W. II. Plunk. C. A. 
Stadler. Robert Iludgen. J. C. Tippert and B. G. 


;^BUC ub^'^-s^" 

,..■1 '\ 




N. E. Klioades, Ctiailes Watts, S. E. Laugduu, 
J. T. VauGundy, Nelson Reid, Theodore Gross, 
E. W. Walker, Uan Hall, E. H. Walker, S. M. 
Euiik, Isaac N. Biebinger, Jacob 11. Cline, Ona 
L. Cliue and Wm. Tiatt Sniitli. 


Jolni I'latt, Edward Ater, Charles Harris, 
George Heath, Saaiuel Moraiii, (i. M. Brutt'et, 
I'eter K. Hull, Iteulieu Bowuiau, F. H. I.rf)\vry, 
E. P. Fisher, W. B. Plunk, E. P. Fisher, W. M. 
Holmes, J. E. Andrew, George E. Miller, J. M. 
Woolington, C. A. Shiveley, J. M. Woolington, 
Freeman Clow, Ford Duvall and Geo. A. Linds- 


J. W. Coleman, C. A. Tatmau, C. J. Pitkin, 
Mary I. Reed, G. A. Burgess, George N. Snapp, 
Alien B. Martin, James H. Martin and Charles 


James Keber, George Heath, James Bryden, 
C. D. Moore, William McReynolds. C. D. Moore, 
Henry Eatherton and W. J. Day. 


Reuben Bowman, Jacob Barnes, M. N. Secrist, 
and W. J. Porter. 


A. G. Bowyer, A. T. Pipher, S. R. Reed, E. A. 
Barringtoii. Albert Eujerson, Frank Pittman. 
H. H. Crea, I{. I. Tatmau and A. C. Edie. 









To quote f^om one of the early historians of 
I'latt County : "The pioneers usually found a 
way, and sometimes 'twas a way i>eculiarly their 
own, to punish persons for their misdeeds. 
There was a famous rail pulling in Macon 
County about 1831 in which many persons from 
what is now Piatt County participated. Some 
movers passing through the county stopped niton 
invitation for lodging at the house of a man 
who was living on goverumeut l.iud. At this 
house the mover was advised to enter some laud. 
He accordingly left his family with these hos- 
pitable people and went to a land office and 
entered the very land his new acquaintance was 
living on; and more than this, he returned and 
ordered him off the place. The one who really 
had the best right to the place quietly left the 
cabin and built another on .some land of his 
own, and notified his neighbors of the rascality 
of the man he had befriended. 'Twas enough ! 
People to the number of 100 collected one night 
from Sadorus Grove, Salt Creek, what is now 
Piatt County, and Macon County, and planned 
to move the improvements to some land on which 
the new cabin was and which had been entered 
by the man who had befriended the mover. A 
captain was chosen and the 'rail pulling' was 
fairly begun, when the guilty party made his 
appearance and a compromise was made. The 
company contentedly dispersed to their several 

"Several years later a company with officers 
was orgsinized for the purpose of administering 
.justice in eases that the law could not well get 
bold of. Among themselves they were known 
as 'The Calithumiiians.' They were in organiza- 
tion eight or ten years and 'tis thought they did 
a good deal of good witli tar and feathers; for, 
while some were quite severely punished for 
misdeeds, others were afraid to do wrong." The 
captain and first lieutenant lived for years in 
Piatt County, and the captain subsequently be- 
came a clergyman in Kansas. Tliese committees 
of .safety are u.sually to be found in all frontier 
neighborhoods, and are usually comix)sed of the 
leading men of the community, who in the 
alisenco of regularly organized courts of justice, 
enforce some rude kind of law and order. 


The first court of Piatt County was held in 
a room of the Devore House, known as Old 



Fort, lion. Samuel U. Treat presiilin;;, and he 
was succeetled by Hon. David Davis, lloii. 
Charles Emerson, A. F. Gallaglier, C B. Smith, 
Oliver Davis, J. W. Wilkin, J. F. Hughes, E. 1". 
Vail, W. G. Cochran, W. C. Johns. Solon Thil- 
hrick, F. H. Boggs, W. K. Whitfield and George 
.\. Sentel wore other judges, all of whom were 
lesirued men, [possessed in marked degree of 
those characteristics so necessary ti> the .judi- 


During the earlier days the lawyers to prac- 
tice in riiitt County came to the county seat 
from Decatur. 111. Among the first members of 
the legal profession to make Piatt County their 
home were Milligau II. C. McComas, A. T. 
Pijjher, Charles Watts. W. K. Lodge aud S. R. 

.Monticello — A. J. Wiley, John Hughes, T. 
Hays, J. C. Johnson, John Cassell, M. X. Secrist, 
Alonsio T. Pipher, A. J. Snyder, David McWil- 
liams, E. D. Moore, John Keenan, Daniel Stickel, 
J. R. Tatman, W. J. Porter, Robert Reutfro, W. 
L. Lord, R. M. Bragg. 

Sangamon— E. B. McGinnis, Wm. B. Bunyard. 
A. H. Young, Xelsou Reid, J. C. Mackey, Samuel 
Bowdle, Ross Mitchell, Joseph Close, Wui. 
Wrench, Geo. DeLand, S. P. Ewing. Geo. W. 
Wiggins, F. E. Duvall. H. M. Curl. 

Willow Branch — ^Wm. Saunders, Jacob Smith, 
John M. Dashiel, J. P. Ownby, R. S. Wilhoite, 
Joseph G. Kile, Eugene Neff, A. H. Lyons, J. C. 
Weddle, J. B. Irwin, E. E. Dallas. 

Unity— J. L. Lewis, J. W. Kagey, J. W. Mer- 
ritt. Wni. A. Liston, Chas. A. Clark, W. F. Bene- 
fiel. John P. TeulirtK)k. E. Wren, W. C. Pierson, 
M. X. Ilanshbarger, Robert Schultz. 


The present bar as.sociation of Piatt County is 
composed of some of the ablest lawyers of this 
part of the state. The names of these attorneys 
are as follows : 

W. G. Cloyd. M. R. Davidson, C. F. Mansfield, 
James L. Hicks, A. C. Edie, F. M. Shonkwiler. 
E. J. Ilawbaker, C. S. Reed, Geo. M. Thomii)son. 
Wm. A. Doss, Chas. W. Firks and T. J. Kastet. 


Piatt County has had the following .iustices 
of the peace : 

Bement — Joseiili F. Alvord, H. C. Rodman, 
John Parker. R. II. Noel, J. C. Evans, Geo. L. 
Spear, Joel Dunn, E. Garrett, J. W. Stark. S. L. 
Busick, II. Ilaldeman, Ro.val Thomas. Wm. 
Parker, W. G. Snyder, T. J. Mitchell. W. W. 
Hammond, Geo. W. Poole, James I^ndis, T. W. 
Marlow, L. D. Pitts. 

Cerro Gordo — Stillman Barber, Wm. Saunders, 
W. R. Kions, B. Middleton. E. A. Barnwell, A. 
S. Ilawtborne. D. Kellington, C. P. Middleton. 
C. E. Overstake, B. G. Duncan. D. B. Espy, T. O. 
Holcomb, W. J. Wilson. F. S. Bcf/;, T. 1. David- 
son, James A. Fleck. 

Blue Ridge — Franklin Gordon. H. K. (lillespie, 
Tliomas Jess, W. D. Fairbanks. C. J. (iillespie, 
Fred Gillespie, Wm. Doyle. C. R. Diet/., II. Peck, 
F. D. Rinehart. 

Goose Creek — John M. Barnes, Elias Win- 
stead, Henry Marqniss, R. B. Moody. Hugh 
Wilson, Henry GiUuore. Chas. S. Dewees. C. L. 
Gilmorc. John Muthersiinw. 






















In a history dealing witli military achieve- 
ment, the people of Piatt County may have no 
feeling of shame in pointing to the record of 
men — and in their field, of women — .in the 
Nation's wars. From the earliest period of the 
county's settlement a spirit of patriotism has 
been definitely manifest, and when, in 1837, 
Judge Emerson, in delivering the first Fourth of 
July oration, presented the toast : "May this 
Monticello bring forth another Jefferson," he 
voiced tlie ardor and fire of a people whose love 
of country has continued to be a leading char- 
acteristic. The call of the country for men to 
bear arms has never yet failed to find Piatt 
County prepared to send forth its full quota, or 
more, and the men who have gone forth from 
its farms and villages to protect the Nation's 
honor have spread the fame of Piatt as one of 
Illinois' most patriotic counties. The men 
whose courage and strength led them to the 
settlement and development of this region, and 
their sons and grandsons who have followed 
them and who have inherited these sturdy and 
sterling qualities, have responded valiantly to 
every demand made upon them, and the same 
characteristics that contributed to argicultural, 
commercial, educational, professional and re- 
ligious progress, have combine<l to bring forth a 
first-class race of fighting men. who upon scores 
of battlefields have demonstrated that civilians, 
given the incentive, are formidalile to any mili- 
tary force which may be organized. 


It is but necessary to turn to the records of 
the Civil War to substantiate the foregoing 
statements. In that struggle Piatt was not only 
the banner county of the state in regard to send- 
ing soldiers to the front in proportion to its 
population but it even outranked Illinois in this 
respect. With the census of ISCO as a basis for 

comparison, Illinois sent out 1(M> soldiers for 
every 742 inhabitants, while I'iatt County sent 
out 100 men for every 580 inhabitants. Out of 
a population of 0,124, I'iatt County gave to the 
Union 1,055 soldiers, 240 men in e.'icess of its 
share. In this connection I'iatt County's patriot- 
ism may be, iierhaps, sliown in no better way 
than by quoting from a speech by C. D. Moore, 
who, in referring to the Civil War, remarked: 
"It is difficult for us to realize what our little 
county did. It is easy enough for us to read 
the simple statement that Piatt County sent out 
1,055 men, but that, when compared with the 
vast armies that were marshalled upon the field 
of strife, is a very insignificant number. It can 
only be made a large number in a relative sense. 
Suppose there were 2,500 to 3,(J00 of the able- 
bodied men of the county drawn up and ready to 
march from the county today. Think, if you 
can, what a depletion that would make in the 
present population of the county. Why, that 
number of men would have made, in the days 
of the Revolution, a very respectable army, a 
rather formidable force ; and yet the number 
would be no greater in proportion to population 
than 1,055 was at that time." And further than 
this, several facts may be taken into considera- 
tion. We quote from the same authority : 
"Piatt County more than filled her quota, and 
that, too, without a draft. She did her duty by 
making an enrollment of all her able-bodied 
men, according to law, yet she passed through 
the fiery ordeal without even the 'smell of the 
draft being found on her garments.' Not one 
of that brave band of 1,055 men was induced to 
go to the front by the offer of a bounty. No 
bounties were necessar.v. Tlie only thing in the 
shape of a local Inducement held out was that 
the county, through the authorities, was guar- 
anteed the protection of the families of the men 
while they were absent at the front doing battle 
for the right. No, there were no drafted men 
or tounty-jumpers among them. The.v were 
volunteers, in the highest and noblest sense of 
the term. They saw that the nation's life was in 
.jeopardy; they saw the uplifted hand of trea- 
son prepared to strike at her vitals: they beheld 
her in a deadly grapple with gigantic rebellion ; 
they heard her call for help, and bravely and 
heroically answered that call. To them it was 
no holiday parade, no boy's play, but work — ■ 
earnest, terrilily earnest work. They placed 
their lives upon their country's altar, and dedi- 
cated their best energies to the preservation of 



the loiintrys iuH'giit.v, tlic viiulication of tbc 
nation's honor, and the re-estiiblishment of the 
jrlory and the supreniaey of our flag. " 


Eight large volumes of the adjutant-general's 
reports of Illinois soldiers were carefully sifted 
in jiroparing the appended record of regiments 
and soldiers, but in spite of the fact that no 
pains have been si)ared to make the report accu- 
rate, mistakes may have crept in. This because 
throughout the reports two Monticellos were 
given ; in a number of cases men reported them- 
selves from places the liames of which bave been 
since changed, and in some instances the same 
Ijerson's name was spelle<l in two. and some- 
times in three, different ways. With a single 
exception, only histories of regiments are given 
the original of which appears in the adjutant's 
reports, and histories are given only of those 
regiments having the greatest number of Piatt 
County soldiers. 


Company L) — Keller, Mathias ; enlisted Febru- 
ary S, ],Sti4; mustered out July i), 1SC5. 


Company K — Clark, Bra.xton ; recruit, enlisted 
and mustered in April 10, ISCJ. 


Company 11 — Recruits: Morgan, Reuben .\. : 
euli.sted December 7, 1S03. transferred to Com- 
pany F, Kighth Illinois Infantry, mustered out 
July 2'), ISGl. Shaw, Albert U. ; enlisted Decem- 
ber 12, 180:3, transferred to Company F. Eighth 
Illinois Infantry. Wheeler, Peter A. ; enlisted 
Deceiiilicr .''), 1803, transferred to Company F, 
Kighth Illinois Infantry. 


The Twenty-first Illinois Infantry was organ- 
ize<l at Mattoon, III.. Jfay !>. ISO], was mustered 
into the state service May 10, 1801, by Capt. 
U. S. Grant, was mustered into the United 
.States service for three years, Juno 28, by Cap- 
tain Pitcher, with Col. U. S. Grant, who was 
connnissioned brigadier-general August 0, ISGl, 
and it ixirticipated in the battle of Frederick- 
town, Mo., October 21. It marched with Gen- 
eral Steele's e.xiMjdition to Jacksonport, Ark., 
was then ordered to Corinth, and arrived at 
Hamburg Landing, .May 24, 1802. It was ordered 

to join (Jcneral Buells army in Tennessee, 
.Vugust 24. 1802, arrived at Louisville, Septem- 
ber 27, 1802, engaged In the battles of Perry- 
ville and Chaplin Ilill, and then marched to 
Xashvillc. It was in a severe engagement near 
.Murfreeslmro, December .'il, 1802, where it did 
gallant duty, losing more men than any other 
regiment engaged, and June 2.5, ISO.'!, was in a 
severe skirmish .it Liberty Gap. In the battle 
of Chi<kaniauga. September 11) and 20, 1803, 
2.'iS ofliccrs and men were lost. It was mus- 
tered out December 10, ISO.'i, at San Antonio, 
Te.\., and discharged at Ciimp Butler, January 
18, ISOO. The roster of the regiment, as far as 
Piatt County is concerned, follows : 

Company .\ — Second Lieutenant Joseph C. 
.\lvonl. enlisted Juno lo. 1801 : promoted second 
lieutenant October 24, 18G2 ; killed December 
31. 1802. Second Lieutenant Theodore Gross, 
enlisted June 22. ISOl ; promoted second lieu-' 
tenant January 1, 180;^; resignal May 12, 1805. 
Second Lieutenant Alvin Colmus, ranked as sec- 
ond lieutenant and niu.stered out December 10, 
1805. Sergeant Robert Dines, enlisted June 
15, 1801; killed at Stone River, December 30, 
1802. Sergeant Olarkson S. Colvig. enlisted 
June 15, lS(n, nnistered out July 5, ISCA. Bell, 
Jonathan, enlisted June 15. ISGl, re-enlisted 
as veteran February 27, 1804; nnistered out 
December 10, 1S(V5, as corporal. Bercher, Alex- 
ander, enlisted June 20, 1801 ; killed at Stone 
River, December 30, 1SG2. Bonser, James, en- 
listed .lune 15. 1801; died at Ironton. Missouri, 
.Tanuary 1, ISC,2. Cornell. William, enlisteii 
Jinie 22, isiil ; musterwl out July 5, 1S(!4. 
llicUniaii, .buob. enlisted June 22. 1801; killed 
.It Chickamauga. September 1!>. 1SC>:!. Henry, 
James, enlisted June 22, 1801 : nuLstered out 
July 5. ]8(W. Miller, James, enlisted June 20, 
1801 : mustereil out July 5. 1N(W. Peters, Charles, 
enlisted June 2(i. l.SGl ; killed at Stone River. 
December 31, 1,S(12. Slusser. JohiL enlisted June 
21. 18G1 : nnistered (mt July 5, 1SG4. Thomp- 
son. Uiilianl. enlisted June 15. ISOl ; diseharged 
f)ctolier 11. 1S02: disability, rptmi, lUMijumin. 
recruit; died J.inuary !). 1802. 

Company C— Col. William II. .Tandson ranked 
as first lieutenant of Company (". May 3, 1801; 
IH'omoted captain March 14, 1802; promoted 
major Xoveniber 15, ^SrA■. iironioted lieutenant- 
colonel July 2. 1805; promoted colonel July 1.3, 
1805; mustered out December 10. 1SG.5. Cap- 
tain Josi.'ih W. Clark ranked as captain .May 3, 
INOl; resigned .M.-irch 14. 1S02. Capl.-iin Linids- 


! \-V-! 



field J. Liiider. enlisted June 14, 1861; pro- 
moted secoml lieutenant December 31, 1862; 
promoted captain Xo\-ember 15, 1864; musteretl 
out December 16, 1860. First Lieutenant Wal- 
ter B. Iloag, ranketl as second lieutenant Ma.v ;?, 
1861; promoted first lieutenant Marcb 14, 1862; 
mustered out May 2, 1865. First Lieutenant 
Andrew J. Clark, enlisted as sergeant June 14, 
1861; re-enlisted as veteran March 24, 1864; 
promoted first lieutenant June 8, 1865; mus- 
tered out December 16, 1865. Second Lieuten- 
ant Emanuel Weigle, enlisted as first serijcant 
June 14, 1861; promoted second lieutenant 
Marcli 14, 1862; killed December 31, 1862. Sec- 
ond Lieutenant George W. Roberts, enlisteil 
June 14, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran January 
4, 1864 ; promoted first sergeant ; promoted sec- 
ond lieutenant ; mustered out December 16, 1865. 
Caldwell, John, enlisted June 14, 1861 ; re-en- 
listed as veteran January 14, 1864; promoted 
<iuartermaster sergeant ; mustered out Decem- 
ber 16, 1865. Gorbon, Sergeaut Samuel E., en- 
listed June 14, 1861 ; discharged August 4, 1861 ; 
di.sability. Stark, Sergeant Benjamin F., en- 
listed June 14, 1861 ; discharged April 17, 1SG3 ; 
disability. Dawson, Corporal William S., en- 
listed June 14, 1861; mustered out July 5, 

1864. Iloldren, Corporal Marvm, enlisted June 
14, 1861; re-enlisted as veteran January 4, 
1864 ; mustered out December 16, 1865. Dove, 
Ciorporal John I!., enlisted June 14, 1861 ; mus- 
tered out July 5, 1864. Hensley, Corporal W., 
enlisted June 14, 1861 ; mustered out July 10, 

1865. Dyer, Coriwral John W., enlisted June 
14, 1861; mustered out July 5, 1864. Randall, 
Corporal Isaac M., enlisted June 14, 1861 ; died 
January 3, 1862. Dawson, Corporal George R., 
enlisted June 14, 1861 ; discharged December 5, 
1861 ; disability. Lowry, Corporal Lucien W. 
B., enlisted June 14, 1861 ; killed at Stone River, 
December 31, 1862. 

Privates — Abbott, Shadrach T., enlisted June 

14, 1861 ; died October 5, 1861. Argo, David J., 
enlisted June 24, 1861 ; dieil at St. Louis August 

15, 1863. Baker, Henry J., enlisted June 24, 
1861; mustered out November 26, 1S64. Bow- 
man, Daniel, enlLsted June 24, 1861 ; dischargeil 
April 17, 1S<j3: disability. Bradley. Daniel ('., 
enlisted June 24, 1861 : mustered in June 28, 
ISGl. Bray. Conrad, enlisted June 26, 1861 : re- 
enlLsted as veteran January 4, 1864 ; mustered 
out January 17, 1866. Car.son, Samuel, enlisted 
June 24, 1861 ; mustered in June 28, 1861. Cuni- 
mings, .\braham S., enlisted June 14. 1861 : 

mustered in June 28, 1861. Edwards, Jesse M., 
enlisteil June 26, 1861 ; died May 8. 1862. Frank, 
David E., enlisted June 14, 1861 : re-enlisted as 
veteran January 4, 1864 ; mustered out Decem- 
ber 16, 1865, as sergeant. Falon, John C, en- 
listed June 14, 1861; re-enlisted January 4, 
1864 ; mustered out December 10, 1865. Fogy, 
Henry, enlLsted June 14, 1861, mustered out 
July 5, 1864. Gum, Moses, enlisted June 24, 
1861; died in Andersonville prison January 4, 
1864. Grooms, Isaac, enlisted June 24, 1861, 
killed at Stone River December 30, 1862. Gal- 
lagher, I'atrick, enlisted June 14, 1861, died in 
-Vndersonville prison March 21, 1864. Grames, 
Isaac, enlisted June 14, 1S61 ; re-enlisted as vet- 
eran January 4, 1864 ; mustered out December 
16, 1865. Garver, John, enlisted June 24, 1861 : 
mustered out February 22, 1865. Gay, George, 
enlisted June 14, 1861 ; mustered out July 5. 
1864. Ilaneline. William, enlisted June 14, 
1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran January 4, 1864 ; 
mustered out December 16, 1865. Ililliard, Wil- 
liam J., enlisted June 24, 1861 ; transferred to 
.Marine Brigade March .30, 1863. Hannah. Peter 
IL, enlisted June 14. 1861 : died in Anderson- 
ville prison June 23, 1864. Jones, John, en- 
listed June 14, 1861 ; missing at 
September 20. 1863 ; Kirkland, Hiram J., en- 
li.sted June 14, 1861 ; mustei-ed out July 5, 1864. 
Keller, John, enlisted .June 14, 1861 ; re-enlisted 
as veteran January 4. 1864; absent, sick at 
muster out December 16, 1865. Keller, Edward, 
W., enlisted June 14, 1861 ; re-enlisted as vet- 
eran January 4, 1864 ; mustered out December 
16, 1865. Lesley, Wiley, enlisted June 14, 1861 ; 
killed at Stone River December 31, 1862. Lev- 
enway, Reuben, enlisted June 26, 1861 ; re- 
enlisted as veteran January 4, 1864; dis- 
charged January 8, 1865; disabllit.v. McGinnis, 
Theodore W., enlisted June 24, 1861 ; re- 
enlisted as veteran. Moore. Aaron, enlisted 
June 26. 18(il : mustered out July 5, 1864. Mof- 
fitt, Thomas, ,Ir.. enlisted June 14, 1861 ; tran.s- 
ferred to Signal Corps November 1. 1863. Mar- 
shall, Abraham, enlisted June 14, 1861 ; mustered 
out July .5, 1864. McLaughlin, John W., en- 
listed June 14. 1N61 : re-enlisted as veteran 
January 4. 18(;4. .\I;uin. Thomas, enlisted .Tune 
14, 1861; re-enlisted as veteran Januar.v 4, 1864. 
McShane. James, enlisted June 14, 1861 ; re- 
enlisti-d as veteran January 4, 1864 ; mustered 
out December 16, 186.5. Mattix. Edward, en- 
listed June 24, 1.S61 ; discharged October 12, 
1861 : disability. .\ewl:ind. Robert, enlisted 



June 24, IStn ; re-enlisted as veteran January 4, 
1S(J4; mustered out December IG, 1S65. Nichols, 
Jacob, enliste<l June 1-4, 18G1 ; re-enlisted as 
veteran January 4. 1SG4; mustered out Decem- 
ber ](), 1805. IJo.wrs. Henry, enlisted June 22, 
lS(il ; re-enlisted January 14. 18(14; mustered 
out December 10. 1S05. Uasor. James, enlisted 
June 14, ISO]; discliarjied .Vpril 22, 1802: dis- 
ability. Uatiibun. James, enlisted June 14, 
1801 : lulled at Stone River December 31, 1862. 
Staley, Georjte M., enlisted June 14, 1861 ; mus- 
tered out July r>. 1804. Sanders. William, en- 
listed June 14, 1801; mustered out July 5, 1864. 
Still, Jesse C, enlisted June 20, 1801 ; trans- 
ferred to Comi>any D as veteran ; mustered out 
December 10, ISO,"). Seymour, William, enlisted 
June 14, 1801 ; re-enliste»l as veteran January 4, 
1804; mustered out December 10. 1800. Tat- 
man, Abia, enli.sted June 14. 1801 ; re-enlisted as 
\'«teran January 4, 1804 ; mustered out Decem- 
ber 10, ISO."). Thorn, William D., enlisted June 
14, ISGl; re-enlisted January 4. 1SG4. Turby, 
Joseph, enlisted June 14, 1801 ; discharged May 
(■), ]8G;5; disaliility. Kiser, Lewis, enlisted as 
vcrteran .Tanuary 4. 1804; mustered out Decem- 
l)er 10, lS(!."i. Sarseant, I'hillip 11, enlisted as 
veteran January 4, 1804; mustered in January 
7, 1804. Uccruits— Bruffett, David E., enlisted 
February 1, 1.SG4 ; nnistereil out December 16, 
ISO.'i. Ruckley. Sylvester, enlisted March .''.1, 
1804; mustered out December 10. 180."). Claspill, 
William, discharged Xovembcr 16, ISC,?,; dis- 
al)ility. Haneline, Elijali, enlisted January 27. 
1804; mustered out June 22, 18K). Newport, 
-Mien J., transferred to Company D as veteran ; 
nmstered out December 10, lSG."i. Patterson, 
Hamlin, enlisted April 14, 18G4 ; mustered out 
December 10, 1805. Snyder. James, mustered 
out July 5, 1864. Skillen, John, enlisted Janu- 
ary 27, 1SG4; mustered out December 10, 1865. 


Company I— Privates: Creen, Charles, en- 
listed November 8, 1861 ; transferred to Com- 
pany H ; mustered out July 20, 186.0. Marvin. 
Andrew J., enlisted November 8, 1861 ; died at 
Cairo iMarch 16, 1802. Marvin, Joshua, enlisted 
November 8, 1801 ; discharged July 1. 1802; dis- 
ability. Smith. James W., enlisted November 8. 
1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran January 1, 1864 ; 
mustered out July 20, 1865. Workman, Francis 
W., enlisted November 8. 1861 ; re-enlisted as 

veteran January 1. 1m!I: transferred to Com- 
pany .V: mustered out .Inly 20, 1865. 


Company V. — Itecruits from Seventy-eighth 
Illinois Infantry — Drager, Augustus J., enlisted 
October 2(». ISIM; nuLStered out July 12, 18G5. 
Crewell. Cliristni)her H., enlisted October 20, 
1804; muslered out July 12, 1805. Moore. Enos 
P., enlisted October 14, 1804 ; mustered out July 
12, 1805. Wilson, John II., enlisted October 20, 
1804; mustered out July 12, 1805. 


Tlie Thirty-tiftli Illinois Infantry was organ- 
ized at Decatur, July .'5. 1801; was engaged in 
the battle of Pea Hidge March 6 and 7, 1862; 
took i)Jirt in tlie siege of Corinth; joined Buell's 
army at Murfreeslioro, Tenn., Seiitember 1, 
1862; engaged in the l)attle of Perryville, Ky., 
October 8; took part in the battle of Stone 
River; Chiclianiauga, September 19 and 20, 
18(!.3; caitture of Missionary Ridge, November 
25: in tlie .Vtlantic campaign; went into camp 
at Chattanooga, then started for Springfield, 111., 
and was mustered out September 27. 1864. It 
marched a total distance of 3,0,56 miles. The 
roster of the regiment follows. 

Comi)any .\ — Taliler, Captain Benjamin M., 
enlisted July :;. 1801 ; resigned Deeeml)er 20, 
18<n. Tbonu'is. Captain Pierre W., enlisted July 
3. 1801 ; promoted from first lieutenant to cap- 
tain December 25. 1801 : resigned January ;i]. 
1804. Company A — Sergeants: SowaslL John, 
enlisted July .3. 1801 ; discharged for disability 
at St. Louis. Schoonover. Jeremiah, enlisted 
July 3, 1801 ; died at St. Louis October 10, 1801 ; 
Kirliy. Westwoo<l C, enlisted July 3, 1861; ab- 
sent, sick, at muster out of regiment. Corporals: 
Foster, George W. T.. enlisted July 3. 1801 ; 
(lisclmrged January 8, 1862. Kirby, Francis M., 
enlisted July 3. 1801 ; transferred to Invalid 
Corps. Gilnian, Noah, enlisted July 3, 1861 ; 
detailed Eighth Wisr-onsin Battery. Judd. Wat- 
.son W.. enlisted July :;. IsOl ; died at St. Louis. 
January 13, 1S02. Mahaffey, John, enlisted July 
3. Isoi : transferred to Invalid Corps. Hinchey, 
Michael, enlisted July 3. ISO] ; mustered out 
December 27. 18(!4. McDowell, Sylvester L., 
musician, enlisted July 3. 1.861 ; mustered out 
September 27. 1804. Privates— Band. WilliauL 
enlisted July 3. ISO! ; mustered out September 
27, 18(U. Cherester. Epbriam, enlisted July :!. 
1861 ; died at St. Louis, .Tanuary 16, 1SG2. 




Compauy (,' — FrauU, Fi-eilerick, enlisted Aug- 
ust 4, 1801 ; discharged February 6, 1SC3 ; dis- 
ability. Coon. Aloiizo, enlisted as veteran 
February 20. 1804; mustered out Marcli 20, ISdti, 
as first sergeant. 


Company H — Davis, Isaac T.. enlisted June 
28, 18G1. Howell. William, enlisted June 28, 
18C1; killed August 10, 1804. 

Oomi»ny I — Jolmson, Thomas J., enlisted 
February 32, 18G4; mustered out December 6, 
1865, as sergeant. 


Second Assistant Surgeon Coleman, John W., 
enlisted September 30, 1862 ; term expired 1864. 

Company A — Buck, Xathan, enlisted Decem- 
ber 18, 1863 ; transferred to Company A, veteran 
battery. Cole, Aaron, enlisted January 4, 1864 ; 
transferred to Company A, veteran battery. 

Company C — Short, John, enlisted August 5, 
1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran and transferred to 
Company A, veteran battery. Lacey, Benjamin 
F., enli-sted August 25, 1861 ; discharged Oc- 
tober 10, 1862; disability. 


The Fort.v-nintU Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
was organized at Ciiinp Butler, 111., December 
31, 1861. by Col. W. R. Morrison, and was at 
Fort Donelson February 11. 1802, took part in 
the battle of Shiloh April 6 and 7 and the 
siege of Corinth and in August, 1803, moved to 
Arkansas, returning after the capture of Little 
Rock to Memphis, November 21, 1863. Three- 
fourths of the regiment re-enlisted January 15, 
1864, and March 10 it was assigned to the Red 
River expedition. It was mustered out Septem- 
ber 9, 180.5, at Padueah, Ky., and was discharged 
at Camp Butler September 15. 1805. 

Company D — Captain Samuel Goshorn, 
ranked as captain May 10, 1805 ; mustered in 
Ma.y 10, 1805 ; mustered out September 9, ISOo. 

Company E — First Lieutenant James M. 
Maguire, ranked as such October 23, 1S61 ; mus- 
tered in December 30, 1801 ; died of wounds 
May 8, 1803. 

Enlisted men of Company D — Byron, Xoah. 
enlisted October 10, 1801 ; mustered in De- 
cember 30, ]S61 ; re-enlisted as veteran. Burt, 
Harrison, enlisted October 19. 1801 ; mustered 
in December 30, 1861; re-enlisted as veteran. 

Cleverstine, John, enlisted November 15, 1861 ; 
mustered in December 30, 1861 ; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps June 15, 1864. Frump, 
Stephen, enlisted November 15, 1861 ; mustered 
in December 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran. 
I'arro, Tliomas, enlisted November 15, 1861 ; 
mustered in December 30, 1861; re-enlisted as 
veteran. Gray, Salathiel F., enlisted November 

15, 1861 ; mustered in December 30, 1861 ; re- 
enlisted as veteran. Moore, Jacob, enlisted 
December 1, 1801 ; mustered in December 30, 
1861 ; died of wounds February 20, 1862. Moore, 
William, enlisted December 1, 1861 ; mustered 
in December 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran. 
Peck, John, enlisted December 1, 1861 ; mus- 
tered in December 30, 1801 ; discharged August 
26, 1862; disability. Rlnck, John J., enlisted 
December 1, 1861 ; mustered in December 30, 
1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran. Welch, Samuel 
J., enlisted October 19, 1861 ; mustered in 
December 30, 1861; discharged May 4, 1862; 
disability. Veterans of Coimpany D — Goshorn, 
Samuel C, promoted first sergeant, then Cap- 
tain. Gray, Salathiel T., mustered out Sep- 
tember 0, 1865, as sergeant. Moore, William, 
enlisted January 1, 1804; mustered in January 

16, 1864; mustered out September 0, 1865. 
Riuck, John J., mustered in January 28, 1864 ; 
mustered out September 9, 1865, as corporal. 
Ward, John, mustered in January 23, 1864 ; 
mustered out September 9, 1865, as sergeant. 

Privates of Company E — Boyd, William H., 
mustered in December .30, ' 1861 ; re-enlisted as 
veteran. Patterson, William S., enlisted De- 
cember 21. 1801 ; mustered in December 30, 1801 ; 
mustered out January 9. 1865. Veterans — Pem- 
broke, William K., enlisted January 20, 1864 ; 
mustered in January 21, 1864; mustered out 
September 9, 1805, as first sergeant ; commis- 
sioned second lieutenant but not mustered. 
Boyd, W. H., enlisted January 20, 1864; mus- 
tered in January 2], 1864: mustered out Sep- 
tember 0, 1865, as sergeant. Benwell, John H., 
enlisted January i, 1804; mustered in January 
12, 1804 ; mustered out September 0, 180.5. Re- 
cruits — Lyies, William, enlisted January 1, 
1802; killed at Fort Donelson, February 13, 
1802. I'embroke, William K., enlisted January 
1. 1802; mustered June 11, 1863; re-enlisted as 


The I'ifty-fourth Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
was organizwi at Camp Dubois, Anna, III., by 
Col. Thomas W. Harris, in November, 1801, as 



a iiart of tlie ••Kentucky r.rigaUe." It was 
Didcrcd to Cairo, 111., February 24, 18C2, left 
Jackson for Vicksliur;; May 3". ISU:?, as a part 
of the Third IJrijraUe, and July 24, 1SC3, was 
ordered to Helena a.s a part of General Steele's 
expedition a^'ainst Little KocU, .Vrk. In Jan- 
uary, 1.SIJ4. tliree-fourtlis of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veteran volunteers. A part of the 
regiment was captured in 18(14, while guarding 
a portion of the Memphis & Little Rock Uail- 
road, but were iiaroled and arrived at Benton 
Barracks Septendier 0, 1864. The regiment was 
mustered out October 15, 18G."), and discharged 
from ("amp Butler October 2(i. lSr,.j. I'iatt 
County was well represented. 

Company F — Second Lieutenant Joshua Tat- 
man, enlisted December l.">, lS(jl ; mustered in 
February lO, 18()2; re-enllsted as veteran; mus- 
tered out October 15, 1805, as first sergeant ; 
commissioned second lieutenant but not mus- 
tered. Sergeant James Caonp, enlisted Decem- 
ber 15, ISGl ; nnistered in February l(j, lSti2: 
re-enlisted as veteran .January 1, 1S(J4 ; mus- 
tered out October 15, 18C5. ("orijoral Henry 
Wildinan, cnlistc-d December 15, 18G1 ; mus- 
tered in February 10, 1S02 ; re-enlisted as vet- 
eran. Campbell I'ostlewait, musician, enlisted 
December 15, ISO! ; mustered in February 10, 

Privates — Alvord, Oscar, enlisted December 
15, 18(;i ; mustered in February 10, 18G2. Birch, 
Daniel, enlisted December 15, 1S(!1 : mustered in 
February 10, 1S('2: re-enlisted as veteran. Hil- 
dreth, William. eTiHsted December 15. ISGl ; 
mustered in February 10, 1802; re-enlisted as 
veteran Jan\iary 1. 1SG4 ; mustered out October 
15, 1805. l.inder. William II., enlisted Dccem 
her 15, ISOl ; mustereil in February 10, 1862; 
re-enlisted as veteran January 1, 1804; mustered 
out January 31. 1,805. Pickens, William, en- 
listed December 15. ISOl ; mustered in February 
K;, 1802; re-enlisted as veteran January 1, Isoi ; 
nnistered out October 15. 1805. Tatman. IJiley, 
enlisted December 15, 1801 ; mustered in Feb- 
ruary 10, 1.802: re-eidlsted as w'teran January 
1. 1804 ; nnistered out as corporal (Jctober 15. 
1805; Wat.son, William, enlisted December 15, 
ISGl; mustered in February 10, 1802; mus- 
tered out February 17, 1SG5. Veterans — Can)p- 
bell, John F., enlisted January 1, 1.804. mus- 
tered in January 25. 1,S04; mustered out October 
15, 18<;."i. Davis, Joseph M., enlisteil January 
1. 18<i4 ; mustered in January 25. 1804; mustered 
out October 15. 1805. It(Hruits — Kerns, Shep- 

herd L., enlisted JIarch 2(;, 1S04 ; mustered out 
October 15, 18G5. 


Kecruits — Kichlnger. Daniel B.. enlisted Jan- 
uary 1!», 1804; transferred to C<miiiaiiy A; nius- 
lercd mil .M.ircb 0. ISOO. 


The .si.\ty-thir(l Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna. 111., in 
December, 1801, and mustered into the United 
States service .\pril 10, 1802. It participated 
in the battle of Missionary Ridge, November 
2". 24, 1802. and after going into winter quarters 
.It Iluntsville. a part of the men re-eulistetl as 
veterans and after a furlough rejoiued the com- 
mand. June 15, ISO-'!. The regiment was ordered 
to join General Sherman, November 11, and in 
January, 1805, started on a trip through the 
Carolinas and participated in the battles and 
skirmishes of that famous campaign. The regi- 
ment was complimented by the inspector general 
of the Army of the Tennessee for the ajipear- 
ance of the camp and the soldierly bearing of 
the men. It took part in the Grand Review at 
W.ishington, D. ('.. May 24, 1805, and was mus- 
tered out July 1."!, 1805, having marched in all 
0,4.53 miles. The soldiers of the Sixt.v-third 
niinois Volunteer Infantry who came from 
I'i.itt County were as follows : 

Veterans: Company D — Beasley, Thomas, en- 
listed January 4. 18(i4: mustered out July 13, 
isi;5, as sergeant. Case, James F.. enlisted 
January 1, ISfhl; mustered out July 13, 18G.5. 
Dawson. Lewis N.. enlisted January 1, 18G4 ; 
mustered out July i:!. 1805. Siders, William, 
enlisted January 1, 18G4 ; musteretl out July 13, 
1.80.5. Smith. Charles, enlisted January 1, 1SG4; 
mustered out July 13, 1,805. as corporal. Re- 
cruits r.iirton. Loreir/.o D.. enlisted June 1, 
IS02: mustered out May .'JO. 1,805. 

Veterans: Company 11 — Barnes. William H., 
enlisted January 1, 1,S04 ; mustered out July K!, 
lso.5. Burch. (Jeorge, enlisted January 1, 1864; 
mustered out July i:5, 1,^0.5. t'adwallender, An- 
drew, enlisteil January 1, 1,804; nnistered out 
July i:!. ISO.". Freeman. Richard J., enlisted 
January 1. 1804; first .sergeant; discharged Sep- 
teJMber 20. 1,S0-1. dl.-inbility. Harmon. .Tesse. en- 
listed January 1. l.S(;4 ; mustered out July 13, 
1805. Recruits — Freeman. William, enlisted 
July l!l. 1S02; die<l at Jackson, Tenn., November 
18. l.VOL'. 

, ^, /S^-yXfA^-O-xn^ 




The Seventy-second Illinois Voluntcfr Infan- 
try iucluded about ninety-four men in Company 
E, nearly one-fiftU of whom were from Piatt 
County. This regiment rendezvoused at Camp 
Douglas, Chicago, and was mustered into the 
service of the United States August IS. 18G2, 
five days later leaving for Cairo. It left Colum- 
bus, Ky., for the field November 21, marched six 
miles south of Oxford, Miss., with a part of the 
army of General Grant, left Memphis, March 1, 
1803, with the Yazoo Pass expedition, marched 
from MiUikens Bend to Hai-dtimes Landing, 
crossed over to Grand <iulf and marched to 
Raymond. Miss., and at Champion's Hill de- 
feated the Confederates after an extremely 
hard-fought battle. At the I!ig Black River the 
enemy was pushed so close that the bridge 
was "set fire too soon and several hundred 
prisoners were taken by the Tniou forces. The 
Seventy-second l>ridged this stream and ad- 
vanced to within four miles of Vicksburg, May 
19, 1SG.3. and with the forces of Sherman and 
others formed a line of battle corresponding 
with the twelve miles of breastworks and forts. 
On May 2li It charged the whole line, but failed 
to take the works, and laid down to a siege 
which lasted forty-six days. On .Tune 2.-, a line 
of battle was again formed to talce the works, 
and when Fort Ilill was blown up by (Jeueral 
Logan's men. the iM.rty-Hfth Illinois charged, 
but was subseipiently forced to retire. On .July 
.3 the Confederates surrendered, and on the 
following day the Seventy-second Illinois 
marched into the caiitured city. On (Jctober « 
it left Vicksburg and November 9 arrived at 
I'aducali, Ky.. left Nashville November 1-t and 
went to Columbia. On Novenihcr 2!i the regi- 
ment left for Franklin and liy hard marching 
reached that place ahead of the enemy, and tlie 
next day was spent in raisiug breastworks. 
After the battle of Franklin the Seventy-second 
marched to Nashville, where it received rein- 
forcements, and December l.'. started in pursuit 
of Hood's army, capturing its works and a few 
prisoners. The regiment went into winter ipiar- 
ters at Eastport. Miss., and during the winter 
suffered from lack of rations, but reached New 
Orleans February 20. 18C.5. and camped on 
General .Jackson's camiiing grounds. From 
there it went to -Mobile Bay, securing I'ort 
BlaUely and Mobile, and after marcbing some 
time in Alabama started homeward .July 19 and 

was mustered out at CliiCiigo August 14. 1865. 
The men who belonged to the Seventy-second 
and came from Piatt County were as foUows: 

Privates: Company E— Adam, Madison A., 
enlisted August 11, 1S02; mustered out August 
T. 186.5, as corporal. Dean, William S.. en- 
listed August 1. 18(i2; mustered out August 7, 
180.5. Mench. .John A., enlisted August 1, 1S62; 
dietl at Columbus. Ky., (Xtober 2!». 1862. EUi- 
cott, Peter F., euli.sted August 9, 1862; dis- 
charged April 13, 1S63; disability. Hammer, 
Jeremiah, enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged 
.January 18, 1864; disability. Ingram, .John W., 
enlisted August 9, 1862; mustered out as cor- 
iporal August 7, 186.5. Company G— (Jrofft, 
Amasa L. De, enlisted August 14. 1862; mus- 
tered out July 15, 1865. 


The record of the Seventy-third Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry is a particularly honorable one. 
Leaving the state one of the largest regiments, 
it returned one of the smallest, and its members, 
officers and men alike, won great reputation for 
bravery. It is calculated that nearly two-thirds 
of the organization was wiped away by disease, 
death or battles during its three years of serv- 
ice. It was organized at Camp Butler in Aug- 
ust, 1862, becoming a part of the army of 
General Buell. and after fighting fiercely at 
I'erryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, took part in 
every battle fought by the Army of the Cum- 
berland, from then on to the comi.lete rout of 
General Hood's army, at Nashville, and the 
close of the war. After Perryville. It fought 
;it Murfreesboro. Chlckanuuiga. Missionary 
Ridge and the succession of l>attles from Chick- 
amauga to the fall of Atlanta; formed a part 
of OinJyke's Brigade at Franklin, which .saved 
the day for the North, and lost its last man 
killed in driving Hood's army from NashvUle. 
I'iatt County men in the Seventy-third were 

as follows : 

Company D— Ma.ior Thomas Mollieispaw 
ranked as captain of Company D : musteied in 
August 21. isi;2: promoted ma.ior. September 
20.^186:!; mustered in June 27. 1804; died of 
wounds Decemljer 18. 1804. 

Captain Jonas Jones ranked as first lieuten- 
ant August 21, 1862; promoted captain Septem- 
ber 20. ISCs! ; mustered in October 10, 1864; 
honoraiily <liscbarged May 15. 1805. First Lieu- 
tenant Henry A. Boflman. enlisted as sergeant 
Julv 26. 1802: nuistered in August 21. 1862; 



promoted second Jiouteniuit Septeiiihei' 120, ISt;::; 
mustered in October 10, 1S04 ; resigned Marcli 
10, 180.5. Ueutenaiit Marri.son M. Alvord. 
enlisted July 24, 1SU2 ; mustered in Au.^'ust 21, 
1SG2; promoted first lieutenant April 11, 1805; 
mustered out .Tune 12, ISC'). Second Lieutenant 
Reuben B. Winchester ranked as such and mus- 
tered in August 21, 1S02; resigned December 
10, 1802. Sergeants: Jones, John S., enlisted 
Jul.v 21. 1802; mustered in August 21, 1802; 
mustered out June 12. 18«;r>, as first sergeant. 
Glasgow, Martin V. B., enlisted in July, 1802; 
musteretl in August 31, lS(i2 ; mustered out 
June 12, 180."). Rickets, Barnabas, enlisted July 
18, 1802; mustered in August 21, 1802; trans- 
ferred November 25, 1863, to accept promotion 
in a colored regiment. Corporals : Jones. 
Thomas S.. enlisted July 22. 1802; mustered in 
August 2, 1802; dietl of wounds September 20. 
1803. Hopkins. Richard S.. enlisted July 20. 
1802; mustered in August 21. 18<12; mustered 
out June 12, 180.">, as sergeant. Rush, Thomas 
S., enlisted July 28, 1862 ; mustered out June 
12, 1805, as sergeant ; Garver. Siimuel B., en- 
listed July 25, 1862 ; mustered out June 12, 
1865 ; wounded. Gay. John, enlisted July 22. 
1802; died at Kingston, Georgia. Wiley, .Mien, 
enlisted July 2.'{. 1862; dischargtnl November 
10, 1804 ; wounds. SIcFadden, Benjamin, en- 
listed July 10. 1802; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corjis October 17, 1804. Xewton, 
Robert, musician, enli.sted July 20. 1802; mus- 
tered out June 12. 1865. Deter, Martin \"., en- 
listed July 22, 1.802; tran.sferred to 
C^orps July 20, 1804. 

Privates: .\bnett. James Y., enlisted July 
20. 1802; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Albert, John M.. enlisteil .\ugust 7, 1802; mus- 
tered out June 12, 180.5. Barnes, John, enlisted 
July 26. 1S02; died May 10. 1804; wounds. 
BrulTett, Robert, enlisted July 20, 1802; dis- 
charged February 10, 1863; disability. Branch, 
lOdward, enlisted July 26, 1S(!2; died at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. December 10, 1802. Brndshaw. 
.Toseph N.. enlisted July 25, 1802; transforreil 
to English Corps July 10, 1802. Brown. Jolin 
F., enlisted July 24. 1862; nnistered out June 
12, 1805. Beall, Williani, enlisted August 7, 
1862; died at Nashville, Tennesse<>. Decemlier 
2.3, 1862. Brady. Elishmau. enlisted July 21, 
1862; mustered out June 12, 1805. Brown. 
David S., enlisted August 4, 1862; discharged 
April 4, 1803; disability. Brunch. James M., 
enlisted July 20, 1802; died April 5, 18(!5; 

wounds. Ctxiper, Levi C., enlisted July 30, 
1S(!2; dieil at Murfreesboro, March, 1S03. Crou- 
ise. John, enlisted July 20, 1802; discharged 
-Vugust 20, 1803 ; wounds. Clover, David, en- 
li.sted July 28, 1862; transferred to Invalid 
Corps. Cooper, Joshua B., enlisted August 12, 
1862; died at Nashville, February 12, 1863. 
Crevission. Thomas, enlisted August 6, 1862; 
discharged May 26. 1805; wounds. Duvall, 
William, enllsteil July 25. 1,802; discharged Feb- 
ruary 12. 18<;3; disability. Duvall. Benjamin, 
enlisted August 7. 1802; discharged February 
17. 1803; disability. Duvall. Jeremiah, enlisted 
.Vugtist 4, 1802; discharged December 13, 1802; 
disabilit.y. Dence, Wesley, enlisted August 7, 
1862; died Nashville, Teun., December 5, 1862. 
Ewbank, William M.. enlisted 8. 1862; 
discharged February 12, 1803; disability. 
Frump, Joseph, enlisterl July 20. 1802 ; trans- 
ferred to Invalid Corps. Furguson. Nathaniel 
L.. enlisted .Vugust 3, 1802 ; mustered out June 
12. 1805. (irundy, William H.. enlisted July 
20. 1802; mustered out June 12. 186.5. (Jal- 
breath, Hugh, enlisted July 20, 1802; trans- 
ferred to In\-alid Corps. January 16. 1804. Gra- 
liani. James, enlisted .July 26, 1802 ; mustered 
out June 12, 18«i5. Garver, Jonas B.. enlisted 
.Vugust 7. 1802; mustered out June 12. 1865, 
as sergeant. Hughs, Thomas, enlisted July 23, 
l.S(i2; died .it Nashville. Tenn.. December 3. 
18i;2. Howard. Henry JL. enlisted July 24, 
1802; mustered out June 12, 1805. Howard. 
James, enlisted July 24. 1802; discharged May 

I. 1803; di.siibility. Hold, James W., enlisted 
July 28, 1802; mustered out June 12. 1865. 
Heath. Samuel, enlisted July 20. 1802; died at 
Nashville. December 8. 1802. Ilotts. Hiram, 
enlisted July 20. 1802: died at Xashville De-. 
(•ember 17. 1.802. Heath. .Vllen. enlisted .-Vugust 
12. 1802; nnistered out June 12. 1805. Hobbs, 
Isaac, enlisted August 7, 1862 ; transferred to 
lOnglish Corps July 20, 1864. Ua\'¥ly. Warner, 
enlisted July 26, 1862; died at Nashville Decem- 
ber 2. 1.862. Idleman. Edward B.. enlisted Au- 
gust 8. 1862; died at Murfreesboro February 

II. 1803. Johnson, Alexander, enlisted August 
7. 1802: died at Nashville November 20, 1802. 
ICnowles. William C enlisted July 23. 1802; 
mustered out June 12, 180.5. Knapp, Hiram, 
enlisted .Vugust 4. 1862 ; mustered out June 12, 
1805. List, Francis M., enlisted July 26, 1802; 
nmstered out June 12, 1865 ; Langdon, Lucien, 
<'nlisted July 20. 1802; mustered out June 12, 
1.805, as corporal. Le Varunay, Francis, en- 



listed August 7, 1SC2; died at Nashville Febru- 
ary 2:i. 1863. Loug, AVilllaui J., enlisted August 
9, 18G2; mustered out June 12, 1865. Mussle- 
man, John, enlisted July 21, 1862 ; supposed 
killed Xovember 30, 1862. ilussleman. William, 
enlisted July 26, 1862 : mustered in August 21, 

1862. Miller, Elias M., enlisted July 26, 1862; 
mustered out June 12, 186.5. Mull. Samuel, en- 
listed August 8, 1862; died at Nashville June 
16, 1863. Martin, Joseph, enlisted August 7, 
1862; transferred to English Corps July 20, 

1864. McArdle. Leonard, enlisted August 4, 
1862; mustered out June 12, 1.S65. McMillen. 
John C. E., enlisted July 26, 1S62; mustered 
out June 12, 186.5, as conioral. Murlile. James 
H., enlisted August 7, 1862; died at Nashville 
December 25, 1862. Madden. William, enlisted 
July 26. 1862; nnistered out June 12. 1865. as 
corporal. Piper, James H., enlisted August 7, 
1862; mustered out June 12, 1865. Quick, Ells- 
bury, enlisted August 4, 1862; mustered in Au- 
gust 24, 1862. Ridietts, Samuel T., enlisted 
July 21. 1862; mustered out June 12, 1865. 
Reynolds. John, enlisted July 26. 1862; mustered 
out June 12, 1865. Rainwater, John, enlisted 
July 26, 1862; died at Nashville February 6, 

1863. Rice. William II.. eidisted July 28. 1862 ; 
discharged December 5. 1.S63: disability. Rich- 
ards. Samuel, enlisted August 7, 1862; mustered 
out June 12, 1865. Sturnes. Richard M., en- 
listed July 28, 1862; mustered out June 12. 

1865. Silencer, James C, enlisted August 7. 
1862; mustered out June 12. 1865. Spencer, 
Samuel ('.. enlisted August 7, 1862; discharged 
February 4, 1863; disability. Secrist. William 
H., enlisted August 11. 1862; mustered out June 
12, 1865. Thorn. James L., enlisted July 26. 
1862; died at Stevenson. Alabama. November 
19. 1863. Talliert. John T.. enlisted August 7. 
1862 ; mustered out June 12, 1865. Vail, Jack- 
son, enlisted July 26, 1S62; mustered out June 
12, 1865. Vail, Stephen, enlisted July 26, 1862; 
discharged February 8, 1863; wounds. William- 
son. Edward, enlisted July 26. 1862 ; mustere<l 
out June 12, 1865. Watrous. Henry, enlisted 
July 25. 1862 ; discharged March 8, 1863 ; wound. 
Weddle. .John, enlisted July 20, 1862; died De- 
cember II, 1863; prisoner Danville, Virginia. 
Weddle John H., enlisted .July 26, 1862; mus- 
tered out June 12, 1865. Watson. Hiram L., 
enlisted August 2. 1862 ; died September 20, 
186:! ; wounds. AVatson. Charles A., enlisted 
August 1. 1862; died Ilarrisburg. I'ennsylvania. 
May 10. 1865. William.son, .Tohn, enlisted -Ui- 

gust 4, 1862; mustered in August 21, 1862. 
Wilson, Samuel, enlisted August 4. 1862 ; died 
Nashville. Tenne.vsee. January 23, 186.3. Wiley, 
Charles M., enlisted August 8, 1862 ; discharged 
October 9, 18<;2 ; disability. Wiley, George N., 
enlisted August 8, 1862; died at Nashville, De- 
cember 12. 1862. Zorger, Jesse, enlisted August 
7. 1862; died September 20, 1863; wounds. 
Yost. .Varon, recruit, mustered out June 12, 


Company E — Lonzadder, George, enlisted Oc- 
tober 20, 1864 ; transferred to Forty-sLxth Illi- 
nois Infantry : mustered out October 8, 1865. 


One of the Illinois regiments in which many 
men from I'iatt County fought, and \^■hich estab- 
lished a particularly brilliant record, was the 
One Hundred and Seventh Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, which was nmstered Into the United 
States service at Camp Butler Septemlier 4, 
1.862. and con.sisted of six companies from De- 
Witt and four from Piatt counties. It pursued 
.ind .issisted in the capture of John Morgan; 
had an encounter with the Confederates at 
London ; later fought at Campbell's Station, 
Xoveniber 16, 1862, and at Danbridge. Decem- 
ber 2!. J'artieipated in the battle of Resaca, 
May 14-15, 1863; Kenesaw Mountain, June 18, 
.ind in the engagements thereabout and the sub- 
swpient fighting around Atlanta. On Septem- 
ber 28. 1864, it began the pursuit of Hood's 
arm.v. which was met November 22. at Colum- 
bia, where several days of skirmishing began. 
Near Columbia Pike the regiment suffered a 
severe loss in the death of Colonel Lowry, who 
fell mortally wounded. It took part in the 
bloody battle of Franklin. November .30. 1864, 
.•mil in the fight near Nashville, and left camp 
January 26, 1865, arriving at Washington Feb- 
ruary 2. After skirmishing with and pursuing 
the enemy until March 19, the regiment went 
to Goldsboro. arriving March 21, and ihere 
awaited clothing and supplies for Sherman's 
army. It remained at Raleigh until the sur- 
render of General Johnson, was nnistered out at 
S.ilisbury, N. C June 21, 1865, and was dis- 
charged July 2, 1865. 

Otticers : Colonel Francis H. Lowry, com- 
missioned captain of Company E, September 
24. 1S()2; mustered in September 5. 1862; pro- 
moted as lieutenant-colonel February 6, 1863; 



promoted coloiiel Noveiiilier 1(1. 18ti3; died of 
wounds retvived near Colnnihia I'iUe, battle of 
Ki-iinkliii. January 1, lS(ir>. Lieutenant-Colouel 
Hamilton C. .Met 'ouws. connnissioned Septem- 
l>er 4, 1S(PJ ; mustered in Septemlier 4, 1X02 : 
resigned February (!. ISC:!. l.ieutcnant-Colonel 
John W. Wood, commissioned first lieutenant 
of Company V .September 4. 1802 ; promoted 
captain February (!, 1SC3 ; promoted major Jan- 
uary 1, 18<ir>: promoted lieutenant-colonel June 
20, 1865: mustered out (as major) June 21. 
1865. Major I'riali M. Lawrence, commissiimed 
captain Company K .September I. 18(12; pro- 
moted major January '.i. isii4: nuistered in 
May 1, ]S(!4; lionoratily discbarired September 
25, 18(U. .Vdjt. Silas 11. llubbell. became adju- 
tant .September 4. ISO.'i : mustereil in September 
4. 1862; mustered out June 21. 1865. First 
As.sistant Surgeon Nelson C. <'<il!in. connnis- 
sioned September 2. 1862. 

Company C — Captain David F. Ford, com- 
missioned and mustered in Se|itwnber 4, iSCi2; 
resigned February 10. 18(U. First Lieutenant 
George llnmniel. enlisted .Vugust i:i. 1862: pro- 
moted as first sergeant: connnissioned first lieu- 
tenant February 10. 18()4: mnstered in March 
24. 1,S64: mustered out June 21. 1.865. Second 
Lieutenant William F. McMillen. commissioned 
and mustered in September 4, 1862: resigned 
December 15. 18(r>. Second Taeutenaut William 
\J. riunli. ((immissioned Jmie 20. 18(55: mns- 
tered out June 21. 1865. 

Company F — Captain .lolni ( '. I.owry. en- 
listed August II. 1.S62: promoted second lieu- 
tenant Febnuiry 6, 1863: promoted lirst lieuten- 
ant December 14. 1864; promoted captain Janu- 
ary 1, 1865: mustered out Jinie 21. 1865. First 
Lieutenant Cridin .M. Hruflitt. commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant September 7. 1862: pnmioted first 
lieutenant February 6. 186.^: resigned December 
14. 1S64. First Lieutenant James M. Holmes, 
enlisted August 11. 1862; promoted first ser- 
geant, then second lieutenant January 1, 1865: 
luustered out June 21. 1865. Second Lieutenant 
Thoiuas Mearing. enlisted .\ngust 11. 1862: 
commissioned second lieuten.uit but not mus- 
tered in; mustered out June 21. 186.5. 

Company H — Captain .Monzo Newton, com- 
missioned September 4. 1S62: resigned Febru- 
ary V.',. ]8(!;',. Captain Kdgar Camp, enlisted 
August S. 1862; iiromoted lirst lieutenant Feb- 
ruary !). 186:!; promoted captain February i:'.. 
18(v:; killed June 16. 1864. Captain Samuel J. 
Kidd. enlisted .\ngust 11. 1862: promoted secoiul 

lieutenant February i::. 18(j:!: promuted first 
lieutenant February Kl, 186:!; promoted captain 
June 16. 1864; mustered out Jnne 21, 1865. 
First Lieutenant Aaron Ilar.shberger. commis- 
sioned first lieutenant Septendier 4. 1.S62 ; re- 
signed February II. 1.S6;!. First Lietnenant An- 
drew J. Williams, enlisted as first sergeant 
.Vugust II. 1862; promoted sectind lieutenant 
February i:!. 186.3; promoted lirsi lieutenant 
June 16. 1864; mustered out June 21. 1865. 

Company K^First Lieutenant Benjamin Brit- 
tingham raidced as second lieutenant September 
24. 1862; promoted first lieutenant January 9, 
1S64: mnstered out June 21. 18(>5. Second Lieu- 
tenant .\ndrew Uodgers ranked as second lieu- 
tenant June 2o, IS65: mustered out .Iinie 21. 

Company C — First Sergeant (Jeorge I-. Mar- 
cpiiss enlisted August i:'.. 1862: discharged Octo- 
ber IS, 1862. disability. 

Sergeants : Humiuel. (Jeorge. eidisted .Vugust 
13. 1862; protiioted first sergeant, then first 
lieutenant. Adkins. Benj.-imin F.. enlisted Au- 
gust i:!. 1862; absent, sick, at nnister out of 
regiment. Downes. Samuel K., enlisted .Vugust 
i:;. 1862: nuistered out June 21. 1865. Martin, 
Henry, enlisted August 13. 1862; mustered out 
June 21. 1S65. Corporals: > Warner. Reuben, 
eidisted .Vugust i:!. 1862; mustered out June 21. 
1865. Bondman, (ieorge W.. enlisted .Vugust 
i:!, 18(i2; discharged April 11. 1865: disability. 
I'hilliiis. Joseiih D.. enlisted August 1.3. 1.862; 
died as at Woodsville. Ky.. March 12. 
1S(K. Manpiiss. Ezra, enlisted August 13. 1862; 
discharged July 11. 1862. disability. BuSh, 
Jesse, enlisted .Vugust 13, 1862 ; mnstered out 
June 21, 1865. Bond. B. C. enlisted August 
13. 1862: di.scharged March 10. 1864; disability. 
Dove. Emanuel H.. enlisted August i:!. 18C2; 
discharged December 16. 18(i2; disability. 
Cowen. .Tacob. enlisted .Vugust 14. 1862 ; mus- 
tered out June 21, 18(i5. as sergeant. Ooon, 
Flias JI.. musician, enlisted August 13. 1802; 
ilischarged October 11. 1863: disabilit.v. Holt. 
IVter. wagoner, enlisted .Vugust 13, 1862 ; died 
at .Vndersonville prison September 3, 1,S64. 

I'rivates: Barnes. William H.. enlisted August 
13. 1862; absent, sick, at muster out. Byerly, 
Lewis R.. enlisted .Vugust 13. 1862; mustered 
out June 21. 1865. Benden. Thomas, enlisted 
August i:!. 1.862; discharged January 3. 1863; 
di.sability. liurget. Samuel, enlisted .Vugust 13, 
1862: mustered in September 4, 1862. Bradford, 
John T.. enlisted August 13. 1862: died at Clas- 




gow, Ky., iI-,1}- 12, 1SG3. Cr.vstal, Thomas T., 
enlisted August 13, 18C2 ; mustered out June 21, 
1865. Crystal, Calvin, enlisted August IS, 1802 ; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. Carey, Edwin, 
enlisted August 13, 1862 ; rei)orted to have died 
in Confederate prison. C-offelt, John R., en- 
listed August 13, 1862; killed near Dallas, 
Georgia, May 31, 1804. Cowen, John, enlisted- 
August 14, 1802; mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Coffin, James B., enlisted August 13, 1802; was 
ab.sent at muster out. Dyer. John, enlisted Au- 
gust 13, 1802; umstered out June 21, 1805, as 
corporal. Dean, Charles, enlisted August 13, 
1862; transferred to Company E; mustered out 
June 21, 1865. Elsea, Jacob, enlisted August 

13, 1862; reported to have died in Confederate 
prison. Elsea, Abraham, enli.sted in August, 
1862; died at Glasgow. Ky., June 21, 1863. 
Ellis. John R., enlisted August 14. 1862; trans- 
ferred to Colvin's Illinois Battery April 10, 

1864. England. Isaac W., enlisted August 13, ' 
1862 ; died at Atlanta, Georgia, October 28, 1864. 
Fitzwater, Wesley, enlisted August 13, 1802 ; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. Fogleseng, Martin, 
enlisted August 14, 18(i2 ; detached at muster out 
of regiment. Gross, Henry, enlisted August 13. 
1802; discharged January 3, 1803; disability. 
Grahiun, Joseph, enlisted August 13, 1802; trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 18, 
1S04. Garwowl, Silas D., enlisted August 13, 
1802 ; died at Camp Nelson. Ky., December 13, 
1863. HoUorin, Hugh, enlisted August 13, 1862 ; 
discharged May 12. 1863; disability. Hudson, 
William, enlisted August 13, 1862; died at Ander- 
sonville prison. August 18. 1804. H.iucline, 
Peter, enlisted August 22, 1862; discharged Oc- 
tober 11, 1803 ; disability. Hubbart, Thomas C, 
enlisted .Vugust 13. 1802; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Haneline. David, enlisted August 13, 1862; 
mustered out June 21^ 1865. Hannah, James 
H.. enlisted August 13, 1862; died at Woodson- 
ville, Ky., December 31, 18C2. Hannah. Hugh 
v., enlisted August 13. 1862; died in prison at 
Richmond, Va.. March 27. 1864. Huffman, 
George, enlisted August 13, 1862; mustered out 
June 21, 1865. Houser, John, enlisted August 

14, 1862 ; died at Elizabethtown, Ky., November 
18, 1862. Havener, John A., enlisted August 
13, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1805. Ingiun. 
Harrison, enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged 
November 19. 1862; disabilit.v. Izer. John, en- 
listed August 14, 1862; mustered out June 21, 

1865. Lefever, John A., enlisted 11, 
1862; mustered out June 21, 1865, as corporal. 


Lefever, David S., enlisted August 11, 1862; 
discharged October 11, 1863, as corporal ; disa- 
bility. Kesner, Simeon, enlisted August 11, 
1802; mustered out June 21, 1805, as corporal. 
Kearney, Hintou, enlisted August 13, 1802 ; dis- 
charged October 13, 1802. Knott, John M., en- 
listed August 14, 1802; ai.sdiarged October U, 
1863; disability. Miller, Jacob, enlisted August 
13, 1862; transferred to Colvin's Illinois Bat- 
tery April 30. 1804. Miller. John N.. enlisted 
.Vugust 13. 1862; killed near Dallas, (ia., May 
27, 1864. Milligan, Thomas, enliste*! August 
13, 1862 ; mustered in September 4, lS(i2. Mad- 
den, John S., enlisted August 13, 1802; mustered 
in September 4, 1802. Montgomery, John, en- 
listed August 13, 1802 ; died in prison at Rich- 
mond, Va., December 19, 1803. Mitchell, Nel- 
son, enlisted August 13, 1862 ; transferred to 
Colvin's Illinois Battery April 30, 1864. Morse, 
James, enli-sted August 15, 1802; mustered in 
September 4, 1802. Norris, Elisha B., enlisted 
August 13, 1862 ; discharged September 3, 1803 ; 
disability. Nowlan, Michael, enlisted August 

13, 1862 ; died in prison at Richmond, Va., De- 
cember 13, 1803. Plunk, John E., enlisted Au- 
gust 14, 1802 ; died in Piatt county, 111., June 

14. 1804. Plunk, William H.. enlisted August 

14, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1865, as first 
sergeant. Rodgers, John B., enlisted August 

15. 1802: died at Elizabethtown. Ky., November 
2!), 1862. Roberts, Aaron B., enlisted August 
13, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1865. Reid, 
Nelson, enlisted August 13, 1862; mustered out 
June 21, 1865, as corporal. Ross, Aquilla, en- 
listed Augast 13, 1802; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Rowlin, Leonard, enlisted August 11, 1802; 
transferred to Colvin's Illinois Battery April 
30. 1804. Rowlin, Henry, enlisted August 13. 
1802; transferred to Colvin's Illinois Battery 
April 30, 1804. lUtchbark, Isaac, enlisted Au- 
gust 13, 1802 ; absent, sick, at muster out. Sliep- 
pard, John, enlisted August 14, 1862 ; died at 
Knoxville, Tenn., January 10. 1864. Smith, 
Alexander, enlisted .\ugust 13. 1802: transferred 
to Colvin's Illinois Battery .Vpril .'30. 1802. Sclile- 
noker, Jacob, enlisted August 13, 1802 ; died 
near Atlanta, Georgia, August 8, 1804. Steel, 
Samuel, enlisted August 13, 1802; killed near 
Resaca. Ga., May 14, ]8(!4. Senseny, .Tames, 
enlisted .\ugust 13, 1862; mustered out June 21, 
180.5. Sanders, Andrew J., enlisted August 14, 
1,862; died at Woodsonville, Ky.. March 0. 1803. 
Snudts. Michael, enlisted August 14, 1S62 ; died 
at Woodsonville, Ky., July 9, 1803. Shaffer, 



Heury, enlisteil August IS. J802; niustered out 
Juuf 21, 1805. Taylor. .John L., enlisted August 
13, lS(i2; discharged April 4, ISO.'!; disability. 
Teiuplin, Samuel J., enlisted July 14, 1S(;2 ; 
absent, .sick, at muster out. Uhl, John, enlisted 
August 15, 1S02; mustered out June 21, 1805, 
as corporal. Wingard, ^Uidrew J., enlisted 
August 14, 1802: discharged Ai>ril 18, 1863; dis- 

Company E — Corporals: Tritt, Francis M., 
enlisted August 11, 1802; mustered out June 
21, 1805. Moore, George, enlisted August 11, 
1862; mustered out Jlay 20, 1805. Sutherland, 
Orange B., enlisted August 1, 1862; mustered 
out June 21, 1865. Albert, Jacob, enlisted Au- 
gust 11, 1802; mustered in in September, 1862. 
Westcott, Joel, enlisted August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1805. ilcCann, William, en- 
listed August 11, 1802; mustered out June 21, 
1805. Tinuuons, William H. H., enlisted August 
11, 1802 ; mustered out June 21, 1805. Herron, 
James II.. musician, enlisted August 11, 1802; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 
6, 1864. SepiJel, Ajnbrose, enlisted August 11, 
18G2; died at Ander.sonville prison April 1, 1804. 
Bush. Jesse, wagoner, enlisted August 11, 1802; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. 

I'rivatcs: Anderson, William, enlisted August 
11. 1S02; discharged March 27, 1863, disability. 
Alliert. James M., enlisted August 11, 1862; died 
at lOlizabethtown, Kentucky, December 8, 1802. 
Allman, Edwin J., enlisted August 11, 1862 ; 
mustered out June 21, 1865. Applegate, Elias, 
enlisted August 11, 1862 ; mustered in Septem- 
ber 5, 1862. Applegate, Raudolph, enlisted Au- 
gust 11, 1862 ; died at Knoxville. Tenn., June 
16, 1864. Andrews. John, enlisted August 11, 
1862; discharged January 19, 1863; disiibility. 
Bush, Jacob, enlisted August 11, 1862; dis- 
charged February 19, 1863; disability. Bailey, 
James, enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged 
February 19, 1863; disability. Burch, John W., 
enlisted .\ugust 11. lS(i2; mustered out June 21, 
1805. Blacker. .Joseph, enlisted August 11, 
1862: mustered out June 21, 18tl5. Blacker, 
William II., enlisted August 11, 1862; mustered 
out June 21, 1805. Babcock, Elia.s, enlisted 
August 11. 1862; transferred to Colvin's Bat- 
tery July 8, 1803. Brady, Elias, enlisted in 
August, 1802; died in Piatt county. 111., Febru- 
ary 4, 1864. Beasley, Calvin, enlisted August 11, 
1SC2; corporal, absent, sick, at muster nnt 
Carlin, Daniel, enlisted August 11. 1802; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1865. Coles, John W., en- 

listed August 11, 1802; mustered out June 21, 
1805. Carter, William, enlistetl August 11, 
1802; mustered out June 21, 1.S0.5, as corporal. 
Cornprobst. Itavid. enlisted August 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 21, 1865, as sergeant. Coou- 
rod, John IJ., enlisted August 11, 1802; detained 
at muster out of regiment. DeardorfE, David 
W., enlisted August 11, 1802; discharged Janu- 
ary 19, 1803; disability. Dodd, Thomas, en- 
listed August n. 1802; mustered out Juiie 21, 
1.S05. Dodd. Emanuel, enlisted August 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. Dodd, John, en- 
listed .Vugust 11, 1802; mustered out June 21, 
1805. Dodd, John, Jr., enlisted August 11, 1862 ; 
died at Richmond, Va., February 5, 1864. Dress- 
bach, John P., enlisted August 11, 1862; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1865. Dressbach, William 
II., enlisted August 11, 1802; died at Woodson- 
ville, Ky.. February 8, 1863. Duvall, Jacob, 
enlisted August 11, 1802; absent, sick, at mus- 
ter out. Eathertou, Henry II., enlisted August 
11, 1862; transferred to Colvin's Illinois Bat- 
tery July S, 1863. Fowler, James E., enlisted 
August 11, 1802; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Coriis in September, 1863. Foust, George W., 
enlisted August 11, 1802; died at Knoxville, 
Tenn.. AiJril 3, 1804. Hays. Elijah, enlisted 
August 11. 1S(;2; transferred to CWvin's Illinois 
Battery, J.niuary 20, 180;i. Hubbart, Thomas, 
enlisted August 11, 1803; mustered out June 21, 
1.805. Hubbart, Hamilton J., enlisted August 
11, 1.S02; discharged March 19, 1865; disability. 
Hubbart, William C, enlistetl August 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. Hubbart, James 
F.. enlisted August 11. 1802; absent, wounded, 
at muster nut. Hart. James C. enlisted August 
11, 1802; mustered out June 21, 1805, as cor- 
poral. Hall. James M., enlisted August 11, 
18(i-'; died at I^noxville. Tenn., March 20, 1864. 
Hickman, Simon W.. enlisted August 11, 1863; 
sergeant, sick, at muster out. Huston, Henry 
C, enlisted August 11. 1802; transferred to 
Colvin's Illinois Battery. January 26, 1863. 
Hussong. Cornelius C., enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 21. 1805. Hodson. Eli, en- 
listeil August 11, 1,S02; mustered in September 
5. 1S(;2. Hearst. Thomas, enlisted August 11, 
lMi2: discliingcd January 9. 1803; disability. 
IlirUman. (Joorge W.. enlisted August 11, 1862; 
ilicci .It Woodsonville, Ky., February 23, 1803. 
Large. Stephen, enlisted August 11, 1802; ab- 
sent, sick, at nnister out. Merritt, Joseph, en- 
listed August 11. 1,802; discharged April 5, 
1.S05; disability. .Mearing, Thomas J.. enlLsted 



August 11, lSt)2; luu.stereU out June 21. 1805. 
Miles, James V., enlisted August 11, 1S02; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1805. Miles, Jolin S., en- 
listed .Vustist 11, 1802; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Matsler, John, enli.sted August 11, 1802; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 

20, ISO.j. Moore, John S.. enlisted August 11, 
1S02; mustered out June 21, 1805, as corporal. 
Moore. Jacob D.. enlisted August 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 21, 1S65, as corporal. Mar- 
vin. Thomas, enlisted August 11, 1862; ab.seut, 
wounded, at muster out. Mooney. Lawrence, 
enlisted August 11, 1802 ; died at Woodsonville, 
Ky., July 3. 1803. Morgan, Samuel B., enlisted 
August 11, 1S62 ; discharged June 20. 1864 ; disa- 
bility. McKinley, Alexander, enlisted 

11, 1862 ; absent, sick, at muster out. Miles, 
Thomas S., enlisted August 11, 1862 ; mustered 
out June 21,. 1805, as corporal. Xorris, Daniel, 
enlisted August 11. 1802 ; mustered out June 

21, lSO."i. Orrison. Samuel, enlisted August 11, 
1802 ; died at Elizabethtown. Ky., December 

12, 1802. Pifer, Henry, enlisted August 11, 
1802 ; transferred to Colvin's Battery, January 
29, 1803. Payne, John, enlisted August 11, 
1802; mustered out June 21, 1865. Rawlins, 
CHiarles F., enlisted August 11, 1862; died at 
Woodsonville, Ky., in January, 1863. Rhoades, 
John, enlisted August 11, 1802 ; discharged Sep- 
tember .30. 1S63: disability. Smith. .Tames, en- 
li.sted Au.gust 11. 1802; mustered out June 21. 
1865. Sherman. Edmond. enlisted August 11, 
1802 : transferred to Colvin's Illinois Battery, 
July 8. 1803. Stiuson, James W.. enlisted Au- 
gust 11. 1802; mustered out .Tune 21. 18a5. Sim- 
mons, Thomas A., enlisted August 11, 1802 ; died 
at Knoxrille, Tenn., November 22, 1863. Stout, 
Amos, enlisted August 11, 1862 ; iuustere<l out 
June 21. 1865. Sutherland. Kdwin J., enlisted 
August 11, 1862; mustered out .Tune 21, 1805, 
as sergeant. Terwilliger, William, enlisted Au- 
gust n, 1862; discharged September 4, 1863; dis- 
abilit.T. Woolington, Harrison, enlisted August 
11, 1802; mustered out in 1865, as corporal. 
Watson, Jacob, enlisted .Vugust 11, 1802; rnus- 
tered out June 21. 1805. Welsh. Thomas F., en- 
listed August 11, 1802; mustered out June 21, 
1S05, as sergeant. Warner, George, enlisted 
August 11, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1805. 
Williamson, William, enlisted August 11, 1802; 
mustered out June 21, 1805. Wolf. James, en- 
li.sted August 11, 1S02 ; discharged February 24, 
ISOS; disability. 

Company H — First Sergeant Anderson J. 
Williams, enlisted August 11, 18<;2: promoted 
second lieutenant. 

Kidd, .Samuel J., sergeant, enlisted August 
11. 1802; promoted second lieutenant. Linder, 
George W., enlisted August 11, 1802; mustered 
out June 21, 1805. Hays, William, enlisted 
August 13, 1802; mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Wise, Lafayette, enlisted August 14, 1862 ; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1805. Corporals : Parks, 
Joseph B., enlisted August 13. 1862 ; transferred 
to ^'eteran Reserve Corps August 12, 1863. 
Maxey, Peter, enlisted August 13, 1862; absent, 
sick, at muster out. Vedder, Isaac, enlisted 
August 9, 1802 ; died at Bacon Creek. Ky.. May 
1, 1863. Gulliford, Richard, enlisted August 11, 
1862; mustered in September 4, 1862. Davis, 
Henry, enlisted August 14, 1862; died at New 
Albany, Ind., June 8, 1864, as sergeant. Moore, 
George, enlisted August 18, 1802; died at Be- 
ment March 14, 1804. Alexander, Richard H.. 
enlisted August 18, 1802 ; mustered out June 21. 
1S05, as sergeant. Conway, Dempsey M., en- 
listed August 11, 1802 ; mustered out June 21, 
1865. Quick, Ellsberry, musician, enlisted Au- 
gust 8, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Sturm, Lemuel, wagoner, enlisted August 13, 
1862; sergeant; detached at muster out of regi- 

Privates: Ater, Richard, enlisted August 15, 
1862 ; mustered out June 21, 1805. Boss, Enoch 
L., enlisted August 11, 1802; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps November 15, 1863. 
Barker, William, enlisted August 13, 1862; 
transferred to Colvin's Illinois Battery July 7, 
1863. Burch, James, enlisted August 12, 1862; 
mustered out June 21, 1805, as corporal. Bry- 
son, John A., enlisted August 13, 1862; mustered 
out June 21, 1805. Babb, George W., enlisted 
August 13, 1862; tran.sferred to Colvin's Illinois 
Battery July 7, 1803. Clark, William, enlisted 9, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Chadd. John, enlisted August 9, 1802; died at 
Libby Prison February 22, 1804. Clapp, James, 
enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged November 
7, 1S63; disability. Comb, John, enlisted August, 
13. 1.S62; mustered out June 21, 1805. Crane, 
John S.. enlisted .August 13, 1802: absent, 
woundefl. at muster out. Ctollins, Jacob, en- 
listed August 11. 1,802; transferretl to Colvin's 
Illinois Battery .January 27, 1.803. Drake. Cap- 
tain F., enlisted August 9. 1.802; died at;Bement, 
111., .Tanuary 11, LSG-'i. Decker. John S., en- 
listed August 18, 1802; mustered out June 21", 



1865. Eperson. Charles T.. ciilistcil August 22, 
1S62; diseliargoil Septenilier 11, isii2: ilisability. 
E\-«rett, Wilsiiu, onlisteil August 11, 1802; trans- 
ferred to Colvin's Illinois Hatli'iy .January 27, 
1S63. Fay,, enlisted August 13, 18(12; 
mustered in September 4, 1SG2. Fay, Kicliard, 
enlisted August 13, 1S62; mustered in Septem- 
ber 4, 1862. Frazell, Josiab. enlisted August 
13, 1862; mustered in September 4, 18G2. Fitz- 
patrick, Samuel, enlisted August 17. 1SG2 ; trans- 
ferrc<l to Veteran Keservo Corps November 1.5. 
ISO:;. (luUil'ord. William, enlisted August 'J, 
1SG2; mustered in September 4, 1862. Harper, 
John O., enlisted August 12, 1S62 ; mustered in 
September 4, 1862. Harsbbarger, Samuel, en- 
listed August 13, 1862 ; mustered in September 
4, 1862. Hill, Jolin, enlisted August IS, 1862; 
mustered in September 4. 1862. Hines. William, 
enlisted August 15. 1862 ; discharged June 2, 
186:;; disability. Hastings. Thomas, enlisted 
August 11, 1862; mustered out June 21. 1865. 
Jarvis, Levi, enlisted August 13. 1862; dis- 
charged May 1, 18<').''. ; disability. Kidney, Oli- 
ver, enlisted August 11, 1S62; died at Knox- 
ville, Tenn.. February 15, 1864. Long. Nicholas. 
enlisted August 8, 1862; di.seharged February 
0, 1863; disability. Lewis, Erastus, enlisted 
August 18, 1SG2 ; transferred to Company A. 
Lear.v, Dennis, enlisted August IS. 18G2; died 
at Kno.xville, Tenn.. November 15. 1863. Mc- 
Laughlin, James, enlisted August '.). 1S62 ; dis- 
charged January 10. 1863 ; disability. Morgan, 
Richard, enlisted August 9, 1862; died in Piatt 
county, Illinois, June 1, 1865. Martin, Daniel 
L., enlisted August 11, 1862; mustered in Sej)- 
tember 4, 1862. Mossbarger. Peter, enlisted 
August 13, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1S65. 
Moore, Allen, enlisteil August 13. 1862 ; mus- 
tered out June 21, 1865. Moore, Alexander, 
enlisted August 13, 1862; transferred to \'et- 
eran Ileser^^ Corps February 10, 1863. Mitch- 
ell, Thomas J., enlisted August 13. 1862; de- 
tached at muster out of regimetit. McGaffey, 
William, enlisted August 0, 1S(!2; nuistered out 
June 21, 1865, as corporal. Xanghton. Ueuben 
D.. enlisted August !), 1862; mustered out June 
21, 1865. Xcal. .lohu M.. eidisted August 14, 
1862; discharged January :!0, 18(;3 ; disability. 
Quisjel. James, enlisted August 0. 18G2; ilis- 
charged January 14, IStvJ, disability. Quick. 
Isaac, enlisted August 13, 1862; mustered out 
June 21, 1865, as corporal. Quick. Isaiah, en- 
listed August 14, 1862; transferre<l to A>teran 
Reserve Corps November 15, 18ft3. Rubel, Jon- 

athan, enlisted August !). 1862: killed at Nash- 
ville. Tenn.. November 21. 1864. Rose, William, 
enlisted August 11, 1S62; mustered in Septem- 
ber 4. 1862. Randall, Ebeuezer, enlisted August 

12, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1865, as cor- 
jioral. Rowan, Robert, enlisted August 1.3, 
lS(i2; dietl at Woodsonville, Ky., February 10, 
1.SG3. Stashrote, John, enlisted August 8, 18(32; 
nmstered in September 4, 1862. Spangler, 
Marion, enlisted August 0. 1862; mustered out 
June 21, 1865. .Smetters. George, enlisted Au- 
gust 12, 1862; discharged September 0. 1863; 
disability. Shonkwiler, N. B., enlisted August 

13, 1862; mustered out June 21, 186.5. Shonk- 
wiler, J. W., enlisted August 13, 1862; trans- 
ferred to Oolvin"s Illinois Battery, January 27, 
1863. Sanders. Jackson, enlisted August 13, 
1862; dischargwl September 2!t, 1SG3 ; disability. 
Stinebouser. John, enlisted August 13, 1862 ; 
discharged August 1, 18(53; disability. Sorrels, 
Marquis, enlisteil August 11. 1862; died at New 
.Vlbany, Ind., May 14, 1S<54. Trowbridge, Enoch, 
enlisted August 13, 18f)2 ; died at Woodsonville, 
Ky., January 31, 186:j. Terryl, J. N., enlisted 
August 17, 1862; discharged April 1, 1863; dis- 
ability. Willis. Joshua, euflisted August 11, 
1862: mustered out Jime 21, 1865. Wildman, 
Francis M., enlisted August 13, 1862; killed at 
Lost Mountain. June 17. 1864. Wilhelm. Mar- 
tin, enlisted August 13, 1S(!2 ; mustered in Sei)- 
tember 4, 1862. Wilburn, John T., enlisted 
.\ugust 13. 1862 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps November 15, 1863. White, Fountain F., 
enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged Septem- 
ber 17, 1862 ; disability. Wollington, Jacob, en- 
listed August 11, 1862; died at P.ement. HI., 
July 5, 1864. Williams, Clarksou. enlisted Au- 
gust 13, 1862 ; transferred to Company K. Wil- 
lis, William E., enlisted August 11, 1862; died 
at Knoxville, Tenn., March 16, 1864. Recruits: 
Babb. Thomas J., enlisted December 9, 1863; 
disc-liarged December 2, 18(34; wounds. Boles, 
John, enlisted December 11, 1863 ; died at Chat- 
tanooga. June 10. 1864 ; wounds. Bogard, Wil- 
liam E., enlisted December 0. 1863; died at 
Louisville. Ky., December 10, 1864; wounds. 
Kidney, Henry, enlisted December 11, 1863; 
killed at I'^-anklin. Tenn., November 30. 1864. 

Company K — First Sergeant Andrew Hut- 
sinpellar, enlisted August 11. 1862 ; mustered 
out June 21, 1865, as sergeant. Sergeants : 
Jones, (ieorge B.. enlisted .\ugust 11. 1862; mus- 
tered out May 13. 1S65. Higman. Charles L., 
enlisted .\ngtist 11, 1862; transferred to Veteran 

i^cl^ Jj ^^^'^^.^'^ ( 



Reserve Coriis December 1, 1S0:1 Peck. David, 
enlisted August 11, 1802: mustered out June 
21, 1SC.5. Coniorals : Ilodges. Augustus M., 
enlisted August 13, 1862; musteretl out May 13, 
18e.j. Temple, Adam, enlisted August 11, lS(i2; 
mustered out June 21. 1SC.">. Morris, George, 
enlisted August 1, 1802; mustered out June 21, 
1SC5 ; Patterson. Crawford, enlisted August 11. 
1862 ; uuistered out June 21, 1865. McKinney, 
Tbomas X., enlisted 11, 1SG2 ; mustered 
out June 21, 1865. Peck. Peter H., musician, 
enlisted August 11. 1862 ; mustered out June 
21, 1865. Rickets, Alexander, enlisted August 
11, 1862; nuistered out June 21, 1805. 

Privates: .\ter, John, enliste<l August 11, 
1862 : mustered out June 21, 1S65. Brown, 
Marion, enlisted August 11, 1862 ; died at Knox- 
ville. Tenn., December 23, 1863. Cole. Monroe, 
enlisted August 11, 1802 ; mustered out June 21. 
1865. Cornell, Jobn, enlisted August 11, 1862 : 
absent, sick, at muster out. Coon, Franklin, 
enlisted August 11. 1865; died at Jeffersonville, 
July 4, 1864. Drum. Eli. enlisted August 13, 
1862 : mustered out June 21. 1865. Drum, Jacob, 
enlisted August 11, 1802 ; absent, sick, at muster 
out of regiment. Deninon. Theodore F., enlisted 
Au.!,'ust n, 1862; di^cbargeil March 31, 1865: 
disability. Funk. Samuel, enlisted August 11, 
1862 ; mu.stered out June 21, 1865. Flemniing. 
James, enli.sted .\ugust 11, 1862; mustered out 
June 21, 180i5. Grove. Robert C. enlisted Au- 
gust 11, 1802; mustered out June 21. 1865. 
Gale, William IT., enlisted August 11, 1862: mus- 
tered out June 21, 1865. Hallstead. Elliott. 
enlisted August 11. 1862; died near Kenesaw 
Mountain. July 1. 1864. Howell. William, en- 
listed August 11, 1802; discharge<l August 25. 
1863; disability. Heath, Frederick, enlisted 
August n. 1862: mustered out June 21, 1865. 
Hemiiiger, .Vndrew. enlisted .'Vugust 11. 3862; 
nuistered out June 23. 1865. Jones, Shepherd 
H., enlisted August 13. 1802; nuistered out July 
21, 180.5. Linton, Walter, enlisted August 10, 
1862; died at Madison, Ind., April 7, 1804. Mc- 
Kay. Charles S.. enlisted August 31, 1862; mus- 
tere dout June 21, 1865. Morgan, John, enlisted 
August 11, 1862; mustered out June 21, 1.865. 
McCollister, Isaiah, enlisted .Vugust 11, 1802; 
mustered out June 21, 1865. McKay. Thomas, 
enlisted .Vugust 35. 1862: detached at muster 
out of regiment. Peck. Amos, enlisted August 
1.5, 1862; died at Cerro Gordo, January 26, 1865. 
Rhodes, Alexander, enlisted .\ugust 11, 1862; 
mustered out June 23. 1805. Stickel, Valentine 

P.., enlisted 'August 11, 3802; mustered out June 
21, 1865. Sheppard, James, enlisted August 11, 
1862; mustered out June 21, 1S65. WUliams, 
James H., enlisted August 11, 1862; mustered 
out June 21. 186.5. Ward, William C, enlisted 
Augusl 11, 1862; died July 11, 1864: wounds. 
Williams, Joseph, enlisted August 11. 1862 ; 
mustered out June 21, 1865. Unassigned Re- 
cruits: Kidney, Samuel, enlisted December 11, 
1863; transferred to Sixt.y-fifth Illinois Infan- 
try. Randall, George W., enlisted December 0, 
1863; transferred to Sixty-fifth Illinois Infan- 


Company F — Helms, Jacob A., enlisted Au- 
gust 0, 1862; discharged January 8, 1865;. 


Company A — Corporals : Rodgers, William 
M., enlisted August 9, 1862; died at Marietta. 
(Jeorgia, September 20, 1S04 : wounds. Havely, 
Lafa.vette R.. enlisted July 21, 1862; trans- 
ferred to Invalid Corps January 35. 1864. 

Privates : Bouser, Cary T.. enlisted August 
21, 1862; died June 7, 1863; wounds. Caulk, 
.\lbert, enlisted August 0, 1802; died April 0. 
1864. at .\ndersonville Prison. Falconer. Enoch 
McL.. enlisted August 6, 1862; died Milllkeu's 
Beiid. T,a.. April IS. 1863. Fields, John, enlisted 
.Vugust !), 1802 ; mustered out June 7, 1865. 
Jones. George .V., enlisted August 21. 1862: died 
at Ya/.oo Bottom, Miss.. December 31. 1862. 
Recruits: Bailey. James A., enlisted January 

26, 1864 ; died at Larkinsville, Ala., February 

27, 1864. Belzer. .Tames M., enlisted January 
26, 1804; transferred to Company H, Fifty-fifth 
Regiment. Illinois Infantry. Bouser. Tliomas, 
enlisted January 26, 1802 ; transfei'red to same. 
Blythe, Joseph H.. enlisted Jaiuiary 28, 3802: 
transferred to .same. Cla.v, William, enlisted 
J.-inuary 20. 1862; transferred to same. Davis. 
.Vlexander K., enlisted January 4, 3.862; trans- 
ferred to same. Gromley, Aquilla, enlisted Jan- 
uary 26, 1862; transferred to same. Gromley, 
Jiles W., enlisted January 28, 1862 ; transferred 
to same. Lesley. John, enlisted January 26, 
1.S62: died at Rome, Ga., Septemlier 20. 1.S64. 
Lux, Peter, enlisted January 26. 1.862; trans- 
ferred to Company II, Fifty-fiftli Illinois In- 
fantr.v. McKe<>. .Tames W.. enlisted .Tanuary 4, 
38(i4 : transferred to same. Minick. .Tosiah. en- 
listed January 28. 1864; tran.sferred to same. 



Miller, Joseph, enlisted Juuuury 20, ]S(i4 : tnuis- 
ferred to same. Peck, James, enlisted January 
2G, lS^y^ : transferred to same. Stewoard, 
.Toslah D., enlisted January 26, 1804; killed it 
Jonesboro. Ga., August 31, 1S64. Steweard, 
John W.. enlisted January 2C,. 1S(;4: died at 
Marietta, (ia.. .July 18. iSM. 


Company G — Second Lieutenant Willlain II. 
Smith, commissioned February 14, 1865: re- 
signed June 20. 1865. 


Company F: Bowman. Reuben, ranked as 
captain August 24. ISiil ; resigned June 17, 
1SC2. Musser. Melville II., ranke<l as first lieu- 
tenant .Vugust 24. ISGl ; promoted captain June 
17, 1SC2 ; transferred to Company A. Shannon, 
Xeil T.. ranked as second lieutenant August 24, 
1S(>1 ; promoted first lieutenant June 17, 1802 ; 
killed in battle August 30, 1862. Stickel; Isaiah, 
ranked as second lieutenant June 17, 1S62; pro- 
moted first lieutenant August ,".0, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to Company A as consolidated; mustered 
out .Vpril 4, 1860. Leib, Levi H.. ranked as sec- 
ond lieutenant .Vugust MO. 1862; died of wounds. 
Co.\, Jo.seph E.. ranked as second lieutenant 
September 26, 1802: resigned February 28, 1863. 
Wildman, Stephen C., ranked as second lieuten- 
ant February 28, 1803 : honorably discharged 
June 14. 1864. Kirby, John, enlisted July 30. 
1861; re-enlisted as veteran January .". 1864: 
ranked as sergeant June 14, 1864. and trans- 
ferred to Company A as cousolidateil : mustered 
out Xoveml>er 22, 1865. Clark, Warren C. a 
hospital steward, enlisted July .30. ].861 ; pro- 
moted sergeant-major. Inlow, Harrison, enlisted 
July 30, 1861; furloughed July 8, 1862. Skill- 
Ings, Charles II.. enlisted July .30, 1861; tUed 
at Bird's Point, Mo., December 26, 1861, 
Corporals : Weeduian, Thomas S., enli.sted 
July 30, 1801 ; discharged August 11, 1804. as 
quarterniaster-.sergeant. .Madden, Silas W.. en- 
listed July :'.0. 1801 : i-e-eiilisted as veteran 
January .". 18(;4 ; transferred to Company A; 
mustered out .November 22. 1865. Monroe. 
.Tames, eidisted July :}0, 1.861 ; killed at Holly 
Sjn-ing.s. December 20. 1,802. Storey, .\ndrew 
T., enlistcMl July .30. l.SOfl : killed .-it Holly 
Springs. December 20. 1.862. Carney. Koliert. 
enlisted July 3(t, l.'^Ol : re-enlisted as a veteran 
January .".. 1S04; transferred to Company .\ ; 
mustered out July 21. 1.S05. Tinder, Amerlcus 

B.. bugler, enlisted July 30, 1801 ; discharged 
August 14. 1863 ; wounds. Moore, Samuel, en- 
li.sted July 30. 1861; discharged May 8, 1862; 
disability. Wildman. Stephen C. enlisted July 
;iO, 1861 ; promoted second lieutenant. Sted- 
nian. Byron W., wagoner, enlisted July 30, 
1801; re-eullsted as veteran January 5, 1864; 
transferred to (.''ompany .V; mustered out Xo- 
vemlier 22. 1865. 

Privates ; Anderson, James W., enlisted 
July 30, ISOl ; re-enlisted as veteran ; trans- 
ferred to Company A ; mustered out November 
22, 1865, as first sergeant. Bradley, Caleb, 
enlisted July 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran 
January 5, 1804 ; mustered out November 22, 
1865. as sergeant. Bowman, ,Tohn, enlisted July 
30, 1861; di.scharged May 12, 1862. Barnes, 
John M.. enlisted July .30, 1861 ; discharged 
April 24, 1.862. Burns. Robert L., enlisted July 
.30, 1862; discharged April 4. 1.862. Bushee, 
John R.. enlisted July .30. 1861 ; re-enlisted as 
veteran. Batty, Edmoud, enlisted July 30, 1861 ; 
discharged June 14, 1863 ; disability. Dennis, 
Francis, enli.sted July .30, 1861 ; re-enli.sted as 
veteran. Diller. John R., enlisted July .30, ISOl ; 
dii-^charged .Vpril 24. 1803. Doran, Peter, en- 
li.steil July 30, 1801; discharged August 11, 1864; 
term expired. Elerton, Chester, enlisted July 
.30, 1.S61 ; killed at Bolivar. Tenn., August .30. 
1862. Emerson, Albert, enlisted July 30, 1861; 
enlisted as veteran January 5, 1.864; transferred 
to Company A as consolidated; mustered out 
November 22. 1.8(!5. Gilbert. Truman, enlisted 
July .30. l.S(!l : transferred to Company E. Hol- 
iiiigswortb. James H.. enlisted July 30, 1861; 
iliscliarged in Decemlier, 1801 ; disability. Hide, 
William, enlisted .fuly :!0. ISi'.l : re-enlisted as 
vi'ter.'ui January 5. 1,S04; transferred to Com- 
pany A: sii-k :ii muster out of regiment. 
llustuii. Henry, enlisted July 30, 1861; re-en- 
listed as veteran .lanu.iiy 7,. 1,864; transferred 
to C'ompan.v .V ; mustere<l out November 22, 
1805. Iluddleston. Samuel W.. enlisted July 
30, tsoi ; discharged .March 20. 1803: disability. 
Ilubbart. Harrison, enlisted July .30. 1S61 ; re- 
enlisted as \eter.-Mi J.innary 5. 1804; corporal; 
discharged for promotion in Fourth United 
States Colored Cavalry. .V|iril IS. 1,864. Jones, 
Albert, enlisted July :!(i. l.SOl ; killed at Holly 
SiH'ing.s, December 20. 1,802. Knli^it. .Vrad, 
enlisted July 30. 1,801 ; re-enlisted as veteiTin. 
Liitz. Jose|ih, enlisted July .30. 1801 ; re-enlisted 
as veteran January 5. 18i;4 ; transferred to Com- 
pany .\. l.eigh. (ieorge .V.. enliste<l July .30, 



1S61 ; re-enlisted as veteran January 5, 1864; 
mustered out June 24, 18Go, as sergeant. Llu- 
ti)n, John Z., enlisted July 30, 1861 ; discUarged 
May 26, 1862. List, Willi;im R., enlisted July 
30, 1861 ; discharged August 11, 18G4 ; term ex- 
pired. Morris, Jeffrey, enlisted July 30, 1861 ; 
discharged in December. 1801 ; disability. Mil- 
ler, George, enlisted July 30, 1801 ; re-enlisted 
as veteran January 7>, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany A ; mustered out November 22, 1865, as 
sergeant. MePadden, John M., enlisted July 
30, 1861; discharged August 11, 1864; term ex- 
pired. Miles, Edward B., enlisted July 30, 1861 ; 
discharged August 11, 1864. Marton, Frank M., 
enlisted July 30. 1S61 ; re-enlisted as veteran 
January 5. 1864. Moore, George W., enlisted 
July 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran January 
5, 1864; transferred to Company A as consol- 
idated. McComb. Cyrus C, enlisted July 30, 
1861 ; discharged December 10, 1862 ; disability. 
Maranville, Francis M., enlisted July 30, 1861 ; 
discharged August 11, 1864; term expired. Mil- 
llsson, Omer H., enlisted July 30, 1861 ; dis- 
charged August 11. 1864, as sergeant. Pattison, 
Lysander W., enlisted July 30, 18G1 ; promoted 
battalion adjutant. I'ayne. George W., enlisted 
July 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted as veteran ; trans- 
ferred to Company A. Pembertou, Richard H., 
enlisted July 30, 1861 ; mustered in August 12, 
1861. Pifer, Theodore, enlisted July 30, 1861; 
re-enlisted as veteran; transferred to Company 
A; mustered out November 22, 1865, as ser- 
geant. Ryder, Watkins L., enlisted July 30, 
1861; discharged August 11, 1864, as first ser- 
geant. Settle. Abraham, enlisted July 30, 1861 ; 
re-enlisted as veteran January 5, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company A. Sullivan, Benjamin F., 
enlisted July 30. ISGl ; re-enlisted as veteran 
January 5. 1864; transferred to Company A; 
mustered out November 22, 1865. Sparks, 
Samuel J., enlisted .July 30, 1861; discharged 
July 20, 1862; disability. Shumaker. Jeremiah, 
enlisted July ;^n. 1861 : (lisch.irged August 14, 
1803; wounds. Shafer. Peter, enlisted July 30, 
1861 ; discharged August 11, 1864 ; term expired. 
Tuthill. John W., enlisted July .30, 1861 ; re- 
enlisted as veteran January 5, 1864; mustered 
out June 24, 1865, as first sergeant. Weaver, 
George R., enlisted July 30, 1861 ; re-enlisted 
as veteran ; transferred to Company A as con- 
solidated : nuistered out November 22, 1865. 
Watson. Martin W., enlisted July 30. 1861 ; 
killed at Bolivar. Tenn.. August 30, 1862. Work- 
man, Isaac L.. enlisted July .30. 1S(!1 : re-enlisted 

as veteran January 5, 1804 ; transferred to Com- 
pany A. Wimmer, William, enlisted July 30, 
1861; re-enlisted as veteran January 5, 1864; 
transferred to Company A ; mustered out No- 
vember 22, 1865. Webb, Richard, enlisted July 
30, 1861; discharged July 24, 1802. 

Veterans: Alban, John T., enlisted July 5, 
1S65 ; transferred to Company A; mustered out 
November 22, 1865, as sergeant. Donahoe, Hugh, 
enlisted January 5, 1864; mustered out June 11, 
1865. Goodspeed. William, enlisted January 5, 
1864; mustered out June 12, 1865. Jelly. Cor- 
nelius, enlisted January 5, 1864; mustered out 
March 20, 1865. Riley, Patrick, enlisted Jan- 
uary 5, 1864 ; transferred to Company A. Stickel, 
Fletcher A., enlisted January 5, 1864; mustered 
out February 5. 1864. Recruits: Anderson, 
John, enlisted February 12, 1864 ; transferred 
to Company A ; mustered out November 22, 
1865, as sergeant. Arrowsmith, John W., en- 
listed February 29, 1864 ; transferred to Com- 
pany A ; mustered out August 24, 1865. Betts, 
Jonathan, enlisted August 13, 1862; mustered 
out June 11, 1865. Bovvdel, Jesse W., enlisted 
November 21, 1863; transferred to Company A; 
mustered out November 22, 1805. Burns, Wil- 
liam H., enlisted November 21. 1803; trans- 
ferred to Company .V ; mustered out November 
22, 1865. Bailey. William F.. enlisted January 
15, 1864 ; transferred to Company A ; mustered 
out November 22, 1865. Coon, William, enlisted 
November 21, 1863 ; transferred to Company A ; 
mustered out November 4, 1865. Copeland, 
Marion, enlisted January 19, 1864 : transferred 
to Company A ; mustered out November 22, 
1865. Dixon, William, enlisted November 21, 
1863; transferred to Company .V : mustered out 
November 4, 1865. Dearduff, David W.. en- 
listed January 19, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany A ; mustered out November 22, 1865. Dur- 
ham, Samuel, enlisted February 29, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company A. FoUensby. David, died 
at Du Quoin February 8, 1863. Hill, Thomas, 
enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged August 14, 
1863 ; wounds. Huffman. Cyrus S.. enlisted Au- 
gust 13, 1862: discharged February 27, 1863; 
disability. Hall, Robinson, enlisted March 17, 
1864; died at Baton Rouge, September 5, 1804. 
Haney. Robert, enlisted February 14, 1864 ; 
transferred to Company A ; mustered out No- 
vember 22. 1S(J5, as corporal. Hubbart, Jacob 
P.. enlisted February 10, 1804 ; transferred to 
Company A ; mustereil out November 22, 1865. 
Hall. Erastus. enlisted February 8. 1.864; trans- 



f erred to ('omi)any A; mustered out November 
22, 18(15. Joues. Ta.vlor, enli-sted Januar.v 4, 
1864; transferred to ('onii>au.v A; mustered out 
Novemlier 22. 1805. Kious. John, enliste<l Au- 
gust 14. 1S62; died at La Grange, 111., February 
4, 1S(;;!. Kelley, Henry C, enlisted January 5, 
1864: transferred to Company A; mustered out 
November 22, 1865. Lacey, l{en.jamin, enlisted 
January 5, 1864; mustered out June 22, 1S65. 
List. John D.. enlisted Feliruary 9, 1804; died 
at Monticello, 111., February 15, 1S04. Moore, 
Joseph, enlisted August i:!, 1S62 : discharged 
November 15, 1863; disability. Morris, John D., 
enlisted August 19, 1862; died June 27, 1863. 
MeMillian. William, discharged November 21, 

1864. Moore. John, enlisted November 21. 1S63 ; 
tninsferred to Comi)any A ; mustered out No- 
vemlier 4, 1.S65. Moffett, lOdward H., enlisteil 
I'ebiuary 5. 1864; transferred to Company A: 
mustered out November 22. 1865. Musselman. 
Jacob G., enlisted January 25, iSG4; transferred 
to Company A ; mustered out November 22, 

1865. Musselman, Benjamin, enlisted January 
15, 1864 ; transferred to Company A ; mustered 
out November 22. 1865. Alonham, William, en- 
liste<l January 4, 1864: transferred to Company 
.\ ; mustered imt November 22. 1.S05. Nelson. 
James B.. enlisted .January 20. 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company A ; musteretl out September 
25. 1865. Pifer, Cornelius, enlisted August 14. 
IStU: died at Memphis. Tenn., September .30, 
1863. I'erry. Dnvid I'., enlisted November 21, 
1863; killed near .Vlex.mdria. La.. May 1. 1864. 
I'atterson. William I'., enlisted Febniary 19. 
1864; transferred to Comiiany .V: mustered out 
November 22. 186.5. Itobertson. George P.. en- 
listed March 12. 1S64; transferred to Company 
A ; mustered out November 22. 1865. IJobbins, 
John W., enlisted January 15, 1864 ; transferred 
to Company .\. Stein, William H., enlisted 
Mardi 23, 1864; transferred to Company A; 
mustered out November 22. 1865. Six, Daniel 
C. enlisted March 19. 1S(!4; transferred to 
Company A; nnistered out November 22. 1865. 
Six. Dorson, enlisted March 17, 1864; died June 
4, 1864. Swisher. Calvin, enlisted January 19, 
1804; transferred to Company A. Stickel, 
Charles W., enlisted January 15, 18(54; trans- 
ferred to Company A ; mustered out September 
18, 1865. Welsh, David C. enlisted March 23, 
1804: transferred to Comiiany A; musterwl out 
November 22, 1865. Williams. Samuel T.. en- 
listed March 2:!, 18(U: died at Monticello, 111.. 
.Taiuiary IS, 1S65. West, Iliram. enlisted Febru- 

ary 9, 1864; transferred to Company A; mus- 
tered out November 22, 1865. Bolen, John, en- 
listed September 8, 1864 ; transferred to Com- 
pany A. carter, Peter, enlisted September 8, 
1864 ; transferred to Company A ; mustered out 
July 22. 18(55. Field, John, enlisted September 
8, 1864; transferred to Company A; mustered 
out Novemlier 22. 1S(j5. Grant, Charles, enlisted 
Sept«>mber 15. 1864; transferred to Company A; 
mustered out November 22. 1865. 

Company 1 — Veterans : Coffman, Aaron, en- 
listed January 5, 1864; mustered out June 10, 
1865. Nowlin, Elijah B., enlisted January 5, 
1S(J4: nuistered out June 10, 1865. Recruits: 
Blasbell, James W., enlisted August 16, 1862; 
mustered out June 10, 1865. Blasdell, Jacob 
W., enlisted August 16. 1862 ; discharged Janu- 
ary 1. 18(54; promoted. Cro.sby. Lewis, enlisted 
November 17, 1863; killed at Mansfield, La., 
April 8, 1864. Friesuer, Henry C, enlisted 
August 16. 18(52; discharged August 10, 1863; 
disability. Kauffman. E. B., enlisted August 
11. 1862; transferred to Company C. 


(Vimpnny It — Privates: Bell. Joseph, en- 
listed .Vnmist 27, 1861; trau.sferred to Veteran 
Heserve Corps October 1, 1863. Davis. Thomas 
K.. enlisted August 27, 18<51 ; discharged May 12, 
1863; disability. Dowding. John C'.. enlisted 
August 27, 1861 ; died at Helena. Ark., March 

4. 1863. Honnman. James, enlisted August 27, 
1861 : died at Benton Barracks, December 31, 
1S(5;5. Ryce. Daniel, enlisted August 27, 1861 ; 
died at Vicksburg. October 11, 1863. Riggen, 
Wilson, enlisted August 27. 1861 ; died at St. 
Louis. Mo., Febniary 21. 18(53. Riggen, George 
AV.. enlisted .\\igiist 27. 18(51 : died at St. Louis, 
February 21, 1.8(;:!. .Shire. Jeremiah, enlisted 
August 27. 1S61 : died at Helena. Ark.. March 

5, 1863: wounds. 


('(uniiany 1 — Merricks. Alonzo N., private, en- 
listed December 21. 1863: mustered out Novem- 
ber 4. 1865. 


The Tenth Illinois Volunteer Cavalry was 
organized at Camp Butler, 111., November 25, 
1861. and after November 13. 1862, formed a 
part of the .\rmy of the Frontier, operating 
from Springtield, Mo., to Cane Hill, Ark. A por- 
tion of this civalry participated in the battle 


THI HEW lOttfi 




of Prairie Grove, Arl<., Deceiulier 7, 1862. The 
regiment was mustered out of tlie service No- 
vember 22, 1865. at San Antonio, Tex., and 
ordered to Springfield, 111., for final paynioiit 
and discharge. 

Company A — Samuels, David A., corporal, 
enlisted September 21, 18G1 ; re-enlisted as vet- 
eran. Halderman. Samuel N.. farrier, enlisted 
September 21. ISCl ; discharged October 24, 
1863 ; disability. Wolf, Emerson, wagoner, en- 
listed September 21. 1861; discharged May 20, 

Privates : Conner, Edward, enlisted Septem- 
ber 21, 1861 ; died at Springfield. Ho., July 15, 
1862. Coneen, Michael, enlisted September 21, 
1861; re-enli.sted as veteran. Connelly, John, 
enlisted September 21. 1861 ; died at Rapp's 
Landing. Arlc. September 20. ],S62. Hardman, 
Patrick, enlisted September 21. 1861 ; died at 
Ctoldwater, Miss., December 8, 18G2. Kofler, 

vember 22, lS6.j, as corporal. JIaddeu, James 
N., enlisted September 21, 1861 ; mustered out 
December 30, 1864. Madden, Francis M., en- 
listed September 21, 1861 ; mustered out Decem- 
licr 30, 1S64 ; as bugler. Recruit ; Barber, 
Charles W., enlisted August IS, 1802 ; discharged 
March 30, 1803; disability. 


Company L — ^Ivey, Peter, private, enlisted 
August 6, 1S63 ; was prisoner ; absent at muster 


Battery K (Colvin's Battery) : Babcock, Elias, 
enlisted August 11, 1802 ; mustered out June 
10, 186.1. Barker, ^^■i!liam, enlisted August 15, 
1S(!2; mustered out June 10, IMlo. Babb, George 
M.. enlisted August 13, 1861 ; mustered out 
June 10, 1865. Collins, Jacob, enlisted August 
Joseph, enlisted September 21, 1801; re-enltSfe'd" "-i*l'^"l«|lj Wtfgtered out June 10, 1865. Etherton, 
as veteran, January 3. 1864. Lynn, John;''!'; ', '^i*i97*.wT,. eiijisted August 13, 1801; mustered 
enlisted September 21. 1801: died at OUit<iw'iir SLfit vituite' I'O, 1865, as firs-t .sergeant. Everett, 
Landing, Ark.. September 0. 1802. Millar. John Wilsoii Y., eulisted August 11, 1801 ; mustered 
G., enlisted September 21. 1861; re-enli.sted 1i?''.<»'t',Mi\,y 25, 186.5. Ellis. John K.. enlisted Au- 
veternn January 3. 1864. Rodgers. Joseph^ em gu*it»l-4»" .1861- ;' died near Knoxvllle. Tenn., Jauu- 
listed September 21. 1801 ; mustered out Decern- !ii\v 28. 1804. Hays. Elijah, enlisted August 11, 

her .30, 1864. Sindle, Thomas J., enlisted Se])- 
temlier 21, 1,%1; diwl at Little Rock. Ark., Sep- 
tember 16, 1863. Veterans: Coneen, Michael, 
enlisted .January 3, 1864; transferred to Com- 
pany A : mustered out November 22, 1805. as 
corporal. O'Brien, John, enlisted January 3, 
1804; transferred to Con]]iany .\ : mustered out 
November 22. ISO.'i. Samuel, David A., farrier, 
enlisted January 3. 1804: transferred to Com- 

isoi ; mustered out June 19, 1865, as corporal. 
Miller. Jacob, enlisted August 13, 1801 ; mus- 
tered out June 19, 1865, as corporal. Nassal- 
rnd, .Jesse, enlisted August 13. 1861 : mustered 
out June 19, 1865, as corporal. Mitchell, Nel- 
son, enlisted August 13. 1801 ; mustered out June 
10. 1865. Plfer. Henry, enlisted August 11, 
ISiil ; nuistered out June 10. 1865. Rowlen, 
Leonard, enlisted August 13, 1801; mustered 

pany A: absent, sick, at muster out of regiment. ""t June 19, 1805, as artificer. Rowlen, Henry, 

Recruits : Bru.shwiler. Hanson, enlisted Janu- 
aiy 17, 1862; discharged April 13, 1803; disa- 
bilit.v. Green. Gilbert, enlisted January 2. 1864; 
transferred to Company A : mustered out No- 
vember 22. 180.5. Wilkins. Lewelin, enlisted 

enlisted August 13, 1861 ; mustered out June 19, 
1865. Shonkwiler, Jacob W., enlisted August 
13, ISO! ; mustered out June 19, 1805, as cor- 
poral. Smith. Alexander, enlistetl August 13, 
1861 ; dischargwl October 20, 1864. Sherman, 

December 31. 1863; transferred to Company A: John, enlisted August 11, 1861; died at Monti- 

mustered out November 22. 1865. 

Company L — S'v\artz. Jacob, corporal : en- 
listed September 21. 1801 ; re-enlisted as veteran 
.January 3, 1864; mustered out November 22, 
1865, as corporal. Irwin, John, farrier, enlisted 
September 21, 1861 ; discharged June 17, 1802 ; 
disabilit.v. Privates: Cole, William H.. en- 
listed September 21, 1861 ; died at Camp Bloom- 
ington. Mo.. February 18, 1802. Graham, 
Thomas, enlisted September 21, 1861; re-enlisted 

cello. 111.. November 0, 1S04. Sherman. Edmund, 
enlisted August 11, 1801 ; mustered out May 25, 



While the limited number of soldiers called 
for in the Spanish-American War left it un- 
necessary for Piatt County to supply anything 
like the i)roportion of soldiers which it gave 
to the Civil War. still when the call came the 

as veteran January 3. 1864; musterwl out No- county responded and its men deported them- 



selves ill :i iiwiniu'i- that demonstnited that the 
fightiiij; (|iialitii's of their fatliers weie uot laclc- 
ing in the sons. 


Mr. .\. T. Isnijlanil. .i wealthy resident of 
Xlonticelld. wIki was a member of the Second 
Illinois C'avah-.v in tile Civil War, offered to 
erect in 1!)12 a iiionunient in Courthouse Square 
to cost not less tlian .$10,n(X), but the board of 
supervisors decided that there was no suitable 
place in the courthouse .vard to put it and no 
other suitalile site has been found. The erec- 
tion of the nioiiunieiit was tlierefore abandone<l 
by Mr. linsland. 


The (Jrand .\niiy of the Republic, that highly 
and justly honored organization of old heroes 
of the Civil War. had its inception in Illinois, 
its founder being Dr. Benjamin Franklin Steph- 
enson, who had served bravely and helpfully 
as a surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try. In the work of organization he was as- 
sisted by the Rev. W. .1. Rutlcdge, a Methodist 
clergyman who had served as a chaplain of the 
same regiment, and with whom, even before the 
close of the war. Doctor Stephenson had dis- 
cussed plans for a brotherhood of the survivors 
of the struggle. .Vftor the close of their military 
service. Doctor Stephenson and Reverend Rut- 
ledge, with other veterans, jirepared a ritual for 
the pi-oposed organization, and for this paper 
two printers of Decatur, 111.. Isaac Coltrin and 
Joseph Prior, who had served in the Union 
army, were employed to set the tyiie. 


The first post of the (Jraiid Army of the Re- 
public was organized by Doctor Stephenson, 
assisted by Capt. .John S. Phelps, at Decatur, 
111., April (;, l.SCO. this lieing the fourth anni- 
versary of the first day's bloody encounter on 
the field of Shiloh. There were twelve charter 
members, the last survivor of whom was Chris- 
tian Reibsame, of Bloomington, whose death oc- 
curre<l in 1914. Doctor Stephenson held the 
position of provisional department commander, 
and in that «ipaeity issued a call for a general 
convention to be lield at Springfield. III.. .Tune 
20, l.SCC. and at that time a state organization 
was effected, with Gen. .John M. Palmer in the 
office of commander-in-chief. 

.Vs a national organization, the Grand Army 

of the Reimblic held its first enwimpinent at 
Indianapolis. Ind., Xovember 20, ISOi;. pursuant 
to tlie call of Doctor Stephenson. There (Jen. 
Stephen A. Hurlbut. of Belvidere, 111., was 
elected first commander-in-chief. It is of inter- 
est to note that at the .second encampment, held 
at Philadeljihia, Pa.. January 15, ISOS, another 
of Illinois' distinguished sons. Gen. Johu A. 
Logan, was chosen to lead the organization. 

It is but natural that a county which has al- 
ways shown itself so patriotic as has Piatt 
.should have taken a deep interest in the work 
and movements of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. Posts were organized at Atwood. Be- 
ment, Cerro Gordo, La Place, Mansfield and 
Monticello. The years have taken their toll 
of the Union soldiers, over fifty thousand hav- 
ing passed away in 1916. This' explains why 
the Grand Army of the Republic posts have 
been discontinued at many iwints, there not be- 
ing enough old soldiers left to maintain an 

On February 20, 1S&3, Barker Post Xo. 189, 
Department of Illinois, of Atwood, 111., was 
organized with the following named officers: 

Edward Anderson, commander ; Joseph W. 
Merritt, .senior vice commander ; L. C. Taylor, 
junior vice commander; Peter Mosbarger. adju- 
tant: Whit Iteed. quartermaster; F. M. ICirby, 
chaplain; W. T. Sniitson. surgeon; .\. C. Bishop, 
sergeant-major; Richard MeCombs, ([uarter- 
ma.ster sergeant; John Linton, officer of guard; 
M. (1. Drake, officer of day. 

The.v were installed by C. H. Ki'plcr. of De- 
catur, 111. 

The present organization is as follows : 

Joseph W. Merritt. commander : John S. 
Crain. senior vice commander; A. C. Bishop, 
junior vice coniniander; John IL Easton, adju- 
tant; James Reeder. chaplain; Stephen Duke- 
m.ui, quartermaster; John T. Quick, officer of 
the day ; Joshua Gosnell, officer of the guard ; 
John Hook. sergeant-ma.ior ; John R. Shelton, 
quartermaster sergeant; J. F. Graham, guard. 

Of the original organization only three are 
living: Joseph W. Merritt. .\. C. Bishop and 
F. M. Kirby. 


Cerro Gordo Post No. 219 was organized 
March 27. 188.3, with Alva Shively as first com- 
mander. The full roster was as follows; 



C. A. Shively, Edward Shasteen, S. L. Kerns, 
William Lyons, Benjamin Middleton, Andrew 
Heminser, J. H. Bentley, John Hefkler, Daniel 
Ziun, T. J. Winimer, J. H. Moyer, William Hick- 
man, Joseph Blythe, T. N. MelCinney, L. C. 
Shasteen, V. B. Clifton, C. U. Patten, John 
Fields, A. M. Cole, Joseph Miller, Tliomas Long, 
Joseph Cash, Milton Billinss. W. 11. Edie, M. C. 
Hatfield, Frederick Born, Jacob Peck, S. C. 
McKay, H. C. Laugliman. John Dawson, George 
Peck, .L G. Quinn, W. H. Bowdle, J. C. Booker, 
Dexter Wynegan, Josiah Bell, N. L. Hurtt. 

This post has had a niemliership of sixty-two, 
but has now a niembershi]) of only twenty-five. 
John Fields, the present commander, is aged 
eighty-six years. 

The post at La Place was dnly organized and 
served its purpose, but has been discontinued 
for several years. 


The charter for General John L. Mansfield 
Post No. 357, Department of Illinois, G. A. R., 
was issued by Samuel A. Harper, department 
commander: J. L. Bennett, assistant adjutant 
general, Flmwood, 111.. October 10, l,S8.i, with 
these charter members : 

James Trussler, Levi Goodell, Joseph Welch, 
Thomas Jess. George W. Davis, Thomas B. 
Stueker, Jacob E. Hyre, Wm. H. H. McCall, 
John D. Pike. John M. G. Brown, Charles Jess, 
James McDowell, Charles W. Snell. Ira McKee, 
Charles Afger, Jlinor Grooms. Thomas M. Lit- 
tleton, William Znniwalt, Edwin L. Drake. 

Post No. .3.57. Department of Illinois, G. A. R., 
was organized November 7, 1SS3. Following are 
the names of the ofiicers elec-ted : 

Thomas Jess, commander; Levi Goodell, sen- 
ior vice cominiander ; James Trussler, junior 
vice commander; Thos. M. Littleton, quarter- 
master ; Chas. W. Snell, adjutant ; Charles 
Apgai', chaplain ; Wm. H. II. McCall. oflicer of 
the day ; James McDowell, quartermaster ser- 
geant; Charles Jess, sergeant-major; John M. 
C. Bron-n, oflicer of the guard. The last officers 
elected were : 

Wm. Clemans. commander ; N. Patterson, ad- 
jutant ; M, J. Van Note, chaplain ; .lesse Nash, 
quartermaster; Wm. H. H. McCall. officer of 
the day; Daniel Reed, officer of the guard. 

From to last this post has had a member- 
ship of sixty-seven. At time of writing. Janu- 
ary, 1917, there are nine ex-Union soldiers re- 
siding in and around Mansfield and one charter 

member of the post is found in William H. H. 
McCall, who lives In Mansfield. The members 
no longer meet as a post, but the survivors re- 
tain their charter and pay their per capita tax. 
These old soldiers range in age from seventy to 
eighty-seven years. The last elected adjutant- 
general, N. Patterson, to whom we are indebted 
for post history, is in his seventy-ninth year. 
He was born in Ohio, October 7, 1838, and 
.served in the Union army in the Civil War as a 
member of Company D, Thirty-second Ohio In- 
fantry, from 1861 to 1805. 


Franklin Post No. 2.j<;, Grand Army of the 
Republic, has had the following names on its 
honorable roll : A. B. Fender, D. W. Deardurff, 
R. J. Tatman. M. Haygard, W. R. Hyde, R. K. 
Meredith, J, .V. Brown, Joshua Tatman. J. E. 
Evans. W. H. McMillen, Daniel Norris, Paphyrus 
B. Keys, George R. Dawson, W. II. Plunk, J. T. 
Vangundy, \. F. Morrison, W. E. Smith, S. A. 
Ilubbill, E. P. Fowler. T. C. Hodge, Joseph Piper, 
William G. Jones, George Rhoades, A. II. Wilde- 
man, George R. Weaver, Charles Mallatt, Elam 
W. Bruffitt, Thomas White, James B. Davis, 
.Vndrew F. Davis, Da\id Burffitt, Joseph Blacker, 
John Bowman, R. W. Bowman, George R. Riuck- 
ard, George E. Woolington, Shepherd Jones, Ezra 
Marquiss, Jr., Jacob Bush. J, B. Walsh, Henry 
H. Laird, L. G. T. Ellis, L. C. McMillen, B, F. 
Siegfried, Oliver Montgomery, James Brown, 
David Hainline. William B. Baird, Henry Wool- 
ington. Chester P. Davis, W. H. Barnes. Daniel 













Tbe crudest savage seeks to preserve his 
health, safeguaixl his well being and guard off 
death. These instincts seem to be imbedded in 
every human being, and to have existed from 
the lieginning of recorded history. No peoples 
of any age have been without their physicians 
of some kuid, men who are above their associates 
in mental endowments and knowledge. If this 
be true of savage or semi-civilized nations, how- 
much more is it true of those who have advanced 
sufficiently to appreciate the necessity for the 
sen-ices of the medical men. and to appreciate 
their knowledge and skill. 


Ill the pioneer days of I'iatt County this sec- 
tion was forced to depend upon the ministra- 
tions of some of tlie good housewives, who were 
really untrained members of the noblest of pro- 
fessions, or to send far away to some physician 
in a more deiLsely settlwl part of the state. It 
was not until lS:iN that the county had a per- 
manent physician, when Dr. Buriill loc-ated 
within its confines and beg:in his labor of serv- 
ice to those afflicted. IJr. King located in 
Macon County in 1S39 but his practice extemied 
over a large piirt of what is now- Piatt County. 
Dr. llillis followed soon afterwaixl, and In 1841 
Dr. Hull, one of the best beloved of the county's 
earlier physicians, came hero. In 1845 Dr. C. It. 
Ward !o«ited at Monticello and built up the 
largest pi-actice liitherto enjoyed by any physi- 
cian of the county. Me in practice until 
his death, April 22, 1S81. 

Dr. Coffin came to Monticello in 1847; Dr 
Xoecker in 18r,.S; Dr. Knott in 1855, and Dr. 
Coleman in 1S60. Dr. Wheeler came to Monti- 
cello prior to ]85t;. Dr. Mitchell, who later went 
to Bement. came to Lake Fork in IS.'ia and was 
the firet physician at Mackville. Dr. I'rosser 
settled at Cerro Gordo before 18G0. Dr. T:iylor 
was at Bement before ISfiO. as was Dr. .7. II. 
Leal. Some otlier prominent early physicians 
were: Dr. Ruth. Dr. Ruby and Dr. Vance of 
Bement, and Dr. Smitson and Dr. Marshall of 


Quoting from Miss Piatfs interesting history 
of the county, the following gives an excellent 
idea of the hardships of the pioneer physician, 
which she doubtless heard from the lips of some 

of the brave and self-sacrificing men who had 
endured them : 

•The pioneer physicians of the county had 
trials that) those of a later date know nothing 
of. It was a frequent occurrence for them to 
be c-alled to see a patient twenty or thirty miles 
distant. And oftentimes it was not the distance 
that was to be dreaded. The ride would often 
have to be made on a dark night, along muddy 
roads, andl through swamps and ponds. Some- 
times the horse would have to swim streiims. 
while the rider on his knees on the saddle held 
his medicine case or rlie liridle reins in his 

"We heard a good joke told not long since rela- 
tive to a physician of a neighboring county. He 
was called to a see a patient who lived on the 
Sangamon, and accordingly, after bidding his 
wife giXKlbye, he started in the dark to ride 
across the prairie. After riding a long time he 
came to a house. lie alighted, knocked, at the 
dor)r, to hear the ipiestion. -Who's there?' He 
answered by asking the way to the house of the 
liatient he started to see. What was his aston- 
ishment to hear instead of the requested dire<-- 
tions, a lady's voice questioning : 'Why William, 
is that you?' and the worthy physician found 
that he had alighted at his own door, and was 
talking to his own wife." 

Since those early days conditions have 
changed very materially. The miMlern physician 
is better fitted by study, training and equipment 
to follow his profession, and he is given oppor- 
tunities through medical societies and journals 
of keeping abreast of the times. The members 
of the medical profession in Piatt County have 
not neglected their opportunities, and are num- 
bered among the most alert, skilled and capable 
physicians and surgeons of the state. They are 
fre<iuently called into consultation, and some 
of them enjoy more than local reputation 
through their papers i)ublished in the medical 
journals or read at meetinsrs of the societies 
connected with their iirofession. 


Tho. leading physicians and surgeons of Piatt 
County are as follows: Monticello: B. L. 
Barker, C. M. Bumstead. W. B. Caldwell, J. M. 
Holmes, W. G. AIcDeed and J. D. Knott, and 
also Dr. C. C. Cline, osteopath. Bement: W. G. 
McPherson. A. L. Trabue. Albert Field. S. C. 
Vance. Mansfield: .T. V. Champion, E. Y. 
Young. DeLand: G. S. Walker. J. F. Barton. 



Cisco: B. L. Groves. Hammond: .1. H. Mc- 
Nutt, O. D. Xoe aud Dr. Lewis. White Heath : 
W. N. Sievers. 


The Piatt County Medical Society was organ- 
ized in 1904 with the following officials: Dr. 
X. N. Vance of Bement, president; Dr. C. M. 
Bumstead, vice president ; and Dr. B. L. Barker, 

Its present officers are as follows : Dr. B. L. 
Barker, president; Dr. J. G. Ume, vice presi- 
dent; Dr. W. G. McDeed, secretary. 

This society holds meetings quarterly, where 
papers are read and general discussions follow. 












In these days when the power of the press is 
so generally recognized, wlien through the 
pages of the journals evils are exiiosed and 
reforms are advocated that many times are car- 
ried out to a .successful termination thereby, it 
is difficult to conceive a time, or recognize Ihe 
limitations of a period when there were no news- 
papers in Piatt and other counties in the state. 
To be sure outside papers were sent to the resi- 
dents from other .sections, either fi-om one or 
the other of the great cities, or from a former 
place of residence, so the jieople were kept in- 
formed of the doings of the outside world, yet 

it was not until ISoti that Piatt County had a 
paper of its own. 


James D. Moody was the first editor of the 
first newspaper of Piatt County, the first copy 
of which was issued in November of 1850 aud 
called The Monticello Times. Mr. Moudy con- 
tinued the editor aud proprietor for a short 
time and then disposed of his interests to J. C. 
Johnson, who continued to issue the paper under 
its original name for a time, but later .sold it to 
James Outten, and he continued the paper under 
this same name until he took a Mr. Has.sett Into 
partnership, when the name was changed to that 
of The Sucker State. Subsequently Gilliland 
and Tritt bought out Outten and Hassett, and 
were issuing the paper in 1859. About that time 
the paper was sold to Thomas Milllgan, who 
changed the name to The Conservative and 
■'edited it until 1802, when he sold it to W. E. 
■ I-odge; who continued the owner until 1804, 
during a portion of that period baving J. M. 
Holmes assisting him. Mr. Lodge sold the i)aper 
to.'N. E. Rhoades aud it was continued under 
the auspices of the Union League, Mit. A. Bates 
being its editor during the presidential campaign 
of 1S04, when the paiier was issued under the 
name of The Piatt County Union. The next 
change was made when James M. Holmes be- 
came the owner and again tlie name was changed 
to The Piatt Independent, aud was Issued first 
as such November 23, 1865. After seven years, 
Mr. Holmes changed the name to The I'iatt Re- 
publican, and three years later sold It to H. B. 
Funk. In ISTC) the paper received still another 
name, it then being imblished as The Monticello 
Bulletin. Mr. Funk sold it to Mise and Wagner, 
the firm later becoming Jlise Bros., but in 1882 
Mr. Funk bought the paper liack again. It still 
later passed into the hands of W. E. Krebs, who 
was a very forceful writer, and one long to be 
remembered for his work. Mr. Krebs was suc- 
ceeded by Evan Stevenson, who, after a .year, 
sold it to C. E. Gauiner, aud he In turn dlsjiosed 
of it to H. W. Buckle. The present owners are 
Mrs. Bettie D. Kelley and Richard Whitehead. 
The Bulletin is Democratic in politics and de- 
voted to iiromoting the interests of Piatt County. 


The exact date of the founding of The Piatt 
County Herald is not known, but when II. D. 
Peters came to Monticello in 1874 it was being 



issued by Scroggs mid Peters, aud he soon 
became its sole owner and etlitor and was con- 
nected with it lor many years, it later being 
merged with tlie Independent in lS'.r2, the latter 
Ijaper having been founded in 1S87 by O. A. 
Burgess, who bought the Herald and issued it 
under the name of The Piatt County Kepublican. 
It is now owned by the Republican Printing 
Company, which was incorporated under the 
laws of Illinois May loth, 1S90, with a capital 
stock of !i;io,UU(i. Its present manager is J. C. 
Tippett, ex-circuit clerk and ex-mayor of Mou- 
ticello. It is Hepul)llcan in politics and devote<l 
to advancing the interests of Piatt County. 


In AprU, 1S9G, The Piatt County Pilot came 
into existence, being established by L. .S. Kil- 
born and Son. The succeeding November a stock 
company was incorpoi-atod under the name of 
the Piatt County Pilot Company, and C. H. Kil- 
born was made editor and manager. The paper 
was the property of the stock company until 
1900, when it was bought by L. S. Kilborn and 
Son. In April, 1908, L. S. Kilborn & Sou sold 
the Pilot to the Republican Printing Company. 


Bement was the home of The Bement Union, 
established in April, 18G0, by James Shoaff, of 
Decatur, and Mr. Outten, of Monticello. The 
jounial was a small one, brought out under 
disadvantages, in the warehouse of Freese & 
Company. Owing to the enlistment of Mr. 
Shoaff for service during the Civil War, April 
18, 18G1, Mr. Sanehes became editor and pub- 
lisher, but within n few montlis, the pa|ier was 

Till': F.\U.\ll;liS .\1)V0CATK. 

The next paiier owned lay Bement was The 
Farmers Advocate, issued by John Smith, John 
S. Harper and Mit Bates. The Bement Register 
was another early paper, founded by J. H. 
Jacobs, who was succeeded by a Mr. ("onnor. 
The Independent and the Bement Gazette were 
two otlier very early pajiers. .T. I. (^liiNoii 
start(Hl the Bcinciit Oazette, hut later sold it to 
Eli Drum. 


Many years ago Cerro Gordo had a paper 
known as The Cerro Gordo Times, which was 

eilited by J. II. Jacobs, but it was discontinued 
after a short existence. 

Other papere in the couuty are as follows : 
The Bement Kegistei', edited by Roy A. Dane; 
The ("erro Gordo News, editetl by E. T. Gossett ; 
The DeLand Tribune, edited by J. S. MuriJiy & 
Son ; The Mansfield Expres.s, edited by J. W. 
Hilligoss ; The Atwood Herald, edited by Harry 
Gilpin ; The Cisco Review, edited by A. B. Glenn ; 
The Hammond Courier, edited by E. B. Leavitt. 


Too much cannot be said relative to the sin- 
cerity, progressiveness and alertness of the 
present editors and their assistants now engaged 
in conducting the journals of Piatt County. To 
one who has never had any of the responsibili- 
ties of editorial work, these duties may not 
appear so onerous, but to one who understiinds 
and appreciates them, their weight and value 
are appreciable. The editor of a li\'e newspaper 
is tlie educator of his readers, the source from 
whence comes their conception of public policies, 
and the one who shapes in no small degree the 
moral standing of the community. When all 
this is taken into consideration, there is little 
wonder that the newspaper men of any count}' 
stand among the leading and responsible citi- 
zens, and that their advice and influence are 
sought by those desiring to achieve success along 
any line of work that requires the sanction of 
the majority. 











'-. • ■■■/• 






*^i^« . ^_ 





















It is a matter of pride in Tlatt County tliat 
its scliools rank among the best of their gi-aUe in 
the state, a stand well taken by the people who 
recognize that the public schools are vital fac- 
tors in tlie upbuilding of the nation. No country 
can substantially advance without good schools, 
for in them the plastic minds of youtli are 
moulded and opportunity for development of 
individuality is afforded. The people of Piatt 
County are to be commended for the special 
attention they have given to their schools, estab- 
lishing them early and advancing from primitive 
conditions to a position that reflects credit upon 
the county and state. 

During the early days of Piatt County, the 
schools were conducted upon the subscription 
plan. A teacher, sometimes a young man who 
was studying for the ministry, the law or for the 
medical profession, would go around among the 
parents, and secure the i)roniise of a certain 
amount for each cbild of school age. AMien 
enough promises had been secured, the teacher 
would open up his school, oftentimes in his own 
cabin, or that of a neighlx>r who. longing to 
secure advantages for his own children, was 
willing to put up with the annoyance of lending 
his own home for school puri)Oses. Again, the 
neighbors banded together, each promising a 
definite amount, and a teacher was secured. In 
either case the school was founded ujwn sub- 

scriptions. Not only was money scarc-e in these 
early days, but in some cases it was almost an 
unknown quantity, so the pioneer teacher often 
received his remuneration in produce. An old 
settler of Piatt County laughiugiy tells of the 
number of weeks he attended one of these primi- 
tive schools for a calf his father gave in return 
for the knowledge imjiarted to him. 

As soon as possible after settlement, a little 
cabin was erected by neighbors in various sec- 
tions, the material and work being usually gladly 
contributed by parents who were anxious to 
secure for their offspring proper educational 
advantages. These little cabins generally served 
various purposes. During the week days, in 
them were gathered the children seeking to learn 
of this world's knowledge; on Sunday, whenever 
a clei^yman could be secured, their parents 
gathered with them to learn of the promises of 
aiBotlier woild. The cburch-schoolhouse at times 
«Iso' ;w«s;jpsed as a ix)lling place, and now and 
then "tol*' political discussions, so that these 
cabins were, in fact, the cradle of the county's 


The pioneer schoolhouse has been described 
SO often as to be as well known to the present 
generation of readers as it was to those who 
attended school in it, but a few words relative 
to it may not come amiss here. While these 
little cabins were crude, so were those in which 
the pioneers lived. Every frontier community 
has faced the necessity of roughing it until 
civilization brings in its train the luxuries of 
life. Far away from mills, the pioneers had to 
cut and hew out their logs for the buildings to 
keep them from tlie weather, and used mud and 
sticks to fill up the crevices. They had no great 
school furniture establishments to fill orders for 
desks and seats, so chopped out makeshifts for 
themselves. A slab with pegs for legs did for a 
seat. Larger slabs, fastened against the wall, 
served for writing desks. The floor was made 
of what were called puncheons, and the one 
room was heated by a great fire))lace made of 
stones, mud and sticks, which, while it accom- 
modated large logs, sent so much of the heat up 
the chimney that it was, perhaps, just as well 
that there were not too many windows and 
doors, or the poor pupils might have eongealetl 
during those cold winter months, when they 
studioNl their .scraps of books, eagerly absorbing 
all the knowledge their untrained teacher, often- 



times younger than themselves, had to impart. 

Judging from the standard raised by our mod- 
ern inibllc schools, these pioneer schools appear 
almost impossible, and until due thought is given 
the nii^tter, it would seem that they imparted 
little information, but, out of them came the 
real, upbuilding men of the country. In those 
ti-ny cabins the men who have made this country 
what it is today, gained their first acquaintance 
with books, and had awakened in them a thirst 
for knowledge that impelled them ever forward 
until they themselves brought into existence the 
tinest school system the world'knows. The earn- 
est purpose to learn and profit was there, and- 
the crude facilities and poorly equipiJed in- 
structors could not dampen the enthusiasm or 
retard the progress. 

A history of the development in the schools 
of Piatt County is best given by reviewing the 
work accomplished In each township. 


James Outen taught the first .school in Monti- 
<-ello Townsliip, in a cabin that stood west of 
the city of Monticello, in tlie vicinity of the 
river. The first school In the city proper v\'as 
taught by George A. Patterson in the courthouse, 
and to it went many whose names have be- 
come household words in the county. An early 
sehoolliouse was known as the old brick school- 
house, and was erected in the southern end of 
the town in 18,">7-8, with Isaiah Stickle as the 
first teacher. Improvements were made In this 
Iniilding In 1S(J9, but in 1903 it was torn down. 

When the time came that the people of Mon- 
ticello decided to erect a suitable building that 
would house the school children, with a gener- 
osity characteristic of those times, A. J. Wiley 
not only donated the land, located a block south 
of the square next to the Presbyterian Church 
lot, but helped his neighbors to build the school- 

A .spacious ten-room schoolhouse ^vas built in 
1894, at a cost of il!22.ono, heated by steam and 
Iirovided with water. A fine library was pro- 
vided, and the grounds were beautified. The 
high school course was establi.shed, which em- 
braces the following studies, divided into four 
years : 

First Year. 




(ireek History, 

Roman History, 
Manual Training. 


Plain Geometry, 
Latin (Owsar), 
Med. History, 


I-atia (Cicero), 
English History, 

Second Year. 

Modem History, 
Manual Training. 

Third Year. 

Solid (ieonietry, 

Fourth Year. 


Com. Arithmetic. 

American History, 


Com. Geography, 

Some of the educators who have been asso- 
ciated with this school are as follows : John 
P. Mcintosh, P. T. Nichols, G. A. Burgess, F. V. 
Dilatush. J. II. Martin. Mary Reed, Joseph Gale, 
W. R. Humphrey, W. H. Skinner, W. C. Hobson, 
E. A. Fritter, J. H. Meneely, A. W. Gross and 
B. D. Reniy. 

Some idea of the advance made can be gained 
from the following figures : In 1900 the entire 
school iiroperty of Monticello was valued at 
$30,000, and the attendance was 500 pupils. In 
191.J the valuation was .$T.5,<KI0. while the nuni- 
ler of pupils enrolled was .50.^). The following 
schools outside the city are in Monticello Town- 
ship: Strlngtown. Dighton. Prairie Chapel, 
Ridge, Hanellne, Independent. New York, Cas- 
ner, Ander.son and Dublin. 


In 1S5G Henry C. Booth opened the first 
school In Bement Township, the school term 
being three months out of the year, for which 
he received a compensation of $120 for the entire 

It was not until 1S.")9 that a schoolhouse was 
built, the schools prior to that being held In 
rented buildings. As was .so usual in early times, 
the ground was given, L. B. Wing and William 
Rea being the donators. This school had two 
rooms, and In ISCt; four more rooms were added. 
A still further addition was made of two rooms 
in ISSfi, and four more In 1892, making in all 
twelve rooms. This schoolhouse had a steam 
plant that was put In In 1884. Damages were 
sustained through lightning in 1898, which were 



reijaired, but in April, 1899, tlie building was 
destroyed by flro. A new building was erected 
in 1900, at a cost of |27,000. The building is 
now valued at $33,000, and there is an attend- 
ance of -150 pupils. Some of the educators who 
have been associated with this school are as 
follows : 

H. E. Coffeen, S. K. Boduian, J. W. Richards, 
C D. Moore, J. B. Lovell, A. S. Norris, J. A. 
Hilman, J. R. Johnson, J. .\. Patrick, E. M. 
Chenney, Mrs. Shirk, F. M. Fowler, A. W. Mason, 
W. J. Cousins, J. H. McConias, G. C. Gantz, 
A. C. Butler, Thomas Sterling (now U. S. Senator 
from S. Dakota), Miss Belle Sterling, R. 0. 
Leickman, T. C. Clenderen, I. N. Wade, W. E. 
Mann, Chas. W. Groves, A. B. Martin and J. M. 

The Bement Rural school had its beginning in 
1878, when a frame sohoolhouse was built in the 
southern part of the township for the pupils 
who lived too far away from the Bement Village 
school, and Joanna Fleming was the first 
teacher. This school is still being conducted. 
The niral schools in Bement Township, out- 
side the two mentioned above, are : Ray, Moma, 
Davies, Fisher, Concorn, Mitchell, Bement, 
Rural, Coffin and Moore. 


Until 1857 the pupils of Cerro Gordo Town- 
ship attended a school held over the line, in 
Macon County, but in that year a- schoolhouse 
was erected on the site of the pre.sent buUding, 
with Andrew McKinney as the first teacher. 

A two-room brick building was erected in 
1868, and in 1873 an addition of two rooms v^as 
added, while in 1881 its capacity was enlarged 
by addition of another room. Those additions, 
while adding to its seating space, made It some- 
what awkward to heat, and otherwise incon- 
venient, and in 1000 it was replaced by a mod- 
ern, six-room building, steam heated, and sup- 
plied with modern conveniences. Two rooms 
have recently been added to the building. This 
school has a four-year high school course, and 
is on the accreilited list of the University of 

Tlie following educators have been as.sociated 
with the work at this school : 

Olivel E. Coffeen. G. X. Snapp. John Loeffler. 
A. L. Starr. Fred T. Ullricli, GiK). S. Morris, Geo. 
N. Cade, F. P. Worth. 

A two-story brick schoolhouse was built at 
Milmlne in 1871, and Jasper N. Wilkinson was 
the first principal. Other educators associated 


with this school have been : A. C. Duncan, 
Thomas Gilvere, C. C. Wash, Chas. Mcintosh, 
C. E. Leathers, R. H. McAfee, Everett Garrett, 
Linley Howver, Warren Sanders. 

Tile first La Place school building was erected 
In 1S84, and another took Its place In 1903. 
This school has a high school course, and an 
attendance of about 130 pupils. Some of the 
educators connected with this school have been : 
X. C. Duncan, Arthur Verner, L. F. NIchol, J. E. 
Underwood, C. E. Leathers and Evertt Garrett. 

In addition to the three graded schools above 
given, Cerro Gordo Township has the following 
schools : Guilford. Pemble, East Union, Star, 
Pleasant View, Voorhies, Center 16-5, Centen- 
nial. Prairie Dell, Center, Center 16-4, Clark and 


George A. Patterson was the teacher of the 
first school held in the first schoolhouse that 
was built in Goose Creek Township, near the 
present site of the Piatt school. Another early 
school was that known as the Morain .school, 
and both were well attended. 

DeLand has a comfortable si.v-room school- 
house that was built in 1905, and iC Is heated 
by steam. Some of it.s educators have been as 
follows: H. H. Kirkpatriek. H. S. Davis, 
Thomas Gilvere, A. C. Staley, Otto Weedman. 
Arthur Verner. E. C. Grayblll. O. X. Keger. 
Francis Thompson. Lewis Boyer. 

The rural schools In Goose Creek Township 
are as follows : Mount Vernon, Wisegarver. 
Western, Falrview, Pleasant Falls, Harmony, 
Piatt, Morain, Ashland, Prospect, Enterprise and 


That veteran teacher, George A. Patterson, 
taught the first school In Sangamon Township. 
The school was kept in a log house north of 
White Heath, near the old White schoolhouse. 

White Heath's schoolhouse was built In 1803, 
but additions have been made to the original 
building, .\mong those who have been associated 
with the educational work in this school are : 
Alfred Ewington. Clark Blacker. J. T. Gale, C. 
M. Morris. .Vdani Volcker, Geo. Larrick, Lewis 
Boyer. W. TI. Skinner. 


Willow Branch Township has the distinction 
of being able to claim Judge Edward Ater as 
the first teacher of the school kept within Its 



limits, tliis being about 1840. This primitive 
Iniilding stood on the creel; from which Willow 
Branch gets its name. The only village school 
iu the tiiwuship is at Cisco, and it shows com- 
mendable growth. Some of the educators of this 
township have been : D. O. Shaff, Tenney Pease, 
Charley C. Walsh, Geo. Larrlck, J. H. Glaeser, 
R. H. McAtee. 

The rural schools of Willow Branch Township 
are: New Union, Excelsior. Wild Cat, Shady 
Nook, East Cisco. West Cisco, Oak Grove, AVil- 
low Branch, Havely. Riverside, Dillow, Hanover, 
Baker and Grove. 


The first schoolhonse of Unity Township was 
built in ].S42 and the teacher was John Collins. 
Mackville had a schoolhonse as early as 1S5S, 
and school was taught by James r^ewis. In 1876 
a schoolhonse was moved to Hammond from a 
site near the present Hammond cemetery. This 
building was replaced by a better one in 1SS2, 
and with another in 1914. 

The Pierson District was formed In ISS.S. and 
George F. Righter taught the first .school. A 
larger schoolhonse was built in 1802. Teachers 
of this district have been : Geo. Morris, H. C. 
Gross. Alice AVithers, John P. Rose. May Burks, 
Maggie Walker, Ruby Quick, Florence Eskridge. 

The Atwood District was organized into a 
union school district in 1SS4. The, village of 
Atwood has the novel feature of lying on the 
county line lietween Pintt and Douglas counties, 
the line being the main street of the place. The 
present schoolhonse was built in 1914. and is a 
floe modern building. .Vmong the educators who 
have been associated with this district are: 
Geo. S. Morris. James Hicks, Thomas W. Sam- 
uels, Arthur Niedermier, V. Smith. Ij. P. Baird, 
M. A. Thresher. M. A. Hester. P. J. Heaney, 
Chas. Gott. Arthur O. Fraser. 

The rural schools in the township are : Bainl, 
McCabe, Shonkwiler. Baker, Morgan, Leavit. 
Easton, Harshbarger, Love and Maple Grove. 


The first schoolhonse of Blue Ridge Township 
was built in 1854. The only graded school in 
this township is that at Mansfield, and there is 
a high school course and is on the accredited 
list of the State University. Among the educa- 
tors associated with work in the town.ship are: 
G. X. Snapp, L. B. White, Xellie Yursk, T. L. 

Cook, C. C. Forest, O. N. Kiger, James Morkel, 
J, A. Alexander, L. E. Gohn. 

The rural schools are as follows : Blue Ridge, 
Langley, Van Meter, West Point, Gillespie, Mc- 
Gath, Watson, South Prairie, Klinger, Victory, 
Pleasant Grove, Number Six and Elwood. 


Piatt County values its school property at 
$330,705. There are 5 high schools (four year) ; 
14 graded schools : and 89 country schools ; also 
2 three-.\ear and 2 two-year high schools. The 
number of teachers employed is 180, of which 
14 are principals. There are 5 accredited schools 
in the county, namely : Montieello, Bement, At- 
wood, Cerro Gordo and Mansfield. The schools 
of this county rank as first grade. The per- 
centage of Piatt County pupils who attend 
higher institutions of learning is high. The 
annual enrollment of 1915 was 4.124 pupils. 


Excellent libraries are maintaineil in the fol- 
lowing schools : Montieello, Bement, Atwood, 
Cerro Gordo and Mansfield. 

Piatt County has four public libraries, located 
as follows : Montieello, Bement, De Land and 


Among the people who have very fine private 
libraries may be mentioned the following : 
George K. Trenehard, of De Land ; Frank V. 
Dilatush. of Montieello ; H. E. Shaw, of Bement ; 
Rev. Shirey. of Bement ; Mrs. J. X. Dighton, of 







TH£ ^i"'^ 







When the world was new and there was no 
accepted standard for bartering, the people had 
no need for banking institutions. Each man 
was his own merchant, exchanging some com- 
modity of which he was possesssed, for some-_ 
thing another had that he wanted. However, as 
separate nations grew ui> out of scattered tribes, ■ 
with permanent places of residence, the neces- 
sity arose for establishing some medium of ex- 
change that would represent to all a certain 
value, and would be taken in exchange for 
articles of various (jualities and ijuantities. At 
one time rings ofprecious metals were used as 
this medium of exchange, but many centuries 
ago gold, silver and copiier coins were struck 
off. each to represent a certain stated value. 
This monetary s.vstem, at first very crude and 
inadequate as coni]jared to the presents methods, 
was regarded as a wonderful advance ujion 
former customs, as it was. -Vs the .years 
progressed, improvements were made until the 
banking system of today with its varied and 
multiform departuicnts has been evolved, to meet 
tlie demands and requirements of international 
and internal transactions. 


Prom very early times the services of some 
one or othei- have been required l).v those who 
had neither the time nor the understanding of 
finances, to manage transactions between parties, 
es|jecially those whom distance so separated as 
to make a personal interview impossible. From 
these money changers of olden days have come 
the bankers of today. As is but natural these 
men in whose keeping has been entrusted tlie 
wealth of a people, have occupied a place of 
moment in their day and country. The weight 
of their .iudgment, the wi.sdom of their advice 
and the power of their influence have been 
recognized and accepted from the days of the 
New Testament. 


It has long ago been admitted that were it not 
for the remarkable advance and development of 
the banking system, with its international com- 
plexities, and connections, civilization would 
never have been developed to its present state. 
In war or peace, the bankers of a country, in 
large measure control its policies, and its stabil- 
ity and wealth most certainly depend upon the 
wisdom and sagacity of the men who hold its 
moneys. For these and many other reasons that 
might well be given, the banking interests of 
any community are among its most important, 
and the men at the head of such institutions 
are .iustly numbered among its most representa- 
tive and solid citizens. 


The first bank of I'iatt County was the Moore 
Sta't-e Ba»k:of .Monticello. Another early bank 
AVJstbat condjictetl by F. E. Bryant & t'ompany 
under the luuiie' oT The Benient Bank. 


The oldest bank in I'iatt County is the Moore 
.State Bank, which has been continuously in 
Inisiness since its organization in 1870. Its 
present officials are as follows: D. M. Moore, 
president : A. F. Moore, vice president ; R. B. 
Weddle, cashier; W. L. Plankerhorn, assistant 
cashier, and G. P. Martin, second assistant cash- 
ier. The boai-d of directors is coiniiosed of the 
following members: Heber Husttm. D. M. Moore, 
.1. P. Knitz, K. B. Weddle and A. F. Moore. The 
capital stock is .flW.lXiO: the surplus and un- 
divided profits are .'?35.000 : the loans are .$."40,- 
(1(1(1. and the deposits are .$400,000. 


The First National Bank of .Monticello was 
established in 1S02 by William Xoecker. John 
W. Dighton and G. .\. 8tadler, and incorporated 
that same year with William Xoecker as presi- 
dent ; John ,\. Dighton as vice president, and 
O. W. Moore as cashier, with a capital stock of 
.$."0,000. The present condition is as follows : 


Loans and Discounts .$727,019.09 

Overdrafts 3,977.95 

Bonds, Securities, etc 47,089.66 

United States Bonds at Par 100,000.00 



Hanking Ilonsc. Fiirnitiiic and Fix- 
tures 10,000.00 

Revenue Stamps :j!52.00 

Stocks in Feileral Reserve Bank 0,000.00 

Due from Banks $172,0(i().7.'i 

Redemption Fund with XT. 

S. Treasurer 5,000.00 

Cash 58,170.69 


Reserve for Interest and Ta.Kes. . , 


Total $1,130,570.14 


t'aiiitai stock .$100,000.00 

Surplus 100,000.00 

Undivideti Profits 1,022.10 

National Rank Xotes Outstanding... ]00,f)00.00 
Deposits .S20,554.04 

Total .$l.i:».."0.14 

The present officials and hoard of directors are 
as follows: William Dighton, president; John 
X. Dighton. vice president; Frank Iletishee. vice 
Iiresident; Geo. B. Xoecker. cashier; Ernest E. 
Lohr. assistant cashier ; and Robert H. Allerton, 
C. J. Bear. William Dighton. John N. Dighton. 
Pi-ank V. Dilatush. W. H. England, Firank 
Iletishee. John ICirli.v. C. B. Noecker, W. F. 
Stevenson. ( '. X. Tatman. directors. 


The Farmers State Bank of Monticello was 
organizeii in 1011 by J. W. Ayre, J. A. Salyes 
and James L. AUraan. Sr., with a capital stock 
of .f.^O.OOO. The first ofiicials were : J. A. Sal- 
yers as president : James L. .MlmaiL Sr.. as vice 
president, and J. W. Ayre as cashier. The pres- 
ent condition of the hank is as follows: 


I,(jaiis .'Uicl I )isciinnts .S;'>(l."i.i;i7.54 

Overdrafts :l.0.'i8.1(! 

I'.aiiking Mouse, Fnrnitui-e and Fi.\- 

tures 1(i,(;s8.2L' 

Cash a nil i:\ch;inge 100,(;S!).40 



Capital SfiM-k .$50,000.00 

Surplus 10,000.00 

FndiNided I'rotits 2.185.19 


The present officials and hoard of directors 
are as follows : J. A. Salyers, president ; W. F. 
StevensoiL vice president; J. A. AUman. Sr., 
vice president ; J. W. Ayre, cashier ; W. Har- 
rington, assistant cashier ; A. M. Foster, assist- 
ant cashier ; and W. F. Stevenson, M. Hazzard, 
J. F. Heath, J. L. Allman, J. W. McCollister, 
J. E. Rankin. G. W. Widick. John Smock, A. C. 
I'-die, J. A'. Ayre. J. A. Salyers. directors. 


The First National Bank of Atwixid was 
f'oundeil in 11X12 with a capital stock of .$.'!< i.OOO. 
with Tlieodpre Gross as president : lOdward 
I'arsons as vice ijresideut ; and Theodore Gross, 
Jr.. as cashier. The present ofBcials are as 
follows : Joseph Lewis, president ; C. JI. Flick- 
inger. vice president, and C. E. Morrison, cashier. 


The State Bank of Hammond was founded in 
1808 by T. J. Kiyer and otiiers, and incorporated 
in that .vear with a capital .stock of .$35,000. 
Tile present ofiicials are: T. J. Ki.ver, president ; 
O. 1). Nnc. vice president, .uid J. W. Vent, 

sTATi: MAXK or ( i;rku <;(iE!I)o. 

In 18!i4 the State B:ink of Cerro (Jordo was 
founded with a capital stock of .$83,000, John 
N. Dighton being its president. The present 
ofiicials are as follows : S. JI. Funk, president ; 
F. y. Dilatush. vice president, and John W. 
Vent, cashiei-. 


The Gitizens Bank of Cerro (Jordo was founded 
in 100S. The individual responsibility is $:!00.- 
iXIO. it being a ]irivatc bank. The otHcials at 
present are iis follows: J. C. I'eek. president; 
S. J. still, vice president, and F.arl (iriswold. 

STATE I:ANK ok I,A IT^4-(E. 

John S. .Vter founded a private banking house 
.it I..I Place that in lltOO was Incoriiorated as 
the State Bank of La Place. Isaac Shively Is 
the lu'esent president ; John Shivele.v is the vice 
Iiresident. and P>. F. Kagey is the cashier. 




ASTOR .»^0X 




Ill 1!)(»:! the l^.iiik of Milmiiie was founded as a 
jirlvate liaiikiii.;: house. The individual resjioii- 
slbility i.s .f.jO.OOd. James Fisher is the iiresi- 
dent; Isaac Ilawver is the vice president, and 
1!. I.. Ilawvcv is the ca.shiei-. 


The State Baiiic of Cisco was founded as tlie 
Croninger Baiilv and was incorporated in IS'JT 
witli a capital stoclv of .$52,000. Tlie present 
officials are as follows : E. O. Martin, president ; 
Charles Doane. vice president, and W. T. Har- 
din, cashier. 


The State Banli of De Laud was organized in 
1889 and incorporated with a c-apital stock of 
$25,000. Its present rinaneial condition is as 
follows: " \., 


Loans and Discounts .$213,071.28 

Overdrafts 8fiO..'51 

Bankins- House. Furniture and Fix-" 10,000.00 

Cash and Due from Banks 45,931.13 


Loans and Discounts. , $170,401.25 

Overdrafts 2,105.12 

Bonds, Securities, etc 500.00 

I'nited States Bonds at Bar 35,000.00 

Banking House, Furniture and Fi.x- 

tures 8,788.00 

Stock in Federal Reserve Bank 1,G50.00 

Itedeinptioii Fund with U. S. Treas. . 1,7.50.00 

Casli and Dne from Banks 42,7.59.75 



Capital Stock $ 25,000.00 

Surplns 10,000.00 

I'ndivided Profits less Expenses and 

Taxes Paid 1,385.07 

Deposits 219,477.05 

Borrowed 14,000.00 


The present officials are as follows: John 
Kirby, president ; J. N. Rodman, vice president ; 
E. T. ilcMillen, cashier, and E. R. Rinehart, 
assistant cashier. The board of directors is com- 
p.>sed of the following: .Tolm Kirby, II. H. 
(iiliuoie, Reemt Lul>liers. .1. N. Hodman, Jurko 
O. Lubbers, I. L. Kinehart. \V. W. Kirkland. 


The First National Bank of De Land was 
estalilished in 1901. Tlie present condition of 
the bank is as follows: 



Gipital Stock $ 35,000.00 

Surplus 20,000.00 

Undivided Profits l,3GG.0O 

National Bank Notes Outstanding. . . 35,000.00 

Due to Banks' 0,124.51 

deposits 174,053,61 


The present officials are as follows: O. R. 
Trenchard, president; C. E. England, vice presi- 
dent ; J. B. Rinehart, cashier ; C. L. BoUenbach, 
assistant cashier. The present board of directors 
is as follows : George Bosler, C. E. England, 
H. W. Gantz, D. W. Hursh, M. E. Miller, Ellis 
Reed, G. R. Hursh, T. G. Wisegarver, Smith 
Wisegarver. (J. R. Trenchard. 


The Pierson Bank was founded in 1902, at 
Pierson. At present Joseph Lewis is its presi- 
dent and B. Erhardt is its cashier. 


In 1910 the Peoples State Bank of Mansfield 
was incorporated with a capital stock of $30,000. 
The iiresent officials are as follows: Samuel 
Howe, president ; George Howe, vice president, 
and Charles Slater, cashier. 

At one time tliere was a bank at Mansfield 
liiiown as tlie First National Bank of Mansfield, 
but it failed in 1902. later being re-organized as 
the Mansfield Banking Company, with a capital 
stock of .$25.(100. Tliis last named organization 
was dissolved. 


In 1899 the State Bank of Mansfield was 
organized, and later incorporated. The present 



officials are as follows: W. H. FirUe. president; 
Alvah James, vice president, and W. H. Burn, 


In 1M3 S. L. Sievers founded a private banli- 
ing house, whicli is conducted under the firm 
name of 8. L. Sievers & Compan.v, with S. L. 
Sievers as president; and Carl De Laud as 


In 1888 The First National Bank of Bemeut 
was founded. It is in a very sound financial 
condition, its capital stock and surplus being 
.$5G,(I00. The present officials are as follows : 
W. M. Camp, [u-esident ; W. R. Cnnip, vice presi- 
dent ; and W. A. Steel, cashier. 


The state Bank of Bement was founded in 
1014, and incorporated under its present cap- 
tion. Its capital and surplus of ^50,000 gives 
It solidity. Its present officials are as follows : 
H. E. Shaw, president; A. L. Wilkerson, vice 
president ; and li. M. Fleming, cashier. 


Piatt County has several other financial insti- 
tutions, among them being the following: The 
riatt County Loan Association of Monticello, 
and the Dighton-DUatush Loan Company ot 


A very important feature of the financial 
transactions of any comnuinity, is the loaning 
of money upon good security. Jlany men of 
means prefer this form of investment to any 
other, and some refuse to consider an.v other 
kind, feeling that, no other can offer the sure 
returns and gild edged security, as that given 
by mortgages upon real estate. Farm lands 
have of late years been a favored security, and 
those desiring to raise funds to meet unusual 
conditions, or to expand their operations, find 
that they have little or no difficulty in obtaining 
what they need upon a fair valuation of their 


There are eighteen banks in I'iatt County, or 
a bank for less than each one thousand of the 
population. This is not all, for there are a 

number of banking institutions located but a 
short distance across the county line that 
naturally absorb some of the business; and De- 
catur and Champaign are nearliy cities, and 
some of the financial transactions are made In 
them. The fact that the county supports 
eighteen sound banking houses Is but another 
[iroof of the claim the penple have long made, 
and successfully maintained, that Piatt County 
is the wealthiest county for its size in the state, 
and with one e.\ce]ition. in the United States. 

















The buffalo herds which undoubtedly once 
roamed over Piatt County and surrounding ter- 
ritory, made marked trails, traces of which are 
still to be seen, although the buffalo has long 
since been driven from this part of the country. 
The Indians, who probably were antedated by 
the buffalo, also made distinct trails, many of 
which were used by the white men when they 
invaded the hunting grounds of the red men. 
However other roads were needed by the settlers 
to connect their settlements, and as needed these 
were worn across the prairies, across streams, 
and through timberland. 




The oldest known made road was that from 
Sadorus Grove to the cabin of James Piatt, and 
from thence to the trading house in the vicinity 
of Friend's Creelv. For many years remaining 
traces of tliis old road could be seen, but by 
now even these have been oljllterate<l. These 
early roads left much to be desired, for they 
were usually built, when they emerged from the 
primitive state of a trail, by hitching oxen to a 
log and having them drag it along the trail. 
In order that there should be no mistake as to 
the presence of the road, a furrow was usually 
plowed along it. Whenever possible the streams 
were forded, but when they were too deep, fer- 
ries were established. The Sangamon River 
during the spring season was too high to cross 
save by means of a ferry, and one was main- 
tained by Nathan Henline and his brother, one 
mile west of Jlonticello. 


The first state road through Piatt County led 
from Danville, by way of Urbana, through what 
is now Monticello, and on to Springfield. The 
one extending diagonally across Blue Ridge 
Township, now called the State Road, was not 
so surveyed, but gained its name because of the 
people who located on it. This latter road was 
used before 1833, and once ran by Clieney's 
Grove. It is believed that Richard Webb was 
the first Piatt County man to settle on it. 

The first local road constructed ran from 
Monticello to the head of Lake Fork, and along 
the east side of that stream. It was surveyed by 
.lohn Tenhrooke, and the furrow was mad" by 
William Monroe with the oxen owned by Hiram 
Heath. A second road was surveyed by George 
Heath from Cliarleston to Bloomington. which 
followed much the same route, and a mail route 
was established and mail carriers rode over it 
on horseback. 

Piatt County felt that a great advance had 
been made when the stage routes were estab- 
lished, about 1839, running from Urbana to 
Decatur. The stage coach route of Piatt 
County ran lietween Monticello and Bement. 
after the first railroad was built, but the con- 
struction of the raUroads practically did away 
with the business of the stage lines, and tlie 
routes were discontinued. 


Pitttt County had its first railroad construc- 
tion work done in 1S55, on the main line of the 
Wabash Railroad through Bement and Cerro 
Goixlo townships, running east and west, the 
gangs working from each end and meeting in 
ISiiiti near what is now Cerm Gordo. Connec- 
tion of this road with the Chicago Division was 
effected in 1873. The original name of the 
road was the Chicago & Paducah. The statiotts 
along this road are as follows: Hammond, 
Bement, Monticello, Lodge, Galesville and Mans- 
field, on the Paducah branch, and Bement, .Mil- 
mine and Cerro Gordo, on the main line. 


In December, 1S70, what is now a branch of 
the Illinois Central Railroad, but was then the 
Monticello Railroad, was completed betiveen 
Champaign and Decatur, through Sangamon, 
Monticello and Willow Branch townships. Al- 
though chartered in 1861, no actual work was 
done until after the close of the Civil War, and 
it was not comiileted until ISTO, after several 
changes in charters and management. It was 
later purchased by the Indiana, Bloomington & 
Western, and reorganized by new parties as the 
Champaign, Havana & Western. Subsequently 
it became the property of the Wabash Railroa<l, 
and finally of the Illinois Central. The stjitions 
along this line are as follows: On the Cham- 
paign & Decatur branch : White Heath. Monti- 
cello and Cisco. On the Champaign & Clinton 
branch : White Heath, Lodge and DeLand. 


The Big Four Railroad was built through 
Blue Ridge Township in 18G7. I'nder its charter 
it was known as the Danville. Urbana, Bloom- 
ington & Pekin Railroad, but was later consoli- 
dated with the Indianapolis and Danville, to be 
known as the Indianaiwlis. Bloomington & West- 
ern, and sub.sequently became the Chicago, Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati & St. LouLs. Mansfield is the 
only station in Piatt County. 


In 18-17 a company was formed and a road 
was chartered known as tiie Indiana & Illinois 
Central Railroad, but many changes took place 
before work was completed in 1873, the road 
then being known as the Indiana. Decatur & 
Western, which is now the Chicago, Indianapolis 



& Western. The stations along this line are as 
follows: La Place, Lintner, Burrowsville, 
Hammond, Piersou and Atwood. 

The McKinley Traction System in Piatt 
County has one interurban road traversing its 
territory, the Bloomington, Decatur & Cham- 
paign Railroad. This road was completed 
through Piatt County in the fall of 1006 and 
passes thi-ough White He;ith, Montieello, Bement, 
Milmine and Cerro Gordo. The road is a very 
great convenience to the people of the county. 


As a mode of transportation the automobile 
must be included in a chapter of this nature, for 
it has given the people, especially those in the 
rural regions, means of rapid transit, facilitating 
business and connecting beyond every other way, 
the country and the city. There are 930 auto- 
mobiles owned in Piatt County, whose valuation 
is assessed at $92,026. 





woman's club ; organization, work, OFFICERS 


A new element has couie into civic affairs, 
the power of the clubs organized and conducted 
by women. Long before Illinois grunted limited 
suffrage to its women they liad through their 
clubs made their influence felt in matters, which 
although outside their homes, so very materially 
concerned these selfsame homes and the ones 
dear t« them. They investigated into the 
.schools, and insisted upon a betterment of 
lourses of stiid.v, teachers and general require- 
ments. They had introduced into the schools 
mannal training and domestic science, both 
branches now being recognized as absolutely 
necessary to any first class school. They took 
into consideration the better lighting of the 
.streets, the keeping of their communities sani- 

tary and .safe, and .sought to bring about a 
sane consideration of the liquor traffic. While 
thus displaying an intelligent interest in public 
matters, wliich no doubt largely influenced 
public opinion towards extending the franchise 
to women, they occupied themselves in broad- 
ening their minds by study, elevated their taste 
by a consideration of art and music, and in 
every way sought to gain a wider vision and 
to increase their value to their communities as 
individuals. From little social gatherings, these 
Woman's t'lubs have grown into mighty organ- 
izations whicli wield a powerful inHuence, and 
have in many recent instances turned the tide 
of an election. 


The Montieello Woman's Club was organized 
iu 1893, although there had been a club in ex- 
istence in 1802, known as the Columbia Club, 
which had for its object the forwarding of the 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago. With the 
opening of the World Exposition, the work of 
the Columbian Ciub was considered completed, 
but those who liad been active iu it felt that 
the lessons taught by organized effort were too 
valuable to be lost, and fifteen ladies met, after 
the original club was disbanded, and as a re- 
sult, on February 22, 1803, the present Woman's 
Club was organized with the following officers : 
Mrs. Jeanette Crea, president : Mrs. Ella B. 
Xoecker, first vice president ; Jlrs. Kate Piatt, 
second vice president; Mrs. Inez Bender, secre- 
tary; Mrs. .Vnnii Peters, treasurer. The ob.1ect 
of the <lub was "to form an organized center by 
means of which we can secure the best practical 
metlioils for the [u-omotion of the educational, 
industrial and social interests of woman." In 
bsii.") the club was state federated, and district 
feder.-ited in 11102. The Montieello club was 
honored liy having tlie District Federation Meet- 
ing held iit .Montieello on February 27 and 28, 
T.MiT, when the president of the local club. Miss 
Itachi'l lluslun, was elected to the district presi- 
dency. The olticers for 1910-17 were as follows: 
.Mrs. Mary I'lunk. president ; Mrs. Amy Hefner. 
lirst vice iiresident ; Mrs. Elizabeth Cole, second 
vice president ; Miss Rachel Huston, recording 
secretary ; Jlrs. Lucy Kaiser, corresponding 
secretary: Mrs. Kathryn Smith, treasurer; and 
Mrs. Amy .lohnson, official correspondent. The 
motto of the club is "From Possibility to 
Reality." It has adopted green and white as 
its club colors, while its club flower is the w'hite 

THS !«&W VD»K 

' - ^ * 

-= ?K 

Hft jfiCa^ ;Sj^,^|8tt||i^ i?;^if^ 












carnation. At present tliere are fort.v-seven 
members, and wliile the women have always 
been found ready and willing to do auythiuf; 
and evei-ything to advance the welfare of their 
community, their efforts in the main have been 
along literary lines. With other Woman's Clubs 
they have rendered effective service in selling 
Hed Cross seals, and in the future as in the 
]iast, they may be counted upon to bear an 
efficient and intelligent part in the world's 


The Bement Woman's Club was organized in 
lSf)6, and federated in the same year. Its 
colors are pink and green, and its flower is the 
carnation. The motto of this club is "An in- 
vestment in knowledge always jiays the best 
interest." The club commenced with a charter 
membersliip of ten, and some idea of its growth, 
may be gleaned from the fact that Nvith the 
opening of the year 1010-17. it had a lii^uiber- ■ 
ship of fifty-seven. The official.s during 1010-17 
were as follows: Mrs. Sheila Pelton, presiflentN.- 
Mrs. Alvira Hammond, first vice -pr'esidenf J 
Mrs. L/izzie Lamb, second vice president : Mrs. 
Grace McPherson, secretary ; and Mrs. Lillian 
Cloyd. During the twenty-one years the Bement 
Woman's Club has been in existence, its mem- 
bers have always taken an intelligent interest 
in local affairs, and oftentimes have come for- 
ward in civic matters. The improvement of the 
members along literary lines has been marked, 
and some idea of the work accomplished by this 
club during the year just ended may be gained 
from the subjects taken up at the meetings. 
Beginning with September 4 when Current 
F>-ents were discussed, the club handled Flag 
Day, Modern Scripture. What Woman's Clubs 
Are Doing, Woman Suffrage, Our State, Pana- 
ma, America, A Government for the People. 
Guest Day, Amusements, Thanksgiving, Music, 
Robert Louis Stevenson, Christmas, Armenia. 
Home Economics, Thimble Party, Music, Home, 
Benedicts' Night, Washington and Lincoln, 
rx)ngfellow. Domestic Science, r.inl Day. and 
several other to]iics. 

DE LAND woman's CLUB. 

The De Land Woman's Club was organized 
October 14, 1900. state federated in lOOl, dis- 
trict federated in 1002, and national federatetl 
in 1914. Its colors are pink and white, its 
flower is the white carnation, and its motto is 

"Kvery njind was made for grdwtli. knowledge; 
and its nature is sinned against when it is 
doomed to ignorance." During 1910-17 the club 
adojited the Bay View Reading Course on music, 
lionsehold science and literature, but did not 
confine itself to mental culture only, for this 
club has from its organization been very active 
in civic improvement and moral uplift work. 
The beautiful Carnegie Library at De Land is 
the result of the energetic work of the women 
of the club. During 1010 the club observed 
B.iby Week ifnd out of this movemont grew the 
cleaiiip campaign which has resulted so advan- 
tageously for De Land and the township, and its 
pui'pose is to branch out still further along civic 
betterment work. For two years the club held 
lecture courses at De Land which were en- 
thusiastically patronized. For the past si.x 
years the club has entertained the .senior class 
of the high school with reference to school work, 
iyid this feature has resulted in mentally stimu- 
lating the pupils in a ver.v encouraging manner. 
.Vniong 'other plans for the coming year, the 
■iClub ])roi)oses to set on foot a movement for 
' the public hall, locally known as the 
"•'Wigwam,'' so that it will be a credit to the 

The first ollicials of the club were Mrs. Lmy 
Trcnchard. i)resident ; Mrs. L. C. Cox. first vice 
jiresident; Mrs. L. W. Reid. second vice presi- 
dent ; Mrs. L. B. Hurst, .secretary, and Mrs. 
('. 10. England, treasurer. The club was orig- 
inally known as The Woman's Improvement 
Club. The present oHicials are as follows : Mrs. 
Margaret Hurst, president; Mrs. Lora Poter- 
Held, first vice president ; Mrs. Mabel Walker, 
second vice ju'esident : Mrs. Harriet Bowsher, 
se<retar.v: and Mrs. Addle Carter, treasurer. 
The club has a membershij) of forty. 


The Masons and Odd Fellows are the oldest 
fraternal orders in Piatt County, and the.v are 
particularly strong at Monticello. Bement, 
.Mansfield, and Atwood. While a history of 
those ordcis. and other secret societies which 
have organizations in the county, including the 
Rcbekahs, Eastern Star, Modern Woodmen, 
Royal Xeighbors, and Knights of Pythias, would 
would lie interesting, the limitations of this his- 
tor.v make it almost impossible for sntficicnl 
space to be given to the separate lodges. The 
Masons and Odd Fellows have erected buildings 
in several of the villages and cities of the 



eoiiuty that are a credit to the locality in which 
they are fouiul. Perhaps of them all, the Odd 
Fellows are the strongest numerically, and the 
lodge at Monticello has the largest membershiii 
of any in the county. The aim of all fraterni- 
ties to encourage a higher standard of living, 
a recognition of obligations and a furtherance 
of brotherly love, is commendable and ought 
to be encouraged. 







I'iatt County is essentially an agricultural sec- 
tion, and it is by tilling the soil that its people 
have gained their wealth and prominence in 
large measure. It is tlierefore very fitting in 
a work of this nature to deal somewhat at length 
uixin this very important subject in order that 
the principal industry of the people receive 
proper recognition. Within the quarter of a 
century many improvements have been effected 
by reason of several movements. The introduc- 
tion and use of improved machinery : the employ- 
ment of scientific methods, and the utilization 
of government exiwrimentation ; the redemption 
of swamp and low lands through the drainage 
ditch and local drainage systems, and the 
awakening of the farmers themselves to the 
dignity and importance of their work, and the 
subsequent recognition of them by the world 
at large as powerful factors in the country's 


When Piatt County was in its infancy, stock 
was raised to some extent, but it was not until 
1870 that blooded stock was introduced into the 
c<iunty — cattle by L. B. Winger and hogs by 
William D. Coffin. Since then the majority of 
the farmers have improved their quality, ami 
many are breeding and raising only registered 
horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. That their grade 

is unusually liigli. the exhibits at the county 
clearly indicate. 

Some idea of the extent to which stock rais- 
ing is cai'ried on in this county may be gathered 
from the following : 

During lOl."!) Piatt County raised l,.j5!) horses, 
valued at .$27n.OOO ; 3,841 cattle, valued at $250,- 
000 ; 26,302 hogs, valued at .$500.000 ; G30 sheep, 
valued at $5,000, and poultry to the amount of 


Located as it is in the midst of the great 
corn belt of the Middle West, Piatt County has 
naturally paid great attention to the growing 
of -'King Corn," with remarkable results. Some 
of the banner crops raised within recent years 
on Piatt County farm land have reached ninety 
bushels an acre, while the average crop aver- 
ages fifty bushels. 

A conservative estimate of the corn yield for 
1015 is 5,738,400 bushels, valued at about $2,900,- 


Wheat, barley, oats, rye and some alfalfa are 
grown to advantage in Piatt County. The total 
yield of other grain besides wheat for 1915 is 
figured as being about 2.985,000 bushels, valued 
at $1.5<Vt,000. The 1915 yield of wheat was fully 
789.700 bushels, valued at $775,000. 


It is a far cry today, friuu the time when the 
l)est of Piatt County land could be obtained 
from the government for the land entry of 
$1.25 per acre, and yet had this land been 
allowed to lie fallow, without any energy lieing 
expended upon its cultivation, it is likely it 
would be wortli but little more today than it 
was when the pioneers came to Illinois seeking 
•a new home. It is through the efforts of these 
pioneers and their descendants that today Piatt 
County land is quoted at from $200 to $250 per 
acre. The highest price paid for farm land in 
this county was $275 per acre. Other industries 
may fail ; city property may depreciate, but farm 
laud is bound to rise in price, for the world 
must have foodstuffs, and each year sees land 
available for farming purposes, owing to the 
extension of cities. Fortunate indeed is the man 
who owns land in this favored section. The 
total valuation of Piatt County farm lands for 
1915 is $45,000,000. 




The iiitruiliu'tioii aiicl use ol' iuiprnvi'd farm 
machinery aiiJ a|>i)liancos have proven a very 
important factor in the asri'icultural life of I'iatt 
County, and the farmer who has not a modern 
equipment, no matter how hard he may worlj, 
cannot hope to compete with his ueiirhbor who 
possesses one. Tlie following; figures may {,'i\e 
some idea of the amount of money invested in 
the equi]iment of the farmers of the county. In 
TJIO the total amount invested in farm machin- 
ery in I'iatt County amounted to $1.2.jO.0OO. Iu 
1015 it was .$l.riOO.0OO: twent.v-flve farmers use 
automobiles in their work. There are twenty- 
five threshing outfits in the county, and 100 
men are engaged in operating them. 










Th'e first telephone line through Piatt County 
was a toll line of the Central T'nion Tele|)hone 
Company, with exchanges at Ccrro Gordo, 
Milmine, Bement, Monticello and White Heath. 
This toll line was finished about the year 1880. 

About 1883 tliere was an acoustic teleplione in 
use in Piatt County, known as the Telerema. 
Judge Harvey E. Huston was the inventor 

patentee and manufacturer of this instrument, 
and it was in use from about 1SS3 to 1888. At 
one time Mr. Huston had several men in his 
employ promoting the sale of the Telerema, and 
orders were received by him from almost every 
stiite in the Union. Upon the introduction of 
the Bell telei)lione the \ise of the Telerema was 

About 1S02 W. F. Lodge installed private 
telephone lines from the residence of his father, 
William E. Lodge, iu Monticello, to Mr. Lodge's 
law ofBce, the tile factory and the electric light 
plant. In 1893 additional telephones were put 
in, connecting various business houses in Mon- 
ticello with this private exchange, and in 1894 
the Mutual Telephone Company was organized 
and incorporated iu April, 1805. There were 
shareholders to the number of forty, and they 
owned all the telephones and furnished none to 
people outside the company. About 1807 W. F. 
Lodge began putting in telephones for toll, and 
iu 1809 the company was organized under the 
name of the Piatt County Telephone Company, 
and in 1000 this company absorbed the old Mu- 
tual Telephone Company. This company has 
exchanges at Monticello, Bement and DeLand, 
and has connection with the Central Union and 
American Telephone and Telegraph Companies. 
There are 1,500 telephones connected with the 
Piatt County Telephone Company's exchanges. 

In 1897 and ISOS W. F. Lodge put iu a tele- 
phone exchange in the village of Cerro Gordo, 
and sold out to the Cerro Gordo Mutual Tele- 
phone Company iu 1901. The latter company is 
now operating this telephone with an exchange 
at La Place. E. F. VanCuren of IIammi>nd built 
a telephone line with exchanges at Ilanunoiul. 
Burrowsville and La Place about the year 1:m)0. 
The At wood Mutual Telephone Compan.v was 
organized about 1003. The National Telephone 
Company has exchanges at Mansfield, Clinton 
and Farmer City. In 190-1 an exchange was put 
in at Cisco, connecting with the exchange at 
.Vrgenta. -Vn excellent telephone service is 
given to the farmers and residents of towiis 
throughout the entire county. 


In 1801 The Monticello Light and Power Com- 
pany was organizwl. with a fifty-year franchise 
from the city of Monticello. .V brick power 
house was built west of the Illinois Central 
de|)ot, and the plant was in oi)eration in 1892. 
This conip.iny was organized liy C. A. Tatman. 



W. F. aiKl J. P. LdUsje. The tirst otticiuls of the 
company were: Jas. P. Lc«l,s;e, piesident. and 
('. A. Tatmau, .secretary. 

In i'JVi tile i>lant was sold to the couiiumy 
of which W. B. MeKinley is the pre-sident, and 
It lias since been conducted by the MeKinley 
Company. The present eiiuipment for lighting 
the city of Montieello and the residences of the 
city is very comjilete. and very excellent service 
is given. 

Other lighting; interests in I'iatt (Onnty arc 
as follows : Bemeut, Cerro Goitlo, Atwood. De 
Land and Mansfield each have electric light 
I)lants. under jirivate ownership. 










In 1856 The Piatt County Agricultural So- 
ciety was organized, but apparently little or 
notblng was accomplished by this organization 
during the first years of its existence, as there 
is no record obtainable regarding its action. 
In 1S61, however, an election was held in the 
courthouse at Montieello and the following were 
elected to serve as its officers: .Jacob Smith, 
president ; J. C. Johnson, H. S. Coonrod and 
Ezra Marquiss, vice iiresidents : A. T. Pipher, 
secretary; Ellas Hall, treasurer; and John M. 
Barnes and Dr. Kelly, directors. These officials, 
acting In behalf of the society, the first year of 
their incumbency of office, bought fifteen acres 
of land nortli of Montieello on which there were 
no buildings. The property was fenced with 
rails. As it was evident much work was neces- 
sary to turn this unimproved tract into model 
fair grounds, a committee was appointed, com- 

posed of Jesse Warner, C. P. Davis and Dr, 
Farra to take charge of the improvements. In 
order to obtain the necessary funds the land 
was mortgaged to J. C. Johnson, and a fence 
was put up, and two temporary buildings 
erected. The work of preparing the grounds 
was done gratis by members of the society, for 
the money was not sufficient to cover all ex- 

The fairs held in these grounds bore 
little resemblance to those of totlay. The idea 
of using them to advance the cause of agricul- 
ture had not then been developed. Rather were 
these fairs regarded as huge picnics, where old 
friends could meet, and new associations be 
formed. They were considered then as simply 
siM-ial gatherings and not seriously regarded as 
praetiail helps in the business of farming. Their 
scojve and influence had to be developed. Until 
1870 Piatt County fairs were conducted without 
horse racing, but in that year the board of 
citficials changed, and as a bu.siness proposition 
it was decided to make a race track. This was 
done as cheaply as possible, the survey being 
made by the surveyor of Montieello without 
charge, and J. W. Warren and C. P. Davis car- 
ried the chain, also without pay, the track 
being a mile in length. With this innovation 
an adde<l interest was given to the annual gath- 
ering, and the fair of ISTti was a decided suc- 



Following 1870 the officials of the society 
realized the necessity for providing added at- 
tractions to induce the people to come to the 
fairs, for they were beginning to tire of the 
excess of social features, and long for some- 
thing more exciting. This was only natural, 
for 1876 had given the country its first great 
exi)osition in the Centennial, and each coni- 
unniity had sent to the gathering at Philadelphia 
its representatives who brought back enticing 
accounts of what they had seen. Naturally 
every society organized fur the imrpose of giv- 
ing annual gatherings sought to emulate, in 
some degree, the example .set by the promoters 
of that great expo.sition. Piatt County fair pro- 
moters were not to be left behind in this very 
natural forward movement and sought for novel 
features to supply the needed stimulus to excite 
more interest in their events. At one time bal- 
loon ascensions were very poiiular and the Piatt 






County fair liad its exiHjrieiite witli tills form 
of amusement, and other amusements and spe- 
cialties were provided, but experience taught 
that the best drawing feature for the quiet, in- 
telligent people here was the presence of some 
noted man who would adilross the people in the 
oi)en air uiion some current topic. A number of 
the distinituished men of the country have thus 
spoken in the I'iatt County fair grounds, and 
been given respectful and interested attention 
by those who thronged to listen. 


In 190o the name of the society was changed 
to The I'iatt County Hoard of Agriculture, a 
more dignified caption, and the following were 
elected as otheials : C. E. Motlitt. president; J. 
D. Mackey, vice president: C. H. Kidgely, secre- 
tary; O. W. Moore, treasurer; and \V. W. Royer, 
J. A. Mathews. M. F. McMillen. .7. L. Rodman, 
B. R. White and Samuel Howe, directors. The 
present officials are: Win. Dighton. president; 
.John Heath, vice president ; II. P. Harris, secre- 
tary: Dr. C. M. BuMistead. treasurer. 


The present etinipment of the fair grounds is 
as follows : Amphitheater. .30x210 feet, with seat- 
ing capacity of about .".000; four horsebams; 
pens for sheep and hogs ; new floral hall ; secre- 
taries' office : water works, witli water piped all 
over the grounds: poultry house, and horticul- 
tural building. The total valuation of the 
grounds and buildings is !f25.000. 


Within recent years some of the features of 
the fairs have been the horse and cattle shows. 
In 1916 the saddle and driving horse show at 
night was an especially enjoyable feature. Some 
of the best horses in tlie country were shown. 
The track in front of the amphitheater was bril- 
liantly lighted by electricity and large crowds 
were in attendance. The exhibits of live .stock, 
including sheep, hogs, horses and cattle, and 
the poultry exhibits were especially good. Other 
exhibits of interest were of farm machinery, 
automobiles and agricultural products. 


It would be almost impossible to overestimate 
the influence and importance of these annual 
fairs. The old idea of social be- 
tween the .Tgriculturalists of various sections 

has not been forgotten, but there is now a deeper 
and more urgent cause for their support and 
encouragement. Xo one man can live entirely 
to himself. No matter how intelligent or 
capable he may be he needs to have the assist- 
ance of others in order to expand. He must 
give forth his own ideas, and absorb others, or 
he will retrograde. While many are able to 
visit larger expositions, some cannot, and then 
too the local pride is absent at the international 
exhibits, that is to be found in every county 
gathering. The farmer visiting such a fair can 
not only see what his neighbors have accom- 
plished but view the latest machinery and ap- 
Iiliances ; learn of new methtKis, and usually 
listen to the views of .some expert on agriculture. 
If his own exhibits take a prize or receive 
honorable mention, he is encouraged, and if not, 
he goes back filled with the determination to so 
improve his methods as to gain such distinction 
in the near future. Perhaps no one factor has 
played so important a part in the development 
of the agricultural interests of the county as 
tiiese> county fairs, and their exixinsiou shows 
that their promoters are aware of this fact and 
areStriving'to give the people who attend some- 
thing li^tter each succeeding year. 








Bement Township is bounded on the north by 
Monticello Townsliip. on tlie east by Champaign 
County, on the south liy I'nity Township, and 
on the west by Cerro (iordo and Willow Branch 
townships. It contains forty-eight sections of 
land, and is divided by a ridge that runs across 
the northwestern corner so that it is com))osed 
of both high and low land. This fact of a 
portion of the township being so low. and there- 
fore subjected to inundations at icrtain portions 



of the year, caused settlement in the south of 
the towushi]! to be dehi.vetl for some .vears. Of 
course that hmd is now accounted as being 
some of the most valuable in Piatt County, since 
it has been properly drained, and the erstwhile 
swamps converted into rich bearing farm lands. 
The Sangamon drains the extreme northwestern 
part of the township, but the remainder is 
drained by the hake Fork of fhe Okaw. 


It has been decided that William Bailey was 
the first settler of Benient Township, not com- 
ing here, however, until 1S.53 or 1854. .Vnother 
who arrived soon thereafter was John Hughes. 
Joseph Moore, Smith Quick, Joseph Rodman, 
J. H. and J. M. Camp and Thompson and 
Marion Pettit were other early settlers. Some 
who came a little later were as follows : Charles 
Smith. Mr. Pitkins. Mr., S. B. Wing, the 
Alvoids, A. J. Force, the Hawks, and W. C. 
Tralme. After the building of the Wabash 
Railroad through Bement Tomiship, other .set- 
tlers came in rajiidly. and progress was rapid. 


The village of Bement is located seven miles 
souHi of the county seat, and has a population 
of ],">:'.0. being a very jirosperous community, 
with some very substantial residents. 

In 1S.")4 Josejih Bodman bought 0,000 acres 
of land in Piatt County, and through his in- 
fluence and generosity, Bement came into being, 
his efforts being seconded by L. B. Wing and 
Henry P. Little, who also contributed land for 
the purpose, and the town of Bement was laid 
out ill 1.S54. That same year Mr. Wing dis- 
posed of thirty-three acres of land in section 
19. to Hunt & Carter who were agents for the 
Great Western Railroad, for the sum of one 
dollar, thus furthering the advancement of the 
town, as the railroad buildings were erected 
upon this land, as well as some of the business 
houses. -Associated in the work of laying out 
the town with the three gentlemen mentioned 
above were Joseph Mallory, Sullivan Burgess 
and James Br.vden, and later an addition was 
made to the town by these men. The record of 
the town plat bears the date of .January. 18.5.5, 
and was entered by Josiali Hunt. 

Joseph Bodman, J. H. and J. M. Camp. Wil- 
liam Ellis and Thompson and Marion Pettit 
became the original settlers of Bement. In 
order to have a lodging place for the men work- 

ing upon the first residence of the new town, 
Joseiih Alvord moved a log house that was stand- 
ing on Dr. Rodman's farm, to the site, and 
there housed the workmen. It was he who 
hauled the first lumber for this first house. .\s 
it is of importance as being the first building 
to be erected in Bement, its location is of in- 
terest. It stood just west of the present Chris- 
tian Church, and was owned by Joseph Bodman. 
but was occupied by .Joseph Xye and his wife 
when completed, and in it they kept a boarding 
house. After they left it, a Mr. Criiipen took 
up the business of providing food and shelter 
for those engaged in putting up other buildings 
in the town. The second house was also owned 
by Mr. Bodman. and he also had built a small 
office building, which had the distinction of 
being the first business house of Bement, and 
was used for various purposes including that of 
depot until 18.5(!. 

The third house was oc-cupied by Mr. and 
Mrs. Force, who came from Monticello to Be- 
ment in the spring of 1S5G. The Yosts also 
arrived that same spring, but later moved to 
a farm in Bement Township. F. E. Bryant 
became a resident of Bement in ISoC, and he 
opened the first store, and established a grain 
business. It is thought that a dance held in his 
warehouse was probably the first public euter- 
taiiiiiient of Bement. 

I'litil Bement was made a office the mail 
was brought to Jlontieello. and there dis- 
tributed, liut this .state of affairs was not sat- 
isfactor.v. and the government appointed Joseph 
Bodman the first ])ostmaster of Bement, and he 
held that office for some years. The following 
article on the Bement post office is so interesting 
that it is quoted in full. It is taken from the 
Decatur Review under date of November 1, 


"The post office at Bement, 111., was est^ih- 
lislied January 23, 18.56, with Joseph Bodman 
as postmaster. His successor was P. E. Bryant, 
who was appointed July 7, 18-57. Mr. Bryant's 
successor was J. O. Sparks, who was appointed 
October 18. 18.58 and was succeeded by George 
L. S|jear. who was ap]ioiiiteO April 20, 18G1. 
under the administration of President Lincoln. 

"On October G, 18G5, Sereno I^. Bodman, a 
nephew of the first postmaster, Joseph Bodman. 
was appointed to succeed Judge Sjiear and held 
the office until his .successor, Chester School- 



craft, whose appointment was made October 12. 
l.SiiG, took cbarge of the office. 

"Mr. Schoolcraft was succeeded hy Sereno 
K. Bodman, who w^as the first 'come-back' 
occupant of the office, being reappointed March 
31, 1860, under the a<lmini.stration of President 

"On .Tilly 1, 1884. the office was advanced to a 
tliird class or presidential office, and on .July 4. 
lS-84. Frank X. Jones was appointed to the office, 
Mr. Bodman retiring after a continuous service 
of more than fifteen years. 

"Mr. Jones was succeeded by John MeXamee, 
who was appointed by President Grover Cleve- 
land, March 22. 1887. He 'came back' and 
succeeded Mr. MeXamee under appointment 
by President Harrison, July 1, 1891. 

"William B. Fleming was the successor of 
Mr. Jones under appointment made by President 
Cleveland. January 2."!, 1800. Fleming was suc- 
ceeded liy Horace Haldeman, prominent in 
business and political activities of the' commu- 
nity, who was apix)lnted June 29, 1900, and was 
succeeded by George M. Thompson, who was 
named January 11, IOO.0. and was succeeded 
b.v W. (3. Oloyd, the present incumbent, ap- 
pointed by President Wilson. August 1. 1013. 

"In all twelve postmasters have served the 
office since its establishment, and of the ex- 
postmasters. MeXamee. Jones, Fleming and 
Thompson are living. F. E. Siiear. a son of 
Judge George L. .Spear, former postmaster, is a 
rural carrier from the office to which his father 
was appointed in 1.8()1. 

"Fi-ank A. Jones, flic first presidential aj)- 
pointee, now a resident of Tallapoosa. Ga., and a 
rural carrier from the post office in that city, 
was a veteran of the Civil war, and was 
literally shot to pieces on the firing line. He 
was informed by a hospital surgeon at one time 
that he had hut a few hours to live, Ijut Jones 
says that he absolutely refused to die, marched 
'uji the avenue' in Washington at the close of 
the war in 1865, and fift.y years afterward 
marched with the veterans over the same route 
during the national encampment of the G. .\. H. 
in Washington. D. C. in 1915. 

"Tlie somewhat limited e(|uipment installed 
b.v Postmaster Jones on taking charge of the 
office in 1S84 descended (for a consideration) 
from i)ostmaster to jiostmaster. until it was 
displaced by a new and modern equipment In 
an office leased by the department for ten years 
from December 15, 1015. 

"Three rural routes are served from the office, 
which is modestly claimed to be one of the best 
of Its grade in the nineteenth congressional 
district. Since the present postmaster. Judge 
W. G. Cloyd, has been in charge of the office, 
the liusiness has greatly increased. He is mak- 
ing a record for efficiency and jirogressiveness 
and his many accommodating acts for the 
patrons have made him one of the most popular 
men that has ever held the office." 


It is interesting to note that the i)loneers were 
healthy, for Bement was two years old before 
death visited the little community, the victim 
being a child of Mr. James who died in 1856, 
and was burled near the Haldeman mill. 

In lS.">ii Bement celebrated its first marriage, 
the occasion being the union of Thomas W. Bane 
and Martha W. Iladshall. the ceremony taking 
place in the home of Aaron Yost. 

In reviewing the history of that early day. 
lierhaps no better account can be obtained than 
that to be found in the entertaining record com- 
piled by Miss Piatt, which runs as follows : 

"Mrs. Yost says that the first she knew of 
the public square. Mr. Alvord took her father 
and mother. Mr. and Mrs. Stanton. Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Booth. Mr. and Mrs. Force, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Yost, saying, 'Xow ladies and 
gentlemen, I will take you a drive around the 
public square,' and they, with laughter and 
.jokes, went around the present public square, 
which then was but staked out. T. P. Pettit 
thinks that the sermon in the town was 
lircaehed by Mr. Samuel Harshbarger. in the 
depot, and that Mr. Huston was the first sta- 
tionary minister. The first hotel of the place, 
the .Sherman House, was built in 18,57, and 
until the erection of the elegant Masonic build- 
ing, stood on the main business street of the 
town. It now stands to the rear of the Masonic 
building. John Townsend built it and kept the 
hotel lor a time, until his death, when his 
widow undertook the supervision of the same. 
In the spring of l.S,5S, James McDowell came to 
Bement and with Mr. Thomas Postlethwaite 
erected the hotel known as the Pennsylvania 
House. This biiilding is still standing, and, 
und(>r the name of the Bement House, is kept 
by its worthy projirietor, Mr. Royal Thomas. 
Mr. C. F. Tenney moved to Bement in 1850, and 
says that at that time Mr. Bryant's was the 
only dry goods .store in the place. There were 



no sidewalks, the streets were not graded, aud 
there was not a tree In the town. There were 
just enoiish hidles In the town who danced to 
form one set. School aud sometimes church 
was held in a house built by Mr. Harper. Mil- 
mine & Bodmau had the first bank of the town ; 
Freese & Co. the second ; Fisher & Gregory the 
third; and Bryant & Bodman the fourth. The 
first three of these were in a building iu which 
the 'Benient (Ja/.ette' ofiice is now located, but 
the building then stood on the present site of 
D. S. Cole's shoe store." 


Bement has put in over $17,000 worth of 
paving, aud it has a Hue water works system 
installed in l.Siu;, which gives the city au un- 
limited supply of pure water. Other improve- 
ments are proposed for the near future, for its 
people are jirogressive aud an.xious to keep the 
eomiiiunily up to a high standard. 


'i'he Methodists have a flue representation at 
Bement, their organization dating back to ISSS 
when the society was founded by Rev. Edward 
Itutledge, who was the first pastor. The first 
meetings were held in .1 schoolhouse and then 
in Bryant's Hall, until a church edifice was 

While the lOpisKipalians liad a church organ- 
ization at Bement, known as the Church of the 
Atonement, it was abandoned twenty years ago. 

The Christian Church was established in Jan- 
uary. 1S02, at the residence of William Monroe, 
but it did not have a church edifice until later. 

The I'resbyteriau Church of Bement^ was 
established August 2!), lS(i8, with Rev. Thomas 
M. Chestnut as the first pastor, and a charter 
membership of eight members. In 1870 a 
church edifice was erected at a cost of $G,000, 
arid a parsonage in 1S74 at a cost of $.3,500. In 
1914 the 0I1I parsonage was replaced by one 
whicli cost $1."(00. There are af present oiJC 
members, but of the charter members only Mrs. 
Williiim Camp remain.s. William Camp has 
been one of the church trustees from the organ- 
ization of the church to the present date. Rev. 
M. C. Sbirey is the i)astor. 

St. Michael's Catholic Church of Bement. The 
first Catholic settlers came to Piatt County in 
1850, but for some years there was no definite 
church organization and tlieir .spiritual needs 
were ministered to by Father Toner, of Cham- 

paign County, 111. In 1891 the parish of St. 
Michael was established with Rev. F. G. Lentz 
as the first resident priest. Rev. E. Hawley 
succeeded Father Lentz and remained in charge 
until 1904, v*'hen Re\'. Louis Selva assumed 
charge and immediately began a movement to 
secure the erection of a church at Bement In 
1015 the present beautiful church edifice at 
Bement was c^ompleted, it having been erected 
at a cost of $19,000, all of which has been paid. 
Father Selva also has charge of St. I'hilomina 
Church at Monticello, which was erected in 


Bement was incorporated iu 1801 with Joseph 
Bodman as the first president. Among those 
who have served Bement as presidents have 
been the following: F. E. Bryant, I. I. Pettitt. 
W. S. Ryder, D. C. Miles, W^ W. Cam]), G. H. 
Barnes, N. J. Day aud Thomas Dunn, the pres- 
ent mayor being J. F. Sprague. The present 
village clerk is R. A. Richard, aud W. W. Body, 
Itichard Fleming. JI. C. Camp, Carl Thompson 
and Charles Grant are the trustees. 


When the Great Western Railroad was built, 
one of its way stations was named Xoria in 
honor of one of the owners of the road, but 
this name was later changed to Ivesdale after 
a Mr. Ives who owned c-onsiderable property in 
the vicinity. This village was laid out iu 18G7, 
on land owned by Messrs. King, Harbinson and 
Chapin, and several years later an addition 
was made by S. K. Donovan. A peculiar fea- 
ture of this village lies iu the fact that its busi- 
ness ixirtion is across the count.\' liue in 
Cliamjiaign County. The I'iatt iwrtion was in- 
cor|>orated in 1870 or 1871, and the school dis- 
trict covers both portions. The first school was 
held in a log house iu 1803, and taught by Miss 
L. White. .V post oHice was established in 1S64, 
with W. M. .Tohnson as the first postmaster. 


Otis Wiggins is the commmissioner of high- 
ways for Bement Township ; James I^audis is 
a .justice of the peace, and J. W. Coles is a 


Since ]S7"2 the following have served Bement 
Township as ineml)ers of the county board : 

' THi NtW roJJiC 

ASTOR .|B»V 01 



William Morton, J. C. Evans, C. F. Tenney, 
John Kirby, G. A. Stadler, Joseph Bodman, C. F. 
Tenney, Ferdinand Knajip, McXamee, lihoades, 
William D. Coffin, W. W. Hammond, Charles 
Adklns, L. 11. Alvord, Roy Smith, E. Walters, 
B. L. Baker, and William Hughes. 





Blue Ridge Township was probably so named 
because of the ridge, extending across the north 
and northeastern part of the township, which 
looks blue in the distance. This township Ls 
bounded on the north by McLean County, on the 
east by Champaign County, on the south by 
Sangamon and Goose Creek townships, and on 
the -west by DeWitt County. The land is 
drained by Madden's Run in the eastern part; 
by Goose Creek on the south, and Silt Creek 
ill the northwestern part. In early days there 
was not as much timber in this portion as in 
.some of the other townships, but the laud has 
always been very rich and conseciuently val- 


Two railroads run through Bhie Ridge Town- 
ship, the Wabasli and the Big Four, and they 
intersect at Mansfield. 


Owing perliaps to the scarcity of timber, this 
township was not settled as early as Monticello. 
but among the early settlers were William 
Pierce, Richard Webb, Jacob Denning, Joseph 
.\ikens. Noah Coflfman, Squire Gillespie, LaFay- 
ette Cox. James Watson, Mr. Keenan. and the 
Thomas brothers. It is generally admitted that 
the house erected by William Pierce near 
Gardners Switch was the first to tie built in 
this townshi]!. and it was near this settlement 

that the first death occurred, in 1n.">(i. when 
Dulsiua Webb passed away. The lecordeil 
birth in the township is that of Mary Webb. 
The first election was held at the Stringtown 
sehoolhouse, and as there were no aeiommoda- 
tions for the, the voters coming to exer- 
cise their right of franchise used to carry with 
them stakes which they would dri\-e into the 
ground to ' which to fasten their steeds, and 
this practice continued as late as IS.jS. This 
same sehoolhouse housed the congregation that 
listened to the tirst sermon preached in Blue 
Ridge Township, by Minor Chew. After the 
township was organized in 1S60. elections took 
place for a short period at the Littleton place 
until other arrangements could be made. 


The' city of Mansfield was named in honor of 
Gen. J. L. Mansfield, who located ou the farm 
^iu" 1870, which he laid out in a village that was 
destined to bear his name. Xot only did he 
found the town, but he was exceedingly gen- 
erous in making donations to it of land, money 
and time, and had he been longer spared, the 
growth during its early days would have been 
more rapid. Others later arose to carry on his 
work, and Mansfield today has a population of 
about 700, and is in a flourishing condition. It 
was incorporated in 1873. In 101(5 a city hall 
was erected that is a credit to Mansfield. The 
present jiresident of the village board is A. R. 

After the little settlement was organized, 
record was kept of the various events, and ac- 
cording to it, the first person born in the new 
village was Josephine Ruch, a daughter of Uriah 
Ruch. The first permanent ]ihysician was J. T. 
Tremble, who was not long afterward followed 
by Dr. Scott. General Mansfield not only pro- 
niotetl the material welfare of the place, but 
encouraged its spiritual welfare, and the first 
Sunday school was held in his dining room 
October 10, 1S70. and that same .vear through 
his influence an I'^piscopallan minister held serv- 
ice at Mansfield. This was the beginning of the 
Episcoiial Church. 


The Methodists organized a cluircli at Mans- 
field with Horatio S. Beavis as the first pastor. 
The Presbyterians bought in 1880 the church 
edifice which the United I'.rethren congregation 
had begun in 1870. The Baptists have a church 



building but no resident pastor. The German 
Baptists, tlie Churc-li of the Brethren and the 
Church of the Xazarene are all represented at 


Bhie Ridge is a shipping point for grain on 
the Wabasli Railroad, and Harri.s is another 
one on the Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Western 


J. O. Batonian i.s the coniuii.ssioner of high- 
ways for Blue Ridge Township; C. O. Gillespie 
Is a justice of the peace, and Frank Hilligoss is 
the constable. 


Since 1872 the following have served on the 
county board from Blue Ridge Township : Jacob 
Vanmeter, C. J. Gillespie, J. A. Langby, Oscar 
Mansfield, J. R. Breighton, W. H. Kirke, A. R. 
Ross, J. H. Morris, and L. J. Cope, the present 









Corro Gordo Township lies In the extreme 
southwestern part of I'iatt County, and is 
bounded on the north liy Willow Branch Town- 
shij), on the east by Bement and Unity town- 
ships, on the south by Moultrie County, and 
on the west by Macon County. It is seven 
miles wide, and eight and one-half miles in 
length, and contains fifty-nine and one-half 
sections, .\lmost all of the township was prairie 
land, there being but little timber, and with 
the exception of a slight rise in the extreme 
southwestern, and northwestern, the township 
is very flat. A small branch of the Okaw pro- 

vides the greater part of the natural drainage, 
and the land is among the best in the township 
for agricultural purposes. 


("onsidcr.ible dispute has arisen concerning 
the origin of the name, and several stories are 
credited. One is to the effect that Colonel 
Williams, one of the heavy landowners in the 
eastern jiart of the townshii) during pioneer 
days, bore the sobriquet of Cerro Gordo on ac- 
count of his valor during the Mexican War. 
The other one is that during the Mexican War, 
the name of Cerro Gordo was given to the post 
office then located in the house of George Peck. 
With the building of the Wabash Railroad, a 
settlement grew up around this post office, and 
the town was named Cerro Gordo, and from it 
came the name of the township. At any rate 
it is evident that the name was in some way 
connected with the battle of Cerro Gordo fought 
during the Mexican War. 


There are two railroads passing through the 
township, namely: Cincinnati, Indianapolis and 
Western, and the Wabash Railroad, so that the 
transportation facilities are excellent and heavy 
shipments of stock and grain are carried to the 
Chicago and St. Louis markets. 


Prior to the sudden freeze in I8?i0, a family 
l)y tile name of Cunningham located in what is 
now C«rro (iordo Township, in a grove that 
stood in the vicinity of La Place. Joseph, Isaac 
and Daniel Howell and .John Sea were the first 
settlers of the village of Cerro Gordo, and an- 
other early settler was William Lee who was 
the first to die in the township. Others who 
came into the township after the building of the 
railroads were : A. L. Rodgers. Isaac McKinney, 
Jolin Fields, William Long. William Cole. John 
Smith. Amos Peck, Doctor Prosser (first doc- 
tor), William Wells (first shoemaker) and Weed 
Woods. In the summer of 1857 a child of Tlieo- 
dore Denman died as a result of a rattlesnake 
bite and this was the first tragic death In the 
township. John Field and Samaiitha Long were 
the first couple married in the township. 


It was some time after Cerro Goixlo was 
made a station for the Wabash Railroad, that 



it was (ir^Miiizfd as a villauo. it liaviii^ liecii at 
first called (iriswold. Imt this iiaiiii' was 
clianjjcd t(i corrospond to tliat of tlic post ollice. 
CeiTo (iordo was incorporated as a village May 
■22. isr,.-). with W. L. I'itts as the first president 
of the lioard. Among those who have later 
served in the same caiiacit.v may lie mentioned: 
.1. W. Vent, A. C. Doyle, E. K. Kdw,irds, .James 
Hays, and Philip Dodson. The board for lOlG-17 
was as follows: S. I,. Landi.s, president; and 
William Loiiganecker, .V. I.. Peck, J. H. Grove, 
C. K. Voiiiii;, Xoah Dorr, and Isaac Erkenherry, 
trustee.s ; and H. C. Phillips, clerk. 

The first station agent of the place was a Mr. 
McJIurray, and Andrew McKinney was the first 
postmaster. These with A. L. Rodgers who in 
18."i(; established tlie first store, w-ere the pion- 
eers of the place. Others numhered among the 
first residents were Doctor Prosser, John Fields, 
.Tohn Garver, Isaac McKinney and a Mr. Pitts. 
It now has a population of about 900. 


Ccrro < iordo has an excellent system of water 
works which was installed at a cost of .$20,000, 
;iinl provides the village with ]iure water in un- 
limited quantity. I'pward of 22.000 feet of 
water mains have been laid, and it would ho 
difficult to find better water in any place of its 
size, or even in those much larger. Further 
improvements are in contemplation, and will he 
inaugurated in the near future. 


Cerro Cordo has not been liackward in |ii'0- 
viding for the religious welfare of its people 
from the early days wlien church services were 
held in private residences, or any 
other available audience room. The Christian, 
Brethren and Methodists all have separate 
houses of worship, and the congregations are in 
very flourishing conditions. Tlie First Brethren 
Church and the Presbyterian Church own in 
partnership a church edifice, and alternate in 
holding services in it. Suitable societies are 
maintained by all of the deiii)ininati(ms. and 
special attention is iiaid In the Siniday scliool 


The .'-state P.ank of Cerro (Jordo and the Citi- 
zens Bank of Cerro Gordo are the two lianking 
institutions which handle tlie lianking business 
of this conuniuiity aixl the territory adjacent 

to it. Some of the most reliable business men 
of Piatt County are located here, and their 
stocks are complete and varied. The Saekriter 
Hotel affords accommodations to the traveling 
jiublic. The jirofessioual men are recognized as 
lieing in the front rank of their calling, and 
the peoiile of the county are proud of the prog- 
ress^ and standing of this prosperous and flour- 
ishing village. 


In 1S7:> eighty acres of land were laid off 
into a town and named after G. W. Stoner, but 
was also called Gatewood. This Is one of the attractive of the villages of Piatt County, 
and a little stream, a branch of the Okaw, 
called Bonnie Brook runs through the i)lace. 
A hotel erected iu 1874 was the first building 
there, but others followed in quick .succession. 
Jacob Reedy, the first postmaster, and Dr. 
Pierson .ioiued with Mr. Stoner in advancing 
La Place, and it now has a population of some- 
thing less than '.'AX) peojile. There are two ele- 
vators at this point, and large shipping interests 
center here, for it is an important station with 
reference to traffic, on the Cincinnati, Indian- 
apolis and Western Railroad. 


In the fall of 1874 the Methodists organized a 
society, and three years later built a church 
edifice. This church is still maintained, and 
supplies the people of La Place with religious 


ICnos Funis worth laid out a town to which he 
gave his own name and for a time it w'as called 
Farnsworth, but when the founder sold his 
holdings to George Milniine and David Kuns, 
the name was chiinged to the present one of 
.Milniine. This village has a population of about 
200. and O. X. East and Harnman Bros, have 

Two (■liunli <irgaiiizatioiis are located here, 
the Christian and the Church of God. .\bout 
three miles south of Milniine there is .i church 
known as Prairie Chapel. 


I.itner, which was named for William Litner 
of Decatur, III., is a station on the Cincinnati, 
Indianapolis and Western Railroad. There is 
a I'liion Church at this point where services are 



held hy vMiii.iis luiulsteis whose services can 
be olitalueil from time to time. 


Iluiiow.sville is .inothei' station on tin- Cin- 
cinnati, Indianapolis and Western Railroad, lo- 
cated about two miles east of Litner. 


Cerro Gordo Township has the following' ofli- 
cials: Jesse Roberts, commissioner of highways; 
James M. Goodwin, justice of the i)eace; and 
D. M. I-acy, constable. 


Since 1S72 the following have servetl Cerro 
Gordo Township as niombeis of the county 
board: Supervisors, rliUip Dodson, Bowman, 
Pitts, Clifton, Green, Benjamin Middleton, 
Sutherland, A. M. Cole, Charles S. McIIay. Syl- 
vester Craw. B. F. Iluft', William Longanecker, 
Sylvester Criiw, P. ii. Kast, and Jacob B. Miller 
who is the present incumbent. 








Goose Creek Township lies south of Blue 
Ridge Township, west of Sangamon Township, 
north of AVlUow Branch Township, and east of 
DeWltt County, with the DeWitt County line 
forming a small portion of the nortliorn boun- 
dary as well. It CDntiiins fifty-six sections, and 
the soil is admirably ailaiitiii for larniing i)ur- 
poses. Puring pioneer d.iys. the settlers found 
ciinslderable timber in tills township, but the 
greater part of it has been cleared away. The 
natural drainage is excellent, being provided by 
(Joose and Friend's creeks, both of which are 
branches of the Sangamon River. 


The name of Creek, according to pop- 
ular acceptance, came from the fact that two 
geese had their nest.s in the tops of the trees 
along the creek that bears the name later given 
to the township. These geese were permanent 
settlers along this creek lor a number of years, 
and their jiermanency called attention to them. 


Tlie Illinois Central K.iilroad runs through Creek Township, but long before it was 
built the OIneys settled here, as did the Mar- 
(luiss brothers. William Piatt, the Welches, 
Kiibiird lluliliart. the Bondurauts and otEers. 

Do Land was laid out by Tliomas Bondurant, 
and was organized as a village in 1S72. The 
lu-csent president of the bo.ird is J. B. Boteu- 
field; Harry Bickel is clerk, and the other 
members of the village board are G. S. Walker, 
J. B. Rinehart and James D. Miller. 

De Land is correctly called "The Greatest 
Little Town on Earth." Although its jwpula- 
tion is not much over .500. support is given to 
two banks and .i niunber of flourishing business 
houses. There is a handsome Carnegie Library, 
two fine church edifices, and the village is pur- 
posing (be laying of one and one-half miles of 
pavement within the next few months. A very 
important element in the civic life of De Land 
is its Woman's Club, through whose agency the 
library was established and many reforms in- 
augurated and maintained. 


The De Land Christian Church in conjunc- 
tion with the Protestant Methodists organized 
the I'nion Church of Dc Land, but later a 
separation was effected and the Christian 
Church has since continued alone. On January 
12, ISO*;, the present luuwlsome church edifice 
was dedicated, and services have been lield In 
it continuously ever since. Tlie present pastor 
is J. >L Ice. The church maintiiins several 
.Sdcicties. inclndiiig the Christian Woman's 
Board of Missions, the Ladies' .Vid Society, the 
Christian Endeavor and a flourishing Sunday 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was organ- 
ized during or before 1880. In ]!)00 tlie present 
church was erected at an estiiuate<l cost of 

/7 /; 

i i V'.' V '.'AK 

i { 




.$20,0(Xl. Tlie prest'Ut. liastoi- is Harris Keck. 
Tbere is a present uiembersliii) of 40(1. 


Tile Woiiiaii's Chib (iT Dc I.aiul fur several 
years suiiported a lecture course at De Land, 
and appreciating the necessity for a library in 
the village, set aside the proceeds from the 
course during 1908-9 as the beginning of a library 
fund. A committee later ajipointed to false 
under consideration the establishment of a 
libniry, decided to api>eal to private individuals 
for subscriptions, and the response was so grati- 
fying that the matter was i>ut before the people 
of the township on .Vpril 4, 1911, and a measure 
was carried by a good majority voting a two- 
mill tax for the imnJose of raising the necessary 
amount for the supiiort of a free lilirary. Nego- 
tiations were then entered into with .\ndrew 
Carnegie with the result that he generously 
contributed ^S.OOO for the purpose of building 
a library to bear his name at De Land. This ' 
building. «liich was dedicated November 30,, 
1912, is 30-X47 feet, with a ba.senient arid main- 
floor. The architects were Deal & Ginzel' of 
Lincoln. 111., and the contractor was F. R. 
Krauel of Danville, 111. The building commit- 
tee was composed of the following: K. T. Me- 
Millen. .T. II. Campbell and Clyde 11. Porter. 
Tliere are now over 4.(100 volumes in the library, 
.•md all of the best magazines are to be found 
in the reading rooms. As it was found that 
the two-mill ta.x was more than sufficient for 
the purpose, the tax was reduced to one and 
one-half mills. One of the stipulations at the 
time of the establishment of the library was 
that two members of the library Ijoard were 
always to be taken from the Woman's Club. 
The lilirary is conveniently located at the cor- 
ner of Highway .Vvoiuie and Secon<l Street. 


(ioose (^reek Township has as highway coiii- 
mi.ssioner .1. L. Rorton : .1. 1\ >Iiithersi)aw is a 
justice of the peace : the constable is Fred 
Haines, while the pnundniaster is K. M. PaiTisli. 


Since 1S72 (loose Creek Towiisbiii lias lieeii 
represented on the count.v board b.v the follow- 
ing: Dennis Hondurant. Hawks. .T. H. Wood. 
John Kirby. William McMillen, .1. 11. Wood. 
John Kirby, J. H. CiimiibcU. Wiley M. Dewees. 
W. H. Dilatusli, Wiley M. Dewees. L. M. Marvel. 

S. C. Kodnian, J. Olson, and G. K. Trenchard, 
the present incumbent, who has held this office 
for several terms. 











.. .. \r-: 


While Moiiticcllo Town.ship is oiio of the four 
smallest townships in Piatt County with regaril 
to actual area, it is the most important owing 
to the fact that it is in the very center of the 
cnuiity and contains the county seat. It is 
bounded on the north by Goose Creek and San- 
gamon townships ; on the east by Champaign 
County ; on the .south by Bement Township, and 
on the west by Willow IJranch Township, and 
contains forty-eight scpiare miles. The land 
rises in a ridge in the soutliwestern part and so 
runs diagonally to the northeast so that the 
whole township is slightly rolling, and very 
beautiful. Lake Fork and the Sangamon River 
drain the townslii|). and there has never been 
very much of it submerged land. In t'lie early 
days considerable timber was found along the 
u'.itcr courses, and the soil is black loam, with 
.-I little ilay in the hills near the river. 


Tlie first settlements nf Pi;itt County were 
iii.-ide in Moiiticello Township, the pioneers being 
the Hay worths. Daggetts and Martins. 

R.\ 1 LRO.V DS. 

Two railroads, the Wabash and llie Illinois 
Central. ]iass through the township, so that it 



has excelli'iit fiicilitios for passenger and freight 
transportation, whilo the interurban service of 
the Illinois Traction makes still closer connec- 
tions between the county seat and other por- 
tions of the county. 

( ITV ()!• MOXTK KLI.O. 

In 1837. some years liefore the county of 
I'iatt was organized, the people who had locatcil 
in that portion of Macon County that later was 
to form the new division, found that it was 
Imrdensome to have to travel as far as Decatur 
for their trading, and so took up the matter 
of founding a town of their own. Abraham 
Mnrquiss. William Barne.s, Major McReynolds 
and James A. Piatt formed themselves into a 
comudttee to decide upon the most desirable 
site on the Sangamon Itiver. They selected the 
liresent site of Monticello us the one most de- 
sirable on either bank of the river, and a .ioint 
stock company was founded which bought the 
lanil, once owned by .Tames A. I'iatt, and a town 
was laid out that is now embraced within the 
confines of the county scat. On July 1, ].s;!7, 
the town was recorded. Iieing named by Ma.ior 
McReynolds after the country seat of Thomas 
.Jefferson. It was jilatted by James A. I'iatt and. 
surveyed by a Mr. .McClelland, and it would 
have been difficult for these gentlemen to have 
aiipiired a more desirable or more beantiful site 
tlian the one their judgment selected. Three 
ibiys after tlic pbif i>f the town was placed 
on record. July 4. 1s;iT. a grand barbecue was 
hebl. to which the whole surrounding country 
••ittended. and the promoters of this entertain 
ment sold .$2,700 worth of town lots. 

As the orignial plat of Monticello did not 
include the Ilayworth house, which stood for 
many years after those later built had been 
torn down, so it cannot be said to be the tirst in 
Monticello, although it was for years the oldest 
in the city, to the extension <if the 
city limits way be.vond it. Houses did not go 
up very rapidly, for the records show tliat in 
\s:;\> there were lull finir residences in llie 
original town, (be lirst liaving lieen a small 
storeliouse bnilt on a site later occupied by I)i-. 
Noecker's drug store. In it a Mr. Oass carried 
on a small mercantile business. Tlie residence 
of N'icbolas licvurc, which was (piite large for 
th:ir time, luliiu' a foui'-room hou.-ie. was long 
liiiown as tlic --old fort." .\nother early resi- 
dent was .lolni 'I'enbrookc, who kept the lirst 
tavern, and .I.imes Onttcn li.ul another resi- 

dence. .V Mr. Hull, a blacksndth, built a shop 
and ojiened it for business, and all this occurred 
before the close of 1839. 


Daniel Stickel may be regarded as the first 
regular merchant, and he established himself in 
1S41. The first druggist was J. C. Johnson and 
he was also tlie first regular iwstmaster, while 
Dr. King was the first physician. For a few 
months, during the very early forties, a law.yer 
spent a few months ;it Monticello, but foiuid the 
place so law abiding that be left. Mr. Outten's 
home was open to all the clergy, and among 
those who held services in the restricted .space 
of his home was old Peter Cartwright, who 
held a number of services during 184.1 and 1844 
ill the idurthouse. and he also organi'/.ed and 
conducted several camp meetings. 

It is interesting to readers to (|Uote the fol- 
lowing from Miss Piatt's account of the city in 

■'In is.'o (piite a good deal of luisiiiess was 
done in Monticello. In the Monticello Times 
of that date we find that T. Milligan and H. C. 
McC'omas advertised as attorneys-at-law ; X. G. 
Cofiin, Xoecker & Hull and T. Wheeler as phy- 
sicians: It. P.. Winchester as saddle & harness 
makers; Marbleston & as clothiers: J. E. 
Duncan as tailor: Young & Co. as furniture 
de.ilers; J. 11. IIollingsw(n-th. O. P.aile.v. Piatt 
& Kerr, and Uruffctt & Foster as dry goods 
merchants: J. C. Joliiisoii & Pro. as druggists: 
Dnnseth & Sbroeder as bricklayers: D. Kek- 
kelier as boot and shoe merchant: B. T. Meeks 
as hardware merchant: David Cornprost as 
grocer, and ,T()hn Painter as butcher." 

xo ( oM'ii(ivi:i!sv ovn; lor.vrv skat. 

There was never any <piestioii as to the de- 
sirability of Monticello as the seat of county 
government, so the county was spared the dis- 
sensions which have racked so many other 
sections of the state relative to tliis important 
nialter. Local jealousy lias been so fomented 
In some counties as to actually retard progress, 
and the tax jiayers have been taxed many times 
over to meet the cost of the moving of old build- 
ings from one site to another, or the erection 
of new ones to meet tlie demands of such a 
change. Piatt County Is to be congratulated 
ii|ion its freedom from these troubles and upon 
the united work of its people toward a Iiar- 
mniildus advancenicnt of ,\]| sections. 




On A|iiil 1(1, IS72, the president and lioard of 
trustees of tlie village of Montieello (■:illed a 
meeting in order to take steps for incorporating' 
it as a city. Tliese officials were J. L. Bond, 
president; Charles Watts, E. G. KiiigLt, J, M. 
Holmes and Samuel Bender were trustees, and 
W. D. 8hulz was clerk. The population was 
then l.OfiO, it now being 3.000, and a mayor and 
six aldermen were elected, as follows : Daniel 
Stickel, mayor; and Williani T. Foster, B. B. 
Jones, E. G. Knight. .1. A. Hill. .Tohn Keenan 
and James M. Holmes were the aldermen. The 
officials at [iresent are : Charles Mcintosh, 
mayor; Frank F. Miner, clerk; Ernest M. Dil- 
saver, treasurer, and E. M. Shonkwiler, at- 


During General Grant's second term of otHce 
as president of the I'nited States. Monticello 
became a second class post office, and for man.v 
years Samuel Webster was tlie postmaster. The 
present postmaster is E. C. Jloffett. lUiral free 
delivery was adopteil at Monticello in ltiO:i, and 
this office now has five rural routes. It has 
two cit.v carriers, and in all gives emjiloymcnt 
to thirteen men. The annual amount of busi- 
ness done by this post office is .$24.f)flO. 

With the incorporation of Monticello as a 
city, other Industries and business enterprises 
were established, among them being the grain 
eIe^■ator of Piatt. Hubbel & Co.. and a gristmill 
built in 1S7S by E. A. Townley & Co. In 1870 
an elevator was built liy Knight & Tinder, and 
about the same time several lumber .vards were 
established. The Sackriter Hotel affords ac- 
commodation to the traveling public. 

Monticello has long been noted for the beauty 
of its lor-ation. the neatness of its yards, the 
cleanliness of its streets, and the elegance of its 


In addition to the county buildings Monti- 
cello has the following public buildings ; The 
city hall, which was built in 1912 at a cost of 
$10,500, the money for which was raised by a 
bond issue for .$l.j.000 in mil. This building, 
which is a liamlsome brick one. contains the 
jwst office, fire department and several offices 
on the second floor which are occupied by pro- 
fessional men. The township hall was erected 

during l.s9fi.7 at a cost of $1S,00(J. This build- 
ing, which is a very pretentious one, contains 
the AUerton Library, the gift of Mr.s. Samuel 
W. .Vllerton. the opera house, which has a seat- 
ing capacity of 800, and several club rooms. 


• )n September 3, 1880, a petition was read at 
the regular meeting of the city council of Monti- 
cello, that was signed by forty-four of the 
residents, asking that steps be t^iken to secure 
an adequate water supply. A committee was 
com|K)sed of three aldermen and four citizens 
outside the council, who investigated thor- 
oughly and made the following report to the 
council on November ."i. 1889 ; 


■■.V supi>ly of water can he obtained anywhere 
in the northern portion of the city in three dif- 
ferent ways — by using the well purchased of the 
c«il conixwny, by sinking a large surface well 
fifty or se\enty feet deep, or by initting down 
two or three tubular wells about 300 feet deep. 
.Vny of these methods will furnish water in 
abundance; but for the best and purest water 
we recommend the deep tubular wells, as that 
will give the satisfactory results for the 
least money. Of the various systems of water 
works in use the combined s.vstem of direct 
pressure from the i)ump. together witli an ele- 
vated tank, would be the most durable and 
economical for our city. This system would be 
the most effecti\e in use, least expensive to 
operate, and the first cost to protect a width 
of .six blocks from north to south would not 
exceed .Sl.l.OOO. This includes sinking the wells, 
pump, tank, power house, etc., in fact, the sys- 
tem completed, tested and ready to be received 
by the city. Under the present law, owing to 
the low valuation of the city's taxable property, 
but $1.3.r)00 could he raised by bonds, five per cent 
of the valuation being the limit for which a 
cit.v can bond itself for water works. By 
raising .'>;l,."iOO additional by a special tax our 
city can be as effectively protected as any city 
can be, and In view of the helpless condition 
in case of fire at present, we believe our city 
cannot alTurd to be longer without this aid. 

"We therefore reconunend that you submit the 
question to the vote of the people, placing the 
cost at a maximum of .«:i."i.O'V). all of which Is 



iiiiiiiiiiiioiisly concurretl in by your comiiiittee. 

Signed by all members of committee : 

J. A. Bender, 
W. R. Yazle, 
K. R. Meridith, 
J. A. Brown, 
W. H. Plunk, 
G. A. Stadler, 


In s|)ite of this complete report, nothing fur- 
ther was done for a year, and then on Septem- 
ber 2. 1800. the clerk was directed by the 
council to adverti.<!e for bids for sinking a six 
inch well, and on October 15, 1890, the bid was 
let to J. W. Mohler Company at the following 
figures : 

First 100 feet, .$2.2.5 per foot ; next fifty feet, 
.«2.75 per foot, and from 150 to 500 feet, $3.00 
per foot. The well when completed was 311 
feet deep. 

The ordinance passed for bonding Monticello 
for $9,000 for the purpose of building a water 
plant on the land which contained the well that 
had been bought from H. E. Huston for $330, it 
being the east half of lots 5 and fl and all of 
block 10, in Rawlins addition to Monticello. 
These bonds were liought by Farson, Leach & 
Co.. and the contract was let to George Cadogan 
Morgan for $10,450, which included all the 
work except the pipe lines, that contract being 
let to Mueller Plumbing and Heating Company 
for .$12,890, and the plant was finally installed 
in 1S92. 

.\nother well. 209 feet in depth, was sunk, and 
the water in each well is very pure and clear. 
In 1015 a bond issue was made for $10,000 to 
further improve the water works system of 
.Monticello, and during 1910 reconstruction was 
carried on with tlie result that the city now 
has one of the best equipped plants in the state. 
The expenditures according to the reports fur- 
nished the city council, were as follows : 

Reservoir .$4.37;i44 275.00 

Razing standpipe 450.00 

Service pump 2,425.77 

Dee]) well pump 1.030.03 

Kngineers 4 percent contract price. . . . .■!8;3.04 

Less litjuidated damas 



There is one 12 inch well that is 208 feet 
deep ; one 8 inch well that is 206 feet in depth, 
and one 10 inch well that is 212 feet in depth. 


In 1S9(J the present sewerage system was in- 
stalled, which with the fine water supply makes 
.Monticello one of the best equipped cities of its 
size in the country from a sanitary standpoint. 

The tire department has an equipment that is 
adequate and there are thirteen men enrolled 
as members of tlie fire department. 


On May 2, 1873, the Monticello Cemetery As- 
sociation was organized with the following offi- 
cers: J. W. Coleman, president; H. E. Huston, 
secretary and treasurer; and W. E. Lodge, 
Charles Watts, and George F. Miller, directors. 
This association bought twenty acres of land 
about one mile north of Monticello, and had it 
laid out on modern landscape plans so that it 
is very beautiful. Intermingled with the natu- 
ral forest growth .ire many cedars planted by 
Mr. Coleman. On the highest point is a block 
devoted to the heroes of the Civil War who 
have answered the last call. Later more 
acreage was added as needed. W. F. Lodge is 
the present i)resident of this as.sociation. Other 
cemeteries in Piatt County are: Ater Cemetery, 
Croninger Cemetery, Frantz Cemeter.v, and 
Willow Branch Cemetery, beside several old 
liurial places wliich were used by the pioneers. 


As Piatt County is essentially an agricultural 
district, the business centers around those in- 
dustries connected with this branch of activity, 
but there is one concern at Monticello that has 
attained a nation-wide celebrity. The Pepsin 
Syrup Company was organized in 1893 by C. H. 
Ridgely, Dr. AV. B. Caldwell, Harry H. Crea 
;ind others for the purpose of producing Dr. 
Caldwell's Syrup Pepsin. In June, 1800, Mr. 
Ci-ea, who had secured control of the comixiny, 
sold to Allen F. Moore and A. c;. Tliomp.5on, 
the former becoming president and manager, 
and tlie latter vice president. Still later John 
F. Hott became the vice jiresident. and the sec- 
retary is John F. Thompson. Mr. Moore con- 
tinuing president and ma-nager and is treasurer 
as well. The annual output aggregates nearly 
$1,000,000 ; employment is given to eighty-seven 
people at the home plant and there are twenty- 


l,llil!.\l!V AND Ol'F.r.A IIOISK. Ml INI'U Ki.l.i > 



two men on the road. The advertising cam- 
paign costs .$200,000 annually. In 1914 the plant 
was enlarged an* made fireproof, and it and the 
beiiiitiful grounds are an ornament to Monti- 
cello. Sales are made all over the T'liited 


In ]8f)5 Hon. Samuel W. Allertou offered to 
the people of Monticello Township that if they 
would erect a suitable building In which to 
house it, Mrs. Allertou would donate a library, 
and when the proposition was put to the vote 
at the town meeting in April, it was carried 
unanimously. A library committee, composed 
of O. A. Tatman. chairman, and F. V. Dilatush, 
George F. Khodes, H. D. Peters. W. F. 
Stevenson and A. C. Thompson proceeded to 
push matters vigorously. A lot was-^mKchased 
one block north of the courthouse .squaHajiH. ^. 
Gill of Urbana was chosen as archi6d(^,_Kfiag .a," 
building was erected at a cost of .$18,000 win«i 
was ready for occupancy during t\u- earl»-»»g:U-t^ 
of 1S97. The building also inclu<Ies ah- opemi. , 
house with a seating cajmcity of SCO, a wonlan's-- 
club room and another commodious club room. 

The library room is 70.x40 feet, with a large 
circular bay window in the southwest corner, 
and it is decorated ta.stefully. There are some 
very valuable prints and reproductions of some 
of the most notable paintings. The original gift 
comprised 2.r,(tO volumes, but tJiere are now 
over s.fioo volumes in the lilirary. and there are 
in addition some very valualile pamphlets owned 
liy the association. Among other valuable vol- 
umes are a number of liound periodicals, and 
books of general reference, and all of the lead- 
ing magazines are carried. Stacks for lioldinL' 
books, of monumental iron are in the east half 
of the room ; a handsome oak counter which ex- 
tends two-thirds across the center, imrtly sepa- 
rating the reading room from that part in 
which the books are kept: library tables and 
chairs of polished oak. movable book racks, 
cases for periodicals and other handsome fur- 
nishings add to the comfort and beauty of this 
library. The library is liberally patronized and 
shows a gratifying increase annually. Miss 
Lena Bragg is the librarian, and Miss Kuth 
Marquiss is her assistant. The present library 
board is comiwsed of the following: F. V. 
Dilatush. chairman, and Mrs. G. A. Burgess, 
Mrs. Mary I. Dighton. .Tames L. Hicks, and Mrs. 
Jessie Dighton. 


The Methodist Church at Mouticello can be 
traced back to 184:^, so that it is only two years 
younger than Piatt County. The first church 
building was erected in 1851, while James C. 
Buckner was the iwstor, and later a parsonage 
was added to the north. During a remarkable 
revival held in 1857, 400 members were added, 
and an era of prosperity came to this church, 
so that improvements were made in it and the 
[larsonage. In 1SC9 the original church edifice 
was found to be too small to accommodate the 
congregations, and a new church was begun, 
tliat was dedicated the close of the following 
year, while in 1800, a new parsouage was built. 
The following have served this church as pas- 
tors: Revs. Addison Godrid, John A. Britten- 
ham. L. C. Pitner, J. C. Rucker, I. L. Green, 
W. J. Newman, Joseph Lane, A. Doncarlos, W. 
/^('•V."Ti]'Pn«^ll. C. Arnold. Miles A. Wright, Ed- 
'•;war^: Rijtledge, C. Y. Hecox, A. R. Garner, 
*I«ia^ (irove, D. P. Lyon, J. B. Honts, J. T. Orr, 
,_;.Iia Kniffe'son, W. H. H. Adams. P. C. Carroll. 
•Jti^. Fortune, Isaiah Villars. M. W. Everhart, J. 
■ *irTmtgomery. J. W. .Muse, David Gay, G. S. 
.Vlexander, E. A. Hamilton, Joseph Long, J. D. 
Fry. M. S. McCoy, J. F. Wohlfourth, Joseph 
I''o\worthy, W. S. Calhoun, J. H. Waterbury, 
.]. s. Dance.v, W. Aitken, H. H. O'Xeal, Walter 
WU'u. W. V. Gowdy, W. E. Bell, A. B. Peck, 
and W. (i. Lloyd, the present pastor. The hand- 
some new church e<lifice was built in 1911 at a 
lost of .$18,W0, while the furnishings cost 
.ST.nOii. making the entire cost something like 
*L>."i.(i(Mi, which is a very conservative figure. A 
magnificent .$2,000 pipe organ was installed, so 
that this church is one of the finest in this part 
of the state. The sesiting capacity is 300. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Monticello 
was organized on October 27. 1842, by Rev. 
Joseiib Adams. Previous to that time a Cum- 
lierland Presbyterian minister held frequent 
services in the village of Monticello, when con- 
veniences for such services could be provided. 
The .irganizatlon of this church was elTected 
with the following named persons as charter 
members: James Huston, Sarah Huston. Mary 
Neyhart. Elizabeth Young, Archibald Moffltt, 
Samuel Motntt, James J. Patterson, Anna Pat- 
terson, Hugh O'Neal and Mary O'Neal. Two 
of their number were chosen ruling elders, viz. : 
James Huston and Archibald Moffitt. 

For the first nine years of Us existence serv- 



ices were irregular, aud most of that time tbe 
chureh was witliout a iiastor. lu ISol Rev. K. 
H. Lilly came anil gathered uj* the fragments 
of the memliership and effected a re-organiza 
tlon. and held services sometimes lu the court- 
house, the Methodist Episcoixal Church building 
and sometimes at private houses. Twenty years 
later the organization was sufficiently strong to 
undertake to liuild a church house. The late 
George F. Miller, at one time sheriff of Piatt 
Ctounty, donated the site for tlie church build- 
ing. Tliey built n wooden structure o.jxGO feet 
fronting on South Charter Street, on the north 
side of lot .J, block S of out lots in Monti- 
cello. The building cost about $4,000, and the 
bell purchased for the old building still calls 
the people to worship. 

The following are the names of the several 
Iiastors who have servetl the chureh and the ap- 
l)roximate year of their coming to the same: 
IJ. H. Lilly. 1S.-)1 ; John Huston, 18.58 ; T. T. 
Kmerson, lS(i.5 ; J. IL Dinsmore, 1867; S. A. 
Iluinnier, 18G!) ; William. R. Glenn, 1873: A. F. 
Ashley, 1876; M. V. Ormsby, 1880; Rev. Coyle 
of Tennessee, 1883 ; Milton E. Todd, 1883 ; Fred 
L. Forbes, 188.'5; Maurice Waller, 18ST; Daniel 
E. Long, 18!X); Milton E. Todd, 1894: Henry G. 
(lleiser. 1S!»8: (Jeorge W. Gill, 1!>11 : Morton C. 
Long. I'tlL': I!. I'.. Fislier, 1014: Taul .1. Gilbert, 
IflKl, and the present incumbent, with an aver- 
age pastorate of three .vears and six months for 
each since ]8.")1. Reverend Coyle's pastorate 
was the shortest, while Reverend Gleiser's pas- 
torate was nearly thirteen years in duration. 
Rev. George W. fJill met a tragic death at 
Harper's Ferry. \a., wliile rescuing his son 
from being run over by ji loi-ouiotive engine in, T.I12. 

In the ye;ir l!iO;! the church began casting 
about to build a new house of worship. To 
this end it purchased lots '.) and 10 in block 11, 
of the original town of Monticello, where the 
building now stands. The work began in 190C, 
anil the church was dedicated on .Tuly 21. 1007. 
at a cost of about .$20,000. 

The working boards ;ind societies connected 
with this chunh follow : Ruling elders, C. J. Bear, 
M. R. Davidscm. William Dighton, Frank Heti- 
shee. H. E. Kaiser. tMiarles Mcintosh; deacons: 
Henry Sackriter. .Vugust Lehr and Charles Mos- 
grove; Ladies" .Vid Society. Mrs. Mary Mcintosh, 
presiilent : .Monday Evening Club, ' Miss Pearl 
Martin, president; Christian Endeavor Society, 
Robert Shonkwiler, i)resident : .Junior Endeavor 

Society, Miss Lena Bragg, president ; Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society, Mrs. Elsie lletishee, 
president ; Sunday .school .superintendent. Mrs. 
Jessie Dighton; trustee.?, William Dighton, 
Frank V. J. D. Leiper, Carl S. Reed, 
D. W. Culp and A. C. Miller. The church ha.s a 
membership of about 250 and is in a healthy 
condition. It raises in revenues on an average 
of .t!2.(i(K» a year for running expenses, and for 
the various boai-ds connected with the church. 

The Catholics have a mission at Monticello 
known as St. Pbilomena's Chureh. There is a 
little brick church edifice, built in llMiO, and 
services are held in it by jtriests from other 
parishes, usually from Bement. 

The First Christian Church of Monticello had 
its beginnings some twenty-one years ago under 
the pastorship of one of the ablest nnnisters of 
this denomination, although for some ye.irs the 
congregation worshi|)ed without any regular 
home. Then aljout 1908 or 1909, the congrega- 
tion purchased from the Baptists the grounds 
and church edifice at the corner of East Main 
and Indeiiendenee streets, where services are 
held regularly. The membership has increased 
until it now numbers about eighty. Tbe present 
t>astor is Rev. E. W. Akeman. A strong Sun- 
day school is maintained in connection with the 
church and several well organized church socie- 
ties. In 191 ."i .V. T. England made tbe church 
a jiresent of a parsonage which adjoins the 
church proi>erty on East Washington Street. 


Interesting in these days when once more our 
country is engaged in a ndghty war, is the fol- 
lowing, which apiieared throughout Piatt 
County during the exciting days of the early 
sixties. In connection with this it may be 
stated that during the Civil War Piatt County 
furnished more troops pro rata than any other 
county in the United States. 

"WAR ! WAR ! 
Tbe War is assuming gigantic proportions — 
\ regiment is to be raised in Piatt and adjoin- 
ing counties. There will be a large war meeting 
held in Monticello on 

Let all the people, men, women and children. 



turn out. GofKl speakers and music 
will be iirocured. 

.Montiffllo. July aotli. lSf,2. 



The beautiful little fit.%- of Xlonticello i.s one 
of the Important centers of this part of the 
state. AA'hile it is not wide in area, nor does 
it boast as large a population as some otlier 
conmiunities, .vet this is a distributing center for 
a wide territory, and an important slii])ping 
l)oint for many of the leading agriculturalists 
over one of the richest and most productive 
farming sections of Illinois. Its well i>ave<I 
streets, handsome public buildings, substantial 
business houses and elegant residences iirove to 
the visitor that it rightly lays claim to being 
tlie wealthiest county of its size in tlie state. 


Monticello Townsliip has W. 1 >. I'.ritton as 
township cleric: R. A. GrilHth as assessor; 
Harley Harris as collector; Charles Yoekey Is 
a highway conupissiouer ; L. M. Taylor is a jus- 
tice of the iwacc: and William Wildmau is a 


Since ISTl! the following have served Monti- 
cello on tlic county board: Daniel Stickle. An- 
drew Deightou. .John Tiatt. W. G. Wack. A. J. 
Langley, L. .T. Kond. W. II. Kratz. Pitts. W. II. 
Kratz. John Bender. (Jeorge A. Stj\dler. ('. A. 
Tatman. C. .J. Bear. C. A Tatm.-ui. \V. V. Steven- 
son. E. E. Moffett, H. P. Harris. .John Bender. 
A. J. Pike, and when he resigned Cliarles Watts 
was appointed to complete his term, and Ko,\ 
II. .Tones, v.lio is the present incumbent. 





Sangamon Townshii) is Ijoundeti on the north 
by Blue Ridge Townslii|i; on the east by Cham- 
paign Cnuiity: on tlie south by -Monticello 
Township, .unl mj tlic west by Goose Creek 
Townsliip. iind contains forty-eight sections of 
land. As this township is drained by the 
Saugamou River. Camp Oi-eek and Madden's 
Run. it in an early day contained considerable 
timber, and the soil is very fertile, so that there 
are many valuable farms in this section of the 
county. Three railroads run tbrougli the tciwn- 
ship, giving it unusual trans|K)rlation facilities, 
tliey being branches of tlie Illinois Ccntnil, the 
Wabash Railroad and tlie Illinois Traction Sys- 


Sangamon Towushiii was one of the first to 
1)0 settled in Piatt CiMuity, this portion being 
very attractive to the pioneer, who naturally 
in loniting in the wilderness looked for two 
necessary sources of supply— water courses an<l 
timber— from which he could obtain much that 
he needed in a new land. Among the earliest 
of these settlers were the Ingrams, Uanliues, 
Wrights. Souders, Oulerys, Maddens, Mackeys, 
Coons, and Argos. It is conceded that a child 
born to Mr. and Mrs. .\.ndy Wright was the 
first while child Imni in this townshiii. 


The oldest community in the township was 
Centerville. which was founded l>y .\rihibald 
Maffett. who erected its first house, and resided 
in it. prior to 1S40. About 15*42, Samuel Maflfett 
and Thomas Xewcll. yielding to a demand for 
sucli a mill, built a sawmill, and soon thereafter 
added a gristmill, anil jieoplc c.imc to them from 
a wide territory, for in those days there were 
few mills, and all of the [iroducts used on the 
table or f<u- building pnriwses were home iiro- 
dviieil. Samuel French sjiw an opportunity to 
start a blacksmith sho]) about this time and «ir- 
ried on a profitable for a number of 
years. It is a notice-able fact that in the records 
of any of these pioneer settlements, the black- 
smith is one of the first business men to open a 
shop, aiipearing oflentimes before the merchant, 
for the settlers could raise their food, and get 
along for a time without new clothing, but they 
had to have their horses shod, and rei>airs done 
on their w.igons and few implements. It was 



not, liowever, until 1850 that tlie town was laiil 
off and the name of (Vnterville given to it, at 
which time a i)ost otlice was estaWislied, and 
called by that same name, and a Mr. Yonng 
apiiears to have been the first iwstmaster. Old 
residents of .Centersille remember the time 
when Centerville was called LicksUillet, that 
name having been given the settlement by a dis- 
gruntled old man who lived outside of it. At 
the present time Centerville is practically aban- 
doned as a village, although ('. H. Mackey con- 
ducts a general store at this point. 


.\liout 1872 Porter Heath bought the land on 
wliich stands the present village of White Heath 
from Frank White, in the interests of a stock 
company, and the name is a happy combination 
of the names of these two gentlemen. From all 
accounts the first house in the place was built 
by .Tames Webster, who became the first post- 
master after the government made White Heath 
;i iwst office. Tlie first hotel, in which a .store 
was opened, was erected by a Miss Frank and 
Vin. Williams. W. H. .Tones conducts a liard- 
ware store ; William Murray lias a general 
store, and there are other business interests 
centered here, although there is no village or- 
ganization. The private hanking of S. L. 
Sievers & Co. affords hanking accommodations 
for tiie shipijers and the agriculturalists in the 
adjacent territory. The United Brethren and 
the Methodists are reiiresented at White Heath, 
and services are held in the churches ownetl by 
both denominations, although at ]>resent there 
.-ire no resident pastors. 


\\lien the Waliash Railroad made a shipping 
point on the land owned by Rnfus Oalef, the 
station was called after him, but later Mr. Calef 
opentHl a store and built a which wa.s 
occupied by John Donlan. and in ISTfi had the 
name changed to (Jalesville in honor of his 
mother, whose maiden name was Gale, and this 
name was given to the post office, established 
in that same year. Wilbur Alvord was the 
first postmaster and held office for a number of 
years. .\t present Galesville is a milroad cross- 
ing. The elevator at Galesville is operated 
under the firm name of I{. H. Jones and Co., 
and Ora O. Pike has a general store. 

In loriner years a post office was located 
.■I bout half a mile below the crossing of the 
Chicago division of the and Havana 
branch of the same road, and named Woods in 
honor of the sui^erinteudent of the Chicago di- 
vision of the Wal>ash road. Later on, the post 
ollice at Lodge was moved to Woods, and the 
post office department ruled that the former 
name should be retained for the combined 
offices, and so the station is known as Lodge to 
the pre.sent day. There i§ an elevator at Lodge 
operated by R. H. Jones and Co., and Ij. Mc- 
ICinley conducts a general store. 


Sangamon Town.slilp has the following town- 
shi)) officials : John Luscalett, commissioner of 
bighways; Joseph Close, .lustice of the peace, 
and James Pryke, constable. 


Since 1872 the following men have repre- 
sented Sangamon Township on the county 
hoard : J. C. Heath. Isaac Richbark, H. R. 
I'alef, William Mosgrove, J. H. Cline, A. J. Pike. 
J. C. Heath, W. A. Plunk. J. L. Foster, J. C. 
Heath. Mack Branch. Earl Deland, Jesse Foster, 
lOarl Deland, R. W. Plunk and Bryon Thompson, 
I be present incumbent. 



ItorND.iRIES — M01:M> builders — BAILROAnS — 







One of the oldest settled townships in the 
coinity. I'nity Township from a historical iwint 
of view is very interesting. It is equal in size 
to either Bement or Montieello, although its 


^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 






'~~ ^^^B 




k I 1 ^H 





lx)pulatiou is less, aud is bouiicled on the north 
by Benieut Township; on the east hy Doui;las 
County; on tlie south by Moultrie County, and 
on the west by Cerro Gordo Townsliiii. The 
drainage is effected by means of the Lalce Fork 
of the Olvaw River, and alons this stream in 
early daj-s a considerable amount of timber was 
found. The slope of the land is towaitls the and southeast, although it rolls very grad- 


In Unity Townshii) ;ire to l>e found relics of 
the mound builders, the only part of Piatt 
County where there are traces of this perislied 
race. Mornids three feet in lieight and two 
rods in circumference are on the banlvs of Lalie 
Forlf, on the farm owned by Jalie Odensten and 
on them immense trees are growing, sliowitig 
that these mounds have been undisturbedi,fol; 
many generations. Not only hJive stone axes and 
arrow points lieen found in tliis vicinitj-, Mit 
excavation into the mounds resulted in J:he"djgf 
covery of human bones. "■" •-.^-. 


T'uity Township has two railroads, the 
Wabash Railroad and the Cincinnati, Indian- 
apolis & Western Railroad, so that this section 
is in easy reach of the great markets of the 
middle west. 


.\mong the earliest .settlers of Unity Township 
were the Monroes, Shonkwilers, Harshbargers. 
Moores and James Utterbaek. all of whom lo- 
cated on the U\\^e Fork during 1S3G and IS.'iT. 
Others who came a little later were the Quicks, 
Crains, Gregorys, Wildmans, Joseph Rhodes, 
Thomas Blaekwell, John H. Easton, George 
Wiley, John P.utler, Wesley Reed Bucks. Lucas 

To quote from the eminent authority already 
referred to, Miss I'iatt, some of the interesting 
items regarding Unity Township in the early 
days were as fnllows : 

"Mr. Daniel Ilarshbarger was the first per.-ion 
to make a profession of religion and the first 
person who was baptized on Lake Fork. Mrs. 
Gamaliel Gregory was the first person born In 
Unity Township. Harrison and Jessie Monroe 
were the first who died within the limits of 
t'nlty Township. They were buried on the 
banks of Lake Fork. Mr. and Mrs. I>.inirl 

Harshbarger's twins were prolcably the first who 
were Ijuried in the Ilarshliarger cemetery. This 
cemetery, which contains two or three acres of 
ground, was deeded to the public by Mr. Daniel 
Ilarshbarger. Mr. Joseph Taylor and Sarah 
.Monroe (now .Mrs. Tliomus (jood.son) were mar- 
ried in 1S38, on the site of Richard Monroe's 
present home, :ind were the first couple married 
in the township. Mr. Daniel Harshbarger was 
the first .instice of the peace of Unity Township, 
and Jonathan Wildnian the first .schoolteiicher. 
Coflins for the dead were made by the neigh- 
bors of the deceased. Mr. Joseph Moore has 
an old drawing knife which he u.sed many a 
time to make coffins. Mr. Monroe says that it 
was twelve years after the first settlements 
were made in the township before there were 
any bridges over the Lake Fork or before there 
was a blacksmith shop in the neighborhood. 
Before hlacksmithing was done it was customary 
to' fnit buckskin boots on the horses for them 

• to sliOe over the ice with." 

■• • > ■. 
' ■ '• *# 

** *'^Xr > MACKVILLE. 

Iir'"a"Vcry early day a Mr. McXutt bought 
three acres of land of Xathaniel Shonkwiler, 
and built a store, later owned by James Samp- 
.son. .Vbout this store sprung up a little settle- 
ment, that was first called Mack's village, and 
later Maekville. The first school of the iilace 
was kept in a log housfe and taught by Mrs. 
Shonkwiler, a widow, and in 1S58 James Lewis 
was the first teacher in the first schoolhouse. 
In this same schoolhouse, the first religious 
services of Maekville were held. Maekville is 
numbered among the abandoned villages of 
I'iatt County. 


llamMKiml is one of the older cities of Piatt 
County, having been laid out in July, 187:?. It 
has had several names, first being called Shum- 
way. then Unity, but neither suiting the resi- 
dent-s the owners of the land finally gave the 
place of Ilanunond, in honor of the president 
of the Indianai>oIis. Decatur & .<pringfielii R;ill- 
riiad. on whiili it was located. .\ grain office 
w;is the first building of Hannnond, and was put 
up b.v a Mr. Sanford of Bement, and he also 
erected a residence which was later included 
in a hotel kept by John Tenbrooke, whose wife 
cooked the first meal eaten in the new village. 
For many years J. R. Wortham, the raer- 
iliant. I'ontiiiueil in business. J. M. Baldwin 



beiii? the second in tliut lino. The first post- 
uiiistei- was JI. I>. fook, who wa.s also the first 
(liu^'S,'ist ; W. I{. Evans was the first grain mer- 
chant and Iiardware dealer; while George Hag- 
land was the first blacksmith, and Dr. Arbaui 
the first i)h.vsician. The first tow mill in the 
count.v was liuilt and o|)erated at Hammond by 
(;. \V. Fdlkerth. llamnioiid was incorporated as 
,1 \illage May 2(1, ISliO. with T. J. Ivaizer as 
the first iM-esideut of the village board. The 
president of the hoard is (". .\. Bul.van. while 
William E. Fisher. .Jr., is acting Clerk. The 
other members of the hoanl are \V. R. Evans, 
L. T. Kaizer, Fred Deuard, Fred South and 
Jjimes A. A'ent, The Church of Christ, the 
H.iptists and Methodists are repre.sented al 

When the I'ierson station was established on 
the Indianapolis, Decatur & Springfield Rail- 
road, in l.STii, it was named in honor of a Mr. 
Pierson wIki nwned considerable land in that 
locality, and in the year following the post 
ottice was established, but given the name of 
Dry Ridge. This name was later, howevei', 
changed to Pierson, which it still retains. The 
first man to hold the oHlce of postmaster was 
Francis F. Flack, while Reuben Willey was the 
second in oHice. The village was not laid out 
until May. ISSl. when it was surveyed by (". D. 
.Moore, the laud then being (iwueit by W. C 
I'ierson for wliom it had been named. Pierson 
has practically become a rural conuuuuity. 


The beginning of .\twood was the erection of 
of a mill run by horse power, by Christopher 
Mos.sbargar, and with it he ground corn for his 
neighbors. In IST.'i, .\twood was laid out, the 
old horsc'-niill site being included in the plat, 
although the land was then owned by Cc(M-g(^ 
Xoliiid and Harvey Otter, and in 18S1 an addi- 
tion was made to it. The origin of the name is 
another instance of local conditions being re- 
si>onsible for nomencLaturc of i)laces, for in tlu' 
lieginning this settlement was known .is tlic 
one at the wood, which finall.v became .Vtwocxl. 
.\twood lies in two counties, Douglas claiming 
one portion, and Piatt the other, .\niong llie 
early settlers were I.. C. Taylor, the first post- 
master: Dr. Pennerfield, the first physician: 
.Tolin Lucas, the first druggist ; .Tosei>Ti Moore, 

the first hotel owner; Richard Helton and David 
Hai'rett, the first owners of residence proi>erty ; 
and Clarence Snodgrass, whose death Decem- 
ber 14. lS7o, was the first in the village. 

.Vtwood was organized as a village in 1S73, 
and incorporated as a city in 1883, with Harvey 
otter as its first mayor. Others who have 
served Atwood ,is mayors during succeeding 
years have been: William Moore, V. Oaretl 
and William Hamilton. The iiresent mayor is 
i:. C. Berger. 


.Vtwood has an electric light jilant which cost 
between .'JiS.tXIO and .$0,0(10, 


The township high .school of Atwood is an 
Institution of whicli not only Atwood, but Unity 
Township is deservedly jiroud. The school is 
one of the finest in this part of the state, and 
cost .$50,000. It is a two-story structure, con- 
taining twenty rooms, and the grounds embrace 
five acres. Owing to a .$30,000 loss occasioned 
b.v fire during the course of construction, the 
structure was delayed but will be comjileteil in 
Sejttendier, 1017. 

The Odd Fellows building at Atwood is one 
of the finest structures of the village, having 
been jiut uj) in 180."i. There are 102 members of 
this lotlge. which was established in 1SS9. Prob- 
,ibly this order is the strongest of any other 
fraternity in Piatt County, and Atwood Lodge 
is one of the most imjiortant. 

The First Christian Church of Atwood, one 
of the strong religious organizations of the vil- 
lage, has a present meniber.ship of 114 members, 
and Rev. Robert Harris is the i)resent i)astor. 


lOlnier Eskridge is highway commissioner of 
I'nity Township; .\. .M. Newhouse is a justice 
of the jieaee ; and liavid Vakey is a constable. 


since l.sTJ the following have served on the 
county board for Fnity Township: Theodore 
<;ross. .1. W. Sn.vder. Samuel Ilarshberger, .7, A. 
Il.iwks. W. F. Moore. .1. W. Hamilton, E. S. 
Keener. .T. A, Osier. .1. A, A'ent, W. R. Evans. 
W. Fislier. and II. II, Wildman, tlie present in-