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Those published bg H. Vaiesius^ L IthodomarmuSf mid F. Ursinns. 





• • • •- 


yrioM by W. M*DowaD, rembertoo Re ^, Gough Square, Pkct Street* 









leot _ 

: /i/\. 




HAVING^ throughout the whole work^ used the common and ac* 
customed liberty of an historian^ we have both pnused the good, and 
condemned the bad, as they have {alien in our way, to the end that 
those whose genius and inclination prompts them to virtue may be 
the more encouraged to noble actions, in hopes of having the glory 
of their names continued to all succeeding generations; and, on the 
other hand, that they who are bent to wickedness may be curbed aii4 
restrained from the heat, at least, of their impiety, by those marks of 
dishonour and disgrace fixed upon them. 

Since, therefore, we have brought down our history to the times 
wherein the Laced^Bmonians fell by the sudden and unexpected 
slaughter at Licuctra, and the like again not long after at Mantinea^ 
whereby they lost the sovereignty of Greece, we judge it part of our 
province to keep close to the former course and method of writing, 
and tlierefore by the way in the first place to blame and reprehend 
the Lacedaemonians, who justly deserve it: for who cannot but judge 
them worthy of censure, and that justly, who, having a well-settled 
empire and government descended to them from their ancestors, and 
by their valour supported and defended for the space of above five 
hundred years, should now in a moment ruin it by their own folly 
and imprudence? For they that were before them preserved the 
grandeur and glory of their conquests by their lenity and tenderness 
towards their subjects; but these, their i)Osterity, by their cruelty to 
their confederates, and pride and ambition in making war upon the 
Greciaas, most deservedly lost all by their rashuess and inconside- 
ntencss. For, those that hated them for the injuries they had bc^ 

YoL.2. No. 40. M 



fore suffered, greedily took the advantage, now they were ]ow> to re- 
venge themselves on them as their enemies. And they, whose fore- 
fathers were never before conquered, were so much the more despised, 
by how much they deserved the greater contempt, who, by their vices, 
bad stained the virtue and glory of their ancestors. 

The Thebans, therefore, (who for many ages before were forced 
to stoop to them as their saperiors), having now (beyond all men's 
expectations) conquered the Lacedsemonians, were made chief com-* 
manders of Greece : ^ but the Lacedaemonians, after they had once 
lost their hold, could never after recover their antient glory and 
dignity. But, enough of this; we sliall now return to the course of 
our history. 

The preceding book, the fourteenth in order, ends with the rum 
of Rhegium by Dionysius, and the taking of Rome by the Gauls, 
which happened the jrear next before the expedition of the Persians 
into Cyprus, agains^Evagonis. We shall here begin this book with 
that war, and end it with the year next preceding the reign of Pliilip, 
the son of Amyntas. 


drtaxcrxcs's expedition against Evagoras, in Cyprus. The actioiii 
there at sea and land. Tlie Lacedaemonians begin new quanrls 
in Greece: asjirst with Mantinca. Dionysius gives himself to 
poetry. Peace concluded with Etmgoras by Orontas the Persian 
general. Teribazus brought to his trial. Judgment uptm cor*' 
rupt judges. Teribazus acquitted* 

IN Athens, Mystichides nns archon; and at Home, three tribunes 
were invested with consular authority, Marcus Furins, Caius, and 
JEmilius, when Artaxerxes, king of Persia, began his expedition ar 
gainst Ei'agoras, king of Cyprus* The king had spent much time in 
preparation for the war, and raised a great number of forces both 
for sea and hind from all parts : for his land-army consisted of thret 
lumdred thousand horse and foot; aod he equipped a fleet of above 


three hundred gallies. Orontas was made general of the land-army^ 
and Teribazus, a man highly bonotfred among the Persians^ admiral 
of the fleet. These headed their armies at Phocea and Cuma^ 
and descended to Cilicia^ and from thence passed over to Cyprus, 
where they very vigorously bestirred themselves for the carrying on 
of the war. 

In the mean time Evagoras entered into a league with Aeons, 
king of Egypt^ who supplied liim with a great number of men, being 
liimself then at war with the Persians. He was also privately furnished 
with money by Hecatomnus, the governor of Caria, to help him to 
hire foreigners. And several other enemies of Persia, some secretly, 
others openly, confederated with him in the war. He had, likewise, 
many cities of Cyprus under his command^ with whom joined Tyre 
in Phcenicia, and other places. Moreover, he had a navy of ninety 
sail, of which twenty were from Tyre, and the rest of Cyprus. His 
land-army consisted of six thousand of his own subjects, but those 
from his confederates were many more ; besides, being richly sup- 
plied by them with money, he hired abundance of mercenaries* 
And the king of Arabia, and other princes, who were jealous of 
the king ol' Persia, sent him great forces. Being thus supported^ he 
gpplted himself to the war with great courage and resolution. 

And, in the first place, with his privateers (of which he had many) 
lie intercepted the enemy's transport-ships, laden with victuals and 
provisions, and sunk some, disabled others, and took several besides; 
so thai there began to be great scarcity and want of corn in the Per- 
sian camp, in regard the merchants durst not sail to Cyprus, where 
that great army and body of men were got together. And this oc* 
casioned a great mutiny in the army; for the mercenaries, for want 
of bread, knocked some of their officers on the head, and filled the 
camp with mutiny and tumult to such a degree, that the Persian 
colonels, and admiral of the fleet, called Gaos, could scarcely quell it. 
The fleet, therefore, was sent toCilicia for provisions, which returned 
with a great quantity of corn from thence, by which the camp was 
ever after plentifully supplied. But, as to Evagoras, Acoris sent to 
him, out of Egypt, money, corn, and all other things necessary, suffi- 
cient for his occasions, 

Evagoras, finding that his navy was far too weak for the enemy, 
furnished out threescore .ships more, and sent for fifty besides from 
Acoris, so that now he had a fleet of two hundred sail. And, having 
his navy thus bravely furnished and equipped ready for a battle (af- 
ter he had some time trained and exercised his men, not without 
terror to his enemies) he prepared for a fight at sea. But it hap* 
P^aed th^t, as the king's fleet passed by tgwards Citium> failing sudm 


denly upon them, in an orderly line of bstrle, he gained by far thie 
advantage, fighting in good order with ships in confusion and sepa* 
jrated, (apd with premeditation engaging with men surprised and 
taken at unawares), he presently, at the first onset, routed them: 
for, charging in a body together, upon ships dispersed and in confa- 
sioo, they sdnk and took several of them. But afterwards, when the 
Persian admiral and other officers gathered up their spirits, they 
bravely received the enemy's charge, so that the engagement grew 
very sharp, in which Evagoras at the beginning had the better; but 
Gaos with great courage bearing in upon him with his whole fleets 
the Evagoreans fled, with the loss of many of their gallies. 

The Persians, having gained this nctory, mustered both their land 
and sea-forces at Citium, where, furnishing themselves with all things 
necessary, they went jointly to besiege Salamb, and blocked it up 
both by sea and laud. But Teribazus, after the sea-fight, put over 
to Cilicia, and went to the king to bring him the news of the victory, 
from whom he brought back two thousand talents for the carrying oa 
of the war. 

Evagoras, before the fight at sea, had routed part of the enemy's 
army at land, which much encouraged him to further attempts; but, 
after his sad misfortune at sea, and that thereupon he was straitly 
besieged, bis spirits ^rew very low. However, conceiving it ne- 
cessary to continue the war, he put the supreme power into the 
bands of his son Pythagoras, and left him to defend the city, and 
be himseli privately in the uight, undiscerned by the enemy, with 
ten gallies departed from Salamis, and sailed into Egypt, where, 
having audience of the king, he endeavoured to persuade him to 
make war upon the king of Persia with all the power he had. 

While these things were on foot in Asia, the Lacedaemonians 
(without any regard to the league made) decreed to march with an 
army against Mantinea, for the reasons' following. There was now 
peace all over Greece, by the negotiation of Antalcidas, by virtue 
whereof all the cities were freed from garrisons, and governed ac- 
cording to their own laws. But the Spartans (naturally ambitious, 
And a long time contriving how to begin a war) looked upon the peace 
as a heavy burden, and (coveting to gain their antient dominion) be* 
gan to endeavour innovations. To this end, by their tools and 
creatures, they stirred up seditions in the cities, and thence took oc- 
casion to disturb the present state of afiairs. For they who were 
freed, and set at liberty to govern according to the laws of their own 
country, called them to an accounf who acted as magistrates under 
the LacedsBmonians, and, being somewhat severe and sharp, (through 
the fresh resentment of the late injuries suffered), they banished 

' dap. L DI0D0RU8 STCULU8, 

tnany: apon this, the Lacetlsmonians protected those who were de» 
pressed by the contrary faction, and restored them by force of arms, 
and by that means first imposed upon the weaker cities, and brought 
them into slavery; but afterwards they gave laws to cities and places 
of great account, uot having kept the league two years together. And 
now, because Mantinea was near to them, and full of valiant men, and 
by the peace grown very rich, they were jealous of it^ and resolved to 
bringdown the lordly spirits of those inhabitants: in the first place^ 
therefore, they sent ambassadors to them, to require them to demoUsh 
their walls, and to settle ihemselves again in those five villages from 
whence they antlentiy removed to Mantinea; but their demands be* 
ing slighted, they forthwith marched thither with their forces, and 
besieged the city. 

Upon this, the Mantineans sent ambassadors to Athens for aid, 
but the Athenians would by no means do any thing that might be 
construed a breach of the public league; so that they valiantly 
defended the place, and opposed the enemy with their own forces. 
And thus Greece now began again to be embroiled in new wars. 

In Sicily, Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, being freed from tbe 
war with the Carthaginians, reigned a long time in peace and pros* 
perity, and with great intention of mind employed himself in writing 
of \erses, and sent for poets far and near, whom he had in high es* 
teem, and made his familiars, to whose judgment and opinions he 
referred the censure of his poems. Being flattered by these in pane* 
gyrics of praise, for their own interest, he grew highly conceited of 
himself, and was prouder of his poems than of his conquests. Phi- 
lozenus, a composer of dithyrambics, and one familia|[ with him, a 
▼ery excellent poet of his kind, when at a feast some of the foolish 
Ipverses of the tyrant were recited, he was asked how he approved of 
them, who, answering something too freely and plainly, incurred the 
tyrant's displeasure; who, looking upon himself abused, (through 
envy), commanded his guard to carry him away to work as a slave ia 
the quarries. But the next day, through the mediation of friends, he 
was reconciled to him : and afterwards, at a feast to which he had 
again invited the same persons, when he was in his cups, he highly 
extolled his own poems ; and singing some of them, (which he thought 
none could excel), he asked what he thought of those? To which he 
answered not a word, but called for Dionysius's guards, and wished 
them to carry him away to the quarries. Dionysius at that time, for 
the jest's sake, put it off with a laugh, thereby (as he thought) 
taking off the edge of the reproof. But, not long after, when both 
Dionysius and the rest of the poets wished him to forbear that un- 


vBBsameEtmststamesssssss sss=sssss=sssssssasssssssssssss^s=ssstt 

•easouable freedom of ceosuriDg, Philozeuus made a promise that 
teemed to be a paradox— That for the future he would both speak 
the truths and also please Dionysius himself: and he performed his 
word; for, when tlie tyrant afterwards recited some verses which set 
forth some sad and mournful passages, he asked him how he ap- 
proved of them ? He answered —Miserable ! therein performing what 
lie had promised, by the ambiguity of the word. For Dionysius un- 
derstood it as if he meant, the subject matter of the verses was very 
sad and miserable, and set forth very pathetically, which sort of poeqr 
was rarely attained unto but by those who were of the higher form of 
poets; and therefore he looked upon himself as highly applauded by 
bim; but others interpreted what he said with more truth, that (hat 
word miserable denoted the badnesj of his verse. 

Not far unlike to this was that which happened to Plato the phi* 
losopher, whom Dionysius sent for because he was a man eminent 
in philosophy, and for some time at the first he greatly honoured him. 
But, taking offence at something he said to him, he hated him to 
that degree, that he ordered him to be brought into the common 
market-place, and there sold as a slave for five minas : but the phi- 
losophers (who consulted together on the matter) afterwards redeemed 

liim, and sent him back to Greece, with thb friendly advice ^That 

a pliilosopher should very rarely converse with tyrants; and whea he 
did, he should be of a gaining behaviour. 

However, Dionysius went on with his study of poetry, and sent 
stage-players that could sing excellently well to the Olympic games^ 
there to sing his verses, who indeed at the first caught the audi- 
tors by the ears with the sweetness of their voices; but, when they 
considered further of the matter and composure of the poems, they 
went away, and set up a great laughter. When he heard hov^ 
his verses were despised and hissed off the stage, he fell into a fit 
of melancholy, which growing upon him day by day, he raged at 
length like a madman, and cried out — ^Tlmt every one envied him» 
and were plotting to take away his life, till it came to his. very inti- 
mate friends and relations. In this temper he arrived at last to that 
height of madness and melancholy, that he put many of his friends 
to death upon false accusations, and banished several others, amongst 
whom were Leptines, his brother, and Philistus, men of valour and 
undaunted courage, who iiad done remarkable service for him in the 
war. They fled to the Thurians, in Italy, and were there in great . 
esteem among them : but afterwards they were restored to the ty- 
rant's favour by his own seeking, and were not only brought back to 
Syracuse, but regained bis former good opinion, and enjoyed th^ic 

f!ht^. t. DtODORUS StCULUS. 

placef of power and aathority as they did before. And Leptioes 
HMTiied Dionysius's daughter^ And these were the transactions of 

When Dexitheus bore the office of lord-chancellor of Athens, and 
liocios* Lacretius, and Servilius Sulpitius, were Roman eonstils, 
Evagoras, king ofSalamis, returned out of Egypt into Cyprus, wfaere^ 
when he found the city closely besieged, and all his confederates to 
have deserted him, he was forced to send ambassadors to seek for 
terras of peace. Teribazus, who had the sovereign power and com^ 
BMDd,retamed him this answer — ^That he would make peace with him, 
upon condition he would quit all the cities of Cyprus, and be content 
only with Salamis, and yield a yearly tribute to the king, and be ob« 
aeivant to aH his commands, as a servant to his master: to which 
terms^ though they were very hard, he submitted, excepting tliat one 
.JTIiat he should be obedient in all things, as a servant to his mas« 
ter. But he said, he would agree to be subject to him as one king to 
another: which Teribaens would not consent to. Upon this, the* 
•ther general^ Orontas^ who envied Tey'basus, sent letters privately 
to Aitaxerzes to accuse him : as first*^-.Tbat whereas it was to fat% 
power to take Salamis by force, hh waved it, and had treated with the 
enemy, in order to bring about some innovations for the oominou ad* 
vantage of them both; that he had entered into 9 private league with 
the Lacedssmoniansj that he had sent messengers to the oracle at 
Delphos, to consult about making war upon the king; and, as a 
aoalter of the greatest concern, that he might gain all tiie officers of 
the army to be his creatures, he had bribed them with gifts, prefer^ 
aaents, and many laige promises. When the king had read these 
letters, (beiieviog all to be true), he wrote back to Orontas to seize 
upon Teribazus, and to send him forthwith to him: whereupon he 
executed the command; and, when Teribazus came before the king, 
he desired he might be brought to his legal trial, upon which he waa 
€H>mmitted into custody; but the trial was long deferred, because the 
king presently after was engaged in the war against the Cadusians. 

In the mean time Orontas, now chief commander of the army ia 
Cyprus, seeing Evagoras courageously defend the place, and pcrceiv- 
log his own soldiers discontented with the seizing of Teribazus, and 
to slight his commands, and fall off from the siege, fearing some sud- 
den misfortune, sent to Evagoras, and a peace was concluded upon 
the same terms he would have agreed to with Teribazus. And thua 
Evagoras (beyond his own expectation) freed from absolute slavcrv, 
entered into a league, upon conditions that he should pay an yearly 
tribute to the king, and be sovereign lord of Salamis, and subject to 

• Titus. 


ilie king no otherwise than as ooe king to abother. Anil thus ended 
tiie Cyprian war^which was span out nearly ten yean, though most oC 
that time was only spent in preparation^ and not above two yearaoC h 
ib actual war. 

But Gaosy the Ticc-admiral of the fleet, who had Boarried the 
daughter of Teribazus, was in great pain lest he should suffer aoaoe- 
Ihing or other^ out of suspicion of bis being familiar and convenaiit 
withTeribazus: therefore he resolved to be beforehand with the kiug^ 
and to that end, being well furrfished with a brave navy, and having 
the love of the sea-captains and oflScers, he began to adviaa and conb* 
aider of a defection; and forthwith, without any further delay, en» 
tered into a league with Acoris, king of Egypt, against the great 
lung of Persia. He stirred up, likewise, the Lacedasmoniaas by his 
letters, and, amongst other large and glorious promiaes, he engi^^ 
lie would assist them in settling their a&in in Greece, and maintain- 
log and supporting their soveceignty. And, in truth, the Spartana 
laid, aome time before, been contriving how to recover the sovereiga 
power over the Grecians, and at that time had given clear indicatkma 
4by their disturbances) of their design to enslave the cities. Anck 
that which furthered the matter ifras^ they repented of the peace 
laade with Artaxerxes, because they were charged and aecused to 
liave betrayed all the Grecians in Asia by that league with the king; 
Aerefore they were very ready to catch at an opportunity to ranear 
ike war, and to that end very cheerfully made a league with Gaoa. 

Afiter Artaxerxes had ended the war with the Cadusians, he brooghl 
Teribazus to his trial, and referred the cognisance of his cause la three 
honourable persons. Near this time some corrupt judges were flayed 
alive, and their skins spread round the judgment-seats, that those that 
ml there might always have an example before their eyes of the pu- 
nishment due to injustice, to deter them from the like. 

The accusers, therefore^ of Teribazus produced -against him the 
lettera of Orontas, earnestly pressing them as sufficient evidence to 
convict him. On the other hand, Teribazus, that he might make it 
eindently appear that the accusation was a mere scandal contrived 
between Orontas and Evagoras, produced the agreement betweei^ 
them, whereby Evagoras was to obey the king as a king himself^ and 
BO otherwise; and that the terms upon which Teribazus would have 

made peace were That Evagoras should be observant to the king 

as a servant to his master. And, as to the oracle, he brought all those 
Grecians who were at that time present, to testify..Tbat the god re- 
turned not any answer relating to the death of any person. And^ as 
to the good correspondence between him and the Lacedsemonians, 
he declared^ that lie entered into a league with them not for any pri- 


vate advantage of his own, but for the profit and advantage of the 
Icing. For by this means (he told them) the Grecians in Asia^ being 
divided from ' the Lacedaemonians, were made better subjects, and 
more obedient; and, going on with his defence, he put the judges ia 
mind of his former remarkable services to the crown. 

Amongst those which clearly manifested his faith and loyalty to 
the king, and which deserved the greatest commendation, and chiefly 

(as was said) won the king's heart, W4S this ^That when the king 

was one day in his chariot a-hunting, two lions ran fiercely upon 
him, and, tearing the two chariot-horses in pieces, they made at 
Um, at which instant Teribazus came fortunately in, killed both the 
lions, and so rescued the king. It is likewise reported of him, that 
he was a person of 'extraordinary valour, and of so sound and solid a 
judgment in council, that the king never miscarried when he followed 
his advice. 

When Teribazus had ended what he had to say in his own defencfi^ 
ftll the judges with one voice acquitted him, and pronounced him in- 
nocent of all the crimes and offences laid to his charge. But the 
king afterwards sent for the judges to him severally, and exaouned 
every one by himself, upon what gropnds of law they pronounced the 
accused innocent. To whom the first answered-^Tbat the matter 
of the accosation was uncertain and dubious, but bis good services 
were clear, apparent, and manifest to all. Another said.^That, 
though those things objected against him were true, yet that all his 
faults were over-ballanced by his deserts. The third justified his 
vote to discharge him, by declaring.^That he had no regard to'his 
merits, because the king had rewarded them above their deserts; but, 
upon strictly examining the nature of every particular charge, it did 
not appear to him that the party accused was guilty of any of them. 
Upon which the king commended the judges, as just and upright 
men, and advanced Teribazus to the highest places of honour. But 
as to Orontas, he discarded him, as a false accuser, and noted hin^ 
with all the marks of ignominy and disgrace* And thus stood afikirs 
in Asia at this time. 

Vot,2. No. 40. 


CHAP. n. 

3fn9Uviea besieged by tlie Lacedcemanians. Dionysius aims ia 
gain the islands of the Adriatic sea. The Parii build Paros^ 
JHonysius^s expedition into Etruria. Prepares for war against 
the Carthaginians. The Sicilians routed at Cronium. The 
quarrel beftveen the Clazomemans and those of Cuma, about 
Zjeuce. The war between Amyntas and the Olynthians. Th€ 
LacedtBmonians seize the citadel of Cadmea at Thebes. JSuda^ 
nddas breaks into the country of the Olynthians. 

In Greece^ the LacedsemoniaDd pressed on the siege of Mantinei^ 
tnd the Matitioeans btavely defended the place all that summer: for 
they were reputed the most valiant men of all the Arcadians, and 
therefore the Spartans in former times were used to account those 
their Purest and truest friends in all fights and engagements. But, 
when winter drew on, and the river running under the town swelled 
high by the rains, the Lacedaemonians damn^ed up the river with 
earth and rubbish, and turned the current into the city; so that all' 
the place round about was like to a standing pool; by reason wliereof 
the bouses fell down, which amazed them of Mantinea, so that they 
were forced to deliver up the city; which, being thus taken, the 
citizens suffered no other hardships from the Lacedaemonians, save 
only that they were ordered to return to those antient villages 
from whence they originally came : they were forced, therefore, to 
leave their country, and to settle themselves and their families in the 

About this time Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse had a design to 
gain the cities lying upon the Adriatic sea; and that which chiefly 
moved him to it was, because he coveted to be master of the Ionian 
sea, (as they call it), to the end that he might liave a free and open 
passage to Epirus, and to have towns and places for his ships ready 
to touch at : for he was every day making preparations to transport 
great numbers of forces intoEpirus, and to riSe and plunder the rich 
temple at Delphos. To this end he made a league with the Illyriansj 
by the help of Alcetas the Molossian, who was then an exile at Syra- 
cuse. And, the Illyrians being then engaged in a war, he sent them 
two thousand soldiers, and five hundred Grecian arms: the arm» 
they distributed amqngst the strongest and stoutest of their mep, and 
the aujuliaries they mixed here and there in several of their owi} cobh 

€3igp. IL DIODQRUS siculus. 1 1 

panies aud regiments. The Illyrians^ having now raised a great 
army, made an irruption intoEpirus^ in order to restore Alcetas to his 
kingdom, and wasted and spoiled the country without opposition or 
coutruul. Afterwards, a sharp battle was fought between them and 
the Molossians, in which the Illyrians were victors, and killed above 
fifteen thousand of the Molossians, which slaughter of the Epirots 
being made known to the Lacedaemonians, they sent them aid, to 
curb and bridle the fierceness and cruelty of the barbarians. 

During the transaction of these aflfairs, the Parii*, by the encou* 
ragemcnt of an old prophecy, sent forth a colony to the Adriatic 
coast, where they built Paros, by the help of Dionysius, in an island 
60 called. For, not many years before, he had sent a colony thither, 
and built the city Lissus; by the advantage of which place (when 
he had little else to do, he raised an arsenal for two hundred gallieSj 
and walled the town in so large a circuit, that it exceeded in compass 
all the cities of Greece. He likewise built stately schools and col- 
leges on the side of the river Anapusf^ with temples and other beauti- 
ful fabrics, to advance the glory and greatness of the city. 

And now ended the year, when Diotrephes, for the next, was air-^ 
chon of Athens; and Lucius Valerius, and Aulu§ Manlius, were Uo-> 
man consuls. At i£lis was solemnized the ninety-ninth Oiympiadt 
in which Dicon the Syracusan won the prize. At this time the 
Parii (who were now seated in the island Paros) walled in the dty 
they had built near the sea-side, not in the least injuring the barba« 
rians, the antient inhabitants of the island, but allotted them a place 
very strong, and excellently well fortified* But this nestling of the 
Gxeeks was a great eye-sore to the natural inhabitants; therefore 
they sent for the Illyrians bordering upon the continent over against 
them, who passed over to Paros in many small vessels, to the num-* 
ber of above ten thousand men, and fell upon the Greeks, and killed 
many of them. But he who was made governor of Lissus by Die • 
oysius, with a great fleet set upon the shipping of the Illyrians, and 
took and sunk all of them, killed five thousand of their men, and took 
two thousand prisoners* 

Dionysius, being now in great want of money, began an expedi«i 
tion with threescore gallies into Etruria^, under pretence of scours 
ing the seas of pirates, but in truth to rob a famous temple in those 
parts, which was very full of rich gifts and.donations. It stood ia 
the suburbs of Agylla, a city of Etruria^ where was the arsenal 
which they call the Towers, He landed in the night, and, forcing 
IP at break of day, accomplished his design; for, there being but a 

* l^liroi^ m island of the i£gean set, near Delos. t A river ii) Sivii^, 
% Tyrrli^nia b^ the Oratk^ but niitalea. 


small guafd in the castle, he easily overpowered them, rifled the tem- 
ple, and tooic out ahove a thousand talents. 

And, though they of Agylla sallied out to repel the enemy, yet he 
routed them, took many prisoners, and, after he had wasted and 
spoiled the country, sailed back to Syracuse, where he raised no less 
than five hundred talents by the sale of the spoifs. Having thus filled 
his cofl^ers, he raised soldiers from all parts, and got together a great 
army; so that it was evident (to the apprehension of all) that he de- 
signed war against the Carthaginians. And these were the things 
done this year. 

Afterwards, the dignity of archon was conferred upon Phanostra- 
tus, at Athens ; and the Romans made four military tribunes consuls^ 
Lucius Lucretius, Servius Sulpitins, Lucius*' iEmilius, and Lucius 
Furius. At this time Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse, being pre- 
pared for the war against Carthage, watched for a fair occasion to 
colour and countenance his design, Disceriiing, therefore, that the 
cities subject to the Carthaginians were inclined to a revolt, he re- 
ceived into his protection as many as would come to him, and entered 
into a ieague witli them, carrying himself with great complacency 
and winning beimviour. Upon this, the Carthaginians first sent am- 
bassadors to him, and demanded the restitution of the cities^ which 
being denied, was the occasion of a new war. 

The Carthaginians therefore entered into confederacies with their 
neighbours, and all joined together in the war against the tyrant. 
And, because they prudently foresaw the greatness of the war, they 
listed soldiers out of the choicest of the citizens, and laid up great 
sums of money, wherewith they hired a vast number of foreigners; 
and, having made Mago their general (who at that time bore the 
title of king) they transported many thousands of soldiers both into 
Italy and Sicily, for they had decreed to make war upon them both 
at once. Dionysius likewise himself divided his forces, some again'st 
the Italiots, and others against the Carthaginians: whereupon many 
light skirmishes happened between parties here and there every day, 
but nothing was as yet done of any moment. But there afterwards 
happened two great battles that were especially famous and remark- 
able, in one of which, at a place called Cabala, Dionysius made him- 
self noted for his valour, and louted the enemy, killing above ten 
thousand of them, taking five thousand prisoners, and forcing tho 
rest to fly to a hill that was fortified, but altogether without water. 
In this flglit Mago their general was killed, behaving himself with 
great gallantry and resolution. The Carthaginians, terrified with the 
greatness of this slaughter, sent forthwith ambassadors to make peaces 

• Caius, 


with Dionyslus; but he returned them answer^ that there was oxAf 
ooe way left for them to Inake peace with him^ and that was, forth- 
with to quit all the cities of Sicily, and to reimburse all the charge 
of the war. Thb answer was looked upon as harsh and proud; 
therefore they betook themselves to their old arts of fraud and deceit: 
for they seemed as if tliey allowed of his terms, but pretended that it 
was not in their power to deliver up the cities to him; therefore they 
desired a truce for some few days, that they might consult with the 
Hiagistrates concerning this aflair, which he agreed to. He was 
much transported at the truce, havipg now a prospect presently (as 
he conceived) to be lord of all Sicily. In the mean time the Cartha- 
^nians buried Mago their king with great pomp and state, putting 
his son into the same place, who, though he was very young, yet there' 
were marks and appearances in him of more than ordinary wisdom 
and valour. This new general spent all the time of the truce in 
trainini^ and disciplining his soldiers; so that, what with his ds^ily 
diligence, exact directions, and frequent exercise of their arms, he 
had an army both readily subject to command, and hardy and strong 
for service. And now the time of the cessation expired, and the ar- 
mies on both sides came hastily into the field; and at Cronium was a 
sharp engagement, where God gave the Carthaginians the victory, ta 
make amends for their former slaughter. For they who were grown 
proud and boasting by their victory a little before, were now as low 
and poor-spirited. On the other liand, they who were altogether de- 
jected, and in despair, by reason of their overthrow, had their spirits 
on a sudden raised by their great and unexpected success : for Lep- 
tines, who commanded one of the wings, a valiant man, signalized 
himself, and there fell in the bed of honoiu*, after he had made a 
great slaughter amongst his enemies; after whose fall the Carthagi- 
nians plucked up their spirits^ and at length put their enemies to 
flight. Dionysius, with those choice men he had with him, at the 
first worsted those that charged him; but, when the death of Leptines 
was known, and the other wing was discerned to be broken and dis- 
persed, that part of the army with Dionysius fled likewise: upon 
which, the whole bo^y betaking themselves to their heels, the Car- 
thaginians made a hot pursuit, and gave orders that no quarter siiould 
be given; so that, all being killed that came to hand, every place for 
a long way together was strewed and covered with dead bodies. Tlie 
Carthaginians, in revenge of their former loss, had made so great a 
slaughter, tliat, when the slain came to be buried, they were found 
to amount to above fourteen thousand Sicilians; and it was by tbe 
advantage of night only that the rest esc^iped. The Carthaginians^ 


wessaBOBaBSsemBBBsaassi ? ■ ==ggaeBBBggsss==aai 

having qow gained so great and remarkable a victory, returned to 
Panormus: however (as it became men) they used their prosperity 
with great moderation, and sent ambassadors to Dionystus, to ofier 
him terms of peace, which he readily embraced, and all was eoQ- 
cluded upon these conditions ,^That both sides should keep wh^l 
they had before the war, save only that the Carthagioians should bav<e 
the city and territory of Selinus, and part of the country of Agrigen- 
turn, as far as to the river Alycum, and that Dionysius should pay n 
thousand talenu to the Carthaginians. And thus stood affiura ia 
Sicily at that time. 

In Asia, Gaos, admiral of the Persian fleet, who had lebelkd 
against the king, after he had engaged the Lacedemonians aDd£gyp<« 
tians to his interest, was murdered secretly by some person unknown^ 
and so failed of his designs. After whose death Tachos, pursuin^p 
the same design, got an army together, and built a city upon a high 
rock joining to the sea, called Leuce, where he built a.cha[rfe to 
Apollo; but he died likewise a little after: upon whose death the 
Clazomenians and they of Cuma fell at strife and variance for the 
town, which at first they went about to decide by force of arms: but 
afterwards, by the advice oi some person, consulting the oracle of 
Delphos, to know to which of the cities Leuce should belong, the 
prophetess answered — ^That it should be theirs who should first sacri* 
fice at Ticuce; but that both should set forth from their cities at the 
rising of the sun, upon one and the same day, as they themselvea 
should agree upon. Accordingly tlie day was set, and the Cumani 
in the mean time looked upon themselves to have the advantage, be^ 
cause their city was nearer than the other. But the Clazomenians^ 
though they were more remote, yet contrived this project to gaio 
their end : they sent some of their citizens, chosen by lot, to a colony 
of theirs not far from Leuce, and from thence, at suu-rising, they 
began their journey, and so finished their sacrifices before th^m of 
Cuma. Having thus gained Leuce by this trick,, in memory thereof 
they appointed an yearly festival, which they called Projihthasia, from 
this their coming first to Leuce. These things thus done, all rebel- 
lions in Asia were at an end; and the Lacedeemonians now, after the 
death of Gaos and Tachos, would have no more to do with Asia, but 
set their heads at work how to advance their power in Greece. Andj 
having persuaded some of the cities, and forced others to receive their 
exiles, they possessed themselves of the sovereignty of the whole^ 
manifestly against the league amongst all the Grecians, made by Aa* 
talcidas, by the help of the king of Persia. 
In Macedonia, king Amyntas (after he was overcome by the Illy- 



lians, in despair of being ti6le to help himself) bestowed a large track 
of land apon the Olynthians^ which lay near to them^ as never think- 
ing to foe restored again to his kingdom. The Olynthians enjoyed 
this peace for some time; but, when the kingxecovered strength, and 
was reinstated in his former dignity, he demanded restitution of the 
land^ which the Olynthians denied. Upon which, Amyntas raised 
iMith an army of his own, and entered into a league with the Liace- 
demonians, and prevailed with them to send a general with a great 
afmy against the Olynthians. The Lacedaemonians, resolving to fiit 
in those parts of Thrace, raised an army out of their own citizens and 
ooofederates, Xm the number of ten thousand men, over which thej 
made Phoebidas, the Spartan, general, and commanded him to join 
with Aniyntas, and noake war upon the Olynthians. They sent out 
aflother body against the Phssuntines, whom they subdued, and forced 
to submit 10 their government. 

About this time the two Lacedsemonian kings, having diflerent 
aentiiiients, disagreed one with another. For Agesipolis was a lover 
of peace, and a just and wise man, and therefore declared against 
oppressing the Greeks: for he said that Spar<a would becotme in&-« 
nous amongst all the people, if, after they had been instrumental in 
makiag the Grecians in Asia slaves to the Persians, they should now 
enslave all the cities of Greece to themselves, whose liberties they had 
8Wom in the common league to preserve inviolable. On the other 
haiMl Agesihus, being naturally turbulent and inclined to war, thirsted 
sAer dominion over the Grecians. 

AfUrwards, when Menander was lord-chancellor of Athens, and 
jiix military tribunes, Quintus Sulpitius, Caius Fabius, Cornelius Ser* 
i^lius*, Quintus Servilius, Sextus Annius, and Caius Marcius, bore 
the consular dignity at Rome, the Lacedeemonians seized the Cad- 
mea, the citadel of Thebes, for the reasons following :.^They had for 
■ocne time before considered that Boeotia was full of towns and cities, 
and that the inhabitants were men both of stout hearts and strong 
bodks; and especially, that Thebes, which continued to that day in 
its antient state and grandeur, was even the guard and bulwark of all 
Boeotia; therefore they were afraid lest, at some fit opportunity or 
other, they should become lords of Greece : for tliis reason they gave 
private instructions to their commanders, to seize upon the Cadmea as 
•oon as they could spy a fit opportunity. Phcebidas the Spartan ge- 
neral, in his march againi^t the Olynthians, (remembering his instruc- 
tions), surprised the Cadmea, which so enraged theThebans, that they 

• Scfviuj Corneliu?, 


lose in arms^ but were beaten ; and he banished three hundred of the 
most eminent citizens, and put all the rest into a great fright: and, 
leaving there a strong garrison, marched away in pursuance of the 
business he had chiefly in hand. 

All the Grecians everywhere complained of the Lacedemonians for 
this unworthy act; and they indeed themselves fined Phoebidas for it^ 
but could not be brought to withdraw the garrison. And thus the 
Thebans were robbed of their liberty, and brought under the power 
of the Lacedfiemonians. But the Olynthians resolutely persisting in 
the war against Amyntas, king of Macedon, Phoebidas was ordered to 
lay down his commissioni and Eudamidaa, his brother, was made ge- 
neral, and sent away with three thousand heavy-armed men to carry 
on the war against the Olyntliians, who, breaking into the their 
country, jointly with Amyntas fell upon them ; but the Olynthians be- 
ing good soldiers, and overpowering the other in number, beat them 
both. Upon t^is the Lacedsemonians raised a great army, and made 
Teleutias, king Agesilaus's brother, general, whe was a man of high 
esteem among the citizens for his valour, who, as soon as he entered 
the borders of Olynthus, was joined by the forces of Eudamidas; 
and now, being strong enough to fight the enemy, he first spoiled and 
wasted the country, and divided the prey (which he had got together 
in abundance) amongst the Soldiers. Afterwards, the Olynthians 
marched out with their own, and the forces of their confederates. 
Upon which the armies engaged, and at the beginning the battle was 
doubtful; but afterwards, the fight was renewed with that extraor- 
dinary courage 'and resolution, that Teleutias, bravely acquitting him- 
self, and above twelve hundred. Lacedaemonians more, were there 
lulled upon the place.. The Spartans, being nettled at this suc- 
cess of the Olynthians, made greater preparations, in order to 
repair their loss. So, on the other hand, the Olynthians, suspecting 
that the Lacedaemonians would bring down greater forces upon 
them, and that the war might continue long, furnished themselves 
with plenty of corn and provisions, and with other aids from their 

Demophilus was now archon at Athens; and Publius Cornelius^ 
Lucius Virginius, Lucius Papirius, Marcus Furius*,' Valerius Au- 
liusf, Manlius{ Lucius, and Posthumius Quintus§, military tri- 
bunes, were consuls at Rome, when the Lacedaemonians decreed 
vnff against the Olynthians, and made their king Agesipolis general 
ever an army of force sufficient for the expedition. As soon as bt 

* Vtlerius, t Aolun Maalitu. | Luciui. § Fostbamitta. 

XJSap.ITL DiODORUs sicuLUSi 17 

entered the enemy's country, he joined with those that were en- 
camped there, and forthwith fell to action. The Olynthians this year 
fought no considerable battle, but kept the king's army in play 
<whom they were afraid to encounter) with continual bickering, and 
light and frequent skir&ishes. 


Pelopidas sent general by the LacecUsmonians against the OlynthU 
ans. A great plc^em Cartilage, 2%e Bwotian war. The Cad- 
mea re^taJcen. A confederacy of the cities against the Lacedce- 
numians. Cleombrottis attempts to surprise the PinBus at Athens. 
The Athenians seize Acta in Eubesa. Agesilaus enters Bcsoiia% 
7%e sea-ifight at Naxos* 

AFTER the end of the year, Pytheas wSts treated chief magistrate 
of Athens^ and six military tribunes bore the consular authority at 
Rome, Titus Quintius, Lociu3 S^rvilius, Lucius Julius, Aquilius* 
Decius, Lucretius Anchins^, and Servius Sulpitius. At that time was 
solemnized the hundredth Olympiad at Elis; in which Dionysiodorus 
the Tarentlne bore away the prize. In the mean time Agesipolis^ 
kingof Lacedaemon, died, in tlie fourteenth year of his reign; and, 
his brMher Cleombrotus succeeding him, reigned nine years. But 
the Laced&eiMnians constituted Pelopidas general^ and sent him forth 
against the Olyuthians. He swore all his soldiers to be true and 
feithftil to him, and gained many victories, managing the war with 
die ?aldor and conduct that became a good general. At length, im* 
pft)ving his good fortune and frequent successes^e drove the Olyn- 
thiaiia wt<bin their walls, and^ penning them up, so terrified them, 
that he forced them to submit to the Lacedsemonians as their sove^ 
reigQ lords., As soon as the Olynthians were enrolled among the 
coofcderates^f the Spartans> many other cities sought to come under 
the same protection. And now the power of the Laccdceiuonians 
Was in its greatest strength, as being lords of all Greece, both by sea 
and land: for theThqhans were overawed by a garrison; the Corin- 
thians and Afgix^^s were tired out with wars one with anothevf and 
the Athenian3> for their 'coyetousness and cruelty exercised among 

Vol. 2. No. 40. » 


those they had subdued, were despised by all the Grecians. Oq the 
otlier hand, all were afraid of the Lacedemonians^ becaui^ they werv 
▼cry populous, expert soldiers, and unwearied in their attempts; in^ 
Bomuch that the greatest of the princes io those times (I mean the 
king of Persia, and DIonysius the tyrant of l^cily) coorted the Spar- 
tans, and were ambitious of their alliance. 

Afterwar4s,''when Nico governed at Athens, and six military tri- 
bunes were created consuls at Rome, Lucius Papirlus, Caius Come- 
lius, Lucius Manlius, Caius Serrilius, Valerius Aulius, and Quhitus 
Fabius, the Carthaginians entered with an army into Italy, and re- 
stored the Hipponiats to their city, whence they had been ex-^ 
pelled, and kindly received all the exiles tliat came in to liim from 
all part^. 

Not long after a great plague happened in Cbrthage, which, raging 
more and more, swept away abundance of the inhabitants, insomuch 
that they were in great danger to have Mst their sovereignty: for tho- 
Africans slighted and deserted them, and the inhabitants of Sardinia 
(supposing they had now a fit opportunity) revolted, a<nd rose up in 
arms against them. Moreover, a remarkable judgment of Cvod fell 
upon Carthage at tins time : for the city was all on a sudden in an 
uproar, filled with tumult, fear, and horror; and, OMiny running armed 
iHit of their houses, <as if an enemy had entered the place), fought, 
xWonnded, and killed one another in die streets* At length, the god» 
being appeased by Mcrifiees, and they delivered out of their sad 
afflictions, they presently subdued the Africans, and recovered Sar* 

After these things, wbenNausinicus was diief governor of Athens^ 
and four military tribune^, Marcus Cornelius, Servilius Quintius, 
Marcus Furius, and Lucius Quintius, were clothed with the consu- 
lar dignity at Rome, the Boeotian war (so oalted) broke out, between 
the B(BOtians and the Lacedsmooiaos, upon the accounts folkywing : 

.The Lacediemonians, against all law and justice, fbreiUy detained 

the citadel of Cadmea, and hafd forced many persons ot fnality to fl;^ 
out of their own country; the exiles therefore, upon a ^idnite oon^ 
sultaUon among themselves, (by the helpof the AtheniUBs)^ returned 
in the night into their city, and in the first place killed all those tliey 
judged had sided with the Laeedsemoniws, surprisfing lhe« in their 
houses, while they were asleep; then they stirred up all the tommoa , 
people to appear for their liberties; upon which the whole city of 
Thebes readily came in to their assistance, and, getting iat» a body, 
surrounded the Cadmea by break of day. In the mean 'dme the La- 
cedsemonian garrison that was in the citadel, which eomisted of ao 
fewer than fifteen hundred men, sent a messenger to Sparta, to ii^ 


form them of the iosurrection in Thebes^ and to desir^ aid with* all 
speed. However^ they from the bastions in the citadel beat off the 
besiegers, killing and wounding many. U|K>n this the Tlieban^^ 
coocludiog that great forces would be brought out of Greece to the 
assistance of the Lacedeenionians, sent ambassadors to Athens, t^ 
put them in mind how they had been assisted by the Thebans at 
that time when they rescued their commonwealth from the slavery 
they suffbred under the thirty tyrants, and therefore that they should 
press them that they would hasten, with all the force they had, to help 
them to reduce tbie Cadroea, before any aid came from Sparta. 

The people of Athens, as soon as they heard what was desired by 
the Thebans, decreed that without delay a strong and -considerable 
army should be sent to help them to regain tlieir liberty, both to de- 
monstrate their gratitudeJor their former services, and likewise hop* 
iDg thereby so to oblige the Thebans as that they should ever find 
them fast and constant friends, to assist them at all times against the 
growing and boundless power of the Lacedemonians: for the Tlie- 
bans were looked upon not to be inferior to any in Greece for num* 
ber or valour of men. In conclusion, the Athenians made Demo« 
pbon general over five thousand foot and five hundred horse, who 
drew out before day next morning; and hastened away with a swift 
inarch, that he might be before the Lacedsemonians; however, the 
people ot Athens were ready and prepared to march out with all theif 
forces into Boeotia, if the Thebans had occasion for them. Demo«> 
phon with great expedition (beyond expectation) appeared m view 
of them of Thebes ; and soldiers came together with the like zeal and 
earnestness from the other cities of Bceotia; so that theThebans had 
now a numerous army, consisting of no less than twelve thousand 
foot, and about two tliousand horse, and all cheerfully and readily 
bestirred themselves to besiege the citadel. The army divided them- 
selves into parties, and assaulted the place by turns,, persisting with- 
out any cessation night and day. In the mean time, they in the 
eastle (encouraged by their officers) bore the brunt with great 
courage, hoping to receive speedy succours from the Laced«mo- 
; Dians { and, indeed, they valiantly stood it out while they had any vic- 
tuals left, killing and wounding many of the assailants, having the 
advantage of the strength of the fort; but, when their provisions 
grew low, and the Laced^Bmonians lingered in sending relief, the gar- 
rison began to mutiny. 

For tlie Lacedamonians were for the standing of it out to the last 
man, but the auxiliaries from the confederate cities (who were the 
greater number) were for delivering it up; so the Spartans, who were 
but feWj were forced to sunender the citadel] and^ being dismissed 



according to articles, returned to Peloponnesus. At length the 
Lacedeemonians came with their army to Thebes; but, having lost 
theiropportunity, through the slowness of their march, all was to no 
purpose. But they tried three of the officers of the garrison by a 
council of war, and condemned two of them to die, and imposed 
so great a mulct and fine upon the third, that he was never, able to 
pay it. Afterwards, the Athenians returned into their own country, 
and theThebans spent much time in vain in the siege of Thespis. \ 
During these affairs the Romans sent a colony of five hundred citi- 
zens into Sardinia, upon terms of being free from tribute. 

Afterwards, when Callias was lord-chancellor of Athens, and four 
military tribunes, Lucius Papirius, Mar.cus* Publius, Titus Cx>rne- 
liusf, and Quintus Lucius^, were honoured with the consular dig^ 
nity at Rome, (after the Lacedemonians iia^ miscarried at Thebes), 
the Boeotians took courage, and, entering into associations, raised a 
great army, because they foresaw that the Lacedaemonians would 
presently enter with a strong body into Boeotia. 

The Athenians likewise sent persons of the greatest quality amongst 
them to persuade the cities subject to the LacedsemonjaDS not to ne- 
glect the present opportunity now ofiered to recover their liberties & 
for, indeed, the Lacediemonians were grown to that height, that they 
lorded it with great pride and oppression over their subjects; there-* 
fore many of them were inclined to comply with the Athenians. The 
first that made a defection were those of Chios and Byaantium, after 
them Rhodes and Mitylene, and some other islands. And now the 
commotions and disturbances of the cities of Greece more and more 
increasing, many of them joined with Athens; upon which the 
people of Athens, encouraged by this confederacy, decreed a general* 
diet or senate of some chosen out of every city from among all their- 
allies, to consult of the present state of affairs. And it was agreed 
by common consent, that the senate should sit at Athens, and that 
every city, whether great or small, should send only one representa-- 
tive, and every one should be governed by their own laws, but under 
the conduct and administration of the Athenians. 

However the Lacedemonians, though they saw the current and 
tide so strong as tiiat they were not able to stem it, yet they endea- 
voured all they could by fair words, and many specious promises, to 
court the deserters to return to their obedience, not neglecting in the 
mean time to prepare for the war, inasmuch as they discerned that it 
would he great and of long continuance, in regard the Athenians and 
other Grecians (met together in that public assembly) all joined witk 
the Thebans. 

* Pub)iu4. I Coni«liuf Tito, | Lucius Quiutios^ 


Whilst these things were acting in Greece, Acoris^king of Egypt^ 
for some time before bearing a gra(}ge to the Persian king, raised % 
great army of foreigners from all parts : for, giving large pay, and 
being otherwise Tery bountiful, he got together a great number of 
Grecians io a short time, who listed themselves into his service. Bu^ 
wanting a skilful general, he sent for Chabrias the Athenian, an ex* 
cellent commander, and one liighiy honoured for his valour, who un- 
dertook the employment, but without the consent of the people^ and 
so prepared himself with all diligence for the war against the Per- 
sians. But Pharnabazus (declared commander-in-chief by the king) 
having made great preparations of money for the war, sent messen- 
gers to Athens to complain against Chabrias, letting them know, 
that, by his accepting of the chief command under the king of Egypt, 
he had greatly alienated the king of Persia from the' people of Athens. 
Then he demanded that they would send to him Iphicrates, to assist 
him in the command of the army. Upon this the Athenians (who 
2Dade it their great concern to stand right in the king's good opinion, 
and to- keep Pharnabazus firm to their interest) without delay re- 
called Chabrias out of Egypt^ and commanded Ipliicrates to assist 
the Persians. 

The Lacedaemonians and Athenians some years before had struck 
up a peace amongst themselves, which continued to this very time. 
But after that Sphodrias was made general by the Spartans, (a 
man of a proud and haughty spirit, rash, and headstrong), Cleombro-^ 
tus, the Lacedaemonian king, urged liiin on to surprise the Pirseus at 
Athens without the assent of the EphorL To this end, being fur- 
nished with ten thousand heavy-armed men, he attempts to enter the 
Pireeus in the night; but, the treachery being detected by the Athe- 
nians, his project came to nought, and he returned as he came: and, 
though he was brought before the senate at Sparta for this rash an(l 
inconsiderate action, yet, being patronised by the kings, be was, 
against all law aud justice, discharged. [The Athenians^ being in- 
censed with this apparent abuse, published a, decree—That, in- 
asmuch as the Lacedsemonians had openly violated the league, that 
war should be made upon them for the repair of the injury. To 
this end, therefore, Timotheus, Chabrias, and Callistratus, (men of 
great account in the city, who were made generals for this expedi- 
tion), were commissioned to raise twenty thousand foot of cors- 
leteers, and five hundred horse, and to equip a fleet of two hun- 
dred sail. 

The Athenians likewise brought the Tliebans, as members, into 
the public senate, upon the same terms and conditions with the rest. 
It was also enacted, by the sufirage of the senate ...Tliat the lands 


wbieh had be€D divided by lot should be restored to the antient pro- 
prietors; aod that no Athenian should ehallenge a right to a»j 
lands that ky out of Attica. By this fair dealing the Athenians re- 
gained the lore of the Grecians^ and again strengthened themsehrcs 
in their government. And this was the cause which moved manj 
other cities of Greece to side with the Athenians. The chiefest eiticv 
of Eubcea (except Acta) with great heat and zeal entered into an 
Ittsoeiation with Athens, But, in regard they of Acta had received 
many kindnesses from the Lacedsemonians, aod, on the other hand> 
bad been grievously oppressed and harassed by the Athenians, they 
bore an implacable hatred towards the one, and stuck close and 
jrm in their alliance to the other. In the whole, there were seventy 
cities that entered into this confederacy and association, all Which 
bad Toices upon the same terms and conditions in the senate* So 
that the forces of the Athenians increasing every day, and those of 
Sparta decreasing, these two cities began now again to lie in equal 

. The Athenians therefore (who saw all things go forward accord-* 
iDg to tiieir heart's desire) transported forces into £uboea, both ta 
fix their confederates, and to suppress their foes. In this island ooo 
Neogenes, a little before these times, with the assbtance of Juson 
irf'Pheris, with a band of men, had seized upon the citadel of Acta^ 
and declared himself king of those parts, and of the city C^opus^, 
But, governing proudly and tyrannically, the Lacedaemonians sent 
Therippidas against him, who at the first would have persuaded hioi 
by fair means to leave the castle; but, when he could not be sa 
wrought upon, he stirred up the inhabitants near adjoining to recover 
their liberty, and took the castle by storm, and restofcd the Oro^ 
pians to their former freedom. For this reason the Hestismos al** 
ways loved the Lacedseroonians, and kept a firm league of friendships 
irith them. But Chabrias, the general, with the forces sent from 
Athens, wasted and spoiled the country of the Hestisans, and 
walled Metropolis, (as it is called), situated upon a hill naturally 
fortified, apd left there a garrison; and he himself sailed to the Cy^ 
clade islands, and reduced Pepar^thoa i^id Spiathos, and others sab« 
ject to the Lacedemonians. 

When the LacedsBmonians saw that they could not pnt a stop to 
the defection of their confederates, they laid aside their severity, and 
took other measures to win the cities by more gentle methods : and 
by these means they gained upon those of their confederates that wero 
yet left. And because they discerned that the war was coming on>a<« 

* Id EuboM, now N«gropont» 

— ggBegB—aaagga— ■BBeaac v u m i ■.■.,.. . .i ggggga— fc— gjaaegfeggi 

pace, tod that great eare'was required for the maniigeaient ef their 
•ftiiB, asKMig other preparations, they diligently applied themsdves to 
put their army into a better posture, and more aptly to dispose of 
tkeir tioops and regiments, aod to have their forts and garrisons move 
iuthfoUy kept and secured: for tfiey divided their cities and soldiers, 
nised diere Cor the present war, into ten parts: the first were Lacc- 
dmaooians; the second and third. Arcadians; the fourth, Elians; 
the fifth, Acfaaians; the sixth, Corinthians and Megarensians; the 
•eventh, Sicyoniaos, Phliastaos, and Actaaos; the eighth, Aear^ 
oaiuans; the ninth, Phocians andLocrians; the last^ Olynthians and 
4BoaiMlerates of Tltface. The manner and way of thrir order and 
■nnhalUng was this: one corsleteer, or Keavy-armed soldier, wbb 
a ce ou ated equal to two lightly armed; and one horseman to fbnr 
beavy-Mmed footinen. The army thus disposed, king Agesilaus waa 
made generalissimo t for he was famous both for his valoiir and pra* 
deoee, and never had been worsted in any encounter to ttiat veiy 
tioMB; for, as he wa» highly admired in other wars, ao in the war 
fay die LacedfleiiKinianB against the Persians, he routed armies Car 
greater than bis own, .nnd bore down all befopre him, wasting and 
qpoiing A great part of Aeia; and if the Spartans had not called him 
• home ^throc^ the urgency of aflains in his own country) he had not 
beco far from ruining the whole kingdom of Persia; for he was ^ 
aBMmery brisk and daring, and yet withal prudent^ addicting faim^ 
self' togt«at and noble actions; and therefore the iSjpartans fwhed 
die gieatness of the war required a skitftil commatilder) chose h&m 
la be genemt above all others. 

Upon which, Agesilaos entered Boeotia with above eighteen thou-^ 
aaiid foot, amongst whom were five regiments of Lacedesmoniana^ 
every regiment consisting of five hiibdred. ' The Lacedaamoniaa 
band called the Scirite^, joined not With the rest ot the army; but 
kept Hbcir proper post round about the king, and always were ready 
lo suceour that part that was most prest upoti* And because it waa 
made tip of the best soldier^, it was of the greatest esteem of any 
pMt of the army, and most commonly instrumental to the gaining 
of every victory. Besides tl^e foot before mentioned, Agesilaus had 
with him fifteen hundred horse. As soon as he came to Tliespis (a 
Lacediemonian garrison) lie encamped near the city, to refresh hie 
army after their long march. 

When the Athenians heard that the Lacedaemonians, hadientejed 
into Boeotia, they forthwith sent five thousand foot and two hundred 
horse to the aid of Tliebes. The Thebans liaving niustered and ren- 
dezvoused their forces, possessed themselves of a hill which ran out 
• Thcso were comifionly 9\t huDd*«d. 

' iM biODORUS sicuLus; JBdok XK 

II great lengthy distant twenty stages from the city, and posted them- 
selves there for the advantage of the ground, (being difficult of ac*^ 
cess), and there waited for the enemy: for the great reputation of 
Agesilaus did so terrify them, that they durst not engage with him 
upon equal terms in the open field. Agesilaus now advances with 
his forces against the Boeotians; as soon as he came near the enemy, 
(to make trial whether they had a mind to fight) he sent out against 
them some light-armed men, which were soon beaten back by the 
Thebans from the higher ground: upon which, to strike them with 
more terror, he drew out his whole army In battalia upon them. 
Whereupon, Chabrias the Athenian, commander of the mercenaries^ 
ordered the soldiers to appear in a posture of defiance to the Lacedo 
monians: and to that end to stand to their ranks and orders, with 
their shields laid down at their feet, and with their speavs advanced, 
so to present themselves to the view of the enemy, which they obeyed 
at the first word of command. Agesilaus admiring their excellent 
order, and contempt of their enemies, thought it not safe to attempt 
to force up those steep places, and to try their valour at such disad-^ 
vantage, having experienced, that by violent pressing upon thero^ 
they would be necessitated to stand it out to the utmost extremity. 
Therefore he did all he could to provoke them to descend into the 
open plain; but when he could not get them to stir, he sent out a 
phalanx of foot, and a party of light horse, and wasted and spoiled 
the country without controul, and got together abundance of prey 
and plunder. But those that were ordered to attend upon AgesUaus 
as his council, and the colonels and [captains of the regiments won-* 
dering that he, being ever accounted a valiant man, and a good sol- 
dier, and now furnished with an army far stronger than the enemy^ 
should notwithstanding wave an engagement, Agesikus gave them 
this answer .^That now the Lacedaemonians were conquerors without 
fighting, since the Thebans durst not move out of their place to 
give a stop to the spoiling of their country: and if he should force 
them to fight after they had willingly yielded the victory, the un- 
certain fortune of war might be such as might on a sudden ruin the 
Lacedsemonians. The man by this conception seemed modestly 
to foretel the event; for, that which followed after did clearly evince 
•.i^That what he said was the oracle of God^ and not the mere voice 
of a man: for, the Lacedaemonians within a short time after, when 
they set upon the Thebans with a numerous army^ and forced them 
to fight for their liberties, involved themselves in unspeakable cala* 
mities; for, in the first place, when they were routed at the battle 
gf Leuctra, a great number of their citizens were cut oS, amongst 
wbon was their king Cleombrotus* And afterwards at the battle of 


MaDtinea they were utterly ruined $ and (beyond all men's thoughts 

of any such thing) quite lost the sovereignty of Greece For, in this 

fight (especially) fortune made it her busines to bring swift destruc- 
tioD upon the proud and haughty, and to teach men not to aspire be* 
yond the bounds of moderation and modesty. So that Agesilaus 
acted prudently in being content in his former good success, and 
preserving his army entire without loss or prejudice. 

Some time after, Agesilaus marchod back with his army into Pe- 
loponnesus; but theThebans, now delivered from the danger they 
were in by the conduct of Chabrias, highly admired his witty strata- 
gem ; who, though he had performed many noble exploits in the wars^ 
yet he gloried more in this than in all others before, and by the fa« 
TOur of the people procured statues to be erected in memory of the 
project, representing the thing as it was done. 

The Thebans, after the departure of Agesilaus, set upon Thespis, ■ 
and killed the guard, which consisted of two hundred men; but 
making several assaults upon the city, though all in vain, th>y drew 
off, in order to return with their forces to Thebes, Upon which^ 
Phebidas, the Lacediemonian, the governor of Thespis,( who kept the 
place with a strong garrison), made a sally upon the Thebans in their 
retreat, and through hi3 pressing on too rashly, (after many wounds 
received,and signalizing his valour), he lost his own life, and the lives 
of above five hundred of his fellows. 

Not long after, the Lacedemonians marched against Thebes with 
the same army: and then again theThebans possessed themselves of 
some other places th^t were of difficult access, by which means 
they did indeed hinder the wasting and spoiling the country, but 
dared not at first to engage with the enemy in the plain. But up^ 
on the appearance of Agesilaus in the Van of the army, they be* 
gao to march slowly towards him, and after a long time, the armies 
at length engaged With great heat and fury. At the first Agesilaus 
had the advantage : but when he discerned the whole city of Thebes 
to sally out upon him, he sounded a retreat : whereupon the The- 
bans judging themselves nothing inferior to the Lacedeemouians, 
erected a trophy, and never after hesitated to engage with the Spartaus. 
And this was the issue of the fights by land. 

But about the same time there was a great fight at sea, between 
Naxos and Paros, upon this occasion : Pollis, the Lacedaemonian 
admiral, had intelligence of a great quantity of corn that was pass- 
ing by sea to Athens; upon which, he made it his busihess to lie in 
wait to surprise the transport ships. The Athenians being informed 
of the design, sent out a fleet to guard the ships loaden with the pro- 
visions, and brought them all into the Piraeus. 
Vol. 2. No.40, s 


After this, Chabrias the Athenian admiral sailed with the whole 
fleet to Naxos, and besieged it, and battering it with his engines^ 
used his utmost endeavours to take it by storm : but while he was 
earnest in prosecuting his design, Pollis the Lacedaemonian admnral 
came up with his fleet to the assistance of the Naxians: upon which 
the fleets engaged, chargine one another in a line of battle. Pollis 
had a navy of sbttv-five sail, and Chabrias eighty-three. Pollis ia 
the right wing valiantly char /red the Athenians in the left, commanded 
by Cedon the Athenian, whom he killed, and sunk his vessel. He 
fell likewise upon others, and broke some of them in pieces with the 
beaks of his ships, and put the rest to flight. Which Chabrias dis- 
cerning, he ordered some ships near him to the reli#f of those that 
were overpowered, and so rescued them. H^ himself, with the great- 
est part of the fleet under his command, with great valour broke in 
pieces and took many of the enemy's gallies. But however, though 
he obtained the victory, and put the enemy's whole fleet to flighty 
yet he would not pursue, remembering the battle at Arginusas,where^ 
though the Athenians were victorious, yet the people, instead of a 
reward, put the othcers to death, only because they did not bury their 
parents who were killed in that fight. Fearing therefore the Kke fate, 
he waved the pursuit, and took up the citizens swimming and float- 
. jng here and there, and so preserved those that were alive, and or* 
dered the dead to be buried. In this battle the Atheniao^ost eigh-^ 
teen gallies, and the Lacedemanians four-and-twenty] eight were 
taken with all the men. 

Chabrias, crowned with this glorious victory, returned with great 
and rich spoils to the Piraeus, and was received by the citizens with 
great honour and acclamation. This was the first victory at sea 
gained by the Athenians since the Peloponnesian war; for, at Cnidus 
they prevailed not by the strength of their own forces, but by the as-» 
distance of the king of Persia. 

While these things were acted in Greece, Marcus Manlius was 
put to death at Rome for aspiring to the monarchy. 



7!%t TribalUans make incursions into Thrace. Chabrias the Athe^ 
nian general assassitiated. The Tkehans rout the Spartans ai 
Chrchonsenus. Artaxerxes seeks to make peace among the Gre \ 
dans. Peace concluded. The Thebans only disagreed. The 
vommendatioH of Eiyaminondas. Sedition^ in several cities of 

WHEN Cbariander was arclion at Athens, and Servius Su1pltiuS| 
Lucius Papirius, Cornelius Titus^, and -Marcus Quintius-f, four 
military tribunes, were in. consular dignity at Rome> the hundred and 
first olympiad was celebated at EHs, and Damon of Thurium bore 
away th^ prize. At that time the TribalUans in Thrace (being in great 
scarcity <rfcorn) made an incursion with tliirty thousand armed men, 
into the territories of their neighbours to get provisions. To that end 
they entered the borders of the Abderites in another part of Thrace» 
and wasted and spoiled the country without any oppositions and hav-^ 
ing kiaden themselves with abundance of plunder> they returned so 
carelesly and disordei ly, as that the whole city of Abdera falling up- 
on them when they were scattered and dispersed, killed above two 
thousand of them. To revenge which, the exasperated barbarianji 
made a second inroad into the country of the Abderites. But they^ 
being encouraged by the late victory, and strengthened with the as-> 
sistance of the neighbouring Tliracians, drew up in battalia against 
the barbarians. The armies furiously engaged, when on a sudden 
the Thracians drew off and left the Abderites to themselves, who 
were presently hemmed in by the barbarians, and almost every man 
cut off. 

As soon as this grievous slaughter of the Abderites was noised a- 
broad, and they were now ready to he besieged, Cliabrias the Athe 
nian arrived, with his army, and not only delivered the Abderites, 
but drove the barbarians out of the country: and, after he had 
strengthened the city with a strong garrison, he was basely assas- 
sinated, but by whom was not known. Upon this, Tiinotheus was 
made admiral of the Athenian fleet, and, sailing to Ccphalenia, he 
blocked up the city with his navy, and wrought *ipon the cities of 
Acarnania to side with the Athenians. Piesently after, he entered 
into a league with Acetas, king of the Molussians; atul now, having 
in his power all the countries subject to the cities in those parts, li<p 
' * Marcui Cornelius. t Titus Quintius. 


routed the Lacedemonians in a sea-fight at Leucades; and all thb 
he did in a very short time, and with much ease, partly by fiur words, 
and partly. by force of arms and his excellent conduct; so that he not 
only gained esteem and reputation amoAgst bis own fellow-citizens^ 
but likewise amongst all the Grecians. And thus was it with Time- 
tbeus at this time. 

Duribg these transactions, the Thebans (with fi?e hundred of the 
most valiant men of their city) marched against Orchomenos, and 
^rformed an exploit worthy of memory. The Spartans kept this 
city with a strong garrison, and, making a sally upon the Thebans, 
there was a sharp encounter, in which they routed the Lacedsemo* 
Diansj though they were double in number, which never happened to 
them before in any age; but the thing might have been borne well 
enough, if they had been few, and had been conquered by the far 
greater number. Henceforth the courage of the Thebans increased, 
and they grew every day famous for their valour; and now it was 
apparent, that they were likely to gain the sovereignty of all Gpreece. 
As to the writers of this time, Hermeias of Methymna ends bis history 
of the afiiiirs of Sicily with this year, comprehended in ten, but, as 
otliers divide them, in twelve books. 

The year following, when Hippodamus was chief magistrate of 
Athens, and four military tribunes, viz. Lucius Valerius*; Crispusf* 
I^Ianlius, Fabius Servilinst, and Sulpitius Lucretius§, were Romaa 
consuls, Artaxerxes used his utmost endeavour to quiet all things ia 
Greece, that he might raise the more mercenaries for the carrying oo 
the war against the Egyptians: for by this means he hoped the Gre* 
cians, being freed from domestic broils, would be in a condition to as- 
sist him abroad. To this end,, he sent ambassadors into Greece, to 
negotiate in this afikir amongst all the cities. And this embassy was 
very acceptable to the Grecians, who were nearly tired out with con- 
tinual wars; so that a general peace was concluded upon these condU 
tions — That all the cities should for the future be governed by their 
own laws, and all the garrisons be withdrawn. And there were cer- 
tain Grecians appointed as commissioners to see the garrisons drawn 
out ; who accordingly went to every city where there was any soldiers, 
and ordered them to leave the place. 

In the mean time, the Thebans only, through every town, disa- 
greed to these terms, and exempted all Bceotia, as tributary only to 
themselves : but the Athenians opposed this with all earnestness, and 
this affair was banded in the common assembly of the Greeks, by 
Callistratus, a tribune of the people, on the behalf of the Athenians, 

* * Lucius Valerius Crispui. t Aulus Manlius. X Servius SuIpitiuK. 

i Lucius Lucretius. 


mod by EpamiDODdas on the behalf of the Thebans; after which, all 
the rest of the Grecians persisted in their resolution to stand to the 
league, leaving out the Hiebans, who (relying upon the wisdom and 
pradenee of Epaminondas) boldly opposed the decree made by the 
general assembly. 

For, seeing that the Lacedemonians and Athenians .had been all 
doog hitherto contesting for the sovereign command of Greece, and 
at length had agreed upon these terms — ^That the Lacedsemoniant 
should have the command at land, and the Athenians at sea, thejr 
mete veiy uneasy to think that now a third should carry away the 
•oveieigDty from them both; for which reason they would not allow 
the cfdes of Boeotia to be under the power of the Thebans. But the 
Thebans {who were men of strong bodies and stout hearts, and had 
lately beaten the Lacedemonians in several fights) bore themselves 
very high, and were in hopes to gain the sovereign command at land. 
Neither were they frustrated in their design, for the reasons before 
neotiaoed, and likemse because they had at that time many exceU 
lent officers and valiant commanders, amongst whom the most fiti- 
SDOus weie Pelopidas, Gorgias, and Epaminondas; which last was 
Slot only the best and most expert commander of any of his own 
country, bat even of all the Grecians^ and was likewise a man of 
gveat learning in the liberal sciences, and especially in the Pytha- 
gorean philosophy; beings besides, of excellent natural parts, and 
SBOther-wit, it was no wopder if he exceeded others in performing 
diose things that were more than ordinarily remarkable. For, with a 
small body of men^ he engaged with the whole power of the Lacede- 
SMmians and their confederates, and so routed those (formerly un- 
eonquerable) warriors, that he killed their king Cleombrotus, and cut 
off almost the whole army of the Spartans. And, by the advantage of 
his fisgular wisdom, and virtuous and liberal education, such things 
ivere performed by him as were admirable beyond all expectation; of 
which we shall speak more fully hereafter, when we come to treat 
IMUticularly of those things. 

But now, to return to the course of our history. It was agreed— 
That every city should govern according to their own laws; but 
presently after, all the cities were again involved in great tumults and 
seditions, especially those iu Peloponnesus. Some few of these had 
been enslaved in the late domineering time, and, being now restored 
to their democratical government, they made but ati ill improvement 
of it; for they banished many honest citizens that were falsely ac- 
cused, and as unjustly condemned; and, by the prevailing power of 
ihe seditious, nothing was more frequent than banishment and con- 
fiscation of goods, and those chiefly were the sufterers that had been 


magistrates in the time of the LacedernQQiaii government; for, be* 
cause in those times they carried it something imi>eriousIy towards 
the people, not with that regard to justice as they ought, now that the 
commonalty were restored to their liberty, they too much resented 
their former injuries.^ 

The exiles, therefore,, of Phialia were the first that consulted and 
joined together, and seued upon Herea, a strong and well fortified 
castle, and from thence made frequent incursions into the territories 
of Phialia; and, at the time when the feasts of Bacchus were cele- 
brated, (upon the sudden), they rushed upon the people in the theatre, 
and cut many of their throats, having before persuaded a consider* 
able number to join with them in this wicked confederacy; and 
afterwards they returned to Sparta. Then the exiles of Corinth, who 
were in great numbers at Argos, determined to force their own re- 
turn. In order hereuntp, some of their servants and friends were re- 
ceived into the city; but the thing being discovered to the magis-^ 
trates, they could not lie long concealed, but, being just ready to be 
seized (through fear of punishment) they killed oncf another. But 
the Corinthians, upon suspicion that many of the citizens were con- 
cerned in the plot, put several to death, and banished others* 

In the city of Megara, likewise, some were contriving how to 
overturn the government, who, being convicted of the treason, many 
were put to death, and not a few banished* 1^, at Sicyon, many wcra 
executed upon a fuU conviction, for endeavouring to bring in inno- 
vations. At length many of the Pbialian exiles, having seized upon 
a castle in that territory, got together a great army of mercenaries^ 
and fought with the townsmen, and got the day, having killed above 
three hundred of the Phialians. But, not long after, the exiles were 
betrayed by their guard, and routed by them of Phialia, with the loss 
of six hundred men; and the rest, being forced out of the country, 
fled to Argos. And such' was the miserable condition of Peloponnesus 
at that time. 



The Persiam send an army into Egypt^ to redjuce the revoUeHk 
Jphicrates a skilful commander. Sedition at Zacynthtu. Plat<ea 
razed by the Thebans. TTie Lacedcsmiomans seize upon the 
island Corcyra: relieved hy the Athenians under Ctesias. Emi» 
goras murdered in Cyprtis by an eunuch. Dreadful earth* 
quakes and innundations in Peloponnesus. A great comet seen m 

SOCRATIDRS the ensuing year was arohon at Athens, and Quintal 
Crassus^, Servilius Cornelius, Spurius Papirius, and Fabius Albusft 
four military tribunes, executed the office of consuls at Rome. At 
that time the king of l^ersia marched against the Egyptians (who had 
revolted some time before). The army was commanded by Phf^'na- 
bazus, and lj#hicrates the Athenian; the barbarians by Phamabazus» 
and twenty thousand mercenaries by Iphicrates, who was in so much 
favour with the king for his excellent conduct, that he intrusted him 
with that command. Pliarnabazus Iiad spent many years in prepara* 
tion for this war.- 

Iphicrates, therefore, knowing the readiness of liis tongue, and the 
slowness of his actions, one day accosted him in this manner-^That 
lie wondered that one who was so voluble in his speech, -should be 
so slow in his actions. To which Pharnabazus answered-JThat he 
was master of his words, but the king of his actions. When the 
Icing's forces came to Acest^ in Syria, and wer^ there musteredt 
there were found two hundred thousand barbarians, to be under the 
conduct of Pharnabazus, and twenty thousand Grecians, under 
the command of Iphicrates. The number of the navy was three 
bundred gallies, of three tier of oars on a bank, and two hundred of 
thirty oars a-piece, and a vast number of transport- ships, to caiiy 
provisions, and other things necessary for the army. 

About the beginning of the spring the officers, with all the forces 
both at sea and land, made for Egypt. When they came near to the 
river Nile, they found the Egyptians ready, and prepared for bat- 
tle; for Pharnabazus had been very tedious in this expedition, and 
had given the enemy time enough to prepare for their defence : for 
it is the constant practice of the Persian generals (in regard they 
have no absolute power) upon every special occ^Siioa to seqd to the 
* Serviliu9. t J^ucios i£iiirliiuu t Ace, or Ptolemais, in Phoenicii. 


king, to know his pleasure, and to stay till they receive his piirticuUur 

In the mean time, Nectanabis, the king of Egypt, had perfect 
knowledge of the strength of the Persian forces; but be placed hi^ 
greatest confidence in the strength of his country, the entrance into 
Egypt being very difficult on every side, and the passage bk>cked both 
by sea and land by the seven mouths of the Nile. For at every mooth 
Where the Nile falls into the sea, was a city built, with large forts or 
castles on each side of the river, joined together by a bridge of tim- 
ber, which commanded all ships that passed that way, and, of all 
these, he had most strongly fortified Pelusium; for, being the next 
frontier town towards Syria, they conceived the eneipy would first 
attempt to enter into the country that way : therefore they drew a 
trench round the city, and, where there was a place whereat aay 
vessels might in any probability enter, there they raised walls to ob^ 
struct thcipassage; and, where there were any fords by which the 
way lay open into Egypt by land, he brought the water over them; 
and, where any ship might pass, he filled up those places with stones 
and rubbish : by which means it was very difficult, and scarcely pos- 
sible, either for ships to sail, or horse or foot to march. Pharna^i- 
bazHs's officers, therefore, seeing Pelusium so strongly and wonder^ 
folly fortified, and well manned, thought it most advisable to for- 
bear to attempt entering by force, and rather to sail to some other 
mouth of the river, and endeavour to make a passage for the ieet 
there. Whereupon they put off to sea again, and, being out of 
sight, that they might not be discerned by the enemy, they steered 
their course for Mendesium*, another mouth of the Nile, where the 
shore runs a great way out from the mun land. Here they landed 
three thousand men^ and Pharnabazus and Iphicrates assaulted a fort 
built upon the very mouth of the river; but the Egyptians came 
down with three thousand horse and foot to the relief of the placet 
upon which there was a sharp engagement, in which the Egyptians^ 
being overpowered by multitude, (for more came running in to their 
assistance from the ships), were hemmed in, and a great slaughter 
made amongst them, very few being taken prisoners; the rest were 
forced to fly into a little town hard by; but the soldiers of Iphicrates 
entered pell mell with those of the garrison into the place ; and, having 
thus taken it by force, they demolished it, and carried away the inha- 
bitants as captives. 

After this, there arose a difference between the generals, which 
brought all to nought. Iphicrates learnt from the captives, that 
there was a ganison called Memphis, which pUce was of the greatest 

* Meudei. 

Chap, ft WodorUs sIculu<». 33 

I • Ti ■ - I t m*'<^ 

cooseqaence of any throughout all Egypt; therefore he advised that 
they sbould sail with the fleet thither before the rest of the Egyp- 
tian army got together; hut Pharnabazus and all his forces were for 
staying till all the Persian land and sea-forces came up, that so there 
might be less danger in the expedition. But Iphicratcs then offered 
to undertake the reduction of the city with those mercenaries that 
were then with him, if he might but have the liberty. Upon which, 
Pharnabazus grew envious at the valour and confidence of the man, 
and began to be fearful Jest all Egypt should be conquered by his 
arms only, and therefore denied his request. Hereupon, Iphicrates 
made a solemn protestation against them, declaring that all this 
expedition would be fruitless and vain, through their neglect, if 
tliey let slip the present opportunity. But Pharnabazus envied 
Iiim the more, and, very undeservedly, gave him opprobrious lan- 

In the mean while, the Egyptians (having now gained more time) 
put a strong garrison into Memphis, and marched with all their 
army to the little town before demolished; and, prevailing in sundry 
skirmishes against the Persians, they never let them rest, but, grow- 
ing still sronger and stronger, made a great slaughter of them, and 
grew every day more obstinate. But the Persian army, having now 
staid a long time about this qistle*,and the river Nile (by force of the 
Etesian winds) beginning to overflow, insomuch as that all the land 
was covered with. water, (whereby Egypt was now more inaccessible, 
and by that means, as it were, fortified), the commanders, (because 
nature seemed to fight against them), resolved forthwith to leave 

As soon, therefore, as they returned into Asia, Pharnabazus re^ 
newed the quarrel with Iphicrates: upon which, Iphicrates (fearing 
he should receive the same treatment as Couon formerly had) con- 
sulted how to withdraw himself privately from the camp. To this end 
(having prepared a vessel for his purpose) he went on board in the 
nighty and so sailed to Athens : but Pharnabazus sent ambassadors 
after him, and accused him, as being the occasion of tlie miscarriage 
of the design relating to the reducing of Egypt; to whom the Atlie- 
nians answered ^That, if he were guilty, they would punish him ac- 
cording to his deserts : but, in a very short time after, they made him 
admiral of their whole fleet. 

In this place we think it not much beside our purpose if we say 
something concerning what is reported of the valour of Iphicrates. 
lie is said to have been a very skilful commander, and of a quick 
and ready wit in contriving any useful project or stratagem. IJuv* 

♦ Th» Lilllc Town. 

Vol. 2. No. 40. v 


ing therefore gained much experience and judgment io martial dis-* 
cipline, by his long and continued exercise in the wars of Persia^ h6 
found out many things of great advantage in matters of war^ espe- 
cially he employed himself in contriving the making of new sorts of 

It was hitherto a custom among the Grecians to carry great and 
heavy shields: but^ because these by their weight much hindered the 
soldiers in their marcb^ he changed the form of them^ and ordiered 
targets of a moderate size in their room: in which alteration he bad 
a respect to two things^ one, that their bodies should be sufficiently 
defended, and, by the other, that by their lightness they might be 
the more easily managed. Experience presently approved the in- 
vention, and they who from their heavy arms were before called 
Hopliti, heavy-armed men, were from these new targets called Pel- 
tasti, targeteers. He changed likewise the fiishion of their spean 
and swords. The spears he caused to be made half as long agun as 
they were before, and the swords longer almost by two parts. 
This alteration was presently approved by use and experience, and 
the reputation of the general was highly advanced by the usefulness 
of his ingenious inventions. Lastly, he altered the very soIdier*s 
shoes, tiiat they might be sooner put on, easier to march with, "and 
more readily cast off; and therefore th^y are called at this very day 
Iphicratics. He invented many other things belonging to niartial 
affairs, which would be too tedious here to relate. But thus all thair 
great preparation for an expedition into Egypt came to nothing. 

During these affairs, the new frame of government throughckit alt 
Greece filled the cities with tumult and commotion; and because of 
the anarchy in most places, seditions abounded. Those who weVe'for 
im oligarchy, had the Lacedemonians to patronise them; and those 
that appeared for a democracy were protected by the Athenians : for 
both the cities for awhile kept the league made between them in- 
violable. But upon their siding with the cities, (as they were inclined 
to the one or the other), without any regard to the former articles of 
the peace, they presently broke out into war. 

At that time the inhabitants of Zacyn thus, -being enraged against 
their magistrates, (encouraged thereunto under the proetction of the 
Lacedaemonians, and provoked with the memory of their former in- 
juries), drove them all out of the city; who fled to Timotheus the A- 
thcuian admiral, and were received into the fleet, and joined with 
him in the war. He patronised their cause, and transported theai 
iato!hcislaud,(where they seized upon a strong castle called Arcadia), 
and,u; the assistance of Timotheus, very much molested and injured 
tlie townsmen. They of Zacynthus desired aid of the lAcedffino-^ 


niabs^ who firsts (be£ore they would begin a war)^ sent to;the people 
ofAthens, and by their ambassadors accusedTimotheua: but when they 
discerned that they inclined to favour the exiles, they bestirred them- 
s selves to equip out a fleet; and having manned thirty-five gallies^ 
they sent them to the aid of the Zacynthians, under the command of 

Whilst these things were in doing, some in Corcyra that favoured 
th^ Lacedfiemonians, appeared against the people, and sent to Sparta 
to be assisted with all speed with some shipping, promising to de- 
liver up Corcyra into their hapds. Upon which, they (knowing very 
well the importance of that island for the recovery of the dominion 
at sea) hasteued away to get possession. And to that end com- 
manded Alcidas to pass over to Corcyra with two<-and-twenty sail; 
they giving out, that this fleet was to go for Sicily, but in truth with 
a design, (under colour of being Criends to the Corey rians), by the 
help of the exiles, to sieze upon the city. But the iuhabitants coming to 
understand the fraud andintended cheat ofthe Lacedeemonians, strong- 
ly fortified the place, and kept diligent watch and ward, and sent am- 
bassadors to Athens for assistance. Upon which the people decreed to 
send succours forthwith, both to the Corey rians and to them of Zacyn- 
thus; whereupon Ctesicles was presently sent to Zacynthus to com- 
mand the exiles : but the fleet to be sent to Corcyra was but then fitting 
out. In the mean time they of Platsea having entered into a league 
with the Athenians, and decreed to deliver up their city into their pro- 
tection, sent for a garrison from Athens. At which the governor^ 
of Boeotia being exceedingly ofiended, (to prevent the Athenians)^ 
forthwith led out a great army against the Plateeans; and having 
entered the confines of Platsa, (by this sudden and unexpected ir- 
ruption), they found many of the citizens straggling in the fields, who 
were presently snapped up by the horsemen; the rest fled into the 
city, and, having no confederates to assist them, were furced to de- 
liver themselves up, upon such terms and conditions as the enemy 
was pleased to allow them : for they were to leave the city, and take 
with them only their household goods, and never more ta set foot 
in Bceetia. After this, the Thebans razed Platasa, and took Thcs- 
pis (that sided against them) by assault. The Plataeans fled to Athena 
witii their wives and children, and were there kindly received int(^ 
the franchises and liberties of the city. And in this condition stood 
the aflairs of Bo^tia all that time. The Lacedsemonians had now 
sent Mnasippus with a fleet of sixty-five sail, and fifteen hundred men 
under his comniand to Corcyra, which, after he arrived at the island, 
and had taken the exiles on board, he sailed into the haven, and pre** 
scntly possessed himself of four of their gallies, and forced the rest 
qpon land, which they of Corcyn^ burnt, to prevent their facing into 


the enemy 8 hands: he routed them, likewise, in a land-fight, 
(though they had advantageously possessed themselves of a hill), 
insomuch, that all the Corcyrians every where were, in fear and 
amazement. The Athenians had some time before sent Timotheos^ 
the son of Conon, to the aid of the Corcyrians, with a navy of sixty 
sail; but, before he came in to succour them, he sailed intoThracCf 
and brought over many of the cities there to the Athenian interest, 
and enlarged his fleet with thirty sail: but, because he came too 
late to the assistance of them of Corey ra, the people of Athens were 
very angry at him, and took away his commission; yet, when he re- 
turned to Athens with a great number of ambassadors, who came 
along with him to confirm the leagues with the Athenians, and be- 
sides, brought in the fleet in good order, being more than they were 
by thirty sal), the people rescinded the former decree, and restored 
him to his command. Before this they had likewise prepared forty 
gallics more, (so that their whole fleet was fourscore), and had made 
also plentiful provision of corn, arms, and all other things necessary 
for tlic war: hut, for the present, they sent five hundred men to the 
aid of them of Corcyra, under the command of Ctesias, who entered 
privately in the night into Corcyra, where he found the townsmen in 
bad circumstances, by the sedition, and their ill management of af- 
fairs relating to the war: but forthwith, quieting all parties, he made 
h hlsi business to put ail things in a posture of defence, and by this 
ineans put heart and courage into th^ besieged. In the first place, 
he made a sally, and cut oft* two hundred of the enemy* Presently 
after, in a sharp engagement, he killed Muasippus and many of his 
army. And now, when the war was almost at an end in Corcyra, ar- 
rived Timotheus and Iphiqrates, with the Athenian fleet; who, coming 
too late, did nothing worth remembering, save that they took nine 
gallics, men and all, sent by Dionysius out of Sicily to the assistance 
of the Lacedsemonians, under the command of Cassidas* and Crinip- 
pus, and by the sale of the captives raised three spore t&lent$, with 
which they paid off the soldiers. 

While these things were acting, ^icQcle^, an eunuch in Cyprus, 
treacherously murdered king Evagoras, and made himself King of 
Salamis. In Italy, the Romans fought with the Prene^tines, and routed 
and killed many of them. 

Afterwards, when Asteius was chief magistrate at Athens, a^d six 
military tribunes, viz. Marcus Furius, Lucius Furius, Aulus Ppsthu- 
mius, Lucius Lucretius, Marcus Fabius,and Lucius PosthumiuSj^ exe- 
cuted the ofiice of consuls at Rome, there happened such dr^dfhl 
earthquakes aud innundations in Peloponnesus, (throughout all the 

♦ Cissides. 


1 ■ ■*'■■'■ ■ ' ■ J ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ^. ■ 

cities, aDd over all the country), that are incredible to relate. For^ 
never in any former age did the like calamity fall upon the Gredaa 
cities^ whicli were now swallowed up^ together with their inhabitants} 
and certainly some divine power contrived and executed this remark- 
able ruin and destruction of mankind : nay, the time when it was 
done added to the greatness of the calamity. For the earthquakes 
happened not in the day, (when the distressed might have found out 
some way or other to have helped themselves), but in the night, 
when the houses, by the violence of the shake, fell down in confused 
heaps; so that (by the darkness of the night, and the suddenness of 
the ruin) men were in that perplexity, that they knew not which 
way to turn themselves for security; insomuch that the greatest part 
of the inhabitants (buried in the rubbish of the houses) miserably 
perished. But, as soon as it was day, some came running out of the 
houses, and, thinking tbey had escaped the danger, fell into a far 
greater and unex])ected niiscliicf ; for,,the sea raged to that degree, 
and broke tn with that violence, that it swallowed up them and their 
bouses together. 

Two cities of Achaia, one called Helice, and the other Bura, chiefly 
suRered by this sad accident : of which two, Helice was of the greatest 
account of any of the cities of Achaia. 

There was a very hot dispute concerning the cause of this evil* 
Indeed the natural philosophers do generally ascribe all such events 
to natural causes, and necessary circumstances, and not to any divine 
hand; but they who have more reverend thoughts and sentiments of 
a deity, give a very probable account of this matter: that this de- 
struction was the effect of the anger of the gods^ for the impious 
violation of the rights of religion, of which we shall give a more 
particular account. The three cities of Ionia were accustomed to 
have a general assembly of all the lonians at Mycale, and there- 
abouts, where, in a certain solitary place, (according to antient rites), 
tbey offered many costly sacrifices to Neptune; which Panionion* 
festivals the lonians, not being able to solemnize^ at that place, by 
reason of the frequent wars and disturbances, they removed those as- 
semblies to a more secure place not far from Ephesus. But, send- 
ing to Delphos, to consult there with the oracle, they were com- 
manded to take images from the most antient altars of their fore- 
fathers (meaning from Helice, a city of the country formerly called 
Ionia, but now Achaia). Upon this they declared in the public as- 
sembly of the Achaians the occasion of their embassy, and desired 
them to grant their request. But they of Helice had an antient 
prophecy^^Tliat then they would 1^ in the greatest danger^ when 
* Pfto loDum^ a general feitival of the lobiaiu. 


^' i .'■■■■ ^ 

Jfte,Iopimi«|aAcri£bBd upoQ ti^ altar of Neptune. Renaembering 
fhiB^ therefore^ thej would not suflfer the lonians to take the images, 
idlegingi that lite temple was not common to all the Achaians, bot 
peculiar to themselves only. The same addresses wefe made ta 
them of Bura, who were of the same mind with those of Heliee. 
However, the lonians, by pablic edict of the Athenians, (that the 
prophecy roq^it be fulfilled), offered sacrifices upon the altar of 
Kcptune. UiK)n this they of ileiice seized upon all the goods of the* 
loniansj and committed the ambassadors to prison, and so carried it 
Yery impiously towards the deity; therefore they say that N<>ptune, 
being angry, to revenge himself upon their impiety, (by these earth- 
l|uakes and iniiundations of the sea), brought this grievous calamity 
upon those cities. And that it was done by him, they use this for aa 

ivgumcnt That it is generally believed that this god hath the power 

of innundations and earthquakes in his own hand; and that Pelo- 
ponnesus had been ever repi}ted the habitation of Neptune, and the 
country dedicated to him, and that all the Peloponnesian cities wor- 
shipped this god above, all others. Besides this, they give a further 
leason of this sad accident. There are (as they say) in Peloponnesus 
great cavities under ground, which, by the sea flowing here an<| 
there through the earth, are turned into great ponds and lakes of 
.Water. And, indeed, it is very certain that there are two rivers ia 
that peninsula which apparently fall into the caverns of the earths 
for the rivers which run by Pheneus* in former ages sunk in one 
place into the earth, and became invisible, being swallowed up ii^ 
these caverns under ground. Anotherf was lost at a great opening; 
of the earth at Stymphiust» and ran unseen under ground for the 
•space of two hundred stages, and rose up again near the city of Aigos^ 

To what is related is further added That none suffered but only 

they who were guilty of the impiety before meationed. And thia 
shall suffice to be said of the earthquakes and innundatioos in Pelo- 

When Alcisthenes was chief magistrate of Athens, and eight mill- 
tary tribunes, viz. Lucius Valerius§, Publius Ancius, CSaius Teren- 
tius, Lucius Menenius» Caius Sulpitius, Titus Papirius* Lucius ^Emi*« 
lius, and Fabius Marcus||, bore the consular authority at Rome, the 
hundred and second Olympiad was celelyated at £lis, wherein Da- 
mon the Hiurian was victor. At that time God (by some signs and 
prodigies) foretold the fall of the Lacediemonian sovereignty over 
Greece, after they had enjoyed it near five hundred years ;^ for a 
great comet (which, from its sliape, x^ms called the Fiery Beam) waa 

* A city in Artadia. t Kraienut rifvr. t StyrophmJiis« ia Arcadii. 

$ LuciiM Publiai Volcrhu^ | Murcut Fubius. 

Chap. P% DiODOEUs stcuLUS^ 39 

seen itt tlie heavens several nights. And^ not long after, the Lace*- 
^bMioiiiana beiag overcome in a great battle, suddenly (beyond ill 
Blends imagination) lost their dominion. Some among the natiml 
phiioia^herB ascribe the origin of this comet to proceed from fiati»- 
nl causes, and say that diese sort of meteors, at some stated timest 
do ha{^n of necessity: and that the eminent Chaldeans in Bab^ 
Ion, and other astrdogers, have certainly and exactly fordtoU the 
«|ipeaniQce of these comets; and that it is not sur|>rising suek 
thkiga do happen accordingly, but that it would be a great wonder 
if they did not, seeing that all things have their proper eourses aad 
turns; and at leng^, by incessant motions, are brought into aotioo 
ia fixed and staf^ times and seasons. It is related, that this 
comet was w^ very light, that it cast a shadow upon the eanth Uqf» 
the noon. 


Artaserxes tends again to nuAe peace among the Oredansi gfit 
comply except the Tlkdku^is. The Spartcm$ rause an - army a'* 
gaintt tie Thebane. Epaminondas made the Theban general. 
The famous haitle of Leuctra. The terrible seditwns and 
cruelties in Argos. Jason ofPhenB stirs up the Thgssakmifm 
to gam the sovereignty €f Greece. PoUydorus, prince qfPhefu» 
in Oreece, poisoned by his brother Alexander. A plot to de- 
pose Alexander, The long of Macedonia treated with to thqt 

ABOUT this time Artaxerxes, king of Persia, hearing that Greece 
was fallen into new broils, sent ambassadors again, to exhort them ta 
live in peace one with another, according to the late establishment. 
The Grecians readily complied with the advice, and all made peace 
again among themselves, except the Thebaus: for they were not ad* 
mitted into the league, because they challenged all Bocotia to be 
under their own government. And it was decreed that all tlie cities 
should be bound by oath to observe the league. Being therefore 
excluded, (as they were before), they kept Boeotia under the sole juris- 
diction of their own city. Upon which the Laced:emonians, being 
enraged, resolved to make war upon tbem^ as the common enejnies 

40 DiODORUs sicuLUs. JBook XK 

of Greece. For their growing power began to be suspected^ lest 
(being masters of all Bceotia) they should some time or other find 
an opportunity to deprive Sparta of the sovereign command; espc* 
cially, because they were a warlijce nation, inferior to none in Greece^ 
and, by their daily exercise in the public schools, their bodies became 
far stonger; and besides, they had many valiant commanders^ espe- 
cially thref, Epaminondas, Gorgias, and Pelopidas. ^And to this 
«inay be added, that the Tbebans, by reason of the nobility of their 
ancestors, (who were famous in the heroic times), were of proud and 
lordly spirits, and ever aspiring to great matters./ Upoo this ar^ 
count the Lacedaemonians this year raised an army, cooiposed of 
their own citizens, and of their confederates^ and prepared thcmsielves 
for war. 

When Phrasichides was lord-cliancellor of Athens, and the Rq» 
mans appointed eight military tribunes to execute the office of con- 
suls, viz. Publius Manlius, Caius Erenucius, Caius Sextius, Tiberius 
Julius*, Lucius Labiniusf, Publius Flbonius, Caius Manlius, and 
Lucius Antistius, the Thebans, excluded from the common league, 
were forced, by their own strength alone, to bear the brunt of the war 
against the Lacedaemonians : for, by the articles of the peace, (ratified 
and confirmed by all), none of the cities were to send them any aid or 
Telief. Therefore the Lacedsemonians, (now that the Tliebans were 
wholly deserted), decreed a war against them, and were resohred to 
subject Thebes to the Laced»roonian states And, forasmuch as all 
observed that the Lacedemonians made extraordinary preparations, 
and that the Thebans, on the other hand, had none to stand by them, 
every body was of opinion that they would he easily conquered by the 
Spartans. And therefore all that wished them well were much trou* 
bled and concerned for them, to see their inevitable ruin approaching. 
But their enemies, on the contrary, rejoiced as if the Thebans were 
even already subdued. 

When the Lacedeemonians had raised their army, they created 
Cleombrotus general; and, in the first place, sent ambassadors to 
Thebes, to demand that all the cities of Bceotia should be allowed 
to govern themselves according to their own laws; and that Plataea 
and Thespis should be rebuilt, and that those territories should be 
restored to the antient proprietors. To which the Thebans an- 
swered.-.That, as they did not concern themselves with the mattexs 
of Laconia, so the Lacedsemonians ought not to meddle with the 
aflUrsofBoBotia* Upon receiving this answer, the Lacedaemonians 
(without any further delay) ordered Cleombrotus to march with the 
army against Thebes. And the Lacedaemonian confederates were 
* I.iciM JttUui. t Marcttt Aitoitu. 

Clkap. P^. DtODORUS stct;LU8. 41 

very ready to joio in this War^ hoping that th€ Boeotians would be 
sabdued with little or no fighting, and without any great labour 
or paiDB. 

Marching on, therefore, they encamped at Chseronea, and there 
waited for their confederates, who came in but slowly. In the meafi 
time the Thebans, hearing of the enemy^s march, sent their wivet 
and children for security to Athens. Then they made Epaminondaa 
general of the army, and intrusted him with the management of tlie 
whole war, joining with him six Bc^otians, and governors of Boeotia, 
ma liis council. He listed whoever was of an age able and fit to bear 
arms among the Thebans, and likewise among the other Boeotians^ . 
aod> having now an army not above six thousand, with these htf 
marehed out of Thebes; at which instant of time some prodigiea 
were seen, which forboded no good success : for, as they were goin^ 
out at the gates, there met them an herald, who (according to antieni 
custom} led a blind man (that had run away) and cried aloud -^Brin^ 
bim not out of Thebes, nor put him to death, but carry him back a<* 
gaio5 and save his life. The old men took this cry of the herald for 
an evil sign; but the young men held their peace, lest, by their 
timoronsness) they should seem to have a desire to dissuade Epami-* 
Bondas from the expedition he had Utidertaken. To those that were 
pressing upon him first to consider Well of these presages, he an* 
twered in this verse.^ 

It it a bappy tign to ilglit for bis eontitry. 

Such a ftnnk resolution had no sooner abashed, and caused al( 
those that were timoirous to blush, but another prodigy more fright* 
ftil happened. For a secretary went before, carrying a javelin, to 
which a scroll was annexed, to signify that the army was to obey the 
orders and commands of their generals. It fell out that a high wind 
Uef^ otf this scroll, and fixed it upon a pillar of a tomb, in which very 
place some Laced^gmonians and Peloponnesians who formerly fol- 
lowed Agesilaus were buried, and had been there slain! upon which 
the antient men again, with protestations, dissuaded him from going 
any fiirther with the army, seeing the gods so evidently opposed 
the design. But the general returned them no answer, but cheerfully 
narched on, preferring at that time the honesty and justice of hia 
cause before uncertain observations and conclusions upon signs and 
prodigies. And though Epaminondas, who was a great philosopher, 
managed all this affair with great prudence and discretion, yet in the 
mean time he incurred the censure of many. But not long after, 
when the success of the action evinced the excellency of his military 
conduct, we see him instrumental in performing mapy things to the 
great advantage and service of his country. For be marched away 

Vox., 2. No. 40. « 


directly, and gained the straits near Chseronea, and encamped tbere« 
Cleombrotus, when he heard that the enemy had possessed them- 
selves of that pass, not looking upon it feasible to regain it^ tomedT 
aside another way, by Phocis, and marched along by the sea-shcHre, 
where, though the way was very rugged and difficult, yet at leogdi 
be came, without any prejudice, to the confines .of Bceotia: but in 
bis passage he took some small towns, and gained some galUes* 
At last be arrived at Leuctra, and there encamped, and refreshed 
bis army* 
. In the mean time tlie Boeotians, marching forward, drew near to 
the enemy; and, as soon as they recovered the hills, and saw the 
greatness of the Lacedaemonian army, covering the plains of Leuctra, 
they were not ^ little amazed. Hereupon the Boeotarchs called a 
council of war^ to consider whether it were advisable to go on, and 
fight upon such unequal terms, or else to march back, and engage 
with the enemy in some more commodious place. It happened that 
upon this consultation the votes were equal : for, there being six of 
these Boeotarchs, or governors of Bceotia, three were for going backj 
and the other three for abiding where they were, and to try tbdr 
fortune by a battle, of which l&st number Epaminondas was one. 
\Vhile the matter stood thus doubtful, and nothing could be deter- 
inined, the seventh Bceotarch at length came in, and Epaminondas 
persuaded him to give his vote on his side, and so he carried it« And 
thus it was determined to lay all at stake, and try it out by a battle. 
Epaminondas then, perceiving that the soldiers were still supersti- 
tiously possessed with the former ominous signs and prodigies, en« 
deavoured, by all the art and industry he possibly could, to removt 
these opinions and suspicions of his soldiers. To this end, npoQ 
some persons coming newly into the camp from Thebes, he caused a 
report to be spread abroad, that all the arms that hung up in Her- 
cules's temple were ou a sudden gone, and not to be found, and that 
it was commonly nobed in Thebes — ^That the antient heroes bad 
taken them away, and were gone out to th^ assistance of the Tbe- 
bans. He suborne^^ likewise, another to say he lately came up oali 
of Trophonius's^ cell, and he affirmed that the oracle there com** 
manded him to tell them — ^That, when tbey had gained the vktoiy 
at Leuctra, they should institute the Coronet festivals to Jupiter* 
From whence arose that custom of keeping a yearly solemnity by tlia 
Boeotians at Lebadea^ And besides this skill and prudence of the gf f 

* This Trophonius was said to be the son of Apollo, and bad a temple at Lebadca, ia 
Bootia, dedicated to him, where was a cave, of which strauge things are related — 3<# 
liieph- aod others. Fanaaii. lib. 9, c. 39, * larga descriptioD, tod bj hii owa opor^ 
•ace, 9$ ko ttji. 


iierml^ Leandras the Spartan (who was banished from Lacedsemon^ 
and then in arms with the Tliebans) was not a little serviceable in ' 
this ai&ire for^ being called into the assembly^ he affirmed that the 

Spartans* had an antient prophecy That, when they were beaten by 

the Thebans at Leuctra^ they should lose their principality. At 
length some of the inhabitants of the country, who uo'dertook to in- 
terpret the oracles, came to Epaminondas, and declared that it was 
decreed by the gods — ^Tiisit a great slaughter should be made of the 
Lacedaemonians at the tombs of the daughters of Leuctrus and Sch«- 
dasus, for the reasons herein after related. Leuctrus was he from 
whom the field was so called ; and his daughters, and the daughters 
of one Schedasus, virgins, in the flower of their age, were deflowered 
by the Spartan ambassadors : the young women, not able to endure 
that great dishonour and disgrace, (with many imprecations a-^ 
gainst that nation who sent such wicked ambassadors), laid vio* 
lent hands on themselves, i When these and other such like'things 
were alleged, Epaminondas called the soldiers together, and, in 
an oration fitted for the purpose, encouraged them to the battle: 
upon which the soldiers (being now freed from their supersti- 
tious conceits) changed their minds^ and longed to be engaged with 
the enemy. 

About this time came some auxiliary forces to the Thebans from 
Tliessaly, fifteen hundred foot, and five hundred horse, under the 
command of Jason. This man advised both the Thebans and the 
Lacedaemonians (upon consideration of the uncertainty of the events 
of war) to agree upon terms of peace; which took its effect. And 
now Cleombrotus withdrew his forces out of Boeotia, and in his 
inarch a great army from the LacedsBmonians and their confederates, 
under the command of Archidamus, the son of Agosilaus, met him. 
For the Spartans, seeing the courage and resolution of the Boeotians, 
and not judging it advisable to slight men that seemed to be resolved, 
;iod to run upon the pikes at all adventures, had sent forth this their 
mmy (by their multitude at least) to give a chetk to the insolence of 
die enemy. Drawing up, therefore, in a body together, (and looking 
upon it as a base and mean thing, below the dignity of the Spartans, 
fio much as to think the valour of the Boeotians worthy of any re- 
gard), without any respect to the late league, they rashly and prct 
cipitately returned to Leuctra, where they found the Bceotians (with 
. great earnestness) expecting and desiring a battle. Upon this, the 

armies on both sides were drawn up in Imttalia in this manner ^Or^ 

the part of the Lacedffimonians, Cleombrotus and Archidamus the 
soil of Agesilaus (both descended from Hercules) commanded the twq 
wings: on tlie ot|ier side, Kpapinoudas msirsballed his uriiiy ^ft€r i^ 


new and peculiar manner, by which excellent stratagemi he gained 
that glorious victory never to be forgotten; foriie chose out of th^ 
whole army the best and strongest of the soldiers, and placed theai 
in that wing where he himself would command; in the other be 
placed his weaker men, with a command not to abide the enemy's 
charge, but, by a soft and slow retreat, to avoid the shock. Having 
therefore thus ordcrt^d an oblique phalanx, he resolved to try the for- 
tune of the day with the other wing, under his command. And now 
the trumpet > sounded a charge on both sides, and, at the first onsets 
the armies set up a ^reat shout : the Lacedemonians came on with 
hoih their wings in fashion of an half moon; on the other hand, the 
Boeotians retreated with one of their wings, and charged fiercely on 
the enemy with the other. (When they came to the sword's pointy 
both fought very desperately, and at first the victory was very doubt- 
ful, hilt at length they with £paminondas, by their valour and close 
order, brokp in upon the Peloponnesians, and made a great slaughter 
limongst them ; for they were not able any longer to bear the weight 
of the shock wherewith they were pressed, but some were slain 
downright upon the spot, others mortally wounded, bravely receiving 
all their wounds upon their breasts.) As long as Oeombrotus the 
LacedsBmonian king was alive, it was uncertain which side would 
carry away the victory, because he had a strong body of targeteers 
with him, who fought resolutely in his defence: but, as soon as be 
fell down dead, (after many wounds received, and much valour shewn 
on his part, though all ineffectual) they thronged together about his 
body, where they were hewn down in heaps one upon another. And 
now this wing, being without a leader, the Epaminondians charged 
the Lacedsnionians with that fierceness, that they forced them by 
degrees into disorder. However, the Lacedsemonians fought so 
bravely for the body of their king, that at length they possessed them« 
selves of it, though they were not able to gain the day: for those 
choice bands with Epaminondas standing to it as unconquerable,, 
(encouraged, likewise, both hy the words and example of their leader)^ 
the Lacedaemonians at length (with much ado) began to give ground. 
And, indeed, at first they did not (to appearance) break their order 
of battle in their retreat; but, when the slaughter increased, and 
they had now no commander to give necessary orders, the wliole 
army fled outright. The Epaminondians pursued them close, and, 
with the slaughter of a multitude of their enemies, gained a glorious 
victory: for, by their engaging with the most famous warriors of 
Greece, and becoming victorious with an army far short in number 
to their enemy's, they highly advanced the reputation of their valour^ 
liut £puu}iiioudas^ the general, was judged worthy of the greatest 

dap. FL DIODOEU5 6ICULU9, 48 

boootir aad esteem, because, diiefly by his valour and prudence, he 
had routed those commauders of Greece, who were never before con* 
qaered. The Lacedemouians lust in this battle no fewer than four 
thousand men: of the Boeotians were killed about three hundred* 
Afterwards they made a truce for the burying of the dead, and the re* 
turn of the LacedaBmonians into Peloponnesus. And this was th9 
issue of the battle of Leuctra. 

The year following, when Dyscinetus was prsstor of Athens, and 
fou^•military tribunes, Quintus Servilius, Lucius Furius, Caius Li^ 
ciiinius, andPubliusClelius, executed the consular dignity at Rome^ 
the Thebaas marched with a great army against Orohomenus, with m 
full purpose utterly to ruin that city. But they were advised bjr 
£paminondas, in regard they sought to gain the principality of 
Greece, that it was their interest to use their victory with moderation. 
Whereupon they left off their design, and received the Orchomeniana 
as their confederates : afterwards they made a league with the Pbo« 
ciftns and iEtolians, and so returned into Bcedtia* 

At that time Jason, prince of Pheree*, (whose power grew every 
day) invaded Locrisf with a great army, and razed Ueraclea^ in - 
Trachinia, after it was betrayed into his hands, and bestowed their 
territories on the Octeans^ and Melieans. Thence marching into PeiT<- 
hsebia, he courted some of the cities into submission, and gained others 
by force of arms. 

The Tbessalians, seeing him mount up so fast, and in so short a 
time, began to be jealous of the growth of his power, and the heat of 
his ambition. 

But in the mean time there arose such a sedition, followed with 
such butcheries, in Argos, that the like had never been before in anj 
of the cities of Greece; wiiich new and unheard-of cruelty was called 
by the Grecians Scytalmn\\y from the manner of the slaughter com- 
mitted. And the cause of the tumult was this: Ai^gos was governed 
by a democracy; the orators, and those that affected popularity, 
stirred up the mob against the great men of the city; which caused 
them, for tlieir own preservation, (and to free themselves from the 
false accusations that were prosecuted against them), to plot and 
contrive how to overturn the democratical government* And when 
some who were suspected were called in question, others, fearing 
they should be put to the rack, murdered themselves. For one iq 
the height of his torments confessed, and accused thirty of the great«* 
est men of the city to be in the conspiracy; upon which the people 
(witliQut any further trial) knocked them all on the head, and confis-r 

* In Tbessaiy. t Ir Thessaly. t Near Pliocis and Parnassuf . f Ntaj 

lloum Oeta and Tlicrmopjlsj iu Pbtbiotif. || Knockiug on the head with clubs. 


I I ■■ I I ■ n I 

tnteA thehr estates. And whereas there were many others seized, apo» 
ittspicion of the plot^ (and the false accusations managed against 
them by the orators with all the aggraration imaginable)^ the people 
weie so enraged, that whoever were accused (of whom there was a 
vast number, and all very rich) were condemned to death; so that 
there were executed above sixteen hundred of the greatest and most 
powerful men of the city : neither were the orators themselves spared | 
ibr^ when they slackened in the prosecution of the calumnies, (be* 
cause they were afraid lest some sudden mischief should overtako 
them, by reason of the extraordinary cruelties that were committed), 
the people concluded that they had deserted their cause, which put 
tbem into such a ferment of rage and fury, that they killed all the 
orators that were then in the city; which seemed to be executed upon 
tbem by tlie hand of some revenging deity, as a reward for their vil- 
lanies. After tlie tumult was ceased, the people returned to their 
former quiet and peaceable dispositions. 

About this time Lycomedes of Tegea persuaded the Arcadians to 
join together in one body of a commonwealth, and to constiute a 
|;eneral council, consisting of ten thousand men, wlio should have 
absolute power to determine all matters relating both to war and 
peace* But a tumult happening among the Arcadians, the contro- 
versy was decided by the 8word> many being killed, and above four- 
teen hundred banished, some to Sparta, others to Palantium*. 
Those that fled tp the Palantines were by them delivered up into the 
hands of tiveir enemies, who cut all their throats. The others prc-t 
vailed on the Lacedaemonians to make an inroad into Arcadia: upoa 
which Agesilaus, king of Sparta, with an army made up of the citi- 
zens and exiles, broke into the territories of Tegea, because they 
were looked upon to be the fomenters of all the broils and banish- 
ments amongst the Arcadians, and wasted and spoiled the countr]^ 
tirhich, together with a strigt sieg^ laid to the city, greatly tenified 
the Arpadiaos. 

While these things were acting, Jason, who ruled at Pherae, (a 
luan excellently well versed in military affieiirs), who had now many 
of the neighbouring countries for his confederates, persuaded the 
Thessaliaus to endeavour to gain the sovereignty of Greece to them- 
selves. For he alleged, that whpever would fight for it might now 
gain it as the reward of their valour: for it was evident that the 
I^acedaemouians were miserably ruined at Leuctra, and the Aihe^ 
nians were only masters at sea, and theTbebans far unworthy of such 
a dignity; and in conclusion, that the Argives had weakened tbemr 
selves by their own civil dissentions and bloody broiU.^ Upon tliis,. 

* 111 Arp«diu« 

€*«p. Ft. DIODORUS SlCULtT^; 4/ 

the Thessalians made Jason general of all their forces^and committed 
to him the whole management of the war, who, having now received 
the sapreme command^ marched into some of the neighbourii^ 
eoantries^ and entered into a league with Amyntas, icing of Ma« 

This year there happened what was very remarkahlc: for three 
great princes died, near one and the same time; Amyntas, the soa 
of Tharrhaleus, (after he had reigned in Macedon four-and-twentf 
years), died, leaving behind him three sons, Alexander, PerdiccaS| 
atrf Philip. Alexander succeeded> but reigned only one year. 'Hiea 
Agesipoits, king of Laced«mon, after one year's reign, died lilcC''' 
wise; his brother Cleomenes succeeded him, and sat at the helili 
four-and-thirty years. At last Jason of Pherae, whom the Tliessa- 
liftDs had lately made their general, (though he governed with great> 
moderation and kindness towards his subjects), was assassinated bj 
seven young men, as Ephorus relates, who (in hopes of praise and 
commendation) had conspired for that purpose; but others write| 
that he was murdered by his brother Poilydorus, who reigned not 
above one year after him. Here Durius the Samian begins his 
iiistory of the affairs of Greece. And these were the things don^ 
this year. 

* Afterwards, when Lysislratus governed in cliief at Athens, a great 
sedition arose in Rome, for some were for making of consuls, others 
were for creating of military tribunes in their room; and by reason 
of thb dissentiofi there was an anarchy for some time. But, at 
length, six military tribunes were chosen, which were Lucius Ami- 
fius, Caias Verginius*, Serulius Sulpitius, Lucius Quintius, Caius 
Cornelius, and Caius Valerius. About the same time, Poilydorus, tho 
Pherean, prince of Thessaly, (when he was drunk), was poisoned by 
a deadly potion given him by his brother Alexander, who succeeded 
ktiii, and reigned eleven years. And as he got into the throne hf 
wickedness and injustice, so he ruled, (as he ever designed), with 
tyranny aud oppression; and whereas all those before him, by their 
moderation and kindness to their subjects, gained the love and good* 
will of all, he, by his severe and tyrannical government, became 
tlie object of all men's hatred. Therefore, some of Larissa, who 
fiom their high birth were surnamed Aleuadas, (fearing what might 
he the effect of his wickedness), conspired to dethrone him. To 
this end they made a journey into Macedonia, and treated with Alex- 
ander the king, in order to assist them in dcposiag the tyiant.^^ 
Vyhile they were oegociating this affair, Alc:^ander the Phericau (liav 

* Veluriti?, 

48 DlODORCs siCOLUS. Book Xf « 

ing intelligence of the preparations making against him) raifted m 
considerable army, designing to engage with the enemy in Mactido-^ 
nia; hot the king of Macedonia being joined with the deserten, 
brought his forces presently to Larissa^ and so prevented him: when 
he came there, the citizens opened the gates to him, and so he ke^ 
came master of all but the castle, whicii he afterwards took by force. 
Hie city Cranon likewise surrendered to him^ and he promised to 
festore all the cities to the Theasaliaas. But afterwards^ (not vala* 
ing his word or honour), he garrisoned them» and detiJned them all 
in his own hands. But Alexander, the Phersean^ in a great fright^, 
fled to the city Fher«a« And this was then the condision of ThetA 

CHAP. vn. 

JTke Lacedaemonians send Polytropus into Arcadia; who is staim^ 
and his party routed by Lycomedes. An invasion by Epami'^ 
nandas and Pelopidas into Pelopoivnesus. Sparta besingodm 
The antiquity and history of Messenia, in Greece. PeUemt 
taken by the Arcadians. A wall drawn between Cenchrem and 
the Lechasumy to hinder the inroad of the Thebeau into Pdo- 
ponnesus. Epaminandas breaks through into Peloponnesus f 
assaults Corinth, 

IN Peloponnesus^ in the mean time^ the Lacedamonians seat a 
thousand heavy-armed men of their own citizens, and five hundred 
deserters from Argos and Boeotia, into Arcadia, under the command 
of Polytropus, who, when he came to Orchomenus, in Arcadiai pot a 
garrison into it^ being a city that favoured the Spartans. But hfco^ 
inedes of Mantinea, (then commander-in-chief of the Arcadians)^ 
with a body of men to the number of five thousand, marched ag«Dst 
Orchomenus, and, upon their arrival^ the Lacedsemonians drew out 
their forces, where happened a sharp engagement, in which the Lft« 
cedttmonian general was slain, and two hundred more with him; 
the rest, by the hot pursuit ot the enemy, were forced back into the 
ci^y. However, though the Arcadians then got the victory, yet thqf 
so far feared the power of Sparta, that they durst not depend upon 

Chap. FIL DIODORUS sicuLUS. 49 

their bwo strength ia contending witli the Laccdsennonians, and 
therefore, taking into their confederacy the Argives and the Elians, 
they first sent amhassadors to Athens, to desire them to be their con- 
federates, which being denied, they then addressed themselves to the 
Thebans for the same purpose. Upon which the Boeotians (together 
with the Phocians and Locrians, their confederates) drew out their 
forces, and marched directly into Peloponnesus, under the command 
of Epaminondas and Pelopidas : for all the other Bcjeotarchs had wil- 
liugly given up tlie sole and absolute command of the army to those 
two, being men eminent fur prudence and valour. 

When they entered into the confines of Arcadia, they were met 
by all the Arcadians, Elians, Argives, and the rest of their confede- 
rates. And now they had an army of above fifty thousand men, and, 
after a council of war held, the generals resolved to march forthwith 
to Sparta, and to waste and spoil all the country of Laconia. But 
the Lacedaemonians, having lost the flower and strengtii of their 
young men in the battle at Ijcuctra, and many in several other fights 
here and there, were thereby reduced to a very small number of 
fighting men of their own citizens: and whereas some of their con- 
federates deserted, and others were brought low by the same means 
as those before, they knew not which way to turn themselves. ' So 
that they were forced to seek for aid and assistance from them (I 
mean the Athenians) upon whom they had some time before imposed 
thirty tyrants, and whose walls they had demolished, and whose city 
they had decreed to raze even to the ground, and lay it open and 
common with the rest of the country for the grazing of flocks and 
herds. But necessity has no law, and the turns of fortune are in- 
vincible, through which tlie Lacedaemonians were brought into that 
strait, as to become suppliants to their most implacable enemies for 
relief. However, they were not deceived in their hopes; for such 
was the brave and generous spirit of the Atheniaus, that they feared 
not the power of the Thebans, but decreed to assist the Lacedaemo- 
nians to the utmost they were able, though they were now ready 
even to be swallowed up, and made perfect slaves. To this end they 
listed in one day twelve thousand lusty young men, and forthwith 
ordered Iphicratcs the general to march away to the assistance of tho 
Spartans. Accordingly, having men that were very forward, he 
hastes away with a swift march. Neither were the Lacedaimonians 
less active or forward ; but now, even when the enemy were en- 
camped in the borders of Laconia, they marched out of Sparta with 
all the strength they could make, which was but small, yet with the 
same courage and valour as they had formerly done. 

In the mean time, £paminondas's army conceiving it very difli- 
VoL. 2, No. 41. M 


cult to enter ioto the enemy's country, and therefore judging it wa9 
not convenient to attempt it with the whole army togetlter^ they 
resolved to divide their forces into four bodies^ and so to make 
the attack in several places at once. The first marched to the city o( 
Sellasia^ and drew off tlie inhabitants of tliat territory from the La- 
cediemonians. The Argives, who were in another body^ upon theur 
entrance into the borders of Tagca, engaged with tlie guard that 
kept that pass, and killed the chief officer, Alexander, a Spartan, and 
two hundred aK)re of his men : amongst whom there were some Boeo- 
tian exiles. The third body, in which were the Arcadians, and most 
in numlx^r, broke into the country called Scirus, where Ischolaus a 
man of great valour and prudence, kept guard with a considerable 
body of men. This brave and gallant commander performed an he- 
roic action, worthy to be recorded to all posterity. When he fore- 
saw that both he, and all those with him, were sure every man to be 
cut off by tlieir engaging with so great and unequal a number; in- 
the first place he looked upon it as a dishonour to the Spartan name 
to desert the post assigned him, and yet judged it to be much for the 
service and advantage of his country if \ie could preserve the sol- 
diers. To the admiration therefore of his valour, he contrived ft 
way how to answer tlie ends of both; wherein he bravely imitated 
the gallant spirit of king Leonidas in former times at Thermopyle^. 
For he sent away to Sparta the choicest of his soldiers that were 
young and lusty, to the end they might be helpful to their country ii> 
ligliting^now that all lay at stake : and he himself, with those that were 
old, kept close together, and in a brave defence, slaughtered multi- 
tudes of their enemies; biit at length, being surrounded and hem- 
jned in by the Arcadians, lliey were every man of them cut oflf. 

The fourth body of the Elians having all places more clear and 
upcn before them, arrived at length at Sellasia: for it was ordered 
that all the forces should meet together at that place, where, being alk 
now joined, they marched towards Sparta, and wasted the country 
all before them with lire and sword. And now the Lacedemonians 
seeing their antient country liaconia (which had never known what 
waste and si>oil meant for the space of five hundred years before) to 
be thus cruelly harassed and destroyed, could no longer forbear, 
but were ready to run upon their enemies as^it were with open mouth. 
But being by some magistrates that came from the city commanded, 
not to hasten away too far out of the bounds of their country, (IcsH 
some other should make an inroad into it in the mean time), and 
being likewise advised to recollect themselves,- and think seriously of 
defending the city, with much ado they submitted to the advice. 

In the meau time, Epaminondas having passed hia army orcr tKr 

Chap.FlL DiODORUs sicuLUS. 51 

^ ' ■'■ "■ ■ , g 

mountaiaTaygetus^aod arrived at the river Eurotas, (which was then 
very high^ being winter time), he endeavoured all he could to get 
over. The Laceds&monians perceiving how his troops were disor* 
dered and dbpersed through the difficulty of the passage, laid hold 
upon this fit occasion to fall upon tliem. Leaving therefore their 
wives, children^ and old men, as a guard for the city, they made out 
against tlic enemy in good order^ with all the young and strong men 
of the town, and by a sudden and hot charge, cut off a great number 
in their passing the river; but the Boeotians and i\rcadians valiantly 
standing their ground, surrounded their enemies^ However, tlie 
Spartans, after they had killed a great number of tiic Bceotians, at 
length broke tlifough,and returned to the city, leaving behind them 
remarkable instances of their valour. 

Presently after, when Epaminondas came up with h!s wliole army 
{to the terror o^ the inhabitants) to the city, the Spartans, by the 
advantage of the strength of the places, killed great numbers of them. 
And now all hands were at work, and very earnest to gain tike city^ 
insomuch, that they seemed in a fair way to take Sparta by ttorm* 
But the assailants, (through their over heat and violence), being many 
of them kHled, and others wounded, Epaminondas caused a trumpet 
to sound a retreat, and so called them off. Presently after, the The- 
bans made their approacli to the city, and challenged the Spartans to 
come forth and fight with them, or else to acknowledge themselves 
inferior, and not able to contend with them. To whom they an- 
swered ^Tiiat when they saw tlieir opportunity, they would be sure 

not to decline fighting, tliough they laid all at stake. The army, 
therefore, now drew off from the siege, and having wasted and 
«poiled all Laconia, and loaded themselves with rich i>rey and plun- 
der, returned into Arcadia. Afterwards the Athenians (who came 
too late and did nothing woith taking notice of) marched back into 

In the mean while, four thousand men came to the assistance of 
the Lacedaemonians from their confederates. To these they added a 
thousand helots newly manumitted and set free, and two hundred 
Boeotian fugitives, and many more from the neighbouring towns and 
villages; so that theywcre now strong enougli to cope with the enemy. 
And these forces being kept together, and daily exercised, grew more 
and more daring, and fit for public service in the field. 

But Epaminondas being naturally inclined to things tluit were great, 
und ambitious to eternize his own praise and honour, persuaded the 
Arcadians and the other allies to rebuild and replenish Messene 
with new inhabitants, (which had been destroyed by the LacedflBmo^ 
nians, and lay waste and desolate many years), it being most coin-r 


modiously situated for invading of Sparta at any time; having pro- 
cured their consent, he inquired after all thcantient inhabitants that 
were living in any place: and enfranchising many others that were 
willing to settle themselves there, he repaired Messenc, and made 
It very populous, and divided the land belonging to the city by lot 
amongst the new inhabitants, and filled the country about with stately 
scats and beautiful buildings, and so raised up a noble Grecian city 
out of its ruins, to its former state and grandeur^ for which he wos 
highly honoured. 

1 conceive it will not be amiss in this place, in regard that Messene 
has been so often taken and ruined, if I say something in short of 
this city from its beginning. Antiently the family of Neleus and 
Nestor, to the time of the Trojan war, possessed it : afterwards Orestes, 
the son of Agamemnon, and his posterity, enjoyed it, till the return 
of the llcracliilt'e. Then Cresphontes chose Messene forhisshare, 
and his posterity reigned there for some time; but they being eject- 
ed, it came into the power of the Lacedaemonians, who became lords 
thereof. For after that Telecles king of the Laced semonians was 
slain in a battle, the Messenians at length were subdued by the 
Spartans. This war is said to have continued twenty years; and 
that the Lacedaemonians had taken a solemn oath — ^That they wouM 
never return to Spurta till they had taken Messene. At that time 
were born those called the Parthenite, who afterwards enjoyed the 
city of Tarcntum. The Messenians in after times being oppressed 
by the Lsicedtemonians, Aristomcnes stirred them up to revolt, aud 
destroyed many of the Spartans. At which time Tyrreus the poet 
was sent by the Athenians to the Spartans to be their general. But 
there arc others who say, that Aristomencs flourished in the time of 
the twenty-years war. The last war made upon them was after that 
terrible eartliquako which almost ruined Sparta and destroyed all 
its inhabitants. At that time, those that remained of the Messenians, 
(together with the helots who revolted with them), inhabited Ithome, 
because Messene had lain waste many years together before that 
time. But, being unfortunate in every encounter, they wore at 
length utterly ruined, and driven out of their country; and settled 
themselves in Naupactus, which was given them to inhabit by the 
Athenians : and from thence some removed to Ccphalenia, and others 
into Sicily, where they built thecity of Messana, so called from them. 
And now the Thebans, in the last place, by the advice ofEpaminon- 
das, (who invited the Messenians from all places where they were), 
rebuilt Messene, and restored to the new inhabitants all the autient 
territories formerly belonging to that city. And thus greut aud va- 
rious were the cliangrs and turns of Mcsscric. 


J -■■ I ■ ' ■ 

Tlie TliehaDs having dispatched all these things in the space of 

eighty*five days^ leaving a strong garrison for the defence of Mcs- 
scne, returned to their own country. And the Lacedemonians 
having now unexpectedly rid themselves of the enemy^ sent some of 
Ihe greatest men of their city to Athens; and upon a treaty concern-^ 
ing the principality, it was agreed that the Athenians should be mas- 
ters at sea, and the Lacedemonians have the chief command Qt land; 
but afterwards both cities executed the sovereignty in common. 

About the same time, the Arcadians created Lycomedes general, 
and sent him away with five thousand strong and lusty young men 
to besiege Pcllene in Laconia: who took it by storm, and put above 
three hundred Lacedsemonians there in garrison to the sword: and, 
]iaving plundered the city, a»*d wasted and spoiled the country, 
returned home before the Lacedaemonians could send them any 

The Boeotians (likewise being desired by the Thessalians to free 
them from the tyranny of Alexander the Phercan, then but feeble 
and almost broken) .>ctu I'elopidas with a strong army into Thcssaly, 
with orders to inuiM ;e ailairs there to the advantage of the JJceo- 
tians. When he ia.r.c to Larissu, he possesed himself of the castle 
then garriso'crl hy Alexander; thence he marched into Macedonia, 
and made a Itjai^iio with king Alexander, and received Philip his 
brother as an hostage, and sent him to Thebes, And having per- 
fected whatever he thougiit might be for the service of the Bciiotians, 
he returned into his own country. 

Things standing tlius, the Arcadians, Argives, and Elians, unanl* 
moubly agreed to make war upon the Lacedfemonians, and to that 
euAy to send ambassadors to tiie Boeotians, to persuade them tojoia 
with them in the war. TIjey accordingly consented, and sent forth 
an army of seven thousand foot, and five hundred horse, under the 
command of Epaniinondas and the other Ba*otarchs. The Athe • 
tiians hearing of the preparations of the Bceotians against Pelopon- 
nesus, sent an army against them, under the command of Chabrias 
their general, who, when he arrived at Corinth, raised men out ofMe- 
gara, Pellene, and Corinth, and made up an army of ten tliousand 
men; who being joined with the Lacedajmonians and other confe- 
derates at Corinth, their whole forces were no less than twenty 
thousand. They made it first their business to guard all the pas- 
sages, and to do all they could to prevent the Boeotians from break- 
ing into Peloponnesus: to this end they drew a wall with a deep 
trench from the Cenchreje to theLcchaeum*, to block up the entrance 

* The narrow pi« of Pflopotihcsus, between two seas, viz, Lecliseuin, l^in;; uu Uie 
v*tt.^\, and Cenchreic iu tlic casi, loriuing the harbour of Corialh. 


that way. The thing was done with that quickness and expedition, 
(through the multitude of hands and diligence of those employed), 
that the place was fortified before the Boeotians could reach it. 

A» soon as Epaminondas came np to the place, upon diligent view 
of the fortification, he discerned that that part kept by the Lace- 
daemonians was the weakest, and therefore did all he could to draw 
tliem out to a fair ficld-battic, though they were almost three times 
Iiis number. But when he saw they would not stir, but kept tbem« 
•elres within their fortifications and trenches, he made a fierce as- 
sault upon them, storming them in every part : but the action was 
hottest and sharpest on both sides, where the Lacedsemonians were 
posted, for there the place was of easiest entrance, and most difficult 
to be kept. But Epaminondas having with him tlie flower of Tbebes> 
with much ado heat off the Lacedsemonians, and so clearing the way, 
broke in with his forces, and laid the passage open Into Peloponnesus, 
which was an action nothing inferior to any he had done before. 
Hereupon, he forthwith marched to Troezenc and Epidaurus, and 
wasted and harassed the country round about, but could not Mkc 
the cities, bcin^; very strongly garrisoned j but Sicyon, Fheuntc*, 
and some oth^TS submitted to him. Then he marched with hU 
army against Corinth : and, having routed the townsmen in an en- 
counter, he pursued them to the very walls: where some of the 
Boeotians, puir'ed up with their good success, rashly broke through 
tht: gates into the city; upon which the Corinthians, in a great fright, 
shut themselves up in their liouses. But Chabiias, the Athenian ge- 
neral, both cordially and faithfully made head against tlie Boeotians, 
and drove some of them out of the city, making a great slaughter 
of the rest. In the heat of this action, the Boeotians approached to 
Corinth with their whole army in battalia, to the great terror of the 
inhabitants: upon which, Chabrias, with his Athenians, forthwith 
made a sally out of the city, and having possessed himself of the 
lulls adjoining, there bore the brunt of the enemy's charge. On the 
other side the B<i.'otians encouraged, being strong of body, and of 
long experience in feats of arms, doubted not but to rout the Athe- 
nians. But the Chabrians (by the advantage of the higher ground, 
rind continual succours comirg to them out of the city) so defendecl 
themselves, that they killed and grievously galled their assailants, ancj 
bi»at them olf: so that the Boeotians, after the loss of a great num- 
ber of their men, not being able to do any thing, drew off their forces, 
ButC'habriai having thus baffled the enemy, his valour, faithfulness, 
and military conduct, was cried up, and greatly admired. 

* ri:f a b tli». 



Dionysitts sends Gauls ami Spaniards to the assistance of the La- 
cedafnanioHs, Pelopidas and Jstnetiias hnprisoned by AUx^- 
Mmder, iyrmU of Phera. The Bwotifms pursued by the PAe- 
reans: brought off* by EpaminondaSy then a private soldier, 
TheJUght between the Arcadians and LacedtEmoniaxis* Dio^ 
nysius falls upon the Carthaginian territories in Sicily. Diotty* 
sius dies. T%e cause of his death. The cruelty of Aiexauder 
the Pherean at Scotussa. Epaminondas breaks again into Pe* 
toptmnesus. Coos peopled and walled. The etui of t/te Laconic 
euulBwotian war by tlie medicUion of the Persian king. 

ABOUT this time alrivcd at Corinth two thousand Gauk and Spa- 
niards, sent by Dionysius tiie tyrant to the Lacedemonians from Si« 
cily, who liad five months [)ay in advance. The Grecians, to try their 
miour, drew them out against the enemy; who so far approved them-^ 
fclves stout and valiant men, that they routed and killed many of 
the B<eottans and their confederates. And after they had been verj 
useful in the war, and procured to themselves praise and esteem 
both for their courage and service, and had been rewarded according 
to their merits by tlie Laced«fmouians, they were sent back into &{• 
cily at tlie end of the sunimer. 

After these things, Philiscus, ambassador from Artaxcrxes king of 
Persia, came into Greece to persuade the Grecians to be at pt*ace 
among themselves; to which all willingly complied except theThe^ 
bans, who were so obstinate that they refused the conditions, hav« 
iog before brought all Boeotiainto subjection to their own govern- 
aient Tiiere being therefore no hopes of peace, Philiscus returned 
into Asia, leaving behind him two thousand mercenaries, who re- 
ceived their pay for the service of the Lacedaemonians. 

Whilst these things were doing, £uphron of Sicyoii, a hold and 
lash fellow, not inferior to any of that kind, with the assistance of the 
Argives, plotted to gain the sovereignty ; and to that end, fortune favour- 
ed him so far, that fothwith he banished forty of the citizens, and con- 
fiscated their goods and estates, by which he raised a vast sum of 
money, wherewith he hired a guard of foreigners, and so possessed 
himrelf of the command of the city. 

Nausigencs being lord chancellor of Athens, and four militarv 
tribunes, viz. Lucius Papirius, Lucius Menenius, Servius Cornelius-, 
and Servius Sulpitius. executing the consular authority at Rome, 

5G moDORus S1CUI.US. Book XVL 

t]ic hundred and ttiird olympiad was celebrated at Elis^ in which Py- 
thostratus the Athenian carried away the prize. This year ^Ptolemy 
AloriteS; the son of Amyntas, treacherously murdered his brother 
Alexander^ and governed the kingdom of Macedonia for the space 
of three years. At the same time Pelopidas in Uccutla, emulatingf 
the glory of Epaminondas, and perceiving what great service he had 
done in Peloponnesus for the commonwealth of Bceotia, made itbis 
business to advance his own reputation, by enlarging the power and 
sovereignty of the Thebans in otiicr parts out of Peloponnesns. 
To that end, and joining with Ismenias, (his special friend, and a 
man of great esteem for his valour), he took a journey into Thes- 
saly, where, upon discourse with Alexander, tyrant of Pherse, (when 
he never expected any such thing), he and Ismenias were bothseized^ 
and clapped up in prison. This fact highly incensed the ^Fbebans, 
upon which they sent eight thousand heavy-armed men, and six 
hundred horse into Thessaly. At whose coming Alexander was in a 
great fright, and sent ambassadors to Athens to treat with them for 
their assistance. Upon this, the people of Athens forthwith des- 
patched thirty sail, and a thousand men, under the command of 
Autocles; but while he sailed round Eubcea, the Thebans en- 
tered Tliessaly. And thougii Alexander was well furnished with 
foot, and exceeded the BcKOtians in horse, yet the Boeotians at the 
first concluded they should put an end to the war by one fight, es- 
pecially being enforced by the Thcssalians: but being deserted by 
them, and Alexander assisted by the Athenians and other confede- 
rates, and meat and drink and all other provisions being scarce, the 
Boeotarchs were resolved to return home, and accordingly drew off; 
and in their march througii the plain, they were fallen upon in the 
rear by Alexander's horse, who killed and wounded many of the Boeo- 
tians. At length, not being able either to keep their ground or go 
forward, they knew not which way to turn themselves, or wliat to 
do; and to aggravate the perplexity they were in, they were in want 
of food. In this desperate condition Epaminondas (who was then 
but a private soldier) was chosen general by the army, who presently 
placed the best and choicest of tiie light-armed men, and the horse 
in the rear. With these he repulsed the enemy that pressed upon the 
backs of the Boeotians, and by frequent skirmishes, (making head 
as occasion served), and keeping his troops in good order, he brought 
otr the army safe. Thenceforth more and more advancing his own 
reputation by his noble actions, he giiined praise and renown both 
amongst his citizens, and all their confederates. 

But the magistrates of Bccotia set great fines u|X)n the ofTieers 
and leaders in this late expedition^ and so raised a great deal uif 

G/kp. Fill. moDORUs siculus. 5/ 

money; but, in regard the question may be very well asked — How 
it came to pass that so great a man was placed in so low a place as 
a common soldier in that expedition into Thessuly ? it is fit a reason 
should be given in justification of Epaminondas: When he had in 
the fight at Corinth beaten off the Lacedaemonians who guarded the 
fortification, he might have killed a great number of them; but rest- 
ing satisfied that he had gained the pass, he forbore all further pur«^ 
tuit. Being therefore suspected that he spared the Laccdssmoniant 
out of a design to ingratiate himself into their favour, those that en* 
vied his glory, watched an opportunity to accuse him of treason. 
Upon which the people were so exasperated, that they deprived him 
of his command, and Ordered him to serve as a common soldier* But 
having by his noble actions wiped off those stains of dishonour cast 
iipoDhim,he was restored by the people to his former dignity. 

Not long after, a sliarp battle was fought between the Laccdas- 
uonians and the Arcadians, in which the former obtained a famous 
victory; and was the first fight since that at I^uctra, wherein they 
had any considerable success. There were above ten thousand of the 
Arcadians slain, and not one man lost of the Lacediemonians. The 
priests at Dodona had before foretold— That this war should end with- 
out any mourning on the part of the Lacedsemonians. After this bat- 
tle^ the Arcadians were in that fear of the Lacedemonians, that they 
built the city called Megalopolis, in a place commodiously situated 
for their security, and brought into it the Menalians, and Parrha* 
tians, out of twenty villages in Arcadia. And this was the state of 
Greece at that time. 

In Sicily, Dionysius the tyrant having raised a great army, resolved 
to take advantage of the present opportunity, and to fall upon the 
Carthaginians, who were then but in a very weak condition, by rca- 
con of the plague that raged amongst them, and their being deserted 
by many of the Africans. And because he had not the least colour 
or ground for the war, he pretended that the Carthaginians encroach- 
ed and made incursions into his country. Having therefore an army 
of thirty thousand foot, and three thousand horse, besides a navy of 
three hundred sail, with these he invades the Carthaginian territory, 
and presently won Selinus and Entclla, and wastes and harasses 
all the country round about : then taking £ryx, he at length besieg- 
ed Lilybsum : but the strength of the garrison presently forced him 
to raise the siege. Afterwards, being informed that the arsenals be- 
longing to the Carthaginians were burnt down, and therefore con- 
ceiving their whole fleet was destroyed, he grew secure and despised 
the enemy; so that he laid up thirty of his best p:allic!» in ilie havcu 
at F: yx, and sent all the rest back to Syracuse, But the Cartha- 

VojL.2. No. 41. I 


■ . ■ ■ m 

ginians having forthwith manned two hundred sail^ and entering the 
port at Eryx unexpectedly, on a sudden came up to the ships there, 
and carried away most of them out of the harhour: but winter drawing 
on, both sides made a truce, and returned with their armies to winter* 
quarters. And not long after, Dionysius fell sick and died, having 
reigned thirty-eight years; his son Dionysius succeeded him, andgo- 
verncd twelve years. 

Here it will not be a matter foreign to the design of our history. 
If we relate the cause of his death, and what happened to this prince 
a little before that time. 

When he had caused a tragedy of his, called the Leneians, to be 
acted at Athens, and was proclaimed victor, one of the singers or 
musicians in the chorus, hoped to gain an honourable reward by bring- 
ing him the first news of his victory : to that end he sailed to Co- 
rinth, and thence took shipping for Sicily, and, with afairw*ind, ar- 
sived at Syracuse, and presently gives the tyrant an account of his 
victory: uiK>n which, he was so transported with joy, that he bounti- 
fully rewarded tiie man; and that he might give thanks to the gods 
by costly sacrifices, for such a happy piece of news, he made splen- 
did entertainments, in feasting and drinking. But in this sumptu- 
ous reception of his friends, drinking to excess, and overcharging 
nature, he fell into a most violent distemper, which killed him. He 
iiad been formerly forewarned by an oracle — ^That he should then 
die, when he should overcome those who were better than himself. 
This doubtful prophecy, he applied to the Carthaginians, looking upon 
them to be more powerful than he himself. And upon that account, 
(though he was often fighting witii them), it was his custom to wave 
the victory, and own himself to be overcome. However, he was 
not able to avoid his destiny. For, though he was but a bad poet, 
yet by the judgment of the Athenians, he carried jiway the victory 
against those that far excelled him in that art: so that his victory 
over them, and the time of his death, very well agreed to the sense 
of the oracle. Dionysius the younger, as soon as he came to the 
crown, called a senate, and there courted the people, and desired 
them to continue the same good will and respect to him, that they 
had born to his father. Afterwards, having first solemnized his fa- 
ther's funeral with great pomp and state at the king*s gates in the 
castle, he ordered the affairs of hLs kingdom so as to set himself fast 
on the throne. 

At this time Polyzclus was arelion at Athens; and at Rome^ 
(through intestine broils and seditions), was nothing hut an anarchy. 
In Greece, Alexander, tyrant of Phera!, bearing a grudge to them 
of Scotussa in Thessaly, called them to a common assembly ; and when 


they appeared^ he encompassed them with his guard, and put them 
every one to the sword, and threw their carcasses into the ditches over 
the walls, and plundered tlic city. 

At the same time, Epaminondas the Thehan, with all his forces, 
broke into Peloponnesus, with whom joined the Achaians, and several 
other confederates, and restored Dymon*, Naupactusf, and Caly- 
donj, to their aniicnt liberties, and then made another expedition 
into Thes-saly ; in which they freed Pelopidas out of the hands of 
Al<^x.'M'der ihc tyrant of Piieric. The Pliliasians were about the 
eame tjnit: besieged by the Arjrives: but Chares, sent from Athens in 
aid of the Pliliasians, raised the siege, having routed the Argives in two 
battles, and so returned to Athens. 

Ai the end of this year Ccphisidorus was chief governor of Athens; 
and four military tribunes, clothed witli consular dignity, governed at 
Rome, viz. Lucius Furius, Paulus Manlius, Servitius Sulpitius, and 
Servius C(»rnelius. At that time Thcmesion the prince of Eretria 
took Oropus, belonging to the Athenians, hut lost it again on a sud- 
den. For, the Athenians coming upon liim with far greater forces 
than he was able to cope with, he applied himself to the Thebans for 
assistance, and delivered the city into their hands, (as a pledge), which 
they never after would restore. 

While those things were acting, they of Coos seated themselves 
in the city they now enjoy§, and put it into that state and grandeur 
it now has. For it was made very populous, and a large wall drawn 
round about it, with great cost and expense, and furnished with an 
excellent harbour. From this time forward, it grew more and more, 
both in its public revenues, and in the private wealth and riches of 
its inhabitants, in »o much, that it vied with the chiefest and most 
famous cities. 

During these transactions, the king of Persia sent ambassadors to 
persuade the Grecians to ajj^ree and lay aside their animosities one 
against another. Upon which, the Laconic and Boeotian war, (as 
they called ii), which, from the time of the battle of Leuctra had 
continued above five years, was now at length ended. About these 
times flourished several famous men, worthy, for their learning, 
to be ever remembered. As Isocrates the orator, and his scholars; 
Aristotle the philosopher, and Anaximenes of Lampsacus; and espe- 
cially Plato the Atiienian, and the last of the Pythagorean philoso- 
phers. Besides these, Xenophon the historian, (now very old), for 

* Dymon, or Dymae, a cily of Ac:haiu. t A rity ofAeliuia in Lih;:!?, now 

called Lc pan to. X Cui^dunin ^^tuiia, about seven milcb Irocn ihc sea. 

\ Cuosj a cliv so called iu the IhIuiiJ of Cooi, iu the iE<;can sea. 

6o DiODORus sicuLus. Book XFi 

lie ^nakcs mention of the death of Epaminondas^ which happened : 
shortly after this time. Aristippus and Antisthenes^ and Echines off 
Sphetus, (one of the scholars of Socrates), were living at this time. 


Neiv quarrels in Greece. TVte battle betioeeii the EUans and Arm 
cadiojis near Laasia. The quarrel between the Pisates and then% 
ofElis about the Olympic gatnes. A fight at the time and place 
of thegatnes. The Theham prepare a fleet in order to gain the 
dominion at sea. Hhodes^ Chios, and Byzantium, broughtinie^ 
the Th^bans by Epaminondas. The Thebans make war upon 
Orchomeniis: the reason, Orchomenus razed. The Thessa* 
Hans luar ivith Alexander the Pherean. Pelopidas hilled; hU^ 

THIS year Chion was chief governor at Athens; and these mJlitary trir 
bunes executed the consular authority at Romc^viz. Quintus Scrvias^y 
CaiusVcturius, Aulas Cornelius, Marcus Cornelius^ and Marcus Fa- 
bius. In their time, while all Greece was at peace, on a sudden neir 
quarrels and preparations for war began to break out between some of 
the cities. For the cxilesofArcadiamadean excursion outofEIis, and 
seized upon tlie strong castle of Triphyliaf, called Lassia. The Ar- 
cadians and Elians had been quarrelling a long time about Triphylia: 
and, upon several turns of fortune, first one and then the other got 
the possession; which being at that time in the hands of the Arca- 
dians, the Elians, under the shelter and colour of the Arcadian fugi* 
tlvcs, dispossessed the Arcadians. They, (enraged at this affront and 
injury), by their ambassadors, first demanded the re-delivery of the 
place, hut their demand was slighted; thereupon they procured the 
Athenians to join with them in the war, and besieged Lassia. But 
the Elians came presently into the assistance of the exiles: upon 
which a battle was fought near Lassia^ in which the Elians were 
routed, being overpowered by numbers, and lost above two hundred 
men. The seeds of war being now sown, the controversy be- 
tween the Elians and the Arcadians grew hotter everyday: for the 
Arcadians, pufied up with the late victory, presently marched their 
ar.iiy into the country of £1is^ and took the cities MarganuSj Cro^ 
pium, Cyparissia, and Coryphasium. 

• Scrvilius. t A pari of the country of Elis. 

Ohap. IX. DT0D0RU8 SICULUS. 6l 

In the interim Ptolomseus Aiorites, in Macedonia^ was treacherously 
murdered by his brotherPerdiccas after he had reigned threeyears; Per- 
diccas succeeded him, and enjoyed the kingdom five years. 

At this time Timocraies was archon of Athens; and three military 
tribunes invested with consular authority ruled at Rome^ viz. Titus 
Quintius, Servilius Cornelius^ and Servius Sutpitius. The hundred 
and fourth olympidJ was now celebrated by the Pisates and the Arca- 
dians, where Phocides, the Athenian, was victor. 

About this time it happened, that the Pisates, (upon the account 
of some old fables and stories they had amongst them), to regain the 
antient honour and dignity of their country, challenged it as their 
right to convene and manage the Olympic games. Judging it there- 
fore now a fit time to dispute this matter, they took in the Arcadians, 
the enemies of the Elians, as their confederates in the war: with 
whose aid and assistance they marched against the Elians, who had 
then appointed the games. Whereupon the Elians, with all their 
forces, made out against them; upon which there was a very sharp en- 
counter. The Grecians who were then come together to this solem- 
nity, stood as spectators with crowns upon their heads, (out of reach 
of all danger), and at every brave action of either party gave great 
shouts. The Pisates at length being conquerors, managed the sports i 
but the Elians never accounted this olympiad in their annals, because 
they looked upon it to be acted by force, and against law. 

During these transactions of affairs, Epaminondas the Theban, 
(who was in great esteem among the people), made a speech to tlie 
citizens, in which he stirred them up to gain the dominion of the 
sea. In this oration (which he had premeditated long before) he 
diewed them that the thing was easily done, as it was advantageous 
and profitable to the commonwealth; and amongst other things he 

likewise told them ^That being sovereigns at land, they might be 

easily masters at sea. For although the Athenians in the war against 
Xerxes, had a navy of two hundred sail well equipped and furnished, 
yet they were under the command of the Lacedaemonians, who had 
but ten. When he had spoken what he had to say suitable lo the 
occasion, he brougiit the Thcbans to a compliance. 

It was therefore forthwith decreed by the people, that a hundred 
gallies, and as many docks should be built, and that application should 
be made to the Ilhodians, Cliians, and Bizantines, tor their assist- 
ance to forward the work. Epaminondas himself being sent away 
with some forces to the beforemcntioned cities, so terrified Ijaches the 
Athenian general, (who was sent with a strong and well furnished fleet 
to obstruct the designs of the Thebans) , that he forced him to sail back, 
and reduced those cities to the obedience of Thebes : and no doubt 


but if this man had lived some time longer, he had gained for the 
Thcbans the sovereign command both at sea and land. But not long 
after, being killed at the battle at Mantenca, (where he obtained a 
famous victory for his country by his own fall), all the prosperity of 
the Thebans j)re5ently died (as it were) with him. But we shall treat 
of these tilings more particularly and distinctly sliorlly hereafter. 

About the same time likewise, the Thelwns resolved to invade 
Orchomenus, for the reasons following: Some of the Theban fu- 
gitives had a purpose to change the government of Thebes into 
an aristocracy, and to that end, joined in confederacy with three 
hundred horsemen of Orchomenus. These horses were used to ren- 
dezvous at a certain day appointed and ordered by the Tliebans, and 
therefore they contrived that at that very day, (whenever it should be), 
they would fall upon the city. And seeing there were many others 
that were engaged to be assisting in ettecting this design, they took 
a fit opportunity at length to meet ti)gether. Then some of the 
chief conspirators, who began to repent of the treason, discovered all 
to the Boeotians, and by betraying their fellows, saved their own lives. 
Upon this all the horsemen, by comm;iud of the magistrates, were 
seized, and being af'ierwards brought r)eforc the senate, they were all 
judii- 1 to bo put to death, and that the inh:\hitants of Orchomenus 
should 'jf .sold for slaves, and their city razed to the ground. The 
Thebans bad born au old grudge towards them of Orchomenus for 
many generations, lu'cause in the times of the heroes*, they forced 
them to pay tribute, till Hercules set them free. Having therefore 
now got an opportunity, and a good colour (as they conceived) to re- 
venge themselves, they marched with their forces against Orchoiiienus. 
And presently making themselves masters of the city, they put all the 
men to the sword, and sold the women and children forslaves. 

At this same tinK\ tlie 'J'hessalians made war upon Alexander, the 
prince ofriieric; but, being often beaten, and having lost many 
men, they solicited the Thebans to send aid to them, under the coai"* 
wand of IVlopidas: for they knew he. was a brave-spirited man and 
an excellent commander, and an inveterate enemy of Alexander^ 
upon account of his late imprisonmeut. The Boeotians hereupon 
called a general council, and gave audience to the ambassadors; and^ 
having heard their message, they readily complied in all things to 
their request, and forthwith ordered IVlopidas to their assistance, 
with seven thousand men, who presently obeyed; and, just as he was 
marching out with the army, the son was eclipsed, which prodigy- 
perplexed many: for there were some of the soothsayers who de- 
clared, that by this marching out of the army, the sun of the city 

• Dr demigod*. 

CAeip. IX. DiODORus sicuLus. €3 

should be eclipsed, meaning notliing else but the doatli of Peloi>ida$. 
However, Pelopidas (nothing moved with what was said, but led on 
by his inevitable destiny) marched forward. When he came into 
Thessaly, he found that Alexander, with above twenty thousand 
men, had possessed himself of the higher grounds: u|K>n thits he en- 
camped in the face of the enemy, and, being afterwards joined with 
theTliessalians, he fought the Pheraeans. But Alexander prevailing, 
by the advantage of the ground, Pelopidas (desiring to put an end to 
the dispute by his own personal valour) charges up to Alexander 
iumself, who, with those select bands that were about him, valiantly 
«tood his ground; upon this the battle grew very hot, in which Pelo- 
pidas, acting the part both of a good soldier and skilful commander^ 
covered the place with the bodies of his enemies. At length lie put 
the enemy to flight, and gained the victory; but he himself (through 
many wounds he had received) fell down dead, and so heroically 
cuded his days. And now xMcxander, being conquered in anotlter 
battle, and thereby having all his forces broken in pieces, he was 
forced, upon terms of peace, to restore to the Thessalians all the 
towns lie had before taken, and to deliver Magnesia and Phthiotis, 
cities of Achaia, to the Boeotians, and be their confederates, and, for 
the future, to be content with Pherae only. However, though the 
Thehans gained a glorious victory, yet they declared every where that 
they were conquered, liecause of the death of Pelopidas: for they 
looked upon the victory not to compensate the loss of so brave a man. 
For he had often done many great and worthy services for the ad- 
vantage of his country, and niucli enlarged the bounds and tenitorii's 
of the Theban commonwealth: as, in freeing the city by the exik^, 
when they recovered the citadel of Cadniea, all generally ascrilu'd 
ttiat noble action to Pelopidas; which was the chief cause of all the 
advantages, and happy success that liappencd to the Tiiebuus after- 
wards. Then, at the fight of Tegea, Pelopidas was liie only man 01* 
the Boeotarchs that overcame the Laced«emoniiinsiy the most potent 
people of all the Grecians; which was the first time the Thehans 
erected a trophy (for the greatness of the victory) over the Laceche- 
moaians. Afterwards, at the battle of Leuctra, he was colonel of 
the sacred band, and was the first that broke in upon the Lacedie- 
Dionians, and so became the immediate author and instrument of the 
victory. Besides, in the expeditions against the Lacedccmoiiians, 
(being general of seventy thousand men), he erected a trophy for 
his victory over them in the very face of Sparta, wiio ntvtr kiu-w 
before what it was to be hehieged. Being bent ambassador to ihe 
king of Persia, to negotiate the alTair of the ecunmou paeificaiion, 
he gained in that treaty Meiseue for his own country, whieh the 


ThebaDS rebuilt, after it had lain desolate tliree hundred years. And 
now at last, in the battle against Alexander^ (notwithsanding he hM 
exceeded him in the number of his forces), he not only obtained a 
glorious victory, but became famous for his Extraordinary valour^ 
though with the loss of his life. And, during these wars^ lie was 
in that reputation among the people, that, from the return of the 
exiles, to the time ot His death, he was always one of the Boeotsrchss 
no one ever before being thought worthy of so great an honour. In- 
asmuch, therefore, as Pelopidas was thus highly esteemed, and gained 
the reputation of all for his courage and conduct, it is fit he should hav^ 
bis due commendation from us, likewise, in this our history. 

About the same time Clearchus, of the city of Heraclea, aspired ta 
the sovereignty of Pontus^ and prevailing in his enterprise, made it 
his whole business to imitate Dionysius the tyrant, and governed the 
Heracleans in great splendour for the space of twelve years. 

During these affairs, Timotheus the Athenian general, having witK 
him both sea and land-forces, besieged Toryne and Potidiea, and took 
them by storm^ and razed the siege of Cyzicum. 


The tear between the Tegeans and Mantineans. The Bccotians 
side with the Tegeans. Epaminondas made general. The batth 
ofMantinea, where Epaminondas was killed; hut the Laceda^^ 
monians routed. The commendation of Epaminondas. 

AT the end of the year, Chariclides was created lord-chancellor of 
Athens; and Lucius .^miiius Mamcrcus, and Lucius Sextius Late- 
ranus, Roman consuls. At which time the Arcadians and thePisates 
(by compact joining together) celebrated the Olympic games at 
Olympus, and possessed themselves both of the temple, and all the 
lichcs that were there. And, because the Mantineans carried away 
and converted to prophane uses many of the dedicated things, these 
•acrilegious persons made it their business to promote and carry oa 
the war against the Elians, lest, if peace were made, they should be 
called to account for their ill-gotten goods. And therefore, when 
the rest of the Arcadians would have compromised matters, they 
stirred up sedition against their own countrymen. Being, therefore. 

Chap. X. DIODORU8 sicuLUS. 65 

divided into two factions^ one headed by the Tegcans, the other by 
the Mantineans, the feud grew to that height, that at last they deter- 
mined to decide th^ controversy by force of arms ; and they of Tegca 
sent an ambassador to the Boeotians, to desire their assistance: 
whereupon the Boeotians, without delay, made Epaminondas gene- 
ral, and sent him, with a strong army, to the aid of the Tcgeans. 
But the Mantincans (being terrified with the Boeotian army, and the 
great name of Epaminondas) sent their ambassadors to the principal 
enemies of the Boeotians, (the Athenians and Lacediunionians), to 
solicit them to join witli the Mantincans in the war. Great forces, 
therefore, being raised on both sides, many great battles were fought 
in Peloponnesus; and the Lacedsjemonians, as soon as they could, 
broke into that part of Arcadia lying next to them. About the same 
time Epaminondas was marching forward with his army, and, being 
come near to Mantinea, he heard that the Lacedaemonians, witli all 
their forces, were wasting and spoiling the territories of Togea; con- 
ceiving, therefore, that Sparta was left naked, he undertook a weighty 
afiair, but fortune favoured not his enterprise. For he marched with 
his army in tiie night against Sparta; but Agis, king of Lacedojujon, 
(suspecting the craft and subtlety of Epaminondas), prudently con- 
jectured what iK)ssibIy might be designed: tlieiefore, to prevent 
Epaminondas, he despatched away some Cretan couriers to Sparta, 
to acquaint them that the Boeotians were just then upon their march, 
in order to surprise the city, and that he himself would make all tlie 
haste he possibly could to relieve them 5 and therefore charged them 
to look to the place, and not in the least to be afraid, for he would 
be with them presently. The Cretans observed their orders with all 
exi^cdltion, by which the Ijaccdeemonians (strangely, and on a sud« 
den) prevented the ruin of their country: for, if the stratagem had 
not been discovered, ICpaminondas had certainly surprised Sparta. 
So that the policy and contrivance of both the generals justly chal- 
lenge tlieir due praise; yet the prudent care of a skilful commander 
must here be especially attributed to the Lacedremonian. Epami- 
nondas, having now marched all the night long, at break of day came 
up to Sparta; but Agcsilaus, who was left to guard the city, (havinc^ 
had intelligence but a little before), did what he could to put the 
city in a posture of defence. To tliis end, lie commanded the boys 
that were of any considerable bigness, and the old men, to the roofs 
of the houses, that they might be in a capacity to drive back the 
enemy from thence: then, placing all the strong and lusty men in 
the several difficult passes that led into the city, aiid, blocking up all 
ether places where possibly an entrance mii^ht be made, he vaitcd fwr 
the coming of the enemy, 

VoL.i>. No. 41. K 


Epaminondas, having divided his army into three parts, made an 
assault round the town at one and the same time; butj when he dis* 
cerncd in what order the Spartans were placed to oppose him, he 
presently understood that his design was discovered : however, thougk 
he was much obstructed by the strait and narrow passages, and forced 
to fight in small parties with great bodies of men at once, and manj 
were killed on both sides, yet he would not draw off till the Lacede- 
monian army came up near unto Sparta. The Spartans, therefore, 
being now reinforced in such great strength, and night coming oOy 
he left off the assault. 

Then he was informed by some prisoners, that the Mantinean% 
with all the power of tlie city, were hastening towards him, to the 
assistance of the Lacediemonians : upon which he marclied away, 
and encamped not far from the city. But presently, commanding 
his soldiers to cat their suppers, and, leaving there a body of horse, 
whom he commanded to kindle fires all the night, he marched away 
with the rest of the army, with a design on a sudden to cut off all 
them that were left in Mantinea. The next day (having marched a 
long way) he unexpectedly assaulted them of Mantinea, but failed ia 
his design; and, though he had (as a diligent commander) provided 
all things that were necessary, yet fortune now opposed him, and so 
he lost the prize. For as soon as he came near the city, which was 
then naked, and without any defence, six thousand Athenian auxili- 
aries entered into Mantinea at the other end of tiie town, under the 
command of (legelocus, a person of good esteem among the citizens, 
who, having put a sufficient garrison into the city, with the rest stood 
in l)attalia ready to engage. And presently appeared the armies, 
both of the Lfacedsemonians and Mantineans. And now every ooe 
prepared to put <i1l to tlie hazard of a battle, and therefore sent for 
their allies out of all parts. The Elians, Lacedaemonians, Atlie-v 
nians, and some others, sided witli the Mantineans: their forces a- 
mounted to above twenty thousand foot, and two thousand horse* 
The most considerable persons of Arcadia for riches and valour, toge- 
ther with the Achaians, Ba^otians, Argives, and some of the Pclo- 
ponnesians, and other confederates, joined with the Tegeans, who 
amounted, in the whole, to above thirty thousand foot, and threq 
thousand horse. 

And now the armies on both sides took the field, in order to d€<« 
tide the matter, and drew up in battalia; and the soothsayers, frooi 
the view of tlie sacrifices, (offered here and there), declared victory 
to their several parties. The Mantineans, and the rest of the Arca- 
dians, (because the war was in their own country), were in the right 
wijigj supported by the Lacedsemonian% drawn up next to then. 


Next to the Lacedaemonians were placed the Elians and Achaiaiis^ 
and some others of the weaker part of the army completed that 
wing. The left wint^ consisted of the Athenians. On the other 
side, the Thebans placed themselves in the left wing, op|X)site to the 
Arcadians; and the Argives held the right. The rest of the army, 
£ubceans, Locrians, Sicyonians, Messenians, Maleans, and i£neians, 
and the other confederates, made up the main body. The horse on 
both sides W'*re placed on the flanks. The armies being thus drawn 
up, while they stood facing one another for some time, the trumpets 
at length sounded a charge, and the armies set up so great a shout, 
as if both sides were assured of the victory. The horse from tho 
winL's first charged one another, with the greatest fury imagin<ible: 
the Athenian horse charged the Thebans, but were worsted, not so 
much by the valour and hardiness of the Thebans, or their skill in 
martial affairs, (for in these the Athenians were inferior to none), as 
by their number, and being better armed and appointed, and far ex- 
ceeding the other in order and manner of battle. For the Athenians 
had very few darters among them, wiiereas the Thebans had three 
times as many, besides slingers and archers from the Thessalians, 
who were used to be exercised in that way of fighting from their 
childhood, and by that means were always very serviceable in all en- 

Tlie Athenians therefore, what with being galled by the light- 
aimed men, and overpowered by the horse, were forced to fly. Yet, 
because they fled out from tlic wings, they easily repaired the damage 
they had sustained: for they broke not into their own foot in their 
flight, but, falling in with some Euboeans, and some other merce- 
naries, who were sent out before to take possession of some hills near 
the place, (witli whom tliey had a sharp engagement), they put every 
man of them to the sword. Fi)r the Theban horse did not pursue 
them that fled, but charged in upon the enemy's foot, with a design 
to break through them; upon which tho dispute was very hot and 
sharp, but at length the Athenians fled outright i but the colonel of 
the Elian hoise (who was in the rear-guard of the army*) succoured 
them, and, cutting oiF many of the Boeotians, renewed tlie fight. 
And thus was tlie rout in the Athenian left wing in a great measure 
repaired by the Elian horsemen. In the engagement by the horse 
in the other wing, the success was a little while doubtful; but, within 
a short time, the Mantineans were put to the rout, by the multi- 
tude and strength of the Bcjeotian and Thcssalian horsemen, and, 
with great loss, were forced to fly for shelter to their own Uattaliou of 

• Tlic Mautuican army. 

6s DIODORUS sicuLUfl. Book XV. 

foot. And this was the issue of the engagement between the horse. 
The foot, as soon as they engaged, fought with wonderful heat and 
resolution. Never was there greater armies in the field in any battle 
between Grecians and Grecians; nor more brave and excellent com- 
manders^ or that ever approved themselves with more valour and 
courage: for the Baeotiuus and Lacediemouians, who were in that 
age counted the best land -soldiers in the world, fronted one another^ 
and began the onset with that fury, as if they valued not their lives ia 
the least. They first began witli their lances, which being, for the 
most purt, broken in pieces by the violence and heat of the cfaarge^ 
they took to their swords: then, setting foot to foot, all sorts of 
wounds, curable and mortal, slight and deadly, were given and re- 
ceived, without remitting any thin^ of their first heat or resolution; 
and they continued in this ^harp engagement with that valour, and 
such a long time, (neither side giving the least ground), that victory 
seemed to liuver over bjih, (uncertain wijcre it would fall); for every 
one slighted aiul coniemned danger, and (desiring nothing more than 
to make hinjself remai kable by some glorious piece of service for hia 
country) with u livave gallantry of mind coveted to exchange life for 
honour. After the i)attle had continued long, and none were able to 
judge who would be the conquerors, Epaniinonuas (conceiving the 
present state of the parties engaged required his assistance] resolved 
to decide the matter, with the hazard of his own life. To that end 
taking a choice band of the most able men he iiad with him, and^ 
dvawiiig i!ii m up in close order, he forthwith charged at the head of 
them, and was the first that cast his javelin, and killed the Lacedie* 
incnian general, and tlien bn^ke into the midst of his enemies; then 
others prcisently following, (healing down all before him), he clovo 
asunder tlie enemy's division: for, the fame of Epaminondas, and 
the streiiirtli of tljai body he then had with him, struck such a terror 
into tlie Lacedaemonians, that they turned their backs, and began to 
make awr.y; upon which the Boeotians pursued close, and killed all 
that were in the rear, ^o that heaps of carcases covered the ground. 
At length, wIku t!ie Lacediemonians perceived that the fierceness 
and heat of Epaminondas had precipitated him too far, they all in a 
body made up to him, throwing an infinite number of darts at him, 
i>f w':ich he put by some, and received others upon his target, and 
plucke<l others out of his body with his own hands, and threw them 
back into the face of the one my. At last, while he was most heroi- 
cally ext'rtin;: himself to ^ain the victory for his country, he received 
2 m'^iiiil \\f?'.i:id in his l.rcast by a dart, thrown* with such force, as 

' V'. v;iC A ".'.IT?*- •. ii "^;' rtji: 

; the power of the Ijodies. The trumpets, therefore, sounding a 
rity both armies drew off; and i-acli purty erected a trophy, both 
endinq: to the victory. For the Athenians possessed the bodies 
M those Ivjbcrans and mercenaries that were slain at the hill: 
be other bide, the KcPiitians that had routed the l^eedjRmonianSy 
«ere masters of the dead, claimed the victory. And, for some 
r, neither side ^ent any trumpets to treat for the burying of the 

d, kst they that were first should he thought to yield the day. 
t at last the Lrieedifmonians first sent a trumpet to procure liberty 
»urT their men : whereupon all were buried that were slaiQ oa 

But Kpaniinonda^i (yet living) was brought back into the camp; 
j. v^-.tfi the pliy*»icians that were sent fur told iiim, that he would 
ttainly .lie a«* scon as the dart was dniwn out of his body, he was 
( at nil dantit'fl; but first called his armour-bearer, and askcA 
hftiitM lii^ > jitlrl was safer When he answered, it was, and shewed 
toJiim, itu'u he in(}uiied, which side had got the day? Tlie youth 
ttkin:f aiiNWiT, liiai the 1^'pfuians were victors, ** Why then," said 

e, *' Niiw is the tirp.e to die," and forthwith ordered the dart to be 
nmn "ut: and, when all hi*^ friends round about him cried out, and 

"iie,irith irrent lament;. ti'Mi, ex|ires«»ed himself thus " And what! 

) ! dost iIkki die childless?" " No, by Jupiter 1" said 
le, ** Hut i leave behind me two daughters, whereof the one U 
i'iclriry at l^'uclra, and the other at Mantinea.*' And so, upon 
inwire out the Ixad of the dart, l;e quietly breathed out his last. 

monoRus siculus. Book XPl 

and some other Athenians; and Gelon, the son of Dinomenes, in Si- 
cilV) and some others^ whose sereral excellencies, if any will com- 
pare with the military art, and the glory of the arms of EpaminoD- 
das, he shall soon find him to exceed them in many degrees. For^ 
among them, some one peculiar excellence only was remarkable in 
each {articular person; but, in him, a constellation of virtues were 
lioused together : for, in strength and comeliness of body, volubility 
of tongue, gallantness of spirit, contempt of wealth, and impartial 
justice, (and that which was far before all the rest), in valour and skill 
in martial affairs, (absolutely necessary for a general), he far exceeded 
them all. When alive, he gained the sovereign power for his coun- 
try; but, by his death they lost it again, and their affairs declined to 
the worse ever afterwards; and at length, by the sloth and ignorance 
of their commanders, they were utterly ruined, and reduced to perfect 
slavery. And this was the end of Epaminondas, a man honoured 
and esteemed of all. 

After this battle, the Grecians, being tired out with continual wars^ 
and contented now to draw stakes, put an end to the war, and entered 
into a general league, offensive and defensive, in which the Messeniana 
were included. But the Ijaccdsemonians (by reason of the implaca* 
He hatred they bore the Messenians) would not agree to the articles 
of peace : and therefore they, of all the Grecians, were the only men 
that swore not to the league. As to the writers of this year, Xeno* 
phon the Athenian concludes his history of the wars of Greece with 
the death of Epaminondas. Anaximenes likewise, of Lampsacus, 
wrote the first part of his history of the Grecian affairs, from the ori- 
gin of the gods, and the first being of mankind, to the battle of Man- 
tinea, and the death of Epaminondas, containing almost all the afiain 
both of the Grecians and barbarians, in twelve volumes. Lastly, 
Philistus, who wrote the history of Dionysius the youngerj in tva 
bookSf ends them here. 

CAap. XL DiODORUS siculus. 71 


jl defection from the Persiam hi Asia. Tacfiosy khg of Egypf^ 
declares war against tlte Persians, The war between Tachos 
4ind his son Necianabis. The death of Artaxerjces 3Itienuau 
jtgesilaus rottts the Egyptians t/uit pursued him^ and restortM 
Tachos to Ms kingdom. Quarrels again in Greece, after tie 
battle ofMoiitinea^ between the Megalopolitans mui the neigh-^ 
boitring towns. Peparethos besieged by Alexander 4if Pber4Cm 
He routs Leosthenes at sea. Chares^ the Athenian admiral 7 
his villanies. 

THIS year, Molon was lord-cIianccUor of Athens; and Lucius C!«- 
Ducius, and Quintus Servilius, Ruman consuls. In their times, rii£ 
inhabitants of the sea-coasts of Asia made a defection from the Pa*' 
aians; and some of the governors of tlie provinces, and chief com- 
manders, began neiv broils, and rose up in arms against Artaxcrxes* 
Tachos, likewise, king of Egypt, declared war against the Persians^ 
and employed himself in building of ships, and raising of land-forces: 
he brought over, also, the Lacedemonians to join with him, and hired 
many soldiers out of the cities of Greece: for the Spaitans bore a 
grudge against Artaxerxes, because he had ordered the Messeuians to 
be comprehended in the public league among the Grecians, l^k 
great conspiracy caused tlie Persian king, likewise, to exert himself 
to raise forces: for lie was to engage in a war with the king of Eg^'jyt, 
the Grecian cities in Asia, the Lacediemouians and their couCede* 
rates, and the lord-lieutenants and chief commanders of the sea 
coasts, all at one and the same time. Among these, Ariobarzanes, 
lord-lieutenant of Phrygiu, was tlie chief, who had possessed himself 
of the kingdom of Mitliridates, after his death: with him joined 
JVIausolus, prince of Caria, who had many consiilerable towns and 
«astles under his command, the metropolis of which was Haliair* 
uassus, wherein was a most stately citadel, the ruyal seat or palace 
of Caria; and with tlicse were confederated Orontes, governor of 
Mysia, and Autophradatcs, of Lydia; and, of the Ionian nation, the 
Lycians, Pisidians, Pamphylians, and Cilicians; and besides them, 
the Syrians and Phoenicians, and almost all tliat bordered upon the 
Asiatic sea. By this great defection, the king lost one huif of hi$ 
revenues, and what remained was not suilicient to defray the neces- 
sary ctiarges of the war. 


Those who revolted from the king, maiie Orontes general of the 
anny, who, after he had received the command, and money enough 
to pay twenty thousand hired soldiers for one whole year, betrayed 
the confederates that had so intrusted him. For, being corrupted 
xvith large bribes, and promised to be the only governor of all the 
provinces borderirig upon the sea, if he would deliver up the rebels 
into the power of the king, he was wrought upon; and, in the execu- 
tion of his treachery, he first seized upon them that brought him the 
money, and sent them prisoners to the king; and then betrayed se- 
veral cities, and companies of hired soldiers, to such lieutenants as 
the king had sent into those parts. The like treachery happened ia 
Cappadocia, which was accompanied with something more than or- 
dinarily remarkable. Artabazus, the king of Persia's general^ had 
invaded Cappadocia with a great army, whom Datames, the governor 
of that province, opposed with a strong body of horse, and twenty 
thousand foot, of mercenaries. The father-in-law of Datames^ and 
general of his horse (to ingratiate himself with the king, and provide 
for his own safety) stole away in the night with the horse to Arta- 
bazus, having so agreed with him the day before. Datames (encou- 
raging his mercenaries to be faithful to him, by promising to reward 
them liberally) with all speed marched after these treacherous ras-- 
cals, and overtook them just as they were joining the enemy: upon 
which the soldiers of Arta1)azus likewise fell upon these runagate 
horsCy and killed all before them. For Artabazus (at the first igno- 
rant, not knowing the meaning of the thing) thought that he who had 
betrayed Datames, was now acting a new piece of treason ; therefore 
he commanded his soldiers to fall upon the horse that were advan- 
cing towards them, and not spare a man. So that Mithrobarzanes 
(for that was the traitor's name) being got between them that took 
him for a traitor, and those that pursued him^ as one that they knew 
was really such, was in an inextricable labyrinth : being, therefore^ 
in this strait^ (and having no time now further to consider), he made 
it his business to defend himself with all the resolution imaginable^ 
and so plied both parties^ that he made a great slaughter amongst 
them. At length, upwards of ten thousand men being killed^ Data- 
mes put the rest to flight, and cut off in the pursuit great numbers of 
tium, and at length caused the trumpet to sound a retreat, and called 
off his men. Some of the horsemen that survived returned to Data- 
mes, and begged for pardon; the rest wandered about, and knew not 
whither to turn themselves. But Datames caused his army to sur- 
round five hundred of those traitors, and to dart them to death. 
And, though he had formerly gained the reputation of an excellent 
soldier, yet now^ by this* instance of bis valour and prudent couduct^ 

ChajK XL niODORus 73 

his name grew much more famous than before, Artaxerxes, the 
king, being informed of this stratagem^ made all the liastc iie could 
to be rid of Datames^ and, within a sliort time after, cut him oil* by an 

Whilst these things were In acting, Rheomithres was sent by the 
rebels into Egypt, to Tachos, the king, and, having received five 
hundred talents, and fifty sail of men of war, he returned to Leuce, 
ill Asia, and, sending for many of the revolted lords and officers to 
come to him thither, he seized them, and sent them all away prison- 
ers to the king; and, by this piece of treachery, regained the king*s 
favour, who was formerly much displeased with him. 

Now Tachos, king of Egypt, had prepared all things necessary for 
the war: for he had a fleet of two hundred sail, ten thousand Grecian 
mercenaries, and four score thousand Egyptian foot. He gave the 
command of the ten thousand mercenaries to Agesilaus, who was 
sent from the Lacedaemonians, with a thousand men, to the aid of the 
Egyptians; because he was counted the best soldier of any among 
them, and had the repute of a most expert commander. Chabrias 
was made admiral of the fleet, who was not sent there by public au- 
thority, but (upon the persuasion of Tachos) served him as a private 
man. The king reserved to himself the chief command of the whole 
of the army. But Agesilaus would have persuaded him to continue in 
Egypt, and to manage the war by his lieutenants; but he would not 
hearken to it, though he advised him for the best. For, when the 
army was far distant from Egypt, and now encamped In Phcjenicia, 
the governor of Egypt, whom he had deputed in his absence, re- 
volted, and sent to Nectanabis, the king's son^, to take upon him 
the kingdom of Egypt, which kindled the sparks which afterwards 
hroke forth into a most cruol and bloody war. For Nectanabis, who 
had been made general of the Egyptian forces, and some time bef(jre 
sent out of PluKnicia to take in some cities of Syria, being privy, 
and consenting to the treason against his father, drew the com« 
manders of the army by large gifts, and the soldiers by as large pro- 
mises, to join with him in the war. Egypt, therefore, being now 
possessed by the rebels, Tachos was so terrified at the thing, that he 
fled through Arabia, to tlie king of l\'ri>!a, and begged his pardon for 
what he had done; whom Artaxerxes not only forgave, but made him 
general of the army he had raibed against the Egyptians. 

Not long after, the king of Persia died, having reigned throc-and- 
forty years. Ochus succeeded him, and governed tinee-and-twenty 
years, taking upon him the surname of Artaxerxes: for, Artaxeixes 
ruling the kingdom with great justice and integrity, and being an 

* Or rutiicrj his brother or ^istcrS ^ob. 

Vol. 2, No. 41. 1. 

74 niODORUS SICULUS. Book Xt^. 

earnest promoter and lover of peace, and prosperous in all his afTairSy 
the Persians decreed, that all the succeeding kings should be called 
by his name. And now Tachos, the king of Egypt, returned to 
Agcsilaus, and presently Nectanabis led above an hundred thousand 
men against his father, and dared him to try his title to the kingdom 
by the sword. When Agesilaus discerned that the king was fearful^ 
not daring to engage, he heartened him up all he could, and bid him 
be of good courage, for it was not number, but valour, that carried 
away the victory. But, not being able to prevail, he was obliged to . 
go back with him into a certain large city, there to shelter himself; 
where they were presently besieged by the Egyptians, who, after the 
loss of a great number of their men in assaulting the town, drew a 
trench and a wall round the city, which was finished in a short time^ 
by having many hands at work. At length, when provision failed^ 
Tachos gave up all for lost: but Agesilaus (encouraging the soldiers^ 
and telling them ail would be well) in the night broke through the 
enemy's guards, and, to admirationt got off safe with all his men; but 
the Egyptians (pursuing close at their heels, and, being in an open 
champaign country) proposed by their great numbers to surrouad 
them, and so cut them off, every man- 
But Agesilaus in the mean time, having possessed himself of « 
place secured on both sides by water from the river, (conveyed through 
sluices and trenches made by art), waited there for the enemy. And, 
having drawn up his men in such order as best suited the ground, 
(and being defended by the arms of the river, so that he could not 
be hemmed in), he there fought with the Egyptians, whose numbers 
were of so little advantage to them in that place, and the valour of the 
Grecians so far before them, that Agesilaus made a great slaughter 
amongst them, and put the rest to flight. After which Tachos was 
presently restored to his kingdom ; and he rewarded Agesilaus (the 
only instrument of liis restoration) by many honourable gifts, and so 
dismissed him, wlio, in his return homewards, fell sick at Cyrcne,and 
there died. 11 is body was embalmed with honey, and brought bacl^ 
to Sj)arta, where he was royally interred. 

Hitherto thus proceeded matters in Asia. But in Peloponnesus, 
though after tlic battle at Muntinea a general peace was made among 
the Arcadians, yet they scarcely observed the league for one year, but 
fell into new broils and wars with one another. It was one of the ar- 
ticles of the league, that every one should return from the battle into 
their several countries. Therefore those neighbouring cities that had 
been translated, and forced to seat themselves at Megalopolis, which 
then they bore very grievously, now of their own accord returned to 
their old habilationsi : but the other Megalopolitaos eodeavouredonce 

Chap. XL moDORUs sicuLus. 75 

more to force them to leave their ancient scats. Hence arose a great 
contest : they of the old towns craved the assistance of the Maiiti- 
neans and the rest of the Arcadians, and likewise of the Elians and 
other confederates of the Manlincans. On the other hand, they of 
Megalopolis addressed themselves to the Athenians, for their aid and 
assistance; who, without delay, ordered three thousand heavy-armed 

men, and three hundred horse, under the command of Pammenes. 

Whereupon he marched to Megalopolis, and afterwards, by storming 
some of the towns, and tenifying otiiers, he forced them all at length 
to return to Megalopolis. And thus were these towns reduced into 
one city, and the tumults which came to this height appeased and 

Among the historians of this time, Athanis of Syracuse, began his 
history of Dion with this year, comprised in twenty-tlirce books. He 
continued likewise the history of Philistus, scveri years further in one 
book; and^ treating of matters summarily^ made it one entire and 
perfect history. 

Afterwards, whenNicophemus was chief magistrate of Athens, and 
Caius Sulpitius and Caius Licinius executed the consular authority 
at Roma, Alexander, tyrant of Plicra*., fitted out several privateers to 
the Cyclade islands, and having taken some oi" them by force, carried 
away a great number of captives. He then landed his soldiers in Pe- 
parethos*, and besieged the city. But the Peparethians being re- 
lieved by the Athenian garrison, under the command of Leosthenes^ 
who had been formerly left there, Alexander set upon the Athenians 
themselves. It so happened, that as they were watching, and had 
set a guard upon Alexander's fleet, which then lay at Panormus, he 
suddenly fell upon them, and obtained an unexpected victory: for he 
not only rescued his nicn from the imminent dangers wherewith they 
were surrouiided at Panormus, but also took five Athenian gallies, 
one of Peparethos, and six hundred prisoners. The Athenians, be- 
ing enraged at this misfortune, condemned Ix:osthenes to death, and 
confiscated all his goods, and made Chares commander in his stead, 
and sent him with a considerable fleet into those parts; who spent 
his time only in searing the enemy, and oppressing the confederates. 
For sailing to Coreyra, a confederate city, he stirred up such seditions 
and tumults thorc, as ended in many slaughters, rapines, and pluuv 
derings of men's goods and estates; which caused the Athenians to 
be ill-spoken of by all the confederates. He committed many other 
villanies; and, to sum np all in a i'cw words, he did nothiiu*- but what 
teptlt-'tl to the disgrace and dibhonour of his country. 

* One of iLc C-ycIadc iiiaudsj now LruicDC, 


Dionysiodorus and Anaxis, Boeotian writers, who composed a his- 
tory of Grecian affairs, end their relations with this year. And now, 
having given an account of those affairs, and things done before the 
reign of Pliilip, according to our first design, we shall put an end to 
this book. In the next following shall be comprehended whatever 
was done by that king, from the beginning of his reign to the time 
of his death; with other things that happened in the known parts of 
the world. 





XT is the duty of all writers of history, wlietlier they treat of the ac- 
tions of kings, or of particular cities, to relate the whole from the be- 
ginning to the conclusion : for we conceive that thereby the history 
is both better remembered, and more clearly understood. For im- 
perfect relations, witliout knowledge of the issue of what is begun, 
gives an unpleasant check to the diligent reader's eager expectation. 
But where the matter is drawn down by a continued thread to the end 
of the narration, such writings make the history complete in all its 
parts 5 l)ut more especially, if the nature of things done lead the writer 
as it weru by the hand, this course is by no means to be neglected* 

Since, therefore, w^e are come to the affairs of Philip son of Amyn- 
tas, we shall, according to the former rule, endeavour to comprehend 
in this book all the actions of this king. For he reigned as king of 
Macedon two-and-tliirty years, and who, making use at first but of 
small means, at length advanced his kingdom to the greatest in Eu- 
rope; and made Macedon, which at the time of his coming to the 
crown was under the servile yoke of the Illyrians, mistress of many 
potent cities and countries. And through his valour the Grecian ci- ^ 
ties voluntarily submitted themselves to him, and made him general 
of all Greece. And having subdued those that robbed and spoiled ♦ ^' 
the temple at Dclphos*, coming in aid of the god there, he was made 
a member of the senate of the Amphictyons; and as a reward of hi» 

* The riiocians. 

f9 moDORus srcuLUs. Book XFI^ 

zeal to the gods^ the right of vothig in the senate which belonged to 
the Phocians, whom he had overcome, was allotted to him*. 

After he orercame the Illyrians, Pccones, Thracians, Scythians, and 
the countries afljoining to them, his thoughts were wi&ollj employed 
)iow to destroy tlic Persian monarchy. But, after he had freed all 
the Grecian cities, and was promised forces to be raised for the expe-*. 
dition into Asia^ in the midst of all his preparations he was prevented 
by death : but he left those, and so many more forces behind hint, 
that his son Alexander had no occasion to make use of the assistance 
of his confederates in overturning the Persian empire. And all those 
things he did not so much by the fa\x>ur of fortune, as by the great- 
ness of his own valour: for this king excelled most in the art of a 
general, stoutness of spirit, and clearness of judgment and apprehen- 
sion. But {\\?X we may not in a preface sut forth his actions before* 
.land, we siiall proceed to the orderly course of the history, making 
^ome short remarks on ihc times that went before. 


Philip J a hostage at Thehesj mahes his escape; heats the Atliemans j 
Olid afterwards ?nakes peace with them, Suhdaes the PiconeSy inid 
routs the lUyriaiis and makts peace with them* 

\VHEN Callimcdes was archon at Athens, in the hundred and fifth 
olympiad, in which Porus the Cyrcniau was victor, and Cneius Gc- 
nucius and Lucius /Emilius were Roman consuls^ Philip the son of 
Amyntas, and father of Alexander, who conipiercd the Persians, came 
to the crown in the manner following: 

Amyntas being brought under l)y ihe Illyrians, was forced to pay 
tribute to the conquerors; who having taken his youngest son Philip 
as an hostage, drlivcred him to be kept by the Thebans; who com- 
mitted the youth to the care of the father of Lpaminondas I, with ur- 

• The court of ihc Aiiipltictvons w;is llir LTrnt ( nurt of CriTCf, wliU'h ••at at D* iphov 

In Fhocis likf t.> llic Stuu- Gtm rul at Uic Uji; !■ . Fc/J'f'*» ?r'». l'\ , jn C. l!i'> Vliu. 

tiin.S \v..t\ t'.4ii \> l;i tliut UhSfir.blv. 

t Yu\\ 'i»ri!ii wxi il." f itl;-:.- "f f.pdijilucn^iiii. 

Ohp. /. DIODORUS STCl lATS. ^p 

ia% to look to bis cliargc with all diligenc 2, and lioiiourahly to educate 
id instruct him. 

A Pvthagorcan piiilosopber was at tha*. time tutor to Epaminondas^ 

vitli wliom Pliilip being brou^irht up^ he improved more than ordl- 

MTT in the Pythagorean pliilosophy. And both these scholars ctn- 

plojiDg the utmost of their {Ktrts and diligence in prosecuting tliclr 

tfsdies, both by that means became famous for tlieir virtuous quali- 

fcstiODs. £paminotidaS| it is known lo all, having run through ma- 

mj hizairds and difficulties, beyond all expectation, gained the sove- 

frintr of all Greece for his country. And Piiilip having the same 

aArmtages, shewed himself nolhing infoiior to Epaminondas inglo- 

mos aehievements: for after the death of Amyntas, his eldest soa 

Alennder succeeded him in the kingdom; but rto1en;y Aloritea 

■ordered him atid DsurjK*d the govenuneut: and he iiimseJf was 

fcrred the same sauce by Perdiecas; who being afterwards overcome 

ia a {Tcat battle by the iUyrians, arid killed in the very time when 

fkar wm most need of a king, Philim the brotlier, made his escape 

aad took possession of the kingdom, now in a very shattered co»- 

£non: for there were aUive four thousand Macedonians killed in ttie 

fight, and those that survived were in such consternation and fear of 

ihe lilvrians, that they had no heiu*t left for the further prosecution 

«f thf frar. 

About tlic same time the Piconcs, nel^libours to the Macedonians, 

ioLontempt of them wasted their countrv; aiid the Illyrians raised 

min !:r'*ni forces, a?i(l deslirned another expodliion ai^ainst the Ma- 

wiiv:iiu:.s. And, t»» .i.rjiavate tliL' matter, one Pau^anias *, of ihc 

fwalfifRily, by the a NJ^tanee i.»f llu' kin ^ of Thrace, cnJeaViMired to 

i-'ivilc the kingdom </!" Macedon. The Alljenians likewise, tnemies 

^ l*:.'.ilj>, endtavourcil to restore Arganis *' lo tlje Kini:Ji)m ot his an- 

«^?«rs, and to tliii pnipnsc Iwl H<«iit away their giMieral Manriu^, 

•iflitlirre thou>ai*.f! will-aunet] men. and a incisi exi-i-Hent and ucli- 

po.jfled navy. Hereupon tlie .Macedonians, liy ren^iMi iif tlie late 

^•••at, and the storm that then threatened iheni, w- le in lirtat fear 

•id peqdexity : howe\er, n<»t\vitlistah«lin:r all t!i<» diiru-uhit-s anti fear 

of thii^e tiiin-j'^i tiiac weie at hand, Piiiiijs iioiliini: diNvuui.iired with 

f'f^r* i!rr,jr!ful cli»u«i'» of mi-^chiff tl.<* seemed t.i Uiuj; nver his In .hi, 

:r. his speeches in the daily asseni!>Iii -» retained the Maeeih>nians in 

ilrlt duty; and, by lils I'li-quenet.* -uherei!! he cxtriled) •^liiriiig 

: i*m up to he c(»iiraL'''«'Vis, reviv.'il tiifir di.H»j:inii spiiiis-. 'i'l.Lii, 

^-Min-jf iijitn) irf«inninjr the millMiy di-cii'liiif, lie i-'inj.i« ti 1\ .11 in. d 

l.» men, and tiained ti.em cst-ry d.iv, le.u Ii.»\ l.»lijullc 

• ':vu •.:' L. ft*: w' i ::• • -v -■. r- 1 •:.'• ...j'j..n •.: .'-l •.,Jw.u4. 

fiO DiojJORus Hook XFfZ 

their arms, unci otiier posiu'es uf war, >lc llkcwisi' instituied thcB 
new way of (!ra\vin«( up in a close body, imitating tlic licioesi ai Troy^ 
in locking their sliields to^'^Miher; so that he w:ts the fir^t timt foimd. 
out the Alacedonian plialanx* 

He was very courteous and winning in liis converse, and gainedL 
the people's hearts botti by liis bounty at present, and his generouft 
promises of future rewards ; very wisely, likewise, (as it were by si^ 
many engines), defending himself against the many and various dan* 
gers that were pressing upon him. For when he discerned that the 
Athenians made it their chief business to recover Amphipolis, and that 
Argieus was endeavoured to be restored to his kingdom for that end» 
he left the city^ of his own iiccord, suffering them to govern them- 
selves according to their own laws. 

He likewise sent an ambassador to the Pseones, and corrupted some 
of them with bribes, and ensnared others with fair and winning pro* 
mises, and for the present made peace with them. He likewise pre- 
vented Pausanias from being restored^ by bribing the king that was 
ready to assist him for that purpose. 

In tlic mean time Manlius, the Athenian admiral, being arrived 
at Meihonet, there lay ; but he sent iEgaeus forward with a body of 
mercenaries, to ilig«J. Coming to the city, he endeavoured to per- 
suade the yEgKans to allow of his return, and lo appear the first for 
his restoration to tiie kingdom; but none consenting, he went back 
to Methone. 

Presently after, Philip, advancing with a well-appointed army, set 
npon tlicm, and cut ott'niany of the mercenaries; the rest, who had 
fled to a hill near at hand, (having first delivered up to him the fugi* 
tivcs), he dismissed by agreement. 

Philip being coiKjueror in this lirst battle, greatly encoursiged the 
Macedonians, and maiio them hearty and eager to undergo furtiier 
toils and difliculties. 

Whilst these things were acting, the Thracians planted a colony 
at Crcmides, as it was heretofore called, wiiich the king afterwards 
named Philippi, after liis own name, and filled it with inhabitants. 
I'Voni this time Tlu'opumpus of Chios begins his history of Philip, 
and continues it in fitty-eight books, of which live are controverted. 

Afterwards nucharistus was archon of .Athens, and Uuintus Ser- 
villus and i^ucius Clmncius were consuls at Rome, when Philip 
sciii auil>assadors to Athens with proposals ot peace, and prevailed 
v.iili tlic people, upon the account that he was willing to quit all 
\\\> rijlit in Amphipolis. 

* AiuphipulU. X Mctliunt'j in Macedonia. % /U-'^si, in Macedonia. 

Chap. L niODORUs sicuLUS. 81 

Being therefore thus freed from the war with the Athenians, and 
hearing that Agis, king of the Pjeoncs, was dead, he judged that a 
fair opportunity was ofTered him to invade the Pa^ones ; and to that 
end he entered their country with a considerahle army, overcame 
them in battle, and forced them to stoop to the Macedonian yoke. 

But still the Illyrians*" remained an eye-sore to him, his 
heart and all his thouglits were continually at work to bring under. 
To that end he called a general council, and by a speech fitted for 
the occasion, having spirited the soldiers to the w^ar, he led an army 
into tlie country of the Ulyrians, of no less than ten tluiusand foot, 
and six hundred horse. 

Bardyllis, king of tjie Ulyrians, hearing of his coming, first sent 
ambitssadors to Thilip, to renew the league between them upon these 
terms — ^^Hiat both of them sliouid keep those towns that they then 
had. To w b i c i I i*b i 1 1 p a ns wc rtd — ^Tl lat he was very desi rous of peace, 
but resolved not to admit cf it be lore the Ulyrians had quitted all the 
towns belonging to the kingdom of Maeedon. 

The ambu-siidors ibcrefore being returned without effecting any 
thing, Bardyllis (confiding in the valour of his soldiers, and encou- 
raged by his fonnt-r victories) marched forth against his enemies with 
a stron/; arnjy, having with him ten thousand choice foot, and five 
hundred horse. 

When the armies drew near one to another, they suddenly set up 
a great vhout, and so conunenecd the attack. Philip being in the 
rigiit wing with a strong body of Macedonians, commanded his 
horse to wheel about, for the ])urpose of charging the enemy in the 
flank; and he himself charged the front; upon which there was a hot 

On the other side, the Ulyrians drew up in a square body, and va- 
liantly joined battle. 

The valour of both armies was such, that the issue of the battle 
was a longtime doubtful; many fell, but many more were wounded; 
and the advantage was now here, and then there, according as the 
valour and resolution of the combatants gave vigour and life to 
the business. 

At length, when the horse charged both upon the flank and rear, 
and Philip, with his stoutest soldiers, fought like a hero in the front, 
the whole body of the Ulyrians vvas routed, and forced to fly outright; 
%vhom the Macedonians pursued a long way. After many were killed 
in the pursuit, Philip at length gave the signal to his men to retire^ 
and erected a trophy, and buried the dead. 

* Illyniim, now Dalmatian aad the inbabitants Dalmatianij or Sclavonians. 

Vol. 2. No. 11. u 

^C DioDORus sicuLus. Book XVL 

'•"\ . 1 'i:.' lllyrians sent another embassy, and procured a peace, 

K.v .. '. ■<•* .I'litted all the cities belonging toMacedon. There were 

:'A Illyiians in this battle above seven thousand men. Hav- 

i:-'; i| r.s :;ivcn an account of things done in Macedonia and Illyrium, 

1'. J ii.aii now relate the affairs of other nations. 

CHAP. 11. 

The actions of Dio7v/siifs the younger^ in Sicily and other part». 
Dio7i\s JlfjL,hf to Corinthy and his return to Sicily. Andromachus 
peoples Tanroininiunu The ciril wars in Kubwa. The social 
7var between the yJthcnians and other nations. Philip takes 
wlmphiptdis and of her cities. IIisj)olicy to gain the Olynthians^ 
and other places in Greece. 

IX vSicily, Dionysius the younger, tyrant of Syracuse, who came some 
time before to tlie kingdom, (being of an inactive spirit, and much 
inferior to liis faihcr), under the veil of a peaceful and gentle dispo- 
bition, endeavoured to cover his sloth and cowardice; and therefore, 
though the war with the Cartliaginians descended upon him with the 
kingdom, yet ho made peace with them. 

In a cnreicss manner, likewise, he made war for some time upon 
the Lucanians; and though he had the advantage in some of the last 
fights, yet he was very fond of the terms and conditions offered for 
putting an end to the war. 

He l)uilt two cities in Apulia, the better to secure the passage of 
his shipping through the Ionian sea: for the barbarians dwelling ou 
the sea-coasis had a great number of pirates wandering about, where- 
by the Adriatic sea was greatly infested, and made troublesome to 
the merchants. 

Afterwards giving himself up to his ease, he entirely neglected all 
warlike exercises; and though he was lord of the greatest kingdom 
in Europe, and had a dominion bound fast with a diamond, (as his 
father was used to boast), yet through his effeminate sloth and idle- 
ness he lost it on a sudden. How it was taken from him, and 
how he conducted himself in every particular, we shall endeavour 
now to declare. 

At this time Ccphisidorus was lord chancellor at Athens, and 

* Lucnnians^ in Italy. 


Caius Liclnius and Caius Sulpitius were consuls at Rome; when 
DioDj the brother of Hipparinus^ one of the most noble persons 
among the Syracusans, fled out of Sicily; and afterwards^ by the 
braveness of his spirit, and his excellent accomplishments, restored 
not only the Syracusans, but other Sicilians, to their antient liberties, 
by these means. 

Dionysius the elder had issue by both his wjvcs: by the second 
wife, the daughter of Hipparinus, (who was in great esteem among 
the Syracusans), he had two sons, Hipparinus and Narsaeus. Dion 
was the brother of this second wife; a man well skilled in philosophy, 
and the most expert soldier, in his tinie> of all the Syracusans. The 
nobleness of his birth, and greatness of his spirit, made him suspected 
by the tyrant, because, upon that account, he seemed to be a fit 
instrument to overturn the tyranny. Dionysius therefore fearing 
him, determined to send him farther away from him, and so put him 
to death. Dion, perceiving the design, at first discovered it to some 
of his friends: afterwards he fled from Sicily to Peloponnesus, taking 
with bim his brother Megacles^ and Cariclides, the general of the 
army under the tyrant. When he arrived at Corinth he solicited 
the Corinthians to assist him in the recovery of the liberty of Syra-^ 
cuse; and presently collected a band of mercenaries, and employed 
himself in procuring arms : upon which many volunteers coming in 
to him with all sorts of arms, he mustered a considerable force of 
mercenary soldiers. Then having hired two ships, he put his men 
and arms on board ; and witii these only passed over from Zacy nthus^ 
(Dear adjoining to Cephalenia) to Sicily; and commanded Cariclides 
to follow presently after him to Syracuse, with a few gallies, and 
other ships of burden. 

While these things were acting, Andromachus of Taurominlum, » 7 
the father of Timseus the historian, a man eminent both for his riciics 
and wisdom, brought together from all parts all the exiles of Naxos, 
(which Dionysius had razed), and gave them the hill called Taurus, 
lying above Naxos. And because he and his family had continued 
there a long time, he called it Taurominium, from their residence in 
Taurus. The inhabitants afterwards grew very rich, and the city be- 
came famous by its prosperous increase In worldly blessings. But in 
our age the Taurominians were removed from their country by 
CsBsar, and the city received a Roman colony. 

In the meantime the inhabitants of Euba^a began quarrelling with 
each other, and one party resorted to the Bu::otians for aid, and the 
other to the Athenians; and so a war broke out throughout all 
Kuboea. But though there were many light skirmishc:> between 

'^ Xyw Zaut. 


thcm^ sometimes the Tiiebans prevailing, and at other times 
Athenians, yet ihcy never fouglit any great battle. 

At length the island being wasted by this civil war^ and many \ 
men destroyed all over the land, with much ado (being made more ^^ 
wise by tiieir own slaughters) they came to an agreement, and • * • 
peace was concluded: and the Ba:otians returning lion>e, laid down ^] 
their arms. -.^ 

The Athenians now began a war called the Social War, (which 
continued three years), on account of the defection of the Chians, 
Rhodians, them of Coos, and the Byzantines; to which war Chare» 
and Chabrias were sent with an army^ as generals : making against 
Chios'^, they found the Chians assisted by the Byzantines, Rhodians, 
Coians, and Mausolus, the petty king of Canaf. These generab 
dividing their forces, besieged the city both by sea and land. Chares 
commanded the land-forces, and assaulted the walls, and fought with 
them of the garrison in the open field, who made sallies upon him« 
But Cltabrias was engaged in a sharp fight at sea in the very harbour^ 
and his ship being pierced through with the beaks of the enemy% he 
was greatly distressed; and those who were in the other ships, 
thought fit to comply with the time, and so fairly ran away. But the 
admiral chusing rather to die gloriouly than give up all dishonour- 
ably, in defending of his sliip received a wound^ which put an end 
to his life, 
yf About the same time, Philip king of INIaccdon, after his victory 

over the Illyrians in that great battle, having subdued all them that 
dwelt as far as to the marches of Lychnidus, and made an honour- 
able peace with them, returned hito Macedonia. And having thus 
by liis valour raised up and supported the tottering state and condi- 
tion of the Macedonians, his name l>ocamc great and famous among 
them. Afterwards, ])cing pr<»voked by the many injuries of them of 
Amphipolis, he marched against them with a great army, and apply- 
ing his engines of battery to the walls, made fierce and continual 
assaults, and by the battering rams threw down part of the wall, and 
entered into the city through the ruins, with the slaughter of many 
that opposed him ; and forthwith Kinished his chief enemies, and 
graciously spared the rest. 

This city, by reason of its commodious situation m Thrace, and its 
nci;;hb«)urhood to other places, was of great advantage to Philip; for 
he presently after took Pydna; but made a league with the Olyn- 
thians, and promised to give up Potidea to them, which they had a 
Jong time before much coveted. For in regard the city of the 

* C'liioSi of the same uame with fbv i!»laii'J t Caoi, ia Lttscr Atia. 


Olynthians was both rich^ potent, and populous^ and upon that ac- 
count was a place of great advantage in time of war, therefore those 
tliat were ambitioas to enlarge their dominion, strove always to gain 
it: so that both the Athenians and IMiilip earnestly contended 
which of them should prevail in having them for their confederates. 
But however, Philip having taken Poiidea, drew out tlie Athenian 
garrison, and treated them with great civility, and suHcred them to 
return to Athens; for he bore a great respect to the people of 
Atheus, because that city was eminent and famous for its power 
and grandeur. 

He likewise delivered up Pydna^ (which he had subdued) to the 
Olynthians, and gave them all the grounds and territories belonging 
to it. Thence he marched to Cremidcst, which he enlarged, and 
made more populous, and called it after his own name, Philippi, 
Besides, he ^o improved the gold mines that were in those parts, 
(which before were hut inconsiderable and obscure), that by build- 
ing of work-houses he advanced them to bring in a yearly revenue of 
above a thousand talents. So that heaping up at)undance of riches, 
■ in a short time, by the confluence of his wcahh, he advanced the 
kingdom of Macedonia to a higher degree of majesty and glory, than 
cverit was before: for he coined pieces of gold, (called from him 
Philippics), and by the help thereof, raised a great army of merce- 
oaries, and bribed many of the Grecians to betray their country. 
Of all which, a particular account shall be given hereafter, in tlie 
coarse of the history. And now we shall bend our discourse to what 


tttoi'5 march and entry hUf) St/racJtst\ Ditvwshts comes to the 
hlaiidj apart of Syracuse: assaults the wall erected from sen to 
9ea: is beaten by Dion, Alcj'innler of Phcrcc miirdrred tjy his 
^ife and his two brothers, Philiji relieves the lliessalians from 
tkttivo brothers. 

-AGATHOCLES wns archon at Athens, and Marcus F:il>iiis, and '^'^ 
Caius Publius, or Poetdius, were cunsuls at Koim*, when Dion, the 
^ of Hipparinus, landid in Sicily, to i)ut down the tyiiiiiiiy of 

* Uxdna, in Mace lonui. 
\ Cremidea iu ^laccduniu, ':al!L'd rh:'i:.-L->i^ uu^v rhilijtpo. 


Dionysius. This Dion in an admirable manner overturned the 
greatest dominion in I'2nroi.)e, with the most inconsiderable forct 
that ever any did before iiiu) : for wlio would ever believe that a 
man who landed with only two ships of burthen^ should overcome 
a king who was furnished with four hundred gallies; had an army of 
an hundred thousand foot, and ten thousand horse; and was pro^ 
vided with arms^ money, and provision, suitable and sufficient to 
supply so many and great forces as we have related? And who (ex- 
clusive of what we have before said) was possessed of the greatest 
of all the Greek cities ; so many ports and arsenals, castles so 
strongly fortified and impregnable, and such a number of potent 
auxiliaries ! But that whicli much forwarded the successes of Dion^ 
was his great spirit, and valorous resolution, and the good-will and 
liindness which the people whom he came to set free bore towards 
Iiim. And that which was more than all these was the sloth and 
effeminacy of the tyrant, and the hatred of his subjects. All tliese 
things concentrating at one moment, produced incredible effects* 
But to leave off prefacing, we shall now begin to relate affairs more 

Dion therefore proceeding from Zacynthns, near to Cephalenia^ 
arrived at Minoa, (as it is called), in the territory of Agrigentum. 
This city was built by Minos, formerly king of Crete, at the time 
he was entertained by Cocalus, king of the Sicanians, when lie was 
seeking after Decdalus. 

At this time this city was in the hands of the Carthaginians, whose 
governor Parjilus, Dion's friend, cheerfully received him. Upoa 
this encouragement he unloaded his ships of five thousand arms, and 
intrusted thein with Paralus, desiring him to furnish him with car- 
riages to convey them to Syracuse : and he himself with a thousand 
mercenaries that had joined him, makes to the same place. In his 
march he prevailed with the Agrigentincs, Geloi, some of the 
Sicanians, and the Sicilians that Inhabited the midland; the Cama- 
rinians likewise, and Madinicans, to join with him in freeing the 
Syracusans from their slavery; and with these he marched forward 
to give a check to the tyrant. In his marcli, armed men flocking 
in to him from all parts, in a short time he had an army of above 
twenty thousand men. And besides these, many Grecians and Mes- 
sanians were sent for out of Italy, and all with great cheerfulness 
came readily to him. 

As soon as Dion came to the borders of the Syraeusan territorieSj 
a nmhitude of unarmed men, both out of the city and country, met 
1) in : for Dionysius^ out of fear and jealousy of the Syracusans, had 
disarmed many. 

Chap. IIL woDORus sicuLUs. 8/ 

He was by chance at tliat time at the cities he had lately built ia 
Adria*, with a great army. In the mean time, the officers that were 
left to guard the city endeavoured, in the first pLice, to retain the 
citizens in their duty, and to prevent their defection; but when they 
saw they could not by all the means they could use bridle the im- 
petuous rage of the people, they got together all the foreign soldiers^ 
and all others within the city that favoured the tyrant*s party, and^ 
having completed their regiments, resolved to fall upon the rebels. 
Then Dion distributed the five thousand arms among the Syracusans 
that were unarmed, and the rest he furnished as well as he could^ as 
arms came to his hands. He then called them all together, to a pub- 
lic assembly, and told them, that he was come to restore the Sicilians 
to their liberty; and to that end commanded that such officers should 
he created as were fittest to be made use of for that purpose, and for 
the utter ruin of the tyranny: upon which they all cried out, with 

one uuanimous voice ^That Dion and his brother Megacles should 

be chosen generals, and invested with absolute power and command. 
And so, without dela}', from the assembly (having first disposed the 
army in order of battle) he marched strait to the city; and^ none ap- 
pearing in the open field to oppose him, he confidently entered withiu 
the walls^ and, through the Acradinaf, marched on into the forum, and 
there encamped, none daring to oppose him: for there were no fewer 
with Dion, in his army, than fifty thousand men. And all thesc^ 
with coronets upon their heads, entered into the city, led by Dion, 
Megacles, and thirty Syracusans, who alone, of all the exiles in Pelo- 
ponnesus, were willing to run the same common fate with their 

At this time the whole city exchanged slavery for liberty, and for- 
tune turned sorrow, the companion of tyranny, into pompous mirth 
and jollity : and every house was full of sacrifices and rejoicing; and 
men burnt incense, every one upon his own altar, thanking the gods 
for what at present ihey enjoyed, and putting up prayers for a happy 
usue of affairs for the time to come. Then were heard many shouts 
of joy by the women all over the city, for their sudden and unexpected 
uappiuess, and the people rejoicing through all corners of tiie town* 
There was then neither freeman or servant, nor any stranger, but all 
*'cre earnest to see Dion, who, for his valour and courage, was cried 
up by all above what was fitting for a man. And it was not alto- 
gether without some reason, the change being so great, and so un- 
expected : for, having lived fifty years as slaves, through so long 
tttime they had almost forgotten what liberty meant; and now, by 

^ Tite ( oasts of tlic Adriatic .sea. 
t One of tlic four parts of Syracuse; ihc otlicrs arc llic Island^ Tvche, aiiJ Xc»polifc 



the valour of one man^ they were on a sudden delivered from their 

About this time DIonysius staid at Caulonia in Italy; but sent to 
Phili:iitus, his admiral, who was then with the fleet about the Adriatic 
coasts, and commanded him to sail away strait for Syracuse: and, 
both of tht'm sjiceding awr.y to the same place, Dionysius came to 
Syracuse the seventh day after the return of Dion. And now, think* 
ing to put a trick upon the Syracusans, he sent ambassadors to 
treat of peace, by v;h(>m he made use of many devices, to per- 
suade thcp), thai he would restore the democracy, if he might but 
liavc some renjuriwible iionours c<)nfcrr:*d \\\.\y\\ him by t!\c govern- 
ment, lie c!c.i!t-.l, ti;jr iVii*, Mnl:\f ^i:dj;s mi^lit be sent to himj 
with v%iioi!ij cj.liii)'-- ;i soiiatc-, he might j)iit «iis end iu the war. 

TliC SyiaLii.saiiS, having their expectations raised to so high a 
pitch, sent some of tlie cliief of their citizens to hiin as ambassadors, 
who had guards presently put ujion them, and Dionysius one day 
after another put off their audience. In the mean time, perceiving 
that tlie Syraeusans, in hopes of peace, negleeteJ. their guards, and 
were unprepared for an encounter, he opened the gates of the Acro- 
polis^, in tlie Island, and suddenly sallied out with a strong and well- 
appointed party. 

Tiie Syraeus'uis liad there drawn a v/all from sea to sea, which the 
3)ionysiaiis fiercely assaulted, with a great shoat; and, having en- 
tered it, with the slaughter of many of the guai J., they engaged with 
the rest that came in to defend it. Dion, therefore, being thus de- 
luded, (against the articles of the truce), comes down with a strong 
party to oppose the enemy, engages them, and makes a great slaugh- 
ter within a small compass of ground: for, alth"ugh the fight was 
but a small distance from the walls within the town, yet a vast num- 
ber of men were got together within this little spot; so that the 
Stoutest men on both sides were hotly engaged. The large promises 
urged on the DIonysians on one side, and hopes of liberty stirred 
up tl)e Syraeu^ans with a resolution for victory on the other: the 
obstinacy, therefore, on both sides being equal, the fight was a long 
time tloulitful; many fell, and as many were wounded, receiving all 
their wounds uptm their bviasts: for those thai first led on coura- 
geously, died to preserve those that fidlowed; those that were next, 
coveied ihr heads of those that wen* tired out with their shields, and 
valiantly underwent all manner of dangers, ami endured the utmost 
that could befal them, osit of tlieir heat and zeal to come olV con- 
cjuerors. But Dion, resolving to do something remarLtble in this 

• A *'.:?;!c in i pljc? calif' *.ln poit oi' Svrn.rijjc. 

Chap. III. nioDORUs siculus. 89 

engagement^ and that by his own valour lie might gain th*; day, broke 
violently into the thickest of his enemies; and, laying about him 
hero-like, hewed down multitudes, and wholly broke iu pieces the 
body of the mercenaries, and was left alone standing in the midst 
of the enemy's troops; and, tiiough lie was aimed at l)y abundance of 
darts, received upon his buckler and helmet, yet, by the strength and 
goodness of his arms, he avoided the danger; but, receiving a wound 
upon his right arm, (througli the greatness and extremity of the 
pain), he began to faint, and was not far from falling into the hands 
of the enemy, but that the Syracusans (highly cencerned for the 
preservation of their general) charged in a full body ujjon the Diony- 
sians, and, rescuing Dion, (now almost spent), put the enemy to 
flight. And, the citizens prevailing at another part of the wall, 
the foreign forces of the tyrant were forced to fly into the castle ia 
the Island. 

The Syracusans now, having gained a trlorious victory, and con- 
firmed their liberty by conquest, set up a tn)j)hy in defiance of the 
tyrant, who, being thus beaten, and now perceiving that all was lost, / '5 
and an end put to his sovereignty, fortified the castle with a strong 
garrison; then, being permitted to carry oft' the dead bodies of ihosc 
that were slain, to the number of eight hundred, he buried them 
honourably, crowning them with crowns of gold, and richly clothing 
them in purple robes. By this extraordinary honour and respect 
shewn to the dead, he hoped to draw in others more readily and 
cheerfully to venture their lives for the support of his principality. 
Then he bountifully rewarded them that had valiantly behaved them- 
selves in the late enjj:agement ; and sent some to the Syracusans, to 
treat upon terms of peace. But Dion studied excuses to delay the 
business, and in the mean time finished the rest of the wall witiiout 
any interruption. 

Having thus deceived the enemy with an expectation of peace, as 
they had done him before, he admitted the ambassadors to audience: 
upon which, tliey making proposals for peace, Dion answered — ^That 
there was only one way left for the obtaining of a peace, and that was, 
forDionysius to lay down his government, and be contented only with 
some honours to be conferred upon him. Which answer the tyrant 
taking in disdain, as haughty and peremptory, he called a council 
cf war, to consult with his officers Low he might be revenged of the 

He abounded with all things except corn, and was likewise master 
at sea: he therefore infested the country with depredations, and, by 
foraging, for some time got irroviciyiis, but with great difficulty. At 
Vol.2. No. 41. n 

90 monoRus siculus. Book XVf. 

length he sent forth transiwrt-shlps and money to buy corn and other 
provisions : but the Syracusans, tliough they had but few gallies, yet, 
at fit times and places, they surprised the merchants^ and a great part 
of the corn that they imported. And thus stood the afl&irs of Syracuse 
at this time. 

i ^f But in Greece, Alexander, the tyrant of Pherse, was murdered by his 
wife, a Tlieban, and his two brothers, Lycophron and Tisiphonus. 
They were at first in great repute for having killed the tyrant; but 
afterwards, growing ambitious, and having hired many foreign sol* 
diers, they set up themselves, and put to death many that were averse 
to their designs ; and, having got together a strong party, they kept 
tlie sovereignty by force of arms. 

But the Aleuadse, (as they are called), persons famous for the no- 
bleness of their birth, conspired to oppose the tyrants; but, not being 
able to perfect so great an undertaking of themselves, they procured 
the assistance of Philip, king of Macedon, who marched into Thes- 
8aly, subdued the tyrants, and restored the cities to their liberty, and 
carried himself with the greatest demonstrations of kindness imagin- 
able towards the Thessalians; so that ever after, in all his wars, not 
only be, but his son Alexander, had them to be their constant friends 
and confederates. 

• J Among the writers, Dcmophilus, the son of £phorus the historian, 
(who continued the history of the Sacred War, left imperfect by his 
father}, began at the time when the temple of Delphos was seized 
and robbed by Philomelus the Phocian. 3 5*7/ C 

That war continued eleven years, till such time as the sacrilegious 
robbers of that temple were miserably destroyed. 

.'Y Odlisthcnes likewise comprehended in ten hooks the affairs of the 

Grecians, bringing down his history, in a continued thread, to the 
spoiling of the temple by the wickedness of Philomelus: and Dyillus 

^ ^T' the Athenian begins his history from this sacrilege, and gives an ac- 
count of the affairs of Greece and Sicily in those times, in sevea- 
teen books. 

Chap. IF. DioDORUS sicuLUS. 91 


Thejirst rise of the Brutii in Itjah/, Dionymts^s admiral invades 
the Leontmes. AJight at sea between Heraclides and Fhilistus, 
admirals y the one of DionysiuSy the other of Dion, ji faction in 
Syracuse. Dion leaves the Syracusans. Tiieir sad condition. 
Relieved by Dion. 

WHEN Elpinus bore the chief magistracy of Athens, and Marcus / IT 
Popilius LienaSj and Cneius Manlius Imperiosus, were invested 
with the consular dignity at Rome, the hundred and sixth Olym- 
piad was celebrated, in which Porus, of Malia, was crowned with 

In Italy, a promiscuous multitude got together about Lucania from 
several p^i is of the country, most of them servants that had run away 
from ihvW ijiasters. At first they employed themselves in robbing 
and stealing, and presently, by a common practice of skulking in the 
fields, and making incursions, they learnt the use and exercise of 
martial dibciplinc and feats of war; and, prevailing in several en- 
counters against the inhabitants, they increased to a vast body and 
number of men. 

In the first place they took and plundered the city of Trojana; 
then, seizing upon Arpinum and Thurium, and many other cities, they 
formed themselves into a commonwealth; and, because they had 
many of them been servants, tiiey assumed the name of Brutii*. And 
thus the nation of the Brutii grew up in Ibily. 

At this time in Sicily, Philistus, Diouysius's general, sailed to / 
Rhegium, and transported above five hundred horse to Syracuse: 
and, joining to these a greater body of horse, and two thousand foot, 
he invaded the Leoutines, who had fallen oft' from Dionysius. Sur- 
prising, therefore, the walls secretly in the night, he possessed himself 
of part of the city; upon which there was a hot engagement, and, by 
the help of the Syracusans, who came to the aid of the Leontines, 
Philistus, overpowered with numbers, was forced out ngain. 

In the mean time Heraclides, Dion's admiral, being left in Pelo- 
ponnesus, and liindered by storms and contrary winds, (so that he 
could not arrive at Sicily time enough to be assistant to Dion in his 
return into his country, and to be helpful in rescuing the Syracusans 

* Hither Brettians; for ihcy were called Brutii bv the Romans, as u hiutish people. 

I. ^^. 



from slavery), arrived at length, with tiventy sail of gallies^ and fif- 
teen hundred soldiers; who, heing a man of noble birth and of great 
esteem, and judged worthy of so great a trust, lie was declared admiral 
by tiie Syracusans, and he and Dion, joining head and hand together, 
managed the war against Dionysius. 

About the same time Philistus, being made lord-high-admiral by 
Dionysius, and liaviiig a fleet of sixty sail, well provided, entered the 
lists in a sea-fight with the Syracusans, who had a navy not fewer in 
number than the Dionysians. Whereupon there was a sharp fight, 
in which the valour of Pnilistus at the first prevailed; but at length, 
ocing surrounded by the enemy, the Syracusans from all parts making 
it their ^n.'at business to take him alive, he, to avoid the disgrace and 
misery usually attendant on a state of captivity, killed himself, after 
he hiul scrvi d the tyrant to the utmost of his power, and had signa- 
lizeil his faiihnilnrss above all the rest, and chiefest of his friends. 
The Syr.i'j'Snp.f^, Ikmiic^ victors, clrcw the mangled body of Phil istui 
through the w hulc city, and at length cast it out in the open air, 
without burial. 

Di-iiysiu^, liavin;:: now lo.^^t the most valiant of all his friends, and 
knowing; not wlicro to find anotlicr fit for the place, sent ambassadors 
to Dioi;, with an offer at first of half the kingdom, and presently after 

conscr.tcd to give up the whole. But, when Dion answered ^That 

it was but just he should surrender the castle to the Syracusans, upon 
having only some money, and some marks of honour conferred up- 
on bin), the tyrant hereupon said — He was ready to deliver up the 
castle to the people, upon condition that he and the mercenaries, 
with all the treasure they had got, might pass over to Italy. Dion's 
advice was, that the terms should be accepted: but the people, being 
wrought over to a contrary opinion by the importunate orators, op- 
posed Dion, for that they doubted not but to take the castle by storm. 
Dionysius hereupon committed the custody of the castle to the 
stoutest of the mercenaries; but he himself, having brought aboard 
all his treasures and household goods, without being discovered^ set 
sail, and landed in Italy. 

In the mean time the Syracusans were divided into factions, white 
some were for Ileraelides to have the chief command of the array, 
and likewise the sovereign power, because he was judged a persoa 
that wasi not ambitious of the tyranny; but others were for intrusting 
the chief p(»wer and authority in the hands of Dion. Moreover, there 
w ei e IT' * Jit arrears due to the soldiers that came out of Peloponnesus 
to the assistance of the Syracusans. The city, therefore, being very 
1 »\v in n.onry, and ilie ^?^)ldiers defrauded of their pay, they gathered 
tlieiii.''jlvis i jit> a body, bcini: thicc thousand valiant men, all old 

Chap. IV. moDORUs siculus. 93 

and expert soldiers, far L*xceliing tlic Syracusans in courage: these 
exhorted Dion to go along with them, and leave the Syracusans^ that 
they might be revenged of them in due time as a con.mon enemy; 
which he at first rcFued; but tlie exigency of affairs requiring it, he 
at length touk upon bim the command of the foreigners, and joining 
hims«If to them, mnrched to the Leontines: but the Syracusans get- ^ 
ting into a body, pursued the mercenaries, and engaged them in their 
march, but vvtrc forced to retire, with the loss of a great number of 
their fellow ciiizrns. 

Bui Dion, tlijugh he had obtained a great victory, yet he was 
willing to forget the injuries offered him by the Syracusans. For 
when they sent a trumpet to liim to have liberty to carry off^ the 
bodies of the dead, he not only agreed to that, but freely discharged 
inany prisoners without ransom. For many, when they were on the 
point of being knocked on the head in the pursuit, declared they ' 
were favourers oi Dion's party; and by that means escaped present 

Afterwards Dionysius sent Nypsius, a citizen of Naples, a valiant / ^ 
and expert soldier, as his general, and with him transport-ships 
laden with corn and other provisions, who^ depturting from Locris^ 
made strait for Syracuse. 

In the mean time, the garrison -soldiers of the tyrant, in the castle, 
though they were then driven to the utmost extremity for want of 
bread, yet endured famine for some time with great resolution. But 
at length nature yielding to necessity, and having no prospect of 
relief any other way, they called a council of war in the nighty and 
resolved to surrender the castle and themselves to the Syracusans the 
next day. Night therefore being now ended, the mercenaries sent 
trumpets to treat for peace, which was no sooner done, but presently 
Nypsius, at spring of day, arrives with the fleet, and anchored in the 
port of Arethusa*. Whereupon their present necessities were sud- 
denly changed into large and plentiful supplies of all sorts of provi- 
sions. Then the general, having landed his men, called a council of 
war, and in an oration suitable for the occasion, so spoke to them, 
that he wrought them to a resolution cheerfully to undergo all future 
hardships to the utmost extremity. And thus the Acropolis, ready 
to be delivered into the hands of the Syracusans, was unexpectedly 
preserved. Hereupon the Syracusans with all speed manned as 
many gallics as they had at hand, and suddenly attacked the enemy, 
while they were discharging their vessels of their corn and provisions: 
^nd although this incursion was sudden and unexpected, and that the 

* A fountain called Aretbusai iicnr Syracuse. 




garrison in the castle opposed the enemy's galleys in a tumultna 
and disorderly manner, yet it came to a formal sea fight> in which thl^ 
Syracusaiis got the victory, and sunk some of the enemy's ships^Vl 
tock others, and forced the rest to the shore. Being encouraged witl| 
tliis success, they offered to the gods abundance of sacrifices for thf ^ 
victory: but giving themselves in the mean time to quaffieg an^j 
drinkintC] and likewise slighting them in the castle as a beaten enemjfi^ '. 
O they vvere careless in their guards: so that Nypsius, desirous to re- 
pair his late loss by a new engagement, orders a select body of his ' 
men in the night, and suddenly assaults the wall lately built; and 
finding the guard, through overmuch confidence, and their surfeiting 
and drunkenness, fallen fust asleep, set scaling ladders (made for the 
purpose) to tiie walls; by which means some of the stoutest fellowa 
of the garrison mounted the wall, killed the ccntinels, and opened 
' the gates. This sudden assault being made upon the city, the Syra- 
cusan commanders, not yet recovered of their drunken fit, endea- 
voured to help their fellows as well as they could. But through their 
wine not knowing how to use their hands, some were knocked on the 
head, and others took to their heels. And now the city being tsiken^ 
and almost all the soldiers issued out of the castle, and entered 
witiiiii the walls, and the citizens, by reason of this sudden and un- 
expected surprise, and the confusion that was amongst them, being 
even at their wits end, all places were filled with slaughter and 
destruction: for the tyrant's soldiers being above ten thousand 
men, and in good order and discipline, none were able to withstand 
them, but through fear and confusion, and the disorder of an 
ungovernable multitude, through want of oflicers, all went to wreck. 
When they came into the forum, being now conquerors, they pre- 
sently rusiied into the houses, atid ransacked and plundered to a vast 
amount, and made captive a great multitude of women, children, and 
servants. In the strait and narrow passages, and some other places^ 
the Syracusans made resistance, and never ceased fighting; multi- 
tudes being killed, and as many wounded. And even all the night 
long they killed one another as they happened to meet in the dark; 
so that every part of the city was covered and strewed with dead 
f^ ,- As soon as it was day, the light discovered the greatness of the 

X L calamity and misery. The citizens having now no means left to be 
delivered, but by the aid and assistance of Dion, sent forth some 
horsemen with all speed to the city of the Lcontines, earnestly ta 
entreat him that he would not sulFcr the country to be a prey to the 
enemy, hut that he would pardon their foimer miscarriages, and 
commiserute them in their present distress, and relieve and rais^ 

CRip. IV. DiODORUs sicuLUS. 95 

up their country from that low and despicable condition in which 
they tlien were, 

Dion^ who was a man of a brave spirit, and had a soul well prin- 
cipled with the rudiments of philosophy, and so was mild, and easy 
to be persuaded, remembered not the former injuries of the citizens^ 
but bired his soldiers to march away to the expedition, and with these 
he made a swift march to Syracuse, and came to the Hexapylum^. 
TTierc he drew up bis army, and marched forward with all speed; 
aod there met him above ten thousand women and children, and old 
people^ who fled out of the city, who all prostrated themselves at his 
feet, and beseeched him with tears that he would rescue them from 
their wretched and miserable condition. The soldiers of the castle 
having now accomplished what they aimed at, after they had plun-- 
dered all the houses about the forum, set them on fire, and then 
breaking into the rest, made a prey of all they found in them, at 
which very nick of time, in the very height of their rapines, Dion 
forcing into the city in many places at once, sets upon the enemy, 
now eager in plundering, and killed all he met as they were carrying 
away all sorts of household goods bundled u[>on their shoulders. 
For coming upon them on a sudden, as they were scattered here 
and there, bringing away their prey, they were all easily knocked on 
the bead. After four thousand and upwards were slain, some in the 
houses, and others in the streets and highways, the rest fled into 
the castle, and shut the gates upon them, and so escaped. 

Dion, when he had performed this exploit, (the most glorious of 
any ever before done), quenched the fire, and so preserved the houses 
that were all in flames, and firmly repaired the wall that fronted 
the castle; and thus by one and the same piece of work, he both 
defended the city, and straitened the garrison within the Acropolis. 
Then he cleansed the town of the dead bodies, erected a trophy, and 
aaerificed to the gods for the deliverance of his country. 

On the other hand, the people, to testify their gratitude to Dion, 
called a general assembly, and by an unanimous vote made him chief 
governor, with full and absolute power, and conferred upon him the 
honours due to a demigod. 

Afterwards, agreeable to the glory of his other actions, he freely 
pardoned all that had maliciously injured him, and, by his frequent 
admonitions, brought the people to mutual pcaee and concord: 
for all the citizens of all ranks and degrees highly honoured atul 
applauded him, as their great benefactor, and as the only saviuur 
of their country. 

* The six gates so called. 

gS DIODORUS sicui-us* BookXFI. 


The continuance of the Social War. Tphicrates and Timotheus 

joined admirals with Chares, by the Athenians. Iphicrates and 

Timothcus accused hy Chares^ and fined a7id removed. Chares 

joins with PharnabazuSy and routs the Persians. The end of 

the Social fFiar. Philip subdues the confederates. 

1 j IN Greece the Social War growing on apace, wherein the ChianSj 
Rhodians, Coians, and Byzantines, joined together against the Athe- 
nians, gxetX preparations were made on both sides to decide the 
quarrel by a sea fight. The Athenians, though they had rigged out 
a fleet of sixty sail, under the command of Chares, yet they sent forth 
others, for the further strengthening of them tliat were employed 
before, under the command of two of the most eminent of their citi- 
zens, Iphicrates and Timotheus, who were invested in equal power of 
command with Chares, to carry on tlie war against their rebellious 

On the other side, the Ckians, Rhodians, and Byzantines, being 
furnished with an hundred sail from their confederates, waste and 
spoil the islands Imbros and Lemnos, belonging to the Atheuiana: 
thence they made for Samos with a great army, and harassed thtt 
country, and besieged tlie city both by sea and land. Many other 
islands, likewise, under the government of the Athenians, they wasted 
and spoiled, and by that means amassed a treasure for carrying ou 
the war. 

The Athenian generals, therefore, joining their forces, resolved in 
the first place to besiege Byzantium : but the Chians and their con* 
federates raising their siege at Samos, and preparing to relieve 
Byzantium, the fleets on both sides met in the Hellespont. And 
now, just as they were ready to engage, there arose suddenly a violent 
tempest, which prevented their design. However, Chares was re- 
solved to fight, though Nature herself, with the wind and seas, con- 
spired against him; but Iphicrates and Timotlieus, by reason of the 
storm, refused. Chares (attesting the faithfulness of the soldiers) 
accused his colleagues of treason, and wrote letters to the people of 
Athens, whereby he informed them that they declined fighting pur- 
posely out of design; at which the people were so incensed, that they 
condemned them both; and having fined them in many talents^ re- 
voked their commissions. 


Chares now having the sole command of the fleet, designing to 2^ 
tree the Athenians from charge and expense, committed a very rash 
act. Pliarnabazus liad revolted from the king, and was now ready to 
engage, with a very small force, the Persian lord- lieutenants, who 
had in their army seventy thousand men : Chares joins this man with 
all his forces, so that they totally routed the king's troops : and 
Pharnabazas, in gratitude for the service, gave him as much money 
as was sufficient to pay all his soldiers. This act of Chares was at 
first very grateful and acceptable to the Athenians; but when the 
Icing, by his aml)assadors, complained of the injury done him by 
Chares, they altogether changed their notes, and were as far the other 
way: for a rumour was spread abroad, that the king had promised 
three hundred sail for the aid and assistance of the enemies of the A- 
thenians: upon which the people were so terrified, that they decreed 
to adjust matters with the revolters; and fmding them as willing to 
embrace terms of peace as themselves, the business was easily com- 
posed. And this was the end of the Social War, after it had continued 
four years. 

In the mean time, in Macedonia, three kings, that is to say, of 
Thrace, the Pseones, and the Illyrians, confederated against Philip. 
These princeSs being borderers upon the Macedonians, could not 
brook^ without envy, his growing power: and though they had 
formerly experienced that they were not his equal match singly, 
(being not long before conquered by him), yet by joining their 
forces together, they confidently concluded that they should be 
able to deal with him. But Philip coming suddenly upon them, 
while they were raising their forces, and as yet without any formed 
troops beir«g in readiness, in this surprise he broke them in pieces, 
and obliged them to yield to the yoke of the Macedonian kingdom. 

Vol. 2. No.4L 



Thcbegmning of the Sacred or P/iocian war. Philomelus seizes 
the temple at Delphos, after he had routed the Locrimis. How 
f/ie Oracle at De/phos tvas first discovered; and the beginning 
of the Tripod. The Athenians and others join with PhUo^ 

U AFTER Callistratus was created archon at Athens, and Marcus 
Fabius and Caius Plotius consuls of Rome, the war called the Sacred 
War broke forth, which continued nine years : for Philomelus the 
Phocian, (inferior to none in impudence and wickedness), liaving 
seized the temple at Dclphos, occasioned the Sacred War, on the ac- 
count following: 

After the Liacediemonians were routed by the Thcbans at the 
battle of Leuctra, the Thebans made great complaints against them 
in the court of the Amphictyons, for their seizing of Cadmea: 
upon which they were adjudged to pay to them a great sum of 
money. The Phocians, likewise, were accused and condemned by 
the same court, to pay many talents to the use of the oracle at 
Delphos, because they had intruded into a large piece of land, 
called Cirrha, which belonged to the oracle, and had tilled aod 
ploughed it. 

But the mulct being neglected to be paid, the Ilieromemones* 
accused the Phocians in the senate of the Amphictyons, and prayed 
thcm^ if the money were not paid, that the lands of the sacrilegious 
persons might be confiscated, and devoted to the deity. They re- 
required, likewise, that the others who were condemned (among 
whom wore the Lacedaemonians) should pay what was due upon that 
account ; and prayed, that unless they observed what was so ordered^ 
tliat liicy should be prosecuted as hateful enemies by all the Grecians. 
This decree of the Amphictyons being ratified and approved of by all 
the Greeks, the country of the Phocians was upon the point of being 
devoted to those sacred uses. Philomelus, who was in the greatest 

fbtcem at that time amongst them, told the people ^That the fine 

was so excessive, that it could not possibly be paid; and to suflTer 
their country to be sacrificed, it would not only argue them to be 
cowardly and poor-spirited, but he dangerous to that degree, that it 
would tend to the utter rmn of them and their families : and be did 

* The priests aud olliccri of the ttmple^ 


all lie could to make it out, that the decree of the Amphictyons was 
most unjust^ and highly injurious, irasmuch as for a little and incon- 
siderable spot of land, they had im{)0scd a mulct far exceeding the 
proportion and merit of theofFencc; and therefore 'idvised them to 
rescind the decree; and that there were reasons suificient to justify 
their so doing: and among others he alledged, that heretofore the 
oracle was under their power and protection: and cited tlie verses of 
Homer, the most antient and famous of all tlie poets, as a witness 
of the truth of what he said, who speaks to this efilect: 

Epi&trophus and Scliedius did command 
(IphitiKs' valiant sons) the Thociau band, 
Wlu) Cjparjs and Pitho tiU'd. Ogiih, 

Therefore the contest is to be for the custody and patronage of the 
temple, which he said belonged to the ancestors of the Pliocians ; and 
that if they would commit to him the absolute power, as chief com- 
mander in this affair, he promised to manage it with the utmost care 
and dexterity. 

Upon which, the Pliocians (out of fear of the mulct imposed upon ^ ' 
them) created Piiiluuieius sole and absolute general. Hereupon 
Philomelus diligently j^rsued the performance of his promise; and 
to that end presently made a journey to Sparta, and had private 
conference concerning the business with Archidamus, king of the 
Lacedaemonians, alledging, that it was as much the interest and 
concern of Archidamus, as his, to have the decrees of the Amphic- 
tyons rescinded; for that the Amphictyons had likewise unjustly 
injured the Lacedaemonians by givintr judgment against them. He 
thereupon discovered to him his design of seizing upon the temple 
at Delphos; and that if he prevailed in bringing the oracle under his 
care and patronage, he would annul all the decrees of the Amphic- 
tyons. Archidamus approved well of what he said; but for the 
present would not appear openly to be aiding in the matter, but 
assured him that l)e would join in all things privately, in supplying 
him with money, and mercenary soldiers. Philomelus then haying 
received from him fifteen talents, and <idding as many more of his 
own, raised soldiers from all parts: a thousand he listed from among 
the Piiocians, whom he called Peltastates*. And after he had col- 
lecied a considerable force, he attacked the temple: some of the 
Dclphians, called Thracidoe, opposed him; but those he slew, and 
gave up all they had as plunder to the soldiers. He commanded the 
rest (whom he perceived to be in no small fright) to be of good 
courage, for they should suffer no prejudice. 

• Those wbo carried short shicldif 


^ And noiv the report of the seizing the temple was spread far aod 
near; upon which the Liocrians^ who were next borderers, inarched 
against Philomelas with a considerable army^ and fought him near 
Delphos, but were routed; and, after a great slaughter made amongst 
them, fled back to their own country. 

Philomelus, puffed up with this victory, cut the decrees of the 
Amphictyons out of the pillars, and destroyed all the records con* 
cerning them that were condemned. In the mean time, he caused 
reports to be spread abroad in every place, that he neither designed to 
rob the temple, nor commit any other mischief, but only to recoyer 
an antient right descended to them from their ancestors; and to that 
end had a desire to make void the unjust decrees of the Am phictyonSy 
and so to defend the antient laws of the Phocians. But the Boeotians^ 
IK assembled in council, made a decree to relieve the temple, and forth- 
with raised an army. 

Piiilomelus in the mean time drew a wall round the temple, and 
raised many soldiers, and added to their pay half as much more as 
their due amounted unto ; and, making choice of the best soldiers 
among the Phocians, he enrolled them, and, in a short time, got to- 
gether su great an army, as amounted to no less than five thousand 
men : so that, possessing himself of all the passages to Delphos^ he 
became formidable to his enemies. Then, marching into the terri- 
tories of the Locrians, he wasted a great part of the country, and at 
length encamped near a river that ran close by a very strong fort^ 
which he besieged; but, after some assaults, not being able to take 
it, he raised the siege, and engaged with the Locrians, in which he 
lost twenty of his men, whose bodies not being able to recover by 
force, he sent a trumpeter to have them delivered. 

The Locrians denied the bodies, and made answer ^That there was 

a general iuw among all the Grecians, that sacrilegious persons should 
be cast forth, and not allowed any burial. Highly provoked at this 
repulse, he fought again with the Locrians, and, with great valour 
and resolution, slaughtered some of his enemies, and possessed him- 
self of their bodies; and so forced the Locrians, in exchange, to de- 
liver the dead. 

And now, being master of the field, he ranged up and don^, and 
wasted the country of Locris; and, loading his soldiers with plunder^ 
returned to Delphos. 

Afterwards, desiring to know from the oracle what would be the 
issue of the war, he forced Pythia the prophetess to ascend the tri- 
pod, and give him an answer. Since mention is here made of the 
tripod, 1 conceive it not unseasonable to give an account of what has 
been handed down to us concerning it from antient times. It is re* 


ported, that this oracle was first discovered by some goats; for which 
reason such creatures are most commonly sacrificed by tiie Delphians^ 
when they come to consult the oracle. The discovery is related ia 
this manner -.There was an opening or gulpii in the earth in that 
place, now called '' Adytum of the Temple;" about this the goats 
straggled as they were feeding: for at that time they of Delphos had 
no religious regard to the place. It often Jiappeiicd that when any 
goat came near to the gulph, and looked down, it would full a-Ieaping 
and dancing in a wonderful manner^ and make an unusual noise, far 
different from that at other times. A shepherd wondering at the no« 
vclty of the thing, drew towards the phice to learn what might be the 
cause; and looking down, he acted the same part with the goatss 
for as they were moved and acted upon as by some enthusiasm, so 
he likewise was inspired with a spirit of prophecy. The news pre* 
sently spreading abroad among tlie inhabitants, how wonderfully they 
were affected that looked down into the chasm, many flocked to the 
place, and out of curiosity made experiments ; and as many as came 
near,. were always acted upon with a spirit of divination. For these 
reasons, the place was accounted the residence of some oracle: for 
some time, therefore, it was a practice, that those who had a desire 
to know future events, would approach to this den, and there return 
answers of things that were to come one to another. But whereas 
many, through an excess and transport of mind, would leap into the 
gulph, and so were never more seen, it was judged advisable by 
the inhabitants, to avoid the like danger for the future, that some 
one woman should be consecrated prophetess, and that by her the 
answer of the oracle should be delivered; and that an engine should 
be made for her, whereon she might sit; and by that means be in- 
spired without any danger, and give answers to them who consulted 
her concerning future events. 

This machine had three feet, from whence it tyias called the Tii** 
pody whose figure and shape almost all the' tripods* of brass made to 
this day are formed to imitate. But sufficient, we conceive, is<said 
concerning the manner of discovering the seat of the oracle, and for 
what reasons the tripod was made. 

It is reported, that at the first, virgins were assigned to this office, 
because, in their nature, they are more pure and harmless, and of 
the same sex with Diana; and besides, as they were judged fittest to 
keep the secrets of the oracle. But it is said, that of latter times one 
Thessalus Echecrates, coming to the oracle, upon sight of the virgin 
prophetess, for her admirable beauty, fell in love with her, and ra- 
vished her; which wicked act caused the Delphians to make a law.^ 
Tlmt no young virgin for the future, but a grave woman of fifty years 

lOS moDORi-s SICULU5. Booh XFL 

of age (in a virgin's dress, to keep up the memory of the antienl 
mode in divination) should preside, and return the answers. These 
are the old fabulous stories that are told coneerning the first discovery 
of the oraele. 
'7 But to return to the acts of Philomelus ; who, being now lord of 
the temple, commanded Pythia to answer him from the tripod, ac- 
cording to the antient rite and custom of the country. When the 
prophetess answered him, saying ^This is the custom of the conn- 
try; he commanded her, with threats, to ascend the tripod: where- 
upon she, submitting hy force to the authority of the imposer, an- 
swered him — ^That it w<ts lawful for him to do what lie pleased. At < 
which he was very jocund, and said he had received an answer fit for 
bis purpose; and thereupon presently caused the answer to be re- 
corded, ar.d exposed to be read ; that so it might be evident to alt, 
that the god ha:l given him liberty to do what he pleased. Then he 
called a general asseml^ly, and rehearsed to them the divine oracle» 
and dcsircil them all to be faithful and courageous; and then betook 
himself again to the business uf the war. Moreover, a prodigy ap- 
peared to iiini in the temple of Apollo: for an eagle hovering over it, 
and at length casting itself down to the ground, pursued the pigeons 
(that were fed and kept in the temple) from place to place, so that 
she snatched away some even from the altars themselves. Those 
that were versed in interpreting things of this nature declared, that 
this ]K)rtended that Fhilomelus and the Phocians should possess 
themselves of ail the treasures of the temple. Being greatly puffed 
up with tliis eiicuuragement, he singles out the choicest of his friends 
to send as messengers abroad, some to Athens, others to Lacediemon, 
and others to Tlubes, and other most remarkable cities of Greece, 

with this apology ^^Fliat he had seized upon Delphos, not with a 

design to commit any sacrilege, but to regain the patronage of the 
temple for his country; and declared, that he was ready to give an 
exact account to all the Greeks uf the money, and all the dedicated 
gifts there, both as to weight and number, >\hoever should require 
the same. And lastly he desired, that if any, out of envy or malice^ 
should make war upon the Phocians, that they would rather join with 
, '. him against such, or at least stand neuters. The ambassadors ac- 
quitting themselves with all diligence in this matter, the Athenians, 
Lacedaemonians, and some others, entered into the confederacy, and 
prcMuised them assistance; but the Ha^otians, with the Locrians, and 
some others, were of a contrary nruul, who took up arms in defence 
uf the oracle, against the Photians. Tiic'sc were the things done in 
ih:* C(rji>c of this vear. 




The battle at PhiBdra, between P/dlomelus and the Locrians, Tlk9 
parties engaged in the Phocian war. The battle between tJie 
JBceotimis and Phocians. Philoinelas killed. Onomarvhus rnade 
general: his dreams, successes, and death. 

NOW Diotimus executed the office of archoii at Athens; 'and Cneius iL y 
Manlius^ and Caius Martius, of consuls at Rome; when Philomelusy 
having a prospect of the storm of war tliat was rushing in upon him^ 
hired a great number of soldiers, with whom he joined tlie most ex- 
pert and choicest of tlie Phocians. Hut, though he was in want of 
money, yet he still forbore to meddle with the sacred treasures, but 
got sufficient to pay the mercenaries out of the estates of the greatest 
men among the Delphians. When he had raised a considerable 
army, he marched into the field, that all might take notice that he 
was ready to fight with any enemy that appeared against the Plio- 
cians. Upon this the Locrians made out against him, and fought • -^ 
with him at a place called the Rocks of Phiedra, whom he routed, 
and killed multitudes of them, and took many prisoners, and forced 
•ome of them to cast themselves down headlong from the top of 
the rock. 

After this battle, the Phocians grew very high-crested upon the 
account of their prosperous success. The misfortune, on the otlier 
hand, greatly discouraged the Locrians; they sent, therefore, an am- 
bassador to Thebes, to desire them to afford their assistance both to 
them and the oracle. The Boeotians, both out of their piety towards 
the gods, and for confirmation of the decrees of the Aniphictyons, 
wherein they were greatly concerned), solicited hy their anjbassadors 
theThessalians, and others of the Amphietyons, to join with them in 
the war against the Phocians. Upon whicli (after that the Amphic7 
tyons had decreed war to be made ui)on the Phi)cians) there arose 
great uproars and factions througliout all (ireoco. Some were for 
assisting the oracle, and prosecuting the Phocians with revenge, as 
guilty of sacrilege ; others were for defendini: them. And, while both ' .' S 
the cities and countries were thus distrnjtcd in their councils, the Boeo- 
tians, Locrians, Thessalians, Perrha^heans, the Dorians, Delopians, 
Athamancs, Achaians, Phtiiiots, Magncsians, /Eueians, and some 
others, resolved to assist the god. The Athenians and Licedfcmo- 
<iians,and some others uf the i'clopon^c:^ia^s, joined as confederates 


with the Phocians. The Lacedaemonians, with some others, readily 
joinefl, for these reasons, viz. When tlie Thebans had overcome 
them in tlie battle at Leuctrny they prosecuted tl)e Spartans in the 
high court of the Amphictyons, because Piioebidas the Spartan had 
seized upon Cadmca, and demanded five hundred talents in com- 
pensation of the injury; but the Lacedsemonians, being fined so 
much, and not paying the mulct imposed in the time limited by 
the law, the Thebans exhibited a new complaint against them for the 
double injury. 

The Lacedaemonians therefore, being condcmed by the Amphic- 
tyons in a thousand talents, and being much indebted and behind- 
Iiand, made use of the same pretence the Phocians did before (that 
is).»That the Amphictyons had pronounced an unjust sentence 
against them. And therefore (though it was for the public good) yet 
they forbore to undertake the war of themselves, upon the quarrel of 
the condemnation; but judged that it might carry a better face, if they 
could avoid the decree of the Amphictyons, under the covert of the 
Phocians. For these reasons they were very forward to patronise 
their cause; and in the mean time contrived to gain the tutelary 
right of the temple to themselves. 
2 Q And now upon certain information that the Thebans had prepared 
a very great army against the Phocians, Philomelus resolved to 
strengthen his forces with more mercenaries : but in regard more 
money was requisite for carrying on of the war, he was necessitated 
to make use of the sacred treasures, and therefore rifled the templet 
And because he promised half as much more as their ordinary pay to 
the mercenaries, a vast number of men flocked in to him, and for the 
sake of the largeness of the pay, multitudes listed themselves : but 
no moderate and sober man gave up his name to be eurolled in the 
lists of the army, out of a pious and religious respect to the oracle. 
In the mean time every base fellow, that for the sake of gain, valued 
not the gods in the least, but flocked eagerly to Philomelus: and so 
in a short time he got together a strong body of men, who were im- 
patient to share in the sacred treasures of the temple. And thus 
abundance of wealth was the means whereby Philomelus presently 
formed a complete army, and without delay marched into the coun- 
try of Locris with above ten thousand horse and foot. Tlie Locrians 
being joined with the Boeotians, met him ; whereupon there hap* 
pened a fight with the horse on both sides, in which the Phocians 
were conquerors. 

Not long after, the Thessalians, with the assistance of them that 
bordered upon them, to the number of six thousand, marched into 
Locris, and engaged with the Phocians at a hill called Argola^ and 


were worsted. Afterwards the Boeotians coming to their assistance 
with thirteen thousand men, and the Actseans out of Peloponnesus, 
ID assistance of the Phocians, with fifteen hundred, both armies near 
one and the same place, encamped over against the otiicr. It then '^ f 
happened that a great number of the mercenaries, as they were fo- 
raging, fell into the hands of the Boeotians ; and all of them being 
brought before the walls of the city, they commanded a proclamation 
to be made, that those men who had joined in arms with the sacrile- 
gious persons, were adjudged by the Amphictyons to be put to death, 
and it was no sooner said but the thing was executed, and all were run 
through with spears and darts. This so exasperated the mercenaries 
of the Phocians, that they earnestly pressed Philomclus that the 
enemy might be dealt with in the same manner, and would not suf- 
fer him, by their restless importunities, to be quiet; and presently 
they took many of the enemy, as they were dispersed in the fields, 
and brought them alive to the general, who delivered them all up to 
the soldiers, to be darted to death. By this retaliation, it came 
to pass that the enemy left ofT this insulting and cruel kind of exe- 

Afterwards, both the armies moving into another part of the 
country, and in their march passing through woods and rough places, 
on a sudden, and unexpectedly, the forlorn hopes of both met one 
another, upon which they at first skirmished, but at length it came 
to a fierce and bloody battle, in which the Boeotians, overpowering the 
Phocians in number, totally routed them, and multitudes, both of 
the Phocians and mercenaries, were slain in the pursuit, by reason 
of the rough and difficult passes out of the woods. Philomelus, In 
tliese straits and exigencies, behaved himself with great courage and 
resolution, and, after many wounds received, was forced to an higli 
precipice, and, seeing no possible means of escape, and fearing the 
punishment and torments prisoners used to undergo, cast himself 
down headlong from the rock; and thus (meeting with the due re- 
ward of his sacrilege) he ended his days: but his colleague Ononiar- 
chus, taking upon him the command of the army, marched hack with 
those that had escaped the slaughter, and received those that fled as 
they came siiaggling in to him. 

In the mean time, while these things were doing, Philip of Ma- 
cedon took Methone, pillaged it, and laid it equal with the ground; 
and forced all the villages and countries to submit to tiie Mace- 
donian yoke* 

In Pontus, Ijcucon, king of Bos])horus, died, after he had reigned 
forty years; and Spartacus, his son, succeeded him, and reigned five 
years. And, in the mean time, the war began between the Ro- 

\ou2. No. 41. P 


mans and the Falisci^ in which there was nothing done worth 
taking notice of, but only liarassing the country of the Falisci by 

In Sicily, Dion, the general of tlie army, was murdered by the 
mercenaries of Zacynthus, and Callippus, who instigated them to 
the act, was made chief commander in his place, and enjoyed it for the 
space of thirteen months. 
"3 Q When Eudemus executed the office of archon at Athens, and the 

Romans intrusted the consular dignity wich Marcus Fabius and 
Marcus Popilius, the Boeotians, after the victory gained over the 
Phocians, returned with their forces into their own country, sup- 
posing that Philomelus, the author and ring-leader of the sacrilege, 
(being justly punished both by the gods and men), by his remarka- 
ble end would deter others from the like piece of wickedness. But 
the Phocians, having at present some respite from war, went again 
to Delphos, and, calling together a general council of all their con- 
federates, tliey consulted concerning the renewing of the war. Those 
that were lovers of justice, were for peace; but the prophanc and im- 
pious, and such as minded only their gain and advantage, were for 
war, and used their utmost endeavours to find out some or other that 
would patronise their wicked designs. 

Onomarchus therefore, in a premeditated speech, (the clilef end 
of which was to advise them to stick to what they had before re- 
solved), stirred up the people to renew the war; not so much for the 
advancement of the public good, as to promote his own private ad* 
vantage. For he had many mulcts, as well as others, imposed upon 
him by the Amphictyons; which, not being able to pay, and there- 
fore judging that war was more desirable than peace as to his cir- 
cumstances, by a plausible sj)ecch he incited the Phocians to persist 
. y in what Philon;cUis h:ul begun. Upon which, being then created 
general, he rein forced himself with many foreign soldiers, and re- 
cruited his broken troops; and, having augmented his army with a 
muhitutlo of foreign mercenaries, he made great preparation to 
strengthen himself with confederates, and other things necessary for 
■20 the carrying on the war. And he was the more encouraged in Iii9 
■^ ^ design by a dream which he had, which did presage (as he thought) 
liis future greatness and advancement: in his sleep it appeared to 
him as if the bra/en Colossus, dedicated by the Amphictyons, untl 
standing in the tem[)Ie of Apollo, liad by his own hands been made 
higher, and much biifj^er than it was before. Hence he fancied, 
that the gods poi tended that he was to become famous in the world 
fur his martial exploits. But it fell out quite otherwise, for, on the 
contrary, it signiiicd-^That the mulct imposed by the Amphictyonr 

Chap. FJL DiODORus stculus. I07 

upon the Phocians, for their sacrilege and violation of the treasures 
of the temple, would be much enhanced, and advanced to a still 
greater sum by the hands of Onomarchus^ which at length came 
to pass. 

Onomarchusy therefore, after he was created general, caused a • 2 
great number of arms, both of iron and brass, to be made ; and coined 
gold and silver money, which he dispersed among the confederate 
cities; besought particularly to gain the magistrates by these baits 
and largesses. 

Moreover he corrupted many of the enemy, drawing some into the 
confederacy, and working upon others to remain neutral in the mean 
time. And all t!iis he easily effected, through the covetousness of 
those he wrought upon. For by his bribes, he prevailed with the 
Thcssalians, the most considerable of the confederates on the other 
ride, to stand neuter. Those amo^ig the Phocians that opposed him, 
he imprisoned, and put to death, and exposed their goods to public 
sale. He then marched into the enemy's country, and took Thronium 
by assault, and sold all the inhabitants for slaves. The Amphisse- 
oiaas, likewise, being greatly ten ified, he forced to a submission, 
and possessed himself also of the cities of the Dorians, and 
wasted and spoiled the country. Thence he marched into Bceotia, 
and took Orchomcnus; and when he was even ready to lay siege to 
Chsronea, he was worsted by the Thebans, and so returned into his 
own country. 

About this time Artabazus, who had rebelled against the king, still 
continued his war with those lord lieutenants of the provinces that 
were ordered out against him. At the first, while Chares, the Athe- 
nian general assisted him, he valiantly stood it out against the enemy. 
Bat when he left him, wanting aid, he made his application to the 
Thebans for relief; who iliercupon sent Pammenes general, with 
fiw thousand men, over into Asia; who, joining with Artabazus, 
routed the royalists in two great fights, and thereby advanced both 
bis own reputation, and the glory and honour of his country. For 
't excited the admiration of all men, that the Boeotians, at the very 
"fl>e when they were deserted by the Thcssalians, and in the most 
wiminent danger from the Phocian war, which then threatened 
*bein, should transport forces into Asia, and be conquerors in all 
flieir engagements. 

In the mean time a war broke out between the Arglves and the 3 *!- 
I^cedaemonians, who beat the others at Ornea, and took the town, 
*^d then returned to Sparta, Chares, likewise, the Athenian ge- 
^^ral, with his fleet, entered the Hellespont, and took Sestos, the 
JJiost considerable town upon that coast, and put all the young mea 


that wore able to bear arms, to the sword, and carried away the i 
as slaves. 
^ 3 About the same time, Cersoblcptcs, the brother of Cotys, cnc 

to Philip, but in league with the Athenians, delivered up all 
cities in Chersonesus (except Cardia) to the Athenians, who sent 
lonies thither to inhabit the towns, which were to be divided amoc 
them by lot. 
'i Philip, therefore, discerning that the Methoneans^ designed 

deliver up their city (which was of great moment in the war) to 
enemy, laid close siege to it, which the citizens defended for sc 
time; but being too weak to cope with him, they were forced tos 

render upon these condities ^That all the citizens should depart 

of Methone with all their clothes. 
5"^ Being possessed of the place, he razed the city to the ground^ : 

divided the territory among the Macedonians. During this sic 
Philip lost an eye by the stroke of a dart. 
'I A ■ Afterwards being invited by the Thessalians, he marched n 
^ his army into Thessaly. And in the first place, in aid of the Thcs 

Hans, he f(»iight with Lycophron, tyrant of Pherae. 

Lyeuplinu) tiien applied to the Phocians for assistance, who the 
upon sent to him Phayllus, the brother of Onomarchus, with sei 
tliousand men; but Philip routed the troops of the Phocians^ \ 
drove them out of Thessaly. Upon which Onomarchus, thinking 
be lord of all Thessaly, came to the assistance of Lycophron with 
whole army. 

Philip opposed him, both with his own and the forces of 
Thessalians, but Onamarchus, overpowering him by numbi 
routed him in two several battles, and killed many of the Macci 
nians; insomuch as Philip was brought into very great straits. 

His soldiers were hereupon so dejected, that they were read) 
desert him ; but with much ado, and many persuasions, he at len| 
brought them over to a due obedience, and within a short time al 
returned into Macedonia. But Onomarchus made an expcdit 
into Birotia, and fought and routed the Boeotians, and posses 
himself of Coronea. 

In the mean time Philip marches again with his army out of A 
cedon into Thessaly, and encamps against Lycophron, the tyrani 
Pherae, who being too weak for him, sent for aid to the Phocia 
promising to use his utmost endeavour to order and dispose of 
things throughout Tliessaly for their ad\'antage. Whereupon Oi 
marchus came to his assistance by land with above twenty thouM 
foot and five hundred horse. 

• Ip Thrace. 


Philip having persuaded the Tliessalians to join with him^ raised 
above twenty thousand foot and three thousand horse. 

Forthwith a bloody oattle was fought, in which Phih'p, by the ad- 
vantage and valour of the Thessalian horse, got the day, and Onomar- 
chus and his men fled towanls the sea. 

It happened that Chares, the Athenian admiral, passed by with a 
great navy, at the same instant as a cruel slaughter was made 
among the Phocians, and therefore those that fled cast away their 
armsj and endeavoured to swim to the galleys, amongst whom was 

In conclusion there were slain of the Phocians and mercenaries 
above six thousand, amongst whom was the general himself; and no 
less than three thousuL.d were taken prisoners. 

Philip handed* Onomarchus ; and the rest, as sacrilegious persons^ 
he caused to he thrown into the sea. 

Onomarchus thus coming to his end, Phayllus, his brother, was 
created general of the Phocians; and he, to repair the damage sus- 
tained, raised great numbers of foreign mercenaries, doubling the 
former and usual pay, and further strengthened himself with additions 
of his confederates; he likewise made a great number of arms^ and 
coiDed both gold and silver. 

About the same time Mausolus, a petty king of Caria, died, after 
he hiid reigned four-and- twenty years. To whom succeeded Ar- 
temesia, (who was both his sister and wife), for the space of two 

At that time, likewise, Clearchus, tyrant of Heraclca, when he 
Was going to the feast of Bacchus, was assassinated, in the twelfth 
Tear of his reign. Timotheus, his son, succeeded iiim, and reigned 
fifteen years. 

In the mean time the Tuscans, who were at war with the Romans, 
harassed and wasted a great part of their enemy's territory, making 
incursions as far as to the' river Tiber, and then returned to their own 

The friends of Dion raised a sedition at Syracuse against Callippus, 
but being dispersed and worsted, they fled to the Leontines, Not long 
after, Hipparinus, the brother of Dionysius, arrived with a navy at 
Syracuse, and fought and beat Callippus; upon which he was driven 
out of the city, and Hipparinus recovered his father's kingdom, and 
enjoyed it for two years. 

t Crucified. 




CHAP. Vlll. 

Fhaylius cmitinues ilie Phodan war. Aryca razed. Phm 
dies of a coiisumptum. f^ar betivcen the Lacedaemonians 
MegalopoUtaus. Chccronea taken by Phalcscus. War beiu 
the Persians J Egyptians^ andPhwnicians. Salaims^ in Cypi 
besieged. The cruelty of Artaxerxes Ochus towards the Si 
nians. The calamity ofSidon. 

^, < WHEN Aristodamus was arclion at Athens, and Caius Salpi 
bore the consulship at Rome, the hundred and seventh olympiad' 
celebrated, wherein Smicrinus the Tarentlne was victor. Ti 
Phayllus, the Phocian general, after the death of his brother, bcj 
to repair the affairs of the Phocians, now almost at the last exi 
mity, through the late rout and slaughter of the soldiers, 
being possessed of a vast treasure, he raised a great army of mcr 
naries, and hrouglit over many to join with him in the war. / 
bei;ig very free of his purse, he not only brought over private n 
to his party, but also prevailed with famous cities to be his con 
derates: for- the Laced^t^monians sent him a thousand soldii 
and the Achaians two thousand ; but the Athenians sent him 1 
thousand foot, and four hundred horse, under the command 

Lyeophron and Pitholaus, tjTants of Pheric, after the death 
Onomarchus, being destitute of succours, delivered up Pher^e ii 
the hands of Philip; and though they were discharged upon th 
©aths to be quiet, yet they collected two thousand mercenaries, a 
went over to Phayllus, to assist the Phocians: and not a few of t 
smaller cities assisted them by their bountiful contributions towa 
the soldier's pay. For gold, feeding and kindling men's covetoi 
iicss, from a prospect of gain urged them foi;ward to grasp at th 
own advantage. Upon these encouragements Phayllus marcl 
with his army into Bceotia, but is overcome at Orchomenum, with 1 
loss of many of his men. 

Afterwards, there was another battle at the river Cephisus, whc] 
in the Boeotians had the better, and killed four hundred, and to 
five hundred prisoners. A few days after, a third fight took place 
Coronea, where the Bopotiaus had again the advantage, and kill 
fifty of the Phocians, and took a hundred and thirty prisoners. 

But having done at present with the affairs of the Boeotians a 

Ckap. FTIL DiODORUs siculus. Ill 

Phocians^ we return to Philip, who, when he had overcome Onomar- "9 ^ 
cbos in so signal a battle, freed the Pheraeans from tlic yoke of tyran- ^ ^ 
lijy and restored the city to liberty- And having settled all other 
matters in Thessaly, he marched towards Pylos, to fight with the 
Phocians: but being denied passage by the Athenians, he returned 
into Macedonia, which kingdom he enlarged both by the help of his 
•word, and likewise by his piety towards the gods. 

In the mean time Phayllus marched with his army towards the 
Locrians, called Epicnemidii, and assaulted and took by force some 
dties; but one called Aryca he gained in the night by treachery, but 
was presently repulsed and beaten cut, with the loss of two hundred 
of his men. Afterwards, encamping at a town called Abas, the Boeo- 
tians surprised the Phocians in the night, and killed a great number 
of them* Upon which success they were so encouraged, that tliey 
made incursions into the territories of the Pliocians, and, harassing 
and spoiling the country round about, hea[>ed together abundance 
of plunder. But in their return, coming to relieve Aryca, which was 
then besieged, Phayllus fell suddenly and unexpectedly upon them, 
and routed them ; and then taking the city by storm, plundered it, 
and razed it to the ground. But at length he fell into a lingering 
distemper*, which continued a long time, and, after great torments 
in his body, as he justly deserved, he died, leaving Phaliecus the son 
of Onomarchus, (instigator of the sacred war), to be general of the 
Phocians, who being as yet but a very raw youth, he appointed Mna- 
icas, one of his friends, to be his tutor and governor. 

Some time after, the Boeotians attacked the Phocians in the night, 
and killed Mnaseas tlie general, and two hundred of his soldiers.-^ 
Not long after, in an engagement between a party of hoi-se at Cha:- 
ronea, Phalaecus being worsted, lost many of iiis men. 

During these transactions, there were great commotions in Pelo- 2 C) 
pmnesus, uix)n these occasions. The Lacedwmonians fell out with 
them of Megalopolis ; and therefore Archidamus, liieir general, niaile 
incursions into their borders: with which the Mcgalopolitans, being 
Wghly incensed, and not being able to contend by their own strength, 
*>ught for relief from their confederates. Upon which the Aigives, 
Sicyonians, and Messcnians, assisted them with all the force they 
<^ould muster. After them, theThebans came in to their assistance 
*nh four thousand foot, and five hundred horse, under the command 
^ Cephision. Being thus strengthened, the Megalopolitans made 
^ expedition, and encamped at the fountains of Aphieus. On the 
^W side, the Lacedaemonians were joined by three thousand foot 
&om the Phocians, and by an hundred and fifty horse from Lycophron 

* A cunsutDptioD. Som» sa^, he wus burnt in the temple ut Abai. 

112 DionoRUs sicuLus. Book XFT. 

and Pitholaus^ who were lately deposed from tluir government over 
the Pheracans. And, having got together a coni»iderable army, they 
encamped at Mantinea. But, marching hence to Ornea, a city 
belonging to the Argives, they took it before the enemy could come 
up to them; for this place was in league with the Megalopolitans : 
and, thougli the Argives broke forth upon them, yet they were over- 
come in the engagement, and lost above two hundred men. 

Then the Thcbans, double the Lacedtcmonians in number, but 
much inferior to them in their order of discipline, came upon them ; 
upon which there was a sharp engagement, and, even while the victory 
was doubtful, the Argives flagged, and made away, with all their con- 
federates, to their cities. But the LacediRmonians entered into Ar- 
cadia, and took Elisunta by storm, and, after thoy had plundered the 
town, returned to Sparta. 

Not long after the Thehans, with, their confederates, routed the 
enemy at Tclphusa, and, with the slaughter of many of tliem, took 
Anaxandrus, the general, and several others, to the number of sixty, 
prisoners. Presently after, they became conquerors, likewise, in 
two other battles, and cut off many of their enemies. At length, 
after a remarkable victory gained by the Lacedaemonians, the ar- 
mies on both sides returned to their several cities; and, the Lace- 
daemonians and Megalopolitans entering into a truce, the Thebaus 
returned into Ba^otia. 

In the mean time Phal.rcus, continuing still in Bueotia, took ChiB- 
ronea; but, upon the Thebans coming in to its relief, he was 
forced to quit it again. Afterwards, the Ba^otians entered Phocis 
with a great army, and wasted and spoiled a great part of it, and 
harassed all the country round about, and plundered and destroyed 
every thing that was in their way. They took also some little towns, 
and, loading themselves with abundance of plunder, returned into 

When Thessalus was chief magistrate at Athens, and Marcus Fa- 
bius and Titus Quintius executed the consulship at Rome, the The- 
bans, wearied out with the toils of the Phocian war, and brought 
very low in their treasure, sent amba«isadors to the king of Persia to 
solicit that king to supply them with a sum of money; to which Ar- 
taxerxes readily consented, and without delay furnished them with 
three hundred talents. However, there was little or nothing done 
this year worth taking notice of between the Ba^otians and Phocia'\s, 
except some skirmishes, and harassing the countries of each other/ 

In Asia, the Persian king having invaded ligypt some years before 
with a numerous army; but, miscarrying in his design, at this time 
renewed the war against the Egyptians, and after many worthy ac* 

Chdp. nil. mODORUS STCULUS. 1 13 

tions performed by his valour and diligence^ he recovered Eji^pt, 
Phoenicia, and Cyprus. But that the history may be made more 
plain and evident, we shall first declare the causes and grounds of 
the war, looking back a little to tiie times proper for the occasion. 

The Egyptians having heretofore rebelled against the Persians, 
Artaxerxes, surnamed Ocluis, notwithstanding, sat still and quiet, 
being no ways adicted to arms. And though armies under the com- 
mand of several captains had been sent forth, yet, through the trea- 
chery and unskilfulnoss of the generals, he was often unfortunate and 
unsuccessful. On which account, though he was greatly contemned 
by the Egyplians, yet his love to his ease and pleasure had that as- 
cendency over him^ as to induce him patiently to bear the disgrace. 
But now, whcrr the Phoenicians and kings of Cyprus, in imitation of 
this disloyalty of the Egyptians, and in coutonjpt of him, were all 
running into rebellion, the king was at length roused, and determin- 
ed to make war upon them. But he jiulgcd it not advisable or pru- 
dent to manage the war by his deputies and generals, but resolved 
to go himself, and try his own fortune and conduct in the defence 
and preservation of his kingdom. To that end he made great pre- 
parations of arms, darts, provi.sions, and forces; and raised three 
hundred thousand foot, and thirty thousand horse; and rigged out u 
fleet of three hundred galleys, besides six hundred hhips of burden> 
and other transport ships for all sorts of provisions. This was the Hi 
origin of the war in Phoenicia. 

In Phoenicia there is a famous city called Tripolis its name agree- 
ing with the nature of the place; for three cities are contained with- 
in its bounds, a furlong distant from one another, one called the city 
of the Arcadians, the oilier of the Sidonians, and the third of the Tyri- 
ans. It is the most eminent of all the cities of Piicenicia, being that 
where the general senate of all the Phaniieians usually meet and con- 
sult about the weighty affairs of the nation. The kings, lords lieu- 
tenants, and generals then in Sidon, carrying themselves by their se- 
vere edicts rigorously and haughtily towards the Sidonians, the citi- 
zens being so abused, and not being longer able to brook it, studied 
liow they migiit revolt from the Persians. V\)ox\ which, the rest of 
the Phoenicians being wrought upon to vioilicate th.cir liberty, sent 
messengers to Nectanel)us the kirig of Egypt, then at war wiili the 
Persians, to receive them as confederates; and so the whole nation 
f ''»ared for war. And ns Sidon then exceeded all the rest in wealth, 
and even private nicn by the advantiige v^ trade had grown very rich, 
they built a great number of ships, and raised a potent army of mer- 
cenaries; and both arms, darts, and provisions, and all other thing:* 
Dccessary for the war, were prepared. And that they u)ii»iit appear 

Vol.1?. No. 41. u 

1 1 4 DIOnORUS SICULUS. Book XVt. 

first in tlic war, they spoiled and ruined the king's garden, cutting 
down uU the trees where the Persian kings used to recreate and di- 
vert themselves, llien they burnt all the hay which the lord- 
licutcnnnts had laid up for the use of the horses. At last, they seized 
upon the Persians, who had so exulted over them, and led them to 
punishment. And in this manner began the war of the Persians 
with the Phcrnicians: for the king, being informed wliat the rebels 
had so impudently done, threatened to revenge it upon all the inha- 
^. /^ bitants of Phoenicia, especially upon the Sidonians. To this end, he 
I ^ ' rendezvoused all his army, both horse and foot, at Babylon, and pre* 
scntly marched away against the Phoenicians. In the mean time, 
while the king was upon his march, the governor of Syria, and Ma- 
Z8RUS, lord lieutenant of Cilicia, joined together against the Phceni- 
cians: on the other side, Temnes, king of Sidon, procured for their 
assistance four thousand Greek mercenaries from the Egyptians^ un- 
der the command of Mentor the Uhodian ; with these, and a body of 
the citizens, he eng-aged with the lord lieutenants, and got the day, 
and expelled them out of Pho::nicia. 

While these things were acted in Phcenicia, the war in Cyprus 
began at the same time, the one depending much upon the other. 
There were nine great cities in this island, under whose juris- 
diction were all the other smaller towns. Every one had its sepa- 
rate king, who managed all public aflairs; but all were subject to the 
king of Persia. 

All these entered into a cnnfederacy, and, after the example of the 
Phirnieians, shook oft' the yoke; and, having made all necessary pre- 
parations for the war, took upon them the absolute power and sov&# 
rei^rnty in their own several dominions. 

Artaxevses, being enraged at this insolence, wrote to Idrieus*, 
j)rince of t'aria, (then lately come to the throne, a friend and confe- 
derate of the Persians, as all his ancestors were before him), to raise 
]iim both lai»d and sea-forces, for his assistance against the kings of 
Cyprus, rpon wliicli, he forthwith rigged out a fleet of forty sail^ 
and sent on board eight thousand mercenaries for Cyprus, under the 
tommand of Phocion the Athenian, and Evagoras, who had been for 
some years l)efi)re king of the island. As soon as they landed ia 
Cyprus, they marched then strait to Salamis, the greatest of the 
cities, where they cast up a trench, and fortified tliemselvcs, and so 
closely besieged the city both by sea and land. The island had 
continued a h)ng time in peace and quietness, and therefore was 
grown vtry rich; so that the soldiers, who had now the power to 
range ovor the country, had got together great trctisurcs: wiiigli 

• Or llnricr<. 


plc'ity R!?d confluence, being noised abroad, many on tlic opposite 
coiit'iu. -1*. n hopes of gain, came flocking out of Syria and Cilicia, 
tv i!:'* I'cisian camp. The army of Phocion and Evagoras being in- 
Ci<*ii>v(i lo double the number, the petty kings were brought into great 
sr.r.iity, and much terrified. And in tiiis condition was Cyprus at 
thiiT time. 

Ai>jut this time the king of Persia marched ivitli his army from 
Ba';" Ion, and made towards Phue.ncia: but Mentor, general of the 
fcilonians, when he heard how great an army was approaching, and 
co'.isidi rintj how unequal in numljer the rebels were, he privately 
co-TN'.'lted his own safety. To that end he st*<;rci'y despatched away 
fron, ."^idon a taithful servant of his own, calledThessalion, to Artax- 
erxes, promising to betray Sidon to lii^n; and that he would effec* 
tuslly a ..i'Jt hii:) in subduini- Eayp% he Iwjing in that respect more 
especially able to stiVe him, iccause he was well act^uainied with all 
the places in Egypt, and knew exactly the most convenient passages 
over ihe river Nile. The king was wonderfully pleased when lie 
lieard what Thessalion said, and promised that he would not only 
pardon Mentor for what he had done, but would bountifully reward 
hiui, it he performed what he had promised, l^ut Thessalion further 
added, that Mentor would expect that the king should confirm his 
word by giving out his ri^ht hand. Upon which the king was so 
incensed (as being distrusted) that he gave up Thessalian into the 
bands of the officers, w*ith command to cut oH* his head. When he 

was led to execution, he only said this ^Thou, O king, doest what 

thou pleasest; but Mentor, who is able to <iccomplish all I have said, 
will perform nothing that is promised, because thou refusest to give 
him assurance on thy part. Upon hearing of which, the king altered 
his mind, and commanded the officers to discharge the man ; and so 
he put forth his right hand to Thessalion, which is a most sure and 
certain earnest among the Persians of performance of what is pro- 
inised. Then he returned to Sidon, and secretly imparted to Mentor 
what he had done. 

Id the mean time the king, counting it his greatest happiness if he 
could subdue Egypt, (which he had before attempted in vain), sent 
ambassadors to the chiefest cities of Greece, to solicit some auxiliary 
forces from them. The Athenians and lyaced(«monians returned 
answer — ^That they would still continue friends to the Persians; but 
ihat they could not supply them with forces. But theThcbans comr 
inanded a thousand heavy-armed men to be sent to the asbistance of 
the king, under the command of Lacrates. The Arrives likcwiso 
furqbhed him with three thousand men, but sent no captain \S\\\\ 

1 16 DionoRus sicui-LS. Book XFL 


them, because tlie kin^had expressly by name appointed Nicostrat us 
to command them, and they were unwilling to contradict liim. He 
was a man of great account, both as to council and execution, having 
both valour and prudence, assistant one to another. And, because 
he was of vast strength of body, imitating t^e^cules in his arms, he 
carried both a club and a lion's sKin in every battle. Neither were 
the Grecians who inhabited upon the ^ea-coasts of Asii wanting oq 
their parts, but sent out six thousand men : so that all the auxiliary 
forces from the Grecians amounted to ten thousand. But, before 
these came up, the king had passed through Syria, and entered Phoe- 
nicia, and encamped not far from Sidon. 

In the mean time, while the king spent a considerable time in 
making pn r aration, the Sidonians had been very active and diligent 
in furnishing themselves wiih arms and provisions; and besides, had 
drawn a trohlo deep and broad trend), and a high wall round the city. 
They had likewise a brave body of tall, handsome, and stout men 
of the citizens, well ext^cisedand trained up in njartial discipline out of 
the sehoDis: and this eity went far beyond all the rest of the cities 
of riiaMiicia for wealth, and all other sumptuous ornaments, both for 
state and grandeur: and that which was not t':. least among the resf, 
they were furnished with a hundred gal lies, of three and five oars oa 
a bank. 

And nowTemnes* became a party with Mentor (who commanded 
the mercenaries out of Egypt) in the treachery, and left Mentor to 
keep a certain quarter of the city, in order to help forward the exe- 
cution of the treason; and himself went out, with five hundred sol- 
diers, upon a pretence to go to the common assembly of the Phoe- 
nicians: for he had in his com|)any a hundred of the best quality of 
the citizens to be senators, as was pretended; but these he caused to 
be seized, and delivered up into the hands of Artaxerxes, as soon as 
they came near where the king was, who received him as his friend, 
but ordered the hundred noblemen^ as authors of the rebellion^ to be 
darted to death. 

Presently after, when five hundred more of the chicfest of the Si- 
doniams cnme to him with all the badges of submission imaginable, 
he called 'J'emncs back, and asked hitn whether he was able to deliver 
the eity into his hands, (for he earnestly desired to possess himsetf 
of the place upon any terms whatsoever, rather than upon treaty, te 
the riid that the utter ruin of the citizens might be a terror to the 
rest), whin Temnes assured him he was able to effect it, the king^, 
■r iiiL'" ^lill iinplaeahle, caused all (he five hundred (who carried olive* 

' !T.. rv Aitulo: jb n::r i.t risni.'.'b in !i!C (irvfk 

Chap. nil. DIODORUS SICULUS. 1 17 

branches before them, as supplicants for mercy, and as tokens of sub- 
mission) to l)e shot to dcatli with darts. Afterward:*, Temncs readily 
persuaded tlie Egyptian mercenaries to receive him and the kingwilhia 
the wails; and so, by this treacherous contrivance, Sidon came agaia 
into the hands of the Persians. Then tiie king, judging that Temnc* 
could do him no further service, caused iiis throat to be cut likewise. 

In the mean time, the Sidonians had burnt all their shipping be- 
fore the king came, lest any of the inhabitants, consulting their owa 
safety, should get awny by sea. At length, when the Sidonians saw 
that the enemy had entered, and many thousands of men ranging here 
and there, and dispersed all over tiic city, they shut themselves up, 
with their wives and children, in their iiouses, and set them on fire, 
and SQ were all consumed together. It is said there were abovp forty 
thousand (with household servants) tliat perished in these flames. 

After this destruction of the Sidonians, by which the whole city 
and inluibitants were consumed to ashes, the king sold the rubbish 
and relicts of the. fire for many talents: for, the city being very rich, 
there was found a vast quantity ol gold and silver meltL"! down by 
the flames. Thus sad was the calamity under which the Sidonians 
sufl'ered. The rest of the cities, being terrified with this destruction, 
■ presently surrendered themselves to the Persians. A little before 
this Artemisia, the princess of Caria, died, having governed two 
years : Idrleus, her brother, succeeded in the principality, and reigned 
seven years. 

In Italy, the Romans made a truce with thcPraenestines,and entered 
into a league with the Samnitcs; and cut off the heads of two hundred 
and sixty in the forum, of those that sided whh the Tarquins. 

In Sicily, Leptines and Callippus, the Syracusans, being furnished 
with a considerable army, besieged Rhegium, which was still held by 
a garrison of Dionysius the younger; anvl, having forced out thegarri- 
jton, they restored the Rhcgians to their anticnt government. 

118 nioDORL-s sicuLUS. Book XFL 


Era^aras beheaded in Cyprus. Artaxerxes marches against 
Eg]fpt^ and gains it all hy the policy of Mentor. Loses mamp 
(if his men at the lake of Sorhon. 3fentor advanced. Mentor's 
stratagem to subdue Uermeas^ prince ofAtarnea. Zena razed 
by Philip, The king of Egypt abdicates his kingdom, and flies, 
to Ethiopia, 

\f AFTERWARDS, Apollodorus being chief magistrate at Athens, 

^ and Marcus Valerius and Caius Sulpitius Roman consuls, all the 

chies of Cyprus surrcfidered themselves to the Persians, excepting 

Salamis, which was then besiep?d by Evagoras and Phocion, and 

which Protac^oras, king of Salamis, stoutly defended. 

In the mean time, Kvngoras endeavoured to regain the kingdom 
of his ancestors, and contrived to be restored to his antient right, by 
the help of the Persian king. But, being afterwards accused before 
ArtnxGixcs, (who thereupon relieved Protagoras), he laid aside all 
hopes of being restored, and, having afterwards cleared himself of 
all that was laid to his charge, he was intrusted with the government 
of a larger province in Asia, which he so misgoverned, that he was 
forced to fly again into Cypru*:, where, being seized, he had his head 
fctruck off. But Protagoras, voluntarily submitting himself to the 
Persian king, kept the kingdom of Salamis^ without any rival, for 
the time to come. 

In the mean time the king of Persia, after the ruin of Sidon, being[^ 
joined by the forces that came from Argos, Thebes, and the antient 
cities, marched with his whole army against Kgypt. When he came 
to the Great Lough*, or I-<ake, through igiioiancc of the places, he 
lost part of his army in the bogs there, called Barrathra. But, be- 
cause we have before, in the first book, spoken of the nature of this: 
lake, and the strange things there happening, we shall now forbear ta 
roj)eat them. 

Having passed these giilphs, he came to Peluslum, the first mouth 
of the river Nile, where it enters into the sea. Here the Grecians 
lay close to the city, but the Persians encamped forty furlongs oflT. 

In the mean while, the Egyptians (in regard the Persians had given 
ihein a long time to prepare all things necessary for the war) had 
made Ftrong defences and fortifications at all the mouths of thcNilCj^ 

• ^' or lion i^ »lic J-akc of ?ovlK>n. 

f^ap. IX. DIODORtJS SICU LU8. 1 1 9 

especially at Pelusium, because that was the first and nK>st conveni- 
ently situated; where five thousand men were in garrison, under the 
command of Philophron. The Thebans, above all the Grecians, 
had a desire to give evidence of their valour, and to that end ttiey 
first of all valiantly attempted to force tlic trench, which was botk 
strait and deep, and carried it; but, as soon as they had gained it, 
those of the garrison made a sally; upon which there was a sharp 
engagement, insomuch that the dispute was very hot on both sidefi, 
and continued ail the day, the night scarcely putting an end to the 

The next<lay the king divided the Greeks into three brigades; ii^7 
each of which had a Greek commander, with whom was joined a 
Persian officer^ one who was in the greatest estimation for valour 
and loyalty. 

The first brigade was of the Boeotians, under the command of 
Lacrates a Theban^ and Rosaces a Persian. This Rosaces was de- 
acended from some of those seven Persians who de|K)sed the Magi, 
and was governor of Ionia and Lydia. He led a great body, both 
horse and foot, all barbarians. 

The second brigade was composed of the Argivcs, commanded 
by Nicostratus, with wliom was Aristazanes a Persian, who was 
employed as an envoy in all the special afi^airs of the king, and 
next to Bagoas, was the most trusty, and the ciiicf of his friends. 
He liad five thousand soldiers, and four-score gallics, under his 

The third brigade was led by Mentor, he who betrayed Sidon, ^vlio 
formerly commanded the mercenaries; his colleague was Bagoa?^ 
a bold fellow, and none more ready in executing any villany, in whom 
the king put great confulonce. He commanded the Greeks that were 
the king*s subjects, and a great body of barbarians, besides a consi- 
derable navy. The king kept the rest of the army with himself, and 
was very careful iu managing and overseeing the whole concern of 
tlie war. 

The army of the Persians thus divided, Neetanebus, the king of 
Egypt, (though he was far short in number), neither v^iiucd the mul- 
titude nor the division of the Persian troops: for he had in his nrmy 
twenty thousand Grecian mercenaries, as many Africans, and three- 
score thousand Egyptians, by them called warriors; and, besides 
these, was furnished with an incredible number of rlvci -boats, fitted 
to fight in the river Nile. Moreover, he had defended that side of 
the river towards Arabia with many castles and garrisons, exactly 
fortified with trenches and strong walls, and was prepared with plenty 
«f all other things necessary for the war. But, tluougli imprudence 

120 DIODORUS sicuLus. Book XVT. 

^ ^ and want of good advice, he lost all. The chief cause of the mis- 
carriage was his IgnoraDce how to manage warlike affairs, and his 
security^ upon the account of his having before beaten the Persians; 
for, at the time of that success, having had most expert commanders^ 
Diophantus the Athenian, and Lanius the Spartan, who were both 
valiant and experienced soldiers, all things succeeded according to 
his heart's desire. But, being now conceited of his own sufficiencj 
and ability to command and order the army, he would admit of no 
other assistant; and therefore, through want of skill and expcriencey 
nothing was managed to advantage, or becoming an expert com- 

Having therefore strongly garrisoned the towns, he himself, with 
thirty thousand Egyptians, five thousand Grecians, and half of the 
Libyans, defended the passages which lay most open and easy to 

Tilings thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus, who commanded 
the Argives, having, by some Egyptian guides, (whose wives and 
children the Persians kept as hostages), got through a certain cut or 
ditch, passed over with his fleet to a place as far out of sight as he 
could, and having landed his men there, encamped. Those who 
kept the neighbouring Egyptian garrisons, directly they learnt where 
the enemy was encamped, speedily marched against them with do 
less than seven thousand men, under the command of Clinus, of 
the Isle of Coos, who drew up his men in battalia, in order to fight 
them : on the other side, those lately landed, likewise put themselves 
into a posture of defence; when a sharp engagement ensued, in 
which the Grecians on the side of the Persians so gallantly behaved 
themselves, that they killed Clinus the general, and above five thou- 
sand of the rest of his army. 

Upon hearing of this defeat, Nectanebus was in a terrible fright^ 
for that he believed the rest of the Persian troops would easily pass 
over the river. Being therefore afraid lest the enemy would bend aU 
his force against Memphis, the seat-royal, he made it his chief care 
and concern to secure this place, and thereupon marched away with 
the army he had to Memphis, to prevent the besieging of it. 

Li *'f In the mean time, Ijaerates the Theban, the commander of the 
first brigade, pushes on the siege of Pelusium; and having drained 
the water out of the trench, and turned it another way, he raised a 
mount, and there ])laced his engines of battery against the city. 
And after a great part of the walls were battered down, the Pclu- 
slans raised up others in their stead, and speedily made high wooden 
These conflicts upon the walls continued for some days^ during 

Chap. IX. niODORUS SICULUS. 1 21 

which time the Grecians that defended the place valiantly repelled 
the assailants. But as soon as they heard of the king's departure for 
Memphis, they were so aflfrighted, that they sent messengers to treat 
upon terms of surrender. Whereu{K)n Lacrates agreeing with them 
upon the sacred tie of an oath, that upon their delivering up Pclusium^ 
they should return to Greece with whatever they brought with them 
out of the towti^ they surrendered the place^ Then Artaxerxes sent 
Bagoas with a'garrison of Persians, to take possession of Pelusium^ 
whose soldiers, when they entered the town, took away from the 
Grecians, as they were going out, many of those things that they had 
brought with them. 

Being thus abused, they took it heinously, and with great complaints 
called on the gods, as witnesses and revengers of perjury and breach 
of faith. 

Lacrates being justly indignant at this base dealing, attacked the 
barbarians, and killed some of them^ and put the rest to flight, and 
so protected the Greeks thus injured contrary to the agreement con- 
firmed by oath. And though Bagoas^ who fled amongst the rest> 
and returned to the king, accused Liacrates for what he had done> 
yet the king adjudged that the soldiers of Bagoas were dealt with 
according to their merits, and punished those Persians that were 
authors of the rapine. And in this manner came Pelusiura into the 
liands of the Persians. 

But Mentor, commander of the third brigade, recovered Bubastisi 
and many other cities, to the obedience of the Persian king> by his 
own stratagem. For whereas all these cities were garrisoned by two 
sorts of i)eople, Grecians and Egyptians; Mentor caused a report to 
be spread abroad, that Artaxerxes would receive most graciously^ and 
pardon all those that of their own accord would give up their cities 
to the king; and on the other hand> that all such as he might take by 
force, should fare no better than Sidon. He also commanded that all 
the gates^ should be opened, and that all who wished might be per* 
mitted to go away. So that all the Egyptian captives in the camp 
being gone without any opposition, the report was in a sluirt time 
spread abroad through all the cities of Egypt* Whereupon all the 
towns were presently filled with seditions, through quarrels and dis- 
sentions between the Egyptians and the foreign auxiliaries* For all 
parties strove who should be most active and forward in betraying 
their several garrisons, every one aiming at his own advantage, by an 
interest In the favour of the conqueror. And the first that began ^^ ^ 
was Bubastis. For as soon as Mentor and Bugoas encamped before - '. 

* Gates of the caiup. 

Vol. 2. No. 41. h 

122 DIODORUS srcuLUS. Book XVt. 

the city, the Egyptians, unknown to the Grecians, sent one of their 
countrymen to Uagoas, and |)romised to surrender the city to him, if 
they might be all pardoned. This being discovered by the Grecians, 
they pursued and seized him that was sent, and by threatening ami 
affrighting him, made him confess the truth of the matter. Upou 
wliich, being highly enraged, they violently attacked the Egyptiansj 
killed some, wounded others, and drove the rest into a narrow corner 
of tlie city. 

They that were thus assailed, gave intelligence to Bagoas of what 
was done, and entreated him^ that without delay, he would take 
possession of the citV; which they would deliver up to him upon \\\s 

In the mean time, the Grecians sent a herald to Mentor, who se-*" 
crctly advised them to set upon the barbarians as soon as Bagoas had 
entered the town. Bagoas, therefore, having entered with his 
Persians, but without the consent of the Greeks, as soon as part of 
the soldiers were let in> the Grecians shut the gates, and suddenly 
attacked the barbarians, and killed them every man, and took Ba- 
goas himself prisoner, who, coming to understand that there was na 
means left for his deliverance but by Mentor, he earnestly entreated 
him to interpose for his preservation^ promising that for the future 
be would never undertake any thing without his advice. Mentor 
prevailed with the Grecians to discharge him, and to surrender the 
city, so that the whole success and glory of the action was attributed 
to him. 

Bagoas being thus set at liberty by his n>eans, entered into a solemn 
covenant of friendship, uix)n oath, with Mentor, and faithfully 
kept it till the time of his death; so that these two always con- 
curring and agreeing, were able to do more with the king, than all 
his other friends, or any of bis kindred* For Mentor being made 
the lord lieutenant of Artaxerxes over all the Asiatic shore, was ma- 
terially serviceable to the king, both by procuring soldiers out of 
(iiecce, and by his faithful and diligent administration of the go* 

liagoas cnninianding all as viceroy in the higher parts of Asia, 
obtained such power, through his consultation with Mentor, on all 
tiecasions, that he had the kingdom at conmiand; neither did Artax- 
rrxrs any thing without his consent. And after the king's death, 
liis power was so great that the successors were ever nominated and 
appointed by him, and all the atFairs oi the kingdom were so entirely 
under his management, that he wanted nothing but the name of a. 
king. Will we bhall relate these things in their proper place* 


After the surrendisr of Bub^stis, the rest of the cities, out of fear, 
submitted and delivered up themselves upon articles^ into the bands 
of the Persians. 

In the mean while Nectanebu$i who was now at Memphis^ seeing 47/ 
the quick movements of the enemy, durst not venture a battle in 
defence of his sovereignty, but abdicating his kingdom, pnckcd up a 
great deal of treasure, and fled into Ethiopia. And so Artaxerxes 
possessed himself of all Egypt, and demolished the w^lls of all tlie 
cities, especially those that were the greatest, and of the most ac- 
count; and heaped together an infinite mass of gold and silver, by 
despoiling the temples. He also carried aw^y all the records an4 
writings out of the mostantient temples; which Bagoas a short time 
after suflcrcd the priests to redeem for a great sum of money. Then 
be sent home the Greek auxiliaries with ample rewards to every one 
according to their deserts, for tiieir services; and intrusting Phe- 
Kcudates with the government of Egypt, he returned with his 
army laden with spoil, triumphing iu the glor}' of his victory, to 

At the time when Callimachus was lord chancellor at Athens, and f\^ 
Marcus Fabius and Publius Valerius were 'Roman consuls, Artaxerxes 
advanced Mentor for the great servif^es he had done him, especially 
in the Egyptian war, above all his friends; and that he might put 2| 
mark upon his valour by a reward more than ordinarv, he bestowed 
upou him a hundred talents of silver, and rich furniture for his 
liouse^ He likewise made him prefect of ail the Asiatic shore, and 
general of his army, with absolute power to suppress all rebellions in 
those parts. 

Mentor being in near alliance and l^indred with Artabazus and 
Memnoii, (who had not long before made war upon liie Persians, 
QKd had now fled out of Asia, to Philip, iu Macedonia), by his inte* 
rest with the king procured their pardon, and thereupon sent for them 
both to come to him, with their families: for Artabazus had by 
Mentor and Memnou*s sister, eleven sons and ten daujghters; with 
which numerous progeny Mentor was greatly delighted, and ad- 
vanced the young men, as they grew up, to high places of command 
\i\ the army. 

The first expedition which Mentor made was against Hennias, the > S 
prince or tyrant of Atarnea*', who had rebelled against Artaxerxes, 
aod was possessed of many strong cities and castles: upon making 
bim a promise to procure tiie king's pardon, he brought him to a 
uarley; and upou that oceabiun having surprised him, he Imprisoucd 

* Alarnca. in Mvsia, «)vcr against Lcsbo-. 


him^ and possessing liimself of his scal-ringi he wrote letters in 
his name, to the several cities, signifying that through the means of 
Mentor he had heen restored to the king's favour: and he sent 
away, likewise, with those that carried the letters, such as he had 
ordered to take possession, in the name of the king, of all the forts 
and castles* The governors of the cities, giving credit to the 
letters, and being, likewise, very desirous of peace, delivered up 
all the towns and forts to the king in every place throughout the 

All the revolted cities hcing recovered by this trick of Mentor*Sj 
without any hazard or fatigue, the king was highly pleased with him^ 
as having acted the part of a brave and prudent general. 

And with no less success, partly by policy, and partly by force of 
arms, he reduced in a short time the other captains that were in 
rebellion. And thus stood ailairs in Asia at this time. 
^^ In Europe, P!iilij>, king of Macedon, made an expedition against 
the Cluileidcan* ciiies, and took Zena, and razed it to the ground^ 
and caused other cities, through fear, likewise to submit. He also 
made another attack upon Pherse, and cast out its prince Pitholaus, 
About that time Spartacus, king of Pontus, died, after having reigned 
five years. Pai vsades, his brother, succeeded him, and governed 
ciglit-and- thirty years. 


Philip takes Olf/uthns, and other cities in the Iltllesjwnl. Hie 
Atheninns jealous of Philip, and instigated hj Demosthenes^ 
PhiUrp's policies* The value of the riches taAe?i out of the 
temple at Delj}Jios. Dionysius sent presents to DelphoSy which 
were taken by the Athenians, His letter to the Athenians, 2Tke 
temple burnt. The end of the Phocian war. The punishments 
decreed by theAmphictyons against the Phocians. The miseries 
of the sacrilegious persons. Timoleon sent to Syracuse. 

^^ AFI^Kll the end of this year, Theophilus ruled as archon at Athens^ 
and Cains Sulpitius and Caius Quintius executed the consular dignity 
at Koiiu*, at which time was celebrated the hundred and eighth 
Olympiad, in which IVyckii of Cyrenc bore away the crown of victory, 

• III Thrace. 


At the same time Philip made an expedition against the cities of the 
Hellespont, of which Micaberna and Torone were betrayed into his 
hands. Then he made against Olynthus (the greatest city of those 
parts) with a very numerous army, and having first routed the 
Olynthians in two battles, he laid siege to the town ; upon which he 
made many assaults, and lost a great number of his men in their 
approaches to the walls. At length, by bribing Euthycrates and 
Lasthenes, the chief magistrates of Olynthus, he entered the city by 
treachery, and plundered it, and sold all the citizens for slaves, and 
exposed to sale all the prey and plunder under the spear. Whereby 
he furnished himself with abundance of money for carrj'ing on the 
war, and put all the rest of the cities into a terrible fright. 

Then he bountifully rewarded sucli as liad behaved themselves 
with courage and valour, and having exacted vast su[ns of money from 
the richest of the citizens of the surrounding cities, he made use of 
it to corrupt many to betray their country; so that he himself often 
boasted that he had enlarged his dominion more by his gold than bj 
his sword. 

In the mean time, the Athenians being jealous of the growing 
greatness of Philip, ever after'sent aid to them whom he invaded by 
his arms, and despatched ambassadors to all the cities to desire them 
to look to their liberties, and to put to death such of their citizens as 
should be discovered to go aboiit to betray them, promising withal to 
join with them on all occasions. At length they proclaimed open 
war against Philip. 

Demosthenes the orator (at that time the most eminent in politics 
and eloquence of all the Grecians) was the chief instrument that in- 
cited the Atiienians to take ujion them tiie defence of all Greece: 
but the city could not cure that desire of treason that infected many 
of the citizens; so many traitors there were at that time all over 
Greece. And therefore it is reported, that Philip having an earnest 
desire to gain that once strong and eminent city, and one of the 
inhabitants of the place telling him it could never be taken by force, 
he asked him whether it were not possible that gold mi^ht mount 
the walls; for he had learnt by experience, that those who could 
not be subdued by force, were easily overcome by gold. To this 
end he had, by means of his bribes, procured traitors in every city; 
and such as would receive his money, lie called jiis friends and 
guests. And thus with evil communications he corrupted men's 

After the taking of Olynthus, he celebrated Olympic games to the '* 'T 
gods, in commemoration of his victory, and oflcred most splendid 
sacrifices; and in regard there were a vast number of people collected 


ISS moDORUs sicuLUS. Book XP7. 

f ogetlier, he set forth specious sportSj and recreating plays^ and invited 
A great number of strangers to bis feasts: and in the midst of hia 
cups would talk courteously and familiarly with them^ and drink to 
many, and reacli over the cup to them with his own iiands. To many 
he gave ricli gifts, and made large and liberal promises to all, to the 
eiul that his kindness and generosity might be proclaimed abroad 
by tl'.cm that had had experience. During the time of his feasting, 
observing Satyrus the stage-player to look discontented, and knit kis 
brow, he asked him, why he only would not accept of the fruits of 
liis bounty and gfwcrosity? To which he answered, that he would 
Vipy willingly receive a certain gift from him; but he was afraid if 
lie should ask it openly, he would deny him. Upon which the king 
began laughing, and bid iiim ask what he pleased, and he would freelj* 
bestow it upon him. Ujxjn whicii he desired that two young maids^ 
in tiie flower of their age, the daughters of one that was his Uost^ 
might be given to him from among the captives ; whose liberties he 
craved not to maki^ any gain or advantage of them himself, but really 
to give them portions out of his own estate, and procure them hus* 
Uands, and likewise to prevent their being injured by any unworthy 
attempt. The king so approved of this request^ that he not only 
forthwith ordered the virgins to be delivered to Satyrus without ran-r 
$om, but bestowed u])on him, likewise, many other sich gifts and 
|)resent$, as special marks of his favour and bounty ; so that maoyj 
excited with the hopes of reward, strove which should serve 
Philip most, and be the first that should betray their country into 
1)is hands. 

The next year Thcmistocles was archon at Athens, and Caiua 
Cornelius and Marcus Popilius were Koman consuls; at which time 
the UfEOtians overran the country ol the Pliocians with depreda- 
tions, and beat the enemy at IJyanipolis, killing about seventy of 
them. ]^jt not long after, engaging with the Phocians in another 
battle, they were routed at C'oronea, and lost many of their men. 
And whereas the Phocians were possessed of some small towns in 
Rcrotia, the 15a*otians made an inroad upon them, and shamefully 
.'.poiKMl and destroyed all their standing corn; but in their return 
were beaten. 

While these thing'i were transacting, Pliali'ccus, the general of the 
riiocianv, bring convicted of sacrilege, in converting the sacred 
trea>ure oi the temple to his own use, was deprived of his commis* 
sifjn, jnifl three others were created in his place, viz. DemocratcSi 
( ;tUia«;, and Sophanes, who managed the business and trial concern- 
\\\\s the >a(Ted treasures, at such time a*; the Phocians demanded ai\ 
y •» ;;uiit <i|' iliein that iiad the di--i)0hiiig ol it, 'J1»e greatest [ait of 


the money was found to be intrusted in the hands of Philo; wiio 
Dot being abie to give a clear account, was condemned ^ add being 
put upon the rack by order of the generals^ he named many of his 
Kcomplices. At length, being tortured to the utmost extremity, 
he died upon the rack, and thus came to an end worthy of his 

The robbers indeed restored the rest of the money (hat was left, . J 
bnt they themselves Wf^re put to death, as sacrilegious persons. Tlie 
first of the former generals, Philomelus, forbore to meddle with tfafi 
sacred Ireasures; but his brother and successor Onomarchus con- 
certed much of those treasures to the use of the war. The tliird 
general, Phayllus, brother of Onomarchus, while he executed that 
eommand, made use of many of the consecrated things of the tem- 
ple, for the paying off the foreign soldiers : for he melted down and 
coined into money the hundred and twenty golden tiles dedicated by 
Croesus, king of Lydia. In the same manner he dealt with the three 
hundred golden bowls, (or viols), every one weighing two minas; 
and likewise the lion and woman of gold, all which weighed thirty 
talents of gold: so that all the gold, according to the value of silver,, 
nonld amount to four thousand talents. And, besides these, there 
were things in silver, dedicated by Crcrsus, and others, carried am'ay 
hj all the generals, in their several times, above the value of six 
thousand talents: so that the whole sum, both in gold and sllver| 
mounted to above ten thousand talents. 

TJiere are some authors who say, that there was as much trea- _J" / 
tore sacriiegiously taken away, as Alexander afterwards found iii 
the treasury of the Persians. Phaliecus, likewise, with the ofl&cers 
of the army, went about to dig up the pavement of the temple, 
heeause some person had told iiim that a vast treasure of gold and 
lilm lay under it : for confirmation of the truth of it, he brought 
in the testimony of that mobt antlcut and famous poet Homer, 
where he says thus: 

Of ail the gold in Piia:bus* mnrblc func, 
Whkh Fvtiio's rocky treasuries contain. 

And just as the soldiers began to dig near to the tripod, a sudden 
Wrthquake terrified the Pliociaiis^ so that the gods seeming by such 
'^nifest token to threaten vengeance upon thesacriligcous persons, 
^hey desisted. But the first author of that impiety, Philo, (of 
^'woin we spoke before) , in a short time after, felt tiie just vengeance 
*^» the deity. But notwithstanding the whole guilt of tliis impious f 
Wcrilcge be imputed to the Pliociaiis, yet both ti^e Ailienirais and 
i^cedttimonians, who assisted the Pliocians, were partners in the 
*^?ncc, for they had more iJioney paid to them than was proportion- 

If 8- DionoRus sicuLUS. Book XVL 

aY)Ie to the number of the soldiers which they sent : for indeed at that 
very time the Atlienians carried it but impiously towards the oracle} 
for but a little before tiiis robbery at Delphos, when Iphicrates lay 
with the Beet before Corcyra, and DionysiuSj prince of Syracuse, had 
sent some statues of gold and ivory to Olympus and Delphos, he by 
chance intercepteil the' vessels which transported them ; and having 
now possession of the dedicated goods, sent to Athens to know how 
be must dispose of them ; tiie Athenians bid him never scrupulously 
examine, or make inquiry after those things that were said to belong 
to the gods, but to consider how to provide for the maintaining of tbe 
army. In obedience to which decree of his country, be exposed 
the sacred ornaments of the gods to sale under the spear. Upon 
which the prince, being highly incensed against the Athenians, wrote 
to them in this manner: 

Diomjsius^ to tfie Senate toid People of Athens. 

IT is not fit that I should say health to you, since ye Iiave been so 
sacrilegious against the gods, both by sea and land} and, having 
intercepted the images which we had sent, in order to be devoted 
to the gods, you have converted them into money, and so have pro-* 
phaoely abused the mightiest of the gods, Apollo at Delphos^ and 
Jupiter at Olympus. 

This affront against the gods the Athenians never hesitated at^ 
and yet they were accustomed to boast and glory, that the god 
Apollo was their ancestor. The Lacedsemonians also, though they 
were famous amongst all nations for the oracle of Delphos, and id 
the most weighty affairs do consult there at this very day, yet they 
never scrupled to join in the sacrilege with these impious robbers of 
the temi>le. 

But now the Phocians, who had three towns strongly fortified in 
Boeotia, made an inroad into Boeotia, and, being joined by great 
numbers of mercenaries, wasted and spoiled the enemy's country | 
and, in several incursions and skirmishes, got the better, and so re* 
turned. The Bceotians therefore, being overprcssed with the bur-« 
then of the war, and having lost many of their soldiers, and besides^ 
being in great want of money, sent ambassadors to Philip, to crave 
Iiis assistance. This was very welcome news to the king, to see 
that they were brought low, having long desired to have their Leuctra 
courage curbed and tamed : however, he sent them a great number 
of men, merely upon this account, lest he shoold be thought to be 
cureless in the matter concerning the spoiling of the temple. Thea 


the Phocians built a castle at a town called Abse^ near the temple of 
Apollo { at which time, being attacked by the Bceotians, some of them 
presently fled, in disorder, to the neighbourfhg cities; others, to the 
number of five hundred, got into the temple, and there perished. 
Many other things happened to the Phocians at that time, as by a 

'divine hand; but that which was most remarkable was this ^I'hey ,5* 

that fled into the temple thought themselves safe under the care and 
protection of the gods; but it fell out quite contrary, for divine pro- 
vidence brought condign punishment upon these sacrilegious persons. 
There were many straw beds round about the temple, and it happened 
that the fire left in the tents of those that fled caught hold of some of 
them; upon whicli, on a sudden, the flame so mounted that it con- 
sumed the temple, with all those that fled into it: for, it seems^ 
God would not spare these sacrilegious persons, notwithstanding all 
tlieir supplications. ^^C/s* 

Archias was then lord- chancellor of Athens, and Marcus ^milius 
and Titus Quinctius were invested with the consulship at Rome, 
when the Phocian war (which had continued ten years) was ended in 
the following manner: — When both the Boeotians and Phocians 
were brought low with the continual fatigues of the war, the Pho- 
cians, by their ambassadors, craved aid of the Laccd^einonians, who 
sent them a thousand heavy-armed men, under tlic command of Ar- 
chidamus, the king of Sparta. In like manner the Boeotians prayed 
assistance from Philip; who thereupon, being joined by theThessa- 
lians, entered Locris with a great army, where, finding Phalaecus 
(restored again to his command) with a considerable body of mcrce- 
Duries^ he prepared to fight him. PhaUecus was then at Nic^ea, who, 
finding himself not able to engage with Philip, sent ambassadors to 
hiua to treat. Thereupon a peace was concluded upon these condi- 
tions—That Phalfiecus, with all those then with him, might march 
away whither they thought fit. Wliereupon Phah-ecus, (after ratifi- 
cation on both sides), without any further delay, departed with those 
forces he had with him, to the number of eight thousand, into Pelo- 
ponnesus: and the Phocians, now hopeless, gave up themselves into 
the power of Philip. 

The king having, without fighting, unexpectedly put an end to the 
Sacred War, joined in a senate with the Tliessalians and Ba^otians; 
in which it was decreed — .That the great council of the Amphic- 
tyons should be assembled, to whose decision all matters should be 
wholly referred. 

By them afterwards it was decreed — ^That Philip and his posterity 
should be received as members into the council of the Aniphictyons, 

Vol. 2. No. 42. s 

130 diOdoaus siculus. Book.xn. 

and should have the privilege of a double voice^ as the Phociilns 
(whom he conquered) had before : that the walls of three cities ia 
Phocis should be demolished : and, that the Phocians should never 
after have any thing to do with the teitiple^ or be members of the 
court of the Amphictyons: that they should never be possessed of 
horse or arms, until they had made restitution to the Oracle cf the 
money they had sacrilegiously taken away. Moreover, that the 
exiles of Phocis, and whoever they were that were partners with tliem 
in the sacrilege, should be accounted accursed^ and driven out of 
every place. Likewise, that all the cities of the Phocians shotild be 
razed to the ground, and turned into villages, every one of them not 
to contain a1x)vc fifty houses, and not to be less than one furloog 
distant from each other; yet tliat the Phocians should keep their 
lands, but should pay a tribute to the oracle every yeAr of sixty 
talents, until they had paid the sum entered in the registers at the 
time when the sacrilege was committed : that Philip, with the 
Boeotians and Thessalians, should set forth the Pythian games, be- 
cause the Corinthians were partners in the impiety with the Pho- 
cians: that the Amphictyons, together with Philip, should break in 
pieces, upon the rocks, all the arms of the Phocians and mercenaries, 
and then burn the remains: and lastly, that they should deliver up 
al) the hoise. 

When they had despatched this, they made laws and orders for the 
restoring of tlie oracle to its former state, and all other matters re- 
lating to religion and the public peace, and the advancing of amity 
i.- and concord amongst the (jrecians. All these decrees of the 
Amphictyons were allowed and confirmed by Philip, who carried 
hin^self towards them with great respect in all things, and then 
marched back with his army into Macedonia, and not onljf par- 
chased honour by his piety and martial conduct, but made many ad- 
r vaiices towards the future enlargement of his dominions: for he had 
long coveted to gain the sovereign command of all Greece, and to 
make war uj>on the Persians, which indeed at length happened. 
But of these things we shall hereafter give a particular account in 
their due time. 

;• / Ijct us now, therefore, return to what properly is an appendant, 

and, of course, annexed to the precedent history: yet we judge it 
our duty first to relate the judgments inflicted by the gods ujion the 
sacrilegious robbers of the oracle; for vengeance overtook all of them 
in iirencral, not only those who were the chief ringleaders, but even 
iIm jn that had the least hand in the sacrilege. 

, 5 Philoinelus, the first and chief contriver of seizing the temple, by a 


certain fate of wa^ was brought into such a strait, as tliat be cast 
l^iiBself headlong from tlie top of a rock. 

His brother Onomarchus, having taken upon hitn the cooinoand 
pf Ih^ heartless and discouragpd ^rfpy^ was afterwards, with his 
Phocians and mercenaries, totally routed in Tli^ssaly, and be himself 
Uk^t^ and crucified. 

Ph|&yllqs, the third, who spoiled the oracle of the greatest part of 
its sacred treasures, that he might not altogether escape punishment^ 
wasted away by a (ipgering disease*". 

Pli^l^cus, the last of them, having robbed the temple of all that 
WA9 left, wandered vi|> and down in great terror, and in divers hazards 
aqj troubles, for a long time together; not in any favour to him more 
tban the rest of bis confederates in wickedness, but that he might be 
Ipog^ tormjented, and that the vengeance executed might be more 
remarkable to all wherever he went. After his flight, whereby he 
^scap^d being a prisoner, at the first he remained, with his merce- 
naries, about Peloponnesus, and maintained his soldiers with the 
jDpoey hp \^d sacrilegiously got into his hands from the temple. 
Afterwards he hired some great transport-ships at Corinth, and, hav- 
ing foiir other small vessels pf his own, he pre[)ared for a voyage 
iotp {t^y and Sicily, hoping either to possess himself of some city in 
those parts, or that he ^d his men might be epiployed by some or 
other as mercenaries. 

There was at tliat time a war broken out between the Lucanians 
Jipd TafCQ^in^s* He pretended to the soldiers that went along with 
him, that he was sent for by the Sicilians and Italians; but, when he / H 
CfMf^ ioto the open sea, some of the soldiers who were on hoard in 
the largest vessel, with Phalsecus, discoursed among themselves, and 
4ecl9red their suspicious one to another — ^That it was but a pretence, 
.fmd tbftt Dpne had sent for them : for they saw no commanders go 
along witli him, who were sent from any that desired their assist- 
ance; and they perceived that the voyage undertaken was long and 
tedious, ^nd full of hazards : and therefore, concluding that Phulaicus 
was no longer to be credited, (dreading the expedition beyond sea), 
they conspired, especially the officers of the mercenaries, aiul, with 
their drawn swords, so threatened both Phala'.cus and the pilot, that 
they compelled them to tack about, and return: the like being done 
in the other ships, they all came back, and arrived in Peloponnesus; 
and, being rendezvoused at Malea, a promontory of Laconia, they 
therefound the Gnossian ambassadors, who accidentally were co me 
hither to list some foreign soldiers. After some discourse had passed 

* A consumption. 




between them and Phaltecus^ and the other officers, the pay in hand 
was so large, that all of them sailed away with the ambassadors to 
Crete; and, having'Janded^at Gnossus*, they presently took the city 
Lyctus at the first assault. But unexpected assistance came in sud* 
denly to the expulsed Lyctians: for the Tarentines being at that time 
engaged in a war with the Lucanians, sent ambassadors to the Lace- 
dsemonians, from whom they were descended, to supply them with 
auxiliaries; upon which the Spartans, upon the account of their 
kindred, were ready to assist them ; and to that end had both nand 
and land forces ready, under the command of Archidamus the king 
of Sparta. And being now ready to set sail for Italy, at that very 
time came some from the Lyctians, earnestly desiring that they would 
help them in the first place. The Lacedemonians agfeed to it, and 
passed over to Crete, where they routed Phalsecus and his mercena- 
ries, and recorered the country for the Lyctians. 

Then Archidamus made for Italy, and there Assisted the Tares- 
tines, and was killed in fight, behaving himself with great. Talonr 
and resolution. He was an excellent commander, and of good re- 
putation in other respects; but ill spoken of, by reason of his joint- 
ing with the Phocians, as the principal promoter and author of the 
seizing of the temple and city of Delphos. He was king of Lace-^ 
daemon three-and-twenty years, and his son Agis succeeded him^ and 
continued fifteen years. 

Afterwards all the mercenaries under Archidamus, and who were 
concerned in the robbing of the oracle, were killed by the Lacani^ 
ans. But Phalsecus being driven out of Lyctus, besieged Sidonf ; 
and while he was preparing his engines to batter the ^^alls, andmak** 
iug his approaches to the city, the engines were set on fire, and con- 
sumed by a thunderbolt from heaven, and a great number of the sol- 
diers who endeavoured to save them, were consumed by fire from 
heaven, amongst whom was Phalaecus himself: though there be some 
who report, that he was run through the body by one of his own soU 
diers whom he had provoked. Those soldiers that were left, were 
hired by the Elian exiles, and transported into Peloponnesus, who 
assisted them against their own countrymen. But the Arcadians^ 
who assisted the Elians, routed them, and killed a great number o£ 
the mercenaries, and took four thousand prisoners; which the Ar- 
cadians and Elians divided amongst themselves; and the Arcadians 
sold those under the spear tliat fell to their share: but the Elians put 
nil theirs to the sword, for their impiety in robbing of the oracle. 
And in this manner all the sacrilegious robbers, and those that too(( 

* Or Coosusi a cit^ in Crete. Lj9iw, another citj io Crete. t A city of Crtt«. 

Chef. X BIODOAUS SlCULUtr. 1^ 

part with them^ met due punishment for their wickedness. Like* 
wise the most famous cities that shared with them in their impiety, 
being afterwards conquered by Antipater, lost both their authority 
and liberty at once. Moreover, the wives of the most principal ^ J^ 
men of Phocis, who had decked themselves with necklaces of goll 
robbed from Ddphos, met with the deserved punishment of thdr 
impiety. For, one that wore the chain of Helen, turning whore^ 
stained all the glory of lier beauty by prostituting herself to every 
filthy wretch. Another who adorned herself with tlie ornaments of 
Eriphyle, in a fury of madness and rage, had her house set on fire 
by her eldest son, and she and her habitation consumed together. 
In this manner (as we said before) those that dared thus to despise 
and contemn the deity, were overtaken by divine vengeance. On #3 
the contrary, Philip, who appeared in defence of the oradc, evec 
prospering from that time, for his piety, was at last declared su* 
preme governor of all Greece, and gained the largest kingdom ia 
£iirope. And now, having given an account of the Sacred War, 
ao far forth as we judged necessary, we shall return to things of ano- 
ther nature. 

In Sicily, the Syracusans, labouring under intestine seditions, and / ^ 
enslaved under the tyranny of many that lorded over them, sent am- 
bassadors to Corinth, to desire that a general should be despatclied to 
thexn, who might take charge of the city, and give a check to the 
ambition of such as sought to tyrannise. Upon which, it seemed 
very just and reasonable to the Corinthians to help those who were 
originally descended from them; and therefore they decreed to 
send them Timoleon, the son of Tiraodemus, who was accounted 
tbe most valiant and expert commander among them; in shorty 
he was a person every way virtuous : but there was one thing re- 
flsarkable happened to him, whicli much forwarded his being chosen 

Timophanes, his brother, the richest and most daring man among 
the Corinthians, had some tipie before given evident signs of his 
ambition to aspire to the sovereignty. For, about that time, having 
armed and got together a company of lewd fellows, and such as were 
in debt, and needy, he went up and down the market-place, seeming 
Xiot to have the least thoughts of the principality, but in truth acting 
in the mean time as an absolute tyrant. But Timoleon, who abhorred 
inonarchy, at the first advised his brother to forbear, and lay aside 
such projects and designs: but he, being not only regardless of wliat 
was said to him, but rather growing every day more audacious and 
peremptory, Tiinoleon, because he could not work upon him by 

134 BioDORUS sicuiiUS. Sook J(^l% 

words^ killed him in the market-place. Vpoa which 4 gK%t tuqiulf 
was raised, and the citizens, upon the cooimissioD of so horrid w 
actj ruDDing in and flocking together, the matter came to a faction 
and sedition in the city : for some declared, that Timolepn, who had 
imbrued his hands in the blood of a citizen, should undei]go tjif 
punishment due to his offence by the law; but others were of f 
contrary opinion, and said, that he deserved rather to be com^it|ld•dy 
as one that had despatched a tyrant out of the way. 

A senate therefore was called, and the matter brought before ik§ 
court, where his enemies most bitterly inveighed against bin); but 
those who were more moderate and fovourable, coqsulted tagefher to 
preserve him. And, while the business remained in debate^ not ytit 
decided, the ambassadors from Syracuse arrived, and, iippartipg thor 
embassy to the court, they very seasonably desired a general to br 
sent them: upon which the senate determined to send Timoleonf 
and, that he might the better behave himself, a most strange pior 
posal was offered him, to choose as he pleased : for t|iey let him 

know ^That, if he carried himself well towanjs the SyracuMQV ia 

his command, then they would judge him to be one that bad kilM % 
tyrant; but, if he were covetous and oppressive^ he should be cpn- 
demned as a murderer of his brother. 

Timoleon therefore, not so much out of fear of what was threatened 
by the senate, as excited by the principles of his own innate virtue 
managed afikirs in Sicily with great honour and reputation to him- 
self, and advantage to the Sicilians. For he subdued the Carthagi- 
nians, rebuilt the Grecian cities which were destroyed by the barbft* 
rians, and restored all Sicily to its liberty. Lastly, having gained 
Syracuse, and the Greek desolated cities, he filled them all with inr 
habitants, and made them very populous. But we shall treat of these 
matters in their proper place^ and come to that part which is cohejpenl 
to the history. 

€hi^. XL DrODORUS SICULtTS. 136 


itimaleoH*s expedition into Sicily. The Carthaginian army in 
Sicily. Dianysius returns into Syracuse: is beaten by Hicetas^ 
JERcetas gains Syracuse. Timolcon's escape from Bhegium. 
Jimoleon routs Hicetas, and gains Syracuse. Philip invades 
the Illyrians. Dionysius expeUed. Tiinoleon makes good laws^ 
PhiUp invades Thrace. 

NOW Eubulus was chief magistrate at Athens, and Marcus Fabhis / ^ 
iind Serulius Sulpitius were consuls at Rome. At this time Timp- 
leon the Corinthian, advanced by the Syracusans to the sovereign 
command of all their forces, prepared for his voyage into Sicily, and 
loosed from Corinth with four gallies, manned with seven hundred 
mercenaries, and attended with three skiffs. In his passage he was 
joined by three vessels more from the Leucadians and Corcyrians, 
and so with ten sail |>assed over the Ionian sea. In this voyage aA 
unusaal and remarkable thing happened toTimoleon, the providence 
of the gods seeming to favour his undertaking, and thereby to point 
oat the future fame and glory of his actions. For, all the night, 
li light like a burning torch in the heavens went before him, till the 
fleet came to the coasts of Italy: for he was before told Jit Corinth, 
by the priests of Ceres and Proserpina, that in the night the goddesses 
appeared to them, and told them, that the^ would sail along with 
Tlmoleon to the island that was peculiarly consecrated to them, 
lltooleon therefore, and all those with him, were very cheerful, un- 
dier the apprehension that the gods favoured their enterprise; and 
thereupon Tiraoleon dedicated one of the best of his ships to the 
goddesses, and ordered that it should be called the Sacred Ship* of 
Ceres and Proserpina. And now, when tlie fleet came safe as far as 
Metapontum in Italy, there arrived a galley which had the Carthagi- 
nian ambassadors on board, who, upon a conference with Timo- 
Icon, charged him, upon his peril, not to begin any war, or so much 
as to set his foot upon Sicily. But he, being encouraged by them of 
Rhegium, who promised to join with him, departed with all haste 
from Metapontum, designing by his speed to prevent the report of 
his coming: for he was in great fear lest the Carthaginians, who were 
much stronger at sea, should block up his passage into Sicily. There- 
fore he made oflF with all speed to Rliegium. 

♦ Or called Ceres and Prostrpiua. 

136 WODOKUS sicutus. Book JCrZL 



The Carthaginians^ having a little before received intelligence that 
m great war Mras likely to break out througli all Sicily, carried them- 
selves with all civility towards the confederate cities; and, putting 
an end to all quarrels, entered into leagues of anaity and friendship 
with the princes of the island, especially with Hicetas, ^neral of 
tke Syracusans, who was the most potent. At length the CartbagiF* 
Bians, having raised a great number of forces both by sea and land^ 
transported them into Sicily, under the command of Hanno, their 
general. They had with them a hundred and fifty sail of long sfaqis, 
a land-army of fifty thousand men, three hundred chariots, and two 
thousand carts or carriages, drawn by two horses each; and» besides 
these, a great number of arms of all sorts, and engines of batterj, 
and an infinite store of com, provision, and all other things necessary 
lor war. The first city they attacked was Entella; and, having 
wasted and spoiled the lands round about, tliey shut up the inhabi* 
tants by a close siege. The Campanians possessed the city at that 
time, and, being terrified at the multitude of their enemies, sent finr 
aid to the otlier cities, wlio hated the Carthaginians; but none of 
them came in to their assistance, except those of Galena, who sent 
them a thousand armed men, who were intercepted by the Cartha* 
ginians, and every man cut off. The Campanians, who inhabited 
jEtua, at first prepared to help them of Entella, upon the account 
of their consanguinity; but, hearing of the slaughter of the Galeriaos^ 
they judged it more adviseable to sit stilL Dionysius at that time 
had regained his former sovereignty over the Syracusans. Hicetas 
therefore led a great army thither, and encamped at Olympus, forti- 
fying himself with a breast-work and a trench, and drew up against 
Pionysius, then acting as a tyrant in the city. But he protracted 
the siege for some time, through want of provision, and marched 
away to Leontium, from whence he first moved. But Dionysius 
pursued him, and fell upon his rear, which occasioned the whole 
army to engage. For Hicetas wheeled about, fought, and routed 
him, killing three thousand of his mercenaries upon the spot^ and 
putting the rest to flight; and he pursued them so hotly, that he fell 
pell-mell with him into the city, and so jiosscssed himself of the 
whole city of Syracuse, except the Island. And thus went matters 
between Hicetas and Dionysius at this time. 

But Timoleou, arriving at Rhegium the third day after the taking 
df Syracuse, lay with his fleet in the port next to the city. At that 
time came into the port twenty Carthaginian gallies. The Rhcgians^ 
favouring Timoleon, called an assembly, and proposed terms of 
compounding matters : so that the Carthaginians, supposing Tirno-* 
leon would be persuaded to return home, were not careful to place 

Chap. XL BiODORUs 8ICULUS. 137 

sufficient guards: Timoleon therefore himself (not giving the least 
ground to suspect his flight) kept close to the court, but ordered, 
that nine of his ships should set sail, and make away with all the 
haste they could. In the mean time, while the thoughts of the Car- 
thaginians were intent upon the speeches of the Rhegians, which 
were lengthened out purposely and by design, Timoleon privately 
withdrew himself, and made to the ship that was left; and, hoisting 
sail, be thus escaped. The Carthaginians, thus deluded, endea- 
voured to pursue him; but^ because he had got too far off, and night 
approached, Timoleon, with his whole fleet, arrived safe at Tauro- 
minium* Andromachus, the prince of that city, (who always was a 
friend to the Syracusans), courteously received the refugees, and was 
greatly serviceable to them in their avoiding of the pursuers. Hicetas 
afterwards, with an army of five thousand men, came against Adranumt 
and encamped near the city. But Timoleon, drawing some regi- 
ments out of Taurominium, marched from thence, having with him 
at the most but a thousand men. And, going out of the town in the 
twilight, he reached Adranum the next day: there he fell upon 
the Hicetians at the very time they happened to be at meat, and 
broke in upon their camp, and killed three hundred, and took six 
hundred prisoners, and possessed himself of all the camp. To this 
stratagem he added another: for he made straight away with all speed 
to Syracuse, and, despatching his march with great activity, he broke 
into the city on a sudden, liaving, by the swiftness of his march, ar- 
rived there before those that fled. And these were the transactions 
of this year* 

Lycisco ei^ccuted the office of archon at Athens, and Marcus Va- Q Q 
lerius, and Marcus Popilius, were created Roman consuls, when the 
hundred and ninth Olympiad was celebrated, wherein Aristolocus 
the Athenian won the course. This was likewise the first time 
that the Romans entered into a league with the Carthaginians. In 
Caria, Idrieus, prince of the Carians, died, after he had reigned seven 
years, whom Ada (both his wife and sister) succeeded, and governed 
four years. 

In Sicily, Timoleon, being strengthened with the confederacy of 
them of Adranum and Tyndaris, greatly increased his army. In the 
mean time there was great confusion in Syracuse, because Diony- 
sius had got possession of the Island, Ilicetas held the Achiadioa 
and the new city, and Timoleon the rest of the city; and lastly, the 
Carthaginians had entered the great harbour with a fleet of an hun- 
dred and fifty sail, and lay near encamped with an army of fifty 
thousand men. And now Timoleon was in great perplexity, being 
environed by so many enemies, when on a suddeu the tables were 

Vol-. Z' Nq. 42, T 


tamed. Firsts Marcus, prince of Catana, with a great army^ came 
in to the assistance of Timoleon. Afterwards many of the forts and 
castles (out of a love of liberty) sided with him. And presently the 
Corinthians sent ten gallies full of soldiers, and pay for tbem, to 

By these supplies Timoleon took heartland the Carthaginians were 
so discouraged and affrighted, that they very imprudently sailed out 
of the harbour, and drew ofif their whole army, and marched away inta 
their own territories. Hicetas being thus stripped of all assistance, 
Timoleon, now stronger than the citizens, possessed himself of all 
Syracuse. Presently after he received Messana (which had sided with 
the Carthaginians) into his protection. And this was the state of 
Sicily at that time. 

«7 In Macedonia, Philip, who bore an hereditary hatred against the 

Illyrians, and had with them an everlasting controversy, invaded their 
country with a powerful army, and wasted and spoiled their lands, 
and, after the taking of many towns, returned with rich booty into 

yP Macedonia. Afterwards, making an expedition into Thessaly, he 
drove all tlie tyrants out of the cities, and, by this means, gained 
the hearts of the Thcssalians : for, by gaining them to be his allies, 
lie hoped easily to procure an interest in all Greece; and, by the 
issue, it appeared so afterwards : for the bordering Grecians presently, 
in imitation of the Thessalians, very readily entered into a league 
with Philip. 

7/} Pythodorus was now lord -chancellor of Athens, and Caius Flaa-» 

' tius, and Titus Manlius, executed tlie consular dignity at Rome. 

At this time Dionysius, beitig brought into great extremity of dan* 
ger, and in a terrible fright, was wrought upon by Timoleon to sur- 
render the castle, and, upon condition of abdicating the govern- 
ment, had liberty safely to depart to Peloponnesus, with all his goods 
and moveables. 

And thus he, through sloth and cowardice, lost this so eminent 
and famous a principality, bound fast (as they used to term it) with 
nn adamant, and spent the rest of his days in a poor and mean con- 
dition*; whose change of fortune, and course of life, exhibit a clear 
example to those who, like fools, boast in the times of prosperity: 
for he, who a little before had four hundred gallies at command, not 
long after, in a small skiff, was conveyed to Corinth, and became a 
spectacle, to admiration, of a wonderful change. Timoleon, having 
possessed himself of the Island and castles lately held by Dionysius, 
demolished ail the forts and palaces of the tyrant throughout the island^ 

* It if liiid, lie kfpt « private school at Corinth till bo was very old.^ fust. lib. 21. 

Chap. XL DioDORUS sicuLUs. 139 

and freed all the towns from the garrisons; and he continually em- 
ployed himself in framing of laws, and {nstituted such as were most 
proper for the administration of the democracy: and, in his making 
such as related to private contracts, he had a special regard to equality 
and mutual recompence. Moreover, he appointed a chief magis- 
trate to be yearly chosen, whom the Syracusans call the Amphipolus* 
of Jupiter Olympus; and the first Amphipolus was Callimenes. From 
hence arose the custom amongst the Syracusans of noting their years 
by the respective governments of these magistrates, which continues 
to this very time of writing this history, and, though the frame of 
the government he now changed : for, since the Romans imparted the 
laws of their city to the Sicilians, the office of the Amphipolus 
lias still continued, being now grown old, and having been executed 
above three hundred years. And thus stood the afiairs of Si^rily at 
that time. 

In Macedonia, Philip, having persuaded all the Greek cities in 
Thrace to concord amongst themselves, made an expedition against 
the Thracians. For Cersobleptes, the Thracian king, was continually 
destroying the Greek cities in the Hellespont, and harassing and 
spoiling the country. Therefore Philip, to put a check to the designs 
and progress of the barbarians, invaded them with a great army, and 
was so victorious, that he forced them to pay a tenth, as a tribute, to 
the kingdom of Macedonia. And, by building strong towns in con- 
venient places, he curbed the insolence of the Thracians. The Greek 
cities therefore, being freed from their fears, with great eagerness 
entered into a league of confederacy with Philip. 

As to writers, Theopompus of Chios composed an history of the 
acts of Philip, in three books, in which are interwoven the affairs of 
Sicily: for, beginning with the sovereignty of Dionysius tlie elder, he 
comprehended an account of the transactions of fifty years, and ended 
with the expulsion of Dionysius the younger. These three books ar« 
from the forty-first to the forty-thurd year of the fifty years. 

* Swant of Jupiter Olympus. 


140 DioDORUs sicuLuar. BookXn. 




The cbCts ofTimolean in Sicily. The preparations t^f the Cartha^ 
ginians against T^moleon. The remarkable siege of Perinthut 
by Philip. Pexodorus erpeJs his brother Adam from the princi- 
pality in Carta. Byzantium besieged by PhiUp^ 

WHEN the chief magistracy of Athens was in the hands of Sosi-^ 
genes; and Marcus Valerius, and Marcns Publius, executed the office 
of consuls at Rome> Arybas, king of the Molossians, died, after he 
had reigned ten years, leaving the kingdom to his son iEacidas, the 
father of Pyrrhus; but, by the help of Philip of Macedon, Alexander^ 
the brother of Olympias, succeeded Arybas. 

In Sicily, Timoleon marched against the Leontines^ (to whom 
Hicetas had joined himself, with a great army^ and in the first place 
besieged the new city (as it was called). But the garrison being 
Yery strong, they easily repulsed the assailants > and thereupon he 
raised the siege^ without effecting any thing. Then he made for 
Engyum, (at that time under the tyranny of Leptines)^ and plied It 
with continual assaults, being very earnest and intent to set them ftee, 
by' the expulsion of Leptines. 

While Timoleon was thus employed, Hicetas mardied awa/ from 
Leontium with all his forces, and besieged Syracuse ^ but^ baTiDg 
lost there a great part of his army, he liastened back 1o LeoDtium* 
Timoleon at length so terrified Leptines, that, under the terms of 
safe conduct, he was sent away to Peloponnesus; and, hf these ba- 
nishments, Timoleon exiK)sed to the Grecians the trophies of his 
victory over the tyrants. And forasmuch as Apolloniadcs was like* 
wise under the power of Leptines, he received the Apoltonians into his 
protection, and restored them, as well as theEngyans, to their liberty. 
But being in great want of money, so that he knew not how to pay 
the soldiers, he ordered a thousand armed men, commanded by ex* 
pert officers, to make incursions into the Cartliaginian territories. 
These harassed the country fur and near, and got together abundance 
of rich plunder and spoil, and brought it to Timoleon, who exposed 
all to public sale, and raised a vast sum of money^ whereby he paid 
the soldiers for a long time beforehand. Presently after, he pos* 
sessed himself of Entella, and put to death fifteen of the citizens, 
who adhered to the Carthaginians, and restored the rest to their 
liberty* Timoleon growing every day in reputation for his talour 

tJhap. XIL DIODORUS srcULU^, 141 

and conduct^ all the Greek cities throughout Sicily readily submitted to 
him^ and be as readily set them at liberty to govern by their own laws. 
Kfany cities likewise of tlitSicani^ Sicilians, and other countries sub^ 
jecttothe Carthagfnians, sent presently their ambassadors to hiai,ia 
order to be received into a league, and to be his confederates. 

But the senate and people of Carthage perceiving that their <iffi- 
cers were sluggish and inactive in the management of tlie war,, de- 
termined to send over others with a considerable additional force; 
and to that end, with all despatch, they raised out of their owncttjr^ 
and from among the Africans, all such as they judged able to bear 
arms for this expedition. And besides, they took care to be pro* 
Tided with a sufficient stock of money, and listed mercenariea outdT 
Spain, Gaul, and Ligurla^. They fitted out likewise a great navy^ 
both of long ships and others, for carrying provision, and in all other 
respects were so careful and diligent, that nothing was wanting that 
was necessary. 

At the time when Nicomachus was chief magistrate at Athens, 
and Caius Martius, and Titus Manlius Torquatus, were Roman coo-* 
«uls, Phocion the Athenian subdued and expelled Clitarchus prince 
of £retria, whom Philip liad set over that city. 

In Caria, Pexodorusfy the younger brother, expelled Adam <mt 
of the principality, and reigned five years, to the time of Alexan* 
dar's expedition into Asia. But the power of Philip still increasing, 
be marched with an army against Perinthust,wluch favoured the A- 
thenians, md much obstructed him in his designs. He pushed on 
the siege therefore with all eagerness, and to that end incessantly 
battered the walls with iiis engines, from time to time relieving those 
that were tired with fresh men: he made likewise approaches with 
towers four scdre cubits high, mounting much above the walls, where- 
by he greatly annoyed the besieged, being so high above them: he so 
plied them likewise with his battering rams, and undermined the 
foundations of tlie walls to that degree, that a great part of them 
tumbled down. But the Periuthians defended themselves with tliat 
niour, that they speedily raised up a new wall ; upon which there were 
such disputes and fighting, the one to gain, and the other to defend 
the wall, that it was to be admired. 

In the mean time, while they were thus eagerly contending on 
both sides, Philip being well furnished with shot, mightily galled them 
*ipon the wall. But the Perinthians, though they lost many nieu 
^very day, were reinforced with supplies of men, darts, and shot, 
from Byzantium ; so that thereby becoming of equal force with the 

• In Italy, now the straits of Genoa. t Pizodarm. 

% A cii^f m Eubuid, nuir Nf ^ropont. 


142 DIdDORUS sicuLus. Book XFT. 

enemy, they took courage, and valiantly stood to it for the preserva- 
tion of their country. 

However, the king remitted nothing of his former heat and dili- 
gence ; and dividing his army into several battalions, girt the city 
round, and relieving his men by turns, assaulted the walls continu- 
ally night and day. He had an army of thirty thousand men, aad 
a va3t multitude of darts and engines, both for battery and other 
7 <" purposes; so that the besieged were very sorely pressed. Tlie siege 
having now continued long, and many of the townsmen killed and 
wounded, and provisions growing scanty, the town was on the point 
of being surrendered; when fortune favouring the distressed, hand- 
ed to them an unexpected deliverance. For the growing power of 
the king being noised abroad throughout Asia, the king of Persia, 
who now began to suspect the greatness of Philip, commanded by 
lis letters the lords lieutenants of the sea-coasts to assist the Perin- 
thiahs with what forces they could. Upon which, they all unani- 
mously sent to Perintbus a great number of mercenary soldiers^ 
plenty of coin, sufficient provisions, weapons, and all other things 
necessary for war. The Byzantians likewise sent thither a com- 
mander, and the best of their soldiers. The forces now equal on 
both sides, and the war revived, there was now again so sharp an en- 
counter, both to gain and defend the city, as that none could possibly 
exceed; for Philip, by the continual battering of the rams, brought 
down part of the wall, and by his shot forced the besieged from the 
bulwarks, so that he made his way, with a strong body of men, 
through the ruins of the wall, and scaled the bulwarks that were be- 
fore cleared of them that should have defended them. The matter 
being disputed hand to hand at the sword's point, death and wounds 
followed, inasmuch as the rewards of victory put life into the valour 
of both parties r for the Macedonians being assured they should have 
the plunder of a rich city, and likewise be honourably rewarded by 
Philip, were resolved valiantly to undergo all hardships whatsoever. 
The besieged, on the other hand, having as it were before their eyes 
the miseries attending a place taken by storm, with generous and 
undaunted resolution shunned nothing of hazard for their own pre- 
servation, and that of their country. The situation of the place con* 
tributed much all along to the besieged for baffling of the enemy: 
for Perintbus 13 situated on the sea-side, upon a rising neck of land, 
in a peninsula stretched out a furlong in length: the houses are close 
together, and very high ; for one stands above another, according to 
the ascent of the hill; and the form of the city represents, as it were, 
a theatre. And therefore, though a large breach had been made in 
the walls, yet they within were but little prejudiced thereby; for the 



strait and narrow passages being barricadoed^ the higher houses were 
in stead, and as advantageous as a wall. Philip therefore having 
gained the wall, after much toil and hazard, found another far 
stronger, made by the situation of the houses: and besides all these 
disadvantages, he saw that every thing necessary for war was readily, 
and in great abundance, sent to them from Byzantium ; therefore 
be divided his army into two bodies; the one half he left with the 
best of his commanders to carry on the siege, and with the rest be 
marches speedily away to Byzantium, and lays close siege to it on a 
sadden. Upon which the townsmen were put into great fear and 
perplexity, having before sent away their soldiers, arms, and other 
things necessary for war, to the Perinthians. Tliese were the things 
done at Perinthus and Byzantium at that time. Here Ephorus, one 
of the writers, ends his history with the siege of Perinthus. In his 
memoirs he comprehends the affairs both of the Greeks and barba- 
rians, from the ruturn of the Heraclidae^, for the space of almost 
seven hundred and fifty years ; and divides his history into thirty books^ 
to every one of which be adjoins a preface. Diyllus, the Athenian^ 
continues this history of Ephorus, treating of the actions of the Gre* 
dans and barbarians to the death of Philip, 


3ni^ Athemayis aid Byzantium. Philip raises tlie siege. Tlie 
Carthaginians transport forces into Sicily. The remarkable 
victory of Jlmoleon over the Carthaginians. The acts of Ti- 
moleon in Sicily. The works of Hiero in Sicily. 

WHEN Theophrastus was lord chancellor at Athens, and Marcus IJ^ 
Valerius, and Aulus Cornelius Roman consuls, the hundred and tenth * ' 
olympiad began, in which Anticles the Athenian was victor. Philip 
then besieging Byzantium, the Athenians judging he had broken the 
peace they had made with him, forthwith fitted out a great fleet a- 
gainst him in aid of the Byzantines; whose example thoseof Chios, 
Coos, and Rhodes, and other Grecians followed, and sent auxiliaries 
to the same nlace. Whereupon, Philip being startled at the forces of 
the Grecians, raised both his sieges, and made peace with the Athe- 
nians and the rest of the Grecians that were in arms against him. 

• This return was about the time the ark wai taken by the Philislioesj cightj jcars 
after the ruin of Troy, 


In the mean time, the Carthaginians, after their great preparations, 
trsnsport their forces into Sicily, which with those that were before 
is the island, amounted to seventy thousand foot; and horse, chariots, 
and wagc^ons, no fewer than ten thousand. They had also a navy of 
two hundred men of war, and above a thousand transport shij^s for 
the conveying of horses, arms, and provisions. Hmoleon, though 
he was informed of this great preparation, yet was not at all aflfright- 
cd with the barbarians, though his army was but smaU. He was at 
thi» time engaged still in war with Hicetas, but at length agreed the 
natter, and, by the accession of his forces, greatly increased bisarroy, 

y^ And nOw he judged it most for his advantage to transfer the war with 
the Carthaginians into their own territory; by this means to preserve 
the country of his confederates, and, on the other side, by waste and 
spoil, to weaken the enemy : to this end, he forthwith mustered his 
army^ consisting of Syracusans, mercenaries, and other confederates; 
and, in a general assembly, by a pithy oration, advised them to be 
courageous, for that all now lay at stake : which was received with 
general acclamation, and all pressed him without delay to be led forth 
agtunst the enemy* Whereupon he advanced, not haviag withhisi 
above twelve thousand men: but as soon as he came into the con* 
fines of Agrlgentum, there arose a sudden mutiny in his camp; for 
a mercenary soldier called Thrastus, a bold and impadeat fellow, 
none exceeding him in that respect, (lately a companion of those 
Phocians who robbed the temple of Delphos), committed a foct 
agreeable to his former villanies: for whereas most of them who haA 
a hand in that sacrilege were overtaken by divine vengeance, (as be- 
fore related), this fellow only seemed to have escaped; and at that 
time endeavoured to persuade the mercenaries to a defection : for he 

^ bawled it out ^^Fhat Timoleon was crazed and distracted, and that 

be was leading the soldiers to certain and unavoidable destruction: 
the number of the Carthaginian army (lie said) was six times more 
than they; and so well furnished with all things necessary for war, 
that none could compare whh them; and yet he assured them of 
victory, playing away the lives of the soldiers, as it were, at dice, be- 
cause he was not able to pay them their arrears, which had been ad- 
vancing for a long time together : he persuaded them therefore to 
return to Syracuse, and demand their pay, and not follow Timoleon 
in that desperate expedition. 

^1 ^f This discourse was not unpleasant to the mercenaries; and while 
they were just ready to revolt, Timoleon, by entreaties and large pro- 
mises, at length prevailed and put an end to the mutiny. However, 
a thousand men followed Thrasius, whose punishment was deferred 
for the present. And in the mean tiuie Timoleon wrote to hb friends 


at Syracuse to receife the deserters oourteously, and pay the mer- 
cenaries their wages; and so by this means he altogether extinguish* 
ed the fire of sedition ; but excluded those obstinate mutineers from 
the glory of a famous victory. 

lo the mean time, having with fair words reduced the rest to their 
former obedience, he marched towards the ienemy, who lay encamp- 
ed not hv off. Then he called the army together, and encouraged 
then to the battle, by setting forth and aggravating the sloth and 
cowardice of the Carthaginians, and putting them in mind of the 
sncoesses of Gelon. And when all with one voice cried out for 
fighting without delay with the barbarians, at that very time passed 
bjrsome carriage-hprses laden with bundles of parsley to strew in the 
tents. Timoleon thereupon declared, that it was an omen of victory; 
foTj (as he said), the crown at the Isthmian games* was made up of 
the same herb. Hereupon, the soldiers, by the command of Timo- 
leoo^made themselves crowns of parsley; and with these round their 
heads, witli great joy, marched against the enemy, as if thie gods had 
assured them of certain victory; ^ by the bsue it appeared to be r 
for beyond all expectation they overcame their adversaries, not only 
fay their own valour, but by the spepial help and assistance of the 
gods. For Timoleon, with a well-appointed body of men, marched 
down from the tops of certain hills to the river; and upon a sudden, 
being himself in the middle of the battle, attacked ten thousand of 
the barbarians that were but newly passed over. Upon which, there 
was a very sharp engagement, in which the valour and activity of the 
Greeks so far prevailed, that a mighty slaughter was made among 
the barbarians. Whilst those that first passed over took to their heels 
and fled, the whole Carthaginian army came over the river in order 
to repair their loss. Hereupon the battle was renewed ; and while 9"/) 
the Carthaginians were with their multitude hemming in the Gre- 
dani round, on a sudden, there arose such a violent storm of hail, 
thonder^and lightning, with a raging tempest of furious winds,which 
beat upon the hacks of the Grecians, but fell foul upon the faces of 
the barbarians: so that Timoleon-a army with ease endured this tem- 
pestuous shock; but the Carthaginians, not able to bear the pressure 
of so many adversaries, being at the same time hewn down by the 
Grecians, quitted the field and fled : and the whole body made to the 
river, where both foot, horse, and chariots, were in such confusion 
mixed one amongst another, and trodden under foot one by another, 
and pierced through their bodies by one another's swords and spears^ 
that a miserable slaughter was made without any possibility of re- 

* Gaoietui honour of Neptune^ celebrated every fifth ^ear* in the Isthmus near 

Vol. 2. No. 42. ' v 


' ■ ' ■ ' ' -'■■■' -' »- 

lief. Others being forced in heaps into the river by the enemy's horse, 
and pursued closest their backs^ after receiving many wounds^ there 
perished. And many, though they were never touched by the enemy's 
swords, yet, through fear, and the throng and difficulties of passage 
over the river, being pressed in heaps one upon aootbcr, there breathed 
out their last. And that which contributed not a little to the common 
destruction, the river was swolen to that excessive height, that maby 
(especially such as attempted to swim over the water with their arms) 
were drowned* In conclusion, two thousand five hundred, who 
made up the sacred brigade of the Carthaginians, and for valoUr and 
the glory of their arms, and greatness of their estates, excelled all 
the rest, fought valiantly, and were cut off every man. Of the rest 
of the common soldiers there were ^lain at least ten thousand, and 
above fifteen thousand taken prisoners. Many of the chariots being 
broken in pieces in the fight, only two hundred fell into the haii^ tS 
the Grecians ; but all the bag and baggage. The greatest part of the 
arms were lost in the river: but a thousand brigandines^, and ten 
thousand shields, were brought into the tent of Timoleon; of which 
some were hung up in the temples at Syracuse, and others distribut- 
ed among the confederates : others were sent to Corinth, and ordered 

(^y to be dedicated to Neptune. And although very rich spoils were 

'^ ' taken, (for the Carthaginians abounded in gold and silver, platef^ 
and other furniture of great value, according to the grahdeiir and' 
riches of their country), yet he gave all to the soldiers, as the reward 
of their valour. The Carthaginians that escaped, with much ad5 
got to Lilybffium, in such fear and consternation, that they durst hdtr 
go on board their ships, in order to return to Africa; as if, tKrbiigli- 
the anger of the gods, they should be swallowed up in the Lilybsisiil 

As soon as the new^of this overthrow was brought to Cartl^figey 
their spirits were mightily broken, and they expected that Tiroolcbtf 
would invade them with his army upon the first opportunity i there- 
fore, they forthwith recalled Cisco, the brother of Haiino^ froint 
liis banishment, and being a stout iban, and an experienced s?ldier, 
created him general. But looking upon it hot advisable for the fu- 
ture tq venture the lives of the eitis^cns^they resolved to hire st>ldierd^ 
out of other nations, and especially from among the Grecians, not 
doubting but that many would list themselves, by reason of tlie largo 
pay promised by the rich Carthaginians. They sent likewise am-» 
bassadors into Sicily, with orders to strike up a peace upon any terin% 

, . ^ whatsoever. 

5i >.'. After the end of this year, Lysimacbides was created chief ^otsi;- 

* CoaUof mailk t As flag^ons^ cb^%Ac. 

(Skap. XTII. DioDonus siculits. 147 

nor of Athens, and Quintus Servilius, and Marcus Rutilius, bore the 
office of consuls at Rome* Then Timoleon, as soon as he returned 
to Syracuse, in the first place expelled those as traitors out of the 
city, who had deserted him through the instigation of Thrasius.^ 
I%ese being transported into Italy^ they seized upon a sea<port town 
of the Brettii*, and plundered it. Upon which the Brettii were 
sp enraged, that they forthwith came against them with a great army,, 
taok the town by storm^ and put every man of them to the sword. . 
Aod such was the miserable end of these deserters of Timoleon, as 
Cbe just punishment of their former villany. 

Afterwards he took PosthuoHUS the tyrant^ and put him to death, 
irho had infested the seas with his piracies, and came at that time into 
the port of Syracuse as a friend. He received likewise with .all de- 
monstrations of kindness five thousand persons, whom the Corin* 
tliiaos had sent over to plant new colonies* The Carthaginians now, 
by their ambassadors, having earnestly sued to him for peace, he 
granted it to them upon these terms — ^That all the Greek cities 
should be set free; that the river Lycus should be the bounds be^ 
tvreen the territories of both parties; and, that the Cartliaginians 
siiould not for the future assist any of the tyrants against the. Syra- 
cosans* Having afterwards subdued Hicetas, he ordered him an ho^- 
Doarable burial: and took Mtna by storm, and put all the Cam pa- 
nians to the sword* And he so terrified Nicodemus the tyrant of 
the Centuripiaiis, that he fled out of the city. Then he forced 
Apolloniades,who lorded it over them of Argyra; to abdicate the go- 
▼ernment; and the inhabitants thus freed, he enrolled them as citi- • 
sens of Syracuse. To conclude, having rooted up all the tyrants, 
throughout the whole island, and freed the cities fiom their oppres-* 
sioo^ he received them all into his protection^ and they became his 
confederates. Then he caused proclamatiooio be made throughout 

all Greece That the senate and people of Syracuse offered houses 

and lands to all who were willing to be members of the common- 
wealth of Syracuse; upon which, many came flocking over as to the 
possession of a new inheritance* At length forty thousand new plan- 
ters had their shares by lot in those lands that yet remained undi- 
vided within the territories of Syracuse; and ten thousand were al- 
lotted to Argyra, being a very large and pleasant country. 

Not long after, he caused all the antient laws of Diocles for the 
government of the Syracusans, to be reviewed and amended. Such 
part of them as concerned private commerce and inheritances he 
altered not; but those that related to the administration of the pub- 
lic government^ and the commonwealth, he amended as he thou|;ht 



most expedient. Cephalus, a CorinthiaD^ a learned and prudent 
man, was chiefly concerned in this emendation and correctico of the 
laws. When this business was finished, he translated the Leontines 
into Syracuse, and greatly enlarged Camarina with moltitodes of 
inhabitants. And to sum up all, he brought things to that pass 
throughout all Sicily, (now through bis care in perfect peace and tran- 
quillity), as that the cities in a very short time abounded in wealth, 
and all earthly blessings. For through the seditions and intesdne 
wars, (which Sicily laboured under for a long time together), and 
the many tyrants that set up for themselves, it was brought to that 
miserable condition, that the cities were de{K)pulated, and the lands 
lay waste and untilied, and no crops to be had for the supply of daily 
food. But now that there were many plantations of colonies blessed 
with a constant peace, and the land was every where manured and 
improved by the labour of the husbandman, it began to yield all 
sorts of fruits, which being vended (with great advantage) to the 
merchants, the inhabitants grew exceeding rich in a very short time. 
And this abundance of wealth occasioned in that age nuiny stately 
structures to be erected up and down in honour of the gods. As one 
among the rest near to the Island of Syracuse, called the House of 
Sixty Beds, built by Agathocles, for greatness and beauty excelling 
all the works in Sicily; and beciiuse (as it were in contempt) it over* 
topped all the temples of the gods, (as a manifest indication of their 
anger), it w*as beaten down by a thunderbolt. At the lesser haven 
likewise, there were towers built of outlandish stone, in which were 
inscriptions cut, and the name of Agathocles, who raised theuK 
Besides these, not long after, were built by Hiero the kingf, an 
Olympus^ in the market-place^ and an altar near the theatre a fur* 
long in length, and in height fgad breadth proportionable. 

In the lesser cities likewise, as in Argyra, (which by reason of the 
richness of the soil, as aforesaid, received new colonies), he built a 
theatre, (the most glorious of any in Sicily next to that at Syracuse)^ 
and erected temples to the gods, built a court, a markel-plaeej 
and stately towers, and raised over the tombs and monuments many 
large pyramids of admirable workmanship. 

♦ A temple. 

CSIk!p.XrFI moDORUs sicuLus. 149 



Elatea taken by Philip. Great consternations in Athens for fear 
of Philip* The Bceotiansjoin with the Athenians through the 
soiicitations of Demosthenes. Pythany a famous orator. T%e 
battle of Cheeronea^ between Philip and the Athenians* Xjf* 
sides the Athenian general put to death, Philip rebuked by 
JOemades; made general of Greece. Timoleon dies. 

WHEN Charondas executed the office of lord-cliancellor of AthenSy 
and Lucius £iniIius,andCaius Plotins, were Roman consuls^ Philip 
king of Macedoo being in amity with many of the Grecians^ made 
it hb chief business to bring under the Athenians, thereby withmorQ 
ease to gain the sovereignty of Greece. To that end^ he presently 
poasessed himself of Elatea, and brought all his forces thither^ with 
a design to fall upon the Athenians^ hoping easily to overcome them, 
in regard they were not (as he conceived) prepared for war, by rea- 
son of the peace lately made with thera; which fell out aceordinglj. 
For after the taking of Elatea, some hastened in the night to Athens, 
informing them that Elatea was taken by the Macedonians, and that 
Philip was designing to invade Attica with all his forces. The A« 
thenian commanders, surprised with the suddenness of the thing, sent 
for all the trumpeters, and commanded in alarm to be sounded all 
night: upon which, the report fiew through all parts of the city, 
and fear rouzed up the courage of the citizens. As soon as day ap- 
peared, the people, without any summons from the magistrate, (as 
the custom was), all flocked to the theatre. To which place, as soon 
as the commanders came, with the messenger that brought the news, 
and had declared to them the business, fear and silence filled the the- 
atre, and none who were used to influence the people had a heart to 
give any advice. And although a crier called out to such as ought to 
declare their minds, what was to be done in order to their common 
security, yet none appeared who offered any thing of advice in the 
present exigency. The people therefore, in great terror and amaze- 
ment, cast their eyes upon Demosthenes, who stood up and bid 
them be courageous, and advised them forthwith to send ambassa- 
dors to Thebes, to treat with the Boeotians to join with them in de- 
fence of the common liberty; for the shortness of time (he said) 
would not admit of an embassy of aid from the other confederates, 
for that the king would probably invade Attica within two days 5 aod 



seeing that he must march through Bceotia, the main and only assist* 
ance was to be expected from them. And it was not to be doubted^ 
but that Philip, who was in league with the Boeotians^ would in his 
l^ inarch solicit them to make war upon the Athenians. The people 
-J approved of his advice, and a decree was forthwith recorded^ that an 
embassy should be despatched as Demosthenes had advised. Hot 
then It wfts debated, who was the most eloquent person^ and so most 
fit toAindertake this affair! Whereupon, Demosthenes being pitched 
oa to be the man, he readily complied, forthwith hastened away, prevails 
with the Boeotians, and returns to Athens. The Athenians thetefore, 
having now doubled their forces by the accession of the Boeotians^ 
began again to be in good heart; and presently made Chares and Ly- 
siclcs-' generals, with command to march with the whole army into 
Bo»otta. All the youth readily offered themselves to be enlisted^ and 
therefore the army with a swift march came suddenly to Chteronca ia 
Boeotia* The Boeotians wondered at the quickness of their approach^ 
and were thereupon as diligent themselves^ and hastening to theif 
tfms^ marched away to meet the Atheniaus| and being joiuedj they 
Aere expected the enemy* 

Philip indeed had first sent ambassadors to the council of the 
Boeotians, amongst whom the most famous was Python; for he was 
so eminent for eloquence, that in the senate he was set up to encoun* 
lerDemostliencs in the business relating to the confederacy, excelling 
indeed the rest by far, but judged inferior to Demosthenes. De- 
Sfiosthcnes himself, in one of his orations, glories (as if he had done 
lome mighty thing) in a speech of his against this orator, in these 

words: ^' Then I yielded not a jot to Python, strutting in hb confi-> 

dence, as if he would have overwhelmed me with a torrent of words." 
However, though Philip could not prevail with the Bceotians to be 
his confederates, yet he resolved to fight with them both. To this 
end, (after a stay for some time for those forces that were to joio 
Urn), he marched into Bceotia with an army of at least thirty 
thousand foot, and two thousand horse. Both armies were now ready 
to engage, for courage and valour neither giving place to the other; 
bat as to number of men, and skill in martial affairs, the king was far 
sapcrior. For, having fought very many battles, and for the most part 
coming off a conqueror, he had gained much experience in matters o{ 
war; on the other hand, Iphicrates, Chabrias,andTimotheus, (the A** 
tiicnian's best commanders), were now dead; and Chares, the chief of 
them that were left, differed but little from a common soldier, as ta 
/ tlie wisdom and conduct of a general. About sun-rising, the armies 
^' on both sides drew up in battalia. Tin* king ordered his son Alex- 
kndor, (nlio wa^ thcu newly (omc to man's estate, and had cveu at 

Chap.Xir. DI0D0RU8 SICULUJ. lAi 

tfaat time given evident demonstrations of bis valour^ and the spright- 
Itness of his spirit in managing affairs), to command one wing, joia- 
ing with him some of the best of bis commanders. He himself^ 
with a choice body of men, commanded the other wing, and placei 
<and disposed the regiments and brigades in such posts and statiooi 
as the present occasion required. The Athenians marshalled their 
army according to the several nations, and committed one part to the 
Boeotians, and commanded the rest themselves. At length the fir« 
mies engaged^ and a fierce and bloody battle was fought, which oon^ 
tinned a long time with great slaughter on both sides, tmcertaiii 
which way victory would incline, until Alexander, earnest to give ao' 
indication of his valour to his father, charged with a more than or« 
dinary beat and vigour, and, being assisted by many stout and brava 
men, was the first tliat broke through the main body of the enemy- 
next to him, with the slaughter of many, and bore down all before 
btm; and, when those that seconded him did the like, tlien the regl- 
loents next to the former were broke to pieces. At length, the earth 
being strewed with heaps of dead carcases, tiiose with Alexander first 
put the wing opposed to them to flight. The king himself, likewise^ 
«C the head of this regiment, fought with no less courage and lesohi- 
tion; and, that the glory of the victory might not be attributed to his 
son, he forced the enemy opposed to him to give ground, and at 
length totally routed them, and so was the chief instrument of the 
victory. There were above a thousand Athenians killed hi this bat^ 
tie, and no fewer than two thousand taken prisoners. A great num-. 
ber likewise of the Boeotians were slaio>aud many fell into^i 
of the enemy. 

After the battle, Philip set up a trophy, and, Iiaviug gi ven. liberty ^ 
Ibr the burying of the dead, he sacrificed to the gods for the victory^ 
and distributed rewards to the soldiers who had signalised their, valour^ 
according as every one had deserved. 

Some report, that Philip, having appointed a wanton and luiuiriouf. 
banquet with his friends, in ostentation of his victory, in his cups- 
passing through the throng of the prisoners,' most coiitumeliousl/; 
taunted the miserable wretches with their. misfortune. VVixerejupong 
Demadcs the orator, one of the captives, spoke boldly to iiim^ and' 
framed a discourse, in order to curb the pride and petulance of the. 
king, in words to this eU'ect — " Since Fortune, O king, has repre.-. 
aented thee like Agamemnon, art thou not ashamed to act the part: 
of Thersites?" With this sharp reproof, they say, Piulip, was so. 
Startled, that he wholly changed liis former course, and uot only laid 
aside the coronets, and all other badges of priJe and wantonness that 
attended his festivals^ but^ with admiration, reiccised the mau that had' 



ISS DiODoAus 8ICULU8. Boot XFZi 

reprehended him^ and advanced him to places of hoDonr. In coo* 
elusion^ he became so far complaisant, and moulded into the civiii* 
ties of Athens, through his converse with Demadcs, that he rekiaed 
all the captives without ransom; and, remitting his 'pride and 
haughtiness, (the constant attendant upon victory), he sent ambas- 
sadors to Athens, and renewed the peace with them: and, placing a 
garrison in Thebes, made peace likewise with the Boeotians* Aher 
this overthrow, the Athenians put to death Lysicles, the gencnl of 
the army, opon the accusation of Lycurgus, who was the most higlily 
preferred of any of the orators of that age. He had esecnted the 
office of lord-treasurer of the city (with great commendation) for the 
space of twelve yean, and ail his life long had been in great iqm^. 
tation for hb virtue and honesty; but a most bitter accuser. Tlie 
excellence and sharpness of whose speech, if any desire to know, hs 
may best judge by his words used against Lysicles, which follow: 

^* O Lysicles, thou wast the general of the army ; andj though n 
thousand citizens are slain, two thousand taken prisoners, a tiopl^ 
erected to the dishonour of this city, and all Greece enslaved, wd 
all this done thou being captain and general, yet darest to live and 
Yiew the light of the sun, and blushest not to shew thy face in the 
forum, thou who art born the monument of thy country's shame and 

A thing very remarkable happened at this time* For, when this 
battle was fought at Chsronea, the same day and hour another waa 
fought in Italy, between the Tarentines and Lucanians, in which Ar* 
chidamus, the king of Laccdsmon, was slain, who had reigned three* 
and-twenty years. Agis, his son, succeeded him, and governed nine 
years. About that time likewise died Timotheus, prince of Heraclea, 
in Pontus, in the fifteenth yeapof his principality, whose brother Dio* 
nysius succeeded, and reigned two-and-thirty years. 

Phrynicus bore the office of chief magistrate of Athens, and 
Titus Manlius Torquatus, and Publius Decius, were invested with 
the consular dignity at Rome, when Philip, bearing himself very 
haughtily, on account of his victory at Chseronea, and having struck 
a terror into the most eminent cities of Greece, made it his great 
business to be chosen generalissimo of all Greece. It being there- 
fore noised abroad, that he would make war upon the Persians, for 
the advantage of the Grecians, and that lie would revenge the impiety 
by them committed against the sacreds of the gods, he presently won 
the hearts of the Grecians. 

He was very liberal and courteous likewise to all, both private 
men and communities, and published to the cities, tliat he had a 
desire to consult with them concerning matters relating to the pub- 

€^. XF. moDoRus srcuLus. 1 53 

lie good. Whereapon a general council was called, and held at 
Corinth, where he declared his design to make war upon the Persians, 
and what probable grounds there were of success, and therefore de^ 
sired the council to join with him as'confederates in the war. 

At length lie was created general of all Greece, with absolute 
poWrr, and thereopon he made mighty preparations for that expedi- 
tion; andj haring ordered what quota of men every city should send 
IbHh, he return^ into Macedonia. And thus stood the aifiurs and 
Croncems of Philip. 

' In Sicily, Timoleon, after he had settled all things in right and 
doe order in Syracuse, died^ having governed eight years. The Syjra- 
cosaiM, who. highly honoured him for the many great services dotie 
to tkeirtsountry, buried him in great state and pomp, and, when the 
body was to be brought forth, great multitudes were got together, 
and tb6 Syraciisans published a decree — That two hundred minas 
should be expended upon the charge of his funeral, and that his me- 
mory should be honoured yearly for ever with music, ho#se-coursing, 
and Gymoic sports^ because he bad subdued the barbarians, planted 
colonies in the greatest Greek city in Sicily, and rescued the Sicilians 
firom slavery. 

About this time Ariobarsanes*' died, in the twenty-sixth year of 
bis reign, and was succeeded by Mithridates, who reigned five-and- 
tUrty years. . At the same time the Romans fought with the Latins 
sa4 Caapanians, near the city Suessa, and routed them, and confis- 
fifttad part of their lands; and Manlius the 6onsul, who gained the 
dsy^ tnamphsd for the victory. 

* King of PoDtiu. 

Vol. i. No. 42. 

154 DIODORUS sicULt^s. Book XFL 


Phil^ consults the oraek at Delphos. Marries his daugUer'Cbo^ 
patra to the king ofEpirus. Encouraged to the Permm war 
by Neopt<denms*s verses. PluUp^s pridom IBs murder. The 
cause of it, how it was done, and by whom. 

CI I WHEN Pythodorus was chief goTernor of Athens^ and Quintas 
Publius, and Tiberius ^oiilias Mamercus, were Romao consuls, the 
hundred and eleventh Olympiad was celebrated, wherein ClBonwntis 
Cletorius won the prise. In this year Philip began the war against 
the Persians, and forthwith sent Attalus and Parmenio before into 
Asia, to free the Greek cities there from slavery. He himaelf, iir» 
tending to have the concurrence of the gods, consulted the oracle at 
Delphos^ whether or no he should be victorious over the king of 
Persia. The answer was thus—^ 

The ox ii crowned when 's end is near at hand. 
To offer bim n num docb readj itand. 

Tills doubtful answer Philip construed to his own advantage, as if the 
oracle had expressly foretold, that he should lead away the PeniUi 
Icing as a victim to the sacrifice: but, in truth, it fell out quite odier- 
wise, and, by tlie effect, it appeared that it had a contrary sigbifiefe- 
tion, to wit, tliat Philip, in a tlirong, at the time of a sacred festival, 
was to be knocked on the head like a bullock crowned with a garland 
for sacrifice. 

In tlie mean time, he was very jocund, as if he had conquered Asia 
already, and concluded the gods were engaged with him in the ex- 
pedition. Without delay, therefore, he offered most costly and mag* 
nificent sacrifices, and, at the same time, solemnized the marriage of 
bis daut^fitcr Cleopatra, by Olympias: he married her to Alexander, 
king of Epirus, brother of Olympias. Having, therefore, a desire off 
a considerable appearance of the Grecians at this nuptial festivity, 
conjoined with hb religious sacrifices, he made most pompous pre*. 
paratioii for the entertainment of his friends and guests, both in id»v 
sic, diinelng, and feasting. 

To this end, he invited those that were his special friends and 
familiars, all over Greece, and commanded his servants add attend- 
ants that they should invite as many strangers from all places aft 
were of their own acquaintance. And his main design in all this 
Was, that he might assure all the Grecians of faia Jundness towardf 


tbem, and testify his gratitude, by these friendly eDtertainmeots, 
for the hoQours eonferred upoD him* Avast concourse of people, O ^ 
tberefbre, were got together from all parts, to the solemnity of these ^ 
nuptials, which were magnificently solemnized at £gea^, in Mace* 
donia, with all sorts of sports and plays; so that not only noblemea 
aod persons of quality, but even many great cities, presented Philip 
with crowns of gold. Among the cities, Athens made one; andy 
wheo the common cryer, with a loud voice, presented the crown 
sent from them to Philip, he closed with this.-jrbat if any plotter 
of treason against Philip should hereafter flee to Athens for shelter, 
be should be forthwith delivered up. By this accidental publication 
of the cryer, it seemed to be intimated (as it were by some divine, 
providence) that some piece of treachery was near at band to be 

There were several other such words (as by a divine instigation) 
uttered, which portended the king's death. There was then at the 
iestivai, Neoptolemus, the tragedian, remarkable above all others for 
the loudness of his voice, and famous and eminent in other respects* 
The king had commanded him to repeat some verses which he luid 
been ordered to compose, especially relating to the Persian expedition. 
Whereupon he began to recjte a witty poem, proper (as he thought) 
tQ Philip's intended passage into Asia, wherein he set forth the glory 
wd greatness of tUip Persian king; and> though he was so famous all 
the world over, y^t x\^i fortune would son^e time ojt other bring him 
down. The p^em was thus.^ 

YoQT minds are higber than the sk j o'ergroim. 
I1ie greatest part of oarth jou irisli jour own; 
Houses to houses join; fooU wUhout end, 
Yoq wouli;! j<mr fist.% as well as laods extent). 
|iui ^oleful dcaib^ alas! fi\tbu|igli ye du 
Creep towards, 'twill gailup uiiCu yuuj 
Of long liupes frry shortly cut the cine.. 

He added Ukewjse others in the same sense with these^ But 
Philip, resting wholly upon these recited, his thoughts were altoge- 
tlier full of his cQuqueriug the king of Persia; and he much revolved 
in iiis mind th^ arvsw^r given him by the oracle<L whicl^ agreed in all 
|ioints with the words pf the tragedian. 

Alter the feast for that ti^le was ended^ and tbe sports were to be 
renewed the q^xt day^ a great number of people in the night time 
flocked into the theatre. Apd whereas twelve images of the gods, 
(amongst other sumptuous preparations), nK>st curiously wrout^b^ 



and richly adorned) were brought forth in pompous procession^ the 
image of Philip, clothed like the gods in every respect, made the 
thirteenth, hereby arrogating to himself a place, as if he woaid be 
enthroned among the gods*. The theatre being now Aillj he him- 
self came forth, clothed in a white robe, his life-guards following him 
at a great distance, designing thereby to evidence it to all, that he 
judged himself secure in the hearts an4 affections of the Grecians^ 
and therefore stood not in need of the guard of his halberteers. 
While he was thus with loud and joyful acclamations cried iip (as it 
were) to the stars, and the whole multitude resounded his pruse^ 
upon a sudden, and beyond all men's expectation, he was treacher- 
ously murdered. 

But, for the clearer and more distinct understanding of the historf 
in this matter, we s|iall first relate the causes and grounds of this 

There was one Pausauias, a Macedonian,' of the city called Orestis^ 
one of the king's esquires of the body, and, for his beauty, d^Iy 
beloved by him. This man, taking notice how much another yduth 
of the same name was doated on by Philip, attacked him with very 
foul and opprobrious language, telling him he was an hermaphroditej 
for that he 4)rostituted himself to the lust of every one that would. 
He was much incensed at this disgrace, but concealed it for awhile, 
Afterw'ards, consulting with Attains what was to be done for the fu- 
ture, he determined presently after, in an unusual manner, to pot an 
end to his own life. , For, within awhile after, in a battle wherein 
Philip was engaged against Pleuratus, king of the. Illyrians, Pausanias 
in the heat of the fight interposed himself between the king and the 
enemy, and received all the darts upon his own body that were cast 
at the king, and so died upon the spot. The manner of hb death 
being noised abroad, Attalus, one of the courtiers, and in great es- 
teem with the king, invited the other Pausanias to a feast, and, after 
he had made him drunk, exposed his body, thus overcharged with 
wine, to be abused by the filthy Icists of a company of base, sordid 
feltowsf. When he was sober, he was highly enraged at the abomi^ 
nable abuse, and complained against Attains to the king; who, 
though he was much offended at the wickedness of the act, yet, by 
reason of his relation to him, and because he had at present ofecasibn 
to make use of him in his service, he would not J>uni8h him: for he 
was uncle to Cleopatra, whom the king had married as his second 

* Tlicre were twelve chief godi among the Greeks, who were called Oljnpii; tbcir 
nnnics were, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Viilcan« Apollu, Juno^ Veita# Minerva* 
Ceres, Diana, Vlmius. — Vide Jfcrodotui in Ttrptichon, 

t Mule-tenderi, or ostieri. 

Chap. XK woDORus siculus. 157 

wife, and was designed general of the army sent before into Asia, 
being a very stout and valiant man. To pacify therefore Pausania9, 
whose spirit was higfafy exasperated at the intolerable injui^ done 
likn, he bestowed on him many rich gifts, and advanced him to a 
more honourable post in his ^ards. But Pausanias's anger was 
implacable, and therefore he determined not only to revenge him- 
self upon the author of this abuse, but upon him that waved doing 
him justice by the inflicting of punishment. And Hermocrates the 
sophist greatly confirmed him in this his resolution. For Pausanias 
conversing with him, and in discourse asking him, by what means a 
man might make himself most famous ?.»The philosopher answered, 
by killing him that had done the greatest things; for, whenever he 
is named, then he likewise that killed him will be sure to be remem- 
bered. Pausanias, making use of this answer as an incentive to his 
rage, the restlc^ssness of his disturbed spirit would admit of no further 
delay, but laid his design in the time of the festivals in this manner: 
he first placed iiorses at the gates of the city, then he himself re- 
turned and stood at the entrance into the theatre, with a Gallic 
sword secreted under his coat. Philip had commanded his friends 
that came along with him to go before him into the theatre, and his 
guards were at a considerable distance from him : whereupon the 
traitor, perceiving that the king was alone, ran up to him, and, stab- 
bing him in the side, through the body, laid him dead at his feet^ 
and forthwith fled to the horses that were prepared for him at the 
gates. Hereupon presently some of the life-guards ran to the body, 
and others pursued the assassin, amongst whom were Leonatus, 
Perdiccas, and Attains. Pausanias nimbly mounted his horse, and 
made so swiftly away, that he would certainly have escaped, but that 
a branch of a vine caught hold of the heel of his shoe, and so en- 
tangled him that he fell : upon which Perdiccas, with the others, 
came upon him as he was endeavouring to rise, and, after many 
wounds given him, there slew him. And thus Philip (the most 
potent of all the kings in Europe in that age, and who, for the great- 
ness of his dominion, associated himself for ihajesty into the number 
of the twelve gods) came to his end, after he had reigned about four- 
and-twenty years. 

Tliis king, from very small beginnings, gained the largest dominion 
in Greece; and he is judged to have enlarged the bounds of his 
kingdom not so much by arms, as by his fair tongue, and his com- 
plaisant and courteous demeanor towards all he had to deal with : 
for it is reported, that Philip himself would often boast more of his 
military art and policy, and of the gaining of his enemies by fair 




words^than ii> the strength and valour of hb soldiers t for he bad 
used to say— .That the honour of winning of battles was comrooo 
axid due to the rest of the army with himself; but the praise and 
commenJation due to afiability and a pleasant converse^ was peculiar 
to himself alone. 

And thus^ being now come to the death of Philip^ we shall end 
(bis book^ as we at first designed. The following we shall begia 
with the succession of Alexander into his father's kingdom^ and eiH 
^Tour to comprehend all his actions in one book. 





THE former book, being the sixteemh of our history, began with the 

-teign of Philip, the son of Amyntas, and comprehended not <ni^ 

the things done by him to the very day of his death, bat tiie actions 

fitd affiiirs of other kings, cities, and countries, dtiring the spaee d? 

foar^nd-twenty years. Having now, in this, to declare v/iat bi^ 

Wed, we shall begin Ivith the reign of Alexander; and, in treating 

* of the actions of this prince, from the beginning to the end, we shall 

tdce along with us the most remarkable things done through all pai^ft 

of the worUL 

And the relations (we conceive) will be the better remembered, if 
things be methodically digested, as it were, into distinct heads, so aji 
tbat the beginning and end may, as by one thread, be knit one to the 
other: for this king did great things in a very short time, and ex* 
eelled all the princes that ever were before him in his wanderfi4 a- 
(hievements, effected by hts own valour and pdicy:. con- 
^Qered a great part of Europe, and almost all Asia, within the space 
of twelve years; so that his fame was (deservedly) advanced to that 
<)egree, that in glory he surmounted all the heroes and demi-gods. 

But we need not (we judge) in a, preface anticipate any of the 
worthy actions of this king; for the particular relations tkemselve;^ 
^ill sufficiently evidence his greatness, and the fame and glory of his 
i^&me. Alexander, therefore, descended from Hercules on the fa- 
ther's side, and from Achilles on the mother's, seemed to derive his 
valour, as well as his person, from such famous ancestors. 

Tlie time' thus stated for this present relation, we return to the 
course of our history. 




Conspiracies of the eiiies agmnst Alexander. The Athenians send 
ambassadors to Alexander, to beg pardon. He is made general 
by the Amphictyons. Attains killed by Alexander's commands 
The loickedness of Bagoas. Darius commended. Raises forces. 
A description of Mount Ida. Alexander invades the lUyrisau, 
and others. Thebes besieged by Alexander, and razed. The, 
miseries of Thebes. Prodigies. Alexander demands DemoS" 
thenes and others to be delivered up to him by the Athenians: 
their anstver. He returns into Macedonia, and feasts kk 

WHEN Evaenetus was lord-cbancelior in AtheDs,aDdLucioiFandSi 
aod Caius Manlius^ were Roman consuls, Alexaod^ ascended the 
throne, and, in the first place, executed justice upon the murderers of 
his father: and, when he had with great care celebrated hb fiweral^ 
he set in order the great concerns of the kingdom much better thtu 
most expected: for, being very young, and upon that aceount de«» 
pised, he sought first to win the common people by tail words and 
courteous addresses. Amongst others, he told them^ that the name 
of the king only ^was changed, hut that the government should not 
be managed in any respect worse than it was when bis father was alive. 
He courteously, likewise, gave audience to the ambassadcnrs, and de» 
sired the Grecians that they would have the same kindness for 1 
as they had for his father, which he so esteemed, that he looked ( 
it as part of his inheritance. Then he employed himself in the fire- 
quent training of the soldiers^ and in martial exercises, and hrougbt 
the army readily to submit to his commands. Attains^ the uncle of 
Cleopatra, Philip's other wife, conspired to gain the kingdom; and 
therefore he resolved to take him out of the way. For Cleopatra Was 
brought to bed of a son a few days before the death of Philips and 
Attains was sent a little before, as general, with PanBcoki his eol- 
league, with an army into Asia, where, by hb bribes and fair tMg«ej 
^e so gained the hearts of the soldiers, that th& army was wholly de- 
voted to him : and therefore the king conceived he had just cause to « 
be jealous of him, lest, if he should side with the Grecians, (whom he 
knew were hb enemies), he should by that means gain the kingdoli|i 

* M«niu9. 

Cl^9. /• DIODORUS SICULU8. 101 

for himself. Therefore he made choice of Hecateus, one of his 
f rieuds, and sent him with a considerable army into Asia, with com* 
maud to bring over Attains aliVe, if he could; and, if he could not 
effect, that, to take the first opportunity to kill him. When he came 
into Adia, he joined his forces with Attalus and Parmenio, and watched 
a fit opportunity to execute what he was commanded. 

lu the mean time, Alexander being informed that many of tht 
Grecians were batching some mischief, in order to new commotions, 
bis thoughts were greatly perplexed and disturbed. For the Athe- 
nians (Df^mosthenes stirring them up against the Macedonians) re- 
joiced at the news of Philip's death, and resolved that the Macedo- 
nians should no longer domineer over Greece, To this end, they 
tent over ambassadors to Attalus, and privately consulted with him 
concerning the management of the whole afikir, and stirred up many 
of the cities to assert their liberties. The i£tolians made a decree 
to recal the exiles of Acarnania, whom Philip had driven out of their 
country. The Ambraciots, by the persuasion of Aristarchus, drove 
out the garrison that was there, and restored the democracy. The 
Thebans likewise decreed to cast out the garrbon that was in the 
citadel of Cadmea, and that Alexander should never, with their con- 
tent, have command in Greece. The Arcadians also, as they were 
the only people that refused to give their consent that Philip should 
be general of Greece, so they now rejected Alexander. The rest of 
the Peioponnesians, as the Argives, Elians, Lacedasmonians, and 
.Bome others, were with all their might for their own government. To 
co:w\iiiej many of the nations beyond Macedonia waited for an op- 
portunity to rebel, and great commotions there were among the bar- 
barians in those parts. 

Notwithstanding all which, and the fears that were every where 
in the kingdom, and though he was but a youth, yet in a short 
time (beyond all expectation) he overcame all those difliculties, and 
made all plain and clear before hiin, reducing some to their duty 
by fair and smooth words, and others through fear and dread of 
punishments ; and the rest he comi)elled by force to stoop to his 

In the first place, he so far gained upon the Thessalians, both by 
promises of large rewards, and by his smooth and courteous language, 
(telling them how near of kin he was to them by his descent from 
Hercules), that they by a public decree declared him general of 
Greece, as that which descended to him from his father. Having 
gained this point, he brought over the bordering nations to the same 
^ood opinion of him. Then he went to Pylene, and, in tlie senate of 

\ql. 3. No. 42. Y 

1^2 DioDORUs 8ICULUS. Booi XFIL 

the Amphictyons he so managed his matters, that, by the general 
coDsentof all, he was creiated generalissimo of all Greece. He as- 
sured the Ambraciots, in a kind and smooth oration made to them... 
That he had that kindness for them, that he would presently restore 
them to that liberty which they so lately sought to recover. But^ to 
strike the greater terror into those that regarded not his words, be 
came with a swift march with an army of IV^cedonians in an hostile 
manner into Bceotia, and, encamping near the Cadmea, struck a ter- 
ror into the city of the Thebans. 

About the same time the Athenians, hearing of the king's coming 
into Bceotia, slighted him no longer: for the quickness of the youth^ 
and his diligent despatch of .business, greatly terrified the revolters. 
Hereupon the Athenians ordered every thing they had in the country 
to be brought into the city, and the walls to be repaired and guarded 
as well as they could; and sent ambassadors to Alexander^ to beg 
pardon that. they had no sooner owned his sovereignty, and ordered 
Demosthenes to accompany the ambassadors: but he came not with 
the others to Alexander, but returned from Citheron to AthcDi; 
either because he was afraid, upon account of the speeches he had 
publicly made against the Macedonians, or that he was not willing to 
displease the Persian king: for it is reported that he had received 
great sums of money from the Persians to beat down the interest of 
the Macedonians by his orations; which was hinted (they say) hf 
iEschines, in one of his speeches, wherein he upbraids DemostheDCS 
for taking of bribes in these words — Now the king's gold plentifully 
bears all his charges; but this will not serve his turn long, for cove* 
tousness is never satisfied with abundance. 

But to proceed, Alexander returned a very courteous answer to 
the ambassadors, which freed the Athenians from their fears^ and 
he ordered all the ambassadors and members of the council* to meet 
him at Corinth; where, when those who were usually members or 
the general council were come, the king, by a gracious speech^ so 
prevailed with the Grecians, that they created him general of all 
Greece, and decreed him aid and assistance against the Persians^ in 
order to revenge the many injuries the Greeks had received from 
them. Having thus gained the honour he sought for, be marched 
back with his army into Macedonia. 

Having now given an account of the affairs of Greece, we shall 
relate next what things were done in Asia: for. Attains presently 
upon the death of Philip, began to set up for himself; and to that 

• Of the Amphicfvons. 


end^ made a league with the Athenians^ id order by their joint con- 
currence to oppose Alexander, But aftierwards he changed his mind^ 
and sent a letter (written to him by Demosthenes) to Alexander^ and 
in many smooth and flattering expressions^ endeavoured to clear him- 
self of all those crimes and miscarriages that were laid to his charge. 
However, he was afterwards killed by Hecateus, according to the 
king's command; upon which the Macedonian army in Asia laid 
aside all thoughts of a defection, for that Attains was now gone, and 
Parmenio greatly loved Alexan\]er. 

But as we are now about to write of the kingdom of Persia, it 
is necessary that we begin our relation a little higher. 

Lately, in the reign of Philip, Ochus* ruled over the Persians, 
hated by all for his ill nature and cruelty towards his subjects. Ba- 
goas therefore, a colonel in the army, and an eunuch, but a wicked 
and beastly fellow, poisoned the king by the help of his physician, 
and placed the king's youngest son Arses upon the thrpne. He like- 
wise murdered the new king's brothers, (who were yet very young), 
that being thus bereft of his relations, he might be more observant 
to himself. 

But the young man abhorring the wickedness of this wretch, and 
plainly, by many tokens, discovering his design to punish him, Bagoas 
fmelling it out^ murdered Arses and all his children, in the third year 
of his reign. 

The royal family being thus extinct, and none of that race left who 
could make any title to the crown, he advanced one of his friends, 
called Darius, to the kingdom. He was the son of Arsanes, the bro- 
ther of Artaxerxes king of Persia. But the fate of Bagoas was very 
remarkable; for having habituated himself to cruelty, he resolved like- 
wise to poison Darius in a medicinal potion : but this treason being dis- 
covered, the king sent in a friendly manner to speak with him; and 
when became delivered to him the cup, and forced him to drink it off. 
And indeed Darius was judged worthy to enjoy the kingdom, being 
looked upon as the most valiant man among the Persians: for here- 
tofore, when Artaxerxes was engaged in a battle against the Cadu- 
sians,one of the enemy, of a strong body, and courageous spirit, chal- 
lenged any of the Persians there present to a single combat; which 
when none would dare to undertake, this Darius entered the list, 
and killed the Cadusian. For which he was highly rewarded by the 
king, and gained the chiefest reputation for valour among the Per- 
f ians. And for this reason also, he was accounted worthy of th^ 

* Dariut Ochaf« , 


crown of Persia, and began to reign about the same time that Philip 
died, and Alexander suc^ceeded in the kingdom. 

The valour therefore of Alexander meeting with such a miln ai 
this for his adversary to cope with, was the occasion that so many bat- 
tles were fought for the empire with that resolution as they were. 
But these matters will appear more clear hereafter, when things come 
to b& more distinctly and particularly related: for the present we shall 
return to the orderly course of the history. 

Darius* being advanced to the throne of Persia, a little before the 
death of Philip, he was contriving how to avert the war threatened^ 
and bring it over to Macedonia itself: but when he was dead, and so 
the king freed from that fear, he slighted and despised the youth of 
Alexander: but being for his volour, and activeness of spirit in des<* 
patch of business, at length created general of all Greece, the £une 
and valour of the young man was in every man's mouth. 

And Darius now began to look about him, and employed his chief 
care to raise forces, and fitted out a great fleet, and made choice of 
^the best officers he could procure to command his army, which was 
now very great and numerous ; among whom Memnon, the Rhodian, 
was one, al)rave man, both for valour and discipline : him the king 
commanded to march to Cyzicusf with five thousand men, and to 
endeavour to take that city: who, in order thereto, marched hit 
army over the mountain Ida. Some fabulously report that this moon«> 
tain was so called from Ida of Meliseus. It is the highest mouQtaill 
of any about the Hellespont. In the middle is a cave, as if it were 
made on purpose to entertain the gods, in which it is reported^ that 
Alexander^ gave judgment concerning the goddesses. 

Here it is said, the Idfiea Dactyli§ were born, who were the first 
that were taught to work in iron by the mother|| of the gods. 

A thing also very wonderful and remarkable is ascribed to this 
place: for, at the rising of the dog-star^, there is such a serenity and 
calmness of the air upon the top of the mount, as if it were there 
above all storms and winds; and then even at midnight the sun seems 
to rise, so that its rays appear not in a circular form, but casts abroad 
flames of j^re here and there at a great distance, so that it seems as 
if flakes of fire in several places overspread the earth; which, withia 
a little while after, are contracted into one body, till they come to the 

* Darius Codoroanus. « Cysicus, an island in^lie Propontis, and a city tlicre. 

X This was PMris, the son of Priaoi, called Alexander, who decided the coatrover»j> 
between Jono, Minerva, und Venus, bj giving the gulden apple to Venus M thefairvat. 
Pmui. J.v. c. 19. 

) The sons of Miaerfa and Apollo. I C^bete. f InAognft 

€1U^. /. DtODOKUB SICULUS. iSft 

m . ggessacgs ■ „ ' . ■ i> 

quantity of three plethras*. At length, when the day is at hand, 
there appears, as it were, the complete body of^the sun enlighteninif 
ibe airte it uses to do at other times. 

But to proceed: Memnon having passed over this mountain, as-» 
saults Cyzicus on a sudden, and was very near surprising af it. But 
fiuling in his design, he harassed the country, and returned loadeo 
with a rich booty. 

In the mean time, Parmenio took Grynium by storm, and holdall 
flie inhabitants for slaves. Then he besieged Pitane; but Memnoa 
appoaching, the Macedonians in a fright quitted the siege. 

Afterwards Callas, with a body of Macedonians and other mer- 
cenaries, fought with the Persians in the country of Troas, and beif^ 
overpowered with numbers, was beaten, and forced to retire to Rhc- 
tium. And in this condition was Asia at that time. 

Alexander having quieted all the commotions in Greece, mardied 
with his army into Thrace, which struck such terror into those peo« 
pie that had caused tumults and disorders there, that he forced theai 
to submit to his government. Then he invaded Pceonia and IHyriatt 
Bnd the people bordering upon them, and having subdued those ttmt 
liad revoked, he likewise brought under his dominion the batbanaos 
next adjoining. While he was engaged in these wars, he received 
intelligence that many of the Grecians were about to revolt, and that 
liH^nsiderable number of the Greek cities, particularly Thebes, had 
already actually rejected his sovereignty. He was hereupon in a 
great rage, and returned into Macedonia, with a design to hastra 
into Greece to quiet the tumults and disturbances there. 

In the mean time, the^Thebans were intent upon driving the Ma-f 
cedonian garrison out of the Cad mea, and to that end besieged tlie cita- 
del; and had no sooner done so, but Alexander was presently at the 
city walls, and lay before it with his whole army. The "^Itiebans^ 
before Alexander's approach, had so begirt the Cadmea with a deep 
trench, and a strong bancado of timber, tirat neither relief nor pro« 
vision could be brouglit in to them. They had sent likewise to t<«e 
Orcadians, Argives, and Eiians, for their assistance; and solicited 
the Athenians by their ambassadors to join with them, and had re« 
ceived a great number of arms freely given to them by Demosthenes, 
with which they armed those that had none. 

Among those, to whom theThebans addressed themselves foras- 
iistancc, the Peloponnesians had sent forces as far as to the Isthmus, 
and there ordered them to make a halt till the king came, who was 
then expected. The Athenians, though they had decreed aid to the 

* Three hundred feet. t Naw Daimatia, or Sclavoiua« 


Thebans^ yet they sent no forces thither^ iDtending first to obserrt 
bow matters were likely to go. 

The governor likewise of the castle of Cadmea taking notice what 
great preparations the Thebans were making for the siege, was ^pery 
diligent to strengthen and fortify the walls, and had furnished the 
garrison with all sorts of weapons. 

But after Alexander had arrived unexpectedly, and on a sud^ 
den, with his whole army out of Thrace, and that it was uncertaia 
whether any assistance would come in to the Thebans, the forces (rf 
the enemy far exceeding them of Thebes, the officers called a counci^ 
of war to consult what to determine, and there it was unanimously 
agreed to stand out in defence of the liberties of their country; 
which resolution being approved of by all the citizens, they earn^stlj 
set themselves to the carrying on of the war. 

But the king forbore force for some time, to the end they might 
have time to recollect themselves, not thinking that one city only 
would engaga with so great an army. For Alexander had with him 
above thirty thousand foot, and three thousand horse, all old expe^ 
lienced soldiers, (conquerors almost in every battle under Philip), ia 
whose valour he so far confided, that he doubted not but by them to 
put an end to the Persian monarchy, j^owever, if the Thebans had 
yielded to the present difficulty of the time, and had sent ambasaa* 
dors to the Macedonians with terms of peace, he had no doubt com- 
plied with them, and granted whatever they would have desired* 
For he wished greatly to have all quiet in Greece, and to be free and 
undisturbed in his war against the Persians. But when he saw that 
he was slighted by the Thebans, he resolved to destroy the city, and 
by that means to terrify all others who for the future should 
dare to rebel. And now when the army was drawn out in battalia 
ready to engage, the king caused proclamation to be made ..That 
.any of the Thebans should have liberty to come in to liim, and who* 
soever did, should enjoy the common liberty of Greece. On the 
other side, the Thebans, to shew themselves as forward in their am<v 
bition as the enemy, by the voice of a crier from a high tower madf 
another proclamation — ^That whosoever had a desire to join with the 
great king^ and the Thebans, to defend the liberties of the Grecians, 
and kill the tyrant of Greece, sliould be received by them. This 
touched him to the quick, and he was thereupon so enraged, that he 
vowed all sorts of deaths to the Thebans, and so commanded the 
engines to be prepared in order to an assault, and other things to be 
made ready for an engagement. 

In the mean time^ the Greeks considering the utter ruin that seem* 

* Kio^ of Perfia. 


td to hang over the heads of the Thebans^ were greatly affected with 
the miseries wherewith they were likely to be overwhelmed, yet none 
4urst appear to relieve the city, for that they had rashly and incon« 
siderateiy brought apparant destruction upon themselves: however, 
the Thebans were very forward and resolute to venture all to the ut- 
most extremity, though they were a little startled with some pre« 
pheeies and prodigies from the gods. The most remarkable was, that 
in the temple of Ceres, a slender spider's web was observed to spread 
out itself as broad as a cloak, and to represent the rainbow in aa 
arched circumference. Concerning which, the oracle atDelphof 
gave them this answer 

The god to all, bj this tign gives a call : 
To thee, BcBotia, first; and neighbours all. 

And the oracle in their own country returned them this other.^ 

This web for one works bane> 
' And for another gain. 

This prodigy happened about three months before the king came 
against Thebes. About the time of the king's ajrival, the statues 
placed in the forum seemed to sweat to that degree, that great drops 
io every part stood upon them. Moreover, the magistrates were in« 
formed, that in the lake of Onchestus were heard voices like the 
roaring and bellowing of oxen. And that the waters in Dirce were 
to the view as if they, had been all turned into blood. There were 
others from Delphos that reported, that the roof of the temple, built 
by the Thebans out of the spoils of the Phocians, appeared to be 
besmeared over with blood. 

Those who addicted themselves to the interpretation of prodigies 

said That the web portended the departure of the gods from the 

city; by the colour of the rainbow, was signified various troubles and 
turmoils; by the appearance of sweat, extreme miseries; and by the 
blood, slaughters and destructions in the city. 

Therefore they advised the Thebans, that, insomuch as the gods 
plainly pointed at the ruin of the city — ^Thatthey should not engage 
ia fight with the enemy, but rather seek to agree matters some other 
way, which was much more safe. 

But the Thebans abated nothing of their courage, but on the con- 
trary, pushed forward by the heat of their spirits, encouraged one 
another with the remembrance of their famous victory at the battle 
of Leuctra, and other successes gained by their former valour. So 
that trusting more to the valour of their arms, than making use of 
prudent councils, they ran headlong to the ruin of tliemselves and 
their country. 

In the mean time the king, within the space of three days, put 


all tilings in order, both for assaulting the city, and marshalUng his 
army for battle. His army he divided into three parts: one part 
lie ordered to assault the out-wali; another to fight the Tbebao 
trmy; and the third he kept for reserves to relieve his men, and re- 
new the fight as there should be occasion. But the Thebans placed 
tbeir horse within the ramparts* Their slaves that were manumit* 
ted, the exiles, and the strangers that were inhabitants, were ordered 
to defend the walls: and the Thebans themselves (though they were 
lar inferior in number) were resolved to fight those Macedouiaoa 
commanded by the king, tliat were ready to make the assault. 

And now all the women and children ran to the temples, to make 
aopplication to the gods to deliver them from the ruin that threatened 
them. When the Macedonians drew near, the trumpets sounded a 
charge, upon which both armies set up a great shout, and €very one 
charged that battalion to which he was appointed. By day-break 
the darts flew one at another, and those being quickly spent, they 
fell to it with their swords hand to hand, so that the fight presently * 
was very sharp and bloody. For the Macedonians, through their 
number (far exceeding the other) and the fierceness of their jcharge^ 
put the enemy hard to it. On the other side, the Thebans being 
stronger-bodied men, and used to martial discipline by their con- 
tinual exercise in the schools, and more resolved than tlie other, re- 
solutely went through all difficuUies whatsoever, so that many were 
wounded, and multitudes killed on both $ides. In the heat of th^ 
battle, a man might hs^ve heard shouts for victory, and groans of ij^ 
ing men at one and the same time, and the Macedonians often cal- 
ling out to one another, not to stain the glory of their forn\er victories 
by any base act of cowardice in the present engagement; and the 
Thebans pressing theirs not to suffer their parents, wives, aud chiU 
dren, tQ b^ miserable captives, and all their families ^ypoged to the 
rageful lust of the Macedonians, but that they would remember the 
battles at Leuctra and Mantinea, and the noble actions for which 
they were famous all the world over. So that the obstinate resola« 
tion of botli parties occasioned the issue of the battle to be very 
doubtful a long time. 

Alexander perceiving how the love of liberty inflamed the courage 
of the Thebans, and that the Macedonians began to faint, com*^ 
manded the rpserves to relieve them that were engaged. Upon whicb^ 
the Macedonians coming with a fierce and sudden charge upon tli# . 
Thebans, now even tired out, bore them down and killed multitudea 
of them. However, the Thebans would not yield the enemy th^ 
day, but stood to it with that obstinacy, that they slighted all mis- 
foriunc^^. and their valour so strengthened their resolution, lliat thty 


cried out^^That the Macedonians must own themselves worsted by 

the Thehans. And this is to be observed of them ^That when all 

ethers (being still pressed upon by their enemies with fresh supplies 
one after anotlier)are wont to flag, they only are the more courageous^ 
even when their wearied enemy is relieved by fresh reserves. 

While' the armies were thus resolutely engaged, the king spied a 
portal without any guard, and sends away Perdiccas with some regi- 
ments in order to possess himself of the place, and so break into the 
city. Perdiccas having presently executed the king's command, the 
Macedonians through this little gate forthwith rushed Into the city. 
And though the Thebans had a good while before worsted the enemy's 
first battHlion, and were now engaged with the second, and full of 
hopes of a perfect victory, yet, when they understood that the enemy 
had possessed themselves of a part of the city, they forthwith retired 
within the walls. And then both the horse and foot hastened back 
with all speed into the city, and trod many of their fellow-citizens 
under foot, who there perished; and while they made into the city 
in this trepidation and confusion, many were killed by running upon 
their own weapons in the strait and narrow passages, and by falling 
into the trenches. And in the midst of this distraction, the garrison 
out of the castle of Cadmea, issued forth lik? a rapid torrent upon 
the backs of the Thebans, and fell upon them as they were in thia 
disorder and confusion, and cut them down in heaps. The city be« 
ing thus taken, multitudes of all sorts of cruelties were acted within 
the walls. For the Macedonians, by reason of that insolency of the 
common crier, were enraged against the Thebans beyond what the 
law of arms would allows and with many threats in their mouths, flew 
upon the miserable people, and without any pity or compassion put 
all to the sword that were in their way. However, among all these 
calamities, the courage of the Thebans, and their love to their liberty, 
was such, that they were so far from minding the preservation of their 
. lives, as that when they met any of their enemies, they would pro- 
voke them of their own accord to kill them. For after the city was 
taken, not a Theban asked any quarter from a Macedonian, not a 
man that sordidly bowed down at the feet of the conqueror. Neither 
had the enemy any pity, notwithstanding the valour of the miserable 
people; nay, the whole day (though it was long) was judged too 
short to satiate their most crqcl revenge. The whole city was 
plundered, poor children, boys and girls, were dragged up and 
down, calling upon their mothers, hy their names, wjth most la-, 
mentablc outcries. And to comprehend all in a few words, whole 
families, with all their kindred, were hurried away, and the whole 
body of the people brought under miserable slavery. Xbe bodies pf 
Vol. 2, No,42. % 


some of the Thebans^ as they lay wounded upon the ground, though 
th^y were upon the point of expiring, yet clasping their enemy in their 
arms, breathed out their la3t with a sort of joy and content that their 
epemy died with them. Others, though they had but a mere 
trunk uf a spear to lean upon, yet fought with whomsoever they met: 
and so by that last attempt made it evident, how far they preferred 
their liberty before their lives. And though there was so great « 
slaughter made, that every part of the city was filled with dead car* 
casses, yet none that saw the miserable condition of these poor 
wretches pitied them. For even the Grecians, as the Thespians^ 
Plateeans, Orchomenians, and some others who hated the Tbebans^ 
(and who then l)ore arms under the king), broke in with others into 
the city, and amongst these dreadful slaughters executed their ma* 
lice upon them. So that many sad spectacles of most inhuman cruelty 
might be seen throughout the whole eity, Grecians butchering Ore* 
cians without any compassion, and those of the same language, blood, 
and nation, without any regard to any of these obligations, knocked 
on the head one by another. At length, when night came, the 
bouses were pillaged, women, young and old, were dragged out of the 
temples, (whither they had fled), and most vilely and filthily abused. 
There were killed of the Thebans above six thousand, and three 
thousand made captives, and a vast treasure carried away. Above five 
hundred of the Macedonians were slain, whom the king took care to 
bury. Presently after, the king caused the general senate of Greece 
to meet, and referred it to their determination how Thebes should 
be dealt with. When the matter came to be debated, some who 
hated the Thebans were for putting them all to the sword; and made 
it appear huwthey had joined with the barbarians against the Greeks^ 
For in the time of Xerxes, they joined as confederates with the Per- 
sians against Gieece, and were the only Grecians that were honoured 
as friends by the Persian king, and their ambassadors placed and pre- 
ferred before kings. These, and such like, being remembered and 
enforced, they so incited the senators against the Thebans, that they 
decreed ^I'hat the city should be razed to the ground, and the cap- 
tives sold fur slaves; that all the fugitives of Thebes should be driven 
out of all parts of Greece, and no Thcban should be entertained by 
any Grecian, llereupon the king, according to the decree, razed 
the city, which struck a terror into all the Grecians that had revolted. 
By the sale of the captives, he raised four hundred and forty talents 
pf silver. 

After this, he sent to Athens to demand ten of the orators to be 
delivered up to him, (amongst whom Demosthenes and Lycurgus 
ift ere the chieQi because they had stirred up the people againit him^ 

Chap, t blODORus 8ICWLU«. 171 

Upon which a general assembly was called^ and when the ambassa- 
dors were introdaced, and had delivel'ed their message, the people 
were greatly troubled and perplexed, desiring on the one hand to 
preserve the honour and dignity of the city, and on the other hand 
to consult their own safety, considering the destruction ofThebes> and 
that some imminent mischief might befal themselves; and thus they 
were made more cautious by their neighbour's misfortunes. At 
length, after many speeches made in the assembly upon this account, 
l^hocion, that good man, who differed from Demosthenes in his poll- 
« tics, stood up and said^fhat it would very well become those who 
were demanded, to imitate the daughters of Leos^ and the Hyacid- 
thidesf, by offering up their lives of their own accord t6 prevent th« 
ruin of their country. And he told them^^That it was baseness and 
cowardice to refuse to die for the preservation of the city. 

At this motion the people were highly incensed, and in a popular 
tumult threw Phocion out of the senate. Then the people (by a stu- 
died speech made by Demosthenes) being moved to compassion, de- 

chured That they would defend the men to the utmost. At length 

Demades, wrought upon (as is reported) by the friends of Demos- 
thenes, for five talents of silver, gave his opinion for the securing and 
preserving of the orators; and read the decree, which was drawn by 
himself with great cunning and artifice, tn which was contained an 

apology for the orators^ and a promise ^That, if they were guilty^ 

they themselves would punish them according to the laws. 

The people approved and ratified what Demades had read, and 

tent him with some others to the king, with orders ;That he should 

intercede likewise on the behalf of the Theban exiles> that the peoplt 
of Athens might lawfully receive and entertain theroi 

Demades wisely managed his embassy, and by his eloquence pre- 
vailed with the king in every respect. For Alexander both pardoned 
the orators, and granted all other things the Athenians desired. 

Then the king marched back with his army into Macedonia, and 
called a general council of his ofiicers and chief friends, and when 
they were met together, he asked their opinion — ^What they thought 
of an expedition into Asia? When it was fit to begin the war? and 
how it was to be managed? The counsel, indeed, of Antipater and 
Parmenio was-^That he should first marry and have issue to succeed 

* Leos bad three daughters, Pasitheai Theope, and Euhule, who were willioglj mi< 
•riiioed to put an end to a plague in Athens. — Suid, 

t The H^acinthidei were »ix daughters of Erectheus Ling of Athens, wlio olTe^ed 
themselves to be sacrificed to gain a victorjr fur their country against Euuiotpus king of 
Tbracv: lo named from a village called Hvachiathus^ wh^e they were laifrillccd.-* 

17^ DiODORUS 81CULUS. ' Book XFIL 

hiin, and then set apon matters that were crfso great weight and Gon<« 
cemment. But the king, who was Daturally fierce^ and eould not 
endure stops and delays in business, rejected their advice. For he 
said-J[t was a mean and unworthy thing for him who watf erested 
general of all Greece, and had the command of an army that never 
knew what it was to be conquered, to stay at home merely to manyand 
beget children. Wherefore, after he had set before them the advan- 
tages of the war, and had encouraged them to undertake it, heofier« 
cd most magnificent sacrifices to the gods at Dium in Macedonia, and 
exhibited the sports and plays wliich his ancestor Archilaus bad in- 
stituted to Jupiter and the muses. This solemnity continued nine 
days, according to the number of the muses, a day for every muse. 
He provided likewise a pavilion which would contain a hundred beds*, 
where he feasted and entertained all his friends and commanders of 
his army, and ambassadors of cities. 

After these sumptuous feasts were over, (in which be not only 
kindly entertained a vast number of people, but likewise distributed 
parts of the sacrifices, and other things suitable to the magnificence 
of the festival amongst his soldiers), he rendezvoused all his forces 
from all parts. 

CHAP. It. 

Alexander lands his army in Asia* The battle at Granicus. JTie 
forces of the Persians and of Alexander. Alexander kills 
Spithrohates ; near being killed by llhosaces. Miletus besieged 
and taken, Ada, queen of CariUy meets Alexander. Hali^ 
ramassns besieged^ taken, and sacked. The strmige act of the 

CTESIDES was lord -chancellor of Athens, and Caius Sulpitius^ 
and Lucius Papirius consuls at Rome, when Alexander at the Helles- 
pont passed over his army out of Europe into Asia. Being arrived 
at Troas with sixty sail of long ships, he was the first of the Mace- 
donians that cast a spear out of the ship, which fixed in the earth 
npon the shore, and then leaped out of the vessel, signfying, that by 
the help of the gods he had taken possession of Asia, which was 
conquered by his spear. 
Then be sacrificed to the gliosts of Achilles and Ajax, performinf- 

* Upon which thej Ml te aesli 



gMMaaaMBaaattaMaMBMnBaaBBsgaggggBgi i mm i BSsmaasmeaBssammm 
all other rites and cenemooies proper to the veoeration of those he- 
Mes. When that was done, he took an exact account of theniMi- 
her of those forces he had transported, which were found to aoKniiit 
to thkteen thomsaiid* Macedonian foot, seven thousand oonfedemtes, 
and fire thousand aiercenaries* Parmenio had the chief commaad of 
all these. Besides these, there were the Odryset,Trebalilans, and 
lUyrians, to the number of five thousand, and a thousand darters, called 
Agprianes; so that in the whole there were thirty thousand foot. For 
hone^ there were eighteen hundred raised out of Macedonia, under 
4be oommaod of Philotas, the son of Parmenio. As many out o£ 
Thsiee, commanded by Callas, the son of Harpalus. Front the nest 
of Greece, six hundred led by Eurygius. Besides these, there wens 
fluae hundred Thracians and Poeonians in the van, whose eommaader 
anas Cassander. The whole body of horse was four tbcHisand fife 
hundred^* And this is the number of them that landed in Asiji widi 

In the ^mean tiiue, he left under the command of Antipater, ia 
£ttfope, twelve thousand foot, and eleven diousand five bjundreA 

When he departed from Troas, aad came to the temple of Mi*- 
aervall, the priest* called Alexander, seeing the statue of Arbbar- 
scaaes {tliat had been lord-lieutenant of Phrygia) Lie prostrate upoa 
the ground before the temple, and observing several other good 

omens, came to the king, and told him ^Tluit he would be oon- 

i}ueror in a considerable horse engagement, especially if he fought 
in Phrygia, and that he should kill a great commander of tlie eoeiny 
ivith his own hand* And these things, he said, were foretold him 
by the gods, and especially by Minerva, who would be assistant to 
iiim in obtaining his victories. 

Alexander, much taken with this prophecy, and relying npoa it, 
offered to Minerva a most splendid sacrifice, and dedicated his arms 
to her, and took away others (that had been laid up there) in their 
•tead, which he made use of in the first fight afterwards, and gained 
a most glorious victory by his own peculiar valour« But this hap« 
pened some few days after. 

In the mean time, tlie Persian lord-lieutenants and commanders, 
(who through their sloth were not able to put a stop to the progress 
of the Macedonians), met together to consult how to manage the war 
against Alexander. Memnon, the Rhodian, one there amongst them, 
(a very skilful general), was not for fighting, but to give a check to 
the Macedonians, by destroying the country all before them, that so 

• It shoald be twelve tIioustil(]. t A people of Tlirace, of the city Odryaaff. 

t But by the particnlarj, they amount to five thousaud one hundred. 
i The Greek is %o, bat the Li^tin fifteen hundred horse. || At Iliuoi. 


tbey might not be able to march forward for want of prorisioiis: 
was for bringing over both land and sea forces into Macedonia, 1 
that means to make that the seat of the war. Although this was 
sound advice, (as the event made it afterwards evident), yet the rest 
of the commanders would not hearken to it, looking upon it as a j 
thing dishonourable, and much reflecting upon the valouf of the 

All being therefore resolved upon a battle, forces Were brought tx^ 
gether from all parts, and the lord-lieutenants being now much snpe* 
rior in number, marched towards the Hellespont in Phrygian and en* 
camping close by the river Granicus, having the river for a defence 
between them and the Macedonians. 

Aleiuuider having intelligence of the forces of the barbarians, mad« 
ft swift march, and came up so close to the enemy, that the river only 
sepa^ited both armies. 

In the mean time, the barbarians stood in battalia at the foot of 
the hill, judging it would do their business effectuAlly, and that they • 
ahould be sure of the victory, by falling upon them in their passage 
over the river, and by that means breaking in pieces the Macedoniaa 
battalion*'. But Alexander prevented the enemy, and with great 
courage passed over his army about the break of day, and drew up hit 
men in order of battle. The barbarians drew up the whole body of 
their horse against the Macedonians, for they had before resolved tm ' 
begin tlie fight with them. Memnon the Rhodian, and Arsamenes 
the lord-lieutenant, with their several regiments of horse, were ia 
the left wing, supported by Arrites, who commanded the Paphla^ 
gonian horse; and next to him Spithrobates, lord-lieutenant of Ionia, 
with them of Hyrcania. In the left wing were two thousand Me* 
dian horse, under the conduct of Arrbeomithres, and the like number 
from Bactria. In the main body was a vast number of horse of other 
nations, of the best and most experienced soldiers ; the whole amount* 
ing to above ten thousand horse. 

The Persian foot were at least a hundred thousand men, who stood 
drawn up behind the horse, without moving a foot, because they con* 
eluded, that the horse themselves would serve the turn to rout the 

And now the horse charged with great resolution onbothsides, es«- 
pccially the Thessalians in tlie left wing, under the command of Par* 
mcnio, bearing the brunt of a brisk charge with undaunted courage. 

Alexander with the choicest body of horse in the left wing, setting 
spurs to his horse, was the first that charged, and rushing into tiM 
thickest of his enemies, made great slaughter amongst them. The 
barbarians fought valiantly, striving to outdo the Macedonians^ and 

* rhalaax. 


fortune at this time brought together the persons of the greatest 
quality into tliis place. For Spithrobates, the chief governor of 
the province of Ionia, a Persian, and son-in-law to Darius^ a very 
valiant man^ charged the Macedonians with a great body of horse, 
seconded by forty of his guard/ all of his kindred, and inferior to 
none for valour and courage. With these he put the enemy hard 
to it, and attacked those about him with great resolution, killing 
some, and wounding others : and, when none were able to contend 
with him, Alexander rode up to the barbarian^ and fought with him 
hand to hand. 

Hereupon the Persian, concluding that the gods, of their special 
favour to him, had given him the opportunity of a happy combat^ 
(especially if by his valour he should free all Asia from their fears, 
and by his own hands give k check to these audacious attempts of 
Alexander that rung through all the world, and prevent tlie dishonour 
of the Persians), was the first that cast his javelin at Alexander, and 
with such force and violence, that it pierced through his buckler and 
breast-plate, into his right shoulder-blade. The king, plucking out 
the dart with his own hand, threw it away, and, setting spurs to his 
IkOTse, flew upon the Persian lord- lieutenant with that fierceness and 
violence, that he fixed his spear in the middle of his breast. Upon 
which the battalions of both armies there near at hand, in admiration 
of such a piece of singular valour, set up a great shout. But the 
point breaking in the breast-plate, so that the spear pierced no far- 
ther, the Persian made at Alexander with his drawn sword, who, 
biviog got another lance, threw it directly into his face, and pierced 
bim through the head; at which instant Rhosaces, brother to him 
that was killed, came swiftly riding up, and gave the king such a 
i>b)w,that he cut through his helmet, and wounded him slightly upon 
^ head; and, just as he was ready to second his stroke, Clitus, sur- 
oamed Niger, posted up, and cut oif the hand of the barbarian. 

The kikismen of the two brothers (now both fallen) came round 
About them, and at the first plied Alexander with their darts, and then 
Ml to it hand to hand, and ran through all hazards, that they might 
^'1 Alexander. And, Chough he was environed with imminent lia- 
^i^dsand dangers of his life, yet the throng of his enemies did not at 
a" daunt him : for, though he had received three strokes through hb 
breast- plate, and one cut upon his helmet, and had bis buckler, which 
be brought from the temple of Minerva, ilu-ice pierced through, yet 
be stirred not a foot, but stood his ground against all hazards and 
difficulties with undauntedrcsolution. 

In the mean time other brave commanders fell round about him, 
amongst whom the most remarkable were Artyaxes, and^ Pbarnaces 


the brother of Darius, and Mithrobarzanes, the commaader of tbo 
Cappadocians ; so that many great officers being killed, and all tfat 
troops of the Persians routed and broken by the Taloor of the Mace* 
donians, the first that fell upon Alexander were forced to take W 
their heels, and, after them, all the rest. 

In this battle, by the confession of all, the Tatour of Alexander wm 
cried up above all others; and he was reputed the chief instmment of 
the victory. The Thessalian horse managed their troops with that dcz- 
tcrity, and fought with that brave resolution, that, next to the kmgf 
they were most highly applauded, and gained exceeding hoDoar aad 

After the horse was routed and fled, the foot, running in one 
upon another in confusion, fought awhile; but, amaaed and dejected 
with the flight of their horse, they likewise turned their backs and 
BTNuIe away. 

There were killed in the Persian army above ten thousand foot^ 
and at Iciist two tiiousand horse^ and above twenty thousand takea 

After the battle, the king buried those of his that were slahi wHb 
p-eat solemnity, by these honours to encourage his soldiers to fight 
the more n ndily. When he had refreshed his army, he marched for- 
ward through Lydia, and came to Sardis, which, with the citadel, and 
all the provisions and treasure therein, were voluntarily surrendered t» 
fcim by Mithrenes* the governor. 

In the mean time, those Persians that had escaped out of the bat- 
tle, fled, together with their general Memnon, to Miletus, befora 
which the king afterwards came, and assaulted it continually for sc* 
veral days together, still relieving his men from time to time mtb 
fresh supplies. The besieged at first easily defended themselves from 
the walls; for the city was full of soldiers, and plentifully furnished 
with weapons and all other things necessary for enduring a siege. 
But, as soon as the king began fiercely to batter the walls with hit 
engines, and violently to push on the siege both by sea and land, and 
the Macedonians had forced their way through a breach of the walk^ 
putting their enemies to flight in that part, the Milesians forthwith 
prostrated themselves as suppliants at the king's feet, and gave up 
themselves and the city to his mercy. Some of the barbarians were 
killed by the Macedonians, others fled out of the city, and the rest 
were all taken. He dealt kindly and mercifully with the Milesians; 
but, as for the others, he sold them all for slaves. 

And now, having no further use for his navy, and being likewise 
6xprn5ive to maintain, he dismissed his fleet, except a few ships 

• Vt Miil.riuncs. 

Gft^. II. - DioDoaus sicuLus. 177 

which he detained for the conveying of his engines of battery, and 
other instruments useful for the besieging of tovirns; among which 
were twenty vessels from Athens. 

There are some who say, that this discharging of the fleet proved 
Alexander a prudent general : for Darius being on his march, and 
it .being therefore very likely that a great battle was to be fought, he 
conceived that the Macedonians would fight with more resolution 
when they saw there was no possibility of flight* And the very same 
project he contrived at the battle of Granicus, where he so ordered the 
matter, that the river should be at the backs of his soldiers, to the end 
that none might have a thought of flying, since the river threatened 
certain destruction to them that attempted it. 

In following times Agathocles, king of Syracuse, followed this ex- 
ample of Alexander, and so gained a glorious victory. For, having 
transported a small army into Africa, he set all his ships on fire, 
to take away all hope from his soldiers of escaping by flight; by 
which means, being forced of necessity to stand to it courageously, 
he overcame many thousands of the Carthaginians drawn up against 

After the taking of Miletus, botli Persians and mercenaries, with 
their cbiefest commanders, came flocking to Halicarnassus. This 
was then the greatest city in Caria, in which was a palace of the kings^ 
^rned with most curious turrets and citadels. 

About the same time Memnon sent away his wife and children to 
Darius, as well for their security, as to induce the king, having 
such considerable hostages in his hands, to intrust him with more 
confidence in the management of the war; which happened accord* 
ingly: for Darius presently sent letters to all the inhabitants of the 
sea-coasts of Asia, to be observant in every thing to all the commands 
of Memnon. Being made, therefore, general of the whole army, he 
provided all things necessary for the defence of Halicarnassus against 
a siege. 

In the mean time, the king sent away his engines of battery, and 
com and provisions, by sea, to Halicarnassus, and he himself, with 
ius whole army, marched into Caria, and, wherever he came, he 
guned upon the cities by his smooth tongue and courteous behaviour. 
The Greek cities especially tasted of his grace and favour^ for be 
give all of them liberty to govern according to their own laws, and 
ordered that they should be free from tribute, declaring, that he had 
undertaken a war against the Persians, for the rights and liberties of 
the Grecians. 

When he was upon his march, he was met by a woman of noble 
l^irth, called Ada, of the Uncage of the king of Caria, who, upon 
Vol. 2. No. 42» aa 

178 niODORUs stcuLtf s. JBo(dk XPtL 

discourse with him concerDing the right of her aneestbrs, entreated him 
to restore her to the kingdom of her grandfather^ which he gavtf ilp to 
hcr^ aud bid her take it as her own ; by whioh bounty t6 the Womaiit 
he gained the hearts of the Grecians, and all the cities sent their 
ambassadors to him; and, presenting him with croWn^ of gold, pro- 
mised and offered to serve hiiii in all things to tlie utmost of their 

Alexander now encamped near to the city, and forthwith assaulted 
the town in a furious and terrible manners for, at the very begin- 
ning, his soldiers by turns stormed the walls without any intermis- 
sion, so that the conflict continued whole days together. Afterwards^ 
he brought up all sorts of engines to the walls, and filled 4p the 
trenches before the city, by the help of three machinies called snailsj 
and then with his rams battered down the towers and walb that ran 
along between them. Part being thus beaten doWn, he engaged iir 
the breach with the enemy, and endeavoured to force his way into the 
city over the rubbish. But Memnon easily repulsed the Macedo- 
nians, (who first assaulted the ^all), there being many nten within 
the city; and in the niglit, when the engines were brought up, he 
made a sally with a great body of men, and set fire to tliem. iTpoQ 
which there were many sharp conflicts before the Walls, in Which the 
Macedonians far excelled the other for valour, but the Petsiana ex- 
ceeded them in number of men, and all warlike provisions. Bat those 
upon the walls were of great advantage to the Persians that were en- 
gaged in the sally, by galling their enemies with their darts and ar- 
rows, attended with deaths and wounds; shouting of men and sound- 
ing of trumpets every where echoed in the air, while the soldiers on 
both sides, with loud acclamations^ applauded the noble actions ol 
their several parties. 

And now some endeavoured to extinguish the mounting flames of 
the engines, and others, engaging with the enemy, made a grievous 
slaughter among their adversaries. Tliose within raised up other 
walls much stronger, instead of those that were battered down. The 
commanders, with Memnon, being in the front, encouraged their 
men to stand to it, offering great rewards to such as valiantly beliaved 
themselves: so that it was incredible with what lieat and spirit every 
one pushed forward to win the day. Then might be seen !K>me car- 
licd out of the army so wounded that they were breathing out their 
last; others gathered round the bodies of the dead^ and shalrply en- 
gaged in striving to carry off the bodies, in order to their burial; 
others, but even now tired out with wounds and blows, presently 
(through the encouragement of the officers) recovering their S|^&ritt^ 
fell to it briskly again. 

Cimp^ IL DiODORUs sicuLUS. 179 

« Some of the Macedonians (anaong whom was Neoptolemusi an 
honourable person}5 wer^ slain^ even under the city gates. Aqd now 
towers and two flankers were battered down; upon wliich some 
drunken soldiers of Perdiccas rashly in the night mounted the walbi 
of the citadel : but Memnon, understanding what plight they were* 
in, made a saily^ apd| being much superior in numbers, repulsed the 
IMacedouians^.and killed many of them, which being noised abroad^ 
the Macedonians came flocking in to the aid of their fellows; upon 
which there Was a brisk encounter. At length, when those with 
Aiescander appeared, and joined with the rest, the Persians flaggedji 
and were beaten back into the city. Then the king sent a trum- 
X^eter to make a truce, in order to carry off those Macedonians that 
were slain before the walls: but Ephialtes and Thrasybulus, both 
Athenians, apd then in arms for the Persians, gave advice not to 
suffer the dead to be buried. However, Memnon granted what the 
king desired. 

Afterwards Ephialtes, in a council of war, declared bis opinion.^ 
That it was uot advisable for them to stay till the cnity was taken, 
and so to be made prisoners, but for all the officers, with the merce- 
naries, to venture their, live^ for the safety and security of the rest^^ 
and to sally upon the enemy out of the city. Hereupon Memnon, 
perceiving Ephialtes to be prompted to action by an extraordinary 
impulse of valour, and placing great confidence in him by reason of 
bis courage and the strength of his body, agreed to what he liad ad- 
vised. In order to which, he appointed two thousand mercenaries, 
pf the best soldiers he could pick out, to sally with him, one half of 
whom were commanded to carry along with them lighted fire-brands, 
and the other to fall in upon the enemy. About break of day the 
gates were suddenly flung open, and the regiments issued out, and 
cast their fire-brands among the engines; upon which a great flame ■ 
presently appeared. Ephialtes, at the head of others formed into a 
deep phalanx, charged upon the Macedonians, who were hastening to 
preserve and defend the engines. The king, quick in discerning 
what was to be done, placed the chief of the Macedonians in the 
front, and some of the chiefest soldiers next, in order to support them ; 
and to these he added a third battalion, for valour exceeding all the 
rest. The whole body he led up himself, and fell upon the enemy, 
who seemed (through their firm and close order) to he impenetrable, 
and not to be broken by any force whatsoever. 

In the mean time he commanded others to go to defend the en« 
gines, and quench the fire. Noise and clamour filled the camps, 
and the trumpet giving the alarm to battle, they fell to it, fighting 


lyith more than ordinary valour, ambitious to purchase bonoor and 
renown. The Macedonians easily quenched the fire^ but in the con- 
flict those with Ephialtes got the better: for^ with whomsoever he 
engaged, (being of a far stronger body than any of them), he certainly 
billed, and those that were upon the new wall slew many with their 
darts: for upon this wall there was a wooden tower erected, an ban* 
dred cubits high, full of engines for shooting of darts and arrows. 

Many therefore of the Macedonians being killed, and the rest re* 
treating by reason of the multitude of darts, and Memnon coming in 
to the assistance of the Persians with a far greater number, the king 
hunself knew not well what to do. While those that issued out ot 
the town thus prevailed, on a sudden the tables were turned: finr tfie 
old Macedonians (who by reason of their age were to thb time dis- 
pensed with, and not called to fight, though formerly victorious in 
many battles under King Philip) now, at this very instant, were 
stirred up to their antient courage and resolution; and, being both 
valiant and expert soldiers, (far beyond all the rest), they opbraided 
the cowardice of the fresh-water soldiers, who turned their backs, 
with most bitter taunts and reproaches. These presently getdng into 
a body, and clapping their bucklers one into another, fell in upon the 
enemy, {tiovr confident of an assured victory), and, having killed 
Ephialtes, and many others, forced the rest into the city; and the 
Macedonians, being mixed with the others in the night-time, entered 
pell-mell with them within the waHs; but the king ordered a retreat 
to be sounded, and so they returned into the camp. After this, 
Memnon and the rest of the commanders consulted together, and 
determined to leave the city. In execution of which resolve, they 
left the best of the soldiers to keep the citadel, with sufficient provi- 
sion and all other things necessary, and traqspprted themselves, with 
the rest of the citizens, and all their wealth, into Coos. 

Alexander about spring of day, understanding what was done, 
cast a trench, and built a rampart upon it round about the castle, 
and razed the city itself to the ground. Then he ordered part of his 
army to march farther up into the country, in order to force other 
provinces to his obedience. These forces valiantly brought under 
the power of Alexander all the nations as far as to the borders of the 
Greater Phrygia, and forced them to find provisions for their army. 

Alexander himself subdued all the sea-coast of Asia to Cilicia, 
gaining many cities by surrender, and taking several forts and castles 
by storm, amongst which \here was one that was taken after a won- 
derful manner, which, by reason of the rarity of the thing, is not to 
be passed over. 

Chap. 11. DIODORUS SICULUS. 181 

tipsggga a'.' f'ttM' 1 ,.. ' '■ ' 'isu'H ' 'JUL 

In the utmost borders of Lycia, the Marmareofies*, who inha* 
bited upon a great rock, and well fortified, fell upou the rear of Alex- 
ander's army in their march thither, and slew many of the Macedo- 
nians, and carried away a great number of prisoners and carriage- 
bcHses. At which the king was so enraged^ that he resolved to be- 
siege the place, and used his utmost endeavour to gain it. But the 
j^armarenses, trusting to their own valour, and the strength of the 
place, manfully endured the siege; for they were assaulted two day^ 
together without any iutermission, and were assured that the king 
would not stir from thence till he had taken thcrock. The antient 
men, therefore, at the first advised the younger to forbear standing it 
out with such violence, and to make peace with the king upon as good 
conditions as they could; which, when they denied, and all resolved 
to part with their lives and the liberties of their country together, the 
graver men then advised them to kill all the old men, women, and 
children, and that those who were strong and able to defend them- 
selves should break through their enemy's camp in the night, and fly 
to the next mountains. The young men approved of the counsel, and 
thereupon an edict was made..^That every one should go to his cwa 
Iiouse, and eat and drink plentifully with his wife, children, and re- 
htions, and then expect the execution of the decree. But some of 
Ae young men who were more considerate than the rest (who were 
about six hundred in the whole) judged it more advisable to forbear 
killing their own kindred and relations with their own hands, but 
father to set the houses on fire, and then to sally out at the gates, 
and make to the mountains for their security. This was presently 
agreed to, and the thing put in execution; and so every man's house 
became his sepulchre : and the young men themselves broke through 
the midst of their enemies, and fled to the hills near at hand. And 
these were the chief things done this year. 

^ Or Marmarians. 

1S9 DioDORUS sicuLUS. JBook XFJL. 


Mittflene taken by Memnon, Darius's general. His. weeesseK^ 
He dies. Charidemus the Athenian unjustly put to decUh bf^ 
Darius. Alexander falls sick: is recovered by Philip. Alex^, 
ander seizes Alexander of LyncesteSy on account of his mother* 9^ 
letters. Alexander takes Issus. The memorable iaitle a|, 
Jssusy tahere the mot her, wife, tivo daughters ^ and sonofDa^^ 
rius were taken. Alexander's noble behaviour towards thenh, 
Darius' s letters and offers to Alexander. Dariiiis prepares Oifo-^ 
iher army. 

BUT \n the following year, wherein Nicoerates was chief goirernpr, 
of Athens^ and Cssio Valerius, and Lucius Papirius^ succeeded in 
the consular dignity at Rome, Darius sent a great sum of money ta 
Memnon^ and declared him general of all his forces. Hereupoo \^ 
raised great numbers of men from all parts, and, fitting out a MV|p 
of three hundred sail, applied himself with great diligence to thfl;: 
prosecution of the war. To that end, he brought in Chios to joia 
with him. Then he sailed to Lesbos, and presently took Antiss*^ 
Metbymna, Pyrrha, and Erissa. But, as for Mitylene and Les- 
bos*, because they were much larger, and strongly garrisoned and 
well provided, he gained them not without many assaults^ and the 
loss of many of his men, though he took them at length, with much 
ado. The fame of this action being presently noised abroad, many 
of the Cyclade islands sent ambassadors to him, to make leagoes 
with him. Then there was a report spread abroad, that Memooo^ 
with his whole fleet, was intending to invade Eubcea, which put all 
the cities into a great consternation. And some of the Grecians^ 
being brought into the confederacy of the Persians^ were heartened 
in hopes of a change of their afiairs for the better. Besides, Memnoo 
bad corrupted many of the Greeks with money to sail in the same 
bottom with the Persians. But fortune put a stop to the progress of 
this roan's success: for he fell sick of a mortal distemper, and died; 
and, by his death, the affairs of Darius went backward: for the kingf 
hoped to have transferred the whole weight of the war oat of Asia 
into Europe. 

But, when he heard of the death of Memnon, he called his friends 
tpgcther, and asked their advice .^Whether he should send a general 

* Lesbos, a citjr in Letbci. t OC Persia. 

^ap.tlt. DtODOHUS ^ICULUS. 1S3 

tjpsgggaa '.' f'ttM' 1 ,.. ' '■ ' ' isu'H ' 'JUL 

iKTith the aniiy> or go himself in person, and try his fortune with the 
Macedonians* Some were of opinion tliat the king should go hiiii<-> 
self, for they said that the Persians would then with more cheerfuU 
ness Venture their lives* But Charidemus the Athenian, who Was in 
great esteem for his valour and prudence as a general, (for, under 
Philip he gained greht reputation, and was his chief and principal ad^ 
fiser in all his weighty aflfairs), advised Darius not to lay the kingdom 
lashly at stake, but still to continue lord of Asia, and keep the govem- 
fti^nt in his own hand, and to appoint an experienced general to ma- 
nage the concerns of the war* And he told him, that an hundred 
fliousand men, of which number a third part should be mercenaries 
oot of Greece, were sufficient for the expedition, and engaged that 
be would see the thing accomplished. The kitig at first agreed Ixl 
what he said; but his friends peremptorily rejected this advice, sufi« 
pecting that Charidemus sought for the chief command, with a de« 
sign to give up all into the power of the Macedonians* Hereupoa 
Charidemus was in such a rage, that he called them all cowards ^ 
with which words the king was much more offended than before! 
and whereas anger never suffers a man to consider wisely befora 
hand, Darius ordered him to be bound in it belt, (which is the maiv* 
ner of the Persians), and delivered him to his guards to be put t» 
death; who, when he was being led to execution, cried out_Thtt 
Qie king would in a short time repent of what he had done in this 
matter, and would be punished for that unjust judgment against liim 
by the loss of lus kingdom. Thus fell Charidemus from the summit 
of all fak hopes and expectations, through the unseasonable liberty of 
his tongue* But the king, as soon as his anger was over, presendy 
repented of what he had done, and accused himself as guilty of a 
most horrid crime: but the power of a king could not undo that 
which was past remedy. Considering, therefore, how valiaat the 
Macedonians were, and musing upon the courage of Alexander, he 
inquired where he might have a fit person to succeed Memooa ia 
the chief command of the army; and, when none could be foond, he 
was forced to run the hazard himself for the saving of his kingdom. 
He forthwith, therefore, ordered all his forces to be called together 
from all parts, and to rendezvous at Babylon. Then he made choice 
of such of his kindred and friends as he thought fit, and to some \yt 
gave commands in the army, according to their several qualities, and 
others he appointed to attend upon his person, as his life-guards. As 
soon as the time before fixed upon for the expedition was come, they 
all rendezvoused at Babylon, to the number of four hundred thousand 
foot, and an hundred thousand horse. Hence he marched awav. 

-' 4 7 

184 DiODORus sicuLUis. Book XPII. 

■ ■ ■■■" *— ^■T^ g;;^ 

with thb vast number of men, towards Cilicia*, taking along with 
bim his mother^ wife^ and children^ that is to say^ a son and two 

In the mean time, Alexander (while Memnon was living)^ hear* 
ing how Chios and the cities of Lesbos were surrendered into the 
Iiands of Memnon, and that Mitylene was taken by storm, and that 
be was ready to invade Macedonia with a navy of three hundred mlj 
and that many of the Grecians were upon the point of revolting)^ 
was very much perplexed and discontented: but, as soon as be heard 
of Memnon's death, his mind was more at rest. But within a short 
time after he fell desperately sick, and, growing worse and worse^ 
sent for physicians, who, when they came, were all afraM to adminis- 
ter any thing, looking upon him as irrecoverable: but there was one 
Philip of Acarnania, (whose practice it was commonly to make use of 
desperate medicines)^ who promised to cure him by a potion : the 
king hereupon readily complied with this, especially because be heard 
Darius was on his march from Babylon. Then the physician de- 
livered the potion, which^ through the art and skill of Philip, and the 
advantage of the natural strength of the patient, presently cuicd 
the king; who being thus, beyond all hope^ recovered^ bouotifnllj 
Rwarded the physician^ and received him into the number of his most 
ftithful friends. 

About the same time Alexander received letters from his motherj 
wherein (among other things which she thought fit to advise him of) 
she wished bim to have a care of Alexander of Lyncestest, who was 
a very valiant man, and of a generous disposition, and not inferior to 
any for his faithfulness to Alexander. But^ many things concurring 
that seemed to fortify the accusation, he was seized and committed 
to custody, in order to his legal trial. But Alexander, having intelli* 
gence that Darius was within a few day's march, sent Pkrmenio be* 
fore with the army, to gain the passes and the gates ^9 as they were 
called; who, marching away with all speed, possessed himself of 
them, beating off the barbarians, who were there before him. Da- 
rius, that he might march with more ease, had left all his heavy bag- 
gage and rabble behind him at Damascus, a city of Syria. Hence 
be marcked witli all the speed he could, hearing that Alexander had 
previously possessed himself of all the difficult passes and places, as 
not daring to fight in the plain and open field, as he supposed. The 
inhabitantj of all the places through which Alexander had passed^ 
slighting the inconsiderable number of the Macedonians, and 

* Cilicii, Dvw CanmBia» in the Tarkish doainkmL t la Hiftdtaii. 

X Sjn« Pilc» or ihc g«t«t of Sjri^ 


frightened at the approach of the vast army of the Persians^ without 
moy regard to Alexander^ sided with Darius^ and readily supplied 
the Persians with provisions and all other necessaries, and, by the 
rule of their own opinions, adjudged the victory before-hand to the 

f o the mean time, Alexander had possessed himself of Issus*', 
(surprised with the fear of his army), a considerable city of Cilicia; 
and^ understanding by his spies that Darius was not above thirty 
furlongs distant, and that he was even now approaching, with his 
army so provided and in that order as to make them terrible to all, 
he judged that the gods highly favoured him, in putting such an op- 
portunity into his hands, as that, by the gaining of one victory, he 
should ruin the whole empire of Persia. Hereupon he stirred up 
the spirits of his soldiers, (by a speech for the occasion), encourag'- 
ing them to fight manfully, now all lay at stake. His regiments of 
foot and squadrons of horse he posted as the place and ground would 
best allow: the horse was placed before the whole body of the foot, 
which were ordered behind so as to support and relieve the horse. 
Being in the right wing himself, he marched on towards the enemy 
with the choicest of the horse. The Thessalian horse were in the 
left, for valour and skill far excelling all the rest. And now the 
armies came within the cast of a dart one of another, upon which 
there flew such a shower of darts from the barbarians against them 
with Alexander, that, through their multitude, they so brushed in 
their flight one upon another, that their force was much abated, and 
they did little harm. Then presently the trumpets on both sides 
Bounded a charge, and the Macedonians were the first that set up a 
great shout, which being answered hy the barbarians, all the hills 
and mountains there near at hand echoed with the noise. But the 
shout of the barbarians far exceeded the other, being made by five 
hundred thousand men at once. 

Then Alexander looked every where round about to spy out Da- 
rius, whom having found, he made at him (with those horse that 
were with him) with all the speed imaginable, desiring not so much 
to conquer the Persians, as to gain the present victory by his own 
personal valour. In the mean time, the whole body of horse engaged, 
great slaughter being made on both sides; but the valour of t))o>e 
engaged caused the victory to hang a long time in suspense, appeai** 
ing sometimes here and sometimes there, by changes and turns. No 
dart cast or stroke given by any was in vain, but did some execution, 
for in such a multitude the mark was sure to be hit. So that gre. ^ 
numbers were wounded, and others, fighting to their last breatl^ 

* Imus, now LtAaato, under the Turki, 

Vol. 2. No. 42. bb 


chose rather to lose their lives, than part with their honour. And 
the officers, at the head of their regiments, so bravely behaved them* 
selves, that they put life and courage into the commoD soldieD* 
There might then be seen all sorts of wounds, and as various and 
sharp contests for victory. Oxathres, a Persian, and brother of Da- 
rius, a very valiant man, as soon as he saw Alexander make so 
fiercely at Darius, was resolved to undergo the same fortune with bis 
brother, and therefore charged Alexander's body with the best of 
the horse he could make choice of out of his own troops, and, know- 
ing that his love to his brother would advance his fame and reputa- 
tion above all other things among the Persians, he fought close by 
liis chariot, and with that courage and dexterity, that he hid many 
dead at his feet; and, inasmuch as the Macedonians were as resolute 
on the other side not to move a foot^ the dead bodies rose up in 
heaps round about the chariot of Darius. And, every one striving to 
lay hold of the king, both sides fought with great obstinacy, without 
any regard of their lives. In this conflict many of the Persian no- 
bility were slain, amongst whom were Antixyes and Rheomitres, and 
Tasiaces, the lord-lieutenant of Egypt. And many of the Macedo- 
nians likewise; and Alexander himself (compassed round by the 
enemy) was wounded in the thigh. The chariot-horses of Darius^ 
receiving many wounds, and frightened at the multitude of carcases 
that lay in heaps round about them, grew so unruly, that they would 
have hurried Darius into the midst of his enemies, if he had not ia 
this extremity caught hold of the reins himself, being forced thus to 
make bold with the laws of the Persians, in debasing the majesty of 
the Persian kings. In the mean time, his servants brought to him 
another chariot, and, while he was ascending this, there arose a great 
tumult, insomuch that Darius himself (by the enemy pressing hard 
upon him) was in a great terror and consternation; which, whea 
some of the Persians discerned, tliey began first to fly, and the horse 
that were next following the example of their fellows, at length all 
made away as fast as they could. ^Flie places being narrow and 
strait, in their haste they trod down one another, and many perished 
without a stroke from the enemy; for they lay in heaps, some with 
their arms, others without them ; some held their naked swords so 
long in their hands, that their fellow-soldiers ran themselves upon 
them, and so were slain. But many got away into the open pfain^ 
and, by the swiftness of their horses, escaped to the several cities of 
the allies. 

During this ti^ne, the Macedonian phalanx* and the Persian foot 
fought awhile; for the flight of the korse was the prelude to th» 
* Battaliuo^ iboit eight tkoiuaud fool.^ mODORUS 8ICULUS. 187 

victory. The barbarians therefore taking to tlieir heels, and so tnany 
thousands making away through the same strails, all places there- 
abouts were in a short time covered with dead carcases; but the Per- 
sians, by the advantage of night, got away here and there into seve- 
ral places of shelter. 

The Macedonians therefore left off the pursuit, and betook them- 
selves to the rifling of the camp, especially the king's pavilion, be- 
cause there were the richest booties; so that there was found and 
carried thence vast sums of gold and silver, and exceeding rich gar- 
ments and furniture; an abundance likewise of treasure belonging to 
his friends and kindred, and the commanders of his army : for the 
wives not only from the king's household, but from the families of 
his kindred and attendants, mounted in chariots glittering with gold, 
(according to the custom of the Persians), accompanied the camp in 
thfiit march from place to place. And every one of these (through 
their luxury and delicateness, to which they had commonly inured 
themselves) carried with them abundance of rich furniture, and a 
multitude of beautiful women. But the captive ladies were then ia « 
a most miserable condition : for they who before, by reason of their 
nicety, could scarcely be placed in their stately chariots so as to 
please them, and had their bodies so attired as that no air might 
touch them, now rent their garments in pieces, and^ scarce with one 
simple veil to cover their nakedness, threw themselves shrieking out 
of their chariots, and, with their eyes and hands lifted up to heaven, 
cpist themselves down at the feet of the conquerors. Some witi^ 
their trembling hands pulled off all their jewels and ornaments from 
their own bodies, and ran up steep rocks and craggy places, with 
their hair flying about their ears; and thus meeting in throngs to- 
gether, some called for help from those who wanted the relief of 
others as much as themselves; some were dragged along by the hair 
of their heads, others were stripped naked, and then killed, and some- 
times cudgelled to death with the heavy ends of the soldier's lances* 
Nay, even all manner of disgrace and contempt was poured upon 
the glory of the Persians, so famous and honourable heretofore all the 
world over. 

But the more sober and moderate of the Macedonians, seeing that 
strange turn of fortune, much pitied the condition of those miser- 
able creatures, who had lost every thing that was near and dear to 
them in this worid, and were now environed with nothing but stran-* 
g^rs and enemies, and fallen into ipiserable and dishonourable cap- 
tivity. But the mother of Darius, and his wife, and two daughters, 
pow marriageable, (and his little son especially), drew tears from the 
eyes of the beholders ; for their sad change of fortune, and the great* 

188 DIODORUS sicuLUS. Book XFIP 

ness of their sudden and unexpected calamity, (presented thus to 
their view), ecu id not but move them to a compassionate considera- 
tion of their present condition : for, as yet, it was not known whether 
Darius was alive or dead. And in the mean time they* perceived hist 
tent pillaged ai^d rifled by armed men, who knew no difference of 
persons, and therefore committed many indecent and unworthy ac- 
tions, and saw likewise all Asia brought under the power of a con- 
quering s>Nvord as well as themselves. The wives of tho governors of 
the provinces that fell at theirf feet to beg protection, were so far 
from finding relief, that they themselves earnestly prayed them to 
rescue them out of their present calamity. 

Alexander's servants, having possessed themselves of Darius's 
tents, prepared the tables and baths which were used by Darius him- 
self, and lighted up many lamps, in expectation of the king, that at 
his return from the pursuit he might take possession of all the furni- 
ture of Darius, as an earnest of the empire and government of all Asia. 
Of the barbarians there fell in this battle above an hundred and twenty 
thousand foot, and no fewer than ten thousand horse. Of the Mace- 
donians, three hundred foot, and an hundred and fifty horse. And 
this was the issue of the battle at Issus. 

But to return to the kings themselves : Darius with all his army 
being thus routed, fled, and, by changing from time to time one 
horse after another, the best he had, he made away with all speedy 
to escape out of the hands of Alexander, and to get to the governon 
of the upper provinces. But Alexander, with the best of his horse 
and chiefest of his friends, pursued him close at the very heekj 
earnestly longing to be master of Darius. But, after he had ridden 
two hundred furlongs, he returned at midnight into the camp; and, 
having refreshed his weary body in the baths, went to supper^ and 
then to his rest. 

In the mean time, one came to the mother of Darius, and told her 
that Alexander was returned from the pursuit of Darius, and had 
possessed himself of all the rich spoils of his tent. Upon which there 
was heard a great shriek and lamentation amongst the women^ 
and, from tiic multitude of the captives condoling with the queen at 
the sad news, all places were filled with cries of anguish and herror. 
llie king, understanding what sorrow there was among the women^ 
sent Leonalus, one of his courtiers, to them, to put an end to their 
fears, and to let Sisygambis, the mother of Darius, know that her 
son was alive, and that Alexander would have respect to their former 
dignity; and that, to confirm the promise of his generosity by his ac- 

* ihe womcn-captivcsj Dariuh's wife, children, and niotht^r. 
t Of the fiuit II and quccn-inotlicr of lVrii:i. 

CM^. ITT. DiODORUs sictJLUd, ISg 

tions, be would come and discourse with them the day following* 
Whereupon the captives were so surprised with the sudden and happy 
turn of their fortunes^ that they honoured Alexander as a god^ and 
their fears were turned into exultations of joy. 

The king, as soon as^ it was light, (with Hephaestion, one of the 
trustiest of his friends) went to visit the queens. When they en- 
tered, being both habited alike, Sisygambis, taking Hephsstion for 
the king, (because he was the more comely aad taller man), fell 
prostrate at his feet; but the attendants, by the nods of their heads, 
and pointing of their fingers, directed her to Alexander: whereupon, 
being much ashamed and out of countenance, by reason of the mis- 
take, she saluted Alexatidcr in the same manner she had done the 

other. Upon which he lifted her up, and said Mother, trouble not, 

nor perplex yourself; for that man also is Alexander* By which 
courteous and obliging title of mother to a grave and honourable 
matron, he gave a clear demonstration of the respects and civilities he 
intended towards them all. 

Having therefore owned her for a second mother, he presently 
confirmed his words by his actions: for he ordered her to be clothed 
in her royal robes, and restored her to all the honours becoming her 
former state and dignity. For he gave her all her attendants and 
bousehold servants and furniture allowed her by Darius, and added 
also as much more of his own bounty. He promised likewise to dis- 
pose of the young ladies in marriage far better than if their father 
had provided husbands for them; and that he would educate the 
Icing's little son as carefully and honourably as if he were his own* 
Then he called him to him, and kissed him ; and, taking notice that 
he was not at all ashamed, nor seemed to be in the least affrighted, 
turning to Hephcestion and those about him, ^' This youth, but six 
years of age,'' said he, *^ carries in his countenance marks of a stout 
and brave spirit, above his age, and is better than his father." He 

further declared ^That he would take care of the wife of Darius, 

that she should want for nothing, in order to the support and main- 
tenance of her royal state and former prosperity. Many other kind 
and gaining expressions he used, insomuch that the ladies fell a- 
weeping in showers of tears, out of transports of joy, upon account 
of the greatness of their unexpected felicity. After all, he at length 
put forth to them his right hand to kiss, upon which not only they 
who were immediately honoured with those kindnesses set forth his 
praise, but even the whole army cried ^^p his incomparable grace and 
clemency. And, indeed, I conceive that amongst the many brave 
and noble acts of Alexander, none of thom were greater than this, or 
more worthy by history to be handed down to posterity: for storming 


ftod taking of eities, gaining of battles^ and other successes io war^ 
are many times tlie events of fortune^ more than the effects of valour 
8ud virtue; but to be compassionate to tbe miserable, and those that 
lie at the feet of the conqueror, must be the fruit only of wisdom and 
prudence. For many by prosperity grow haughty, and are so £ar 
swelled with pride by the favourable blasts of fortune, that they are 
cveless and forgetful of tbe common miseries of mankind; so that 
it is common to sec many sink under the weight of their prosperous 
successes, as a heavy burthen they are not able to bear. 

Therefore, though Alexander was many ages before us who are now 
living, yet the remembrance of his virtue justly challenges honour 
and praise from all those that succeeded him in future generations. 

As for Darius, being now got to Babylon, he mustered up his 
broken troops that had escaped from the battle at Issus; and, though 
lie had received so great an overthrow, he was not at all discouraged^ 
but wrote letters to Alexander, whereby he advised him to use his 
good fortune and success moderately, and offered him a great sum of 
iponey for the ransom of the captives : he promised, likewise, to give 
up to him all that part of Asia, with the cities which lay Qn that side^ 
within the course* of tbe river Halysf, if he were willing to be his 

Whereupon Alexander called a council of war, and laid before 
tbem such letters as he judged most for his own advantage, but coa- 
^aled the true ones; by which contrivance the ambassadors were 
dismissed without any effect of their embassy. 

Darius therefore concluding that things were not to be composed 
by letters, employed himself wholly in making preparations for war* 
To this end, he armed those soldiers that had lost their arms in the 
late unfortunate battle, and raised others, and formed them into regi- 
ipents. He sent, likewise, for the forces he had through haste left 
behind him in the upper provinces when he first began his expeditioiu 
To conclude, he was so earnest and diligent in recruiting his armyj^ 
that they were now twice as many as they were at Issus; for they 
made up a body of eight hundred thousand foot, and two hundred 
tliousand horse, besides a vast multitude of hooked chariots. These 
epnsiderable actions were the events of this year. 

* This was all Katoli^. t Now Casilimerj in Fapblagoma^ 



^kxamder marches towards Egypt: besieges TSfte. Prodfgiee 
at Tyre. The Tyrians bind ApMo with goldai chatns. SHb 
ifwentions of the Tyrimis to defefui themselves. The adtamce^ 
sneni of BaUofninus, a poor man, to be king of Tyre. Tim 
acts ofj^gis oftd Amyntas. Amyntas killed, and all his sol^ 
diers. Alexander takes Gaza by storm: is presented by tka 

NICERATUS was chief governor of Athens^ and Marcus AttiHot 
and Marcus Valerius were consuls at Rome, when the hundred i 
twelfth Olympiad was celebrated^ wherein Grylus of Chakedoa ^ 

Alexander, after the battle of Issus, caused both his own, and ttiose 
likewise of the enemy's that were of greatest repute for valour, to lie 
buried. After he had sacrificed and given thanks to the gods, lia 
bountifully rewarded ail such as Iiad valiantly behaved themselves^ 
every one according to his merit. After which, he gave liberty to 
his soldiers for some days to recreate and refresh themselves. Tbeoee 
marching with his army towards Egypt, as he came into Phcenicia 
other cities readily submitted to him, and were received into his pro* 
tection. But Tyre was the only city which obstinately denied him 
entrance, when he desired it, in order to sacrifice to Hercules Tyriusj 
at which Alexander was so enraged, that he threatened to storm 
and take it by force of arms. But the Tyrians resolved to stand it 
out, because they thouglit thereby to ingratiate themselves with Da* 
rius; and that, for their faithfulness and loyalty to him, they con« 
eluded he would bountifully reward them, who, by tliat means, had 
gained him more time to recruit his army, while Alexander was de«* 
tained in a troublesome and dangerous siege. And besides, they 
placed their confidence in the strength of the island, and their plenti* 
ful provision of all things necessary, and in the Cartbagiuiaus, from 
whom they were descended. 

The king therefore, though he foresaw that it would be a very dif- 
ficult matter to carry on the siege, by reason of the sea, and that they 
were so well provided with all things for the defence of the walls, 
and had a strong navy, and that the city was separated from the 
continent, so that nothing could be effectually put in execution, yet 
he judged it more for bis honour to undergo all sorts of haaardsj thaa 


... ^ ■ . y 

for the Macedonians to be baffled with one city, and tliat too not al- 
together so difficult to be gained. 

He forthwith therefore demolished Old Tyre, as it was then called^ 
and by the stones, carried by many thousands of men, raised a mole 
two hundred feet in breadth, which, by the help of the inhabitants 
of the neighbouring cities^ (who were all called in for that purpose)^ 
was presently despatched. The Tyrians, in the mean time^ from 
their ships laughed and jeered at the king, and asked him whether 
be supposed himself stronger* than Neptune. Afterwards, when 
they perceived (beyond whatever they thought could be done) that 
the mole still increased, and was likely soon to be finished^ they de- 
creed to transport their wives, children, and old people to Carthage; 
and those that were young men were kept, some of them to guard 
the walls, and others for sea-serviee, for they had a fleet of fourscore 
sail. At length they sent away part of their wives and children^ in 
order to sail by the enemy for Carthage ; but, being prevented by the 
multitude of those that were at work, and not in a fit posture to fight 
at sea, they were all forced to return, and abide the siege. And, 
though they were plentifully supplied with engines to shoot arrows^ 
darts, and stones, and all other machines and instruments fit and 
necessary for the defence of the walls against any assault; yet they 
readily furnished themselves, as they had occasion, with many more^ 
for Tyre was full of gun-smiths, and artificers of all sorts. So that, 
being supplied by these workmen with many new-invented engines^ 
every place round the walls was filled with them, especially towardt 
that side where the mole was raised. 

And now the work was brought by the Macedonians within the 
cast of a dart, when presently a prodigy from the gods appeared to 
them who were thus threatened : for the working of the sea cast a 
wliale of an incredible bigness to the side of the mole; and there it 
lay, without doing any harm, but remained there a good while^ lean« 
ing one side of its body to the work, which struck the beholders with 
much terror and amazement. After it was gone, and relumed into 
the sea, both parties went to their divinations^ and each (severally 
concluding as they would desire to have it) made this constrac* 

tion ^That by this sign was portended, that Neptune would aid and 

assist them. 

There was another prodigy likewise happened, which greatly a* 
mazed the common people: for, when the Macedonians were at 
meat, the faces of those that broke the bread seemed to be all over 
blowzy; and one of Tyre affirmed that he saw a vision, by which 
Apollo told him that he would forsake the city. And, because the 
common people suspected that he spoke this in favour of Alezao* 

Chap^lFi moDORus sicuLiTs. 193 

der^s party» tlie young men would have stoned him to death, but he 
was rescued by the magistrates, and fled into the temple of Her- 
cules; and so, through his pious supplication, he escaped so immi- 
nent a danger. 

Upon this, the Tyrians, to prevent Apollo's leaving the city, fas* 
tened his image to the pedestal with golden chains. But the citi- 
cenSy being put into a great fright by the increase of the mole, 
loaded many little boats with engines to shoot arrows and darts, 
and with slingers and archers; who, setting upon them that were 
at work, wounded and killed many of tijem : for, showers of arrows 
and darts being discharged upon throngs of naked men, none missed 
their mark, because they all lay open and exposed to every shot, 
without any defence; for they were not only wounded with darts 
ID front, but (through the narrowness of the mole) they were likewise 
galled in the rear^ it being impossible for any one to guard both 
sides at once. 

Alexander therefore, that he might repair the sudden and unex 
pected loss, with all the speed he could manned as many ships as he 
had, and went on board as admiral himself, and made it his business 
to get into the haven of Tyre, in order to intercept the Phoenicians 
in their return. Hereupon the barbarians, fearing that if he gained 
the haven be would take the city itself, (those who should defend it 
being now out at sea), made all the haste they could to return to 
the city. And, indeed, both sides plied their oars with all their 
might, in order to be the first. But the Macedonians just entering 
the port before the other, the Phoenicians were every man upon the 
point of being cut off; but, forcing their way through their enemies, 
they returned into the city, with the loss of some of those vessels 
whieh lagged behind. However, though the king missed of his de- 
sign, yet he eagerly set to his work again for the finishing of the 
mole, and, by a considerable number of vessels, guarded the work 
for the future. 

The work being brought near to the city, and the town now in a 
probability of being taken, on a sudden a violent storm of wind arose, 
apd tore away part of the mole : which so perplexed Alexander, that 
he repented of having begun tlie siege. But, however, bein^ urged 
forward by an unquenchable thirst after glory, he caused trees of an 
incredible magnitude to be cut down in the niountnins, and brought 
thither, and with their branches and earth piled together gave a check 
to the violence of the stream. 

Having, therefore, presently repaired the breach that was made, 
the mole, by the help of many hands, was brought again within the 
cast of a dart, and, by engines mounted upon it, he battered down 
Vou2. No. 42. cc 

194 DiODORus sicuLirs. BookXFlL 

the walls, and, by shot with darts atid arrows out of engines, beat off 
the enemy from the bulwarks: with these, likewise, both archers 
«nd slingers iplied the besieged, and grievously wimnded and gvDed 
many of the townsmen upon the walls^ Btit the Tyrians, being ac* 
customed to the sea, and having many artificers and contrivers of 
engines, used many arts and ingenious inventions to preserve them- 
selves: for, against the shot, they contrived wheels with many 
spokes, which, being whirled about by an engine, shattered in piecea 
some of the darts and arrows, and turned off others, and broke the 
force of all the rest : and, to give a check to the violence of the stones 
that were shot out of the ballistas, they prepared wool^packs, and 
other things that were soft and pliant, to receive them. 
. But the king, not contented to assault the city only from the mole, 
girt the town round with his whole fleet, and diligently viewed all 
parts of the walls, as if he resolved to besiege the place both by sta 
and land. Tlie Tyrians not daring to engage him at sea, he de-* 
atroyed three ships that were then by chance in the mouth of tha 
harbour, and then returned to his camp* But the Tyrians, that they 
might make their walls as strong again as they were before, raised 
another wall, ten cubits broad, and five cubits distant from the for- 
mer, and filled the empty space between the two walls with earth 
and stones. 

Alexander likewise made a battery, by joining many of his ships 
together, and planted \x\Km them all sorts of rams and battering en- 
gines, whereby he beat down a hundred feet of the wall, and at- 
tempted to break into the city over the ruins: upon which the Ty- 
rians discharged a shower of darts and arrows, and, with much ado, 
repulsed the enemy, and the night following repaired that part of the 
wall which had been battered down. 

But, after that the passage to the city, by the joining of the mole 
close to the \\^ll$, wa$ made, as if it had been a i>eninsula, there vrere 
many and sharp contests both to gain and defend the walls: for, 
though they had imminent destruction before their eyes, and the 
miseries attendant upor> a town's being tJikea by storm, yet they wera 
so resolved to go through all dangers, that they despised death itself.^ 
For, when the Macedonians approached with towers of that height 
that they equalled the battlements, and cast out planks, whereof one 
of the ends lay upon the top of the ramparts, and so by a bridg* 
mounted the walls, the Tyrians, by the ingenuity of their artificers, 
were supplied with many sorts of engines and weapons for their ef- 
fectual defence: as, amongst others, they had very great three-forlied 
hooks*^, which they cast close at hand, and therewith wounded then 
* TridcuCs ibt inTriitiou of the T\ imok 


ia the towers, (to which were fastened cords, one end whereof they 
held themselves), and, by fixing these in the targets of their ene- 
mies, they plucked them out of their hands : for, to that necessity 
and strait the Macedonians were brought, that they must either stand 
naked and exposed (without defensive arras) to a multitude of darts 
and arrows, and so be wounded to death, or else, out of a point of 
honour, to stick to their arms, and so perish, by being plucked head- 
long out of the towers. Others threw fishing-nets upon them that 
were engaged upon the bridges laid to the walls, and so entangled 
th^r hands, that they drew them off, and tumbled them headlong to 
the ground. 

Another wonderful invention they found out against the Macedo« 
Dians, whereby they grievously plagued the chiefest of their ene* 
mies, which was this : they filled their iron and brazen shields with 
sand, and heated them in the fire till the sand was scorching hot, 
which by an engine they threw upon them that were chiefly engaged, 
whereby they were cruelly tormented; for, the sand getting within 
their breast-pktes and coats of mail, and grievously scorching their 
flesh, no remedy could be applied for the cure of the maUdy: so that 
(though they made most bitter complaints, as men ui)on the rack) 
yet there were none who were able to help them, insomuch that they 
grew mad by the extremity of the torture, and died in the height of 
inexpressible torments. 

In the mean time, the Phoenicians never ceased casting fire-darts 
and stones at their enemies, so that they were scarce able to endure 
itp the multitude was so excessive. Moreover, with long poles with 
sharp hookS; at the end, they cut the cords of the battering-rams in 
pieces, (which forced them forwards), whereby the force of the en* 
gine was lost: apd they shot out of machines for the purpose large 
inassy pieces of red hot iron into the midst of great multitudes of 
the assailants, which, by reason of the number of those against whom 
they were discharged, were sure to do execution. They plucked, 
likewise, men in armour from off the ramparts with iron instruments 
palled crows, aad others shaped like men's hands. And, having 
maqy bands at work, tliey eluded all the enemy's engines, and killed 
multitudes of then). And, although the service was so amazing, 
and tl>e conflict so sharp, tliat it was scarcely to be endured, yet the 
Macedonians remitted nothing of their antient valour, hut made 
their way over the bodies of those that were slain, not at all dis- 
couraged by the misfortunes of others, In the mean time, Alex«> 
ander battered the walls with inassy stones shot out of his engines, 
and grievously galled the besieged with arrows and darts, and all 
sorts of shot, from th^ wooden towers. To prevent this mischief^ 

196 MKMntmr simmos. 

AeiyriaiisplMedMrMe whceb bHbMtbe^ivril^ 
ramd by certain engines, ud witb«MJe tbcJr'riUwr >bl«ll«tik IfM 
in pieces, or so tlirew tliem off; tliat ffacy i^eta inefllMttIb '«*llii|'ii 
aUey dir fiDree of tiie stohes shot agninst the wall^ ihLf%m e t l S »jg^ 
tber liides end siiins Ajlisd'ofer to receive them, fiMeh^ liieelli^NMh 
what was soft and pliant, tlieir foife was thereby *amieli nbtlift ^'•^ . 
* To coDclttde, the Tyrian's were not shmt in any iMog KhkiMll 
.their valour might be made to appear Isr' the defenee H thff^^^Mllh 
And, benig sufficiently supported with>fnih aid, ihqf we^lb-tiMtiMft 
coorageons, atid'to^hat degree, thai dtey left the tidb ntttf faHftH 
and leaped out upon the bridges to oppose the assailants, ttd^tllll ' 

• to hand, fought smartly m defence of jfliA' eonntiy.* Thf ta'wftfVimm 
who, with axes, cut oflF whole Hoibs 'stoneo of «H ^thttt wme^ialMr 
way. For, among the rest, there was OM' AdmetOM^^^liltalfedMili 
captain, a stioog and vaKant man^ %rhoi ib ** Mat-if 'Htf'CiMAk 

.with the Tyriansy had his head^loren in the mJJMJa wWrajj^famjart! 

•soperished. '-■. w v^-iswA ' 

Alezander/seeing that the Tjvians had the best of i^-lNA 1i||jlk 

: aM>roachiog, sounded a letreat. AM, faideed,«t ftrat hetaHiatglfhi 
of ratting the siege, and going on with his expeditiort'ti to 'Ugy^ 

^But he presently changed hU mind^looliing upon has base itfll &j^ 

•bonoumble to giTe^upall the glory to thel>riinar«lid'ilhnMdtfHb 
set himself again to carry on the siege, though he^had'orily rtiM'i lifMl ' 
friends called Amyntas, the brother of Andromenes^ w bo ^ipprti ul l of 

• his resolution. '-< tw i: jii c uiuiA itua 

Having, therefore, enoonii^d the Maeedonkns 'to >MlAi ^AiM, 
.aud furnuhed his fleet with all tlnngs neetisiiyi h^btiiiiWlfcMUl^f 
both by sea and kndt and, observingltbat that part of wirsttlMr 
the arsenal was weaker than ^ rest^he bmiight aH^his |tfiiij 
(which carried his best engines), chained Ariit togethlw^W^lliirilliiil, 
There he attempted an act which the beholden u imM^IM^ Hli, 
though they saw it with their eyes. For he cast a'|ilaailr««Ma % 
wooden tower, with one end upon the battiameBts of the waHs/an*^ 
bridge^ and by this himself alone mounted the rampart, not regaafing . 
any danger, nor in the least affirig^bted with the violent awaalta off tha 
TyfiADs; ^^U in the view of that army which liaidteon q n i fodPil te 
Persians, be shewed bis own pcTBOoal valour, and eallcd^to ffawMhce* 
donians to follow him, and was the first tliat came hand to Indiidwidi 
the enemy; and, killing some with his spear, others with his aWovd, 
.and tumbling down many with the boss of liis buckle^ lie thus al* 
layed the courage of his adversaries. 

lu the mean time, the rams battered down a great part of the wall 
in another place. Aud row .the Macedoniatis entered- through the 

bmch on one side, and Alexander with his party passed over the 
will in ftDother, so that tlie city was now taken ; yet the Tyrians 
Taibntly exerted themselves, and, encouraging one another, guarded 
Mtti blocked op all the narrow passes, and fought it out to the last 
man, ioaomuch that above seven thousand were cut in pieces upon 
the place. The Icing made all the women and children slaves, and 
bang np all the young men that were left, to the number of two 
thoosand. And there were found so creat a number of captives, that, 
ihoogli the greatest part of the inhabitants were trnnsportf d to Car- 
fhiCV, yet the remainder amounted to thirteen thousand. Into such 
great miseries fell thcTyrius, after they had endured a siege of scvea 
■Kmths with more obstinacy than prudence. 

Then the king took a%vuy the golden chains from the image of 
Apollo, and caused that grK) to be called Apollo Philaxnndrus*. 
When he had ofiered splendid sacrifices to Hercules, and rewarded 
thoM who liad signalized their valour, he honourably buried the dead, 
and made one Ballominus king of Tyre. But it ^ouid be a thing 
jnsily to be condemned to neglect to give a further account of this 
man, whose advancement and wonderful change of condition was so 

After Alexander had gained the city, Strato, the former prince, by 
I of his faithfulness to Darius, was deprived of the command: 
rhich the king gave power and liberty to Hephaestion to tiestov 
the kingdom of Tyre upon which of his friends he pleased. Hephscs- 
tioo hereufion, being inclined to gratify one who hud courteously en- 
tntained him, resolved to invest him with the principality of Tyre; 
hot he, though he was very rich and honourable, above the rest of 
hs fellow-citi/ens, yet (because he was nut of the lineage of the 
ttDg») refu>ed it. Then Hephxestion wishid him to name some one 
that was of the royal blood; he thereupon told him of one who was 
i ferr pmdcut and good man, but extremely |KX)r. Heph<f*stion 
hcrenpon granted the principality to htm, and the oHicer assigned for 
that purpose was sent away with the royal robes, and found him in 
in orchard, in rags, drawing of water for hi:» hiie. Having intumicd 
him of the change and alteration in his cundtiion, he clothed him 
with the robe and other ornannMits becoming his state ami di^^niity, 
and then introduced him into the foium, and there declared hiin 
kiugofTyre. Which unexpected and wonderful occuirence was very 
acceptable Vj the people. 

Thus he obtained the kingdom, and was ever after a most fiiitliful 
friend to Alexander, and an example to all who are unacquainted with 

* 1 bat », • loTrr of Alexander. 


tbe aaddeo and nurious turaa (rf fortune in this wwU*. Hatiiigi 

fcUned the acts of Atesandq', we shaU toni taaflUnKelsiDirlteM^ , 

,' lpEurope,Agisykiiig€rflAced«iiH»^ha?iDgenlMW^ 

aBerccnaries who escaped from the iMttle at Uma^ h^gM aqnie mm 

diBturbances ia favour of Daiios; for^ having received fimn jhiei a 

(rcat sum of mooey aad a fleet, he sailed.iataC|ete^WMi|^JH|faoif|f 

aaany towns there, he forced them to side with the Pepjpip, ; .|ftffi|i 

tas likewise, an exile of Macedonia, who had fled taDlvppSAa 

with the Persians in Cilicia, escaping with i 

ant of the battle of Issus, passed over to TripoBs, ».] 

^leauuader's arrival;, and there he aiade choice miiffsot ao>.pamr^, 

the navy as would transport his soldiers^ aod bori^.thenil.. ^Iffitl^ 

these he sailed to Cyprus, and from thence, being well fiirafslis4;intii 

soldiers and shipping, be passed over to Peloamiy.eiid, hpfvj^fteppb 

feted the city^ he pretended tbatDariua had seitf bmtt».t|e<biirig» 

neral, because the late governor of E|gypt was killed in tht.hattliljli 

Cilicia. Thence he sailed to Memphis, and fouted the jnhphUtilP 

in a field-fight near to the city; who not loi^; after |sU i 

soldiers, straggling out of the town, and pinndering the < 

they were in that disorder, carrying away what they coiild.fSVMlr^ * 

Amyntas and evcfy man with him. 

Id this manner Amyntas, as he was prqectip^. grciit i 
suddenly disappointed, and lost his life. So likewise other 
|iod captains of the army that survived the battle . of bsqs rtill adl^w^ 
to the Persian interest : for some secured ^([ivenieni( citieB and gpqr 
sons for Darius, and others procured severs} provinces to rafse solJiepn 
for him, and provide oth^r things necessary, as thepiesfiiit eajgqifiy 
of afiairsi required. ,j 

In the mean time, the general senate of Greece made a decfee,Mit 
send fifteen ambassi|dofs to present e gfdden AlewDilcra.fli 
congratulation of his victory at Issus, who was at tlu^t tim^ hfsi^i^ 
Gaza, a garri^n qf the Persians^i which he tock by assaultgi i^ftWiift 
two months siege* 

fik^. ft DIODORUS 8ICULUS. I99 

CflAP. V. 

Maamder tnakes u journey to tie temple of Jupiter Ammatu 
He ispreaemM by the Cyreneane. The description of the place 
about the temple. The wonderful properties of the fimntaim 
SoUs. The bmlding of Aleximdria. Alexander's answer to 

. J}arius*s mnbassadors. Alexander passes over the river Tigris 
with great hazard. The preparationa on both sides for battle^ 

■ T%e Persiams routed at the famous battle at Arbeku 

ARISTOPHANES was now chief governor of Athens, aodSparsufl 
Posthumins and Titus Viturtas were invested with the dignitj of 
consuls at Rome, when Alexander^ after the taking of Gasa, sent 
Amyntas with ten sail into Macedonia, with orders to enlist the 
stoutest of the young men for soldiers. And, in the mean time, he 
b'imself marched forward with tlie whole army towards Egypt, and^ 
eomtng there, all the cities submitted to him without fighting* 
For, because the Persians had wickedly violated their holy rites, and 
domineered imperiously over them, they most iiillingly received the 

* Having settled his aCiirs in E^3rpt, he undertook a journey to the 
temple of Ammon, to consult with the oracle there. When he was 
in the midst of his journey, he was met by the ambassadors of Cy- 
rene, presenting him with a crown and other rich gifts, among which 
were three hundred war-horses, and five of the best chariots, drawn 
by four horses each. These he accepted, and made a league of peace 
and amity with then; and then, with those that attended him, went 
forward in his journey to the temple. When they came to the 
parched and dry deserts, (for they had taken water along with them), 
diey passed through a region which was notliing but heaps of 
sand. After the fourth day their water was spent, so that they were 
in an extremity of distress. While they were in this great per- 
plexity, and knew not what to resolve, a sudden and unexpected 
shower of rain then falling, supplied all their present necessities^ 
which unexpected preservation they imputed to the kindness and 
providence of the gods. 

Having furnished themsehcies out of a valley with as much water 
as was sufficient for four days, in that time they passed over this 
dire and scorching desert ; but, in regard there was no visible path, 
by reason of the great heaps of sand, those who led the way told 

fiOO DioDORUS sicuLUS. Book XFIf^ 

the king that there were crows, which^ by their croaking at the right 
hand, directed them the way to the temple; which the king taking 
as a happy omen, and thereupon concluding that his coming was 
' grateful and acceptable to the gods, he went forward on his joumej 
with more cheerfulness. The next place he came to was called the 
Bitter Pond : having travelled thence a hundred furlongs, he paned 
by the cities of Ammon^ and in one day's journey more cane to the 
grove of the god. 

The scite of the temple is surrounded with a vast dry and aaody 
desert, waste and untilied ; but the grove itself is fifty furlongs broad, 
and as many long, full of pleasant fountains, and watered with nm- 
ning streams, richly planted with all sorts of trees, most of them 
bearing fruit. 

The temperature of the air is a constant spring. And, tboagfa all 
the places round it are dry and scorching, yet to all that live there 
the heavens afford a most healthful climate. It is reported that thia 
temple was built by Danaus the Egyptian. 

Towards the east and west part of this sacred ground the Ethio^ 
pians inhabit; towards the north the Numidians, a people of Africa; 
and towards the south the Nasamenes. The Ammoni, the inha-^ 
bitants of the sacred grove, live in villages. In the middle of the 
grove is a castle fortified with a treble wall: within the first stands 
the palace of the antient kings; within the other was the Gyae- 
csum, where were the apartments for the wives, children, and kin- 
dred of the prince, and stood as a common fortress and guard to the 
whole place; and lastly, the temple itself, and the sacred lavrr, 
wherein they washed the sacrifices. Within the third, were the 
lodgings of the archers and darters, and guard-houses of those who 
attend as guards upon the prince when he walks abroad. Not tu 
from the castle, out of the walls, stands another temple of Amittoiiy 
shaded round with many fruit-trees; next to which is a ibantain^ 
called Solis, from the natural effects of it: for the water diflers in its 
temper, according to the several hours of the day. For, about son- 
lising it Is luke-warm; afterwards, as the day comes on, it grews 
colder and colder every hour, till noon, at which time it is at the 
coldest ; and thenceforward, till evening, the cold abates by degrees; 
and, when night approaches, it waxes liot again, and increases by 
little and little till midnight, at which time it boils, through intense* 
ness of heat. From that time it cools by degrees, till sun-risiog^ 
and then is luko-warm again, as it was before. 

The image of the god is adorned in every part with emeralds and 
other precious stones, and delivers his oracles in a singular and un- 
usual way: for he i> carried about in a golden ship by fourscora 

Chap. V. DiODORUs sicuLUS, sol 

priests, who make to that place whither the god by a nod of his head 
directs them. 

There follows a great maltitude of matrons and young virgins, 
singiiig Pffians ail the way as they go, and setting forth the praises of 
the idol, in songs composed after the style and custom of their own 

When Alexander was introduced by the priests into the temple, 
and saw the god, one of the old prophets addressed himself to him, 
and said.^*^ God save thee, my son, and this title take along with 
thee from the god himself." To whom he made answer ^^ I ac- 
cept it, my father, and if you will make me lord of the whole world, 
your SOD 1 will ever be called.'' Upon which the priest approached 
near tlie altar; and when the men, (who according to custom lifted up 
the image), at the uttering of some words as signs for that purpose, 

moved forward, the priest answered ^^ That the god would certainly 

bestow upon him what he had desired." Thi& was very acceptable 
to Alexander. 

But then he further said " I entreat thee, O God, that thou 

wouUst let me know what I have yet to inquire, and that Is, whether 
I have executed justice upon all my father's murderers, or whether any 
have escaped?'' At which the oracle cried out — ^< Express thyself 
better, for no mortal can kill tliy father, but all the murderers of 
Philip have suffered just punishment." 

He added further — '^ Tliat his wonderful successes and prosperous 
achievements, were evidences of his divine birth: for, as he was 
never yet overcome by any, so he should be ever victorious for the 
time to come/' 

Alexander, being greatly pleased with these answers, after he had 
bestowed many rich and stately gifts upon the oracle, returned back 
on his way for Egypt, where he intended to build a great city. In 
order whereunto, wlien he came there, he directed the overseers of 
this work to build it between the marshes and the sea, and measured 
out tlie ground himself, and marked out the streets, and called it 
Alexandria, after his own name. It had a very commodious situa- 
tion, being near to the haven of Pharos^. He ordered and con- 
trived the streets with that prudence as that the Etesian winds 
should, by their comfortable gales, refresh all parts of the city: for 
these so cool the air by their breezes from the great seaf, that the 
inhabitants, by so welcome and delightful a temperature of the heat, 
are very healthy. He likewise drew a large and wonderfully strong 

* Ao island near Egjpt, now joined to Alexandria by a brl(jgf*« though formerly a 
da;j's sail, as Honer says. 

t The Mediterranean. 

Vol. 2. No. 42, J>p 


wall round tlie city; and, inasmuch as it lay between a large pond on 
the one side, and the sea on the other, there were but two oanoir 
ways and passes by laud to h; so that it was easily defended by a 
small guard. The city was in form like unto a soldier's coat^ one 
large atid beautifully^buiit street running almost ihrough the middle 
of the town, in length from gate to gate forty furlongs, in breadth an 
hundred feet, adorned with most stately structures, both of temples 
and private houses. Alexander likewise built a large and stately 
palace, of most admirable workmanship; and not only Alexander^ 
but all the succeeding kings of Egypt from time to time, to our pre- 
sent age, have enlarged this palace with most costly and sumptuous 
buildings. The city likewise itself has been enlarged in after times; 
so that by many it is reported to be one of the greatest and most noble 
cities in the world ; for beauty, rich revenues, and plentiful provision of 
all things for the comfortable support of roan^s life, far excelling aH 
others; and far more populous than any other: for, when I was la 
Egypt, I was informed by them that kept the rolls of the inhabitants.^ 
That there were above three hundred thousand freemen who inhabited 
theire, and that the king received above six thousand talents out of 
the yearly revenues of Egypt. But, when the king bad appointed 
some of his friends to oversee and take care of the building of Alex* 
andria, and had settled all the afiairs of Egypt, he returned with bis 
army into Syria. 

As soon as Darius had intelligence of his coming, he got all his 
forces together, and prepared all things necessary in order to fight 
him : for he ordered the swords and lances to be made much longer, 
thinking by that advantage Alexander gained the victory in Cilicia. 
He provided, likewise, two hundred hooked chariots, dn^wn by four 
horses each, so contrived as to strike terror into the hcaits of his 
enemies: for in every one of them, on both sides the horses which 
drew the chariots by iron chains, darts of three spans long were fixed 
in the ycaks,vvith their points full in the faces of the enemy. Upon 
the Irjwer i>arts of the axle-trees were two others fastened exactly a^ 
those before, pointing into the faces of the enemy, but longer and 
broader; and at the top of them were fixed sharp hooks. Having 
completely furnisJicd and set forth his army, with glittering arms and 
stout commanders, he marched from Babylon with eight hundred 
thousand foot, and no less than two hundred thousand horse. In hif 
march, the Tigris was on his right, and the Euphrates on his left hand; 
where he passed through a very rich country, abounding in forage 
for his liorse, and supplying s.ufhcient provision of all things for bia 

He made all the haste he could to reach Nlneveb> there to fight 


the enemy, because it was a large and champaign country, conveni- 
ent for the drawing out of so great an army. When he came to a 
village called Arbela, he there encamped, and every day drew up his 
army in battalia, and trained and exercised them ; for he was much 
afraid lest among so many nations^ differing in language one from 
another, there should be nothing but tumult and confusion in the 
heat of the fight. He had, indeed, but lately before sent ambassa- 
dors to Alexander, to treat upon terms of peace, and had offered to 
him all the countries lying within the river Halys, and two thousand 
taleiks of silver; and now he sent others to him, m\xi:\\ commending 
him for his generous and honourable usage of his mother and the 
rest of the captives, and desired to make peace with him, and offered 
all the land^ lying within the river Euphrates, with three thousand 
talents of silver, and one of his daughters in marriage; and further 

promised ^Tiiat if he would be content to be his son^in^^law, he 

should be joint partner with him in the kingdom. 

Alexander imparted all these proposals, offered to Kim by Darius, 
to his friends, wliom he called together for that purpose, and wished 
tbem freely to deliver their opinions in this matter. When none 
durst speak their minds in a business of such great importance. Par- 

menio stood up, and said ^' If I were Alexander, I would accept of 

the terms offered, and make peace.'' To whom Alexander replied... 
** And if I were Parmenio, I would do the same/* And so, uttering 
several other words manifesting a greatness and nobleness of mind, 
he rejected the conditions offered by the Persians; and, preferring 
honour before profit or other advantage, he spoke to the ambassadors 
in this manner^' As two suns in the heaven would disorder the 
course of the universe, so two kings reigning together upon earth 
would turn all into tumult and confusion/' Therefore he com- 
manded them to tell Darius ^That if he affected the superiority, then 

to come and try it out with him for the whole empire by the sword; 
but, if he preferred wealth and ease before honour, that then he 
should submit to Alexander; and so he might reign over others as a 
king, but yet receive his kingdom at the haqds v)f Alexander, as a fruit 
of his bounty. 

Having said this, he presently after broke up the assembly, and 
marched with his army towards tlie enemy's camp. In the mean 
time the wife of Darius died, and Alexander buried her honourably 
according to her quality. When Darius received Alexander's answer, 
he was out of all hopes of putting an end to the war by letters and 
messages, and therefore he trained his soldiers every day, thereby 
making them more ready and willing to observe all words of commaDd 
nrhciiCver they hb'Juld engage, 


In the mean while he sent Mazseus, one of his faithful friends, 
ivlth a batialion of stout men to guard the passage over the river 
Tigris^ and secure the ford. Others he commanded to bum up all 
X\\^ countiy through whicii the enemy was to pass; for he resolved 
to make use of the river as a defence and bulwark against the enemy's 

But Mazaeus observing that the river was not passable, both by 
reason of its depth, and swiftness of its stream, waved the guarding 
of it, and e/npL'yed himself in wasting and destroying the country; 
conducting that when that was done, the enemy could not pass that 
way tlirough want of provisions. 

Alexander, when h- came to the river Tigris, (being informed by 
the inhabitants where the ford lay), passed his army over, but with 
very great toil and extreme hazard; for the water came up above 
their breasts, and several were taken off their feet, and hurried away 
by the violence of the stream; many others, likewise, were borne 
away, and perished through the rapid course of the water, involving 
itself within their arms. Alexander, to withstand the violence of 
the water, ordi red his men to stand close in a body together, like a 
rampie: against the stream : by this means they got safe over; and 
after so much danger and difficulty, he permitted them to refresh 
themselves fv)r< ne day. The next day he marched in battalb against 
the enemy, and at length eneamped near to them. But while he 
revolved in his mind the vast number of the Persian army, and what 
gieat dijlieulties he had to cepe with, and that now all lay at stake, 
he s[)ont ail timt night in anxious thoughts concerning the event. 
Bui he fell into so deep a sleep about the morning watch, that though 
the stin was now up, yet he could not be awaked. His friends at the 
first were very glad of it, as jud;^ing the longer he rested the more 
lively he would be, and so more able to bear the fatigues of the day. 
But time drawing far on, and the king still fast asleep, Parmenio,the 
oldest of the commanders, gave command through the army to pre- 
pare for an engagement. The king sleeping still, some of his friends 
stept in to him, and had much ado to awake him. While all won- 
dered at a thing so unusual, and expected to hear the cause from 
himself, " Now," says Alexander, " I am free from all fear and care 
concerning Darius, who has brought his whole strength together into 
one place ; for by one day's battle for the trial of all, I shall be quit 
and discharged of all my hazards and toils for the time to come* 
Upon which, without any delay, he made a speech to encourage his 
officers to pluck up their spirits, and with courageous hearts to en- 
counter all the dangers that were before them. Upon which he 
marched in battalia against the barbarians^ with the horse in front of 

Chap. V. DTODORUS sicutus. SOI 

bis «nny. The right wing was commanded by Clitas, surnamed 
Niger, wherein were other special friends under the command of 
Phtlotas, tlie son of Parmenio, supported by seven other regiments 
of horse under the same commander. After them were placed the 
battalion of foot called Argyraspides^, glittering in their arms, (most 
excellent soldiers), led by Nicanor the son of Parmenio; to support 
them he placed next the squadrons of Elimeaf, whose leader was 
Cenus. In the next squadron stood the Oresteans and Lyncestians, 
whose captain was Perdiccas; next to these was Meleager with hb 
^uadron; and after him Polysperchon commanded the Stympha- 
lians; and next to him Philip the son of Balacrus commanded another 
squadron; and after him Craterus. To the squadrons of horse 
before-mentioned were joined, as auxiliaries, those from Peloponnesus 
and Achaia, together with the Piithiots, Malians, Locrians, and 
Phocians, commanded by Erigyus of Mitylene. After these were 
placed the Tliessalians, (for valour and horsemanship far beyond all 
the rest), whose commander was Philip. Next to these he drew up 
the archers from Crete, and the mercenaries from Achaia. 

Both wings were drawn up into the form of an half moon, that 
the Macedonians might not be hemmed in by the multitude of the 
Persians. The king provided against the hooked chariots, that they 
might not break in upon them, by this contrivance: he commanded 
the foot, tliat when the chariots advanced near in their career, they 
should strike with their javelins upon their shields locked one into 
another, that the horses, frightened with the noise, might start back; 
bot that if they still pressed forward, in order to force their way, that 
then they should open, that so they might shun them without any 
prejudice. He himseff took upon him the command of the right wing, 
and drawing up in au oblique line^ resolved to venture himself wher- 
ever there was any danger. 

Darius drew up his army according to the distinction of the several' 
nations, and advanced against the enemy in that wing opposite to 
Alexander. And now both armies drew near one to another, and the 
trumpets on both sides gave the signal for battle, and the soldiers 
made at one another with a great shout, and forthwith the hooked 
chariots rushing forward with a mighty force, greatly amazed and 
terrified the Macedonians. For Mazaeus, the general of the liorse^ 
charging with a great body close after the chariots, caused them ta 
be more terrible. In the midst of the action a mighty crash and ■ 
dreadful noise was made on a sudden by the foot soldiers striking 
with their javelins upon their bucklers, as the king had commanded j; 

* SUf er shields, t Elimea, a city of Maccdtmia. 


tipon which many of the chariots (through the fright of the horses) 
were turned aside, and the horses being altogetlier ungovernatile^ 
made away back again into the Persian army; most of the rest of the 
diariots breaking in among the foot, by opening to make way, were 
eitlier quite destroyed by darts and arrows, or diverted. Some indeed 
fi)rced their way with that violence, that with their hooks they bore 
down all before them, and many perished by several sorts of deadly 
wounds. For such was the force and violence, together with the 
s}yarpness of the hooked scythes contrived for destruction, that many 
had their arms with their shields in their hands cut off; acid not & 
few had their heads so suddenly sheared off, that they tumbled to the 
ground, with their eyes open, and their countenances the same as 
when they were alive. Some were so mortally gashed, and cut 
tiirough their sides, that they forthwith fell down dead. 

When the armies came closer together, and all their darts and 
arrows, both from their bows and slings, and those cast by the handj 
were spent, they fell to it hand to hand. The first charge was by 
the horse, the Macedonians being in the right wing opposite to Da^ 
tins, who commanded the left of the Persians, in which were his 
kindred and near relations. For there was a rcgimentof a thousand 
horse, composed only of such as were in the greatest reputation and 
account for their valour and special love to the king. These having 
him a spectator of their valour, readily and cheerfully received all the 
darts that were cast at the king. They were seconded by the Mele- 
phoiians, who were numerous and stout men, and with them were 
joined tlie Mardians and Cissians, men admired for their courage^ 
and the bulk of their bodies. Besides these, there were those of the 
king's household, and some of the stoutest of th^ Indians. All these 
made a fierce charge with a great shout upon the Macedonians, wha 
were put very hard to it by reason of their multitude. Mazseus^ 
likewise, in the right wing, with a brave body of hors^ charged with 
tliat briskness that he laid many at his feet at the first onset. TheQ. 
lie ordered two thousand Cadusian horse, and a thousand more of the. 
Scythians, to take a compass round the enemy's wings, and to break 
in upon the trenches that defended their carriages; who presently 
thereupon put in execution what they were commanded. Tliaa 
having forced into the Macedonian camp, some of the prisoners 
caught up arms and joined with the Scythians, and rifled the car«» 
riages. Upon which, through the suddenness of the surprise, a great 
noise and clamour arose throughout the whole camp. Then other 
prisoners ran in to the barbarians. But Sisygambis, the mother of 
Darius, would not stir, though she was moved to it, but with a kind 
of affectionate regard to her condition, continued in the same plac^^ 


not trusting to the uncertain turns of fortune, nor judging it fit aiwl 
honourable to manifest so much ingratitude .towards Alexandef. 
The Scythians having at length rifled most of the carriages, returned 
to Mazffius, and gave him an account of the happy success. With 
the like good fortune that body of horse with Darius put the Mace* 
donians (overpowered with numbers) to flight. While the victory 
jeemed thus to incline to the Pei^ians by this second saccess, Akx« 
ander making it his ohly business with all possible speed to rally his 
broken forces, and to repair bis losses, charged Darius with his own 
brigade^ and some others ;Of the bravest horse in the array, Tbe 
Persian king received the enemy's charge with great resolution, and 
, fgliting mounted upon his chariot, despatched many with darts that 
assaulted him ; neither were they few that defended him. And while 
both kings were eager to destroy each other, Alexander, in throwing 
a dart at Darius, missed him, but killed his chariot-driver. Upoa 
which those about the king that were at some distance set up a great 
cry, believing tliat the king was killed; and forthwith betook them* 
selves to flight, and then the next to them followed. Presently the 
troops next to Darius himself gave ground by degrees, till such time 
as be was left naked on one side; and then lie himself in a great 
consternation made away with all speed. The Persians being thus 
dispersed, the horse in their flight raised so great a cloud of duf^t, 
that Alexander and his men, who pursued close after the enemy, 
could not see which way Darius fled. Nothing was heard but the 
groans of dying men, the trampling of horses, and continual noise 
and lashing of whips. In the mean time Mazseus in the right 
wing having the * bravest and stoutest horse of any of tlie Per- 
sians, pressed grievously upon those troops with whom he was 
eogaged. So that though Parmeniq with the Thessalian horse, and 
others joined with them, were greatl^ distressed, yet he bore tlie 
hrunt for some time, and at first through his own valour, and the 
bravery of the Thessalian horse, worsted the Persians; but the horse 
with Mazaeus, by their number bearing down the other, that wing of 
tbe Macedonians was quite routed, so that a great slaughter was made, 
and there was now no standing before the barbarians. Parmenio 
therefore sent horsemen after Alexander to entreat his assistance with 
all speed, wlio liastened to execute the orders and command given: 
but when they heard that a great part of the army liad fled, they re- 
turned without going farther. However, Parmenio bestirring him- 
self, and rallying his troops as well as he could, with the assistance 
of the Thessalian horse hewed down many of his enemies, and at 
length, with much difficulty, put the barbarians to flight, who 


were in amazement and consternation at lieariog that Darius bad 

Darius in the mean time being an expert general, and helped bjr 
the-tliick cloud of dust, took not his course strait forward like the 
rest, but turned a different way $ and so being not discerned^ (bf 
reason of the dust rising so high), escaped clear away, and brooght aU 
those that went with him safe into the towns and villages behind Aft 

At length all the barbarians taking to flight, and the MaocdonlaBt 
killing all that were in the rear, in a short time all that large {Ada. 
was covered over with dead carcases. Tiiere were killed ia itSSf* 
battle, of the barbarians, horse and foot, above ninety thousand |Jd#^: 
the Macedonians, five liundred only, but great multitudes woundedt 
amongst whom Hephsestion, one of the bravest of Alexander's ooai« 
manders, and captain of his guard, was shot through the arm with a 
dart. Perdiccas, Cenus, Menidas, and some others likewise 
wounded. And this was the issue of the battle at Arbela, 


The Grecians conspire to revolt. Menmon rebels in 2%rae«; 
Antipater marches against him. The LacediJetfumians raise am 
army; arc routed by Antipater, and Agis their king killed* 

ARISTOPHON was at that time lord chancellor of Athens^ and 
Cneius Domitius and Aulus Cornelius were created Roman consals^ 
when many of the cities of Greece, upon the news of the victory at 
Arbcla, began to bestir themselves to defend their antient liberties, 
whilst the Persians had any power left to assist them; and therefafe 
resolved to assist Darius with money to raise foreign soldiers from all 
parts. For they concluded that Alexander durst not divide his army 
lest he should disturb them; but if they should suffer the Persians to 
be destroyed, they were not able of themselves to defend their 
liberties. And an insurrection iu Thrace encouraged them the more 
to revolt: for Memnon being sent general into Thrace, having both 
courage and force sufficient, at the instigation of the barbarians, 
rebelled, and with a great army now appeared in open war. Upon 
which Antipater gathered all his forces together, and marched through 

Ctiyi. Vff- SAOf^yvdt sicyius* a09 

Macedonia into Thrace^ against Memnon. Things thus falling out, 
the Lacedaemonians judging that a fair opportunity was now offered 
them to prepare for war, solicited the Grecians to confederate toge- 
ther for their remaining liberties. But the Athenians, in regard 
they had received many kindnesses and marks of honour from Alex- 
andeiy beyond all the rest of tht dtiea, continued quiet and firm iu 
tbrirdttly. But many of the Pelo{ionnesians, and some others, 
BDteied. into the league, and emnoUed their names as soldiers for the 
WBOBf^ 69 that, oecordiog as £yery city was able, they sent foiih 
Ikit jdboicfist of their youth, and raised an army of twenty thousand 
teiyU^ two thousand liiMrse. Tlic management of the whole war 
WriJeft to the jjacedaea;iouians, who were resolved to lay all at stake, 
' tnd made Agis general. Antipater hearing of the defection of tlic 
Ckveks, composed all matters relating to the war in Thrace as well 
9$ \^ cp^ld^ Q^d marched with all his forces into Greece, .having no 
1^ |]^D ^rty tbous^^ Greek auidliaf ies as confederate^. t)cre« 
llppn a great .l^^atjtlf ^^^A fought, wherein l^g\& (though Jhe behavej 
Uipsel^.wit^i greaf: valour and resi^lfUtion) was killed, and a^t lengjtb 
the jU^^^^^sBf^g^as, Q^^v^g 3tpad Xq it stoutly for ,a lo^g time)^ 
upon t^^ confedierales giving groui^d, ^ew^ retreated toward^ 
Sfprtf . T\^^ fell ^ t^ |ya(;e(jbeaionians aqd their cpufederates ia 
thi^^tie, <a|)oyi^ fiye tl^^jusand |threc hundred: of those with Apti- 
pater three thousand fiv^ hu^4f.eid* 

7|ief|S wa^ one thing very remarkable concerning the d^^th of 
A^. Haying fought witjh great gallantry and resolution, |ind re** 
ceiye^ 0)any woun^, \^ was parried off by the soldiers in order to 
be brought back to hi^ own country, but being surrounded by the 
cQej(9y, zs^ fi;iding no likelihood to escape, he charged his soldiers 
forthi^.lth to be gope, and preserve themselves for the future service 
of dieir co^ijLtry. IJe hioaself remained^ a°4 ^^^1^ ^i^ sword vd his 
hao^ fought ^o.ut i^pon hiskpees^andikjlledseveral of the assailants; 
till a( length being sjiot through the body with a dart, he there died, 
after he h^jl .^f^£Qc4 ^^A^ y^^rs- Thu^ faf for £^rppe \ yi% ^hall now 
f^tuf n to theafla'ur^ 9i Asig. 

Vol. 2. No. 43. bb 

210 DI0D0RU9 SICULUS. Book XFIf. 


jtUxoiidcr comes to Babylon. J%e wealth found there. FUws 
his troops at Sitacana. The riches there. Utence goes into 
the country of the Usians. Marches towards PersepoSe. A 
company of maimed Greeks met jllexander: his bounty to thenu 
He tahes Persepolis: gives it up to the plunder of the mMUn. 
TliB riches of the citadel of Persepolis. Alexander^e feusi «f 
Persepolis. Persepolis burnt at the instigation of Thais, Ikh 
rius murdered. 

DARIUS, being routed at Arbela, fled tovrards tbe bigber prorinee^ 
to the end that be might, by the distance of the place, both recniit 
bimself, and likewise have more time to raise a new army. ' He 
came first to Ecbatana, where he stayed for some time, and tbeie 
received his broken troops that come in to him, and aimed agaio 
such as had lost their arms. He sent likewise for the militia oiit 
of the neighbouring provinces, and despatched messengers to the 
lord-lieutenants and commanders in Bactria and the upper prefee* 
tures, wishing them to abide firm to him in their faith and loyalty. 

In the mean time, Alexander (after he had buried those that woe 
killed in the battle) entered Arbcia, where he found abundance of 
rich furniture of the king's, and vast treasures of the barbarians^ a- 
mounting to three thousand talents of silver. But, becanse he 
judged that the air thereabouts must certainly be infected, through 
the smell of the dead bodies that lay there, he presently removed his 
camp, and came with all his forces to Babylon, where he was cheer- 
fully received by the inhabitants, and splendid entertainment aflfordcd 
to the Macedonians. And there his army was refreshed afker the 
many toils and difficulties they had undergone. And thus, in the 
confluence of all things desirable, and free and noble entertainmeDt 
of the citizens, he continued in the city above thirty days. Then he 
made Agatho of Pydna governor of the castle, with a garrison of 
seven hundred Macedonians. To Apollodorus of Amphipolis, and 
Menetas of Peila, he gave the government of Babylon, and of all 
the prefectures as far as to Cilicia, and ordered them to raise what 
forces they could., and gave them a thousand talents for that pur* 
pete. He made Mithrencs, who betrayed the castle of Sardis, lord- 
lieutenant of Armenia. Of the money that he found in BabyloUj he 
gave to eixry horseman kix minas; to every au:uliarT, five; lo each 


of the Macedonian phalanx, two; and to every foreign niercenary, 
two months pay. 

The king removing from Babylon, as he was on his march, there 
came to him recruits, from Antipater, five hundred Macedonian horse, 
and six thousand foot; six hundred Tliracian horse, and three thou- 
sand five hundred Trallians : from Peloponnesus four thousand foot, 
and almost a thousand horse. Among these were sent fifty of the 
sons of the king's special friends from Macedonia, designed by their 
fathers to be of the king's life-guard. Having received these, he 
marched forward, and came, after six decampments, into the pro- 
Tioce of Sitacana. And here he stayed several days, in regard the 
country abounded in all things necessary for the life of man, and be- 
cause he had a mind his soldiers should refresh themselves after their 
tedious march : and had a purpose likewise to take a more exact view 
Aod account of his troops, and to enlarge the commands and govern- 
nents of his captains and commanders, and so to strengthen his army, 
both by the number of soldiers, and valour of their officers. All 
which he forthwith put in execution ; and making choice of the most 
deserving with the utmost care possible, he advanced many from very 
considerable places of trust and authority to much higher prefer-* 
ments, by which means he both promoted his officers, and gained 
their hearts and affections at the same time. He took care also for 
the better government of the common soldiers, and by many new in« 
reutioos put every thing into a better order and posture than they 
were before. To conclude, when he had so managed every thing as 
that he had gained the love of the whole army, and made them in 
all points observant to his commands, and was assured for valour 
they would give place to none, he marched forward, in order to finish 
by fighting what further remained. When he came to the province 
ofSusiana,be presently without any difficulty gained possession of 
Suaa, the royal city, the most beautiful palace in the universe, which 
was voluntarily surrendered to him by Abulites the lord- lieutenant 
of the province. But some writers have said^fhat this was done 
by order of Darius himself, to them that otherwise would have 
been both loyal and faithful to his interest; and that this wasjJone 
by the Persian king for this end, that Alexander, being taken up with 
matters of such great moment, as taking possession of famous and 
noble cities, and loading himself with vast treasures, Darius might 
gain more time for the raising of fresh forces for the carrying on of 
the war, 

Alexander therefore having possessed himself of the city and the 
king's treasures, found there above forty thousand talents of uncoined 
gold and silver. The kings had preserved this treasure untouched 

tl* DIODORUS SIC!;LU9. "ISodk XFtt. 

M iw^iMi — *■■■ ,■ i - ..^mm mmj^^tmmmtmmmMJmfssBmiaamt^m 

for many at^es. that it niii^bt be ready to resort to in cas^ of tome 
suddcii and unexficcicil tu: ii of fortune. Besides this, there was like- 
wise nine thousand talents in coined money calfed daric». While 
Alex^incler was taking an account of this wealth, there ha p pepcJ 
something that was very remarkable. The throne whereon he sat 
being too high for him, so that his feet conld not foaeh the foot- 
stool, one of the king's Loys observing it, brought Darios's table asid 
placed it under his feet, with which the king was very well pleased, and 
commended his care. But one of the eunuehs standing at the side 
of the throne, much concerned and grieved at saeh a change of fer* 
fune, burst out into tears: which Alexander perceiving—.** What 31 
ddst thou see (says he) that thou weepestso?" To whom heaoswered.^ 
'* I was once Darius's servant, now! am yours; but because I cannot 
but love my natural lord and master, I am notable, wkhout etfrcBH! 
s6rrow; to see that table put to so base and mean a use, which byimii 
was so lately graced and honoured." The king, upon this answer^ 
reflecting upon the strange change of the Persian monarchy, began 
io consider that he had acted the part of a proud and insulting eneoiy, 
not becoming that humanity and clefnency which ouglit to beahcwii 
towards captives ; and therefore he commanded him who placed the 
table there, to take it away: but Philotas standing near to him said.- 
It is not pride nor insolence, O king! being done without your com- 
mand; hut it falls out to he so through the providence and pleasure 
of some (^vood genius. Upon which the king ordered the table t6 
remain wiicre it was, looking upon it as some happy omen. 

After this, he ordered some masters to attend upon Darius's bmk* 
thcr, his daughters, and son, to instruct them in the Greek tongue, 
and left them ut Susa. And he himself marched away with the Whole 
army, and after four decampments came to the riv^r Tigris^ which 
rising out of the Uxian mountains, runs first through a tottgb and 
craggy country, full of large and wide channels, for the space of a 
thousand furlengs; thence it passes through a champaign countij 
with a more gentle current, and having made its way for the space 
of six hundred furlongs, it empties itself into the Persian sea. 

Alexander having passed the river, marched towards the most fruit- 
ful country of the Uxians : for being watered in every part, it plenti- 
fully produces fruits of all sorts and kinds; of which, being in their 
proper season dried in the time of Autumn, they make all sorts of 
sweetmeats, sauces, and other compositions, both for neeessaiy use 
and pleasure, and the merchants convey them down the river Tigris 
to Babylon. He found all the passes strongly guarded by Madetes, 
who was nearly related in kindred to Darius, and had with him a strong 
and well disciplined army. While Alexander was viewingthe strength 


of th« placed, and could find out no passage through those steep 
rdeksy an inhabitant of the country, wtio was well acquainted with 
those ways, promised Alexander that he would lead his soldiers 
thtoiigh such a strait and difflcDlt pathway, as that they should stand 
at length over the heads of their enemies : hereupon the king ordered 
tf sifilill party to go along with him* He himself in the mean time 
used his utmost endeavour to force his way, and for that purpose set 
lipod the guards, and while they were hotly engaged, (fresh men still 
sttpplytdgthe room of them that were weary), and the barbarians 
iisorderedy and running here and there in the engagement, on a sud- 
den the soldiers that were sent away appeared over the heads of the . 
guards that kept the passages; upon which they were so amazed, 
that they forthwith fled, and so the king gained the pass; and pre- 
tenlly all the cities throughout all Uxiana were brought into sub- 
jaetion. Thence he decamped and marched towards Persia, and the 
fifth day came to a place called the Susian Hocks, which were before 
{>ossessed by Ariobarzanes, with five-and-twenty thousand foot, 
and three hundred horse. The king concluding that he must gain 
flie pass by force, led his troops through some of the strait and craggy 
places without any resistance, the barbarians never ofieriog to disturb 
him till he came to the mid- way, when they bestirred themselves, 
dad threw down great numbers of massy stones upon the heads of 
the Macedonians, and destroyed multitudes of them. Many cast 
their darts from the rocks above upon them, which failed not' to do 
execution, falling among such a throng of men together : others with 
band-stones repulsed the Macedonians that were forcing to break in 
upon them ; so that by reason of the difficulty of the places, the bar- 
barians so far prevailed, as to kill multitudes, and wound as many. 
Alexander not being able to prevent this miserable slaughter, and 
perceiving that not one of the enemy fell, or was so much as hurt, and 
that many of his own men were slain, and almost all that led the van 
ip?ere wounded, he sounded a retreat, and marched back three hun- 
dred furlongs, and then encamped. Then he inquired of the inha- 
bitants, whether there was any other way to pass, who all answered , 

That there was none, but that he must go round many days journey. 
But the king looking upon it as a dishonourable thing to leave the 
bodies of them that were slain unburied; and as disgraceful, and even 
owning himself to be conquered, by treating for liberty to bury the 
dead, he commanded the captives, as many as were there at hand, 
to be brought to him. Among these, there was one that understood 
both the Persian and Greek tongue, who declared, that he was a Lycian, 
and some time aijomade a prisoner of war by the Persians, and that 
for several years last past he had exercised the calling of a shepherd 

fl4 DI0D0RU9 MCULU9. Book XFIL 

■■■■■■' ■ ' m^mmmm^^mmmmmmmmmgmmmmmmaaaamm 

m those mountains* and by that means had perfect knowledge of the 
country; and told the king, that he could lead the army through the 
woods, and bring them directly upon the backs of then that guanM 
the passes: hearing this, the king promised the man a large icwardji 
who thereupon so conducted him, that in the night, with great !a- 
hour and toil, he got to the top of the mountains, for be marched 
through abundance of snow, and passed through a country ftdl of 
steep rocks, deep gulfs, and many vallies* Having marched through 
this tract, as soon as he came in siglit of the guards, he presently IdD* 
cd the first, and took those prisoners that were placed \% the next 
passv The third guard presently ii^d, and so he gained all into his 
own power, and cutoff the greatest part of Ariobamnea's airnj^ 
Thence he marched towards Persepolis, and in his way i c ce i fcd 
letters from Teridates governor of the city, whereby he signifiedl te 
1iim.»That if be hastened away, and prevented those that woe 
coming to relieve Persepolis, he would deliver the city into his 
bands* Upon which he made a swift march, and passed hb mraqf 
over the river A raxes, by a bridge then laid for that purpose. As the 
king was on his march, a most sad spectacle presented itself, which 
sdrrcd up just hatred against the author, pity and compassioa for the 
irreparable loss of those that suffered; and grief and sorrow in all the 
beholders. For there met him certain Greeks, whom tlie formes 
kings of Persia had made captives and slaves, and fell down at his 
feet^ they were near eight hundred, most of them old men, and all 
maimed, some baving;^ their hands, others their feet, some their cwSy 
and others their noses cut off. If any were expert in any art, and 
had made a cousidcrable progress therein, all his outward members 
were cut off, but such only as were necessary for the management of 
hb art. So that all who beheld their venerable old age, and the sad 
mangling of their bodies, greatly pitied the miserable condition of 
these poor creatures : especially, Alexander so pitied their sad condH 
tion, that he conld not refrain from weeping. These all with one 
voice cried out, and entreated him, that he would succour and re% 
lieve them in these their calamities. Upon which the king called 
the chiefest of them to him, and told them, that he would take spe-- 
cial care of them, and promised he would see them sent honourahlj 
to their own country, as became the dignity of his person. Upon 
which they consulted together, and at length concluded .^That it 
was better for them to remain where they were, than to return into 
their own country ; for, when they were returned, they would be 
scattered here and there, and all the days of their lives be mocked 
and despised on account of their sad misfortunes. But if they 
continued together as fellows in their misery, the calamity of their 

C^p. VtL D10D0B.U8 SltULO^ SIS 

fellow-safferers would be an allay, and some comfort to every one of 
tiiem in their own adversities. Upon this, they made a secoml ad« 
dress to die king, and declared to him wHat they had resolved upon^ 
and desired he would a£R)rd such relief to them as was most agreeaMe 
to their present circumstances. The king consented to what they 
bad determined, and ordered to each of them three thousand dracti* 
mas*, five suits of raiment to every man, and as many to each wo- 
man ; and to every one of them two yoke of oxen, fifty sheep, and as 
many medimnasf of wheat And commanded they should be li>ee 
fimm all taxes and tribute, and gave strict chaige to the officers em- 
ployed, tiiat none should offer them any injury. And thus Alexan* 
ddr, according to his natnral goodness and innate liberal generosilyy 
ooaaffortedthese poor miseraUe people. He then called the Macedo- 
mans together, and told them — That Persepolis, the metropolis of 
the kingdom of Persia, of all the cities of Asia had done most mis- 
chief to the Grecians, and therefore he gave it up to tlie plunder and 
spoil of the soldiers, except the king^s palace. This was the ricliest 
city of any under the sun, and for many ages all the private houses 
were foil of all sorts of wealth, and whatever was desirable. 

The Maeedonians therefore forcing into the city, put all the men 
to the sword, and rifled and carried away every man's goods and es-* 
tJrte, amongst which was abundance of rich and costly furniture and 
ornaments of all sorts. In this place was hnr ried away here and 
there vast quantities of silver, and no less of gold, great numbers of 
rick garments, some of purple, others embroidered with gold, all 
which became a plentiful prey to the ravenous soldiers: and thus the 
great seat-royal of tbe Persians, once famous all the world over, wa9 
DOW exposed to seorn and contempt, and rifled from top to bettom« 
For though every placif was full of rich spoil, yet the covetousness 
of the Macedonians was insatiable, still thirsting after more. And 
Aey were so eager in plundering, that they fought one with another 
withdrawn swords, and many who were conceived toliave got a greater 
share than the rest, were killed in the quarrel. Some things tliat 
were of extraordinary value they divided with their swords, and each 
took a share; others in rage cut off the hands of such as laid lioM of 
a thing tliat was in dispute. They first ravished the women as they 
were in their jewels and rich attire, and then sold them for slaves^ 
So that by how much Persepolis excelled all tlie other cities in glory 
and worldly felicity, by so much more was the measure of their misery 
and calamity. Then Alexander seized upon all the treasures in the 
^tadel, which was a vast quantity of gold and sliver of the public re* 

• Near one hundred pounjs. 
i J^Tfry mediffliia, bv so^ie writer^), cootaiiis iiij;htcen gallon); lit>y bushels. 


Tenues tM had beea there collected and laid up, froip die timr of 
Cyrus the first king of Persia to that day. For there was tl^re Coim4 
a hundred aod twenty thousand talentsj reckoiung tl>c gold after thi^ 
jrate of the silver. 

Part of this treasure he took for the use of thp war, t^nd order^ 
another part of it to be treasur/ed up at Susa. To this purpose, he 
ordered that a multitude of mules both Cor draught apd .carri^ige, SMi4 
three thousand camels with pack-saddles, sliould be brought 0|U of 
^bylon, &tesopotamia> and Susa i and with these be conveyed d^X tht 
treasure to the several places he hadappoiptjed. Fo^ becayvs^ l^<fff^ 
tremely hated the inhabitants, he was resolved not to trust theninrtl 
«ny tlung, bat uttjerly to ruin and dcstray Perscpolis ; of whose p»lm^ 
in regard of its stately structure, we conceive it will not be iiupffPljt 
sent if we say something. This stately fabric, or citadel, was •hFi' 
rounded with a treble wall : the first was sixteen cubits high, adorufoi 
with many sumptuous buildings and aspiring turrets. The sepp.n4 
was like to the first, but as high again as the other. The third wa$ 
drawn like a quadrant, foursquare, sixty cubits high, all of the hardest 
marble, and so cemented, as to continue for ever. Oq the four «idca 
arc brazen gates, near to which are gallowses* of brass tweaty cubits 
high; these raised to terrify the beholders, and the other for theltettef 
strengthening and fortifying of the place. On the enstside of ,lihf 
citadel, about four huiidred feet distant, stood a mount called tba 
Royal.Mount, for here are all the sephulchres of the kings, OMtoy «p« 
partmcnts and little cells being cut into the midst of the rock; Jpt^ 
which cells there is made qo direct passage, but Uie coffijps vfilli t^M 
dead bodies are by instruments hoisted up, and so let down into thcpt 
vaults. In this citadel were many stately lodgings, both for the klog 
and his soldiers, of excellent workmanship, and treasury chambeEi 
most commodiously contrived for the laying up of money. 

Here Alexander made a sumptuous feast for the entertainment of 
his friends in commemoration of his victory, and offered magnificc»t 
sacrifices to the gods. At this feast were entertained whores, wlio 
prostituted their bodies for hire, where the caps went so high, aii4 
the reins so let loose to drunkenness and debauchery, that many yftx% 
both drunk and mad. Among the rest, at that time there was a 
courtezan called Thais, an Athenian, that said.. Alejuinder would 
perform the most glorious act of any he ever did, if while be was feast- 
ing with them, he would burn the palace, and so the glory and cenowa 
of Persia might be said to be brought to nothing in a moment by the 
bauds of women. This spreading abroad, and coming to the ears of 
the young men., (who commonly make little use of reason when drink in 

* Or cruMcs of brut. 


io tbek lieads)i presently one cries out: — ^^ Come on, brii^ us fire- 
bmnds/' and so incites the rest to fire the citadel, fo revenge the im- 
piety tke Persians bad comiiiited, in destroying the temples of the 

Grecians. At this, others with joy set up a shout, but said ^That 

so brave an exploit belonged only to Alexander to perform. 

The king, stirred up at these words, embraced the motion ; upon 
which, as many as were present left their cups and leaped upon the 
table, and said — ^That they would now celebrate a victorious festival 
to Bacchus. Hereupon, multitudes of fire-brands were presently 
got together, and all the women that played on musical instruments, 
which were at the feast, were called for, and then the king, with soogs, 
pipes, and flutes, bravely led the way to this noble expedition, con- 
trived and managed by this whore, Thais, who neit after the king, 
threw the first fire-brand into the palace. This precedent was pre- 
sently followed by tlie rest, so that in a very short time, the whole 
fabric, by the violence of the fire, was consumed to ashes. 

It is very observable, and not without just admiration, that the 
sacrilege and impiety of Xerxes, king of Persia, (exercised in his des- 
tn^ingthe citadel of Athens), should so many years after be revenged 
iu the same kind, by one courtezan only of that city that was so in- 

After these things thus done, Alexander marches against the rest 
of the Persian cities, and having taken in some by force, and others 
surrendered upon the fame and report of his lenity and moderation, 
he made after Darius, who had begun to raise forces out of Bactria, 
and other provinces ; but being prevented by the march of the enemy, 
he made away with all speed out of Bactria with thirty thousand Per- 
rians and mercenary Greeks, and in his return was treacherously 
murdered by Bessus, the lord-lieutenant of Bactria. He was scarce 
dead, when Alexander with a party of light liorse, came up to tlie 
place where he lay, and there finding him, caused him to be honour- 
ably interred. 

But some do report, that Alexander finding him yet alive, Darius 
complained of his sad misfortune, and desired him that he would see 
his death revenged, which Alexander faithfully promised. He forth- 
with indeed pursued Bessus, but he being a long way before him, 
escaped into Bactria, so that, considering it impossible to overtake 
him, he marched back. This was the state of affairs in Asia. 

In Europe, the Lacedtemoniaus being routed in a great battle by 
Antipater, were forced to send ambassadors to him; who put them 
ofi'till the meeting of the general assembly of Greece, which after- 
wards met at Corinth; where, after many things were bandied and 
disputed on both sides, the matter was at length left to the decisioQ 

Vol. 2. No. 13. ff 


of Alexander. Hereupon^ Antipater received the chiefest of the no- 
bility of Sparta as hostages; and the Lacedsemonians sent ambasst- 
dors into Asia^ to beg pardon for their late revolt. 


JBesstis stirs up the Bactrians. Alexander discharges the Oreek 
auxiliaries with rewards. The river Stiboetes. He enters Hyr- 
cania; its riclmess. Enters the Mardian country. Loses kis 
brave horse; which is'restored. Thalestris the jimazonian queem 
meets him. He falls into the effeminacy of the Persians. Enters 
Drangina, A plot against Alexander. Phihtas and others 
put to death. Marches agaitist the Arimaspi. Subdues Ara- 

WHEN this year ended, Cephisophon executed the office of chief 
magistrate at Athens, and Caius Valerius, and Marcus Claudius, were 
created Roman consuls. At that time, Bessus, with Nabarzanesand 
Barzacntes, and many others, after the death of Darias, having es- 
caped the hands of Alexander, came intoBactria. And in regard be 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of that country by Darius, and npon 
that account was well known by the inhabitants, he persuaded the 

people to stand up for their liberty, and told them ^Tbat the sttna- 

tion and condition of their country was such, being full of difficult 
passes, and very populous; that they had an extraordinary advantage 
to succeed in the attempt, and promised that he himself would take 
upon him the whole management of the war. 

Hereupon he so far prevailed, that he got a considerable number 
to join him, and to own him for king. Then he inlisted men, pre- 
pared arms, and procured whatever was necessary for the present 
state of his affairs. 

In the mean time, Alexander perceiving that the Macedonians had 
a design to end the war with the death of Darius, and to return to 
their own country, he called them together; and so courted them by 
an oration fitted for that purpose, that he prevailed with them readily 
to go on with the expeditions that then yet remained. Then he called 
together all the Greek auxiliaries, and havinghighly commended them 
for thrir valour, bestowed upon every horseman as a reward a talent, 
aud every foot soldier ten minas, and discharged them from further 

Giap. Fin. moDORus siculus. ftig[ 

service in the army. And over and besides, he paid to every one of 
them what was dae to them for their common pay, and gave them 
likewise sufficient provision to carry them into their own country; 
and to every one that was willing still to continue in the army, he 
gave three talents. He gave indeed large/ewards to the soldiers, be- 
ing naturally of a generous disposition; and besides, in pursuingDa- 
rius he had possessed himself of a vast treasure: for' he had received 
eight thousand talents out of the treasures; and besides what he gave 
to the soldiers, he raised thirteen thousand talents by the sale of the 
caps, flagons, and furniture. And it was believed^ that what was 
stolen and taken away by force was much more. 

Having done this, he marched with his army towards Hyrcania, 
and the third day came near the city Hecatompylos*, and there en- 
camped. Here he continued some days to refresh his army, because 
the country was exceeding rich, and abounded with every thing for 
man's use. Thence he moved forward a hundred and fifty furlongs, 
and encamped near a very high rock, at the foot of which is a cave 
not unbecoming the gods; from whence, (as the spring-head), issues 
the great river Stiboetes. Thence it runs with a fierce and violent 
stream for the space of three furlongs, till it dashes itself upon a 
great rock, in shape like a woman's pap, under which is a vast 
gulf, or opening of the earth, into which, being now divided into 
two channels, it falls down with tt mighty noise, turned all into froth 
and spume, and there runs under ground three hundred furlougsf; 
and then appears again, as if that were its spring-head. Having en- 
tered Hyrcania with his army, he gained all the towns and cities as far 
as the Caspian sea, which some likewise call the Hyrcanian sea. It 
is reported, that in that sea are many serpents of an extraordinary 
bigness, and fish of all sorts, much difiering in colour frum those in 
other parts. When he entered farther into Hyrcania, he came to towns 
called the Fortunate Towns, which are so in deed, as well as in name ; 
for this country excels all the rest in fertility of soil : for every vine, 
they say, afibrds a metrete^ of wine, and that some fig-trees are so 
very fruitful, that they will bear ten medimnas of dried figs ; and that 
what are left upon the tree after harvest, fall upon the ground, and 
spring up again of themselves, and bring forth abunchmce of fruit to 
perfection. There is a tree in that country much like to an oak, which 
distils honey from its leaves; and this the inhabitants gather lu great 
plenty for their own use. There is likewise a little insect in this 
tract called an Anthredon, less than a bee, but very remarkable; it 
j^ets its living in the mountains, sucking the flowers that grow here 

* From its huodred gates. f About fortj-three oiilei. 

X About forty-niDe qu^Mts. 


and there in those places. It works its combs within hoUow rocks, 
or trees shattered or made hollow by the thunderbolts^ and there 
makes a liquor not inferior to any for sweetness. 

In the mean time Alexander, while on his march through Hyrcanta 
and tlie bordering countries^ gained great reputation, and was highly 
honoured for his clemency, in carrying himself with so much huma- 
nity towards all those commanders who fled away with Darius, and 
afterwards submitted themselves to him: so that fifteen hundred 
brave and valiant Grecians (wlio sided with Darius) forthwith came 
unto him, and laid themselves at his feet, whom he readily pardoaed, 
and placed them in several of his regiments, and allowed them the 
same pay with the rest. 

Having run through the sea-coasts of Hyrcania, he entered the 
country of the Mardi ; who being a warlike nation, slighted the grow- 
ing power of the king, and shewed him not the least respect, either 
by sending ambassadors, or otherwise; but having possessed them- 
selves of the strait passes of the mountains with eight thousand men, 
stood there, waiting for the coming of the Macedonians. Hereupon 
the king sets upon them, kills many, and drives the rest witfiin the 
straits. But while he was burning up the country all before him, it 
fell out that (some of tiie king's boys who led his horses, being at 
some distance from the rest of the army) his best horse^by a sudden 
incursion of the barbarians, was carried away. This horse was given 
)ym by Demaratus the Corinthian, and the king bad made use of him 
in all his battles in Asia. When he was bare-backed, he would ad* 
mit only his keeper to noount him; but when he had the king^s war- 
saddle, and the rest of his brave trappings upon him, he would not 
suffer his former rider to get upon his back, nor any other person but 
Alexander; and to him he would down upon his knees for the kin^ 
to get into the saddle. Because of these excellent properties of the 
horse, the king was the more grieved and troubled; and therefore he 
ordered the trees in all parts of the country as he went to be hewn 
down, and caused a proclamation to be made in their own natural 

tongue ^Tliat unless his horse were restored, he would waste and 

destroy all before him with fire and sword ; which he began presently 
to put in execution. Upon which the barbarians were 9o teirified^ 
that they not only restored the horse, but brought along with them 
many rich presents for the king, and by fifty ambassadors begged his 
pardon. Upon whicli the king accepted some of the most honour- 
able among them for hostages. 

When he returned to Hyrcania, Thalestris, queen of the Am(izona 
met him, whose dominions lay between the Phasis and Tbermodon, 
of an admirable beauty, and strong body, greatly honoured in her own 

Ck^p. Pitt BfODORUS ^CULOT. 'i«l 


country for her brave and manly spnit. She presented herself to the 
kki^, with three hundred Amazons in their warlike habits, having^ 
left the rest of her forces on the borders of Hyrcania, The king be- 
ing stmek with admiration at the sudden and unexpected approadi 
of the queen, aqd the graceful appearance of the women, asked Tha- 
lesrtris — ** What was the reason of her journey thither?** Who an- 
swered him f^ That she came there to ha?e issue by him; for she 

boked upon him to transcend all other men for great and noble ac- 
tioDs; and she herself to exceed all other women both in body and 
iBind, as to the strength of the one, and courage of the other: and 
tkerefore there was good ground to hope that the issue of such pa- 
rents, would excel all other men in valour/' The king was greatly 
pleased with what she said, and gratified her request: and after he 
had conversed with her for the space of thirteen days, he presented 
her with honourable gifts, and tlien suffered her to return to her 
own kingdom. 

Alexander conceiving that he had now efiected all that hedesignedp 
^itid that thdre was no competitor with him for the empire, began to 
4iKiulge in the soft and effeminate manners of the Persians, and to 
imitate the luxury of the Asiatic kings: and therefore, in the first 
place, be ordered all the officers of the court to be Asiatics, and the 
nobility of Asia to foe squires of the body*, amongst whom Oxathres, 
the brother of Darius, was one« He put likewise the Persian diadem 
npon his head, and wore the white cassock and belt, after the manner 
of the Persian kings, and all the rest, except the Persian hose aad 
vestment, called the Candys. He bestowed likewise purple gowns 
upon his friends, and cloathed all his horsemen in the Persian habit. 
He began likewise to carry his concubines along with him from place 
to place as Darius used to do, who had almost as many as the days 
in the year, and were the greatest beauties that could be found through- 
out all Asia. These stood round the king's bed every night, that he 
might take his choice of whom he pleased to lie with him. How- 
ever, for the most part, he followed the antient customs of his an- 
cestors, and used the other but seldom, lest he sliould offend the 
Macedonians: and when some, notwithstanding, complained of the 
king, he stopped their mouths with gifts and bribes. 

About this time intelligence was brought him that Satibarzanes, 
one of Darius's lord-lieutenants, had killed all the soldiers he had 
committed to his charge, and was joined in conspiracy with Bessus 
to make war upon the Macedonians; whereupon he marched out 
against him. 

Satibarzanes had got all Ims forces together into Chrotacana, a most 

• The Uctors, who carriCil rods U'forelhenjagialrates. 

e^f DioDORUs sicuLUS. Book XFII. 

noble city in those parts, and naturally fortified; but as soon as the 
king came in sight, being terrified with the greatness of the king's 
army, and the valour of the Macedonians, (which was now cried up all 
the world over), he hastened away with two thousand horse to Bessus, 
to procure help from him with all speed. The rest of liis forces he 
ordered to make to a mountain near at hand, wliich was full of stnk 
pas^^; and where they might lie close and secure whea they doxst 
not engage with the enemy in the open field. Upon this, the kiof 
was so intent and diligent, (as he always was), that though they had 
sheltered themselves in a large rock, and naturally strong, yet he 
reduced the besieged to those straits, as tliat he forced them to sur- 
render themselves. 

Afterwards, having reduced all the cities in this province, in the 
space of thirty days, he left Hyrcania, and came to the royal city of 
Drangina^, where he encamped and refreshed his army. 

About this time a roost wicked plot was laid against AlezaDder, 
very unworthy the goodness of his disposition. For one of the king^s 
friends, called Dimnus, blaming the king for something he had done, 
and thereupon becoming enraged at him, laid a plan to assassinate him. 
This man had a catamite, called Nicomachus, whom be dearly loved; 
him he endeavoured to persuade to join with him in this wicked de- 
sign : but being a very young stripling, he discovered the whole busi- 
ness to his brother Ceballinus, who, (fearing lest some other should 
be before him in the discovery), resolved to make the first mention 
of it to the king. 

Thereupon he goes to tlie court, and first meets Philotas, and ac- 
quaints him with what he had heard, and entreats him to inform the 
king immediately what was hatching against him. 

Philotas, whether through covetousness, or tliat he was one of the 
conspirators, (it is not certain), inclined not to make the discovery of 
what had been imparted to him : for though he went to the king, and 
had a long discourse with him of divers matters, yet he told him no- 
thing of what Ceballinus had related to him. But when be canie out, 
toM Ceballinus, that he had not had as yet a fit opportunity for open- 
ing the matter to the king; but that the next day be would take 
him aside by himself, and discover all that Ceballinus had made known 
to him. Philotas neglecting the business the next day also, Cehal- 
linus was afraid lest it should be discovered by some other persout 
and so he himself should be in great danger: therefore he waved 
Philotas, and went to one of the king's pages, and tells him the whole 
plot, wishing him forthwith to acquaint the king; and then with- 
draws himself into the armory, and there lay private. The page 

^ In the proTiucc of Drangina, ia PcniA, 


took the opportunity when the king was ia the bath, and related to 
him the whole matter told, him by Ceballinus, and that he then lay 
hid and secret in the armory. At this the king was greatly startled, 
and forthwith ordered Dimnus to be seized; and now fully informed 
of the conspiracy, sent for Ceballinus and Philotas. When every 
thing,after strict examination^ was fully discovered, Dimnus stabbed 
himself. Philotas confessed his neglect in not making the discovery; 
bat utterly denied that he bad any hand in the conspiracy. The king 
hereupon committed the examination of the business to the judgment 
of the Macedonians, who after many arguments and debat/es.j^roand 
coHf condemned Philolas and the rest of the conspirators to die; a- 
mongst whom was Parmenio, who was ever thought to have been 
one of the king's most faithful friends. And though he was not 
then present, yet it was suspected that he managed the business bj 
bis-8on Philotas. 

Philotas therefore, being put upon the irack, confessed the whole 
plot; and so he and the other conspirators were put to death, accord- 
ing to the manner of their own country. Alexander Lyncestes alsc;, 
(who was before accused of a conspiracy against the king), suffered 
in the same manner. He had been now three years in custody, but 
his trial was deferred till that time for the sake of Antigonus, who had 
a great kindness for him, and between whom there was a particular 
friendship an2 familiarity. But being then brought before the Ma- 
cedonian senate, and having nothing by way of plea to say for him- 
self, he was executed with the rest. 

Then Alexander despatched messengers upon dromedary-camels, 
to prevent the report of Philotas's punishment, and by that means 
caused Parmenio the father of Philotas to be seized unawares, and 
put to death ; he was then governor of Media, and was intrusted with 
the king's treasures in Ecbatana, which amounted to a hundred and 
four score thousand talents. About the same time he severed from 
the rest of his army all such as had given out harsh expressions against 
him, and grumbled at the death of Parmenio, and all those who had 
written-false and scandalous letters to their friends in Macedonia, re- 
lating to the king's affairs : all these he cast into one company or 
regiment which he called the Unruly Company, lest by their un* 
seasonable jangling and prating, they should corrupt the rest of the 

After these things thus done, and that he had settled his affairs In 
Drangina, he marched against the Arimaspi, (as they were antiently 
called),butuow£vergetse^, which name was given them upon the 

• Benefactors. 

t24 nioooHOs sicuLUS. BookXFjUm 

fbltowiog Account : Cyrus, (who was the first that tianslated the c»- 
pire from the Medes to the Persiaos}, in a certeio enpedkion hs had 
vndcrtakeiiy being brought iuto great extremity ia a baneft eottDHy 
fov waut of provisions, insomuch as the soldiers, tosatisfy their bvBgtrj 
were forced to eat the flesh of one another; the Arimaspi al thai tinie 
brought to his army thirty thousand carts and waggons loader witb 
pro¥i$frioiis. And therefore the king being unexpectedly lelieYed attd 
preserved, not only acquitted the* people from paying of Iribuite fsi 
Ibe future, but bestowed upon them many other privileges and bowi* 
tiful rewards, and clianged their old name to Evergetttw 

And now when Alexander came into their country^ they leceiadl 
bim with all the demonstrations of love and kindness^ and be lewudcA 
them with marks of his grace and favour, suitable to lus state ap4 
dignity. And returned the like favour to the Gedrosians theiir QC^|^ 
bours^ who hud enteitaincd him likewise with the same lespecti and 
over these two nations he mnAe Teridates governor. 

In the mean time while he staid in these parts, some brought biOl 
jnteliigence that Satibancancs with a great body of horse out of Bac* 
tria, had entered the country of tlte Arians, and hadwithdiaw» ^ 
inhabitants from their allegiance. Upon which the king sent apuQfll 
lum part of the army, under tlie command of Erigyus and Staiaodin 
He hiaeiself in the mean time in a few days subdued Araehqaia> rai 
caused them to submit to his government.. 


Alexander nutrchrs against the Parcpamisades. His troHitttmrn 
march. Conies to mount Caucasus. A battle m jhia Zy ^iurw 
ander's officers against SatibarzaneSj who is killed m a smgh 
combat by Erigyus. Besssus brought to Alexander; Aisfmtitk^ 
ment. Alexander AHls some barbarians wiexpededfy^ efUt iksjf 
had surrendered their city. He marches to the river AtkiMk 
Mophis's remarkable delivery up of himself and Me oraiy. 

AT the end of this year Euthycritus was created chief govenoE of 
Athene, Lucius Plottus, and Lucius Papirius executing the ofiicc oT 
Ki)man consuls. At this time was celebrated the hundred and thir* 

tccuth olympiad. Then Alexander led his army against the Para* 


paniisadei* This country lies vtrj far norths and is covered over with 
ibow, and by reason of the sharpness of the cold, people cannot en- 
dure to come into their country. The greatest part oF it is open and 
plain, withoat any trees, and has in it many towns scattered here and 
tfceic. The roofi of their houses are covered with tiles, running up 
in shape of a spire, in the middle is a hole to let in light, and to eva- 
porate the sm€>ke: and the walls of their houses are so closely jointed 
and cemented, that the inhabitants ar esufficiently guarded against 
the cold. By reason of the great drifts of snow, they keep within 
tfieir bouses the most part of the year, where they have every thing 
accessary for their provision laid up in store. They cover their vines 
and fruit'trcfs all the winter with earth, and uncover them again 
when the spring approaches. The nature of all this tract is such, 
diat nothing that is green or pleasant is seen in any part of it; but 
ittow glittering with ice covers all places. No sorts of fowls or birds 
bleed here; no wild beasts feed in the woods or forests; insomuch^ 
as that there is neither entertainment for any stranger, nor hospita- 
iicj OM with anctherthroaghout the whole country. Notwithstand- 
ing all these diffionlties, yet th< king, encouraged by the hardiness of 
^K Macedonians; and pot on forward by his own daring resolution, 
^fvereame all the disadvantages of the place. But yet some of the 
mMknf and others that straggled and kept not up with the rest, were 
«o tired, that they were left behind. Others, by the brightness and 
.dtarpness of the snow, and reflection thereof upon their eyes, were 
destroyed. Nothing could be seen at a distance, save only the smoke 
that discovered the villages; which was a sign to the Macedonians 
that there were inhabitants not far off. The towns being thus dis- 
covered and gained, the soldiers, after their great hardships, refreshed 
themselves with the plentiful store of provisions they found in the 
houses, and in a short time all the inhabitants submitted. 

After this, he marched forward, and came near to Caucasus, where 
he encamped. That mountain by some is called Paropamisus : hav- 
ing passed over the breadth of the. mountain in sixteen days marcb, 
he bniit a city called Alexandria, near the foot of the mount, at a 
pass which opens a way into Media. In the middle of Caucasus- is a 
rock ten furlongs in compass, and four in height, wherein the inha- 
bitants pretend to shew Prometheus's'^ cave, the fabulous vulture's 
nest, and the chains and fetters. He built likewise other cities, 
etch distant a day's journey from Alexandria. In these he planted 
seven thousand of the barbarians, three thousand of those that fol- 
lowed the camp, and as many of the mercenary soldiers as would. 
* See this itory 'm Otid'i Met«morphoii», lib. i. and otbtr pottt. 

Vol. 2. No. 43. oa» 

226 DIODORU9 81CULUS. Book XPU. 

Hence he marched into Bactria; for he heard that Bessns had 
usurped the crown, and liad raised a numerous army. These weie tlie 
things then done by Alexander. 

In the meau time, the commanders that were sent into Aria, there 
found the ring-leaders of the rebellion, with a strong army, under 
the command of Satibarzanes, an experienced and valiant generaL 
The armies encamped near to one another, and sometimes would en- 
gage in considerable bodies, and at others in light skurmishes, by a 
few on each side. At length it came to a general battle, and, in the 
midst of the fight^ (wherein the valour of the barbarians was aucfa 
that the issue was very doubtful), Satibarzanes himself (to discover 
who he was) pulled off his helmet with his own hand, and challenged 
any of his enemy's commanders to fight with him liand to hand : upon 
which Erigyus made up to him, and a stout combat ensued, in which 
Erigyus was victor. The barbarians, upon the death of their general, 
were so disheartened, that, upon receiving quarter, they gave up theoH 
selves to the king. 

In the mean while, Bessus had taken upon him the name of Idogf 
and, having sacrificed to the gods, invited his friends to feast mdi 
him. In the midst of his cups, he began to quarrel with one of laf 
companions, called Bagodares, and, the contest growing higher^ he 
fell at length into such a rage, that he resolved to kill him, but 
changed his mind, through the persuasion of his friends. Bagodares 
thus narrowly escaping with his life, fled in the night to Aiexandert 
The chief of the commanders (moved by the consideration of hie es- 
cape, and stirred up by hopes of rewards) conspired together^ and 
seized iy>on Bessus, and brought htm to Alexander, for which the 
king bountifuliy rewarded them. As for Bessus, he gave him np 
into the hands of Darius 's brother, and the rest of his kindredj to 
punish iiim in such manner as they thought fit, who, after they had 
put hlai to all manner of torments, and used him with all the de^pitCi 
and disgrace imaginable, cut his body into small pieces, and hurled 
every part here and there out of their slings, »»**«***♦ 

Here the history is broken off] anid hit, ifiz» 1. Alemmda^M 
march through a dry country. 2. Uie defection of ike Sogf^ 
diani and Bactrimis. 3. Tlie hunting in Baheutii^ 

Peace being made upon these conditions, and ratified by mutual, 
oatlis, the queen^ migiitily admired the brave and noble spirit of 

* Queeu uf iMassaga, io IndU. 

CSap.IX, moDORUfl 8ICULUS. 397 

Alexander^ and sent to him most rich presents^ promising to do 
whatever he pleased to command. »**»**♦* 

Hare liketvise the history is lost. 4. -The impiety against 
Bacchus. 5. The death of Clitns atid Callisthenes. 6, 
fFars with the Nautic^e. J.- His marriage with Moxana. 

8. €f Nicaea, These may he supplied out of Archiany 

lib. 4, and Q. Curtius, lib. 7, B. 

Thbn the mercenaries, as they had agreed^ forthwith left the city> 
and, having marched eight hundred furlongs, encamped without any 
disturbance, not in the least suspecting any thing of that which af- 
terwards happened : for Alexander, hating them implacably, pursued 
tfaem with a considerable body of men, and fell upon the barbarians 
on the sudden, and cut off multitudes of them. Upon which the 
mercenaries first cried out, that he had violated his oath, in felling 
upon them in that hostile manner, and called upon the gbds to re- 
venge that impious cruelty executed upon them. But the king, with 

a loud voice, answered ^That he did, indeed, agree that they should 

^it the city, but not that they should ever be accounted as friends 
to the Macedonians. Hereupon the barbarians, no at all terrified at 
the desperate condition they were in*, drew up in a body in a ronnd 
ring, placing their wives, children, and women in the middle, that 
they might receive the enemy on every side with less hazard and pre* 
judice. Being therefore desperate, and of daring spirits, and encou- 
raged by their successes in former conflicts, they bravely received 
the enemy. The Macedonians, on the other hand, resolving to be in 
nothing inferior to them, the engagement was very sharp and terri- 
ble. For, fighting close hand to hand, man to man, various kinds of 
death and wounds appeared every where: for the Macedonians, by 
their sarissasf, pierced through the brittle shields of the barbarians 
with that violence, that the points ran into their very bodies. Tlic 
mercenaries, likewise, on their part threw their lances among th(^ 
the thickest of their enemies, upon whom (being so near) they were 
sure not to fail in doing execution. When a great number of them 
were wounded, and as many killed, the women took up the arms of 
those that were slain, and joined with the men in the engagement : 
for the despcrateness of their condition, and the greatness of the 
work in hand, forced them to the most resolute resistance for the de-« 
fence of themselves. Some of them therefore getting arms, defended 

♦ These mcrcennries were the Massauf tT. 
t ^ar'iMa, :i Muct (Ionian ^[icar ur Ihu^c. 


their busbaDds with shields; others that had no arms rushed in i 
the enemy, and caught hold of their bucklers, so that thej i 
scarce do any thing. At length all the men, together with their 
wives, (who valiantly fought to the last), being overpowered bye mul- 
titudes, died upon the place, preferring an honourable death before s 
life with slavery and disgrace. The useless and unarmed luhble, to- 
geiher with the women that were left, he gave to his horsemen. 
He took likewise several other cities, putting them to the sword that 
opposed him. 

Hence* he moved forward to the rock called Aornos; for htn 
those inhabita^uts that survived sheltered themselves, it being a very 
strong place. It is reported, that the antient Hercules attempted 
the taking this place, but wrs forced to quit the siege, by reason of 
tcriible earthquakes, and other prodigies of the guds, that happened 
there at that time; which coming to the ears of Alexander, it made 
him far more eager to assault the place, as if he gloried to be that 
god's co-rival both in might and power. The rock was an hundred 
furlongs round, and sixteen high, and seemed to he even and steep, 
and every where round. At tlie foot of the rock towards the south 
runs the Indus, the greatest river of India : other parts are environed 
by inaccessible rocks and dreadful precipices. Alexander, upon view 
of the place, concluded that it was not possible for him to take it 
by force. At thai instant there came to him an old man, with his 
two sons, who iiad a long time lived in those places, in a very poor 
and low condition : he had there a little cell cut in the rock, wherein 
were three beds : he and his sons lodging together in this place, he 
was very well acquainted with all the avenues and passages round 
about. When he came, therefore, to the king, he told him hia con-* 
dition, and promised to lead the king through the straits and craggy 
by-ways, to a post where he might assault the barbarians upon the 
rock. Hereupon Alexander promised him a large reward, made use 
of his conduct, and in the first phice possessed himself of the only 
passage tiiat led up to the top of the rock : and, because there was 
no other way to pass, he so blocked up the besieged, that there 
was no relief to be expected. Then, by the help of many hands, he 
raised up a mount from the foot of the rock; and he advanced so 
close up to the enemy, that by this means he made a very sharp and 
vigorous assault, which continued, without any interruption, night 
and day, for the space of seven days. At the beginning the barba- 
rians, by advantage of the height of the fort, prevailed, and cut o£F 

^ Here it falls in with tht index pUced before the •CTCDtcentb book in the Greek 

-.*ditio:i cf Ulio'iumBCiius. 

CkMp.IX. D10D0EU8 SICULUl. tf9 

many who too rashly forced in upon them: but^when the battery 
wan raiacd up to its due height^ and the engines for shooting of darts 
and other warlike instruments were brought up, and that the reso« 
lotion of the king not to leave the assault was dbcemed, the besieged 
were in a great consternation, fiut Alexander, wisely foreseeing 
what would be the issue^ commanded the guard that he had left at 
the passage to withdraw^ that so the enemy might have free -liberty to 
depart, if they chose it. 

Upon which the barbarians, affrighted by the valour of the Mace- 
donians, and the king's brave resolution, in the night left the fort« 
The Indians being thus frighted with a scarecrow, the king gained 
iht rock without any considerable loss; and then, having rewarded 
his g^ide, marched away with his forces to other places. 

About that time there was one Aphrices, an Indian, that lay in 
those parts with an army of twenty thousand men, and fifteen ele- 
phants : him the Indians killed, and brought his head to Alexander, 
and by that means gained his favour. He possessed himself likewise 
of all the elephants in that tract, and received the Indians into his 
protection. Thence he moved to the river Indus, where, being fur- 
nished with some ships of thirty oars a-piece, with them he made 
a bridge over the river, and continued in that place for the space of 
thirty days, to refresh his army, and there offered magnificent sacfi- 
Hces to the gods. 

After he had passed over his forces, there happened something 
trousnal and remarkable » one Taxiles, who formerly reigned in that 
country, being lately dead, his son Mophis succeeded him; this 
Mophis some time before had sent an ambassador to Alexander, 
when he was in Sogdiana, to offer him his assistance against the 
Indians that were then preparing to oppose him, and likewise pro- 
mised to deliver up his kingdom into the king's hands. When the 
Icing was thirty furlongs distant, Mophis and his friends marched to- 
wards him with a well-appointed army, and elephants adorned and 
fitted for battle. When Alexander saw so numerous an army ad- 
vance, he believed the Indian had made a cloak of his promises to 
cover his fraud, and by that means to surprise the Macedonians 
unawares; therefore he commanded the trumpets to give the signal 
of battle, and drew up his army in bi\ttalia, and advanced towards the 
Indians. But Mophis, being informed of the sudden commotion that 
was amongst the Macedonians, and easily judging the occasion, 
commanded his army to make a halt, and he himself, with a few in 
his compaoy, posted away, and presently undeceived the Macedo- 
nians, by delivering up himself and his army (which was the strength 
of the kingdom) into the power of the king; who was so well pleased 

tSO DIODOKUS Blcvi.Vif. ' Book XFIL 

with what the fanrbariftn bad done, that he restored him to hi» king-* 
dom, and ever after found Taxiles (for so he was called) his conatant ' 
and faithful friend and associate. And these were the tranaactioM 
of this year. 


jfltxander avertomes Ponu. How jfyes are tai^n, Siftrng^ 
serpents for venoiu. Large trees. He marches against the 
Amlrastium, Cat/iari, and against Sophithes. The cusium of 
thein under Sophifhes. Indian dogs. Alexander entertained bp 
Phigeus. The Macedonians refuse to march against the 6«n- 
daritic^ Alexander leaves momwients behind him at the river 
Hydaspes. JSicaa atid Bucc])halus built. The Iberians fnreseni 
Alexander. He routs i/ie Agalasscs. Is in danger in tie 
river Iiulusy by whirlpools. 3Iarches against the Oxydraeee 
and Maim. Tlie king leaps off* the wall into the tounu A. 
duel between Coragus and Dioxijtpus. The Sambestee submii 
to Alexander; and also the Sogdiani and Massmii. Subdues 
Musicaiius, Pottieanusy and Smnbics. Poisoned leeapans.. Tie 

, Jung's dreauu Coines into the main ocean. Comes into GlaAro- 
sia^ The savagen'ess of the people. His army near periAimg 
in Gcdrosia. Comes into Carmania. Punishes the JSormeiat 
Coremours. Nearchus returns. Islands covered at high tides. 
The strafige death if Calaitus. Alexander marries Statintm 
Harpaius's liLvury. Alexander seizes tvi(h his own hand them 
that had mutinied. 

AT tlie time when Chremes was lord-chancellor at Athens, and PoI»-- 
lius Cornelius and Aulus Posthumius executed the consalshqi at 
Rome, Alexander, after he had refreshed his army in the province of 
Taxiles, marched against Poms, prince of the neighbouring Indiana, 
who had in his army above fifty thousand foot, three thousand hone, 
above a thousand chariots, and a hundred and thirty elephants^ and 
was coni^bderated with another neighbouring king, called Embisarvs^ 
not inferior in power to Porus. Alexander, understaDiding that be 
was nut above four hundrinl furlongs distant from Porus, advanced 
with a resolution to figiit ium before the other joined him. Porus 
|,u-ii.:civiiig him to approach^ drew up his horse in two wiugs; bia 

Chap. X. DIOliORUS SICULUS. «st 

ckphuiU, so acootttred as to terrify his enemies, he plaeed at eqail 
dlsUnoes one from another in the front, and lined them with his 
armed men, who were commanded to guard and defend them from 
darts and arrows in the flank. The wliole army drawn up thus ia 
hatfalia, seemed like a city: for the elephants stood like so many 
towers, and the soldiers placed among them resembled the waUs« 
Alexander, on the other hand, (observing how his enemies were drawa 
up), so disposed and ordered his own men as the present circum- 
stanees of his affiurs then required. 

The horse engird in the first place, and tliereupon almost all the 
Indian chariots wese presently broken in pieces; afterwards the cle- 
|ibants being made use of, (by the miglity bulk of their bodies, and 
their great strength), bore down and trod under foot many of the 
Macedonians; others were catched up in their trunks, and tossei 
into Che air, and then fell down again with great violence ^pon the 
paith, and so miserably perished; many, likewise, were, so rent and 
torn with their teeth, that they died forthwith. However, the IVIa- 
cedooians with invincible courage endured all the iuirdships wiiere- 
Bfiik tbcy were pressed, and with their sar^ssas killed the soldiers that 
guarded the elephants; so that now they fought upon equal terms: 
and not long after, the beasts bein^; plied with darts on every side, 
and not being aUe longer to endure the jnaoy wounds they received, 
their riders were not able to rule them, insomuch that they furiously 
rushed backwards, and broke in upon their own regiments, and trod 
many of them under foot, which caused great disturbance and con* 
fosion. Upon which Porus, mounted upon the bravest elephant, 
(seeing how things were likely to be), commanded forty of tliosc that 
were not as yet startled and affrighted, to be placed round about him. 
And with these lu; made so desperate and fierce a chaigc, that he 
made a great sUiughter amongst the Macedonians; especially, being 
a man of the strongest body of all those that were with him; for lie 
was five cubits high, and in hulk proportionable, so that* Ills breast- 
plate was twice as big as any of the rest of tlie strongest men a- 
moogst them, and he threw a dart with as great force us if it had 
been shot out of au engine. But this extraordinary strength of 
Porus did not at all terrify the Macedonians that were pkced in the 
front against him : Alexander therefore commanded the archers and 
light-armed men, with all their darts and arrows, to make at Porus 
himself, who did as they were commanded: so that such a multi- 
tude of archers were got together in one body, and suph showers of 
darts and arrows poured out u]>on him, that they could not possibly 
miss their mark. Porus at length, (haviug fought with great valour 
au(} resolution), by a multitude uf wounds, lust $a much blood that his 

fiSt DioMRus Bicvhvn. Book JTKEr. 

•ptrits foiled him, and he fell down ffmn hia beast to the grottfed. 
Upon whichj it being presently spread abroad that the king waa dead, 
the rest of the Indians fled, and thereupon a great slaoghter waa aaada 
amongst them. 

Alexander having thus gahied this glorious Tictory, at lengA com* 
manded his trumpets to sound a retreat. But there were killed ia 
this battle above tweWe thousand Indians, amongst whom were two 
sons of Poms, the generals of his army, and the ehiefest of his ooiii* 
manders. There were taken above nine thousand prisoners, and tOmt* 
score elephants. As for Porus, he was not yet quite dead, and there- 
ibre Alexander recommended him to the care of the Indiana theM^ 
selves, tor the dressing of his wounds. There fell of the Macedo* 
Bians two hundred and fourscore horse, and above seven hudred 
fbor, whom the king took care to have decently buried, and rewarded 
those Aat sunnved who had merited by their valour. He sacrificed^ 
likewise, to the sun, through whose fiivonr and assistance he had 
conquered the east. The neighbouring mountains being clothed fMk 
great numbers of fir-trees, cedars, and the pitch-tree, the plaee af* 
fords plentiful materials for the building of ships; and therdbM he 
built as many here as he had occasion for: for he designed, whea 
he came to the utmost bounds of India, after he had subdued those 
nations that lay in his way, to pass along through the river into the 

In the mean time, he built two cities in those parts, one upon the 
farther side of the river* where he passed over; the other where he 
overcame Porus, and both were presently perfected, having many 
hands at work. 

Porus being recovered, he restored him to the possessbn of his 
kingdom; and, because there was plenty of all sorts of provisions^ 
he suffered his army to He still and refresh themselves for the space 
of thirty days. 

There are some things very remarkable, and worth observing, in 
the mountains near where they encamped: for, besides the materiala 
for shipping, this tract abounds with serpents of a vast bigness, six- 
teen cubits in length, and breeds a sort of apes to be admired both 
for their number and the greatness of their bodies. The nature of 
the beast has instructed the hunter how to take her: for they are 
apt to imitate every action they see; but, because of their strength 
and natural sagacity, it is very difficult to take them by force. There- 
fore some of the hunters anoint their eyes with honey, and others put 
on shoes in the sight of the apes; and some there are that clap upon 
their heads looking-glassesf : then they leave some shoes behind 

^ RlTcr Hydaipes. t Glaisei roadt hoUow lik« CApi. 

Ckap. X DIOOORUS 8ICULU9. 233 

i * ■ ■ — ^— — ■ 

them, with banck fixed to thero^ and instead of honey lay bird'^lime, 
and within the glasses are ropes to run on nooses* When they are 
gone, the poof creatures begin presently to imitate what they saw done, 
and so are deluded; for their eye-lids are glued together, their feet 
are fast bound, and their whole bodies held by the snares; and so 
they become an easy prey to the hunter. 

Afterwards, Alexander forced Embisarus (who had been so slow in 
assisting Poms, and was now in a consternation) to a submission; 
and then he passed the river with his forces, and made his way through 
a most fruitful country : for here are strange sorts of trees, seventy 
cubits high, and of that thickness that four men can scarcely compass 
them, and cast a shade three hundred feet distance. 

There are likewise in this tract multitudes of serpents of small 
bodies, but for their various colour most remarkable: for thousands 
lie like rods, yellow as brass; others have very rough and hairy 
breasts, and whoever is bitten by them falls down dead immediately. 
If any be stung by them, he is most horridly tormented, aud a bloody 
sweat issues out at all the pores of his body. The Macedonians, to 
secnre tliemselves from these mischiefs, hung up their beds on the 
limbs of these trees, watching the greatest part of the night; but at 
length, by some of the inhabitants, they were directed to a root which 
was an antidote against the poison. 

After the king had moved from thence, he was informed that 
Por4is,a neighbouring prince, nephew of the Poms lately vanquished, 
was fled out of his kingdom, and gone to the GandaritsB. At which 
Alexander was not a little troubled, and thereupon sent Hephastion 
with a considerable body of men into his dominion, and ordered him 
to reduce it into the nature of a province, and to deliver it into the 
hands of his friend Porus. He himself marched into the country of 
the Audrastians, and gained some of their cities by assault, and others 
by surrender. 

Thence he came into the country of the Cathari, where by the law 
the living wives are burnt together with their dead husbands; and the 
wickedness and treachery of one woman, who poisoned her husband, 
was the occasion of this law. Tliere the king burnt down to the 
ground the greatest and strongest town of all others in those parts, 
after he had with great difficulty and hazard taken it by assault. 
The inhabitants of another town, which he was ready to assault, 
came forth, and humbly submitted themselves to him, upon which he 
spared them. 

Hence he led his army to the cities belonging to Sopliithes, which 
were governed by moist excellent laws ; amongst the rest tiiey strictly 
observe this.^To value their beauty and comely proportion above all 

Vol.. 2, No. 43, iiu 


Other things; and therefore they carefully examine itnr^ part of tbe 
child when it is in the cradle, and such as are sound and perfect in 
every limb and member, and likely to be strong and comely, they 
nurse and bring up; but such as are lame and deficient, and of a wmk 
habit of body, they kill, as not worth the rearing. They hare the 
same regard to their marriages; for without any regard to portion, 
or any other advantages, they only mind the beauty of the perion, 
and the heallh and strength of their bodies. Hence it is, that those 
who live in those cities, are for the most part more beautiful and comely 
than others. But Sophithes the king surpassed all the rest of his 
subjects for admirable beauty and stately proportnn; for he was a« 
bove four cubits high : he came forth from his royal city, and gavt 
iip himself and kingdom into the hands of Alexander; and from the 
bounty of the victor forthwith received it back again ; and thereupon 
he nobly feasted Alexander and all his army for several days together. 
And after many rich presents made to him, he presented him with a 
hundred and fifty dogs of a wonderful strength and bigness, and of 
other most remarkable properties. It was said they were brought forth 
by tigers, who had coupled with dogs. Alexander wishing by an ex- 
periment to try their strength and courage, caused an exceeding great 
lion to be brought into the circus, and then loosed at him two of the 
weakest of the dogs; which proving too weak, he let go two others. 
The lion i>eing now surrounded by four, and overpowered, Sophithes 
sent one with a sword, who began to cut off the right tliigh of one 
of the dogs : upon which the king called out, and thereupon the 
squires of his body ran to the Indian, and held his hand : but So 
phithes wished them to let him alone, and promised to give three for 
that one. The huntsman therefore laid hold again on the dog's thigh, 
and cut it off by little and little ; and all that while the dog neither 
howled nor made the least noise; but held fast his hold till he fell 
down dead upon the lion. 

In the mean time Hephestion returned with those troops before 
sent along with him, having subdued a great part of India wherever 
he came, and was hereupon honoured by the king with all deserved 

Next Alexander marched into the kingdom of Phigeus, where all 
the Macedonians were welcomed by the inhabitants, and Phigeus 
himself meeting him with rich gifts and presents, willing to receive 
from him his kingdom as a gift of his bounty; which Alexander ac- 
cordingly restored to him : and both he and his army being enter- 
tained by Phigeus for two days, he then moved forward to the river 
Hydiispes, which is seven furlongs over, and six fathoms deep, uf a 
very fierce stream, and difficult to pass, lie had learned from Phi- 


geua^ that beyond the Indus was a vast desert of twelve day's jour- 
ney; and at the farthest borders thereof, ran the Ganges, two*and- 
twenty furlongs broadi and die deepest of all the rivers in India: and 
that beyond this river, there dwelt the Tabresians, the Gandaritse^ 
whose king's name was Xaadrames, who had an army of twenty thou- 
sand hocse, and two hundred thousand foot^ two thousand chariots^ 
and four thousand elephants* The king «ould not believe this to be 
troe, and therefore sent for Poms, and inquired of him whether it 
was so or not. He told him all was certainly true ; but that the pre- 
sent king of the Gandaritie was but of a mean and obscure extrac- 
tion, accounted to be a barber's son. For his father 'being a very beau- 
tiful and handsome man, the queen fell in love with him, and then 
murdered her husband; and so the kingdom devolved upon the pre- 
sent king, 

Alexander, however, though he perceived that the expedition a« 
gainst the Gandarite would be very difficult, yet through a desire 
heatUl iiad to gain further glory, would not wave it; but confiding 
in the valourof the Macedonians, and the answers he liad received 
from the oraclos, hoped to conquer all the barbarians wherever he 
went: for he remembered that at Delphoshe was called by the oracle 
Invinciide, and that the empjre of tlie whole world was promised to 
him by Jupiter Ammon. But discerning that his soldiers were even 
tired out with continual marches, (for they had now toiled them- 
selves with extreme liazards for eight years together), he judged it 
necessary to make a speech to his army, to persuade them to under- 
take with him this expedition against the Gandarite. For now he 
had lost many soldiers, and no hopes or prospect remained of ending 
the war: nay, their very horse's hoofs were worn away by their .con- 
tinual marches, and -many of «heir arms wasted and become useless. 
And besides, all their Grecian habits and clotlies were -worn out, and 
they were forced to make use of the barbarian stuff, and cut the Indian 
plaids in pieces to make themselves clothes. And it happened like- 
wise, about that time, that there poured down from heaven fearful 
storms of rain, with terrible thunder and lightning, which continued 
for seventy days together. All which, though they happened cross 
to his designs, as he conceived, yet he judged there was one way still 
left fur him to accomplish what he so much desired, and that was by 
bounty and liberality to gain the hearts of his soldiers. To that end, 
he gave free liberty to the soldiers to ravage and plunder all over the 
enemy's country, which was rich, and abounding ia all good things. 

While the army was thus employed in spoilingand plundering^ he 
called together the soldier's wives and all their children $• and among 
the wives he ordered corn to be distFibutad every monih; and com* 


fttieiigtb of lx)dy, and presence of mind^ that it seemed as if two of 
the gods were to fight a duel : for the Macedonian^ for his stature 
and the brightness of his arms, looked like Mars^ Dioxippasy (be- 
sides his being the stronger man), in his carrying of a great elob^ 
and actiTtty in feats of arms, resembled Hercales. And now botb 
advanced one towards another: the Macedoniao, when he 
near, east his javelin at Dio3uppus, which he avoided by a little i 
tion of his body, llien Coragus presently made at him with his 
Macedonian sarissa, which the other (advancing forward) broke in 
pieces witli his truncheon. The Macedonian thus twice defeated, 
took to his sword} but, while he was drawing it, his adversary nade 
up to him, and prevented him, catching bold of his arm with Us lefiL 
hand^ and gave him such a blow with the other, that he laid bira 
at bis- feeU Wheo he had him upon the ground, be set his foot wpeo 
his neck, and, lifting himself up, he turned about to the ^ctators: 
upon wlMch all the people set up a great shout, in admimtioD of what 
was done, and at the strength and valour of the man; bat the king 
ordeccd him that was ftMled to be let go, and then broke up the aa- 
sembly^and departed, not very well pleased at the misfortune of hia 

But Dioxippus liaving now discharged his adversary, weal off the 
ground, and, for his famous and remarkable victory, his eountrymen 
set a coronet upon his bead, as one that bad advanced the honour 
and reputation of the Grecians. But fortune suffered not this amb t» 
rejoice long in his victory; for the king ever after boreagradjge 
tolum, and the king's friends, and all the courtiers, envied biasr 
tbcrcfere tliey persuaded one that waited at the table to put a goldea 
cup under his cushiony and, in the middle of the feast a consplaint 
was made that the cup was stolen; whereupon search was made, and 
the Gup pretended to be found with Dioxippus, by which he was 
greatly disgraced, and put out of countenance; and seeing the Ma- 
cedonians come flocking about him, he rose from the table, and left 
the place, and went to his lodging. But shortly after, he wrote a 
letter to Alexander, complaining of the foul contrivances of his ene- 
mies agiunst him; and, after he had delivered it talus servants, to be 
handed carefully to the king, he murdered himself. 

It was certainly ^n imprudent act in him to fight with a Macedo- 
nian, but far more folly in him to destroy himself: tlierefore many 
wIm) blamed htm for this piece of madness, added this to his further 

disgrace ^That a great body and a great wit seldom meet together* 

When the king read the letter, he was exceedingly troubled at his 
death, and would often cuuimcnd him for his valour; and he ysha 


cmioeBt cicy of greatest command in those parts: the citkeiis ireot 
out to the Isiflg^ and were admitted to converse with him; awl d^fe 
they renewed the memory of their antient kindred, and promised to 
fierfom all ofices of respect and kindness, as became so near rrim«- 
tioos; and sealed and confirmed what they said with extmordtnary 
rich {Mcsenls. The king received them very graciously, return 
pennitted all their cities to govern acoordiag to their own laws. 

Thence he moved towards the bordering nations, amongst whom 
he fiound the Agalasses had raised an army of forty thousand foot, and 
three thousanf horse : Alexauder fought them, and routed then ; numj 
tipcre killed upon the spot, and the rest fled into holes and dens, anl 
the neighbouring towns and villages; which being afterwards taken^ 
they were all sold for slaves. There were twenty thousand of the rest 
of the inhabitants that got together for shelter into a great city, 
which he cook by storm, although the Indians, bkxckiog up tie pasw 
aagesy fought resolutely from the tops of their houses, and killed bwI- 
titades of the Macedonians, which put him into such a rage, that he 
aet the town on fire, and burnt OKMtof themin it; so that only three 
thousand remained, who fled into the castle^ and sued for pardon and 
obtained ic 

Then he with his friends went on board again, and sailed down the 
river to the place where the two rivers, (as was said before), and like-' 
wisetlie Indus, now met together. But these great rivers rushing inone 
upon another in one and the same place, there were most terrible 
whirlpools, where the ships tliat fell into them where so whirled abon^' 
that there they perished. And the stream was so fierce and viotent,' 
that no pilot could govern their ships; so that two long ships were 
sunk, and many of the rest driven upon the sliore. The king's ship 
was likemse catched in a whirlpool, and he himself now in' the ut-^ 
most extremity and danger of losing his life; which he pcreeitiiBg^- 
stripped himself naked, and prepared for the last remedy. ' Wheir^ 
upon liis friends came round the ship, endeavouring with all their 
might totake in the king, in case his ship perished. A great huiiy 
and confusion there was, while the men strove with the violence (^ 
tlic waves, but the river overmatched both their strength anAskflfi 
Yet the king with great difficulty, by the help of the ships, #a(s at 
length brought to Und. Being thos' unexpectedly preserv<id^ her 
sacrificed to the gods for liis deliverance, and that be had, like aoo* 
ther Achilles, Gooquered the river itself. . Thence he marched against 
the Oxydracee and Mallii, populous and warlike nations of In* 
dia, whom he found ready prepared with an army of ab^ve fourscore 
thousand foot, and ten thousand horse, and seven hundred. chariots. 
These people were at war amongst themselves, before the king came 


J J- — ■ ■ — ^— — ■' 

amongst them $ but, being terrified at his approach, they were ftmsed 
to agree, and confederate against him; aqd, in confirmatioa of their 
league, they mntually disposed of ten thousand Tirgins in aairisffe, 
end thereby entered into affinity one with another. However, they 
came not against him with their armies into the field, bat afterwards 
fell at variance one with another concerning the chief oomn»nd, and 
drew away here and there into the neighbouring cities. Alexander 
approaching to the capital city'^', designed without any further de- 
lay to assault it; but one Demophoon, a soothsayer, dissuaded die 
king from his purpose, alle^ng — That by certain signs and prodigies 
|by him observed) were portended, that the king would be in ex- 
treme danger by a wound received in this siege; and therefore en- 
treated him that he would wave this town, and apply himself to aoone 
other ai&ir. Upon this the king was very angry, because he discon- 
raged the soldiers; therefore, preparing all things necessary for an 
assault, he himself led up his men to the walls, with an undented 
spirit, eager to gain the place by force. His men being slow in fix* 
ing the engines, (as he thought), he was the first that broke through 
the gate into the city, upon which many were hewn down, and the 
rest fled, wliom he pursued to the very castle. And, because the Ma* 
eedonians came not up so readily to make the assault as he expected, 
he took a scaling-ladder himself, and set it to the castle-wall, aod» 
holding las buckler over his head, mounted the ladder; and he was 
so quick, that, before they within could force him back, he had gained 
the top of the wall. None of the Indians durst engage him hand to 
hand, but they so plied him with darts and arrows at a distance, that 
be was over pressed. 

In the mean time, the Macedonians had applied two scaling' 
ladders; but, too many thronging up at once, the ladders broke, and 
down they all fell to tlie ground. The king, being then left vridiout 
any hope of relief, grew so desperate, that he did wliat is worth spe- 
cial remark, and almost incredible: for, looking upon it as a diminu- 
tion of his glory to make a retreat down amongst his own soldiers^ he 
t^ped off the wall, with his arms in his hand, into the townt« Then 
the Indians came rushing upon him in droves, and he received their 
assault with great resolution : for, having a tree which grew near to 
the wall on his right hand, and the wall on his left, he more easily 
defended himself, standing his ground with that courage and resolu- 
tion as became a king that had performed sueh noble acts, coveting 
to end his days by a glorious and honourable death. Having now 

^ Of the Oi3dracc,— Vid. AppiUj lib. S; Bell. Cifil. latter end; and Cnrtirjb 
L ii. tecr. 5. 

t CMlle-jard raUier, 

Chap» X. DXODOKUs SICULU9. 939 

received many cats upon his helmet, and as many on his shield, at 
length I16 received so grievous a wound under one of his breasts, that 
it brought him down upon his knees. Upon which the Indian that 
wounded him ran (heedlessly). upon him to give him another blow; 
but the king thrust his sword through his body, and there he fell 
down dead. Then, raising himself up by the help of a bough of 
die tree, he challenged any of the Iidians who had a mind to fight 
with him. 

And now came in to his reliefPeucestes, one of his guard, being 
one of the first that had by other ladders scaled the wall, and after him 
came several others; so that the barbarians being now in a fnghl^ 
Alexander was at length rescued and preserved. 

The city being thus taken, the Macedonians (being enraged upon 
account of the king) put all the men they found to the sword^ and 
filled every place with dead carcases* 

In the mean time, while the king lay ill of his wound, the Gft- 
cians that were distributed into several colonies throughout Bactria 
and Sogdiana (having for a considerable time before been dissatisfied 
at their plantations amongst the barbarians, and now encouraged 
upon the report that Alexander was dead of his wound) rebelled a^ 
gainst the Macedonians, and got together, to the number of about 
three thousand, and endeavoured with all their might to return into 
their own country; but they were every man cut off after the death 
of Alexander. 

The king, after he was recovered of his wound, appointed a so- 
lemn sacrifice to the gods, in order to give thanks for his recovery^ 
and sumptuously feasted all his friends. In his feasting and drink- 
ing there happened a circumstance very remarkable, and fit to be 
taken notice of: amongst other friends, there was 'one Coragus a 
Macedonian invited, a strong-bodied man, and one that had often 
behaved himself with great gallantry in several encounters. This 
man in his cups challenged one Dioxippus, an Athenian, to fight a 
duel; who was a cliampion, and had won many noble prizes and vic« 
tones. The matter was pushed forward by the guests, as is usual at 
such times. Dioxippus accepted the challenge, and the king ap« 
pointed the day. 

As soon as it was day, many thousands of people flocked together 
to see the combat. The king, with his Macedonians, favoured Cora* 
gus; the Grecians wished well to Dioxippus. The Macedonian 
came into the list neatly accoutred, glittering in his arms. The 
Athenian presented himself stark naked, all over anointed with oilj 
with a cap upon his head. Their persons were both so admirable for 


strength of liody, and presence of mind, that it seemed as if two of 
the gods were to fight a duel : for the Macedonian^ for his stature 
and the brightness of his arms, looked like Mars^ Dkmippss, (be- 
sides liis being the stronger man)^ in his carrying of a great elob^ 
aiid activity in feats of arms, resembled Hercales. And now bocb 
advanced one towards another: the Macedonian, when be cane 
near, east his javelia at Dio3uppas, which he avoided by a little mo- 
tion of his body, llien Coragus presently made at him with bb 
Macedonian sarissa, which the other (advancing forward) broke in 
pieces with his truncheon. The Macedonian thus twice defeated, 
took to his sword;, but, while he was drawing it, his adversary made 
up to him, and prevented him, catching hold of bis arm with Us left 
baad^ and gave him such a blow with the other, that be laid him 
at bis^ feet* When he had him upon the ground, he set bis foot vpoo 
bis neck, and, lifting himself up, he turned about to the ^ctaton: 
upon which all the people set up a great shout, in admimtion of wbat 
was done, and at the strength and valour of the man; bat tbe king 
ordered him that was foiled to be let go, and then broke up tbe as- 
sembly, and departed, not very well pleased at the misfortune of bia 

But Dioxippus having now discharged liis adversary, went off the 
ground, and, for his famous and remarkable victory, his eountryoieB 
seta coronet upon his head, as one that had advanced the honour 
and reputation of the Grecians. But fortune suffered not this bmid to 
xcjoice long in his victory; for the king ever after boreagri^ 
to him, and the king's friends, and all the courtiers, envied bimr 
tbcrcCbrc tliey persuaded one that waited at the table to put a gfdden 
cup under his cushion ; and, in the middle of the feast a compUni 
was made that the cup was stolen; whereupou search was made, and 
the Gup pretended to be found with Dioxippus, by wbicb be was 
greatly disgraced, and put out of countenance; and seeing tbeMn- 
cedonians come flocking about him, he rose from the table, and left 
the place, and went to his lodging. But shortly after, he wrote a 
letter to Alexander, complaining of the foul contrivances of bis ene- 
sues agiunst him; and, after he had delivered it to bis servants, to be 
banded carefully to the king, he murdered himself. 

It was certainly ^n imprudent act in him to fight with a Macedo- 
nian, but far more folly in him to destroy himself: tlierefore many 
who blamed him for this piece of madness, added tbb to liis further 

disgrace ^That a great body and a great wit seldom meet together* 

When the king read the letter, he was exceedingly troubled at his 
death, and would often commend him for his valour; and he who 


uidervalued him when he was alive, now In vain wished for him when 
\t was dead, and came perfectly to understand the honesty of the 
oan, by the knavery of his accusers and slanderen. 

And now the king ordered his army to march along the bank of 
he fiver Indus, over against his fleet, and began again to sail down 
Dto the ocean, and in his passage arrived at the country of the 
iambestians. These people for number and courage are nothing in* 
ieiiof to any of the Indians, and their cities are democratical in their 

Having intelligence of tlie approach of the Macedonians, they 
tfooght into the field threescore thousand foot, six thousand horse, 
ad five hundred chariots. But when the fleet drew near, they were 
10 terrified with the strangeness of the sight, and the fame and glory 
rf the Macedonians, which was noised abroad in all places, that the 
dd men among them dissuaded them from venturing a battle; 
ivfaereupon diey sent fifty of the best quality as ambassadors to Alex- 
inder, to pray hb favour. The king (upon the address made to him) 
^nted them peace as they desired, and received large and honour- 
ible .presents (becoming a demigod) from the inhabitants. Then 
lie received the submission of the Sogdiani and Massanii, who bor« 
iered on both sides of the river. Here Alexander built another city 
called Alexandria, on tlie banks of the river, and furnished it with a 
thousand inliabitants. Afterwards he arrived at the kingdom of Mu- 
licanus*, whom he took aud killed, and subdued his country. Then 
be came to the territoryf of Porticanus, and took two cities upon the 
Bnt assault, and gave the spoil of them to his soldiers, and then 
Imrot them. Porticanus, who had fled for shelter into the castle, 
was killed fighting in hb own defence. Then he took all the cities 
within his dominion by assault, and razed them to the ground, which 
struck a great terror into the neighbouring inhabitants. Next he 
wasted the territories of Sambus^, razing many of the cities, and 
selling the citizens for slaves, and put to the sword above fourscore 
thoosapd barbarians. These were the plagues the Brachmanes suf- 
fered. All the rest who submitted (except such as were the authors 
and ring-leaders of the defection) he pardoned. In the mean time, 
king Sambus got away, with thirty elephants, into the farthest parts 
beyond the river Indus, and so escaped. 

Amongst the Brachmaoes, the last city attempted was Harmatelia §, 

• Musicanus.— Strabo, lib. iv. p. 694,701, sayt he submitted, (where see much more), 
but mfterwards revolted, tnd was crucified. 

t Thii territory belongs to the Ba«t«ns. — See Sirabo, ib. 

I The country of the Brachmanes who bad rerolied after submission.— See Curiius, 1. 9. 

$ Harmatelia.— See Strabo, lib. xv. p. 7:^3. 

Vol. 2. No. 43. n 


wliich greatly confided in the valour of its iuhabitanta, and the 
strength of its situation. Here the king commaDded some few of 
his party to go up near to the place, and provoke the citizens to ML 
upon them^ and then to appear as if they fled: thereupon five hun- 
dred approached to the very walls, who for their inconsidenbie mim- 
ber were contemned by the enemy; three thousand, therefore^ made 
a sally out of the town upon them, whereupon they took to their 
heels as if they had been in a great fright. But the king, with some : 
few of his troops, fell upon the backs of the pursuers, upon which-a 
there was a smart engagement, and many of the barbarians we 
killed and taken. But a great number of those that were killed i 
wounded on the king's side were in a desperate condition: for i 
barbarians had poisoned the heads of their weapons with a deadlpr 
poison, which made them more courageous and forward to engage 
with the king. This strong poison is made of certain serpents taken 
by hunting, which, after they are killed, they lay out and expose to 
the heat of the sun, when the heat does so fry their flesh as if it 
were melting away, from which distils a sweaty mcristure, wheieia 
the poison of the beast is conveyed, and may be discerned. The 
working of this deadly poison is such, that a numbness and stniudify 
presently seizes upon the body of him that is wounded^ and in a 
short time after follows most tormenting pains, convulsions^ and 
trembling, wreaking every member of the body. The skin grows 
excessive cold and black, and the person vomits black choler: moie^ 
over, a black frothy matter flows from the wound, which causes pa* 
trefaction, and presently spreads all over the principal parts of tlie 
body, and so the person dies in a most miserable manner. And 
hence it was, that he who was ever so slightly touched was as modi 
tormented as he who had the greatest wounds. After all that were 
thus wounded were dead, the king grieved for none so much as ke 
did for the misfortune of Ptolemy, (who reigned afterwards), and 
whom at that time he dearly loved. There happened at this time 
something extraordinarily remarkable in reference to Ptolemy, which 
some ascribe to the special providence of God. He was a man that 
was beloved of all, both for his valour and his wonderful obliging be- 
haviour to every one, and therefore met with a cure worthy his kind 
and gracious disposition. The king dreamed that he saw a serpent 
with an herb in its moutli, which told him the nature and efficacy of 
the plant, and where it grew: when he awoke, he presently searched 
for the herb, and found it, and when he had bruised it made a poul*^ 
tice of it, and applied it to Ptolemy's body, and gave him a potion of 
the juice of the plant, and so restored him to perfect health. Others 
also, when they came to know the sovereign use of the herb^ were 

Giap. X. mODORUs siculus. ^43 

eared by the same\ineaiis. But wheii Alexander now began to ap- 
{rfy himself to the siege of Harmatelia, a strong and well-fenced 
city, the inhabitants all came forth to him, and begged his pardon, 
and delivered ap themselves and their city into his hands, and so es- 
caped punisliment* 

Then sailing with his familiar friends into the main ocean, he 
found two islands, where he offered most magnificent sacrifices, and 
threw many golden cups of great value, together with the drink- 
oflerings, into the sea. At length, having reared up altars to the 
honour of Tethys and Oceanus, (supposing now that he had finished 
the voyage he intended), he returned with the fleet up the river, and 
arrived at the famous city Hyala'*. This city is under the same 
form of government with that of LacedsBmon : for there were two 
kings, of two several families, succeeding in one line, who had the 
management and administration of their wars; but the chief au- 
thority in civil a&irs belonged to the senate. Here Alexander bnrht 
all the ships that were leaky and defective, and delivered the rest 
of his fleet into the hands of Nearchusf and some others of his 
friends, with a command to sail all along the sea-coast, and dili- 
gently observe every place, till they came to the entrance into the 
river Euphrates. He himself raised his camp, and marched a long 
way into the country, subduing all that opposed him, and using 
those kindly who submitted to him: for the inhabitants of Abisaris 
and Gedrosia he brought to submission, without any hazard or dif- 

Afterwards, marching through many tracts of land destitute of 
water, and as many deserts, he came to the borders of Neoris. 
There he divided his army into three brigades: the first he gave to 
Ptolemy, the other to Leonatus;. the former he commanded to ha- 
rass the sea-coasu, and the other the midland and champaign part 
of the country. He Umself wasted and spoiled the hilly country 
and mountainous parts, and the places thereunto adjoining: so that 
many countries being invaded all at one and the same time, all 
places were filled with rapine, fire, and slaughter, from whence the 
loldiers were loaded with rich booty, and many thousands perished 
by the sword. 

The bordering nations, being terrified by this destruction of peo- 
ple, all delivered themselves into the power of the king{. Here the 

* City of Hyala, «t the mouth of the n?er ludui. 

t This navigation described by Arrian, lib. vi. p. 145; and Pliny^ Nat. Hist. lib. vu 
r. 23. They set out from the island Patala, and city X^Ienopolis, as by Arrian^ lib. <^, 
cap. 23.— Vid. Ush. Ann. 266, and 269. 

t In Hambacia. 


king, having a desire to build a city near to the sea, and having found 
a safe harbour, and a convenient place near to it, built one accord- 
ingly, and called it Alexandria. Then he entered through ways made ^ 
by his pioneers into the country of the Neoritee^^ and preaently ^ 
forced them all to submit* 

These people are like all the rest of the Indians, both for laws andH 
manners, except iu one thing, which is almost incredible: forthcs 
kindred and relations of those that are dead (all stark naked^ witic^ 
their lances in their hands) carry forth the dead bodies into som^ 
wood or other belonging to the country, and there strip the corpse 
of all its burying-clothes and other ornaments, and leave the bod— 
to be food for the wild beasts : then they divide the garments of th^ 
deceased^ and sacrifice to the subterraneous heroes,and feast all thei^ j 

Alexander afterwards marched into Gedrosia, all along the sei^* 
coast, and came at length among a most rude and savage people. 
From their very birth to their old age they never cut their nails^ but 
suffer them still to grow; and the hair of their beads all grow in 
locks, never combed out. They are of a swarthy complexion, (through 
the parching heat of the sun), and cloth themselves with the skins of 
wild beasts. They feed upon the flesh of whales cast up by the sei. 
In building of their houses and cottages, they raise up their walls n 
is usual, but the roofs are laid with the jaw-bones and ribs of whales, 
of which they have somers and beams eighteen cubits in length; and 
for tiles they use the whale-bone and fins of the same animal. 

When Alexander with great toil had marched through this coon* 
try, he came into a desolate wilderness, where nothing at all was to 
be had for the support of man's life. So that many dying for want 
of food, the whole army was not only altogether discouraged^ but the 
king himself was then overwhelmed with unusual sorrow and anzietj 
of mind: for he looked upon it as a most miserable thing that those 
who by the valour of their arms had conquered all wherever thcj 
came, should now ingloriously perish for want of bread in a barren 
wilderness. Therefore he sent away the swiftest couriers he could 
find into Parthia, Drangina, Aria, and other bordering countries, 
with orders, that with all speed they should meet him upon the bor- 
ders of Carmania, with dromedary camels, and other beasts of bur- 
then, loaded with bread and other accessary provisions : these hastened 
away as they were commanded, and procured the governors of the 
provinces to despatch abundance of provision to the place appointed. 
By this extreme scarcity Alexander lost many of his men, and this 
was the first mischief he met with in this expedition. Afterwardsj 

• Orita, 

Chap. X. moDORUS SICULUS. 245 

as they were marching, some of the moantaineers fell npon Leona- 
tus's squadroDi and cot otF many of them^ and then made back to 
their countrymen; and this was another loss. 

When they had at length, with very great difficulties and hard- 
sfaipSi passed through this desert, they came into a rich and populous 
country**. Here he rendezvoused his whole army, and, after they had 
refreshed themselves, celebrated a feast to Bacchus; and, dressed up* 
io make a show, like a pageant, he led the dance before his iarmy 
(which marched likewise in great pomp and state) for the space of 
seven days together, spending all that time in revelling and drunken- 
ness all the way he went. 

When this was over, hearing that many of his officers and gover- 
nors of provinces had abused their power, to the oppression and in* 
jury of many, he punished them according to their demerits. Which 
severity of the king being spread abroad, many who were conscious 
of being guilty of the same crimes^ began to fear the same punish* 
ment; and therefore some who commanded the mercenaries made 
a defection; others got together what money they could, and fled: 
of which the king receiving intelligence, he wrote to all the gover- 
nors and lord-lieutenants of Asia ^That, as soon as they had read 

his letters they should, without further delay, disband all the mer- 

About the same time, while the king was at Salmuntisf, a sea- 
port town, busy io making stage-plays, those who had been sent to 
examine all the sea-coasts arrived with the fleet, who forthwith went 
into the theatre, and addressed themselves to the king; and, after 
they had made their obeysance, they acquainted him with what they 
had done. The Macedonians so rejoiced at their return, that, as a 
testimony of their joy, they set up a great acclamation, and filled the 
whole theatre with exultations. Those that returned from the voyage 

told him ^Tliere were wonderful tides of ebbing and flowing in the 

ocean, and that at low water in the farthest parts of the sea-coasts 
there appeared a great many large islands^ which at the return of the 
tide are all again laid under water, while a most fierce and violent 
wind comes ofi'from them to the continent, and causes the water to 
be all of a foam : and, as the greatest wonder of all, they declared tiiat 
they met with whales of an incredible magnitude, which at the first 
so terrified them, that they looked upon themselves as lost, and that 
they and all their ships must in a moment perish together; but, all 
of them at once setting up a great shout, and making a noise by 

• In Cariuania. — Vid. Curtiusj lib. 9, adjinem, 

t SalmuDiib^ in Uarmozia, now Ormus^ in tbc gnlf of Persia, 

246 DioDORUs sicuLUS. Book XPIL 

striking upon their arms, and sounding of trumpets^ the moDttroiia 
creatures were so terrified with a thing so unusual^ that they made l» 
the bottom of the deep. 

After the king had heard this relation, he ordered the sea-offiren 
to sail with the fleet to the Euphrates; and he himself io the meaii 
time, inarching through many countries with his anny, came at btt 
to the borders of Susiana. At that time Calanus, an Indian, a great 
philosopher, and much honoured by the king, ended his days in ft 
wonderful manner. Having now lived to be seventy-three yeais oU^ 
and during all that time had never experienced any sickness er the 
least distemper, he proposed to put an end to his own life, soppoauig 
tliat now both nature and fortune had brought him to the utmost 
bounds of his felicity and well-being in the world^^ Being semdl 
npoij, therefore, with sickness, which grew upon him more and 
more every day, he desired the king that he would order a great fa- 
neral pile to be erected, and that when he had placed himself npoa 
it, some of his servants should set it on fire. The king at first en* 
deavoured to diss wide him from this purpose; bat, when he wmw 
he would not be moved, he promised that it should be performed a» 
bo had desired. 

The thing presently spread abroad, and, when the pile was finished^ 
multitudes of people flocked to see this strange sight: and there Ca-- 
Unus (according to the rules and dictates of his own opinion) with 
great courage ascended the pile, and both he and it were consumed. 
together. Some who were present judged this act to be an e&ct oF 
madness, others nothing but a piece of vain glory, though some thenp 
were who admired his noble spirit and contempt of death; and the 
kjng caused him to be honourably buried. 

When Alexander came to Susa, he married Statira, Darias's eldest 
daughter: Drypetis, the younger, he married to Hephestion. He 
gave also wives to the chiefest of his friends, and married them to the 
noblest ladies of Persia. 

About this time thirty thousand Persians (very proper and hand- 
some young men, and of strong bodies) came to Susa. Tliese, ac« 
cording to the king's command, had for some considerable time been 
getting together, and had been trained up by their tutors and gover- 
nors in martial discipline; and all of them, completely famished 
with Macedonian arms, encamped before the city, where they trained 
and exercised before the king, and approved ihemselres so expert ia 
the management and handling of their arms, that they were honoored 
by him with large and rich gifts : for, because the Macedonians re- 
fused to i^ass over the rivt?r Ganges, and in the common assembly 
wouiu mr.ry time? w'nh a jm: r-.invw'f oppose the king, and mock at 


ilk descent from Ammoa, he got this body of Persians (who were 
all about the same age) to be as a curb upon the Macedonian pha* 
lanx. And these were the things wherein Alexander employed him* 
selfar that time. 

Dttriog this Indian expedition^ Harpalus, wlio was made by Alex-^ 
aader lord-high-treasorer of Babylon, almost as soon as the king had 
b^va his march, (hoping he would never return), gave himself up 
ta aM manner of luxury and excess; for he was governor of a very 
large province. In the first place, he followed a lewd coqrse cff 
Coiciag and ravishing ot women, and committing all sorts of abonu* 
sable acts of uncleanness with the barbarians^ by which iuxurioor 
pimctioes of wickedness he wasted the treasure committed to hitf 
dutfge. He ordered great multitudes of fish to be brought to Una 
fifom distant Countries, as far as from the Red Sea; and he was so 
|NPofuse in the daily provisions for his table, that all cried shame of 
Isim, and none gave him a good word. He sent likewise for a £i- 
aootts strumpet from Athens, called Pythonice, to whom he ga^'tt 
most princely gifts while she lived, and buried her with as much 
state when she was dead, and built for her a most magnificent motia- 
anent in Athens. 

After her death he sent for another courtesan out of Attica, called 
<jlycera, with whom he lived at such a height of voluptuousness and 
expense, as exceeded all bounds; but, that be might have a refuge 
to fly to, in case oi the cross and destructive blasts of fortune, he 
made it his business chiefly to oblige the Athenians. And therefore, 
irhen Alexander returned from his Indian expedition, and had cut off 
the heads of many of the provincial governors for their mal-admints* 
tnitions, Harpalus, fearing the same punishment, bagged up five 
thousand talents of silver, and raised six thousand mercenary sol- 
diers, and so left Asia, and sailed for Attica. But, when he perceived 
that none were forward to come in to him, heieft his soldiers at Te^ 
narus in Laconia, and, taking part of the money with him, fled to the 
Athenians for protection: but, being demanded to be delivered up, 
by letters from Antipater and Olympias, (having first distributed large 
rewards amongst the orators that had pleaded for him, and managed 
his concern with the Athenians), he withdrew himself, and fled to hb 
soldiers at Tenarus. Thence he sailed to Crete, and tlierc was mur- 
dered by Thimbron, one of his friends. 

The Athenians likewise (examining the matter concerning tiic 
money given by Harpalus) condemned Demosthenes, and several 
other orators, for being corrupted by him with bribes. 

About this time Alexander, at the celebration of the Olympic 
games, caused public proclamation to be made by a herald That 

348 DI0D0RU8 8ICULUS. BookXFtL 

all exiles (except robber^ of temples and murderers) should return to 
their several countries: and he himself picked out ten thouiaod of 
the oldest soldiers in his army, and discharged them from further 
service; and^ being informed that many of them were in debt, be 
paid the whole in one day^ to the amount of no less than ten tbou* 
sand talents. The rest of the Macedonians carrying themselves widi 
great insolence towards him^ and in a general assembly with bawling^ 
and noise contradicting him^ he was so enraged and sharp in his re- 
turns upon them^ that they were all put into a great fright; and ia 
that rage he was so daring, that he leaped down from the tribunal, 
and seized upon some of the ring-leaders of the mutiny with his 
own hands, and delivered them to the lictors, to be executed. At 
kngth, when he saw that the disorders and mutiny still increased^ 
be made officers of such of the Persians as he thought fit, and pre-^ 
ferred them to the chiefest commands. Upon which the Macedo^ 
nians recollected themselves, and liad much ado to regain Alexan- 
der's favour, though they addressed themselves to him both witb pe^ 
titions and tears. 


Alexander ynixes twenty thousand Persian darters with his amgf^ 
Marches from Siisa. Bagistame breeds abundance of horses* 
Hephastian dies at Ecbatana. The Lamian war. He invades 
the Cuss{ei. Marches towards Babylon. The Chaldean astro^ 
logers dissuade him from coming thither. He enters Babjflan. 

AFTERWARDS, when Anticles was chief magistrate of Athens, 
and Lucius Cornelius and Quintius Publius were consuls at Rome, 
Alexander supplied the room of those he had discharged witb Per- 
sians, and chose a thousand of them to be squires of the body, 
conceiving he might altogether as safely trust them as the Mace- 

About this time Peucestes came with twenty thousand Persian 
darters and slingers. These Alexander intermixed amongst his other 
soldiers, by which means the army was brought into that due consti* 
tution, that they were readily obedient to his command. There were 
some of the Macedonians who had sons by the captives^ whomj upoD 

CAap. XL DiODORUs siculus. g49 

tiligent inquiry he found to be ten thousand, and appointed them 
nasters to instract them in all sorts of learning, and allowed suffi* 
:ient stipends for their liberal education. 

Then he rendezvoused his army, and marciied away from Susa^ 
nd, passing the river Tigris, came to the villages called Carne, and 
heie encamped. Thence in four days march he passed through 
littace, and came to Sambea. Here he rested seven days, and re- 
neshed his army. Thence in three days he marched to the towns 
died Celonee, in which place the posterity of the Boeotians settled 
lemsclves in the time of Xerxcs's expedition, and there remain 
Dto this day, having not altogether forgot the laws of their country: 
ff they use a double language, one learned from the natural inhabi* 
nts, and in the other they preserve much of the Greek tongue; and 
tiserve some of their laws and customs. Thence, when it grew 
iwards evening, he decamped and turned aside, and marched to 
agistame, to view tlie country. Tliis country abounds in all man-^ 
er of fruit-trees, and whatever else conduces either to the profit or 
leasure of mankind; so that it seems to be a place of delight both 
3r gods and men. Afterwards he came into a country that breeds 
od pastures an innumerable company of horses; for they say, that 
iiere had been here an hundred and sixty thousand horses that ran at 
asture up and down in the country; but, at the coming of Alex- 
ider, there were only sixty thousand. He encamped here for the 
lace of thirty days. Thence, after seven encampments, he came 
£cbatana, in Media. I'his city is two hundred and fifty furlongs 

compass, and is the metropolis of all Media, where abundance 
treasure was laid up. Here he staid some time, and refreshed 
^ army, and spent his time in feasting, drinking, and stage-plays: 
^^hich time Hephaestion (one whom he loved above all others) 
1 sick of a surfeit, and died; whose death very much grieved the 
^g,and he committed his body to Perdiccas, to be carried to Baby- 
^> because he intended to bury him with great pomp and state. 
\Vhile these things were acting in Asia, Greece was full of tumults 
Ad seditions, whence broke out the war called the Lamian War, 
tpon this occasion : after the king's order to the lord-Iieuteoants of 
ihe provinces to disband all mercenary soldiers, and the execution 
)f those commands, many foreigners that were casiiicred went strag- 
gling over all Asia, and, for want of subsistence, robbed and spoiled 
he country, tiH they all came into one body alTcnarus, in Laconia: 
likewise all th^ governors and commanders of the Persians that 
fcre left got together what men and money they could, and came 
U to Tenarus, and there joined their forces together. There th^ 
-eated Leosthenes, an Athenian, (a brave-spirited man), general oi 
Vol. 2, No, 43. KK 


the army; who then called a council of war^ and^ after having eon- 
suited concerning the management of the war^ disposed of fifty 
talents to pay the mercenaries, and provided arms sufficient for the 
present occasion. He sent, likewise, ambassadors to the iEtoIians 
(who were disafiected to the king) to join with them in arms. And 
thus Leosthenes was altogether taken up in necessary preparations 
for a war, of the greatness of which he had then a clear and cTidrnt 

Alexander now marched against the Cusssei, who refused to sub- 
mit to his government. Tliis people are a yery warlike nation^ 
and inhabit the hilly and mountainous parts of Media; and there- 
fore, confiding in their own valour, and the strength of their country, 
never would be brought to admit of any foreign prince to reign over 
them, and were never subdued during all the time of the Persittd em- 
pire; and at that time they were so very high, that they slighted the 
valour of the Macedonians. 

The king first gained the passes, and then wasted a great purt of 
the country of Cussae; and, getting the better in every engagement, 
killed many of the barbarians, and took many more prisoners. At 
length the Cusssei, being worsted and beaten in every place, and 
greatly concerned at the multitude of the captives, were forced to re- 
deem their country by the loss of their own liberty ; and so, giting uf 
themselves to the will of the conqueror, they obtained peace, upon 
condition that they should be loyal and obedient for the time to come. 
Thus Alexander conquered this nation in the space of forty days; 
and, after he had built some cities at the most difficult passes id tAe 
country, he marched away. 

Socicles was now archon at Athens, and Cornelius Lentulus antt 
Quintius Popillus* Roman consuls, when Alexander, after the con- 
quest of tlie Cussffii, marched thence towards Babylon. He alwajs 
rested awhile between every decampment, and^ to ease his amoy, 
moved very slowly. When he was about three hundred furlodgs 
from Babylon, thu Chaldeansf, (as they are called), who were fiimous 
for astrology, and used to prognosticate future events by the obser- 
vation-of the stars, (and by that means knew that the king would die 
presently after he entered into Babylon), picked out some of the most 
anticnt and expert of those of their profession, and ordered them to 
signify the danger to the king, and, with all the arguments they could 
use, to dissuade him from entering into the city; and to let him know 
that, he mi.L^ht avoid the danger, if he would rebuild the sepulchre of 
Bchis, which the Persians had destroyed, and alter his purpose^ and 
piiss by the city. 

* Fub]iui. t Cluildetn pricsti. 

CAap. XIL^ DiODonvs aicvLVS. 251 

BelepbaiUes was th^ leading unao of the Chaldeans that were seat 
away; but be was afraid to address himself to the king, and there- 
fore privately imparted all to Nearchus, (one of the king's familiar 
friends)^ and desired him that with all speed be would acquaint th^ 
king with the whole business* Alexander was mueb coAcerned wbea 
Nearcbus told him what the Chaldeans had prognosticated; aud^ 
more and more considering and pondering in his thoughts the skill 
and reputation of the man, was in no small consternation. At lengtjb 
he sent away many of bis friends to the city, but he himself turne(l 
«side aoother way, and passed by Babylon; and^ encamping twp 
hundred furlongs distant from the place, he there rested. At this all 
were in astonishment; whereupon many philosophers came to him^ as 
well those that were followers of Auaxagoras, as other Grecians. 
When they came to understand the cause of his fear, they earnestly 
opposed what was said, with many philosophical arguments; by 
which he was so convinced and changed, that he contemned all sorts 
of divination whatsoever, and especially that of the Chaldeans, which 
was every where so famous. Therefore now, as if his spirit, before 
wounded, had been cured by the arguments of philosophers, he en« 
tered Babylon with his army, where (as before) the soldiers were 
kindly entertained by the citizens; and the plenty of provisions was 
«uch, that all gave up themselves to ease and voluptuousness. And 
th^e were the things acted this year. 


Ambassadors come to Alexander from all parts. He buries Htr 
phcBstion with great state. The prodigies before Alexander's 
death. His death. Darius* s another starves fierself. 

AGESIAS was now chief magistrate of Athens, and Caius PiEtellus 
and Lucius Papirius consuls at Rome, when the hundred and four- 
teenth Olympiad was celebrated, in which Micinas of Rhodes was 
victor. At this time ambassadors came to Alexander almost from all 
parts of the world: some to congratulate his victories, others to 
tender him crowns, others to make leagues and alliances with him, 
and many brought him very rich and noble presents; and some there 
were that came to clear themselves from fiUse accusations: for, be- 

M« Biumcos sictTttTs. 16M^ J9ttr- 

tfdflt thote sent from the dties^ states^ ti^ printet ttff Alii|» i 
atAbftsswfen addressed thems^lTes to the Uog Crom 'Einiilpi 'mfi 
AfUcft. Out of Africa^ the CalihaginiaiiSy and db I^lMkliM fli 
liliyai aad all' borderiog vpon the sea-coasts as fiar iii*IHniMMfi 
lUlars. 0«t oTEoropei the Oreciiin eities, the BfaimlMiiia^ 4e 
HtyriaDs, nbuiy inhabiting Adria^ Ae Thracians, and tike GaMsM^ 
a peof»ie' that then first began to be known to the Gredans. liise 
Idl sent their ambassadorsj of whom the king having a caialogM ia 
uniting, he appointed in what order they shoidd be sevenllj adttitei 
to their andience. And, in the first phwe, those were Inliwdfcjil 
that came about matters of religion; then thosie wlio liiM{gbt pst- 
aents; next, they that were at variance with the peofdc besB ed U g 
upon them; then those were admitted, in the fburth pheeyiib 
eamci to treat upon concerns relating to their own co mtry ; ad 
lastly, those whose instructions were to oppose the restbmtion of ib 
exiles. And, among the religious, he first heard them of Bl} 
. after them the ArootioDiaus, Delphians, and Corinthidns} thd 'Efh 
daoriaos likewise, and others; giving to them the pre-emiaenoej oH 
of reverence and veneration to the temples. • He made it fab ^mt 
business to return siich grateful answers to all tlie umlttWHrtlftWj ss 
that he might gain the good will and affection of every one of dieBB. 

When all this ivas over, he applied himself to tlie cddmtienif 
the funeral of Hephfiestion; and contrived (all thift pos8U>Iy he odaU) 
so far to grace it with funeral pomp, as that it should not only cx« 
ceed all that ever were befor;? it, but likewise that it.should never ha 
exceeded by any that was to come: for lie most dearly Ipiwtd him (ss 
much as the dearest friends that we have heard of ever loved one 
another) when he was alive, and honoured him beyond comp a rison 
when he was dead. He honoured him more than any of his friends 
while he lived, although Craterus seemed to vie with him tot Alex- 
ander's affection: for, when one of the servants said,. that Cntems 
loved Alexander as well as Hephsestion did; Alexander ans w e re d j— 
That Craterus was the king's friend, and Hephsestion.AlexandePs. 
And at tliat time when the mother of Darius (through a mistake npoQ 
the first view of the king) prostrated herself at the feet of He]piuBS- 
tion, and, coming to discern her error, was mneh out of coonte- 
nance.^'^ Be not troubled, mother, (says Alexander), for even be 
is another Alexander.'* To conclude, Hephsestion had anch inleKat 
with Alexander, and such free access and liberty of co nve rse^ Aat 
when Olympias (who eofvied him) accused him and threatened him 
by her letters^ he wrote to her back again with severe cliedcs, and 
added these expressions^-.*^ Forbear your slanders against me, aad 
bridle your anger, and cease your threats: ^but, if yon will not^ I 

C%ap. XH. DIODOllUS 8ICULUS. 353 

' ■ I p ' ■ ■ '■ ■ ■ 

VHloe them not in the least; for you are not ignorant that Alexander 
must be judge of all/' 

The king therefore, taken up with the preparations for the funeral^ 
eommanded the neighbouring cities to assist as much as pdssibly they 
eoold towards its pomp and splendour; and commanded all the 
people of Asia, that the fire which the Persians call the Holy Fire 
should be put out, till the exequies of this funeral were fully finished, 
18 was used to be done in the funerals of the kings of Persia; which 
was taken to be an ill omen to the king himself, and that the gods 
did thereby portend his de&th. There were likewise other prodigies 
happened that clearly pointed out that Alexander's life was near at 
an end; which we shall presently give an account of, when we have 
finished our relation of the funeral. In order to this funeral, all his 
chief commanders and noblemen (in compliance to the king's plea- 
sure) made medals of Hephsestion graven in ivoiy, and cast in gold 
and other rich metals. Alexander himself called together a great 
number of the most exquisite workmen that could be had, and bi^ke 
down the wall of Babylon ten furlongs in length, and took away the 
brick of it; and then, levelling the place where the funeral pile was 
to be raised, built thereon a foursquare pile, each square taking a 
furlong in length: the platform he divided into thirty apartments, 
and covered the roofs with the trunks of palm-trees. The whole 
structure represented a quadrangle. Afterwards he beautified it 
round with curious ornaments : the lower part was filled up with two 
Jinndred and forty prows of gallics of five tier of oars, burnished widi 
gold; upon whose rafters stood two darters, one on each side of the 
beaks, of four cubits higli, kneeling upon one knee; and statues of 
men in arms five cubits high : all the divisions and open parts were 
veiled with hangings of purple. That part next above this was set 
with torches, of fifteen cubits high, in the middle part of every one of 
which (where they were used to be held) were placed crowns of gold; 
at the top, whence the flame ascended, were fixed eagles with their 
wings displayed, and their heads stooping downwards. At the bottom 
of the torches were serpents, ^Eicing and looking up at the eagles. la 
the third range were exposed all sorts of wild beasts hunted; in the 
fourth, centaurs all in gold combating one with another; the fifth 
presented alternately to the view lions and bulls in massy gold. In 
that part above these were placed the arms both of the Macedonians 
and barbarians; the one signifying the victories over the conquered 
nations, and the other the valour of the conqueror. In the highest 
and last part of all, stood Sirenes, contrived hollow, wherein secretly 
were placed those who sang the mourning song to the dead. The 
height of the whole structure mounted up above a hundred and thirty 


cnblts. To conclude, both commanders and common soldieittj am* 
Iia»sadors and the natural inhabitants^ so strove to excel one aootber 
in contributing to this stately funeral, that the charge and cost a- 
monnted to above twelve thousand talents. And to grace it the more^ 
and make it more splendid, he conferred several other honours upon 
these exequies. At length he commanded all to sacrifice to him 
as a tutelar god: for it happened that Philip, one of bis nobility^ at 
tiiat time returned iwm the temple of Ammon, and broagbt word 
fnom the oracle there — ^That Hephiestion might be sacrificed unto as 
a demigod: whereat Alexander was very glad, hearing tliat the Oracle 
kselr was an approver of his opinion; and thereupon he himself was 
the first that offered, sacrificing ten thousand beasts of all kinds> aad 
Biaking a magnificent feast for all the multitude^ 

When all the solemnity was over, Alexander gave himself up to 
case and a revelling course of life : and now, when he seemed to be 
at the summit of worldly greatness and prosperity, that space of 
life which he might have run through by the course of nature vraa cot 
short by the determination of fate; and God himself, by many s^na 
and prodigies shewn in several places, foretold his death* For, wben 
be was anointing himself, and his royal robes and crown that while 
lay upon the throne, the fetters of one of the natural inhabitants that 
was then in chains unloosed and fell off of their own accord, and the 
person, not being discerned by any of the watch, passed throu^ the 
court-gates without any opposition, and made strait to the throne^ 
and put on the royal robes and crown upon bis head, and sat iipoa 
the throne without any disturbance. Which action being noised a» 
broad, tlic king was amazed at the strangeness of the thing, and went 
to the place, and, without any rebuke, calmly asked tlie man..*^ Wbo 
he was, and who advised him to do so?" who plainly and simply an- 
swered ^< He knew nothing at all/' This strange accident was re- 
ferred to the consideration of the augurs, by whose advice the poor 
wretch was put to death, that the evil portended (if any were) might fall 
upon his own head. 

Tl>e king, having now got his robes again, sacrificed to the gods his 
protectors : but, however, he continued much disturbed and perplexed 
in his mind, and then began to reflect upon what tlie Chaldeans had 
foretold; and fretted against those philosophers that persuaded him 
to enter into Babylon, but admired the art and profound wisdom of 
the Chaldeans. To conclude, he cursed those who, by subtle aigu* 
ments, had disputed against the necessity of fate. 

Not long after, God shewed another prodigy concerning the change 
of the kingdom : the king had a desire to see the haven* at Babylon; 

* Thif ho had ncwiv made. 


and^ being come there^ he went on board with some of hii nobki 
that attended him; and^ while they were sailings the king's ship wm 
separated from the rest, and tossed to and fro for several days tc^e- 
ther, so as that he wholly despaired of his life; and, being at Umgjfk 
eanried tbfoogh a narrow creek) where bushes and trees grew tfiiok 
upon both sides, fab turban, or diadem, was plucked off his head bf 
one of the boughs, and hurled into the water, which one of the fiiarf* 
nen seeing, swam to it, and, for the better securing of it, clapped k 
upon his own head, and swam back to the ship. After he had wafi^ 
dered op and down three days and three nights, he returned at tenglk 
safe with his diadem to his friends, and again consulted the sooth** 
sayers concerning this prodigy, who advised him immediately, with 
Mil diligence, to offer splendid sacrifices to the goda. 

But, at the time of these sacrifices, he was invited by one Mediiui^ 
aThessalian, one of his friends, to a banquet; where, when lie wm 
in his cups, and even drunk with wine, he quaffed off the great bowl' 
called Hercules's cup: whereupon, as if he had been struck with k 
thmider-bolt, he gave a deep sigh, and was immediately led out by 
Ills nobles, and so left the place. Those who had him in their charge 
forthwith laid him upon his bed, and there diligently attended hiitt« 
His distemper increasing, his physicians were called in; but they 
were not able to administer any thing for his relief. 

At length his sickness was so violent, and his pains so great, tliat 
he himself desjtaircd of life, and in that condition drew off his ring 
from his finger, and delivered it to Perdiccas. His commanders thea 
asked him " To whom, Sir, do you leave the kingdom?" He an- 
swered " To the most deserving." And when he uttered his last 

words, be told them ^Thut the cliiefest of his friends and command- 
ers would solemnize his funeral, when he was gone, with blood and 
contention. And thus died Alexander, when he had reigned twelve 
years and seven months, having performed such mighty acts as no 
king ever did before him, nor any since, to this day. 

But, because some writers diHer as to the cause and manner of his 
death, affirming that he was poisoned by a dtadly potion given him, 
it is necessary to relate what they have reported concerning this 
matter. They say that Antipater, whom Alexander had made his 
viceroy in Europe, fell out with Olympias, the king's mother, of 
which at first very little notice was taken, because the king would 
not hear any of the accusations against him. But afterwards, the 
quarrels and heart-burnings growing still higher, the king, out of his 
piety and awe to the gods, conceived it his duty to gratify his mother; 
whereupon he gave many apparent signs and tokens of the alienation 
of his affections from Antii)ater. And, as further fuel to the flame. 


the putting to death Parmenio and Philotas did not a little terrify and 
afiright the nobility: and therefore^ it is said^ Antipater ordered hia 
son, who was Alexander's cup-bearer, to put poison into his wine. 
But, because he was a man of great power in Europe after the death 
of Alexander, and that Cassander, his son, succeeded him in the king* 
domj many historians durst not say any thing in their writings of 
poison. However, it is very apparent that Cassander was a great 
enemy to the concerns of Alexander: for he suffered the body of 
Olympias, after she was murdered, to lie with disdain unburied; and 
he made it his great business to rebuild Thebes, which Alexander 
had razed to the ground. 

When the king was dead, Sysigambis, the mother of Darius^ with 
abundance of tears, bewailed the death of Alexander, and her owa 
desolate condition upon that account, insomuch that, to the last mi- 
nute, she would neither eat, nor see the light ; and so the fifkh dqf 
after died of hunger, in extreme sorrow, but with as much glory and 

Having now brought down our history to the death of Alexander^ 
as we designed in the beginning of this, we shall proceed to give aa 
account of the acts of his successors in the following book* 





HAGORAS the SamiaD^ and some others of the antlent natural 
sophers^ held that the souU of men were Immortal^ and that to 
*X future events at the very point of deaths when the soul is evea. 
ig from the body^ is the effect and consequence of this tnith* 
Ueh Homer witnesses^ when he brings in Hector^ while he Was 
breathing his last, telling Achilles, that he would die within a 
short time afterwards. The same is attested of many others of 
dmes,and confirmed especially by the death of Alexander the 
donian, who, dying at Babylon, and l>eing asked by his com- 
ers and those about him, at the time he was breathing bis last 
lio should succeed him? he answered — ^^ The most worthy; 
foresee,*' says he, ** that great and grievous quarrels amongst 
lends win be the sacrifices to me after my funeral/' Which 
med accordingly; for the cbiefest of his commanders contested .^ 
iier about tlie principality; and great wars, after the death of 
inder, broke forth amongst them: whose actions are contained 
s book, which will clearly evidence to the studious reader the 
of what is now said. 

e former comprehended all the things done by Alexander, to the 
of his death. This present book, relating the actions of those 
ucceeded, ends with the year next before the reign of Agatho- 
wbich makes a history of seven years. 

L, 2. No. 43. LI. 



Quarrels about a successor to Alexander. Aridaus made kmg. 
The provinces divided amongst the chirf commanders. Maitert 
contained in Alexander's note-books. Meleager executed bjf 
Perdiccas. The Grecims revolt. A description of Asia. Py- 
than sent against the revolting Grecians^ who were all cut off. 
TheLamian war: the cause of it. Alexander's epistle to ihe 
exiles. Leosthenes, tlie Athenian general. Lamia besiegedm 
Leosthenes killed: Antiphilus placed iti his room. 

V^EN Cephisodorus was chief ma^trate of Athens^ the Romaiui 
created Lucius Furius and Decius Jovius consuls : about which time, 
Alexander being now dead without issue, aod so the goyemaeulj 
without a head, there arose great dissentioas aod diidewcest about 
the efi^e* For the foot were for settHig up Aridssus*, (be ion of 
Philip, a weak-spirited man^ labouring under man; natitfial infinni- 
ties: but the chlefest of the nobility and esquires of the body met 
together in council; and, being joined with the squadron of horse 
called the Social^ they resolved to try it out with the Macedomaa 

Therefore they sent the miost eminent commanders, among 
Meleager was the chief, to the foot, to require them to obsecve t 
mands. But Meleager, (who was the most eminent man of the pha- 
lanx), as soon, as he came to the battalion which was of the greatest 
account and esteem in the army, he said nothing at all of the 
Dcss for which they were sent; but, on the contrary, highly ( 
mended them, for their choice, and stirred them up against tke < 
posers. Whereupon the Macedonians created M^le^gcK their 
tain, and, with their arms, made out against the contijuy- pasty* 
Those of the king's life-guard and esquires of the body marched 
likewise out of Babylon, in order to fight; but the most interested 
and popular men amongst them endeavoured all they could to make 
peace on both sides. Upon which it was presently agreed, that An* 
deus, the son of Philip, should be made king, and called PUMp^ aod 
tliat Perdiccas, to whom the late king, when he was upon the point 
of death, delivered his ring, should be invested with the cieeutive 
power of the kingdom ; and ordered, that the esquires of the body 

* Arldsus, tlkC son of Pbilipi bj one Philiiwa of LariMB« a •tniiiiptt.«-JiitiB| I, IS^ 

e. t, riut. 

Cftop. /• DIOOOEUS 8ICULI?9. 9S9 

and the chief conBiaiiders sfaould govera the proviDces^ aad all be 
^dAsenrant to the comHMUidfl of the king aad Penliceas. 

Arideus bciog this aiade kiog^ he balled together a general eoan- 
cil of the chief comnaiidert : and to Ptolomy Lagna be committed 
the govcnuneiit of Egypt $ loLaomedoa of Mitylene^ Syria; to Pbi- 
lotas, Oiliciai to I^tiKm, Media; to Eumenesi Cappadoeia and 
Pq>hlagODia, and the bordering eouBtriea, which w^re never entlered 
by Alexander all the tiaae of hia waia with DariUa^ through want of 
convenient opportunity. To Aittigonns he i^signed the command 
of lifeia, and die Greater Phrygia; tb Gaasander^ Caria;. to Me- 
Icager*j Lydia; to Leenatus^ Phrygia allalong the roast df the Hel- 
lespont : and in this manner were tte provinces divided^ In EaropOj 
Thnusct with the nations bchrdaring npon the tea of Pbnttis, wera 
committed to liyaimaehiis; and Macedonia, with those bordering 
upon i^ to Antipater. As fcr the rest df the Astatic protinces^ It 
was thought most advisable not to alter, bat to leate them onder tie 
government of the fioraer lord-lientenants. The province Mnt ad» 
joinipg was intrusted with Taxiles, and the kings bordering npon 
him: bat the province adjoining to Mount Caucasiis (called Pno* 
pamisns) was assigned to Oayartes^ king of the Bactrians, wtiose 
daughter Roxana Alexander had married. Araebosia and GedroA 
to Siburtius; Aria andDrangina to Stasander of Soloe; Bactflana 
and Sqgdiana were allotted to Philip) P^hia and Hyireania toPhrai 
tapbernes; Persia to Peucestes; CarmaaiatoTlepoIemns; Mediate 
Atiapes. The province of Babylon to Aichon; and Mesopotamia 
to Arcesilaus* Seleocus be created gencfral of the b^ave brigade of 
the Social horse* Uephestion was the first commander of tfait bri* 
gadoylhen Psrdiocas^ and the third was thil Seleiscus. He ordered 
tbalTaxiles and Porus should eiyoy the absolute aathoiiHy ^itUa 
their own kingdoms^as Alexander himself bad before appoihtad. TU 
can of the -funeral, aad of preppuifig a cbtiriof to' oobvey the kfi^'a 
body to Ammoo, was committed to Aridttus. 

But as for Craterus, the most noble of Alexander's captains, he 
was some time before sent by Alexander, with ten thousand of the 
old soldiers that were discharged from further service in the Persian 
war, into Cilicia, to put in execution some instructions in writing 
given him by the king; which, after the king's death, hb successors 
determined should be no further proceeded in : for Perdiccas, finding 
in the kiag's commentaries not only the vast sums of mgney intended 
to be expended upon the funeval of HephiBstieto, but likewise many 
other things of extraordinary cost aad charge designed by the kiug^ 
be judged it far more advisable to let them alone; but, lest he should 

* Meieager fur Menuidcr.^-Uih. Aon. S90| Airianj Jib. 3, p. 5<». 


seem to take too much upon him, and by his private judgment to de- 
tract from Alexander's wisdom and discretion, he referred all these 
matters to the determination of a general council of the Macedoidans. 
Tiie chief and the most considerable heads of the king's purposes 
contained in his books of remembrance were these 1. That a thou- 
sand long ships, larger than those of three tier of oars, should be 
built in Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus, in order to an inmnon 
upon the Carthaginians, and others inhabiting the sea-coasts of Africa 
and Spain, with all islands adjoining, as far as Sicily. 2. That a 
plain and easy way should be made strait along through the sea- 
coasts of Africa to Hercules's Pillars. 3. That six magnificent tem- 
ples should be built, and that. fifteen hundred talents should be ex- 
pended in the cost of each of them. 4. That arsenals and ports sfaonhT 
be made in places convenient and fit for the reception of so great a 
navy. 5. That the new cities should be planted with colonies^ and 
that people should he transplanted out of Asia into Europe, and others 
out of Europe into Asia, to the end that, by intermarriages and mutual 
affinities, he might establish peace and concord between the two mm 
continents of the world. 

Some of the temples before mentioned were to be built in Delos^ 
Dclphos, and Dodona; some in Macedonia, as the temple of Jupiter 
inDio; Diana's temple, in Amphipolis; another to Minerva, in 
Cyrnus*, to which goddess he designed likewise to build a temple m 
Ilium inferior to none for splendour and magnificence. Lastly, to 
adorn his father Philip's sepulchre, he designed to erect a monomeot 
equal to the biggest pyramid in Egypt, seven of which were by some 
accounted the most stately and greatest works in the worid. 

These things being laid before them, the Macedonians, tfaoagh 
they highly commended and approved of Alexander's designs, yet, 
because they seemed things beyond all measure impracticable, they 
decreed all to be laid aside. Then Perdiccas caused those soldiers 
that were turbulent, and exceedmg inveterate against him, to the 
number of thirty, to be put to death : afterwards, out of a private 
grudge, he executed Meleager, (who betrayed his embassy, and car- 
ried on the mutiny), as one tliat sought to undermine him. 

About this time the Grecians in the upper provinces revolted, and 
got together a great army; against whom he sent Python, one of the 
chiefcst commanders. But we conceive it much conducing to the 
better understanding of the history of things that were afterwards 
done, if in the first place we declare the cause of the revolt, and the 
situation of Avia, and the nature and extent of the provinces : for, by 
this mcaus laying before the eyes of the reader a map of the coun- 

• Corsica. 


■ ■ -—^ 

tries, and the distances of places one from another^ the relation will 
be more plun and easy. 

■ From Taurus, therefore, in Cilicia, to Caucasus and the eastern 
ocean, a ridge of mountains stretch forth in a straight and continued 
line throughout all Asia, as distinguished by several peaks and risings 
of the bills from them ; Mount Taurus has gained particular names. 
By this means, Asia being divided into two parts, one rises towards 
the north> the other descends towards the south; and, according to 
lliese several climates, the rivers run contrary ways; some taking their 
course into the Caspian sea, others into the Euxine, and some into 
the northern ocean. These rivers, lying thus opposite one to another, 
part empty themselves into the Indian sea, and another part into the 
•ocean adjoining to this continent; some, likewise, fall into the Red 
Sea. In this manner, likewise, are the provinces divided : for some 
lie towards the north, and others bend to the south. The first to- 
wards the north borders upon the river Tanais, that is to say, Sog>» 
diana, with Bactria; and next to them Aria and Pbrthia. This pnn 
▼ince surrounds the Hyrcanian sea*, which lies within its limits and 
bounds. The next is Media, called by many names, from the places 
included in it, and is the greatest of all the provinces. Then follows 
Armenia, Lycaonia, and Cappadocia, all of a very sharp and cold 
adr. Bordering upon these, in a direct line, are Piirygia, both the 
Greater, and that adjoining the Hellespont; in an oblique line lie 
Lydia and Caria. Pisidia stretches forth itself in length, and in a 
parallel line equal with Phrygia on the right hand; and, on the side 
of IMsidia lies Lycia. The Greek cities are situated upon the sea- 
coasts of these provinces, whose names it is not necessary for our 
purpose here to recite. 

Thus situated (as we have related) are the northern provinces. 
As to the southern, the first is India, under Mount Caucasus, a very 
large and populous kingdom ; for it is inhabited by many Indian na- 
tions, the greatest of which is that of the Gandaritfie, against whom 
Alexander made no attempt, by reason of the multitude of their ele- 
phants. This territory is divided from the farther India by the 
greatest river in those parts, being thirty furlongs broad. The rest 
of India, (conquered by Alexander), a rich and fruitful country, and 
watered by many rivers, borders upon this of the Gandaritfie: within 
this part, besides many other kingdoms, were the dominions of Porus 
and Taxiles. The river Indus (from which the country takes» it 
name) runs through it. Separated from India, next to it, was Are- 
chosia, Gedrosia, and Carmania, and with these was joined Persia, 
wherein arc situated the provinces of Susiana and Si tacana. Next 

* Or rather adjuins to the Hjrcuuiun sea. 

262 DiODORUS sicuLus. BooA XVUL 

H I ' ■ asggggaaaasaasaaaBaea^ 

ibUows the province of Babylon, extending itself as fiur as to Aimbia 
the desert. On the other side, where begins the descent*, you have 
Mesopotamiaf, lying between two rivers, JEk^hratas aiidT%ris^ i 
whence it had its name* 

The higher Syria, and the countries upon the sea^coostst i 
to it, as Ciliciay Pamphylia, Syria Cava§, within which is Phneoiciay 
Ke close to the province of Babylon. Upon the borden of Syiio 
Cava, and the desert next adjoining to it, (thiough whicb nuu tho 
river Nile, and so divides between Syria and Egypt), appears ^q^ 
itself, the best and richest of all the provinces. All these < 
are scorching hot; for the southern clidaate is contrary in its \ 
to the northern. These provinces, (conquered by Alexander), whick 
we have thus described, were divided amongst the chiefesi of Us 

But the Grecians that inhabited the upper provinees, who (thiom§ 
fear while Alexander was alive) endured their being cast iioitii into 
the utmost corner of the kingdom, now, when he was dead, bsiof 
urged by a desire to return into their own country, revoksd|, and to 
that end unanimously chose Pbik>,an£nean born, to be their Qaptai% 
and had got together a considerable army of above twenty thousand 
foot, and three thousand horse, all old expert soldiers, and himse and 
valiant meo» 

Intelligence being brought of this revolt, Perdiccas chose by lot 
out of the Macedonian squadrons three thousand foot, and ei|^ 
hundred horse. Python, one of the squires of the body to Alexai^ 
der, a man of a high spirit, and a skilful commander, was chosen go* 
neral by the army, and to him Perdiccas delivered the soldiers cboseii, 
as is l)efore declared, and letters, likewise, to the lord-lieutenants, 
whereby they were ordered to furnish him with ten thousand loot and 
eight thousand horse, against the rebels. Python, being a man of 
an ambitious spirit, was very ready to undertake this expedition: iut 
he purposed to gain by all fair means possible these revolting Greeks^ 
and, by joining their forces to his own, to set up for himself, and se- 
duce all those ufqper provinces under his own subjection. But Per- 
diccas, suspecting his design, gave him express orders«»That, having 
overcome those rebek, he should put them all to the swoidy and 
divide the spoil amongst the soldiers. Python therefore owtfched 
away with these men thus delivered, and, when lie had seceivod thoso 
that were to join him from the lord-lieutenants, he made towards 
the rebels with the whole army; and, luiving by a certain Enaan 

* At the foot of Mount Taonu southward. 

t McMpotaniM tigniS«t in the Greek tongue » phioe betvrccn two iWcki. 

X The Mcditerrauvau acii. $ Qi CslofjKia« 

Oup. I. DIODORUS sicuLirs. Sfl^ 

JBHBB^^HIi^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^" ■ • — — — .^^^^ 

conrapted LipodotVM^ wIki eoammdol a brigade of three tiioasand 
inea aomif dM febds, lie rcmted them all: fer^ in the height of the 
e n g ag ei e a^ when the victory was doahtfel^ the traitor withdrew from 
4ie MSt of hit feUow-soldiers, Mid, with hb three thousand men, 
flMWched q^ to the top ofa ririog groond; whereupon the rest (think- 
ioff that he had ted) broke all their ranks, and took to their beds, 
lyken i>riog thtw ii4etor, sent a trumpet to the rebels, ordering diem 
tD laf down thrir arms, and, upon capitulation, licensed them to re«- , 
pair evevy omn to his own home. It was no small jojr to Python to 
aaa things bioi^ht (o such a pass as suited /directly to his designs; 
Isr lio had now all confirmed by oadi, and the Grecians intermisced 
\ the Macedonians. But the Macedonians, remembering die 
\ Pcfdlpeaa had given, and making nothing of their oaths, broke 
fidth with the Greeiatts s for cm a sudden they f cH unexpectedly upon 
dMm, and put every man of them to the sword, and seized upon all 
they had. And so Python, being defeated in hb design,' returned 
wilk the Macedonians to Perdiecas. And dtts was the state of affidrs 
ift Asia at that time. 

la the mean time, in Europe, the Rhodkns east out the garrison of 
tlw Macedonians, and fireed dieir city; and the Athentai^ began a 
war against Atttipafetr, which was called the Lamian War. Itisintbe 
fot plaee necessary to declare the causes of this war, that the pro* 
grass of k aaay be the better understood. 

AleKaader, a little before his death, had ordered all the cjules and 
outlawed persons of die Greckn cides to be recalled, as well to ad- 
vance bis own hononr and esteem, as to gain the hearts of many ia 
onsry city by his clemency, who might stand up for his interest 
agmnst the innovations and defections of the Grecians. At the ap* 
psoaeh, therefoe, of the time of celebrating the Olympiads, he sent 
away Ntcanor, a native of the city Stagira, with a letter concerning 
dm restoration of the banditties of Greece, and commanded it to be 
proclaimed by the common cryer, who executed the command, and 
read the ktter, in these words — 

Kmg Jleximder, to the JBatuUttiet of the Grecian cities. 

WE were not the cause of your banishment, but will be of the te- 
turn of you all into your own country, excepting such as are banished 
for outrageous crimes; of which things we have written to Autipater, 
requiring him to proceed by force against all such as shall oppose 
your restoration. 

Whbw these orders were proclaimed, the people set up a great 
^ut, testifying their approbation : for those of them that were pre- 


sent at the solemnity readily laid hold on the king's mcrey^aDd le- 
turned their thanks with expressions of their joy, and apfibuaea of 
bis grace and favour: for all the banished men were then got toge- 
ther at the Olympiads^ above the number of twenty thousand. Maqy 
tliere were who approved of their restoration as a pradent act; but 
the ^toliaos and Athenians were mucb offenddl at it; lor tlic^ 
^tolians expected that the GEnians who were banished out fimD ar 
mong them should have undeigone due punishment for their cruBca:: 
for the king had made a great noise wiUi his threats^ that he wonU 
not only punish the children of the (Enians^ but that be hinnclf. 
would execute justice upon the authors themselves. Wherevpoo; 
the Athenians would not agree by any means to part with i 
which they had divided by lot ; but^ because they were not at ] 
able to cope with Alexander, they judged it more advisable to mt stilly 
and watch till they found a convenient opportunity^ which fortiiiM 
presently offered them: for Alexander dying in a short time after- 
wards^ and leaving no children to succeed him> they grew confidcat 
that they should be able not only to regain their liberty, bat Ukewiit. 
the sovereignty of all Greece. 

The vast treasure left by Harpalus^ (of which we have ptrticelarlf 
spoken in the preceding book), and the soldiers that were dJihanded 
by the lord-lieutenants of Asia> were great supports and eocoaiage* 
ments for the carrying on of this war; for there were eight thonaand 
of them then about Tenarus^ in Peloponnesus. They sent, therelbie^ 
privately to Leosthenes the Athenian, wishing him that, without tak* 
ing notice of any order by them, of his own accord so to dispose of 
matters as to have those soldiers in readiness when occasion ieqidred» 
Antipater likewise so contemned Leosthenes, that he was cardeas 
and negligent in preparing for the war, and so gave time to the Athe- 
nians to provide all things necessary for that affair. 

Hereupon Leosthenes very privately listed these soldiers, and (be* 
yond all expectation) had ready a brave army : for, having been a 
Jong time in the wars in Asia, and often engaged in many great batp. 
ties, they were become very expert soldiers. These things wcie 
contrived when tlie death of Alexander was not generally known; 
but^ when a messenger came from Babylon, who was an eye^-witncss 
of his death, the people of Athens declared open war, and sent part of 
the money left by Harpalus, with a great number of arms, to Leoa* 
thcncs, charging him no longer to conceal or palliate the matter, but 
to do what was most conducive to the service of the cimimonwcaltlu 
Whereupon, liaving distributed the money among the soldiers, as he 
was commanded, and armed those that wanted, he went into^toliay 
in order to carry on the war with the joint assistance of both i 

Ckap. I. DIODORUS 8ICULUS. ' 305 

The ^tolians joided very readily, and delivered to him, for the set- 
Ticcj seven thousand soldiers. Then he stirred up by his messengers 
the Loerions and Phocians, and other neighbouring nations, to stand 
up for their liberties, and to free Greece from the Macedonian yoke. 
Bnt in the mean time, the wealthy men among the Athjsnians di9- 
snaded them from the war, bat the rabble were for carrying it on 
with all the vigour iomginable: whence it came to pass, that they 
who were for war, and had nothing to live upon bnt their pay, werte 
fiur the greater number; to which sort of men Philip was used to say 
.^War wras as peace, and peace as war. Forthwith, therefore, the 
orators (who were lo a body together, and closed with the hnmburs 
cf the people) wrote down the decree — ^That the Athenians should 
take opon them the care and defence of the common liberty of 
Greece, and should free all the Greek cities from their several garri^ 
sons; and that they should rig out a fleet of forty gallies of three 
tiers of oars, and two hundred of four tiers of oars; and that all Athe- 
nfams under forty years of age should take up arms: that three of 
the tribes diould keep watch and ward in Athens, and the other seven 
should be always ready to march abroad. Moreover, ambassadors 

were sent to all the cities of Greece, to inform them That the peo^ 

pie of Adiens in the first place looked upon all Greece to be the com^* 
mon eonntry of every Grecian, and that they had heretofore repulsed 
the batborians at sea, who invaded them with a design to enslave 
Gfcece^ and that now they had determined to oppose the Macedonians 
for the common good, with their navies, lives, and fortunes. 

The wiser sort of the Grecians judged the Athenians more forward 
than prudent in passing this decree, and what they had designed 
seemed to carry an honourable aspect, but nothing of profit and ad- 
vantage to the state: for that they made a stir and bustle unseason- 
ably, and began a war against mighty and victorious armies when 
thtfe was no necessity for it; and, though they had the repute of a 
prudent people, yet they considered not the notorious ruin and de- 
straction of Thebes. 

However, when the ambassadors came to the cities, and by their 
usual florid way of address had heated and urged them on to the war, 
many confederated in the league, some in the names oi their several 
cities^ and others in the names of whole countries. As for the rest 
of the Grecians, some sided with the Macedonians, and others stood 
neuter. But all the iEtolians generally (as is before said) entered 
into the confederacy; and after them all theThessaliaiis, except them 
of Pellene. Likewise the QHtians, except the Heracleans. The 
Phthiotians amongst the Achaians, except the Thebans. The Elians, 
except the Malians. Then generally all the Dorians, Locriaus, and 

Vol.. 2. NOf43. MM 

366 DioDORus SICULU8. Book XVIIT. 

Phocians joined in the league: also the Eneans^ Clyxeans, and De- 
lopians. To these joined likewise the Athamaoes, Leacadiana, and 
Molcssians^ under the command of Aryptsus: but this man phjed 
the impostor in the confederacy, and afterwards treacherously aidrd 
the Macedonians, 

A small part, likewise, of the IHyrians and Tbracians, (out of hatred 
to the Macedonians) came into the league, together with the Caiys- 
ti6es out of Euboea; and at length out of Peloponnesus the Aigives, 
Sicyonians, Elians, Messenians, and those that inhabited Acta*:, all 
these befbre*named confederated with the Grecians. 

The people of Athens ako sent auxiliaries to Leosthenea, out of 
the cities, five thousand foot and five hundred horse^ and two thousand 
mercenaries; who were opposed by the Boeotians in their inarch 
through Bceotia, for the reasons following: 

Alexander, when he razed Thebes, granted the teiriUHrics. of the 
city to the neighbouring Boeotiatis, who divided the lands of < those 
miserable people amongst themselves by lot, and thereby gained hige 
possessions; who, understanding that the Athenians (if thqr pi»- 
vailed) designed to restore the country and lands to the TlidMUii» 
sided with the Macedonians; and, while the Boeotians were en* 
camped at Phitsea, Leosthenes came with part of his forces into Boeo- 
tia, and, drawing up the Athenians in battalia, fell upon the inhabi- 
tants, routed them, and set up a trophy, and then returned to Pyllene. 
Here (after blocking up all the passages) he encamped for some tiiM^ 
expecting the Macedonian army. 

But Antipater, who was left viceroy of Europe by Alexander^ as 
soon as he heard of his death at Babylon, and of the divisions of the 
provinces, sent to Cratcrus in Cilicia, to come to him with all the 
forces he had for his assistance: for he, being sent away j 
before into Cilicia, had ready thirty thousand Macedonians, who \ 
dismissed from the service in Asia, with which he was returning i 
Macedonia. lie likewise solicited Philotas (who had the province of 
Phrygia near the Hellespont under his command) to assist himj and 
promised to him one of his daughters in marriage. For, as soon is he 
heard of the insurrection of the Grecians against him, he leftSippM^ 
with a considerable body of men, general in Macedonia^ with orden 
to raise many more; and he himself marched out of Macedonia into 
Thessaly with thirteen thousand foot, and six hundred horse: (for at 
that time there was great scarcity of soldiers in Macedonia, by reason 
of the recruits sent into Asia); with these forces sailed along thi 
whole fleet near at hand, which Alexander had sent into , 
\\\\h a vast treasure out of the king's treasuries. 

* The Ma-coasts. 



The navy consisted of a hundred and ten gallics of three tiers of 
oars. The Thessalians, indeed, at the beginning joining with Anti- 
pater, had sent to him many capital horses; hot afterwards, being 
brought over by the Athenians into the contrary interest, they went 
off with their horse to Leosthenes, and joined the Athenians for the 
recovery of the liberties of Greece. 

The Athenians therefore growing very strong, by many thus flock- 
ing in to them, the Grecians overpowered the Macedonians, and 
overcame them in a battle. Antipater being routed, not daring to 
abide in the field, nor judcring it safe to return into Macedonia, fled 
to Lamia, where he drew his army into the city, [repaired the wallsj 
furnished himself with arms ofienslve and defensive, and with com 
and other provisions; and there waited for further supplies and re* 
inforcements out of Asia. 

Ifeosthenes with all his forces coming op close to Lamia, fortified 
his camp with a deep trench and rampart. And first, he drew up 
his anoy in face of the city, to provoke the Macedonians to fight; 
but they not daring to engage, he daily assaulted the walls with fresh 
jnen relieving one another. But the Macedonians made a stout de- 
fence, and many of the Grecians, through their rashness and impru* 
dence, were cut off. For, having a strong body of men in the city, 
and well furnished with all sorts of weapons, and the walls with great ' 
expense being made strong and well built, the besieged easily beat 
off the enemy. 

Leosthenes therefore perceiving he could not gain the town by 
force of arms, blocked it up, to hinder all supplies of provisions, 
supposing the besieged* would be presently subdued by famine and 
want of bread. To this end he raised a wall, and drew a deep trench 
. found about it, and so penned them up. Afterwards the iEtolians, 
being called away upon the occasion of some public concerns, got 
leave of Leosthenes to return home, and so they all marched back to 

But while Antipater with hb army was in these desperate straits, 
and the city nearly lost for want of provisions, fortune on a sudden 
turned the scale to the advantage of the Macedonians: for Antipater 
made a sally upon them that were busied in opening the trenches, 
where Leosthenes coming in to their relief, received a blow upon 
the head with a stone, which felled him to the ground, and so was 
carried off half dead into the camp, and died the third day after: he 
was honourably buried, on account of the noble services lie had per- 
formed in the war. The Athenians commanded Hyperides to set 
forth his praise in a funeral oration, who was esteemed the chiefest 
of (he orators at that time, both for his eloquence, and his particular 


hatred of the Macedonians: for Demosthenea^ the most fiunoiis ora- 
tor, was then fled, beiog condemned as if he had received bribes 
from Harpalus. Aotiphiius, a prudent and valiant comrnander^ was 
created general in the room of Leosthenes. And this was the state 
of Europe at that time. 


Ptolemy gains Egypt. Leagues with jint^paier. Ly simad i mB 
enters Thrace. Leonatus comes to relieve jfniipaier, emd is 
routed. The Gredoiis beaten at sea* Perdiceas eonquere Ari^ 
arathssj prbice of Cappadocia; crucifies him; delivers tkepr^^ 
vince to Eumenes. The Grecians quite routed by Craierms imi 
AfUipater. The Athenians at length submit after off the reel 

. but the Italians. The end of the Lamian war. The war as 
Cyrene by Thimbnm. Ophelas routs Thimbron. Cyrene gain^ 
ed by Ptolemy. Larissa sacked. The destruetion of the /msi- 
rians by themselves. Perdiceas tweets the kingdom of Maes' 
don; is opposed by Antigonus. The JRtolians bheked up ty 
Craterus and Autipater. Antigonus discovers Perdieeas^s de^ 
sign. Peace made with the jEtolians. Perdiceas menrches eh 
gainst Ptolemy y into Egypt. 

IN Asia^ Ptolemy, one of those that had a share in the dinskm of 
the provinces, without any difficulty possessed himself of Egypt, 
and carried himself with great mildness and winning behaviour to» 
wards the people; and having a treasure of eight thousand tafentSj 
^ised an army of mercenaries : and many out of love flocked to him 
upon the account of the goodness of his disposition. 

He entered into a league with Atipater^ when he was assured that 
Perdiceas designed to dispossess him of Egypt. 

At that time Lysimachus broke into some parts of Thrace, and 
found Seuthes the king encamped with twenty thousand foot, and 
eight thousand horse. But Lysimachus, though he had not above 
four thousand foot, and only two thousand horse, was not affrighted 
M'ith the multitude of the enemy. And though he was so much in- 
ferior in number, yet his valour was such, tliat he entered into a hot 
and siiarp engagement; and after the loss of a great number of his 


men, but many more of the enemy, he returned to his camp almost 
^ctorioQS. Upon which both armies drew off the field, and each 
made greater preparations, in order to decide the controversy by the 

As for Leonatus, he promised speedy aid to Antipater and the Ma* 
cedonians, being solicited by Hecatseus, who was sent to him for 
that purpose. Landing therefore in Europe, as soon as he came into 
Macedonia, he raised a great number of soldiers there; and having 
got together an army of above twenty thousand foot, and about two 
thousand five hundred horsey he marched through Thessaly against 
the enemy. 

Hereupon the Grecians drew off from the siege of Lamia, burjned 
their tents, and sent away all their sick men and heavy baggage to 
Melitea; and with the rest of the army (ready and prepared for bat* 
tie) marched straight away, and met Leonatus's forces before Anti 
pster had joined liim, and their two armies had come up together. 
The Grecians in the. whole amounted to two-and-twenty thousand 
foot, (for the ^tolians were returned home some time before, and 
many others of the Grecians were gone into their own country); 
and as tb their horse, which were somewhat about three thousand 
five hundred, they fought together in one body; amongst whom 
were two thousand Thessalians, brave and vah'ant men, on whose 
exertions they most relied for obtaining the victory. The horse oa 
both sides fought stoutly a long time, when the Thessalians, by their 
extraordinary valour at length prevailing, Leonatus (although he 
fought with great courage and resolution) was driven and penned up 
within a morass, and, oppressed with his arras, after he had received 
many wounds, was there slain, and by his own men carried off dead 
to the carriages. The Greeks having now gained so famous a vie* 
tory, (in which Menon the Thessalian commanded the horse), the 
Macedonian phalanx, in order to avoid the horse, withdrew from the 
plain and open field, and betook themselves to the steep and rocky 
hilb, and, by the strength of these places, were there able to defend 

However, the Thessalian horse attempted to break in upon them, 
but, through the disadvantage of the places, were not able to do any 
thing. The Grecians therefore being masters of the field, set up a 
trophy, and left off all further pursuit. The next day, as soon as 
Antipater came up with his troops, he joined himself to the broken 
army, and so all the Macedonians making one camp, he took on him 
the management of the whole. 

But perceiving that the Thessalians were too strong for him in 
horse, he judged it most advisable to be quiet for the present, not 


daring to attempt to force his way by the sword. Aad therefore be 
inarched off, over hills ami other craggy places, not easy to be pin- 
sued. Antiphilus the Athenian general, who gained this victoiy 
over the Macedonians, continued with his army in Thessaly, obsenr- 
ing tlie motions of the enemy. And this was tlie happy success at 
that time of the Grecians. 

But because the Macedonians were masters at sea, the Atheiuans 
built so many ships more as to make up their fleet a hundred and se- 
venty sail : but the Macedonian fleet consisted of two hundred and 
forty, under the command of Clitus their admiral, who engaged in 
two sea fights at the Echinades islands with Eetion the Athenian 
admiral, in both of which he beat him, sinking many o£ the enemy's 

About this time Perdiccas, having with him king Philip and the 
king's army, undertook an expedition against Ariarathes, prince off 
Cappadocia, who, tliough he submitted not to the empire of the Ma* 
cedonians, yet Alexander being busied in his wars with Dariu% pas-* 
sed him by, so that he enjoyed the principality of Cappadocia a long 
time without any disturbance; and in the mean time lie laid up a 
vast sum of money out of the public revenues, and raised an army 
of foreigners and from among his own people : and claiming the 
kingdom as his own just right, he prepared to try it out with Per- 
diccas, having an army of thirty thousand foot, and fifteen thousand 
horse. At length it came to a battle, in which Perdiccas was vic-^ 
tor, who killed four thousand upon the spot, and took six thoosand 
prisoners, amongst whom was Ariarathes himself, whom, together 
with all his kindred he first scourged, and then crucified. He then 
pardoned all the rest; and after he had settled affairs in Cappadocia^ 
be delivered up the province into the hands of Eumenes of Cardia^ 
to be governed by him as his share, according to the allotment in 
the first agreen>cnt. 

About the same time, Craterus arrived in Macedonia out of Cili- 
cia, in order to assist Antipater, and to repair the losses of the Kin- 
cedonians. He brought along with him six thousand foot which 
Alexander had taken over with him at first into Asia, and four thou • 
sand of those he had inlisted in the course of his march, besides n 
thousand Persian darters and slingers, and fifteen hundred horse.... 
As soon as he came into Thessaly, he joined his forces to Antipater*s 
at the river Peneus, yeilding the chief command of the army to hinu 
The whole army, together with those that came with Leonntus, a* 
mounted to about forty thousand foot, three thousand darters and 
slingers, and five thousand horse. The Grecians at that time eu« 
Cctmpcd over airuinst them, licing much inferior in number to the 

Chmp. 11. oiODORUs sicuLUS. 871 

enemy: for many, by reason of the late victory, slighted the Mace- 
donians, and ivere leturaed to their several countries, to look after 
their own private affiiirs. For which cause, there were many lelt in 
the camp that observed no due order or discipline. There were in 
the whole five-and-twenty thousand foot, and tliriee thousand five 
hundred horse, in whom they pUced great confidence of victory, by 
veason of the valour of the men, and the plain champaign country 
that lay before them. At length Autipater dKw out his forces every 
day into the fieU, to provoke the Grecians to fight; who after they 
iMd waited some considerable time for. the return. of their soldiers 
4mt^ the cities, through the urgency of their present circumstances^ 
were forced to venture aa eugagcuicut. 

Drawing up in battalia, therefore, and designing to decide the 
■wtter by the horse, they placed them in the van before the foot^ 
whereupon the horse on both sides presently fell to it; and while 
they were thus holly engaged, and the Thessalian horse had the 
better of the day, Antipatcr broke in with his battalion upon the foot, 
and made a great slaughter among them ; so that the Grecians not 
beng able to stand the shock of the enemy, who bore them down 
with their multitudes pouring in upon them, they retreated in great 
liaste, but in good order, to the fieistnesses and diflBcult passes near 
at hand. And so having gained the higher ground, by that advan* 
ti^ they easily repulsed the Macedonians. In the mean time the 
Grecian horse, though they had the better, yet perceiving that their 
loot was gone, forthwitli made after tliem: and by this means the 
borse (leaving off the fight) becoming so broken and dispersed, that 
llie Macedonians got the cky. There were slain of the Grecians in 
diis battle upwards of five hundred, and of the Macedonians about a 
hondredand thirty. 

The next day Memnon ,and Antipfailus called a council of war, 
where it was debated, whether they should expect aid from tlie cities, 
asd wait to see if soldiers sufficient could be rai^d, and so try it out 
to the last; or, yielding to tlie times, and bearing their present dis- 
asters, they should send agents to treat for terms of peace. At length 
tliey concluded to send heralds to treat accordingly; who executing 
their orders, Antipater answered them ^That he expected every ci- 
ty should treat severally by its own ambassadors; and that he would 
not upon any terms make a general peace. But the Grecians de- 
clined this proposal, and therefore Antipater and Craterus besieged 
the cities of Thessaly, and took them by storm, the Grecians not be- 
ing able to relieve them. This so terrlBed all the rest, that they 
transacted the affairs of their several cities by their own ambassa- 
dors; towards whom he carrii^d himself with all demonstrations of 

27* Dioooaus S1CULU8. Book XFtlf. 

courtesy and gaining behaviour, and concluded peace frith CTery i 
of them. Every city therefore being desirous to provide for i 
safety, all of them by that means obtained peace.. 

But the ^olians and Athenians, the implacable enemies of the 
Macedonians, though they were thus deserted by tbehr confedoatet^ 
consulted with their commanders about carrying on the war. But 
Antipater having by this artifice thus broken the confederacy^ led hm 
whole army against the Athenians; upon which the people, bciiif 
deserted by their confederates, were greatly terrified^ and knew not 
which way to turn themselves; and all havbg their eyes upon I>e». 
mades^ cried out — That he should be sent ambassador to Anti|Mterj 
to treat for peace in their behalf. But he refused tu come to the W9^ 
nate; for be had been thrice conden^ied for violating the hnvi^ and 
for that reason become infamous, and disabled by the kw to tit ia 
council. But, being restored by the people to his former credit mA 
reputation, he forthwith, together with Phocion and otheni joined 
with him in the commission, undertook the embassy. When Ati- 
pater had heard what they had to say, he tidd them ..That he would 
make peace with the Athenians upon no other terms but upon theii 
giving up all they had into his hands: for the same answer the 
Athenians gave to Antipater when he sent ambassadors to them at 
the time he was shut up in Lamia. Hereupon the people not \mag 
able to resist, were brought to the necessity of giving up all &e 
power and government of the city into the hands of Antipater; 
with great humanity and generosity granted their city, their < 
and all other things to them back again. But he dissolved die g^ 
vernment into a democracy, and ordered that the value of every per« 
son's estate should be the rule for chusing the magbtrates; na; 
that those who were worth above two thousand drachmas, jnight be 
capable of being magistrates, and of giving votes for their election. 
As for those who were not of such estates, he removed tnr* 
bulent and factious, not suffering them to have any thing to do witk 
public business; and granted new seats and estates in Theasaly to 
any that would remove thither. Upon which, above two-and-twen^ 
thousand of that description of citizens were transplanted from their 
own country. The government of the city, and country belong to it^ 
was given to the rest, who had estates to the value of what waa before 
limited and appointed ; of whom there were about nine thousand.— 
And these governed the state for the future according to the laws of 
Solon. And all their estates were left to them entire and untouched. 
But they were forced to receive a garrison under Menyllos the go* 
vcrnor to keep them in awe, and prevent new stirs and disturben« 
CCS. As for the matter of Samos, it was refened to the decisson off 

Chap. 11. DIODORUS SICULUS. 273 

*'^— — ^'^■^^— ^^*^— ■ ' ^ ' ' ' ' " 

the kings^. And thus the Atheaians (beyond their expectation) were 
kindly used, and were at peace. And for the future, (governing the 
commonwealth without tumults and seditions, and quietly following 
their husbandry), they grew very rich in a short time. 

Antipater, being returned into Macedonia, honourably and bounti- 
fully rewarded Craterus according to his desert, and gave him Phila, 
his eldest daughter, in marriage; and then Craterus returned into 
Asia Antipater carried himself with the same moderation and win* 
Ding l)ehaviour towards all the cities of Greece, well ordering and 
reforming their governments, wliereby he gained praise and renown 
in every place. 

As for Perdiccas, he restored the city and territory of Samos to 
the Samiaus, and caused all those that had been exiles above three* 
and-forty years, to return into their country. Having now gone 
through the occurrences in the Lamian war, we shall pass to the war 
in Cyrene, lest we should straggle too far into times much distant 
from the continued course and connection of the history. But, to 
make thibgs more clear and evident, we must have recourse to matters 
done a little before. 

After Harpalus h^d left Asia, and at length arrived with his mer- 
cenaries in Crete, as is related in the preceding book, Thimbron^ 
one of his special friends, (as he thought him to be), having assassi* 
Dated Harpalus, possessed himself both of the money and soldiers^ 
to the number of seven thousand men. He got likewise the navy 
into his hands, and, putting the soldiers on board, sailed to the conn« 
try of the Cyrenians ; where, joining with the Cyrenian exiles, he 
made use of their conduct for the prosecuting of his designs, because 
tliey were well acquainted with the ways and passes in the country. 
Upon the approach of the Cyrenians, Thimbron fought them> and 
routed them, killing many upon the spot, and taking many prisoners, 
llien he possessed himself of the port, and forced the conquered 
Cyrenians (now in a great fright) into a composition, and to buy 
their peace at the price of five thousand talents of silver; and that 
they should deliver to him one b^lf of all their chariots ready and 
fitted for any warlike expedition. He sent likewise ambassadors 
to other cities, soliciting them to join with him, as if he purposed to 
conquer all the lower Africa^ He seized likewise upon all the mer-> 
chants' goods in the haven, and gave them for plunder to his soldiers^ 
the more to encourage them to stick to him in the war. 

But, in the height of his prosperity, a sudden bkst of fortune 
brought him very low, upon the following occasion. Mnasiclosj^ 
one of hia captains, a Cretan born, and an expert conunander^ be- 

* Ahdaens and AleitDder. 
Vol. 2, No, 43, NN 

274 DIODORU8 sicuLUS. Book XfTTI. 

■!'■■. ' . '" " 'B agggggssagBaemg— fe 

gan to quarrel with him about the division of the sp6il; and^ being 
of a bold und turbulent spirit, he thereupon deserted^ and went orer 
to the Cyrenians; where, miaking great complaints oFThimbron'a 
cruelty and breach of faith, he persuaded them to dissoiye the leagiMB^ 
and assert their liberty. Thereupon they stopped their handSj and 
would pay no more of the talents of silver agreed npon^ having ooly 
paid sixty, 

Inimbron hereupon accused them of treachery and breach of 
faith, and seized upon eight hundred of the Cyrenians that were in 
the port, and laid close siege to Cyrene; but, not being able to pie* 
vail, he drew off, and returned to the port. Tlie Barceana and Hei- 
perians aided with Thimbron : wherenpon the Cyrenians drew part 
of their forces out of the city, and with them wasted and qpoiled the 
neighbouring territories j to whose assistance Thimbron (whoae mi 
was desired) marched out vnxh what soldiers he had then leadjr it 
hand. The Cretan, taking advantage of that opportanhyj when be 
conceived few were left in the port, advised them that irere feft In 
Cyrene to attack the port, who readily complied, and be bimaelf was 
the principal acter in the attempt, which was easily acoonpliab^^ bf 
reason of Thimbron's absence; so that, whatever merehandffee #ai 
left in the port he restored to the merchants, and fortified thebiMl 
with all the care and diligence imaginable. 

This first disaster greatly discouraged Thimbron, having both isM 
so convenient a post, and likewise his carriages. Bat aftci li ii l i 
plucking up his spirits, and taking Taricheum by assanlt^ bb bopci 
revived. However, not long after, he again sustained a m^bty loii: 
for the soldiers belonging to the fleet, by being ekoluded die bftsboM^ 
were in great want of provisions, and therefore every day fovtd'e^ 
and down the fields to get what they could for the supply of 
necessities. Thereupon the Africans, lying in ambosbj Ml 
them as they were roving all over the country, and killed i 
of them, and took many prisoners: the rest escaped to tbdr aMtn^ 
and sailed off towards the confederate cities; but they trere 
taken with so violent a storm, that many of their ships w^re 
lowed up by the sea; and of the rest, some ^ere driven to Cjpraflib 
and others to the coasts of Egypt. Notwithstanding which &- 
tresses, Thimbron went on still with the war: for he sent sotne ef 
his friends into Peloponnesus, to inlist soldiers of those strangers Aat 
were then still at Tenarus; for there were then many i 
wandering up and down, seeking to be inlisted by any that wonld'4 
ploy them, to the number of two thousand five hundred, and \ 
1'hnse that were sent took these into pay, and set sail with 
siraiglu towards Cyrene; before whose arrival the Cyrenians^ cocoa- 


raged by their suec^ascs, had fought with Thimhraiiy and bad cat off 
great nambers of his men : by reason of which losses Thimbron gave 
up all for lost aa to the war against Cyrene; but the unexpected ar- 
rival of the aoldiers from Teoaros so strengthened his army, that be 
took ftesh courage, and resumed his former hopes of victory. 

The Cyreoians, peroeiving that the war was renewed, craved 8op« 
plies from the neighbouring Africans and Carthaginians; and, hav« 
ing raised an army composed of their own citizens and others, to the 
Bomber of thirty thousand men, they resolved to lay all at stakes and 
tsj it out in a battle. A very sharp engagement therefore was fought, 
in Ahich Thimbron was victor, with the skughter of a multitude of 
bis enemies; which cheered up his spirits to that degree, as if he 
should presently be master of all the neighbouripg cities. The Cy* 
jwoians after this %bt, having lost all their commanders, joined 
IMbiasiclus the Cretan Urith some others in the chief command of the 
anpy* But Thimbron, lifted up with bis victory, besieged the haven 
of Gyrene, and i|8i$aulted the city every day. The siege contlnning 
loiig» the Cyrenians, for want of bread, fell out one with another; 
nod ibe jabble (being the greatest in number) thrust forth the rich 
flttt of the dty ; some of whom fled to Thimbron, others into Egypt. 
Those in Egypt addressed themselves to Ptolemy for assistance, to 
Mp diem 10 their return, and prevailed so Cur as that they went 
lio^ with great forces both for sea and land, under the command of 
i^belaa, their governor. When their return was noised abroa<^ 
^bMe e^Ies who were with Thimbron contrived to steal away in the 
ail^ty and joined with those that were arrived; but, being detected, 
they were all killed. 

The ringleaders of the sedition in Cyrene, being terrified at the 
rerbain of the eiules, made peace with Thimbron, and resolved to join 
with him against Ophelas. But Ophelas routed Tbimbron, and took ' 
him prisoner, and recovered all the towns, and delivered the cities, 
vrUh thdr territories, into the hands of Ptolemy. And thus the Cy- 
l^maiis and the neighbouring cities lost their former liberty, and be- 
came subject to Ptolemy. 

Perdiccas and king Philip having overcome Ariarathes, delivered 
the province to Eumenes, and so departed out of Cappadocia. When 
they came into Pisidia, they determined to raze those two cities, 
<Mie of the Larissians, the other of the Isaurtans: for in the li/e-tiine 
of Akxander they had killed JSalacrus, the son ot (f icauor, who was 
afipoioted to be their general, and governor of the province. Larissa 
therefore they took upon the first assault, and put all that were able 
to bear arms to the sword, and sold all the rest for slaves, and laid 
the city even with the ground. As for the city of the Lsaurians, 


it was large and well fortified, and manned with resolute and stoat 
men ; and therefore, after they had assaulted it two days togethefj 
and had lost a great number of men, they were forced to draw off: 
for the inhabitants, being plentifully furnished with weapons, and all 
other things necessary for the enduring of a siege^ were resolute to 
undergo all hazards, and readily sold their lives for the defence of 
their liberty. But upon the third day, having lost many of thdr 
citizens, insomuch that they were not able sufficiently to man the 
walls, they put in execution a most heroic piece of resolution, wor- 
thy for ever to be remembered. For, perceiving that they we^ des* 
lined to inevitable destruction, and had not force sufficient for dieir 
defence, they judged it not advisable to deliver up the dty^ and all 
that they had, to the will of the enemy, because their certain nunj 
with the most barbarous usage, was obvious before their eyes. 
Therefore they all unanimously resolved to die honourably together: 
to that end. In the night they shut up their wives, children, and pa- 
rents in their houses, and set them on fire, making choice by diat 
means to perish and be buried together. When the flame mounted 
up into the air, the Isaurians threw all their wealth, and every thing 
valuable, or that might be of any advantage to the enemy> into the fire* 
The besiegers were struck with admiration at the sight, and ran here 
and there, seeking where to break into the city; but those that re- 
mained upon the walls for their defence threw many of the Blacedo- 
nians down headlong from the battlements. At which PcfdiecM 
was much surprised, and inquired what was the reason that, haTing 
Set all their houses and every thing besides on fire, they were so 
diligent and careful to defend the walls. At length, when Penliccas 
with his Macedonians were drawn off from the city, the rest of the 
Isaurians cast themselves headlong into the fire, and so every one's 
house became a common sepulchre for himself and all bis relations. 
Penliccas the next day gave the ransacking of the city to the sol* 
dicrs, who (when the fire was extinguished) found much silver and 
gold in the rubbish, the city having been rich and prosperous a long 
time together. 

After this destruction, Perdiccas married two wives, Nicsea the 
daughter of Antipater, to whom he was contracted; and Cleopatra, 
Alexander's half sister, the daughter of Philip and Amyntas. Per- 
diccas indeed had entered into league with Antipater before he was 
establislied in his government, and upon that account the auirriage 
was consummated. But after he had gained the king's forceSf and 
became possessed of the supcrintcndency and administration of the 
affairs of the kingdom, he clianged his mind: for affecting the kin^ 
dom, his design was to marry Cleopatraj coucluding that for her sahs^ 

th(^. IL niODORUS SICULITS. £77 

and by her authority, the sovereigo power would be yielded up to 
to him by the Macedouians. But because he had no mind as yet to 
Jibcover his intentions^ and to comply with the present circumslAa- 
ces of affairs, he married Nicea^ lest Antipater should oppose him 
in his projects. Bat Antigomis smelling out what he was contriv- 
ing, and being one that had a great kindness for Antipater, and' the 
most active man of all the commanders, Perdiccas resolved to des- 
patch him, and take him oat of the way. 

Loading him therefore with false accusations and unjust asper- 
sions, \iM design appeared plainly to take away his life. But Anti- 
gonos being a crafty man, and of a bold spirit, pretended as if he 
woald defend himself against those things that were laid to his charge; 
but in the interim he secretly prepared for his flight, and in the 
night, with his servants and his son Demetrius, went on board some 
ships that belonged to Athens, and set sail for Europe, on purpose to 
confederate with- Antipater. About that time Antipater and Crate- 
xus had taken the field against the ^tolians with thirty thousand foot, 
and two thousand five hundred horse: for they only remained un- 
conquered of those that werfe engaged in the Lamian war. But the 
£tolians, though they were pressed upon by such mighty forces, yet 
were not at all discouraged; but having got together ten thousand 
brave and sprightly men, betook themselves to the difficult passes in 
the mountains, where they had before disposed and lodged much of 
their wealth, and all their wives, children, and old peoi^e. And 
though they had quitted the cities which were not tenable, yet they 
placed^trong garisons in those that were fortified; and in this state 
undauntedly waited the approach of the enemy. 

Antipater and Craterus therefore having entered iEtolia, when 
they saw all the cities that were weak and untenable forsaken by 
their inhabitants, made towards those that were posted iu the fast- 
nesses of the mountains. At the first assault they made upon these 
dreadful and inaccessible precipices, they lost multitudes of their 
tnen ; for the valour of the iEtolians being supported and confirmed 
by the strength of the places, easily repulsed the enemy, who ran 
themselves upon difficulties that were insuperable. But afterwards, 
when Craterus's soldiers had secured themselves during the winter, 
by huts and warm tents, the iEtolians were obliged to endure the in- 
clemency of the season in places covered over with snow, where 
they remained in great want of provisions; so that they were redu- 
ced to a most desperate condition. For they were brought to that 
dilemma, that they must of necessity citlier leave the mountains and 
fight with an army far superior in number to themselves, and against 
commanders who were every where renowned foi: their good con- 


duct, or, if they remained longer, certainly to perish with bonger and 

And now all hopes of deliverance being despaired of, luddenly «nd 
unexpectedly appeared a release at hand from all their miseries^ as if 
some god in an especial manner had had compassion of such hnm 
and noble souls : for Antigonos, who had fled out of Asia, and was 
BOW come bto the camp, informed them of what Perdi^eas was 
hatching and contriving; and that having mtrried Cleopatrat hm 
was ready, as king, to come over with his army into Macedonii^ to 
wrest the kingdom out of their hands. At which strange and qaex- 
pected news, Antipater and Crateriis, and all those with them^ wen 
so affrighted, that they called a council of war, where, upM oonsul- 
tation, it was resolvedf that matters should be compounded snd end* 
€d with the ^olians as well as they could; and that forcts should 
1>e forthwith transported mio Asia; and that Cmterus should ho ge- 
neiul in Asia, and Antipater have the chief command in Eojftipei 
that ambassadors should likewise be despatched^to Ptolemy^ who was 
their friend and an enemy to Perdiccas, and designed to be out off aa 
well as they, to move him to join with them as a confederato. Hayn* 
upon they forthwith struck up a peace with the iEttriiaos^ inlfndil^ 
notwithstanding in due time afterwards, to root them up and all 
their families, and to send them into some remote and desivt oonwr 
of the world far from Asia. The pacification according to tbo tsnns 
before agreed upon, being put into writing and signed^ thej pitpani 
themselves for the expedition. 

Perdiccas^ on the other side, calling together fab friends and ge* 
neral officers, consulted with them whether he should transport his 
army into Macedonia, or march first against Ptolemy. All agrasing 
that Ptolemy was first to be conquered, lest he shouU ehstract his 
expedition into Macedonia, he sent JSumenes on before with a con* 
sidersble army, to secure the passes at the Hellespont, to pievenjt all 
passage that way : and he himself marched out of Pisidia with tha 
whole of his forces towards Egypt. And these Wfrt the things ( 
this year. 


Chi^. IIL DI0D0RU8 SICULUS. 979 


JDtanr^dn of Alexander's fimeral chariot Ptolemy hommred cp| 
JEg^. Perdiccas prepares for going inio Egypi agabtMi Pto* 
lemy. Eamems beats Neopiolemusy who deserted. The baitte 
between Eamenes and Craterus, who was killed w^h NeopioUh 
mute. Combat between Neoptolenms and JBumenes. Perdkcais 
€omes into Egypt; aasaulis the fori called the Camd^e Wall; 
kie ndeerable loss in the river NOe; is kUled. Ptolemy makes 
jlridaus and Pythm protectors of the kings. JEuffMiiei eoncfaw- 
nediodie. The JEtoHans invade Th^saly. Pofyperehon roais 
the JStoUans. !ne provinces again dividedby Aridmue. An^ 
tigonus routs Eumenes, who JKes to Nora. Antigonms besieges 
Nora. Eunwnes*s inveniion to exercise the horse. PtoUmy 
gains Syria and Phomicia by Nicanor. 

WHEN Philoclet was chief magistmie «t Athens, and Caios Salpi- 
tins and Quintus Aulius were created RiMnan consuls^ Aridssns, to 
whom was committed the care of conveymg Akunder^s body to his 
scpQlchre, having now the chariot ready upon which it was to be 
carried, prepared hinself for the jonmey* But, forasmuch as the 
wiiole business and concern was managed as beeame tlie majesty of 
Alesander, and upon that account did not only exceed all odien in 
fKxint of expense, state, and pomp, (for die charges amounted to ma* 
ay talents), but also in respect of curiosity and workmanship, we 
Ihfaik it fit to recommend something to posterity in writing concern- 
ing it. And first, a coffin of beaten goM was provided, so wrongiit 
by the hammer, as to answer to the poportioa of the body; it was 
lialf filled with aromatic spices, which served as well to delight the 
sense, as to prevent the body from putrefoctk>n* Over the coffin 
was a cover of gold, so exactly fitted, as to answer the higher part 
every way* Over this was thrown a curious purple coat embroidered 
with gold, near to which were placed the arms of the deceased, that - 
:he whole might represent the acts of his life. Tiien was provided 
the chariot, in which the body was to be conveyed ; upon the top of 
which was raised a triumqhant arch of goI(%t set thick and studded 
over with precious stones, eight cubits in breadth, and twelve in 
length. Under this roof was placed a throne of gold, joined to the 
whole work, four square, on which were carved the heads of Goat- 


harts ^; and to these were fastened golden rings of two hands- 
breadth in diameter} at which hung, for shew and pomp^ little co- 
ronets of various colours, which, like so many flowers^ a&rded a 
pleasant praspect to the eye. Upon the top of the arch, was a fringe 
of network, to which were hung large bells, to the intent that the 
sound of them might be heard at a great distance. On both sides 
the arch, at the corners, stood an image of Victory in gold, bearing 
a trophy. A peristylium t of gold supported the archwork, the cha- 
piters of whose pillars were of Ionian workmanship. WitliiD the 
peristyiium, by a network of gold of a finger's thickness in the work- 
manship, hung four tables Xj one by another equal to the dimenaions 
of the wall, whereapon were poartrayed all sorts of living creatures. 
The first table represented a chariot curiously wrought, wherein 
Alexander sat with a royal sceptre in his hand. About the king 
stood his life-guards complete in their arms; the Macedomans on 
one side, and the Persians, who bore battle-axes, on the other; and 
heftyre them stood the armour-bearers. In the second, elephants 
adovned in their warlike habiliments Mkmed them of the gttard> on 
which sat Indians before, and Macedonians behind, armed according 
to the manner of their respective countries. In the third might be 
seen squadrons of horse drown up in regular battalia. In the foorlh 
appeared a fleet ordered in a line of battle. At the entrance of the 
arch stood lions of gold, with their faces towards the entrance. .«. 
From the middle of every pillar an acanthus § of gold sprouted up* 
in branches spiring in slender threads to the very chapiters. Over 
the arch, about the middle of the roof on the outside, was spread a 
purple carpet in the open air, on which was placed a vast golden 
crown, in the form of an olive coronet ||, which^ by the reflection of 
the sun*beams, darted such an amazing splendor and brightnesi^ 
that at a distance it appeared as a flash of lightning. Under the 
seats or bottom of the whole work, ran two axletrees^ about which 
moved four Persian wheels, wlM>se spokes and naves were overlaid 
with gold, but the fellows were shod with iron. The ends and outp 
parts of the axles were of gold, representing the heads of lions, each 
holding a* dart in his mouth. In every centre of the arch, about the 
midway in the length, was artificially fixed a pole, upon which ' 
the whole might turn, as on a hinge; by the help whereof the areh 
might, in rough places, where it was apt to be shaken, be preservei 
from being overturned. There were four draft-trees, to every one 

* Tragi laplii, Gott'b arts, bred near the rirer Phasis in Colchis. — Pliiu I. \ c. SSw 
t In furm rcsenibling n piasa. 
t A sort of writing tables, whether of brass, stone, or wood. * 

i A tree so called. |i Olive coronets, usually worn by conqncrorL #j 


q( which were fixed four courses of yokes^ and to every course were 
bound four mules^ so that the mules were sixty-four in number, the 
most choice for strength and bigness that could be got. Every mule 
was adorned with a crown of gold, and bells of gold on either side of 
tlieir heads; and on their necks were fitted rich collars, set and 
beautified with precious stones. 

And in this manner was the chariot set forth, the sight of which 
was more stately and pompous than the report: so that the fame 
of it brought together multitudes of spectators : for the people out of 
every city wherever it was coming, met it, and ran back again be- 
fore it;» never satisfied with tlie delight they took in vewing and gaz- 
ing. And, suitable tb so stately a shew, a vast quantity of work- 
men aod pioneers, who levelled and smoothed the ways for its pas* 
ai^^e, attended. 

And thus Arideus, who had spent two years in preparations, 
brought the king's body from Bobylon io Egypt. Ptolemy, in ho- 
' Bour of the ki<)g» met the corpse with his army as far as Syria, where 
be received it, and accompanied it with great care and observance: 
for he had not resolved as yet to accompany it to the temple of Am- 
noD, but to keep the body in the city ^ which Alexander himself had 
built;, the most famous almost of any chy in the world. To this end 
he built a temple in honour of Alexander, in greatness and stateli- 
aess of structure Jbecoming the glory and majesty of that king;. and 
in tills repository he laid the body, and honoured the exequies of the 
dead with sacrifices and magnificent shews, agreeable to the dignity 
of a demigod. Upon which account he was deservedly honoured, 
not only by men, but by the gods themselves : for by his bounty and 
generosity be so gained upon men, that they flocked from all parts 
to Alexandria, and cheerfully inlisted themselves into his service, 
notwithstanding the king's army was then preparing for war against 
Um: and though he was in imminent danger, yet all readily ven- 
tured their lives to preserve him. And the gods tlicmselves, for his 
^rtue, and kind obliging temper towards all, rescued him out of all 
'^is hazards and difficulties, which seemed insuperable : for Perdic- 
^M, who before suspected the increase of his power, had resolved, 
*^Ht]ging the kingsf along with him, upon an expedition into Egypt, 
^Hh the strength of his army. To that end he had delivered to £ur 
^^nes a considerable body of men, with a sufficient numbtr of offi- 
^^rs, with command to march to the Hellespont, to prevent the p«s- 
"^ge of Antipater and Craterus over into Asia. Ainoiigst tlie com- 

^ Alexaodria.— See Curtius, ]. 10. c. ult. — The embairaed body wus vicyred by Au. 
^^U8 in Alexandria, three hundred ycin afterwards. — iuwt. 

^ These kings were Arid«us and Aiexauder, the childreo af Alexander. 

^^^L.2. No. 43. oo 


manders the most illustrious were Alcetas his brother^ dnd Neoptole-* 
mus: but these he ordered in all things to be observant to EninfiieSy 
because he was both a skilful and prudent general^ and a constant 
and faithful friend. Eumenes therefore^ with the forces delivered 
to him, came to the Hellespont, and completed his army with horse 
(raised out of his own province) of which hb troops were before only 

But after Antipater and Craterus had transported their army out 
of Europe, Neoptolemus, out of envy to Eumenes, (having a consi'* 
derable body of Macedonians under bis command), secretly sent 
messengers to Antipater, and, colleaguing with him, contrived hoir 
to entrap Eumenes: but his treachery being discovered, he was for* 
eed to fight, and lost almost all his men in the battle, and was very 
near being cut off himself. Eumenes being thus conquerar, after 
this great slaughter. Joined the remainder of those that were left to 
his own army; and so by this victory not only increased his tbrces^ 
but strengthened himself with a great number of Macedonians that 
were excellent soldiers. Neoptolemus fled off the field with three 
hundred horse, and went over to Antipater. Whereupon there 
was held a deep consultation between them, in reference to die 
concerns of the war; in which it was determined to divide the annj 
into two bodies; one to march under Antipater into Cilicia to fight 
Perdiccas, and the other with Craterus to fall upon Eumenes; and 
when he was routed, then Craterus to return to Antipater; that so 
the whole army being joined together in one body, and having Ptole* 
my their confederate, they might be the better able to cope mth the 
king's army. 

Eumenes having intelligence of the enemy's march, collected for* 
ces together from all parts, especially horse; for, because he had not 
foot able to cope with the Macedonian phalanx, he raised a great bo- 
dy of horse, by whose assistance he hoped to be in a condition to 
overcome the enemy. 

And now at length the armies drew near to each other; whereapoa 
Craterus drew up his men together, in order, by a set speech to en- 
courage them to fight; in which harangue he promised-^That if 
they were conquerors, they should have all the pillage of th^ field,. 
and all the bag and baggage as a prey to their own use. In alW 
things thus encouraged, he drew up bis army in battalia: the rights 
wing he commanded himself, and the left he gave to NeoptoIenaiiSb^ 
His army in the whole consisted of twenty thousand foot, DMist ofli 
them Macedonians, men famous for their valour, in whom he placeitf 
the confidence of his victoiy; with these there i chiid along with^ 
him above two thousand hoise^ Eumenes had likev tweoig^dioa-- 

Chap* III. DioiiORUS sicuLUS. 283 

sand foot of difiereDt nations, and five thousand horse^ on whose va*' 
lour principally lie had resolved to venture, and lay all at stake in 
this battle. 

The horse on both sides moving forward in two wings a great way 
before the foot, Craterus with a body of choice men made a gallant 
cliarge upon the enemy, but his horse stumbling, he was thrown out 
of the saddle to the .ground, and not being known, was trajupled un- 
der foot by the confused throng, and so unfortunately lost his life; 
upon whose fall the enemy was so encouraged, that, dispersing them* 
selves over the field of battle, they made a terrible slaughter. The 
fight wing being thus distressed, and at length totally routed, was 
forced to retreat to the foot. But in the left wing commanded by 
Neoptolemus, opposed to Eumenes, there was a very sharp engage- 
ment, thq two generals singling out one another: for being known 
to each ether by their horses, and other special marks, they fought 
hand to hand; and by combating thus singly, they put a remark 
upon the victory: for after they and tried it out by their swords^ 
they presently began a singular and new sort of encounter, anger 
and revenge mutually exciting them. For, letting their bridles fall 
on their horses' necks, they catched hold of each other with their 
left hands, and so grappling together, their horses violently pressing 
forward, ran from under them, by which they both tumbled to the 
ground. And though it was a difficult matter for either of them, 
after so violent a fall, to rise again, and besides, being pressed 
down by the weiglit of their armour, yet Eumenes rising firsts 
so desperately wounded Neoptolemus in the ham, that he lay ham- 
strung, grovelling upon the ground i and by reason of the grievous- 
ness of the wound, he was not able to raise himself upon his feet. 
But the stoutness and courage of his mind overcoming the weakness 
of his body, he got upon his knees, and gave his adversary three 
wounds on his arm and thigh: but none of them being mortal, (while 
they were yet warm), Eumenes gave Neoptolemus a second blow oa 
the neck, which killed him outright. 

In the mean time a great slaughter was made amongst the rest of 

the horse on both sides; so that while some were killed and others 

wounded, the fortune of the day was at first uncertain. But no 

sooner was it noised abroad that Neoptolemus was slain, and both 

wings broken, than the whole body of horse fled, and made off to 

the phalanx, as to a strong wall of defence. But Eumenes, content 

With keeping his ground, and the possession of the bodies of both 

the generals, sounded a retreat to his soldiers. Then he set up a 

trophy, and after he had burled the slain, he sent word to the phalanxj^ 

^nd to those. that were thus routed — ^That whoever wou^d, should 

284 DiODORUs sicuLus* Scok XFITT. 

Ill' ■ 'sssBssssssssssssssatesBs o k i 1 1 ■ 

have liberty to take up arms with him, or to go wherever thej pleas- 
ed. The Macedonians accepted of these terms of peace, and, opoQ 
oath of fidelity given, they had liberty to march off to the next towus 
to supply themselves with provisons. But they dealt treacherously 
with Eumenes; for, re-assembling their forces, and fomishiDg 
themselves with provisions, in the night they stole away and went 
to Antipater. Eumenes indeed did all he could to revenge this 
breach of their oath, and to that end he forthvrith endeavoured tor 
pursue the phalanx; but by reason of the strength of the enemy, 
and his own indisposition through the wounds he had received, he 
was not able to do any thing effectually, and tlierefore he judged jt 
better to refrain from any further pursuit. 

Having therefore gained so glorious a victory, and cut off two 
such eminent commanders, his name became very fomous. Anti- 
pater having received those that had escaped, after tiiey had been re-^ 
freshed, hastened away to Cilicia, and to afford assistance to Pt<rfe« 
my. But Perdiccas hearing of the victory* gained by Enmenes, 
prosecuted liis expedition into Egypt with much more assnrtnee..^ 
When he came near to the river Nile, he encamped not hx firom 
Felusium ; and while he was cleansing an old sluice, the river over* 
flowed to that degree, that it defeated all his design, and mined his 
works; and many of his friends deserted his camp, and went over to 
Ptolemy: for he inclined to cruelty; and having removed the r^tof 
the captains from the chief commands, he made it hb only business 
to be sole monarch and absolute tyrant. 

Ptolemy on the contrary was courteous and mild, and gave free 
liberty to the rest of the captains to advise him in all his enter- 
prises. Besides, he had put strong garrisons into all the convenient 
places of Egypt, and had furnished them with all sorts of weapont, 
and other things that were necessary. By which means he succeeded 
in every thing for the most part that he undertook, while many that 
loved the man cheerfully exposed themselves to undergo all haianb 
for his sake. But Perdiccas, to repair his losses, called together the 
commanders, and, having regained some by gifts, and odiers by' 
large promises, and all by smooth words, he was so far euconraged, 
as to bear up against the hazards and diiBoulties that were coming 
apace upon him. And, when he had ordered them all to be ready for 
a march, about evening he moved from thence with his whirfe armj. 
Not acquainting any whither he would lead them, he marchedall night 
with a stvift march, and at length encamped upon the banks of the 
Nile, not far from a castle called the Camel's Wall. 

* Hit first victory over NeoptoteiDus, for Perdiciiaft was killed* befoiMht asm of Uija 
iiut iirriv«4» &> ap^ra aAevwarda. ^ # - * 

■ « 

Chap. III. DtODORUS 8ICULU8. 285 

When it was day he passed his army over^^the elephants leading 
the way, and next to them the targeteers, with those that carried the 
scaling-ladders, and other things he had occasion to use in a siege: 
his best horse at length brought fip the rear, with whbm he intended 
to attack the Ptolemeans, if it happened that they appeared. In the 
middle of their march Ptolemy's horse shewed themselves, making 
forward in a swift career for the defence of the town; who, though 
they hastened to enter the fort, and by sounding of trumpets and shouts 
of men gave sufficient notice of their approach, yet Perdiccas was 
not at all diverted from his purpose, but boldly led up his army close 
to the fort; and forthwith the targeteers with their ladders mounted 
the wall, and those that rode upon elephants threw down the fortifi- 
cations, and demolished the bulwarks. Whereupon Ptolemy, with 
those of his own guard about him, to encourage the rest of his offi- 
cers and friends manfully to behave themselves, catched hold of a 
sarissa, and mounted the bulwark; and so, being on the higher 
ground, struck out the eyes of the foremost elephant, itnd wounded 
the Indian that sat upon him; and, as for those that scaled the 
walls, he hurled them down, dreadfully cut and wounded (together 
with their arms) into the river. After his example Ptolemy's friends 
mliantly exerted themselves, and, by killing the Indian that governed 
the next elephant, the beast became unserviceable. The assault 
continuing long, Perdiccas's soldiers assaulted the wall by turns, 
striving with all the vigour imaginable to gain the fort by storm* 
On the other hand, Ptolemy, calling to his friends now to approve 
their faithfulness and loyalty to him by their courage, fought like a 
hero, and gave an example of valour to all the rest. In this sharp 
dispute, many fell on both sides. The Ptolemeans had the advan- 
tage in the height of the place, and the Perdiccans in the greatness 
of their number, which far exceeded the other. At length, the whole 
day being spent in the assault, Perdiccas raised the siege, and 
marched back to his camp, and in the night decamped, and with a 
quiet and silent march caine into a part of the country over against 
Memphis, where the Nile (dividing itself into two parts) makes an 
island sufficient to receive and encamp the greatest army. Into this 
place, therefore^ he passed over part of his army, though the passage 
was very difficult, through the depth of the river; For the water 
.. reaching up to the chin, the soldiers could not stand upon their legs, 
and were likewise encumbered with their arms. Perdiccas therefore, 
discerning the strength and violence of the river, placed the^ephants 
on the left, to break the force of the stream. The horse went on the 
right, by wMbse help he took up those that were hurried down by 
the current,^ aiM set them safe on the opposite shore. But there 

ffi6 moDORus sicuLUs. Bock XVIII. 

bAppened io this passage that which was strange and unusual: for^ 
when the first had got over, those that followed were in veiy great 
bazard; for the river rose on a sudden, without any apparent cause, 
and swept away whole slicdes of bodies at a timej whicb put all into 
a eonsternatjon. The eause of thb inundation could not be louiid 
<nil, though it was inquired into. Some imputed it to a dyke €r 
alttice in the higer grounds, whose banks might be brdcen down^and 
so all its water ran into the Nile, by which means the ford was so 
much the higher: others conceived it was great rains that fell in tbe 
lauds above whicb increased the waters of the river» But h 
Bcither of these But tlie true cause why tlie passage at first 
without danger, was because the sand was then firm and unmoved; 
but afterwards, when by the treading of the horses and elephams^ 
and tb^ passage of the army, the sand was stirred and carried away 
by the force of the river,.the ford by this means was, as it were, dug 
up, and made into holes, and so the passage was deeper in the middle 
of the river. Pordiccas therefore, not being able to pass the rest of 
bis army over, was in a great strait, because those that had passed to 
the other side were very unequal to the force of the enemy, and 
those on this side of the river were not able to succour them. Here* 
upon he couima'ided all those that were landed in tlie island to re- 
turn. The army thus forced to repass the river^ those that could 
awim, and were strong-bodied men, with great difficulty recovered 
the other side of the Nile; but most of them lost their arms« Tbe 
rest, who were not so skilful, some of them were drowned, and 
others were carried down the stream, and fell into the hands of tbe 
enemy. Very many for a long time tossed hither and thither, were 
at length devoured by crocodiles. Above two tliousand having pe- 
rished in this manner, (among whom were some eminent command- 
ers), the hearts of the soldiers were much turned against Perdiccaa. 
But Ptolemy caused all those bodies to be burned that were brought 
dead down tlie river to him, and, having performed all funend obse- 
quies and observances due to the dead, he sent their ashes and boues 
to their kindred and friends. 

This far more enraged the spirits of tbe Macedonians against Per* 
diccas, and knit their hearts in affection to Ptolemy. When tbe night 
c^me on, the camp was full of cries and lamentations, that so many 
men should miserably perish without a stroke, amongst whom there, .^ 
were no fewer than a thousand who were swallowed by tbe monstrous^ 

Hereupon many of the commanders railed against Perdiccas; and 
tliti whole phalanx of foot, being totally disaftccted, disMvered tlieir 
hatred b^ their murmurings and threats: aud^a hundfed^ th| chief . ' 


c^ommanders deserted hitn^ the chiefest of whom was Python^ who had 
eoDqoefed the rebellioiB Greeks^ and was not inferior in valour and 
reputation to any of Alexander's commanders. Afterwards some of 
the horse entered into a conspiracy, and made to his tent, and in a 
bodfy fetl upon him, and killed him. 

The next day, when the soldiers were in consultation, Ptolemy 
came to them, aod saluted the Macedonians, and made an apology 
for what he had done. And, seeing that tliey were in want of pro- 
visions, he furnished the army with abundance of bread, and supplied 
die camp with all other things that were necessary. But, though lie ' 
was upon this account in great grace and favour with the soldiers^ 
and so able easily to gain the protectorship of tlie kings, yet he de- 
manded it not, but bestowed the chief command upon Python aad 
Aridseus, to whom in gratitude he was much obliged. For when 
the Macedonians appointed a consultation concerning that honour- 
able trust and high command, by the advice of Ptolemy they all 
unanimously created Python, and Aridseus who conveyed the king^s 
body, to be protectors of the kings, investing them with sovereign 
authority. And in this manner Perdiccas, after he had enjoyed 
the soverdgn command for the space of three years, lost both it 
and his life together^ After his death, news was brought, that £u- 
menes had gained the day in Cappadocia, and that Craterus aad 
Neoptolemus were both slain : which news, if it had arrived the day 
before Perdiccas*s death, that prosperous success would have been 
a protection to his person, so as that none durst have lifted up their 
hands against him. 

But the Macedonians now hearing how Eumenes had succeeded^ 
condemned him and all his adherents, to the number of fifty k»rd% 
amongst whom was Alcetas the brother of Perdiccas, to die* And 
at that very time they put to death tliose who were Perdiccas's 
chiefest friends, then in their hands, with his sister Atalanta, the 
wife of Attalus the admir^ of the fleet. For at, and after the death 
of Perdiccas, Attalus lay with the fleet before Pelusium; and when 
the news was brought him of the death of Perdiccas, and his wife^ 
he departed from thence and went to Tyre; where Archelaus, a 
Macedonian governor of the city kindly received him, and delivered 
up to him the city, and faithfully restored to him the money intrust- 
fgtd in his hands by Perdiccas, to the amount of eight hundred ta* 
lents. And by this means Attalus, taking up his residence at Tyre, 
received all Perdiccas's friends tliat fled to him from th^j|amp at 
. • After Antipater had gonfe over into Asia, the iEtolians, in pursu- 
ance of theif league ^ncludcd with Perdiccas, -maiQfifhed intf Thes<r 

£88 DIODORUS sicuLUS. Book XVin. 

saly, with a design to divide Antipater's army. They had twelve 
thousand foot, and four thousand horse *, commaDdedy asgeoeralj 
by Alexander, an iEtolian. 

In their march they besieged the Locrians in, Amphissaj and hft- 
lassed their country, and took some of the neighbouring towns and 
Tillages. They likewise routed Polycles, Antipater's general^ and 
killed him, together with a great number of his men. Of the pri* 
soners they took, some were sold for slaves, and others were ran- 
somed. Afterwards, they broke into Tliessaly, and brought over 
many there to join them in the war against Antipater, insomuch as 
they made up in the whole a body of five-and-twenty thousand 
foot, and fifteen hundred horse; while they were taking in the ci- 
ties, the Acamanians bearing a grudge to the ^tolians, invaded 
£toIia, wasted and spoiled the country, and besieged the dties.... 
When the iEtolians heard what danger their country was in, they 
left the rest of their forces in Thessaly under the command of Me- 
non of Pharsalia, and they themselves speedily marched back with 
their own soldiers into iEtolia, and struck such a terror into the Acer* 
nanians, that they presently relieved their country. While they 
were thus employed, Polyperchon, who was left general in Macedo- 
nia, came into Thessaly with a noble army, and fought and routed 
the enemy, killing Menon the general, and, cutting off most of his 
army, soon recovered Thessaly. 

As for the afiairs of Asia, Aridseus and Python, protectors of the 
kings, leaving the river Nile, came with the kings, and the whole 
army, to Triparadisusf, in Higher Syria]:. There Eurydice§, the 
queen, taking upon her to intermeddle and pry too curiously into 
matters that concerned her not, and to control the protectors. Python 
and his friends hereby became much disgusted, and, perceiving that 
the Macedonians were more observant to her commands than to 
theirs, they called a council, and gave up the protectorship. Where^ 
upon the Macedonians chose Antipater protector, with absolute au« 
thority. A few days after Antipater, going to Triparadisus, found 
Eurydice stirring up the Macedonians to a sedition against him; 
whereupon there arose no small mutiny in the army. Antipater 
hereupon called a general council, and so argued and canvassed the 
business with them, that he alhiyed the Spirit of the people, and 
brought Eurydice^ through fear of him, into a better and more mo* 
iderate temper. 

* Or rither four hundred. 

t Triparadisus, called hy PKnj, Paradisus.—Nat. Hist. 1. 1, c. t9.^The triple s«rdtib 

% The Higher Seria, or what is called Ccslosjria. 

} Tlic wife of Aridaes, one of the kings of Macedon* 


After these things were over, Antipater made a second division of 
the prbviaces, and allotted to Ptolemy that whereof he was then in 
possession^ for it was not practicahle to remove him, hecause it 
appeared Ptolemy had gained Egypt as a conqueror. Syria he gave 
to Laomedon of Mitylene; and Cilicia to Philoxenus. Of the other 

provinces, he assigned Mesopotamia and Arbelitis to AmphimachusI 
the province of Babylon to Seleucus; and Susiana to Antigonus*, 
because he was^the first occasion of the overthrow of Perdiccas. To 
Peucestes he granted Persia ; toTlepolcraus, Carmania; to Python, 
Media; and to Philip, Parthia*. Aria and Drangina he allotted to 
Stasander the Cyprian; Bactria and Sogdiana to Stasanor of So- 
lium, born in the same island; Paropamisus, to Oxyartcs, the father 
of Ruxana, whom Alexander married; and India, bordering upon 
Paropamisus, to Python, the son of Agenor. Of the kingdoms next 
adjoining, that which bordered upon the river Indus, continued un- 
der tiie power of Porus; that which lay next to the Hydaspes, re- 

^ mained with Taxiles : for these kings were not to be dispossessed 
but with the royal army, and a skilful and expert general. As to the 
Bortbern provincesf, he gave the government of Cappadocia to Ni- 
canor; and the Greater Phrygia and Ciliciat to Antigonus, to hold 
them as he did before. Lastly, to Cassander he assigned Caria; to 
Clitus, Iiycia§; and to Aridttus, Phrygia at the Hellespont. Anti- 
gonus he appointed general of the royal army, and commanded him 
to pursue and destroy Eumenes. To Antigonus he also joiaed Cas* 
sander and Clearchus, that, if he secretly projected any thing, he 
might be discovered. He himself marched with the kings and his 
troops towards Macedonia, that he might conduct the kings back into 
their own country. 

Antigonus therefore, being declared absolute commander of Asia, 
drew the forces out of their winter-quarters to fight with Eumenes; 
and to that end furnishing himself with all necessary preparations for 
the war, he marched towards Eumenes, who then lay in Cappadocia; 
where one called Perdiccas, one of his chief commanders, had de- 
serted him, and lay encamped with three thousand foot and five 
hundred horse (that followed him) about three days march distant. 
But Eumenes sent out Phenices of Tenedos with four thousand good 
foot, and a thousand horse against him; who with a swift march fell 
upon the rebels on a sudden in the night, when they were asleep, 
and took Perdiccas and all his army prisoners, about tlie second 
watch of the night. Eumenes put to death the chief rmgleaders 
oi the defection, and spared the rest of the soldiers, and mixed them 

^ For Antigenes, captain oCithe silter targetcert. t The Lesser Asis. 

% CUicit far Lvcia. $ For Lydia, 

Vol-. 2. No. 44. PP 

290 DioDORus sicuLus, Book XFIIt 

amongst his own, and by this means gained all their affisctions. 
After this Antigonus, by a correspondence with one Apcdlonides, 
general of the horse on Eumenes's side, by large promises ao efieeted 
the business, that be prevailed with him to betray Eamenes, and 
come over to him in the heat of the fight. Eumenes was then en- 
camped in Cappadocia, in places* very convenient for an engagement 
with horse. Antigonus therefore made thither with his whole anny^ 
and possessed himself of the higher ground under the foot of the 
mountains. He had at that time above ten thousand foot, (of whom 
most were Macedonians, brave and valiant men), and two thousand 
horse, and thirty elephants. £umenes had no less than twenty thou- 
sand foot^ and five thousand horse. Presently a sharp and bloody 
battle was fought, in which Antigonus (through the sudden and un- 
expected desertion of ApoUonides with his horse, and going over to 
the other side) got the day, killing eight thousand men of the enemy 
upon the place, and possessing himself of all their bag and baggage; 
so that the Eumeneans (through the slaughter that was made) were 
in a consternation, and, by the loss of all their carriages, were 
brought to an utter desperation. Hereupon Eumenes designed to 
fly into Armenia, to persuade some of the inhabitants to yna with 
him in arms ; but, being prevented by a swift pursuit, and pere ei f i nf 
his men to run away from him to Antigonus^ he possessed himsdf 
of a strong fort called Nora. It was indeed very small, not above 
two furlongs in compass, but in strength impregnable: for the houses 
were built upon a very high rock, and it was wonderfully fortified both 
by nature and art. Besides, there was there laid up great store of 
corn, fuel, and other things of that kind; so that all who fled ftr 
shelter thither might be abundantly supplied with all things neces- 
sary for many years together. Those that were his fast friends ac- 
companied him in his flight, and resolved at the last and utmost ex 
tremity to die with him. They were in number, both horse and Ibot^ 
about six hundred. 

Antigonus being now strengthened with the forces of Eumenes, 
and the revenues of his provinces, and having got together a great 
mass of treasure, began to aspire to matters of higher coneem: ibr 
none of the Asiatic commanders were as yet so potent as to dare to 
contend with him for the sovereign command. For the present, 
indeed, he bore a fair outside towards Antipater, but secretly had re- 
solved, that when he had firmly settled his affairs, he would neither 
regard him nor the kings. And in the first pkce he blociccd up 
them in the fort with a double wall, and with deep trenches and wnks 
of earth of a wonderful height. Then he' entered into paileg^ with 

• Id the couDtry of Orcjois, iu Capptdocw.— Vih. Alio. SOOU 


» willing to renew their antient friendship, and i 
to pennade him to jcnn with him as an associate in all his affinn. 
Bat EuBieQes, foreseeing a change of fortune at hand, insisted upon 
tenns» and AaV degree of fiivour which seemed very unequal and 
ttnfit to be granted to one in his present circumstances: for he re- 
qoiied^ as of right, to be restored to all his provinces^ and to be iiiilly 
acquitted and discharged of all pretended ofieoces whatsoever. An- 
tigonus promised to acquaint Antipater with his demands, and^lear- 
iflg sufficient strength for continuing the siege» he marched against 
the generals, (who were moving towards him with all their forces), 
via. Alcetas, the brother of Perdiccas, and Attalus, the admiral of 
the fleet. Some time after, Eumenes sent ambassadors to Antipater, 
to treat upon terms of peace, (amongst whom was Hieronymus, a 
cdooel, who wrote the history of the successors) • In the mean time 
lie himself, having experienced many changes and turns of Ibrtniie^ 
viaa not at all discouraged, knowing very well what quick and sud- 
dcm allefalions had happened on both sides. For he taw that tlie 
Macedonian kings were only vain and insignificant shadows of 
princesi and the many valiant conmumders who were with them so 
vumaged their commands one after another as to seek only tbe ad- 
vSnaceaaent of their bwn fMrivate interests. Therefore he hoped (as 
it afterwards happened) that many would desire his assistance, both 
upon account of his skill in martial affiun^ and of his constancy and 

But when he saw that the horse could not be exercised in a ^lace 
ao strut and craggy, and so were unserviceable for horse engage- 
BDientS, he ingeniously found out a new and unusual way for the ex- 
ercise of them: for he tied up their heads by chains to a post or 
atnMig stake, and drew them up so high as that they should stand 
apoo their hinder feet, and but justtoucb the ground with the ends 
of ^tlieir fore feet. Whereupon the horse presently, striving to get 
his fore feet to the ground, ^d so curvet and caper, that legs, thighs, 
and every member was in action, and by this motion tlie horse was 
all of a foam; and thus they were all exercised to the highest de- 
gree. He himself fed of the meanest food with the rest of the sol • 
diets, and, by thus eating with them in common, not only gained to 
himself the love of all his fellow-soldiers, but caused them, to be at 
perfect peace and concord one with another. In the mean time, 
Ftolemy in Egypt (Perdiccas with all the king's army being broken 
ID pieces) enjoyed that country as a conqueror: and, casting his eye 
upon Phoenicia and Coelosyria, (as lying very commodiously to 
Egypt), he used bis utmost endeavour to possess himself of the cities 
of those countries. To that end he created Nicanor, one of his 


fiieDds, general, and sent him into those parts with a cooriderable 
army, who, coming into Syria, took Laomedon, the governor of that 
province, prisoner, and brought all Syria under his own power* He 
gained likewise ail the cities of Phcenicia, and put ganisons into 
them, and, having in a short time finished a troublesome ezpeditioD, 
returned into Egypt. 


Antigonus routs Alcetas in Pisidia, ami takes Attalu^. Alceiat 
received vUo lerniesstis, and there protected* He is murdered 
there treacherously: his body inhumanly iised by AntigtmMM. 
Antipaier*s death. Antipater puts Demeas, one of the Aihenitm. 
amhassadorsy to death. Polyperchon mcuie chief in Macedonia, 
Cassander conspires to put him out, Antigonus*s plots to be 
sovereign ofalL Aridicus secures himself in Phrygian beeiegee 
Cyzicum, Antigonus goes to relieve it. Eumenes got out qf 
Nora by Antigonus' s order. Antigofws's further acts. 7%e 
various fortunes of Eumenes. A council in Macedonia called 
by Polyperchon agabist Cassander. The decree of the counciL 
Polyperchon invites Olympias out of Epirus into Macedouia. 
Writes to Emnenes to join with the kings. 

AFTERWARDS, when Apollodorus executed the oiBce of lord- 
chancellor at Athens, and Quintus Publius and Quintus Poplias* were 
consuls at Rome, Antigonus, after the defeat of Eumenes, detenniiRd 
to march against Alcetas and Attalus : for those only remained of all 
Perdiccas's friends and kindred who were skilful cummaDdei^ and 
bad forces sufficient to cope with him for the sovereign power. To 
this end he marclied away with lus whole army oat of Cappadocia, 
and made for Pisidia, where Alcetas then lay, and came with a swift 
inarch suddenly and unexpectedly to Critopolis, (as it was called), 
having marched two thousand five hundred furlongs in seven days 
and seven nights, and by that means was upon them before they were 
aware; and there he first possessed himself of certain hills and other 
difficult passes in the country. When Alcetas's party had intelli- 
^cDce of the enemy's approach, they presently drew up a pbalanxf 

* Lucius Paptciui. t Of horse. 

in order of btttle^ and by a fierce charge endeavoored to drive die 
horse down the hilk^ who ha4 now gained the tops of the monntains* 
Hereopon began a sharp engagement^ in which many fiidUng oft 
both sldes^ Antigonus^ with a body of six thoasund* horse, bore 
down with all his might upon the enemy, endeavouring to ent off all 
ways and means of retreat to Alcetas : thb done, those upon the tops 
of the mountains j by advantage of the steepness and difficulty o| die 
places, easily put the phalanx to flight. Hereupon Alcetas's men^ 
being surrounded with the multitude of their enemies, and all passes 
blocked up between them and their foot, they looked upon them* 
selves all as dead men. Therefore, seeing no other remedy or means 
left to escape, Alcetas (with the loss of multitudes of his men) at 
length with much ado broke through his enemies, and got to the 
foot. Hereupon Antigonus marching down from the hills with his 
whole army, and his elephants, the enemy (who were far itiferior in 
number) were mightily terrified: for all the confedierates were not 
above sixteen thousand foot, and nine hundreit horse; whereas the 
forces of Antigonus (besides elephants) were above forty thousand 
foot, and seven thousand horse. Those therefore with Alcetas (^on* 
aidering that they should meet with elephants In the front, and be 
• sorrounded with multitudes of horse, and forced to engage with foot' 
te exceeding them, both in number of men, and in the sldlfulness 
1^ their arms, and besides had the advantage of tbe higher gronnd) 
fell into confusion and amazement; nay, the enemy hastened, and^ 
eame upon them so fieist, that they were not able to draw up their men 
in due order of battle; so that the whole army was presendy bnAen 
in pieces, and Attains Docimus and Fdlemo, and many other com- 
manders, were taken prisoners. But Alcetas, with his life-guard, 
his children, and those Pisidians that sided with him, got intoTer- 
messus, a city of Pisidia. Then Antigonus came to an agreement 
with the captains, his prisoners, and the rest he disposed of among his 
own troops, using them with all humanity, and by this means grefidy 
increased his army. But about six thousand Pisidians (valiant men) 
resolved to stick to Alcetas, and promised that they would never de- 
sert him upon any terms whatsoever: for they loved him entirely, for 
the reasons following: 

When Alcetas, after the death of Perdiccas^ had no confederates in 
Asia, he determined by some acts of kindness or other to engage the 
Pisidians; because he knew he should thereby gain a warlike people, 
who had a country very difficult to enter, and full of strong f<Mrts, to 
be his confederates. Theirefore in every expedition he always be- 
stowed special marks of honour upon them above all the rest, of his 
* Tbe Creek is so, bat the Latin it six hundred. 

294 BioDORus SICULU8. Book XVIII. 

confederates: for he so divided the spoil of his enemies, that the 
half was ever allotted to them. Moreover, by bis ftmiliaritj and 
freedom in converse, daily invitations of the most eminent petatai 
amongst them to his table, and by his bounty and liberality in be- 
atowing upon them many large gifts and rewards, he engrossed to 
lumself the love of all: so that now (having anchored all hia bopci^ 
and placed his chiefest confidence in them) he was not frosUated in 
bis expectation : for, when Antigonus encamped with his whole army 
before Termessus, and demanded Alcetas to be delivered up to bias, 
(and the elders of the city had determined to give him up), all the 
young men got together, and resolved to run all hazards, and the vt* 
most extremity, for his preservation. Tlie elders ind^d at first en- 
deavoured to dissuade the young men, and draw them off from theb 
lormer resolve, wishing them not to involve their country in war lor 
the sake of one Macedonian. But when they saw that they cooU 
ikot allay the heat of the young men, they secretly consulted together, 
and in the night sent away a messenger to Antigonns, and by him 
fnithfully promised — ^That they would deliver Alcetas up to bhn, ei* 
tber dead or alive. To this end, they desired bim^JIIiat, hf as- 
saulting the city for some days, he would deo^ the yoong omd to 
sally out, and, while be was skirmishing with them, to feign a flight; 
by this means, when the young men were out of the city, and boq^ 
in pursuit, they should have an opportunity to accomplish their de> 
sign. Antigonus assented hereunto, and drew off from the city aft a 
further distance, and so urged on the young men to skirmbhM and 
light pickeerings. The elders now, discerning Alcetas left ahme, 
employed the faithfullest of their servants, and the most active mm 
of the city, (that were not engaged with him), and with them (in the 
absence of the young men) set upon him; but could not take him, 
for he killed himself with his own band, lest he should fall alive into 
the power of the enemy : but they laid his body upon a bier, casting 
over it a coarse cloth, and carried it out of the gates, and, unkoowa 
to them that were skirmishing, delivered it to Antigonus. By this 
device they freed their country, and prevented a war; but they could 
not avoid the fury of the young men. For when they returned, and 
understood what was done, (through that ardent love and afiectioB. 
they bore Alcetas), they were so enraged at their governors, that they 
first possessed themselves of a part of the city, and resolved to set 
the houses on fire, and then to issue out with their arms, and betake 
themselves to the mountains, and waste and destroy all the country 
round belonging to Antigonus. But afterwards they altered their 
purpose as to the burning of the city, and began, by robbing and 
spoiling, miserably to lay waste a great part of the enemy's country. 


In the mean time, Antigonus having received the body of Alcetas, 
used it with all the disgrace and contumely imaginable for the space 
of three days together; and it then beginning to putrify, contemptu- 
ously cast it out without any burial, and sohfiarched out of Pisidia. 

But the young men of Termessus, bearing still a love and respect 
to the abused body of the dead, took it up, and decently buried it. 
He was of so kind and obliging a nature, that there was something 
sbgular in him of love and respect to all those who deserved wel^ 
and therefore be was ever towards such unchangeable in his love and 

Antigonus having left Pisidia, made towards Phrygia with his whole 
amy. When became tothecity of the Creteans, Aristodemus the Mi- 
ksian brought with him the news of An tipater*s death, and that the chief 
command, together with the protectorship of the kings, was devolved 
upon Poljrperchon the Macedonian. He was pleased with the news, 
and now his hopes were exalted, for he made it his business to rule 
and govern all the affairs of Asia, and to gain the absolute and sove- 
reign command there without stooping to any. And thus stood the 
affiurs of Antigonus at this time. 

In Macedonia, while Antipater was seized with a grievous sickness^ 
(and old age making way for his dissolution), the Athenians sentDe 
nades (who was looked upon as one that had managed things with 
the Macedonians with a great deal of honesty and integrity) ambas- 
sador to Antipater, to desire him to draw out the garrison from Mu- 
niehia, as it was at first articled and agreed. Antipater at the first 
was very kind to Demades; but after the death of Perdiccas, wben 
aome letters of Demades, amongst others, were found amongst the 
king's papers, wherein he pressed Perdiccas to hasten with all spedd 
into Europe against Antipater; though he suppressed his resentment 
for a time, yet In truth he bore him a grudge. Therefore when De« 
mades had delivered his message^ as he was commanded, and had 
aomewhat sharply debated the matter concerning the garrbon ; An- 
tifiater, without giving any answei*, committed his son Demeas (who 
was joint ambassador with his father) to the executioners^, who pre- 
sently carried him away to the prison, and for the rcasous before* 
mentioned cut off his head. 

Afterwards, Antipater, when he was near his end, appointed Poly- 
perchon, the eldest almost of all Alexander's captains, and one in great 
honour and reputation with the Macedonians, to be protector of the 
kings, with chief and absolute authority. And his sou Cassander he 
created Chiliarcht J next in power and authority to Polyperchon. This 

* Our sheriffs, 
t Commander of one thousand men, • colonel. 


office was first made a place of honour and credit by the Persian kiags^ 
and afterwards by Alexander when he grew great, and began to imitate 
this and other customs of the Persians. But Cassander relished not 
his father's ordering of matters^ and judged it very diahoDOontble to 
his family to have one that was nothing related, either in bkx>d or 
affinity, to succeed in the sovereign command, when there was a soa 
who in Macedonia gave apparent and pregnant evidences both of 
valour and parts, sufficient to govern the affiurs of the state in the 
room of his father. 

In the first place therefore, he took a journey into the countiy with 
some of his friends, where having both leisure and opportunity, he 
discoursed with them about the chief command, and dealt with every 
one of them privately apart by themselves, to contrive ways and means 
for him to gain the principality; and by large promises prevailed with 
them to join together in their assistance, for the accomplishment of 
what he desired. He likewise privately sent ambassadors to Ptolemy, 
to renew the league, and pray his assistance; and that he would to 
that purpose help him with shipping out of Phgenicia, and send them 
with all speed to the Hellespont. In like manner he sent ambassa- 
dors to the rest of the cities and captains, to solicit them to join with 
them in arms. But the better to conceal his design, and that he 
might not be suspected, he spent his time for many days together in 

But Polyperchon having gained the guardianship of the kings, cal* 
led together a general council of bis friends, and by their advice sent 
for Olymplas, wishing that she would take into her care Alexander's 
son^, who was then but a child, and reside for the future as queen- 
regent in Macedonia: for by reason of the quarrels and heart burn- 
ings between her and Antipatcr, she Iiad withdrawn herself into 

When the death of Antipater was noised abroad in Asia, stirs and 
commotions began to change the face of affiiirs there, while they that 
were in power and authority made it their business, and sought every 
one how to advance his own particular interest. The chief of whom 
was Antigonus, who (upon the account of his having conquered £u« 
menes in Cappadocia^ and was joined with his forces, and Alcetasand 
Attains in Pisidia, and besides was appointed by Antipater viceroy of* 
Asia, and had the command of a great army) bore himself very h^h, 
and swelled with pride in the imagination of his own greatness. And 
being now possessed already (in his own conceit) of the sovereigniyy 
he resolved neither to regard the kings nor their guardians: for in re- 
gard he had a greater army, he was confident he could possess him** 

* Aleiander^ one of the kings. 

Cl^. IF. niODORUs sicuLUS. 897 

self of all the treasures laid up in Asia, seeing there was none able to 
oppose him. He had then in his army threescore thousand foot, and 
ten thousand horse, and thirty elephants. And besides these, he 
doubted not but to raise more, whenever he had occasion; for there 
was money enough in Asia for the enlisting of soldiers abroad in any 
place where he pleased. 

Pondering these things in his head, he sent for Hieronymns the 
historian, Euineues the Cardian's special friend and fellow-citizen, 
(he who fled to Nora), and having brought him to him by many rich 
gifts and presents, he sent him as an agent toEumenes, with instruct 
tjODs to desire him to forget the battle in Cappadocia, and to be liis 
friend and confederate in the war; and that he should have a far 
larger province, and much tnore wealth than ever he enjoyed before : 
and to let him know — ^That he should be chiefest of his friends, and 
share with him in the advantages and successes of all his designs. 

Then without any further delay he called his friends together,'and 
imparted to them the whole of his design; «ind to those who were of 
greatest account among them, to some he allotted provinces, to others 
commands in the army ; and by raising the hopes and expectations of 
every one of them, he made them all very forward to assist him in 
carrying on his intrigues : for he determined to pass through allAsia^ 
and to remove all the governors of the provinces, and bestow them 
upon his friends. 

While he was in execution of these projects, Aridseus the gover* 
nor of Phrygia at the Hellespont, understanding what he was con- 
triving, resolved to secure his own province, and to that end put 
sufficient garrisons into the principal cities, and marched against 
Cyzicum, being the greatest and most important city of all others for 
his purpose. He had with him above ten thousand foot of mercena- 
ries, a thousand Macedonians, five hundred Persian darters and slingers, 
and eight hundred horse, together with all sorts of engines for bat- 
tery, both for shooting of darts and casting of stones, and all other 
things necessary for the carrying on of a siege. He came u|>on the 
:ity on a sudden, and having surprised most of the people when they 
vere abroad in the open fields, he pressed on the siege, and endea- 
voured to force the inhabitants (who were in a very great fright) to 
"eceivea garrison. The Cyzicaus, though they were thus surprised, 
md that many were shut out that were in the fields, and those that 
emained were altogether unable to defend the place, looking upon it 
IS their duty to assert their liberty, cowardly sent forrii ambassadors 
o treat concerning the raising of the siege; and to let Aridffius 
;now....That the city was leady to submit to any thing he thought 
it, except the receiving of a garrison : but in the mean time they 
Vol. 2. No. 44. QQ 


secretly armed all their young men and slaves that Were fit for ser- 
vice, and so lined the walls round with men for tlie defence of the 
town. But Aridaeus still pressing the matter for the receiving of a 

garrison, the ambassadors answered ^That they would acqurint the 

citizens with his demands; which be consented nntOi ^and so dis- 
charged them : and being thus freed, they spent all that day, and the 
night nest folloving, in preparations for the holding out of the siege. 
Being thus deluded, he lost the opportunity of accomplishing what he 
designed: for the Cyzicans, in regard the city Was very strong, and 
well guarded on the land side (for it was a peninsula) and beingmaa- 
ters likewise at sea, they easily repulsed the enemy. Mortov^r, thdy 
sent to them of Byzantium for soldiers, and darts, and all other thhi^ 
that were necessary and useful against an assault, All which Wefe 
speedily and readily sent to them; whereby their hopes were so re- 
vived, that they were the more encouraged to stiind it out to the ut* 
most. They presently likewise put forth their lotig ships to sea, 
and sailed along the coast,andtook]nthosethatwere in theficlda,- and 
brought them back into the city. Having therefore tftiis increased 
the number of their soldiers (after the killing a great nnmber of the 
besiegers) they forced the enemy to raise the siege; wherenpon Ari* 
deus (cheated by this stratagem of the Cyzicans) after a fhutless at- 
tempt, returned into his own province. 

In the mean time, Antigonus lying at Celaena, was informed tf dbe 
siege at Cyzicuro, and therefore resolved to lay an obligation on that 
city (then in danger to be ruined) to favour him in his future designs. 
To that end he detached out of his whole army twenty thoosadd df 
his best foot, and three thousand horse, and with these marched awajr 
with ali speed to the aid of the Cyzicans ; but he came thither a litth 
too late: and sO; though he made a show of great kindness tothecitjr, 
yot he was wholly frustrated in his design. But he sent ambaasn- 
dors to Aridieus, to c\])ostulntc matters with him; first-^Why h^ 
dared tobosicgea Greek confederate city without any provoeatien: 
then, to charge him with open rebellion, and with a purpose to make 
liimself hbsolute lord and sovereign of the province. Lastly, to coMS^ 
niand him to depart out of the province, and tlience forward to livt 
1 private life, and content liimself with only one city for his anb- 

Aridieus hearing these demands of the ambassadors (and charging 
them with insolence) told them he would not leave the provtwce; 
but that he would j^^arrison all liis cities, and was resolved t6 decide 
the matter with him by the sword. 

In pursuance of what he hud said, (having every where fortified 
his towns and cities), he sent away a general with part of his iimiy> 


comouDding him to join with Eameaes^ and to free the fort from the 
aiege^ and Eumenes from the straits and difficulties wherein he then 
was, and to persuade him to be his confederate in the war. 

Antigonus, in the mean timci eager to be revenged on Aridseus, 
sent away some of hb forces against him; and he himself marched 
with a numerous army towards L^dia^ with a purpose to depose Clitus 
the lord-lieutenant of that province : who having before intelligence 
of his march, garrisoned all his principal cities, and he himself sailed 
over into Macedonia, to inform the kings and Polyperchon of the 
revolt and impudence of Antigonus, and to crave their aid and as« 

Antigonus at his first approach had £phesus delivered up to him, 
by the assistance of some in the city: afterwards, when if^chylus the 
Rhodian arrived at Ephesus with four ships, wherein were six hun* 
dred talents of silver sent out of Cilicia to the kings in Macedonia, 
he seized upon the money, alledging that he had occasion to use it 
for the nttsmg and listing soldiers; by which act he sufficiently de- 
clared to the worlds that he was altogether designing his own inte- 
rest, and was an apparent enemy to the kings. After this, he be- 
sieged those cities that stood out, some of which he took by assault^ 
and others he gained by fair words and promises. 

Having now related the acts of Antigonus, we shall pass over to 
those things that happened to Eumenes. This man had the frequent 
experience of sudden turns and changes of fortune, being sometimes 
in low, and other times again (beyond all expectation) in very pros* 
perous circumstances. 

In former times, when he assisted Perdiccas and the kings, he 
gained the province of Cappadocia, and those places that, as mem- 
bers, belonged to it, where lie lived in the height of prosperity, com- 
manding both men and money at his pleasure: for he conquered 
Craterus and Neoptolemus, two famous captains, who then com- 
manded the before unconquered troops of the Macedonians, and 
killed them both in the fight: so that now he seemed to be invinci- 
ble, when on a sudden his fortune was so changed, that he was 
routed by Antigonus in a great battle, and forced to fly with a few 
friends to a very little fort for shelter. Being then shut up, and 
litmmed in with a double wall, he luid no friend left that could help 
bim in his distress; but after he had been cooped up a year together, 
now utterly despairing of deliverance, unexpectedly and on a sudden 
appeared an opportunity of freedom from all his troubles: for Anti- 
gonus, wlio a little before had straitly besieged him, and earnestly 
souglit tu take away his life, (the scene being changed), now soli- 
cits him to be a partner with hiio in his concerns; and so (upon a 


mutual stipulation upon oath between them) he wu freed from the 
pressures and hardships of the siege. And thus, after a long timei 
being unexpectedly delivered, he continued awhile in Cappadociay 
where he again got together his old friendSj and his -former fellow- 
soldiers, tl'.at were dispersed and scattered up and down in the coun- 
try; and he was so wonderfully beloved, that many of his associates ^ 
and companions* in the same hopes and expectations, presently 
flocked to him, ready to join in arms, and be observant to all his 
commands. To conclude, within a very few days he had got toge- 
ther above two thousand soldiers, who cheerfully listed themselfes, 
besides those five hundred friends who endured the siege with him in 
the fort : and, by the assistance of fortune, he was at length raised to 
that height, that he gained the king's forces, and defsuded the inte- 
rest of the kings against all thRt dared to deprive them of their sove- 
reign authority. But we shall give a more exact accouat of these 
matters shortly hereafter, in their proper time and place. And so, 
having now in short related the affairs of Asia, we shall pass to things 
done in Europe. 

Cassander, though he was excluded from the chief command of 
Macedonia, yet was not at all discouraged, but resolved to gain it; 
for he looked upon it as a base and dishonourable thing that the so- 
vereign authority, enjoyed by his father, should now be managed by ^ 
others. But discerning that the Macedonians flavoured PolyperehoD, 
he privately discoursed with some of his friends, and then sent them 
(that nothing might be suspected) to the Hellespont: he himself in 
the mean time continuing for some days together in the country, and 
spending his time in hunting, made every one believe that he had no 
thoughts or designs of aspiring to the sovereign command. But 
when he had got all things ready for his journey, he secretly departed 
out of Macedonia, and proceeded to the Chersonesus, and thence 
forward to the Hellespont; where, passing over, he went to Antigo- 
nus in Asia, craving his assistance, and told him that Ptolemy wonld 
join with him. Antigonus readily embraced the offer, and made 
him large promises of assistance, and engaged forthwith to supply 
him with forces both for land and sea service. But all thia was m>» 
thing but dissimulation, pretending that he joined with him apoQ 
account of the love and kindness he always boie towards Antipater; 
whereas in truth he designed to divert Pol]q>erchon with fierce and 
bloody wars, to the end that he might with more ease subdue Asia in 
the mean time; and so, without any hazard, gain the sovereign com- 
mand of all at last. 

While these things were acting, Polypcrchon, the protector of the 
Icings, having a prospect of a great war he was likely to have irith 

Ckap. IF. DIODOauS SICULUS. 301 

Cassander, (and conceiving that it was not fit to undertake any thing 
without consulting first with his friends), assembled all his captains^ 
and all those' that were of chief authority among the Macedonians, 
Andt forasmuch as it was apparent that Cassander was strengthened 
with the forces of Antigonus, to gain all the cities of Greece; and 
that some of them were garrisoned with his fiather's forces, and others 
were governed by an oligarchy, influenced chiefly by the friends and 
favourites of Antipater: and besides ail this, that Ptolemy, who had 
the power in Egypt, and Antigonus, who had openly and apparently 
deserted ffee kings, were confederates with Cassander; and that both 
were richly stored with men and money, and had the command of 
many potent cities and provilices: for these reasons he appcnjateda 
consultation, to consider how the war should be managed against 
them. After the matter had been banded to and fro with variety of 
opinions, it was at length resolved that the cities of Greece should 
be restortrd to their liberties, and the oligarchy everywhere aboiishad: 
for by this means they conceived they should weaken the interest of 
Cassander, and much advance their own reputation, and gain strong 
and powerful confederates. Hereupon they that were present forth- 
with sent to the ambassadors of the cities, and, wishing them to be 
courageous, promised to restore them to their several democracies; 
and they delivered to the ambassadors the decree in writincr, that 
every one of them (when they returned into their countries) might 
the better inform the people of the kindness of the kings and captains 
to the Grecians. The decree was in this form: 

" SINCE it has ever been the practice of our ancestors to express 
their acts of grace in the many instances of their bounty towards the 
Grecians, ourselves are likewise desirous to preserve and keep on 
foot what they determined, and are willing to evidence to the world 
the kindness and good will we shall ever be careful to preserve to- 
wards the Greeks : and whereas it is well known that even in the 
life-time of Alexander, and before the kingdom devolved upon os^ 

we were of opinion ^That all ought to be restored to that peace and 

form of government which was ordered and appointed by our father 
Philip, and written to all the cities at that time concerning that affair: 
yet afterwards it happened that some unadvisedly, when we were fiir 
remote from Greece, made war upon the Macedonians; which un- 
ruly persons being suppressed and subdued, by the help and conduct 
of our captains, many cities were thereby involved in great troubles, 
and brought under the smart and sense of many inconveniences: 
impute, therefore, the cause of all those sufierings (as justly you 
tuny) to those commanders. But now, in reverence and due regard 


to tliat aotieDt coiiackution^ we graat to you oar peace, and the wamm 
kinds of goTcrnmeut whicli you enjoyed under Philip and Alennder^ 
and full power and autliority to manage all other thingi, aceonKng 
to the several rules and orders by them prescribed. We Kfcewisfl lev 
cal all tliem wbo have either voluntarily withdrawn themselviesy or 
have been forced away by die command of our captains, firoai the 
time that Alexander first landed in Asia. It is likewise our plea^ 

sure That all those tlius recalled by us enjoy their estates witboat 

^laarrelling or remembrance of former injuries, and that they be re* 
stored to ihe franchises and liberties of their several ekies; and 
whatever decree is made against ihem, let it be abrogated, except 
such as are banished, by due course of law, for murder or sacrikge* 
But we do not hereby intend to recal the exiles of Megalopolis, nor 
Polyeucriis, who are condemned for treason ; nor the Amphisseneans, 
Bor thcTriccinans, nor the Plmrcadonians, nor the Heracleots. But 
as Oor all ot]>ers, let them return before the thirtieth day of the nsonth 
Xantbicus*. But if tliere be any laws or orders made by Philip or 
Alexander against them, let them be brought to us, that such course 
may be taken therein as may be most for the service and advantage 
of us and of the cities. Let the Athenians enjoy all other things as 
they did in the time of Philip and Alexander; and theOropiana lioM 
Oropus fis now they do. Yet we restore Samos to the Athenians, 
because our father Philip before gave it to them. Let all the Gre- 
cians make a law — ^That none take up arms, or act any thing agaiut 
us; otherwise, that such be banished, and forfeit all their goods* 
And we have ordered that Polypcrchon shall' manage these and all 
other nsatters: and let all be observant to him in what we have -be* 
fore written to you; for those that do contrary to what we have pre- 
scribed, we shall not in the least pardon/* 

This decree being transmitted to all the cities. Polyperchon wrote 
to Argos, find the rest of their cities, commanaing tliem^JTliat all 
that were in any command in the commonwealth under Antipater 
should be forthwith banished; and that some should be put to dcathj 
and their estates confiscated; that, being reduced to extremity^ ibcy 
might be in no capacity to assist Cassander. He sent lettmrs like- 
wise to Olympias, Alexander's mother, who was then in £|Hrus> iiar 
fear of Cassander, to entreat her to return with all speed into Mace* 
donia, and take care and cliarge of Alexander's little son, till be was 
of age, and capable to take upon him the sole management of af- 
fairs. He wro^ moreover to Eumenes, that he would stick to the 
interest of the kings, and not league by any means with Antigomis^ 

• ApriL 

CaUtp. V. nioooRus sicuLus. ao3 

Mii make his cl c^ either to come tftx into MacedoDia, ia order to 
joki with him ia — protectorship of the kidgs, or abide in hmm^ aiid 
bo teoeife both men and money frbrii theih to make war upon Anci* 
^usj who had now openly declared himself a rebel against the 
kcHj^y who woold be sure to restore him the prormce wUch Aiitigo^ 
nds had forced finom him^ and Ukewise all other privileges iind ad^ 
vantages whieh he ever at any time before enjoyed ih Ash. And 
besides, he alledged, that it became Eomenes above all other med lo 
pnMcct the royal family, as consonant to all those demonstrations of 
his loyalty, in his late appearances on the behalf of the kings; and if 
he stood in need of forces, lie himself, together with the kings. Would 
eome over into Asia with tlie whole ankiy. These were the transac* 
I of this year. 


^Bkfperchcn courts Eumenes to assist the kings. Burkenes's prm-^ 
denee amongst the Macedonian captains, Ptoletm^ sends to iks 
capttdns and otheUrs not to assist Eumenes. jintigonus contrives 
lo HdU Eumenes; who marches into Phoniidcu Nicanor do* 
tiites the AtliemafWj and still keeps Munychia, and st^btilefy gets 
the Pirceus. Ordered by Olympias to deliver the Pinetss and 
Munyehia to the /ithe7iians; but he shifts it cff. Altramdn\ 
son of Polyperchofij enters Attica; secretfy corresponds with 
Nicanor, and displeases the Athenians. Phocion's hard usage 
ai his trial in Athens; is condetHned^ and executed. Cassander 
arrives at the Pirteus. Pofyperchon comes against him, but 
returns. Besieges Megaloj}olis; but is there completely baffled^ 
and his elephants destroyed by a stratagem. A sea-fight be* 
tween Clitus and Nicanor. Nicanor beaten. CKtus afterwards 
routed by Nicanor ^ is killed in his flight to Macedonia. Anti* 
ganus goes after Eumenes. Enmenes near losing his army by 
the breach of a dyke in Babylonia. Tfie Greek cities revolt to 
Cassander. The Athenians make peace with him. He kills 

ARCHIPPUS being chief magistrate of Athens, and Quintus iKIius 
and Lucius Papirius Roman consuls, the letters from Polyperchon 
vvcre delivered to Eumenes presently after his release out of the fort; 


in which were contained^ besides what was before declared—Thil 
the kiogs had^ of their bounty, bestowed npon him five hnndrad tih 
lents^ to repair the losses he had lately sustained, and had sent IcttcB 
to the governors and treasurers of Cilicia to pay to him the said fin 
hundred talents, and what other monies he should have oecasioii for, 
either for raising of soldiers, or any other necessary uses. And Alt 
they had ordered a thousand Macedonian Axgyraspides^ with their 
officers, to be observant to him, and readily and cheerfully to scnc 
him upon all occasions, as he that was appointed general, with fdl 
and absolute power and authority, over all Asia. There came lik&> 
wise letters to him from Olympias, by which she earnestly eotreatcd 
him to be assistant both to her and the kings; for that he only re- 
mained the most faithful of all the friends they had^ who was able to 
relieve the desolate state and condition of the king's fiuuily. She 
likewise desired him to advise her— Whether it was better for her to 
remain still in Epirus, (and not trust him who claimed the guardian- 
ship of the kings^ but in truth sought the kingdom), or to return? 

Hereupon Eumenes forthwith wrote to her back again That he 

conceived it most advisable for her at the present time to continue in 
Epirus, till the war was ended: that he himself was resolved to be 
ever faithful and constant in his love and duty towards the kings^ 
and not in the least to adhere to Antigonus, who was aspiring to 
gain the kingdom: and because Alexander's son, by reason of the 
tenderness of his age, and the covetousness of the captains, stood in 
need of help, he looked upon it as his duty to expose himself to the 
utmost hazards for the preservation of the kings. Hereupon he 
forthwith commanded all his soldiers to decamp, and so marched out 
of Cappadocia, having with him about live hundred horse^ and above 
two thousand foot : for he had no time to wait upon the slow march 
of those who had promised to join with him ; because a great army of 
Antigonus (under the command of Mcnander^) was near at hand, 
and it was now no longer safe for him to stay in Cappadocia, being a 
declared enemy of Antigonus: but, though this army came three 
days too late, (and so lost their opportunity), yet they resolved to 
pursue the troops with Eumenes; but, not being able to reach him, 
they returned into Cappadocia: for Eumenes, making long marches, 
presently recovered Mount Taurus, and so got into Cilicia. Here 
Antigencs and Tautamus, the captains of the Argyraspides^ with 
their friends, (in obedience to the letters of the kings}, met Eu- 
menes, after a long and tedious march, and joyfully congratulated 
him upon his unexpected delivemnce out of his great troubles, pro- 
mising to be ready on all occasions at his command. There met 

* Lcaader. 


II likewise about three thousand Argyraspides out of Macedonia, 
Ai great demonstrations of love and afftction. This sudden and 
Host- incredible change was the subject of every body's admiiration; 
len they considered how the kings and Macedonians (a little be- 
■e) badt condemned Eumenes and all his followers to die^ and 
w, having forgot that sentence denounced against him, not only 
nibned him, but promoted him to the highest place of command 
the whole kingdom. And it was not witfiout just cause, that they 
lOcoRsidered the wonderful changes that attended Eumenes should 
thus affected — For who that does but observe the diflferent acci- 
ttB'in the course of man's life, would not be amazed at the various 
US and changes of fortune to and fro, first on one side, then on 
other? Or who, trasting in the present support of a prosperous 
time, would upon that account be so far transported as to forget 
» infirmity of human nature? For every man's life (as disposed 
d ordered by the providence of some one of the gods) has been 
Bquered (as it were) with the reciproctd turns of good and evil in 
ages of the world. So that it is a wonder, that not only what is 
BDge and unaccountable, but that even every thing which happens. 
Mild be surprising and unexpected. Therefore who can suffl- 
iBtly value history? For, by the variety and cliange of aflairs there 
iMsented, a cheek is given to the pride of the fortunate, and allays 
^ grief and misery of the unprosperdus. Which things Eumenes 
m wisely considering, and weighing beforehand the instability of 
tme, he managed his affairs with the more caution and prudence, 
r thinking within himself, that he was but a stranger*, and had no 
;bt to kingly power wad authority, and that the Macedonians (who 
ft now under his command) not long before had judged him to 
i, and that the commanders and captains were all inflamed with 
s heat of ambitions designs, he conceived that in a short time he 
Duld be despised and envied, and at length be brought into danger 
his life: for none are willing to submit to the commands of those 
it they look upon to be their inferiors, nor to be lorded over by 
era who ought rather to be under the commands of others them- 
Ives. Seriously, therefore, pondering these things within himself, 
the first place he refused to accept of the five hundred talents er- 
red him by the kings' letters for the repair of his former losses, 
d refitting of himself with necessaries: for he said — He needed 
>t so large a sum, seeing he pretended to no principality there; 
d that which he now enjoyed was not of his own choice, but he 
is forced by the kings to undertake the present service. To con- 
Lide, he said .That by reason of tlie continual fatigues of war he 

♦ Of Cardia, in the Chersouesus ofTbrace. 

Vol. 2. No. 44, rr 


was so wora out^that he was not able to endure those hardships, and 
retreats from place to place^ any longer, especially because that a 
stranger had no right to command, and by law was excluded fran 
the authority due to be executed by such as were of the same natkm 
with the Macedonians : for he said.^There was represented to him a 
wonderful apparition in his dream, which he judged very neccsaaij 
to discover to them all, because it might (as he conceived) oondnce 
much to the promoting of peace and concord, and the public goodi 
He declared — ^That in his sleep Alexander, the late king, seemed to 
appear to him, (as he was when living), adorned in hb royal robes, 
and sitting on his throf^e, giving out orders to his captains, and (as 
in his health) disposing and managing all the affidrs and conccros of 
the kingdom. '^ Therefore," says he, '^ I am of opinion .^That a 
throne of gold should be made at the charge of the king's treasury, 
in which should be placed the diadem, sceptre, and crown, and dl 
the other ensigns of royalty; and that at spring of day all his captains 
should offer to him sacrifices, and, standing together near the thnme, 
should receive commands in the king's name, as if he were alive at 
the helm of the government.'' All were very well pleased with what 
he said ; and thereupon every thing was presently prepared for Ae 
purpose, for the king's treasury was very rich; and that stately work 
was forthwith finished, and the tlu'one was set up, whereoa wen 
placed the diadem, sceptre, and the arms he used to wear. Then 
was placed an altar with fire upon it, upon which all the captains, 
one after another, cast frankincense, (taken out of a golden casket), 
and other costly sweet odours, and adored Alexander as a god. After 
this were ordered a great number of seats, upon which the captaiDS 
and great commanders sat together, and there consulted and debated 
all the weighty and important affairs. EuiQcnes in the mean time 
carrying liimself with an equal respect and deference in all public 
meetings towards all the captains, and suppling them with fair and 
courteous language, not only avoided the strokes of envy, but therein 
gained all their hearts. By the same artifice (through the prevalency 
of superstition relating to the king) he so elevated the liopes and ex- 
pectations of the whole army, as if some god were to be their gene- 
ral. In like manner he beliaved himself towards the Argyraapides, 
and thcrel)y so gained their favour, that they counted him highly 
worthy to be the protector of the kings. 

Then he picked out the fittest persons from among hb friends, and 
furnished them with great sums of money, and employed them to 
hire soldiers up and down upon large pay. Whereupon some of 
them forthwith went into Pisidia and Lycia, and tlie IxHilering coun- 
tries, and diligently put in execution what they were conunanded. 

Cktp. r. DI0DORU8 SICULUS. 30/ 

Oihen went into Cilicia, and some into Coelosyria and Phoenicia, 
mad othen sailed to the cities in Cyprus. This listing of soldiers 
bciof Doised abroad, and reported what large pay was offered, many 
camm flocking in from the cities of Greece, and enrolled their names 
lor this service; so that in a short time the)' had raised above ten 
1 foot, and two thousand horse, besides the Argyraspides, and 
! who came along with him. 
The forces of Eumenes being tlius on a sudden increased to an 
JMWfJihlf number, Ptolemy arrived with the fleet at Zaphyrium, in 
CUicia, and sent away some commanders to solicit the Argyraspides 
•PC to side with £umenes, whom all the Macedonians had con* 
demned to die. He sent likewise to the governors of the garrison 
in Qoinda*, desiring them not to help Eumenes with any Qnoney, 
sad he would bear them out: but no man regarded what lie said, 
kseaose the kings, and their protector Polyperchon, and Olympias, 
Ac Bother of Alexander, had written to them to be obedient in all 
tbiDgB to Eumenes, as to the commander-in-chief, and general of the 

But of all others, Antigonus was most displeased and uneasy at the 
giovth and advancement of Eumenes; for he looked upon him as 
dK most powerful enemy he had set up against him by Polyperchon, 
! he had deserted the kings : therefore he resolved by some 
to cut him off; to which end he employed one of his 
I, Phiiotas, and delivered to him lettera to the Argyraspides, 
I the rest of the Macedonians, (that sided with Eumenes), and 
I along with him thirty Macedonians (who were crafty and fair- 
I men) with orders to deal with Antigenes and Tautamus, tiie 
us of the Argyraspides, privately and apart by themselves, to 
facroy Eumenes, promising tlicm great rewards, and larger pro- 
riaccs; and that they should likewise apply themselves to their fcl- 
Isv-citiiens and acquaintances amongst the Argyraspides, and by 
kibes draw them to cat uflf Eumenes : but they were not able to 
prevail with any except Tautamus, one of the captains of the Argy- 
faqiides, who being corrupted by bribes, promised not only for him- 
self, but undertook to draw over his colleague Antigenes to this foul 
design: but Antigenes being a prudent and faithful man, not only 
fcfdsed, but prevailed with him that was before corrupted to alter his 
purpose: for he told him — ^That it was more expedient that Eume- 
nes should live than Antigonus: for he being already grown great, 
when he became more powerful, would thrust them all out of their 
govemmcnu, and give tliem to which of his friends he pleased: but 

* Wbrre tbc kiUf(B'riibci{ucr tor .\«:« wan kept.— Stnbo, 1. ii, 7^. 

808 DIODORUS SICULU8. Book Xf^tU. 

as for Eumenes, beiDg but a stranger, he durst not attempt tOjgafai 
the sovereign authority, but woukl be content ^ith bis present ceflK 
inaod, aad to gain their fayouf, would secure to them their inoviiice^ 
and pel haps add more to them. And in^tliis manner were oU the fOO' 
jects against Eumenes frustrated and brought to nought, ':b the 
mean time Pliilotas delivering a letter of Antigonus to thecommanden^ 
written to all the captains and soldiers in general; theArgyraepideseoi 
other Macedonians got together by themselves unknown to Eumenes^ 
and commanded it to be read openly to them : in which were aecv^ 
sations against Eumenes, and advice to the Macedoniana forthwith 
to seize upon him and put him to death, and if they did not, thethe 
would come presently and fall upon them with his whole army, and 
do exemplary justice on them for tlieir disobedience. Upea the 
hearing the contents of these letters, the Macedonians and their cap- 
tains were greatly terrified: for one of tliese two was unavoidaUc^ 
either to fall under the revengeful displeasure of Antigonus by adlier^ 
ing to the kings, or be punished by Polyperchon and the kings te 
observing the commands of Antigonus. While all the soldiers weie 
in these distracted thouglits, Eumenes comes in amongst them^ end 
hearing the letters read, advised them to obey the orders of the kiDg^ 
and not to give any regard to an open declared rebel; and, Iiavisg 
spoken many things pertinent to the present occasion, he not only 
avoided the present imminent danger, but inclined all the soldiers to 
him in a firmer bond of duty and affection than ever th^y weie be* 
fore. And thus this man, who was again on a sudden eveninvahwd 
in insuperable dangers, yet was so wonderfully fortunate, as thefdqf 
to strengthen himself the more. Ordering, therefore, his army Is 
march, he made for Phoenicia, and endeavoured to get ihippipg 
from all sea-towns along as he went, in order to make up a skniag 
navy, that, by having a fleet in Phoenicia, he might be master of the 
sea, and have what forces he pleased, and be able to traDsportPofy* 
perchon at any time with safety out of Macedonia into Asia against 
Antigonus. To this purpose therefore he continued in PhoBDieia. 

While these things were acting, Nicanor (who held Muayohis) 
hearing that Cassander had left Macedonia, and was gone to Antigs- 
uus, and that Polyperchon was suddenly expected with an amy io 
Attica, earnestly solicited the Athenians to stand firm in their afiinc- 
tions to Cassander. But when none would consent to what was de-^ 
sired, but all were rather for the garrison to march away widi all 
speed, at first he over-persuaded the people with fair words to for- 
bear a few days, and that he would afterwards do what should be 
moiit for the good of the city. But after the Athenians had been 


quiet for Adtae days^ secretly in the night he brought soldiers by lit- 
tle and Kttie into Munychia^ so that now he had got in strength suffi- 
cient to defend the place, and to oppote those who designed a siege. 

Hereupon the Athenians, perceiving that Nicanor meant nothing 
10 what he did for the advantage and safety of the city, sent a mes- 
sei^ier to the king and Polyperchon, desiring their assistance, ac- 
oordiog to the purport of their letters, whereby they restored the 
Grecians to their liberties. Then they had frequent assembfies and 
ceosttltations among themselves how to manage the war against 
Nicanor: and, while they were busying their heads about these af- 
fairs, he drew out many of his mercenaries secretly in the nighl^ 
possessed himself of the walls of the Pirseus and the mouth of the 
harbour. The Athenians hereupon were vexed to the heart, to se^ 
hom they were gulled and cheated as to Munychia, and had carelesly 
lost the Piraeus. They sent, therefore, some of the greatest persons 
of quality, and such as were Nicanor's special friends, that is to say, 
Phocion the sou of Phocus, Conon the son of Timotheus, and 
Clearchus the son of Nausicles, as agents to Nicanor, to debate the 
late transactions they had with him, and requiring him to permit them 
to enjoy their laws and liberties, according to the late edict in that 
behalf. To whom he answered ..That they must go to Cassander^ 
for he was commissioned by him to be governor of the garrison, and 
Ittd no power to treat of himself. 

About this time came a letter from Olympias to Nicanor, com- 
Bianding him to deliver Munychia and the PirsBus to the Atlienians. 
He, understanding that the kings and Polyperchon bad recalled 
Olympias into Macedonia, and committed the young son of Alexan- 
der, to her care and tuition, and had restored her to her former royal 
state and dignity, (the same that she enjoyed when Alexander was 
Uviog), merely out of fear, promised to deliver them, but always 
eontrived some colourable excuse or other, and so protracted the 
business. The Athenians in former times had ever a great esteem 
for Olympias, and now purposii^ (in the reality of their aflections) 
to celebrate thosie public honours which were decreed to her, (and 
hoping that the liberties of the city would be by her perfectly re- 
stored to them, and put out of the reach of ail future danger) were 
very jocund and exceedingly pleased. 

In the mean time, the promises of Nicanor not being performed, 
Alexander, the son of Polyperchon, came with an army into Attica. 
The Athenians indeed thought that he came to restore to them 
Munychia and the Pirffius 3 but the event proved the contrary; for he 
seized upon both for the service of the war. For some who had been 
Autipalcr's fViends, (and among them Pllocion), fearing some pu- 


nisfafmenffrom the laws^ met Alexfinder, and^ adTising bim what It 
ioj persuaded him to retain the forts in his own liands^ and not re- 
sture them to the Athenians till the war was ended with ( 
Hereupon Alexander encamped at the Pireas^ and woaki aoC j 
the Athenians to treat with Nicanor; but^ by his separate treatia 
with him^ and secret and private transactions of affiurs between ibesi 
he gave manifest indications of the injary designed the AtheaiBM; 
The people therefore met together in a common assembly^ nd di^ 
posed the present magistrates^ and set up such as most feyowed At 
democracy, and condemned those that favoured the oligarchy, sana 
to death, and others to banishment and confiscation of goods, amoagN 
whom Phocton was one, who had the chief comBsand in the tine «f 

These being all forced out of the city, fled to Alexander the aon 
of Polyperchon, and endeavoured to engage his help for their pre- 
servation. Alexander kindly received them, and wrote on their ke>- 
Iialf to his father, to protect Phocion and his friends, as those thai 
favoured his interest, and engaged readily to afford tlieir assBtaoce 
in all hb concerns: the Athenians likewise sent an embassy toPcrif* 
perchon, to accuse Piiocion, and to solicit for tlie restitution of M»- 
nychia, and the restoring them to their antient laws and libertiei; 
Polyperchon indeed had a very great desire to retain the Piraeus, be- 
cause that port might be of weighty concern and importance in the 
carrying on of the war, but was ashamed to act contrary to the edict 
divulged by himself; and, fearing lest the Grecians should desert 
him if he dealt so basely with that city, which was the metropoKs, 
be changed^ his mind. Having therefore heard the ai^bassadors, he 
courteously dismissed those from the Athenians with a gracious an- 
swer, but seized upon Phocion and all his followers, and sent them 
bound to Athens, granting power to the people either to pardon 
them, or put them to death: whereupon, a general assembly being 
called in Athens, judgment of death was resolved upon Phocion and 
the rest that were accused : this was carried on by thos^ who had 
been banished under Antipater, and others tl)at favoured not that go* 
vcrnmcnt; both these strongly urged to have them put to death. 

The sum of the accusation was this.— .That after the Lamian war, 
they endeavoured for the most part to enslave their country, and to 
abolish the democracy, and the antient lau^. Time being allotted ' 
to the accused to plead their cause, Phocion began to speak for him- 
self; but the people tumultuously cried out against all that he said, 
and rejected his defence, so that the accused knew not what course 
to take. When the tumult ceased, Piiocion began agaiu to si)eak« 
whereupon the wliolc muUitude set up a shout, oD purpose lluit what 


be said sbould not be heard: for the commonalty (having been re- 
cently excluded from any share in the administration of the govern- 
ment^ and now lately restored to theif right beyond all expectation) 
bore an inveterate hatred against those who deprived the citizens 
of their bws and liberties. 

While Phocion was thus overborne, and even in a dcsparate con- 
dition, struggling to preserve his life, those that were next to him 
mderstood the justice and equity of his cause^ but those at a distance 
could hear nothing for the noise and clamour that was made by the 
tunukuous rabble, but only discerned the various trembling mo- 
tions of his body, occasioned by the inevitable danger that seemed to 
dureaten him. At length Phocion, in despair of his own life, cried 
cut aloud, desiring the'm to condemn him to die, but to spare the 

But the common people being fierce and inexorable, some of 
Fhocion's friends stood up to make his defence. Hereupon the 
people were quiet for awhile, and heard what they said at first; but 
when they proceeded to urge arguments in support of his innocencCt 
they were rejected with tumultuous and contradicting clamours: at 
length being all condemned by the unanimous voice of the people, 
they were carried away to the gaol, there to be executed, and were 
ioUoved by many honest and sober men, who bewailed their condi- 
tion, and the greatness of their misery : for upon serious consideration 
<tf &e inconstancy of every man's fortune, it terrified many to see that 
magistrates and persons of eminent quality, and men that had shewed 
many acts of kindness in the course of their lives, should neither 
have liberty to plead for themselves, nor otherwise enjoy the benefit 
of law. But many of the rabble being incensed against Phocion un- 
mercifully, even rent his heart in pieces with scoi& and scorns, and 
Utterly upbraided him with the misery of his present condition. For 
hatred smothered towards men while in prosperity, when it breaks 
forth with anger against them in time of their adversity, becomes 
altogether savage and implacable. Being therefore all put to death 
(according to the custom of the country) by drinking a potion of hem- 
lock, all their bodies were cast forth unburied, out of the bounds and 
limits of Attica: and this was the end of Phocion, and others who 
sufiered the same calamity with hiuu 

After this, Cassander having got five*and-thirty long ships and 
four thousand men, sailed into the Pirieus, and being received by 
Nicanor, governor of the fort, possessed himself of the PiraBUS and 
the harbour: but Nlcanor kept Munychia himself, with a force suf- 
ficient to defend the place. At this time Polyperchon and the kings 
Uy in Phocis; where, being informed of Cassauder's having lauded 

312 DIODORUS sicuLUS. Book JiPHK 

at the PirsBus^ Polyperchon inarched into Attica, and eneaoiped iic« 
the Pir»us: he had with him twenty thousand Macedonian fiiot^aiid^ 
four thousand confederates^ a thousand horse, and sixty-fite dc» 
pbants; he resolved tlierefore to besiege Cassander: but becane 
provisions were scarce, and the siege was likely to be long and tedious^ 
he was forced to leave so many of the soldiers in Attica as the oaoBtry 
was able to sustain, under the command of Alexander, and he him* 
self marched into Peloponnesus with the greater part of theamifytD 
reduce the Mcgalopolitans to tlie obedience of the kings; for they^ 
being for an oligarchy, sided with Cassander. While PolypcKboa 
was busied in these affairs, Cassander sailed with his fleet fe» the 
^geans, and brought them in to join with him; but the SalamiMM 
(who were disaffected) he closdy besieged, and being well fiiroidiedr 
both with men and arms, he assaulted them several days together, 
and reduced them to very great extremities: but when the city. was. 
' near being taken by storm, Polyperchon sent a consideraUe force,^ 
both by sea and land, to attack the besiegers; at whose approach 
Cassander being affrighted, be raised the siege, and sailed back to 
the Eirttus. Then Polyperchon passed over to Peloponnetut, to 
settle matters there for the service and advantage of the kings. 
Coming there he called a senate, and spoke to them concerning their 
joining with him as confederates in the war; he sent likewise ( 
missioners to the cities with orders to put to death them that ^ 
created magistrates in the oligarchy by Antipater, and to restore the 
people to their antient laws. 

Many obeyed the order, so that while slaughters and baiuthiiieiila 
filled the cities, they that favoured Antipater's party were mined amd 
destroyed; and the democratical governments being restored totfaenr 
antient laws, all joined with Polyperchon. The Mcgalopolitans only 
kept firm to Cassander, therefore he determined to besiege their cHy^ 
The Mcgalopolitans liearing what was designed by PolyperdiOD» 
ordered by a public decree that every thing should be brought into 
the city that was then in the fields: then taking an account of their 
strength, they found that in antient citizens, strangers, and servants^ 
they were in number fifteen thousand who were able to bear arms; 
they forthwith therefore formed some into regiments, others they 
appointed to work in the fortifications, and to some were allotted the 
care and charge of guarding the walls; so that at one and the tame 
time some were employed in drawing a deep trench round the city, 
some carrying earth out of the fields, and others repairing and making 
up the breaches in the walls; others hammering of arms, and othera 
were busy in making darts and artillery; so that the dangers which 
threatened, and the forwardness of the inhabitants, put the whole 


city into action : for tl^e greatness of the; king's army, and the wonder- 
ful strength of the elepliants that attended them, was noised abroad 
in every place. And now all things were ready and prepared, when 
Polyperchon approached with his army, and encamped near the city, 
dividing his forces. into two camps, one of Macedonians and another 
of confederates; and then brings wooden towers to the walls, of that 
height as to overtop them ; on which towers men were placed with 
all sorts of weapon^, and with these he drove them off who were placed 
CD the ramparts. 

In the mean time the walls being undermined, and the props and 
supporters set on fire, three of the largest towers were destroyed, with 
the ruin of the like number of turrets placed between them* This 
great and sudden destruction caused the Macedonians to set up a 
shout, and the strangeness of the thing amazed the besieged : and 
now the Macedonians rush through the breach into the city, and the 
Megalopolitans, before in parties, now all together (having the ad- 
vantage of the difficulty of the place, occasioned by the rubbish) made 
up to one part, and bravely bore the brunt of the enemy's attack, and 
beat them off: then they cast up another work of earth to guard the 
breach I and working night and day without intermission, raised ano- 
ther wall between them and the enemy, which was presently com- 
pleted; for being furnished with everything that was necessary, and 
having many hands at work, the Megalopolitans soon repaired the 
damage sustai ned. As for those that assailed thjsm from their wooden 
towers, they annoyed them with their engines of artillery, and with 
darts and stones out of bows and slings, galled and wounded many of 
their enemies. After many were killed and wounded on both sides, 
till night approaching, Polyperchon sounded a retreat, and drew off 
his men into the camp. 

The next day he removed the rubbish before the breach, to make way 
for the elephants, for he thought by the strength of these creatures to 
break through into the city: but the Megalopolitans, by the help and 
conduct of Damidcs, (who in the wars under Alexander had learnt by 
experience the nature and use of the elephants), altogether baffled the 
enemy: for he, makiqg use of his own reason and industry against 
the strength and violence of the beasts, made their strong bodies use- 
less. For in a great number of planks he drove sharp spikes, and 
then strewed them here and there in deep trenches covered with 
earth, so as that the points of the spikes might not be seen, and thus 
over these he left tlie passage into the city : but he suffered none of 
the soldiers to stand in front, but placed a great number of darters 
and archers, and engines of artillery in the flank, 

Polyperchon therefore having cleared ihe place, and now approach* 
Vol. 1. No. -W, s& 


iDg with the throog of iiis elephants, an unexpected misfortune befel 
them : for none appearing in front to oppose them, the Indians pressed 
them forward to make their way into the city, who, by the great 
weight of their bodies pressed down upon the spikes, so that their 
feet being wounded, and even pierced through, they were so foundered 
that they were neither able to go forward nor return back : and besides, 
showers of all sorts of darts and arrows being poured upon them by 
the flankers, some of the Indians were killed, and others so woonded 
that they were disabled from further service. 

In* the mean time the elephants (through the multitude of darts, 
and the strange and unusual wounds by the spikes) were so cruelly 
tormented that they forced back upon their own men, and trod many 
under foot. At length the sMongest and most formidable aaumgst 
them fell down, others became altogether unserviceable, and some 
killed many of ihcir own men. 

Upon this success the Megalopolitans were much encouraged; but 
Polyperchon wished he had never undertaken the siege; and as he 
could stay no longer there, he left part of his army to carry it on, and . 
betook himself to more urgent affairs. Then he sent off Clitus the 
admiral, with the fleet, commanding him to lie upon the coasts of 
the Hellespont, to stop the passage of the forces put of Asia into 
Europe, and to join with Aridasus, who had fled to the city of the 
Ganians, being an enemy to Antigonus. After he had passed over 
the Hel1esi)ont, and taken in the cities of the Propontis, he atreogtb- 
ened his army with the forces of Aridaeus. Nicanor, the governor 
of Munychia, on the other side, being sent off with the whole fleet 
by Cassander, sailed to those parts where Clitus lay: he joined like* 
wise with the navy of Antigonus, so that he had a fleet of above t 
hundred sail. 

Hereupon there was a fight at sea near Byzantium*, in which Cli- 
tus was conqueror, and sunk seventeen of the enemy's ships, aod.^ 
took no less than forty, together with all their men. The rest got 
into the haven of Chalccdon. Clitus being thus successful, imagined, 
that on account of this great loss, the enemy durst not again engage 
at sea. 

But Antigonus having intelligence of this defeat of the fleet, by his 
industry and admirable conduct, quickly repaired it: for having sent 
for several t^*ansport ships in the night, from the Byzantines, in which 
he put darters, slingers, and other light-armed men, sufficient for the 
])resent design, and in the night transported them to the other side; 
who, attacking the enemy at land before day, (who had left their 
bhi|)s, uiiJ were there encamped), put Clitus and his men into great 

• Now Cuu»tiuitiDopIc. 


lir And confusioo^ who in that sudden fear and amazement leaped 
their vessels, so that through the incumbrance of their luggage, 
the multitude of their prisoners^ there was a great tumult an(^ 

n the mean time Antigonus had fitted out some long ships, and 
med them with many of his stoutest foot soldiers, and bid them 
Uy attack the enemy, for they were sure to be conquerors. Here- 

they came up with Nicanor in the night, and about break of 
fell, suddenly upon the enemy, still in confusion, and at the very 
; charge put them to flight; some of the enemy's ships they broke 
pieces with the beaks of their own, and brushed o£F the oars of 
srs; some they gained without fighting, being delivered up by 
men on board. At length all the rest (except the admiral's 
i) fell into their hands. Clitus forsook his ship, and got ashore, 
igoing to have preserved himself by getting into Macedonia; 

in his way falling amongst some of Lysimachus's soldiers, he 

1 slain, 

Intigonus's reputation for skill and prudence in the management 
nartial aflTairs, was much advanced by this remarkable victory, 
reupon he was very earnest and intent to b^ master at sea, and 
thout the least doubt of the matter) to gain the sovereignty of 
a. To this end he chose out of his whole army, twenty thousand 
t, and four thousand horse, of the most active men, and marched 
raids Cilicia, to destroy Eumenes before he grew too strong. But 
BQenes knowing the hot temper of Antigonus, marched into Phoe- 
n, to regain it for the kings, then unjustly detained from them by 
demy : but not having an opportunity to do what he designed, he 
i Phoenicia, and marched with his army through Ccelosyria, to 
: into the higher provinces. Afterwards he lost some of his men 
the river Tigris, by an attack upon him in the night, by some of 
\ inhabitants. In the like manner he was fallen upon in the pro- 
ice of Babylon, by Seleucus, near the river Euphrates, and was in 
lat danger to have lost all his army; where by the br^ch of a dike 
. whole camp was very near being overflowed and drowned. But 
ting his wits at work he fled to a high bank of earth, and diverting 
5 water another way, preserved both himself and his army. 
And so beyond his expectation he escaped Seleucus, and got into 
rsia with fifteen thousand foot, and thirteen hundred* horse. Ha- 
\g refreshed his soldiers after all their toils and labours, he sent to 
; governors and captains of the higher provinces to furnish him 
th more men and money. Arid in this state were the affairs of Asia 
is year, 

* Thre« thousand in tbe oiArgiTu 

3l6 DioooRUS sicuLUS. Book XFIIL 

But as for Europe, after the losses and misfortunes of PolTperchon 
at Megalopolis, many of the Greek cities revolted from the kings to 
^assander. And because the Athenians could not get rid of the gar- 
rison either by the help of Polyperchon or Olympias^ one of the most 
eminent citizens made bold to say, in the public assembly .^That it 
was for the interest of the city to close with Cassander. At first there 
was a great hurly-burly, some being for and others against what was 
said : but the advantages being more calmly debated and considered, 
by common consent it was at length agreed — That peace should be 
made with Cassander, upon such conditions as could be obtained by 
their ambasTsadors. In pursuance whereof (after some meedngs) 
these were the terms agreed upon — ^That the Athenians should 
quietly enjoy the city, the territory, and all the profits, together wiih 
the shipping and all other things, and should for the future be friends 
and confederates with Cassander; but that Cassander should for tbe 
present hold Munychia till the war was ended with the kings: and 
that the commonwealth should pay a tribute of ten minas; and that 
an Athenian should be constituted protector and guardian of the ci^, 
whoever Cassander pleased. Whereupon Demetrius the Phalerian 
was chosen; who being invested with tlie office, kept the city inpefw 
feet peace, and behaved very obligingly towards all the citizens. 

After this Nicanor brought his fleet into the Ptrseus, adorned with 
the beaks of ships gained in the late victory; on account of whidi 
success he was at first highly honoured by Cassander, but afterwarb 
perceiving that he grew proud and haughty, and still detained Ae 
fort of Munychia with his own soldiers, he suspected he intended to 
revolt, and therefore laid a trap for him, and cut him off* Then hto 
marched into Macedonia, where many of the inhabitants revolted to 
him: many likewise of the Greek cities were inclined to join with 
Cassander*. For Polyperchon appeared to be slothful and careless 
in managing the affairs both of the kingdom and the allies. Cis^ 
sander, on the other hand, behaved with great candour towiards allj 
and approved himself industrious in the management of publjc affiiin^ 
so that he gained many who countenanced him in his seeking to obtain 
the supreme authority. 

But as Agathocles became tyrant of Syracuse the following year^ 
we shall, as we designed at the beginning, put an end to this bookj 
and begin the next with the advance of Agathocles to the throne, and 
go on with tbe affairs proper and pertinent to our history. 
* Antiptter in the Greeks bat erroncoai. 






IT is an old sayings (brought down to us by tradition) — Tliat none 
evcrtum dcnaocracies, but men that overtop others in power and in* ' 
terest« For which reason some cities are always jealous of such of 
their fellow-citizens as grow great and powerful^ and therefocc do 
what they can to depress them : for when men are in power^ the oesX 
«tep Is to domineer over their country; and with those tliat (through 
Ae greatness of their interest above others) have grounds to expect 
the sovereign authority^ it is very difficult to be free from a desire 
of monarchy : for it is very natural for those that are ambitious^ 
«^en they liave much^ to thirst after more^ and never set bounds tp 
their insatiable ambition. 

The Athenians therefore^ upon this very account, made a law, 
wbibh they called Ostracism^ for the banishing such as grew grea$ 
amongst them; not so much to punish them for any fault they had 
committed, but to prevent the mischief and prejudice to their coun- 
try, which, by their power and interest, they were in a capacity to 
bring upon it: for they remembered (as it were an oracle) what 
Solon had formerly said, who, foretelling the tyranny of Pisistratus, 
composed this elegiac -i.. 

A city by great persons is o'erlhrown. 
And fools beneath a monarchy do groan. 

Of all other places, Sicily was most infected with this desire of 
monarchy, before the Romans reduced it into the form of a province: 
for the cities, deceived by the flattery of the orators, advanced incon- 
siderable men to that height, that tliey became absolute lords over 
the deluded multitude. 

818 DiODORUS sicuLUS. Book XIX. 

But the advancement of Agathocles to be prince of Syracuse ii^ 
above all others^ the most singular and remarkable: for he began at 
first in very mean and unlikely circumstances^ but at last he involved 
not only Syracuse^ but all Sicily, and Libya itself^ in blood and 
slaughter. He was so mean and low in the world, in his origin^ that 
he followed the trade of a potter; from whence he rose to that height 
of power and cruelty, that he lorded over the greatest and richest 
island in the world, and for some time gained the greatest part of 
Africa, and some parts of Italy, and filled the cities of Sicily with . 
butcheries and oppressions. None of the tyrants that ever were be- 
fore him committed the like villanies, or exercised such barbaroui 
cruelties upon their subjects : for, as for his own kindred, he put them 
all to death, root and branch; and he so plagued the cities, that he 
sometimes butchered all that were at men and women's estate, and 
would cut the throats of multitudes of poor innocents for the faults 
of a few, without any difference or distinction, and then presently 
would murder whole cities, men, women, and children. 

But because this book, with others that follow, comprehend the 
' tyranny of Agathocles, omitting any further preface relating there* 
unto, we shall now connect things coherent with those that were be- 
fore related, first allotting to every thing we treat of its ^ut and pro- 
per time. 

In the preceding eighteen books, wc have endeavoured to set fbrtl^ 
whatever was done in the known parts of the world, from the hegjom 
ning of time, to the year next l>efore the reign of Agathocletj to 
which time, from the taking of Troy, are computed eight hundred 
and sixty-six years. 

In this book, beginning with the first of his reign, we shall end 
with the battle fought by Agathocles with the CarthaginianSj con* 
taining an account of affairs for the space of seven years. 

CSlqi. /. DIO: RU8 8ICULI 


/igaikocles^i parentage and educaiian: Mm rhk: hU straiagemsTx 

hi$ bloody maseacre ai Syr acme. He gains the sovereign 

' power. The e^faire of Italy. Ofynqriae returns into 3faee* 

- donia by Polyperchon^s means. ThearmksrevoUtoher: Her 

- entelties. She murders Eurydice^ and Aridmus^ her huAand. 
jffbirs in Asia. Kumenes and Seleueus^ Eitsnenes joined by 
many of the captains. The number of their forces. He 

' tomes to Susa. Attains and others imprisoned by Aniigonus 
in a strong castle; seeking to escegpe, are afterwards besieged, 

AT the time when Demogenes niled as chief magistrtte at Athens, 
and when Lucius Plotius and Manius Fulbtns were Roman consols, 
Agatbocles became tyrant of Syracuse. That things as they were 
aeverally done may be more <^learly and distinctly understood^ we 
afadl premise a few things concerning thb prince. 

Ccninus of Hhegium, being banished from hi» country^ dwelt at 
Tliermae in Sicily^ which city was then in the hands of the Cartha- 
ginians. This man married a woman of that place, whoj when she 
was big with child, used often to be troubled with strange dreams:^ 
being therefore much perplexed in his^mind concerning this embrie^ 
he intrusted this afiair with some de\'out Carttmginians, who were 
then going to Delphos, and desired them to inquire of the oracle 
concerning this child; ^ wlio faithfully performing what they were en- 

joinedj the oracle gave this answer That that chikt would brin^; 

dreadful calamities upon the Carthaginians and all Sicily. The 
fiither, being terrified at this predictioni exposed the child in the 
open fields, and left it with some to watch and observe its end. 
After several days^ it still continued alive, and the guard left with it 
growing remiss and careless, the mother in the mean time stole 
tiie child away in the night, but durst not bring it back to her own 
house, for fear of her husband; but she intrusted it with her bro- 
ther Heraclides, and called it Agathocles, after the name of her 
own father. 

Where being brought up, he grew very beautiful, and of stren^h 
of body above what w^s usual at his age. When he came to be se- 
ven years old, Carsinus was invited by Heraclides to sacrifice^^ and 

* To a fcust at a sacrifice. 


there seeing Agathocle? playing with some other children aboat the ' 
same age^ he greatly admired both his strength and beauty; and 
ivhen his wife told him — ^That the child which he so exposed, if be 
had been brought up, would have proved as manly a chiM as that be 
then saw, he answered, that he was sorry for what be had done, and 
then fell a- weeping: whereupon the woman, perceiving that what she 
bad done would be very pleasing to her husband, discovered to him 
the truth of the whole matter; whereat he was mightily pleased^aod 
took away his son, and, out of fear of the Carthaginians, renoved 
with all his family to Syracuse : but, being but a poor man, he taught 
bis son, then a child, the potter's trade : at which time TimoIeoB the 
Corinthian, having routed the Carthaginians at the river Cremissss, 
made all free of the city that would come in to him, amongst whooi 
Carsinus (with Agathocles) were enrolled as citizens; and Caniaiis 
died a little time after* 

The mother of Agathocles had in a certain place set up ber aon'ii 
statue in stone, upon which a swarm of bees fastened, and began to 
make their wax- combs upon the hips of the statue: wbicb remark- 
able circumstance being related to those who apply themselves to 

studies of that kind, all unanimously agreed ^That when he came 

to be a man, he would be famous; which happened accordingly: for 
I>emas,a nobleman of Syracuse, falling in love with Agathocles, first 
supplied him liberally with every thing he had occasion for, so that 
he began in some measure to taste of plenty; afterwards Denias> be- 
ing created general of the Agrigentines, advanced him to be a cdo-^ 
nel, in the room of one that was then lately dead. He was indeed 
very remarkable and of great esteem before he was an officer, vpmi 
account of the strength of his body; for in the time of training and 
military exercise, he bore so great a weight of armour, and carried 
such mighty weapons, as no other man was able to bear. But now» 
since he was made a military tribune, his fame spread abroad much 
more than it did before; for he was eager to fight, daring in action, 
and bold, nay, impudent in his harangues to the people. Deaas 
afterwards fell sick, and died; and, having left all his estate to his 
wife, Agathocles married her, and so was esteemed one of the richest 
of the citizens. 

Afterwards, the Crotonians being besieged by the Brutii, the Sy« 
racusans sent a great army to their relief, under the command of 
Antander, the brother of Agathocles, and others; but the sovereign 
command and chief management of the afiiiir was committed to 
Ilcraclidcs and Sosistratus, men who employed themselves all their 
lives long In assassinations, murders, and all kinds of wickedness 


and debauchery; which the book^ next preceding this hath particu- 
larly set forth* With those in this expedition (by a decree of the 
people) was jbined AgathocleSi who was then a colonel; and^ though 
he had remarkably approved his valour against the barbarians, yet he 
was so envied by Sosistratus, that he altogether disregarded him, 
not allowing him the honour due to his demerits : at which he was 
so exasperated, that he accused Sosistratus and his followers to the 
people, as having designs to advance himself to the monarchy. But 
the Syracusans giving no regard to those accusations, Sosistratus, 
. after his return from Crotona, became supreme and absolute lord of 
his country. 

Agathocles being incensed against him, first (with those that sided 
with him) remained in Italy, and endeavoured to possess himself of 
Ciotona; but, failing in his design, with some few along with him, 
he escaped to Tarentum, where he was entertained, and taken into 
pay; but, committing many rash and inconsiderate acts, he began to 
be suspected of some intended inuovation, and thereupon his com« 
mission was taken from him; upon which he got together the exiles 
of Italy, and relieved them of Rliegium, who were then besieged by 
Heraclides and Sosistratus. Afterwards, when the monarchy was 
abrogated at Syracuse, and Sosistratus was expelled out of the city, 
he returned into his country. And in regard at that time many of 
the nobility who were for an oligi^chy (to the number of six hundred 
of the greatest persons of quality) were, together with the magis- 
trates, thrust out of the city, a war broke out between, the exiles and 
those that were for a democracy, and the Carthaginians sided with 
Sosistratus and his exiles : hereupon there were daily skirmishes and 
drawing up of armies one against another, in which Agathocles, acting 
sometimes as a private soldier, and at others as a commander, gained 
the reputation both of valour and policy; for always upon every op* 
portunity he invented some stratagem or other which proved advan- 
tageous to his party; amongst which there was one thing especially 
to be remembered. 

The Syracusans had encamped near to Gela, and at that time in 
the night he broke into the city with a thousand armed men, who 
were presently met by Sosistratus, with a strong and well-ordered 
party, who forced them that had entered back, and killed three hun- 
dred of them : the rest, looking upon themselves all as lost, endea- 
voured to get out at a sally-port, aiid were, beyond ail hope and ex- 
pectation, freed from their present imminent danger by Agathocles: 

* Nothing ii stid of them iu the precediiig book^ therefore there must be tome mit- 
tmkc or oaiiiiion. Rhodomtonus thinks liiere was either another book betw.eoa tbtso, tr 
a want of what was to hare beoa iaierted In the precoding book,— See hu notei. 

Vol. 2. No. 44. it 


for he fought with great Talour and resolutton at the head of his 
men, and received seven wounds; and> when he was even nsady to 
fiftint^ (through loss of blood) and the enemy bearing down upon 
him, he commanded the trumpeters to sound a charge at both parts 
of the walls; which being presently done, those who came to force 
out those that had entered, could not discern the truth of the thing, 
because of the darkness of the night; and therefore^ belteidng that 
another party of the Syracusans had broken in at both places, they 
made a haft, and pursued no farther: and so, being dinded into t|ro 
parts, at the sound of the trumpets, they forthwith ran together to 
defend thcr walls. In the mean time Agathocles, with his soldiers^ 
having thus made room for themselves, got safe to the trenches; and 
thus, having deluded the enemy, he not only wonderfully preserved 
his own men that first entered^ but seven hundred more who came in 
to his assistance. 

After this, Acestorides the Corinthian being created general at 
Syracuse^ Agathocles was thought to aspire tb the monarchy for his 
good service; but he avoided t)ie danger that hung over his head 
upon that account: for Acestorides (not willing to cut him ofl^ for 
fear of a tumult) commanded him to depart the city^ and ordered 
some to kill him in the night as he was making away. But Agatho- 
cles, conceiving what the general was plotting against hinftj jiAed 
out one of the young men that was very like himself^ both in stature 
and feature, and delivered to him his horse, arms^ and garmentSi 
and by this means subtilely deceived those who were sent out to be 
his murderers) but he himself slinked away in bye paths^ in a poor 
ragged coat; and his pursuers, by the arms and other signs^ conjee- 
taring that the other was Agathocles, (the darkness of the aigfat not 
permitting a perfect discovery), perpetrated indeed the murder^ hut 
missed the person. 

Afterwards, the Syracusans having rc-admitted the exiles that were 
driven out of the city with Sosistratus, and having made peace with 
the Carthaginians, Agathocles himself, now an exile, raised an iinny 
of his own in the heart of the country, at which not only the citi- 
zens, but the Carthaginians were much aSnghted^ and therefoie 
he was courted to return into his own country; and when he came, 
being conducted into the temple of Ceres by the citizens, be there 
swore tiuit he would do nothing to the prejudice of the democracy. 

I^utting on therefore a cloak of dissimulatioui as if he would pro- 
tect the democracy, and having deceived the people by divers tricks 
and devices, he was made general and conservator of the peace, till 
all matters siiould be appeased amongst the exiles that were retnraed 
to the city : for every company and fraternity were divided into aany 


factions, and very great heart-burnings there were between private 
and particular persons: but the senate of six hundred, that was ap- 
pointed to govern the city after an oligarchy, was most fierce against 
Agathocles's party; for the members of this assembly were such as 
ware the richest and of the best quality among the Syracusans. 

However, Agathocles, who now affected the sovereignty, gained 
many opportunities for the accomplishing of his designs : for he had 
not only the command of an army as generalj but news being brought 
that there was an insurrection in the interior of the country at Erbita, 
he gained a further opportunity to increase his army, And raise wliat 
men he pleased without suspicion. Under colour, therefore, of his 
expedition to Erbita, he raised men out of Morgantium and <rtber 
cities in the heart of the country, together with those that had for- 
merly served him in the wars against the Carthaginians; for all these 
had a great respect for Agathocles, upon the account of the many 
instances of his kindness towards them, throughout the whole war. 
On the other hand they hated the six hundred, who had been a part 
of the oligarchy in Syracuse, and no less abhorred the people who 
forced them into obedience. Tliere were three thousand of them 
that were thus ready with heart and hand to overturn the democracy: 
To these he joined some of the citizens, who by reason of their po- 
verty envied the power and pomp of the great ones. 

When every thing was ready, he ordered the soldiers to meet him 
at spring of day, in a body, atTimoleontium^; and he himself in the 
mean time sent for Pisarchus and Decles, who seemed to be the most 
leading men among the six hundred, pretending to discourse with 
them concerning the public good: when they came to him, accom- 
panied with forty of their friends, he pretended he was to be betrayed 
by them, and thereupon seized them all, and accused them to the 
soldiers, declaring, that for his love to the people, he was likely to be 
hurried away to destruction by the six hundred, and sadly bewailed 
bis miserable state and condition ; at which all the soldiers were so 
enraged that jthcy cried out, that revenge should be presently taken, 
without any further delay, upon the authors of such injustice: upon 
which he commanded the trumpets to sound a charge, and ordered 
his soldiers to kill those that were the ring-leaders of the mischief, 
and spoil and plunder the six hundred, and all those that sided with 
them, of all their goods and estates. 

Hereupon all being now eagerly set upon ravage and spoil, the 
whole city was filled with horror and confusion; for the most inno- 
cent of the citizens, not dreaming of -any massacre designed against 
them, ran out of their houses into the streets, to learn the cause of 

• Xrar SvrKCusr, 


the uproar; whereupon the soldiers^ partly through their covetous- 
ness to enrich thtmselves, and partly through madness and ngCt fell 
upon the naked people (hat (through ignorance) had no arou to de- 
fend themselves, and put them all to the sword. For the soldiers 
having secured all the narrow lanes and passes in the city, the citizens 
were inhumanly murdered^ some w their houses^ and others in the 
streets^ and many (altogether innocent, not accused of tlie least fiault) 
weire knocked on the head wliile they were asking the reason why 
they were to be killed. For the common soldiers (having now all ia 
their hands) made no difference betwixt friend and foe j but be was 
sure to be reputed an enemy where most was to be gotten by his 
fall; so tliat then the city was filled with violence, murders, alangh* 
ters, and all kinds of wickedness: for some, out of former grudges 
spared not to load those they before hated with all sorts of disgrace^ 
having now full sway to do whatever they pleased; others judging k 
an act of prudence to enrich themselves by the massacre of them that 
were rich, spared no means, nor omitted any contrivance to dcatraj 
them. For some broke down the gates of the out-courts; otheis, hj 
ladders ascended the house tops; and some fought with them that 
defended themselves from the roofs of the houses. Nay, there was 
no safety even to them who fled to the temples under the shelter of 
the gods; but piety towards the gods was crushed and borne dowo 
by the cruelty of men : and these things Greeks against Greeks, in 
their own country, and kindred against kindred in a time of peace, 
without any regard either to the laws of nature, or leagues, or reve- 
rence to the gods, dared thus audaciously to commit: upon which ' 
account not only friends, but even enemies themselves, and everf 
sober man, could not but pity the miserable condition of these dis- 
tressed people. All the gates were shut up, and above foor thousaod 
were killed in one day, for no other fault but that they were in 
greater esteem than others: of those that endeavoured to fly, sone 
in running to get out of the gates were laid hold on, others who cast 
themselves over the walls, escaped to the next towns. Some, tfarDogh 
fear and inconsiderateness leaped off the walls, and broke their 
necks. After all there were thrust out of the city, as exiles, above 
six thousaod, of whom the greatest part fled to Agrigcntum, ^where 
they were received and entertained with that humanity as was agree- 
able to their present condition. But those of Agatbocles's faction 
(who spent the whole day in butchering of the citizens) were not 
sparing in committing their rage and villanies upon the women, but 
thought they should be revenged upon them that escaped death, if 
they could l)ut abuse their kindred and relations, in the most vile and 
bcHNtly manner imaginable: for that it was very reasonable to think 



that It HTMld be more Intter than death itself to hmbands and paieotB 
to think of the abUMS of their wives, and the ratifhings of their 
danghteti: httt from hence we nhst Ibibear oooiposing a tniged|^as 
is verj tisual with other writers, especially to stir tip eompassion to- 
wards them that are inTolved in such horrible soKrings; because 
none will eaqpect an express accoont of efery particnfaur, when the 
whole is so ready and clear to be understood. For they that durst 
impodently at mtd-day murder innocents in the open streets and 
nuurfcet-place, havfeno need of a writer to set fiMtii what they did in 
Ae houses io the night, aod how they behaved towards mves and - 
young maids then in the poiirer of their enemies^ without siny protec- 
tion or defence. 

But Agathoeles, after he had glutted Un^selfiRddi the slaujghter of 
tiie citilBens two whole days, brought together all the prisoners, and 
released Dinocrates, on account of an oh) friendship with himr hut 
as to the rest, such as were his greatest enemies he put to death, 
and banished the others. Then catling a common assembly, he 
accused die six hundred, and those who had favoured the oligarchy, 
declaring that he would purge the city of all those who idfi^cted m 
^monarchy, and 'restore the people to perfect liberty; and that he 
would henceforth stand upon equal ground with them all, and live 
a private life, free from farther cares and toils : upon saying of which 
he threw away his general's coat, and put on a jacket, and so went 
' hb way, making a show of himself as one of the common people. 
* He did this dissembUngly to act the part of a commoner; being in 
Ac mean time very well assured that diere were uMiny of his brethren 
in iniquity in the assembly, who would never suffer the gendralship 
to devolve on any other. 

Hereupon those that had robbed the oiq>ressed people of their 
goods, immediately cried out, and with a loud vdce wished him not 
I to desert them, but to take upon him the entire and absolute manage- 
' mentofallaffiiirs. At first he appeared to be very shy; but being 
afterwards more earnestly pressed l>y the multitude, he told them he 
vras wniiag to accept of the chief command -as general, provided 
he should not be joined with any other colleague, for he should 
never be willing to be accountable (as the law then was) for the 
miscarriages and irregularities of those that should be joined with 
him in commission. Hereupon^ the people having agn^ that the 
whole power should be in him alone, tbeyvoted him general, with 
full and absolute authority; so that for the future he plainly 
acted the part of a monarch, and managed the affiiirs of the whole 
city. , 

The Syracusaos, ai| yet tame and quiet, some curbed by fear. 


and others kept down by force^ durst not discover (as a thing fiin 
and to no purpose) the heart-burnings that were aaiODg then. 

But many of the poorer sort, and those that were in debr, were 
much pleased with this revolution: for Agathocles had promised in 
the senate that all former debts should be remitted and made void, 
and that lands should be allotted and shared out t» the poor.. 

After lie had finished these things, he ordered that none tow tbt 
future should be killed or otherwise abused. But on the cootniy^ 
changing bis former course, be carried himself with a grett deal of 
mildness towards the people, encouraging many with lewaids, and 
not a few with large promises, and courting all with smooth wofdsy 
he not a little ingratiated himself into the favour and good opiniooof 
the people : and though he was advanced to so high a pitch 6f ho- 
nour^ yet he put not on a diadem, nor sufiered the attendance, of a 
life guard, nor allowed any difficulty of access to hi» person, whidk 
is the common practice of almost all tyrants: but he made it his 
business chiefly to look after the public revenue, and the making and 
providing all sorts of weapons and arms : he built, likewise, other 
long ships, to increase and strengthen his fleet: and Isstlj^. he 
brought many of the cities and towns in the heart of the ccNiotiy to 
stoop to his authority. And thus then stood thfe afiiurs of Sicily. 

In Italy this was the ninth year of the war of the Romans vidi the 
Samnltes, l)efore which time there luid been very sharp battles and 
engagements between them; but then (except some incarsioiis iolo 
the cneroy*s country) there was little or nothing done wortfi taking 
iu)ticc of, only some forts were taken, and the country harassed* But 
in Apulia the Romans wasted and spoiled all Daunia*^ and having 
conquered the Canutiif ^ received hostages of them. There were added 
likewise two other tribes to the former, the one of Falerinaj and die 
other of Ufentina. 

While these things were acting, the Crotonians made peace with 
llie Brutians ; but the war being continued another year with the 
esilci^, (who were expelled by the people for their conspiring with 
Ileraclides and Sosistratus, of which we have given a particular ac- 
count in the former bookt) they created Parones and Mencdemus 
their generals. In the mean time the exiles went to Thorium, and 
there listed three hundred mercenaries, and endeavoured in the 
night to break into the city: but being repulsed by the CroConiaDs, 
they encamped on the confines of the Brutians; but within a short 
time after, they were every man cut off by a much stronger party^ who 
sallied out of the city against them. 

* Now CapiUnia, in the kingdom of Naples, 
t C;ftQu:ii in Ti'MCC, now coJled Chartrcs. * No >ucb tccooBt uppcMi there 

Chap. L DIODOftUS 8ICULU8. . 327 

And now haTing given an account how matten went in Siciljr and 
Italy, we shall pass to the things done in other parts of Europe. 

Eurydice being queen-regent in Macedonia, as soon as she heard 
that Olympias was preparing for her return, sent an express to Cas- 
aander, then in Pelopooneus, wishing him to hasten to her aid and 
assistance; and in the mean time, by her bribes and promises, she 
induced the most active men among the JVfacedonians to favour h^ 

. But Polyperchon got an army together, and being joinc^ with 
i£acidas of £[Hru8, he brought back Olympias, with Alexander's 
0on*, into the kingdom. And hearing that Eurydice vfas at Eutsea ia 
Macedonia with an army, aiming to make an end of all by one battle, 
lie makes swiftly after her; and presently, as soon as the armies en- 
camped one over against the otiier, on a sudden the Macedonians (in 
leverence lo Olympias, and calling to mind the many advantages and 
kindnesses they had received at the hands of Alexander) turned 
about; whereupon king Philipf with all his servants were presently 
taken. Eurydice^, likewise, together with Polycles, (one of her 
counsellors), were afterwards taken, having before returned to 

Olympias having thus gained the custody of both the kings, and 
likewise the kingdom, without blood, used not her good fortune with 
-that humanity as she ought to have done : but at the very first, impri* 
aoning both Eurydice and Philip her husband, she uised them veiy 
crmelly; for she cooped them both up in a very small place, where 
every thing for their necessary use was delivered to them through a 
little narrow hole: and for many days together she thus (against all 
law and conscience) exercised her rage and revenge upon tliese mise-> 
rabie princes. 

But when she perceived that the Macedonians spoke ill of her, out 
of pity and conuniseraiion towards those that were thus miserably 
dealt with, she delivered Philip to certain Thracians, (after he had 
reigned six years and four montlis), to be stabbed with poniards. 
But she ordered Eurydice to be more severely dealt with, because 
ahc was so free of her tongue, that she was still blabbing it out that 
^he was fitter to rule tlie kingdom than Olympias : and therefore siie 
sent to her a sword, a rope, and a cup of poison, bidding her choose 
which she would to despatch herself with, neither valuing the former 
state and dignity of the injured lady, nor commiserating thecommoa 
lot of mankind ; and therefore she came at length to experience the 
same turns of fortune herself, and came to an end every way becom* 

* Wis name was Alexander, the sou of Roxana. t AridatHS, called Philip, 
t EurYdice the wife ©f Philip. 


ing her cruelty. For Enrydice^ in the pretence of the penon tbt i 
brought her the instruments of her death, pnyed the godi tint she 
might have the like present sent to her; and then hatriiig bound Vf 
the wounds of her husband, as well as the shortness of tine woril 
permit, she wrapped him up, and so without any womanish com* 
plaints, or any base dejection of spirit through the greatness of her 
misery, she strangled herself with her own garter. 

HaWog made an end of these two, she killed Nicanor, the brodw 
of Cassander: then she picked out a hundred Macedonians, of Gis- 
Sander's Ariends, and put them all to death. Having gratified her 
revenge by these cruel acts, many of the Macedonians were incM 
to hate her mortally for her cruelty: for they all remembered the 
words of Antipater, who, like anorscle, a little before his deaths hal 
given strict charge not to admit thb woman to govern the kingdoBi 
Olympias therefore managing things after this rate in Macedoniay it 
clearly pointed out a revolution in the state. 

In Asia, Eumenes having with him the Argyraspides under their 
captain Antigenes, wintered In the province of Babylon, in the towns 
called Canhee; thence he sent ambassadors to Seleucus and PfdHli, 
requiring them to assist the kings, and that they would join with hia 
in the war against Antigonus. Python was appointed lord-fieutenut 
of Media, and the other of the province of Babylon, when the leoooi 
division of the provinces was made in Triparadlsus. Seleucus aa- 
swered, that he and those with him would supply the kings widi 
whatever they wanted, but that he would never observe any of the 
commands of Eumenes, who was adjudged to die by the oommoa 
suffrage of the Macedonians. After many disputes relating to this 
resolution^ Python and Seleucus solicited Antigenes and the Aigyru- 
pides by their agents to cast off Eumenes. 

But the Macedonians rejecting what they required, Eumenes 
commended them for their fidelity, and marched away and came to 
- the river Tigris, and there encamped, three hundred furlongs ftom 
Babylon: for he designed to march to Susa, because he intended to 
raise forces out of the higher provinces, and to make use of the 
king's treasures as there should be occasion. But he was forced to 
pass the riyer, because that part on this side was eaten up by foraging 
and deprepations, and the country on the other side was yet nn* 
touched, and afforded plenty of forage and other provisions for his 
army. While he was procuring vessels to pass over the river, Seleu- 
cus and Python sailed up the river with two gallies of three tiers of 
oars^ and many other small vessels, being part of those that Alexander 
built at Babylon. 
As soon as they arrived at the place where the passage was intended. 

€kap. L DiODORUS stcuLUS. 33g 

I I III! w^M— I ■ r II 

they rettfcwed their solicitations to the Macedonians, to persuade them 
to cadt off EBinenes, and not to abet and encourage a fellow againat 
^then who was but a stranger, ahd had destroyed multitudes of the 
Macedonians. But when Antigenes could not be prevailed with 
«ipoa any terms whatsoever, the Seleucians sailed to an old sluice, 
mud brcrfce down the head of it, where it was grown up through length 
of time; upon which the Macedonian camp was surrounded with 
water, and all the tract of ground overflowed, so that the whole army 
was in great danger of being utterly lost. All that day, therefore, 
they rested, considering and advising what was best to be done ia 
soeh an exigency. The next day, without any disturbance from the 
enemy, they transported the greatest part of the army in flat-bottomed 
boats, to the number of thirty, forced forward with long poles: for 
Seleiici» had only horse with him, and those far inferior in number 
t» the enemy. And now night approached, when Eumenes (in great 
pmn for his carriages left behind) caused all the Macedonians to re- 
pass tlie ri^r ; and then, by direction of one of the natural inhabitants, 
he act upon cleansing another such like place, by which the water 
might be easily diverted, and the ground all round about drained dry. 
Whieh when Sdeucus perceived, (intending to get rid of them out of 
his province with what speed he could), he sent ambassadors to them 
to make a truce, and so permitted them to pass over the river: but 
forthwith sent expresses to Antigonus in Mesopotamia, to desire him 
with all speed to come down with his army, before the governors of 
the provinces came in with their forces. 

Eumenes having now passed the river Tigris, as soon as he came 
into Susiana, he divided his army into three bodies, on account of 
the scarcity of provisions; and thus marching through the country 
three several ways, he was in great want of bread-corn, and therefore 
distributed rice, millet*, and dates, with which that country abounded, 
tttoDgst the soldiers. 

Although he had before taken care to send away the king^s letters 
to the lord-lieutenants of the upper provinces, yet he then again 
sent expresses, to desire them all to meet him with their forces iu 
Susiana. At which time it so happened that th^y had their forces 
then in the field, and were got together for some other reasons. 
Of which it is necessary here to say something before we proceed 

Python was lord-lieutenant of Media, and general of all the higher 

Satrapies, by nation a Parisian, who had killed Philotas the former 

general, and had placed Eudamus, his own brother, in his room. 

Upon which all the other provinces joined together, lest they should 

* A white grain^ of which the Indians make oil. 

Vol. 2. No. 44, vu 

330 DiODORus sicuLUS. JBocik XDL 

be served in the same way, because Python was of areatleas spirityand 
had eugaged himself in matters of high importance. Having there- 
fore overcome him in battle, and cut off moat of his army^ tbey dfove 
the man himself out of Parthia, who first soi^t for shelter in ] 
and in a short time after he went to Babylon, and prayed \ 
front Saleucus, and that they might join together in one < 
terest. The governors, therefore, for these causes having dnwn 
their forces together, Eumenes's messengers came to the anaics 
when they were ready, and prepared in the field. Peucestes was the 
most renowned captain of them all, and was made genenl faf a 
unanimous assent. He was formerly squire of the body to , 
der, and advanced by the king for his valour. He was lord- 
of the greatest part of Persia, and in great esteem among the nathreai 
And for this reason, he of all the Macedonians was allowed by AlcK- 
ander to wear a Persian gown, because he thought thereby to k 
tiate himself with the Persians, and engage them to be i 
to all hb commands. He then had with him ten thoosand ] 
archers and slingers, and of other nations (taken into die nmk of 
Macedonians) three thousand, with six hundred hone of Greds and 
Thracians, and of Persian horse four hundred. Polemon, a ] 
donian, governor of Carmania, had fifteen hundred foot, and i 
hundred horse. Siburtius, governor of Arachosia, had a i 
foot, and six hundred and ten horse. Androbazus, likewiae, was 
' sent from Paropamisus (of which province Ozyartes was govcnwr) 
with twelve hundred foot, and four hundred horse. Stasander, go» 
vemor of Aria and Drangina, being joined with the Bactriana, had 
with him fifteen hundred foot, and a thousand hmse. Out of India 
came Eudamus with five hundred* horse, and three thousand ibo^ 
and a hundred and twenty elephants, which he got after Alexander's 
death, when he treacherously slew Poms. There were in the whole^ 
with the governors of the provinces, above eighteen thoosand and 
seven hundredf foot, and four thousand and six hundred hone. 

When all these came into the province of Susiana, and joined with 
£umenes, a public assembly was called, where was a hot dispnte 
cpnceming the choice of a general. Peucestes, on account o£ hb 
bringing most men into the field, and his eminent post under Alex* 
ander, conceived he had most right to challenge the chief oonmand. 
Antigcnes, captain of the silver targcteerst, insisted upon it, that tha 
wh^le power of election ought to be committed to his Maccdmuans, 
who, under Alexander, had conquered Asia; and by their rafeor had 
so signalized themselves^ as to gain the reputation of being i 

* Three hundred in the margin.— Uib. Ann. 90/T» 
t llie particttUrs Bftke ood-and-tweoty thousaad. % Argympite. 


queimbtr. But Eumenes fearing lest by their divisions tbey should 
become an easy prey to Antigonns, advised that they should not make 
one general only, but that all who were before chosen capbiins and 
commanders should meet every day in the king's pavilion, and there 
consult of all the public aflairs. For a tent had been before erected 
to Alexander^ and his throne placed therein, to which they used to 
resort, (ofiering incense as to a god), and there debate all matters of 
weight and special concern. This advice being approved and ap- 
plauded by all, they met there every day, as in a city governed by a 
democracy. Afterwards being come to Susa, there Eumenes was 
supplied with what monies he had occasion for out of the kings' ex- 
efaequer. For the kings by their letters had ordered the treasurers, 
that they should issue to Eumenes alone so much money as he at any 
time required. Hereupon he gave the Macedonians six months pay 
before-hand, and to Eudamus (who brought the elephants out Of 
India) he paid two hundred talents, under colour to defray the charge 
and expence of the elephants, but in truth the more to engage him 
to his interest. For if contests should arise, that party would have 
tbe greatest advantage with whom he sided, by reason of the terror 
occasioned by the use of these beasts. The rest of tbe governors 
every one maintained their own soldiers they brought with them. 
This done, Eumenes continued for some time in Susa, and there re- 
freshed hb army. 

In the mean time Antigonus, who wintered in Mesopotamia, re- 
solved forthwith to set upon Eumenes before he grew too strong: 
but when he heard that the provincial governors, with their forces, 
together with the Macedonians, were joined with hin), he let his 
soldiers rest, and made It his busines to raise more. For he saw that 
he had need of a great army, and reason to make more than ordinary 
preparations for the war. 

In the midst of these preparations Attains, Polemon, Docimuf;, % 
Antipater, and Philotas, who before were commanders in Alcetas's 
army, and were taken prisoners and kept in an extraordinary strong 
castle, hearing of Antigonus's intended expedition into the higher 
provinces, (conceiving now they had gained a fair opportunity), bribed 
some of their keepers to suffer them to escape. Having therefore ^ 
procured arms, about midnight tliey set upon the guard: they them- 
selves were but eight in number, (surrounded with four hundred men), 
yet valiant and expert soldiers, through their experience in the war 
with Alexander. Xenopithes, the governor of the castle, they threw 
oiTfrom the walls, headlong down a steep rock, a furlong high; and 
as to the rest, some they killed upon the place, and others they hurled 
down, and then set the houses on fire. Hereupon they took into th^ 

33 f DlODOftus S1CULU8. Boak XM3L 

€ast1e five hundred men that were withoat, opecdng the inoes k 
was indeed very well stored with proviftionti aad all ollitr thioga ■•» 
cessary : but they consulted together whedier it w» better 1 
there^ and trust to the strength of the place^ waiting far relief 
Eumefnes, or to get away^ and wander about in the caaao^sf^ i 
use of » change and turn of fortune when it might happM. 
canvassing and disputing there was on both sides: Docimva ^ 
leaving the place^ but Attains declared he was not aUe to endure 1»» 
bour^ by reason of the hardship of his late imprisoooieiit. 

Whilst they were thus at variance nmongst tbemfelves^ dMm fiva 
hundred foot and four hundred horse, were drawn oat of tbe i 
bouring garrisons, and got together in a body, besides three i 
of the natural inhabitants, and upwards, gathered from all parts of dw 
country; these created one from among themselves to be their gene- 
ral, and laid close siege to the castle. 

Being therefore thus unexpectedly again cooped up^ Doeiasne^ no* 
quainted with a passage under ground, where no guard was set^ bf n 
private messenger kept correspondence with Stratonice^ the wife of 
Antigonus, who was not far distant from the plaee: and n ftewmii s 
he, with one other in his company, through this pass dipt OQt t6 berf 
but, contrary to her promise, be was seised and secured* And belhsi 
came out with him undertook to conduct the enemy into the eastle^ 
and accordingly brought in a great number, and with them gained OM 
of the highest rocks within the fort. 

And although Attains, and all tbose witb him, were far inferior ki; 
number, yet they defended the place courageously, fij^iting vaUantllf 
every day, till at length they fell into the enemy's hands^ afternmc 
of sixteen months. 

Ckmi^. IL DiODoaus sifcuLus. 333 

CHAP. n. 

AnHganus marches to the Tigris after Eumenes, Eurnenes cuts of 
a great many ofhU men there, jintiganus goes into Media. 
JSumenes comes to Persepolis. The description of Persia. Peu* 
cestes's great feast. Eumenes^s policy. His tale of the Uoau 
A battle in Pareteceniy between Aniigonus and Eumenes. An- 
Ugoivus returns into Media. The story of Ceteus*s two wives 
striving which should be burnt. JButnenes marches to Oabene^ 
Cassander to Macedonia. Olympias goes to Pydka : i» there 
besieged. The Epirots forsake their icings and Join with Cas* 
Sander, Antigonus designs to surprise Eumenes, who stops hi^ 
march by a stratagem. The last battle between them in Oabene. 
JBumenes basely delivered up. Antigonus returns to Media. 
The dreaJ^l earthquakes in the country ofRhageSk 

AFTERWARDS^ Democledes was chief governor at Athens, andr 
Caius Junius and Quintus i£milius were consuls at Rome. At that 
time was celebrated the hundred and sixteenth Olympiad^ at which 
Deinomeoes the Laconian gained the victory. About this titne An- 
tigonus marched out of Mesopotamia and came to Babylon, and made* 
a league with Seleucus and Python, and having strengthened himself 
with forces received from them, made a bridge of boats over the river 
Tigris, passed over his army, and hastened away with a swift march 
after the enemy. Of which Eumenes having intelligence, he sent 
to Xenophilus, governor* of the citadel at Susa, not to give any 
money to Antigonus, nor by any means to come out to parley with 

He himself marched with the army to tlieTigris, a day*s journey dis* 
tant from Susa, where he came into the country of the Uzians, a free 
people. The river is in some places three, and in others four 
furlongs broad. The depth in the middle of the channel was equal 
with the height of the elephants. It runs in a current |from the 
mpuntiuns seven hundred furlongs, and empties itself into the Red 
sea. There are many sea-fish and whales in this river, which appear 
chiefly at the rising of the dog-starf* 

The Eumeuians had the river before them for adefence, and man* 
ned the bank all along from the head of the river to the sea t« with 
forts every where built upon the bank, and there waited for the ene- 

* Or treasurer. t In the dog-days: about the end of July. 

X The Red sea, or Persian gulf. 

S34 DIODORUS sicuLirs. JSudXt XIX 

tty'sapproacli. But because these forts required a great nmnber of 
men to keep them^ in regard they stretched out a great length. En- 
menes and Antigenes solicited Peucestes to send for ten tbonaaal 
archers more out of Persia ; who at first refused^ compkiniog how he 
WIS denied to be general of the army. But afterwards, upon matme 
deliberation with himself^ he compTted, concluding that if Antenna 
prcTailed, he should lose both his province, and be in danger of Idi- 
ing his life besides; careful^ therefore, to preserve his own interest, 
and hoping thereby with more ease to gain the chief command hj 
Iiaving more men than any of the rest, he brought ten thousand ardiefs 

more into the camp according to their desire. And though some 

of the Persians were distant one from another thirty daya aiaie&,yel 
they had placed their guards with that art and exactness, that they 
aH heard the word of command in one and the same day; the 
son of which is worthy remark: for Persia is full of long and i 
vallies, and is full of high watch-towers, upon which were placedi 
of the inhabitants that were men of loud and strong voices r when 
the voice was heard by those of the next divisbn, they imparted it in 
the same manner to the others, and they again to the rest, one after 
another^ till what was commanded came at length to the end of Ae 

While Eumenes and Peucestes were busy about these aflhin^ As* 
tigonus came with his army to the king's palace in Susa, and 'made 
Seleucos lord-lieutenant of the province, and leaving with lum m suf- 
ficient army, ordered him to besiege the citadel, Xenophilus the troK 
surer refusing to obey his commands; but he himself marehed awaf 
with bis army against the enemy, through a hot scalding 
very dangerous for foreign armies to pass. Therefore they were i 
to march in the night, and encamp near the river before svn-ri&iDgt 
however, he could not secure himself from all the inconveoieneiee 
and mischiefs of that country : for though he did alt that was possiMe 
for him to do, yet through the excessive heat of the season, fbdog 
about the rising of the dog-stir*),helostagreat multitude of his aseii. 
Coming at length to the river Coprates, he prepared wh&t was neces- 
sary for the passing over of his men. This river issues from aaaoon- 
tainous country, and runs into the Tigris, and b four aeies broad, aai 
was fourscore furlongs distant from Eumenes's camp. The stream 
is so rapid and swift, that there is no passing over without boate or a 
bridge. . Having therefore got together a few flat-bottmned boats, in 
them he put over some of his foot, ordering them to draw a trench 
and cast up works to defend it, and there to attend tlie coming over 
of the rest. 

* See the foregoing page. 



£iimeiies having iotelligeiice by his scouts of the enemy's design^ ^ 
passed over the bridge of Tigris with four thousand foot and thirteen 
hundred horse, and found above three thousand foot and three hun- 
dred horse of Antigonus's army got over*; and no less than six 
thousand who were foraging up and down the country : these he sud- 
den^ set upon and routed, and presently put the rest to flighr. 
As for the Maoedoniansi ( whostood their ground) , being overpowered 
by numbers, be forced them all to the river, where running head- 
long into their boats, and overcharging them, they $oi^ down: upon 
which many of them endeavouring to swim, some few of them es- ^ 
caped, but the rest were all drowned. Others that could not swim^ 
(judging it more advisable to fall into the enemy's hands, than cer- 
tainly to lose their lives in. the river, were taken prisoners, to the 
number of four thousand. Antigonus, for want of boats, was not 
Hble to help them, though he saw such multitudes perish. Concdv* 
i^g therefore that it was impossUile to pass the river, he marched 
back to the city of Badaca, seated on the river Ulaie. By reason of 
the vehement heat, this march was very sweltering and troublesome, 
and many of the army were tired out, so that they were heartless, and 
even at their wits end : but when he came to the city before men- 
tioned, staying there some days, he refreshed his army. Thence he 
judged it advisable to march to Ecbatana in Media, and making that 
the seat of war, to take in all the higher provinces. 

There were two ways that led to Media, and both were difficult; 
tluKt over the mountains was pleasant, and the high way; but scorch- 
ing hot, and very long, almost forty days journey. That through 
the conntiy of the Cosseans was strait, narrow, and steep, leading 
through the enemy's borders, and barren and scaut of provisions, 
but a short cut, and more cool; yet it was not easy for an army to 
march this way, unless agreement were first made with the barbarians 
who inhabit the mountains. 

They have been a free people time out of mind, ajnd iniiabit in caves, 
and feed upon acorns and mushrooms, and the salted flesh of wild 
beasts. But he looked upon it as a dishonourable thing for him who 
commanded so great an army, to court these barbarous people with 
smooth words, or gai i them by rich gifts. He picked out therefore 
the choicest of his targeteers, and divided the archers and slingers, 
and such like light-armed men into two bodies, and delivered them 
to Nearchus, with command to go before him, and first secure the 
straits and difficult passes. These being posted all along in the way, 
he himself led the phalanx, and Python commanded the rear. 

Tliey that were sent with Nearchus had endeavoured to possess 

* The rirer Coprates, which f»lli ioto tlic Pasltigris. 

9$6 DiODORUS 8icuLt}s« Book XIX. 

themselves of m few watch-towers; bat,. being hindered «Bd pie» 
vented of manjr, and the most necessary and ooMSBodiotn plweih 
they lost many of their soldiers, and, being set npon on eveiy ride 
by Uie barbarians, they had much difficulty in making dieir waf 
through them. And as to those that followed AatigoBUSy (hftving 
entered the straits), they fell into dangers that were ittexiricables te 
the natives, being well acquainted with the pkures, and havbig tefim 
possessed themselves of the steep and craggy rocks, cast down BMSf . 
stones upon the heads of the soldiers as they passed by; and beiiBei^ 
making use of showers of arrows, they so galled them, that thej weie 
neither able (through the inconveniency of the place) to annoy dirir 
enemies, nor avoid their shot: and in regard the passage was rof 
craggy and difficult, the elephants, horses, and heavy-anned awn^ 
were involved both in toils and hazards at one and die same tOM^ 
and in no capacity to help themselves. 

Antlgonus being brought into these straits, now repented tlMd he 
did not follow the counsel of Python, who had advised him to liive 
bought his passage with money* But after the loss of many of hk 
men, and the rest still in imminent hazard, after nine days tiOvUe* 
some march, he came at length to the inhabited parts of Media. 

One mischief after another thus felling upon the amqry the iotobi* 
Table distresses they were brought into stured up the aohUers to cry 
out against Antigonus, insomuch that they gave him very ! 
bitter words. 

For in forty days time, they had three several times been i 
slaughtered: but by fair words, and a plentiful supply of all thims 
necessary, he at length quieted them. Then he commanded I^rthoa 
to go oyer all Media, to get together horsemen, and horses, \ 
riages, which he easily performed, the country abounding with 1 
and cattle. For Python returned, bringing along with him two 
thousand horsemen and a thousand horses, ready furnished, and iO 
many loads of ammunition as that the whole army might be com- 
pletely armed; together with five hundred talents out of the king's 

Antigonus formed the horse into regiments, and distribated Ae 
horses among those that had lost their own, and gave the dranghft^ 
beasts freely among those that wanted them» whereby he r^aioed ths 
former love of the soldiers. 

In the mean time, the governors of the provinces, and captaina d 
the forces with Eumenes, when they heard that the enemy waa in 
Media, were of various opinions what to resolve upon : for Enmenea> 
Antigenes, and the rest who came up from the sea-coasu, were for 
returning thither again. But those who came from the higher pro- 

Ckep. 11. DiODORUs sicuLus. 337 

▼inces (upon the account of their friends and relations that were left 
at home) were for defending those parts. The contest growing hot, 
Eumeiies, considering that one part of the army (which was now di- 
vided into two) was not strong enough to cope with the enemy, com- 
plied with the governors of the upper provinces. Decamping there- 
fore from Pasitigris^ he moved towards Persia, and came to the royal 
seat of the'kingdom, Persepolis, at the end of four-and-twenty days 

The country, in the first entrance into it, and as far as the Ladders, 
(as they are called), is flat and low, exceeding hot, and barren of pro- 
visions; but the rest is higher, of a wholesome air, and very fruitful: 
wtierein are many shady vallies, variety of pleasant gardens, natural 
walks bounded on each side with all sorts of trees, and watered 
with refreshing springs. So that those "that pass this way many 
times stop here and solace themselves in these pleasant places with 
great delight. 

Here the inhabitants brought in to Peucestes abundance of all kinds 
of prey and booty, which he largely distributed among the soldiers, to 
gain their fevour and good will. In this tract inhabit the most war^^ 
like of the Persians, being all archers and slingers, and is far more 
populous than any of the other provinces. 

When they came to Persepolis, the king's palace, Peucestes the 
governor, and general of the province, ordered 4 magnificent sacrifice 
to the gods, and to Alexander and Philip; and to that end sending al- 
most over all Persia for beasts tcf be sacrificed, and abundance of all 
other provisions necessary for a festival aad public assembly, he 
feasted the whole army. 

lo this festival the guests were placed in four rounds, including 
one within another^ the greatest surrounding all the rest, which was 
tea furlongs in compass, and was filled with mercenaries and con- 

The second round was eight furlongs, in which were placed the 
Macedonian silver targeteers, and the rest of Alexander's fellow- 
soldiers. The other circle was of four furlongs, and filled with in- 
ferior officers, special friends, commanders, and horsemen. 

That in the midst of all was two furlongs, wherein the generals, 
masters of the horse, and the nobility of Persia, had their several tents 
allotted them; and in the midst of them were placed the altars of the 
gods, and of Alexander and Philip. 

The tents were made of green boughs of trees, covered with arras, 
and all sorts of tapestry hangings, Persia plentifully affording every 
thing for pleasure and delight. 

The rounds were at that convenient distance one from another, a^ 
Vol. 2, No, 44. XX 


that the guests found (nothing of trouble or uneasiness; bat every 
thing that was prepared was near at hand. All being thus graoefolljr 
managed^ with the general applause of the common soldiers^ thereby 
expressing how great Peucestes was in their fevour and esteem, he 
was suspected by Eumenes^ who conceived that Peucestes did this to 
ingratiate himself with the army, and thereby to gain the sovereign 
command; he therefore forged a letter, by which he raised up the 
spirits of the soldiers, and made them more courageous, and brought 
down the haughty spirit and pride of Peucestes; but advanced his 
own reputation with the army, by the hopes of good success for the 

future. The contents of the letter was this ^That Olympias^ with 

Alexander's son, (having killed Cassander),had fully recovered Ae 
kingdom of Macedon; and that Polyperchon, with the main power 
of the king's army, and his elephants, had put over into Asia aguost 
Antigonus, and was then in Cappadocia. This letter was written in 
Syriac characters, in the name of Orontas, governor of Armenia, ao 
intimate friend of Peucestes. These letters passing as authentic, be- 
cause of the continual (correspondence between him and the krd- 
lieutenants, Eumenes ordered them to be carried about, and shewn to 
the captains and most of the soldiers. Hereupon the whole army 
changed their mind, and all eyes were upon Eumenes, as the chidf 
fevourite, and therefore they resolved to depend upon him» as he whose 
interest in the kings would be able to advance whom he pleased^ and 
to punish whom he thought fit. 

When the feasting was ended, Eumenes, the more to terrify diem 
that were regardless of his orders, and who affected the soverefpi 
command, called in question, in due form of law, Siburtins^ the go* 
vernor of Arachosia, Peucestes's special friend: for Peucestes, send* 
ing away some horse into Arachosia, had secretly commanded Si* 
burtlus to intercept the carriages coming from thence. Whereupon 
Eumenes brought him into such imminent danger, that unless he 
had privately withdrawn himself, he would have been killed fay the 
soldiers. By this piece of policy, having terrified others, and advanced 
his own honour and reputation, he put on a new face again, and so 
gained upon Peucestes with smooth words and large promises, that 
he became both kind and courteous to him, and cheerful and ready to 
afford aid and assistance to the kings. Desiring likewise to be as* 
surcd of the rest of the governors and captains by some pledges, which 
might engage them not to forsake him, he pretended to want money, 
and desired them to contribute, every one according to his ability, to 
the kings. 

Hereupon, receiving four hundred talents from among so many of 
the capUins and generals as he thought fit, those whom he bcfne 


1 ■ ■ , ■ .1 II ■ ■ ' ■ ssAgaat: 

suspected of treachery or desertioD, became most faithfal attend- 
ants aud guards to bis person, and stuck close to him in all en- 

While he thus prudently managed afiiurs, and was providing for 
the future^ news was brought by some who came out of Media, that 
Antigonns was marching with bis army into Persia: whereupon he 
moved forward, with a design to meet and engage the enemy. 

The second day of their march he sacrificed to the gods, and plen- 
tifully feasted the army, wishing them to continue firm and feithful 
U> him; but, wishing to comply with the humour of his guests, who 
loved to drink freely, he fell into a distemper, which caused him to 
lay by, and so hindered his march for some days. 

In the mean time the army was greatly dejected, to consider that 
tl)e most expert and bravest commander of all the generals should be 
now sick, at the very time (as they thought) they were even rea^ to 
fight the enemy. 

But bis distemper abating, and after a little time having recovered 
himself, he pursued his march, Peucestes and Antigenes leading the 
van; and he himself in a litter followed after with the elephants, to 
prevent disturbance by the crowd, and the inconveniency by the 
straitness of the places they were to pass. 

And now the two armies were within a day's march one of the 
other, when the scouts on both sides brought an account of their ap* 
proacb, and what numbers they were, and ways they took. Where- 
apon each party prepared for battle: but at length they parted 
without fighting; for there was a river and a deep trench between 
the two armies. Both indeed were drawn forth in battalia, but, by 
reason of the badness of the ground, they could dot come to action: 
wherefore, drawing off three furlongs distant one from another, they 
spent four days in light skirmishes, and foraging the country there- 
abouts, being much in want of all things necessary. The fifth day 
Antigonus, by his agents, again solicited the governors of the pro- 
vinces, and the Macedonians, to desert Eumenes, and commit them- 
selves to his protection. For he promised that he would leave to 
every one of them their own several provinces, and would bestow 
large territories upon the rest; and others he would send into their 
own country y laden with honours and great rewards; and, as for 
those that were willing still to bear arms, he would give them places 
and posts in the army suitable to their several circumstances: but 
the Macedonians would not hearken to any part of these terms, but 
sent away the messengers with great indignation and threats: upon 
which Eumenes came amongst them, and gave them thanks, with 
commendations for tlien* fidelity, and told them an old story, but very 


suitable to the preseut occasion ^That a lion falling in love with a 

young lady, treated with her father to bestow her upon him in mar- 

yiage; who answered ^That he was very willing to give the ycNing 

woman to be his wife, but that he was afraid of his claws an4 teetli, 
lest, when he was married, according to the nature of his kind, he 
should devour the poor girl. Hereupon the lion beat out his teetb^ 
and tore off his claws : upon which the father, perceiving that now he 
had lost whatever before made him formidable, fell upon him, and 
easily cudgelled him to death. And that now Antigonus was acting 
a part not much unlike this: for he courted them with fair promises^ 
till such time as he could get the army into his power, and then he 
would be sure to cut the throats of the commanders. This fine atocj, 
thus handsomely told, was highly applauded by the army; and here- 
upon he dismissed them. 

The next night some deserters from Antigonus came in, and gave 
intelligence, that he had ordered his army to march at the second 
watch. Hereupon Eumenes, upon serious thoughts, and musing on 
what his designs might be, at length hit upon the truth of the mat- 
ter, that the enemy's purpose was to march to Gabene, which was a 
country three days march distant, then untouched, abounding in corn 
and forage, sufficient to supply the greatest army plentifully with all 
sorts of provisions ; and besides, it was a place of great advantage, fall 
of rivers and deep ravins that were impassable. Contriving there* 
fore to prevent the enemy, he put in execution the like project; 
and sent away some of the mercenaries, (whom he hired with mcK 
ney), under colour of runaways, with orders to inform Antigbnos, 
that Eumenes would fall upon his camp that night. But Eumenes 
himself sent off the carriages before, and commanded the soMieis 
with all speed to eat their suppers, and march: all which was pre- 
sently despatched. 

In the mean time Antigonus, upon the intelligence received from 
the deserters, resolved to fight the enemy that night, and therefore 
put a stop to his march, and placed his army in order of battle. 

During which hurry of Antigonus, and while hfe was preparing to 
meet his enemy, Eumenes* stole away with his army, and made to- 
wards Gabene before him. Antigonus for some time waited with 
his soldiers at their arms; but receiving intelligence by his scouts, 
that the army of Eumenes was gone, he perceived that a trick was 
put upon him. However, he went on with what he had before de- 
signed; and, to that end, giving the word of command to his armj 
to march, he posted away with that haste and speed, as if he had been 
in a pursuit. 
But when he understood that Eumenes had got six honn march 

CkapkU. moDORUS 8ICUL17S. 341' 


befofe buaip and to perceiTiog Aat he was not tble ct so great a dis- 
tance to otertake him with hu whole anny^ he oontriTed asfollowss 
he delivered the rest of the anny to I^thoo^ wUliog that; he shooli 
comeeeMy after him; and he himself posted away with the horse. 
About spring of day-he came up with the rear of the enemy's army, 
aa Aey weie marching down a hill| upon the Uxp ai'iht menn- 
tain he made a baltj and there presented himself to the view of 
Ae enemy. 

• Eumenc^Sy at a cuioTenient distahee, seeing the enemy's horsey ooiw 
cdved thaf the whole army was near at hand^ and therefore made a 
standi and drew up his men in order of battle^as if.Aey shoold fbitlU 
with engage. In this manner these two genemls pat tricln one npott- 
another, as if they were striving which shonld outwit the othevi there- 
by shewing, that all their hopes of victory \kj and were groonded ap» 
on their own stratagems. 

By this means, therefore, Antigonus put a slop to the eneaay^a* 
march, and gained time for his army to cmne up to him$ which at 
length jcmiag with him^ he drew np in battalia^ and in that order 
marched down the hill in a terrible manner npon the enemy. The 
whole army (with those broaght in by Python and Seleucos) amounted 
to above eight-and-twenty thousand foot, eight thousand five hun- 
dred horse, and sixty-five elephants. Both the generals ranged didr • 
armies in an array that was strange and unusual, as if they atrave 
which should excel the other even in this piece of art also. In the 
left wing Eumenes placed Eodamns, the captain of the elephants 
ftom India, who had with him a body of a hundred and fifky hones 
in front of these were drawn up two squadrons of choice hosse armed 
with laifces, fifty deep, and were all jmned to those who were placed 
upon the rising ground near the foot of the mountain. Next to them 
was drawn up Stasander, with nine hundred and fifty of» his own 
horse. After -these, he ordered Aftiphimachus^ l(»d-lieutenant of 
Mesopotamia, who had under his command su hnndied hone* 
Next to them were drawn up the horse from Arachosia, lately com- 
manded by Siburtius, but, because he was then fled, the command 
was given to Cephalus. Close to these were five hundred horse . 
from Paropamisus, and as many Thmcians from the upper colonies. 
In the van of all these stood five-and-forty elephants, drawn up 
in the form of a half moon, lined with as many archers and slingem 
as was thought fit. 

Then he drew up his maiii body of foot in a phahnx in this man* 
ner: at -the farthest i^oinfwere placed above six thousand foieign 
soldiers, then five thousand out of several countries, armed after the 
manner of the Macedonians; after these were drawn upon more 


than three thousand Argyiaspides^ but men never oon%uerttd» and far 
their valour dreaded by the enemy. And lastly^ after ally tbiea i 
mnd largeteert of the life guard; which, together with tke . 
pides^ were commanded by Antigenes and TautamttS^ Aad ui thi 
▼an of this phalanx stood forty elephants, lined with light-nitii 
men. Next to the phalanx in the right wing he drew up e^;lrt hu« 
dred of Carmanian horse, under the command of TlepoliiBU^ tUm 
govemor of that province; and after them nine hundred who wcro 
called Companions* Then the squadron of A ntigenes and PeacctleSp 
being three hundred in one troop* In the utmost part of the 
was placed Eumenes's own regiment, consisting of as many i 
and before these was a forlorn-hope, made up of Eiimenes'a j 
placed in two bodies, each consisting of fifty horse. There wna 
likewise two hundred horse drawn up in four squadrons, aod plaini 
in the Dank at a distance from the main wing, to be a guard to dm 
part* And besides all these, he phM^ three hundred hofBe, called 
out of all the provinces for strength and speed, a guard to the 
rear of his squadron : and in the van of this wing thus anajcd i 
placed forty elephants, for the better defence of the whcdc* 
nes's whole army amounted to five-and*thirty thousand Ssotp as 
thousand and one hundred horse, and one hundred and fauitaoi 

Antigonus observing from the top of the hills bow the amj of tha 
enemy was drawn up, drew up his likewise so as might be moat con* 
venient to the present circumstances. For taking notaee thai Us 
enemy's right wing was very strongly guarded with horse and cle«r 
phantSy he fronted them with the choicest of his own horse^ who 
being in small parties, at a considerable distance one from anotbciy 
might charge in manner of a running fight, wheeling off one aficK 
another, and^ so still renew the fight by fresh men. And bf tUs 
SDcans the strength of that part of the enemy's - army, wherein thq^ 
placed their greatest confidence, was wholly eluded. For in thia 
phalanx he had placed about a thousand archers and lanceteen on 
horseback, out of Media and Armenia, who had ever been used to thia 
way of charging by turns. Next to them were drawn up two thou- 
sand and two hundred Tarentines, who came up with him fran the 
sea-coasts, who were men very expert in laying ambuscadesy and 
contriving other stratagems of war, and liad a great respect and \ubA* 
nessforhim: athousand, likewise, out of Pbrygia and Ljrdia; fifkeen 
hundred under the command of Python; and four hundred apeamen 
led by Lysanias. After all these followed those called the Anthippi*, 
anci them out of the higher provinces, to the number of eight 

* Antliippi : u ^ eneiyics or oppostn of the 1 


4rod. And of Ibis body of hone was the left wing completed and 
made up, all under the command of Python. In the main battle^ of 
foot wei« pkccd in the front nine thousand fore^nere; next to them 
three thoaaa«d Lyciaas and Pamphilians, and above eight thoasand 
out of drrers nations^ amed after the Macedonian msinner; and in 
the rear were the Macedonians^ to the number of eight thoasaitd^ 
wlMch Amipater had formerly sent as recruits when he took upon 
him the government of the kingdom. In the right wing of horse, 
dto oe to the right of the phalanx of foot^ were first placed five huii« 
died mercenaries; next to them a thousand Thraetans^ and as aiAnj 
confisdarales; and close after ttiem were a thousand called Ciompa* 
iiiofia. These wefe all commanded by Demetrius the son of Anti- 
0OIHIS9 which was the first time he appeared in arms to assist hts 
fcther: la the utmost part of the wing were placed three hundred 
korsC) with which Antigonus himself engaged. This sqttadron eoa- 
•isted of three troops of his servants, and as many of others^ drawn 
up in equal distances one from^another, supported by a hundred 
Tarentioes. Round this wing were placed thirty of the strongest of 
hh elephants, in form of a half-moon, interlined with light -armed 
OMo: many of the other elephants he placed in the ftont of the 
phalanx of foot, and a few with some horse in the fiank on the left; 
The army arrayed in this manner, he marched down upon the enemy^ 
in* an oblique order: for he ordered the right wing to be stretched 
oat iur in length, and the left to be much contracted, designing with 
lllis to make a running fight, and to engage hand to hand with the 

And now the armies drew near one to the other; and signal of 
battle being given on both sides, shouts echoed one to another, and 
the trumpets sounded a ctiarge. And first the horse with Python fell 
on, although they had no forlorn either of men or elephants for a firm 
defence; yet overpowering the enemy in number and swiftness, made 
use of that advantage: but lookiitg upon it not safe to encounter the 
elephants in the front, they wheeled about, and poured in showers of 
shot upon the enemy in the flank, and with little or no prejudice to 
themselves, by reason of their speed, and nimbleness of their horses, 
for they sorely galled the enemy, who were neither able to fall upon 
tlie assailants, on account of the weight of their arms, nor in a capa« 
city to avoid them as occasion required. Hereupon Eumenes seeing 
how the right wing was distressed by multitudes of archers on horse- 
back, sent for some of the swiftest horse from Eudamus, who com 
manded the left wing; and by this body of horse brought in from the 
other wing, (though it were but small), be made so fierce a charge 
upon the enemy, being seconded by bis elephants, that he easily put 


the Pythonians to flighty and pursued them as far as to the foot ot the 

In the mean while the foot fought stoutly a long time together; 
at leugthj after many falling on both sides^ the £umenian8 roated 
them by the valour of the silver shields*. For though they were now 
very old, yet by frequent use of their arms in many battles, they si^ 
excelled all others^ both as to courage and skill in their weapons, tint 
none were able to stand before them. And therefore at this voj 
time, though they were only three thousand, yet they were the chirf 
strength and support of the whole army. 

When Antigonus perceived that his left wing was routed, and die 
whole phalanxf put to flight, though he was advised (seeing that part 
of the army with him was yet entire) to retreat to the mountains, and 
receive in again those that were fled, yet he would not hear of it; bat 
prudently making use of the present opportunity, both saved his own 
men, and gained likewise the advantage. 

For the Argyraspides, with Eumenes and the rest of the foo^ hav* 
ing put the enemy to flight, continued their pursuit to the foot of the 
mountains: upon which Antigonus, through an open pttsage made 
in the enemies main body, with a party of horse fell upon tiie flank 
of Eudamus's regiments, which were in the left wing, and by this 
sudden and unexpected charge put them to flight; and after tke 
slaughter of multitudes, sent away some of the swiftest of his horse 
to recal his own men tliat were before fled, and so caused them to 
rally at the foot of the mountains. And Eumenes also percdvinf 
the flight of his men, hastened to the relief of Eudamus, and recalled 
by sound of trumpet, those of his that fled. And now the stars be* 
gan to appear, when the generals having recalled their flying meUf 
on both sides prepared for battle afresh ; such was the heat and vigour 
both of the officers and common soldiers. The night was very dear 
and serene, and the moon at full : and tlie armies being about four 
acres distant one over against the other, the clattering of arms, and 
the neighing of horses seemed on both sides as if they had been in 
the midst of one another. It was now midnight when they had drawn 
off about tliirty furlongs from the place of battle where the dead lay, 
and by reason of the troublesomeness of the march, and the toils and 
grievances of the fight, with the want, likewise, of provisions, both 
sides were but in a bad condition: therefore they were forced to leave 
off fig)itingy and encamp, Eumenes had a design to have marched 
back to the slain, in order to have buried them, as a sign of his being 
absolute victor, but the army refused, and all were instant with load 
cries to return to their carriages, which were then at a great 

* Argjrraipides. t BsttaJioD of foot. 

Chap. IL DIODORUS sicuLUS. 345 

from them, so tliai he was forced to submit. For seeing there were 
so maoy that affected the chief command, he had no power to move 
the army by threats, nor saw at that time any convenient opportunity 
to ^in upon them ihat were obstinate by arguments and entreaties.. 
But Antigonus, on tiie contrary, was an absolute general, without any 
dependance upon the popularity, and therefore forced the soldiers to 
encamp near the do;id bodies; and so gaining the privilege of bury- 
ing the dead, he raised a doubt who was victorious, saying — ^That he 
who had power to bury his dead, was ever to be esteemed conqueror 
of the field. 

In this battle there were killed on Antigonus's side three thoa- 
saud and seven hundred foot, and fifty-four horse, and above four, 
thousand wounded. On Eumenes's party were slain five hundred 
mod forty foot, but very few horse, and above nine hundred hurt. 

Aotigonus, after the battle was over, perceiving that the spirits 
of his soldiers were very low, resolved, with all the haste he could^ 
to remove far off from the enemy's camp, and tliat his forces might 
anarch the more readily, he sent away the wounded men and heavy 
baggage to a town near at hand. Then having buried the dead, about 
break of day (detaining with him the herald that was sent to him by 
the enemy to beg the bodies of the dead), even at that very hour he 
commanded the soldiers to dine. At night he discharged the herald, 
and gave leave to come and bury the dead the next day. He himself 
presently at the first watch of the night moved with his whole army, 
and by continued and long marches got a long way off from the 
enemy, to a country untouched, where he had plenty of provisions 
for the refreshing of his army: for he marched as far as to Gamarga 
in Media, a country under the command of Python, abounding in all 
things for the maintaining of the greatest armies. Eumenes having 
intelligence by his scouts that Antigonus was gone, would not 
follow after him, botii because his army was in want of provisions, 
and in other bad circumstances^ as likewise because he had a great 
desire to inter his dead in the most solemn manner he possibly 

Upon which occasion a strange accident occurred at this time, 
very unusual and dissoiiaiit from the laws of tlie Grecians: for there 
was one Ceteus, who commanded them that came out of India, and 
fought with great resolution, but died in this battle; he left two 
wives behind him, who toilowed him all along during the campaign: 
one he had but lately married, the other had been ni^ wife for som« 
years bciore; and both loved their husband exceedingly. It had 
been an antient custom iu India for men and women to marry with 

Vol. 2. No. 44. yy 

346 DioDORUs 8icuLU». JBook XIX. 

their own mutual likings without consulting the adnce of their 
parents. And in regard that in those former times young people 
would rashly marry one another, and often repent after, as being 
deceived in their choice, many wives were corrupted, and thimigli 
their inordinate lusts fell in love with other men; and became thef 
could not with their credit and reputation leave them they first cbose, 
they would often poison their husbands; to the more ready elfectiiif 
of which thecountry'did not a little contribute, by bearing many and 
divers sorts of poisonous plants, some of which ever so little bruised and 
mixed either in meat or drink, certainly kill the party. This wid»A 
art growing still more and more prevalent, and many being d estro y ed 
by this means, and though several were punished for these pieces ef 
villany, yet othera would not be reclaimed, nor restrained fron the 

like practices: another law therefore was made That wives shoidd 

be burnt together with their dead husbands, except they were with 
child, or luid born children; and that she who would not observe the 
common law of the land, should remain a widow, and as one eon- 
victed of that impiety, should be excluded from all sacred rites, and 
all other benefit and privilege of the laws. Thb being thus esta- 
blished, henceforward this wickedness of the wives was changed into 
a contrary practice. For seeing that every wife, to avoid that inssf- 
fcrable disgrace, was voluntarily to die, they became not onlyearefal 
to preserve the health, and provide for the well-being of their hii»* 
bands, as that which was likewise their own preservatiott; but Ae 
wives strove one with another, as who slK>uld gain the highest pitch 
o( honour and reputation. An example of which fell out at thb 
time. For although by the law one only was to be burnt with the 
husband, yet at the funeral of Ceteus, both strove which shoald die^ 
as for some honourable re^iard of their virtue : whereupon the matter 
was brought before the generals for their decision. The yoonger 
declared, that tlie other was with child, and therefore her death could 
not satisfy the law: the elder pleaded, that it was a greater piece of 
justice, that she who was before the otiier in yean, should be prefer* 
cd before her in honour: for in all other cases the constant rule if 
to yield more honour and respect to the elder than to the yoni^ger. 
The captains being informed by the mtdwives that the elder was with 
child, preferred the younger before the other: upon which she lost 
her cause, went out weeping and wailing, renting her veil in pieees, 
and tearing her hair, as if some sod and dreadful news had been toM 
her. The other, rejoicing in the victory, made forthwith to the 
funeral pile, crowned by the women of her house with attires calle|l 
mitres^, and by her kindred brought forth most richly adorned^ nlo 

* Auires womcD used to wear, with Ubels banging i 

Chap. IL DIODORUS 8ICU1U9. 347 

some nuptial festival, setting forth her praises all along as th^y went, 
in songs fitted for that occasion. 

As soon as she came to the pile she threw off her attire, and distii-^ 
bated them amongst her servants and friends, leaving these behind 
her, as tokens of remembrances for them that loved her. Her attire 
was multitudes of rings upon her fingers, set with all manner of 
precious stones of divers colours. Upon her head were a great 
number of little golden stars, between which were placed sparkling 
stones of all sorts. About her neck she wore abundance of jewels, 
come small and others*large ; increasing by degrees in bigness as they 
were put on one after another. At length she took leave of all her 
fieimily and servants, and then her brother placed her upon the pile, 
and to the great admiration of the people, (who flocked thither to 
aee the sight), with an heroic courage she there ended her life. 

The whole army solemnly in their arms marched thrice round tbs 
pile before it was kindled: she in the mean time (disposing of her- 
self towards her husband's body) discovered not by any shrieks or 
otherwise, that she was at all daunted at the noise of the crackling 
flames, so that the spectators were afiected, some with pity, and 
others with admiration, and extraordinary commendation of her re- 
solution. However there are some who condemn this law as cruel 
and inhuman* 

After the funeral was over, Eumenes marched from Fareteceni to 
Gabene, which being yet untouched, was in a condition to supply 
the army with all things necessary, which was distant from Anti- 
gonus's army (going through the countries inhabited) five-aud- 
twenty days journey; but passing through the deserts, (where there 
is no water), it is but nine days journey; being thus far distant one 
from another, he there wintered, and so gave his army time to refresh 

As for the affairs of Europe, Cassander, while he lay at the siege of 
Tegsea, hearing of the return of Olympias into Macedonia, and of the 
death of Eurydice and king Philip, and what was done to the sepul- 
chre of loias his brother, agreed with the Tegseans, and marched 
with his army into Macedonia, leaving his confederates in great 
trouble and perplexity. For Alexander the son of Polyperchon was 
then entered Peloponnesus, and ready to set upon the cities with a 
great army. And the iEtolians, to ingratiate themselves with Olym- 
pias and Polyperchon, seized upon tlie strait passes at Pyl«, and 
blocked up the passage to stop Cassander in his march : but he per- 
ceiving that it was very difficult for him to force his way through 
those narrow straits, by tlie help of some ships and several boats out 


of Eubcea and Locris, passed over into Thessaly. And hearing that 
Polyperchon lay with his army in Perrhfiebia, he ordered away CalUtf 
his general^ with some forces to fight him. In the mean time Dinias 
being sent away to secure the straits of Perrhaebia^ possessed himself 
of those passes before the forces of Olympias could reach them. 

As soon as Olympias heard that Cassander was entering Macedonia 
with a great army, she created Aristonus general, and commanded 
him to fight Cassander. She herself, taVing along with her the soa 
of Alexander, and Roxana his mother, and Thessalonica the daughter 
of Philipthe son of Amyntas,Dcidamia the daughter of ^acidas king of 
Epirus, and sister to Pyrrhiis, (who afterwards made war upon the 
Romans), and the daughters of Attains, and other kindred and emi- 
nent relations, entered into Pydna, so thnt a great throng of people^ 
useless and unserviceable for war, attc^nded upon her. Neithei'waa 
there provision in that place sufficient for such a multitude, to hold 
out any long siege. All which disadvantages, though they were clear 
evidences of the greatness of the danger, yet she was resolved to stay 
here, expecting many Greeks and Macedonians to come in to lier 
assistance by sea. 

There were with her some horse from Ambracia, and many of the 
troops of the household; and the rest of Polyperchon's elephants: 
the others had been before taken by Cassander, at his former irrup* 
tion into Macedonia; who now having recovered the passes at 
Perrhsebia, so as that he had his way open to Pydna, beprt the 
town round with a mud wall from sea to sea; and sent for ship* 
ping, and all sorts of weapons and engines of battery from hit 
confederates, with a design to block up Olympias both by set and 

But when he had intelligence that i^lacidas king of Epirus was 
coming with a strong army to the relief of Olympias, he delivered 
some forces to the command of Atarchias, with orders to meet the 
Epirots, who presently executing what he was commanded, pOBsessed 
himself of the passes into Epirus, so that iEacidas was wholly defeated 
in his design. 

For the Epirots were forced against their wills to the expedition 
into Macedonia, and therefore mutinied in the camp: however, .£a- 
cidas, desirous by any way possible to relieve Olympias, cashiered all 
those that favoured not his design; taking in those who were willing 
to run the same risk with himself; he was indeed very forward to en* 
giige, but had not yet force enough ; for the party that stuck to him 
WHS very small. 

In the mean time the Epirots that were sent away into their own 

estop. JZ DIObORUS SICULU9. 399 

coontTj revolted from the king; tnd hb people, by aeomniOD decree 
of the sttte, btoished him the kingdom, and confederated with Gas- 
siinder ; Hke to which never before happened in Ejpimf ^ 6om the time 
that Neoptolemns the son of Achilles reigned there. For the kingdom 
ever descended from the father bj right <rf succession to the son, tiff 
this time. 

Wlien Cassander was thus supported by the confederaey of the ^ 
l^rots, and *lmd sent Lyciscus both as general and viceroy into 
E|»rus, they in Macedonia, who before were at a stand whether 
dvey should confoderate with Olympias or not, now, (seebgfto bopee 
lemaining for the retrieving her aflhirs), joined with Cassander. 8f> 
d»t now the only prop remaining to rely upoii for rdief was Poly- 
perchoo,«and thb was presently in'a strange manner ahettered and 
broken in pieces; for when Callas, who was sent as general bf 
Cassander, sat down with his army near to Polyperchon in Perrfass* 
bia, he so corrupted most of his soldiers widi hnge bribes^ that veij 
few remained, especially of those that were looked upon to be most 
ftithful: and thus low were the affiurs of Olympias sunk in^ a verf 
short time. 

As for the afiairs of Asia at tlm time, Antigonus then wintering in 
Gadamah's, otherwbe Gadarlb, looking upon his army too weak for 
iiie en^my, contriving how to fall upon tiiem unawares, and td out- 
wit them. Eumenes's soldiers were so scattered and dbpersed ift 
dbeir winter-quarters, that some of them were six days mardi dbtaot 
one from another. But A nrigonos judged it not advisable to march 
Arough the countries that were inhabited, imth in r^ard the 
journey would be very long and tedious, and likewise presently 
known to the enemy, but conceived it much more tar hb sMlvantage 
to lead his army through the dry and barren deserts, though it 
were far more troublesome, for that it was much the shorter eutf 
and by that means hb march would be secret, and so he might 
fell upon the enemy suddenly and unexpectedly^ as they lay dis- 
persed and scattered in their quarters, never dreaming of any sudi 

Upon these considerations he commanded his soldiers to be r^y 
for a march, and to prepare for themselves ten days victuals, such 
as need not the fire. He himself gave it out that he would march 
through Armenia: but on a sudden, contrary to the expectation of 
his whole army, in the depth of winder*, he marched towards the 
deserts. In their march he ordered fires to be made in the day, but 
to be put^ut !a the night, lest that any seeing them far off frOm the 

♦ The winter tropic. 


mountains^ might discover his approach to the ciieoiy: fbr the 
desert was almost entirely plain and champaign, snrroonded witk 
many high hills, from whence it was easy to discover the fires 
from a great distance off. But when the army had spent five dap 
in this tedious journey, the soldiers, for very cold^ as for other 
necessary uses, fell to making of fires by night as well as by 
day; which some of the inhabitants of the wilderness espying, 
they immediately, on the very same day, sent away messeagcis 
upon dromedaries, to give intelligence thereof to Eomenes and 
Peucestcs. This beast will commonly run fifteen bundled far-» 
longs* a day. 

Pencestes being informed that the enemy^s army was seen half 
way of their march, began to think of running away as far as he 
cooldf, being afraid the enemy would be upon him before he ceold 
get the forces together, from every quarter where they then lay dis« 
persed. Eumcnes perceiving the fright he was in, bid him be of 
good heart, and continue upon the edge of the wilderness, for he 
had found out a way that Antigonus should not comt into thoso 
parts in three or four days. And having done that, they shonid be 
able within that time easily to get all their forces together; and so 
the enemy being tired out, and starved for want of provisions, wouU 
all fall into their hands. Ail wondered at this strange undertakings 
and every one was earnest to learn what it was that should give a 
stop to the enemy. Eumenes hereupon commanded all the captains 
and soldiers that were then at hand, to follow him with a great DiUB-i 
ber of urns full of fire, and then chose out some of the highest groani 
in the country, which looked every way towards the wilderness, and 
there marked out several places, within the compass of seventy 
furlongs, and allotted to every captain a |)ost distant about twenty 
cubits one from another, with command to kindle a fire in the n^ght 
in every place; and at the first watch to make the greater fires, as 
if they were then still upon the guard, and going to supper and 
refreshing themselves; at the second, that the fires should be less; 
and at the third to be left nearly out and extinct; that so at a dis- 
tance it might seem as if the army were certainly there encamped 

The soldiers observing the order given them, some of the inha* 
bitants of ttie mountains over against them (friends to Python, the 
governor of Media) perceived the fire, and supposing the army was 
really there encamped, ran down into the plain, and informed both 

* Two hundred miles, or tliercabouts. 
t To the utoiOAt bounds of ihcir wiutcr quarterSi 


Python and Antigonns; who being amazed^ (and as it were tlimider- 
struck at this strange and unexpected news) made a lialt, and 
consulted with those that brought them the news^ what coarse was 
best to be taken. For men tliat were tired out, and in want of every 
thing that was necessary, to engage with an enemy prepared and 
furnished with plenty of all sorts of provisions, was alledged to be a 
desperate and hasardous adventure. Concluding therefore that they 
were betrayed, and that the forces of the enemy were drawn together, 
(upon intelligence given them of what was designed), it was re- 
solved not to march forward, but turn aside to the right; and so 
the army moved into both parts of the countries inhabited, to the 
end that the soldiers might refresh themselves after their toilsome 

In the mean time, Eumencs having by this stratagem thus de- 
luded the enemy, got all his army together from all parts where 
they were in their winter-quarters, and fortifying his camp widi a 
janpart and a deep trench, he there recrived his confederates as 
they came in lo him, and plentifully fumtsfaed his camp with all things 

But Antigomis, after he had marched through the desert, reeeiviny 
intelligence from the inhabitants that the rest of Eumenes'a fiMreeit 
had almost all come to him, but that his elephants, coming out of 
Aeir winter stations, were not far off, with a very slender guanl^ 
sent o«t two thousand horse lanceteers, two hundred Tarentines, 
and aH his light-armed foot to intercept them : hr by setting upon 
Aem as they were without a sufficient guard, he hoped he might 
easily nuJce himself master of them; and so deprive tlie enemy 
of the main strength of his army. But Enmenes fearing the worst 
tbat might happen upon tliat account, sent away (for a further 
guard) five hundred of his best horse, and three thousand light- 
armed foot« 

As soon as Antigonus's soldiers came in sight, the commanders of 
the elephants drew them into a square, in the form of a tile, and 
placed the carriages in the middle, and so marched on. They were 
supported in the rear with no more than four hundred horse. The 
enemy then pouring in all their force upon them, and pushing on 
still with great violence, the horse in the rear being overpowered^ 
made away. The masters of the elephants stood for some tim^ 
galled with darts and arrows on every side, not able to damage or touch 
the enemy. And now, when they were just ready to give up all, the 
Eumeneans unexpectedly arrived, aqd extricated them out of all their 
dangers, A few days after, the armies encamped within forty furlongs 

352 moDORUS siculus. Book XIX. 

of each other; and now being about to lay all at stake, both sidei 
prepared for action. 

Antigonus drew up his horse in two wings, and committed the 
left to Python, and the right to hb son Demetrius, where he himself 
intended to charge; the foot was in the middle battle, and all the 
elephants he placed in front of the whole army, interlined with light- 
armed men. His whole army was twenty-two thousand foot, and nine 
thousand horse, besides those that were listed in Media; and sixty-fife 

When Eumenes understood that Antigonus had placed himself in 
the right wmg, with the best of his horse, he himself fronted him 
with the choicest of his own, in the left; for here he placed most 
of the governors of the provinces, with the best of that horse which 
they themselves brought into the field; and with these he ventured 

In this wing too was Mithridates, son of Ariobarzanes, descended 
from one of those seven Persians who slew Smerdis, one of the Magiy 
a man of exemplary valour, and brought up in the feats of war from 
his very youth. In front of this wing he placed sixty of his best 
elephants, drawn up in form of a half-moon, interlined with light- 
armed men. 

As to the foot, the targeteers were placed in the front, then the 
Argyraspides, and in the rear all the foreigners, and those that were 
armed after the manner of the Macedonians, and so many elephants 
and light armed men were placed in front of the main battle of foot 
as was thought sufficient. In the right wing were drawn up such 
horse and elephants as were judged the most weak and feeble of all 
the rest, over which Philip was appointed commander, with orden 
to retire leisurely as he fought, and diligently to observe the event of 
the other side. 

Eumcncs's army amounted to thirty-six thousand and seven hun« 
dred foot, six thousand and fifty horse, and a hundred and fourteen 

A little before the battle, Antigenes, general of the Argyraspides, 
had sent a Macedonian horseman to the enemy's plialanx, with 
command to ride up as close to them as he possibly could, and pro- 
claim with a loud voice what he had ordered him. Hereupon, when 
|ie was come up wjtbin hearing of that part of the army where 
Antigonus's Macedonian phahmx was drawn up, he cried out with a 
loud voice, thus — Oh ye villains ! ye fight against your fathers, who 
ventured their lives, aud performed all those noble acts with Philip 
and Alexander, whom you shall sliortly experience to be men worthy 

iJhap. IT. : moDOMXJs sictrLus. 85S 

iMost kiDg% andtiiote former conqutsts !,,jnie yoongei t of t h ^Aigy* 
«B8pide» At tbat rime were at least dirae icoie yeiK'tfage^ ^ 
the rest were seventy^ and aome older; all of them for itreogdi and 
akiU is their wea|ioii8 aneonqaeiable: for cooiiataal pntticeof liidr 
arms had Mule them expert; and dariog; \\,v.:- . :... . 

Proclamadon beiog made^ as we have before said^ there weremaoy 
i&arsh words aiid di^eootented speeches cast oat ia Aodgooos's aittiy. 
That they should be forced to fight against thdr own coiuttrjmMit 
and with men that were so much <rider than themselves, lo-Eome* 
nes's army, on the other hand, they were contimiaHy crying out, 
while the army was drawing op, to be led oot against the enemy; 
\Somenes seeing the alacrity of the soldiers, Hfted up the ensign of 
battle, upon which forthwith the trumpets sonnded a chaige, and die 
whole army set i)p a shout for the onset. The elephants in the fiml 
place fought one with another; then the horse charged oa bodi 
aides. The field Was very large, sandy, and wafte, so that ao mneh 
dust was raised by the trampUng of tlw hones, as that a man could - 
not see what was done, though but at a small distance frmn him: 
which Antigonus observing, immediately sent away some Mediaii 
borse, and a body of Tarentines^ to set upon the baggage of tba 

For be hoped by lessoo of the dost that was raised (as the diillf !n 
trudi prmred) that they would not be discerned, and that if he' got 
possession of the carriages, he should easily bring the whole army into 
his power. Hereupon those that were sent forth secredy slipping by 
the enemy's wing, set upon the pages, scullion boys* and others thai 
were with the baggage, and about five furkmgs diMnt from th e pl ae a 
of battle. . . 

There they found a multitude of useless and unservieesble nbblCj 
and a very small guard in the phure, so that they were presently put 
to flight, and the rest all fell into the enemy's bands. lu the mean 
time, Antigonus charging the enemy with a strong body of horse, s» 
terrified Peucestes, governor of Persia, that he^ with his hofse, got 
oot of the dust, and drew fifteen hundred more after him. But 
£umenes, though be was left but with a very few in the outskirts of 
the wing where he was, yet accounted it base to flag or fly; judging 
it more honourable to be faithfuPto his word^ in the quarrel of the ' 
kings, and to die in an honest and just cause with resolution, made a 
fierce charge upon Antigopus; so that now there was a sharp dispute 
between the horse; where the £umeneana excelled the others in 
heat and resolution^ but the Antigonians tbem in number; and many 
fell on both sides. At which time the elephants fighting one with 
another, the leader on £umenes*s side engaging with one of the 

Vol. 2. No. 44. zi 

354 DI0D0RU8 SICULUt. Book XIX. 

stoutest of the other, was there slain. Hereupon, Eumeaes pcrceivw 
ing his horse to be worsted on every hand, withdrew with the rest of 
the horse oat of the fight, and passed over to the other wing, and 
jmned himself to tliose with Philip, whom he had ordered to make 
a leisurely retreat. And thus ended the engagement between the 

But as to the foot, the Argyraspides (or silver shields) in a full body 
flew with that violence upon the enemy, that they killed some upon 
the spot, and put the rest to flight, for they were not to be withstood; 
who, though they engaged with the enemy's main battle, yet they 
signalized both their valour and dexterity to Chat degree, that they 
killed above five thousand without the loss of one man, and pot 
the whole foot to flight, though they were hx more in number than 

When Eumenes understood that all the carriages were taken^ 
and that Peueestcs was not far ofl* with the horse, he endeavoured to 
rally them all again, and to try their fortune in a second ^gngcment 
with Antigonus : for he concluded, if he prevailed he should not only 
recover his own carriages, but likewise possess himself of the enemy's : 
but Peucestes would not hear of fighting any more, but got farther 
off", so that Eumenes was forced to yield the day. 
' Then Antigonus dividing his horse into two bodies, he himself with 
one sought how to entrap Eumenes, observing which way he made; 
the other he delivered to Python, with orders to fall upon the Aigy* 
raspides, who were then forsaken by their horse; who forthwith setting 
.upon them, as he was commanded, the Macedonians drew ap in form 
of a square, and got safe to the river, exckiming against F^eestes, 
as the cause of the routing of the horse. 

When Eumenes came up to them in the evening, they consulted 
together what was then best to be done. The governors of the pro- 
vinces were for returning with all speed into the higher provinces; 
but Eumenes was for staying where they were and fighting, in regard 
the enemy's main battle was broken and cut ofi; and that they were 
then equal in horse on both sides. But the Macedonians seeing that 
they had lost their carriages, wives and children, and all that was dear 
to them, declared they would neither do the one nor the other. And 
so at that time they parted without agreeing in any thing. But after- 
wards the Macedonians secretly corresponding with Antigonus, seised 
and delivered Eumenes into his hands. And having received their 
carriages, and faith taken for security, they all marched away toge- 
ther ; whose example the governors of the provinces, and most of the 
other captains and soldiers followed, forsaking their general^ chiefly 
consulting their own safety and preservation. 


AntigoDus having thus strangely and unexpectedly possessed him- 
self both of Eumenes and his whole army^ seized upon Antigenes^ 
captab of the Argyraspides^ aad pot him alive into a coffin, and burnt 
him to ashes. He likewise put Eiidamus to death, who brought the 
elephfmts out of India; and Celbanus, and some others; who appeared 
against him on all occasions. But Eumenes he put in prison, and took 
time to consider how to dispose of him; for he had in truth a great 
desire to have gained so good si general to his own interest, and to have 
obliged him upon that account ; but because of the great kindness and 
strict correspondence which passed between him and Olympias, and 
the kings, he durst not absolutely rely upon him; for but a while 
before, though he had delivered him out of the straits he was in at 
Kora in Phrygia, yet he shortly after fell in and sided with the kings; 
and therefore upon the pressing importunities of the Macedonians he 
put him to death. But in respect of his former familiarity with him, 
he caused his body to be burnt, and his bones to be put into an urn, 
and delivered to his nearest friends. Amongst those that were 
wounded and prisoners was Hieronymus of Cardia, historiographer, 
who having been ever in great esteem with Eumenes during hb life, 
alter his death found great favour also with Antigonus. 

Antigonus returning into Media with his whole army, spent the 
ftst of the winter in a town not far from Ecbatana, where^tbe palace- 
voyal of that province stood. He distributed his army here and there 
all over the province, and especially in the country of Rhages; so 
called from the calamities it had miserably suffered in formeftimes. 
For being heretofore full of rich and populous cities, such terrible 
earthquakes happened in those paru, that both cities and inhabitants 
were swallowed up together, not one left, and the very face of the 
country was so changed, that new rivers and ponch appeared in the 
loom of the old. 

356 OIODORirS SIC ULU9. r Book XJOL 

CHAP, m. 

ZTiff inundaiions at Rhodes. Aniigcfmis kills Python, getting 
him into his power by dissimulation. Then he marches into 
Persia. BevoUers from Awtigomu cuJt qff im AMia. He cfi? 
vides the provinces of Ana, and contrives to destroy all the Ar^ 
gyraspides. Gets great treasure m Snsa. Cassander besieges 
Olympias in Pydna: the great distress to which it was redsieedf 
AmphipoUs surrendered to Cassander. He kiUs Olympias. Mat^ 
ries Tlhfssalonica: builds Cassandriia. Imprisons Roxanamsi' 
her son Alexander. His expedition into Peloponnesus aguins^, 
Alexander the son of Pofyperchon. The histosy cf ThAeu 
Cassander rebuilds Thebes. 

ABOUT this time happened a flood near the eity of Rhodes^ wUeh 
destroyed many of the inhabitants. The first flood did little piqa* 
dice^ because the city was then but newly built^ and far Inger in 
compass; but the second was more mischievous, and destroyed mul- 
titudes* The last happened at the beginning <tf the springy accoDr 
panied with violent storms of rain, and hail-stQoes ot an inciedibk 
bigness; for they were a mina in weight, and sometimes anore, wn 
that they not only beat down houses, but killed many men. And b 
regard Rhodes was built in the form of a theatre, and that the ^ 
ran for the most part into one place, the lower parts of the city i 
presently filled with water: for, the winter being now looked opop 
to be over, no care was taken to cleanse tlie channels and aqoedocta; 
and the pipes likewise in the walls were choaked up; so that the 
waters flowing in altogether on a sudden, all the ground about the 
Digma^, (as it is called), and the temple of Bacchus, was filled with 
water; and it now rising up like a standing pond to the temple of 
iEsculapius, all were in a consternation, and could not agree toge* 
tlicr what sliouid be done, in order ta their preservation. Some were 
for making to tlie ships, and others for hastening to the theatre. 
Some now almost surrounded with the evil that threatened them, in 
great terror and amazement climbed up to the top of the highest al* 
tars, and others to the top of the pedestals of the statues* The city 
being in this danger to be overwhelmed and ruined, with all its in- 
habitants, on a sudden they were unexpectedly delivered: for the 

* Some luouiHDcnt in tb« towo, in memorj of tome rtatrkibls cttai; 
either good or bad* 


sa:sessssssSBsasaBBss!^ , ' .jufi ii i i aaggg»aa— eaKgagge 

wall bunt asunder, making a large breach, and the water, which be- 
fore stood in a flood, made its way through, and ran with a violent 
current into the sea, and so every one presently had free passage to 
hb own house. 

It was of great advantage to these distressed people that this 
inundation was in the day-time: for most of the citizens ran to the 
higher parts of the city for shelter. And another advantage was^ 
that the houses were not built of tile, but of stone; so that those 
who got to the house-tops escaped without any great damage : how« 
ever, there perished in this common calamity above five hundred 
souls; and some of the houses were borne down to the ground, and 
ethers-much damaged and shaken. And in this danger was Rhodes. 

Antigonus, while he wintered in Media, discovered Python plot- 
ting to draw over the soldiers, then in tlieir winter-quarters, partly 
by bribes, and partly by fair promises, to his own interest, and to 
make a turn and defection in thearmy. But Antigonus covered and 
concealed his design, and pretended to give no credit to the in- 
formers, but tb chide them as those that contrived only to stt him 
and Python at variance together. In the mean time, he caused it to 
be nobed abroad — ^That be intended to leave Python, with a consi- 
derable army for his defence, lord-lieutenant of ihe higher provinces; 
and he wrote likewise to Python, and desired him to hasten to him 
with all speed, that, after tliey had consulted together on some 
weighty aflblrS) they might forthwith march away into the Lesser Asia. 
Thus he managed his business, thereby to remove all ground of sus- 
picion, and to get the poor man into his hands, upon an expectattoa 
and hopes to be left governor of thos^ provinces : for it was a diflEn 
cult matter to take one by force who bad been in such great repute 
with Alexander, and for his valour advanced by him to places of bo- 
Bour; and who, being then governor of Media^ was a help and sup- 
port to (he whole army. 

Python was at that time in the farthest parts of all Media, In his 
winter-quarters, and had now corrupted many, who had promised to 
join with him in the defection. His friends likewbe acquainting him 
by their letters with Antigonus's purpose, gave him an expectation 
of mighty things: and thus deceived, he went to Antigonus; who, 
having now seized his prey, brought him before a council of war, even 
of hb own confederates, where he was easUy convicted, and forthwith 
had his head cut off. 

Hereupon Antigonus, gathering all his army together, committed 
tlie government of Media to Orontobates, a Median born; but made 
Hippostratus general of the army, who had three thousand five hun- 
dred foreign foot-soldiers under his command. He himself, takiog 


with him the body of his army, went to Ecbatanty wbert mmraig 
five thousand talents of massy silver, he marched into Pom; and 
it coat him twenty days march before he arrived «t the cqiital ditf 

In the mean time, while Antigonus was on his inarchy Pjftbon's 
friends, who were concerned with him in the oonqriracy^ (iIm chief 
of whom was Meleager and Menetas), and other well-wbbciB of 
Eumenes and Python, who were scattered abroad into comeiv, SMl 
together, to the number of eight hundred horse; and in the fifst ] 
wasted the territories of the Medes, who refused to join with i 
Then, receiving intelligence where Hippostrates and Orontobatca hf 
encamped, they broice in upon them in the night, and were ttCt tu 
Arom effecting what they designed; but being overpowered by i 
bers, and having only enticed a few of the soldiers to join with t 
they were forced to retreat; yet some of the nimblest of them (all 
being horsemen) made many sudden incursions upon the eountrf, 
and caused a great consternation and confusion amongst them 9 bol 
they were at last enclosed in a place compassed about with rodu^adl 
were there all hilled or taken. But Meleager, and Cranes the Me- 
dian, and some of the better sort of them, stood it oat to the lasfy and 
died with their swords in their hands. And thb was the cobditioa^f 
the conspirators in Media. 

As for Antigonus, when he came into Persia, the people hoDoared 
him as a king, and he that was now undoubtedly absolute lord of all 
Asia. There calling together a council of his nobility, he propounded 
to them the matter concerning the government of the proviooes: ia 
which consultation they left Carmania to TIepolemos, and Bactria la 
Stasanor; for it was no easy matter to expel them, having gained tlia 
hearts of the people by their fair deportment, and likewise were as- 
sociated with potent confederates. Eritus he sent into Aria; who 
dying shortly after, was succeeded by Evagoras, a man of wonderfol 
valour and prudence. Oxyartes likewise, the fiither of Rotana^ was 
permitted to enjoy the province of Paropamisus, as he did belbre; for 
neither could he eject him without a long expense of time and a vcrf 
great army. 

But he sent for Siburtius, a well-wisher of his, out of Arachon^ 
and bestowed upon him the government of that province, and | 
him the most turbulent of the silver shields, under colour of 1 
him in the war, but in truth with a design to have them all cat off) 
for he gave him private instructions to employ them in such 1 
as that by degrees they might all be destroyed. Amoi^st these ^ 
those that betrayed Eumenes, that vengeance might in a short 1 
after overtake these perfidious villaios for their Ireaeheiy gainst their 


i—aaa— aaBBgaae , ' ,' ^ ' n 

feoenkl. For princes, by reason of their great power, may reap ad* 
▼antager by the wicked acts of others; but private men who are the 
•ctoifey for the most part, are by those means brought into miserable 

Antigonus moreover, finding that Peucestes was much beloved 
in Persia, made it one of his first pursuits to deprive him of that go« 
vemment. At "which all the nativesv greatly repined5 and a chief 
man amongst them, called Thespias, spoke openly against it^ and 
said«.That the Persians would be governed by no other man but 
Peucestes: whereupon Antigonus slew Thespias, and made Asde* 
piodorus governor of Persia, and committed to him a considerable 
army; and he held on Peucestes with vain hopes of conferring upon 
him higher preferments elsewhere, until he had drawn him quite out^ 
of the country. 

While Antigonus was on his way to Susa, XenophiluS, who had 
the keeping of the king's treasure there, bein^ sent by Seleucus, went 
and met him at Pteittgris, and ofiered him his service iu whatsoever 
be pleased to command iiim. Antigonus received him very gra« 
ciously, and seemed as if he honoured him above all the friends he 
had, fearing lest he might alter bis mind, and keep him out when he 
eame thither. But when he came into the castle of Susa, he pos* 
sessed himself of it, and there seized upon the golden vine, and store 
of other such rarities, to the value of fifteen thousand talents: all 
which he turned into ready money, besides what he made of crowns 
of gold, and other presents and spoils taken from the enemy, amount- 
ing to five thousand talents more, and a like quantity collected out of 
Media, besides the treasure had from Susa; so that in the whole he 
heaped tc^ether five-and-twenty thousand talents. And thus stood 
die affairs of Antigonus at that time. 

Since we have treated of the afiisiirs of Asia, we shall now pass over 
into Europe, and relate what was done there concurring and cotem- 
porary with the former. Cassander hanng shut up Olympias in 
Pydna in Macedonia, could not assault the walls by reason of the 
winter season ; but he blocked up the city with his forces on every^ 
side, and dr%w a mud-wall from sea to sea; and, to prevent all re- 
lief by sea as well as by land, he guarded the mouth of the harbour 
with his own shipping: insomuch that their provisions being almost 
spent, the besieged were reduced to that extremity of want, that they 
were nearly starved; for they were brought to that strait, that every 
soldier was allowed but five chcenices* of bread-corn every month, 
and the elephants were fed with saw-dust. At last they killed the 
.draught-beasts and horses for meat.^ 

* AboMt scTea qnarts and bftlf a piut 


While the city was in this state^and Olymptas earnestly expecting 
foreign aid^ the elephants pined away for want of food. And the 
horsemen that were foreigners almost all died^ having no proportioa 
of bread allotted them, and many of the other soldiers fared no better. 
Some of the barbarians, (hunger overcoming what nature would have 
other wbe dreaded and abhorred), fed upon the carcasses of the 

The town being now filled with dead bodies, the colonels and cap* 
tains of the king's guard buried some, and threw others over the walls; 
insomuch, as not only the queens, (who were bred up delicately dl 
their days), but even the soldiers, who were always inured to hard* 
ships, could not endure the sight nor stink of the carcasses. 

AuA now the spring came on, and the famine increased every day, 
whereupon most of the soldiers came up in a body, and entreated O* 
lympias to suffer them to leave the place because of the scarcity^ who 
(not being able to supply them with bread, nor in a condition to 
raise the siege), let them go; and they were all kindly received by 
Cassander, and disposed of into several towns and cities round about* 
For he hoped that the Macedonians coming to understand by them 
how weak Olympias was> would conclude her affiiirs desperate and 
without remedy. And he did not miss the mark in his conjecture! 
for they who were just now sending relief to the besieged^ presendy 
altered their purpose, and sided with Cassander. Only Aristoous and 
Monimus, of all the Macedonians continued firm and faithful to 
Olympias, of whom Aristonus was governor of Amphipolis^ and the 
other of Pella. At length Olympias perceiving that many went over 
to Cassander, and those who were her friends were not able to help 
her; without further delay got ready a galley of five oars on a bank^ 
with a design to rescue herself and all her kindred out of the present 
danger: but being discovered to the enemy hysooieof the descrteiSi 
Cassander sailed to the place and seized the vessel. Whereapon 
Olympias looking upon herself in a desperate condition, sent an 
herald to Cassander to treat upon terms of pacification; but he in« 
sisting upon the delivering up of herself to his mercy, with much ado 
she at length prevailed only for the preservation of her person. Be- 
ing therefore now possessed of the city, he sent some away tosanunoo 
Fella and Amphipolis. 

Monimus the governor of Pella hearing how things went mth O- 
lympias, presently surrendered; but Aristonus at first resolved to 
hold out and maintain the cause of the kings, in regard he had a 
strong garrison, and had been then lately prosperous and successfol. 
For a few days before he had fought with Crate vas, one of Cassander'a 
captains, and cut off many of the eueiny^ and drove Cratevas himsclft 

vith two thoumul of bis inent into the c^ty Bodys in BiiaUuis •nd 
there be^uigod hun» took faiin^ luid dis^med hiis, aod tben^ upoo mu- 
tual pMgesjid £uth gtvci) aod taken, discharged him. 3ei(ig^Q- 
cottia^ upw thia account, and not knowing b|it that Eumeoes.waa 
still living, and concluding that he should be sur^jai aid and falicf 
from AleiMUHiqr aad Poljperchon, he refused t9 surrender Am- 
. jpfaipolis. 

But as soon as he received letters from Olymplftii (whi^reby abe 
.commanded him, upon the £uth of hi^ former engagement,! |)q rasioiv 
.^e city), he observed her commands, and deVvered it up, upoa aa* 
aurauce of his own preservation. But Cassandera perceiving that ba 
avas a man of great interest, by reason of the honours conferred qpon 
iiim by Alexander, and determining to tak^ all such out of the way as 
noight he in a capacity to make any disturbance, by tlie help of Cn» 
tevas's kindred, he put him also to death. Thep he incited die ra* 
latioos of such as were put to d^^ath by Olympias to prosecute h«r ia 
l)ie general assembly of the Macedonians, who thereupon ytry readily 
complied with what they were desired to dp; and, though she her* 
self was not then present, nor had any person there tp plead bar 
j^ause, yet the Macedonians condemned her* to die. -Cas^ander there- 
4ipon sent some of his friends tp Olympias, and advised her to gd 
oat of the way, and promised to procure for her a ship, and to cause 
bar to be conveyed safe to Athens. And this h^ did not for her pro* 
*aervation, but that, as one conscious of her own guilt by her flighty ic 
ipight be judged a just vengeance upon her if she was cut off aa sbp 
was 00 her voyage: for he was afraid as. wi^) of the fickle dispoajr 
tbn of the Macedoniaos,.as of the dignity of her perspn. But Qlyoi* 
pias refused to fly, and said — She was ready to defend ber cauae ba- 
fore all the Macedonians. 

Cassaoder therefore^ fearing lest the people, calling Ip mind 4nb 
worthy acts and kindnesses of Philip and Aiexaoder towards the whole 
fiation, should change their minds, and so take upon them tp defend 
the queen, sent to her a band of two hundred soldieni well armed and 
accoutred, with orders to despatch lier forthwith $ who rushipg pn a 
sudden Into tlie palace, as soon as they saw her, (in r^verepce to her 
person), drew back, without executing what they were commanded. 
But the kindred of those she had put to death, both to ingratiate 
themselves with Cassander, and likewise togratify.tbeir own revenge 
for the death of their relations, cut her throat, she not in the least 
crying out in any womanish terror or fear to spare her. In thia 
manner died Olympias, the greatest and most honourable woman ia 
the age wherein she lived, daughter of Neoptolcmus, king of Epirus; 
Vou2. No. 44. AAA 


sister of Alexander*^ who made the expedition into Italy; wife of 
Philip, the greatest and most victorious prince of all that ever were 
before in Europe; and lastly, the mother of Alexander^ who nefcr 
was exceeded by any for the many great and wonderfial things that 
were done by him. 

Cassander now seeing all things go on according to his heart's 
desire, in his hopes and expectations was already possessed of the 
kingdom of Macedon: he therefore now married Thessaloinei» 
daughter of Philip, and sister of Alexander by the same fiither^ am* 
bitious to be related in affinity, and esteemed as one of the royal ftp 
mily. He built likewise Cassandria, (calling it after his own name), 
in Pellene, and peopled it with inhabitants drawn out of the dtiei 
of the Chersonesusf, and out of Potideea, and many other iaeigl^ 
bouring cities, and placed there likewise those Olynthians that wen 
left, of whom there were still a considerable number. To tfiii 
city he joined a large and rich territory, and made it his earnM ene 
to advance the glory and splendour of this place; so that it grew op 
in a short time to that degree of power, as to excel all the cities of 

Cassander likewise, resolving to cut off all the posterity of AIcx^ 
ander, (that there might be none of his line left to succeed in the 
kingdom), purposed to kill the son of Alexander, and Wwiana hii 
mother. But for the present^, being willing first to observe what 
people's discourses were concerning the cutting off of OlympiaSy and 
having as yet no certain account how things went with Antigomii 
he committed Roxana and her son close prisoners to the castle at 
Amphipolis, under the charge of Glaucias, then by him made ga- 
vernor, and one of his friends, in whom he placed great coofldeace* 
He likewise took away from the young king those children that were 
bred up with him as his companions, and ordered that he shoold be 
no longer attended as a king, nor regarded otherwise than as a ptt* 
vate person. 

And now ruling the kingdom in all things as king» he royally ai 
sumptuously interred Eurydice and Philip, the late king and qncen^at 
Mgis ; and Cinna, whom Alcetas had put to death, gracing the dead 
with the solemnity of funeral s^xirts and plays. 

Then he raised soldiers out of Macedonia for the expedition rs- 
solved upon into Peloponnesus. While he was employed in thcK 
affairs, Polyperchon, who was then besieged in Naxos, in PenhoeUiy 
when he heard of the death of Olympias^ in despair of retrferiog his 

* Sister of AlcMuder. tliat u, TynhoM^ 
f The Cbersonef us •( PclIenc ia Duaca. 


affitffi io Macedmia^ with a few in bis company, broke out of the 
€iJ^, and iwsied through Thessaly^ together with iEaeidas, and caoM 
into JBtolia^ where be judged he might safely abide^ and observe how . 
things went, because there was a good ondentaodiog between him 
and that nation* 

Bat Cassander having now nosed a considerable annyt marched 
out of Macedonia with an intent to drive Alexander the aop <tf Fo^- 
peichon out of Peloponnesus: for he with his army was the only 
enemy kft^ «nd had possessed himself of many convenient posts and 
towns there. ThroughThessaly he marched without any opposition { 
but fimnd the pass at Pylai guarded by the ^tolians^ whom having 
widi mnch difficulty beaten off^ he came into BoeotU^ where^ getting 
all the Thebans together that were remaining from all parts, he set 
about re-pecf ling of Thebes, conceiving that now he bad a fair op- 
portumty put into his hands for the rebuilding of that city, famous 
both ibr its* renowned acUonis, and the antient stories concerning^ it. 
And by so good a work he concluded he should reap the fruit of an 
immortal fiune and glory. 

This dtj had felt very many changes and turns of fortune, and 
Aose to the utmost eitremity, being sometimes in danger of being 
rased to the ground. Of which to say something briefly will not be 
any foreign digression. 

After Deucalion's flood, when Cadmus had built the citadel, called 
Klwfm^ after his own name, the people called Spartans, or Sparsans, 
fledied thith^ in droves, called so by some because they flocked to- 
gether from all places; othtn called them Thebigens*, because the 
natives of Thebes were forced away by the flood, and duipersed here 
and there up and down in the country. When these were again re- 
lumed, they were afterwards expelled by force of arpis by the £n- 
chdensians, and then even Cadmus himself was forced to fly to the 
Dlyrians. After this, when Amphion and Zethus ruled^ and there 
first built the city, (as the poetf says). 

Who fim Tbttbct' wftllt with mvm piltm did nbt. 

The inhabitants were again expelled when Polydorus, the son of 
Cadmus, returned into the kingdom, where all things were then 
carelessly managed, by reason of the sad condition of Amphioo| for 
die loss of all his children. 

Then again in the time of the reign of his posterity}, (when all 
the country was called Boeotia, from one Bceotus, the sori of Mela* 

• Boro at Thebet. t Homer. 

X Bit Mven foni md stven daughters by Niohe were killed b/ Jepiter e&d Diana 
with ^rrowi.«*»Pa«i. im Bm^ DM. lib. 4, 

^ The petterity of Polyderai. 


nippe and Neptune, who reigned there), the Thebans were ejcpelled 
the third time by the Epigoni* of Argos, when they took the dty by 
force. Those that escaped of them who were expelled Sed to Alal- 
comen® and the mountain Tilfossius; but, after the death of these 
Argives, they returned into their own country. 

In the time of the Trojan war, when the Tliebans were tn Asia, 
these who stayed at home, together with other Bceotians, were ex- 
pelled by the Pclasgians : and after they had endured many and Tarion^ 
calamities in the course of near four generations, (according to the 
Oracle relating to the crowsf) they returned, and inhabited Thebes^ 

From this time this city continued in a state of prosperity ncaily 
eight luindred jrears. And the Thebans at the beginning bad the chief 
command over all the rest of their country. 

Afterwards when they attempted to be sovereign lords of all Greece^ 
Alexander the son of Philip took it by storm, and razed if 16 the 
ground. In the twentieth year next after, Cassander, to make him- 
seif famous, and advance his own reputation, so far prevailed with the 
Boeotians for their concurrence, as that ho rebuilt the city, and 
restored it to those Thebans that were then renviining of the old 
stock. Many of the Greek cities afforded their assistance to the re* 
building of this place, out of compassion to the distressed cendhion 
of the Thebans> and the antient fame and glory of the eh^. The 
Athenians built tlie greatest part of the walls, and others assisted ac- 
cording to their several abilities; and contributions were seat not 
only from all parts of Greece,, but from some both in Sicily and Italy. 
And thus the Thebans came to be restored to the antient seiat of theil 
ancestors. Tlien Cassander moved with his army towanb Pelopon* 
nesus; and when he found that Alexander the son of Pelyperchen 
had fortified the isthmus with strong guards, he turned aMdeto Me- 
gara; and there he fitted out some boats, and in them transported 
his elephants to Epidaurus, and the rest of his army in ^other ships. 
Thence coming to Argos, he forced them to quit their confederacy 
with Alexander, and join with Iiim. Aften^'ards he brought over to 
him all the cities and towns, with the territories, of Messenia, exee[ft 
Ithonle; and Hermonidcs he took in upon articles of agreeknenir bUI 
iipon Alexander's marching down to fight, he left two thousand men 
at Geraniat, near the isthmus, uuder the command of IVloIycns^ and 
returned into Macedonia. 

* The postt*ruy of the seven captains who besieged Tbebc»h 

t This story of the crows is — That th« oracle said, tlie BoBotians should be expelled 

wheo they saw whitv crows: whiih happened aAerwards by playful boys panCiaf crewt 

white, «od then letting ihcm go. A little while after, the Beeoliaiis ^»«K«}ecffd%yilK 

.f^Iians, Sec the Aunot. upon Krasin. Adag. ( Ad Corvou) p. 37i. 

X Gcraoia, a hill near the iUhmo^, in Jirgtn. 

Chap. IF. DioDORUS sifULUS. 365 


Afitigwfcus's miny feasted by &leueus in Babylon. Qumreb with 
SekucnSf who^fiies to Ptolemy, ofid is Idndfy received, Pttdemf^ 
Seleucuty Casmnder, and Lysimachus,join agmnai Antigetdsm* 
They $end ambasscubrs to Aim^ who winters in Cilieia.\ Hegom 
into PhoEsnda, and there huUds ships; besieges T^r^ The 
fraise of PhyUa, wife of Demetrius. Aristodenms raises fostea 
for Antigonus in Peloponnesus. The acts of Ptolemy, one of 
jMigonus's captains. Antigonus's policy. Tyre delivered, 
2fke agreement of Ptolemy* s captains, and the rest at Cypnts. 
!the acts of Seleucus. A fleet comes to Aniigoiius from the 
HeUespont and Rhodes. Things done in Peloponnesus. Ce»* 
sender's etcts there and in Greece. The great victory by sea and 
landobtainedby Polyclitus, Seleucus*s lieutenant: he is rewarded 
by Ptolemy. Tlte acts of Agathoclcs in Sicily. Tlie Romtms 
make war against the Samnites. 

AT the end of the former year, Praxibulus -was created diief magrs-» 
trate at Athens^ and Spurius Nautius and Marcus Popilins bore the 
office of consuls at Rome; at which time Antigonus left one Asptsa, 
a native, governor of Susiana. He himself resolving to carry away 
with him all the money, prepared carriages and camels for that pur- 
pose to bring it down to the sea-side; and so having it along with 
him, marched with his army towards Babylon, which he readied inr 
two-and-twenty days march; where Seleucus, the governor of the 
provinces, received hlni with royal presents, and feasted the whole 
army. But wlien Antigonus demanded an account of the revenney 

he told him He was not bound to give any account of that province 

which the Macedonians had bestowed upon him as a reward of his 
service in Alexander's life-time. The difference growing wider and 
wider every day, Scleucus, remembering Python's fall, was thereupon 
the more afraid, lest Antigonus should catch an opportunity to put 
bim also to death. For lie seemed to have a design to cut off (as soon 
as he possibly could) all men in power, and such as were in a capa- 
city to struggle for the chief command: whereupon, for fear of the 
worst, he forthwith made away with fifty horse only in his company, 
lutending to go into Egypt, to Ptolemy: for his kindness and cour- 
teous behaviour towards all that came to him for protection and shelter 


was pndaed in every place. When Antigonus came to undeiittuid 
this, he rejoiced exceedingly, in that be was not forced to destrojhia 
friend and potent confederate, but that Seleucus, by his own foluntiiy 
banbhment had seemed to deliver up the province of tiisowoftccoffdj 
without a stroke struck. 

Afterwards the Chaldeans came to him, and foretold that if Sdcacas 
got absolutely away, he should be lord of all Asia, and that id abatdc 
between them Antigonus himself should be killed. Whereupon 
being sorry that he had let him go, he sent some away to pursue him; 
but having followed him some little way, they returned as ihtf\ 
Antigonus was wont to slight these kind of divinations in oth«r i 
but at this time he was so amazed and affrighted with the high < 
and reputation of these men, that he was very much disturbed in Us 
thoughts: for they were judged to be men very expert and sldlfbl^ 
through their exact and diligent observation of the stan: mod tbey 
affirm that they and their predecessors Iiave studied this art of istio- 
logy for above twenty thousand years. And what they had fcrdoid 
concerning Alexander's death, if he entered intoBabyloo^ ^ 
true by late experience. And in truth, as those predictions < 
ing Alexander came afterwards to pass, so what they' now aud 
relating to Seleucus was likewise in due time accomplbhed. Of 
which we shall treat particularly when we come to the times prapct 
for that purpose. 

Seleucus, when he was got safe into Egypt, was entertuned by 
Ptolemy with all the expressions of kindness and affection tbatmlgbt 
be; where he bitterly complained against Antigonus, affirming that 
his design was to expel all persons of eminent quality out of their 
provinces; and especially such as were in service under Alexander; 
which he supported with arguments from Python's being put to 
death, and Pcucestes being deprived of the government of Penh, 
and ffom the usage he himself had lately met with; and all these 
though they had never done any thing to deserve it, but rather upon 
all occasions performed all the acts of kindness and service to him 
that was in their power, and this was the reward they obtained for 
their services. He reckoned up, likewise, the strength of his fbrecSt 
his great treasure, and his late successes, which so puffed him 
up, that he was in hopes to gain the sovereign command oier all the 

Having by these arguments stirred up Ptolemy to make war 
against him, he sent some of his friends over into Europe, to pie* 
vail with Cassander and Lysimaclius, with tlie like argumentSj to 
appear iu arms against Antigonus; which orden being forthwith 


aecutedf foandations were laid for a migfaty war, wi^eh afttrwania 
todc plaoe. - . . 

Antfgomia, upon many probabk coDJteetiiresy coDcetYiogwlMct waa 
Seleaciis*8 design^ sent ambassadors to Ptolemy, Cassandar, iiall^f* 
aimachosy to desire them that the antient friendship might te piw 
aemd and maintained aaooogst themi And then, haiiflB 9Mdi 
l^ytbon, who came but of India^ lord-Ueutenant of the piwviMa «C 
Babylon, he broke up his camp, and marched towarda Cificia. Ai 
lOOD as he came to Mallos*, he distributed his army into winter^ 
qaarters, about the month of Novemberf : and he received out of tbft 
tieasury in the city of Qoinda, ten thousand talents, and eleven tibgmf^ . 
aand talents out of the yearly revenues d Aat province: so that be 
\ very formidable both in respect of his great forces and the vast- 
\ of his treasure. And now being removed into the Upper Syria^ 
ambassadors came to him from Ptolemy, Cassander, and I^tamAioMp 
mho being introduced as he sat in council, demanded all Cappadom 
suad Lycia to be delivered up to Cassander: Phrygia, bordering upon 
the Hellespont, to Lysimachus; all Syria lo Ptcdemy; and the pro* 
vince of Babylon to Seleucus; and all the cqmmon stock of OMmigr 
"which he bad incroached upon since the battle witli Em^fi||^ tbbe . 
shared equally amongst them; which if he refused, then they were 
to let him know, that their masters intended, with their joint farces, 
to make war upon him. Whereunto he answered ioiq;Uy«Jrhat 
he was now making a war upon Ptolemy; and thereupon the am* 
bassadors returned, without any effect of their embassy: and npoa 
tbis answer, Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus, entered into a 
league amongst themselves, and gathered their forces together, and 
made it their business to provide arms^ and all other things neeeasaiy 
for the war. 

And now Antigonus perceiving how many great and potentadver* 
saries had confederated against him, and what a storm was ready to 
-fall upon him, sought the alliance and eoofbderacy of other cities^ 
nations, and princes; and to this purpose despatohed Agesikms to 
the king of Cyprus, Idomineus and Moschion to Rhodes, and one 
Ptolemy, his own brother's son, with an army, to raise the siege^if 
Amisus, in Cappadocia, and to drive out those that were sent thither 
by Cassander. He commanded him likewise to go to the Hellespont, 
and fall upon Cassander, if he attempted to pass over out of Europe 
into. Asia. He also sent away Aristodemus the Milesian^ with a thon- 
sand talents, with orders to enter into a league of amity with Alexander 
and Poly percbon, and to hire soldiers and make war upon Cassander : 

* In Cilicia. t After the setting of Oriocu 

36s nioDORUs sicuLus. JDm^ XIJL 

snd he himself disposed beacons and couriers thnMighoat all Asiiii 
which was entirely at his command^ hereby to give and get knowlcdgs 
of all things that passed^ and to manage his afiEurs the more 

Having taken this order, he marches into Phcenicia to provide a 
fleet; for at that time the enemy had the command of the sea, bdqg 
possessed of abundance of shipping, when he himself had not OM^ 
Encamping near to Tyre, designing to besiege it, he sent fof tht 
petty kings of Phoenicia, and governors of Syria, and treated with 
them to join him in the building of ships, because all the sUps that 
belonged to Phcenicia were then with Ptolemy in Egypt. He also 
gave them orders to bring him, with all speed, four millions and five 
hundred thousand bus»hels of wheat; for to so much came the jearlj 
expense of his army. Then he got together hewers of timber^ sawyers^ 
and ship carpenters from all parts, and caused timber to be brought 
down from Mount Lihanus to the sea side, employing therein eight 
thousand men to work, and a thousand beasts for carriage. This 
mount runs through Tripolis, Byblia, and Sidonis, and abounds in 
most beautiful tall cedars and cypress trees. He appointed three 
arsenals in Phoenicia, one at Tripolis, another at Byblia^ and the 
third at Sidon; a fourth he had in Cilicia, whither timber was 
brought from mount Taurus; and a fifth in Rhodes, where the inha- 
bitanis suffered him to build ships of timber, conveyed thither at his 
own charge. 

While Antigonus was thus employed, and lay encamped bjthe 
sea-side, Seleucus came with a fleet of a hundred sail out of 
Egypt, quick sailers, and royally furnished, and in a scornful man* 
ner skirrcd under the noses of thein, which not a little troubled the 
minds of his new associates, and those that joined with him in 
the. carrying on of the work. For it was very apparent, that 
the enemy now being masters at sea, would be sure to waste and 
spoil those who, out of kindness to Antigonus, had joined with their 

But Antigonus bid them be of good cheer, for before the end 
of summer, he said, he would be at sea with a fleet of five hundred 

Agesilaus, in the mean time returned from his embassy out of 
Cyprus, and brought intelligence that Nicocreon, and the most potent 
kings of that island, had already jeined Ptolejuy ; nevertheless, that 
Citticus, Lapithius, Marius, and Cyrcuites, would side with him: 
whereupon he left three thousand men, under the command of 
Andronicusi, to maintain the siege against Tyre, and he himself 

€^ap. IV. DIODORUS SICULU9. 36^ 

xnarched witi) the rest of the army against Gaza and Joppa^ wluch 
atood out against^ and took them by force; and sach of Pto- 
lemy's men whom he found there, he took and distributed among 
his own regiments^ and placed garrisons in both those cities^ to keep 
jthem in obedience. Which done^ he returned to his standing camp 
about Tyre, and prepared all necessaries for a siege against it. At 
ihe same time Aristo, who was intrusted by Eumenes to carry'Cra- 
terus's bones, delivered them to Phila to be buried, who was married 
^rst to Craterus, and at that time to Demetrius, the son of Antigo* 
nus, who was a woman of excellent parts and prudence; for by her 
prudent behaviour and carriage towards every soldier in the army^ 
she was able to qualify and moderate those that were most turbulent^ 
and she put forth the daughters and sisters of those that were poor, 
.at her own charge, and prevented the ruin of many tliat were falsely 
accused. It is reported, that Antipater her father (who was the moat 
prudent prince that governed in his age) wa3 used to consult with 
Phila his daughter in the most weighty aflairs, while she was yet but 
a girl. But the prudence of this woman will more fully appear in the 
following narration, and when things tended to a revolution, and 
the btal period of Demetrius's kingdom. And thus stood the afiairs 
4)f Antigonus and Phila at this time. 

Amongst the captains sent away by Antigonus, Aristodemus passed 
over to Laconia, and, having got leave of the Spartans to raise sol- 
diers, got together eight thousand out of Peloponnesus; and, upoa 
conference with Polyperchon and Alexander, joined them both in a 
firm league of amity with Antigonus, and made Polyperchon general 
over the forces in Peloponnesus, but prevailed with Alexander to pass 
over into Asia to Antigonus. 

Ptolemsus, another of his captains, going into Cappadocia with an 
army, and there finding the city of Amisus besieged by Asclepipdo* 
rns, a captain of Cassander's, raised the siege, and secured the place; 
and so, having sent away Asclepiodorus, packing up certain condi* 
lions, recovered that whole province to Antigonus; and, marching 
thence through Bithynia, came upon the back of Zibytes, king of the 
Bithynians, whilst he was busy in besieging two cities at once, that 
of the Assareniaus, and the other of the Chalcedonians, and forced 
him to raise his siege from both; and then, falling to capitulations 
both with him and the cities that were besieged, after hostages re* 
ceived, removed thenpe towards Ionia and L^ydia, becai^se Antigonus 
bad written to him to secure th^t coast with all possible speed, hav« 
ing intelligence that Seleucus was going into those parts with his 
fleet; whhher indeed he came, and besieged flrythrse; but, hearing 
of the enemj^'s approach, left it; and weal away as he came, MeaUn 

S^U %^ No. 45« BM, 


while Alexander, the sou of Polyperchon, chme to AotigoDiis, whd 
made a league with him; and then, calling a general eoaneil of Ae 
army and the strangers resident there^ declared unto them how €i»- 
aandef had murdered Oljmpias, and how villainoosly he had dealt 
with Rozana and the young king, and that he had forced Thessskmi- 
tm to marry him, and that it was very clear' and erideilt that he as^ 
pired to the kingdom of Macedonia. Moreover, that he bad planted 
^he Olynthians, the most bitter enemies of the Macedonians, in the 

«ity called after his own name ^That he had rebuilt Thebes, whkh 

was razed by the Macedonians. Having thus incensed the amqr, 

he made and wrote an edict That Cassander should be considered sis 

an open enemy, unless he razed the two cities, released the king and 
Roxana his mother, and returned them*safe to the Macedonians; and 
lastly, unless he submitted to Antigonus, as general and sole pi Dtectoc 
of the kingdom, and freed alrthe Greek cities, and withdrew all the 
garrisons out of them. 

When the army iiad approved of this edict by their snAagei, he 
sent couriers away to publish it in all places: for he hoped that faj 
this means all the Grecians, in expectation of having their Kbertiea 
restored, would be his confederates, and readily assist hfm ill lift 
war, and that all the governors of the higher provinces, wholieftM 
Suspected him, as if he designed to deprive the postcfrity of AleAn- 
der of the kingdom, (now that it clearly appeared that he took vp 
arms in their behalf), would observe all his commands of tbeif own 

Having despatched all these matters, he sent back Alexander irilh 
five hundred talents into Peloponnesus, with his hopes raised^ in ex- 
pectation of mighty concerns : and he himself, with ship^ng hoik 
Rhodes, and others he had lately built, set sail for Tyre; where, be- 
ing now master at sea, he so blocked it up for thirteen months toge» 
thcr, that no supply of Actuals could be brought thither, and there- 
by reduced the inhabitants into such great distress, that at lei^gdi 
(upon suflTering the soldiers to march away with soihe small tld^fgs 
that were their ovm) the city was surrendered to him upon ttrwB^ 
and he placed a garrison in it for its defence. 

In the mean time Ptolemy, hearing what a declaration Antigonds 
with the Macedonians had made concerning the libeffy of the <3ft- 
cians, made the like himself, as desirous that all the world shonU 
take notice that he was no less zealous for the liberty of Greece than 
Antigonus was: for both of them, well considering of what great 
mom^t It was to their afiairs to gain the good will of the GredaaSj 
strove one with another which should oblige them mCMt'by a(!ls df 
grace. Then he joined to bis party the governor of Caria, wlio was 

Ck^p. IF. DiOBCMtUS SICU|.U8i SJl 

■ I — — — ■ I — |B,»»»^ , ..i— M 

H mao of great power^ and had many great cities under bis cominand. 
Andt tfaougk be had before sent three thousand soldiers to the kinga 
in Cyprus, yet he hastened away nuiny more, to reduce those who had 
there sided against hiao. Those sent were ten thousand, under the 
command of Myrmidon, an Athenian born, and an hundred sail of 
ships, jcommanded by Polyclitus; .and the general over all he made 
his brother Menelaus. 

These coming into Cyprus, joined then with Seleucus and his fleet, 
and in a council of war advised what course was fit to be taken. 
The result of which was, that Polyclitus with fifty sail should pass 
into Peloponnesus, and