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Lancaster County 

Historical Society. 



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iSarly Local History as Revealed by an Old Document, by F. R. 


iSarly Schools in the Valley of the Octorara, by J. W. Hous- 
ton, M. D., 27-51 - 

Karly Industries Located Along the Conowingo Creek, by E. 

Beverly Maxwell, 51-63 

The Old Turnpike, by A. E. Wither, 63-86 

the American Indians, by Theodore L. Urban, 86-103 

Letter of Col. John Armstrong, by Rev. P. B. Staupper, 104-105 

N^otices of Col. Armstrong and Col. Boquet, by F. R. Dippen- 

derpfer, 106-107 

John Beck, the Eminent Teacher, by S. P. Eby, Esq., 107-139 

Col. Samuel John Atlee, by Miss Martha B. Clark, 139-145 

The Ark, a Famous Last Century Mansion, by L. T. Hensel, . . 145-156 

Officers for 1898, 157-158 

List of Members, 158-160 

Old Franklin College, by Joseph H. Dubbs, D. D., 160-178 

How the New Holland School House was Built, by F. R. Dif- 

penderpfer, 178-212 

An Old Oil Mill, by L. T. Hensel, 213-215^ 

The Martin Barr Family, by L. T. Hensel, 216-317 

Biographical Sketches of Honorary Members, by F. R. D ?ir -. 

Penn's City on the Susquehanna, by Julius T. Sachsb, Esq., . . 322-^o7 

Lancaster's Bid for the National Capital, by S. M. Senttk, Esq., 238-243 

Epitaphs, by Mrs. Lydia D. Zell, 344-247 

Full-Page Illustrations. 


Old Toll Lists, 74, 75 

Old Franklin College, facing page 163 

-,J. Watts DePeyster Library, facing page 321 

Pac-simile of Old Title Page, facing page 339 

Old Map of Lancaster, 1786, 241 

Illustrations in Text. 


Residence of Col. Samuel J. Atlee, Pequea, 143 

Old Charter Heading, 325 


/ I 



ON SEPT. 3, 1897. 

:arly local history as revealed by an 

old document, 

By F. R. Diffendekffeb. 

VOL. II. NO. 1. 


Reprinted fbom The New Eba. 




28303 I 

1 ILDEN ' -A r IONS. 


Early Local History as Revealed by an Old Document, 
By F. R. Diffenderffer, 



Although we may sometimes be in- 
clined to think we have well-nigh ex- 
hausted the sources of our history, 
and that there is little left for pres- 
ent and future gleaners, the truth is, 
that is altogether an erroneous and 
short-sighted view of the case. Be- 
cause there have been many gleaners, 
and some of them men with the true 
historic instinct, it does not follow 
that everything of value and worthy of 
consideration has been put on record. 
This is especially true when we come 
to apply this rule to our local history. 
Three extended histories of Lancaster 
county have been written, and several 
minor ones in addition. Men have 
been at work, who, in their investiga- 
tions, seem to have left no stone un- 
turned, no secret nook unexplored. 
They have searched out-of-the-way 
places and mined wherever traces of 
fact and tradition were to be found. 
Their diligence and industry have 
been richly rewarded, and, as a result, 
the history of our county has been as 
fully explored and as voluminously 
written as that of any other county in 
the State. 

But let no one suppose for a moment 
that all the finds have been made, and 
all the existing resources exhausted. 
Our history dates back more than two 
hundred years, and that is a long 
period to glean in. During all that 
time men and women have been do- 
ing and writing things, many of which 
were seemingly of little importance at 
the time. Many of these things have 
passed away without leaving a trace 
behind them; many have been pre- 


served and utilized, and still others 
remain in obscure hiding places from 
which they are occasionally drawn by 
keen-scented antiquarians and histori- 
ans. We have witnessed a number of 
such instances since our Society has 
entered upon the work of research and 
investigation. Our history has not 
all been written within our local boun- 
daries. Before we were an organized 
county, men of a speculative turn of 
mind had come and gone. They had 
traversed our forests and ridges; had 
visited our fertile valleys and 
camped along our many strleams; had 
noted what a goodly land it was, and 
none of them ever forgot its many at- 
tractions. They spoke and wrote 
about it, and all coveted a home in this 
later Eden, and this brings me to the 
more immediate purpose of this paper. 

Every member of this Society knows 
that the first permanent settlement 
in Lancaster county was made in 1709, 
perhaps a year earlier, and that the 
population thereafter grew so rapidly 
that in 1729 enough people had come 
here to warrant a county organization 
with all the requisite county machin- 
ery put into active operation. All 
this is recorded in our county his- 
tories; but it never occurred to any 
one that there might be in existence 
somewhere some important document, 
going back to a still earlier period, 
bearing on the erection of a county on 
a portion of the identical ground 
whereon our goodly county was after- 
wards laid out. Yet such are the facts 
as they are definitely and clearly es- 
tablished by a document unknown to 
any of us until a few short months 
ago, when it was sent to me for sale 
by a dealer in the city of New York. 
It became the property of President 
Steinman the moment his eyes rested 
on it. 

The character of this document is 
strangely interesting, and its contents 


are now for the first time given to 
the public. Where it passed the two 
hundred years of its existence is be- 
yond even conjecture. Doubtless it 
was lying in some forgotten or ne- 
glected place, its successive owners 
themselves unaware of its importance 
and value, perhaps not even 
of its existence. By some 

fortuitous accident or circum- 
stance it was dragged into the light, 
and its story is now made public. It 
tells how the Proprietary of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, as long ago 
as 1696, together with some of the 
more enterprising men of that time, 
had entered into a written agreement 
to colonize the very spot on which we 
now are, build towns, roads and 
bridges, erect a county with all the re- 
quisite townships, which should be 
permitted to send representatives to 
the General Assembly; that would, in 
fact, have taken priority of our pres- 
ent county, and, of course, under an- 
other name. 

I have transcribed this interesting 
document, in order that it may in this 
way go on permanent record and be 
preserved for the uses of the future 
historian. It is possible, also, that, 
somewhere, at sometime, an explana- 
tion will be found, giving the reasons 
why the scheme was not carried into 
effect. The spelling and some of the 
other peculiarities have been pre- 
served. It reads as follows: 

A Rare Document. 
Certain Concessions Granted by 
Wm. Penn, absolute Propty. and Gov- 
ernt. of the Provinces of Pensilvania 
and Territories thereof unto several of 
those Psons. who in the year 1696 Did 
Subscribe for Lands to be Layd out 
upon ye river Susquehanah as also to 
such other purchasors as have or shall 
subscribe in order thereunto in this 
year 1701 The Consideiaron and times 


of payment for ye S.(said) Lands being 
incerted in the Preamblos to ye S. Sub- 

That a Tract of Land Shall be Layd 
out to ye S. purchassors upon Susque- 
hanah River at or near ye mouth of 
Conestoga Creek and Extending up ye 
S. river upon ye several Coursos there- 
of Twelve miles on a Direct line or 
Less at ye Cnoice of ye purchassors or 
otherwise to begin at any place above 
the S. Conestoga Creek at ye Elec- 
tions of ye S. Purchassors Provided 
they be limited to fifteen miles front 
upon the said river as afs. upon a di- 
rect line and to Extend so far back 
as will Contain ye Quantity of Lands 
to be purchased as afs. Together with 
ye Proprietrys tenth hereinafter re- 
served unless ye quantuy Exceed a 
hundred thousand acres In which Case 
they may add a proportionable front to 
ye river. 

That a Chief Town shall be hereaf- 
tre laid out by ye purchassors on any 
place within the S. Tract in such form 
and maner as they shall think fitt In 
like maner they are Impowered to lay 
out all other Townships and lands 
within the S. Tract not Exceeding six 
thousand acres to a Township and 
five hundred acres in one place Except- 
ing ye Propriety, who may have one 
thousand in one place and all to be 
Layd out by Lott provided that every 
one shall have his proportion in Lands 
and lotts according to their Lands 
within the said Tract. 

That the S. Tract shall be a County 
and after there is fifty ffamilies setled 
therein the Inhabitants shall have 
power to Choose two Psons. to repre- 
sent them in Assembly and when there 
shall be one hundred ffamilies setled 
therein they shall have power to 
Choose four Psons. to represent them 
afterwards forever and that ye Courts 
of Judicature shall be kept in the S. 
Chief Town which Town shall have a 


Charter of Privileges for ye Good Gov- 
ernment thereof and Benefit of ye Peo- 
ple and ye S. County Shall be Called 
and ye other Towns to be here- 
after named by ye Purchasors. 

And Whereas the Purchasors of ye 
S. Lands are to go so farr back for the 
same and are such Considerable en- 
couragers of this setlemt. and it be- 
ing likely that such a large Tract of 
Land may have a quantity of Barrens. 
The Propriety is willing to allow ten 
p. ct. besides the five p. ct. allowed 
by Law to Incourage the said purchas- 

In Pursuance whereof a warrant 
shall be granted to the S. purchassors 
by ye Propriety or his Comissioners 
for Surveying or running the out Lines 
of ye whole Tract when thereunto re- 

The Surveyor General is hereby or- 
dered to Survey or Cause the Same 
to be Surveyed as af. to ye S. purchas- 
sors when thereunto requested, he tak- 
ing for his fees as Surveyor General 
fifteen pounds only and that they pay 
the S. Surveyor Genl. or to one of his 
Deputies for ye actual Survey thereof 
the sum of fifteen pounds they the S. 
purchassors finding Chainmen, axmen 
and Dyett. 

That ye S. purchassors may subdi- 
vide the S. Tract into Townships at 
such times and in such maner and by 
such surveyors as they shall think fitt 
the Propriety, allowing a Proportion- 
able part of the S. Surveys. 

That usuall Confirmacon shall be 
given to ye several purchassors when 
requested t«^ their Content for their 
respective shares and lotts in the S. 
Tract upon payment of or giving Se- 
curity for paying ye same to ye Satis- 
faction of ye Propriety, or his Comis- 
sioners of property And for the fur- 
ther Incouragement of ye S. Purchas- 
sors their heirs and Assigns to Search 
for Royal Mines on their own Lands 


the Propriety, his heirs and assigns 
Doth grant to each purchassor their 
heirs and assigns all royal mines in 
their respective shares or lotts of 
Lands they paying to ye Propriety 
only two fifths thereof Clear of all 
Charges for ye King's part and their 
own and all of S. Lands Shall be fread 
and Cleared by ye Propriety, from all 
Indian Claim in Point of purchase. 

The Propriety, allows Lands for ne- 
cessary roads to ye Tract when ye 
Purchassors shall find it most Conve- 
nient for Carts &c and ye purchassors 
are hereby Impowered to lay out ye 
same when they think fitt and that ye 
Charges of ye S. roads viz. for Survey- 
ing marking Cutting and Clearing 
thereof and making of Bridges &c. 
shall at first by ye Propriety, and ye 
S. Purchassors be Defrayd proportion- 
ably as afd. and his Comissioners are 
hereby ordered to pay ye same with 
other Charges therein menconed when 
there is occasion not Exceeding in ye 
whole one hundred pounds. 

And it being needful that several 
Stages or Inns Should be settled upon 
the S. roads for ye accomodacon of 
passengers and ye more easy and 
Speedy Setlemt. of ye S. Tract for ye 
Incouragmt. of ye sale and settlement 
of ye Proprietrys other back lands the 
Proprietry Doth Grant that necessary 
Lands shall be Layd out upon ye 
roads to such psons. as shall be willing 
to Settle ye same on reasonable Terms 
but for want of voluntary undertakers 
Then to be granted to ye said purch- 
asors in order thereunto on ye Towns 
granted in ye S. Tract and whatsoever 
Changes may be necessary for ye In- 
couragement of Inns on ye S. roads It 
shall be defrayed by ye Propriety, and 
ye S. Purchassors proportionably as af 
not Exceeding one hundred pounds as 

And in order to ye Surveying allott- 
ment Bounding and regulating of ye 


S. Lands Towns and Lots and of Lay- 
ing out marking and clearing the roads 
making Bridges and what Else is 
necessary for carrying on ye S. Design 
the Major part of the purchassors (or 
of such as shall meet upon notice 
given to em) Shall appoint a Com- 
itee for that end and purpose and that 
the propriety and purchassors Shall 
Contribute towards their part of the 
Charges thereof having his ten votes 
of an hundred on this and like occa- 

And in order to ye appointment of 
Such Comittees the first time it's 
necessary that the purchassors or ye 
major part of them meet at Philada. 
upon notice given to them by ye Com- 
issioners of property and Some of ye 
purchassors which Comittee may ad- 
journ from time to time as there may 
be occasion. 

And for ye better of ye Propriety 
and purchassors concerned Its neces- 
sary that the S. Concessions which are 
to be strictly P. formed may be In- 
rol'd in ye rolls office of this Govern- 
mt. which may also serve for Direc- 
tions to the Comissioners or other offi- 
cers of Property. 

And Lastly I ye S. Wm. Penn Do for 
me and my heirs agree to and Confirm 
the above Concessions this Twenty 
fifth Day of ye Eighth Month one 
thousand Seven hundred and one Wit- 
ness my hand and Lesser Seal 

We whose names are underwritten 
who are now with the proprietor and 
Govenour at New Castle at ye Signing 
of ye above Concessions being sub- 
scribers for Land at Susquehanah Do 
in behalf of ourselves and many others 
that have Subscribed and offer to Sub- 
scribe of both Provinces accept of ye 
above Concessions as Witness our 
hands and seals this Thirty first Day 
of the eighth Month one thousand 
Seven hundred and one. 


EDW. SHIPPEN [seal] 
JNO. GUEST [seal] 
THO. STORY [seal] 
Recorded in ye rolls Office at 
Philada. in Book C. 2 vol. 3, 
page 171 to 175 ye 25th 10th 
1701 by me 
THO. STORY. Me.ibim 

Knowledge of the Country. 

This curious and very valuable docu- 
ment tells its own story so clearly and 
so fully that there is seemingly little 
more to add. At the same time it sug- 
gests a number of questions which it 
may not be unprofitable for us to dis- 
cuss. The first thing that presents 
itself to our consideration is this: It 
is conceded there were none but In- 
dian traders resident in this county in 
1696, yet in that year a number of in- 
fluential men were ready and anxious 
to secure an immense body of land 
from the Proprietary, and, in conjunc- 
tion with him, erect it into a county, 
just as the three earlier counties — 
Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester — had 
been established in 1682. How came it 
that the country lying along the Con- 
estoga River and extending back from 
the Susquehanna more than thirteen 
miles was selected? Who told the 
founders of this proposed county of 
this district, the fairest and best in all 
the Province? Was it from the Indian 
traders, who got their ' supplies in 
Philadelphia, that this fact was 
learned? Or did these projectors 
themselves send agents out into the 
unsettled portions of the country to 
spy out the land? It is more than 
likely that Penn himself had made all 
the requisite inquiries at that early 



period. We know that whenever he 
surveyed and set aside a Manor, thus 
withholding it from the marltet, he in- 
variably selected the choicest spots in 
every county. 

We know that in the spring of 1701, 
before this agreement was finally con- 
summated, Penn made a journey into 
the interior of his Province. In a let- 
ter written by Isaac Norris, and quoted 
by Janney, in his life of Penn, the 
writer says: "I am just come home 
from Susquehanna, where I have been 
to meet the Governor. We had a 
round-about journey, having pretty 
well traversed the wilderness. We 
lived nobly at the King's palace at 
Conestoga; from thence crossed it to 
the Schoolkill." Here we have direct 
proof that Penn was fully acquainted 
with this region, and this knowledge 
explains his desire to see a new county 
established here. We know also that 
Governor Evans visited the Indians at 
Pequea, Conestoga and Paxtang in 
1707; that Governor Gookin did the 
same thing in 1711, and Governor 
Keith in 1717, and no doubt these 
friends of the Proprietary were instru- 
mental in having Conestoga Manor 
laid out much along the same lines as 
were laid down in the project of 1701. 

He was to be the largest partner in 
this enterprise. In every township 
he was to hold one-fifth of its entire 
area as his own. Unquestionably, 
the men engaged in the enterprise 
knew all about the land they were 
buying, however they may have pro- 
cured their knowledge, but none knew 
more than Penn himself. 

Its Size and Name. 

As defined in the agreement, the 
proposed county was to have an area 
of 100,000 acres, or about 150 square 
miles. It was to have a front of 
twelve miles along the Susquehanna, 
and in a certain contingency fifteen 
miles, running northward about thir- 



teen miles, which would have taken in 
the site on which Lancaster is located. 
It is true, this would not have been a 
very large county. This, no doubt, 
arose from the fact that no syndicate 
was possible that could buy and pay 
for a larger area, for it must be ob- 
served that this contemplated political 
division was to be erected on a basis or 
plan different from thatunder which all 
the other counties were formed. The 
fact that the scheme was never car- 
ried into effect, no doubt, arose from 
the difficulty, or impossibility, of secur- 
ing enough men to buy the proposed 
tract. One hundred and fifty square 
miles was too large a load for a 1696 
or a 1701 syndicate to carry. The 
multi-milionaires were not then in 
evidence in Pennsylvania. 

It will be observed that no name 
was given to the proposed county. A 
blank space is left in the agreement, 
to be filled with the name, when it 
should be adopted. Suppose the 
scheme had not miscarried, then we 
would not be living in Lancaster 
county. Remember all this was thirty 
years before the real erection and 
naming of the county. Samuel 
Wright, who had the honor of nam- 
ing the new county after his native 
district in England, Lancashire, was 
not yet living at Wright's Ferry. It 
would have been some other name, be- 
yond all doubt. Later it became Con- 
estoga Manor. 

But while the scheme of establish- 
ing the fourth of our counties on this 
very spot came to naught, the Penn 
heirs, or those who acted for them, 
kept their eyes on this goodly portion 
of their heritage. They did not for- 
get that the lands lying westward and 
northward from the mouth of the Con- 
estoga were among the best and fair- 
est in all the Province of Pennsylva- 
nia, and sixteen years after this docu- 
ment had been signed by the Pro- 


prietary, Surveyor General Jacob 
Taylor received the following instruc- 

"These are to authorize and require 
thee without any delay to survey or 
cause to be surveyed, all that tract of 
land lying between Susquehannah 
river and Conestoga Creek, from the 
mouth of said creek as far up the river 
as the land already granted to Peter 
Chartier, and then by a line running 
from the said river to the Conestoga 
Creek, all of which tract of land for 
the proper use and behoof of William 
Penn, Esq., Proprietary and Governor 
in Chief of the said Province, his heirs 
and assigns forever. Given under 
our hands, March 1, 1717-1718." 

The land surveyed under th' ^.der 
was known as "Conestoga Manor," 
and is now included in Manor town- 
ship. But this "Manor" took in only 
16,000 acres, or about one-sixth part 
as much as was contemplated by the 
projected county of 1701. Without 
knowing the reason for this dimin- 
ished area, we may, nevertheless, haz- 
ard a conjecture. The county had 
become pretty well settled around 
Lancaster and southward to the Sus- 
quehanna. Sypher, in his history, es- 
timates that more than 59,000 Germans 
alone were in the Province prior to 
1727, and a full share of these were 
scattered in the vicinity of Lancaster. 
A larger area would have included 
many lands that had already been sold 
and created annoyance through al- 
ready existing titles. This was to be 
avoided. Hence the smaller area was 
surveyed. The Penn neirs were 
shrewd enough to make their Manors 
large enough when it was possible or 
seemed desirable, as may be seen in 
the "Springettsbury Manor," of 64,520 
areas, in York county, "Fagg's Manor," 
of 39,250 acres, in Chester county, and 
the Manor of "Mask," of 43,500 acres, 
in Adams county. In fact, we find 


that Secretary Logan and Indian 
Agent John Cartilege had already- 
taken out warrants for 500 acres each 
in the lower part of what became Con- 
estoga Manor. I find in Spark's life 
of Franklin that Thomas Penn, some- 
time between 1731 and 1740, estimated 
the 13,400 acres which still remained 
unsold in Conestoga Manor, at £40, 
Pennsylvania currency, per hundred 
acres, or £5,360 ($14,293) for the en- 
tire tract. Almost any 100 acre farm 
in Manor is now worth what the Pro- 
prietaries 160 years ago would have 
been willing to take for it all. 

The Percentage for Roads. 

I may allude to another interesting 
point which has been brought out by 
this document. Every one who has 
had occasion to examine the Pro- 
vincial surveys and deeds will bear in 
mind that in those documents an al- 
lowance of six per cent, was always 
made for roads when the Proprietary 
sold lands. This practice prevailed 
down to the time when all the Pro- 
prietary rights were wiped out by the 
Revolution. But from this document 
we learn that in 1701 the allowance 
for roads was only five per cent. The 
language of this instrument is: "The 
Proprietary is willing to allow ten per 
cent, besides the five per cent, allowed 
by law, to encourage the said pur- 
chasers." When was this legal five 
per cent, allowance discontinued and 
the six per cent, substituted? There 
must have been a period when the 
change was made. 

The interesting document which 
forms the subject of this paper seems 
to show us that there is still much 
valuable uncollected and unknown 
material which may throw light on the 
provincial period of our history. When 
the next history of Lancaster county 
is written the historian will have to 
go back to 1696 and resurrect the 


scheme detailed eo fully in this old 
paper, and put on record how it was 
proposed to erect a county out of this 
garden spot two hundred years ago. 
Every scrap of writing of that early 
time has its value. We can hardly 
overestimate the importance of these 
apparently trifling matters, and if we 
succeed in calling out even a few such 
documents as the one under considera- 
tion, our Society will not have been 
organized in vain. 

Sketches of the Signers. 
In conclusion it has occurred to me 
to investigate who these nine men 
were that united in this scheme to es- 
tablish a new county. With a single 
exception, they are unknown to the 
average reader of our history. It is 
only when the story of ^ ennsylvania 
as it was recorded 200 years ago is 
dragged into light that we hear of 
them. Each one of them played an 
important part in the building of this 
Commonwealth. They were, in fact, 
with one exception, founders of our 
State, and that one was the last named, 
Paromlus Parmyter. I have searched 
two score volumes and turned over 
many long lists of the names of the 
men of that period, but while all the 
rest occur times without number, his 
has not occurred a single time. To 
show how prominent these signers 
were in their day and generation, I 
have prepared brief sketches of each. 
With the exception of Edward Ship- 
pen, they have been gleaned from 
many sources. Doubtless there are 
full biographical sketches of them, but 
none of these have been accessible to 
me, and I have been compelled to do 
the best I could with the resources at 
my command. They will, at all events, 
serve to throw additional interest 
around this interesting document. 

Edward Shlppen. 
First, and best known, comes Ed- 



ward Shippen. He was born in 
Cheshire, England, in 1639. He came 
of a good family, was bred to mercan- 
tile pursuits and emigrated to Boston 
in 1668, where, as a merchant, he accu- 
mulated a large fortune. He married 
a Quakeress, Elizabeth Lybrand, and 
himself became a Quaker. Those peo- 
ple were not in favor with the Puri- 
tans, and after having been much ha- 
rassed made overtures to Penn, who 
invited them to Pennsylvania. Before 
leaving Boston he donated a piece of 
ground for a Friends meeting house, 
on which was erected the first brick 
church built in Boston. His high char- 
acter united to his great wealth at 
once made him a prominent figure in 
Philadelphia. In 1695 he was elected 
to the Assembly and chosen Speaker. 
In 1696 he was elected a member of the 
Provincial Council, and continued as 
such until his death; for ten years he 
was the senior member. In the same 
year he was commissioned a justice of 
the peace, and in 1697 the presiding 
Judge of the Courts of Common Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions and the Orphans' 
Court. In 1701 he became Mayor of 
Philadelphia, being so named by Penn 
in the city charter. During the same 
year he was named as one of Penn's 
commissioners of property, an office 
he held until his death. As President 
of the Council he was at the head of 
the Government from May until De- 
cember, 1703. In 1704, and for some 
years thereafter, he was one of the 
Aldermen, and from 1705 until 1712 he 
was the City Treasurer. He contract- 
ed a third marriage in 1706, which led 
to his withdrawal from the Society of 
Friends. He built the house which 
was long known as the "Governor's 
House." It was built in the early days 
of the city and received the name of 
"Shippen's Great House," while Ship- 
pen generally was distinguished for 
three great things, "the biggest per- 

il l> 


son, the biggest house and the biggest 
coach." This house was built on the 
west side of Second street, north of 
Spruce. He died in Philadelphia in 
1712. His grandson, Edward Shippen, 
was Mayor of Philadelphia, and one of 
the Judges of the Common Pleas. In 
1752 he came to Lancaster and was 
appointed Prothonotary. His signa- 
ture is, no doubt, familiar to you all. 
Caleb Pusey. 

Caleb Pusey was born in Berkshire, 
England, about 1650. First a Baptist, 
he joined the Quakers and came over 
with Penn in 1682. Even before leav- 
ing the mother country he had formed 
a syndicate with Penn and some others 
to build mills in Pennsylvania, which 
Pusey was to superintend. He had 
framed and shipped on the "Welcome" 
what were afterwards known as the 
"Chester Mills," the first mills put up 
in the Province. Pusey laid the cor- 
ner-stone, and was the manager many 
years. But he was also prominent in 
civil affairs. He was an Indian nego- 
tiator, a Justice of the Peace and 
Sheriff and Treasurer of Chester 
county, served ten years or more in 
the Assembly and for a quarter of a 
century was a member of the Supreme 
Council. He was also an Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Few names appear oftener in the 
early history of the Province than his. 
He was evidently a man of large 
means. In 1700 a 5,000-acre tract of 
land was ordered to be surveyed to 
him, in the right of his wife. In 1687 
he complained to the Commissioners 
of Lands of one Thomas Cobourn, who 
was about to set up a mill on Chester 
Creek, to the great damage of the mills 
already there under Pusey's charge. 
Cobourn was warned to give over the 
project, but in 1690 Pusey came before 
the Commissioners and said the former 
notice to Cobourn wasunheeded,where- 
upon the Commissioners instructed 


the Attorney General to prosecute him. 

He achieved much reputation as a 
preacher and controversialist. As is 
well known, Proud's History of Penn- 
sylvania was largely based on the 
earlier manuscript history of Samuel 
Smith; the latter procured much of his 
material for his valuable work 
from Pusey. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Keith, 
but when the latter assailed the 
Quaker doctrines Pusey became one of 
his most vigorous opponents. He was 
one of the three Commissioners to seat 
the Ockamokon, or Crum Indians, on a 
tract of land in Chester county. He 
was one of the most voluminous of the 
Quaker writers. A full list of his 
printed works is impossible here, but a 
few may be named: "A Serious and 
Seasonable Warning Unto All People, 
Occasioned by Two Most Dangerous 
Epistles to a Late Book of John Fall- 
doe's;" "Daniel Leeds Justly Rebuked 
For Abusing William Penn, and his 
Folly and Fals-Hoods Contained in 
His Two Printed Challenges to Caleb 
Pusey Made Manifest," and "The Bomb 
Searched and Found Stuffed With 
False Ingredients, Being a Just Con- 
futation of an Abusive Printed Half- 
Sheet Call'd a Bomb, Published 
Against the Quakers by Francis 
Buggs " He died on February 25, 1727. 
John Guest. 

My search for material for a sketch 
of Judge Guest, as he was commonly 
called, has not been very prolific in re- 
sults. He was born in England, but 
when I have been unable to learn. He 
received a University education, read 
law and practiced in the English 
Courts before coming to this country. 
When he arrived is not known, but it 
was soon after Daniel Lloyd came, 
which was in 1686. He held the posi- 
tion of Puisne Judge in 1699 to 1701, 
and in the latter year was commis- 
sioned by Penn to be Chief Justice of 


the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 
and Presiding Judge of the Courts of 
Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions and 
the Orphans' Court of the city and 
county of Philadelphia. He was Chief 
Justice in 1701, 1702 and 1705. In July, 
1701, he became a member of the Coun- 
cil, of which body he remained a mem- 
ber until his death, on September 8, 

He was the first trained lawyer that 
sat upon the Pennsylvania Bench. 

He was an extensive land owner. In 
1702 I find he purchased 1,500 acres of 
land in the "Great Swamp." In 1701 
he got from the Commissioners a grant 
of all the land lying between his 1,000- 
acre tract and White Clay Creek, for 
which he was to pay £9 per 100 acres, 
and one bushel of wheat yearly rent. 
In the same year he was again before 
the Commissioners, and claimed 200 
acres of land in Newcastle county on 
account of a purchase made by his 
mother-in-law, Sarah Welch, in 1689, 
he having purchased 200 acres more 
adjoining and desired enough more to 
make up 500 acres. In 1703 he came to 
the Commissioners and asked them to 
sell him 333 1-3 adjoining the 666 2-3 
acres he already had between White 
Clay Creek and Nottingham, on which 
he might locate a settlement. Later 
he appeared for 1,000 acres more, urg- 
ing he had been a great sufferer be- 
cause of his services to the Govern- 
ment. Only 500 acres were allowed 
him, and on condition that he make 
his settlement prior to December 1, 
1704. He gave the Commissioners of 
Lands much trouble about this land. 
He even complained to the Governor 
against the Commissioners, and finally 
on January 27, 1705, it was agreed to 
leave this land question to arbitrators. 

David Lloyd. 
David Lloyd was born in the year 
1656, in the parish of Maravon, Mont- 
gomeryshire, North Wales. He re- 


ceived a regular legal training, and 
in 1686 was sent by Penn to Pennsyl- 
vania with a commission as Attor- 
ney General of the Province. He is 
said to have had a most engaging per- 
sonality,with great energy united with 
unusual natural abilities. Possessed 
of these qualities, he quickly rose to 
offices of public trust as well as pro- 
fit. He became Clerk to theCounty 
Commissioners in 1686, and. as al- 
ready stated, was Attorney General in 
the same year. In 1689 he became 
Clerk of the Assembly, and in 1693 and 
1694 was returned as a member of 
that body. He also served as a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Council for sev- 
eral years. He became Recorder of 
Philadelphia county in 1702, upon the 
resignation of Thomas Story. He 
was Speaker of the Assembly in 1694, 
in 1704 and 1705. In 1702 he became 
Deputy Judge and Advocate to the 
Admiralty. He was appointed Chief 
Justice of the Province in 1718. In 
all he was a member of the Assembly 
fifteen years, between 1693 and 1728. 
He ended his long and useful life in 
1731. He was very active in judicial 
reforms, and most of the important 
court laws were the result of his untir- 
ing labors. In a letter to Penn, Secre- 
tary Logan describes him as "a man 
very stiff in all his undertakings, of a 
sound judgment and a good lawyer, 
but extremely pertinacious and some- 
what revengeful." 

He was married to a daughter of 
Joseph Growdon, a prominent citizen 
and large land owner of the Province. 
I find that in 1699 he made application 
to the Governor and Council for the 
privilege of laying out a town at Ches- 
ter, to be called the Green. It was op- 
posed by Jasper Yeates on the ground 
that it was church land. His title, 
however, was confirmed, and Yeates 
afterwards purchased the land. With 
several others, who owned part of the 


40,000 acre Welsh tract, he complained 
to the Commissioners in 1690 that the 
promises of Penn had not been ful- 
filled to them. In this same year he 
was again before the Commissioners 
of Property, requesting them not to 
grant a patent for the Swede's Glebe 
lands at Chester, until there had been 
a hearing of the differences between 
him and the Swedes. He was un- 
doubtedly one of the big men who 
helped lay the foundation of this State 
deep and strong. One of the defects 
of his character is described as "an 
inordinate confidence in his own wis- 
dom." He had a Welsh temper and 
was very bitter and passionate when 
provoked. He was an able defender 
of popular rights, and as such antago- 
nized both Penn and Logan, being 
both feared and hated by them. The 
evening of his days was passed in 
dignified repose, and he enjoyed the 
confidence of all, and their respect as 
the first lawyer in Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Carpenter. 

No man was more conspicuous in 
the early history of Pennsylvania than 
Samuel Carpenter, and none was more 
honored by Penn. He was born in 
England in 1649. He was of Quaker 
descent and joined Penn in Philadel- 
phia in 1682. He had already pur- 
chased 5,000 acres of land from Penn 
in 1681. He was from first to last one 
of the firm supporters of the Propri- 
etary and no man in the Province was 
more honored by him. His name ap- 
pears in the first tax list of Philadel- 
phia, in 1693, where he is assessed at 
£1,300, the largest amount at which 
any individual was assessed. His 
taxes were £5.8.4. In fact, he was re- 
ported to be the wealthiest man in the 
Province, after Penn himself. He was 
interested in trade and shipping, and 
owned mills at Bristol and Chester. 
William Bradford, writing to the Gov- 


ernor about 1698, says he and Samuel 
Carpenter were building a paper mill 
"about a mile from Penn's Mills at 

Few men in the Province filled so 
many offices of trust. His name heads 
the list of Common Councilmen in 
the first city charter granted in 1691. 
On February 16, 1689, he was appoint- 
ed one of the Commissioners of Pro- 
perty for the Province. In 1690 he 
appeared before the Commissioners in 
behalf of himself and others, owners 
of a flock of sheep, and requested as 
many black oaks as would fence ten 
acres of land, for a sheep pasture. It 
was granted in any kind of wood ex- 
cept white oak. 

He was a member of the Governor's 
Council and Treasurer of the Province 
from 1685 to 1714. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Assembly, a trus- 
tee of the public schools established 
by the Friends in 1687, and Deputy 
Governor during Markham's adminis- 
tration. He must have had a legal 
training, as he was a Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, a Judge of 
the Quarter Sessions and also of the 
Orphans' Court. Secretary Logan, in 
a letter to Penn, dated August 7, 1713, 
says Carpenter had moved to Bristol, 
to live there permanently. In 1711 he 
was chosen to forward to the Friends 
in Boston the money collected at Bur- 
lington, to help them build their meet- 
ing house. 

In 1687 he built the historic "Slate 
Roof House," so noted in the early his- 
tory of Philadelphia. Penn and his 
family lived in it at his first visit to 
this country, and Secretary Logan did 
afterwards. It stood where the Cham- 
ber of Commerce now stands. He was 
married in 1684 to Hannah Hardiman, 
a native of Haverford, South Wales. 
Carpenter was well liked in the Prov- 
ince, and when he died, in 1714, Sec- 
retary Logan wrote to Penn as follows: 


"That worthy and benevolent man, 
Samuel Carpenter, is to be interred to- 
morrow, after about two weeks illness. 
A fever and cough, with rheumatic 
pains, carried him off. I always loved 
him and his generous and benevolent 
disposition; so I find at his exit few 
men could have left a greater degree 
of concern on my thoughts. I need 
say nothing to thee on the loss of 
such a man, but a sense of it was seen 
in the faces of hundreds. I am sat- 
isfied his humble and just soul is at 

Griffith Owen. 

Although Grifiith Owen was a born 
Welshman, I have found an account 
which says he came to Pennsylvania 
from Prescal, in Lancashire, on the 
ship Vine, from Liverpool, on August 
17, 1784, with his wife Sarah and their 
son Robert and daughters Sarah and 
Elenor, and seven servants. It may 
be that he had been living in Lan- 
cashire immediately prior to his em- 
barkation, although in the light of 
other well established facts I hardly 
think that likely. 

He was a Quaker, had a liberal edu- 
cation and was a surgeon of high re- 
pute. No sooner had Penn received 
his charter, than Owen at once be- 
came interested in a scheme of col- 
onization in the new Province. Be- 
ing a thorough Welshman, he, along 
with some of his countrymen, induced 
Penn to set apart 40,000 acres, known 
as the "Welsh Tract," at the time, in 
Chester county. It was de- 

signed that the Welsh language, 
manners and laws should pre- 
vail on the tract, and none but 
Welsh should have the right to pur- 
chase land within its limits. These 
rights being secured, Griffith Owen 
came over, reaching Philadelphia in 
September, 1684, and at once located 
at the place now called Merion. Here 

(34) : 

tie practiced his profession, acquiring 
a large practice. He is credited with 
having performed the first surgical 
operation in Pennsylvania. 

He became Coroner of Philadelphia 
county in 1685. He was a member of 
the Assembly in 1686, and was re- 
elected in 1688-9, and continuously, I 
believe, until 1708. He was also a 
member of the Governor's Council 
from 1690 to 1693, and re-electd in 
1700, and remained a member until his 
death. He was Justice of the Peace 
under the charter of 1691. In 1704 
he was Mayor of the city of Philadel- 
phia. In 1702 he was Master of the 
Rolls, and in the same year he was 
Deputy Keeper of the Seal. He was 
a Judge of the Common Pleas, and 
long one of the Proprietary' Commis- 
sioners of Property. I find him be- 
fore the latter body in 1687 in behalf 
ofs some of the Welsh Friends 
located on the Welsh Tract. Upon 
numerous other occasions he appeared 
fore them on the same mission. 

Like many of the prominent 
Friends of that time,he was a minister 
as well as layman, and in the per- 
formance of these duties made several 
trips to England and Wales. Along 
with several others, in 1689, he drew 
up and presented a paper "to incite the 
quarterly meetings to keep up a godly 
discipline, and a tender inspection over 
the youth." He attended the famous 
historical meeting at Burlington in 
1692, where George Keith declared, 
"There is not more damnable heresies 
and doctrines of devils amongst any 
Protestant professions than 

amongst the Quakers." Owen 

was one of those who 

prepared the testimony against Keith, 
and the chairman of the committee 
sent to admonish him. There was 
no more respected or influe)itial Friend 
in all the Province. He was one of 
the "dear Friends" to whom Penn 


wrote in 1712, from England, as fol- 
lows: "Now know that though I have 
not actually sold my government to 
our truly good Queen, yet the able 
Lord Treasurer and I have agreed it." 
Penn's illness upset the scheme. Grif- 
fith Owen died in 1717. 

Francis Daniel Pastorious, the head 
of the Germantown Colony, and Penn- 
sylvania's first poet, wrote and dedi- 
cated the following epitaph to his dear 
friend, Griffith Owen: 

What here of Griffith Owen liei, 
l8 only what of all men dies: 
His soul and spirit live above 
With Goa in pure and perfect love. 

Thomas Story. 
Thomas Story was born in Cumber- 
land, England, and arrived in Penn- 
sylvania in 1G99. He was bred to the 
bar, but laid that profession aside to 
become a minister of the Gospel. One 
account I have seen says he was born 
in 1666. He was, therefore, 33 years of 
age when he came into the Province. 
He was a man of much ability and 
sterling merit, and at once assumed a 
commanding place in the community. 
He was Keeper of the Seal in 1700 and 
Master of the Rolls in the same year. 
He was a member of the Governor's 
Council from 1700 to 1706. He was 
made Recorder of Philadelphia county 
in 1701, and named in the charter. In 
1715 he made a trip to Holland and 
Germany, and preached in many Men- 
nonite meeting houses in those coun- 
tries. He was a distinguished minister 
among the Friends. He was married 
to a daughter of the first Edward Ship- 
pen. He died in 1742. 

Robert Assheton. 
William Assheton bought 3,000 acres 
of land from Penn on May 30, 1687. 
When his son, Robert, came to Penn- 
sylvania I have not been able to learn. 
He became prominent in the Province, 
and soon attained places of distinction. 


I find he was Recorder of Philadelphia 
county, vice Lloyd, resigned, in 1708. 
He was Town Clerk from 1701 to 1709, 
and again in 1733-34. He was Clerk of 
the Courts in 1709, 1726,1733 and 1734. 
He was Prothonotary of Philadelphia 
county in 1722 and 1723, and Naval 
Officer of the Port of Philadelphia in 
1717. He was also a member of the 
Government Council from 1711 to 1727. 
He was Attorney General of the Pro- 
vince in 1721 and Deputy Provincial 
Secretary in 1707. In 1712 he was the 
Prothonotary of Chester county. He 
was Puisne Judge from 1715 to 1718, 
and again from 1722 to 1726. He was a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
Province in 1725, but, having received 
the office of Recorder of Philadelphia, 
resigned his place on the bench. He 
was a kinsman of William Penn. He 
married Jane Elizabeth Falconier. He 
died suddenly while at the Provincial 
Council table in May 29, 1727, and was 
buried after the English manner of 
people of distinction at that period — in 
much pomp, by torchlight, in Christ 
Church. His sons, William, who pre- 
deceased him, and Ralph, who died in 
1746, were also Provincial Councillors. 

Paromlus Parmyter. 

When this paper was read before the 
Society it was stated that the writer 
had been unable to get even upon a 
trace of the above-named individual. 
Hundreds of lists of names had been 
examined, a score of volumes searched 
and inquiries made without number, 
but all in vain. But, as it has been 
aptly said, that all things come to him 
who waits, so it may also be asserted 
that persistent effort and search bring 
all things to light. The name is not 
plainly written on the document, but 
was later examined under a glass, 
when the one at the head of this para- 
graph stood revealed. Dr. Jos. H. 
Dubbs, under its new form, recognized 


it as that of one of the Attorney Gen- 
erals of the three lower counties — 
Newcastle, Kent and Sussex. 

In Volume IX. of the Second Series 
of Pennsylvania Archives his name 
was accordingly found. His predeces- 
sors in the office were as follows: 

John White Oct. 25, 168S 

Samuel Hassent Jan. 16, 1685 

John White (Special) Nov. 17, 168S 

David Lloyd April 24, 1686 

John Moore May 19, 1698 

William Assheton 170© 

Par. Parmyter 1701 

He evidently retained this oflSce un- 
til 1705, as no other name appears untii 
that year. But this closes my sole 
source of information. This is all the 
more remarkable inasmuch as all the 
other names associated on the docu- 
ment with his occur again and again in 
the history of the Province. Hardly 
one of them held less than a dozec 
public oflBces. They were the veritable 
Pooh-Bahs of that day, but Parmyter's 
name does not appear more than once, 
as already stated. 




ON OCT. 1, 1897. 



By J. W. Houston, M. D. 


I By Me. E. Beveely Maxwell. 

VOL. II. NO. 2. 


Eepeinted feom The New Eea. 


Early Schools in the Valley of the Octorara, 

By J. W. Houston, M.D., ^1 

Early Industries Located Along the Conowingo Creek, 
By Mr. E. Beverly Maxwell, 




In former papers, which I had the 
honor to present to this society, I enu- 
merated some of the past and present 
industries of the Valley of the Octo- 
rara. In the present paper I desire to 
call your attention to some of the 
early and later educational facilities of 
this region, and briefly to refer to 
those whose pedagogical influence pre- 
pared many young men for lives of 
usefulness and honor, both in this and 
in other fields, and which have left an 
impress on this entire community, de- 
stined to elevate and ennoble future 

As you are aware, this valley was 
settled by Friends from Great Britain 
and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, actu- 
ated by a common desire, the enjoy- 
ment of civil and religious liberty. They 
had forsaken their childhood homes, 
which are dear to everyone, and emi- 
grated to the wilds of America, there 
to bear all the hardships of a frontier 
life, while menaced by a savage foe, 
all to escape from British persecution, 
intolerance and bigotry. 

When settled in their new homes, in 
the Octorara Valley, a common im- 
pulse seized them, the desire to facili- 
tate the opportunities for the educa- 
tion of their children. 

It was here the British laws of en- 
tailment, based upon the conventional 
rights of primogenitureship, came to 
their rescue. The younger sons of 
wealthy British families, being de- 
prived of an inheritance in the ances- 
tral estates, were presented with the 
alternative of entering the learned 
professions, or of purchasing a com- 
mission in the British army, the idea 



of which, to an Irishman, was revolt- 
ing. Many of these scions of Irish 
families were highly educated, being 
graduates of Trinity College, in Dub- 
lin, where, it is said, the jaunting car 
drivers speak a purer Shakespearean 
English than do many of the profes- 
sors of our American colleges. This, 
'■ I think, is true of some of our 

f American medical colleges. Emi- 

I , gration to America seemed a hopeful 

• < solution to the question how to ob- 
tain a livelihood, and since the 
younger sons of Ireland and Scotland 
were unused to toil, and therefore un- 
fitted to enter the various avocations 
of labor, they consequently sought the 
congenial employment of teaching, for 
which there was a demand in Scotch- 
Irish and Friends' communities. For 
years this business was monopolized 
by these younger sons, and this pro- 
fession was later known as that of the 
early Irish schoolmaster. These 
schools were supported by individual 
enterprise, the teacher receiving a cer- 
tain amount for each pupil, generally 
not a very remunerative salary, from 
two to three cents daily from each 
pupil. The teacher often boarded 
around amongst the patrons of the 
school. This was the mode of estab- 
lishing schools in early times in the 
Valley of the Octorara, prior to the 
advent of the public school system. 

Amongst these Irish schoolmasters 
was one, Thos. Haslett, a peculiar char- 
acter, irritable, combative and bois- 
terous; however, an excellent scholar, 
said to be a graduate of Trinity Col- 
lege, as also a political refugee. He 
taught near Bartville, and was very 
severe in his government, which was 
enforced by the rod. Amongst his 
pupils I find J. F. Meginness, editor and 
historian, of Williamsport, Pa., an hon- 
orary member of this society; Mr. 
James H. Perry, of Colerain township, 
(who is authority for the rash asser- 


tion that Master Haslett would occa- 
sionally Imbibe), and Mr. R. J. Hous- 
ton, of this city. Chief amongst the 
mischievous boys were Ned. Reynolds, 
Ab. Davis and Bob. McCullough, the 
latter a half-brother of Prof. McCul- 
lough, hereinafter alluded to. 

These pupils taxed the old man's 
ingenuity to the utmost to devise plans 
by which to administer suitable pun- 
ishment for their continuous disre- 
gard of the master's formulated rules, 
and even for the proprieties of civi- 
lization. But the teacher was inde- 
fatigable in enforcing discipline, re- 
gardless of the means employed, ex- 
cept no dismissals from school, since 
this would curtail the revenue, none 
too great at any time. Haslett made 
his own astronomical calculations, for- 
telling the time of an eclipse with an 
accuracy that would have gladdened 
the hearts of the publishers or Bear's 
Almanac. When such events occurred 
the school was dismissed and the pup- 
ils gathered around the old gentleman, 
who, with a pail of water for a mirror, 
explained to an unappreciative audi- 
ence these wonderful astronomical 
phenomena. The advent of the public 
school system relegated Master Has- 
lett to the position of an emeritus 
teacher, and he died in the forties of 
the present century. 

There Were Others, 

Dr. Sharp was another old-time 
teacher, contemporaneous with Has- 
lett. He was a graduate of the Medi- 
cal Department of the University of 
Pennsylvania, but never practiced his 
profession, except in emergencies and 
in consultation. 

He married Mrs. Ferry, the mother 
of James H. Ferry, above referred to, 
as also of Brevet-Major Joseph Ferry, 
a graduate of West Point, appointed 
from Colerain township, Lancaster 
county. Major Ferry was killed when 


leading the charge on Molino del Ray 
during the war with Mexico. Eleven 
officers out of thirteen were killed in 
that charge, two only surviving the 
successful and terrible onslaught. Mr. 
James H. Ferry has in his possession 
a letter from General Worth, com- 
mending the bravery of Major Perry. 
Two sons were born to Dr. Sharp and 
Mrs. Ferry-Sharp. The eldest. Judge 
Isaac Sharp, now of Washington, D. C, 
formerly of Kansas, was twice the Gub- 
ernatorial candidate of the forlorn 
hope of the Democratic party of that 
State, and reduced the Republican ma- 
jority during one campaign from 40,- 
000 to 15,000. As a criminal lawyer, he 
stood in the front rank of Kansas at- 

The other son, Hon. Lewis Sharp, of 
Kansas, has been honored with many 
positions of political significance by 
the Republican party of his adopted 

Another old-time schoolmaster was 
one,Fitzsimmons,who came from Phila- 
delphia to Bart township, about 1840, 
to teach in Mars Hill school district. 
He was a walking encyclopedia, but 
a failure as a teacher. He had an ex- 
pensive family to support, and, his 
salary not being regulated by Klon- 
dike schedules, he was soon deeply in 
debt, and, in accordance with the then 
existing laws, was thrown into the Lan- 
caster county prison, but as the prose- 
cutors had to pay his prison boarding 
they soon relented, and he was liber- 
ated. He returned to Philadelphia. 

Henry Courtney belonged to this 
class of teachers, and the following 
short biographical sketch is by one of 
his former pupils, "John of Lancaster" 
(John F. Meginness) : "One of the first 
teachers in the Old Brick school house 
in Bart township was Henry Courtney. 
He was an irascible Irish pedagogue, 
noted for his liberal and violent use 
of the rod, but as an educator he was 


not a success; he finally emigrated to 
the barrens of York county, where rods 
were more plentiful, and there he 
passed his final examination, more 
than forty years ago." Mr. Meginness 
may be somewhat prejudiced since he 
told me that during his Courtney pu- 
pilage two whippings a day was the 

Wm. Dungan, late of Eden township, 
belonged to the class of old-time teach- 
ers, and was famous for disciplining 
mischievous boys. He was born in 
Bucks county about the beginning of 
the present century, and died in 1875. 

Master James Hudson was an early 
Irish schoolmaster of this region. He 
was somewhat given to inebriety, in 
fact, never failed to improve an oppor- 
tunity to indulge his appetite for fire- 
water. As may be inferred, he was not 
successful in his profession, and was 
retired by popular acclamation early 
in the fifties. 

The One a Linguist. 
James Hanley, another of the old- 
time teachers, commenced the, to 
him, arduous duties of his profession 
about 1820. He was a thorough lin- 
guist, fair in other branches, but had 
no spirit in his business. He, how- 
ever, continued to teach public schools 
as late as 1860, when he retired from 
teaching and spent the evening of his 
days in managing a small farm on 
which he had located. 

Some Female Teachers Also. 
Amongst the first school marms, in 
the Octorara slope was Sally Ann Ba- 
ker. Some doubt existed as to whether 
it would be possible for Sally Ann to 
maintain discipline in the average 
school, and her advent as a teacher 
was regarded by the people as an ex- 
periment, but the croakers were dis- 
appointed, for Sally was quite success- 
ful in preserving order, and instruct- 
ing in the three R's. She continued 


teaching until the standard was above 
her grasp, when she yielded to the 
persuasive eloquence of one Mr. 
Ubil, bid adieu to celibacy, and with 
dignity presided over the household, as 
she had formerly over her schools. 
She taught for a period of twenty 
years, from the early forties. Another 
aspirant for pedagogical honors was 
Miss Mary Bailey, a granddaughter of 
Col. Bailey, of Revolutionary fame. 
She had spent the early part of her 
life in waiting for Mr. Robert Sproul, 
a bachelor ironmaster of that 
region, to make overtures for 
Mary's hand. After it was 
settled that Mr. Sproul did not 
contemplate doing such a rash act, 
Mary then, although she had been in 
her teens for thirty years, began 
studying with a view of preparing her- 
self for teaching. After attending a 
few terms at school at "The Old 
Brick" in Bart she became a candidate 
for a position as a teacher, being un- 
successful in her quest. She then turn- 
ed her attention to building, and 
erected a dwelling and store house at 
the Nine Points. After residing here 
for some time, she disposed of these 
properties and erected an humble cot- 
tage near the former buildings, and re- 
tired from public business. Her ambi- 
tion to prove herself an important 
unit in that community had been a 
failure and she died, some say from a 
broken heart, a few years since, as she 
approached the century mark. 

This One a Missionary. 

One of the most successful old time 
female teachers was Miss Isabella 
Sweeney. She was born about 1809, and 
commenced to teach in 1832 in private 
schools. After the public school sys- 
tem was inaugurated she taught in 
the public schools for about twelve 
years. She then taught a select school 
for a few years. In 1851 she went as 


a missionary to Africa, where, in 1852, 
she married the Rev.James L. Mackey, 
also a missionary of the Presbyterian 
Church. In Coriso, Africa, they con- 
tinued the work assigned them until 
1865, when they returned to Pennsyl- 
vania and settled in New London, 
Chester county. Here they resided up 
to the time of her death in 1872. Miss 
Isabella Sweeney ranked high as a 
teacher, notwithstanding at that time 
there was a prejudice against female 
teachers,which happily for educational 
interests is fugitive to-day. Miss 
Sweeney did much to dissipate this 
prejudice by her untiring zeal and suc- 
cessful results in the school room. 
"John, of Lancaster," one of her early 
pupils, writes in commendation of Miss 
Sweeney as only he can write. He 
promised to furnish me with material 
to biographize Miss Sweeney, but I for- 
give him for his neglect, as he is now 
visiting the scenes of his childhood, 
where each hill and dale, each forest 
and plain, each spring and brook ap- 
peals to his active memory, and he is 
gathering inspiration which at no dis- 
tant day may cause to flow from his 
classic pen into the archives of the 
Lancaster County Historical Society 
some reminiscences of the Octorara 
Valley with which he was so intima- 
tely associated during his boyhood 
days, and whose remembrance he 
keeps green by occasional pilgrimages 
to the shrine of revered early associa- 
tions, where amid sylvan halls he can 
in reverie live over again youth's cher- 
ished waking dreams. 

An Old Time Custom. 
In these early days, the chief ob- 
ject of the master was to maintain or- 
der and discipline, and physical prow- 
ess was considered a requisite in the 
pedagogue. The rod was not only the 
last appellate tribunal, but too often 
the first means resorted to to accom- 
plish the above desired end. 


These old time teachers were sub- 
jected to many annoyances in their vo- 
cation, chief amongst which was the 
"barring out of the master" about 
Christmas time. This act was sustain- 
ed by precedent in the minds of the 
pupils and the communities generally 
endorsed the procedure. The manner 
by which it was consummated was by 
the pupils assisting the master to 
close the shutters, when the building 
possessed such appendages. One or 
more were left unlocked, by which 
means of ingress a half dozen of the 
larger boys gained possession of the 
citadel. Early on the following morn- 
ing, before the pedagogue put in an ap- 
pearance, the doors and windows were 
barricaded, and admittance was de- 
nied the teacher, until he signed an 
order on the proprietor of a nearby 
country store for a sufficient quantity 
of mintsticks, liquorice balls, four ror 
a penny cigars, crackers, and other 
dainties, for a general feast for the en- 
tire school; pretzels and chewing gum 
were then unknown. Frequently a 
quart of "levy" whiskey was added to 
the refreshments; the last article was 
often an inducement for the master to 
sign the order, since he was permitted 
to partake of the delicacies furnished, 
especially the liquid one. Generally, 
there was no session of the school that 
day; it was without warrant of law a 
legal holiday. 

The Early School House. 

The school houses of the early part 
of the present century deserve a pass- 
ing notice. They were frequently 
abandoned dwellings, the owners of 
which by thrift and economy having 
been enabled to erect more pretentious 
structures. They were heated by an 
extensive fireplace on the open hearth 
plan, nine-tenth of the heat escaping 
by means of the capacious chimney. 
When the school houses were Built ex- 


pressly for school purposes they were 
constructed of logs or stone, and of 
suitable dimensions to seat the attend- 
ing pupils. The edifice was generally 
quadrilateral, though some were octa- 
gonal in shape; one story high was the 
limit. They were well supplied with 
windows, (which acted as ventilators) 
filled with 8x10 inch glass, which were 
not so costly as modern plate glass 
when an accident occurred by the ball 
used in playing being deflected from 
the intended line of flight, subjecting 
the unfortunate boy to the penalty of 
replacing the glass. The door was of 
the batten style of architecture, with 
wooden hinges and latch, the latter 
operated by a leather thong. The lock- 
ing arrangements consisted of a chain 
and padlock. The desks were boards 
fastened at an incline, arranged 
around the room so that the pupils 
faced the walls. These desks were 
only for those who were writing and 
cyphering. Benches alone were sup- 
plied to the small boy yet in the first 
R. These benches were manufactured 
from slabs with from four to six feet, 
tenoned into holes bored in the slab at 
a suitable angle. The benches were of 
a common height for the big boys. 
When the small boy was assigned to 
one of these benches his feet dangled 
in midair, and it required an effort to 
gain the allotted perch. A huge stove 
was in the centre of the room, capable 
of admitting a cordwood stick cut into 
two pieces. The teacher's desk, a high 
stool, a water pail and tincup, with 
the swinging paddle marked on one 
side with large conspicuous letters 
IN, on the other side OUT, constituted 
the furniture of the school room. The 
wash bowl and common towel are 
modern innovations. 

Some Succesrful Teachers. 

When the public school system first 
went into operation in Bart and Cole- 


rain townsliip the great want ex- 
perienced was for competent teachers, 
and to say that the system was not a 
brilliant success for a few years 
would be simply stating the truth. 
However, there were some notable ex- 
ceptions to the general charge of in- 
competency of the teachers. 

Ranking h^gii amongst those who 
served to popularize this free school 
system was the veteran editor of 
"The New Era." Educated, cultured, 
and refined, with all the natural quali- 
fications necessary for the successful 
teacher, he infused into his pupils a 
love for study, which, after all is said, 
is the only road to high educational 

The patrons of the Old Brick School 
House district, in Bart township, se- 
cured his services for a time, and the 
impress of his master hand as a 
teacher was felt for years in that dis- 
trict. J. F. Meginness, the historian, 
James Scott Brown, the poet, James H. 
Kennedy, the theologian, and R. J. 
Houston were among his pupils, and 
here imbibed the first lessons leading 
up to a love for study. But "The New 
Era" man's services were in demand, 
and he left for fairer fields ere the 
germination of the seed he had sown. 
The next luminary to grace the profes- 
sion of teaching in Bart township after 
Mr. Geist had shaken the dust of Bart 
from off his feet was James McCul- 
lough. He was born in Colerain town- 
ship, Lancaster county, in 1818. He 
was descended from a renowned Irish 
family, noted for piety and knowledge, 
located near Dublin. Dr. McCullough, 
the present incumbent of the Irish es- 
tates, is an educated and accomplish- 
ed gentleman; he was a cousin of our 
teacher, James McCullough. After 
teaching a few terms in our public 
schools he entered New Garden Aca- 
demy, Chester county, then under the 
principalship of Enoch Lewis, the 


celebrated Chester county mathema- 
tician. On returning to his native 
heath he organized Rocli Mills Aca- 
demy, in Bart township. Here he re- 
mained two years, infusing a new edu- 
cational life into the young people of 
that community. Among his pupils 
at Rock Mills were Dr. J. S. Sutton, 
Dr. John Houston, Dr. J. C. Campbell, 
all deceased. Rev. William Campbell, 
Prof. E. O. Dare, of Harrisburg, and 
R. J. Houston, of Lancaster. After an 
other term at New Garden Academy, 
Prof. McCullough removed his school 
to Bartville, where he remained one 
term, many of his former pupils being 
in attendance whilst new arrivals aug- 
mented the list notably; amongst the 
latter was the late Dr. Josiah Martin, 
of Strasburg. The following year 
found his school at Morrison's, in 
Colerain township, where good work 
was done, and an impetus given to 
higher education, which culminated in 
after years in establishing the Union 
High School, under the late lamented 
Prof. James W. Andrews. Mr. Mc- 
Cullough, in connection with his regu- 
lar school curriculum, introduced the 
feature of debating societies; one 
evening of each week was devoted to 
debate, and questions of lesser note 
were discussed by the pupils, each one 
being required to participate in the 
discussion; certainly, he was success- 
fulin this scholastic feature. Some of 
his pupils became all around wordy 
combatants, which trait continues 
with them even in their declining 
years. Mr. McCullough gave up 
teaching for some years and 
became manager of Black Rock 
Furnace, for Charles Brooke, Jr. & 
Co. After continuing in this position 
for eight years, owing to the decline 
in the iron industry he purchased a 
farm having previously married Miss 

Lovett and spent his declining 

years in husbandry and teaching dur- 


ing the winter months in the nearby 
public schools. He served as as- 
sessor for Colerain township for 
thirteen years. He was killed by a 
falling tree in 1891. He left a widow 
and five children, four sons and one 
daughter, Laura, the wife of Baxter 
Caughey, of Colerain township. His 
sons are Clement Brooke, Madison 
Lovett, popular druggists of Oxford, 
Chester county, Cheynie and Edgar. 

Few men have lived such a life of 
usefulness as James McCullough and 
the impress of his labors is found on 
every hand throughout that entire 
region. In addition to his distinguish- 
ed pupils above enumerated, we desire 
to add the names of Dr. Charles H. 
Bushong, physician, author, and 
teacher of New York city, and Edwin 
Gilbert, Esq., of the Lancaster Bar. 

Here We Have a Poet. 

After Prof. McCullough had removed 
his school to Morrison, some four 
miles southwest from Bartville, 
James Scott Brown opened Brown's 
Academy, two miles east from the lat- 
ter place. Mr. Brown was a pupil of 
Mr. Geist's at the Old Brick School 
House, and was known as the Edgar 
A. Poe of Lancaster county. 

The school was quite well patronized 
for a few years, but Mr. Brown's 
poetic nature did not take kindly to 
the monotony of teaching, and the 
school was discontinued. Mr. Brown 
years since published a duodecimo 
volume of one hundred and twenty- 
four pages of poems, but the collection 
was not appreciated by the people, 
who were doubtless lacking in poetic 
cultivation. Certainly, the "Whip- 
porwill," a weird and fantastic poem, 
outravened the "Raven." Mr. Brown's 
life was a perfect counterpart of Poe's, 
lacking Poe's vanity and selfishness, 
and in his death a few years since the 
simile was continued. 


Shortly after the collapse of the 
James Scott Brown Academy, Mr. 
Thomas Baker, a gentleman well 
known to many members of this so- 
ciety, removed from Chester county to 
Colerain township, Lancaster county. 

Mr. Baker was born near Chatham, 
Chester county, was a Friend by birth- 
right, and descended from the old and 
honorable Baker family of Chester 
county. He was a cousin of Dr. 
Thomas Baker, late of the Millersville 
Normal School. Mr. Baker attended 
public schools in his early years, was 
a pupil for one session in Moses Chey- 
ney Academy, at Doe Run, and studied 
two sessions at the Chatham Academy. 
For one year he was a pupil at the 
Unionville Academy, under the teach- 
ing of the famed Jonathan Cause. 
Bayard Taylor was also trained in 
Unionville Academy. Mr. Baker was 
then selected by Prof. Cause as an as- 
sistant teacher, in which capacity he 
continued for several years. Having a 
desire to engage in farming and civil 
engineering, he purchased a farm in 
Colerain township, married Miss Eliza 
Jackson, and settled down to a life of 
husbandry and surveying. But the 
community in which he had located 
would not have it so. His reputation 
as a teacher had preceded him, and 
was well known throughout the sur- 
rounding region. He was importuned 
to establish a school at Andrew's 
Bridge, one mile distant from his 
home. Being fond of teaching, his de- 
cision to give up this business was re- 
considered, and he was prevailed upon 
to take charge of the Octorara Semi- 
nary in the fall of 1854. This school 
was continued during the winter 
months for five years, the number of 
pupils only limited by the capacity of 
the school room, which was equipped 
with $150 worth of electrical and phi- 
losophical instruments, with which the 
students became familiar, and could 


demonstrate many intricate problems 
in these sciences. Surveying was thor- 
oughly taught, and many of the pupils 
became expert with the compass and 

I remember on one occasion, when 
Prof. Baker was sick during a school 
term, that Mr. Brown had laid down 
his poetic pen and consented to take 
charge of the school until the Profes- 
sor recovered sufficiently to again re- 
sume his duties. One condition was ex- 
acted; that the physician in attend- 
ance upon the Professor should teach 
the lessons in physiology and chem- 
istry at the time he paid his morning 
visits. The doctor, who was an old 
teacher, succeeded well with his as- 
signed classes; but his ambition had 
been flattered by his success, and he 
assumed to offer gratuitous advice on 
various other studies. One morning 
Mr. Brown called the doctor's atten- 
tion to a class which had been stranded 
for some time upon a question in sur- 
veying, Mr. Brown admitting that he 
was rusty, and had forgotten some 
things essential to the elucidation of 
the problem. The doctor, with self- 
confidence in his ability, assumed 
charge of the class. Had he not de- 
vised a new demonstration of the 
forty-seventh problem of the first book 
of Euclid that was hailed with joy by 
all Free Masons? He read and re- 
read the question, but the way to the 
solution was shrouded in darkness. 
When the perspiration was gathering 
in the sudoriferous glands, ready to 
deluge his face, a happy idea was 
evolved. Why not return to first prin- 
ciples, thence follow the labyrinthine 
paths to the goal? He then turned to 
the primary rules involved, and was 
eloquently explaining to the class 
something he did not fully understand 
himself. About this stage of the dem- 
onstration, Mr. Asahel Moore, the 
leader of the class, exclaimed, "Yes, 


yes, I understand it now." "Well," said 
the doctor, "you explain it to the 
class." The doctor retired, and to this 
day is ignorant of the demonstration 
of the problem, although the class gave 
him credit for profound geometrical 
knowledge. Mr. John Rutter, another 
member of the class, approached the 
doctor a few days since, and politely 
asked him if he remembered the above 

Mr. Rutter was still impressed with 
the doctor's engineering knowledge. 

In 1859 Prof. Baker removed his 
school to his residence, one mile north 
of Andrew's Bridge, erected a suitable 
building, of largely increased capacity, 
so that an assistant was employed, and 
the school duly inaugurated under the 
name of Chestnut Hill Seminary; 
which was continued every winter up 
to 1877, except the years 1867 and 1868, 
when the Professor was making a tour 
of Europe. In 1877 he relinquished 
teaching, and the school was discon- 
tinued until 1885, when Mr. Eugene 
Baker, son of the Professor, opened 
the Seminary again, and here taught 
each winter up to 1890, when he re- 
moved to Philadelphia to take charge 
of the Friends' school at Fifteenth 
and Race streets, where he continues 
to teach. 

How Orators Were Made, 

When Prof. Baker opened the Chest- 
nut Hill Seminary,a lyceum and debat- 
ing society was organized, holding 
wekly sessions, the object being to 
drill the students in presiding over 
public meetings, to become familiar 
with parliamentary rules, and to culti- 
vate their oratorical powers. A paper, 
"The Students' Banner," was issued 
weekly. The debates were open to the 
public, and some hard-fought, wordy 
battles resulted, since many of the old 
debaters of that region were permitted 
to participate in the discussions, which 


involved the great questions agitating 
our country at that time, and in 
which all good citizens were inter- 
ested. The oldest and most intelligent 
people of the neighborhood were mem- 
bers, and served to popularize the in- 
stitution. Among the membership I 
find the names of Abraham Rakestraw, 
Thomas Whitson, Sr., Thomas Whit- 
son, Jr., James Jackson, Sr., Joseph H. 
Brosius, Abner Davis, Joseph B. Davis, 
Jehu Baker, Prof. George F. Baker, 
Wm. McElwain, Benjamin Carter, Wm. 
Hoy, James Scott Brown, H. H. Bower, 
Philip Bush, J. Williams Thorne, Wm. 
Brosius, Marriott Brosius, M. B. Kent, 
Drs. A. V. B. Orr, Wright and Houston. 
Those familiar with the above galaxy 
of star debaters will realize that the 
battles were fought under competent 
and skilled leadership, and the fight 
to a finish. 

Prof. Baker was a thorough scholar 
and teacher, and never failed to in- 
terest his pupils in their studies; he 
was abreast of the times in all mat- 
ters pertaining to education, and now 
in his declining years can look back 
through his three score and ten and 
feel that his life has been well spent, 
that he has fought a good fight, and 
that his name will be revered in that 
community when his body has re- 
turned to dust. As a citizen Prof. 
Baker is highly esteemed; he is fore- 
most in all good works. May his sun- 
set be as happy and serene as his life 
has been useful and profitable to 

Mrs. Eliza Baker, his wife, who died 
a few years since, was well-known 
throughout the county as a leader and 
earnest worker in the non-partisan 
Women's Christian Temperance Union. 
She was a model wife and mother, and 
judiciously supported all reformatory 
movements with the courage due to 
her convictions ot right. 


Here Comes Another. 
I now desire to call your attention to 
one well known to many of those pres- 
ent with us to-day. I refer to James 
Wilson Andrews, A. M. Professor 
Andrews was the eldest son of Hon. 
Hugh Andrews and Francoria, his 
wife. He was born in Union village, 
Colerain township, on the 19th of De- 
cember, 1824, in the first house erected 
in that hamlet. He spent his boyhood 
days on his father's farm, now Jere- 
miah Kepperling's. He attended che 
academy of the Rev. David McCarter, 
in Strasburg,this county.for some time, 
in preparing for the profession of 
teacher, and engaged in that business 
in the public schools during the winter 
months, after his return to the old 
homestead. On attaining his majority, 
he opened a country store in Union, 
his father being a partner. A new 
building was erected for the purpose 
on the paternal estate; here he re- 
mained for five years. Seeking wider 
fields for his unfolding ambition, ne 
became associated with the firm of 
Peter T. Wright & Co., wholesale 
druggists in Philadelphia, in 1851, at 
which time his father removed his 
family to Lancaster. In 1853 Profes- 
sor Andrews had an attack of para- 
lysis, completely disabling his right 
arm and lower extremities. He never 
regained the use of these limbs, but 
had to be carried ever afterward. He 
was brought to Lancaster to his fa- 
ther's, and for two years was unable 
to leave his bed chamber, much of the 
time being bed ridden and suffering 
intense pain, but a constitution free 
from hereditary taints and an indomit- 
able will came to his rescue. After 
he had recovered sufficiently to sit up 
in his chair, he began the study of the 
classics and other of the higher 
branches of learning, under the super- 
vision of Dr. Theodore Appel, by whose 
cheerful counsel he was sustained in 


the almost hopeless task, crippled as 
he was, of preparing himself to exe- 
cute the arduous duties devolving 
upon teachers. His eminent success in 
this undertaking is known to many- 
members of this Society. Dr. Appel, 
you knew not when planting the har- 
vest you would reap. In 1856 he had 
so far recovered as to be able to take 
charge of Hopewell Academy, in Ches- 
ter county, one mile west from Ox- 
ford. Here he continued as principal 
for three years, discharging the duties 
of that position to the eminent satis- 
faction of those patronizing the school. 
In 1859 the people of the Octorara 
slope being desirous of possessing faci- 
lities for the better education of their 
children than those afforded by the 
public schools, succeeded in interest- 
ing Professor Andrews in the enter- 
prise of establishing a high school in 
Union village, of which he was to take 
charge as principal. The school v?as 
opened on the 8th of August, 1859, and 
has continued in active operation until 
the present time. In 1879, after twenty 
years' existence of the school, a re- 
union was held, and the following sta- 
tistics published: During this period 
580 pupils, of which number 328 were 
males, had availed themselves of the 
advantages of the institution, and 
what is remarkable, of this number, 
only one student entered the ministry, 
although the school was conducted 
upon the orthodox Presbyterian style, 
the Professor himself being a devoted 
Christian man, having religious ser- 
vices interjected into the curriculum 
of study. Three entered the legal pro- 
fession, and seven ministered to the 
physical ailments of their fellow beings. 
The love for teaching must have been 
successfully cultivated, since one hun- 
dred and twenty of the pupils entered 
that profession. 

The course of instruction in the 
Union High School was thorough. 


There was no varnish nor veneer laid 
upon those sent out of this in- 
stitution. They were manufactured 
from solid quartered oak. No school 
of similar grade with which I have 
been conversant has ever equalled the 
results attained by the Union High 
School while under Prof. Andrews. 
Finite mind cannot compute the ad- 
vantages and benefits derived from the 
training received and disseminated 
through this school from its institu- 
tion to the present time. Prof. An- 
drews continued in charge of the 
school until 1887, when he retired from 
teaching and removed to Oxford, Ches- 
ter county. Here he remained a short 
time and in May, 1888, he came to Lan- 
caster. On the 19th of June of that 
year he departed this life. In 1868 
Prof. Andrews married Miss Mary 
White, who faithfully and affection- 
ately cared for and ministered to his 
physical wants until he was summoned 
home to receive his reward. Prof. An- 
drews was exceedingly modest, and to 
the public retiring, yet one of the most 
genial of friends. He was possessed of a 
courage and perseverance even in his 
helplessness and suffering, which I 
have never seen equalled. Possessed of 
perfect self-control, he was an 
ideal disciplinarian, governing by a 
magnetic and forceful character all 
who came within his presence. He never 
compromised with wrong doing and 
his pupils were constrained to do right 
by his integrity and Christian man- 
hood; nor was this influence limited to 
his schoolroom, but the entire com- 
munity was environed by emanations 
from the Professor's life, leading up to 
a higher intellectual and moral plane. 

Princeton College honored Prof. An- 
drews with the degree of Master of 
Arts in 18 — 

The early settlers of Chester county 
seem to have been in advance of Lan- 
caster county people in establishing 


educational institutions, and they en- 
circled the western border of Chester 
county with a cordon of five schools, 
near to the inter-county line, from one 
to six miles distant, which drew large- 
ly upon Lancaster county for patron- 
age, and served to prevent schools 
from being established in Lancaster 
county. The oldest of these schools 
was Faggs Manor classical school.called 
the "Log College," founded in 1739 by 
Rev. Samuel Blair, and continued for a 
period of three decades. In 1847, an 
attempt was made to revive Blair Hall 
on the old site, which survived eight 
years. The old school was prolific in 
distinguished scholars. In 1743, Dr. 
Alison, an educated Irishman, opened 
the New London Academy, which be- 
came justly celebrated. Dr. Alison was 
at a later period vice provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania. It was 
here Thomas McKean, Judge of Su- 
preme Court and Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, was born and educated. George 
Reed, husband of Gertrude, sister of 
our own George Ross, was here a 
schoolmate of McKean's. Here James 
Smith, of York, received his education. 
MeKean,Reed and Smith were all Sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence. 
Here Charles Thompson, Secretary of 
the Continental Congress, received his 
scholastic training. Dr. Ramsey, the 
historian, attended this school. In 
1752, New London Academy was re- 
moved to Newark, Delaware, and be- 
came Delaware Conege. New London 
Academy was revived in 1828, and is 
now in a flourishing condition. 

The Nottingham Academy was in- 
stituted in 1744, by Dr. Finley, an emi- 
nent Scotch divine, and it had a colo- 
nial reputation. Finley was afterward 
President of Princeton College. It was 
here Richard Stockton, of New Jersey, 
and Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadel- 
phia, both Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, were trained for col- 


lege. It is now across Mason's and 
Dixon's line in Maryland. 

The Moscow Academy, on the old 
Lancaster road, was established by 
Dr. Latta, in 1826, and continued to 
1840. In 1834, Hopewell Academy, 
sometimes called Pone Hill, was inau- 
gurated by Thompson Hudson. In 1841 
Hon. Jesse C. Dickey became principal, 
and continued the school up to 1861. 
For three years Prof. Andrews was the 
principal teacher. 

In conclusion, permit me to say that 
I know this paper is an imperfect epit- 
ome of the schools of theOctorara Val- 
ley. Let us hope one more competent 
will continue the work. 


The subject assigned to me for inves- 
tigation is the "Early Industries Along 
the Conowingo" (formerly spelled Can- 
arawa). The origin of the name I ha\e 
been unable to determine. Tradition, 
and perhaps from a purely imaginativy 
source, says it is an Indian name, 
meaning "canoe won't go." I feel 
much inclined to think the origin of 
the name is more closely allied to 
Scotch-Irish ingeunity than to Indian- 
like description. After much research 
and many pleasant conversations with 
the older residents, some of whom have 
spent more than three score years and 
ten in the immediate neighborhood, 
and aided by the notes some of my 
good friends have seen fit to give, I am 
now able to present to this esteemed 
body of researchers the following 
sketch. I am not self-confident that 
the work is all it should be, but rather 
verified as best I could from the means 

The Conowingo is formed by the con- 
fluence of two small streams, whose 
origins are in springs situated on the 
range of Buck Hills, about two miles 
apart. The one runs southeast, the 
other southwest to the point of conflu- 
ence, which is two miles southeast of 
the Buck and three miles southwest of 
Quarryville. From here, diagonally 
across the townships of Bast Drumore 
and Fulton, for a distance of thirteen 
miles, wanders this noble stream. It 
and its tributaries water the most fer- 
tile valleys of the above-mentioned 
townships. In the past and present 
the Conowingo, on account of its great 
fall, has furnished water power to turn 
the wheels of a furnace, a rolling mill. 


a foundry (all of which proudly bore 
its name), a sickle factory, a sorghum 
factory, two cleaver mills, nine flour 
and feed mills and seven saw mills, all 
of which comprised the twenty-three 
business places of the Conowingo, and 
thirteen of which still testify to their 
usefulness by doing a thriving busi- 

Taking the headwaters as a starting 
point, rather than the oldest structure, 
for an individual consideration of these 
sites, we find Jacob Bair and his wife, 
Elizabeth, built a grist mill at this 
point in 1776. The mill was built of 
stone and covered with cedar shingles, 
brought from New Jersey. The tim- 
bers were of white oak, and, at the 
time of this writing, there remains a 
piece of timber 18 feet long and 18 
inches square that is as sound as the 
day it was hewn. This mill stood un- 
til 1850, at which time its walls were 
so cracked as to be considered unsafe, 
and the wrought-iron nail-heads, which 
fastened the shingles, stood out like 
miniature posts above their worn sur- 
face. Then it was taken down and 
the burrs removed to the mill lately 
owned by Mr. Shultz. The mill pro- 
perty and adjacent lands were pur- 
chased from the Bairs by Jonathan 
Good in the year 1800, Mr. Good 
erected a furnace some fifty yards 
east of the mill, and in 1810 sold it to 
George and John Withers, of Black 
Rock fame. 

From these gentlemen it passed into 
the hands of James Hopkins, Esq., of 
Lancaster city, and he took into part- 
nership with him his brother-in-law, 
James Orrick, the firm being Hopkins 
& Orrick. 

Conowingo was then a manufactory 
of stoves. Some of the old ten-plate 
stoves moulded there are still in use. 

The Hopkins Furnace. 
In 1830 came James M. Hopkins, son 


of James Hopkins, to Conowingo. The 
old firm was now dissolved, and James 
M. took charge, and after his father's 
death, which occurred in 1834, he be- 
came sole owner and proprietor of 
Conowingo Furnace and all pertaining 
thereunto. In a few years the furnace 
was turned into a cold blast furnace 
for the manufacture of pig iron. This 
product of Conowingo became widely 
known for its hardness and enduring 
properties, and was much sought after 
for railroad purposes. The first rails 
laid on the Baltimore and Ohio road 
were made of Conowingo pig iron, and 
remained in use until supplanted by 
steel. In 1853 a bar of iron sent to the 
great London Exposition received hon- 
orable mention, and a certificate ac- 
companied by a bronze medallion bust 
of Prince Albert were sent to Mr. Hop- 
kins, and, at this date, are in the pos- 
session of his family at the old man- 

Prior to and during the war, while 
charcoal iron commanded a high price, 
this plant was operated to advantage 
and profit. Lime stone was accessible 
at Quarryville. The extensive ore 
mines just north of Conowingo, owned 
by Mr. Hopkins, were exhaustively 
worked, and long lines of teams plied 
daily between the different points of 
supply and manufacture. The iron at 
this time was found desirable for the 
manufacture of guns, and during the 
war Admiral Dahlgren publicly com- 
mended its excellence for the casting 
of efficient guns for the service. 

In 1868 the old furnace was blown 
out, it being the last of the numerous 
iron works of Lancaster county to suc- 
cumb to the onward march of Father 

Anthracite coal, in the manufacture 
of iron, became so much cheaper than 
charcoal that it superseded it entirely. 

Conowingo was a plant in its day 
that gave employment to many men 


as well as horses and mules. It was a 
sort of grand depot, furnishing a ready 
market for the surplus grain of the 
neighborhood, and whon its life had 
passed away it was found to be an old 
friend sadly missed. 

On the site of the old furnace, mak- 
ing use of the wheel pit and race, was 
erected a modern mill in 1866, this be- 
ing one hundred years from the time 
the first mill was built by Bair. Two 
years ago the new mill was refitted 
with the improved roller process ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of flour, 
and a gasoline engine placed in posi- 
tion to assist in the duties required of 
this plant. Mr. Hopkins' death oc- 
curred in 1895, he being in his eighty- 
fifth year. He was one of the last of 
the old "Iron Masters" to go from 
us, and so closed a busy and useful 

A Rolling MilL 

Conowingo rolling mill was situ- 
ated about a mile and a half below t*ie 
furnace, and was erected byJohn Neff. 
Francis Kendric, Thomas Crawford 
and George White, in August of 1813, 
entered into a partnership to purchase 
eighty-six acres of land adjoining the 
furnace property, and to erect a roll- 
ing and slitting mill thereon. This part- 
nership continued about ten years, af- 
ter which it became the property of 
NefE and Kendric,who sold it to Robeit 
Coleman, the owner of the Cornwall 
furnace in Lebanon county. Coleman 
sold the mill to James Sproul, who had 
extensive interests on the Octorara, 
and in 1840 it became the property of 
James M. Hopkins by purchase. The 
mill was then operated for a short time 
by Mr. Riddle and lastly by Col. Peter 
Sides in 1843. The building has dis- 
appeared, and the fioods have long 
since torn a hole through the dam 
breast, leaving only a ridge of earth 
stretching across a lonely meadow. 


A Foundry Also. 

In 1854 John Jordan erected a foun- 
dry about a mile below the old rolling 
mill, where a shop and saw mill had 
stood for some years. At that time it 
was called Jordan's foundry, but since 
it has passed into the hands of Martin 
Hess, and is now called Conowingo 

Directly east of the foundry, over 
the brow of the hill, some three hun- 
dred yards, on the property belonging 
to the heirs of Harvey Long, is found 
what seems to be a peculiar wall. If 
ever a portion of a structure at all, it 
is undoubtedly that of the oldest in the 
neighborhood, for tradition is silent on 
the point, and the oldest residents only 
know that their fathers saw it there. 
It comes to the surface for nearly a 
hundred feet and then gradually runs 
into the ground. On top it is about 
two feet wide, and has the appearance 
of gradually broadening out, as though, 
a battered wall built against a face of 
rocks. It resembles, at a glance, a 
work of huge masonry in decay, but 
upon investigation it has mostly satis- 
fied those who dug that Nature placed 
those boulders there. 

A Big Mill. 
South of the ruins and southeast of 
the foundry a similar distance we find 
the waters of the Conowingo and those 
of McFarland's run forming the dam 
of what is now Mr. E. Stauffer's mill. 
This mill was built a four-story frame 
structure by Wm. and Harry Long in 
1848, and,after being in operation some 
time, it was sold to Abraham Groff. At 
Mr. Groff's death, which occurred 
about 1875, it was purchased by E. M. 
Stauffer, to whose widow it now be- 
longs. Eight years ago it was destroyed 
by fire, and upon the same foundation 
was reared a new structure, similar to 
the old one. Two years ago it was re- 
fitted with the Butler long roller pro- 


cess, ana continues to do a thriving 
business under the management of 
Aldus Groff, for which it has long been 

And Sickles, Too. 
A stone's throw from the previously 
mentioned dam, up the McFarland 
run, once stood John Long's sickel 
mill. Mr. Long, with others, manufac- 
tured the Drumore sickle, with a com- 
bination of good qualities so as to 
make that brand most desirable. Com- 
petition with foreign manufacturers 
existed at this time, for it is stated 
that the Drumore sickle was of such a 
desirable quality and at so reasonable 
a price that the English blade was al- 
most driven out of the market. They 
were sold at one time as low as four 
dollars a dozen; at another as high as 
ten dollars a dozen. John Long was 
the last sickle maker in Drumore, he 
having carried on the business until 
his death in 1855. 

Another Old Mill. 

Two and a-half miles down the 
stream, at a point where the road from 
Chestnut Level to Fulton House crosses 
it, a half mile from the latter place, 
we find the site of the second oldest 
mill on the stream. This is situated 
in what is now Fulton township, and 
marks one of the early settlements 
within its limits. It was, perhaps, ori- 
ginally owned by the grandfather of 
the illustrious inventor,Robert Fulton. 

William Fulton took up 393 acres on 
Conowingo Creek, which, by warrant 
of No. 121,742, was surveyed to James 
Gilespie (who had married his widow) 
and to this he added other pieces of 
land, making a total of 546 acres. On 
this, in 1751, he erected a corn mill 
one story and a-half high. The first 
story was of stone, while the half-story 
or garret was of frame. In 1764 Giles- 
pie had become involved in debt, and 
the Sheriff sold his property. That on 


the west of the creek, including the 
mill, to George Ross and John Bick- 
ham, and that on the east to Robert 
Fulton, the elder, who also involved 
himself by the purchase, and suffered a 
like fate. It is surmised by some that 
as Gilespie married the widow of Wil- 
liam Fulton, the claims of the 
heirs of the said Fulton formed a part 
of the liabilities for which the property 
was sold, and as Robert Fulton became 
a purchaser he was one of these heirs. 
If this were so, it would make William 
Fulton, settler, the grandfather of Rob- 
ert Fulton, the inventor. Ross and 
Bickham, the owners of the mill prop- 
erty, were residents of Lancaster city, 
the former being George whose 
memory was lately erected a pillar 
bearing a bronze tablet, at Rossmere, 
at which dedicatory services our soci- 
ety held its June meeting. 

In 1774 these gentlemen sold the 
property to Jacob Gryder, who added a 
saw mill, and sold it in 1792 to Martin 
Gryder, who devised it to Christian 
and Martin Gryder, and from thence it 
passed into the hands of Joel Smedley, 
a practical miller, who, in 1833, rebuilt 
the old mill and added a sorghum fac- 
tory. It now belongs to F. C. Pyle, 
who four years ago refitted it with a 
fine set of rolls. The sorghum factory 
and saw mill have passed entirely out 
of use. 

Brown's Mills. 

A mile and a-half below the Fulton 
mills are what were formerly called 
Brown's mills, now Goshen mills. The 
original mill was a stone struoture,one 
story high, built in 1758 by Joshua 
Brown, from Nottingham, Md., who 
purchased the property of John Den- 
ny, who had inherited it from his 
father, Walter Denny, who had taken 
up a large tract south of the Gilespie 
tract about 1741. Joshua Brown waa 
the first of that name to come to this 
section, which has since become the 


home of many of his descendants. He 
was a minister in the Society of 
Friends, and made frequent visits to 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
encouraging those of his sect to stand 
fast to their Christian testimony 
against all wars and fightings. During 
one of .hese trips, in 1785, he was ar- 
rested as a spy in South Carolina and 
confined in jail for a period of six 
months, less two days, before the court 
was convinced of his innocence. De- 
spite this persecution, he continued on 
his mission, faithful to the dictates of 
his conscience unto the end. In 1775 
the mills were sold to Jeremiah Brown, 
the oldest son of Joshua Brown. Jere- 
miah enlarged the mill by a story of 
bricks and the addition of another pair 
of burrs, after which he operated it 
to its utmost capacity. He kept two 
teams, one engaged in hauling to the 
mill, the other carting fiour to Chris- 
tiana, Delaware, where it was shipped 
in sloops and schooners to Philadel- 
phia and other markets. It is said that 
during the Revolutionary war a very 
profitable business was done by this 
mill in sending fiour to the British 
Army. At this period little wheat was 
raised in the lower end of the county, 
and these mills were dependent for 
supplies chiefly on the Pequea Valley 
of Lancaster county, the Valleys of 
York and Codorus, York county. Jere- 
miah Brown, with others, established 
in 1810 the Farmers' Bank of Lancas- 
ter, and at the time of his death, in 
1831, he was, perhaps, the largest 
stockholder, having in his own name 
one thousand shares. He was the 
father of Associate Judge Jeremiah 
Brown of the courts of this county. 
In 1820, these mills passed into the 
hands of Slater Brown, the youngest 
son of Jeremiah, the owner, who pro- 
ceeded to further improve them by add- 
ing another story of frame and a slate 
roof, in which condition they remained 


until destroyed by fire, April 25, 1895. 
At the death of Slater Brown, in 1855, 
the property descended to his son Jer- 
emiah, the third, who operated them 
till 1877, when, after passing through 
four generations of theBrowns.for one 
hundred and twenty years, they were 
sold to J. Penrose Ambler, who recon- 
structed the machinery of the mill in 
mode»n designs. After the fire of 1895, 
Mr. Ambler erected a fine frame mill. 
The new mill is of the latest improved 
Butler type. A piece of timber, bear- 
ing the date of 1704 rudely cut upon it, 
was rescued from the flames, and has 
given rise to doubt in the minds of 
some whether a mill existed in that 
place prior to 1758. If such should be 
the truth, tradition and history are 
alike silent on the secret. 

Southeast of the mill stands a brick 
house, which was erected by Joshua 
Brown about 1760, and remains a 
sound building, occupied by his de- 
scendants, Slater Brown, of the fourth 

Still Another. 

A mile below this, opposite what is 
now the post-oflBce of Goshen, Jeremi- 
ah Brown built a mill in 1818, for 
chopping feed, sawing lumber, and 
cleaning clover seed. The clover mill 
is torn away, as portable machinery 
has taken its place. The feed and saw 
mill are still in operation, and now be- 
long to Mr. Day Wood, who is a de- 
scendant of Jeremiah Brown. 
Oldest of All. 

Two miles down the stream and a 
half mile east of the village of Wake- 
field is the site of the oldest mill on 
the stream. The present mill is owned 
by Amos K. Bradley.and the first story 
may be a portion of the original. It 
was known to exist as far back as 
1733, when a road was laid out from 
King's mills to Octorara. This proves 
an earlier settlement of James King 
and others, or a road would not have 


been needed. He was a Friend, or 
Quaker. His neighbors were, perhaps, 
of the same persuasion, and the direc- 
tion of the road clearly points to the 
Nottingham settlement of Friends. 
Mr. Bradley has in his possession pa- 
pers showing that James King had his 
land patented June 10, 1742, and a deed 
for five hundred acres from the pro- 
prietors, dated November 14, 1745. In 
1756, James King deeded his property 
among his children, so there might be 
no dispute after his decease, as an old 
writing states. The corn mill and 110 
acres of land became the property of 
his son, Thomas, December 12, 1785. It 
became the property of Michael King 
by legacy from his father, Thomas. 
Michael King sold to Vincent King, 
September 9, 1800, who added a card- 
ing machine and saw mill, and then 
sold it in 1810 to Jeremiah Brown,who 
gave it to Jacob Kirk and Deborah.hls 
wife (who was J. Brown's daughter), 
for the consideration of five dollars. 
In 1846, Jeremiah Kirk bought it from 
his father, and in 1853 sold it to Isaac 
Brady, from whom the present owner, 
A. K. Bradley, bought it in 1881. This 
is undoubtedly a landmark which we 
do well to keep in memory, having 
marked the place of changing grain 
to meal for more than one hundred and 
sixty years. Down the stream about 
a mile the little Conowingo empties 
into the Conowingo. Some place near 
the junction of the two streams, there 
once stood a clover and saw mill,which 
was built about 1817, and at one time 
had a feed mill attached, but in later 
years it was moved to the point where 
the road leading from Lancaster to Port 
Deposit crosses the Conowingo, and 
here continued business until destroy- 
ed by fire in 1850. 

The Last One. 
The last mill on our noble creek is 
that owned by Mrs. Anna Wood, situ- 
ated about a mile south of Pleasant 


Grove. This mill was built in 1784, 
consisting of a grist mill and saw mill, 
probably by a man named Strohm.who 
was the father of him who was known 
as Honest John Strohm. In 1804 
Strohm sold the mill and some ten 
acres of land to Levi Brown, who car- 
ried on milling and store keeping at 
that point. In 1865 the mill was re- 
built, a large stone structure of finer 
proportions and practically calculated 
for doing a fine trade. The husband of 
the present owner was a descendant 
of Levi Brown. This property is a por- 
tion of a tract of land taken up by 
Emanuel Grubb in 1713. Doubtless 
this spot with its substantial old build- 
ings deserves a more extended and In- 
teresting notice, but the author of this 
sketch can go no further into details 
for want of Information. A quarter 
of a mile below the mill the Gonowin- 
go enters Maryland, and in the course 
of four or five miles empties into the 
Susquehanna at a point called Cono- 
wlngo, and at which place there is a 
bridge across the river. In the course 
of the last forty years, we are told, the 
stream has lost one-fourth of Its pow- 
er. If this be true or not, I can not 
say, but, like other streams of Its kind, 
less water passes down its channel than 
formerly, and in the next hundred and 
sixty years it may not be depended 
upon as much as in those which have 



ON NOV. 5,1897. 


By a. E. Witmeb, Esq. 

VOL. II. NO. 3. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


i^ I. 





The Old Turnpike, 

By a. E. Wither, Esq 67 


In attempting to give a brief sketch 
of the early history of the Philadel- 
phia and Lancaster Turnpike, the 
writer will endeavor to narrate the un- 
written history and traditions con- 
nected with this ancient thoroughfare. 
As history and the public records have 
already made us familiar with its early 
chartering and construction, so far as 
that is concerned, there would seem to 
be little to narrate, but what is needed 
most now to save from passing into 
utter oblivion is the nature of the 
traffic, the means by which it was con- 
ducted and the local traditions in con- 
nection with it. 

The writer has been closely connect- 
ed with those who were not only 
largely interested in the construction 
of this great highway, but who were 
associated closely with its postal sys- 
tem, its freight and passenger travel, 
as well as the accommodation and en- 
tertainment of those who made use of 
this roadway, either as private citizens 
in their own separate conveyances, or 
making use of the public ones of that 
day — the stage coach, mail line and 
Conestoga wagons. 

We boast to-day of our transporta- 
tion lines, such as the Empire, the 
Anchor, and various other organiza- 
tions for the rapid moving of freight, 
and think they are of recent origin. 
But, on referring to that period, we 
find there were similar organizations 
for the rapid handling and conveyance 
of freight, and they were considered as 
great an institution in their day, with 
wagons and horses as means for ac- 
complishing that end, as the freight 


car and locomotive are at tlie present 
time, concerning which I will dwell 
upon more specifically a little later on 
in this article. 

The charter for the Philadelphia and 
Lancaster Turnpike Company was 
granted April 9, 1792, and work com- 
menced upon the roadway the same 
year. It was completed and ready for 
travel two years later, in 1794, at a cost 
of $465,000. The money raised for 
constructing and equipping this an- 
cient highway with toll houses, bridges, 
as well as grading and macadamizing 
it, was by the sale of stock, and in 
looking over the files of the Lancaster 
Journal, I find in the issue of Friday, 
February 5, 1796, the following notice: 

"That agreeable to a by-law of stock- 
holders, subscriptions will be opened 
at the Company's office in Philadelphia 
on Wednesday, the tenth of February 
next, for one hundred additional shares 
of capital stock in said company. The 
sum to be demanded for each share 
will be $300, with interest at six per 
cent, on the different instalments from 
the time they are severally called for, 
to be paid by original stockholders; 
one hundred dollars thereof to be paid 
at time of subscribing, and the remain- 
der in three equal payments, at 30, 60 
and 90 days, no person to be admitted 
to subscribe more than one share on 
the same day. 

" By order of the Board. 



When location was fully determined 
upon, as you will observe, to-day, a 
more direct line could scarcely have 
been selected. Many of the curves 
which are found at the present time 
did not exist at that day, for it has 
been crowded and twisted by various 
improvements along its borders so that 
the original constructors are not re- 
sponsible. So straight, indeed, was it 
from initial to terminal point that it 


was remarked by one of the engineers 
of the State railroad, constructed in 
1834 (and now known as the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad), that it was with the 
greatest difficulty that they kept their 
line off of the turnpike, and the subse- 
quent experiences of the engineers of 
the siame company verify the fact, as 
you will see. To-day there is a ten- 
dency, wherever the line is straight- 
ened, to draw nearer to this old high- 
way, pa^ralleling it in many places for 
quite a distance, and as it approaches 
the city of Philadelphia in one or two 
instances they have occupied the old 
road bed entirely, quietly crowding its 
old rival to a side, and crossing and 
recrossing it in many places. 

You will often wonder as you pasiS 
over this highway, remembering the 
often-stated fact by some ancient 
wagoner or stage driver (who to-day 
is scarcely to be found, most of whom 
have thrown down the reins and put 
up for the night), that at that time 
there were almost continuous lines of 
Conestoga wagons, with their feed 
troughs suspended at the rear and the 
tar can swinging underneath, toiling 
up the long hills, (for you will ob- 
serve there was very little grading 
done when that roadway was con- 
structed), and you wander how it was 
possible to accommodate so much 
traffic as there was, in addition to 
stage coaches and private conveyances, 
winding in and out among these long 
lines of wagons. But you must bear in 
mind that the roadway was very differ- 
ent then from what it is at the present 

The narrow, macadamized surface, 
with its long grassy slope, (the de- 
light of the tramp and itinerant mer- 
chant, especially when a neighboring 
tree casts a cooling shadow over its sur- 
face) , which same slope becomes a men- 
ace to belated and unfamiliar travelers 
on a dark night, threateining them with 


an overturn into what of more recent 
times is known as tlie Summer road, 
did not exist at that time, but the 
road had a regular slope from side 
ditch to center, as all good roads 
should have, and conveyances could 
pass anywhere from side to side. The 
macadam was carefully broken and no 
stone was allowed to be placed on the 
road that would not pass through a 
two-inch ring. A test was made wliich 
can be seen to-day about six miles east 
of Lancaster, where the roadway was 
regularly paved for a distance of one 
hundred feet from side to side, with 
a view of construoting the entire line 
in that way. Bait it proved too expen- 
sive, and was abandoned. Day, in his 
history, published in 1843, makes men- 
tion of tbe whoile roiadway having been 
so constructed, but I thiink that must 
have been an error, as this is the only 
point where there is any appearance of 
this having been attempted, and can 
be seen at the present time when the 
upper surface has been worn off by the 
passing and repassing over it. 

Toll Gates. 

We now come to the placing of toll 
gates and the system of collecting the 
tolls, and I again refer to the Lancas- 
ter Journal, previously mentioned, 
where the following notice appears: 

"The public are hereby informed that 
the President and Managers of the 
Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike 
Road having perfected the very ardu- 
ous and important work entrusted by 
the stockholders to their direction, 
have established toll gates at the fol- 
lowing places on said road, and have 
appointed a toll gatherer at each gate, 
and that the rates of toll to be collect- 
ed at the several gates are by resolu- 
tion of the Board and agreeable to Act 
of Assembly fixed and established as 
below. The total distance from Lan- 
caster to Philadelphia is 62 miles. 

( 71 ) 

"Grate No. 1 — 2 miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 3 miles. 

"Gate No. 2 — 5 miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 5 miles. 

"Gate No. 3—10 miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 7 miles. 

"Gate No. 4 — 20 miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 10 miles. 

"Gate No. 5— 29^^ miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 10 miles. 

"Gate No. 6 — 40 miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 10 miles. 

"Gate No. 7 — 49% miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 10 miles. 

"Gate No. 8 — 58% miles west from 
Schuylkill, collect 5 miles. 

"Gate No. 9— Witmer's Bridge, col- 
lect 61 miles." 

There is also in the same journal, 
bearing date January 22, 1796, the fal- 
lowing notice: 

"Sec. 13. And be it further enacted, 
by authority of aforesaid, that no 
wagon or other carriage with whecl<5 
the breadth of whose wheels shall not 
be four inches, shall be driven along 
said road between the first day of De- 
cember and the first day of May fol- 
lowing in any year or years, with a 
greater weight thereon than two and a 
half tons, or with more than three tons 
during the rest of the year; that no 
such carriage, the breadth of who&e 
wheels shall not be seven inches, or 
being six inches or more shall roll at 
least ten inches, shall be drawn along 
said road between the first day of Dp- 
cember and May with more than three 
and a half tons or more than four tons 
during the rest of the year; that no 
such carriage, the breadth of whose 
wheels shall not be ten inches or more 
or less, shall not roll at less than 
twelve inches, shall be drawn along 
said road between the said day of De- 
cember and May with more ;han five 
tons, or with more than five and a half 
tons during the rest of the year; that 
no carriage or cart with two wheels, 
the breadth of whose wheels shall not 


be four inches, shall be drawn along 
said road with a greater weight thereon 
than one and a quarter tons between 
the said iirst days of December and 
May, or with more than one and a half 
tons during the rest of the year; no 
such carriage, whose wheels shall be 
of the breadth of seven inches shall be 
driven along the said road with more 
than two and one half tons between 
the first days of December and May, 
or more than three tons during the 
rest of the year; that no such carriage 
whos§ wheels shall not be ten inches 
in width shall be drawn along the sai-i 
road between the first days of Decem- 
ber and May with more than three and 
a half tons, or with more than four 
tons the rest of the year; that no cart, 
wagon or carriage of burden whatever, 
whose wheels shall not be the breaclih 
of nine inches at least, shall be drawn 
or pass in or over the said road or any 
part thereof with more than six horses, 
nor shall more than eight horses be at- 
tached to any carriage whatsoever used 
on said road, and if any wagon or 
other carriage shall be drawn along 
said road by a greater number of 
horses or with a greater weight than 
is hereby permitted, one of the horses 
attached thereto shall be forfeited to 
the use of said company, to be seized 
and taken by any of their officers or 
servants, who shall have the privilege 
to choose which of the said horses they 
may think proper, excepting the shaft 
or wheel horse or horses, provided al- 
ways that it shall and may be lawful 
for said company by their by-law.s to 
alter any and all of the regulations 
here contained respecting burdens or 
carriages to be drawn over the said 
road and substituting other regula- 
tions, if on experience such alterations 
should be found conducive of public 

The next matter of interest in con- 
nection with this highway was the 
amount of toll per mile collected for 


passing over it, aad I herewith have 
attached a fac simile of one of the 
ancient toll sheets. I will not weary 
you with a recital of all the rates, but 
will only give you the first and ia?t 
figures of the series. 

They are as follows: [See table on 
pages 74 and 75.] 

The Freight System. 

We shall now pass, on to the system 
by which the freight was transported 
over this ancient thoroughfare. There 
were regular warehouses or freight 
stations in the various towns through 
which it passed, where experienced 
loaders or packers were to be found 
who attended to filling these great 
curving wagons, which were elevated 
at each end and depressed in the cen- 
tre, and it was quite an art to be able 
to so pack them with the various kinds 
of merchandise that they would carry 
safely, and at the same time to econo- 
mize all the room necessary, and when 
fully loaded and ready for the journey 
it was no unusual case for the driver 
to be appealed to by some one who 
wished to follow Horace Greeley's ad- 
vice and "go West" for permission to 
accompany him and earn a seat on the 
load, as well as share his mattress on 
the barroom floor at night by tending 
the lock or brake. 

The writer was told by one of the 
largest and wealthiest iron masters of 
Pittsburg that his first advent to the 
Smoky City was on a load of salt in 
that capacity. 

In regard to the freight or transpor- 
tation companies mentioned in the be- 
ginning of this article, the Line Wagon 
Company was the most prominent. 
Stationed along this highway at desig- 
nated points were drivers and horses, 
and it was their duty to be ready as 
soon as a wagon was delivered at the 
beginning of their section to use all 
despatch in forwarding it to the next 
one, thereby losing no time required 

List of Toll to be Collected on tlie Pliiladelphia and Lancaster 

Turnpike Road. Gate No. — . 


Number of 

Amount per 

Cents. Mills, 

Amount of whole 

distance in 

miles, 62. 

Every sulky, chair or chaise, with one 
horse and two wheels 

Every sulky, chair or chaise, with one 
horse and four wheels 

Every chariot, coach or chaise, with one 
horse and four wheels 

Stages and vehicles used for the trans- 
portation of passengers and merchan- 
dise, the mail excepted 

Either of the foregoing carriages with 
four horses 

Every other carriage of pleasure under 
whatsoever name it may go, the like 
sum according to the number of wheejs 
and horses drawing the same 

Every pleasure sleigh or pleasure vehicle 
or sleigh runners, with one horse 

Every pleasure sleigh or pleasure vehicle 
or sleigh rimners, with two horses 

Every stage coach or other vehicle used 
for the transportation, of passengers 
one horse 

Every stage coach or other vehicle used 
for the transportation of passengers, 
with two horses 

Every stage coach or other vehicle used 
for the transportation, of passengers 
with four horses 

Every vehicle employed in transporting 
the mails with one horse 

Every vehicle employed in transporting 
the mails, with two horses or mules . . 

If mail be carried on horse alone 

Every cart or wagon going to market 
with produce with one horse 

Every cart or wagon going to market 
with produce with two horses 

If with more than two horses, according 
to the number of horses, and, when re- 
turning from market empty, one-half 
of said charge every horse and his rider, 
or lead horse 

Every score of sheep or hogs 

Every score of cattle 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels not ex- 
ceeding four inches, and one horse 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels not ex- 
ceeding four inches, with two horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels not ex- 
ceeding four inches, with three horses. 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels not ex- 
ceeding four inches, with four horses.. 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels not ex- 
ceeding four inches, with five horses.. 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with Vi'heels not ex 
ceeding four inches, with six horses... 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven 
inches, and one horse 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven, 
inches, and two horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven, 
inches , and three horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven, 
inches, and four horses 





$1 24 

$1 24 

$1 86 

$1 86 

$1 24 

$1 24 

$2 48 


$1 34 

$2 45 


$1 24 

$1 24 

$1 391/2 
$4 I81/2 
$5 38 
$6 97 
$8 37 




$2 48 

List of Toll to be Collected on the Philadelphia and Lancaster 
Turnpike Road. Gate 'No.— Continued. 


Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven, 
inches, and five horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
four inches and not exceeding seven, 
inches, and six horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
seven inches and not exceeding ten inch 
es, or, being seven inches shall roll ten 
inches, and two horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
seven inches and not exceeding ten inch- 
es, or, being seven inches shall roll ten 
inches, and three horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
seven inches and not exceeding ten inch- 
es, or, being seven inches shall roll ten 
inches, and four horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
seven inches and not exceeding ten inch- 
es, or, being seven inches shall roll ten 
inches, and Ave horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
seven inches and not exceeding ten inch- 
es, or, being seven inches shall roll ten 
inches, and six horses 

Every cart and wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels more than 
ten inches, or, being ten inches, shall 
roll more than fifteen inches, and 
two horses 

Every cart and wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels more than 
ten inches, or, being ten inches, shall 
roll more than fifteen inches, and 
three horses 

Every cart and wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels more than 
ten inches, or, being ten inches, shall 
roll more than fifteen inches, and 
four horses 

Every cart and wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels more than 
ten inches, or, being ten inches, shall 
roll more than fifteen inches, and 
five horses 

Every cart and wagon other than market 
cart or wagon, with wheels more than 
ten inches, or, being ten inches, shall 
roll more than fifteen inches, and 
six horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 

1 carts or wagons, with wheels more than 

twelve inches, and two horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than' 
twelve inches, and three horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
twelve inches, and four horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
twelve inches, and five horses 

Every cart or wagon other than market 
carts or wagons, with wheels more than 
twelve inches, and six horses 

Number of 

Amount per 

Cents. Mills 

Amount of whole 

distance in 

miles, 62. 



I 9 

$3 10 
$3 72 


$1 39 
SI 86 
$2 32 
$2 79 


$1 24 

$1 86 

37 2-lOc. 

55 4-5c. 

65 1-lOc. 

$1 11 6-10 

All such carriages as shall be drawn by oxen in the whole, or partly by horses 
and partly by oxen, two oxen shall be estimated as equal to one horse in charging 
the aforesaid toll, and every mule as equal to one horse. Empty carts and 
wagons or such as have loading in them not weighing more than 200 pounds, includ- 
ing the feed, for horses, must pay one-half of the above tolls. The committee is to 
report what per centage of the above is to be added during the winter season on 
any or all. 


to rest horses and driver, which would 
be required when the same driver and 
horses took charge of it all the way 
through. But, like many similar 
schemes, what appeared practical in 
theory did not work well in practice. 
Soon the wagons were neglected, each 
section caring only to deliver it to the 
one succeeding, caring little as to its 
condition, and soon the roadside was 
encumbered with wrecks and break- 
downs and the driver and horses passed 
to and fro without any wagon or 
freight from terminal points of their 
sections, leaving the wagons and 
freight to be cared for by others more 
anxious for its removal than those di- 
rectly in charge. So it was deemed 
best to return to the old system of 
making each driver responsible for his 
own wagon and outfit. 

A wagoner, next to a stage coach 
driver, was a man of immense import- 
ance, and they were inclined to be clan- 
nish. They would not hesitate to unite 
against landlord, stage driver or coach- 
man who might cross their path, as is 
instanced in the case when a wedding 
party were on their way to Philadel- 
phia, and which consisted of several 
gigs (two-wheeled conveyanx^es, very 
similar to our road carts of the pres- 
ent day, except that they were much 
higher and had large loop springs in 
the rear just back of the seat, and 
which was the fashionable conveyance 
of that day). When one of the gentle- 
men drivers, the foremost one (pos- 
sibly the groom), but not of necessity, 
was paying more attention to his fair 
companion than his horses he drove 
against the leaders of one of the nu- 
merous wagons that were passing on 
in the same direction. It was an unpar- 
donable offense and nothing short of 
an encounter in the stable yard or in 
front of the hotel could atone for such 
a breach of highway ethics, and at a 
point where the party stopped to rest 
before continuing their journey the 


wagoners overtook them and they 
immediately called on the gentleman 
for redress. But seeing one of the party 
they had known they claimed they 
would excuse him on his friend's ac- 
count, but the party offending would 
not have xu so, and said no friend of 
his should excuse him from getting a 
beating if he deserved it, and I have no 
doubt he prided himself on his muscu- 
lar abilities also. However, it was 
peaceably arranged and each pursued 
their way without any blood being shed 
or bones broken. That was one of the 
many similar occurrences which hap- 
pened daily, many not ending so harm- 

The Stage Lines. 

The stage lines were the next matter 
of interest in connection with this sub- 
ject. They were not only the means of 
conveying the mails and passengers, 
but of also disseminating the news of 
great events along the line as they 
passed. The writer remembers hear- 
ing it stated that the stage came 
through from Philadelphia with a wide 
band of white muslin bound around the 
top, and in large letters was the an- 
nouncement that peace had been de- 
clared, which was the closing of the 
second war with Great Britain, known 
as the War of 1812, and what rejoicing 
it caused along the way as it passed! 

I was unable to find a notice of the 
stage line on the turnpike, but I found 
one over the Strasburg road, via West 
Chester, which will give one an idea 
of the cost and possibly the time for 
making the journey between the two 
cities, although I think one day was 
all that was required to make the jour- 
ney on the turnpike. It is taken from 
the Lancaster Journal of April 29, 1796, 
and reads as follows: "The citizens of 
Lancaster and the public in general are 
hereby respectfully informed that a 
four-horse stage will start from Mrs. 
Edwards' in Lancaster every Monday 


at five o'clock a, m., and run by way 
of Strasburg and West Chester and 
arrive in Philadelphia the next day 
about the hour of one o'clock p. m. 
Start from Mrs. George Weed's, Phila- 
delphia, on every Thursday morning 
at six o'clock and arrive in Lancaster 
on Friday. The price of passengers is 
three dollars and 150 wt. of baggage 
the same as a passenger, with the usual 
allowance of 14 pounds gratis. The 
road will be good and pleasant during 
the summer season. Those ladies and 
gentlemen who will favor the stage 
with their custom will receive punctual 
attendance and strict attention, and 
their favor will be gratefully acknowl- 
edged by their humble servant. 


The Hotels. 

We now come to the last and by no 
means the least of the great institu- 
tions connected with this great high- 
way, and these were its hotels or tav- 
erns, as tney were known at that time, 
and these were of two distinct and sep- 
arate classes, known as the stage and 
wagon tavern, and to conduct one of 
the former required quite as much ex- 
ecutive ability in those days as is re- 
quired to manage one of the more mas- 
sive and elegant structures of the pres- 
ent time. The proprietor had to be a 
man of intelligence and a certain 
amount of culture, and the position was 
filled in many cases by members of 
Congress as well as State Representa- 
tives, for their guests, either by stage 
or private conveyance, were often peo- 
ple accustomed to the refinements of 
life, and were sure to extend their 
patronage to any hostelry in any way 
tending in that direction, and they 
soon became well known along the line. 
It was considered a lasting disgrace for 
one of the stage taverns to entertain 
a wagoner and sure to lose the patron- 
age of the better class of travel, should 
such become known. To show how care- 


fully f he line was drawn the following 
instance will illustrate: In the writer's 
native village, about ten miles east of 
this city, when the traffic was unusu- 
ally heavy and all the wagon taverns 
were full, a wagoner applied to the 
proprietor of the stage hotel for shelter 
and refreshment, and after a great deal 
of consideration on his part and per- 
suasion on the part of the wagoner he 
consented, provided he would take his 
departure early in the morning, before 
there was any likelihood of any aris- 
tocratic arrivals, or the time for the 
stage to arrive at this point. As soon 
as he had taken his departure the host- 
lers and stable boys were put to work 
to clean up every vestige of straw or 
litter in front of the hotel that would 
be an indication of having entertained 
a wagoner over night. 

A short description may not be out 
of place here of these old hostelries, 
their construction and management, as 
given by one of the old landlords of 
that day, although they will not be un- 
familiar to any one having read Charles 
Dickens' "Martin Chuzzlewit" or his 
"American Notes," but it was thought 
at the time those works appeared that 
Mr. Dickens was too severe on the 
American landlord, the custom of the 
time and the primitive way he enter- 
tained his guests. "We were a new coun- 
try, and just recovering from two great 
wars, and had not had much time or 
money to develop internal improve- 
ments as yet. The first sight that met 
your eye as you approached one of 
these hostelries was its huge sign, 
swinging and creaking in the wind im- 
mediately in front of the hotel, bear- 
ing a painted representation of the 
name which the house was known by, 
and these old signs were often works 
of art and in some cases produced by 
leading artists of that day. There was 
one within the borders of this county 
painted by Benjamin West, as well as 
others not bearing the name of so 


noted an artist, but very creditably 
executed, and a pride to the landlord as 
well as the community of which it was 
the centre. Near by was the stable, 
with its well-paved yard, surrounded 
generally by a stone wall, in which, if 
it was a wagon tavern.the wagons were 
drawn up and the horses arranged on 
each side of the feed trough placed on 
the tongue, and there they rested for 
the night. The stables were not the 
large, commodious barns of the present 
day,and even had they been they would 
not have been sufficient to accommo- 
date the demand made upon them on 
numerous occasions. The stage hotels 
made better provisions for their guests, 
and the relay horses, as well as the pri- 
vate turnouts, were sheltered and 
groomed by hostlers and stable boys al- 
ways in attendance. And now, what 
were the duties of Mine Host and others 
connected with these ancient hostel- 
ries? There were the large fire places 
in the parlor, as well as in the kitfthen, 
which must at all hours be ready to 
throw out their heat for the comfort 
and satisfaction of the newly-arrived 
guests, often belated by the inclem- 
ency of the weather or some mishap 
on the way, for they knew not when 
a private conveyance with its liveried 
servants might drive up and demand a 
supper, as well as a glowing fire in the 
parlor, and the beds manipulated with 
the old-fashioned warming pan, so that 
their fair occupant, or the rheumatic 
Congressman or statesman, might have 
a comfortable night's rest after a long 
and cold ride over what always was 
and is to-day a bleak and exposed thor- 

Then, too, it was the central point 
for all social assemblages of local or- 
igin. Every tavern had its ball room, 
to be ready at all times for immediate 
occupation. The writer remembers 
hearing an old landlord state that often 
on a winter's evening, when about to 
close up for the night, there would 


drive up to the door a number of gigs, 
with the occupants equipped, notwith- 
standing the rigor of the weather, in 
full ball costume, with two or three fid- 
dlers, as they were termed at that day, 
and instead of the household quietly 
subsiding into the embrace of Morpheus 
the old hostelry would resound with 
music and dancing and the tap or bar- 
room have constant demands made up- 
on it for mulled wine and other hot 
beverages.while the kitchen was drawn 
upon for refreshments of a more sub- 
stantial nature, and all this often afoer 
having a busy day with stage guests 
and private equipages. It was import- 
ant that Mine Host should be a man 
well versed in the questions and hap- 
penings of the day, as well as events in 
his immediate neighborhood, for, as 
previously stated, he had often as his 
guests leading statesmen and those 
holding prominent positions in the 
Government, who were anxious to learn 
the opinions anu the condition of those 
residing in the district through which 
they were passing. At the same time 
this privilege was often abused by the 
worthy proprietor at whose place they 
were stopping, who often did not hesi- 
tate to criticise their public action, es- 
pecially when they differed on politi- 
cal grounds, as is instanced in the same 
village previously mentioned. When 
the noted stateman of that day, John 
Randolph, stopped to dine Mine Host 
did not hesitate to enter into a politi- 
cal discussion while at dinner with 
him, which was summarily stopped by 
the illustrious guest (who was never 
noted for having the sweetest of tem- 
per) with the remark: "How can I talk 
politics and eat my dinner at the same 

Traditions and Superstitions. 

Many of the old hotels or taverns 

had their traditions and superstitions; 

one especially, located in a very lonely 

spot a few miles west of Coatesville, 


known as "Hand's Pass." Why that 
name was given it the writer cannot 
state. Tradition said that General 
Hand had passed there with a portion 
of Washington's army, but the fact 
could never be verified. This old hos- 
telry was surrounded by a dense wood, 
and for some reason had an uncanny 
reputation, so much so that wagoners 
(for it was a wagon hotel) avoided 
remaining there over night as much 
as possible. The following narrative 
was related to the writer by a gentle- 
man who was at that time a clerk in 
one of the warehouses in Philadelphia 
where the wagons were loaded and 
freight received, and who afterwards 
became a very wealthy and prominent 
commission merchant on Broad street. 
A wagoner was taken sick, and it was 
important that this wagon and freight 
should not be delayed, so this young 
man, who had formerly lived in the 
country, and was accustomed to the 
management of horses, was asked by 
his employer to take charge of the 
team and drive it as far as Lancaster, 
where there could be found another 
driver to take it on, which he consent- 
ed lo do. When night drew on, it 
found him near the lonely tavern of 
Hand's Pass. Not knowing of the super- 
stition connected with this point, he, 
with other drivers, likewise ignorant 
of the uncanny nature of the place, 
drew up for the night, and, after hav- 
ing placed their wagons in the stable 
yard and in front of the hotel, ar- 
ranged their horses on each side of the 
feed trough resting on the wagon 
tongue. Having had their supper they 
unrolled their mattressses on the bar- 
room floor, which all wagoners at that 
time carried with them, prepared for a 
night's repose, doubtless having listen- 
ed, prior to this, while sitting around 
the large open fire, to tales of various 
murders and spectral appearances 
which had occurred or been seen at 


different points along this much-trav- 
eled highway. Perhaps the warm tod- 
dy, which was always at hand, assisted 
a little with the marvelous tales re- 
lated. However, when all was quiet in 
doors and out, as far as could be with 
the various teams feeding by the 
wagons, suddenly a succession of 
piercing shrieks came from the stable 
yard, and every wagoner who had oeen 
snoring to his heart's content on his 
separate mattress sprang to his feet, 
and, rushing to the door, saw a wild 
scene of confusion going on in the 
yard and in front of the old tavern. 
Horses were prancing, some having al- 
ready sprang over the tongue, upset- 
ting the feed trough and tangled in the 
harness or fastenings of their compan- 
ions on the other side, while shriek af- 
ter shriek of a most startling nature 
came from a dark corner in the yard 
near which the dense woods terminat- 
ed. Some even claimed they saw a 
white object of various dimensions, but 
the narrator said he lost no time in 
investigating, but, with others, hastily 
rolled up his mattress, attached his 
horses to the wagon, and, after set- 
tling his score with the landlord, who 
tried in vain to dissuade him, started 
out into the night, although it neared 
"the witching time of night when 
churchyards yawn, etc. " (so graphi- 
cally described by Shakespeare), and 
did not again draw rein until he arriv- 
ed at the next stopping place. The 
narrator told the writer he was fully 
convinced since it was a wild cat (or 
catamount). He said he never passed 
that place, although at the time this 
was recited he was a man of eighty 
years of age, and has since joined the 
large majority, without the cold chills 
passing up and down his back on re- 
membering the terrors of that night. I 
think that that established the reputa- 
tion of the place, or, perhaps, it was 
the growing of that bustling and thriv- 


ing town.with its numerous iron works 
just east of it.that drew away the trade, 
but it never became a popular stopping 
place afterwards. It might be well to 
state that in the same woods years af- 
ter, when Barnum used to travel with 
his circus on foot and in wagons, an 
animal of much greater magnitude and 
far more dangerous than the uncanny 
visitor of that night gave him serious 
trouble. The elephant "Hannibal," which 
killed several of his keepers after- 
wards, struck, not for higher wages, 
but for less hours, and after exhibiting 
in Coatesville was started for the next 
point, which was Lancaster, and when 
he reached the woods, which was not 
fenced in from the turnpike, turned 
in and would not be persuaded 
by his keeper to go further, and it re- 
quired quite a number of men with 
ropes, clubs and goads to suppress 
him. When he passed through my 
native village he was in a very sorry 
condition and was too late to be ex- 
hibited in this city, nor do I think the 
great showman was very anxious, as 
he was not in a very good frame of 
mind, although they thought Iney had 
subdued him. These are a few of cue 
many happenings and traditions of a 
similar nature which might be related 
of nearly all these old hostelries situ- 
ated along this old highway. Some 
had a history connected with the early 
struggle of the Colonies to throw off 
the British yoke in 1776, but these 
were confined to the eastern and west- 
ern termini of the turnpike, as it was 
not, as previously stated, constructed 
until some years afterwards. It occu- 
pied, when completed, sections of a 
much older highway and one rich in 
Colonial history, as well as many stop- 
ping points along its line, and this 
highway is known to-day as the Old 
Lancaster road and in earlier times as 
the "King's Highway." It runs parallel 
for quite a distance with the turnpike. 


but loses its identity at the terminal 
points, and I 'hope the articie which 
has just been read to you on the Old 
Philadelphia and Dancaster Turnpike 
may inspire some one to furnish the 
Ijancaster Historical Society with an 
account of its early history and tra- 
ditions, before all records of them may 
be lost. 

The one great structure which stands 
to-day a monument to the enterprise of 
a single individual, and used then, as 
it is now, by the traveling public of 
both these highways and is located al- 
most within the limits of this city, is 
the bridge known as Witmer's, and 
was erected by Abraham Witmer in 
1799 and 1800. As so much has already 
been written and history nas given 
it such a prominent place on the 
records, I will not occupy your time 
with any further recitals. The old 
hotel at the west end, whicn is still 
standing and is now occupied by .he 
city electric lines as a restaurant, was 
originally owned by a man by the 
name of Bering, who also conducted a 
ferry prior to the erection of the 

This old turnpike was sold a few 
years since in three sections, the east- 
ern one, extending from Lancaster to 
within a short distance west of Gap, 
for $10,000, and with that terminated 
the old management and order of af- 
fairs. It had long since ceased to be of 
more than local importance, and in 
many places had almost passed out of 
service. Toll ceased to be collected ex- 
cept at certain populous points and the 
roadway and bridges were very much 
neglected, and, like many of tne insti- 
tutions of by-gone days, ^t was super- 
seded by improve.^ methods of com- 
munication and transportation. While 
not professing to possess the gift of 
prophesy, there would appear to be a 
time near at hand when this old high- 
way, with its few remaining hostelries 


scattered along its borders, will again 
be aroused from its Rip "Van Winkle 
sleep, and, with .ne road scraper and 
macadan and the various improved 
methods of road-making, present a 
smooth and level surface. The old 
tavern and old sign will be renovated 
and burnished, and we will again see 
Mine Host, as so often described by 
Charles Dickens, standing in the door- 
way with a smile of welcome, not for 
the stage coach, wagons or private 
turnouts, with their necessary clatter 
and bustle, but for that silent steed 
which to-day has taken i>ossession dur- 
ing the summer months of this old 
thoroughfare — the bicycle; and, pos- 
sibly, the horseless carriage. The days 
of its importance as a means for the 
conducting of merchandise transporta- 
tion to distant points are like the 
hours of yesterday, past forever, and 
its future, as is already the case for 
quite a distance at the eastern end of 
the line, is to furnish a means for 
amusement and recreation for those 
living in the great city at its eastern 
terminus, as well as the suburban resi- 
dents scattered along its line. 

And now, when one passes over this 
once prosperous and much-traveled 
highway, where but a few years since, 
comparatively speaking, its hills and 
valleys resounded with the echo of the 
stage horn and the crack of the wagon 
whip, arnd see it as it is to-day, in 
many parts grass-grown and solitary, 
we realize what changes a few years 
can make. What are great enterprises 
to-day are replaced by greater ones to- 
morrow, and nothing is so complete 
that there is not room for improve- 
ment; and so it doubtless will ever be 
until man's labors on this planet have 
drawn to a close and he leaves it to fill 
a mission in one of a higher and more 
exalted sphere. 





On dec. 3, isor. 


The Who, What and Whence of the Pre-Columbian 

Dwellers, or the Misnomered Peoples, Indians, 

or Lancaster County. 

By Theodore L. Urban, Esq. 


Contributed by Eev. P. B. Stauffer. 

Notices of Col. Armstrong and Col. Henry Bouquet, 

Contributed by F. R. Diffenderfer. 

VOL. IL NO. 4. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


American Indians : The Who, What and Whence of the Pre- 
Columbian Dwellers, or the Misnomered Peoples, Indians, of 
Lancaster County, 

By Theodore L. Urban, Esq., ...... 89 

Letter by Col. John Armstrong : With Notices of Col. Arm- 
strong and Col. Henry Bouquet, 

Contributed by Rev. P. B. Stauffer, and F. R. 



The Who, What and Whence of the Pre- 
Columbian Dwellers, or the Misno- 
mered Peoples, Indians, of 
Lancaster County. 

The treatment of a pre-historic sub- 
ject which seemingly is wrapped in 
such impenetrable mystery and veiled 
in the blackest night of obscurity may 
possibly be regarded as both vain and 
presumptuous, more especially since 
the writer has no status in which is 
termed the scientific world. Notwith- 
standing, I beg to remark "that a rus- 
tic often stumbles upon rare game," 
and 'that wisdom is not always found 
with the would-be wise." Hence a lay- 
man may come into possession of 
matter and facts that dumfound and 
amaze the savant. Any facts, or, in 
the absence of these, even a specious 
hypothesis that would tend to throw 
a ray of light on a subject of such great 
moment as the one in question, should 
be of more than passing interest to 
every Pennsylvanian. But, strange to 
say, little interest is manifested by the 
masses, and their origin and antiqui- 
ties are with indifference overlooked 
or wholly ignored. The modern scholar 
does not consider his education com- 
plete unless he has paid homage at the 
ruined piles of monumental art of the 
Orient, to which history has introduced 
him. Is it owing to the absence of 
history that he turned his back on 
the ruined piles of art of his own con- 
tinent, or simply that it is the fashion 
of the day? Obviously, he was not 
seeking the unknown and marvelous. 
If such had been his object and ambi- 
tion a trans-Atlantic voyage was un- 


necessary, as problems could be found 
lying at his own door as yet unfolded 
or solved which are of greater moment 
and more marvelous than any yet 
found on God's footstool. 

But, if you please, we will now con- 
sider the who and what of the primi- 
tive people of our county. I shall make 
no attempt to deal with each distinct 
tribe, for the families, sprung 
from one fountain-head. The science 
of ethnology furnishes us with very 
meagre information; simply the color 
of the skin and hair, stature and mode 
of living. Failing, however, to associ- 
ate them with any of the races of the 
Eastern continent, hence the claim 
which has been promulgated, and which 
is both untenable and devoid of con- 
sideration — namely, the Autochthonic 
theory, or people who were indigenous 
to the land which Columbus discovered. 
The most popular theory is that they 
were of Jewish origin. In fact,the claim 
that they were the posterity of the ten 
lost tribes has met with considerable 
favor. The erudite and illustrious 
Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune and 
ruined his health in the hopeless at- 
tempt to prove them to be Jews. Even 
William Penn was impressed with the 
close resemblance they bore to the 
Jews of England. Seemingly we are 
without guide post or compass in a 
midocean of uncertainty. Scientists 
have used the following keys with the 
hope of solving this Jewish problem, 
namely: Ethnology, archaeology, 
philology and craniology, and the un- 
satisfactory unlocking is very apparent 
in the want of harmony on the part of 
these mighty thinkers. However, they 
failed to consider Bibliology and the 
poetry of religion, or what is common- 
ly termed mythology. These are the 
keys of which I shall avail myself. 
Before proceeding further with their 
"who and what" it becomes necessary 
to first trace their "whence," or orig- 
inal location, on this "Island," as the 

(91 ) 

Western continent was denominated 
by them. And, further, I desire to em- 
phasize the fact that America was so 
regarded by the primitive peoples of 
both continents. The following pre- 
diction I offer in confirmation of this, 
which was current with the people un- 
der consideration: "When the whites 
shall have ceased killing the red men 
and got all their lands from them the 
great tortoise which bears this 'Island' 
upon his back shall dive down into the 
deep and drown them all, as he did 
before, a great many years ago, etc." 
It must be apparent where I fain would 
lead you, in calling such special atten- 
tion to this continent being regarded 
as an island. Yes, I not only advocate 
the Platonic theory of the island of 
Atlantis, but claim that it had a ver- 
itable existence. However, I do not 
concede it was wholly destroyed — a 
matter that will be subsequently con- 
sidered. I learn from the pages of pro- 
fane history of three separate and dis- 
tinct expeditions to what is still a 
terra incognita to modem savants. 
While Biblical history informs us of 
the commercial relations existing be- 
tween King Solomon and a land called 
by them Ophir, the latter, strange to 
say,has become the philosopher's stone 
of geographers. They have searched 
the Orient with a view of finding an 
available quarter in which to locate it, 
but at each move confusion becomes 
worse confounded, and in hopeless de- 
spair they leave it to be located any- 
where, except, of course, on the West- 
ern continent. 

The Jews were not a maritime peo- 
ple, hence the Tyrians, sailors, were 
enlisted to construct ships on the 
shores of the Red Sea and sail — where? 
To Tarshish, or the West, in which the 
land of Ophir was situated. Obviously, 
if this land could have been reached 
other than by vessels it would not 
have been necessary to incur the ex- 
pense of a navy or the use of ships, as 


the ship of the desert would have sub- 
served the purpose. Then, too, con- 
sider the length of time consumed in 
making the voyage, namely, three 
years. These expeditions were of a 
purely specific character. Miners and 
those skilled in warfare were unneces- 
sary; barter was the ostensible object 
of these voyages. If you please, con- 
sider the products procurable in this 
wonderful land — gold, silver, ivory, 
peacocks, apes and rare and beautiful 
wood, such as was not indigenous to 
the Orient. En passant, we are all fa- 
miliar with the fact that the beautiful 
wood known as mahogany is only to 
be found in Yucatan and Central 
America. Here, too, the ornithologist 
informs us is found that rare and mag- 
nificent bird which in plumage corres- 
ponds with its India counterpart, and 
which so delighted the epicurean taste 
of King Solomon — the Meleagris Ocel- 
lata — better known as the Ocellated 
turkey,and which the Septuagint trans- 
lated peacock. The other products, 
none can gainsay, teemed in abundance 
on the Western continent. 

The question which nofw demands 
our atteoDtion is one that, I greatly re- 
gret, the limited space assigned for its 
treatment renders it impossible to 
produce the voluminous evidence in 
my possession relative to the who and 
what of the peoples of Ophir, with 
whom King Solomon was engaged in 
such extensive commercial relation. 
But left us consult the sacred page 
from which we shall procure such evi- 
dence wherehy we will be eniabled to 
remove the veil that has so completely 
enshrouded the origin of the race 
which emigrated to the Occident and 
dwelt in that mysterious land, Ophir, 
usurping the temples, palaces, homes 
and lands of a people who were the 
first to emigrate to that Atlantean 
abode which furnished the nectar and 
ambrosia for the gods. I now beg to 
quote Grenesis 25: 21, 23 — "And Isaac 


entreated the Lord for his wife, be- 
cause she was barren, and the Lord 
was entreated of him, and Rebekah, 
his wife, conceived. And the Lord said 
unto her, two nations are in thy womb, 
and two manner of people shall be 
separated from thy bowels, and the one 
people shall be stronger than tlhe other 
people, and the elder shall serve the 

From the quotation and subsequent 
information relative to the birth ol 
these twins, it becomes apparent that 
they differed in a very marked degree. 
We would naturally suppose that the 
physiognomy, a characteristic gener- 
ally possessed by twins, must have 
been pronounced and conspicuous. 
Commentators, theologians, and, in 
fact, all who have bestO'Wed any 
thought upon that occult and mysteri- 
ous language,namely, "Jacob took hold 
of Esau's heel," have sought in vain 
for its significance. We must concede, 
if there was no importance to be 
attached to it, no reference would 
have been made to an act so 
insignificant. In brief, the pos- 
terity oi Esau was marked by a pe- 
culiar anatomical characteristic, name- 
ly that of having their toes inverted, or 
what is familiarly known as pigeon- 
toed. This peculiar feature was o'f im- 
portant service to them, for by it they 
were enabled to determine if the tread 
or foot-print was that of a friend or 
foe. As to the elder being subservient 
and dispossessed of his birth-right, we 
recognize the fulfillment. We are also 
made acquainted with another very 
important transaction; that of 
robbing the elder, or Esau, of his 
father's blessing. But let us con- 
sider the result of this latter act on 
the part of Jacob. "And Isaac answer- 
ed and said unto Esau: Behold, I 
have made him thy lord, and all his 
brethren have I given to him for ser- 
vants; and with corn and wine have I 


sustained him and what shall I do now 
unto thee, my soin? And Esau said 
unto his father, Hast thou but one 
blessing, my father? Bless me, even 
me, also, O! my father. And Esau 
lifted up his voice and wept. And 
Isaac, his father, answered and said 
unto him. Behold, thy dwelling shall 
be the fatness of the earth, and of the 
dews of Heaven from above. And by 
the sword shalt thou live and shalt 
serve thy brother; and it shall come to 
pass when thou shalt have the do- 
minion, that thou shalt break his yoke 
from off thy neck." 

It would he most incongruous and 
devoid of common sense reasoning to 
claim that Isaac had any reference 
whatever to a geographical location on 
the Eastern Continent as the dwelling 
of Esau's posterity. Mount Seir was 
the heritage of Esau; he came into 
peaceable possession of it. But the 
land that contained the fatness of the 
earth it was necessary to subjugate, to 
dispossess a people who were then in 
possession; hence the language, "By 
the awoird shait thou live." Petra, the 
roick-hewn city, was the stronghold of 
the Edomite nation. Reference is fre- 
quently made to their erudition and 
wisdom, and it has been conclusively 
proven they were a maritime people, 
potssessing the two great and important 
seaports, Eloth and Ezion-geber. In 
the centre of this impregnable city 
stood — ^and which is still grand in its 
ruin — a treasury. The question natur- 
allysuggests itself , whence the wealth of 
the Edomites? It is not supposable they 
extracted it from the bleak and varie- 
gated sandstones of Mount Seir. Their 
environments would imply poverty, 
notwithstanding they were the posses- 
ors of fabulous wealth, and the coffers 
of their treasury overflowed with the 
precious metals. In the language of 
Job, they "laid up the gold of Ophir as 
the stones of the brooks." Their wealth 


made them proud, arrogant and ambi- 
tious for the acquisition of more power 
and land in the Orient. This is ap- 
parent from the prophetic language, 
(see Jeremiah 49: 16), "Thy terrible- 
ness hath deceived thee and the pride 
of thine heart." That the gigantic 
scheme was contemplated by them of 
becoming the rulers of both continents 
is obvious from the following quota- 
tion (Bzekiel 35:10): "Because thou 
hast said these two nations and these 
two countries shall be mine, and we 
will possess it; whereas the Lord was 
there." Again, the prophet Jeremiah 
(49: 9), with a view of rebuking them 
for their avarice and discontent, con- 
clusively demonstrates they were in 
the acme of their greatness. He gives 
voice to language which needs no elu- 
cidation, as its pertinence and signifi- 
oanoe are thus most beautifully ex- 
pressed: "If grape gatherers come to 
thee, would they not leave some 
gleaning grapes? If thieves, by night, 
they will destroy till they tiave 

The edict had gone forth in the pro- 
phetic denunciation by Ezekiel (35: 7): 
"Thus will I make Mount Seir most 
desolate and cut off from lit him that 
passeth out and him that returneth." 
What construction will you place on 
the statement "cut off from (Seir) him 
that passeth out and him that return- 
eth ?"Surely it cannot be interpreted as 
annihilation or extermination. No, the 
language is too significant and com- 
prehensive to be misunderstood. They 
were a maritime people, controlling 
the commerce of the Red Sea; their 
ships were constantly passing in and 
out of their two great seaports, Eloth 
and Ezion-geber. Just here I shall 
anticipate the interrogation. No, they 
did not all abandon their original home 
or inheritance for the land they had 
acquired by the sword. One tribe, or 
nation, remained and held its rocky 

(96 ) 

fastness to the exclusion of all East- 
ern nations; oibviously for their mu- 
tual benefit. Here was their great 
commercial emporium or mart for the 
exchange of products of bofh lands. 
Thanks to that good and plain matter- 
of-fact man, missionary and 'historian, 
John Heckewelder, wiho has preserved 
to us a tradition that was extant 
among those whom he spiritually ad- 
vised for more ttian thirty years. He 
informs us that their proper national 
name was I^enni Lenape. These are 
the people with a Jewish cast of coun- 
tenance, which were located in our 
countty, treated with William Pean, 
commonly called Delawares, who pos- 
sessed the peculiar feature of being 
pigeon-toed, and the subject of my 
text. Quoting Heckewelder: "The In- 
dians consider the earth as their uni- 
versal mother. They believe that they 
were created within its bosom, where 
for a long time they had their abode 
before they came to live on its surface. 
The Indian mythologists are not agreed 
as to the form under which they exist- 
ed while in the earth. Some assert 
that they lived in human sbape, while 
others contend that their existence 
was in the form of a certain terrestrial 
animals, such as the groundhog, the 
rabbit and tortoise. This was their 
state of preparation until they were 
permitted to come out and take their 
station on this Island." The tradition 
further states that they did not all 
leave their original home. "The 
groundhog would not coime out." 

Elucidation seems superfluous. Make 
yonr own deductions, and you cannot 
fail to discover the evidence of their 
original home and their landed pos- 
sessions on the two continents to be 
irrefutable. But, if you please, Hecke- 
welder supplies us with an additional 
link in the chain of evidence relative 
to their original habitation : "The 
compound word, Lenni-Lenape, was 


significant of people at the rising of 
ttie svin, or Eastlanders, and were ac- 
knowledged by nearly forty Indian 
tribes, whom we call nations, as being 
their grandfathers." This is the infor- 
mation imparted by the most reliable 
colonial historian, who was unbiased 
and unprejudiced, and whose veracity 
has never been questioned. The meta- 
phorical expression "grandfathers" 
was significant of ance-sters hence, 
they were regarded the eldest of all na- 
tions. Then, too, in the terrestrial ani- 
mals by which the several tribes were 
represented. I beg to say, I have traced 
their origin to the birthplace of the 
Edomite nation. They were the totems 
of Esau's posterity, and were signifi- 
cant of the several spheres of their ex- 
istence. Tihe tortoise or turtle tribe, as 
Heckewelder informs us, claimed a su- 
periority and ascendency over all 
others. They were the sailors who, in 
the early dawn of their historic morn- 
ing, navigated the sea; hence the 
water was their element and the turtle 
a fitting totem. The home of the 
groundhog, we are cognizant, is highly 
significant of his name. Consider then 
if you please, the original home of the 
Lenni Lenapes, a knowledge of which 
has been perpetuated by tradition and 
transmitted to posterity in mythologi- 
cal form. It is needless, therefore, to 
dwell on ot call further attention to 
the cave dwellings and temples of 
Petra, which, as all students know, 
were excavated out O'f the living rocks 
which surrounded the city; standing 
two and three hundred feet high, thus 
forming a natural wall. Next in con- 
sideration will be the dispossessing of 
the original inhabitants of the so- 
called Island of their homes, palaces, 
temples and lands. In the forests of 
Yucatan and Central America lie 
buried under the moss of time and 
vegetation of centuries the remains of 
ruined, though once magnificent, edi- 


fices, in the sihape of palaees and tem- 
ples. The question is frequently asked, 
"Can the problem of builders and the 
uses of these structures be solved?" 
I have the temerity to an- 
swer the question in the af- 
firmative, briefly in passing. The 
Supreme Architect in His infinite wis- 
dom caused a people who became 
polytheists and ignored Him as the one 
true and omnipotent God to erect col- 
ossal works of art that would with- 
stand the vandal hand of time, upon 
whose facades they wrote their own 
epitaphs, with pardonable pride, to be 
read by one who lays no claim to 
science. To resume, in brief, the pos- 
terity of Esau by the sword gained 
dominion and broke the yoke of his 
brother, Jacob. The constructors of 
the temples and palaces who escaped 
the sword fled to the North and became 
the pioneers of North America. Hecke- 
welder informs us that the Lenni 
Lenapes, or "Bastlanders," recognized 
a people who they called "Rattle- 
snakes" as their grandfathers. Hence 
it became apparent that the nation or 
peoples which had preceded them were 
Ophites. 1 ne science of philology does 
not inform us if the latter word was 
corrupted by the Hebrew tongue into 
Ophir. Notwithstanding, the serpent 
played a dual role, and was an im- 
portant and significant emblem with 

The Edomites enjoyed a long and 
peaceable possession of the land which 
they had acquired by the sword; but, 
as previously remarked, their pride 
and wealth made them ambitious to 
extend their poiwer and territory in 
the Orient. The prophet, however, in- 
forms us "the Lord was there," or, in 
other words, they did not accomplish 
their purpose. According to the chron- 
ology of the writer in the seventh cen- 
tury B. C. they were made "most deso- 
late" by a great convulsion in nature. 
Three gigantic and marvelous transi- 


tions were enacted — water took tne 
place of land, and land of water; the 
great mountainous connecting link be- 
tween the two continents dropped into 
the bowels of the earth, and the 2,000,- 
000 square miles of water rushed from 
its native bed to fill the chasm; and 
what was then an inland sea was trans- 
formed into what is now known as the 
great desert Sahara. The Mediterra- 
nean, too, was compelled to seek its 
level and break through the rocky 
fastness of Gibraltar, thus producing 
an outlet to the Northern Atlantic. 
How expressive and significant the 
language of the prophet Jeremiah 
(49: 21): "The earth is moved at the 
noise of their fall, at the noise thereof 
the cry was heard in the Red Sea." 
We can well imagine such a fearful 
convulsion in nature would move the 
earth from centre to circumference. 
But why should the prophet inform us 
that the cause of ...e noise was first 
heralded from the Red Sea when the 
denunciation applied to Mount Seir? 
It is self-evident those of Seir had not 
yet learned of their desolation until 
they were informed by the Tarshish 
sailors. Again quoting the same 
prophet (49: 20): "Therefore hear the 
counsel of the Lord that he hath taken 
against Edom and his purpose that he 
hath purposed against the inhabitants 
of Teman. Surely the least of the fiock 
shall draw them out; surely he shall 
make their habitations desolate with 
them." It now becomes apparent that 
the inhabitants of Teman were also to 
be made desolate. It would be wholly 
inconsistent from the language quoted 
to seek for the geographical location 
of Teman on the Eastern continent, 
notwithstanding what may be said to 
the contrary. Teman, we learn, was 
the grandson of Esau; and, I beg to 
add, the one whose posterity was in- 
strumental in gaining dominion on 
the Western continent and breaking 
the yoke of Jacob. 


( 100 ) 

If you please, let us indulge in a bit 
of play on the imagination. We follow 
one of the Tarshish fleet which is 
about to leave the seaport Bloth. Sup- 
posing the period or time immediately 
subsequent to the great convulsion of 
nature. They have taken advantage 
of the monsoon winds which blow for 
six consecutive months from the Bast. 
Ophir being their objective point, they 
round the modern Cape of Good Hope 
and sail northwest, heading in the di- 
rection of what are now known as the 
Cape Verd Islands. As they near the 
latter we recognize there is something 
wrong, as all is commotion on board 
the foremost vessel. A cry goes forth 
from the latter; this is followed in con- 
cert by those on board the other ves- 
sels. Horror and amazement are de- 
picted on their countenances at the 
discovery that the familiar mountain 
chain forming the connecting link be- 
tween the "world" and the great island 
was no longer visible. The only ves- 
tige to be seen was the apex of the 
mountains forming the islands towards 
which they had headed their vessels. 
Beyond only a trackless ocean which 
they had not learned to navigate met 
their sight. Here they beheld the un- 
mistakable hand-writing of God, deso- 
lation — utter desolation. The El Do- 
rado, their land of gold, the island 
which contained the fatness of the 
earth, had been swallowed up, and 
with it they naturally imagined thous- 
ands of their people. They return 
whence they came and cry aloud.asthey 
sail up the Red Sea, the cause of the 
noise and their fall or the desolation 
of homes and land. However, by way 
of consolation, and to soften their 
grief, the prophet informs them of 
God's promise — "Leave thy fatherless 
children; I will preserve them alive 
and thy widows trust in me." There is 
no evidence that Mount Seir, or Petra, 
has been visited by any convulsion of 
nature. But for Time's effacing fingers 

(101 ) 

her rock-hewn dwellings and temples 
could be seen in all their primitive 
grandeur. The two sea ports, Eloth 
and Ezion-geber, occupy the same 
geographical quarter. Even the Red 
Sea is not marked by any perceptible 
transition. Vain and useless, there- 
fore, to seek for evidence in that quar- 
ter. But beneath the mighty waves of 
the Atlantic lie buried conclusive and 
irrefutable proofs of the medium by 
which Edom and Teman were made 
most desolate. But let us visit the 
land acquired by the sword, and con- 
template it at the time the edict had 
gone forth. "The earth is moved at the 
noise of their fall." The subterranean 
thunders vibrate and revibrate. Their 
island reeled and tossed like a ship in 
a tempest; and from the shaking sides 
of Popocatapetl and other volcanoes 
in proximity belched forth tons of 
ashes, obscuring the sun and causing 
a pall of the blackest night to envelop 
them. Madly they rushed from an 
impending and unknown fate. Chaos 
reigned supreme. Their lives were 
spared, however, that they might wit- 
ness their desolation and learn the 
Lord had been there. Harmony was 
again restored. The sun once more 
smiled upon them. But hark! to that 
wail and cry as they gaze upon the 
ocean! A voice in unmistakable lan- 
guage comes from the deeps, pro- 
claiming, "Behold the evidence of the 
edict!" "Pass through thy land as a 
river. "Howl ships of Tarshish, your 
strength is laid waste." And if to 
mark the spot or location of the con- 
necting link between the two conti- 
nents. His wise and wondrous hand 
caused those yet unexplained ocean 
currents to play around its unseen 
borders, while the deep sea soundings 
reveal what nature never fashioned 
under water, namely, the irregularities 
in the shape of mountains and valleys. 
Then, too, the hand boards on the 
broad ocean, the islands, or rather the 

( 103 ) 

apex of the loftiest submerged moun- 
tains, remain to speak of its existence 
and the desolation caused by its sub- 
mergence. In brief, they fled from the 
land and their ruined cities and fol- 
lowed in the wake of those who cen- 
turies before were dispossessed by 
their ancestors. Generations passed to 
the happy hunting grounds; still they 
continued their emigration. Seemingly 
there yet remained one more part in 
life's drama which they were to per- 
form. The decree, "By the sword shalt 
thou live," again was to be exempli- 
fied. Their circuitous route at last 
brought them to the west bank of the 
Northern Mississippi. Here posterity 
met posterity in deadly hostility. 
Again the red son of Isaac was victori- 
ous, while the posterity of the pio- 
neers, or original discoverers, returned 
to the land of their ancestors, whose 
ruined templed, arts and hieroglyphics 
were not strange or unknown to them. 
As to the subsequent peregrinations 
and acts of the red son of Isaac, or the 
Lenni Lenapes of our county, the mod- 
ern historian has forged the additional 
links in the historical chain of their 
sojourn and exodus; and he would have 
us believe they were ignorant, unlet- 
tered and savage. However, had he 
viewed them from a standpoint of in- 
telligence, instead of ignorance, he 
would have discovered the wisdom and 
high culture possessed by their ances- 
tors. Their traditions in the shape of 
wampum belts, their birch bark rec- 
ords and parchment histories were en- 
igmas to him; hence, from his inability 
to understand them, his red brother, 
of course, must be ignorant. But as I 
have already transcended the limits 
prescribed I will conclude, however, 
begging to remark, as I lay no claims 
to that of a writer, I am sensible of 
the unsatisfactory treatment of this 
important subject. Regretting my in- 
ability, therefore, to regale you with 
"apples of gold in pictures of silver," 


I trust, however, that God's Word and 
other evidence by which I have been 
enabled to remove the veil that has 
hung like a long night over all pertain- 
ing to the Who, What and Whence of 
the Lenni Lenapes, or Temanites, of 
our county will atone for any omis- 
sion or commission on the part of your 
humble servant. 


The following is an exact eojpy of a 
letter written by Colonel John Arm- 
strong to General Washington. The 
original is in the possession of the 
Rev. P. B. Stauffer, of St. Clair, Pa. 
The letter is given as it stands in the 
original. Not the least of its interest 
lies in the fact that it was written 
from (the borough of Lancaster, where 
the writer happened to be at the time: 

Lancaster June 6th 1758 

Honoured sir 

In consequence of your order of the 
30th ult. & a letter from Gen. Forbes 
to Col. Bouquet respecting the Draughts 
for the Light Horse, I am by tihe Col. 
ordered to this town, & to Draught in 
the following manner 


From my own Battalion 25 

From Col. Burds 15 

From 12 oompanys of the Levys 

at 3 men each 36 

From 15 Do. at two each 30 

Troopey 106 

Your Hon. will be gooid enough to 
forgive my not writing you yesterday, 
being hurry'd more than you can well 
imagine, with the applycations &c. of 
those Raw Undisciplin'd people. I'm 
surprlz'd those Lower Countys, suff- 
er'd their troope (tho' raise'd time 
enough to collect their necessarys) to 
march so far from their Governm't so 
ill supply'd. please to read a return of 
their wants, sent the General. To day 
I send Y'r Hon'r a return of ciie state 
of the Captain Stone & Clark's Com- 
panys — ^as I will, a full the others that 
may fall under my notice whilest here. 

( 105 ) 

which I hope will be but a very short 
time, my BaJttalion being march'd a 

I'm afraid our acoutrements are sent 
in such a manner as may occasion 
trouble & mistake, not being particu- 
larly mark'd, directed &c. I have 
heard of one case the contents not 
known, marked for me, I suppose its 
arms, the Blankets I have not heard 
of, I hope Drums was mentioned in the 
last return of my Battalion to the Gen- 

The neoessarys for the New Levys 
should be explicitely meintion'd, & di- 
rected to some particular place, I think 
Carlisle, as Ashton's & Singleton's 
Companys are at Harris's and Safes & 
seven of the Companys Dest (west) of 

Those New Castle people, I shall 
keep a day or two longer until I receive 
the Generals or your orders, but find 
it necessary as well to forward the 
service, as to avoid the growing 
trouble of Billets in this Town, to push 
forward the men from Post to Post 
along the chain of communication, but 
on this important point the Generals 
orders cannot come too early, with di- 
rections about tents, or at least Blan- 
kets without which its extremely diffi- 
cult to march the men. 

Col. Bouquet has sent me here under 
a complicated burthen, where I greatly 
miss Sir Allen McClean (.uho' the 
Gent'm here are very helpful) & Major 
Loy'd who shou'd have been here, I 
find absent. 

Capt. Cammeron & myself beg leave 
to recommend to your Honour W. Alex. 
Cammeron a Cadet in the Capt's Com- 
pany, for an Ensinecy in Capt. Stones 
Company, as its said Stone has already 
wrote your Honour of the foibles of 
his Ensign. 

I am Honour'd Sir with Greatest 
Respect, your Most Obedt. Servt. 

( 106 ) 

Jolin Armstrong was born in the 
north of Ireland, in 1725, and died in 
1795. I do not know when he came to 
America. He served with credit to 
himself in the French War of 1755-6, 
and led a force against t!he Indians at 
Kittanning, destroying their town and 
the supplies sent them by the French. 
The city of Philadelphia gave him a 
vote of thanks, a medal and a piece of 
plate tor tlh-at service. As this letter 
indicates, be was again in the service 
in 1758, in the expedition against Fort 
Duquesne. He was commissioned a 
Brigadier General in the Continental 
Army in 1776. He fought at Fort Moul- 
trie, and commanded the Pennsylvania 
militia at the battles of Brandywine 
and Germantown, but retired from the 
army in 1777, owing to dissatisfaction 
over a question of rank. He was a 
member of Congress in 1778 and 1780, 
and again in 1787-8, and held many 
local public offices. 

His youngest son, John, born at Car- 
lisle, in 1758, became very prominent 
during the Revolution, having enlisted 
while a student at Princeton. He was 
the author of the famous "Newburg 
Letters," which created such a sensa- 
tiOiU at the time. He was a voluminous 
author and a United States Senator. 

The Col. Henry Bouquet who is 
spoken of in this letter was an Eng- 
lish soldier, but born in Switzerland. 
After seeing service in the Dutch and 
Sardinian armies, he entered the Eng- 
lish army, becoming Colonel of the 
Sixtieth Regiment in 1762, and a 
Brigadier General in 1765. He co- 
operated with Gen. Forbes in the ex- 
pedition against Port Duquesne in 
1758, and was mainly instrumental in 
having a new road made through Penn- 
sylvania, instead of using the old one 
made memorable by the Braddock- 
Washington expedition. His forces 
were attacked at Loyal Hanna by the 


French and Indians, but he repulsed 
them and was present when the fort 
was captured. In 1763 he was in com- 
mand at Philadelphia, and in that year 
was ordered to the relief of the same 
fort, then called Fort Pitt, now Pitts- 
burg. He had an army of 500 High- 
landers, and, as he moved along, re- 
lieved several of the frontier forts, but 
his advance guard was suddenly attack- 
ed at Bushy Run by the Indians, and 
foir a time the command was in danger 
of annihilation. By a stratagem he 
turned the tables on his enemies and 
routed them utterly. Four days later 
he reached Fort Pitt, with supplies, re- 
lieving that important post. In 1764 
he led an expedition against the Ohio 
Indians, compelling the Shawnees, 
Delawares and others to sue for peace. 

F. R. D. 



On JAN. 7, 1898. 


By Simon P. Eby, Esq. 


By J. Watson Ellmaker and Read By Miss Martha B. Clark. 
Second Paper By Amelia B, Ehler. 


By Leander T. Hensel. 

VOL. IL NO. 5. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


John Beck : The Eminent Teacher, 

By Simon P. Eby, Esq., Ill 

Col. Samuel J. Atlee, 

By J. Watson Ellmaker and read by Miss 
Martha B. Clark, Second Paper by Amelia B. 
Ehler, 140 

The Ark : A Famous Last Century Mansion, 

By Leander T. Hensel, 146 


Ladies and Gentlemen of the His- 
torical Society: I could wish that the 
duty of preparing the article I am 
about to read might have fallen into 
abler hands — into hands more capable 
of describing the character of the mod- 
est, God-fearing man, and the good 
work he has done during fifty years of 
unremitted labor as a faithful teacher 
of the many pupils that were intrusted 
to his care. That I might sit with you 
and listen to what to me, who knew the 
man. is an ever-pleasing story, instead 
of attempting the task myself. And as 
the matter is in part a simple history 
let me beg your indulgence in advance 
if some of it may appear prosaic and 

The existence of Mr. John Beck's 
school ante-dates my earliest recollec- 
tion some twenty or more years. When 
I was a lad, old enough to ride to the 
postoffice for letters, or go to Lititz 
once or twice a week as mill boy, Mr. 
Beck's educational army was already 
quartered in the different private fam- 
ilies from one end of the town to the 
other. And when school left out in the 
evening the streets became alive with 
healthy-looking boys,who could be seen 
and "heard" hurrying towards their re- 
spective boarding places for their four 
o'clock piece. This usually consisted 
of a piece of good home-made bread, 
cut half around a big loaf, and spread 
with butter and molasses, applebutter 
or sometimes honey. Then, munching 
their pieces, they would be off for an 
hour's exercise, until supper time, to 
the play-ground for a game of ball or 
shinny; perhaps for a visit to the 
springs, or a romp over the neighbor- 
ing fields, if it was fall time, in hopes 


of starting a rabbit, or to fly their kites 
if the wind was favorable. 

At that time the academy was al- 
ready widely and favorably known, and 
patronized at home and from abroad. 
One generation had already passed 
through the institution, and at the 
time of which we speak many of the 
pupils were the sons of the fathers who 
had been there before them. 

It must not, however, be supposed 
that the institution was one precon- 
ceived, or planned before hand, gotten 
up by the authorities of the town, or 
any company of leading citizens, who 
laid their plans, erected their buildings, 
employed learned professors and, when 
all was ready, issued their prospectus 
and gathered in the pupils needed to 
fill their houses. It had its origin in a 
far more humble, yet interesting, man- 
ner. A small seed of learning was 
dropped by a young man, in kindness 
of heart, to help along a few of his 
illiterate young companions and to earn 
a few shillings. The promising quality 
of the seed was discovered by some of 
his neighbors, who urged him to nurse 
its growth. To do this he finally con- 
sented, with many doubts and misgiv- 
ings. The seed took root and sent up 
a healthy growth, which increased in 
size beyond expectation and spread its 
branches year by year higher upward 
into the sunshine. And the young 
master who had care of this tree of 
learning increased in knowledge and 
understanding himself as his tree grew. 

But we will best let Mr. Beck himself 
tell this part of the story. He says: 
"I was born at Graceham, Frederick 
county, Maryland, on the 16th of June, 
1791, and in my sixth year moved with 
my parents to Lancaster county. Pa., 
into the neighborhood of Mount Joy, 
whence, after a lapse of two yeai^s, we 
repaired to Lebanon county, near the 
Blue Mountains. 

"There being no schools in that 
vicinity at that time, my parents de- 


temiined to send me to Nazareth Hall. 
At this school I remained until my 
fifteenth year. I did not leave it as a 
very bright scholar, whether from lack 
of capacity or whether from want of 
proper training to suit my case, I know 
not, but the testimonial I received on 
leaving was an unfavorable one. Never- 
theless, what little I had acquired 
served me well, as you all know. 
Whatever deficiency in the learning of 
the books may have been apparent, it 
is to this school that I am indebted for 
the first religious impressions made 
upon my young heart, a lasting source 
of gratitude which wells up within me 
whenever I visit old Nazareth Hall. 

"My education being found deficient. 
It was determined by my parents that 
I should learn a mechanical trade, and 
my own inclination tended towards 
that of becoming a cabinet-maker; but 
my parents, who desired to place me in 
the care of a religious and strictly 
moral man, failing to find one in that 
occupation whose views in that regard 
accorded with their own, proposed to 
me to become the apprentice of a shoe- 
maker whom they believed worthy of 
their confidence. I felt much disin- 
clined, but, having learned the good 
lesson of filial obedience at Nazareth 
Hall, I complied, and accordingly was 
sent to Lititz in the year 1805 for that 
purpose. Here I was more fortunate 
in acquiring a knowledge of the busi- 
ness than I had been at Nazareth in 
my educational pursuits, and on the 
day of my freedom my master gave me 
a highly favorable testimonial. He 
pronounced me the best and fastest 
workman, as well as the most faith- 
ful apprentice boy, he had ever had in 
his employ, and, in order to testify still 
further his good feeling toward me, 
presented me with an elegant suit of 
clothes and fifty dollars."* 

* Prom his valedictory to his pupils. 


How He Became a Teacher. 

A short time after he had gained his 
freedom he was asked to take charge 
of the village school at Lititz. The 
offer was made because of his great 
fondness of children, as well as their 
partiality toward him. This offer he 
was constrained to decline, being well 
aware of the deficiency of his educa- 
tion and loath to leave a trade he had 
mastered so thoroughly. At two sub- 
sequent periods he was again asked to 
take the school, but refused for the 
reasons stated. 

In the year 1813 it happened that 
there were five apprentice boys in the 
village whose masters were bound by 
indenture to send them for some 
months to school, but the regulations 
of the village school at that time pre- 
cluding the admission of boys over 
twelve years of age he was called upon 
to teach them three evenings in a 
week and offered two shillings and 
six-pence a session. He consented to 
make a trial, but tells us "it appeared 
to him very much as when the blind 
undertake to lead the blind." For- 
tunately for him, he says, he found 
them very deficient, ana when he real- 
ized that he could teach them some- 
thing his labor became a pleasure, and 
at the expiration of the term he re- 
ceived much praise from both masters 
and boys. The report of his success 
spread through the village, and he was 
once more asked to take charge of the 
village school, this time by a letter 
signed by all the parents who had sons 
to send to school. His final conclusion, 
whether to accept or refuse, caused 
him much consideration. He consulted 
a number of his friends, among them 
his former master, the shoemaker, who 
encouraged him to make a trial, saying 
to him: "Who knows to what it may 
lead? You may possibly become a 
more useful man than if you remain a 
shoemaker," giving as one of his rea- 
sons young Mr. Beck's great love of 
children and their attachment to him. 


He Takes Charge of His First School — A 
Description of the School House. 

He finally accepted the charge, and 
on the 2nd day of January, 1815, he was 
Introduced to the twenty-two boys who 
formed the school by the Rev. Andrew 
Benade, the then pastor of the Lititz 
congregation, under whose care and 
direction the school at that time stood. 

The house in which he commenced 
his career as teacher stood on the site 
of the present two-story brick Boys' 
Academy building, on the west end of 
the church square, facing east. It was 
originally built for a blacksmith shop, 
although in later years it served as a 
potash manufactory, while its age, judg- 
ing from the figures on the vane — 1754 
— must have been sixty-one years. The 
size of the building was about 30 by 24 
feet, but the room itself was about 24 
feet square and poorly lighted by four 
small windows and its roof covered 
with tiles, the ceiling very low, the in- 
side walls exceedingly rough and dark, 
and on one side a fireplace, a receptacle 
of the blacksmith's bellows in former 
times. Immediately at the entrance 
there was a small board-constructed 
corridor, partly to keep the cold out 
and in part to serve the boys as a place 
to hang up their hats. The school ap- 
paratus consisted of a fiat table, about 
16 feet in length, the legs of which, be- 
ing tressels, did not stand steadily, but 
rocked backward and forward through 
the least movement of the boys, who 
were seated around it on two long 
benches. The pupils were boys from 
seven to twelve years of age, a few of 
them considerably well advanced for 
those times. They were German chil- 
dren, and one of the duties of the mas- 
ter was to teach them to speak Eng- 

Objects of the Teacher. 
The objects of the teacher, he tells 
us at the outset, were, first, to gain the 
affections of his pupils; secondly, to 


improve himself, and, finally, to in- 
struct them as far as lay in his power, 
and with energetic faithfulness, in Eng- 
lish and German reading, spelling and 
writing, arithmetic, geography and 
grammar, those being the branches re- 
quired to be taught. 

At the close of the first term a public 
examination was held, as was custom- 
ary in those days, in the church. All 
the parents and others present express- 
ed themselves much pleased with the 
work done, and he was encouraged to 
undertake a second term. This also 
proving satisfactory, he had by this 
time become so thoroughly attached 
to the school and children that he re- 
solved to continue a teacher. 

Many methods were introduced for 
the improvement of his pupils and to 
place the school on a better footing, as 
well as to improve himself. This re- 
quired a considerable outlay, and at the 
end of the year he generally was in 
debt, his salary of $200 being by no 
means sufficient to defray all expenses. 

Having his Saturdays free, he em- 
ployed them in earning something ex- 
tra towards increasing his yearly in- 
come. Once out of the routine of shoe- 
making, he never made another pair, 
but adopted another expedient, that of 
engraving tombstone epitaphs, which 
was more profitable, and, from a slight 
knowledge he had of painting, also 
undertook to paint signs and to orna- 
ment chairs for chairmakers. In this 
way he was enabled to earn something 
toward his own advancement and that 
of the school. 

In 1818 he had an offer to take charge 
of the parochial school at Bethlehem at 
a salary of $300, but, his Lititz patrons 
not wishing to part with him, and the 
school at Lititz having considerably in- 
creased by accessions from the sur- 
rounding neighborhood since under his 
charge, was now beginning to yield 
the congregation more than two hun- 
dred dollars. To retain him they offered 


to turn the school over entirely to him, 
with permission to make his own 
terms. This induced him to remain. 

New Methods Introduced to Stimulate the 
Ambition of His Pupils. 
He adopted various methods to stimu- 
late the ambition of his pupils. One of 
them he mentions in particular,because 
he considered it led to the conversion 
of his village school to a Boarding Ac- 
ademy. He says: "I had prepared a 
number of 'Badges of Honor' of various 
sizes and colors, each one containing a 
motto of praise in bright gilt letters 
and otherwise beautifully ornamented. 
When hung up along the wall of the 
school room they presented a hand- 
some appearance, and contrasted most 
pleasingly with the rough and dark 
walls. On each a number, such at 10, 
20, 30, 40, &c., was painted, whilst a 
strap, with a button attached, served 
to suspend them to the breast of any 
boy who had recited best in the vari- 
ous branches of his class, and enabled 
the recipient conveniently to carry the 
badge of distinction to his parents. A 
regular account was then kept, and at 
the close of the morning and evening 
exercises each of those who had re- 
ceived one of them obtained a credit 
for the number on its face. At the ex- 
piration of a month all such credits 
were added together, and the boy who 
had the highest number was gladdened 
with some such prize as a book, knife, 
&c. Any one who conducted himself 
improperly lost all that he had gained. 
This method had an astonishing effect 
upon every boy, and they applied them- 
selves to their lessons early and late, 
each one energetically striving for the 
highest numbers. 

"Now, it so happened one day in 
the year 1819 that two gentlemen from 
Baltimore visited Lititz, and, casually 
passing through the village, met the 
boys bearing some of these badges. 
Attracted by the novel appearance,they 

(118 ) 

stopped the boys and asked an expla- 
nation, which the boys promptly gave 
them, but they did not come to see me 
in the old shop. 

"On their return to Baltimore it hap- 
pened that a certain Mr. V., having a 
son whom he wished to place some- 
where in a school, consulted those gen- 
tlemen on the subject, and they recom- 
mended him to Lititz, alleging, from 
what they had seen, the probable ex- 
istence of a good school there. Mr. V. 
at once determined to come to Lititz 
on a reconnitering expedition. He ar- 
rived on a Saturday and found me en- 
gaged in painting, assuredly not in a 
plight to make a favorable impression 
on a parent who was seeking a teacher 
for his son. 

"His first inquiry, 'whether the 
teacher resided here,' having been re- 
sponded to affirmatively, was followed 
by a second — 'Could I get to see him?' 
To which I replied, 'I am the person.' 
'Well, sir,' said he, 'I have come from 
Baltimore to see whether you will re- 
ceive my son as a pupil.' 'My dear sir,' 
I rejoined, abashed, 'I have no board- 
ing school; I merely instruct the vil- 
lage boys. You have been misinformed. 
There is a ladies' seminary here, but 
none for boys.' 'No, sir, I have not been 
misinformed,' said he; 'your school is 
highly spoken of in Baltimore, and I 
have been recommended to you.' 'Why,' 
said I, in utter astonishment, 'who 
should know anything there of me or 
my school? I have never been there, 
nor do I know a single person in that 
city.' He then recounted to me what 
the two strangers had related to him, 
expatiating at length upon their 
strong recommendations of the school 
as well as of the village. He insisted 
upon the admission or his son, and I 
as steadily continued to refuse. After 
a long conversation upon the subject 
he finally said: 'Mr. Beck, think the 
matter over. I shall meanwhile go to 
the hotel and dine. Will you call there 


this afternoon for further conversation 
on the subject?' 

"Upon my arrival at the hotel he met 
me at the door and exclaimed: 'It is 
needless for you to say no. I have 
taken a liking to you, and you must 
receive my son if you ask $500 a year. 
I will pay it to you.' 

"Still shrinking from so great a re- 
sponsibility, I proposed to show him 
my Academy, hoping that a glance at 
the old blacksmith shop would change 
his mind. Arrived there, my first re- 
mark to him was, 'This is my Academy. 
Surely you would not fancy your son's 
admission into so mean a building!' 
His reply much astonished me. 'You 
need no better recommendation than 
this humble building and the sequest- 
ered village about it, where my son may 
be safely removed from the tempta- 
tions and perils incident to life in a 

"Hereupon I finally, but reluctantly, 
agreed to receive his son, who arrived 
ten days later, accompanied by his 
mother. I tried my best to persuade 
her not to leave him here, but she, like 
Mr. v., at once became equally prepos- 
sessed, not only with Lititz, but with 
my humble school room, remarking, 
'In just such a school I want my son to 
be educated.' 

"After imparting many parental ad- 
monitions to her son she left him in 
my charge on the 30th of August, 1819, 
on which day I entered him in the 
school, cherishing the fond hope that 
as he was the first he would be the last 
one I would receive from abroad. Lit- 
tle did I imagine on that day that my 
future destiny would be to become the 
educator of many hundred boys, who 
would be brought to me from nearly 
all the States of the Union. 

"About four weeks after Master V. 
had entered five more came from Bal- 
timore, all sons of highly respectable 
families. They arrived without pre- 
liminary application, and I was much 

( 120 ) 

concerned what to do with them, for I 
was deficient in boarding accommoda- 
tions. But it, nevertheless, really ap- 
peared as though a Higher Hand had 
regulated the matter, for family after 
family in the village offered to receive 
not only the newcomers, but a number 
of others, who soon followed. These 
five boys also came on the recommen- 
dation of the two gentlemen who had 
recommended the school to Mr. V."* 

In propoirtion as the school increased 
the old building was found too small, 
and it was determined to teiar it down 
and ereict a larger one oa its site. Ac- 
oordingly, in the early part of 1822, the 
dingy blacksmith shop was taken down 
and on the 25th of September follow- 
ing he moved his school into the new 

Spacious and comfortable as he now 
deemed Ms room,oonstant accessions to 
the number of his pupils rendered fur- 
thier extensi'ons desirable. Experience, 
hie tells us, had taught him that quite 
young pupils cannot be profitably con- 
sorted with those older and more ad- 
vanced; and he pro posed to tlie par- 
ents of the village who had small boys 
tihie establishment of a Primary school; 
but, as such an arrangemeint was un- 
heard of in those days, in those parts, 
the projeot met witih little favor. 
Thinking that the additional expense 
thereiof was the chief oibjection, he of- 
fered toi beaT that himself, obtained 
their consenlt, and fo'rthwith had a 
small building adapted to that pur- 
pose, and placeid the widow of his mas- 
ter in the shoemaking trade in it as 
teacher, she being a well-educated 
lady; he feeling happy to be able to 
procure her an occupation by which 
she could make a living, w'hich s(he 
really needed; and he, by this arrange- 
ment, gaining more room and lessen- 
ing his labors. 

In 1826 his health declined rapidly. 

* From his valedictory. 


tliirougli much speaking and over-exer- 
tion. He had to dismiss his school 
during this protracted spell ol ill- 
health, but, when fully recovered, all 
the boys speedily returned. 

Enlargement and Improvement of the 

Mt. Beck procured the best and most 
advanced books on the subject of 
schools and education and studied 
them. He provided means for the ex- 
ercise and pihysical training of his pu- 
pils by purchasing a plot of an acre 
and a- half of open ground, a few 
squares west o'f his schioiol house, en- 
closed it with a hi^h board feince,where 
Ms iboys could play their games and 
take exercise without molesting any 
one or heing interfered with by others. 
He procured gardening implements 
and, together with the boys, did tthe 
work of leveling the ground, planting 
trees and makimg flowerHbeds. He had 
a ball-'alley huilt and a riding course 
laid out; bought two ponies, saddles 
and bridles, to teach the hoys to ride on 
horseback. He thus tried many ways 
oif developing and advancing his pupils 
mentally, morally and physically. Such 
of the methods as he found on trial to 
be inefficient he abandoned, and such 
as answered their purpose he retained 
and improved. 

When the grounds aJt the Springs 
were improved anid beautifled it became 
a rival place for recreation and pomy- 
riding, and the flower-beds in the 
play-ground were then abandoned. But 
the manly games of corner-ball and 
base ball, then known as town-hall, 
held possession at the grounds to the 
end of the school, and tihe shouts and 
cheers of the players and enthusiastic 
lookers-on could be heard in that di- 
rection when a good hit or a g^ood run 
was made. It happened some times, in 
fine weather, that lalll the s'chiool was 
out, and one of the assistant teachers 


would have to go inio the loft of the 
brick school house, pull the ibell-rope 
himself and ring in school. 

The annual examinations of the 
school had by this time become a holi- 
day for the villagers and neighhors. 
Old and young crowded the church on 
those occasions to see the performance 
and listen to the recitations and decla- 
mations. Finding this, however, to 
miateriially interrupt the regular studies 
of the pupils, and entail an almiost use- 
less expense to himself and so'me of the 
parents, he lalbandoned public exami- 
nations and added largely to Ms appa- 
ratus used in illustrating his lectures. 
An air-pump, with aocompanying in- 
struments; an eiecitrical machine, with 
battery; electrical bells, etc., magic 
laintern, with a large numlber of slides; 
natural history charts, with siome speic- 
imens of rare fish and animals, and 
lastly, a fine telescope, to assist in the 
study of aJstronomy, were secured. 

During the winter sessions he deliv- 
ered a course of weekly and semi- 
weekly evening letotures, on one or the 
other of these subjects. These lectures 
he made very attractive. He was quite 
an orator, fluent in speech and happy 
in his illustrations; his discourse was 
interesting and instructive, and when 
he became warmed up to his subject he 
held his young audience speD-bouind 
without break or interruption to the 
end. Let me say here, that of all the 
lectures that I have listened to in my 
after-years, I can remember of none 
that so completely captivated and held 
the attention as some of tihe best of 
Mr. Beck's did. 

Condition of the Schools in the Thirties 
and Beginning of the Forties. 

At the time of which we now write 
Mr. Beck had four assistant teachers, 
and school was kept by them in as 
many different rooms — one in the 
brick academy building and three in 


the stone "Brethren House." Mr. Fet- 
ter had the youngest boys, Mr. Ferdi- 
nand Rickert the second class — both 
in the stone building — Mr. Augustus 
Christ the third class in the brick 
building, and Mr. John Rickert the 
fourth, or mathemnatical clasis, in the 
stone building upstairs. 

John Rickert was the bright math- 
ematical genius of the institution at 
that period. With a face of a classic 
mould, thick, short, curly hair, clus- 
tering closely around his Byronic head, 
he had been the pupil of Mr. Beck, and 
all his life his constant friend and 
faithful head assistant, and yet, in na- 
ture and disposition, was the very op- 
posite of Mr. Beck. He was mild man- 
nered, cold and distant, a man of few 
words, while Mr. Beck was open-heart- 
ed, demonstrative and impulsive. It 
was interesting to see how their differ- 
ent natures fitted harmoniously into 
each other. 

Mr. Beck told Mr. Rickert he was 
the wisest and most foolish man he 
knew. At which Mr. Rickert took no 
offense, because he knew it was true. 

At one time a serious offense was 
committed at one of the boarding 
houses. It was reported to Mr. Beck, 
who called all the boarders of that 
place into his private room and de- 
manded to know the offender. The 
guilty party would not confess, and 
his companions refused to tell on him. 
Mr. Beck argued, remonstrated and 
threatened, but all to no purpose. At 
last, baffled and disappointed, he turn- 
ed the key and left, telling them he 
would keep the whole party locked up 
until they would tell. 

He went over to Mr. Rickert, much 
irritated about the matter. 

Mr. Rickert suggested that he 
would see the boys, and Mr. Beck 
handed him the keys. 

Mr. Rickert entered the room in his 
quiet way, told them what he had 


heard, that they were locked up be- 
cause they refused to make known the 
offender. He told them he rather ad- 
mired their conduct; it was honorable, 
it was manly, it was courageous not to 
tell on their friend. The boys who 
had expected a reprimand were sur- 
prised. It was putting the affair into 
a new light. He would not ask them 
to tell. "But," continued Mr. Rickert, 
"I would not like to be the boy who 
did the mischief, and brought my 
friends, who are innocent,into trouble, 
and not have the courage to confess 
and take the consequences; that is 
cowardly." There was a short silence, 
when one of the boys arose, saying: 
"Mr. Rickert, I can't stand that. I am 
the one who did it." 

Mr. Rickert went back, handed Mr. 
Beck the key, saying such an one is 
the guilty party. 

Mr. Beck, surprised, asked, "Did they 

"No," said Mr. Rickert. "He con- 

Mr. Rickert related this circumstance 
with a quiet smile, as much as to say, 
"That time I ra'tJher got the better of 
Mr. Beck." 

With all his bright talents, Mr. 
Rickert was not the good teacher that 
Mr. Beck was. He had but little pa- 
tience with the dull boys, probably be- 
cause the problems seemed so simple 
and easy to him that he could not well 
understand why the pupil should not 
also see it, and hence was apt to be- 
come impatient, ridicule him, and dis- 
courage the already disheartened boy. 

Not so with Mr. Beck, who took par- 
ticular care of those who most needed 
it — of the weak, the diffident and the 

If the task for them was hard, he 
was at their side, showed them, helped 
them, encouraged and cheered them 
on in their studies. 

( 125 ) 

How the Schools Were Conducted in Those 

Mr. Beck, 'being the proprietor, 
received all applicants, placed them in 
the proper classes, and ordered and di- 
rected their studies. In that respect 
he acceded to the wishes of the pa- 
rents as to what branches they should 
study as much as possible. 

He had a class in penmanship and 
one in elocution that he taught him- 
self on stated occasions in the week 
in Mr. Ferdinand Rickert's or Mr. 
Christ's room, the assistant giving 
place to the master for that hour. The 
studies were so regulated by the hour 
as the hours were told by the clock 
in the church steeple near by. 

When a new class was to be started 
or a new study to be commenced, Mr. 
Beck would also be present to help his 
assistant, and, wihen not otherwise 
engaged, he was generally in or about 
the school houses, or not far off. He 
would visit each of the rooms to see if 
anything was wanted, and inquire 
whether the boys were all industrious. 
Of the boarders he had charge all the 
time, in school and out of school; of 
the day scholars from the village and 
neighborhood, who went home in the 
evenings only, while they were in 
school or on the school grounds. 

When he held his class of penman- 
ship or elocution, which was in the 
first hour in the afternoon, he had the 
boys at work five or ten minutes be- 
fore the clock struck. "Boys, time is 
precious,'" he would say, and there 
was no lagging behind or shirking the 
work when he had charge of the class. 

He used copy-books of plain, un- 
ruled paper, in blue covers, and when 
a boy ruled the lines far apart, to les- 
sen the number he would have to 
write, Mr. Beck would promptly re- 
prove him, saying: "You rule as if 
your father owned all the paper mills 
in the country." 


Quill pens were then used, and it 
kept the teacher busy mending the 
pens. He would set the copy himself, 
let the pupils write a few lines and 
bring it up for the master to look at. 
He would then point out the faults, and 
tell the boy to write a few lines more 
and try and improve it. "The great 
art to learn is to unlearn our faults," 
he would say. He was very successful 
as a teacher of penmanship. There was 
then no printed scrip to copy, at least 
none to suit him, and ideas had to be 
picked up whenever opportunity pre- 
sented. We heard him say that on one 
occasion he sat for a long while on an 
inverted half-bushel measure, with 
slate and pencil, learning to make the 
capital letter "D" as it was chalked on 
the grain-fanning mill in the barn back 
of the school house, and would not 
give up until he had fully mastered it. 

Hearing the elocution class recite 
also seemed a pleasure to Mr. Beck,and 
sometimes afforded amusement to- both 
teacher and class. One time a pupil 
was declaiming a most melancholy 
piece of his own selection in the most 
vigorous and energetic style of oratory. 
Mr. Beck.with book in hand, sat listen- 
ing intently until he was through; 
then said quickly: "Mr. Martin, this 
kind of a piece does not suit you at all. 
You must have something more on the 
order of a stump speech, with a 'Hur- 
rah for VanBuren!" in it." The pupil 
was a Democrat, and had been shout- 
ing lustily for VanBuren, his candidate 
for President, in 1840. The teacher's re- 
mark was received with a good-natured 
laugh by the class, in which Martin 
joined. A more suitable selection was 
given him, which the fiery-crested 
young orator recited the following 
week in grand style to the satisfaction 
of his teacher and the pride of his 


Reception of Country Boys — Special Les- 
sons for New Pupils. 

Mr. Beck gladly received country 
boys from the neighborhood into his 
school, even though they attended only 
during the fall and winter months, and 
found no trouble in associating them 
with his regular boarders and have 
them pursue their studies together 

To new boys he would give special 
instruction to help them along with 
those more advanced. Some fine after- 
noon he would call the new uoys into 
a room upstairs, where he would have 
his telescope ready to take observations 
of the sun, point out the spots and give 
them general information on the sub- 
ject. At another time he would take 
them into his private room and start 
them in the study of geography or 
philosophy, and on still another after- 
noon he would spend several hours ex- 
perimenting with his electrical appara- 
tus, the pupils taking part in the work, 
turning the machine, getting shocked, 
generating gas in a retort, loading a 
wooden toy cannon and discharging it 
by an electric spark, to the amuse- 
ment as well as the instruction of his 
pupils. He seemed delighted to have 
the knowledge of science spread in his 
own neighborhood. Some of his teach- 
ings were at that time new and start- 
ling to many people, but always found 
ready advocates in his pupils wherever 
they had opportunity to be heard. That 
the sun was the centre and the earth 
moved around it and revolved on its 
own axis, that some of the stars were 
worlds, was in those early days not 
universally accepted; and when the 
great meteoric shower fell in 1833 many 
people were alarmed and thought the 
world was coming to an end; and when 
the information went out from Mr. 
Beck, stating what really did fall, there 
were many exclamations of surprise. 
There was at least one minister who 
considered it necessary to correct Mr. 


Beck's fallacy, and said to his congre- 
gation: "This man Beck has a kind 
of a horn (telescope), through which 
he looks into the heavens.and he wants 
to tell us it was not the stars that fell. 
But I will tell you better. We can read 
in the Scriptures that the stars shall 
fall from heaven and the world shall 
be destroyed by fire, and this was a 
sign and a warning to us to prepare 
for that day." 

Some of the Incentives to Study. 

As already indicated, the rule of the 
rod was superseded by the more hu- 
mane and equally effective methods to 
encourage pupils and fit them for 
study. This fact has been denied by 
some of the earlier scholars, and it was 
asserted by them that Mr. Beck did 
use the rod. Investigation, however, 
shows that the rod was used only for 
serious offenses, when Mr. Beck would 
take the offender to his private room 
for punishment. Neither Mr. Beck nor 
his assistants carried the rod about the 
school rooms for use during school 

Young boys are fond of stories, and 
when a class was industrious and did 
its work, with time to spare, Mr. Beck 
would reward them by telling or read- 
ing to them some interesting story. 
Some of his assistants followed this 
course also. He also treated his school 
to an occasional holiday — a supper at 
the hotel on Washington's Birthday, 
when some of the pupils recited pieces, 
and kind Mrs. Beck sent word to the 
boys that they must eat like threshers. 
Then there was the annual fall excur- 
sion after chestnuts. The report in the 
neighborhood was that Mr. Beck would 
look to the Furnace Hills some five 
miles off through his telescope to see 
whether the chestnuts were ripe, and 
when he discovered that the burrs had 
bursted and the brown nuts were ready 
to fall he ordered a number of farm 
teams, with their drivers, to haul the 

( 129 ) 

school out. Then there would be a 
merry time. The eager boys would 
crowd upon the seats fixed on the hay- 
ladder wagons, with their well-filled 
lunch baskets.and after scrambling and 
shouting to become all properly seated 
the train would start, with cheer and 
music of fiute, flageolet,tambourine and 
accordeon, the prancing of the fat farm 
horses and crack of the driver's whip 
— off for a day of enjoyment among the 
hills and chestnuts and a chicken sup- 
per at the Brlckerville Hotel, and Mr. 
Beck the happiest boy among them all. 
Some of the elements of Mr. Beck's 
soiccess as a teacher can be named, 
beginning with the least: 

The Environments of His School. 

Lititz was admirably suited for a 
school like his. A quiet, moiral atmos- 
phere pr evaded the place and it afforded 
few temptations and no bad company 
for the boys. The Moravian congrega- 
tion held supreme title to the land of 
the village and owned several of the 
adjoining farms and woodlands. It 
was under a mild, but strict, church 
government; outsiders could not be- 
come land-holders, and undesirable 
tenants could not intrude themselves 
upon the community. A Collegium of 
church members regulated the affairs 
of the village, presided over by a Vor- 
steher; and a committee of chimney 
inspectors loioked after 'the sanitary 
condition of the place. 

The villagers were quiet, respectable 
tradesmen and mechanics, and their 
wives were tidy housekeepers and kind 
miothers. Many of the latter were edu- 
cated in the Ladies' Seminary of that 
place, and some of them, having served 
in it as teachers, were intelligent and 
refined in manner. 

Among these people the pupils from 
abroad were distributed in sets from 
two to six or more in number. They 
were boarded, lodged and cared-for, 


and became like members of ffie same 
family. The good dames of the house 
took them under their protection, par- 
ticularly if yet small boys, rejoiced 
in their success,sympathized with them 
in their troubles, and nursed them in 
sickness; that is, if they ever got sick, 
for Mr. Beck's tioys were a remarkably 
healthy set. 

Besides these aittractions there were 
other inducements 'Wliich contributed 
to make the boys feel at home. The 
village, always neat and attractive, was 
located in the midst of a charming ag- 
ricultural country, abounding in 
streams containing fish, fields in whloh 
ralbbits conld be started in season with- 
out much trouble, and woods full of 
nut-bearing trees, to w*hioh the boys 
could go on their Saturday excursions. 

The owners of the surrounding farms 
were respectable, thrifty farmers, not 
disposed to quarrel with the boys, and 
on friendly terms with their Principal, 
many of them sending their sons to Ms 
school during the winter season. 

Tiheir board was good and whole- 
some, and in lall the wide world there 
were no such pretzels and streissel 
cakes as could ibe tiad at the cake-shops 
in Lititz, nor such taffy as the Sisters, 
yet remaining in the Sister -'house, sold 
for a cent a stick; at least so the boys 
used to think. 

Then there was the bright, neat, old 
church, close to the school, its clock 
keeping time while the boys went 
througih tlhelr lessons, and telling the 
hours and quarters on its two bells in 
the steeple. In front was a square, gay 
with hollyhocks in summer and green 
wiith cedar trees in winter. 

Close on its eastern side stands Lin- 
den Hall Seminary, out of which pro- 
ceeded, on almost every fine day, and 
came up the village street, a 'train of 
demure, sweet-faced schoolgirls, ac- 
companied by several of their teadhers, 
out for their afternoon walk. Upon 


these the boys looked with indiffereace. 
Being of the weaker sex, they dould 
neither play ball, fisih, hunt, skate, or 
climb trees with them. The fair train 
was allowed to pass and the boys made 
no sign. Love-making was not al- 
lowed — ihardly though of. Oncei, In 
many years, an academy boy oipened a 
correspondence with Linden Hall, and 
Mr. Beck shipped him in a hurry anid 
without any fuss. 

The old-fashioned tally-ho mail 
coach and four, with well-r&meimbered 
sorrel off-leader, rolled up in front of 
the hotel every other day, and carried 
the passengers and mail between Lan- 
caster and Reading. The sooty-faced 
chimney-sweep came several times a 
year, and, to the great delight of the 
boys, sang his comic, and, alas, some- 
times, too, his drunken, songs, from 
the tops of the tihimmeys until he fell 
down inside. 

The community of Lititz ha)d a fine 
ear for music, and quite a number of 
expert performers. They had a good 
pipe organ in the church. A quartette 
of trombones announced the death of 
a member from the ohuroh steeple, and 
preceded his funeral train to the 
grave, playing a hymn. 

They had an orchestra, with a grand 
piano, in their concert hall above the 
main school room in the brick acad- 
emy building. They had a brass band, 
who believed in the "concord of siweet 
sounds " rather than the more noise 
the better the music. 

And Mr. Beck's boys could hardly 
fail to take the infection, and flutes 
could be heard in many of the board- 
ing houses and school buildings while 
passing along the streets after school 

Parents who came and saw and 
heard could not fall to conclude that it 
was safe to place their sons within 
such environments. 

( 182 ) 

Mr. Beck's Natural Capacity, Great Love for 
Boys and Indomitable Perseverance. 

His love for boys alone would nat 
have assured him the influence he ex- 
ercised over his pupils. Many a son 
has been spoiled by the inordinate 
love of parents. He possessed other 
equally necessary qualifications— good 
common sense and a keen knowledge 
of human nature. His love was ruled 
and directed by sound judgment and a 
wise discretion. He had the art of in- 
teresting pupils in their lessons and a 
happy faculty of imparting knowledge. 
They recognized in him a friend, and 
at the same time entertained a whole- 
some respect for his authority. His 
mode of teaching was to develop such 
capacities and natural talents as the 
pupil possessed, rather than to cram 
him into a mould fashioned by the 
teacher himself. He was quick to dis- 
cover the promising traits in boys and 
encourage them. To illustrate one 
such case: During arithmetic hour he 
caught a pupil engaged in drawing a 
picture of a locomotive instead of 
working at his sums, as he should have 
done. Mr. Beck took the slate and 
looked at the drawing; the pupil 
meanwhile sat expecting a sharp rep- 
rimand. Instead of this the teacher 
said: "I think you should become a 
machinist and learn to build steam en- 
gines. As soon as you are sufiiciently 
advanced in your other studies I will 
put you in the class of mechanical 
drawing." By that remark and prom- 
ise the wise teacher sounded the key- 
note of what became that boy's ambi- 
tion and aroused his sleeping intellect 
into activity. An object worth striv- 
ing for. which accorded with his 
youthful inclination, had been set be- 
fore him. Henceforth he was indus- 
trious and the words of his teacher, 
ever ringing in his ears down the ave- 
nue of his life, spurred him on to his 
destiny. He became a successful ma- 

( 133 ) 

chinist, rose step by step, until now, 
1898, he is the General Superintendent 
of the Denver and Rio Grande Rail- 
road. He has been heard to say that 
Mr. Beck's encouraging words have had 
much to do with his success in life. 
We say that was a good deed — a noble 
act. So it was, but it was only a trifle 
in Mr. Beck's work. Many a boy did 
he thus send out of his school, cheered 
and encouraged to begin life's battle. 
No one can know until the Recording 
Angel opens His book all the good Mr. 
Beck has done. He was not a witty 
man; it would not have done to say 
too many smart things among his boys. 
But he had a keen sense of the hu- 
morous, and could, and often did, laugh 

Mr. Beck's utterances came quickly 
and spontaneously, but were not 
spoken, as might be supposed, hastily 
or without due consideration for the 
feelings and welfare of his pupils. He 
would postpone a Friday evening lec- 
ture to avoid calling out the small 
boys in bad weather, or when a deep 
snow had fallen. And when it was 
urged against such postponement by 
some of the larger boys that the side- 
walks had been cleaned of the snow 
and all could come dry shod his reply 
was that such a little fellow like Bobby 

H could not come to the lecture 

without measuring some of the big 
snow heaps by jumping into them and 
getting his feet wet. To run the risk 
of causing the illness of O'ue of his 
boys was in his estimation more to be 
avoided than missing one of his lec- 
tures, much as we all liked to hear 

So long as a boy showed a willing- 
ness to learn, however dull, he went to 
the trouble of teaching him. 

"Nichts wissen ist keine schande, 
Aber iiichts lernen wollen," 

was one of the mottoes he had hung on 

the walls of his school room to greet 

and encourage the beginner. 


It was a well-known fact that boys 
too timid to remain in other schools 
felt at home in his, and others who 
could not be governed elsewhere sub- 
mitted to his control. They all felt that 
he dealt with them squarely and im- 
partially, and while his displeasure 
might come swiftly and overwhelm- 
ingly like a flash there was no linger- 
ing bitterness in it. He never, within 
the writer's recollection, made use of 
the one punishment which a spirited 
boy will most resent and a timid one 
take most to heart; he never ridiculed 
him before his fellows — never humili- 
ated him. His reproof was an earnest 
but honest reproof, free from scorn. 
His words left no sting to rankle and 
fester in the wound; no scar in the 
memory to be earned to the grave. 

He kept on familiar terms with his 
pupils, and between school hours the 
boys would gather around him and ply 
him with questions, or they would 
even give him accounts of some of their 
excursions into the country, and were 
often surprised to hear that he was al- 
ready acquainted with more of their 
doings than they wished him to know. 
"You wonder how I find out those 
things," he would say; "a little bird 
tells me." This quaint conceit some of 
the boys liked to humor, and when a 
small bird, many of which frequented 
the groves around Lititz, was seen flit- 
ting among the branches overhead and 
peeping down at them in a knowing 
kind of a way they would say, "Look- 
out, there is Mr. Beck's bird!" 

Happy and free from restraint were 
those chance gatherings between 
school hours; and yet without anything 
to detract from the respect due the 
master. Unfortunate was the presump- 
tuous youth who on such an occasion 
sought to take advantage of the mas- 
ter's condescension. A look of reproof, 
more withering than words, would put 
the offender down so that he never at- 
tempted the like again. Often when 


some mischief was done about the 
school houses Mr. Beck would say: 
"Now, nobody did this again. If I 
could only catch this Mr. Nobody!" He 
usually found him out, sooner or later. 

Mr. Beck's learning was solid and 
practical, rather than abstruse. As a 
teacher of penmanship I question 
whether he ever had his equal, cer- 
tainly never his superior. And many of 
his instructions to beginners were 
given by object lessons long before any 
system, such as the Spenoerian, was 
heard of. 

His academy was emphatically a 
school of the people. In it was taught 
that which was useful in all the walks 
of life. And therein sat, without dif- 
ference or distinction In the eyes of 
the master, the heir to millions by the 
side of the charity scholar, the humble 
country lad beside the sons of Gov- 
ernors of the States, and other equally 
eminent citizens. 

He was a devout Moravian and a 
regular attendant at the church where 
he took his pupils to divine service 
several times a week. He opened his 
school with song and prayer each 
morning, and yet he and his assistants 
scrupulously avoided using their influ- 
ence to draw those under their charge 
away from other churches to their own 
particular faith. Neither did he hesi- 
tate to teach and proclaim the truth 
as disclosed by science for fear it 
might conflict with the teachings of 
the Bible. The possibility of such a 
happening did not seem to have even 
suggested itself to him. How could the 
truth conflict with what was the truth 
itself? He was the fearless champion 
of the truth, and the ever ready op- 
ponent of error. During his long and 
active life he wielded a two-edged bat- 
tle-axe in the cause of education; the 
one edge bright and shining with the 
increasing light of public schools; the 
other steeled to smite ignorance and 
superstition wherever they raised their 


opposing crests. When he first opened 
school he was far in advance of the 
times, and when the times, largely 
through his efforts, had sufficiently ad- 
vanced to be abreast with him he had 
already rounded up his fifty years of 
teaching and sat down to write his 
valedictory letter to his former pupils, 
full of enduring love and tender solici- 
tude towards them and thankfulness 
for the past. 

Those who had been under his 
charge, though long since grown to full 
stature, and many of them crowned 
with gray hairs and honors, still re- 
mained his boys and he their master. 

He was liberal in the interchange of 
opinions with other teachers, visited 
the country schools in the neighbor- 
hood, attended one of the first conven- 
tions of teachers and friends of educa- 
tion at West Chester In 1836, and was 
chosen its President. He was one of 
the originators of the Lancaster Lyce- 
um, which met monthly, and was often 
called on to address Sunday Schools 
and school celebrations, even after he 
had quit teaching in his academy. 

Some of His Teachers. 

Mr. Joihn Riickert, Mr. Augustus 
Christ, Mr. Elias Weller, Mr. Ferdi- 
nand Rickert, Mr. Edwin Fetter, Mr. 
Charles Berg, Mr. William Hall, Mr. 
William L. Bear, Mr. George Hepp, 
Mr. Adam Reidenbauch, Mr. Abraham 
Beck, Mr. George R. Barr, Mr. Bern- 
hard De Schweinitz. 

Instructors in Music. 
Rev. Peter Wolle, Miss Matilda 
Blickenderfer, Miss Martha Beck, Miss 
Angelica Reichel, Miss Mary Heebner, 
Mrs. Anrelia Christ, Mrs. Joanna Beck, 
Mrs. Juliet Rickert, Mrs. Emma Rickert, 
Mrs. Martha Hepp. 


United States — Pennsylvania 1,982 

New Jersey 16 

Maryland 150 


United States — District Columbia. 18 

Maine 1 

Tennessee 5 

"Virginia 52 

Mississippi 2 

Ohio 13 

North Carolina ... 3 

South Carolina 4 

Louisiana 2 

New York 21 

Delaware 5 

Iowa 7 

Alalbama 2 

Georgia 2 

Indiana 5 

Vermont 1 

Florida 2 

UtaJh 1 

Arkansas 2 

Texas 2 

Missouri 12 

Minnesota 1 

Wisoonsin 1 

Europe — Prance 1 

Baden 2 

Wurtemburg 3 

Switzerland 3 

Bavaria 1 

West Indies — Jamaica 1 

St. John 1 

Asia — Hindostan 1 

Canada West 1 

Total 2,326 

Some of Beck's Weil-Known Pupils, Living 
and Dead. 

The oaltalogue of Mr. Beck's pupils 
not being at hand, tlhe following list is 
made from meimory and information 

Julius Bechler, Prinrlipal of Linden 
Hall Seminary. 

Jacob Biausman, President Farmers' 
National Bank. 

Edward Brooke, iron master, Birds- 
boro, Berks county. 

George Brooke, iron master, Birds- 
boro, Berks county. 


Augustus Beck (son), artist, Ham- 
Abim. R. Beck (son), teacHier, Latitz. 
John R. Bricker, Lititz. 
Abm. Bigler, Joli.n Bigler, sons of 
Governor Bigler. 

Robert Coleman, Wm. Coleman, pro- 
prietors of Cornwall and Colebrook fur- 

Abm. Cassel, coal and lumber dealer, 

Uriah Carpenter (farmer), War- 

Shaner Christman, Esq., Chester 

Nathaniel Ellmaker.prominent mem- 
ber Lancaster Bar. 

Henry Erb, farmer, Penn township. 

Levi Erib, miller and business mam, 

Israel G. Erb, Esq., farmer, surveyor 
and Vice President Lititz Bank. 

Simon P. Eby, member Lancaster 

Eugene A. Freuauff, Principal Lin- 
den HaJl Seminary. 

A. Bates Grubb, iron maister. Mount 
Hope furnace. 

Robert H. Gratz, Esq., Philadelphia. 

George Greider, Lititz. 

Prank B. Gowan, President Philadel- 
phia and Reading Railway. 

Charles A. Heinitsh, druggist, Lan- 

Isaac B. Heister, Lancaster Bar and 
Member of Congress. 

George Steinman, Lancaster, Pa. 

Edwin Houston, Philadelphia. 

Henry F. Hostetter, farmer, War- 

D. W. Patterson, member of Bar and 
Judge of Courts of Lancaster county. 

William Reynolds, Admiral United 
States Navy. 

John F. Reynolds, Major General, 
fell at Gettysburg. 

James L. Reynolds, member Lancas- 
ter Bar, 

George W. Ruby, a celebrated teach- 
er, Principal of York Academy. 


Joihn Rlckert, teadher Latitz Acad- 

Ferdinand Rickert, teaclieT, Lititz 

A. B. Rei'denibach, teacher, Lititz 

A. Herr Smith, member of ijancaster 
Bar and Member of Congress. 

Hiram B. Swarr, member of Lancas- 
ter Bar. 

Jacob L. Stehman, Bank President, 

Francis Shunk, son of Governor 

A. W. Shoiber, retired merchant, 

Thaddeus Stevens, Jr., Major 
National Guard. 

Charles B. Shnltz, Principal Linden 
Hall Seminary. 

Nathaniel W. Sample, Superintend- 
ent Denver and Rio Grande railroad. 

Jacob B. Tslhudy, meircliant, Lititz. 

Haydn H. Tshudy, Esq., Lititz. 

Milton N. Woods, President First Na- 
tional Bank, Lancaster. 

E. H. Yundt, memiber of Lancaster 

Amos Witmer, Paradise township. 

Hiram Witmer, Paradise township. 


Samuel John Atlee was a Colonel in 
the American Revolution, and one who 
did effective service in the emancipa- 
tion of the colonies from British rule. 
His father married Jane Alcock, who 
was maid of honor to the Queen of 
England, and, the match being clandes- 
tine, they immediately sailed for Ame- 
rica. They had three children. Samuel 
John Atlee, the subject of this sketch, 
was born in the year 1739 on the farm 
now known as the King Tommy Hen- 
derson farm, in the Pequea valley, Sal- 
isbury township, near the "Three 
Crowns Inn," on the Old Road, a short 
distance east of the White Horse tav- 

Being a youth of great ambition and 
daring, he at the early age of sixteen 
obtained the command of a company in 
the provincial service (war of 1755) in 
the regiment under Col. Burd, and was 
present at Braddock's defeat. During 
the continuance of that war it was his 
fate to be taken prisoner twice, once 
by the Indians and again by the French. 
He remained in the service eleven 
years. When yet in the service at the 
age of twenty-three years he married 
on April 19, 1762, Sallie Richardson,the 
beautiful daughter of Isaac Richard- 
Eon,who lived at the Richardson home- 
stead, one mile north of the "Three 
Crowns Inn" (now owned by the Chris- 
tian Kurtz heirs). The marriage cere- 
mony was performed by the Rev. Geo. 
Craig,who was then rector of St. John's 
Episcopal Church, Pequea. 

After his marriage, and after the ex- 
piration of his military service, he read 
law, and was engaged in the pursuit of 
his profession until the breaking out 
of the Revolution. At the commence- 

( 141 ) 

ment of hostilities with the mother 
country Captain Atlee, being one of the 
few in the county of Lancaster who 
had any knowledge of military tactics, 
undertook to drill his fellow-citizens 
in order to breast the impending storm. 
His unremitting attention was devoted 
to this object during the greater part 
of the year 1775, and in the beginning 
of 1776, by virtue of an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of March 5, of the same 
year,he raised in the Pequea valley and 
Chester county the first regiment of 
State Infantry, of which he was ap- 
pointed Colonel. Although his regi- 
ment was called out simply for the de- 
fence of the province, yet Colonel At- 
lee and his command voluntarily 
marched to New Jersey to co-operate 
with the American army in that quar- 
ter. He achieved imperishable honors 
with his regiment at the battle of Long 
Island, on which occasion he was taken 
prisoner, having only a Sergeant and 
sixteen men left, the rest having been 
previously killed or taken prisoners. 
He suffered eighteen months' imprison- 
ment, part of the time on board a 
prison ship. During his imprisonment 
he lived for two weeks on chestnuts. 
The British sailors were in the habit of 
cutting up raw pork into small pieces 
and throwing them to the prisoners, 
calling "Pig! Pig!" The prisoners were 
so nearly starved that they killed their 
dogs and ate them and roasted their 
leather breeches for food. 

Colonel Atlee was chosen a member 
of the Continental Congress in 1778, 
and held a seat in that body up to 1782. 
In appearance Col. Atlee was very 
handsome, with a fresh, ruddy com- 
plexion, brown hair, blue eyes, straight 
and portly, and very military in his 
carriage. He died in 1786, aged forty- 
seven years. His son, Isaac Richard- 
son Atlee, was married to Mary Clem- 
son, the sixth daughter of the second 
James Clemson, Esq., of Pequea valley, 
who lived a short distance southwest of 


the "Three Crowns Inn." Mary Clem- 
son was one of the seven daughters of 
James Clemson*, and the sixth to elope 
with the man of her choice. The house 
in which she was born and raised is 
yet standing, and was built in the year 
1735. Isaac Richardson Atlee migrated 
after his marriage to near Frederick, 
Md., where his descendants are still 


[The following paper, although not 
read before the Society, has been 
deemed of sufficient importance by the 
Executive Committee to take its place 
in this connection.] 

Samuel John Atlee was not a native 
of Pennsylvania. He was born in 
Trenton, New Jersey, in the year 1739. 

* James Clemson's grandfather, Jacob Clem- 
son, came from Sweden to America in 1656 and 
settled in New Jersey ; then In Philadelphia, 
where he is buried in the Second Street 
Friends' Churchyard. 

( 143 ) 

Colonel Atlee's father, William Atlee, 
of Pordhook House, England, the first 
of the name to reach America, left 
home in March, 1733, with Lord Howe, 
as his private secretary, when the lat- 
ter came over as Governor of Barba- 
does. He married Jane Alcock, daugh- 
ter of an English clergyman, and 
cousin of William Pitt, the old Earl of 
Chatham. She was Maid of Honor to 
the Queen. The King and Queen want- 
ed her married into the Royal family, 
but she eloped and followed Atlee to 
America. They were married at 
Bridgeton, in the Parish of St. Mi- 
chael, Barbadoes, on June 1, 1734, ac- 
cording to the Canons and Constitution 
of the Church of England. Immedi- 
ately after their marriage they went 
to Philadelphia and took a house on 
Second street. From there they re- 
moved to Market street, where their 
first child, William Augustus (grand- 
father of the late Dr. John Light At- 
lee) was born, July 1, 1735. The fam- 
ily then removed to Trenton, where 
three children were born, namely: 
Samuel John, Joseph Edwin and Ame- 
lia. Mr. Atlee died in Philadelphia, 
April 27, 1774, and was buried in the 
yard of St. Stephen's Episcopal church. 
His wife died at Lancaster, Pa., Janu- 
ary 18, 1777. 

Samuel John Atlee was married 
April 19, 1762, by the Rev. Thomas 
Barton (not by Rev. George Craig), to 
Sarah Richardson. They settled on a 
farm about twenty miles from Lancas- 
ter. They had nine children. Their 
eldest son, William Richardson, mar- 
ried Margaretta, daughter of Major 
Anthony Wayne. They had but one 
child, Mary Wayne Atlee, who mar- 
ried an Evans. Their issue was one 
child, William, whose name was 
changed by an act of the Legislature 
to Wayne, and he is now the 
Treasurer of the S'ooiety of 
the Cincinnati, of Pennsylvania, and 


great-grandson of Samuel John Atlee 
and General Wayne (often called "Mad 

Samuel John Atlee was elected a 
delegate to the Continental Congress, 
November 20, 1778, and served coutin- 
uousiy until October 28, 1782. In Oc- 
tober, 1783, he was elected a Supreme 
Executive Counsellor for Lancaster 
county. He served in the General As- 
semhly in 1782, 1785 and 1786.He was ap- 
pointed February 29, 1784, by the Su- 
preme Executive Council, one of the 
three Commissioners to treat with the 
Indians, going from Port Stanwix 
(Rome, New York,) to Sunbury, and 
thence to Fort Mcintosh (now Beaver, 
Pa.) His name appears as a witness 
to the signing of the treaty at the lat- 
ter place, on January 21, 1785, be- 
tween the Commissioners Plenipoten- 
tiary of the United States of America, 
on the one part, and the Sachems and 
Warriors of the Wiandot, Delaware, 
Chippewa and Ottawa Nations, on the 
other. During this journey he con- 
tracted a severe cold, from which he 
never recovered, and while in attend- 
ance at the General Assembly in Phil- 
adelphia, ruptured a blood vessel in a 
paroxysm of cong'hing, and died No- 
vember 25, 1786. His remains were in- 
terred in Christ churchyard, Philadel- 
phia, and in June, 1883, a Memorial 
Tablet was erected in the c'hurch in- 
scribed as follows: 

In Memory of 
Second Son of William Atlee, Gentleman, 
of Pordhook House, England, who 
served this country well in the try- 
ing times of the Revolution, 

both as a 

Soldier and in her Councils. 

He died on the 25th day of November, 

1786, in the 48th year of his age, and 

his remains were interred in the 

yard of Christ Church. This 

Tablet was erected by his 

Kinsman and Descendants 

"Dos Magna Parentium Virtus." 


The Independent Gazetteer, or the 
Chronicle of Freedom, published in 
Philadelphia, dated November 29, 1786, 
contains the following: 

"On Saturday, the 25th inst.. Depart- 
ed this life, in the 48th year of his age, 
Colonel Samuel Joihn Atlee, and yester- 
day his remains were interred in Christ 
churchyard. Divine service was per- 
formed by the Revs. Andrews and 
Blackwell. The ooirpse was preceded 
by the clergymen of the various de- 
nominations in this city, and borne to 
tihe grave by the following gentlemen: 
Gen. Humpton, Col. Proctor, Col. Wil- 
liams, Col. Farmer, Col. Oswald, Col. 
Mentges, Col. Bayard, Major Tudor. 
Pall bearers, Alex. Lowrey, Esq., Adam 
Hubley, Esq., Geo. Ross, Esq., Joseph 
Woirk, Esq., members for Lancaster 
county; Samuel Evans, Esq., member 
for Chester county; Wm. Will, Esq., 
member for city of Philadelphia." 


Old houses have a fihreefold interest 
to the members of la society organized 
for local historical inquiry. They have, 
as a rule, a certain personal, physical 
individuality; with the lapse of years, 
they acquire a ooloring of stone or tim- 
beirs, an expression and a setting in the 
landscape, which oomtrive to give them 
an aspedt sO' familiar that we recognize 
them as old acquaintances, regardless 
of wihere met. Walls and gaibles, win- 
dows and porches, roofs and chimneys, 
eaoh contribute to this individuality of 
expression, anid, seen from near or afar, 
whether ragged or trim, erect or dilap- 
idated, there are few buildings in our 
county a century or more old that do 
not excite the interest and command 
the attention which should attach to 
all venerable objects, human or inani- 

Then, again, these ancient structures 
have an ardhitectural interest, indica;t- 
ing by their outside plan and form and 
by their interior arrangements the taste 
and manners of generations long gone, 
the affluence and the deficiencies of our 
ancestors, and, ofttimes, proving the 
superiority of their simplicity over a 
more complex order of society and of 

Finally, and, perhaps, of greatest ac- 
tual importance, the old houses of the 
county 'hold tihe history of its earlier 
and notable people, and, in the original 
and succeeding ownerships, the uses 
and changes, the glory and decay, of 
these properties, are the annals of .the 
families who settled and peopled Dan- 
caster county, and many ot w'hom have 
been widely dispersed througihout the 
entire country. 


From all these differenit points of 
view, the old structure to whidh I ask 
your brief attention commainds inter- 
est and has the charm of novelty. Situ- 
ated in the northern end of the boirough 
of Quarryville, perched on a slight hill, 
stands a large stome huilding, known 
for many years as "The Ark," and the 
hill on Which it stands as "Mount Ar- 
rarat." These names, it is said, were 
given by a noted wag of his day, named 
Lo'ngenecker, soion after the house was 
built. It was erected in 1790 by Martian 
Barr,and was his farm oir manor house, 
being situated nearly in the centre of 
the lands he then owned. His estate 
coinsisted of several thousand acres of 
land, running north for almoist two 
miles, and about that far south. The 
farm was almost a mile wide, from east 
to west. His land began at a farm now 
Oiwned by John P. RoOirer, noirtlh of 
Camargo, and, extending south, took 
in the Henry Keen farm, at Spring 
Grove, in Easit Druimore. On the east, 
his land ran as far as the Moses Bair 
farm, in Eden township, and west, as 
far as Oak Bottom. His whole posses- 
sions comprised whalt are now twenty- 
five of the best farms in that seotio'n, 
besides the lands occupied by Quarry- 
ville borough and Hawkesville. 

Before erecting this 'building, Martin 
Barr lived in a log house, which was 
torn down about fifty years ago by 
Henry Keen, Sr. It stood wnere the 
house of Enos Hostetter now sitands, on 
the "Hill road," from Hawkesville to 
StTas'burg. Near by now stands one of 
the largest and oldest walnut trees in 
this parit of the State. While living at 
the old iplace, about 1775, he built what 
is now known as the "Bossier Mill." It 
is in a good state of preservation and 
still does some business. About one- 
half mile north is the old "Oil Mill," a 
quaint and ancient structure. Where 
flaxseed was formerly converted into 
oil and meal cake. 


That "The Ark" was built in 1790 is 
attested by a stone in the west end of 
the building bearing that date. It was 
built of "barren" stone, hauled from 
the ridge running abouit a mile north- 
east of that point, the limestone just at 
hand not having been as yet developed 
and not ibeing considered as desirable 
for building purpos-es. An enormous 
quantity of stone was needed, as the 
foundation trenches were sunk very 
deep, the builder being determined to 
rest upon solid rock. The main house 
is 65 feet long and 55 feet wide, and 
from the top of the foundation walls 
to the "square" it is 30 feet high, with 
a deep basement. On the north side of 
the house is a back ibuilding for a 
kitchen, 24 feet square, also of stone, 
and attached to the east end Is a two- 
story 'building, 50 feet square, which 
was the "still-house." Mr. Barr ran a 
distillery, and in it is one of the finest 
springs in the neighborhood. A fine 
quality of whisky was made. 

The house, at the time it was built, 
was not only the largest in its locality, 
bu't it was one of the hest and finest. 
Fronting on the south were two wide 
porches running along the entire house 
(the upper one was taken down a few 
years ago). All the woodwork was of 
the very best hard wood — ^most of it 
walnut. The walls are two feet thick. 
Not a nail was used in its inside finislh, 
wooden pegs -and pins being used in- 
stead. The hall is 12 feet wide, run- 
ning entirely throug'h the centre, and 
the stairway is winding and continues 
to the garret. It is really a curiosity 
and has not been improved on by any 
of our modern stair-builders. 

On the first floor are four large,, 
square rooms, of the same size, and irk 
each of the two front rooms is built a 
very large corner cupboard of walnut; 
cut on the panels is "1793 B,"— evident- 
ly the house was not entirely finished 
until that year. It used to be said— 


and it is not at all unlikely — that the 
entire edifice contained a greater quan- 
tity of stone than any other building 
in the county, except the Almshouse. 

About 100 feet west of the house, an 
immense barn was built, the ends and 
lower stories heing of sitone. It was 
125 feet long and 60 feet wide, and it 
was 24 feet to the square. From what 
old residents tell us, it was the largest 
structure of the kind in the county at 
that time; yet it did not begin to hold 
the crops of the great Barr farm, and 
the stacks of grain around it were won- 

The Barrs were good farmers and 
the land improved rapidly under their 
farming. They fed a large number of 
cattle, and had flocks of sheep. The 
bam was partly torn down after a di- 
vision of the farms, and again a por- 
tion of it was taken down after the 
death of Abram Barr. Three years 
ago, the remaining part was destroyed 
by fire. 

Martin Barr had four sons, Abram, 
Christian, Martin and Jacob; he had 
two daughters — the last survivor was 
Christiana, married to John Mowrer, 
who carried on lime ibuming at Quar- 
ryville until about 1860, when he re- 
tired, and died soon after, a very old 
man. His wife died soon after him, 
and was one of the oldest residents of 
her community. She was the first child 
born in "The Ark." 

Soon after the building of "The 
Ark," Martin Barr built the house 
now occupied by W. J. Hess, in Quar- 
ryville, for his son, Abram. This was 
in 1791. Here he also built a large and 
substantial house and barn, but small- 
er than his own. These are of stone, 
well finished, and are still in a good 
condition. The next year he built the 
same style of house and barn for his 
son Martin. It is now occupied by Ga- 
len Bckman, and is very well pre- 
served. In the next year he built the 
buildings on the farm now owned by 

( 150 ) 

Samuel Keen for his son Jacob, in the 
same substantial manner. Age has 
dealt very kindly with them, as Mr. 
Keen has one of the best houses in 
Eden township. 

Who Martin Barr's father was we 
have not been able to learn, or where 
he was born or died; but he died a 
very old man about the beginning of 
the century, and his body is buried in 
the Barr graveyard; it is one of the 
oldest burying grounds in the county, 
and is on the farm of Adam Keen, very 
close to Mr. Barr's old home. A sand- 
stone was placed over his grave, but 
time has obliterated what was on it. 

After the death of Martin Barr, his 
son Adam bought and removed to 
"The Ark," and it was he who first re- 
cognized the important fact that Quar- 
ryville marked the lower limit of the 
limestone in Lancaster county, and, 
as usual, the dividing line of the origi- 
nal German and Scotch-Irish settle- 
ments. The thinner lands of the 
"Lower End" lacked a necessary ele- 
ment, to be supplied by the limestone 
quarried and burned into lime with the 
then abundant chestnut timber. 

Adam Barr died in 1836, and this 
house and adjoining lands were bought 
at public sale by Jacob Barr, known as 
"Lame Jacob." He carried on farming 
and lime burning until 1852, when he 
retired and sold to Daniel Lefever, 
who, until his death, several vears 
ago, was the leading lime burner of 
Quarryville. The property is nov/ 
owned by his son, I. Galen Lefever, 
who is one of the leading businasia 
men of this section. 

In the Barr graveyard are interred 
the remains of Martin Barr's sons, all 
marked with good, substantial stones. 
That of Christian, the eldest, is quite 
a fine monument. He was born in 
1765 and died in 1816. His wife, Susan, 
was born 1772 and died 1846. Her 
maiden name was Breneman, and her 
father built the mill at Camargo. They 


had two sons — Michael, who has been 
deat. f'jr a number of years, anl Jacob 
B., known as "Brandy Jacob," who 
died obiy a tew years ago at over four 

Abram was born in 1770 and died 
183G. He was linown as "Ark Abram." 
He had seven daughters and one son, 
Abram. The latter is still living at 
the age of seventy-three, near Quarry- 
ville, and is one of our most respected 
citizens. He is quite an active man 
for his age; he was the youngest of 
the family; all his sisters are dead, ex- 
cept Mrs. Henry Hoover, of New Prov- 
idence, now nearly eighty years old. 

Jacob Barr was born 1771 and died 
1826. His wife, Elizabeth, was born 
1770 and died in 1852. They had sev- 
eral children; of the only two still 
living, Jacob Barr is quite an active 
man, seventy-six years old, at Lappe 
(Limeville), Salisbury township, in 
this county. He was in the lime busi- 
ness at Quarryville for many years, 
and removed to his present home 
about thirty years ago. There he en- 
gaged in the same business, until five 
years ago, when he retired. His sis- 
ter is Mrs. Ann Fagan, of Lancaster, 
w!ho has passed her seventy-fifth mile- 

Martin Barr, the youngest of the 
family, was born 1773 and died 1826. 
Of his family we have not been able 
to obtain any information. After his 
death they left this section, going to 
the West. 

"Lame Jacob" Barr, so called by 
reason of lameness from white swell- 
ing when quite young, who bought 
"The Ark" in 1839, was born in the vi- 
cinity of Strasburg in 1778. His father 
was a cousin of Martin Barr, Sr., and 
ahouit 1785 he moved to the farm now 
occupied by Moses Bair, in Eden town- 
ship, east of Quarryville. Besides 
farming he was largely engaged in 
wagoning. Jacob had charge of the 
teams, and made money both for his 


father and himself. He was a good 
judge of horses and knew how to han- 
dle them. His reputation as a team- 
ster was known from Pihiladelphia to 
Pittsburg, and his team always hauled 
the heaviest loads. As many hogs- 
heads of whisky as he could possibly 
get on his wagon were a light load. 
After the death of his father, in 1810, 
he still continued farming and driving 
teams, and finally added lime-burning. 
About 1852 he retired from business of 
all kinds, and in 1874 died at the good 
old age of ninety-six years and six 
months. His last child, Mrs. Freder- 
ick Stively, died at Camargo a few 
weeks ago, over ninety-two years old. 
One of his grandchildren is Miss Annie 
Lyle, one of Millersville's popular 
teachers, and John F. Shenk, the well- 
known teacher of Providence, is a 

It has been generally supposed that 
Martin Barr, Sr., was the first to take 
out limestone at Quarryville for the 
burning of lime; but such is not the 
case. It was his son, Abram, who be- 
gan operations in 1820. The first man 
who worked for him was Peter Rin- 
ear, who was afterwards (in 1837) 
killed by a premature explosion in a 
quarry where the drug store now 
stands in Quarryville. He began and 
worked at it alone, with a small steel 
drill, which he held in one hand, while 
with the other he struck with a small 
hammer — rather a slow process com- 
pared with the steam drills of the pres- 
ent day. 

The first stone burned into lime from 
these quarries was hauled to the farm 
of John Herr, near Mt. Eden Furnace, 
where he had built a small kiln, hold- 
ing about three hundred bushels. The 
kiln is still there, but as a ruin. Sev- 
eral "burns" were made at this place, 
and lime was found to be a good fer- 
tilizer. Others built kilns in that sec- 
tion, as well as over all the lower end 
of the county, and the quarrying of 


Stone became quite a profitable and ex- 
tensive business. More men were put 
to work. In 1825 Abram Barr laid out 
about twenty acres in lots of one- 
eighth of an acre, and these he sold to 
farmers to take out stone for their 
own use, which they did in the winter 
after all their other work was done. In 
order to be convenient to their work 
about twenty good-sized log cabins 
were built, and "Barr's Quarries" be- 
came quite a place — hence the later 
Quarry ville. 

The land laid out was mostly a large 
apple orchard that had been planted 
by Abram's father, Martin Barr, when 
he built "The Ark," and as other quar- 
ries were opened in this section it was 
eventually named "The Orchard Quar- 
ries." Of the apple trees on this tract 
one still remains, and it has passed 
its usefulness. The last of the log cab- 
ins was torn down about twenty years 
ago, and only one of the old houses oc- 
cupied by the original quarrymen still 

In a very short time it was found 
that lime was making the lower end. 
It was just what that land wanted, 
and the opening of new quarries be- 
gan; large kilns were erected, and the 
quarrying of stone and burning of 
lime grew to be a very extensive busi- 
ness. Daniel Lefever, John Stewart, 
Henry Keen and Joseph Elliott were 
about the first to go into the business 
extensively. All the burning was done 
with wood until 1839, when Daniel Le- 
fever burned the first with coal, and, 
while some still used wood, the use of 
coal became general after a few years. 

At the time Abram Barr began the 
sale of quarry lots the prices were from 
$75 to $100 each. As time went by 
these same lots sold as high as $1,500. 

The lime business continued to grow 
rapidly at Quarryville, and consider- 
able money had been made at it until 
about 1860, when the use of commercial 
fertilizers became more general and 


the business began to decline, and, in 
fact, became almost extinct. Stone was 
only quarried for business purposes, 
but the last few years the farmers, 
finding the use of something besides 
commercial fertilizers necessary, have 
begun to use lime, and the business is 
again gradually increasing. Millions 
of bushels of lime have been burned 
from stone taken out of the great "or- 
chard" quarry, the excavation of which 
covers acres, and is almost fifty feet 

In 1858 alone over 600,000 bushels of 
lime were burned and hauled from 
Quarryville; fully a dozen quarries 
were running; over a hundred men had 
work in them, and every lime burner 
had at least one six mule team, and 
some as many as three, while almost 
every farmer kept a team which found 
steady hauling. Great quantities of 
lime were delivered into York and 
Chester counties and into Cecil and 
Harford counties, Maryland. 

In the early days of Quarryville there 
were some famous characters among 
the workmen, and a history of them 
would be most interesting. Of the or- 
iginals only one is still living, our ge- 
nial old friend, "Dan" Rinear, now 
eighty-seven, still a fairly active man 
and as gay as a lark. The only one 
of the original teamsters surviving is 
George Aument. He is eigthy-nine and 
still of good mind, but feeble in body. 
Both these old men say they went to 
work at an early age. Mr. Aument 
hauled the first load of stone to John 
Herr, who was his uncle, in 1820. 

Asa, Stacey, Job, John and Peter 
Rinear all died long ago — all living to 
be over eighty except Peter. 

Tom McFadden, Bill Sample, Dan 
Longenecker, John Suter, John Welsh, 
William Johnson also lived to a good 
old age. 

Of the original business men Joseph 
Elliott died in Illinois twenty-five 
years ago; John Stewart, in York 


county twenty years ago; Daniel Le- 
fever and Henry Keen -within the last 
twenty years — the latter being the most 
successful of the lime burners and leav- 
ing large estates. 

:f: :{;:{: 4c 4: ^ 4: 

The grandchildren of "The Ark's"' 
builder are dead and gone; the great 
estate has been subdivided, and its 
broad acres are now sold by the foot 
frontage; rich fortunes have been quar- 
ried from its buried limestone; where 
"'Pete" Rinear held his drill with one 
hand while the other wielded the ham- 
mer, a sparkling fountain now marks 
the centre of a flourishing town. The 
cavalcade of prancing teams, "with their 
merry strings of bells," that once trav- 
ersed these highways has passed, and 
the old wagoners lie under the "mossy 
marbles." New methods have suc- 
ceeded to the old. The walls of "The 
Ark" stand plumb, strong, "foursquare 
to every wind that blows." Time has 
colored them, but only with deeper, 
richer tint, and the stains that the 
storm has left upon them detract noth- 
ing. Its timbers are sound and strong. 
Back of it a blue breast of limestone 
fronts towards the rising sun. Aside 
of it a fortlike group of lime kilns are 
smoking with the fires of a re-kindled 
industry. Could its spacious chambers 
speak they might tell the story of a 
century that has seen vast changes, 
social, political, scientific, mechanical 
and commercial. It bids fair to stand 
another hundred years. Long distant 
be the day when ruthless hands shall 
raze its walls, or when dull ear shall 
listen with distaste to the chronicle of 
its builder and of those who dwelt be- 
neath its roof. 

Since writing the above I find there 
are in addition to those named still liv- 
ing grandchildren of Martin Barr, Sr.: 
Mrs. Amanda McCalla, of Millersville, 
widow of the late Dr. John McCalla, of 


Lancastei", and Martin Barr (brother 
of Jacob Barr, of Limevllle), who is 
living retired in Lancaster. Mrs. Mc- 
Calla's father was Michael and Mar- 
tin's, Jacob. 



President : Geoege Steinman, Lancaster, Pa. 

Vice-Presidents : Samuel Evans, Esq. , Columbia, Pa. 

Rev. J. H. Dubbs, D.D Lancaster, Pa. 

Secretary : F. R. DlFFENDEKFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 

Corresponding Secretary : Miss Martha B. Clakk,. ...Lancaster, Pa. 

Treasurer : B. C. Atlee, Esq. , Lancaster, Pa. 

Librarian : S. M. Senee, Esq., . Lancaster, Pa. 


Hon. W. U. Hensel, Chairman, Lancaster, Pa. 

R. M. Reilly, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Geoege N. Reynolds, Lancaster, Pa. 

Rev. J. W. Hasslee, Lancaster, Pa. ~ 

Peofessor H. F. Bitnee, Millersville, Pa. 

De. C. a. Heinitsh, Lancaster, Pa. 

P. C. HiLLEE, Esq Conestoga, Pa. 

Mes. Saeah B. Caepentee, Lancaster, Pa. 

Monroe B. Hiesh, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. F. Hostettee, Esq. , Lancaster, Pa. 

The officers are also ex officio members of the Executive Committee. 

ArcTiseology : REV. Jos. H. DuBBS, De. N. C. Schaeffer, Peofessor 
H. J. Roddy. 

Topography : S. M. Senee, Rev. D. W. Geehard, J. H. Seiling, M.D. 

Periodicals: F. R. Diffenderffer, R. M. Reilly, Thomas B. 

Bibliography: A. F. Hostetter, S. M. Senee, Rev. J. H. Dubbs. 

Biography : B. C. Atlee, Alfeed C. Beunnee, W. N. Appel. 

Forestry Statistics : Simon P. Eby, Peofessor H. F. Bitnee, W. A. 

Political History : W. U. Hensel, Thomas Whitson, W. R. Haenish. 

Scientific Research : Miss Anna Lyle, D. H. Heitshu, Adam Geist. 

Church History: Rev. J. W. Hasslee, C. A. Heinitsh, A. E. 

Education: Dr. E. O. Lyte, Professor M. J. Beecht, William 

( 158 ) 

Nomenclature: SAMUEL EvANS, DR. H. E. Muhlenberg, G. F. K. 

Local Records : Edw. P. Brinton, John B. Eshleman, Mrs. L. D. 

Indians and Indian Relics : Peter C. Hiller, Kev. J. S. Stahr, F. R. 

W. A. Atlee, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

B. C. Atlee, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

H. M. Alexander, M.D., Marietta, Pa. 

J. W. Arnold, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

W. N. Appel, Esq. , Lancaster, Pa. 

Dr. R. K. Buehrle, Lancaster, Pa. 

J. Frank Buch, Lititz, Pa. 

E. P. Brinton, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

J. C. Burkholder, Lancaster, Pa. 

Professor H. F. Bitner, Millersville, Pa. 

Professor M. J. Brecht, Lancaster, Pa. 

O. P. Bricker, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

A. C. Brunner, Esq., Columbia, Pa. 

Mrs. W. p. Brinton, Lancaster, Pa. 

J. W. B. Bausman, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. Marriott Brosius, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mrs. Henry Baumgardner, Lancaster, Pa. 

John H. Baumgardner, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. H. C. Brubaker, Lancaster. Pa. 

Thomas B. Cochran, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Miss Martha B. Clark, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mrs. Sarah B. Carpenter, Lancaster, Pa. 

Dr. J. H. DuBBS, Lancaster, Pa. 

F. R. DiFFENDERFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 

T. C. Detweiler, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

Samuel Evans, Esq. , Columbia, Pa. 

John B. Eshleman, Lancaster, Pa. 

S. P. Eby, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

G. F. K. Erisman, Lancaster, Pa. 

Thomas Ellmaker, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

Mrs. George M. Franklin, Lancaster, Pa. 

C. A. FonDersmith, Lancaster, Pa. 

Rev. D. W. Gerhard, Lancaster, Pa. 

Adam Geist, Blue Ball, Pa. 

Professor I. S. Geist, Marietta, Pa. 

W. B. Given, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 


Miss Elizabeth B. Gaka, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. W. U. Hensel, Lancaster, Pa. 

H. L. Haldeman, Chickies, Pa. 

R. D. Herr, Eefton, Pa. 

P. C. Hiller, , Conestoga, Pa. 

W. A. Heitshu, Lancaster, Pa. 

W. L. Hershey, Marietta, Pa. 

Dr. C. A. Heinitsh, Lancaster, Pa. 

Jacob Hildebrand, Esq., Strasburg, Pa. 

R. J. Houston, Lancaster, Pa. 

C. F. Hager, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Rev. J. W. Hassler, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. Milton Heidelbaugh, Lancaster, Pa. 

Rev. Ellis S. Hay, Maytown, Pa. 

A. F. HosTETTER, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Mrs. E. R. Houston, Lancaster, Pa. 

Monroe B. Hirsh, Lancaster, Pa. 

D. H. Heitshu, , Lancaster, Pa. 

M. L. Herr, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

W. R. Harnish, Esq., , Lancaster, Pa. 

J. W. Houston, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

Dr. J. B. Kieffer, Lancaster, Pa. 

J. H. Kreider, Gordonville, Pa. 

A. J. Kauffman, Esq., Columbia, Pa. 

W. H. Keller, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

F. S. Klinger, Ephrata, Pa. 

Professor L. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn. 

Miss Anna Lyle, Millersville, Pa. 

Dr. E. O. Lyte, c Millersville, Pa. 

James B. Lincoln, Churchtown, Pa. 

Hon. John B. Livingston, Lancaster, Pa. 

D. B. L ANDis, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. David McMullen, Lancaster, Pa. 

H. E. Muhlenberg, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

Miss Josephine Mayer, Lancaster, Pa. 

David E. Mayer, Lancaster, Pa. 

E. B. Maxwell, Pleasant Grove, Pa. 

H. C. Moore, Trenton, N. J. 

R. P. McGrann, . Lancaster, Pa. 

P. A. Metzgar, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. O. Newpher, Esq., Millersville, Pa. 

Miss Alice Nevin, Lancaster, Pa. 

P. G. O'Dougherty, Lancaster, Pa. 

Amos Rutter, New Holland, Pa. 

Professor H. J. Roddy, Millersville, Pa. 

( 160 ) 

Geoege N. Ee ynolds, Lancaster, Pa, 

William Riddle, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mes. Dubois Roheee, Lancaster, Pa. 

Mes. M. N. Eobinson, Lancaster, Pa. 

E. M. Reilly, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Geoege Steinman, Lancaster, Pa. 

S. M. Senee, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

J. H. Seiling, M.D.,. Manheim, Pa. 

Rev. J. S. Stahe, Lancaster, Pa. 

H. E. Steinmetz, Clay, Pa. 

Rev. C. B. Schultz,. Bordentown, N. J. 

P. P. Sentman, Gap, Pa. 

F. E. SCHNEEEE, Brickerville, Pa. 

J. M. Shaetle, M.D., Millersville, Pa. 

De. N. C. Schaeffee, Lancaster, Pa. 

Miss M. E. Steinman, , Lancaster, Pa. 

H. E. Slaymakee, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hon. a. G. Seyfeet, Stratford, Can. 

J. W. Sheaffee, Sterling, Ills. 

J. L Steinmetz, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

Mes. J. L. Steinmetz, Lancaster, Pa. 

Miss Maey Stewaet, Lancaster, Pa. 

Thomas C. Weight, Millersville, Pa. 

Joseph C. Walkee, Gap, Pa. 

Thomas Whitson, Esq., Lancaster, Pa. 

A. E. WiTMEE, Lancaster, Pa. 

Col. S. Weight, Columbia, Pa. 

Maey E. Wilson, M.D., Lancaster, Pa. 

De. B. Feank Witmee, Lancaster, Pa. 

De. J. L. ZiEGLEE, Mt. Joy, Pa. 

Mes. L. D. Zell, Lancaster, Pa. 

Honorary Members. 

W. H. Egle, M.D., Harrisburg, Pa. 

John F. Meginniss, Williamsport, Pa. 

Miss Maey Ross, Lancaster, Pa. 








OK KEB. 4, 1898. 


By Peofessoe Joseph H. Dubbs, D.D,, LL.D. 

VOL. IL NO. 6. 

Reprinted feom The New Era. 


THt: NFW \C)Hl': 


ASTCff, Lf:N'OX •»ND 
T ILOEN f ^ ■'■■■OAnONS. 


Old Franklin College, 

By Professor Joseph H. Dubbs, D.D., LL.D. 163 


In our investigatiomis imbo the begin- 
ning of the literary and social life of 
L/anoaster county, the eairly days of 
old Franklin College Should not be for- 
gotten. That an inistitution of ad- 
vanced grade sihould have been found- 
ed in Lancaster one hundred and eleven 
years ago was in itself a remarkable 
event; but the fact tthiait, through a 
long period of gloiom and depression, 
it was never entirely suffered to fail 
renders it worthy of especial com- 
memoiratiom. On the oicoasiiom of the 
Centennial CelebraJtion of Franklin and 
Marshall College it was my privilege 
to prepare a mionograpih on "The 
Founding Oif Franklin College." in 
which I entered somewhajt minutely 
into the history of that ancient insti- 
tution, which is regarded as one of the 
constituent elements of the present col- 
lege. Since that time certain addi- 
tional information has come into my 
possession, and I propose to present an 
account of the origin and purpose of 
the "Frankliniana," as it was often 
called by its founders, limiting myself 
as much as posisible to its brief season 
of hope and vigor, and passing ligfhtly 
over the extended period of depression 
and disappointment. 

As early as the middle of the last 
century the education of the Germans 
of Pennsylvania had become a burning 
question. Moire than two hundred 
thousand Germans — ^according to Theo- 
dore Poesche's estimate — ^had come to 
Pennsylvania before the Revolution, 
and had occupied the greater part of 
its most fertile counties. That they 
were excellent citizens was never de- 
nied, and no doubt the great majority 


of them were thoniougihly saJtisfied with 
their condition. They were not an 
ignoiramt people by amy means — it is 
an acknoiwledged fact that by far the 
greater number of books published 
and siold in the Middle Colonies were 
in the German language. The worst 
that can be said ajgainst them is that 
they did not fully appreciaite the duty 
which they owed to their descendants. 
Sincerely attached to their amcestral 
language, it never occurred to them 
that without higher ©duoatlon it must 
become debased and broken; and that, 
in the process of degeneration, the 
social life which they so highly valued 
must also disappear. They were not 
opposed to education, and, indeed, they 
esteemed it so highly that tlhey prac- 
tically considered it a pairt of their re- 
ligion. In the earliest days of their 
settlements they never founded a 
church without building a school house 
at its side. As time passed, it, how- 
ever, became evident that it would be 
difficult, if not impossible, to provide 
teachers for the parochial schools. 
There was no poorer trade than that of 
schoolmaster, amid, before long, most 
of the teachers were either worn out 
or worthless. It was evident that un- 
less something was speedily done the 
coming generation would grow up in 
utter ignorance, except that here and 
there parents, who had been unusually 
well instructed, ^might convey to their 
children the iiidiments of knowledge. 
When the Rev. Michael Schlatter went 
to Europe, in 1751, to plead the cause 
of the churcties of Pennsylvania, he felt 
that the chief question of the times 
was that of education. In his "Appeal" 
he even S'Oid that if the children were 
left without instruction for several gen- 
eration they might become like the ab- 
origines. It was an unfortunate ex- 
pression, which was misrepresented, 
and rendered its author unpopular. 
Though it was mainly througli his in- 

( 165 ) 

fluenice thiat a fund of £12,000 was col- 
lectted in HoLlamd for chuirches and 
parochial sohoois, and £20,000 more in 
England for the esitablisihment of 
schools in Pennsylvania, tfhe man who 
should have been ihadled as a bene- 
factor became the mark of detraction 
and obloquy, until he finally retired 
from the work in despair, and the 
^'Charity Schools," TS''hioh he had 
founded, proved an utter failure. 

During the brief period in w^hich 
Sclilaitter served as the first Superin- 
tendent of Schools in Penusylvania he 
founded "Charity Schools" in Reading, 
York, Lancaster, New Hanover and 
Skippack. Ttie trustees, however, soon 
withdrew their soipiport from these 
schools, and several of them ceased to 
exist within a year of their organiza- 
tioiu. The school at Lancaster is sup- 
posed to ihave been moire prosperous 
than the otliers, as it was still in exist- 
ence in 1760, and was then attended by 
65 scholars. Rupp says, in his "His- 
tory of Lancaster Coun.ty," that a clas- 
sical school, which may liave grown up 
on the earlier fonndiation, "suggested 
the application to the Legislature for 
the iinoorporation of Franklin Col- 
lege." This, however, appears to be a 
mere guess, for wihich there appears to 
be no historic foundation. Tliere is an 
inconvenient interval, which it leaves 

The G-ermians have been greatly 
blamed for refusing to accept the bene- 
fits which it was proposed to confer 
upon them through the medium of the 
"Charity Schools," anid perhaps it 
would have been better for them if 
they had been more humble; but it 
may he well to take into cionsideration 
the manner in which the gift was of- 
fered. The British can. be generous on 
occasions, but they rarely grant a favor 
without assuming an appearaiuce of su- 
perioirity, which deprives it of half its 
value. The very name, "Charity 


Schools," contained a suggestion of 
pauperism "w*Moh it was hard to en- 
dure. Whenever a, "Charity Sohoioi" 
was founded the peoiple were expected 
to contribute liberailly, but they were 
practically deprived of any sihare in 
their management. The funds were in 
the hands of Trustees, who, with few 
exceptions, represented the official 
classes, who did not hesitate to assert 
that the schools were intended to angli- 
cize the people. On their tours of in- 
spection they appeared with coach and 
four, making no secret of their con- 
tempt for the people whom they pre- 
tended to assist. It is easy to see that 
schools established in such a fashion 
could not possibly commend them- 
selves to the affections oi the German 

After the failure of the "Charity 
Schools," the Lutheran and Reformed 
ministers began to urge the establish- 
ment of a school of advanced grades, 
under the patronage of the Germans 
themselves. It was felt that the plan 
of establishing a complete system of 
popular instruction had been at least 
premature. "Of what use was it," they 
inquired, "to esitablisih schools for the 
Germain people, so long as it was im- 
possible to secure the services of com- 
petent teacheirs?" There was also a 
great lack of educated ministers, and 
the general prospect was gloomy in the 

In the correspondence with Europe, 
both on the part of the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churdhes, there are frequent 
references to the necessity of estab- 
lishing a gymnasium (or college), but 
there was no response nor encourage- 
ment from the other side. In 1773, Dr. 
John C. Kunze,of the Lutheran Church, 
founded a classical school in Philadel- 
phia, but it was soon discontinued, in 
coinisequence of the War of the Revolu- 
tion. When the University of Penn- 
sylvania was organized, in 1779, Dr. 


Kunze was chosen German Professor 
of Philology, and in the succeeding 
year he opened the German Depart- 
ment of the University. Fonr years 
later Dr. Kunze was called to Columbia 
College, N. Y., 'and Dr. Helmuth suc- 
ceeded to his chair in Philadelphia, 
which he occupied until 1810. The 
German Depiartment, which was in his 
charge, flourished until 1787 or '88, 
when it began to decline and was soon 
discontinued. There is no doubt, I 
think, that it was from the German 
Department of the University that the 
idea of esitablisMoig a college in Lan- 
caster was derived. Dr. Helmuth must 
have seen that it would be impossible 
to maintain two departments in the 
University — one must increase and the 
other decrease. What was moire nat- 
ural then than that he isihould conceive 
the idea that an institution for higfher 
aduoation among the Germans would 
be more likely to succeed if founded in 
a German county than if suffered to 
maintain a sickly existenice as an an- 
nex to a larger English inistitution. 

In thie absence of positive proof, it 
is, of course, impossible to affirm that 
it was Dr. Helmuth who first suggested 
the founding of a college in Lancaster, 
but he was certainly the most promi- 
nent of a little Company of ministers 
who deserve to be entitled the found- 
ers of old Franklin College. 

Of course, it may be said, in a gen- 
eral way, that the whole movement 
sprang from Benjamin Franklin's ef- 
forts to anglicize aaid educate the 
Pennsylvania Germans, anid that the 
infant ilnstitution was therefore prop- 
erly named. 

It seemed at this time as thbugh the 
time had come for the establishment 
of lan institution which might be held 
to represent all those classes of the Ger- 
man people which appreciated the im- 
portance of hig'her education. The 
Lutheran and Reformed Churches had 


appiToached each other more closely 
than at any previous period in their 
history. Tihere were especially four 
eminent ministers — ^two of each de- 
nomination — who were intimate 
friends, and who, so far as we can dis- 
cover from their writings, were as 
nearly as possible agreed in doctrine 
and sentiments. These men were the 
Rev. Drs. Helmuth, Weihefrg, Hendel 
and H. E. Muhlenberg. Helmuth and 
Weiberg were at that time respectively 
pastors of the Lutheran and Reformed 
Churches of Philadelphia, and Muhlen- 
berg and Hendel of those of Lancaster. 
Helmuth aind WeLberg were bosom 
friends, and when the latter died, dur- 
ing the yellow fever epidemic, Helmuth 
preached his funeral sermon and com- 
. posed in his memory a beautiful poem, 
which is still preserved. Hendel and 
Muhlenberg were less demonstrative in 
their affection, but in disposition they 
were very much alike, prudent, digni- 
fied and gentle, so that it is hardly pos- 
sible to imagine that there oonld have 
been any disagreement between them. 
There can be little doubt that the fonr 
pastors whose names we have men- 
tioned were, in their dajy, the foremost 
representatives of the German element 
in Pennsylvania. They had been edu- 
oaited at the best European unlversd- 
ties, and were intimately acquainted 
with the foremost men of our State 
and Nation. In this way they were 
enaibled to enlist the enthusiastic co- 
operation of such men as Benjajmin 
Franklin, Benjamin Rush, Thomas 
Mifflin, Thomas MacKean, and many 
others, whose names will live forever 
in the annals of the State and Nation. 
Benjamin Franklin was, in "1787, the 
President of the Supreme Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania. He had been 
prominent in many philamithropic en- 
terprises, and, thoug'h he was now too 
old to take an active part in the work 
of establishing a new insieitution, it 


was hoiped that it might becoiine in 
some degree a partaker of hiis brilliant 
reputiation. That Franlilin was deeply 
interested in the work is not to be 
doubted. He had been for many years 
engaged in publishing G-erman books — 
which proved extremely profitable — 
and had claimed to be in a special 
sense the patron and defender of the 
Gei'man people. Once, indeed, at a 
time of political excitement, he had 
called t/heni"German boors" — for which 
he had never been entirely foirgivem — 
and it may have been, to- soime extent, 
compunction of conscience that moved 
Mm to take a prominent part in the ot- 
ganization of the new institution. At 
any rate he headed the subscription 
list with a handsiome contribubion of 
£200, and allowed himself to be re- 
garded as its founder and patron. 

The charier of Franklin College was 
granted by the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania on the 10th day of March, 1787. 
It prescribed that the Board of Trus- 
tees should consist of fifteen Lutherans, 
fifteen Reformed, and "the remainder 
to be ohosen from any other siociety of 
Christians." It may be remarked that 
with regard to the third section — who 
were generally known as "outsiders" — 
the charter was rather liberally con- 
strued, as some of the eminent men 
whidh it included had never identified 
themselves with any such "society." 

The Board was, however, sufficiently 
distinguished. It included no less than 
five Signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, besides several Generals of 
the Revolution and other distinguished 

The privileges granted to the new in- 
stitution were of the most liberal char- 
acter. It received authority to confer 
the degrees and "other meritorious dis- 
tinctions" which are "granted in other 
colleges in America or Europe." The 
corporation was granted the privilege 
to receive bequests and contributions; 


provided the whole amount "do not ex- 
ceed Ten Thousand pounds, valuing 
one Portugal half Johannes, weighing 
nine pennyweight, at three pounds." 
The charter contains many interesting 
features, but it has been frequently 
printed and may be supposed to be suf- 
ficiently well known. 

The Legislature did not manifest any 
extraordinary liberality in its appro- 
priations to the Institutiooi in which it 
ofiicially claimed to take the warmest 
interest, 'ten thousand acres of land, 
lying within the limit of the present 
counties of Lycoming, Tioga, Bradford 
and Venango, were granted to the col- 
lege, and it was ordered that the ex- 
penses of surveying should be paid out 
of the treasury of the State. By a sup- 
plemental act, passed on the 27th day 
of February, 1788, "the public store- 
house and two lots of ground in the 
borough and county of Lancaster 
were vested in the trustees of Frank- 
lin College for the use of said institu- 
tion." On the surface this may appear 
to have been a liberal donation, but it 
must be remembered that the lands 
were in those days practically worth- 
less, and that half a century had to 
pass before it was possible to realize 
from them the nucleus of a college en- 
dowment. The store-house was situ- 
ated on North Queen street, near 
James — on the ground now occupied by 
"Franklin Row" — and two adjacent 
lots were presented by William Hamil- 
ton, Esq. The "store-house" required 
extensive repairs in order to fit it in 
any degree fbr the purpose of a liter- 
ary institution, so that the earliest con- 
triDutions were in great measure ex- 
hausted before the work was properly 
begun. Until the repairs were com- 
pleted the college occupied the "Brew 
House" in Mifflin street, west of Duke, 
near Trinity church. Part of the build- 
ing is still standing, but has long since 
been divided into dwellings. 


It will be seen that in so far as the fi- 
nances were concernea the founding of 
Franklin College was to a great extent 
a matter of faith; but for a while faith 
was strong and enthusiasm unbounaed. 
It was resolved to use all possible 
means to attract attention to the new 
institution. Dr. Weiberg published an 
"Address to Germans," which was ex- 
tensively circulated. There is still ex- 
tant a pretty extensive correspondence, 
preliminary to the dedication or formal 
opening of the college, whioli took 
place on Wednesday, June 6th, 1787. 
In some instances it appears that the 
signatures were attached to a blank 
sheet which was afterward filled out 
by some member of the Board. Of 
this character was the following letter 
which was written by Dr. Helmuth and 
addressed to Dr. Muhlenberg: 

"Philadelphia, March 19, 1787. 

"Dearest Brotheir in Christ — I must 
be careful not to exceed the space 
which has been left for me, for this 
letter was signed before it was writ- 
ten, and I cannot be expected to ad- 
dress you in the dignified style which 
one ought to employ when writing in 
the name of the gentlemen whose 
names are subscribed. How would it 
do to fill up the page with an obliga- 
tion? Just think, three such papers 
have been committed to my care; you 
may judge how well my credit must 
stand with those people. But to busi- 
ness: 1. You or Pastor Hendel must 
undertake to preach a sermon in Ger- 
man. This sermon must earnestly and 
effectively impress upon the people of 
Lancaster the importance of higher ed- 
ucation. N. B. — But it must, under no 
circumstances, be more than twenty- 
five minutes in length. 

"2. If Pastor Hendel shoiuld undertake 
to preach the sermon, you will offer a 
prayer in German at the altar; and in 
your prayer you will make special men- 
tion of the prosperity of the Germans 


and of its increase by means of educa- 

"3. I send you heTewith seveiral coipies 
of the Order of Dedication. Wtien I 
meet you personally I will give you the 
reasons why the procession was ar- 
ranged according to the programme. 

"As regards the verses you will have 
to accept them as composed by men 
who are overloaded with more work 
than they can possibly perform. 

"Mr. Ott sends you the music for the 
seA^eral pieces, so that your Lancasiter 
singers may rehearse them properly. 
Several of our best singers have al- 
ready been engaged, amd will be in 
Lancaster at the apipointed time to as- 
sist in the music. The siolos amid anti- 
strophes will be sung by the singers 
from Philadelphia; the echo requires 
that the singers should stand opposite 
to each other, and, therefore, the solos 
and antistrophes might also be sung 
by these gentlemen from the north 
side of your church, oppoisiite to the 
organ. Concemimg the German hymn, 
I have to say that the response is to be 
sung by the Children. This may, in my 
opinion, be thus arranged: You can 
have the space before the altar occu- 
pied with hendhes, on which the chil- 
dren may be seated, and there sing 
their response. It is presumed that 
this will make a good impression on 
the parents. Lutheran and Reformed 
children must sing together. 

"Let the choir be pretty large. There 
are singers enough among the Luther- 
ans and especially among the Re- 

"I hope the gentlemen of Lancaster 
will not be displeased, because we are 
so busy and help to make arrange- 
memts sixty-six miles away, especially 
as one of the Lancaster members is 
aiding us. Here the majority of the 
Trustees live near together, and it is 
at any rate always necessary that some 
one shonld take the initiative. 


"Lancaster owes much to Dr. Rush, 
and the University will always find in 
him an active supporter. Our sub- 
scriptions indicate that we shall be 
able, without doubt, to bring about 
£2,500 with us to Lanoaster. I hope 
that you will love the contributors and 
most cheerfully do what they tell you.* 
' J.' our thousand copies of the Order 
of Exercises are to be printed, which 
will be distributed on the day of dedi- 

"Please provide lodging for my sing- 
ers — they are four in number, and Mr. 
Ott will be one of them. The Trustees 
will pay the expenses of the journey; 
their board, I presume, they will re- 
ceive gratuitously. 

"Ah! here already are the silgnatures, 
and I cam, therefore, only add that the 
following gentlemen air© your good 
friends, and feel oonfident that you will 
attend to the above maitters and make 
all necessary preparation: 

"CAjSPARUS weiberg, 

On the 5th day of June, the day be- 
fore the formal opening, the Board of 
Trustees met in the Conrt House at 
Lancaster and elected the folloTving 
Faculty for Frianklin College: 

Rev. G. H. E. Muhlenberg, D. D., 

Rev. William Hendel, D. D., Vice 

Rev. Frederick W. Melsheimer, Pro- 
fessor of Greek, Laitin and German. 

William Reichenbach, Professor of 

*Thls, no doubt, refers to his acceptance 
of the Presidency of the College. 


Rev. Joseph Huitchins, Professor of 
the English Lianguage and Belles Let- 

Concerning tbese men.Dr. Rush says, 
in an article written in 1787: "A clus- 
ter of more learneid or better qualified 
masters, I believe, have not met in any 

The dedication, on the 6th of June, 
1787, was one of the most splendid oc- 
casions im the history of Lancaster. 
The Lutheran Ministerium and the Re- 
formed Coetus were both in sessiO'n in 
Lancaster at that time, and tEeir pres- 
ence added greatly to the eclat of the 
festival. The officers of every congre- 
gation in the city were invited to 
march in the procession, and, I may 
here state, that the original invitation 
addressed to the Moiravian Church is 
in possession of our President, Mr. 
George Steinman. 

In the Lutheran Church, Dr. Muhlen- 
berg preached a German sermon, and 
Dr. Joseph Hutchinis — ^thie newly-elect- 
ed Professor of English and Belles 
Lettres — delivered a discourse m which 
he took occasion to glorify his office. 
Dr. Muhlenberg's sermon was immedi- 
ately published in pamphlet form, but 
that of Dr. Hutchlns did not appear 
until 1806, when it was published by 
the author. In a preface the author 
says that at the time of its delivery he 
was "discouraged by some circum- 
stances from tihe pubilication." What 
these circumstances were may easily be 
inferred from the discourse. The 
preacher was no doubt a scholar and a 
gentleman, but he evidently failed to 
appreciate the difficulties of the situa- 
tion and manifested a lamentable lack 
of prudence. Not to refer to other 
things that might better have remain- 
ed unsaid, he remarked: "As the limit- 
ed capacity of man can very seldom at- 
tain excellence in more than one lan- 
guage, the study of English will de- 
mand the principal attentiion of your 

( ^5 ) 

cliildren." At present this may appear 
to have been a very mnocent utter- 
ance; but When we Temember that it 
was addressed to German people, whose 
main object in the esbablishment of a 
college was the preservation of their 
native language in Pennsylvania, it 
must be confessed that it was, to say 
the least, very imprudent, ii may in- 
deed be said to have been a fore- 
shadowing of trouble, suggesting the 
re'mark of a oonitemipoirary writer: 
"The English an'd German cam never 
woirk together. The one says Shibbo- 
leth, the other SibboJeth." There was, 
a few years ago, some discussion of the 
question whether Benjamin Franklin 
was persoinally present at itlhe formal 
opening of the Instituition which re- 
ceived his name. On this subject there 
can be no doubt, though the fact is not 
explicitly mentioned in the publiished 
proceedings. Franklin was at that 
time a member of the Coinstitutional 
Convention, in session at Philadelphia, 
but the records show that ihe was ab- 
sent from the 4th to the 9ith of June. 
Hector St. John Crevecoeur, a Frencih 
author, who was at that time in Ameri- 
ca, states in his published book of 
travels, that in 1787 he acoomipanied 
Franklin on a journey to Lancaster "to 
lay the corner-stone of a college which 
lie had founded there for the Germams." 
It is not probable that this was liter- 
ally the laying of a corner-'Stoaie, as the 
college had, as yet, no building of its 
own, but leather the formal opening to 
which we have referred. I have been 
informed — ^though I have not seen it — 
that within a few years a letter has 
been discovered, addressed by Frank- 
lin to his sister, in which he refers to 
his visit to Lancasiter on this occasion. 
The sage was, however, at that time 
eighty-one years old, so that we may 
easily see why he took no active part 
in the proceedings. 

It was found necessary in the first 


year to divide the college into two sec- 
tioius — German and English. There was 
no lack of patronage. In 1788 there 
were, according to Professor Melsheim- 
er's report, one hundred and twenty- 
five students, of whom abou't twenty 
received instruction in the higher 
branches. The chief difficulty was fi- 
nancial. The rates of tufition were very 
low, and the receipts were oniy £111, 
while the salaries of the professors 
amounted to £210, t'hoiugh Drs. Muh- 
lenberg and Hendel labored without 
salary. At the end of the first year the 
Treasurer, John Hubley, Esq., reported 
a deficit of £244. At this rate it did 
not take long to get to the bottom of 
the purse. 

It Tvas found necessary, aiter the 
second year, to contract the scope of 
the iaisititution, so that it became at 
best a good local academy. Prof. Mel- 
sheimer labored until 1798, hoping 
against hiope, 'but finally accepted a 
call to Hanover, Pa. There were sub- 
sequently a number of eminent teach- 
ers, among whom, besides those we 
have mentioned, were James Ross, 
author of a celebrated Latin Grammar; 
Benedict Schipher, co-author, with Dr. 
Muhlenberg, of a large German dic- 
tionai'y, and W. C. Brownlee, after- 
wards an eminent minister in New 

The Lutheran and Reformed Synods 
on several O'ocasions made small ap- 
propriations to Franklin College, but 
this seems to have been rather to pre- 
serve a traditiional right than for any 
miore serious purpose. It mignt be in- 
teresting to trace 'thiC laiter history of 
Franklin College, but this is not our 
present intention. It may, however, be 
added that the lands originally granted 
to the institution gradually increased 
in value, so as to render it possible to 
establish an institution oi a higher 
grade. This was finally accomplished 
by the union with Marsihall College, 


WQieh was approved by the Legislature 
in 1850, though not actually consoim- 
mated until 1853. 

It is evident that Franklin College, 
as originally ooaistituteid, did not ful- 
fill the purposes of its founders. For 
this failure many causes might be as- 
signed, though there were two which, 
in our opinioin, outweighed the rest. 
The first was that the time had not 
come for the establishmeat of an inisti- 
tution in Lancaster on such an exten- 
sive scale. A few eminent men appre- 
ciated the importance of the work, but 
it never found its way to the hearts of 
the people. Another cause ol failure 
must be sougtht in the fact that the 
earliest promoters of the enterprise 
evidemtly expected too much. They 
knew of great institutions elsewhere, 
but they seem to have failed to remem- 
ber that — unless largely aided by the 
Government — ^they were the result of 
many years of toil, if not suffering. 
Harvard College, for instance, was, in 
those days, but a small institution, but 
it had required 150 years to bring it so 
far. Such facts the founders of Frank- 
lin College appear to have left out of 
consideration. Theii- purposes were so 
pure and exalted that they imagined 
that they must be immediately sup- 
ported, and consequently did not con- 
sider the day of small things. Accord- 
ingly, when trouble came, they lost 
heart, and failed to manifest the con- 
tinued self-saorifloe which is the best 
assurance of the higfhest success. 
Nevertheless, to use the words of Dr. 
F. A. Muhlenberg, on^e of the profes- 
sors of Franklin College, "it is a high 
credit to Lancaster that ever since the 
adoption of our National Consititution 
she has never been without a scfhool 
in which her sons could receive the 
elements of a classical education." 

[The interest in Dr. Dubhs' paper on 
"Old Franklin College" was greatly en- 
hanced by the exhibition and inspec- 


tion of many valuable documents, sUGh 
as a caitaloigue of the pupils loif Piranklin 
College in 1787, cataloigue of ttie library, 
letters by distinguislied men, relating 
thereto, and other impoirtaaiit manu- 
seripts whidh ihe presented in oooiniec- 
tion therewith.] 


.T n'?^'^-^ 



» 1 




ON NIARCH 4, 1898. 



By F. R. Diffendeeffee. 

By L. W. Hensel. 

By L. W. Hensel. 



VOL. IL NO. 7. 

Reprinted from The New Eba. 


How the New Holland School House was Built. 

By F. R. Diffenderffer, 181 

An Old Oil Mill. 

By L. W. Hensel, 213 

The Martin Barr Family. 

By L. W. Hensel, 216 

Biographical Sketches of Honorary Members. 218 


One short month ago Dr. Dubbs read 
before this Society the history of an 
early educational movement in this 
city, which not only reflects infinite 
credit on the intelligent, able and self- 
sacrificing men who organized it, but 
which, by a reflected light, sheds a halo 
of credit even upon us, who have suc- 
ceeded them. The erection of Franklin 
College in this German community one 
hundred and eleven years ago was a 
reaching out after the higher educa- 
tion, which it was felt ought to supple- 
ment the schools of minor grade al- 
ready established. There were such 
not only in this city, but almost in 
every village where the church raised 
its modest steeple the school house 
stood close by it. In most cases these 
were parochial schools, taught either 
by the preacher or precentor, and may 
be fairly called part of the church or- 
ganizations themselves. But I propose 
to speak of an early school, a "com- 
mon school," as it was designated at 
that time, not built under direct church 
auspices, although the builders were 
churchmen, but by people of the entire 
community, irrespective of churchly 
afiiliations, and which I believe is un- 
equalled by any similar enterprise in 
the State of Pennsylvania. Its origin 
antedates Franklin College by one 
year. The prime mover in the enter- 
prise was the Rev. Frederick W. Mels- 
heimer, who Dr. Dubbs has told us was 
one of the members of the Faculty of 
Franklin College, the Professor of 
Greek, Latin and German. 

The school about which I shall speak 
to you was founded in the town of New 
Holland in 1786. Fortunately the min- 
ute book has been carefully preserved, 

( 182 ) 

and I propose to let it tell the story of 
this early and successful attempt to 
establish a "German and English Com- 
mon School," for that is the title its 
founders gave it. There is an abund- 
ance of material for half a dozen in- 
teresting articles in the minute book, 
but I shall use only so much of it as 
will serve to show what manner of men 
they were who inaugurated and carried 
forward the scheme, and also that they 
made a complete success of it, being 
to that extent more fortunate than 
their fellow-citizens here in Lancaster, 
who scored a partial success only. 

But I return to the first page of the 
record book,on which I find the follow- 


"The Revd. Mr. Melsheimer. Minis- 
ter of the German Lutheran Congrega- 
tion at New Holland, after previous 
Consultation first had with divers per- 
sons upon the Subject of Building a 
Common German & English School 
house, proceeded to open a Subscrip- 
tion paper in the German language 
about the Neighborhood of New Hol- 
land for the purpose aforesaid." 

The contents of the subscription pa- 
per are in the following words, viz.: 

Da wxx uns mit 6er f^iilfe ®ottes 
entfdjiof en t^abert, cin 5um allgemct= 
nen gebraud? bcftimtes Sd^ultjauf fiir 
bic Ceutfd)e Ztation in IceuI^oIIanb 
ju erbauen : fo tpcrben alle freunbe 
bcr ©ottfeeligfeit ; unb einer (£f?nft= 
lidjen er5iel?ung5anftalt gebetten, biefe 
gute Sadfz 5U Untcrftii^en, unb buvdj 
etnen mtlbcn unb (£t?nftl. Beytrag 5U 

Zteuljollanb ben H9ten 3uny \786. 

A subscription paper was likewise 
drawn up by Fred. Seeger in English, 
and handed about the neighborhood, 
which is in the following words, viz.: 


"Whereas, The Education of Youth 
is of great Importance, and it ought to 
be the first object of parental Care, As 
it tends to promote everything that is 
dear and valuable in this Life. There- 
fore, We, the Subscribers — Inhabitants 
in and about NewhoUand, being per- 
fectly Sensible of that Truth, and of 
the utility and Conveniency that would 
arise to us and to our posterity, and to 
persons residing at a distance from a 
well-adapted School establishment at 
the place aforesaid. 

"That in order to attain to those 
Beneficial ends, It is proposed by us, 
and by the German Lutheran Congre- 
gation at New Holland aforesaid, to 
erect and build a Common English & 
German School house upon the Glebe 
Lands at the place, free to and for the 
use of all religious denominations and 
persons that shall willingly Subscribe 
and pay any Sum of Money towards 
the Building of the same. 

"And in order to secure and ascer- 
tain the right to each and every Sub- 
scriber, their heirs and Successors, to 
either or particular School, It is pro- 
posed. That the Names of the Sub- 
scribers shall be entered upon record; 
And that before any Foundation to the 
Building is laid proper Articles of 
Agreement and Covenants will be en- 
tered into and executed by and between 
the said Subscribers and the said Con- 
gregation, so as to assure each and 
every person having Subscribed and 
Contributed his or their right, Title & 
Interest thereto. 

"And It is further proposed, that 
upon a Meeting (to be called for that 
purpose) a sufficient Number of per- 
sons from among the said Subscribers 
shall be elected to be the visitors or 
Trustees of the said Schools, and to 
prescribe rules for the good Govern- 
ment thereof. 

"Wherefore We the undernamed per- 
sons, in order to forward so Laudable 
a purpose — do hereby agree and prom- 


ise to pay upon demand of the person 
authorized to receive such Sum and 
Sums of Money as will appear annexed 
to our respective Names. July the 19th, 

Following the above we have the 
names of the subscribers and contri- 
butors, as follows: 

Jonathan Rolland.,. 

Peter Diller 

Thos. Henderson 

James McConnell... 

Henry Merkley 

John Sheibley 

Mathias Sherick 

Fred. Seeger 

John Luther 

Geo. Hildebrand 

John Bender 

Nich. Yont 

Nath. Ellmaker 

Fred. Baker 

John Divenderver. . . 

Geo. Stoner 

Leonard Diller 

Robt. Wallace 

Saml. Ranck 

Valentine Ronk 

Martin Road 

Jacob Weidler 

Chs. B. Sturgeon 

Mich. Kinser 

Gabriel Davis 

Henry Road 

George Matter 

James Old 

Eml. Carpenter 

Wm. Smith 

David Jenkins 

Joshua Evans 

George Stehly 

John Greiss 

Zacchs. Peersol 

Bernhard Wolf 

John Houser 

Jacob Sheibley 

Henry Lippert 

Bastian Stoppelbein. 
John Fingenbein 












, , 


, , 














, , 


, , 


a • 


, , 














, , 

, , 





, , 

, , 




















Isaac Reiff 

Peggy Martin 

Valentine Kinser 

Henry Kinser 

John Tisick 

Alex. Martin 

Peter Summy 

Jacob Carpenter (col.) 

Peter Eaker, Jr 

Christ. Snyder 

John W. Kittera, Esq 

Geo. Pinock, Mercht., of 


John Hetzell 

Everhard Gruber, Esq 

Peter Hole 

Jacob Miller 

Philip Kessler 

John Smith 










Total Amount Subscribed 
on the English Sub- 
scription paper 

In all, 59 names. 

50 16 

Following the above are 



on the German subscription 





Adam Diller, Mill Creek.. 


, , 

, , 

Isaac Diller 


, , 

, , 

Michael Graybill 



Michael Brauss 


Melchoir Lauter Millick. . . 


Geo. Seltreich, Sen 



Jacob Berkhouser 




George Seltreich, Jr 


Balsar Besshoar 


John Brubaker 



George Menzer 

Wm. Deets 


Henry Fetter, Sr 


Isaac Gaushett 



Henry Reichwein 

Martin Road 



John Divenderver 

Christian Bremer 



John Luther, Esq 



Jacob Diffenderver, Jr 

, , 


Jacob Beck 


• • 


Wm. Berlitz 

John Shaffer 

• • 



George Trautman 

John Scheibly 

Jacob Ringwalt 

Christian Miller 

Mathias Sherick 

Fred. Seeger 

John Bitzer 

David Divenderver . . 

John Schultz 

John Hoover, Jr 

George Hildebrand . . 

John Hildebrand 

Isaac Reiff 

Martin Shaffer 

Philip Sprecher 

John Engel 

John Bitzer, Jr 

George Weick 

Peter Grim 

Sophia Miller, widow. 

Catharine Lippert 

Sophia Hole, widow. . 

Peter Miller 

Jacob Stein 

Christian Hole 

John Lippert 

Fred. Shaffer 

Andrew Deig 

Jacob Glasser 

Adam Diller, fat 1 

Chri&toph Grosh 1 

Balsar Bitzer 

John Diller 

George Leonard 

George Illy 

Peter Burkholder 

Mich. Hildebrand 

Enrich Snyder 

Martin Nehr 

George Stehly 

John Smith 

John Houser 

Sebastian Stoppelbein 

John Borrell 

Valentine Kinser 

Valentine Petry 

And. Shreder 

John Rein 

Wendle Kremer 








































Christian Fellenbaum 7 6 

From a friend 1 17 6 

Total subscribed on Ger- 
man paper 47 19 9 

Number of subscribers, 74. 

Later, however, came still others, 

■whose names were not on the subscrip- 
tion papers. They were: 

Hf-ury Hambright 1 2 6 

Robert Cockley allows to 
pay for the use of the 
school 15 .. 

Frederick Seeger contribut- 
ed a donation which he 
received for Clerk Fee 
from the townships on 
his examining the poor 
accounts 5 . . 

A contribution from Lea- 
cock township 1 5 . . 

Conrad Meyer,of New Hol- 
land, left by his will 1 10 .. 

Jonas Withers 5 . . 

David "Waltson, Esq., sub- 
scribed the cash he re- 
ceived from the over- 
seers of the poor for 
drawing a petition to 
cour c for the township .... 7 6 

Elias Meyer, in lieu of 200 
feet of oak boards, sub- 
scribed by him, paid 7 6 

John Luther and Fred. 
Seeger gave the fee they 
charged for services done 
to Christn. Breneman 
and John Bngel, in set- 
tling their executors' as- 

counts 7 6 

William Crawford . . 15 . . 

John Miller, Esq., High 
Sheriff of Lancaster 

county 7 6 

Then we have this interesting item: 
"James Old, Esq., allowed 
the Trustees a Ten-plated 
large Stove for his Sub- 
scription Money, being. . 2 10 .. 

. ( 188 ) 

Michael Sauer made and 
allowed gratis two pairs 
of the front door hinges. 

Peter Shaffer hauled 1 
day Stones with his own 
Team, gratis; and Geo. 
Diffenderver and John 
Berlet assisted in load- 
ing of 'em. 

George Weick made and 
delivered gratis for the 
School house one pair 
door hinges, besides his 
Subscription Money. N. 
B. — The hinges men- 
tioned George Weick 
made and charged for, 
equal to his subscrip- 

After this we have another 
interesting statement, as 

"Names of persons who 
have Contributed by 
furnishing the Trustees 
with sundry building Ma- 
terials; also, the Names 
of persons who have per- 
formed Labour by way 
of Contribution. Like- 
wise the Names of per- 
sons who have Sub- 
scribed Money and have 
furnished Building Tim- 
ber for it, to be allowed 
to them in the payment 
of their Subscription 
Money, viz: 

"List of Logs,by whom de- 
livered on the ground 
either to be allowed or 
gratis, viz: 

Geo. Hildebrand — i logs 
for his Subscription 
Money 15 

Jacob Hoover — 2 logs for 
bis subscription Money, 
excluding 1 day hailing 
Stones and also allowed 


upwards of Twenty-six 
rafters 15 

James Thompson — 2 logs 
and hailed them in, and 
also hailed rafters from 
Jacob Hoover's Land. 

James Martin — 2 logs and 
some rafters 

John Divenderver — 2 logs 
delivered 10 

Jacob Stone — 2 logs for 
his Subscription Money- 
is 5 

Geo. Stone — 2 logs deliver- 
ed .. 10 

Christ. Meyer — 2 logs de- 
livered gratis. 

Jacob Sensenig — 1 log de- 
livered gratis. 

Valentine Kinser — 2 logs 
delivered gratis. 

Christ, and Jacob Hole — 
8 logs delivered by Chris- 
tian 5 

Peter Grim— 3 logs for his 
Subscription Money 1 . . 

Michael Hildebrand — 3 logs 
delivered 15 

Jacob Hoover, Martin's 
Son — 2 logs delivered 

Joseph Hoover— 2 logs de- 
livered gratis. 

N. B. George Hildebrand 
hailed them in. 

Isaac ReifE— 2 logs hailed. 

Martin Hoover — 6 logs 
hailed by George Main- 
aer for pay. 

Jacob GrofE— 2 logs hailed 

Jacob Summy— 2 logs and 

were hailed by Peter Miller. 

Philip Sprecher — 2 logs 
and hailed them in 15 

Balsar Besshoar — 2 logs 
and hailed them in 15 

George Mainzer — 1 log and 
hailed it in 7 


Jacob Glasser — 2 logs and 
hailed them in 15 

(Jabriel Davis — 2 logs and 
hailed some stones at dif- 
ferent times for his 
Subscription Money. 

Total number of logs for 
school house delivered as 
above mentioned, some 
whereof of 35 feet and 
some of 40 feet long, 
were Squaired by some 
at their own expense and 
others at the expense of 
the School house, 
Amtg. to 60 logs." 

"Christian Summers deliv- 
ered gratis 10 Bushels 
Lime at 10 

Aora. Miller will deliver 
600 feet Laths, according 
to the Size wanting. 

■•Jacob Weaver, Sen. .deliv- 
ered on the ground, grat- 
is 10 Bushells Lime. 

"Jacob Weaver, Jr., Sawed 
a log of his own into 
Laths and delivered 
them gratis. 

"Elias Meyer will deliver 
gratis 200 feet oak Boards 
or pay the value thereof 
in Money at his own 
Choice 7 

"John Bitzer, Sen., Ludwig 
Wolfard and Fasnacht 
have promised to deliver 
one Thousand Shangles. 

"Salomon Meyer, Book- 
Binder at Ephrata, al- 
lowed for the Benefit of 
this School in his Charge 
for this (record) Book, 
the Sum of 2 

"Isaac Brubaker, Christian 
Erubaker, Jacob Koch, 
David Fellenbaum, 
Jacob Houser, John Ad- 
am Roads, who were not 


Subscribers, worked at 
Sundry Times in the Cel- 
lar of the School house, 
as did many other Sub- 
scribers, in particular 
po.rsons residing in New 
Holland, and all persons 
who have worlted in dig- 
ging the Cellar were 
found diet by the Inhab- 
itants of New Holland, 
and the Cellar was com- 
pleted without little or 
no Charge. 
"John Luther.Esq., allowed 
several oak boards for 
Benches; also, found 
pint (pine) boards for the 
Trustees' Bench gratis. 
"Jacob Weaver, Jr., Mil- 
ler, allowed gratis, up- 
v/ardsofone hundred feet 
oak Boards for Benches 
to the School house. 
"Messrs. Steemer, Al- 
bright & Lawn, Printers 
of the Borough of Lan- 
caster, were so kind and 
obliging as to print 
Gratis about Eighty 
hymns to be distributed 
among the people, and 
to be sung by the School 
youth in vocal musical 
order under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Shaffner, on 
the 26th day of Deer., A. "' 

D. 1787, being the dedi- 
cation day of the 
School house. 
"Rccd. of the Widow Witt- 
wer, 1 large Log for a 
Garder (girder). Ditto of 
Zaccheus Peersol for an- 
other Garder." 

The foregoing, for the time being, 
concluded the subscriptions and dona- 
tions towards building the school 
house. But the men who were foremost 

( 192 ) 

ia the work relaxed none of their ef- 
forts to push matters ahead and to 
provide for the regulation of the school 
v/hen the time for actual school work 
should come along. I accordingly find 
the following memorandum in the 

"After some progress was made by 
the Rev. Mr. Melzheimer, Minister of 
the German Lutheran Congregation, 'n 
Collecting Subscriptions for Building 
a Common German and English 
School house at the place afore- 
said, It was thought advisable that 
some certain and permanent Funda- 
mental rules for the good Government 
of the same should be first introduced 
for the Consideration of the Subscrib- 
ers. And, accordingly, a Sett of rules 
were drawn up in both the German 
and English Languages. 

"Whereupon, on the fifth day of Au- 
gust, A. Domini, 1786, previous notice 
being given to the Subscribers, a num- 
ber of them met and thereupon the 
Business was explained, and the said 
Sett of Articles and Fundamental 
rules were read and Considered. And 
after some Time spent in the Consid- 
eration thereof, they were agreed to, 
and finally ratified and Confirmed, as 

Then follows what are called "The 
Fundamental rules of the School Insti- 
tution of New Holland, Lancaster 

These rules were sixteen in number 
and occupy more than six folio pages. 
They are entirely too long to be given 
here, but I will, nevertheless, present 
some of the salient features found in 

After a preamble, in which the pro- 
ject for the erection of a school build- 
ing and the meeting for the adoption 
of the rules and regulations are set 
forth, the latter were adopted. They 
are too long to be given here in full. 

Rule first is, however, so wise and 
liberal that I give it in full: 


"First: That as the said school 
house is to he built by Common Con- 
tribution and general Collection of all 
the subscribers, so it shall always be, 
and remain to Common and general 
use and Benefit, to and for all persons 
of whatsoever religious principles and 
denominations they may be, and they 
who have voluntarily subscribed to- 
wards so laudable an undertaking 
shall enjoy an Indisputable right to 
the said School, and the use and Bene- 
fit thereof in Common for themselves 
and their heirs forever hereafter." 

The second article provides for the 
registration of the names of all the 
subscribers and the sums they gave, 
and for the names of those who ren- 
dered other assistance and services, 
"for the Information of all concerned 
and of posterity." That was a most 
wise provision, and enables me to pre- 
sent this sketch of their excellent 

The third article recites that the 
school house shall be built on the 
"Glebe Lands," belonging to the Ger- 
man Lutheran congregation. In con- 
sideration for that service the only 
reservation made by the congregation 
was that "every German School Mas- 
ter shall at all Times, by virtue of his 
oflBce, be obliged to attend the said 
Congregation upon every one of their 
Divine Services and shall then and 
there serve to them in the Capacity of 
a Precentor and organist, and that no 
other German Master shall be admit- 
ted and appointed, other than such a 
person as shall be adjudged Capable to 
perform the duties and functions of a 
precentor or person that is capable to 
lead the Choir upon Divine Services, 
and that can act as organist afore- 

The fourth article declares that as 
the school house shall be built at the 
common charge and for common uses, 
it shall always be kept in good repair 
in the same way. 


Article fifth provides for the selec- 
tion, by ballot, of Thirteen Trustees or 
overseers of the School "to represent 
the German and English Nations," and 
fui'ther provides "that the persons to 
be elected, as aforesaid, should be Men 
of Sound Judgment and understand- 
ing, and of a discreet and good moral 
Conduct in Life." The men who select 
School Directors to-day are not so 
scrupulous and particular in their 
duties as were these men of old. 

Article sixth sets forth the duties of 
the Trustees, which are about what 
they would be to-day under like cir- 

Article seventh gives to the sub- 
scribers and contributors the right to 
call the Trustees to account every six 
months, and this duty is especially en- 
joined on them. 

Article eighth provides for the elec- 
tion of a new set of Trustees, by the 
subscribers, every three years. The 
old ones were eligible to re-election. 

Article ninth declares that Trustees 
may not resign before the expiration 
of their full term of office without per- 
mission, and, should they do so, they 
should forfeit twenty shillings for the 
use of the school. Failure to attend 
the regular Trustee meetings was also 
punished with a five shillings fine. 
Sickness or failure to receive notice of 
the time of meeting were deemed al- 
lowable excuses. 

Article tenth provides for a Presi- 
dent and a Clerk, to be selected by the 
Trustees from among their number; 
and also defines the respective duties 
of these officials. 

Article eleventh declares that before 
any school master is accepted he shall 
undergo an examination by the Min- 
ister or Ministers of any religious de- 
nomination, in the presence of the 
Trustees. When selected, the teacher 
was required to promise that he would 
do his utmost to teach the pupils com- 


mitted to his charge, and observe good 
moral conduct, both in and out of the 
school room. 

Article twelfth provides for action if 
the conditions of the previous articles 
are violated. The teacher shall be ex- 
horted to do better, but, if he fails, 
then the Trustees shall discharge him, 
no matter how good a teacher he may 

Article thirteenth prescribes the 
duties of the masters. They shall 
keep lists of the scholars; shall note 
those who behave particularly well 
and show to advantage over the rest, 
while those who do not deport them- 
selves well or study with diligence 
shall also be put on record, and the 
latter be shown to the Trustees for 
their information. 

Article fourteenth provides for pub- 
lic examinations every six months, 
which fact shall be published in all 
the neighboring congregations four 
weeks before the day on which they 
shall take place. The exercises shall 
be opened "by a suitable and to the 
occasion well-adapted oration, to be 
delivered at the request of the Trus- 
tees by some one neighboring minis- 
ter, and after the said examination 
shall be made, a Collection shau be 
made, and part of the Money Collected 
on the occasion to be applied towards 
distributing it among such of the 
Scholars as have performed and be- 
haved well. Suitable presents, such as 
Books or some such things for their 

Article fifteenth provides that per- 
sons who were not original subscrib- 
ers, but who nevertheless desire to be- 
come partakers of the benefits that 
shall come from the school, may be- 
come entitled to all such benefits upon 
the payment of the sum of ten shil- 
lings. But the Trustees shall have 
the power either to increase or de- 
crease the amount, according to the fl- 


nancial standing of the applicant. But 
no one shall under any circumstances 
be admitted to these privileges gratis. 
The sixteenth and last article pro- 
vides that the foregoing articles shall 
be regarded "forever hereafter" as the 
fundamental rules of the school, by the 
Trustees, and so good did they evi- 
dently believe them to be that they 
declared they should "remain by them 
unalterable."The Trustees were requir- 
ed to sign them and that this solemn 
act should go on record. Accordingly, 
at a meeting of the subscribers and 
patrons, held on August 5, 1786, a bal- 
lot was had, and the result showed 
that thirteen Trustees had been se- 
lected. These, then, in accordance 
with the proviso in article sixteenth, 
made the following declaration: 

"In witness whereof, and in Con- 
formity with the above 16th article, 
We the undersigned persons being 
duly elected, by the Majority of the 
subscribers, the present Trustees, Have 
to these presents, and in behalf of our- 
selves and of our Brethren whom we 
represent, and by their Special direc- 
tion hereunto put our hands & Seals, 
This 5th day of August, A. Domini, 
One Thousand Seven hundred and 
Eighty Six. 

[Seal.] FRED. SEEGER, 

All the above was certified to on De- 
cember 4, 1786, by John Luther, as 
President of the Board, and Frederick 
Seeger, as Clerk of the same. 

On the 10th day of August a business 
meeting was held, at which the Presi- 
dent and clerk were elected. The ques- 


tion of erecting the building also came 
up, "when it was unanimously agreed 
that a Cellar be dug 15 by 20 feet upon 
the North side and that the House be 
Two Story high and Tough Tailed, 
forty by thirty-five feet." Considerable 
difficulty was experienced before an 
agreement could be had, and toward 
which point of the compass the build- 
ing should front. After much debate 
and several ballots it was agreed "that 
the house should be fronted as it now 
stands," which, during my recollection, 
was toward the South. 

Frequent meetings of the Trustees 
were now held. On August 22nd a com- 
mittee was appointed to make a con- 
tract with Joseph Williams, a mason, 
"to wall the cellar upon the cheapest 
manner possible." 

From this time forward the Trustees 
held frequent meetings, at which the 
construction of the school building was 
the main business considered. At a 
meeting held on September 19th an 
animated discussion arose over the 
question whether there should be two 
chimneys at each gable or only one. 
By a vote of five to three the single- 
chimney party won. Strange to say, 
they contracted with a Berks county 
man — one George Zeigler — to supply 
the 3,000 oak shingles needed for the 
roof. It was also agreed "that the win- 
dows of the School house be made and 
constructed five by four lights of seven 
by nine glass, and that they be made 
so that they raise upwards." At a 
meeting held on October 3rd a contract 
was entered into with John Houser "to 
square 14 logs or more,as occasion may 
require, agreeable to written direction, 
at the rate of Two Shillings and Six 
pence per log." 

Under the date of October 23rd oc- 
curs this entry on the minutes: "On 
the day aforesaid, Jonathan Rolland, 
Fred. Seeger, John Luther, Hen. Merk- 
ley and John Sheibly, they being duly 
authorized for that purpose. Entered 


into written Contract with Valentine 
Kinser, Carpenter, for doing the fol- 
lowing work, viz — That the said Val- 
entine Cut, hall and square two Gar- 
ders (girders) of 41 & of 42 feet in 
Length, befitting the School house, 
now about to be build. That he join 
and fixes the Joices into the said Gar- 
ders & upon the outside logs thereof 
according to usuall Custom of suchlike 
Method of Building,and that upon both 
the first & second Story of the house. 
That he must Cut & Square a Suffi- 
ciency of rafters & assist in putting 
them up (but they, the rafters, must 
be hailed on the ground where he will 
square 'em). That the said Valentine 
must nail on the Lathes. That in 
every pair of rafters he will put a Col- 
lar Beam to be Cut by him, but hailed 
at School expence. That he will roof 
the house (Shingles & nails to be 
found). That he will make a Sufficiency 
of Clap Boards to Shut up the both 
Gable ends of the house, but the Tim- 
ber for Clap Boards must be found by 
him ready to be Splite. The necessary 
posts for the Gable ends he must put 
up (but be found). That for all which 
work to be done & performed in a 
good and Workmanlike manner the 
said Committee in Behalf of themselves 
& the said Trustees have Bound them- 
selves to pay to the said Valentine 
within reasonable Time after the work 
shall be done, the Sum of Thirty Silver 
dollars. And it is understood that the 
said Valentine finding his own hands 
and diet." 

At this point I find this: "Nota 
Bene. Fred. Seeger finds himself under 
the Necessity to make this Apology, 
and hopes he will stand excused with 
the Candid perusers both as to accu- 
racy and Stile & writing of the fore- 
going, as the whole was performed by 
him only on a few Leisure evening 
hours." I take pleasure in bearing tes- 
timony to the careful and generally ex- 
cellent manner in which these minutes 


were kept by Mr. Seeger. During the 
twenty-five years he had been in this 
country he had acquired a thorough 
mastery of the English language, both 
in its syntax and orthography.that does 
him much credit. 

Under the date of April 19th, 1787, I 
find this entry: "This day the School 
house was finally raised without any 
further Charge, other than about five 
quarts of rum, as all those persons who 
were kind enough to attend & assist in 
raising of it were found diet by sun- 
dry Inhabitants in New holland." 

At a meeting of the Trustees held on 
April 21st, a letter from Jacob Shaff- 
ner was produced and read, requesting 
the appointment of Master of the Ger- 
man school as soon as the building 
was ready. As the "Conduct and abil- 
ity of the said Master was personally 
known to all the Trustees, the said Ja- 
cob Shaffner was by the unanimous 
vote of the Trustees met, appointed 
master to the German school. Subject 
to the Fundamental rules thereof; And 
also subject to such further rules & 
by laws as shall be made and prescribed 
to him from Time to Time during his 
said appointment and good behavior." 

In the minutes of November 15, 1787, 
I find the following: "Mr. James Old, 
besides his generosity in allowing to 
the Trustees for the use of the School 
house a large Ten-plated Stove, worth 
four pounds, for his subscription 
Money, being £2.5, was so kind as to 
Credit to the Trustees another Ten 
plate Stove worth four pounds, for one 
Twelve Months." 

As the time was approaching when 
the school house would be finished and 
ready for occupation, the Trustees be- 
gan making arrangements to have a 
suitable dedication of the same. Pre- 
liminary action looking to this end was 
taken at a meeting of the Trustees held 
on December 7th, 1787. I quote the 
record of the day in full: 
"This day a quorum of the Trustees 


Met, and appointed Wednesday the 
26tli of the same month, being the 2nd 
day after Christmas, for a suitable day 
President and Clerli, with Jonathan 
Holland and James McConnall.were ap- 
pointed to Invite several Clergy Gen- 
tlemen. Whereupon the Rev. Mr. Robt. 
Smith.of Pequea; the Rev. Mr. Muhlen- 
to dedicate the School house. The 
berg, the Rev. Mr. Melzheimer. the 
Rev. Mr. Houtz and the Rev. Mr. Elling 
were invited by letter to attend accord- 
ingly; As were also persons and 
Preachers of all other religious per- 
suasions invited." 

Before dedication day came along I 
find another interesting record in the 
minutes. Here it is: "Upon the re- 
quest of the Trustees a Number of 
Joiners met together for the purpose 
of making a Number of Benches for 
the use of the School house. Accord- 
ingly the following persons, Joiners 
and others, met to make the said 
Benches, to wit: Valentine Ronk, two 
days; Isaac Eby, John Kling, Geo. 
Stehly, Jr., Morgan Evans, John Bare, 
Henry Strickers and one Hirshberger, 
severally for 1 day, and worked gratis. 
John Houser, Samuel Ronck, Chris- 
toph Grosh, Henry Merkley and Jacob 
Beck all attended gratis and assisted 
to Complete the said work, and their 
diet was found to them by sundry of 
the Trustees and others, the Inhabi 
ants of this place." 

We come now to the day so long 
looked forward to, the day that was to 
witness the completion of the pre- 
vious eighteen months of hard, un- 
remitting labor. That day's pro- 
ceedings, as they are found 
in the minutes,recorded by the vigilant 
and indefatigable Clerk Seeger, deserve 
to go on permanent record as they 
stand. Here they are: 

"December 26th 1787 

"This day being appointed pursuant 
tc a former resolve of the Trustees to 
Celebrate the dedication of our School 

( 201 ) 

house — which was performed in the 
following order. — Between the hours of 
Nine & Ten O'clock, the Scholars, the 
Singers, the Ministers, the Trustees & 
the Elders, Church wardens of the Ger- 
man Lutheran & Calvinist (German 
Reformed) Churches, & the Members 
of those Churches, & a Number of per- 
sons, English & Germans of other re- 
ligious Societies assembled at the Par- 
sonage house in New holland. And 
about half after Ten O'clock proceeded 
from thence in procession to the School 
house in the following order: 

"The Scholars, The Singers, the Mas- 
ters, The Ministers, viz.: The Rev. Mr. 
Melzheimer, professor of the College of 
Lancaster, and a Gentleman lately ar- 
rived from Germany, Magister Reiche, 
President & Clerk of the Trustees, the 
Trustees, Elders & Church Wardens of 
the said Churches, and the Members 
thereof. And other persons as above 
mentioned. After the procession 
moved from the said place which was 
done with great order, two and two, 
headed by the President and Clerk of 
the Trustees, and approached the 
School house, the doors were opened, 
and after they and the people that at- 
tended had taken their Seats, The 
Solemnity was introduced by vocal 
music by the Schools & Singers in Ger- 
man under the direction of Mr. Shaff- 
ner, the German Master. Magister 
Reiche then opened the Solemnity with 
an Excellent and to the occasion well 
adapted prayer and suitable' oration; 
this was followed by vocal Music by 
the former. 

"The Rev. Mr. Melzheimer then fol- 
lowed the former, and in a most ele- 
gant argumentative ana eloquent dis- 
course from the proverbs of Solomon, 
Chap. 3rd from the 13th to the 16th 
verses, Shewed, to the great and entire 
Satisfaction of all that heard him, the 
utility &■ necessity of supporting and 
maintaining this and all other Schools, 
and Clearly demonstrated both public 

( 302 ) 

and private advantages resulting from 

"After the Rev. Prof had finished his 
discourse he was followed again by 
vocal Music as before. When Chris- 
toph Grosh, one of the present Trus- 
tees, a person of both a Moral & re- 
ligious Character, and an Impartial 
preacher of his Society, at the request 
of the professor & Trustees, Concluded 
the whole by a very rational and to all 
that heard him, Satisfactory discourse, 
well adapted to this occasion, and Con- 
firmed of what had been delivered to 
the hearers by the professor as Coin- 
ciding with him fully, and so finished 
with prayers. This being again fol- 
lowed by vocal Music as before; After 
which the Fundamental Articles of the 
School were read in both English & 
German. This done, the last vocal 
Music followed; The whole was per- 
formed with such good order, decency 
& decorum as would have done honor 
to a more respectable place than this.* 

"All that is to be lamented on this 
occasion is that the Collection which 
was raised under the door, although it 
is presumed upwards of Seven hundred 
people were present, and it is supposed 
between four and five hundred of 'em en- 
tered the house,proved Short of the most 
Sanguine expectations of the Trustees. 
And that tho' many able people were 
present, Yet the Sum towards discharg- 
ing the debts Contracted, and raised on 
this Solemn occasion, amounted only to 
Six pounds fourteen Shillings and Ten 
pence, to be accounted for per Dr. 
I.uther. It is yet necessary to men- 
tion that the Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg, the 
Rev. Mr. Hendle & the Rev. Mr. Robert 
Smith & the Rev. Mr. Elling have sev- 
erally,by Letter Signifyed the Causes of 
their non-attendance on this occasion, 




( 203 ) 

Perhaps, now that we have seen this 
enterprise launched, and under way, 
this might be a suitable point to bring 
these remarlis to a close, but as this 
school had more than half a century 
of successful existence after this time 
we may be allowed to follow it up 

One, Philip Ronk, of Earl township, 
left by will, in 1784, five pounds in 
gold and silver to go towards some 
charitable and religious purpose. The 
Trustees of the School applied for it, 
and, by giving an indemnifying bond 
to apply it to school uses, obtained the 

But a considerable debt rested on the 
School, which it was desirable to get 
rid of, so subscription papers were 
once more prepared and carried 
around; these papers were dated Janu- 
ary 26, 1788. The sum of £36.4 result- 
ed from this effort. After this follow 

*Of course, worthy Mi-. Seeger did not 
mean .lust what he said; he meant a 
more important or considerable place 
than New Holland. 
pages of accounts, showing to whom 

the monies had been paid out. The 
Rev. Mr. Melzheimer, who seems to 
have been the foster-father, the good 
genius, or whatever else we may 
choose to call him, of this school enter- 
prise, set out on his own account and 
collected £18. 13. 6. from subscribers 
who had not yet paid up. 

The election of a Master to teach the 
German school has already been men- 
tioned, but I find no record of a Master 
for the English School having been 
made prior to October 29, 1789, when a 
meeting of the Trustees was called to 
take up some charges against the then 
Master. The minutes read thus: 
"Complaints were made by Mr.Sheibly 
and Mr.Jonathan Rolland againstMas- 
ter Wm.McGeary,who was present,and 
had an opportunity of defence. Master 
Sybert, of Lancaster, was next pro- 
posed in the room of Master McGeary." 


But as there was no quorum, no fur- 
ther action was taken. What the com- 
plaint against Mr. McGeary was we 
can only infer from the following reso- 
lution, passed at the same meeting: 
"That the Trustees for the future will 
support and maintain the Funda- 
mental rules of the School, and such 
other rules as shall hereafter be made 
by them, and that no Master shall offi- 
ciate at their School who shall neglect 
or refuse any such rules." 

This "old Schoolmaster" evidently 
followed his own plans, regardless of 
the rules laid down for his guidance. 
Later a vote was taken in the Board, 
the above named Masters being candi- 
dates; the ballot stood 8 for Sybert 
and 2 for McGeary. On the following 
day Master Sybert was required to un- 
dergo an examination at the hands of 
the Rev. Henry Moller, of Albany, and 
Fred. Seeger. The trial proved satis- 
factory and Master Sybert "was ac- 
cordingly suffered to open School." 

A meeting of the Trustees was called 
on November 2, 1789, to consider what 
should be done about a law suit for 
£50, which one of the builders, Isaac 
Eby, had brought against the Building 
Committee, for money due and unpaid. 
It was found the Board was anxious 
to get rid of that and some other 
debts, amounting to sixty odd pounds, 
so these men each assumed an equal 
share of the indebtedness and gave 
their individual bonds for the same. 
Here is that roll of honor: 

£. s. d. 

Michael Kinser 6 5 4 

Jonathan Rolland 6 5 4 

John Sheibly 6 5 4 

David Divenderver 6 5 4 

George Hildebrand 6 5 4 

Christoph Grosh 6 5 4 

Samuel Ronck 6 5 4 

James McConnall 6 5 4 

John Luther 6 5 4 

Fred. Seeger 6 5 4 


I will be allowed to introduce the 
following episode, as an example of 
the many annoyances the Trustees 
were subjected to during the early 
period of their work, and how they 
managed to get out of them: 

On November 2, 1789, it was ordered 
the costs on the suit should be paid, 
and a committee of two was appointed 
"to wait upon the Law-officers at Lan- 
caster, and desire them, in behalf of 
the public, to relinquish their several 
Fees in favor of the School House. And 
the same being so represented, Mr. 
Yeates, Attorney for Plaintiff, wrote 
the following line to the Prothonotary 
of said County: 

" 'Please to end this action. It be- 
ing a suit brought on account of a 
public school, I charge no fees. 

" 'J. YEATES.' 

" 'Nov. 6, 1789.' 
" 'To John Hubley, Esq . 

" 'Nor do I. 

"'J. HUBLEY, Prof 

"And James Ross, High Sheriff of 
said County, was pleased to relinquish 
his fees by word of mouth, to the said 
Dr. Luther and Mr. McConnall. John 
W. Kittera, Esq., our Attorney, de- 
fended this action pro bono andpatriee 
et salus populii, and thus ended this 
action without any Charges. Where- 
fore the Trustees do hereby give their 
thanks to these generous Gentlemen." 

Things continued to run along about 
as usual. Repairs were needed and 
made from time to time. There was 
generally a shortage in the treasury, 
and in December, 1798, I find another 
subscription paper was passed around. 
At the same meeting it was resolved 
"That a standing Committee be ap- 
pointed to visit on every Monday in 
the Morning the Schools, and see how 
and in what manner the Schools are 
carried on, and what orders are ob- 
served by the Masters and Scholars." 

At this point there is an interregnum 
in the minutes, none being recorded 


between the date given above and 
March 8, 1817. On April 1, 1817, I find 
that John McClellen was the teacher. 
In the following April Jonas Witmer 
applied for the position of Master, and, 
after due examination, was accepted 
as such. 

On November 18, 1820, the Trustees 
agreed "that Alexander McPherson 
may move his School to the public 
School House, and to the room appro- 
priated for English tuition, and there 
to officiate and Teach, upon the same 
terms, and for the same Compensation 
he has already engaged to perform 
with his present Subscribers and em- 
ployers. And the said Master, Alex- 
ander McPherson, does hereby agree 
and engage to accept the said Charge 
and appointment, and agrees to Com- 
ply with the original rules of the 
School House and such other neces- 
sary rules as may be declared neces- 
sary for the Trustees to prescribe. 
That the hour of Teaching be in the 
Morning from 8 o'clock to half after 
eleven, And in the afternoon from half 
after one to five in the evening in the 
Summer season, and in winter at the 
usual hours. That the Master be re- 
quested to see that the Fire be made 
every morning in the Stove and on 
leaving it in the evening to see that it 
is well secured. And to prevent acci- 
dents by Fire, that he be also request- 
ed to see the pipes are properly 
cleaned from time to time, as may be 
found necessary." 

The records are missing between 
March 4, 1823, and October 1, 1823. On 
the latter date the original subscribers 
and their descendants met and decided 
to reduce the number of Trustees from 
thirteen to nine, with five to consti- 
tute a quorum. The original funda- 
mental rules were, however, left opera- 

Between October 16, 1825, and Feb- 
ruary 13, 1836, there is an interregnum 

( 207 ; 

in the minutes. Nor is this explained 
subsequently. At the latter date fresh 
life seems to have been infused into 
the school management. Some trouble 
seems to have arisen from allowing 
meetings and exhibitions of a secular 
character in the school house, by per- 
sons other than the Trustees, and it 
was decided that thereafter only the 
Trustees should give such permission. 

On February 1.5, 1836, a meeting of 
the Board was held, when Henry Rol- 
and was elected President; Michael 
Diffenderffer, Treasurer, and Samuel 
Ringwalt, Secretary. At the same 
meeting it was resolved that the Luth- 
erans, German Reformed, Presbyterian 
and Methodist congregations should be 
allowed to hold public worship in the 
school house, by the payment of fifty 
cents for every such meeting; the 
Trustees to furnish the wood, and the 
meetings not to remain in session 
longer than 9:30 in the evening. 

A period of inactivity, lasting until 
1844, again appears. The school, it is 
true, was kept up, but no regular 
meetings of the Trustees were held 
and no minutes recorded. 

January 27, 1844, they met again and 
went over the accounts of the inter- 
vening period, which had been regular- 
ly kept during all that time. The 
treasurer paid over the balance in his 
hands and a new start was taken 
Numerous business meetings were held 
during the ensuing six months. The 
Free School System having become a 
fact in the Commonwealth, it was re- 
solved, on July 2, 1844, to confer with 
the School Directors of the township 
"in relation to the granting of the 
school house for common school pur- 
poses, to obtain of them, if possible, an 
appropriation, for the purpose of re- 
pairing the rooms, purchasing desks; 
also, in relation to the teacher or 
teachers who should receive this sta- 
tion." It was found that the Board of 


Directors was willing to pay one dol- 
lar per month for each room occupied 
by them. The Trustees continued to 
hold meetings with considerable regu- 
larity during the next six years, but 
the minutes are taken up with their 
dealings with the renters who occu- 
pied that part of the house not allotted 
to school purpose, with matters of fi- 
nance and repairs to the building. 

Early in 1850 a proposition was re- 
ceived from the School Directors of 
Earl township to build a new school 
house for the use of the town and vi- 
cinity, to belong to the township for 
school purposes, and to be under the 
control and direction of the said Di- 
rectors, and through them under the 
general free school system, provided 
the Trustees could and would sell or 
exchange the school house and land. 
On May 1, 1850, a meeting was called 
to consider the proposal. It was de- 
cided to let the matter rest for a time. 
In the following August a committee 
was appointed to consult with the Lu- 
theran congregation on the subject. 
No definite proposition could be ob- 
tained from that organization at that 
time. Negotiations were again opened 
with the Township School Directors. 
A new committee was appointed to 
continue negotiations with the church 
people, but this, too, came to naught, 
the congregation claiming half the 
proceeds resulting from the sale of the 
property and half the cash on hand. 
But the matter lagged. No arrange- 
ment could be made with the church 
about the division of the proceeds that 
might be realized from the property. 
Various propositions were made by 
both sides, only to be rejected. Final- 
ly a proposition was received from the 
church people to the effect "that the 
proceeds of the sale of the School 
House and lot of land belonging there- 
to should be equally divided between 
the Trustees and the Lutheran church, 
and that the Church should also be en- 


titled to one-fourth of the moneys in 
the Treasury of the Trustees ($202,- 
701/4), first deducting from such moneys 
all costs and expenses incident to a 
sale and conveyance of the premises." 
The proposition was unanimously 
agreed to on the part of the Trustees, 
and in this way it was thought a con- 
clusion was at last reached to a vexa- 
tious question. 

The property was offered at public 
sale on January 15, 1853, and sold to 
John Steyer for $935. But fresh com- 
plications arose. A bill in equity was 
filed by a number of citizens against 
the Trustees, by which they were en- 
joined from consummating the sale 
agreed upon. The cause was heard 
before Judge Henry G. Long, and the 
former injunction against the act of 
the Trustees was made perpetual. 

In April, 1857, two petitions were 
sent to the State Assembly; one was 
presented in the Senate and the other 
in the House. These asked for the pas- 
sage of an act enabling the Trustees 
and the Congregation to consummate 
the agreement which had already been 
entered into. The bill passed both 
Houses, and was approved by Gover- 
nor Pollock on April 21, 1857. (See 
pamphlet laws for 1857, page 278.) 

At a joint meeting of the School 
Trustees and the Trustees of the Lu- 
theran Church, held on May 23, 1857, 
it was resolved that the school house 
property, real estate and furniture, 
as desks and benches, should be sold 
at public sale on June 20, 1857. At the 
said sale the property was sold to Dan- 
iel Riehwine for $1,060, and on July 
1, 1857, a deed for the same was exe- 
cuted to him. 

It deserves to be mentioned in the 
above transaction that all the School 
Trustees were also members of the 
Lutheran Church. 

By the act of the Legislature al- 
ready spoken of, the School Trustees 


were directed to invest their share in 
the proceeds continuously, until the 
amount "shall in the whole amount 
to a principal sum not less than |1,000; 
and thereafter the interest and in- 
comes of such principal sum, or so 
much thereof as the Trustees at the 
time being, or a majority of them, 
may think proper, shall from time to 
time be applied to and towards the es- 
tablishment and maintenance of one or 
more public schools in the said village. 
New Holland, to be open and in ope- 
ration in such portions and periods of 
every year as the common schools may 
not be in operation in the said village, 
and under such rules and regulations 
as a majority of the Trustees at the 
time may order and direct." 

Under this law, the share of the 
proceeds received by the Trustees was 
put on interest, and by 1876 had in- 
creased by the annual accumulations 
to $2,100. 

Since that time until now the Trus- 
tees have used the interest of this fund 
in opening a free school and employ- 
ing two teachers for a period of two 
months every year, when the common 
free school season closes in the spring. 
To this school only children between 
the ages of six and twelve years are 
admitted. In this way the good 
work wrought by our German fore- 
fathers one hundred and twelve years 
ago is still making itself manifest 
among their grateful posterity. When 
we look back over this remarkable 
story, and think of its intelligent con- 
ception, the liberal-minded spirit in 
which it was carried forward amid a 
thousand trials and tribulations, our 
admiration and respect for these men 
of old knows no bounds. And yet 
these men have been reviled by grave 
historians, through ignorance, it is 
true, as people who were ignorant, big- 
oted boors, without refinement and in- 
different to education and progress. 


"By their fruits shall ye know them," 
and with this I leave their work to 
the judgment of future generations. 

I have spoken thus warmly and ap- 
preciatively of this school, because 
Do bin Ich gangti in die Schul, 

Wo Ich noch war gans Kle ; 
Dort war der Meschter in seim Stubl ; 
Dort war sei Wip, un' dort sei Rutil — 
Icli lean's nocli alles sell ! 

I have thought a brief sketch of 
Frederick Seeger, Esq., who was one 
of the organizers of this school move- 
ment, and who for nearly thirty-seven 
years was the efficient and faithful 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees, 
would be appropriate in this connec- 
tion. Fortunately, he left the materials 
for a brief biography behind him, in 
German, which is still in the posses- 
sion of one of his descendants. He 
was born on January 16, 1750, in Die- 
delsheim. Palatinate. No expense was 
spared in his early education. He 
says: "I was sent to a Latin School, 
from my 6th to my 13th year, that 
with this and an acquaintance with 
other necessary branches of knowl- 
edge, I might the better get along in 
the world. 

"After my father found me qualified 
to renew my baptismal covenant by a 
public confession of my faith, I was 
confirmed, in the 13th year of my age, 
and received for the first time the 
Lord's Supper. Soon after I expressed 
my wish to learn the mercantile pro- 
fession, to which my father gave his 
consent. I then served a four years' 
apprenticeship, in the city of Stutt- 
gart, with Mr. B. F. Behringer. After 
this I went to Heidelberg, where I was 
in the employ of John W. Godelman, 
for two years. From thence I went to 
Manitz, and entered the celebrated 
house of John G. Gontzinger. 

"In order to learn more of the world 
and to improve my fortunes, I resolved 
to travel in Holland, with the hope of 
finding employment in some large 


commercial house. My undertaking 
was unsuccessful, and this resulted in 
my coming to America, for, as I saw 
no prospect of getting employment in 
Holland, and did not wish to return to 
my native land, the way to America 
was prepared. I crossed the ocean in 
the ship Minerva, Captain Amgld, and 
landed in Philadelphia on September 
20, 1771. I had to content myself with 
the circumstances in which I then was, 
and with the ways of the country, 
which, it is true, were not very agree- 
able. I was under the necessity of 
hiring myself to Benjamin Davids, an 
innkeeper, for three years and nine 
months. My situation was unpleasant, 
for my employment did not correspond 
with that to which I had been accus- 
tomed from my youth in my father- 
land. In the course of nine months 
my hard service ended, for, with the 
aid of good friends, I found means, in 
a becoming way, to leave Davids for 
the employ of Messrs. Miles & Wister, 
where I remained three years and six 

From the above autobiographical 
sketch I infer Mr. Seeger came across 
the ocean as a Redemptioner. He was a 
conspicuous example of the standing 
attained by many of these bondmen. 
He came to New Holland soon after 
the period with which he closes his 
sketch, and there he became one of the 
wealthiest, most respected and most 
influential men in the eastern end of 
the county. He died March 15, 1835, 
aged eighty-six years. 



At the foot of the western end of the 
"Mine Ridge," thereabouts better 
known as "Stony Hill," and in the 
northwest comer of Eden township, 
near the old Conowingo ore mines, and 
about half a mile east of Camargo, on 
a branch of Beaver creek, stands a 
large, quaint old stone building, which 
has for a long time been known as 
"The Old Oil Mill." It was, in its day, 
one of the busiest places in that section 
of Lancaster county. 

This building was built just about 
the end of the last century, either in 
1798 or 1799, by Abram Hoover, for a 
woolen mill. He also built a good-sized 
dam just back of the building, and 
had a first-class water power. He put 
in the best machinery of that day, and 
started business on an extensive scale. 
He ran it until the days of the war of 
1812, and, it is said, had made money; 
but the panic succeeding the war ruin- 
ed him, and the property was sold by 
the Sheriff. The purchaser was George 
Hersh, grandfather of the Hersh fam- 
ily, of Strasburg township. 

The new purchaser tore out all the 
woolen machinery, supplanting it with 
looms to weave linen, and he also made 
linseed oil. He built an addition to the 
original building for a still-house for 
the manufacture of whisky. Every far- 
mer at that time had a patch of flax 
and every farmer's wife had her spin- 
ning wheel, spinning the thread which 
Hersh made into sheetings, table cloths, 
pant stuffs and grain bags. There were 
made at this mill goods known as 
"Linsey Woolsey"— one-half linen and 
the other wool. It was made of differ- 
ent weights and colors and was used 
for both women's and men's wear. In 


this particular line Hersh had a great 
reputation, and some of our oldest resi- 
dents say they felt proud to wear his 
make of goods when boys. 

The flax seed was ground between 
two stones, six feet in diameter, and 
the grist was put into stout bagging- 
pounded with heavy wooden hammers, 
after which it was put into a wooden 
box with slides. These slides were 
pushed together and wedged up with 
heavy wooden wedges. By this means 
all the oil was expressed, but not more 
than from ten to fifteen gallons could 
be made in a day. It was, however, 
pure linseed oil, and the oil cake was 
in good demand for cattle feed. The 
old stones are still lying beside the 

The still-house was one of the largest 
in that section and did a fine business. 
Mr. Hersh made money. He died in 
1844, leaving a good estate.owning sev- 
eral properties around the oil mill. 
Most of these were bought by John 
Bassler, who was then running the old 
Barr mill, now known as "Bassler's 
Mill," in Eden township, near Camar- 
go. This he had bought several years 
before, and when he was doing a large 
business in milling, besides running a 

After getting the oil mill he turned 
it into a chopping mill, and made only 
feed, running it in connection with his 
other mill. 

In 1856 Mr. Bassler sold the prop- 
erty to the present owner, Joseph Wi- 
mer, who is a wagonmaker, having 
learned the business with Henry Keen, 
Sr.,and carried on the trade on a prom- 
inent corner in Hauckesville. Mr. Wi- 
mer tore out the mill stones, and the 
still-house he turned into a saw mill, 
which is still being operated, and has 
a great deal of work to do. His grand- 
son, Joseph Wimer, Jr., also carries on 
the business as a manufacturer of wag- 
ons and does a fine business, besides 
operating a creamery. Mr. Wimer, Sr., 


retired from business three years ago, 
and is a remarkably well preserved 
man of eighty. He still makes a few 
hand rakes, as there are many farmers 
who would think they could not farm 
if they did not have Joe Wimer's rakes. 
He had the reputation of making them 
better than anybody else, and he was 
never able to turn out half enough of 

Mr. Hersh was a very old man when 
he died in 1844. John Bassler died in 
]8o8 at a good old age. He was one 
of the largest men in his section, weigh- 
ing over four hundred pounds. At the 
time of his death he owned a large 
amount of valuable property, having 
made a great deal of money at his mill, 
which did a larger business than any 
other mill in the lower end of this 
county, the flour having a great reputa- 

"The Old Oil Mill" is a very large 
building, built of the stones from the 
surrounding hills, and, as in the old 
buildings of that section generally, all 
the walls are two feet thick and the 
work and mortar of the very best. 

The leading stone mason who flour- 
ished about the latter part of the last 
century and the beginning of this was 
Bill Alford. He was a wonderful work- 
man, and, it seems, built nearly all the 
stone buildings of Bart and Eden. 
Some marvelous tales are told of him, 
which it would take considerable 
space to relate, and they are reserved 
for a future notice. 


It seems, from data furnished by the 
descendants of Hans Herr, that there 
were inter-marriages between the Herr 
and Barr families. 

Hans Herr, the original progenitor 
of the very extensive family of his 
name, had five sons: John, Rev. Chris- 
tian, Emanuel, Abraham and Henry. 

Of these John Herr married Frances 
Brackbill, and they had six children, 
as follows: Rev. John, Frances, Ann, 
Christian, Mary and Elizabeth. 

Elizabeth, one of these daughters, 
married Martin Barr, who was a son 
of Rev. John Barr, and they had chil- 
dren, as follows: Mary, Anna, 
Prances, "Red" John,Elizabeth, Martin 
and Martha. 

Of these children Mary married 
Christian Martin, who was a Swiss Re- 
demptioner, and sold his time to Mar- 
tin Barr, marrying his eldest daughter. 
He lived on a fine farm near Martins- 
vine, in Strasburg township, and is 
buried there. 

Of the sons bom to Martin Barr by 
his marriage with Elizabeth Herr Mar- 
tin is recorded to have married 
Frances Neff. Their marriage took 
place in 1788, he, the said Martin Barr, 
having been born in 1756. 

Query: Was he the Martin Barr who 
built "The Ark" at Quarryville? 

Manifestly not,as the builder of "The 
Ark built "Bassler's Mill" in 1775 and 
had grown children in 1791. 

Martin Barr, of whose family Mr. L. 
T. Hensel, in his article on "The Ark," 
seemed to have no complete trace, mar- 
ried Annie Herr. There were born to 
them children, as follows: Isaac, Mar- 
( 216 ) 

• ( 317 ) 

tin, Maxy, John, Christian, Ann, Su- 
san, Fanny, Benjamin, Simon and Bar- 

Barbara, the youngest daughter and 
child, married David Barr, who was a 
son of Jacob — another branch of the 
family — and they had children as fol- 
lows: Jacob, who lives in Limeville, 
near the Gap; Martin, and a third, 
whose name we do not know. 

Of these Martin inter-married with 
Elizabeth Herr, and they had children 
as follows: Cyrus, who married Mary 
Ann Reilly; Salome, who married Sam- 
uel Sides; Caroline, who married Henry 

Mary became the wife of a man 
named Bleecher. 

John married Anna Groff, and they 
had children as follows: Anna, who 
married a Weidman, and is living in 
Lancaster, and Henry. Their father 
was born in 1807, and died in 1845. 

Ann, daughter of Martin Barr and 
Annie Herr, married a man named 
Horner; Susan married a Gochenour; 
Fanny married a Homer. 



At the March meeting of the Society, it was ordered that brief 
biographical sketches of the honorary members of the Society be 
prepared and printed in the March volume of proceedings. These 
sketches are now given, and while necessarily brief, nevertheless 
serve to show that the Society has not only been chary in bestowing 
this distinction, but has chosen wisely and well. 


Dr. Egle was born at Harrisburg, Pa., in 1830. He comes of both 
German and Swiss ancestry. They fought in the French and In- 
dian wars, in that of the Revolution and of 1812 ; hence his mem- 
bership in the Society of Colonial Wars, the Order of the Cincinnati, 
the Sons of the Revolution and Society of the War of 1812. His 
education was received in the public and private schools of Harris- 
burg. In those years he was in the office of the ' ' Pennsylvania 
Telegraph. ' ' At the age of 23 he became the editor of the ' ' Liter- 
ary Companion" and "Daily Times," thus manifesting his early 
inclination towards a career of letters. 

In 1854 he began the study of medicine, and graduated from the 
medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1859. 
After the battles of Chantilly and the second Bull Run he went to 
the front to care for the wounded. In 1862 he was commissioned 
assistant surgeon. He served on the field of Antietam. In 1863, 
during the Gettysburg campaign, he was appointed surgeon of the 
47th regiment P. V. M. He was appointed surgeon of volunteers 
in 1864, and served with various corps of the army until his resigna- 
tion from the service in 1865. In 1870 he was appointed surgeon- 
in-chief of the Fifth Division of the State National Guard. Later, 
surgeon-in-chief of the Third Brigade, which position he now holds. 
He is to-day the senior medical officer of the National Guard of 
Pennsylvania, having served 28 years with the Guard. 

His professional career abated none of his literary tastes, and in 
1865 he began his excellent " History of Pennsylvania," published 
in 1867. His historical and other literary publications have been 


( 219 ) 

both numerous and voluminous. We enumerate some of them: 
"The Historical Register," two volumes; "Histories of Dauphin 
and Lebanon Counties;" " Pennsylvania Genealogies, chiefly Ger- 
man and Scotch-Irish;" "Notes and Queries," relating to central 
Pennsylvania, in all, eleven volumes ; he was co-editor of the 
Second Series of " Pennsylvania Archives, 12 volumes, and editor 
of volumes 13 to 19. Is also editor of the Third Series now passing 
through the press. This above is but a pai*t of Dr. Egle's historical 

In 1878, Lafayette conferred the degree of A. M. on him. He 
was one of the founders, and the first President of the Pennsylvania- 
German Society. He is the President of the Dauphin County His- 
torical Society. He is also a member of a number of other historical 
societies in the United States, and of several leai-ned societies in 
Europe. In 1887 he was appointed State Librarian, in which posi- 
tion he has been continued under all administrations continuously 
until the present hour. His fitness for, and efficiency in that posi- 
tion is universally recognized. Under his industrious and intelligent 
administration, our State Library has become one of the largest and 

best appointed of the public libraries of the country. 

F. E. D. 


John Franklin Meginness, journalist and historian, was born in 
Coleraine township, Lancaster county, Pa., July 16, 1827. After 
receiving such education as the times afforded, his parents emigrated 
to Illinois in 1843, and he was soon after cast upon his own re- 
sources. He enlisted for the Mexican war and spent a year in that 
country, six months of which were passed in the City of Mexico. 
His company was present as a guard of honor when the first pay- 
ment for the purchase of New Mexico, California, etc., was made, 
and then witnessed the impressive military ceremony of turning the 
City of Mexico over to the Mexican government. 

Returning home he spent some time in school, when he adoptod 
journalism as a profession and followed the same for thirty-five 
years. Drifting to Illinois in 1856 he engaged in newspaper publish- 
ing, became a protege of the famous Stephen A. Douglas, and was 
present in the capacity of a reporter at several of the debates be- 
tween that eminent statesman and Mr. Lincoln. On the breaking 
out of the civil war he disposed of his newspaper in Illinois and 
moved his family back to Williamsport, Pa. , and then to Washing- 

( 220 ) 

ton city, where he had secured a government position ; and there 
they resided until 1869. He was then solicited to return to Wil- 
liamsport and take an editorial position on the daily Gazette and 
Bulletin. For twenty years he served on that paper, most of the 
time as managing editor, and retired late in the fall of 1889. Frona. 
that time up to the present he has been engaged in genealogical and 
historical work. Thus far he has written twenty- two books and 
pamphlets, mostly on local subjects. His best works are, perhaps, 
" Otzinachson, or a History of the West Branch Valley of the Sus 
quehanna," and the " Biography of Frances Slocum, the Lost Sister 
of Wyoming." Mr. Meginness has traveled much in the United 
States, and visited several foreign countries. And now, while well 
along in his 71st year, he is still hale and vigorous and actually en- 
gaged in historical work. 


Miss Mary Eoss is a great-granddaughter of George Ross, a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. The family from which she is 
descended, is traceable to Malcolm, Earl of Ross, who was contem- 
porary with Malcolm, King of Scotland, in the twelfth century. 
The first of the family to migrate to America, was the Rev. George 
Ross, who was graduated at the University of Edinburg, in 1700, 
and came to New Castle, Delaware, in 1705. His son George Ross, 
was the only signer of the Declaration from the county of Lancaster 
He was born in 1730, and came to this city in 1751. A memorial 
tablet to his memory was erected last summer by the proprietors of 
Rossmere, under the auspices of the Lancaster County Historical 

Miss Ross has always shown an ardent loyalty and devotion to 
her illustrious ancestry, which has assumed public expression in 
various ways. Some years ago she erected a memorial window to 
the memory of her illustrious great- grandparent in St. James Epis 
copal Church in this city. Only a few weeks ago a tablet to the 
memory of the Rev. George Ross, the first rector of Immanuel 
Church, New Castle, Delaware, was erected by her in that church, 
bearing the following inscription: 

" To the glory of God and in memory of Rev. George Ross, first 
rector of this church, sent as a missionary in 1703 by the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in foreign parts. He was the son of David 
Ross, of Balblair, Rosshire, Scotland. Born 1680. He graduated 


at the University of Edinburg in 1700. After serving this parish 
faithfully for fifty years he died at New Castle in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age. He was eminent for his piety, learning and zeal for 
the cause of Christ. Erected by his great-great-granddaughter, 
Mary Ross, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania." 

Miss Ross was born in this city and has always resided here, 
where she is known and loved for her kindly disposition and unosten- 
tatious deeds of charity. Her interest in the Lancaster County His- 
torical Society has been manifested in a very substantial manner. 

F. R. D. 


General J. Watts de Peyster comes of a French Huguenot family 
that settled in Holland. The first immigrant of the name was 
Johannis de Peyster, who came to New Amsterdam about 1645. 
He became prominent in the political aflfaii's of that colony, holding 
a number of public ofiices. One of his sons, Johannis, was mayor 
of the city ; another, Isaac, was a member of the provincial legisla- 
ture, and a third, Cornelius, was the first chamberlain of New 
York. Abraham, son of Cornelius, was mayor of the city, chief 
justice of the State and president of the king's council, in which ca- 
pacity he acted as governor in 1701. In short, no family in New 
York was more prominent, or gave more of its members to the ser- 
vice of the State, both in her civil and military annals. 

General J. Watts de Peyster is in the seventh generation of de- 
scent from the founder of the family in this country. He was born 
in New York city, March 9, 1821. His literary training was re- 
ceived at Columbia College. With hereditary instincts he quickly 
found his way into the military service of his native State. In his 
24th year he was colonel of the 11th regiment, and at the age of 30 
was made a brigadier-general. In 1855 he became adjutant-general 
of the State, and in 1866 was brevetted major-general. His military 
inclinations were fostered by his long and intimate association with 
his cousin, Gen. Phil. Kearney, together with whom he was wont to 
discuss the great battles of the world on the sites where they were 
fought. His profound knowledge of military strategy has been 
widely acknowledged, and his knowledge of military history is per- 
haps second to that of no man in the United States. 

General de Peyster has been a most voluminous author. The list 
of his published works reaches half a hundred, and includes almost 

( 232 ) 

every department of human knowledge, from the finer fancies of 
the field of poesy to the clarion call on the field of battle. He is 
equally at home in analyzing one of Dante's verses or criticising a 
campaign by Wallenstein. He is a member of many civil and mili- 
tary societies and has been the recipient of the medals, badges and 
insignia of numerous orders. In the department of letters his honors 
have been equally numerous and distinguished. He is known as a 
patron of letters and the fine arts. The library in this city, bearing 
his name, and of which a good illustration is given in this booklet, 
is an enduring monument to his enlightened liberality. In stature 
General de Peyster is tall, erect, and of distinguished presence, 
indicating at once the bearing of the soldier and the scholar. 

F. R. D. 




On IVLAY 6, 1898. 


By Julius F. Sachse, Esq. 


Eead by S. M. Senek, Esq. 


By Mrs. Lydia D. Zell. 

VOL. II. NO. 8. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


Perm's City on the Susquehanna. 

By Julius F. Sachse, Esq. , 223 

Lancaster's Bid for the National Capital. 

Bead by S. M. Sener, Esq. , 238 


By Mrs. Lydia D. Zell, 244 

The paper about to be presented to 
your notice is supplementary to one 
read before the Society on September 
3, 1897, by Mr. Frank RiedDiffenderffer, 
based upon a lately discovered docu- 
ment, granting "Certain Concessions " 
by William Penn to persons who had 
subscribed "for Lands to be Layd out 
upon ye river Susquehanna." 

Doubtless there are many more such 
documents of local interest still in ex- 
istence, which have been lost sight of 
in the lapse of years, either by accident 
or carelessness of the custodian.papers 
of the greatest historical interest, 
which are now stowed away in some 
out-of-the-way corners and forgotten. 
Even printed matter is occasionally 
lost sight of by virtue of the extreme 
scarcity of the original. Then, again, 
there are cases where such documents 
have been reprinted, either in very 
small editions or in some serial, which 
is either poorly indexed or not at all, 
and they thereby escape the notice of 
the average reader, and in some cases 
even the trained eye of the historian. 

It is my purpose to bring to your 
notice several examples of this kind, 
one of which will bear upon the state- 
ment that William Penn's original 
plan was to place his Capital city on 
the banks of the Susquehanna, and 
not on the Delaware. The evidence 
presented will prove absolutely that 
the founding of a large city on the 
Susquehanna was a fond hope to which 
Penn clung tenaciously for a number 
of years after the settlement of the 
Province. The paper read before you 
in September last, which I shall here- 
after designate as the "Parmyter" 


paper, will prove an important link in 
my chain of evidence. 

My attention was first called to the 
fact that the Susquehanna was seri- 
ously considered by William Penn as 
the site for his chief city when com- 
piling my sketch of Benjamin Furly, 
who was the first promoter of German 
emigration to America. Not having 
any immediate or particular interest in 
the subject at that time I took but lit- 
tle note of the facts or authority. The 
reading of the Parmyter document, 
however, recalled the matter to my 
mind, and, in compliance with a re- 
quest of your President, I now bring 
such of the facts before you as I can 
coveniently reach at this time. The 
most interesting paper, the one which 
gave me the first positive information 
regarding Penn's intentions as to his 
Capital city, I have been unable to 
locate for my present purpose. I think 
that it is among the mass of unindexed 
Penn papers at the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society. The absence of this 
document, however, will prove of but 
little moment, in view of the ofllcial 
evidence, which will be presented. 

The first printed document relating 
to the Province as a colony of Penn is 
the proclamation of Charles II., issued 
April 2, 1681. It was addressed, "To 
the Inhabitants and Planters of the 
Province of Pennsylvania." This 
proclamation, a broadside, is exceed- 
ingly scarce. I have seen or heard of 
but one copy, of which I here show you 
a fac-simile, and which I have the 
honor to present to the Lancaster 
County Historical Society. 

This interesting document sets forth 

Whereas, His Majesty, in considera- 
tion of the great Merit and Faithful 
Services of Sir William Penn, deceas- 
ed, and for divers other good Causes 
Him thereunto moving, hath been Gra- 

(225 ) 

ciously pleased by Letters Patents 
bearing Date the Fourth day of 
March last past, to Give and Grant un- 
to William Penn Esquire, Son and 
Heir of the said Sir William Penn, all 
that Tract of Land in America, called 
by the Name of Pennsilvania, as the 
sam.e is Bounded on the East by Dela- 
ware River, from Twelve Miles dis- 
tance Northwards of Newcastle Town, 
unto the Three and fourtieth Degree 
of Northern Latitude, if the said River 
doth extend so far Northwards, and if 
the said River shall not extend so far 
Northward, then by the said River so 
far as it doth extend: And from the 
Head of the said River, the Eastern 
Bounds to be determined by a Meridian 
Line to be Drawn from the Head of the 
said River, unto the said Three and 
fourtieth Degree, the said Province to 
extend Westward Five Degrees in 
Longitude, to be Computed from the 
said Eastern Bounds, and to be Bound- 
ed on the North, by the Beginning of 
the Three and fourtieth Degree of 
Northern Latitude, and on the South 
by a Circle Drawn at Twelve Miles dis- 
tance from Newcastle Northwards, and 
Westwards unto the Beginning of the 
Fourtieth Degree of Northern Latitude, 


and then by a straight Line Westwards 
to the limit of Longitude above men- 
tioned, together with all Powers, Pre- 
heminencies and Jurisdictions neces- 
sary for the Government of the said 
Province, as by the said Letters Pat- 
ents, Reference being thereunto had, 
doth more at large appear. 

His Majesty doth therefore hereby 
Publish and Declare His Royal Will 
and Pleasure, That all Persons Settled 
or Inhabiting within the Limits of the 
said Province, do yield all Due Obedi- 
ence to the said William Penn, His 
Heirs and Assigns,as absolute Proprie- 
taries and Governours thereof, as also 
to the Deputy or Deputies, Agents or 
Lieutenants, Lawfully Commissionated 
by him or them, according to the Pow- 
ers and Authorities Granted by the 
said Letters Patents; Wherewith His 
Majesty Expects and Requires a ready 
Complyance from all Persons whom it 
may concern, as they tender His Majes- 
ties Displeasure. 

Given at the Court at Whitehall the 
Second day of April 1681. In the 
Three and thirtieth year of Our 

By His Majesties Command, 
To the Inhabitants 
and Planters of CONWAY, 

the Province of 


Printed by the Assigns of John Bill, 

Thomas Newcomb, and Henry 

Hills, Printers to the 

Kings most Excellent 

Majesty. 1681. 

After the grant to William Penn was 
consummated he not only sought ear- 
nestly and widely for assistance in 
drafting the fundamental laws of his 
Province, as shown by the Furly cor- 
respondence among the Penn papers, 
but he also took advice as to the best 


means of developing its commercial 
and natural resources. For this pur- 
pose he published two tracts, both of 
which are of the greatest rarity. The 
first was entitled: 

"Certain Conditions or Concessions 
Agreed upon by William Penn, Pro- 
prietary and Governor of the Province 
of Pennsylvania, and those who are 
the Adventurers and Purchasers in the 
same Province, dated the Eleventh of 
July, One Thousand Six Hundred and 
Eighty-one." No pamphlet copy of 
this tract is known. 

, The other one was: "Some account 
of the Province of Pennsilvania in 
America; Lately Granted under the 
Great Seal of England to William 
Penn, etc., London; Printed and sold 
by Benjamin Clark, Bookseller, in 
George Yard, Lombard Street, 1681." 

This tract was made up from the 
best information he then had or could 
obtain. The next important step taken 
by Penn was to organize the company 
known as "The Free Society of Trad- 
ers in Pennsylvania," for the better 
improvement and government of trade 
in that province. 

Among the plans proposed by Wil- 
liam Penn was one to lay out a "great" 
city upon either the Susquehanna or 
the Delaware, wherever the commis- 
sioners appointed by him could find a 
suitable location. There can be but 
little doubt that both Penn and his 
associates of the Free Society of Trad- 
ers seriously considered the former 
site as the most advantageous. This 
will be apparent when we take into 
consideration the situation on the 
South or Delaware river. The shores 
of this stream had been settled for al- 
most half a century, and the Indian 
with his peltries had gradually been 
forced inland. We find that for a de- 
cade or more before the Grant to Penn, 
both Swedish and English traders were 
already obliged to go westward if they 






O F 


! N 


Lately Granted under the Great Seal 


T O 

William Penn, &c. 

Together with Priviledgesand Powers necef- 
fary to the well-governing thereof-. 

Made publick for the Information of fuch as are or may be 

difpofed CO Tranfport tliemfelves or Servants 

into thofe Parts. 

LONDON: Printed, and Sold by 'Bcnjumin Claik 
Bookl ellei in Georgc-^ari Lombard-ftrect^'^ i-6 8 » , 


wished to effect any satisfactory bar- 

Then there were already two towns, 
settlements on the west bank of the 
Delaware, one of which, New Castle, 
had become the trade centre of the Del- 
aware valley, and was the official port 
of entry. 

The capes of Virginia were also bet- 
ter known to mariners than the capes 
of the Delaware, which were avoided 
on account of the shoals. It will be 
recollected that we have accounts,even 
so late as the first decade of the eight- 
eenth century, where vessels for Phil- 
adelphia would sail up the Chesapeake 
to Bohemia Landing, and there dis- 
charge both cargo and passengers, to 
be taken overland to New Castle, and 
thence by sloop to their destination. 

It is but little wonder, considering 
the great distance between the pro- 
moters of the new colony and their 
possessions, and the lack of any knowl- 
edge but what was based upon imper- 
fect information, that both Penn and 
the Free Society of Traders were forced 
to leave some of the vital details of the 
settlement of the Province to the dis- 
cretion of some subaltern whom they 
sent out for the purpose. There is a 
strong basis for the assumption that in 
the early days of the movement, Some, 
if not all, of the principals favored the 
Susquehanna as the best site for the 
commericial and political capital of 

If we refer to the Articles of Agree- 
ment of the Free Society of Traders, 
adopted May 29, 1682, we find: 

"Article XXI. That the Society may 
set up two or more General Factories 
in Pennsilvania, one upon the Chesa- 
peake Bay, and the other upon Dela- 
ware River, or where else the Commit- 
tee shall see necessary for the more 
speedy conveyance of goods in the 
country and Mary-Land; but that the 
Government of the whole be in the 
Capital City of Pennsilvania." 


It will be noticed that there is no 
mention of the chief city being located 
on the Delaware. 

For the purpose of developing his 
grant William Penn, in 1681, sent out 
a commission consisting of William 
Crispin, John Bezar, Nathaniel Allen 
and William Haigue, who were to act 
together with Governor William Mark- 
ham in all matters relating to the set- 
tlement of the Province. Their origi- 
nal instructions are now in the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. Wil- 
liam Crispin, the first named of these 
commissioners, was to be surveyor- 
general, but he unfortunately died be- 
fore reaching the Province. 

In the next year, 1682, Penn appoint- 
ed in his place Captain Thomas Holme, 
both as commissioner and surveyor- 
general. Among Penn's instructions 
to Holme was one to select a suitable 
site for a great capital city, to contain 
not less than ten thousand acres. The 
first duty was to choose a spot where 
navigation was best, and large ships 
might lie close to the bank, the land 
being at the same time dry, high and 
healthy, and to lay out there ten thou- 
sand acres for the site of a great city. 
This proved to be a very difficult task; 
no place answering the requirements 
could be found which would bear a city 
of such size. 

The clause in Penn's instructions to 
his commissioners, which refers to the 
location of a site for this great city, 
reads : 

"That having taken Wt care you can 
for the Peoples good in the respects 
aboves'd let the Rivers and Creeks be 
sounded on my side of the Delaware 
River, especially Upland in order to 
settle a great Towne and to be sure to 
make your choice where it is most 
Navigable, high, dry and healmy. That 
is where Ships may best ride of deep- 
est draugt of water if possible to Load, 
or unload at Ye Bank, orKeyside with- 


out boating or litering of it. It would 
do well if the River coining into Yt 
Creek be Navigable, at least for Boats 
up into Ye Country, and Yt the Situa- 
tion be high, at least dry and sound, 
and not swampy, Wch is best knowne 
by digging up two or three Earths, and 
seeing Ye bottom." 

As another matter of curious inter- 
est, I will state that the question has 
been frequently broached, since the 
finding of Penn's Instructions to his 
Commissioners, what were his ideas 
or purpose for projecting a city so 
large as to cover 10,000 acres? The 
answer to this query was given by 
Dean Prideaux, when he stated that 
the plan followed by Penn in laying 
out his projected city was based on 
that of ancient Babylon. Note — The 
Old and New Testament Connected, ed. 
1729, vol. I., p. 135.) 

Notwithstanding the difficulties of 
the task the Commissioners started to 
explore the country, while Holme 
made a survey of the west bank of the 
Delaware. Holme proposed, as the 
most favorable spot, the west bank of 
the Delaware River between Penne- 
pack and the Poquessing, and there 
started to lay out the great city. As 
his base line he ran a broad highway 
due east and west. This he called Sus- 
quehanna street, which was to be con- 
tinued to that river, thus connecting 
the Susquehanna and the Delaware. 
This tract Holme afterwards located as 
part of his own land, and called it the 
township of Dublin. 

Markham and the other commission- 
ers favored the location now known as 

It was not until William Penn ar- 
rived in the following October that he 
learned that his Commissioners had se- 
lected the Delaware as the most suita- 
ble site for the great city. When he 
came up the river from Upland and 
landed at the Blue Anchor Tavern, he 


was so well pleased with the high bold 
shore, covered with lofty pines, which 
then extended along the Delaware, that 
he changed his ideas as embodied in 
his instructions, reduced the size from 
ten thousand to twelve hundred and 
eighty acres, or two square miles, and 
gave his consent to locate a town there 
which we now know as Philadelphia. 
Still, William Penn continued his in- 
terest in the Susquehanna, so after 
Holme had finished laying out the city, 
Penn ordered him to turn his atten- 
tion to the country and make a map 
of the Province. This was done, and 
the map was published between the 
end of the year 1686 and the beginning 
of the year 1689. It was evidently some 
time in 1687-8, and it will be seen what 
bearings it had upon Penn's future 

William Penn, during his first visit 
to America, took every means to in- 
form himself, from personal inspection, 
about the topography, resources and 
possibilities of his Province; and when 
he returned to England he was more 
than ever impressed with the import- 
ance of raising a large city, if not the 
great capital, on the banks of the Sus- 
quehanna. So convinced was he of 
this necessity that, as soon as Holme's 
map of the Province was ready for 
distribution, he issued printed pro- 
posals for a settlement of such a city 
upon the banks of the Susquehanna; 
and, as is shown by the Parmyter docu- 
ment, it was to be located where the 
Conestoga flows into it. 

How closely Penn adhered to this 
project is further shown by the fact 
that, during his second visit to Ameri- 
ca, he again made a personal survey 
of the site, and the possibilities of wa- 
ter communication with Philadelphia. 

The document I am about to quote 
further gives a proof of Penn's great 
foresight and enlarged views, when it 
tells us that he suggested at that early 


period (prior to 1690) tiie practicabili- 
ty of forming a water communication 
between tlie Susquehanna and Schuyl- 
kill rivers by means of some of their 
branches, which communication, how- 
ever, (as stated by Hazard) was not 
effected until about 138 years after- 
wards. Just why these plans of Wil- 
liam Penn failed to materialize, or 
why they were relinquished, are ques- 
tions which are still open to the his- 
torians of the day. 

The interesting document I will now 
present to your notice is a broadside, 
entitled : 

"Some proposals for a seconu settle- 
ment in the Province of Pennsylvania. 
Printed and sold by Andrew Sowle, at 
the Crooked Billet in Halloway Lane, 
Shore Ditch, 1690." 

The only known copy of this broad- 
side was, in 1848, in the collection of 
the late Peter Force, of Washington, 
D. C. It bore the marks of age and 
dilapidation, but was otherwise in a 
perfect condition. It was copied and 
reprinted in the fall of the latter year 
in the North American and United 
States Gazette of October 25. It is also 
quoted in Part I of my work on "Penn- 
sylvania; The German Influence on 
its Settlement and Development." 

Some proposals for a second settle- 
ment in the Province of Pennsylvania. 

Whereas, I did about nine years past, 
propound the selling of several parts 
or shares of land, upon that side of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, next Dela- 
ware river,and setting out a place upon 
it for the building of a city, by the 
name of Philadelphia; and that divers 
persons closed with these proposals, 
who, by their ingenuity, industry and 
charge, have advanced that city from 
a wood to a good forwardness of build- 
ing (there being above one thousand 
houses finished in it) and that the sev- 
eral plantations and towns begun upon 
the land, bought by those first under- 


takers, are also in a prosperous way of 
improvement and enlargement (inso- 
much as last year ten sail of ships 
were fraightet there with the growth 
of the Province for Barbados, Ja- 
maica, &c. besides what came directly 
from this kingdom). It is now my 
purpose to make another settlement, 
upon the river of Susquehannagh, that 
runs into the Bay of Chesapeake, and 
bears about fifty miles west from the 
river Delaware, as appears by the Com- 
mon Maps of the English Dominion in 
America. There I design to lay out a 
plan for the building of another city, 
in the most convenient place for com- 
munication with the former planta- 
tions on the East; which, by land, is as 
good as done already, a way being laid 
out between the two rivers very exact- 
ly and conveniently,at least three years 
ago; and which will not be hard to do 
by water, by the benefit of the river 
Scoulkill; for a branch of that river 
lies near a Branch that runs into the 
Susquehannagh River, and is the com- 
mon course of the Indians with their 
Skins and Furrs into our parts, and to 
the Provinces of East and West Jersey, 
and New York, from the West and 
Northwest parts of the continent from 
whence they bring them. 

And I do also intend that every one 
who shall be a Purchaser in this pro- 
posed settlement shall have a propor- 
tionable Lot in the said City to build 
a house or Houses upo'u; which Town- 
Ground and the Shares of Land that 
shall be bought of me, shall be deliv- 
ered clear of all Indian Pretentions; 
for it has been my way from the first 
to purchase their title from them, and 
to settle with their consent. 

The Shares I dispose of contain each 
Three Thousand Acres for £100, and 
for greater or lesser quantities after 
that rate: The Acre of that Province 
is according to the Statute of the 33th 
of Edw. 1. And no acknowledgment or 
Quit Rent shall be paid by the Pur- 


chasers till five years after a settle- 
ment be made upon their Lands, and 
that only according to the quantity of 
Acres so taken up and seated, and not 
otherwise; and only then to pay 
one shilling for every hundred acres 
for ever. And further I do promise 
to agree with every Purchaser that 
shall be willing to treat with me be- 
tween this and next spring, upon all 
such reasonable conditions as shall be 
thought necessary for their accommo- 
dation, intending, if God please, to re- 
turn with what speed I can, and my 
family with me, in order to our future 

To conclude, that which particularly 
recomends this settlement is the 
known goodness of the soyll and the 
scituation of the Land, which is high 
and not mountainous; also the Pleas- 
antness.and the Largeness of the River 
being clear and not rapid, and broader 
than the Thames at London Bridge, 
many miles above the place intended 
for this settlement; and runs (as we 
are told by the Indians) quite through 
the Province, into which many fair 
rivers empty themselves. The sorts of 
Timber that grow chiefly there are 
chiefly oak, ash, chestnut, walnut, ce- 
dar and poplar. The native Fruits are 
pawpaws, grapes, mulberry's, chest- 
nuts and several sorts o f walnuts. 
There are likewise great quantities of 
Deer, and especially Elks, which are 
much biger than our Red Deer, and use 
that river in Hprds. And the Fish 
there is of divers sorts, and very large 
and good, and in great plenty. 

But that which recomends both this 
Settlement in particular, and the Prov- 
ince in general, is a late Patent ob- 
tained by divers Eminent Lords and 
Gentlemen for that Land that lies 
north of Pennsylvania up to the 46th 
Degree and a half, because their Traf- 
fick and Intercourse will be chiefly 
through Pennsylvania, which lies be- 
tween that Province and the Sea. We 

( 236 ) 

have also the comfort of being the Cen- 
ter of all the English colonies upon the 
Continent of America, as they lie from 
the North East Parts of New England 
to the most Southerly parts of Caro- 
lina, being above 1,000 miles upon the 

If any Persons please to apply them- 
selves to me by letter in relation to 
this affair, they may direct them to 
Robert Ness Scrivener, in Lumber 
street in London for Philip Ford, and 
suitable answers will be returned by 
the first oppertunity. There are also 
Instructions printed for information of 
such as intend to go, or send servants, 
or families thither, which way they 
may proceed with most ease and ad- 
vaaitage, both here and there, in refer- 
ence to Passage, Goods, Utensils.Build- 
ing, Husbandry, Stock, Subsistence, 
Traffick, &c., being the effect of their 
expence and experiance that have seen 
the Fruit of their Labours. 


Now the question arises: What would 
have been the effect upon the future of 
the Province had William Penn's plan 
for a great city on the Susquehanna 
materialized, either in the first in- 
stance,or in pursuance of his "Propos- 
als for a second settlement?" This is 
a question I leave for the political econ- 

How tenaciously Penn adhered to his 
plan for settlement on the Susquehanna 
and the development of the interior is 
further manifest from the Parmyter 
document, which informs us just where 
the tract and city were to be located. 
It was at the confluence of the Susque- 
hanna and Conestoga. The only vital 
point lacking is the name selected by 

The proposals just read to you and 
the Parmj-ter document supplement 
one another. The latter furnishes ad- 
ditional proof how earnestly Penn la- 
bored during the last decade of the 
seventeenth century to materialize his 

(237 ) 

plans for a settlement on the Susque- 
hanna, even to the extent of a personal 
inspection of the locality during his 
second visit to the Province. 

Prom the broadside brought before 
j^ou, it will be seen that it never was 
Penn's intention to erect here merely 
another county,with a scattering farm- 
ing population, but to raise up another 
great city, which was to equal, if not 
surpass, the one on the Delaware. 

It was not until the year 1717 that he 
finally realized that his plans for such 
a settlement were doomed to failure. 
His final action in the premises, by rea- 
son of his inability to interest a sufli- 
cient number of persons to make the 
scheme a success, has been told by the 
former speaker. It was an order to the 
Surveyor General, Jacob Taylor, "to 
survey without delay the land between 
the Susquehanna and Conestoga for 
the proper use and behoof of William 
Penn, Proprietor and Governor." 

Thus ended William Penn's grand 
scheme for the internal development 
of his Province. 

Lancaster's Bid for the 
National Capital. 

The following interesting document 
explains itself. It was found a short 
time ago among the papers of John 
Hubley, Esq., who was a prominent 
member of the Lancaster Bar before 
and after the Revolutionary war, and 
one of the best known citizens of Lan- 

The paper is valuable in that it gives 
the most detailed account of Lancaster 
city and the industries as they existed 
110 years ago that is extant. All in 
all, it is a document of much historical 

The present owner of this interesting 
document is George Steinman, Esq., 
President of the Lancaster County His- 
torical Society. 

It was read at the May meeting of the 
Lancaster County Historical Society: 

Lancaster, March 17, 1789. 

The Corporation of this Borough 
have been instructed by the Inhabit- 
ants thereof, and the Adjoining Town- 
ships, to address you. The New Con- 
stitution, to which we anxiously look 
upon as the means of establishing the 
Empire of America on the most sure 
and solid basis, is ere now in Motion, 
and one of the Objects of Congress will 
be to fix on a permanent Place of Res- 
idence, where their exclusive Jurisdic- 
tion can be conveniently and Safely ex- 
ercised, should the general Interests of 
the Union point out an Inland Centeral 
situation as preferable to that of a Sea- 
port for the future Residence of that 
Honorable Body, we humbly presume 


to offer ourselves as Candidates for 
that distinguished Honor. We feel 
ourselves more emboldened to enter 
into the Lists, as we find this Borough 
has been lately put in nomination by 
the Honorable Congress under the for- 
mer Consideration, and we suffer our- 
selves to be flattered that the reason 
which then subsisted for such a Choice 
exists more strongly at the present mo- 
ment. As an Inland Town we do not 
perceive ourselves inferior to any with- 
in the Dominion of the United States; 
our Lands are remarkably fertile and 
in a high state of cultivation; out 
country is possessed of every conveni- 
ency for Water Works, as will Appear 
by the Draft herewith sent, and pecu- 
liarly healthy — our water is good; every 
Necessary material for Building is to be 
had in the greatest Quantity desired, 
and at the most reasonable rates, and 
we venture to Assert that there is not 
a part of the United States which can 
boast within the Compass of ten Miles 
the same Number of Waggons and 
good Teams with oui-selves. We are 
sensible that Dealing in Generals will 
have no effect with dispassionate and 
temperate Minds. We venture, there- 
fore, to descend into more minute Re- 
capitulation, and pledge ourselves to 
you for the Truth and Correctness of 
the following Statement, which has 
been made upon the most thorough Ex- 
amination and in the Carefullest Man- 
ner in our Power, without Exaggera- 

The Borough of Lancaster is a 
Square incompassing a Portion of 
Ground of one Mile in Length from the 
Center (the Court House) by the main 
Streets, which intersects it at right an- 
gles. We have five public buildings, 
including an elegant Court House, 58 
fset by 48 feet. In the second Story 
thereof is a very handsome Room, 44 
Feet by 32 Feet in the Clear, and two 
convenient Adjoining rooms,each being 
22 Feet by 16 Feet in the Clear. There 


are seven Places of Public Worship, be- 
sides a temporary Synagogue, belong- 
ing to the respective Societies of Epis- 
copalians, Presbyterians, Lutherans, 
Reformer Church of Heidelberg, Mora- 
vians, Quakers and Catholics. Within 
the Compass of the Borough an Enum- 
eration of the Dwelling-Houses was 
actually taken in 1786, and the number 
then built was 678,which since that peri- 
od has considerably increased. Many 
of the Houses are large, elegant and 
commodious, and would, in our Idea, 
accommodate Congress and their Suite 
at this period without inconvenience. 
Boarding and lodgings are to be had at 
very easy Rates. According to the best 
Computation we can make there are 
within this Borough about 4,200 Souls. 
A number of great roads pass through 
this place. We are thorough-fare to the 
4 Cardinal Points of the Compass. La- 
bor is to be had at the rate of 2s per 

The Current Prices of Provisions are; 
Wheat,5s 6d; Rye, 3; Indian Corn,2s6d; 
Oats, Is 6d per bushel. Best hay, £3 per 
ton. Pork and Stall Fed Beef from 25 
to 30s per Ct.; Veal, 3d, and Mutton 
314 d per lb. All kinds of Poultrey are 
in great abundance and reasonable. 
Shad, Rock and Salmon are plentifully 
supplied to Us from the Susquehannah 
in their Seasons. The Prices of Fire- 
wood the last Season has been for 
Hickory Wood,12s 6d,and Oak 8s 6dper 
Cord. Within the Distance of 9 by 
30 miles from this Place we have 6 Fur- 
naces, 7 Forges, 2 Slitting Mills, and 2 
Rolling Mills for the Manufacture of 
Iron. Within a Compass of 10 Miles 
Square, we have 18 Merchant Mills; 16 
Saw Mills, 1 Fulling Mill, 4 Oil Mills, 5 
Hemp Mills, 2 Boring and Grinding 
Mills for Gun Barrels and 8 Tan Yards. 
There are a great Number of conveni- 
ent Scites for Water Works still unoc- 

Within the Borough are the follow- 
ing Manufacturers and Artisans, viz.: 



"A ten mile square, Lancaster Court House being in the centre, and 
some parts beyond it, actually surveyed in 1786 and 1787 by me, William 
Reichenbach, in a manner as engineers use to take up special maps of coun- 
ties, by compass and watch." 

The original map, of which the above is a reduced fac-simile, is now in 
the collections of the Linnaean Society of this county. 



14 Hatters, 36 Shoemakers, 4 Tanners, 
17 Sadlers, 25 Taylors, 22 Butchers, 25 
Weavers, 3 Stocking Weavers,25 Black- 
Smiths and White Smiths, 6 Wheel 
Wrig-hts, 21 Bricklayers and Masons, 12 
Bakers, 30 Carpenters, 11 Coopers, 6 
Plaisterers, 6 Clock and Watch Mak- 
ers, 6 Tobacconists, 4 Dyers, 7 Gun- 
smiths, 5 Rope Makers, 4 Tin-Men, 2 
Brass Founders, 3 Skin-Dressers, 1 
Brush-Maker, 7 Turners, 7 Nailers, 5 
Silver Smiths, 3 Potters and 3 Copper- 
smiths, besides their respective Jour- 
ney-Men and Apprenticies. There are 
also 3 Breweries, 3 Brick-Yards, 2 
Printing-Presses and 40 Houses of Pub- 
lic entertainment within the Borough, 
The materials for Building, such as 
Stone, Lime, Sand, Clay proper for 
Brick Timber, Boards, &c., are to be 
had in the greatest Abundance at the 
most reasonable Rates. We would in- 
stance as one Particular that the best 
Pine Boards from the Susquehannah 
are delivered here at 5s 6d per hundred 

Our Centrical Situation will be best 
determined by the consideration of the 
following Distances, which pursue the 
Courses of the Roads now occupied, 
but may be shortened, and which we 
consider as accurately taken, viz.: 

From Lancaster to Philadelphia ... 66 

to Wilmington 50 

to Newport 47 

to Head of Elk 45 

to North East 42 

to Rock Run 38 

to Mouth of Susque- 
hannah 42 

to Baltimore by Mc- 

Call's Ferry 60 

to Trenton by Swe- 

dis Ford 90 

Caryell's Ferry on 

Delaware 87 

to Reading 31 

to Easton 83 


From Lancaster to Wright's Ferry 

on Susquehannah.lO 

to Harris' do 36 

to Anderson's do. . .13 
' to McCall's do. ...16 

to Peach Bottom do.22 
to Nolan's Ferry on 

Potowmack 93 

to Harper's do 110 

We have presumed, Gentlemen, to 
make the foregoing Statement and Ad- 
dress it to You. The general National 
Interests of America at large will, we 
are persuaded, be fully considered, 
when the important Point of the fu- 
ture permanent Residence of Congress 
is agitated and determined on by that 
Honorable Body. We have reason to 
think that William Hamilton, Esquire, 
who is entitled to the Rents, Charges 
and unoccupied parts of this Borough, 
would cheerfully meet every Wish of 
Congress, so far as his Property is con- 
cerned. Permit us only to add that our 
Citizens are federal and strongly at- 
tached to the new System of Govern- 

We have the Honor to be with every 
Sentiment of respect. Gentlemen, 
your most faithfull and obedient 
Humble Servts., In behalf of the 
Corporation and Citizens. 


It need scarcely be said that an epi- 
taph presupposes a monument upon 
which it is said to be engraven. Al- 
most all nations have wished that cer- 
tain external signs should point out 
the places where their dead are in- 
terred. Among the savage tribes this 
has mostly been done by rude stones 
placed near their graves, or mounds of 
earth raised over them. As soon as 
nations had learned the use of letters, 
epitaphs were inscribed upon such 
monuments, and doubtless proceeded 
from the presage of immortality im- 
planted in all men naturally. Three 
thousand years ago the doleful verses 
sung at burials were called "epitaphia" 
because they were first sung at the 
burial and subsequently engraven upon 
the sepulchers. Without the principle 
of immortality in the human soul, man 
could never have had awakened in 
him the desire to live in the memory 
of his fellows; mere love, or the yearn- 
ing of kind towards kind, could not 
have produced it. In this same spirit 
we collect epitaphs. Epitaphs are 
not without general interest, as is evi- 
denced by the number of collectioois of 
them which have been published in 
book form. 

A quaint inscription found upon a 
slab in St. James' Church, Piccadilly, 
London, and, in fact, the oldest one 
found there, reads: 

"Beneath this Pillar lies the body of 
Elizabeth, wife of Colonel Benjamin 
Fletcher, late Captain General and 
Govemour in Chief of his Majesty's 
Province of New York, in America,and 
daughter of Doctor John Hodson, late 


Bishop of Elphin, in Ireland, who, af- 
ter her return from that long voyage, 
in which she accompanied her hus- 
band, departed this life the fifth day of 
November, A. D. 1698, leaving one son 
and two daughters behind her, and a 
sweet and lasting monument in the 
memories of all that knew her." 

Shreiner's Cemetery, in this city, 
has many very interesting and sug- 
gestive inscriptions. We will note a 
few, and that of Thaddeus Stevens.the 
great Commoner, will ever challenge 
attention. The inscription is of his 
own dictation, and reads: 

"Thaddeus Stevens, born at Danville, 
Caledonia county, Vermont, April 4, 
1792. Died at Washington, D. C, Au- 
gust 11, 1868. 

I repose in this quiet and secluded 
spot, not from any preference for soli- 
tude, but, finding other cemeteries 
limited as to race by charter rules, I 
have chosen this that I may illustrate 
In my death the principles which I ad- 
vocated through my long life — Equal- 
ity of man before his Creator." 

Another inscription which deserves 
more than passing notice reads: 

"Sacred to the memory of Mary 
Jackson, died 1859, aged 50 years. 

"Dear mother, be thou still the watchful 

In honor's path of him who was thy 

So shall my feet, from snares of error 

Tread only paths of truth toward Heaven 

and thee. 

"This tomb is erected to perpetuate 
the memory of a devoted mother, by 
an only son." 

Still another atone sets forth briefly, 
"Caroline Horstman, died June 24, 
1865; aged 74 years. She taught me to 

A visit to the Moravian Churchyard 
at Lititz repays itself in the large 
number of aged tombstones there 
found, among which we cull the fol- 


Gottfried Heinrich.geboren in Thum- 
hart, zu grofeurode in Th.uringen,1745; 
verscheid, 1819. 

Samuel Rancke, born in Earl town- 
ship, 1742; died, 1815. 

Benjamin Chitty, bom in Frederick, 
Maryland, 1743; died, 1822. 

Heinrich Gottfried Ranch, born in 
Lititz, 1781; died, 1822. 

Johann Bichler, geboren, 1758, zu 
Neider Oderwitz an des Lansitz; ge- 
storb, 1821. 

Johannes Rudolph, geboren in Ar- 
neburg, in der Alter Mark, Branden- 
bourg, 1763; bestorb, 1825. 

Johann Gottfried Zahm, born at 
Bethlehem, Pa., 1753; died, 1782. 

Gottfried Keller, geboren in Wel- 
teras, 1721; died, 1782. 

Heinrich Rudy, geboren in Herzog- 
thum, Wurtembourg, in 1708; gestorb, 

Daniel Christ, geboren in Pfalz, 1744; 
gestorb, 1815. 

Joseph Sturgis, born in Philadelphia, 
1738; died, 1817. 

Johann Philipps, born in Lower San- 
covy, 1769; died, 1817. 

Polycarpus Kuhn Kreiter, born in 
Lititz, 1811; died, 1819. 

Orlando Washington Eiehler, born 
in Lititz, 1812, died in 1820. 

Jacob Schoenlein, geboren und euts- 
chief an der tage seiner; gebort, 1821. 

John Peterson, geboren in Tausten- 
russ, im Amte Kinpocking, in Jeutland, 
1763; died, 1825. 

Johann Fraezer, geboren in Joerhitz, 
1769; gestorb, 1825. 

Joseph PajTie, born in Twickenham, 
England, 1708; died, 1779. 

Greenburg Pettycourt, born in 
Georgetown, Maryland, 1748; died, 

John Paul Hemming, born in Bo- 
hemia, 1715; died, 1789. 

Johann AdolpL Meyer, geboren in 
Firstenthum, HaltatTstadt, 1714; ver- 
scheid, 1781. 

( 247 ) 

Johann Heinrich Gottlob Heine, ge- 
boren, in Rennebourg, an Vogtland, 
1755; verscheid, 1782. "Ich liege und 
schlauf in friede." 

Johann Philip Bachman, geboren, in 
Krenzburg.Thuringen, 1741; verscheid, 

William Lanius, bom in York, Pa., 
1748; died, 1814. (York county was at 
that time part of Lancaster county.) 

Samuel Steinecke, geboren in Ober- 
ode, Preuzen, 1743; verscheid, 1819. 

Anna Rosina Tannenbergin, geboren 
Kernin, 1715; am Schoflatz; entscheif, 

Anna Christina Praunken, geboren 
Bezolchins, 1710; gestorb, 1781. 

Anna Berkardin, geboren, Callin, 
1769; gestorb, 1799. 

Clous Colin, geboren, in Herzogthum, 
Bohemia, 1724; died, 1808. 

Nils Tillofsen, born in Bohemia in 

Johann Hamm, geboren in Elscheim, 
bei Mannz, 1798. 

The earliest interment at Lititz is 
that of "John Baumgaertner, aged 
three years, died November 8, 1758," 
at which interment Matthew Hehl, the 
Moravian Bishop, consecrated the 
graveyard, the assembled congregation 
fcneeLLng on the ground. 




Lancaster County 

Historical Society. 






Ephrata Community 125 Years Ago, by F. R. Diffendekffer 3-14 

Oldest Ship in the U. S. Navy, by S. M. Sener, Esq 14-17 

Colonel James Crawford, a Revolutionary Soldier, by J. W. 

Shakffer 17-20 

The First Member of the Bricker Family in America, by E. W. S. 

Parthemore 20-22 

Lancaster in 1750. 22 

Additional List of Members 23 

Tributes of Respect to Mary E. Wilson, M.D., and P. C. 

HiLLER 24 

The King's Highvpay, by Martha B. Clark 27-40 

Colonel James Crawford, by Samuel Evans, Esq 40-45 

Impress of Early Names and Traits, by WALTER M. Franklin, 

Esq 46-53 

History of the Brickerville Congregation in Lancaster County, by 

Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, D. D 57-99 

Some of the Lost Industries of the Octorara Valley, by J. W. Hou- 
ston, M. D 103-114 

Historical Memoranda. 114-117 

Tribute of Respect to Dr. C. A. Heinitsh , 118 

Report of Secretary, F. R. Diffenderffer 119-126 

Report of Librarian, S. M. Sener, Esq 126-128 

Report of Treasurer, B. C. Atlee, Esq 128 

Officers for 1899 128 

Marshall's Diary in its Relation to Lancaster City and County, by 

F. R. Diffenderffer 131-161 

Sketch of Joseph Simon, by Samuel Evans, Esq 165-173 



Thomas Mifflin, by Maktha J. Mifflin 173-181 

Tribute of Eespect to Hon. H. C. Beubaker 181 

Where was General Wayne in 1777-78? by F. R. Diffenderffer, 185-202 

The Old Block House, Hon. Henry G. Long, deceased 203-212 

Letter of General Knox 212-215 



Cloister Buildings, Ephrata, Pa. , Facing 1 

Specimen Initial Letter 9 

Witmer's Bridge, Facing, 25 

Thomas Mifflin, Facing , 173 

General Wayne 1 85 

Map of Valley Forge Encampment; Facing 199 






By F. R. Diffendeeffer. 


By S. M. Senee, Esq. 



By J. W. Shaeffee. ,.^' 


By E. W. S. Paethemoee, Esq. 


VOL. TIL NO. 1. 


Reprinted feom The New Eea. 




■) ILDEK ' ^A r IONS, 


Ephrata Community 125 Years Ago, 

By F. R. Diffenderffer, 3 

Oldest Ship in the United States Navy, 

By S. M. Sener, Esq. , 14 

Colonel James Crawford, a Revolutionary Soldier, 

By J. W. Shaeffer, 17 

The First Member of the Bricker Family in America, 

By E. W. S. Parthemore, Esq. , 20 

Lancaster in 1750, 22 


The writer of the following letters 
was the celebrated Jacob Duche, D. D., 
born in Philadelphia in 1737. He was 
a man of liberal education, and a 
graduate of the College of Philadel- 
phia (now the University of Pennsyl- 
vania), and he also studied at the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. He became the 
rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, 
in 1775. He adhered to the cause of 
the Colonies at the breaking out of the 
Revolution, and made the opening 
prayer at the First Congress, Septem- 
ber 7, 1774. After reading a Psalm, he 
concluded with an extempore invoca- 
tion of such fervency and patriotism 
that Congress gave him a vote of 
thanks. He became Chaplain to Con- 
gress and served three months. As the 
war progressed, and when the British 
occupied Philadelphia, he lost his cour- 
age and hope of the patriot cause. 

In October, 1777,he wrote his famous 
letter to General Washington, in which 
he implored the Father of his Country 
to abandon the lost cause of the Colo- 
nies and to "represent to Congress the 
indispensable necessity of rescinding 
the hasty and ill advised Declaration of 
Independence." Washington at once 
transmitted this long letter to Con- 
gress and from thence it quickly found 
its way into the newspapers. The re- 
sult was a change in public sentiment 
towards Dr. Duche, and he retired to 
England, where he quickly acquired a 
reputation as an eloquent preacher. 
Meanwhile, his property in Pennsylva- 
nia was confiscated and he was pro- 
claimed a traitor. In 1790 he returned 
to the city of his birth in poor health 
and died there in 1798. 


He wrote several works, among them 
the "Caspipina Letters," from which 
the following extracts are taken. They 
were published in Philadelphia in 1774 
and at Bath, England, in 1777. He 
was the master of a highly finished 
style in his sermons, and the prayer he 
wrote and used while the Chaplain to 
the Continental Congress is regarded 
as a model of that kind of composition. 
His pen name, "Tamoc Caspipina," by 
using the letters in their regular order, 
was intended to signify "The Assist- 
ant Minister of Christ Church and St. 
Peter's, in Philadelphia, in North 

These letters have an additional inter- 
est because they were dedicated "To the 
Honorable James Hamilton," who was 
four times the Governor of the Pro- 
vince of Pennsylvania, and nearly con- 
nected with the Lancaster Hamiltons. 
The extracts here quoted have a de- 
cided value of their own, inasmuch as 
they throw new light on some points 
in the history of the Ephrata Brother- 

The Letters. 

"The gentleman at whose house I am 
entertained is one of the people called 
Quakers, and a wealthy merchant in 
this city, to whom I had a letter from 

Mr. L , of Bristol. In this good 

family, I am treated with the most 
cheerful hospitality; and my friend, 
without any parade of ceremony, or the 
common display of too officious civil- 
ity, is a most sensible, polite and 
agreeable companion. The other day, 
while we were at breakfast, he pro- 
posed a jaunt into the country for my 
amusement; and, without letting me 
know what route he intended to take, 
we set off on Wednesday last, with his 
wife and daughter and an intimate ac- 
quaintance of the family. The car- 
riage in which we traveled was neither 
coach nor waggon, but something be- 
tween both; a kind of machine much 


used of late in this city, and very com- 
modious for those who have large fam- 
ilies, as it is constructed in such a 
manner as to accommodate six or 
eight persons with ease and conve- 
nience. Indeed, use rather than ele- 
gance is considered in its construction. 

Reaches Lancaster. 

"We traveled through a thick set- 
tled and highly cultivated country, 
beautifully variegated with hills com- 
manding extensive prospects, and 
vallies enriched with meadows, mills, 
farm houses, and limpid streams of 
water. At length, we arrived at Lan- 
caster, a large and flourishing town, 
about sixty miles from hence. Its trade 
to this city is very considerable: But, 
as it is not situated on navigable 
water, this trade is carried on by 
means of large covered waggons, which 
travel in great numbers to Philadel- 
phia (sometimes, as I have been in- 
formed, there being above one hundred 
in a company) carrying down the pro- 
duce of the country, and returning 
with all kinds of stores and merchan- 

"At Lancaster, we tarried but one 
night, and the next morning pursued 
our journey to Ephrata, or Dunker 
Town, as some call it, a small village 
situated on a beautiful little river or 
creek, in a most romantic and fre- 
quented vale. This village and the ad- 
joining lands are possessed by a relig- 
ious sect called Bunkers, whose prin- 
ciples and manners are very singular. 
They are for the most part Germans. 
Their name, I am told, is taken from 
their mode of baptizing their new con- 
verts, which is by dipping them in a 
river, as the Anabaptists do among us. 
Certain it is that they took their rise 
in this place about fifty years ago, and 
did not, as a sect, emigrate from any 
other country. Their society, how- 
ever, at present seems to be upon the 
decline, not exceeding one hundred 


members, though they have been here- 
tofore very numerous. Both men and 
women are dressed in white linen for 
the summer, and woollen for the win- 
ter season. Their habit is a kind of 
long coat or tunic reaching down to 
the heels, having a sash or girdle 
round the waist, and a cap or hood 
hanging from the shoulders, not unlike 
the dress of the Dominican friars. The 
men do not shave the head or beard. 
They are in general industrious, cheer- 
ful and extremely sagacious. 

Huw They Live. 
"The men and women have separate 
habitations and distinct governments. 
For these purposes they have erected 
two large wooden buildings, one of 
which is occupied by the brethren, the 
other by the sisters of the society, and 
in each of them there is a banqueting 
room and an apartment for public wor- 
ship, for the men and women do not 
meet together even at their devotions. 
The rest of the building is divided into 
a great number of small closets, or 
rather cells, each affording just room 
enough to accommodate one person. 

Prevailing Customs. 
"They live chiefly upon roots and 
other vegetables, the rules of their so- 
ciety not allowing flesh, except upon 
particular occasions, when they hold 
what they call a Love Feast, at which 
time the brethren and sisters dine to- 
gether in a large apartment and eat 
mutton, but no other meat. No mem- 
ber of the society is allowed a bed, but 
in case of sickness. In each of their 
little cells they have a bench fixed, to 
serve the purpose of a bed, and a small 
block of wood for a pillow. The Bunk- 
ers allow of no intercourse betwixt the 
brethren and sisters, not even by mar- 
riage. Nevertheless, some have broken 
through this restraint and ventured 
upon the conjugal state. The married 
persons, however, are no longer con- 

( <) 

sidered in full communion, or suffered 
to live under the same roof, nor in the 
same village with the unmarried, but 
are obliged to remove to a place about 
a mile distant, called Mount Sion. They 
continue, indeed, to wear the habit, and 
in other respects are deemed members 
of the society. 

"The principal tenet of the Bunkers, 
I understand, is this: 'That future hap- 
piness is only to be obtained by pen- 
ance and outward mortifications in this 
life, and that, as Jesus Christ, by His 
meritorious sufferings, became the re- 
deemer of mankind in general, so each 
individual of the human race, by a life 
of abstinence and restraint, may work 
out his own salvation.' Nay, they go 
so far as to admit of works of super- 
erogation, and declare that a man may 
do much more than he is in justice or 
equity obliged to do, and that his su- 
perabundant works may, therefore, be 
applied to the salvation of others. 

Seeking the Higher Life. 

"Thus do these poor people delude 
themselves with vain imaginations, 
seeking for that religious satisfaction in 
their external situation which is only 
to be found in the internal state of the 
mind. Devout and happy dispositions 
of soul have indeed much less depen- 
dence upon outward circumstances 
than people in general imagine. Men 
foolishly neglect to attend to religious 
sensibilities, or to cultivate a spiritual 
intercourse with the great Father of 
Spirits; and then think to excuse them- 
selves by lamenting their situation in 
life as unfavorable to these purposes. 
Those who earn their daily bread by 
the sweat of their brow are apt to im- 
agine that, if they were in easy circum- 
stances, they should have leisure to at- 
tend to their eternal concerns, but no 
sooner does wealth increase than their 
care and attention to it increase in pro- 
portion, and they find themselves more 


and more embarrassed and less at leis- 
ure than ever they had been. Others 
think that by resolutely breaking off 
from all intercourse with the rest of 
mankind, retiring into gloomy woods, 
burying themselves, as Anchorites in 
caves, and denying themselves even the 
innocent gratifications of nature, they 
shall most assuredly recommend them- 
selves to the favour of Heaven, and 
strictly conform to the Idea they have 
entertained of saints upon earth. But 
they should consider, in the first place, 
that they attempt in vain to fiy from 
their own evil dispositions, which will 
pursue and torment them in their 
closest retreats, and, in the second 
place, that by retiring from the world 
they lose the only opportunities they 
can possibly have of calling forth a 
thousand tender sensibilities and ex- 
ercising a thousand tender oflices of 
sympathy, compassion, charity and 

"Excuse, my Lord, this short digres- 
sion into which my subject has almost 

involuntarily led me I will now 

pursue my narration. 

Their Occupations. 

"Beside the two large buildings 
above mentioned the Bunkers have 
several smaller ones, chiefiy for the 
purpose of manufactures. They carry 
on several branches of business with 
great skill and industry. They have a 
convenient oil mill, paper mill and 
printing press. They make parchment, 
tan leather and manufacture linen and 
woollen cloth, more than sufficient to 
serve their own society. The sisters 
are ingenious at making wax-tapers, 
curious paper-lanthorns and various 
kinds of paste-board boxes, which they 
sell to strangers who come to visit 

They likewise amuse themselves 
with writing favorite texts of Scrip- 
ture in large letters curiously orna- 


mented with flowers and foliage. These 
seem to be rather works of patience 
than of genius. Several of them are 
framed and hung up to decorate their 
place of worship. Inclosed I send your 
Lordship a specimen of this writing, 
which you may perhaps think worthy 
of a place in your collection of foreign 


"I shall at present remark but one 
thing more with respect to the Bunk- 
ers, and that is the peculiarity of their 
music. Upon an hint given by my 
friend the sisters invited us into their 
chapel, and, seating themselves in or- 
der, began to sing one of their devout 
hymns. The music had little or no air 
or melody, but consisted of simple,long 
notes, combined in the richest har- 

* Through the courtesy of J. F. Sachse. 
Esq., we are enabled to present a speci- 
men initial letter from one of the publi- 
cations of the Ephrata Press. The full 
series will appear in Mr. Sachse's forth- 
coming History of the Ephrata Com- 


mony. The counter, treble, tenor and 
bass were all sung by women with 
sweet, shrill and small voices, but with 
a truth and exactness in the time and 
intonation that was admirable. It is 
impossible to describe to* your Lordship 
my feelings upon this occasion. The 
performers sat with their heads re- 
clined, their countenances solemn and 
dejected, their faces pale and emaci- 
ated from their manner of living, their 
clothing exceeding white and quite 
picturesque, and their music such as 

thrilled to the very soul I almost 

began to think myself in the world of 
spirits, and that the objects before me 
were ethereal. In short, the impression 
this scene made upon my mind con- 
tinued strong for many days, and I be- 
lieve will never be wholly obliterated. 
"By way of concluding this little nar- 
rative, I beg leave to transcribe a copy 

of verses, which P-p r M-^-- r, the 

present head of this society, put into r> 

my hands, telling me that they were 
composed by a young gentleman of 
Philadelphia some years ago in conse- 
quence of a visit he made him and a 
conversation which then passed be- 
tween them. The sentiments are so 
catholic that I think your Lordship 
cannot but have some pleasure in the 

"To P r M r. Principal of the 

Society of Dunkers at Bphrata. 
"TH' Eternal God from his exalted throne 
Surveys at once earth, heav'n and worlds 

unknown : 
All things that are before his piercing 

Like the plain tracings of a picture lie; - 
Unutter'd thoughts, deep in the heart 

conceal' d, 
In strong expression stand to him re- 

Thousands and twice ten thousands every 

To him or feign' d or real homage pay; 

"Like clouds of incense rolling to the 

In various forms their supplications rise: 



( li ) 

Their various forms to him no access 

Without the heart's true incense, all are 

vain ; 
The suppliants secret motives there ap- 
The genuine source of every offer' d 

"Some place RELIGION on a throne 

And deck with jewels her resplendent 

Painting and sculpture all their powers 

And lofty tapers shed a lambent ray. 
High on the full-ton'd organ's swelling 

The pleasing anthem floats serenely 

Harmonic strains their thrilling pow'rs 

And lift the soul in ecstasy divine. 

"In Ephrata's deep gloom you fix your 

And seek RELIGION in the dark retreat; 

In sable weeds you dress the heav'n-born 

And place her pensive in the lonely shade; 

Recluse, unsocial, you your hours em- 

And fearful, banish every harmless joy. 

"Bach may admire and use their favorite 

If Heav'n's own flame their glowing 

bosoms warm. 
If love divine of God and man be there, 
The deep-felt want that forms the ardent 

The grateful sense of blessings freely 

The boon, unsought, unmerited of heav'n, 
'Tis true devotion and the Lord of 

Such pray'rs and praises kindly will ap- 
Whether from golden altars they arise. 
And wrapt in sound and incense reach 

the skies; 
Or from your Ephrata, so meek, so low. 
In soft and silent aspirations flow. 

"Oh! let the Christian bless that glorious 

When outward forms shall all be done 

When we in spirit and in truth alone 
. Shall bend, O God! toefore thy awful 

And thou our purer worship shalt ap- 

By sweet returns of everlasting love. 


Some With Different Views. 

"One eircumstance I had like to have 
omitted in this account of Ephrata, 
which I would not wish to pass by un- 
noticed: There is an house in this 
village occupied by four or five breth- 
ren, who for some years past have sep- 
arated themselves from the rest on ac- 
count, as it is said, of some difference 
with respect to their forms of discip- 
line and worship. I had a long con- 
versation upon this subject with a ven- 
erable old man, who is one of the or- 
iginal proprietors or trustees of the 
estate. From him I found that a fur- 
ther acquaintance with the reality of 
religion (as it takes its rise and pro- 
gress in the heart of man and depends 
much less upon outward forms than 
inward communications from the foun- 
tain of truth) was the sole cause of 
their separation. It was not, said the 
good man, that we were dissatisfied 
with their particular form, but that we 
had discovered the weakness and In- 
sufficiency of all forms, and were,there- 
fore, willing to anticipate in our own 
practice that blessed period of the 
church when every true worshiper 
shall worship God 'in Spirit and in 
Truth.' Though these few brethren 
are not in communion with the Bunk- 
ers, they have a right to their propor- 
tion of the produce of the estate, and 
this, together with some little occupa- 
tion which each of them follows, gives 
them a sufficient support. They wear 
not the habit of the society, but are 
distinguished from the rest by shorter 
coats, with leathern girdles and large 
white hats instead of hoods. They con- 
tinue, however, to wear their beards. 

"I must not conclude without ac- 
quainting your Lordship that your ex- 
cellent 'Dissertations' have found their 
way here, and are much read and ad- 
mired in this city. It cannot but give 
the highest satisfaction to a virtuous 
man to find that his good works ex- 


tend their influence much farther than 
he could possibly have foreseen, and, 
like a friendly luminary hung out in 
a dark night, serve to direct the weary 
steps of the distant traveller. 

"I am, my Lord, with very sincere re- 
"Your Lordship's most devoted friend 

and servant, 


"Philadelphia, Oct. 2, 1771. 

"P. S. — I beg your Lordship would 
make my respectful compliments to 

I^ary R , and tell her that I shall 

shortly visit Mr. B m, the famous 

American Botanist, and will not fail 
to procure her some seeds and plants 
of this country to add to her large and 
valuable collection." 


It having been ascertained that the 
■'Lancaster" could be utilized in the 
American-Spanish war, she was placed 
in commission, and Commander Thos. 
Perry, U. S. N., was ordered to take her 
south. A few years ago the old war 
ship had been converted into a gun- 
nery training ship and armed with ten 
5-inch rapid fire guns. When hostili- 
ties began in the recent war the navy 
was short of guns for the auxiliary 
cruisers and one by one the guns had 
been taken from the "Lancaster" and 
other "Civil War reminders" until the 
former had but two old converted 
muzzle-loading 20-pound Parrots, relics 
of the Civil War, and these were gen- 
erally used as a saluting battery. In 
addition to these the "Lancaster" was 
given two small 6-pounders of the 
Hotchkiss type, which were mounted 
one on each broadside and were in- 
tended for use in case of an attack 
from torpedo boats. 

Thus equipped the old "Lancaster" 
sailed from the Boston navy yard on 
Thursday, May 19, at a time when sev- 
eral Spanish gunboats had been seen 
off the New England coast and Cer- 
vera's fleet had been bobbing around 
promiscuously. There was a crew of 
250 on board the "Lancaster" and of 
these only twelve were trained hands. 
The old "Lancaster" made the four- 
teen-hundred mile trip from Boston to 
Key West safely and was subsequently 
used as a transport ship in conveying 
our "soldier boys" to Santiago, Cuba, 
and to-day lies safely moored in the 
harbor at Key West. 

Few, if any, of my hearers are aware 
of the fact that the "Lancaster" is the 


oldest ship in the United States navy 
and that the cruiser was constructed 
over forty years ago and was a sister 
vessel of Farragut's flagship "Hart- 
ford," and that this battle-scarred 
veteran of the Civil War was named 
after Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and 
was christened by a young woman of 
Lancaster, Harriet Lane, mistress of 
the White House, and niece of Presi- 
dent James Buchanan. This is the 
case and an examination of the files 
of the local and Philadelphia news- 
papers for the year 1858 establishes that 
fact, the "Lancaster" having been 
christened on October 20 of that year. 

The Lancaster Intelligencer of Oc- 
tober 26, 1858, states, quoting from the 
Philadelphia Press, that "Miss Harriet 
Lane broke a bottle of wine on her 
bow. The wine used was made from 
the native grape of Lancaster county, 
and it was brought to Philadelphia by 
his Honor, Thomas H. Burrowes, 
Mayor of Lancaster, at the request of 
the venerable Commodore Stewart." 

The Evening Express of October 21, 
1858, contains a lengthy account of 
the launching and naming of the ship 
on Wednesday, October 20, 1858, near 
noon, and among other things men- 
tions, "Just as the ship touched the 
water Miss Lane broke a bottle of 
Conestoga water over her bows and 
formally named her the 'Lancaster. 
Although she will only carry 18 guns, 
she is pierced for 32." The Express 
suggested that a painting of Lancaster 
be gotten up and placed in the new 
vessel. "Among the guests were Hon. 
James Buchanan, President of the 
United States; Hon. Thomas H. Bur- 
rowes, Mayor of Lancaster, who, in ac- 
cordance with Commodore Stewart's 
suggestion, took down the bottle of 
Conestoga water with which the cere- 
mony of naming the ship was to be 
performed. The receiving ship 
'Princeton ' lay off in the river and 


was gayly decorated for the occasion. 
The frigate 'Congress' had been fitted 
up^ with seats for the ladies." 

The launching took place from the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard. The naval 
sloop of war "Lancaster" registered 
2,250 tons; was 273 feet one inch in 
length over all; spar deck, 253 feet; 
beam, 46 feet; she carries 18 nine-inch 
guns and 2 eleven-inch guns; whei- 
full rigged will cost $700,000. Over 
2,000 people witnessed the launch, 
which took place at 11:45 a. m. The 
"Congress" was moored alongside of 
the "Lancaster." The Express further 
observes "Miss Lane was the 'observed 
of all observers.' She was tastefully 
dressed in a blue brocade dress, with 
white bonnet trimmed with feathers. 
The general remark was that she was 
a decidedly interesting looking lady." 


On the IStli day of December, 1774, 
James Crawford was elected from Han- 
over, Pa., as one of the sixty freehold- 
ers' committee to "observe the conduct 
of all persons touching the general as- 
sociation of the General Congress" 

.."which committee shall divide into 
different districts and appoint members 
of the committee to superintend each 
district." A Mr. Francis was cited to 
appear before their court. He was in- 
formed that dancing was contrary to 
the spirit of the eighth article of asso- 
ciation of the Continental Congress, 
and his dancing school must be dis- 
continued. Charles Hamilton, a shop 
keeper, sold tea "contrary to the asso- 
ciation of the Continental Congress." 
Hamilton said, in his absence, it was 
done in violation of his orders, and he 
disapproved of it. "The committee 
resolved that Hamilton stands acquit- 
ted." Powder and lead in dealers' 
hands were ordered to be surrendered 
to the Council at fixed prices; guns and 
munitions of war were ordered sup- 
plied within a given time and at fixed 
prices. Wagons, horses and food were 
supplied by order of the committee. 

After the battle of Lexington and 
Bunker Hill the committee called a 
convention of the Colonists of Lancas- 
ter and adjacent counties to meet at 
Lancaster borough and elect two Briga- 
dier Generals. Fifty-three battalions 
were represented at this convention, 
July 4th, 1776, and while the Declara- 
tion of Independence was being read to 
the public from the steps of the State 
House, Philadelphia, the patriots at 
Lancaster county resolved that the 
President of the Board of Elections 


shall have power and authority to 
grant commissions to the newly elect- 
ed Brigadiers good until commissions 
were issued from the convention,or any 
higher authority invested with the pre- 
rogative to appoint or confirm army 

In December, 1777, General Anthony 
Wayne's troops were in camp at 
Mount Joy, Lancaster county, Pa., and 
were suffering severely froim want of 
clothing. Col. James Crawford was 
designated by Congress as one of a 
committee to procure blankets and 
clothing for the perishing patriots 
fighting for freedom. Col. Crawford's 
ancestors were Calvinists from North 
Ireland. Amongst their possessions 
was a book entitled the "Beauty of 
Holiness," published in London, Eng- 
land, 1716, and used in Rolla Chapel. 
London. This book came down 
through several generations of lineal 
descendants to John G. Crawford's 
grandmother, Buyers,who was a grand- 
daughter of Capt. Buyers, of Buyers- 
town, Lancaster county, Pa., Fifth Bat- 
talion, Pennsylvania Infantry, War of 
the Revolution. Col. James Crawford 
resided in Lancaster township, near the 
"Big Springs," dying at the age of 80 
years. He was survived by his son, 
Thomas Crawford, who was born in 
1784. His death occurred at Sterling, 
111., in 1854, he having moved West 
with his sons, James L. Crawford, 
David M. Crawford and John B. Craw- 
ford, settling in Sterling, 111., in 1845, 
on the banks of Rock River. James L. 
Crawford married Miss Amanda Gait, 
of Gait Mills, Lancaster county. Pa., 
in 1846, who survives him since 1857. 
John G., her only son, is still living. 
David M. Crawford is deceased. John 
B. Crawford sold his Sterling posses- 
sions and moved to Lohrville, Iowa,, 
where he and his sons reside. Rev. 
Thomas Crawford, a graduate from 
Princeton, N. J., a Presbyterian minis- 


ter, resides at Slate Hill, York county, 
Pa. William Crawford, Jr., son of Wil- 
liam Crawford, of Georgetown, D. C, 
was Lieutenant in the regular army, 
and was wounded at Gettysburg in 
July, 1863, dying in Hartford, Conn., 
soon after. Leslie Crawford Sheldon, 
grandson of Mrs. Amanda G. Crawford, 
was a Sergeant in Company E, Sixth 
Illinois Regiment of Infantry, in the 
Cuban war, and is in General Shaffer's 


Recently there came into my pos- 
session a copy of the "Youngman 
Bible," printed in Reading, Pa., in the 
year 1805 by Gottlieb Youngman. 

Evidently it was the family Bible and 
register of Jacob Bricker, who resided 
in Cocalico township, Lancaster 
county, Pa. On one of the front leaves 
is a blank printed, filled out as follows: 

"Diese Bibel 
ist gekauft worden in jahr unsen Herrn 
1810, den 14th April, und g-ehart mein." 
The record further states that he was 
born December 25, 1785; died April 3, 
1868. Other records of his family in 
German are, viz: 

i Peter, b. July 24, 1807. 
ii b. August 6, 1812. 

iii Jacob, b. March 5, 1815; d. Au- 
gust 12, 1817. 
iv Samuel, b. October 16, 1818; d. 

September 19, 1831. 
V Martin, b. March 27, 1823; d. Sep- 
tember 13, 1824. 
The ancestor of Jacob Bricker was 
Peter Bricker, the emigrant, who came 
from Germany to America on the ship 
"Pink Plaisance," John Paret, master, 
landing at Philadelphia September 21, 
1732. He was born in Germany in the 
year 1700, and was accompanied by 
his wife, Elizabeth Christina, born in 
the year 1703, and the following chil- 
dren, Anna Barbara and Elizabeth. 

Where he first located on his arrival 
in America is unknown, but he pos- 
sibly located in one of the Lutheran 
settlements in the lower end of the 
State, as he was a communicant in that 
denomination. Nine years after his 
arrival in America he came to Lancas- 


ter county, and settled on the east side 
of the Cocalico Creek in what is now 
East Cocalico township. In the year 
1741 he obtained by patent from the 
proprietors of Pennsylvania a tract of 
between seven and eight hundred acres 
of land. Eighteen years later, the year 
1759, he erected a large sand stone 
house on his plantation which is stand- 
ing to-day, and it is said to be "as good 
as new." The house bears this inscrip- 
tion carved on a large sand stone 
which is not an unusual inscription on 
the buildings erected by our German 
ancestors a century and a half ago: 

"Gott gesegne dises haus 
und alles da geget ein und aus; 

Gott gesegne ale sampt 
und dar zu, das ganze lant 

Gott alein die ehr, sonst keinem 
Manschen mehr. Anno 1759 Jahrs. 
Peter Bricker, Elizabeth Brickerin." 

The village of Brickerville in Eliza- 
beth township was laid out by one of 
his descendants almost a century ago. 
Another of Peter's descendants re- 
moved to Cumberland county at the 
close of the last century and settled in 
the vicinity of Newville and afterward 
in Silver Spring township, where he 
erected a large grist mill. 

It is to be regretted that with this 
record further matter is unattainable 
to make a complete genealogical re- 
cord of one of the early German 
Lutheran families in Pennsylvania, 
who gave so many descendants to the 
great race of "Pennsylvania Ger- 


Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker.of the 
Court of Common Pleas of Philadel- 
phia, several days ago sent me the fol- 
lowing extract which he found in John 
Gait's "Life and Times of Benjamin 
West, Esq., President of the Royal 
Academy, of London," a volume which 
was published in Philadelphia, in 1816. 
It is found on page 47: 

"In the town of Lancaster, a place at 
that time (circa A. D., 1750) remark- 
able for its wealth, and which had the 
reputation of possessing the best and 
most intelligent Society to be then 
found in America. It was chiefly in- 
habited by Germans, who, of all people, 
in the practice of Imigrating, carry 
along with them the greatest Stock of 
Knowledge and accomplishments." 

F. R. D. 


I. W. Aknold, Lancaster, Pa. 

John A. Boyle, Lancaster, Pa. 

Fred. H. Bucher, Columbia, Pa. 

L. T. Hensel, Quarryville, Pa. 

Mrs. R. J. Houston, Lancaster, Pa. 

Levi B, Kirk, Mechanics' Grove, Pa. 

W. Z. Sener, Lancaster, Pa. 

•James Shand Lancaster, Pa. 

H. S. Staufper, Columbia, Pa. 

Mrs. H. S. Staufper, Columbia, Pa. 

A. E. WiTMER, Altoona, Pa. 

S. G. Zerpass, Ephrata, Pa. 

General .J, W. DbPeyster, Tivoli, N. Y. 


Mary E. Wilson, M. D., Lancaster, Pa, 

P. C. HiLLER, Conestoga, Pa. 

J. W. Houston, M. D., Lancaster, Pa.; vice, P. C. Hiller, deceased. 


Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

A.merican Catholic Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Historical Society of Delaware, .... Wilmington, Del. 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Berks County Historical Society, Reading, Pa. 

Lebanon County Historical Society, Lebanon, Pa. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

E. W. S. Parthemore, , Harrisburg, Pa. 

Julius F. Saohse, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. C. Armor, = Harrisburg, Pa, 

Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia, Pa. 

State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

Maryland Historical Society, ... Baltimore, Md. 

Enoch Pratt Library, , Baltimore, Md. 

Dauphin County Historical Society, Harrisburg, Pa. 



A Committee appointed to take cognizance of the recent deaths of two 
members, reported the following which was ordered printed in the regu- 
lar proceedings : 

Whereas the Lancaster County Historical Society have heard with 
regret of the demise of Dr. Mary E. Wilson and of P. C. Hiller, Esq., 
both active members of the Society, therefore, be it 

Besolved, That the Society hears with sorrow of the loss of two such 
valuable members, both of whom did so much to encourage historical 
investigation and to advance the cause of historical education. And, be 
it further 

Besolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
and a copy sent to the families of the deceased members. 

J. W. Houston, 
I Benj. C. Atlee. 










ON OCX. 7 AND NOV. 4, 1898. 

By Maetha B, Clark. 

By Samuel Evans, Esq. 


By Walter M. Franklin, Esq. 

VOL. III. NOS. 2 AND 3. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


The King's Highway, 

By Martha B. Clark, . 27 

Colonel James Crawford, 

By Samuel Evans, Esq., 40 

Impress of Early Names and Traits, 

By Walter M. Franklin, Esq. , 45 


"At a Provincial Council, held in 
Philadelphia, January 29, 1730-1, the 
Hon. Patrick Gordon, Esq., Lieutenant 
Governor, presiding: 

The prayers of Petition being grant- 
ed, it is ordered that Thomas Edwards, 
Edward Smout, Robert Barber, Hans 
Graaffi, Caleb Pierce, Samuel Jones and 
Andrew Cornish, of the County of Lan- 
caster, or any five of them, view and 
lay out, by Course and Distance, a con- 
venient high Road from the said town 
of Lancaster to the Division Line be- 
tween the Counties of Chester and 

On October 4, 1733, with Lieutenant 
Governor Patrick Gordon, with the 
Council, the above-named men came 
to certify that, pursuant to the said 
petition and orders, they had met at 
the town of Lancaster, on the 4 th day 
of this instant, and from thence viewed 
and laid out a road from the Court 
House in the said town, along the 
course of the street to the Conestoga 
creek, to the division line, near the 
English Church. The Board, after due 
consideration, approved and confirmed 
the road laid out, and declared it to be 
th^ King's Highway, or Publick Road. 
The King's Highways were always or- 
dered to be laid out by the Government 
and Council. "Thus the colonial high- 
ways leading from the interior of the 
Province, and from their importance 
and value the great Pennsylvania rail- 
road system was evolved." 

"The confirmation of theKing'sRoad, 
leading from Lancaster to Philadel- 
phia, being confirmed by the Govern- 
ment in Council, and certified to this 
Court, with order that the same be 


forthwith cleared and rendered com- 
modious, in pursuance thereof, it is 
therefore ordered (P. Cur. ) that pre- 
cept issue, under the clerk's hand and 
the seal of the county, to the respec- 
tive Supervisors to open and clear the 
same, on the north side of the marked 
trees, at least thirty feet wide, and 
grub the underwood at least fifteen feet 
of the said space on the side next the 
marked trees, and make necessary 
bridges, rain swamps, etc., so as to 
make the same passable for horse and 

Copied from Road Docket, No. 1, 
page 84. From 1729 to 1742. 

This old provincial road passes 
through the townships of Lancaster, 
East Lampeter, Leacock and Salisbury, 
and was originally an Indian trail; 
then it became a bridle path, and, fi- 
nally, necessity compelled wagons 
hauling produce to Philadelphia to 
pass over this road. For many months 
in the year it was impassable, and the 
inhabitants of Lancaster county felt 
the need of a better road to Philadel- 
phia, which was then the seat of gov- 

In the petition put before the Gov- 
ernment and Council, in Philadelphia, 
the people state that, not having the 
convenience of water navigation, they 
were compelled, at great expense, to 
transport their products by land car- 
riage, which burthen became heavier 
through the want of suitable roads for 
carriages to pass; that there are no 
public roads leading to Philadelphia 
yet laid out through their county, and 
those in Chester county, through 
which they now pass, are in many 
places incommodious; and, therefore, 
praying that proper persons may be 
appointed to view and lay out a road 
for public service from the town of 
Lancaster till it falls in with the high 
road in the county of Chester, leading 
to the Ferry of Schuylkill, at High 
street; and that a review may be had 


of the said public road in the county 
of Chester. 

The days of stage travel in England 
had many pleasures, and we are told 
the roads were kept in thorough re- 
pair, and with the public and private 
coaches traveling constantly upon 
them; with the inns dotting along the 
road, and the characteristics of each 
landlord to suit the tastes of the grave 
and the gay. For our new country we 
could not boast of the same comfort 
or the same agreeable company; but, 
no doubt, the enjoyment was the same 
for those who took advantage of their 
opportunities, with sixty-two inns be- 
tween Philadelphia and Lancaster, an 
average of one to each mile. Can we 
doubt that in this new country were 
enacted many scenes to recall to our 
esteemed grandsires the pleasures of 
traveling in a stage-coach before thej'' 
came to the Colonies? These roads' 
were called King's Highways when or- 
dered to be laid out by the Governor 
and his Council. The counties in Colo- 
nial times had control only over by- 
roads and private roads. On this 
King's Highway the soldiers traveled 
on their march to protect the inhabi- 
tants of the Colonies from the invasion 
of the French and the cruelty of the 
Indians. During the Revolution again 
were run soldiers, making this road 
the scene of life and bustle, on their 
way to fight for liberty and defeat the 
mother country for the cause of op- 
pression and taxation. Often the sixty- 
two inns between Lancaster and Phila- 
delphia could not accommodate all of 
their guests. 

It will be my pleasure to tell you 
of some of the places of interest on 
this historic road, and I trust you will 
not think of this article as Artemus 
Ward used to say in one of his lec- 
tures: "One of the principal features of 
my entertainment is that it contains 
so many things that don't have any- 
thing to do with it." 


James Webb. 

Soon after leaving Lancaster we 
come to the residence of James Webb, 
on the north side of the road, and 
now known as Knapp's Villa. James 
Webb was a prominent man in his 
day. He belonged to and was active in 
the Society of Friends. He was a 
member of the General Assembly for 
thirty years, from 1747 to 1777. He was 
defeated on account of his opposition 
to the new Government, as he was 
classed among the Tories. After his 
defeat he declared the present Assem- 
bly was not regularly chosen, as they 
were voted for by a parcel of soldiers 
and apprentice boys; so their laws 
were not worth regarding. He told a 
strange story about a snake he had 
seen in the heavens without a head. 
When it shook its tail it made the 
earth tremble; at the same time fiery 
balls were seen flying about German- 
town. This, he interpreted, was our 
present war,and,being carried on without 
a head, it must come to naught, and we 
must expect nothing but defeat. Time 
has shown how sadly he was mistaken. 
Such stories of prodigies were at 
that time circulated by the Tory party 
in various parts of New England to 
terrify the superstitious. The following 
lines from Trumhull's "McFingal" will 
show that Webb was not alone in his 

"Hath not Heaven warned you what 

must ensue. 
And Providence declared against you; 
Hung forth its dire portents of war. 
By signs and beacons in the air; 
Alarmed old women all around, 
By fearful noises underground- 
While earth for many dozen leagues 
Groaned with dismal load of Whigs?" 

An act was passed March 5, 1756, by 
which Calvin Cooper, James Webb and 
Samuel LeFevre were appointed to 
carry its several provisions into execu- 
tion, and also to look after the inter- 
ests of the French neutrals, who were 


transported from Nova Scotia into 
Lancaster county. Many, being desti- 
tute of means, became a cliarge to the 
people of the county. 

The name of James Webb appears on 
the assessment list for the year 1751. 
He was Barrack Master for Lancaster 
county in 1769, and declined serving 
any longer, and asked that the Gover- 
nor should be pleased to appoint a 
Barrack Master in his room. His son, 
James Webb, Jr., was elected Sheriff 
for 1767 to 1769. 

The present Conestoga Inn, on the 
bank of the stream, was built by 
Abraham Witmer, after the Revolu- 

Henry Dering. 

On the south side of the road on the 
banks of the Conestoga Creek we come 
to the old stone ferry house of Henry 
Dering, who lived there in Revolution- 
ary times. The house was built by 
Samuel Bethel in 1762, who kept the 
"Cross Keys," a prominent Inn of 
Colonial times, in Lancaster. He came 
to this section of the country before 
the county was organized. He mar- 
ried Sarah Bhenston. In the year 1777 
Henry Dering moved from Crooked 
Hill, Montgomery county, and pur- 
chased the property, keeping a public 
house and managing the ferry. The 
stream was at that time crossed by a 
ferry and travelers were continually 
passing and also troops on their way 
to the army. The lawless state of the 
country and condition of national af- 
fairs rendered it unsafe to live so far 
from town and military protection. Of ten 
the family were obliged to flee to the 
cellar or barn to escape from the in- 
toxicated soldiers and ruffians. Many 
sad scenes were enacted in this house. 
At the time of the Paoli massacre many 
of the wounded soldiers were sent to 
Lancaster, and Mrs. Dering filled her 
house, as they passed, and this patri- 
otic and heroic wife of Henry Dering 


ministered to their comfort, tearing up 
her linen for bandages to bind their 
broken limbs and bleeding wounds, and 
with loving sympathy and tender 
words she cheered them in their suf- 
fering and lauded them for their patri- 
otism. Captain Vanhorn, a Virginian, 
was confined with a shattered limb and 
lay for a long time at the house of Mrs. 
Bering. He endeared himself to the 
family by his gentleness and refine- 
ment. As he lay in his helpless condi- 
tion, slowly recovering, a band of 
rufflans came to the house under the 
influence of liquor and attacked him. 
Too weak to defend himself from their 
brutality, this poor soldier, to avoid 
death from their hands, leaped out of 
the window and was killed by the fall. 
Mr. Bering moved his family to Lan- 
caster. He contracted with Robert 
Morris to furnish the army with cat- 
tle, which he bought in Virginia. In 
1778 he was made Chief Burgess of the 
Borough. Henry Bering was a mem- 
ber of the Assembly for Lancaster 
county from 1789 to 1790. 

Bernard Wolf. 

A very interesting account of the 
thrilling adventure of the post boy of 
Revolutionary times is given in the 
Wolf Memorial, and it shows the spirit 
of '76, and the familiar scenes on the 
King's Highway. 

Buring the summer of 1777 Bernard 
Wolf, having made arrangements with 
the government to carry the mail be- 
tween Philadelphia and Lancaster, it 
devolved upon his son. Christian, a 
boy fourteen years old, to perform this 
service. It was, at times, a duty re- 
quiring the utmost adroitness and cau- 
tion to avoid falling into the hands of 
the British. Along the route were 
many Tories, who seized every oppor- 
tunity of affording information to the 
enemy. Upon more than one occasion 
the youthful post boy narrowly es- 
caped capture. Fully alive to his peril, 


he was always on the alert, and happily 
eluded the snares of the foe. 

In those days the post boy was an 
important personage. As he passed 
through the country covered with dust, 
or bespattered with mud, as the case 
might be, the patriot farmer by the 
wayside accosted him for a hurried 
word of news from the seat of war. As 
he urged his steed through the storm, 
the good dames waved him an en- 
couraging God-speed from their cot- 
tage doors. Everybody knew the post 
boy and his horse. His gait portended 
good or evil tidings. When he dashed 
rapidly onward, the gallant steed reek- 
ing with foam, men held their breath 
until they heard the news. As he rat- 
tled over the streets, the workmen 
arose from their toll and the women 
paused in their daily avocations. A 
gaping crowd, eager for the news, col- 
lected at the postofRce, anxiously 
awaiting his arrival. 

Darwin's prophetic apostrophe, 

"Soon shall thy power, unconquered 

steam, afar. 
Drag the huge barge, or drive the rapid 


had not yet assumed a definite realiza- 
tion, and the neigh of the iron horse 
had never resounded through tEe forest 
of the American continent. Of those 
who awaited the advent of the post boy 
with his mail bag, none, perhaps, were 
more deeply interested than the 
paroled British officers. Every reverse 
to their arms depressed their spirits, 
whilst it created a corresponding re- 
joicing among the good people of Lan- 
caster. That those were times to try 
men's souls we who live in 1898 can 
most fully appreciate. On the night of 
the 20th of September, 1777, Christian, 
on his post route, slept at the Warren 
Tavern, near Paoli. Being within a 
mile of the battle field he heard: 

"The din 
That raged around the Warren Inn, 
And on Paoli's fearful plain, 
When massacre the sword had drawn." 


He heard the sharp reports of mus- 
ketry in that short and bloody engage- 
ment. From November, 1777, until 
May, 1778, Philadelphia was occupied 
by the British, and, during that period. 
Christian was released from postal 
duty. The people of Lancaster were 
active in promoting the success of the 

After the evacuation of Philadelphia 
by the British Christian resumed his 
old position with its pleasures and 
hardships. He was of a cheerful dis- 
position, and possessed a hardy consti- 
tution. He was in Philadelphia when 
news was received of the surrender of 
Cornwallis, at Yorktown, on the 19th 
of October, 1781. It was night when 
the message arrived with the joyful 
tidings. The watchman announced it 
at one o'clock in the morning; and 
Christian often spoke of the sensation 
produced through the city in that still 
hour of the night. Windows went up, 
many a night cap was protruded, lights 
fiashed along the streets as if by magic, 
neighbors congratulated each other, 
and the whole city was in a tumult. 
Christian conveyed the intelligence to 
Lancaster. Bveryv/here along the 
way the news was received with re- 
joicing. In Lancaster the whole popu- 
lation was moved. With one accord 
every man rushed out to assure him- 
self of the fact. The bells were rung, 
bonfires and illuminations lighted up 
the town, and a spontaneous outburst 
of enthusiasm was everywhere appar- 
ent. Many brave hearts that had here- 
tofore borne up through all the trials 
and gloom of the war now brimmed 
over. They saw before them a bright 
augury of its speedy and successful 
termination, and strong men sat down 
and wept like children. The young 
people ran from house to house and 
street to street, half wild with joy. 
Some country folk, who happened to 
be in town, joined in the carnival. 
Hurrah for Donegal! Hurrah for Chest- 


nut Level! shouted their respective rep- 
resentatives. "Aye," rejoined a little 
Irishman, "and Swate-arry (Swatara), 
too." Old Mr. L., an honest Ger- 
man, in the exuberance of his patriot- 
ism, harnessed his horses to his sleigh 
(although the summer days yet lin- 
gered), and with his burly spouse 
drove excitedly through the streets, ex- 
claiming in German to his wife, who 
sat beside him: "Hurrah now wife! 
Hurrah! I'll swing my hat, and you do 
the yelling." 

Christian Wolf married Kitty Bering, 
a daughter of Henry Bering, who died 
in 1800, and is buried in the First Re- 
formed grave yard, this city. 

Witmer's Bridge. 
Buring the administration of Gov- 
ernor Patrick Gordon great internal 
improvements were made in Pennsyl- 
vania, and it is said by some writers 
that the Keystone was the first State 
to engage in that laudable work. Go- 
ing down the old road, and crossing the 
meanderingConestogaRiver,wefind the 
most beautiful and oldest span bridge in 
the country, and the following inscrip- 
tion in the centre of its wall tells its 

Erected by Abraham Witmer 
A Law of an Enlightened 
Commonwealth passed 
April 4, 1798 — Sanctioned by 
Thomas Mifflin, Governor — 
This Monument of the Public Spirit of 
an Individual. 
This bridge is and will be for ages 
to come a fitting memorial to the enter- 
prising man who built it. 

The late Governor Russel, of Massa- 
chusetts, was a descendant of Mr. Wit- 

An Old Inscription. 

A strange inscription was found 
about two years ago in a house belong- 
ing to John Loyman, just east of the 


old bridge, and which, when built, was 
on the King's Highway. It was in the 
structure of the building on a white 
pine log, squared, and contained the 
following words: 

"Wer will bauen an die Strassen, 
Mus Boesen Mauler plaudernlassen." 

1747— H. D. 

"He who would build on this street 
Must let ill-tempered busy-bodies talk." 

Leacock Church. 

About two miles from Lancaster, and 
prominent on the King's Highway, is 
Leacock Church, one of the landmarks 
of Presbyterianism, and of the sect 
that so distinguished itself in the Revo- 
lution, where more than one-half of the 
officers and soldiers were of that faith. 
The first Protestant worship on the 
shores of America was by the French 
Presbyterians, Huguenots, in 1552, 
fifty-eight years before the landing of 
the Mayflower on Plymouth Rock. Hor- 
ace Walpole, in addressing the English 
Parliament during the Revolution,said: 
"There is no use crying about it. 
Cousin America has run off with a 
Presbyterian parson, and that is the 
end of it." 

In July, 1724, the Presbytery of New- 
castle sent Mr. Adam Boyd, who was 
commissioned to collect a congregation 
at Pequea and Leacock and take the 
preliminary steps toward its organiza- 
tion. On September 14, 1724, he was 
called to Octorara and Pequea, and he 
gave one-sixth of his time to Donegal. 
Leacock at that time was a part of 
Pequea and called the West End. The 
regular place of preaching was at 
Pequea, with occasional preaching at 
the West End. There was at that time 
no public road between West End and 
Pequea, and before the building of the 
King's Highway that portion of the 
congregation residing at the West End 
attended divine service on horseback, 
through bridle paths, as they were 


called, an almost unbroken forest. On 
June 29, 1737, at a meeting of Presby- 
tery, Leacock presented a petition ask- 
ing leave to build a place of worship. 
Nothing was done. They referred to 
Synod and erected a building of logs 
on the site of the present one. In 1741 
the church was organized with the con- 
sent of Presbytery and Synod. The 
land on which this meeting house was 
built was purchased from John Ver- 
ner and wife, Martha, on the 9th of 
February, 1741, by John Brown, John 
Cooper, William McCausland and John 
Rees, all of Leacock township. Trus- 
tees were chosen by and for the con- 
gregation of the church of Leacock. 
The lot contained one acre and fifty- 
seven perches, with allowance for the 
provincial road, if the same belaid upgn 
it. The price for the land was five 
shillings current money of the Province 
of Pennsylvania. The lot was taken 
from a tract of land of 310 acres pur- 
chased about the same time from 
Thomas Penn, Esq., son of Williajn 
Penn, by John Verner. 

The next clergyman. Rev. Adam 
Boyd, came from County Antrim, Ire- 
land. He first went to New England, 
where he met Cotton Mather. With a 
letter in his favor from that distin- 
guished divine, and also credentials 
from his home In Ireland, he was re- 
ceived as pastor of the church. He 
died in 1768. 

On September 5, 1733, Rev. Thomas 
Craighead was called to Pequea, but 
only remained a short time, until Sep- 
tember 14, 1736. Rev. Craighead was 
from Scotland, was educated for a phy- 
sician, but studied divinity, went to 
Ireland and the Rev. Adam Boyd mar- 
ried his daughter. He collected, or- 
ganized and built up seven of the 
Presbyterian churches of Lancaster 
county, besides securing the building 
of their houses of worships. Rev. 
Craighead also stood high in the esteem 
of Cotton Mather. 


On October 9, 1750, Pequea and Lea- 
cock united in a call to Rev. Robert 
Smith. He was ordained and installed 
over these churches on March 25, 1751. 
While Dr. Smith was pastor of this 
church the present building was erect- 
ed on the site of the other church, and 
was completed and opened for use in 
the year 1754. Rev. Smith was born 
in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1722, and 
was converted under the preaching of 
Whitefield at the age of fifteen on his 
first visit to this country, on September 
5, 1733. Dr. Smith was distinguished 
both as a divine and the teacher of a 
classical and theological school. Many 
men of note were benefited by his in- 
structions. He died on April 15, 1793, 
in the seventy-first year of his age, and 
his remains lay in the Pequea church- 
yard, near the building where he 
preached for forty-two years. 

Beginning with 1769, the Rev. John 
Woodhull for ten years nresided over 
the spiritual affairs of this church. John 
Woodhull was born in Suffolk county, 
Long Island, N. Y., January 20, 1744. 
After leaving Pequea and Leacock he 
went to Freehold, N. J., as successor 
of the celebrated Rev. Wm. Tennant. 
Rev. John Woodhull was a man of 
illustrious ancestry, the head of the 
family being a nobleman of the time 
of William the Conqueror. 

On Octoher 30, 1780, Leacock, Octo- 
rara and Lancaster united in a call to 
Mr. Nath. Sample, which was accepted. 
He continued pastor of these churches 
for a period of forty years. It is with 
regret that I say he did not keep a 
record of his ministerial work in all 
this time, and necessarily much im- 
portant information is lost. Mr. Sam- 
ple was born at Peach Bottom, York 
county, and his grandparents came 
from Ireland. He was a student under 
Dr. Smith, and graduated at Princeton 
in 1776. 

The graveyard in which the old 


church stands must not be forgotten, 
as it contains many names of historic 
note and familiar to us all. Time will 
not permit me to mention more than a 
few inscribed on some of the old 
tombs. Many of these families lived 
along the route of the old road; all 
were familiar with it. They are: Irwin, 
Watson, Porter, Mcllvane, Parker, 
Crawford, Whitehill,McCausland,Wood, 
Scott, Lyon, Steele, Redick, Quigley, 
Barefoot, McGlaughlin, Skiles, Rea, 
Kerr, Wallace, Tepley, Slaymaker and 

(to be continued.) 



The paper read at the meeting of the 
Historical Society of Lancaster County 
on September 2, 1898, prepared by J. 
W. Sheaffer, of Illinois, contains some 
statements not borne out by historical 

General Anthony Wayne's troops 
never encamped in Mount Joy, in Lan- 
caster county, in December, 1777. Ref- 
erence being had to the plan of Valley 
Forge camp ground in 1777, General 
Wayne's position is marked "Camp 
Mount Joy." All of Wayne's letters 
and reports are dated Mount Joy. I ex- 
amined the plan of Valley Forge camp 
some years ago, and discovered the 
mistake some of our local historians 

Colonel James Crawford did not re- 
side in Hanover township at the break- 
ing out of the Revolutionary war. He 
owned a farm and resided upon it 
along the Newport road, near Buyers- 
town. I believe that the Rev. Thomas 
Crawford was born there. I knew him 
when he resided near the Gap, sixty 
years ago. 

At a convention of delegates from 
the Associated Battalions, held in Lan- 
caster, July 4, 1776, the Fifth Battalion 
was represented by the following- 
named officers: 

Colonel James Crawford, Captain 
James Mercer, Private Henry Slay- 
maker and Private John Whitehill. 

Captain James Mercer resided close 
to Buyerstown. He came from Pough- 
keepsie, New York State. He married 
a daughter of William Hamilton, who 
owned several hundred acres of land 
along Pequea creek, north of Buyers- 
town. In 1777 he was Major in Col- 


onel John Boyd's Battalion. He also 
occupied prominent positions in civil 
life. He was a member of the Legisla- 
ture for the years 1781, 1782 and 1783, 
and in 1782 was Colonel commanding 
a battalion in this county. He married 
second a daughter of Samuel Paterson, 
who owned several hundred acres along 
Pequea creek, one or two miles below 
BuyerstO'wn. After Mr. Paterson's 
death he resided upon a farm inherited 
by his wife" from her father. Here he 
died in 1804. Some of his descendants 
reside in New York, Ohio and New Or- 

Private Henry Slaymaker resided 
near where Willismstown now is, and 
about two miles south of Colonel 
Crawford. He was appointed one of 
the Justices of the Common Pleas 
Court, over which he presided in 1784. 
He died in 1785. All of his sons were 
officers or privates in the Revolution- 
ary War. The late Hon. Amos Slay- 
maker, Captain John, Lieut. Matthias 
and Privates William and Daniel were 
his sons. 

Private John Whitehill resided in 
Salisbury township. He afterwards 
married Ann Middleton, of Donegal 
township, in this county. Some of his 
descendants reside in Columbia, Pa. 

Colonel Crawford's Fifth Battalion 
was called out in 1776 to serve in the 
field, in New Jersey. When they were 
encamped at Bergentown the battalion 
was mustered on September 4, 
1776. Prior to this, when the militia 
were at Burlington, N. J., the "Flying 
Camp" was organized, and Captain 
Robert Buyers' company was embodied 
with those troops, and was in the bat- 
tle of Long Island. 

The following officers' names appear 
at the muster of September 4, 1776, all 
of whom resided in the neighborhood 
of Colonel Crawford's Fifth Battalion, 
Lancaster county militia: 

Colonel, James Crawford; First 
Major, William Fullerton; Second 


Major, George Stewart; John Mont- 
gomery, Standard Bearer; John White- 
hill, Quartermaster; William Scott, 
Adjutant; J. D. Woodhull, D. D., Chap- 
lain; James Wood, Sergeant Major; 
James Forsyth, Quartermaster Ser- 
geant; Dr. Leckey Murray, Surgeon. 

Major Fullerton was connected by 
marriage with Captain Robert Buyers. 
After the Revolution he located mili- 
tary land warrants in Virginia Valley, 
and moved from there to Westmore- 
land county, Pa. His son, William, 
was also an officer in the Revolution- 
ary War. He married a daughter of 
James Fleming, who was a private in 
Captain Buyers' company. He moved 
to Westmoreland county. Pa. A de- 
scendant of the same name is a dis- 
tinguished lawyer in Pittsburg, Pa. 
Mr. Irvin, of Westmoreland county, 
married his daughter. 

Major Stewart resided on a farm on 
the west side of Colonel Crawford's 
residence. In 1777 he was Lieutenant 
Colonel in Colonel John Boyd's Seventh 
Battalion. After the war he moved to 
Westmoreland county. 

Dr. Woodhull preached at Leacock 
and Lancaster. He was patriotic and 
loyal, and rendered most valuable aid 
to the patriots. 

Dr. Leckey Murray married a daugh- 
ter of Colonel Bertram Galbraith. The 
Carpenters, of Lancaster, are descend- 

Captain Buyers' company, of Colonel 
Crawford's Battalion, served in the 
"Flying Camp," and was mustered 
at Bergentown, September 4, 1776. 

Among the privates in this company 
were many free holders and some of 
the most prominent persons in Lea- 
cock and Salisbury townships. Among 
them were Lieutenant David Watson, 
who married a Miss Hamilton, daugh- 
ter of William. Hamilton, mentioned 
above. (Second wife. Miss Paterson). 
He also resided on one of Mr. 
Paterson's farms, along Pequea. He 


was afterwards Colonel and commis- 
sary of purchases. His son, Colonel 
Nathaniel "Watson, was in command of 
the Lancaster county militia in the 
War of 1812. 

The late Dr. John Watson, of Done- 
gal Springs, was a son of Colonel David 
Watson. Descendants of the latter re- 
side in Conoy and Mt. Joy townships 
and in Lancaster city. 

Private William McCausland, son of 
Major and Colonel William McCaus- 
land, who resided along the Pequea, in 
Leacock township. His descendants 
moved to Virginia and the Southwest. 

Private Samuel Humes was the an- 
cestor of the Lancaster families of the 

Private James Fleming, who died 
March 2, 1777, from wounds received 
at the battle of Long Island. One of 
his daughters, Isabella, married Hon. 
Amos Slaymaker; another, Hannah, 
married William Flillerton, above men- 
tioned; another married Ethelbert 
Armstrong, son of General John Arm- 
strong; another married Isaac Smith, a 
grandson of Jonathan Smith, President 
of the United States Bank. The only 
son of Mr. Fleming, Daniel, married a 
daughter of Samuel Johnson, who was 
a private in Captain Buyers' company, 
and owned a farm along the old Phila- 
delphia and Lancaster road. Daniel 
Fleming and the Johnsons moved to 
Westmoreland county. Pa. 

Privates John Caldwell, Robert 
Miller, William Cowen, John Watson, 
the Find leys and others of Buyers' 
Company were land owners. 

After the campaign of 1776, Colonel 
Crawford seems to have dropped out 
of the military service. All of his staff 
and line officers were promoted and 
served during the war. 

Captain Josiah Crawford, of Frank- 
lin county. Pa., was his brother. 

The brief notices of the officers in 
Crawford's battalion locates them in 
his own neighborhood, along or near 


Pequea Creek. James Crawford, of 
Donegal, and Lancaster, and Lampeter 
townships, I think, could not be the 
same person who commanded the Fifth 
Battalion. SAMUEL EVANS. 

Impress of Early Names and Ms 

From an early period in its history 
the population of Pennsylvania was 
composed of people representing vari- 
ous nationalities. They have all left 
an impress which is discerned distinc- 
tively in many localities. 

Our earliest pioneers were the Dutch, 
who settled along the Delaware river 
in 1623, and claimed title to the land 
by right of discovery, under the au- 
spices of the Dutch West India Com- 
pany. They penetrated into the inte- 
rior along the valley of the Schuylkill, 
and were in undisturbed possession for 
fifteen years, when in 1638 the Swedes 
appeared in the Delaware, arriving in 
two vessels, and purchased from the 
Indians a strip of land from the Falls 
of the Delaware, near the present site 
of Trenton, to the Falls of the Schuyl- 
kill, at Philadelphia, and they gave to 
their purchase the name of New Swe- 
den. The Dutch protested on the 
ground of their prior right by discov- 
ery and possession, but the Swedes In- 
sisted on their title by purchase and 
took complete control, which they held 
for seventeen years, founding the town 
of Upland, afterwards named Chester 
by William Penn, and extending the 
settlement beyond the limits held by 
the Dutch. The Dutch reconquered the 
country in 1655 and held control of it 
for nine years, although the Swedes 
continued to occupy the land. TTiere 
were few Dutch settlers, the whole 
population of Dutch and Swedes being 
estimated to number about 368 per- 

Then came the conquest by the Eng- 
lish in 1664, whereupon a deed was 


given to the Duke of York, brother of 
King Charles II., which included a vast 
territory, claimed to embrace a large 
part of New England, and what is now 
within New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania and Delaware. The name of 
the New Netherlands was changed to 
New York. 

The deed given to the Duke of York 
was superseded by the charter granted 
to William Penn by King Charles II., 
dated at Westminster, March 4, 1681, 
in consideration of a claim of sixteen 
thousand pounds due from the Crown 
to Admiral Penn, which the latter be- 
queathed to his son, William Penn. 

In the autumn of 1682 William Penn 
landed and took possession as sole pro- 
prietary, and the title in William Penn 
and his descendants continued until 
their claims were purchased by the 
Commonwealth In 1776. 

Under William Penn began the 
"Holy Experiment," which was recog- 
nized by the oppressed of all nations, 
and attracted hither not only the Eng- 
lish Quakers, but the French Hugue- 
nots, the German Mennonites and Bap- 
tists, the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians 
and the Welsh and English Episcopa- 

Penn was especially eager and liberal 
in extending the hospitalities of his 
new province to^ the German refugees 
from the Palatinate, who migrated in 
vast numbers to Holland and thence to 
England, thirteen thousand of them ap- 
pearing in London in 1709 and casting 
themselves upon the charity of the 
citizens. This remarkable exodus is 
the subject of a most learned and ex- 
haustive historical contribution by F. 
R. Diffenderffer, Secretary of the Lan- 
caster County Historical Society, to the 
valuable literature of the Pennsylvania 
German Society, based on authentic 
data obtained from original sources by 
painstaking and elaborate research. 
His narrative contains the following 


concise statement, which affords a 
glimpse of the strange movement which 
was fruitful of such great results: 
"During the months of May and June, 
1709, the citizens of the City of Lon- 
don were astonished to find the streets 
of that metropolis swarming with men 
and women of an alien race, speaking 
an unknown tongue and bearing un- 
mistakable indications of poverty, 
misery and want. It soon became 
known that about 5,000 of these people 
were sheltered under tents in the sub- 
urbs of the city. Additions were al- 
most daily made to their number dur- 
ing June, July, August and September, 
and by October between 13,000 and 14,- 
000 had come This sudden irrup- 
tion of so many thousands of foreign- 
ers within a few months into a coun- 
try where but few of them had ever 
appeared before, and where they were 
utter strangers, rather than into neigh- 
boring countries of like faith and kin- 
dred language that would perhaps have 
been more ready to welcome them, 
stands forth as one of the most re- 
markable facts of the time. It was 
found that these people were Germans 
from the country lying between Lan- 
dau, Spire and Manheim, reaching al- 
most to Cologne, commonly called the 
Palatinate. There were, however,many 
from other parts of Germany, princi- 
pally from Swabia and Wurtemberg." 

Our author further shows, from the 
authority of ancient documents, that 
the Elector Palatine, upon many fam- 
ilies leaving his dominions and going 
to England to be transported to Penn- 
sylvania, published an order making it 
death and confiscation of goods for any 
of his subjects to quit their native 

The Germans, particularly, were 
most tenacious of those traits and 
characteristics which marked the dif- 
ference between them and other peo- 
ples, and this is conspicuous wherever 


they colonized. As an illustration of 
the permanent impress made by many 
of the early colonists wherever they 
settled, especially those from Germany, 
there could scarcely be a more apt cita- 
tion than from the interesting chapter 
on the German colony in Ireland in 
Mr. Diffenderffer's valuable historical 
work, from which I have already 
quoted. Of the vast number that mi- 
grated to England not all were sent to 
America. There were 3,800 of them 
colonized in Ireland. In August, 1709, 
five hundred families were located near 
Limerick, and among them were all 
the linen weavers from among the 
German refugees, and our author says, 
after analyzing all the facts, that they 
warrant the belief "that if these Ger- 
man colonists did not in fact first es- 
tablish the linen trade in that country 
they at all events gave it such an im- 
press with their skill as to have for 
nearly two hundred years made it the 
most important textile industry in Ire- 
land." Such it is to-day. And he 
quotes the language of Holmes, that 
under the distinctive "name of Pala- 
tines they left the impress of their 
character in social and economical 
traits on the whole district from Castle 
Mattrass eastward to Adare." 

"John Wesley, the eminent evange- 
list and founder of Methodism, during 
a trip to Ireland, in 1758, paid a visit 
to this Palatine colony. In his journal 
he tells what he saw there. He says: 
'I rode over to Court Mattrass, a 
colony of Germans, whose parents 
came out of the Palatinate fifty years 
ago,' and he then describes their con- 
dition. In 1760 some of the descend- 
ants of these Irish Palatines left Lime- 
rick for the United States, and were 
among the pioneers of American 

"In 1780, Parrar, the historian, of 
Limerick, wrote of them, as retaining 
their distinctive German habits and 


customs, and, as late as 1840, well- 
known English authors wrote about 
this old German colony. They said, 
'They differ from other people of the 
country. The elder people still retain 
their language, customs and religion, 
but the younger ones mingle with the 
Irish people and intermarry with 
them.' " 

In the year 1709 there were large ac- 
cessions of Palatine Germans to 
Pennsylvania, or "Penn's Woods," as 
it was often called, for the province 
was a vast stretch of thickly set wood- 
land, and many of these Germans set- 
tled in Lancaster county, clearing the 
forest and establishing homes. Their 
reports sent to the Fatherland encour- 
aged others to come, and soon the 
German immigrants became so numer- 
ous as to alarm the Proprietary offi- 
cials, and Parliament was appealed to 
at one time to prevent their immigra- 
tion, "for fear the colony would in 
time be lost to the Crown." As the 
right to vote or to sit in the Assembly 
was confined to natural born subjects 
of England, or persons naturalized in 
England or the province, and naturali- 
zation was a very complicated proceed- 
ing, few Germans took any interest in 
governmental affairs or qualified 
themselves to vote, which continued 
until the 19th of June, 1776, when the 
right to vote was extended to adult 
freemen resident in the province one 
year, which enfranchised the Germans, 
and thus, says the Historian Bancroft, 
"the Germans were incorporated into 
the people and made one with them." 
As was pointed out by George F. Baer, 
LL. D., in an historical address, deliv- 
ered at Lancaster, in 1891, "there were 
no German Tories and the Ger- 
mans were the potential factors in se- 
curing the essential vote of Pennsyl- 
vania for the Declaration of Independ- 

Notwithstanding, however, that the 
population of Pennsylvania was made 


up of persons of various nationalities, 
the fact of the English proprietorship 
and dominance of the English Quakers 
for upwards of a century impressed 
upon the Colony features of an English 
character which appear in many of the 
names and customs that were adopted. 
It is, therefore, not surprising that the 
English system of local territorial di- 
vision was adopted, and that the first 
division into counties in Pennsylvania 
gave us names familiar among the 
English shires. Nor, indeed, that an 
English name was given to the new 
county that was carved out of Chester 
in 1729 and when, in 1730, the old vil- 
lage of Hickory Town was changed 
into the county seat, that both county 
and county seat should bear the name 
of Lancaster, familiar and dear to the 
emigrants from that ancient English 
shire town. 

Any one who visits Lancaster in 
England will observe many points of 
resemblance between it and its name- 
sake in Pennsylvania. Even the sur- 
rounding country and the general 
landscape 'appear very similar. The 
surrounding ranges of hills and the 
broad stretch of fertile country, highly 
cultivated and beautifully improved, 
seem quite familiar. The neighboring 
counties, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Berk- 
shire, Bucks, Montgomery, Cumber- 
land, Northumberland, are names 
that sound not less familiar than 
when crossing the stone bridge 
of five arches over the river 
Lune and entering the shire town we 
find ourselves walking up Queen 
street and the similarity of names is 
kept up in King street, these two form- 
ing the principal cross streets, and then 
Little Duke street, Prince Regent 
street, St. James street. High street. 
Market street. Water street, Ann 
street. Church street and Middle street. 

In the subdivision of the county into 
townships, as the early officials of the 
county were almost without exception 


natives of England, it is quite natural 
that English names should attach to 
many of the townships, as Salisbury 
and Sadsbury and Martic and Hemp- 
field and Warwick and Little Britain. 

It is to be noted however, that while 
the general government of the colony 
and the local offices were in the hands 
of the English under the Proprietor- 
ship during the better part of a cen- 
tury, and almost everywhere an Eng- 
lish impress was made that was evi- 
denced in a measure by the names of 
places, other elements of the popula- 
tion were quietly laying the founda- 
tions of strength and usefulness that 
have deeply impressed the history of 
the Commonwealth. 

The Dutch possession, it is true, 
lasted but a short time and did not ex- 
tend far, but some of the Dutch names 
still survive in Schuylkill, Rittenhouse, 
Pannabecker and others. The Welsh 
remained later and are remembered for 
their mining and manufacturing enter- 
prise, and Welsh names mark their in- 
fluence among the early settlers in 
many places, especially in the north- 
eastern section of our county. Three 
of our original townships bear Welsh 
names — Caernarvon, Brecknock and 

The Scotch-Irish were the aggressive 
element of the population. They were 
not under any religious restraint 
against war as were the English 
Quakers and the German and Swiss 
Mennonites and Baptists, and, there- 
fore, they were induced to go to the 
frontiers, and it was they who kept 
moving onward and expanding the 
area of the Commonwealth. 

An historian of this time, referring 
to the settlements of the Scotch-Irish, 
says that "the country when they ar- 
rived in it was heavily timbered, damp 
and cold. Game was abundant, herds 
of buffalo and elk wandered through 
the woods. There were enormous 
migrations of squirrels, which some- 


times became so numerous as to 
threaten the destruction of the crops. 
Wolves were also numerous, and 
hydrophobia spread among them. Rat- 
tlesnakes and copperheads were almost 
as much dreaded as the Indians. It 
was no uncommon thing to kill six in 
one day while cutting a field of grain. 
They lived in dens among the rocks, 
several hundred together, and the 
neighbors would often join in an at- 
tack on these places." 

With such surroundings there was 
good reason for having on the frontiers 
a brave, venturesome, alert and hardy 
people, and there were none who pos- 
sessed these qualities comparably with 
the Scotch-Irish, and they made them- 
selves felt wherever they went, and 
they have left a distinctive trace in al- 
most every section of the Common- 
wealth. Lancaster county owes much 
to the Scotch-Irish, who emigrated 
here at an early period. 

The townships of Donegal, Rapho, 
Mount Joy, Coleraine, Leacock, Dru- 
more, are all names derived from 
places in Ireland that were affection- 
ately remembered by the early Scotch- 
Irish. ^ 

The German names of places are 
few, which is not surprising, as the 
colony was distinctively English, un- 
der English laws and customs, and 
the Germans were without knowledge 
of the language, customs or habits of 
the English people. So they naturally 
took little interest in the affairs of 
government and devoted themselves to 
agriculture and to a few mechanical 
employments. Manheim, one of our 
original townships, recalls the Palati- 
nate City of that name. Strasburg is 
the name of another German city, 
though under French dominion. Earl 
township was named in honor of Hans 
Graaf, a prominent and most worthy 
German pioneer, whose surname is the 
equivalent of the English Earl, which 
was adopted instead of the German 


form, though Graaf's Thai designates 
the locality where repose the remains 
of this progenitor of a now very numer- 
ous family. 

It is thus obvious that the various 
elements of our early population made 
a marked and distinctive impression 
on the different localities where they 
settled. Names they brought from 
their far off homes and adopted in af- 
fectionate remembrance, mark the 
places that now know their founders 
no more, but their sterling qualities of 
manhood and womanhood gave an im- 
pulse and an inspiration to true citi- 
zenship that have had a lasting effect 
on their posterity, and were the surest 
and best foundations for a strong and 
prosperous Commonwealth. 





On DKCEIVIBER 2, 1898. 





Rev. F. J. F. SCHANTZ, D.D. 

VOL. III. NO. 4. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


An Old Lancaster County Churcli 

To every true American citizen 
Pennsylvania will ever be of interest 
in view of the events that occurred on 
its soil in connection with the origin 
and development of our glorious re- 

Citizens of Pennsylvania rejoice in 
their Commonwealth in view of what 
it is, and will ever gladly speak of and 
hear of what aided in the making of it. 

Many factors must be acknowledged 
— the home, the school, the spheres of 
labor, the State and the church, and 
all connected with them. 

As decades increase in number the 
half-century is reached, and men can 
speak of fifty years ago, but when the 
century is ended men are seldom here 
to tell the living of what they saw and 
heard a hundred years ago, and when 
the sesqui-centennial is to be observed 
many men are forgotten and their re- 
mains lie in cemeteries often without 
tombstones to mark their graves. 

The past ought to be of interest to 
those who live to-day and enjoy the re- 
sults of the labors of preceding genera- 
tions, and thus no apology need be 
offered by those who endeavor to pre- 
serve the history of the different fac- 
tors that aided in making our State 
what it is. 

In the presentation of such history, 
when men would deal honestly with 
facts, it is often necessary to say or 
write what some men would rather 
leave unsaid or unwritten. A truthful 
presentation of facts alone is true his- 

In the closing quarter of the present 
century a commendable interest has 
been shown in the presentation of the 
history of Synods and congregations 

' ( 58 ) 

that have had to do with the supply of 
the spiritual wants of men that they 
might have part in the Kingdom of the 
Anointed on earth and in heaven, and 
whilst on earth be better individuals, 
constitute better families and commu- 
nities and better citizens of the Com- 
monwealth and the republic. 

The immigrants who settled in Penn- 
sylvania at an early period soon took 
steps to secure the advantages of the 
Christian congregation, the church 
building and the school house. Lan- 
caster county had at a very early date 
Evangelical Lutheran congregations at 
Lancaster, New Holland, Muddy Creek, 
Bergstrass, Strasburg, Manheim, War- 
wick and other places. 

The Evangelical Lutheran congrega- 
tion in Warwick township, Lancaster 
county. Pa., now named Emmanuel 
Evangelical Lutheran congregation, at 
Brickerville, Elizabeth township, Lan- 
caster county. Pa., has an interesting, 
though varied, history, and the purpose 
of this paper is to contribute to the 
preservation of the same. 

The congregation has a number of 
very interesting church records, and 
the oldest o<f these, bound in parch- of exceedingly great value. The 
cover contains an inscription which 
has, however, become very imperfect. 
The following can still be read: "Kir- 
chenbuch and Protocoll der Evangel- 
isch-Lutherischen Gemeinde in War- 
wick, 1745. Dominus protegat in 

Ecclesia Nostra. Amen." The title 
page of the record reads as follows: 
"KirchenbuchundProtocollfuer die Ev- 
angelisch-Lutherische Gemeinde in 
Warwick de Anno 1730 angefangen. 
Nunmehro aus andern fldeliter extra- 
hiret und hierinn quoad possibilitatem 
accurat zusaramen 'getragen. Verfer- 
tiget von mir Joh. Casper Stoever der 
Zeit Ev. Luth.Prediger in Canastocken. 
Anno 1743." 

The figures 43 of 1743 appear to have 
been written over two other figures. 


Below Canastocken the word Canas- 
toga was written, evidently not by Joh. 
Casper Stoever. 

On the page following the title page 
the following important entry is to be 

Verzeichniss derer Personen welche 
sich als Haeupter ihrer Familien zu 
Glieder dieser Gemeinde bekennen 


D. A. B. 

L. M. 


F. J. 







A. E. 


No date is given to show when the 
names that appear in the record were 
signed. Pages 1 to 8 are not numbered. 
On the ninth page the numbering be- 
gins. On page 1 the following appears: 

Verzeichniss derer in der Warwicker 
Ev. Luth. Kirchen und Gemeinde 
getaufte Kinder. 

Joh. Michael Kitsch: Ein Sohn, Joh. 
Michael. Geboren 30ten October, 1732. 
Getauft 3ten December, 1732. Zeug. 
Joh. Michael Pfautz et uxor ejus. 

Eine Tochter, Maria Elizabetha. 
Geboren 19ten April, 1734. Getauft May 
12, 1734. Zeug. Jacob Weiss und Maria 
Elizabetha Wolfin. 

Leonhard Miller: Ein Sohn, Joh. Ja- 
cob. Geboren January 12, 1732. Get- 
auft February 3, 1733. Zeug. Joh. Ja- 
cob Weiss und Susanna Wolfin. (Here 
follow the entries of the baptisms of 
eleven more children of Leonhard Mil- 

Joh. Peter Trabbinger: Ein Sohn, 
Joh. Peter. Geboren December 23, 
1730. Getauft February 26, 1731. Zeug. 
Jacob Weiss, Senior. 

This entry of February 26, 1731, gives 
the earliest date in the record of 

The record of baptisms extends from 
page 1 to 137. The last entries were 
made in 1772. 

It is to be regretted that none of 
these entries give the nanxes of minis- 
ters who administered baptism. Rev. 
John Casper Stoever's handwriting is 
recognized to about 1754, but after that 
year the entries differ greatly, showing 
that they were made by different par- 

The record contains the entries of 
marriages, as follows: 

"Verzeichniss derer von mir in der 
Warwicker Gemeinde Copulirten Per- 
sohnen. ("von mir" was crossed.) 


"Joh. Georg Bohrman und Catarina 
Motzin, den 10 August. Anno 1735." 

The record contains 35 entries of mar- 
riages from 1735 to 1743. All of these 
entries appear to have been made at 
one time, and as they all are given in 
Pastor Stoever's private record of 
marriages we may suppose that they 
were copied from his private Journal. 
Three more marriages were recorded 
in 1754, 1761 and 1762, but not in the 
handwriting of Pastor Stoever. At 
two of these weddings he, however, offi- 
ciated, as they are also recorded in his 
private Journal, which contains the en- 
tries of 65 or 66 marriages of parties 
in Warwick from 1743 to 1779. 

It is to be regretted that no mar- 
riages were entered in this first church 
book from 1763 to 1772. 

The first church book contains an in- 
dex of the names of male parents of 
the children baptized from 1731 to 1772, 
a period of 41 years. This is valuable, 
as it gives the names of parents in 
Warwick who in those years had bap- 
tism administered to their children. 
The index presents 279 names, show- 
ing that in 279 families baptism was 
administered 1731 to 1772. A few of 
the entries from 1770 to 1772 were re- 
peated in a later record. The baptized 
numbered more than 650; these in- 
cluded a few adults. 

It is to be regretted that the first 
church book contains no records of 
confirmations and communicants and 
no names of persons buried, from 1730 
to 1772. From the first church record 
we learn that children were baptized in 
the Warwick region as early as 1731, 
and persons were married as early as 
1735. We may also infer that there 
was a congregation as early as 1730, 
but the only reference to a church are 
the words "Kirche und Gemeinde," 
Pastor Stoever made the early entries 
of baptisms and marriages. He did not 
sign as pastor of the congregation, but 


as pastor at that time, 1743, in Cones- 
toga. We would be glad to know why- 
he did not sign as pastor in Warwick. 
That he cared for the spiritual wants 
of the people is evident from the first 
church book, and in another church 
book he is named "our old pastor." 

As no date is given in connection 
with the following entry in the first 
church book: "Verzeichniss derer 
Personen welchersich alsHaeupter ihre 
Familien zu Glieder dieser Gemeinde 
bekennen wollen," the question arises 
when were the names signed th?t fol- 
low the "Verzeichniss, etc.?" If in the 
year 1730, then it appears singular that 
a number of these names are the same 
as those that are given persons who 
arrived in Pennsylvania after 1730. 
And another fact may be properly re- 
ferred to here. The corner-stone of 
Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
on the Tulpehocken, near Stouchsburg, 
Berks county. Pa., was laid on Ascen- 
sion Day, May 12, 1743. The declara- 
tion made on said occasion, of which 
one copy was deposited in the corner- 
stone and another preserved, was 
signed by 165 persons, and what ap- 
pears singular is that the list contains, 
besides the name of Johan Casper 
Stoever, the names of Leonhard Muel- 
ler, Johannes Weidman, Balther Suess, 
George Albert, Martin Weidman, John 
Adam Oberlin, George Eichelberger, 
Michael Spiegel,all of whose names ap- 
pear on the list given above. The first 
church on the Tulpehocken was built 
in the year 1727. The congregation 
had many trials, in which the names 
of Leutbaker, Stoever and Moravian 
ministers appear. The "Tulpehocken 
Confusion" was followed by the pos- 
session of the church by the Mora- 
vians. Those who were not satisfied 
withdrew and built Christ Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, on the Tulpehocken, 
the corner-stone of which was laid on 
May 12, 1743. The members were di- 


vided. Some adhered to Pastor Stoever. 
sorae to Valentine Kraft; others were 
opposed to both of them. Rev. Tobias 
Wagner became the pastor and conse- 
crated the church on Christmas, 1743. 
If the congregation in Warwick had 
already in 1730 a church building, it 
appears singular that some o' its 
prominent members should have taken 
part In the laying of the corner-stone 
of the new church on the Tulpehocken 
on May 12, 1743. If the congregation 
had already in 1730 a church building, 
it appears singular that a new church 
building should have been erected be- 
fore 1745. 

The first church record contains no 
reference to the erection of a church 
building. This does, however, not 
prove that there was no church build- 
ing or school house used also for 
church purposes at that period. The 
building may have been a temporary 
structure and not adequate to meet the 
wants of the congregation with the in- 
crease of years. 

"In the year 1744 John Penn, Thom- 
as Penn and Richard Penn, Esquires," 
were "the true and absolute proprie- 
taries and Governors-in-Chief of the 
Province of Pennsylvania and the coun- 
ties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex on 
the Delaware. In pursuance and by 
virtue of a warrant under seal of their 
Land Office, bearing date twenty-sev- 
enth day of April, there was surveyed 
and laid out unto Jacob Kline, Law- 
rence Hoff, Conrad Glassbrenner and 
Alexander Zartman all of the county 
of Lancaster for the use of the Luthe- 
ran congregation in Warwick town- 
ship, within che said county, a cer- 
tain tract of land situate within the 
said township of Warwick, bounded 

and described as follows, viz.: 

containing twenty-nine acres. The 
parties already named, members of the 
congregation and trustees for the same, 
applied for a confirmation of the said 
tract of land for the use aforesaid. The 


consideration of the sum of four pounds 
nine shillings and nine pence, lawful 
money of Pennsylvania, was paid by 
Jacob Kline, Lawrence Hoff, Conrad 
Glassbrenner and Alexander Zartman. 
The twenty-nine acres were subject to 
an annual quit rent of one-half penny 
sterling for each acre. The twenty- 
nine acres were given, granted.released 
and confirmed to the said trustees, and 
George Thomas, Lieutenant Governor 
of the Province, set his hand to and 
caused the great seal of the said Pro- 
vince to be attached to the deed May 
10, 1744." 

In the following year, on February 
24th, "the Lutheran congregation, at 
a meeting held at the church, or meet- 
ing house, by them lately erected on 
the said tract of land, unanimously re- 
solved and agreed to change the said 
trustees and the said Jacob Kline, Law- 
rence Hoff, Conrad Glassbrenner and 
Alexander Zartman agreed and con- 
sented to convey and make over all 
their estate, right, title, trust and in- 
terest in the said tract of land and 
premises unto Martin Wydeman, 
George Albert, Leonhard Mueller and 
David Behler, being the new trustees 
chosen and elected by the said Luthe- 
ran congregation at their said meet- 
ing. The consideration was nine 
pounds four shillings, lawful money in 
Pennsylvania, under the quit rent re- 
served in the patent for the same. The 
indenture was signed by Jacob Kline, 
Lawrence Hoff, Conrad Glassbrenner 
and Alexander Zartman, sealed and de- 
livered in the presence of Johan Cas- 
per Stoever and John X Gonbalman. 
The receipt of nine pounds four shil- 
lings paid by the new trustees was ac- 
knowledged by the old trustees. Wit- 
nesses present, Johan Casper Stoever 
and Johannes X Gonbalman." 

The following shows fully the act of 
the congregation: 

"Be it remembered that on the twen- 
ty-fourth day of February, 1744-5, it 


being proposed by us subscribers.mem- 
bers of the Lutheran congregation in 
the township of Warwick, and now 
met at our church in the said town- 
ship, Trustees Jacob Kline, Lawrence 
Hoff, Conrad Glassbrenner and Alex- 
ander Zartman, to whom the patent for 
the said church and the tract of land 
whereon the same stands and within 
described was made in trust for 
the Lutheran congregation in the said 
township, shall be changed: It is now 
resolved and unanimously agreed by 
us, the said subscribers, with the free 
consent and approbation of the said 
first-named trustees, that they, the said 
trustees, shall transfer and convey the 
said tract of land, all their estate, trust 
and interest therein unto the within- 
named Martin Wydeman, George Al- 
bert, Leonhard Mueller and David 
Behler. the new trustees now 
chosen and appointed. "Witness our 
hands." (Here follow the signatures 
of thirty names.) 

From the statement just presented 
we learned that on May 10, 1744, the 
twenty-nine acres of land were secured 
by the trustees, Jacob Kline, Lawrence 
Hoff, Conrad Glassbrenner and Alex- 
ander Zartman. On the following Feb- 
ruary 24, 1745, the congregation held a 
meeting at the church, or meeting 
house, by them lately erected on the 
said tract of land. From this we may 
justly infer that the congregation 
erected a church building on this tract 
of land between May 10, 1744, and Feb- 
ruary 24, 1745, as the words "lately 
erected" would imply. 

We regret that we have no account 
of the laying of the corner-stone of the 
church nor of the consecration of the 
church. Neither have we any record 
to show the dimensions of the church 
and the materials used. Many of the 
churches built in those early days were 
erected of logs. The historic church 
at the Trappe, Montgomery county. 
Pa., was erected of stone. The corner- 


stone was laid May 2, 1743. Christ 
Church on the Tulpehocken, near 
Stouchsburg, Berks county, Pa., erect- 
ed in 1743, was built of stone. The 
corner-stone was laid May 12, 1743, and 
the church was consecrated on Christ- 
mas, 1743, by Rev. Tobias "Wagner. 

How long Pastor Stoever ministered 
to the congregation in Warwick is not 
clearly stated. From entries in the 
baptismal record and first church book 
we may infer that he cared for the 
same until 1754. It is not stated who 
ministered to the congregation from 
1754 to 1760. 

We found an interesting record in 
the Halle Reports (new edition), vol. 
2, pages 387 and 388. Rev. Heinrich 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, patriarch of the 
Lutheran Church in America, who 
came to Pennsylvania November 25, 
1742, in response to a call from the 
congregations in Philadelphia, at 
the Trappe and Falkner's Swamp, who 
participated in the organization of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania, August, 
1748, and who had the care of many 
churches and madp many visitations, 
states in his Dailv Journal of 1762 that 
on Sunday, February 14, 1762, he an- 
nounced to the congregation (in Phila- 
delphia) that he must visit the con- 
gregations in Providence (Trappe), 
Hanover (Falkner's Swamp), Oley, 
Reading, Heidelberg (corner church 
near Robesonia), Tulpehocken (Christ 
Church and Riethe Church), Lebanon, 
at Mr. St's Iron Works and Conestoga, 
and that he, therefore, asked for the 
prayers of believing members of the 
congregation. He left Philadelphia on 
Monday afternoon, February 15, with 
his wife and son, and reached Provi- 
dence on Tuesday, February 16, near 
evening. On Wednesday, February 17, 
they rode to Reading, where they ar- 
rived about 8 p. m., at the residence of 
Pastor Muhlenberg's mother-in-law 
(the widow of Conrad Weiser). He 


spent Thursday and Friday, February 
18 and 19, at Reading, and conferred 
with Pastor Hausile and others. On 
Saturday, February 20, he rode to 
Heidelberg and then to Mrs. R. On 
Sunday, February 21, he preached in 
Tulpehoclien (Christ Church). Text, 
Luke 12:50. Before the sermon he bap- 
tized two children. On Monday, Feb- 
ruary 22, he visited the school at the 
old church (now called Riethe Church). 
He returned to Heidelberg. On Tues- 
day, February 23, he rode to Heidel- 
berg Church (corner church) and 
preached on Exodus 12:26-27. Rode 
eight miles to Mrs. R. Wednesday, 
February 24, rode with School Master 
Z. to W. and had good company. 
Thursday, February 25, he rode with 
W. and the School Master to Lebanon 
in very cold weather. Returned to L. 
R., whose child he baptized, and rode 
then on to Phil. B., where he spent the 
night. Friday, February 26, he bap- 
tized a child of Andreas R. and prayed 
with his sick wife; went then to W. 
and finally to the residence of Pastor 
J. Nicholaus Kurtz (pastor of Christ 
Church). Rode from 2 p. m. with Mr. 
B. eight miles to G. S. and remained 
during the night. Saturday, February 
27, he rode fouV miles farther to Mr. 
St.'s Iron Works, and preached on 
Psalm 22: 26-27, and remained during 
the night. Sunday, February 28, he 
rode with Mr. F. seven miles to Eph- 
rata, and thence three miles farther to 
Conestoga Church, where he preached 
on the temptation of Christ, Matthew 
4, and accompanied G. Y. to his home 
to remain during the night. Monday, 
March 1, he rode twenty-one milG.ti far- 
ther to Reading and remained there 
until Wednesday, March 3, when he 
rode with members of his family to 
Providence; remained there and 
preached on Sunday, March 7. Mon- 
day, March 8th, rode, in a great snow 
storm, to Philadelphia, and arrived, 
thank God, well preserved. 


This record shows what labors 
Patriarch Mulilenberg performed for 
the welfare of his congregation. We 
have a special interest in the entry: 
"Saturday, February 27, rode four 
miles further to Mr. St.'s Iron Works, 
and preached on Ps. 22: 26-27, and re- 
mained during the nig*ht." 

The only church at Mr. St.'s Iron 
Works (no doubt Heinrich W. Stiegel's 
Iron Works) was the church on the 
historic ground of the church at War- 
wick. This shows us that Patriarch 
Muhlenberg was interested in the con- 
gregation at Warwick and the congre- 
gation in him. 

Another record in the Halle Re 
ports, N. E., vol. 2, page 406, is like- 
wise of special interest to the people 
of the Warwick congregation. Patri- 
arch Muhlenberg entered in his diary, 
with reference to the arrival of minis- 
ters, who came to Philadelphia to at- 
tend the meeting of the Minlsterium: 

"Friday, June 25th (1762). Mr. 
Schwerdfeger, pastor at Conestoga, and 
Mr. Gerocke, pastor at Lancaster, ar- 
rived and were shown to the house of 
a friend for entertainment. Further, 
Mr. Stiegel, as Deputy from Elizabeth 
Eisenwerke (Iron Works), where Pas- 
tor Kurtz has a congregation." 

This entry shows us who was pastor 
of the church in Warwick in 1762. This 
shows us^also, the relation of the con- 
gregatiori'to the Ministerium, at whose 
annual meeting, in 1762, it was repre- 
sented by Heinrich Wilhelm Stiegel. 

How long Pastor Kurtz officiated 
here does not appear. Rev. J. Nicolas 
Kurtz was pastor of Christ Church, Tul- 
pehocken, at Nord Kiel (Bernville), at 
Heidelberg (Corner Church), at Atol- 
hoe (Rehrersburg), and of Riethe 
Church, near Christ Church. He was 
ordained at the first meeting of the 
• Ministerium of Pennsylvania, August, 
1748. He left Tulpehocken in 1770, and 
was pastor at York, Pa. He died May 
12, 1794, aged 74 years, and was buried 


at Baltimore, Md. He was President 
of the Ministerium in 1778, and also the 
Senior of the Ministerium after the 
death of Muhlenberg. His younger 
brother, Wilhelm Kurtz, became his 
assistant about 1760 or '61, and became 
the pastor of New Holland and Con- 
estoga (Muddy Creek) about 1763, and 
was pastor for eighteen years. 

That there was trouble in War- 
wick Church before 1769 appears evi- 
dent from the minutes of the Minis- 
terium of Pennsylvania, which met in 
Philadelphia, June 25-27, 1769. At this 
meeting Rev. Johann Casper Stoever, 
who had become a member of the Min- 
isterium in 1763, was present. The so- 
called preacher, Peter Mischler, was 
present and applied for admission into 
the Ministerium. He was invited to 
appear before the Synod. Pastor Stoe- 
ver stated that in the fall of 1768 he 
had warned Mischler to have nothing 
to do with factious congregations. 
Notwithstanding the warning he had 
given him, he had sided with revolting 
parties in Nord Kiel, in the church for- 
merly in the hands of Moravians in 
Tulpehocken and in Heidelberg. That 
he had also crept into the Warwick 
congregation and caused a split — yes, 
even recently had a boy break through 
a window, open the church door and 
entered it with his party to hold so- 
called worship, although he knew that 
the elders and deacons in Warwick 
congregation had applied to the United 
Ministerium and had several times 
been served from Lancaster. Mischler 
had nothing to produce in his defense, 
but replied he would give up the said 
congregations if the Ministerium would 
receive him. It was ordered that he 
be examined on the same day. The 
minutes give an extended account of 
the examination of the applicant,which 
showed that he was not worthy of re- 
ception. He was not received as a 
member of the Ministerium, and was 
warned by the President that if he 


continued to let himself be used by 
satan and his followers as a wretched 
tool the authorities in Lancaster would 
bring him and his adherents before the 
Justice for breaking into the Warwick 
church, and then the Protocoll would 
serve against him and help to hasten 
his ruin. He promised that he would 
in the future have nothing to do with 
the parties in Warwick, Heidelberg- 
town (Schaefferstown) and Tulpe- 
hocken. He departed and wept before 
the door. 

The presentation of this matter 
contained in the minutes of the Minis- 
terium shows that Warwick congrega- 
tion had great trials before 1769, in 
which year the congregation took ac- 
tion that promised a brighter future 
for the same. 

The second church book of the 
Warwick congregation has the follow- 
ing title: 

"Kirchen Protocoll fur die Evangel- 
isch Lutherische Gemeinde in Warwick 
Township, Lancaster County. Ange- 
fangen den 10 Septembris, Anno Dom- 
ini, 1769." 

On pages 3-8 of this second church 
book we find the Constitution of the 
congregation with Chapter L of the 
government of the congregation, and 
Chapter IL of the members of the con- 

The Constitution was adopted and 
signed in Warwick, December 24, 1769. 
The names that were signed are the 

Daniel Kuhn,P. T. P.; Heinrich Wm. 
Stiegel, Jacob Weydtman, Michael 
Huber, Adam Hacker,Johannes Weydt- 
man, Valentine Stober, Emanuel Suess, 
Peter Merkle, George Stober, Andreas 
Seyss, George Michael Balmer, Fred- 
erick Stiess,Michael Laidich, Johannes 
Karch, Phillip Enders, Petter Hoetzel, 
Jerch Balmer, George Michel Illig, 
Michael Huber, Frid. Grab, Johan Hu- 
ber, George Bichelberger, George 
Waechter Alteste, Christoff Hauer,Cun- 


rath Mentzer,Christoff Weidman, Leon- 
hard Miller, Christoph Miller, Jacob 
Muller, George Weinman, Veit Metz- 
ger, Lorentz Haushalter, George Lang, 
George Schmidt, Henrich Wolff, George 
Weidman, Michael Stober, Frederick 
Waechter, Michael Zartman, Johannes 
Waechter, Michael Klein, Allexander 
Zartman, Jr., Frederick Hacker,Eman- 
uel Zardman, Conrad Barthelmos, 
George Illig, Jun'r, John W. Sauter, 
Leonhard Miller, Jun'r, George Hack- 
er, Johannes Brecht. 

The first church book contains the 
following important entry on page 3: 

"Sind erwehlet worden als Trustees, 
Mr. Henry William Stiegel, Jacob 
Weidman, Adam Hacker, and Peter 
Eltzer, October the 1st, 1769. In Geg- 
enwart der Gemeinde and der meisten 
Stime; die Kauf Briefe sind dem Herr 
Stiegel zur sorgfaeltigen Verwarung 
gegeben wurden." 

This shows that the Trustees were 
elected October 1st, 1769; their names 
follow in regular order in signatures 
to the Constitution, December 24th, 
1769. The name of Peter Elser is 
erased in the second church book and 
the name of Michael Huber Is written 
aside of it. Peter Elser resigned as 
Trustee on the 5th S. P. T., 1772, and 
Michael Huber was elected Trustee. 

The Constitution was signed by F. 
A. C. Muhlenberg, p. t., pastor loci, 
Dec. 1st, 1770, and J. D. Schroeter, p. t., 
pastor ioci, June 1st, 1779. 

From these records we learn that 
the new church book was commenced 
September 10, 1769. Trustees were 
elected October 1, 1769. The Constitu- 
tion was adopted December 24th, 1769. 

The pastor of the congregation in 
the latter part of 1769 was Daniel 
Kuhn. He was pastor only for a short 
time, for, in June, 1769, he was at the 
meeting of Synod, and New York was 
given as his residence. While author- 
ized to preach he was not yet ordained. 


His father, Adam Simon Kuhn, resid- 
ed at Lancaster, Pa. At the meeting 
of Synod in 1770 Mr. Kuhn, at his own 
request, was allowed to retain Middle- 
town alone. He died in or before 
1779. (H. R. N. E., vol. 1, page 629.) 

The congregation in Warwick, with 
Manheim and Weiseichenland, desired 
a preacher. No definite answer could 
be given by Synod concerning the sup- 
ply of the four congregations, "Schaef- 
ferstown, Warwick, Manheim and 
Weiseichenland," on account of the 
scarcity of laborers. 

The record of the congregation 
shows that Rev. F. A. C. Muhlenberg, 
son of Patriarch Muhlenberg, ordained 
in 1770, became the pastor of the 
Warwick congregation on December 1, 

The second church book contains, 
besides the Constitution, subscribed 
December 24, 1769, the minutes of the 
congregation from 1769 to 1869— one 
hundred years. 

The third church book, commenced 
December,1770, has the following title: 
"Erneuertes Kirchen Buch der Evan- 
gelisoh Lutlierischen,Gemeinde zu War- 
wick, Lancaster county." 

1. Die Getauften, Pagina 1 

2. Die Confirmanten 138 

3. Die Copulirten 206 

4. Die Communicanten 272 

5. Die Begrahenen 351 

Gehoerig eingetragen sind. Aufs neu 

ordentlich angefangen vom jahr 1770, 
im Monath December. 

Zur Zeit Prediger allhier. 

Not. — Die Kirchen ordnung nebst 
den Nahmen der Trustees, Aeltesten 
und Vorsteher siehe im andem Kirchen 

In this third church book, baptism, 
confirmation, marriages, communi- 
cants and burials were recorded from 
1770 to 1836. 


Pastor Muhlenberg was pastor of the 
Warwick congregation from December 
1, 1770, to December 1, 1773. He 
preached also at Schaefferstown, Leba- 
non, and other places. In 1772 his 
name appears on the minutes of Synod 
as "Fred. Muhlenberg, from Warwick," 
and in 177S as "Frederick Augustus 
Muhlenberg, from Heidelbergtown 

The second church book contains the 
following entry: Anno 1773, that Herr 
Muhlenberg, siene Abschieds Predigtim 
December, just im Beschlass seines 
dritten Jahrs und reiste von uns ab 
nach New York, wo er hin berufen 
worden war." 

The first church book shows that 
Pastor Muhlenberg, during his three 
years' ministry, baptized 67 children. 
He confirmed 7 catechumens on Easter 
Sunday, 1771. He recorded one mar- 
riage, both of the parties from Cocalico 
township. The number of communi- 
cants was as follows: 1771, 24th 
S.P.T., 92; 1772, Sunday Rogate, 118 

1772, nth, S.P.T., 54; 21st, S.P.T., 87 

1773, Dom. Jubilate, 38; Pentecost, 79 
18th, S.P.T., 59; 23rd, S.P.T., 68. There 
was no record of burials. 

On the 450th page of the third church 
record the following was entered: 

Dom. 21 post Trinitatis war Hr. H. 
W. Stiegel so gut der hiesigen Evange- 
lisch Lutherischen Kirche 25 Tickets 
aus der letzten classe seiner Lottery zu 
schenken mit dem Vorbehalt dasz 
wenn sie etwas Ziehen er bestimmen 
will auf welche Art es zum besten der 
Kirche, mit Bewilligung des Kirchen- 
raths soil angewendet werden. 

Die numbers von den Tickets sind 
foglende: 1847, 1848, 3076, 3077, 4283, 
4646, 2694, 2714, 4416, 4182, 2709, 4545, 
3078 ( 4757, 3397, 1986, 4785, 4746, 4385, 
4549, 3240, 2056, 2672, 2713, 2126. 


The second church book contains 
the following entry: 


"Anno 1774. Dieses Jahr wurden 
wir vom Herr Helmuth aus Lancaster 
bedient bis Mai." 

During Pastor Helmutb's supply of 
the congregation 11 baptisms were re- 
corded. In the year 1774 139 communi- 
cants' names were recorded. After 
Pastor Helmuth's cessation of labor 16 
more baptisms and one burial were re- 
corded in 1774. 

The next entry in the second church 
book is as follows: 

"Anno 1775. Wann er Herr Schwarz- 
bach von Virginia uns von Herrn Hel- 
muth worde anrecomandirt, welcher 
uns bediente bis May, Anno 1776, wan 
ner er von hier weg zog in wlllens 
nach Teutschland zu reissen." 

Pastor Schwarzbach recorded 18 bap- 
tisms and 102 communicants on the 
eleventh Sunday after Trinity, 1775, 
and 104 on the twenty-first Sunday 
after Trinity, and 94, including 11 new- 
ly-confirmed catechumens, on Easter, 

Pastor Schwarzbach was subsequent- 
ly pastor in Carbon county. Pa., and 
died and was buried at Bensalem 
Church in 1800. I saw the following 
inscription ojx his tombstone in 1897: 

"Hier ruhet Johannes Schwarzbach, 
Lutherischer Prediger,war geboren den 
Sten Martz, 1719, war alt 81 Jahr, 5 m., 
23 T., und starb. Leichen Text 2 Tim. 
4: 7-8, und lebte in der Ehe 54 J. 6 m. 
4 Tage." 

After Pastor Schwarzbach's resigna- 
tion in 1776, the congregation again 
applied to Pastor Helmuth, of Lancas- 
ter. The record in the second church 
book is as follows: 

"Wir thaten also wieder Ansuchung 
an Herrn Helmuth welcher uns auch 
bediente bis Pfingsten, Anno 1777, wan 
ner er aufeinmal Abschied nahm und 
uns verliesz." 

From September 30, 1776, to May 17, 
1777, eleven children were baptized. No 
other entries were made. 

After Whitsunday, 1777, the baptism 


of four children was recorded from 
September 30, 1777, to March, 1778. 

The following entry in the second 
church book shows the action of the 
congregation after Pastor Helmuth's 

"Anno 1777. Weilen wir nun gantz 
Prediger loss worden und verlassen so 
namen wir unsere Zuflucht wieder zu 
unserm alten Herr Pfarrer Johann Cas- 
par Stoever und ersuchten ihn uns zu 
bedienen welches er dannauch annahm 
und uns bediente so viel as seine 
Schwachheit und Leibes Krafte Ihm 
zu liesen bis Anno 1779, am Char-Frei- 
tag wannehr er wie wohl mit grozer 
Schwachheit dennoch seine Predigt 
vollfieret und welches dan auch seine 
letzte war bei uns." 

[In the record the following was 
written, but also crossed: "Mitwochs 
den 21ten April, zog H. W. Stiegel mit 
Erlaubniss des Kirchenraths in das 
Pfarr Haus."] 

"AmHimmel fahrtTage alsden 13ten 
Mai, ist unser alter Prediger selig dem 
Herrn entschlafen in seinem alter von 
nachst — Jahre [71 Jahre, 4 monate, 
3 wochen und 2 Tage], und was re- 
markable mitten in der Bedienung 
seines Ambtes in der Administrirung 
des Heiligen Abendmahles zu seinen 
confirmirten und eingesegneten Geme- 
ins Kinder in seiner Behausung. Die 
Meisten Glieder des Kirchen-Raths 
erzeigten Ihm die letzte Liebe in 
Beywohnrung seiner Bestatting zu Er- 
den au seiner alten Berg Kirche in 
Quitapehilla." [On May 23, 1895, a 
beautiful granite monument was un- 
veiled at the grave of Pastor Stoever 
on the cemetery at Hill Church, in Leb- 
anon county, Pa.] 

Pastor Stoever baptized seven chil- 
dren in Warwick in 1778-1779. 

According to the record in the sec- 
ond church book action was taken by 
the Warwick congregation to secure 
another pastor. As Rev. Pastor Stoe- 
ver had repeatedly, as his infirmities 


increased, recommended to the congre- 
gation Rev. Pastor Schroeter, of Man- 
heim, a meeting of the Church Council 
was held May 23, 1779,by H. W. Stiegel, 
Jacob Weidman, Adam Hacker, Trus- 
tees; Johannes Weidman, Emanuel 
Suess, George Waechter, Elders, and 
Stoffel Mueller, Deacou. At this meet- 
ing it was resolved to write Pastor 
Schroeter to deliver a "Besuchs 
Predigt." Heinrich W. Stiegel and 
Emanuel Suess were deputized to con- 
vey the invitation. Pastor Schroeter 
visited the congregation on "Wednes- 
day, June 2, and delivered an edifying 
sermon, by which he delighted the en- 
tire congregation, and announced that 
he would visit the congregation again 
on the second Sunday after Trinity. 
He visited the congregation at the time 
announced. On the following Tuesday, 
June 15, the Church Council assembled 
and unanimously resolved to extend a 
call to Pastor Schroeter to become the 
preacher and pastor of the congrega- 
tion, with the approval of the congre- 
gation. Heinrich W. Stiegel was in- 
structed to prepare the call, which was 
subscribed by the entire Church Coun- 
cil. Heinrich W. Stiegel and George 
Waechter were instructed to present 
the call to Pastor Schroeter and to 
learn the decision of the same. 

The call presented to Pastor Schroe- 
ter read, word for word, as follows: 
"In Nahmen unseres groszen Hirten, 

Mittlers und Erloesers, Jesu Christi. 


"Wir, die unterschriebenen Trustees, 
Altesten undVorsteher derEvangelisch 
Lutherischen Vereinigten Gemeine in 
Warwick Township, in der Graffschaft, 
Lancaster, in der Provintz Pennsylva- 
nien, senden hiermit unsern brueder- 
lichen Grusz an sein Ehwuerden H. 
Daniel Schroeter und beruffen Ihn 
hiedurch zu unserem ordentlichen 
Lehrer und Aufscher unserer gemelten 
Gemeine Kirchen und Schule and zwar 
auf folgende Bedingungen Dasz unser 


besagter Lehrer und Seelsorger die 
reine Evangelische Lehre nach dem 
Grunde der Apostel und Propheten, 
unserer ungeaenderten Augsburgschen 
Confession, Kirchen Agenta und ein 
gefuehrten Kirchen Ordnung gemaes- 
soeffentlich und besonders ueben, trie- 
ben, fortpflanzen, und die heilege Sacra- 
mente nach eben der Richtschnur und 
Kegel administriren, die Lehre mit 
christlichen Wandel zieren, durch er- 
baudliche Predigten und Kinderlehre 
so viel der Herr Gnade und Krafte 
verleihet, die Schafe und Laemmer 
nach Christi Sinn werden moege. 

"Dasz er alle ubrige Amtsverichtun- 
gen als Kranken besuchs, Leighen-Be- 
gaengniss und ordentlichs Copulationen 
wans verlangt wird, nach Zeit und 
Vermoegen verrichten und gewoehnliche 
Accidentzen geniessen moege. Dahin- 
gegen versprechen wir besachten Trus- 
tees.aelthaesten und vorsteher im Nah- 
men und mit einmutigen Consent un- 
serer bemeten Gemeine das unser hie- 
durch berufener Lehrer und Seelsorger 
von der Gemeine nach Christi und 
Seiner Apostel Befehle soil versorgen 
und versehen werden nach dem frey- 
willigen Beidrag der gantzen Gemeine. 

"Zu welchen entzweck von denen 
Trustees, Aelthaesten und Vorsteher, 
eine subscripdier Liste besorgt, un- 
ter halten und juehrlich erneuert 
werden soil. Massen ein treuer Arbei- 
ter Seines Lohnes werth, und was dem 
Evangelic dienet sich von demselben 
ernaehren muss, welches wir auch 
Christlich und treulich versprechen an 
Ihm zu halten. 

"Wir erwarten dasz unser besagter 
Lehrer und Seelsorger den oeffentlichen 
Gottesdienst an den Sonn und Fest- 
tagen nach der Billigkeit und Bei- 
tragen Unserer Gemeine treulich hal- 
ten wird und gesetzt aber dass einige 
Misshelligkeit solte entstahen zwischen 
unserm Lehrer oder einigen Gemeins- 
gleider, so sollen soiche nach unserer 
Kirchen Ordnung durch den Kirchen 


Rath Christlich und einig unfersucht 
und entschieden werden, und keine 
Partei ihr eigener Richter seyn. 
Welche oben besambt und sender wir 
mit eigener Hand UnterschrlfEt bes- 
cheinigen und bekraeftigen so ges- 
chaehen den 15 Tag Juny, Anno Christi 



An sein Bhrwuerden, Herrn Pfarrer 
Daniel Schroeter. 

On the following Thursday, June 17, 
the call was presented to Pastor 
Schroeter by the above name'd depu- 
ties and accepted by him conditionally. 
He was anxious to defer his acceptance 
until after the conference (Synod) 
meeting in Tulpehocken in the begin- 
ning of October, 1779. He promised to 
supply the pulpit every third Sunday 
until that time; that in the meantime 
the congregation could settle all mat- 
ters that needed adjustment; Chat the 
congregation might be united and 
brought at last into a flourishing con- 
dition by the help of God. After the 
meeting of Synod in Tulpehocken in 
the charge of Pastor Schulze, Pastor 
Schroeter preached in the Warwick 
Church on the 21st Sunday after 
Trinity and promised to accept the 

The unanimous election and call of 
Pastor Schroeter ought to have indi- 
cated the harmony of the congrega- 
tion. But that this was not existing 
was shown by the hope expressed by 
Pastor Schroeter, that before his ac- 
ceptance of the call they might settle 
all matters that needed adjustment. 


Before Pastor Schroeter promised to 
accept the call an election for church 
officers was held on the 11th S.P.T. 
(1779). One Trustee, one Elder and 
one Deacon were elected. Repeated an- 
nouncements for installation were 
made, but it was not until Sunday 
Laetare, 1780, that one of the elected 
was installed. The Church Council 
and the congregation were invited to 
meet on March 11, 1780, to consult, etc. 

On April 17, 1780, H. Wilhelm 
Stiegel vacated the parsonage and 
moved to Heidelberg (Schaefferstown), 
into the "Thurmerung" (Castle), which 
he had in a former time caused to be 
erected. From that date the parsonage 
was vacant until August 29, when a 
School Master, named George Fred. 
Spyer, moved into the same and con- 
ducted a school in the same, as the old 
school house was in a ruined condi- 

The foi lowing is the last entry that 
was made in the second church book 
before June 13, 1787: 

"Den 21 Jan., 1781, Dom. III., p. Epi- 
phan, predigte Pfrr. Schroeter abermal 
welcher nun bei dieser Gemeine vom 2 
ten Jun., 1779, anstehet. Da seit der 
Zeit verschiedene Begebenheite sich 
geaeusert,und die Gemeine immerihren 
Wankelmuth noch geliebt, so wurde 
vomKirchenrat und Prediger die Sache 
heute vorgenommen, und von gut be- 
fundeu, well es zu keiner Vereinigung 
kommen will, dasz Pfrr. Schroeter den 
11 ten Feb., a. c, Dom. Septuagessimae 
seine Abscheids Predigt halten solte, 
welches auch verkuendigt wurde. Dis 
war schon etliche mal versucht; allein 
aus Liebe immernoch aufgeschoben um 
noch Verstockte und Irrige zurecht 
zu bringen— sed frustra! 

"Gott erleuchte und bekere, reinige 
und heilige unsre Herzen um Jesu wil- 
len, Amen. 

"p. t.. Pastor loci." 


Pastor Schroeter had ended hia 
labors, and at the meeting of the 
Ministerium, in Philadelphia, June 10 
to 12, 1781, the case of the Warwick 
congregation was considered and it 

"Resolved, That Rev. Mr. Schulze 
make efforts to unite the congregation, 
to serve it and gradually bring it into 
full connection with us." 

During Pastor Schroeter's ministry 
in Warwick, supply and regular, June, 
1779, to February, 1781, 35 children 
were baptized, on First Sunday after 
Trinity 1780 46 catechumens were 
confirmed, and on the same day 94 
other persons communed. On Novem- 
ber 12, 1780, the Communion was ad- 
ministered to those who had not com- 
muned at the 'former Communion. 
Among the communicants on the First 
Sunday after Trinity there were four 
"single captured Hessians." 

The church record has no entry of 
the beginning of Pastor Emanuel 
Schulze's labors in Warwick congre- 
gacion. He was requested by the Min- 
isterium in June, 1781, to serve the 
congregation. The baptismal record 
would lead us to infer that he com- 
menced his labors in the summer of 
1781, if not earlier, and so also the list 
of communicants. 

Pastor Emanuel Schulze testifies in 
the church record to the election of 
church officers on June 13, 1787, and 
their installation on July 29. The Min- 
isterium of 1792 states that Pastor 
Schulze was the pastor of Warwick. 
His name is signed in the church re- 
cord 1803, 1806, 1807, testifying to the 
election and installation of church offi- 
cers. Pastor Schulze preached for the 
last time in Warwick church on No- 
vember 20, 1808. He died March 11, 
1809, and was buried at Christ Church 
on the Tulpehocken, near Stouchsburg, 
Berks county, Pa. Pastor Christopher 
Emanuel Schulze was the President of 


the Ministerium in 1781, 1785, 1793 and 
1794. He was the Senior of ffie Min- 
isterium from 1801 to the time of his 

Thus it appears that Pastor Schulze 
was pastor in Warwick from 1781 to 
1808. Twenty-seven years is a long 
ministry. In these years 785 children 
were baptized and communicants' names 
were entered regularly. The highest 
number at one communion was 105, the 
lowest 27. 

During Pastor Schulze's ministry the 
new church, still standing, was erected. 
The congregation took action May 23, 
1805, and resolved to build a new 
church. The Building Committee 
were George Weidman, Michael Kline, 
Leonhard Miller and Alexander Zart- 
man. Work was commenced 1806. The 
corner-stone was laid August 12, 1806, 
and the church was named Emanuel. 
Pastor Schulze and Rev. John Plitt, of 
New Holland, officiated. The church 
was consecrated October 25, 1807. Pas- 
tor C. Emanuel Schulze, Dr. Heinrich 
Muhlenberg, of Lancaster, and Rev. 
George Lochman, of Lebanon, offi- 

After many trials and painful ex- 
periences the congregation was in a 
better condition. Twenty-seven years 
was a long pastorate, and the congre- 
gation enjoyed the services of a faith- 
ful pastor, who came through these 
many years a great distance to minis- 
ter to them. We recognize in the en- 
tries of baptisms in 1797, and in the 
entry of the names of communicants 
in 1799, the handwriting of Rev. John 
Andreas Schulze, the son of Pastor C. 
Emanuel Schulze, who assisted his 
father for some time. He was in later 
years Governor of Pennsylvania. 

After Pastor Schulze's resignation in 
1808, the congregation was supplied by 
different ministers. Rev. George Loeh- 
man, of Lebanon, administered the 
Communion on Easter, 1810, to eighty 


communicants. From November, 1808, 
to May, 1810, the baptism of thirty-two 
children was recorded by different min- 

The church record states that on ac- 
count of the "Streitiglieiten" in Tulpe- 
hocken the congregation of Schaeffers- 
stadt united with the congregation in 
Warwick and extended a call to Rev. 
William Baetis, of Philadelphia, which 
was accepted by him. Pastor Baetis 
had entered the ministry in 1809. As 
he was born June 14, 1777, he was com- 
paratively young in years when he be- 
came pastor in Warwick. He preached 
his introductory sermon on July 8,1810, 
and thereafter he preached on alter- 
nate Sundays. He was pastor at War- 
wick from July 8, 1810, to August 14, 
1836. He was pastor at Schaeffers- 
town from 1810 to 1836; at Manheim 
in 1811, and at the Swamp in 1812. He 
was the first pastor of Friedens Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church at Myers- 
town, Lebanon county, from 1811-12 to 
1824. He was also pastor at Womels- 
dorf, Berks county, from 1811 to 1824. 
What an extended field of labor for a 
young man, with Myerstown twelve 
miles and Womelsdorf still further 
from Warwick Church. 

During Pastor Baetis' ministry in 
Warwick the parsonage, still standing, 
was erected. On March 19, 1812, the 
congregation resolved to build a par- 
sonage near the church. The Building 
Committee were Leonhard Miller, Ja- 
cob Haushalter, George Stober and Ja- 
cob Weidman. The erection of the 
building was begun in August, 1812. In 
May, 1814, the building was completed 
and in June, 1814, Pastor Baetis occu- 
pied the new parsonage. The old 
school house of the congregation was 
rebuilt by Leonhard Miller and Johan- 
nes Brecht, trustees of the congrega- 
tion. The stone wall enclosing the 
burial ground was erected in 1819, at a 
considerable expense. The erection of 
the church in 1806 and 1807, the erec- 


tion of the parsonage in 1812-1814 and 
the erection of the stone wall enclosing 
the cemetery in 1819 show what inter- 
est the people in Warwick of that time 
took in the affairs of the congregation. 
We must remember that the member- 
ship of the congregation at that time 
was not large, compared with that of 
other congregations. 

During Pastor Baetis' ministry, from 
1810 to 1836, numbering 26 years, the 
following ministerial acts were re- 

Baptisms, 1,314; confirmed or bap- 
tized as adults, 604; communicants, the 
highest number at one communion, 198; 
the lowest, 21; marriages, 709 (many of 
these were not from Warwick). 

The church record shows that Pastor 
Baetis preached his farewell sermon on 
August 14, 1836. Text, Rom. 15:13. On 
August 23 he moved to Lancaster. 
There he preached to the German 
Lutheran congregation for a number 
of years prior to 1853. That he en- 
joyed the confidence and respect of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania is shown 
by the fact that he was the Senior of 
the Ministerium from 1836 to the time 
of his death. He attended the meeting 
of Synod in Lancaster in 1866, ad- 
dressed the Synod and bid it farewell. 
He departed this life August 17, 1867. 
aged ninety years, three months and 
three days. 

The Rev. Charles Philip Miller, of 
Milton, Northumberland county, Pa., 
became the successor of Pastor Baetis. 
He preached in Emanuel Church on 
July 3, 1836. Text, Heb. 9:27. He was 
called July 22. He accepted the call 
and moved into the parsonage Septem- 
ber 21, 1836. He preached his intro- 
ductory sermon September 25. Text, 
Matt. 13:9. Pastor Miller remained 
pastor until November 28, 1841, when 
he preached his last sermon in Eman- 
uel Church. He removed from the par- 
sonage in 1842. 

Pastor Miller reported seven congre- 


gations at the meeting of Synod in 
1841. During his ministry in Warwick 
the following ministerial acts were re- 
corded in the church record: Baptisms, 
202; confirmed, 77; communicants, 
highest number at one communion, 
155; marriages, 94. Pastor Miller be- 
came pastor of congregations in Buclis 
county, and served the same from 1842 
until 1866. He died in New Jersey in 
1879 or '80. 

In 1842 a meeting was held by rep- 
resentatives of the following congre- 
gations: Warwick, Swamp, Kiessel- 
berg, Weiseichen and Manheim. There 
were two representatives from each 
congregation. The ten agreed to send 
two of their number to the meeting of 
Synod at Lancaster, Trinity week, 1842, 
to ask for the recommendation of a 
minister. Rev. Christopher Friederich 
preached on June 5, Rev. Peter 
Scheurer on June 12 and Rev. G. M. 
Mertz on June 19. An election for pas- 
tor was held June 26 by the five con- 
gregations and on June 27 the reports 
from each of the congregations showed 
that Rev. Christopher Friederich was 
elected. A call was extended to him. 
He accepted the same. He and his 
family moved into the parsonage at 
Warwick, July 29, 1842, and on August 
7 Pastor Friederich preached his in- 
troductory sermon. He remained pas- 
tor until May 6, 1849, when he preached 
his farewell sermon. Text, Col. 2: 5-8. 
He removed from the parsonage May 
15, 1849. 

During Pastor Friederich's ministry 
the following entries were made in the 
church book: Baptisms, 262; confirmed, 
126; communicants, highest number, 
177; lowest, 36; marriages, 68. 

Pastor Friederich became pastor of a 
charge in Allegheny, Pa., and was dis- 
missed in 1852 by the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania to the Ohio Synod. 

The Rev. Thomas T. Jaeger succeed- 
ed Pastor Friederich. He had entered 

(85 ) 

the ministry in 1848. He preached the 
Harvest sermon at Warwick, August 
22, 1849, Text, Rom. 2:4. He promised 
to serve the congregation if peaceably 
elected. He was unanimously elected 
September 9, 1849, and preached his in- 
troductory sermon September 20, 1849. 
Text, Luke 17: 11-19. He moved into 
the parsonage October 18, 1849. On 
June 1, 1851, Pastor Jaeger announced 
that he would resign the congregation 
June 30, 1851. On October 5 the Church 
Council requested Pastor Jaeger to sup- 
ply the congregation fromWomelsdorf, 
to which he intended to move, until a 
successor could be secured. He prom- 
ised to do so. On October 14, 1851, 
Pastor Jaeger moved to Womelsdorf, 
Berks county, Pa. After October 14, 
he supplied the pulpit once in four 
weeks until March, 1852, on which day 
he preached his farewell sermon. Text, 
2 Cor. 13:11. He served the congrega- 
tion for two and a-half years. "The 
congregation was pleased with him, 
and he with the congregation." 

During Pastor Jaeger's ministry the 
following entries were made in the 
church book: Baptisms, 107; confirmed, 
57; communicants, highest number, 
226; lowest, 57; marriages, 70; many 
not from Warwick. 

Pastor Jaeger resided at Womels- 
dorf for a short time and then moved 
to Reading, Pa. He was pastor of 
country congregations. He died at 
Reading, Pa., May 13, 1888, in the 
sixty-second year of his age. 

Rev. Carl Ries was the successor of 
Pastor Jaeger. He visited the congre- 
gation and preached on December 21, 

1851, taking his text from Matth. 1: 
21-22. He was elected on January 3, 

1852, and preached his introductory 
sermon May 9, 1852, his text being 
Second Timothy 4: 2. He moved into 
the parsonage about the same time. 
He was pastor from May 9, 1852, until 
about June, 1856. During his ministry 


the entries in the church record were 
the following: Baptisms, infants and 
a few adults, 146; confirmed, 47; com- 
municants, highest number, 109; low- 
est, 30; marriages, 61. Pastor Ries 
was, after his removal from Warwick, 
for a short time pastor of the Bern- 
ville and other churches in Berks 
county, Pa. 

Rev. M. Harpel became the pastor of 
Emanuel Church in Warwick in 1857, 
and continued to serve the congrega- 
tion until 1870. 

During his service at Emanuel 
Church the following entries were 
made in the church record: Baptisms, 
311; confirmed, 193; communicants, 
highest number, 157; lowest, 42; mar- 
riages, 168; burials. 106. 

Pastor Harpel had withdrawn from 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 
1851. In June, 1857, he applied for re- 
admission and was received. In 1867, 
after action taken with reference to 
him by the Ministerium, he became a 
member of the East Pennsylvania 
Synod in September. The Church Coun- 
cil sent a delegate to the East Penn- 
sylvania Synod. There is no record 
that the congregation had taken action 
to change the Synodical relation of the 

In 1867 serious difficulties between 
opponents and adherents of Pastor 
Harpel led to litigation, which resulted 
in favor of the friends of Pastor Har- 

Pastor Harpel was succeeded by Rev. 
S. S. Engle in 1870. He was appointed 
and called by the Church Council. He 
was a member of the East Pennsylva- 
nia Synod. He ended his labors in 
1874. During his ministry the follow- 
ing entries were made in the church 
record: Baptisms, 113; confirmed, 47 
communicants, highest number, 121 
lowest number, 45; marriages, 70 
burials, 59. 


Rev. Wm. S. Porr succeeded Rev. Mr. 
Engle in 1874. He was elected by the 
congregation May 23, 1874. He was a 
member of the Pittsburg Synod (of 
General Synod), and became a member 
of the East Pennsylvania Synod. Pas- 
tor Porr moved to Lancaster January 
1, 1875, but continued to supply the 
pulpit until June 27, 1875. During his 
ministry to Emanuel congregation he 
recorded 15 baptisms, 63 communicants 
(with notice of a rainy Sunday), 8 mar- 
riages and 7 funerals. 

In the summer of 1875, when the 
congregation was without a pastor, the 
Church Council stood 8 to 4 with refer- 
ence to securing a minister. Eight 
members desired to secure one from 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania and 
four one from the East Pennsylvania 

After Rev. Mr. Porr's departure the 
following ministers, members of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania, were in- 
vited to preach: Rev. T. T. Jaeger, 
August 15, 1875; Rev. B. W. Schmauk, 
September 5, 1875; Rev. G. H. Trabert, 
October 3, 1875; Rev. F. J. P. Schantz, 
November 7, 1875; Rev. G. H. Trabert, 
November 28, 1875; Rev. P. J. F. 
Schantz, December 26, 1875, and Ret. 
W. G. Laitzle. January 2, 1876. 

The East Pennsylvania Synod ap- 
pointed a committee of three clergy- 
men to fill the vacancy caused by Rev. 
Mr. Porr's removal. The committee 
were Revs. Messrs. Rosenmiller, Martz 
and Cutter. Rev. Mr. Martz preached 
July 25, 1875, and Rev. Mr. Cutter on 
August 22, 1875. 

The Council called a meeting of the 
congregation, to be held October 18, 
1875, to decide on the question of Syn- 
odical relations. The Council elected 
two inspectors for the election, Mr. 
Dreisch, the President, being judge. It 
appears from the minutes that the 
President rejected the first vote, that 


of E. K. Seibert, on the ground that he 
was no member. The inspectors con- 
tinued the election, and forty-five votes 
were cast for the Old Synod (the Min- 
isterium). No votes were cast against 
the Old Synod or for any other Synod. 
Rev. Mr. Cutter continued to preach 
and moved into the parsonage Decem- 
ber 20, 1875, but without the use of the 
key, which remained in possession of 
the majority of the co'uncil. The ma- 
jority of the Council gave him written 
notice to quit. The Church Council 
sent no delegate to the East Pennsyl- 
vania Synod in 1875. 

On Sunday, December 26, 1875, by 
authority of the Council, Rev. Mr. 
Schantz announced that on Friday, 
January 14, 1876, a congregational 
meeting would be held for two pur- 
poses — first, to determine synodical 
relation, and second, to hold an elec- 
tion for a pastor if time would allow. 
Mr. Dreisch, the President of the 
Council and one of the minority, had 
requested that the time should be fixed 
for January 14, so that Rev. Mr. 
Cutter would have time to preach be- 
fore the meeting. Rev. Mr. 
Cutter also announced this meeting for 
January 14, but, as he says, not for the 
purpose of determining synodical re- 
lations or electing a minister, but for 
the purpose of bringing about amicable 

On Friday, January 14, 1876, a large 
number of persons were present in the 
church. Mr. Dreisch was elected 
Chairman and Mr. E. K. Seibert Sec- 
retary of the meeting. A hymn was 
sung and prayer offered by 
Rev. Mr. Cutter. Rev. Mr. 
Schantz stated the object of the 
meeting to be the determination of 
synodical relations and the choice of a 
past6r. Rev. Mr. Cutter spoke an hour 
and a-half, and Rev. Mr. Schantz 
spoke two hours. 

When it was proposed to take a vote. 


Mr. Dreisch refused to proceed, saying 
that he had no list of voters. Mr. 
Dreisch, Rev. Mr. Cutter and a portion 
of the meeting withdrew. The per- 
sons withdrawing were adherents of 
the East Pennsylvania Synod. Jacob 
Weidman, a member of the Council, 
was called to the chair and the follow- 
ing resolution adopted: 

Resolved, That whether legally or 
not legally connected with the East 
Pennsylvania Synod, we hereby de- 
clare that we do not wish to have fur- 
ther connection with said East Penn- 
sylvania Synod of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. 

This resolution was reduced to writ- 
ing and signed by thirty-six persons. 

The following resolution was also 

Resolved, That we hereby instruct 
the Church Council of the Emanuel 
Evangelical Lutheran Church to 
apply at the next meeting of 
the German Evangelical Lutheran 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania and ad- 
jacent States for readmission and for- 
mal connection of the congregation 
with said Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 

This resolution was also reduced to 
writing and signed by thirty-eight per- 
sons. It was further unanimously 

Resolved, That Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, 
President of Conference of the Fourth 
District of the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Ministerium Of Pennsylvania, 
be requested to supply this church as 
pastor for the present, and that the 
Council give him the necessary certifi- 
cate of such appointment. 

After this meeting a suit in equity 
was brought in the Court at Lancaster, 
January 25, 1876, by adherents of the 
East Pennsylvania Synod, against the 
eight members of the Church Council 
of Emanuel Evangelical Luthe- 
ran congregation, favoring the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania. The 
plaintiffs prayed the Court to 
decree that neither the said 


Rev. Schantz, nor any other minister 
not a member of the East Pennsylvania 
Synod, shall have the right to occupy 
the pulpit of the said Brickerville 
Church, or use said premises for any 
purpose whatsoever. Other prayers 
followed. The case took up three 
years. The Master's decision, in 1877, 
was in favor of the defendants. The 
Master's opinion was approved by the 
Court April 13, 1878. The plaintiffs 
entered an appeal to the Supreme 
Court May 31, 1878. The appeal was 
disposed of at the meeting of the Su- 
preme Court May, 1879, when the ap- 
pellants suffered a non-suit. 

As the party that was in favor of 
the East Pennsylvania Synod did not 
withdraw from the church and other 
property, the twelve members of the 
Church Council of the Evangelical 
Lutheran congregation at Brickerville, 
by authority of the congregation, 
brought suit against the adherents of 
the East Pennsylvania Synod to re- 
cover the property. 

The case was tried four times in 
the Court at Lancaster and twice 
taken to the Supreme Court. At the 
first trial the jury failed to agree. At 
the second trial the jury, one of their 
number becoming sick, was discharged, 
without a verdict. At the third trial 
there was a verdict for the plaintiffs. 
The defendants took the case to the 
Supreme Court, where it was reversed 
and sent back for a fourth trial. This 
was had February and March, 1886, 
resulting in favor of the plaintiffs. The 
defendants took the case for a second 
time to the Supreme Court, which was 
convened in Philadelphia in May, 1886, 
and the Court delivered their opinion 
at the session in Pittsburg, October 4, 
1886, affirming the Court below, so 
that the controversy was finally settled 
in favor of the plaintiffs — in the Court 
below— the Church Council of Emanuel 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brick- 


erville, connected with the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania and adjacent States. 

After this decision by the Supreme 
Court Rev. Mr. Fernsler (the successor 
of the Rev. Mr. Cutter) and the ad- 
herents of the East Pennsylvania 
Synod withdrew from the church 
building and other property of Eman- 
uel congregation and erected for them- 
selves a church building, less than a- 
fourth of a mile from Emanuel Church. 

Rev. F. J. F. Schantz supplied 
Emanuel congregation from January 
14, 1876, to June, 1879, by his own ser- 
vices and the services of ministers se- 
cured for such purpose. In these years 
the pulpit was supplied, as the fol- 
lowing entries made in the church rec- 
ord show: Baptisms, 32; confirmed, 42; 
communicants, highest number, 129; 
lowest, 83; marriages, 2; burials, 4. 

After the meeting of the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania in 1879 Rev. A. B. 
Markley became the pastor of the Mil- 
lersville charge in Lancaster county. 
He supplied Emanuel congregation. He 
recorded in the church book 10 bap- 
tisms from August, 1879, to April, 1880. 
These were followed by 6 entries of 
baptism of children by Rev. E. H. Ger- 
hardt, on June 20, 1880, and 4 entries 
of baptism by Rev. F. J. F. Schantz, 
February, 1881, to April, 1881. Pastor 
Markley entered 12 confirmed on April 
17, 1880. Communicants, November, 
1879, 108; April, 1880, 114. Rev. J. H. 
Fritz administered Communion No- 
vember 14, 1880, to 103 communicants, 
and Rev. P. J. F. Schantz on May 29, 
1881, to 107 communicants. 

After the meeting of the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania in 1881, at which Rev. 
H. E. Semmel was ordained, he became 
the regular pastor of Emanuel Church 
(Brickerville), the White Oak and 
Rothsville congregations. He continued 
as pastor until 1896. In these fifteen 
years the following entries were made 


in the church record: Baptisms, 81; 
confirmed, 105; communicants, highest 
number, 134; lowest number, 69; 
burials, 75. 

Pastor Semmel, after a faithful min- 
istry of fifteen years, became the pas- 
tor of Jordan Evangelical Lutheran 
congregation in Lehigh county, Pa., 
which is also one of the historic 
churches of the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania. It secured the patent to its 
church property in 1744. Pastor Sem- 
mel was pastor of Emanuel congrega- 
tion in a most trying period of its his- 
tory. He was a strong man, for he 
knew when to be silent. 

Rev. A. M. Leibensperger, the pres- 
ent successful pastor of the congrega- 
tion, was ordained at the meeting of 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 
June, 1896, and soon became the pastor 
of the congregation. During his min- 
istry of nearly two and a-half years he 
has had occasion to make the following 
entries in the church record: Bap- 
tisms, 8; confirmed, 10; communicants, 
highest number, 119; lowest, 90; mar- 
riages, 6; burials, 130. 

In this Jubilee year of the Ministe- 
rium of Pennsylvania, in which the 
sesqui-centennial of the organization 
of the Ministerium is observed by the 
Synod and the congregations. Pastor 
Leibensperger has succeeded in secur- 
ing more than his apportionment for 
the Jubilee Fund of Synod, a fact that 
is mentioned with pleasure in closing 
this history of a congregation that 
numbers 168 years. 

Copy of index in first church rec- 
ord of Warrick congregation, in War- 
wi,Qk township, Lancaster, now 
Emanuel Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Brickerville, Elizabeth township, 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. En- 
tries of baptism from 1731 to 1772 
were made in the record. The names 


in the index are the names of the fath- 
ers of the children baptized. A few 
names are those of adults who were 
baptized. The figures refer to the 
pages in the record: 

Joh. Georg Albert 6 

Mattheis Albrecht 18 

Phillip Artzt 52 

Johannes Augenstein 61 

Peter Baecker 2 

Christian Balmer 2 

Johannes Bronner 2 

Jacob Bolinger 3 

Joh. Georg Bohrmann 3 

Thomas Bauer 5 

Cunrad Braun 6 

Jacob Balmor , 7 

Georg Michael Balmor 7 

David Buehler 9 

Peter Bohrman 10 

Johannes Bender 11 

Phillip Beyer 12 

Stephan Boeringer 13 

Martin Beyer 14 

Michael Braun 20 

Adam Bach 21 

Joh. Biemendorffer 24 

Johannes Buch 32 

Georg Braun 34 

Christian Beck 38 

Jung Michael Balmer 58 

Georg Michael Bohrer 59 

Ulrick Bekle 73 

Christian Balmer, junior 76 

Georg. Bender 79 

Peter Balmer 84 

Jo. Georg Balmer 89 

Peter Balmer 93 

Joseph Benkele 102 

Andreas Betz 118 

Mattheus Blocher 127 

Henr. Brossius 132 

Joseph Binkly 135 

Johann Bashart 136 

Johann Georg Conradt 44 

Cunrad Cretzinger 118 

Michael Cretzinger 121 

Willhelm Delbron 54 

Hans Michel Dog 49 


Martin Doll 31 

Ludwig Dege 107 

Henrich Dietrich 137 

Jacob Bub 2 

Simon Ehrsam 5 

Job. Peter Ernst... 6 

Job. Georg Eicbelberger 6 

Andreas Eub 9 

Friedericb Eicbelberger 22 

Conradt Eisenbardt 50 

Georg Michael Eicbelberger 60 

Christian Ewig 64 

Jacob Eceard (Eckard) 86 

Peter Elser 91 

Philipp Enders 106 

Georg Engel 126 

Adam Bckeberger 129 

Johannes Ens 131 

Philipp Firnsler 9 

Adam Faber 14 

Jacob Faber 16 

Adam Fried 16 

Christian Fuchs 27 

Johann Michael Earner 41 

Ullerich Frantz 47 

Cunradt Glassbrenner 1 

Martin Greiner 2 

Michael Grossmann 10 

Martin Grueber 16 

Job. Georg Grosz 18 

Friedericb Grueber 29 

Michael Gartner 30 

Philipp Glick 42 

Christoph Gisterer 43 and 68 

Martin Goetz 49 

Joan Gsssner 62 

Georg Graff 90 

Georg Glass 123 

Jacob Hoeger 3 

Johannes Hoerchelrodt 9 

Lorentz Hooff 6 

Jacob Heyl 8 

John George Huber 8 

Heinrich Heyl 10 

Philipp Hoos 10 

Paul Hammerich 11 

Johannes Adam Haushalter 15 

Job. George Haushalter 19 

Johannes Heffner 22 

David Herbster 26 


Liorentz Haushalter 33 and 115 

Hans lerch Hoch 39 

Johann Nicolaus Hennicke 54 

Johann Martin Heurs 48 

Christian Halmstrang 52 

Baldes Hetzler 56 

Friederich Willhelm Haager 57 

Jerg Heyl 57 and 130 

Georg Hoch 60 

Georg Hacker •<! 

Jacob Hoffman 65 

Jacob Hauser 80 and 43 

Michael Stuber 83 

J. Adam Haker 37 

Peter Hetzel 94 

Jacob Hezel 99 

Zacharias Heil 103 

Johannes Huber 112 

Jacob Hege 122 

Wendel Hornung 121 

Martin Heyl 125 

Jacob Helter.. 129 

Peter Jelker 5 

Hans Martin Jiely 22 

Jacob Juncker 27 

Marcus Jams 86 

Christian Jatzler 90 

Georg Ilg (Illick) 114 

John Jones 127 

Joh. Michael Kitsch 1 

Jacob Klein 1 

Georg Michael Koch 3 

Heinrich Klein 3 

Johann Christian Kling 4 

Michael Klein 5 

Andreas Kessinger 8 

Joh. Georg Kessinger 9 

Joh. Kichler 10 

Adam Klemm 15 

Andreas Kellenle 16 

Joh. Georg Kob 26 

Andreas Kappler 38 

Johann Casper Koch 42 

Michael Kuetsch 44 

Joseph Klinger 46 

Benedicktus Kautzmann 39 

Joann Michael Kinzel 66 

Philipp Krieg 72 

Michael Karch 76 


Joan Jost Klein no 

Franciscus Kuhn 119 

Georg Michael Krohberger 126 

Michael Kraemer 126 

Peter Kiel 134 

John Georg Lay 2 

Joh. Wendel Laber 2 

Joh. Lutz 2 

Stephen Laumann 4 

William Lancaster 12 

Jacob Lorch 28 

Jacob Lehnherr 31 

Michael Lang 50 

Michel Leidich 53 

Conrad Lang 75 

Georg Lang 93 

Leonhardt Mueller 1 

Jacob Meyer 2 

Joh. Heinrich Motz 7 

Joh. Georg Mohr 152 

Nlcolaus Marret 16 

Christoph Meyer 17 

Jacob Merckel 25 

Simon Merckel 28 

Johannes Marttin 35 

Jacob Mueller 36 

Georg Conradt Mefferte 39 

Johann Fetter Muscheilus 31 

Michael Mossert 56 

George Mock 70 

Joseph Majer 74 

Michael Mainzer 74 

Jacob Miller 78 

Jacob Minian 88 

Peter Maerkel 89 

Leonhard Miller, jun 95 

Conrad Mainzer 98 

Christian Miller 117 

John Jacob Neff 11 

Sebastian Naess 15 

Phillipp Jacob Nasz 59 

Martin Nagel 133 

John Martin Oberlin 7 

Joh. Adam Oberlin 8 and 53 

Ernst Oberman 120 

Michael Pfautz 13 

Joh. Mattheis Plantz 13 

Hansz Michael Petz 20 

Joh. Pf aff enberger 23 


Johannes Phillipe 56 and 109 

Georg Ried 17 

Hansz Jerch Riss 37 

Joseph Rulland 85 

Leonhard Reisch 92 

Michael Roth 97 

James Rausch 104 

Georg Saeger 7 

Balthasar Suess 5 

Georg Schuetz 4 

Phillipp Stoer 11 

Valentin Stober 12 

Michael Spiegel 12 

Joh. Jacob Stober 13 

Joh. Schaff er 13 

Georg Jacob Schnuerer 14 

Philipp Schumacher 15 

Christoph Suess 19 

Johannes Schuetz 19 

Wilhelm Stober 20 

Carl Schmidt 21 

Jacob Spring 23 

Martin Spickler 23 

Georg Schmidt 24 

Peter Schmidt 25 

Friederich Stroh 27 

Friederich Stiess 27 

Joannes Scherer 30 

Andreas Sell 34 

Jost Stroh: 35 

Johannes Adam Speck 32 

Heinrich Stickel 47 

Christian Staebler 51 

Zierryackus Friederich Schreyer. . . 40 

Emanuel Suess 55 & 116 

Thomas Schrott 51 

Jacob Scherck 32 

George Stober 59 & 128 

Carl Heinrich Jacob KaufEmann. . . 60 

Carl Schett (Scheed) 60 

Hennrich Schneider 54 

Joann Schneider 44 

Nicolaus Schmidt 69 

Philipp Stoever 75 

Edward Stens 81 

Jons Schmalwud 81 

Jacob Stiess... 82 

Michael Schaz 85 

Ludwig Schork 85 


Hennrich Sorber 92 

Christoph Scherp 94 

Daniel Scheible 45 

Zacharias Stiess 105 

Christian Schmidt 124 

Nicholas SchrofE 127 

John Trabbinger 1 

Benedict Thomas 4 

Peter Tuszing 17 

George Tracksel 48 

Peter Trabinger 101 

Adam Ulrich 6 

Johannes Uhland 15 

Jacob Vierling 45 

Hennrich Voelker 88 

Andreas Wagner 1 

Mattheis Weidtmann 2 

Martin Weidtmann 3 

Joh. Jacob Weyl 4 

Cunradt Wolff 7 

Lorentz Weber 18 

Johannes Weydman 21 

Jacob Wentz 22 

Frederick Waltzer 28 

Peter Wielandt 29 

Christoph Weidtman 29 

Jacob Walter 30 

Simon Wittmoyer 41 

Joanes Wahle (Neger) 62 

Andreas Wolff 68 

Jacob Weidmann 71 

Hennrich Wolff 65 

George Waechter 77 

Martin Weiss 100 

Johann Friederich Zimmermann 

25 & 96 

Jacob Zieger 26 

Alexander Zartmann 33 

Jacob Zartmann 40 

List of communicants in Warwick 
Church, in Warwick, Lancaster 
county, now Emanuel EJvangelical 
Lutheran Church, Brickerville, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 

Communicanten auf D. xvii P. 
Trinitatis, 1798: 

Michael Lange und frau, Tochter 
Catharina, Stophel Scherb, Michael 


Hanle, Adam Fenniger, Matthias 
Waldt, Alexander Zartman, Senr. und 
frau, Lorentz Haushalter und frau, 
Michael Oberle und frau, Stophel 
Oberle und frau Catharina, Eva Weid- 
man, Barbara Yettern, Joh. Scherb und 
frau, Johannes Bauer und frau, Georg 
Ihlig und frau, Jacob Lehmann und 
frau, Adam Scherb und frau. Christian 
Haenle und frau, Catharina Scheplern, 
Elizabeth Seller, Magdalena Millern, 
Catharine Herpern, Catharine Zieg- 
mannin, Christina Eichelbergern, 
Eva Kellern, Catharina Schei- 
kern, Dorothea Schaerin, Elizabeth 
Sensin, Joh. Koser, Philip Kaemerer 
und frau, Michael Zartman und frau. 
Christian Kaemmerer, Johannes Weid- 
man und frau Anna Maria, Christ- 
oph Miller und frau, George Stober 
und frau, Jacob Weidman, Jun., und 
frau, Alexander Zartman und frau, 
Tochter Elizabeth, Leonhardt Miller 
und frau, Jacob Gevell, Leonhardt 
Miller, Jun., Johannes Witmeier, 
George Waechter, George Ihlig, 
Johannes Haushalter, George Hacker, 
Joh. Elzer, Samuel Weidman, Joh. 
Hacker, Peter Weidmann, Joh. Miller, 
Martin Weidmann, Friederick Wach- 
ter, Susanna Weidmannin, Susanna 
Haushalterin,Margreth Oberle, Susanna 
Wolfin, Susanna Illigen, Catharine 
Ihligen, Cath. Waechtern, Elizabeth 
Haushaltern, Elizabeth Millern, Catha- 
rine Millern, Susanna Wiland, Eliza- 
beth Hackern, Margreth Elzern, 
Elizabeth Kaemmern, Rosina Kaem- 
mern, Christina Herzogin, Maria Her- 
zogin, Elizabeth Gevell, Jacob Weid- 
mann and frau. 





ON JANUARY 6, 1899. 







VOL. IIL NO. 5. 


Reprinted from The New Era. 


Some of the Lost Industries of the Octorara Valley. 

By Dr. J. W. Houston. , 103 

Historical Memoranda. 114 

Resolutions on the death of Dr. C. A. Heinitsh. 118 

Secretary's Report. 119 

Librarian's Report. 126 

Treasurer's Report. 128 

Officers for 1899. 128 

Octorara Valley. 

From the commencement of the 
present century, down to fifty years 
ago, dharcoal burning was quite an 
impoftant industry in the Valley of 
the Octorara; but since the latter date 
it has been rapidly on the decline, and 
for twenty-five years has been almost 

As late as a century since, much of 
the lands of this valley were covered 
with the virgin timiber indigenous to 
the locality, consisting of vast forests 
of hickory, oak and chestnut, with 
maple, poplar, walnut and cherry oc- 
casionally interspersed amongst the 
leading genera. The question how to 
utilize the wood, and clear the ground 
for cultivation, was one of serious im- 
port to the sturdy husbandmen. The 
solution of the problem was effected 
by the ironmasters or iron manufac- 
turers bringing their plants to such 
localities as offered an abundance of 
wood, in conjunction w'ith water power, 
the latter to opera;te the bellows, and, 
in the case of the forges, the tilt ham- 
mer also — the wood to be used in the 
preparation of charcoal, the only fuel 
in use at that time for the reduction of 
iron. Tanneries were also located 
v/here oak bark was plentiful, the bark 
being used in the process of converting 
the skins of the domestic animals into 
leather. The latter industry was not, 
however, of sufficient im.portance to 
create a demand for labor, and only 
served as a convenience for disposing 
of hides and a limited amount of oak 
bark. The furnaces and forges, how- 
ever, gave employment to a great 
number of men, in digging ore, in cut- 


ting wood, in coaling and in hauling 
to and from tlie manufacturing cen- 
tres, togetiher "with those who were 
operating the plant. These employes, 
with their families, and the great 
number of horses and mules engaged 
in the necessary transportation,opened 
a market for the productions of the 
farms in the surrounding region. The 
charcoal consumed in the reduction of 
the ore into merchantable iron created 
a demand for the wood, which the 
landowners were anxious to dispose of. 
The ironmasters often bought in fee 
simple large tracts of woodland, but 
the located farmer onlj sold the wood- 
leave, retaining the land for agricul- 
tural purposes, the purchaser clearing 
the ground in a stipulated time. The 
wood-cutting was largely done by far- 
mers' grown-up sons and mechanics 
who could not follow their trades dur- 
ing the winter months. There were a 
few professional wood-ohoppers, who 
were engaged in this occupation dur- 
ing the entire year, chief amongst 
whom were Nathan Jones, Mark John- 
son and Ben. Green. The woodland, 
when prepared for cutting, was meas- 
ured off in lots to suit the desire of 
the chopper, a line of blazed trees 
bounding the assigned tract, which 
generally contained from one to three 
acres, dependent upon the estimated 
number of cords of wood thereon. 
Prom ten to thirty wood-choppers 
would often be employed in one tract 
of woodland, each one of whom would 
average from two to four cords of 
wood every day, the cords containing 
128 cubic feet, being eight feet long, 
four feet high and four feet in width, 
the length of the wood, the average 
price paid for cutting being about 25 
cents per cord. Mess squads of four 
choppers were generally formed and a 
suitable domicile erected, in a near-to- 
water, well sheltered spot, not far 
from the scene of their daily toil. To 
erect the habitation a circle of ground 

( 105 ) 

twelve to fourteen feet in diameter was 
cleared and leveled off. A vertical pole, 
ten to twelve feet high, was planted in 
the centre of the ring, poles reaching 
from the circumference of the circle to 
the summit of the centre pole were 
then placed in position, and the tops 
of the poles securely fastened together 
by means of hickory withes. Other 
poles were then arranged around the 
circle to give secure support to a cov- 
ering of cedar or pine boughs. Which 
were covered with deciduous leaves, 
the whole surmounted with a layer of 
ea.rth, to retain the leaves and 
branches in position. A batten door, 
located in the continuous parietes of 
the cabin, determined the front of the 
habitation. Another opening, in the 
rear, built up of stones, or sticks, and 
mud, served for fireplace and chimney. 
Bunks, filled with straw, covered over 
with blankets, arranged upon either 
side of the entrance hall, served for 
chairs, lounges and beds. The cook- 
ing utensils were limited to a cast- 
iron pot, of good size, for boiling pota- 
toes; a frying pan, coffee pot, tin cups 
and plates, with knives, forks and 
spoons; china closets were unthought 
of. The bill of fare seldom varied; it 
consisted of potatoes, bread and but- 
ter, fried mush, fried pork and strong 
coffee. A snared rabbit, an opossum or 
raccoon were occasionally added to 
the above collation, and, of course, 
were fried. Notwithstanding the above 
dietary, dyspepsia was unknown 
amongst the hlardy wood-choppers. 
The evenings were spent in whetting 
their axes, in making axe helves and 
sockets for their wedges, with an oc- 
casional game of cards; a few spent 
their evenings in reading good books; 
but this commendable employment 
was not general, rather the exception 
to the programme of the choppers' 
evening pastime. Visitations between 
the members of the different cabins, of 
which there would be from three to 

( 106 ) 

eight in large tracts of woodland, 
were always in order, and cards, domi- 
noes and checkers entered into the 
evening's entertainment. This outlines 
the life these choppers led during the 
winter, and until the springtime in- 
vited them into more lucrative em- 
ployment. Ttien their cut wood was 
piled up in ranks (often by experts, 
who could outline a cord with three- 
quarters of 128 cubic feet). Some 
ranks were longer, some shorter, de- 
pending upon the proximity of the 
wood. After the ranks were finished 
they were measured by the agent of 
the Ironmaster and the choppers were 
paid for their laborious work. These 
workmen then deserted their habita- 
tions, and the way vms clear for the 
colliers, who, with their adjuncts, the 
wood haulers, then took possession of 
the field of operations. 

These charcoal burners, as they hav"e 
been called — but the term is evidently 
a misnomer, they should be called 
wood carhonizers — selected suitable 
sites for their charcoal pits, where ac- 
cess was easy for the teams engaged in 
hauling the coals from the pits to the 
iron plant. The ground was leveled in 
a circle 30 to 40 feet in diameter, suffi- 
cient of the surface earth being retain- 
ed around the border to cover the pit 
and smoulder the burning pile. As 
soon as the pit site was prepared the 
wood haulers, with their horses and 
sleds, commenced operations by haul- 
ing thirty to forty cords of wood, which 
was placed around the circumference 
of the leveled site. The colliers thon 
commenced in the centre of the ring to 
build the pit. First leaves and fine dry 
wood that would ignite easily were 
heaped up three or four feet high, then 
the cord wood on end was stoiod around 
and over the ignition point, gradually 
extending the pit until the thirty or 
forty cords of wood had been arranged 
to form a eonoidal pile twelve to rifteen 
feet high. The entire pit was then oov- 


ered witli leaves, upon which a coating 
of earth or breeze was placed, to pre- 
vent the free admission of air and de- 
termine the amount of ignition, the oo- 
ject being to simply ignite and drive 
off the liberated gases, retaining the 
carbon of the wood. The fire was ap- 
plied around the circumference of the 
pit, and also in the centre, where an 
opening was prepared, which acted as 
a chimney. Now the expert knowledge 
of the colliers was put to the tesr: 
judgment and vigilance, with experi- 
ence, were all in requisition. If the 
fire burned too- fast in certain parts of 
the pit, due to a change of the direc- 
tion of the wind, it must be checked by 
applying more covering to exclude the 
air; should other parts not burn well, 
air must be admitted through properly 
located openings, so that the wood of 
the entire pit would be perfectly char- 
red. When two or three pits were 
burning at the same time the collier 
had to be on the alert and walk his 
beat from one pit to the other every 
few minutes.until relieved by his asso- 
ciate,who then attended during the suc- 
ceeding watch. One of them had to be 
constantly on duty, and it was inter- 
esting to notice the grimy collier as he 
passed around his pits with his long- 
handled shovel; here he threw on some 
earth to stay the fire, there he made an 
opening to assist the ignition,for which 
procedures you could see no reason, 
but his trained eye could detect at a 
glance what was required to perfect 
the charring proicess. These men were 
certainly skilled in their calling, and 
commanded high wages. Each iron- 
master having his own collier, the 
business was confined to a few experts, 
chief amongst Whom, fifty years ago, 
were John and Samuel Montgomery, 
brothers; John and Guy Hetherington, 
also brothers; the Waterson brothers 
and Henry Noggle. Later, Samuel 
Montgomery, Jr., William Montgomery, 
sons of Samuel, Sr.; John Hetherine,- 
ton, son of Guy, and Billie Burgin mo- 


ncpolized the business. These colliers, 
although not understanding the [heury 
of combustion nor the laws governing 
chemical affinities, yet thoroughly un- 
derstood the practical part of the ope- 
ration. They knew that a cord of wood 
would make thirty or more bushels of 
ccal, if properly manipulated, dry wood 
giving best results. That the lower the 
temperature to which the wood v/as 
subjected during carbonization, the 
easier the coal would ignite; that 
chestnut wood coial made a stronger 
fire than oak wood coal, and, in fact, 
without theories or chemical knowl- 
edge, they understood how to obtain 
the desired results. After the pit had 
been burning from five to eight days, 
and no blaze was emitted from any 
part of it, then it was completely closed 
from two to four days and permitted 
to cool. By this process, 15 per cent, 
of the weight of the wood was obtain- 
ed in charcoal; by distillation 25 per 
cent, is obtained. The charcoal was 
then drawn by means of strong iron- 
toothed rakes, the coals separated from 
the brands not fully carbonized, which 
underwent another term in the coal 
pit. After there was no apparent dan- 
ger of combustion, the coals were then 
loaded, by means of large paraboloid- 
shaped baskets, into a wagon with an 
immense bed, capable of containing 
from 250 to 300 bushels of coals, which 
was unloaded by using the lead horses 
to pull the bottom boards out of the 
bed. These wagons were drawn by six 
large horses or mules, nicely mated, 
and often decorated with festoons of 
ribbons dependent from arches attach- 
ed to the hames, from which arches a 
series of bells fastened thereto made a 
musical noise not always in symphony ; 
nevertheless, the horses seemed proud 
of the music. Certainly the teamsters 
were, since, in accordance with the nn- 
■ftritten law, none but blue ribbon 
teams were permitted tOi wear belis. 
The most aristocratic coal hauler I 


ever saw was the late Prof. D. Hayes 
Agnew. When proprietor of Pleasant 
Garden forge, in Chester county, he 
often drove the teams when the drivers 
v;ere off duty. 

After the coal had all been removed 
from the pit it was then prepared for 
another setting of wood, which was 
carbonized as before. Repeated burn- 
ings seemed to improve the site; per- 
haps due to the collection of breeze or 
coal dust, which was utilized for cover- 
ing the wood when undergoing the pro- 
cess of carbonization. Inexperienced 
colliers often, from want of judgment 
or from inattention, permitted whole 
pits of wood to burn into ashes, entail- 
ing a great loss upon the ironmaster, 
who was exceedingly careful regarding 
the efRciency of his coaling employes. 
The colliers generally appropriatea a 
deserted cabin, built by the wooidchop- 
pers, for a habitation, when one suita- 
ble for their purpose could be found; 
if not, they erected one of the same 
style of arehitecture to subserve theii- 
wants. Their bill of fare was a dupli- 
cate of that of the woodshoppers, ex- 
cept green vegetables, planked shad, 
spring chicken and hard-boiled eggs 
were occasionally added to the menu. 

Some estimate may be formed of the 
great quantity of wood consumed in 
the Valley of the Octorara sixty years 
ago when we remember that within a 
radius of se"ven miles we had one foun- 
dry, two furnaces and seven forges, all 
using charcoal for the reduction of the 
iron output; in addition, all black- 
smiths.and every cross roads furnished 
one of these mechanics, used char- 
coal in their forges. 

On tbe east branch of the Octorara 
we had the Nobleville foundry, now 
Ohristiana machine shops; the Buckly 
forge, in Penningtonville, now Atglen; 
the two Sproul forges and Ringwood 
forgs, in Sadsbury and Pine Grove 
forge, below the junction of the east 
and west branches of the Octorara, On 


the west branch were Mt. Eden and 
Black Rock furnaces and White Rock 
forge. EstimaJting the output of the 
furnaces at 2,000 tons of furnace iron, 
requiring from 150 to 200 bushels of 
charcoal, weighing from iifteen to 
twenty pounds to the bushel, to re- 
duce each ton, some estimate of the 
charcoal used in the furnaces can be 
made. The six forges averaged about 
250 tons of forge iron, requiring from 
100 to 120 bushels of coal to reduce 
each ton. From these dates can be cal- 
culated the forge consumption of char- 
coal. Allowing thirty to forty bushels 
of coal to each cord of wood, the enor- 
mous quantity of wood consumed may 
be approximated at 20,000 cords. In 
localities where the cleared land was 
unsuited for agricultural purposes the 
tillers were permitted to grow into 
trees, and in thirty to fifty years the 
woodland would again be ready to un- 
dergo another season of woodchopping 
and coaling, as before. The late Dr. 
Peacock, of this city, who was ac- 
knowledged to be high authority on 
this subject, verified the above esti- 

Where, fifty years since, the pri- 
meval forest trees, arrayed in their 
garniture of fading summer foliage, 
swayed in the fierce blasts of the au- 
tumn storm, now in the harvest sea- 
son is often found the golden grain, 
waving in response to the gentle 
zephyr's kiss, and the husbandman re- 
joices in his abundant crops, often for- 
getting the unrequited labor expended 
by the hardy pioneer in removing the 
forest and preparing the ground for 
agricultural purposes. The rivulet 
which pursued its winding way 
through the woodland disappeared 
with the forest; its source, the foun- 
tain, around which the farmer boyg 
were wont to congregate, to drink 
from its cooling, limpid waters, has 
ceased to flow, and you wonder at the 
"mutations of time." The old, notched 


log pioneer dwelling has been razed, 
and in its stead you find a stately 
mansion, with all naodern improve- 
ments. The straw-thatched stable is 
seen no more, the site has been appro- 
priated by beautiful and commodious 
farm buildings. "The old oaken 
bucket which hung in the well" has 
given place to the wind-wheel pump, 
with its capacious cistern, furnishing, 
as required,the supply of water needed 
for household and farm-yard purposes. 
Upon this scene you gaze and "behold 
the onward march of time." The pio- 
neer farmer, the woodchopper, the 
collier, the ironworker, have all gone 
to their reward ajbove, but they left 
beihind a race whose intelligence, in- 
tegrity, patriotism and Christianity 
make the Octorara Valley a region of 
which her sons and daughters may 
justly feel proud. And, while pre-emi- 
nently an agricultural locality, yet no 
profession extant but has been honor- 
ed by her children, and though the 
seasons may come and go, generations 
be born and die, still, judging the 
future by the past, the Octorara \ alley 
will continue to furnish her quota of 
"Living Leaders" for our grand old 
county of Lancaster. 

These colliers generally owned small 
farms, whidh they frequently visited 
to see their families and obtain pro- 
visions during their summer season 
of coaling. They were well-to-do, 
thrifty citizens, and some of them 
kept themselves posted on the ques- 
tions of the day. I remember of fre- 
quently seeing one of them as I passed 
his habitation in the coal fields during 
my morning drives. He was seated 
upon a stump attentively reading his 
weekly paper when he could snatch 
a few minutes from his rounds. 

Yet I would not have infer that all 
of them were literary characters, for 
certainly Henry Noggle laid no claims 
to belonging to this class, as illustrat- 
ed by the following incident: 


Upon the organizatioa of the Steel- 
ville debating club no suitable hall 
could be obtained in which to hold 
the sessions, except one in charge of 
Mr. Noggle, who was averse to letting 
it to the club, fearing disorder on the 
part of those w^ho would congregate 
to hear the discussions. The contract, 
hofwever, was consummated, with the 
understanding that Mr. Noggle should 
be made President of the club and 
have full authority to preserve order. 
At the first session under this regime 
the resolution, Resolved, That the 
females of this nation should enjoy 
the right of suffrage and the elective 
franchise, was Ohosen for discussion. 
The hall was well filled with a fun- 
loving audience. When Henry called 
the meeting to order Prof. G. F. Baker 
stated the question for discussion; 
also cited the by-laws, limiting the 
speeches to fifteen minutes, and in- 
intimated that the President would de- 
cide upon the merits of the arguments 
produced in closing the discussion. A 
youthful M. D. championed the forces 
on the affirmative and Prof. Baker 
commanded the negative warriors. 
After some two^and-a-half hours 
of earnest discussion the de- 
bate closed, and Professor Ba- 
ker suggested that the President 
give a synopsis of the arguments ad- 
vanced previous to rendering his de- 
cision. The use of that word synop- 
sis proved a boomerang to the nega- 
tive, although the sympathies of the 
President were up to this time with 
the opposers of the resolution. Tihe 
doctor obtained the floor and accused 
Prof. Baker of exacting duties not re- 
quired of presiding officers in de- 
liberaitive bodies and suggested that 
the professor was actuated to this 
course by a desire to embarrass tlie 
chairman, who had not taken notes of 
the discussion and certainly was not 
prepared to rehash all of the verbiage 
produced by the negative; the idea of 


requiring a synopsis of the so-called 
arguments of the opposition to the 
resolution was absurd. The consti- 
tution only required the simple de- 
cision of the President as to whether 
the aflBrmative or neg'ative had ad- 
duced the stronger arguments and 
that no interference by suggestion 
should be tolerated by the chairman. 
The professor claimed the floor, but 
the doctor advised the President that 
the professor was out of order, and the 
President affirmed this position. The 
professor appealed to the house, but 
the President, by the doctor's advice, 
would not tolerate the appeal, and the 
decision was in favor of the aflirma- 
tive. The professor then appealed from 
the decision of the chair, the Vice 
President stated the question of appeal 
and the house sustained the appeal 
and the decision was reversed. The 
doctor oibtained the floor on a question 
of privilege, and claimed that the re- 
version of the President's decision was 
a direct insult, and tliat out of self- 
respect no course was open to the 
President but to resign. In accordance 
with his advice the President tendered 
his resignation, which was accepted 
and a pro tem. officer elected. 

The contract for the hall had been 
secured for the desired term and 
Henry had voluntarily relinquished 
the honors and emoluments of the 
office and could not recall the con- 

It is needless to say that there was 
a conspiracy against Henry. And, 
although he was not successful as a 
presiding oflScer, as a collier and 
angler he was A No. 1. 


An Act of Vandalism. 

The following is an excerpt read by 
b'. M. Sener, Esq., from "The Oracle of 
Dauphin," Harrisburg, Pa., under date 
of 6th of January, 1820: 

"The Lfancaster Free Press contains 
an advertisement of the Trustees and 
Elders of the German Reformed 
Church In the village of New Holland, 
Lancaster county, offering a reward of 
$100 for the discovery and conviction 
of the person or persons concerned in 
entering the church about the 15th or 
16th of December, 1819, and destroying 
the new organ of the church, by re- 
moving and despoiling the pipes 
thereof, and talking some of them 
away, and otherwise cutting up and 
despoiling many parts of the same." 

A Visit to Lititz, Lancaster County, in 

In his diary, Jacob Peirce, of Long- 
wood, East Marlborough township, 
Chester county. Pa., thus describes his 
visit to the Moravians at Lititz, Lan- 
caster county: 

1 Mo. 19, 1799.— "Made ready to go 
to Lancaster County I and Jno Mercer 
went in even to Doe run staid till 

1 Mo. 20, 1799.— "Started early rode 
to Hollis fed then to bull Tavern fed 
& took a snack then rode to Painters 
at two Taverns fed and dined then rode 
to A. Forney's Tavern staid till morn. 

I Mo. 21, 1799.— "Took breakiast and 
rode to Littets town by some called 
Moravien town we thire fed our horses 
and went in Company of Landlord 
named Lanins (?) to the Sister House 
or Nunnery when we entered the door 
we were met by the steward who was 
to appearance a woman of Middle age 


her Countenance quick and cheerful 
she gave us a guide who conducted us 
up to the garret Chambers which were 
four in number two for the siclc which 
appeared vacant the other two Large 
ones & Closely filled with be'ds suffi- 
cient in number to lodge the whole 
family separately they being near 
Sixty in Number we then came to the 
underground story it being the bake 
house Cook shop and dining room &c 
&c on the first story above ground 
there is a very large room wherein 
they perform evening and morning de- 
votion, another room they keep school 
and teach Musick &c &c the other 
rooms on sd story & several on the 
next are fitly adapted for the purpose 
of spinning kniting sewing &c they 
being a very Industrious People and 
withal very neat and Cleanly, they re- 
ceive great encouragement from the 
neighbors who bring them work and 
Likewise the Necessarys of Life. We 
then bid adieu and came away without 
seeing the brothers, who live within 
about 100 yds in a house considerably 
less than theirs the Church standing 
betwixt them, all which buildings be- 
ing on the south side of the main street 
and about 60 or 70 yds distant there- 
from from thence we came to the inn 
mounted and rode back to Forney's in 
even, staid till morn, setled Affairs 
with him and started homeward rode 
2 tavers fed then to Mollis fed then 
to Doe run fed took supper then home 
at bed time." 

Evidences of Masonic Activity in This City 

One Hundred and Sixty-Four 

Years Ago. 

At a meeting of the Grand Lodge of 

F. and A. M., of Pennsylvania, on St. 

John's day (last Tuesday), Brother 

Julius F. Sachse, of Columbia Lodge, 

No. 91, presented a communication in 

reference to a number of entries in 

Benjamin Franklin's "Journal" of 1731 

( 116 j 

to 1737, relating to Franklin's business 
dealings with the Masonic lodges in 
Pennsylvania at that early day. This 
valuable document was found by 
Brother Sachse among the unclassified 
MSS. in the archives of the American 
Philosophical Society. Two entries 
show that among the earliest ship- 
ments of the Book of Constitutions in 
1734 were those to Lancaster, one by 
Brother John Catherwood and the 
other by Brother John Reynells. This 
proves the fact of the existence of a 
Masonic Lodge in Lancaster as early as 
August, 1734. Another remarkable 
fact shown by these business entries is 
that the Masonic bodies of both Massa- 
chusetts and Carolina were subordi- 
nate to the Grand Lodge of Pennsyl- 
vania at that time. Further, these en- 
tries presents the earliest evidence of 
active Masonic life in America. 

Continental Currency. 

It is pleasant to note what 
curious and interesting historical 
finds are continually turning up 
all over the county. We have 
at this moment lying before us 
a relic of the Revolutionary era whose 
very existence was unsuspected as 
well as unknown a few weeks ago. 

It is an original sheet of Continental 
paper money, just as it came from the 
press, still uncut and unsigned. The 
sheet consists of eight bills or notes 
each of different value. The denomina- 
tions are $4, |5, $6, $7, $8, $20, $30 and 
$40. EaOh bill has an ornamental circu- 
lar device, with a Latin or English 
motto around the outer edge. A cor- 
responding sheet, making up the other 
side of the bills, accompanies it. These 
backs of the bills, if we may so term 
them, are alsoi highly ornamental, but 
rather rudely done, as the art. of wood 
engraving at that period was not what 
it has since becioime. The designs for 
the back consist mainly of leaves and 
branches of twigs. 


Tlie date of the bills is 1778. This 
issue of Continental money is stated to 
be issued according' tO' a resolution 
passed by Congress at Yorktown, April 
11, 1778. It will be remembered that 
Sir William How entered Philadelphia 
during the preceding December. Up to 
that time the Continental printers of 
the mioney of the new government were 
Hall & Sellers, of Philadelphia. Of 
course Howe's occupancy of the city 
put an end to the printing press mint 
which the government had set up. The 
woirk could no lomger be done thore. 
It had to be done elsewhere, and that 
fact is demonstrated on this sheet of 
bills. The plates for the five lower 
denominations are those used by Hall 
& Sellers, while the $20, $30 and $40 are 
set up in the type of the Bphrata press, 
making it very clear that the plates of 
the Hall & Sellers bills were sent toEph- 
rata, where three morie were set up in 
their own old and battered type, and the 
whole then printed as one new sheet. 
The Ephrata font of type is so different 
from that sent from Philadelphia as to 
be at once apparent. 

This find was made in the col- 
lection of a gentleman of Phila- 
delphia. The finder, Mr. Sachse, 
will use the entire sheet in his 
forthcoming work on the Eph- 
rata Brotherhood. Along with it will 
also be printed photographic fac-sim 
iles of all the known Ephrata imprints, 
more than fifty in number, we believe. 
The book itself will make its appear- 
ance some time during next fall in two 
large and finely illustrated volumes. 

F. R. D. 

Death of Dr. C. A. Heinitsh. 

A committee consisting of Rev. D. 
W. Gerhard and G. F. K. Erisman was 
named by the President to draft suit- 
able resolutions on the death of Dr. C. 
A. Heinitsh, who was warmly inter- 
ested in the welfare of the Society, and 
a member of the Executive Committee 
at the time of his death. They re- 
ported the following: 

This Society has heard with deep 
sorrow of the death of our fellow mem- 
ber. Dr. Charles A. Heinitsh; therefore, 

Resolved, That in his capacity as a 
member of the Executive Committee, 
no less than in his devotion as a mem- 
ber of this Association, he has set a 
high mark for the emulation of all who 
remain to carry forward the work in 
which he was so deeply interested. 

Resolved, That while we deplore the 
loss sustained by this Society, his fam- 
ily, and the community at large, we 
nevertheless rejoice in having been 
permitted in our past labors to num- 
ber him among those who were glad 
to give of their time, their energies and 
counsels to the work this Society has 
undertaken to accomplish. 

The Secretary was instructed to 
spread these resolutions on the minutes 
of the Society. 


Altihough neither our constitution 
nor our by-laws require an annual re- 
port from the Secretary, I have thought 
it not amiss, at the close of our Society 
year, to submit a brief statement of 
what has been done since our reorgani- 
zation, two years and a-half ago. 

As is usual on such occasions, there 
was plenty of enthusiasm, and many 
persons interested in local history 
soon joined our ranks. Everybody was 
ready to lend a helping 'hand, and there 
was no lack of papers to be read at our 
meetings. The trouble was all in the 
other direction, and as many as three 
and more volunteer articles were regu- 
larly forthcoming. I was afraid this 
bountiful fountain would run low in 
the course of time, if drawn upon <=o 
lavishly, but others, more hopeful than 
myself, thought otherwise. Time has 
shown that my own estimate of the 
situation was more nearly correct, and 
to-day it takes considerable hustling to 
secure even one paper of considerable 
length for every meeting. This is not 
because our members have exhausted 
themselves, or because there is noth- 
ing more to write about. On the con- 
trary, we have hardly begun to uncover 
the wealth of hidden local lore that lies 
all about us, nor is it likely that we 
will soon do so. But to prepare a ten 
or twenty page article requires work, 
and, after doing it a few times, the 
average member thinks he has done 
his share, and, as he says, steps aside 
to make room for some one else. The 
fact is, to prepare an article properly 
requires work, and frequently not a 
little research; the reading of half a 
dozen voluimes and an examination of 
twice as many more. Unless a person 
is full of the spirit he will, in time, 
grow weary and stop altogether. 


But I am glad to say we have mem- 
bers in whom the love of the good 
work is strong, and who, in emergen- 
cies, come to the front and help us out 
of our troubles. The Society may feel 
justly proud of the good work done by 
these willing hands. In all, our society 
has heard and put into print more than 
twenty pamphlets, containing in all 
perhaps seventy-five or more separate 
papers, and common justice impels me 
to say that many of them have not 
only been very able, but have been 
thoroughly original, and have brought 
to light much about our local history 
that was unknown and unsuspected. 
We may justly point to What we have 
done with pride. 1 know of no local 
Historical Society In the State that 
has, in the same period, made so many 
and such valuable contributions to 
local or general history. Coming from 
your Secretary, this may seem like 
self-laudation, but I am happy to say 
that the same verdict upon our work 
has been pronounced by sister socie- 
ties, and at least three have modeled 
themselves, to some extent at least, 
after us, and have availed themselves 
of our experiences. 

As it has been with the preparation 
of papers, so also has it been with the 
attendance of members at our meet- 
ings. In the beginning our meetings 
were well attended. To many of us it 
was a matter of earnest business, while 
to some it was a novelty. We all know 
how the latter wears away, no matter 
to what subject it may have been di- 
rected, and then the attendance grows 
thin. Perhaps I was not so much dis- 
appointed in this as some others. I 
have learned from experience that it is 
wellnigh impossible to keep tlie gen- 
eral interest in such a Society up to 
high-water mark. We are not a club; 
we set out no teas; we offer our visi- 
tors no refreshments and waste no 
time over card tables or other social 
diversions. It is a matter of business 


solely and the returns and rewards 
must come wholly from a love of the 
work and the consciousness of duty 
faithfully done. In nearly all organiza- 
tions like ours, a few willing workers 
must bear the principal burdens — must 
be the pack horses and do the fetching 
and carrying. But they are willing 
and do not complain, only sometimes 
they feel a little discouraged that the 
enthusiasts in the beginning are so sel- 
dom seen here now. If you take ex- 
ception to this seeming indifference, 
you are met with the excuse that the 
time of meeting does not suit them, 
that prior engagements prevent or that 
the meeting day escaped their memory. 
Fellow members, these excuses are 
very diaphanous, to say the least. Some 
of our members belong to other or- 
ganizations more popular and less 
laborious than our own, and I have 
had occasion to observe that when 
they meet, there are no previous en- 
gagements, no lapses of memory, but 
the meeting time always finds them on 
hand. This is a little discouraging, but 
it cannot be helped. 

The additions made to our members 
since our organization have been very 
encouraging. During thepastyearwe had 
110 paying members on our roll. Many 
of these have not joined with any idea 
of contributing papers, but to lend the 
encouragement of their names and the 
small financial aid we ask of them. All 
honor to them. Their contributions 
have enabled the Society to carry on 
its meritorious work. Your presence is 
always desired, but if you can't give 
us the light of your countenance don't 
forget to send your dollar here with 
some one. And that reminds me to 
say the amount is due to-day. 

I may be permitted also to congratu- 
late you on the extent and character 
of the donations the society has re- 
ceived. The Librarian, who is the cus- 
todian of these articles, will, no doubt, 
enlighten you more fully on this sub- 


ject. It only shows how much may be 
gathered if there are willing givers, 
even when the contributions come sin- 
gly and without falling over each 

The financial situation of the society 
has been satisfactory, and is so to-day, 
but I desire to say something concern- 
ing them, nevertheless. Our main re- 
sources arise from the dues of mem- 
bers. These, as you all know, are only 
one dollar per annum, and I believe 
you will agree with me that the Society 
has in its publications returned a fair 
and full equivalent for every penny it 
has received from its members. 

I had hoped that long before this, 
one of our main expenses would have 
been cut off permanently — I mean our 
rent account. We pay for this room 
in which these meetings are held two 
dollars for every time we gather here. 
It is a serious drain on our resources. 
Historical Societies in this State, and 
I have the names of twelve County 
all, or nearly all, have been accorded 
comfortable quarters in the Court 
Houses of their respective counties, 
rent free. The Dauphin County Soci- 
ety was not only given a spacious,well- 
lighted room, but, by the consent of 
the Court, it has been elegantly fitted 
up for them with cases, tables, chairs, 
and what not, at an expense of, per- 
haps, $500. I regret to say our Society 
has, so far, been unable to secure even 
the boon of bare floor and walls in our 
enlarged Court House. The County 
Court House is the natural home of a 
Historical Society. The county of- 
fices are mines of historical lore, and 
are continually referred to by all stu- 
denlts in search of information. That 
we have been turned away where we 
should have been most welcome' has 
been tO' me the most discouraging fea- 
ture in our career hitherto. There 
ought certainly to be somewhere in 
this large city a room of small size 
where our so'ciety could find an abid- 


ing place and a home, rent free. So 
far, none has been offered. Perhaps, 
if our needs are better known, some 
kindred spirit will offer us a place 
where we may gather and transact our 
business affairs pleasantly and inex- 
pensively. Nor am I without hope 
that some! day in the future 
a Maecenas will come along 
who will provide and present us a roof- 
tree, from whence we may snap our 
fingers at the illiberality of those who 
could, but will not, provide us with 
shelter. How much depends upon our 
owning our own home may be seen 
when I state that a member of our So- 
ciety has upon several occasions ex- 
pressed his disposition to present us 
with "500 volumes of books and some 
money" — how much I do not know — if 
we had our own roof-tree over us. 
These are things that are worth taking 
into consideration. Until we are the 
owners of a home, it is, perhaps, too 
much to expect any considerable dona- 
tions of books, because, it must be con- 
fessed, we have not even a place where 
we can keep or show those we already 

The postage on our monthly publica- 
tion has also become a severe tax on 
our limited resources. We have tried 
unsuccessfully to get them through the 
mails like other monthly publications 
as second-class matter. The postage 
on each issue is about three dollars, 
and there is no way that I can see by 
which this heavy expense can be 

It has been several times suggested 
that we dispense with the publication 
of our papers. That would in my opin- 
ion be an unwise measure. It is true, 
it would cut off the heaviest items in 
our expense account, but I believe it 
would not only greatly impair our use- 
fulness as a Society, but loosen the 
bonds which now hold us together. It 
is true we come here and listen to the 
reading of the papers, but we cannot 


carry away the contents in our memor- 
ies, and often there are things we wish 
to refer too at other times. Many of 
us have the pamphlets bound and we 
take a pleasure in looking at the vol- 
umes we have called into existence. I 
sometimes think they are more highly 
appreciated abroad than at home. Many 
calls have been made on me from dis- 
tant points for numbers whose repu- 
tations have traveled abroad. One day 
this week a student in the department 
of pedagogy in the University of Penn- 
sylvania wrote me for a number to aid 
him in preparing a thesis on which he 
is at present engaged. The pamphlet 
was recommended to his attention by 
one of the members of the faculty. Per- 
haps we are working better tlian we 
know. In view of all these circum- 
stances therefore, I believe it the part 
of wisdom to continue our publications, 
even though we should be compelled 
to make other sacrifices in order to 
do so. 

I have laid this plain statement be- 
fore the Society in order that in its 
wisdom it might suggest ways and 
means to further the interests of the 
organization. Our membership during 
the past year was about 110. It ought to 
be twice or three times that number, 
and, perhaps, it would be if we all 
took the interest in it we should. There 
are scores of secret so'cieties in this 
city, with large and ever increasing 
memberships. This end is attained by 
continuous effort on the part of their 
members. What they can do we can 
do also, and, wtiat is more, we ought 
to try to do it. But how many of us 
have tried to secure new members? As 
it is, members grow indifferent; they 
neglect to pay th'elr dues as well as to 
attend our meetings, so that it is hard 
work to keep our membership even 
where it is. We ought to try and do 
better, do more than we do. Let us, 
at least, resolve to make the effort; 
perhaps we may succeed better than 


we expect. Because We are weak and 
struggling should not lead to discour- 
agement. Other organizations have ex- 
perienced the same vicissitudes, and ulti- 
mately have been successful beyond 
their expectations. But we have been 
a sueoess thus far; we are a success 
to-day, only we might be a greater one 
if we tried, and that is why I have 
been throwing out these hints and sug- 
gestions. At the same time, let me 
assure you talk won't do it. It is all 
right to discuss these things in all their 
aspects, and then decide upon some line 
of action, but, having done that, then 
go to work; it is the latter which must, 
after all, be reilied upon to produce re- 
sults. Words without works will be 
meaningless in this case, as they are 
in all others. If mistakes have been 
made in the past, and who doubts that 
there have? let us strive to a\oid them 
in the future. 

I have no excuse for asking you to 
listen to this long and discussive re- 
port, but the interests of this Society 
are very near to me, as I knov/ they are 
to all who are met nere to-day, and 
this I hope will be accepted for putting 
this burden upon your patience. 

P. R. DIFFENDERFFER, Secretary. 


The Librarian's work for the past 
two years and a-half, or since the re- 
organization of the Society, has heen 
merely a commencement of what has to 
be done in this department in the fu- 
ture. It has been merely the gather- 
ing of books and other articles of 
value, which have been numbered and 
catalogued in order as received. What 
the Society now needs is a proper and 
suitable place in which can be arranged 
in order, for use and inspection, the 
books and papers which belong to it. 
The accessions to the library have 
been by donation and exchange. Among 
the donors have been Dr. Wm. H. 
Egle, General De Peyster and John F. 
Meginness, and among those with 
whom exchanges have been effected 
are the Pennsylvania Historical So- 
ciety, the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, the American Catholic Historical 
Society, the New York State Library 
and others. 

Your Librarian would recommend 
that when the quarterly publications 
which we receive in exchange from 
these societies become complete that 
they be bound in volumes. 

When the present Society was reor- 
ganized there came into the hands of 
the Librarian about twenty articles 
from the old Society which had been 
in the possession of the Librarian of 
the same, and these have been classi- 
fied among the belongings of the pre- 
sent Society. 

Among the books in the library may 
be mentioned: "Ellis and Evans' 
History of Lancaster County," "Rupp's 
History of Lancaster County," "Egle's 
History of Dauphin and Lebanon 
Counties," "The German Exodus in 

( 127 ) 

1709," "The Swope Genealogy," "The 
Historical Register," two volumes 
which the Librarian has had bound, 
owing to their scarcity. 

Among the curios may be mentioned 
the lock and key of the old Lancaster 
Jail. The following is a 

Detailed Summary. 

of the books, etc., owned by the So- 

Bound Volumes 49 

Half-tone and Line Engraving 

plates 30 

Unbound Pamphlets and Circulars. .100 

Framed Pictures 6 

Scrap Book and Scrap File 2 

Curios, Etc 21 

Bound Volumes of Newspapers 5 

Bound MSS 3 

Old and Modern Newspapers 42 

"Notes and Queries" for 1898, in 

newspaper clipping form 1 

Old Deeds 8 

Pictures, Photographs, Maps, Etc.. 28 
Old Letters and other Documents.. 47 

Illuminated Parchment 1 

Bundle of Old Deeds, Etc 1 

Unbound Historical Magazines, Etc. 11 

Total 355 

I would state that in the 11 unbound 
volumes of magazines there are 62 
pamphlets; in the "Notes and Queries" 
in clipping form there are 35 clippings; 
in the scrap file and scrap album there 
are 145 clippings of a historical and 
genealogical character; in the bundle 
of deeds and old papers there are 275 
pieces, and stored in two barrels there 
are about 500 newspapers printed in 
the boroughs of the county, during 
1886-7, and which were donateu to the 
old Society. 

All of which is most respectfully sub- 


Lancaster, January 6, 1899. 



To balan'ce in Treasury Janu- 
ary 1, 1898 $ 77 59 

To receipts for the year. ..... 109 00 

Total resources !^i8C 59 

By bills paid during the year. .$151 24 

Balance in Treasury January 1, 

1899 $ 35 35 

Outstanding dues $ 43 00 

Ross Fund— Invested $104 00 



Vice Presidents. 


Recording Secretary. 

Corresponding Secretary. 



Treasurer . 
Executive Committee. 


The officers are also members of the 
Executive Committee by virtue of their 






On KEBRUARY 3, 1890. 



VOL. IIL NO. 6. 


Reprinted from The New Era 





1 ILDtN f """'OAriON^. 


Marshall's Diary in its Kalation to Lancaster City and 
Count V. 

By F. R. Diffenderffer. 131 



Of the many names associated with 
the Revolutionary annals of Lancaster 
county, few deserve to be held in 
greater respect, or are better entitled 
to renaembrance, than that of Chris- 
topher Marshall. At the same time I 
feel I am quite safe in saying few of 
those old-time worthies are so little 
known as he. How few of us are even 
acquainted with his name, or that such 
a man ever lived in this city. This is 
largely due to the fact that our local 
historians, from Rupp, Mombert and 
Harris, to those of a still later day, 
have not even so much as mentioned 
his name, so far as I am aware. This 
may be due, in part, to the fact that 
he was not to the "manner born," that 
he came hither from Philadelphia, and 
that his residence in this city covered 
a little more than four years. What 
a pity it was not ten times as long! 

Yet, Christopher Marshall has made 
one of the most valuable contributions 
to our local history that we possess. 
For many years he kept a diary, a 
"Remembrancer," as he was pleased 
to call it, which, I believe I risk little 
in saying, is the fullest, most trust- 
worthy and readable of all the similar 
productions of that period that have 
come down to us. Indeed, I know of 
nothing of a similar nature concern- 
ing Lancaster city and county at the 
period covered bj^ this diary that is at 
all comparable with it He was an 
educated man, a man of affairs, much 
concerned and connected with what 
was going on around him, a person of 



strong likes and dislikes, social by na- 
ture, brought into contact by his po- 
sition and ofSces with nearly all the 
noted men of the period, sharp, shrewd 
and observing, and, as he wielded a 
caustic pen at times, we may readily 
conclude his remarks in his diary con- 
cerning men and things were likely to 
contain much of interest and value to 
us who come a hundred years after 
him. As his "Remembrancer" was in- 
tended solely for his own eye, with 
never a thought of its publication, he 
spoke and wrote with a freedom not 
to be looked for under less favorable 
circumstances, and it is this freedom 
from restraint that a^ds such piquan- 
cy to much he has written. 

But before I enter upon the main 
purpose of my paper, which will be to 
show you through the medium of 
Marshall's diary wliat was going on in 
Lancaster one hundred and twenty 
years ago, I will present a brief sketch 
of the career of the man who wrote 

Christopher Marshall was an Irishman 
by birth, having been born in the city 
of Dublin on November 6, 1709. He 
died in the city of Philadelphia on the 
4th of May, 1797. This latter fact was 
not known to Mr. William Duane, the 
gentleman who edited the last edition 
of the Diary, published in 1839. His 
family must have been well-to-do, for 
he was sent to London, where he re- 
ceived a classical education. Like 
many other enterprising Irishmen, 
both before and since his time, a desire 
to push his fortunes in the world 
made him cast his eyes beyond the 
confines of his island liome. Failing 
to secure the permission of his pa- 
rents, he went away without their 
consent, for which act of disobe- 
dience he was promptly disowned. He 
crossed the Atlantic and made his way 
to Philadelphia. His age at that time 
I have been unable to learn, but he 
must have been quite a young man, 

( 133 ) 

because he at once began the study 
of chemistry and pharmacy, for which 
he appears to have had a special apti- 
tude. He established a drug house,and 
his firm was one of the largest and 
best known in its line in the colonies. 
During the Revolutionary War he sup- 
plied most of the drugs and medicines 
to the troops of New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware. 

He was a Quaker in creed, but at the 
breaking out of hostilities with the 
Mother Country he became an ardent 
patriot, virtually, a fighting Quaker. 
This brought him into disfavor with 
his church, and he was, acordingly, 
disowned by it for his active advocacy 
of the American cause. In spite of 
that treatment he seems to have clung 
to the creed of his youth, and his 
diary shows he was a frequent attend- 
ant at the Quaker meeting-house in this 
city during his residence here. His 
business prominence and attachment 
to the cause of the Colonies secured 
him a wide acquaintance among the 
members of the Continental Congress. 
His house was a favorite place of re- 
sort for these men, and his relations 
with them were both cordial and inti- 
mate. Being a man of ecjucation, 
wealth and standing he was naturally 
regarded as one of the prominent citi- 
zens of Pennsylvania. 

During the entire period of the war 
he was an active participant in public 
affairs. He was a member of the 
Committee of Safety fi'om its origin 
to the end of the war. In 1775, he was 
one of the twelve men selected as 
managers of a company "set on foot 
for making woollens, linens, and cot- 
ton," the election having been held in 
Carpenter's Hall. He was also a 
member of the committee that met in 
the State House in April, 1775, to con- 
sider what measures should be adopt- 
ed in view of the "critical affairs of 

His "Remembrancer" furnishes 


abundant evidence of his interest and 
energy in tliese various stations. In 
fact, mucli of his time appears to have 
been tal^en up in attending to the du- 
ties that devoilved upon him. Every 
page shows his devoted patriotism, and, 
while he was at times given to com- 
plaints of the manner in which certain 
things were done, or left undone, his 
attachment to the patriot cause was 
earnest, sincere and unquestioned. 
The manuscript copy of his diary was 
presented to the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society by his great-great- 
grandson, Charles Marshall, of Ger- 

His son, Charles Marshall, received a 
classical education, and when of proper 
age became a partner with his father 
and elder brother, Christopher, in the 
drug house, finally becoming the sole 
proprietor. In 1821 he, in conjunction 
with others, founded the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and he became 
the first president of the same. 

This is wandering far from Christo- 
pher Marshall's diary, but I have 
thought a sketch of the man himself 
would be a fitting introduction to the 
more immediate consideration of what 
is contained in the book itself. I return 
therefore to his "Remembrancer," 
which, I may here add, begins on Janu- 
ary 9, 1774, and ends on September 24, 
1781. The published book, however, 
does not include all that is in the 
manuscript. A portion was omitted by 
the editor, who says he did so because 
the omitted parts related mainly to 
business and private matters, of no in- 
, terest to the public. He, however, re- 
marks that nothing of general inter- 
est was left out, so nothing has been 
lost in consequence. 

The time between the commencement 
of the diary and the period when Mar- 
shall came to Lancaster, that is, from 
January 9, 1774, until June 27, 1776, is 
occupied wholly with Philadelphia, 
State and Colonial affairs. Hundreds 


of very interesting occurrences are de- 
tailed. He was an ardent patriot and 
every incident, however trivial, even 
every rumor, connected with public af- 
fairs is related. It was a period of 
great excitement in Philadelphia, which 
was then the largest city in the 
Colonies, and he notes everything he 
thought of interest. 

Emigration to Pennsylvania. 

We may note what a heavy immigra- 
tion there was into Pennsylvania at that 
time. He says on May 21, 1774, a ship 
arrived from Belfast with 450 passen- 
gers. On July 11, another from Newry 
brought 450 more. On July 15 another 
ship from Belfast with 400. On the 
25th, one with 220. On August 6, one 
with 350, and another on the same day 
with 300. On the 10th, 400 more from 
Londonderry. On the 30th another 
from the same place with 600. And 
they kept coming at intervals of a few 
days from England, Ireland and other 
countries. Then, as always, Pennsyl- 
vania was the favorite home of Euro- 
pean immigrants. 

While these people were coming 
across the sea another class of per- 
sons were also finding their way to 
Philadelpliia. These were the Dele- 
gates sent by other Colonies to meet 
in Philadelphia to consider the great 
questions which had arisen with the 
Mother Country. He announces the 
arrival of almost all the men with 
whose names we have become so fa- 

Many of the ships that came into 
port, and the character of their car- 
goes, are reported. It is simply won- 
derful what an amount of rum, brandy 
and wine came into the country. And 
we learn that most of the enemy's 
merchant vessels captured by our pri- 
vateers were largely loaded with the 
same products. The conviction is in- 
evitable that our patriot fathers were 

( i3r.) 

by no means averse to a social glass — 
or more. 

On April 24, 1774, the first express 
arrived with a report of the fight at 
Lexington. From that time the diary 
becomes a chronicle of war news and 
war rumors. It is simply surprising 
how many rumors were set afloat. 
Every day brought something new, 
which remained the town talk until 
confirmed or denied, when some fresh 
report came along. As all news came 
by boat or horseback, the delays were 
often very annoying. 

The daily meetings of the Continen- 
tal Congress are also faithfully chron- 
icled, and the more important meas- 
ures mentioned and commented upon. 

His Country House. 

He had a country home, which he 
called the "place," to which he went 
every day or two for pleasure and re- 
creation. This place was in Moyamen- 
sing, between Broad street and the 
Irish Tract Lane. To this place he 
often invited the members of Congress 
to dine and to drink. He appears to 
have been on very intimate terms 
with nearly all of them. They were 
calling on him and he on them almost 
every day. Many of them were fre- 
quent diners at his son Christopher's, 
and here he also met them very fre- 
quently. John and Samuel Adams, 
Robert Treat Paine, John Jay, Silas 
Deane, Christopher Gadsden, Roger 
Sherman, Governor Ward, John Han- 
cock, John Langdon, Thomas Mifflin, 
Governor Hopkins, Thomas Paine and 
many more were almost in daily com- 
munication with him. 

The Committee of Safety appears to 
have met almost daily in the old Cof- 
fee House, and to that place he went 
almost every day, and in the evening 
also. The rooms of the Philosophical 
Society were also a favorite resort for 
the public officials and the various lo- 
cal committees. But I can delay in 

Philadelphia no longer, and must has- 
ten to the time when he came to 
Lancaster. I "will make but one extract 
from the diary before that period. It 
is under the date of August 29, 1776, 
when he wrote: "My wife rose early 
to visit the wharves for wood; all 
bare. One vessel, with twenty-three 
cords of hickory and oak, just sold 
'before she came, altogether for twen- 
ty-nine shillings for hickoryand twen- 
ty shillings for oak." This seems odd 
for the v/ife to do, but she was a wife 
worth having, as we sliall see later on. 

In Lancaster. 

"April 7, 1777. Eat breakfast soon, 
as my wife was getting ready to go a 
journey with my son, Christopher, as 
far as Lancaster, in order to view a 
house and lot that were to be sold by 
Col. Cox, in order for me and my 
family to remove there, as I am so 
poorly in my health, and to be out of 
the difficulties should this city be in- 
vaded, as I am not capable of render- 
ing assistance. They went on horse- 
back about eleven o'clock." 

The wife and son's report must have 
been favorable, because on the 16th, 
nine days later, he has this entry: 

"Near five came Paul Pooks, Dr. 
Phyle and Col. Cox, who brought the 
deeds for the house in Lancaster, and 
executed his to me, for which I then 
paid him." On June 6 he records hav- 
ing "paid John Whitehill £48 for 
hauling five loads of goods to Lancas- 
ter; two from Philadelphia, three from 
the Trap." On the 27th he records 
having "arrived at Lancaster, near 
seven. I was really tired, the road so 
hilly and stony, and I being so poorly." 

His Place of Residence. 
I may mention at this point the loca- 
tion of the properly purchased by Mr. 
Marshall in this city. It originally 
consisted of four lots, each of 64 feet 
414 inches wide, on the north side of 

( 138 ) 

East Orange street, between Lime and 
Shippen, and extending northward to 
Marion alley. There were two lots to 
the east of him on the block, the one 
on the corner owned by James Hamil- 
ton, and the other, next to him, by 
John Hambright, who had a brewery 
on it. On the west side, the corner 
lot on Shippen street was owned by 
Rev. Thomas Barton, the Episcopal 
clergyman, and the one next to it by 
Robert Thornberg. Subsequently Mar- 
shall bought the Thornberg property 
also, and then owned five-eighth of the 
entire front on Orange street. His 
house was the third from the Lime 
street corner. It was a stately brick 
mansion, three stories high, with base- 
ment. It is still standing, but is now 
much changed. An excellent picture 
of it as it was 100 years ago is still in 
existence. With a front of about 328 
feet and a depth of 245 feet, he had 
ample room for his orchard and gar- 
den, in which he took great delight and 
where he was wont to retire for medi- 
tation and rest from the many duties 
he always had on his hands. Pursch, 
fhe celebrated Swedish botanist, who 
visited the United States in 1799, says 
he found four botanical gardens in this 
country: Bartram's, in Philadelphia; 
Woodlands, near that city; Dr. Ho- 
sack's, at New York, and Marshall's, 
in Lancaster. 

Poor Market. 
On July 13 he records some trials he 
encountered, as follows: "We have 
had some difflculties to encounter here, 
as the people have taken offense 
against the Philadelphians (there was 
quite a colony of them in Lancaster at 
that time), who, some of them, have 
not behaved prudently, so that at last 
the country folks would scarcely bring: 
them anything to market. But I'm in 
hopes, as some are gone and more go- 
ing, that the harmony that once sub- 
sisted will return again. I've not been 


able to get a load of hay or wood, as 
yet, nor pasture for my horse. Had 
not my wife bought a load in the 
spring, and we sent some biishels of 
oats stowed in our bacon (wagon?), he 
must have suffered, but we have a lot 
adjoining us; though small, it serves 
to turn him in just to stretch his legs 

I just give this note by way of 

memento, to remember some of our 
difficulties. Yet I must say that the 
people of note, that I have had the 
pleasure of seeing and conversing with, 
have behaved extremely polite and 
kind to me, and some of the females 
have come and visited my wife and 
more have promised." 

He quickly became interested in the 
Mennonites he found here, and he 
records that on August 1 he had a re- 
ligious conversation at his neighbor's. 
Dr. Neff, with a Mennonite preacher. 
Later, on the same day, he was visited 
by another, named Benjamin Ereson, 
Jr., who gave him their Confession of 
Faith to read. 

Under date of August 15 he writes: 
"To writing, being engaged at times 
for this week past in correcting the 
Annals of the Brethren at Ephrata, left 
with me by Peter Miller and Obed 
Hacker, when here to visit me." That 
entry is important and suggests some 
queries. Was it the "Chronicon Eph- 
ratense" to which he refers? As its 
original form was German, therefore 
Marshall must have been a German 
scholar. That he was may be in- 
ferred from the quotation made a 
moment ago, that a Mennonite preacher 
had loaned him their confession of 
faith to read. That surely was in Ger- 
man. But, if the Ephrata Annals of 
which he speaks were not the "Chroni- 
con," then what were they?" 

Peter Miller was an English scholar. 
Did he translate the "Chronicon" into 
English and submit his work to Mar- 
shall for correction? If so, this must 


have been that work. What has be- 
come of it? 

On the 21st he writes: "This after- 
noon I finished my correcting of the 
manuscripts or History of the Brethren 
at Ephrata, containing four hundred 
and eighty-eight quarto pages." 

On the 22d he made a contract with 
Joseph Walter, the barber, to call and 
shave him twice a week, for 36 shil- 
lings a year. 

Many Prisoners Here. 

On the 24th he notes that he took a 
walk to the barracks, after dinner, and 
stayed there until the English, Scotch 
and Irish prisoners, to the number of 
200, marched out, under a strong guard, 
for Reading. One day later he again 
went to the barracks and waited until 
"our division of Hessian prisoners, con- 
sisting of 345, marched out, under a 
strong guard (with some women and 
baggage wagons, as the prisoners yes- 
terday had done) for Lebanon." 

I may mention that Lancaster ap- 
pears to have been a favorite place for 
rendezvousing prisoners. Perhaps 
most of those captured north of the 
Potomac were, at some time or an- 
other, located here, as being the safest 

I find that large bodies of prison- 
ers were at times quartered here. On 
July 5, 1781, the Burgesses of the bor- 
ough addressed a long communication 
to the Governor and Supreme Execu- 
tive Council of the State, in which 
they represented that the barracks 
would accommodate 900 or 1,000 men, 
but that there were at that moment 
1,400 prisoners of war huddled there- 
in, besides 600 women and children, 
and that a fatal disorder was carrying 
off many. They further represent that 
the country adjacent has been drained 
of its provisions for some years past, 
owing to the great number of soldiers 
and prisoners. Also, that the presence 
of such large numbers of the enemy 


renders the place insecure. It is added 
that there are too many disaffected 
persons in the vicinity who would 
count it meritorious could they aid in 
the escape of the prisoners. The health 
of the inhabitants, the security of the 
town and the rights of humanity were 
urged as the reasons for sending the 
address. [See Pennsylvania Archives, 
Second Series, Vol. III., pp. 433-434.] 

On the 26th he records that "on First 
Day morning (the) bellman went 
round this town, calling upon the in- 
habitants that had Hessian prisoners 
to take them to the barracks and have 
receipts for them; but very few 
obeyed." From this I infer that some 
of these prisoners were billeted upon 
the citizens, and that the latter were 
paid for keeping them. On the fol- 
lowing day he notes that another "par- 
cel of Hessian prisoners were sent oft 
this day to Lebanon." 

On the 29th he writes: "Yesterday 
there went from this town, under 
guard, 365 Hessian prisoners for Car- 
lisle and adjacent places. One wonders 
where so many Hessian prisoners could 
have come from. More seem to have 
left Lancaster within ten days than 
were captured at Trenton. Some of 
those who were taken prisoners at 
Saratoga, by General Gates, came later. 

Congress off for York. 

On September 12 he says: "I went 
into town (Lancaster must have been 
a very small place when the corner of 
Lime and Orange streets was consid- 
ered out of town), an alarm being 
spread that some of Howe's Light 
Horse had been seen at Pequea church." 
It was a false alarm. Such rumors 
were everyday occurrences, and gene- 
rally received credence from the peo- 
ple. Our diarist gets angered at this, 
and remarks, "It is wonderful to hear 
and see the progress and fertility of 
the lying spirit, that moves about in 
and through the different classes of 

( 142 ) 

men in this place, attended with such 
twistings, windings and turnings that 
It seems impossible to fix any truth 
upon them." 

President Hancock's arrival on the 
25th is mentioned. On the 29th he 
took leave of many members of Con- 
gress who left for York. He also 
states that many Philadelphians had 
accompanied Congress, among whom 
were the Governor of Pennsylvania, 
the Executive Council, members of the 
Assembly; the latter met in the Court 
House on the 29th. On the following 
day he went to look at some Vir- 
ginian troops encamped on the com- 
mons. From thence he went into the 
main street, near the prison, and met 
a large number of prisoners just 
brought into town from Bethlehem, 
and on their way to Virginia. These 
were stirring days. Troops were com- 
ing and going continually; some to 
General Washington's army and 
others to their homes or elsewhere. 

On October 14 I find this recorded: 
"I went into town, this being Election 
Day. The following gentlemen were 
elected in Lancaster: William Brown, 
Alexander Lowery, Philip Marstiler, 
James Anderson, John McMullen and 
Ludwick Lauman. The election was 
conducted with great order and so- 

Joy Over Burgoyne's Surrender. 

The joyful news of Burgoyne's sur- 
render had been current for some 
days, but on the 20th it was fully con- 
firmed. On that day he made this en- 
try: "As it was rainy weather we all 
went to bed past eight. Near nine, 
alarmed by Timothy Matlack, who 
came to inform me that an express had 
just arrived in town with the news of 
Howe's quitting Philadelphia and 
General Washington in full pursuit of 
his army. This was joyful news, in- 
deed. I then went to bed, but had not 
lain long when Major Wertz came. 


with boy, lantern and candle, on the 
same erand. I then arose and con- 
versed till he went away; then to bed. 
Not long there before Robert Taggart 
came with his lantern. After he was 
gone I went to bed. Not being easy, 
Dr. Phyle (who, it seems, was lodging 
with him) arose. We dressed our- 
selves, went into town; met with 
many heartily rejoicing; then to Jor- 
dan's (a tavern); stayed in large com- 
pany till near twelve; then home in 
the rain to bed, before one." After 
all, this news was premature. On the 
following day, the 21st,more rejoicings 
are described. Hear him: "In the 
evening went into town, having first 
prepared our front windows with con- 
veniency of fixing candles for the illu- 
mination this night on account of 
General Burgoyne's defeat. A further 
account came this evening, and was 
read in the Court House room, where 
the principal inhabitants, with many 
others, strangers, were collected, to 
spend the evening in a kind of fes- 
tivity on the occasion, which was con- 
ducted with great sobriety and pru- 
dence. There were many patriotic 
healths drunk and a cold collation. 
The part of the battalion under arms 
that was in the 'borough paraded the 
streets, fired a jeu de joie with many 
manoeuvres, drums, fifes, playing in 
the room. I came away with a great 
many others about nine." It appears 
they acted on such occasions pretty 
much as we do now. 

On November 22 he sounds a differ- 
ent note. "About half after seven, be- 
fore I arose, hearing a great noise like 
an empty wagon going over a gutter. 
When Robert Whitehill arose, he asked 
if I had heard the earthquake: he said 
it made the house shake to the founda- 
tions. This was felt by many, whom I 
heard talking of it in town." At this 
time war news, mostly false rumors, 
occurs in almost every entry. 

( 144 ) 

Quakers Sent into Exile. 

The Quakers here were nearly all 
Tories, and gave the authorities con- 
tinuous trouble. On December 11, he 
says some of these sent into exile in 
Virginia were found to be in corres- 
pondence with some persons in Lan- 
caster to depreciate the currency. The 
result was all the Quaker prisoners 
were sent to Staunton, Va., and the 
leader, Owen Jones, was ordered into 
close confinement without the use of 
pen, ink or paper, and the rest prom- 
ised the same treatment unless they 
took an affirmation that they would 
neither act, speak nor write anything 
against the independence of the United 
States. On the 13th he records a rumor 
that Howe had marched up the Lancas- 
ter road to the Sorrel Horse, thirteen 
miles from the city of Lancaster. It 
was a false rumor, and the next day 
Marshall fired this shot: "Some people 
pretended to have heard a firing of 

cannon this morning This is a 

strange age and place, in which I now 
dwell, because nothing can be had 
cheap but lies, falsehood and slander- 
ous accusations. Love and Charity, 
the badge of Christianity, is not so 
much as named amongst them." The 
rumor about Howe was enough, how- 
ever, to scare the Executive Council 
which packed up all its papers and 
records and sent them to York. 

A Whack at the Times. 

On the 25th, Christmas day, he notes 
the arrival in town of General Conway, 
him of cabal notoriety. He also chron- 
icles the fact that "we had a good 
roast turkey, plain plum pudding, and 
minced pies." On the 27th, he says: 
"I spent the evening at home examin- 
ing part of the History of Ephrata, 
brought me by Peter Miller for my in- 
spection and correction." He adds this 
new note in the old key: "There ap- 
pears to be no kind of news to be de- 

( 145 ) 

pended upon, but as foi' lies, this place 
is really pregnant and brings forth 
abundance daily, I might safely say. 
hourly." This was evidently one of his 
bilious periods, for on the next day, 
the 29th, he breaks out in this violent 
manner: "Our affairs wear a gloomy 
aspect. Great part of our army gone 
into winter quarters; those in camp 
wanting breeches, shoes, stockings, 
blankets, and by accounts brought yes- 
terday were in want of flour, yet be- 
ing iu the land of plenty, our farmers 
having their barns and barracks full 
of grain; hundreds of barrels of flour 
lying on the banks of the Susquehanna, 
perishing for want of care in securing 
it from the weather, and from the dan- 
ger of being carried away, if a freshet 
should happen in the river; our enemies 
revelling in balls, attended with every 
degree of luxury and excess in the 
city (Philadelphia); rioting and 
wantonly using our houses, utensils 
and furniture; all this and a thousand 
of other abuses we endure from that 
handful of banditti, to the amount of 
six or seven thousand men, neaded by 

that monster of rapine, Gen. Howe 

All this is done in the view of our Gen- 
erals and our army, who are careless 
of us, but carefully consulting where 
they shall go to spend the winter in 
jollity, gaming and carousing. O, 
Americans, where is now your virtue? 
0, Washington, where is your cour- 

On December 29 we have this brief,, 
but important bit of information: 
"Visited in the evening by Dr. Yeard- 
well, who told me they had made a 
hospital at Ephrata, in which were 
near two hundred and forty-seven sick 
and wounded men." The next day he 
was once more at work on the Ephrata 

book, as I find this entry: "I then 

went to writing or, more properly, cor- 
recting the Annals of Ephrata, and so 
continued till bed time, near eleven 


January 4, 1778: "Soon after came 
Wm. Atlee's son and daughter, enquir- 
ing for the doctor (Phyle, who was, 
staying at Marshall's). The request 
was that he would go to our neigh- 
bour's house to take care of an Eng- 
lish prisoner (but he turns out to be 
one of the new raised levies in New 
Jersey) that they had sent there to be 
nursed, he being very poorly, and his 
name was Mrs. Atlee's maiden name, 
and this has induced her to take so 
much care of him. A poor excuse, 
when, at this same time, there are 
near upon two or three hundred of our 
State's soldiers in the greatest dis- 
tress and extremity for real want of a 
little straw to lie upon." Wrought 
upon by this little incident, he breaks 
out in the most violent manner at the 
people for their shortcomings as they 
present themselves to him. 

Tribute to His Wife. 

But I come now to a nugget of ex- 
treme richness, under date of January 
6, which I shall quote entire, despite 
its great length. He writes: "As I 
have, in this Memorandum, taken 
scarcely any notice of my wife's em- 
ployment, it might appear as if her 
engagements were trifling, the which is 
not the case, but the reverse, and to 
do that justice which her services de- 
serve by entering them minutely would 
take up most of my time, for this gen- 
uine reason how that, from early in 
the morning until late at night, she is 
constantly employed in the affairs of 
the family, which for some months has 
been very large, for, besides the addi- 
tion to our family, the house is a con- 
stant resort of comers and goers, 
who seldom go away with dry lips and 
hungry bellies. This calls for her 
constant attendance, not only to pro- 
vide, but also to attend at getting 
prepared in the kitchen, baking our 
own bread and pies, meat, «&c., but 
also on the table. Her cleanliness 


about the house, her attendance in the 
orchard, cutting and drying apples, of 
which several bushels have been pro- 
cured, add to which her making of 
cider without tools, for the constant 
drink of the family, her seeing all our 
washing done, and her fine cloths and 
my shirts, the which are all smoothed 
by her; add to this the making of 
twenty large cheeses, and that from 
one cow, and daily using milk and 
cream, besides her sewing, knitting, 
&c. Thus she looketh well to the ways 
of her household, and eateth not the 
bread of idleness, yea, she also stretch- 
eth out her hand and she reacheth out 
her hand to her needy friends and 
neighbors. I think she has not been 
above four times since her residence 
has been here (it was more than six 
months since she had come to Lan- 
caster) to visit her neighbors, nor 
through mercy has she been sick for 
any time, but has at all times been 
ready, in any affliction to me or my 
family, as a faithful nurse and attend- 
ant, both day and night, so that I can 
in great truth take the words of the 
wise man and apply them to my case: 
Prov. 31: 10, 11, 12." That is a pas- 
sage that reflects infinite credit on her 
of whom it was written and on him 
who wrote it. I may add that in the 
Pennsylvania Freeman's Journal of 
September 4, 1782, only a few years 
after this panegyric was written, I find 
this record: "On Monday, August 26, 
died at Lancaster, in the sixty-first 
year of her age, Mrs. Abigail Marshall, 
the late admirable consort of Christo- 
pher Marshall, Esq., and on Wednes- 
day, the 28th, her corpse was interred 
in the Friends' burying ground, at- 
tended by a numerous and respectable 
concourse of people, both from town 
and country." A noble tribute to her 
charity, hospitality and many other 
Christian virtues follows. On the 
same day that he recorded the forego- 
ing tribute, he says: "Dr. Phyle 


and I then finished correcting the An- 
nals of Ephrata." 

The Outcry Against Washington. 

On January 10 George Bryan and Dr. 
Rush spent the evening at his house; 
they left at nine o'clocli and then he 
wrote these remarkable words, which 
serve to give us an insight into the per- 
turbed condition of public sentiment: 
"By the conversation with those gen- 
tlemen to-night, there appears to be a 
general murmur in the people about 
the city and county against the weak 
conduct of General Washington. His 
slackness and remissness in the army 
are so conspicuous that a general 
languor must ensue, except some heroic 
action takes place speedily, but it's 
thought by me that G. W. must be the 
man to put such a scheme into practice. 
Notwithstanding, cry begins to be 
raised for a Gates, a Conway, a De 
Kalb, a Lee, but those men can't attain 
it. Such is the present concern of 
fluctuating minds." 

Something must have occurred to 
disturb his usually quiet frame of 
mind, on January 22, as he has another 
whack at our citizens. Hear him: 
"This is a wonderful place for variety 
of sentiments and behaviour. You 
may speak and converse with some, 
whose sweet countenances will tell you 
that you are highly agreeable to them 
while you talk to them in their way,but 
change the discourse by asking them to 
spare some hay, oats for horse, wheat, 
rye, wood, butter, cider for yourselves, 
etc., etc., to be paid for in Congress 
money; or that the English army is 
likely to be defeated and our people get 
the victory. Oh! then, their serene 
countenances are all overcast, a lower- 
ing cloud spreads all over their horizon; 
they have nothing to say, nay, scarcely 
to bid you farewell." 

Revolutionary Gaiety. 
On January 29 he notes that General 


Conway and the Marquis de Lafayette 
passed through, on their way from 
York to Philadelphia. On the 31st he 
writes: "There was a grand ball last 
night, or entertainment, kept at the 
house of William Ross, the tavern 
keeper, which it is said was very bril- 
liant, at which, it's said, were above 
one hundred men and women assem- 
bled, dressed in all their gaiety, cold 
collation with wine, punch, sweet 
cakes, music, dancing and singing." 
"Whereat he was, of course, much dis- 
gusted. On the 21st of February he 
adds: "Last night was a grand ball, 
this being the third held in town lately, 
notwithstanding the grievous suffer- 
ings that this State lies under and 
labors with. Last night, I understand, 
there was in Lancaster what is called a 
brilliant ball, to which assembled a 
great number of fops, fools, etc., of 
both sexes, old and young. It was 
kept at the house of Major Wertz, for- 
merly a tailor." On March 6th we have 
more heartache; listen to it: "Last 
Sixth Day another ball or assembly in 
Lancaster, where, it is said, cards were 
played at a hundred dollars a game. 
President (Governor) Wharton there. 
O, poor Pennsylvania. It is said that 
the people who keep the ball in Lan- 
caster allow the Hessian band of music 
Fifteen Pounds for each night's attend- 

Death of Governor Wharton. 

On April 2 he bought four lottery 
tickets for gundry parties. On the 5th 
he tells of the arrival of Generals 
Gates, Mifflin and Lee. On May 11 he 
states that the Court House was illumi- 
nated, and some brass cannon fired a 
salute of thirteen guns, besides small 
arms and bonfires, on account of the 
alliance concluded with France. On 
May 23 the death of Governor Wharton 
Is recorded, after an illness of eight or 
ten days. He says preparations were 


made at the Court House for a grand 
burial in the afternoon of the 24th, at 
the Lutheran Church. The vestry gave 
an invitation and permission for him 
the Oath of Allegiance. Among the 
on the day mentioned. Under the same 
date he says that petitions came into 
the Assembly to take Abjuration out of 
petitioners were the Rev. Thomas Bar- 
ton and the Moravian minister at Beth- 
lehem; the latter declared "he could 
not, nor would not do it, let the con- 
sequence be as it may." He also had 
a visit from John Carryle, a Mennonite, 
about the test oath, and he mentions 
that ten persons of the same persua- 
sion were brought in from the county 
and committed to jail for refusing to 
take the oath. 

Visits Philadelphia. 

General Howe having evacuated 
Philadelphia, Marshall decided to pay 
a visit to that city. He set out on June 
24. The diary reads: "Baited at the 
sign of the Hat; then proceeded to the 
sign of the Wagon; dined there; from 
there went to the sign of the White 

Horse, and soon went to bed 

Stayed for breakfast; stopped at the 

Union; at the Black Horse baited 

Crossed the bridge at the Market street 
ferry." He remained in Philadelphia, 
attending to his business affairs. He 
returned on July 15 and 16. Being 
to be buried there, a thing which the 
Episcopalians neglected to do. Whar- 
ton was buried with military honors 
unable to hire domestic help, we are 
treated to another bilious outburst or. 
the 19th: "My dear wife meets with 
little respite all day, that proverb be- 
ing verified that 'woman's work is 
never done' It seems a little dis- 
couraging to have no help about us, 
besides living in a neighborhood of 
lumps of mortality, formed in the 
^hape of men and women, but so un- 
polished, so hoggish and selfish, that 

( 131 ) 

no good, kind sociability makes any 
impression upon their boorish nature." 

August 17 finds him going to Phila- 
delphia again. The first stop was at 
the sign of the Hat; then proceeded, but 
stopped on the road to eat some gam- 
mon and drink some toddy; slept at 
the sign of the Wagon, and so on until 
he reached Philadelphia, at 5 o'clock 
on the second day. On September 11 
he heard his wife was very ill, so he set 
out on his return. The diary reads: 
"Rained pretty smart until after we 
passed the Schuylkill. Proceeded over 
the bridge at French Creek; came to 
Potts'; fed our horses; then proceeded 
and reached Jones' tavern, where we 
dined. Reached Capt. Reese's tavern 
at the Blue Ball by dusk. Here we took 
up our residence for the night. On the 
whole, we had middling good weather, 
yet both we and horses were tired as 
the roads were so exceedingly hilly 
and stony, and I think longer and 
worse than the great road is over the 
Valley Hills. We scarcely met any 
travelers on this road, but saw plenty 
of squirrels. We drank coffee for sup- 
per and slept in our great coats, 
stockings, etc., for fear of fleas and 
bugs. We rose early (on the 13th). I 
paid the reckoning, thirty-eight shil- 
lings and ten pence. Set off for Lan- 
caster; passed through New Holland, 
in which were many, but indifferent, 
and some good houses, built in the 
Dutch fashion, on both sides of one 
long continued street. The men, wo- 
men and children seemed to be plenty, 
mostly Germans and of the middling 
sort. The roads here were in general 
good, fine woodland and many fine 
plantations, with a great quantity of 
wild pigeons and squirrels, regaling 
themselves in the fields and in the 
woods, with some flocks of partridges. 
We reached Lancaster past ten; found 
my wife abed and very poorly." 

On October 3 note is made of the fact 

( 15-? ) 

that "Parson Barton (the Tory Episco- 
pal clergyman) moved off the last of 
his effects, in two covered wagons." 
On the same day a lot of Scotch, Eng- 
lish and Hessian prisoners came to 
town. "They had not the appearance 
of our poor, emaciated countrymen, 
discharged by the English tyrants. 
Ours were reduced to the utmost ex- 
tremity; these, hearty, plump, and fat, 
with wagons to carry their baggage, 
women and children; ours so stripped 
as hardly to have rags to cover them." 

Honesty of the People. 

People in those days were no better 
than now, according to the following 
entry on October 5: "Breakfasted; 
then to picking some apples left in the 
orchard, as the wind blew so fresh and 
I had turned the cow into the orchard, 
for as she was in such fine order I was 
apprehensive some of our ordinary 
butchers might make too free and take 
her to their homes. I presume that 
yesterday, while I was at the burial, 
some persons got into the orchard and 
took away most of my pears, though 
not fully ripe, and I had kept them 
there to ripen." He also records on 
the following day that he "spent part 
of the forenoon with Levi Marks, who 
called to see me and kindly invited me 
to come and dine with him. and this I 
should remark that none of my friends 
in Lancaster have paid me that com- 
pliment since my wife went to Phila- 
delphia," which was nearly three 
weeks before. 

Burgoyne's Soldiers. 

On the 13th it was rumored that 
Burgoyne's army had crossed the Con- 
estoga, but it was a mistake. On the 
following day, however, 781 of them 
came to town, and on the loth came 
two more regiments, numbering 873. On 
the 17th the Third Division of Bur- 
goyne's army arrived, amounting to 923 

( 1-^^- ; 

prisoners. On the 19th the foregoing 
three divisions left and the First Di- 
vision of German prisoners came in, 
numbering 9-17, besides women and 
children. More of them came on the 
20th, 935 in number. "A great many 
Dutch round Lancaster came in to- 
day, I presume to wait upon the Ger- 
man prisoners." All these soldiers 
moved off on the 21st and 22nd. 

On January 1, 1779, we have this re- 
cord of a custom which has survived 
until our own time: "The Dutch kept 
firing guns last night and to-day, it 
being, it's said, customary. On Feb- 
ruary 5 saw two men standing in 
the pillory for horse stealing. On 
March 1, came General Pulaski's regi- 
ment of Light Horse and Tagers. On 
the 11th, nine of Colonel White's 
Light Horsemen were whipped at the 
barracks for mutiny because their 
provisions were not good and their 
pay overdue." On the 24th he met a 
Lancastrian, of whom he approved: 
"Visited by Philip Thomas, carpenter, 
I think the most sensible, resigned 
Christian I have conversed with in 
this place. Lent him a book called 
'The Everlasting Gospel.'" 

On May 8th, he made another trip 
to Philadelphia, reaching there the 
same day. He set out on his return 
on June 11th, and got home on the 
12th. On the 14th he was made Chair- 
man of a committee of fifteen to fix 
the prices of provisions. Under the 
date of June 27, I find this gem: 
"After breakfast, I planted a number 
of coxcombs, although there are a num- 
ber of two-footed ones in this bor- 

Celebration of Independence Day. 
July 5 was made memorable in this 
city by the celebration of Independ- 
ence Day. Colonel Glotz's battalion 
was in town, and with a committee, of 
which he was the head, preceding it, 
marched down South Queen street to a 


piece of woodland, where there was a 
grand time, thirteen toasts being pro- 
posed and responded to, he acting as 
Toastmaster. During the night he 
was aroused by strains of music. It 
was the town band, Who informed 
him they came to honor him for his 
good and prudent conduct to the bor- 
ough. The Tories also had a jubilee 
of their own, at which they got drunk, 
paraded around the Court House, 
cursed the committee, called them reb- 
els, and even came to blows with the 

The officers and men cantured by 
General Wayne, at Stony Point, came 
into Lancaster on August 4. On the 
28th he was "visited by two English 
officers, prisoners, to linow if I would 
let them part of my house. I received 
them politely, yet let them know my 
sentiments so freely that they will not 
make a fresh inquiry, I think." 

On January 21, 1780, we have this 
entry: "Learned that there was a 
splendid Assembly last night at the 
Court House; twenty-one ladies, dou- 
ble the quantity of men, band of mu- 
sic, dancing, singing, gaming and ca- 
rousing. It is said every subscriber is 
to pay Three Hundred Dollars." 

Continental Currency Prices. 

At this point the diary is al- 
most audible with his groans over 
the extravagances of the times. 
He has been giving the cost 
of provisions and household ne- 
cessities for some time, but on Febru- 
ary 14ih he has this: "After break- 
fast, I took a walk to the vendue of 
Cornelius Lands' household goods, 
where they were sold extravagantly, as 
per a specimen here annexed, to show 
that the people here in general set no 
store by our Continental money: A 
frying pan, Twenty-five Pounds; A 
wood-saw. Thirty-seven pounds, ten 
shillings; Three bone-handled knives, 
three ditto forks, rusty, Twenty-two 


pounds, ten shillings; An old mare, 
eleven years old, for Eight hundred 
and five pounds; One gallon stone bot- 
tle, Seven Pounds, ten shillings; one 
common razor, without case, with 
hone for setting. Twenty pounds; one 
pair common spectacles in case. Eigh- 
teen pounds; small Dutch looking 
glass, six inches by four, no orna- 
ments, but worse by age, Eight 
Pounds, ten shillings; fifty sheaves of 
oats for Eighty Pounds; an old eleven 
inch square-face eight-day clock, wal- 
nut case. Two hundred and ten 
Pounds; an old straw cutting knife 
and box, Fifty Pounds; and so, in gen- 
eral, throughout the sale, the which 
so amazed me that I told them it was 
high time for a Bedlam to be built in 

Old Time Customs. 

On March 15th this entry is made: 
"It's remarkable that two Whigs, 
namely William Henry and Ludwick 
Lauman, both brought up lately gold 
from Philadelphia for the English offi- 
cers, prisoners here, and delivered it 
safe gratis; the first 150 guineas, the 
latter, 117 guineas." On May 4th he 
writes: "Great holiday with the Dutch, 
called Ascension Day." On the 6th we 
get a glimpse at the punishments of 
those days: "Yesterday, it's said, 
three men were whipped and pilloried, 
and one of them cropped (that is, his 
ears were cut off) ; this day, two 
whipped and pilloried; all of them, it's 
said, for horse stealing." On the lOtb 
he went to the Court House and saw 
"a trial of a person for passing coun- 
terfeit money; brought in guilty; 
three others, from Virginia, acquitted, 
and one. Leech, who keeps tavern near 
the Gap, also acquitted, though, it's 
said, proo'f Was strong against him. 
Numbers of people displeased with 
this last verdict, as they say this is 
not the first time he has been con- 
cerned in such base practices." On 


the ISth lie calls up an old practice 
among our fathers when he says: 
"This was a remarkable day for the 
German men and women, bleeding at 
(Dr.) Chrisley Neff's. So many came 
that I presume he must work hard to 
bleed the whole. Strange infatuation." 
On the 15th he speaks of another: "I 
went nowhere from home this day, al- 
though it's a very high holiday in this 
place, and as it was a most pleasant, 
agreeable, fine day, numbers were di- 
verting themselves abroad, some rid- 
ing, some walking, others playing long 
bullets, etc." It was Whit-Monday; but 
what game was long bullets? "Long 
bullets" was a favorite pastime of the 
long ago. It consisted in hurling to a 
distance, iron balls or bullets of the 
weight of ll^ to 2% pounds. — From 
N. and Q. Second series, p. 197. On June 
27th he set out for Philadelphia, and 
got there on the 28th. He returned on 
the 10th of July. 

On July 19 he says: "Visited by Wil- 
liam Henry; took a walk in the garden 
and slayed some time in conversation. 
He said that .(Matthias) Slough had 
acted very imprudently, as he heard; 
that he had caused the gold, before he 
paid it away, to be clipped very close, 
and thereby procured a large sum by 
this, his depreciation, very unjustly." 
We m'ay add that Col. Slough was en- 
gaged in buying horses for the use of 
the French army. 

Quakers Not Numerous. 

Although disowned by the regular 
Quakers, he still held to that faith. 
On August 6th he notes: "I went to 
Friends Meeting, where were fifteen 
menkind and eight womenkind, among 
which were included four strange men 
and one woman, likewise Polly Dicken- 
son, who, with Thos. Vickers, spoke for 
some time." On the 14th of January, 
1781, he attended another service in 
the same place, at which only nine 

( 157) 

men, two women, and two boys were 

December 10: "Went to meeting that 
consisted of six men and self, four 
boys, three women and two girls. At 
this meeting Daniel Whitelock was dis- 
owned for excessive drinking and join- 
ing with the company that celebrated 
the Independency of America on the 
fifth of last July." Again on February 
18, 1781: "My wife and I went to meet- 
ing, that consisted of eight men, seven 
women, fiye boys and three girls 

From these entries we conclude the 
Quakers were not numerous in this lo- 
cality at that time, nor at any time. At 
this last meeting he say^ "Caleb Cope 
stood up and read a paper of excom- 
munication against Alice Harry for 
marrying James Ramsey, who and she 
are constant attenders of this meeting. 
I thereupon got up and came home." 

His orchard gave him some trouble. 
Under date of August 9, 1780,he writes: 
"Arose early, being a warm night, and 
some of our neighbors being too free 
in the orchard." He set his servant 
Antony to watch, but the latter fell 
asleep. Antony, by the way, was a 
character and almost worried the soul 
out of Mr. Marshal] by his peculiarities 
and tantrums. On August 15th is this 
entry about his orchard and his neigh- 
bor. Dr. Neff: "Towards evening I 
caught Antony giving a quantity of our 
only best, ripe apples in the orchard 
through the fence to Dr. Neff and some 
of his grandchildren. This I thought 
exceedingly mean and below the char- 
acter of a man of honor and a neigh- 
bor (and who had about a week past 
collected what he had upon such a like 
tree and stowed them away. Upon 
my seeing them collected, he being at 
his door, I asked the reason as they 
were not yet ripe. He said some of 
them had been stolen, and he did this 
to have some for themselves.)" He was 


. fast losing his good opinion of Dr. 

Low Water and High Wine. 

October 12th, 1780. Under this date 
we have this: "It's said that the Sus- 
quehanna and Conestoga rivers, 
through the long drought, are so low 
that people may walk over them by 
stepping from stone to stone." Con- 
viviality appears to have been rather 
expensive in those days, as this entry 
under date of November 23 testifies. 
"I then went to Casper Shaffner's; 
then Casper Shaffner, Daniel White- 
lock, Jacob Miller and self went to 
John Frank's and drank three pints of 
Madeira wine. Jacob paid for it one 
hundred and fifty dollars." Under date 
of December 23, he says: "My wife 
rose early, having some things to do; 
made a fire in my room; called her 
negro woman, which affronted her so 
that she behaved very saucy to her 
mistress. Hearing the noise in the 
kitchen I arose, went, found Madam 
very impertinent. This obliged me to 
give her sundry stripes with a cowskin, 
but as she promised to behave better in 
future I was pacified for the present." 


He had another servant called Poll, 
who was a very important as well as 
very troublesome character in Mr. 
Marshall's household. Her mother was 
a negro, who had long been a servant 
in the family. She died and left her 
young daughter Poll an unwelcome 
legacy to Mrs. Marshall. Page upon 
page of the diary is taken up with the 
doings and misdeeds of the wench. She 
was incorrigible and worthless, with a 
fondness for the admiration of the 
stronger sex that neither persuasion 
nor stripes could overcome. She would 
leave her master's house whenever the 
whim took her, and remain away until 
another whim caused her return. Mar- 


shall, himself, was anxious to get rid 
of her, but her kind-hearted mistress 
ever seemed to think that having taken 
charge of her when young, she must 
put up with her wrong-doing ,and evil 
conduct under all circumstances. She 
even rode on horseback to York, in 
search of the girl, who had gone there 
on one of her periodical flights and 
brought her back. Hopelessly irre- 
claimable, she was the only recorded 
cause of discord in the Marshall house- 
hold. Of her fate we are not told. 
Poll was a character, and her affairs 
enliven many pages of the diary. 

February 5, 1781, records this pas- 
sage: "1 visited Dr. Neff, very poor- 
ly; prescribed and mixed a julep for 
him. Although he and his son are so 
cried up for skill, my judgment is that 
they are quite Ignoramuses in prepar- 
ing and administering physic with any 
degree of sound judgment." 

To Philadelphia and Return. 

On May 27th he set out for Philadel- 
phia, lodged at Downingtown, and got 
to the city on the 28th. He started on 
his return trip on July 22d, and got to 
Lancaster on the 23d, and here I take 
my leave of this most interesting 
chronicle. I have merely skimmed the 
surface, but even then its value as a 
narrative of events and a picture of 
the times in this city and county must 
be apparent to every one. Tlie last 
entry is on September 24, 1781. As al- 
ready stated, he died in Philadelphia 
in 1797. Why he discontinued his 
diary sixteen years before his death 
can only be conjectured. One year 
after the entries cease his wife died. 
He was greatly attached to her, and 
her death or his illness may, perhaps, 
have also contributed to that end. I 
do not know when he returned to 
Philadelphia to remain. 

President Steinman's Illustrated Copy. 

It will interest the members of this 


society to know that our worthy Pres- 
ident, Mr. George Steinman, has for a 
number of years been gathering mate- 
rials for an illustrated ooipy of this 
most interesting book. The book it- 
self is a" small duodecimo, while Mr. 
Steinman's copy will be enlarged to 
that of a large quarto and extended to 
three thick volumes. I need hardly 
say that neither time nor expense has 
been spared in procuring his materials 
for this purpose. How many years he 
has been engaged in the work and 
how many dollars it has cost him 
would, perhaps, not be wise to tell, but 
the book is a monument of loving la- 
bor in a good cause. 

It would be impossible for me to 
give you more than a faint idea of the 
treasures he has collected, but I will 
yet be permitted to give you some out- 
line of what he has done. There are, 
perhaps, 1,000 illustrations; they con- 
sist of autograph letters, portraits, 
pictures of buildings and places, and 
everything else accessible that is spo- 
ken of in the diary. Let me quote a 
few persons who are represented by 
letters or otherwise in the volume. 
There are letters from Generals Wash- 
ington, Lafayette, Knox, Sullivan, 
Lee, Gates, Wayne and others, on the 
American side, and of Generals Howe, 
Gates, Amherst, Clinton and others on 
the British side. The signers of the 
Declaration of Independence are rep- 
resented by John Hancock, Dr. Frank- 
lin, Ross, Rutledge, Clymer, John 
Adams, Caesar Rodney, Benjamin Har- 
rison, Dr. Rush, Wilson, Monis and 
others. Michael Hillegas, the Treas- 
urer of the young nation, is here; so 
is Charles Thompson, the Secretary of 
the Continental Congress; Jos. Reed, 
President of the Supreme Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania; Governors 
Wharton, Snyder and McKean, and 
Franklin, of New Jersey; Silas Dean, 
our Minister to France; David Ritten- 
house, astronomer and Treasurer of 


the State, and a host of other wor- 

These few facts will serve to give 
you some conception of the labor its 
collection has entailed. It is an en- 
during monviment to his zeal, his pa- 
tience and his enterprise, from which 
there is only one reward — the pleasure 
the labor has given him. 

Prices in 1779, '80 and '81, 

As a matter of interest, the prices of 
food and other articles as found in the 
Diary are here appended; the amounts 
are, of course, in Continental cur- 

At Lancaster in 1779. 

Oct. 19. Butter, per pound $ 4.00 

Nov. 11. Rye, per bushel 37.33 

Nov. 11. A load of wood 35.00 

Dec. 8. Milk, per quart 66 

Dec. 10. Hogs, per pound 2.00 


July 11. Oats, per bushel 21.00 

July 5. Butter per pound 12@18 

July 15. Mutton, per pound.. 4.00 

July 20,Huckleberries,perquart 3.75 

July 26. A dough tray 55.00 

August 1. Sixpenny nails, per 

pound 14.00 

Aug. 12. Oats, per bushel 18.00 

Sep. 23. A hickory broom 4.00 

Oct. 12. A skein of thread 2.00 

Oct. 14. A loaf of bread 4.00 

Nov. 8. Chestnuts, per quart.. 3.00 

Nov. 23. Madeira wine,per pint 50.00 
Nov. 18. Eight-penny nails,pei" 

pound 20.00 


Feb. 28. A peck of white beans 23.00 

March 2. Eggs, per dozen 6.00 

March 21. Tow linen, per yard. 20.00 

April 28. Butter, per pound.. 12.00 





On niarch 3, AND April 7, 1899. 





VOL. III. NO. 7. 


Repeinted feom The New Era 


Sketch of Joseph Simon. 

By Samuel Evans, Esq. 165 

Thomas Mifflin. 

By Martha J. Mifflin. 173 


About the year 1742 several Hebrew 
families settled in Lancaster town and 
engaged in shop-keeping, in which 
calling they prospered. I will refer to 
one of them, who became one of the 
wealthiest and most prominent Indian 
traders within the Province of Penn- 
sylvania, and the ancestors of several 
distinguished Hebrew families in Phil- 
adelphia and elsewhere. I refer to 
Joseph Simon. 

Sampson Meyer emigrated to Amer- 
ica about the year 1730, bringing with 
his family his niece, Rose Bunu, then 
nine years of age, who married Joseph 
Simon about the time he settled in 
Lancaster. The house and lot he pur- 
chased soon after he located here was 
situated on the north side of West 
King street, adjoining the property of 
Simon and Anthony Snyder, a short 
distance east of the old "Plough" Tav- 
ern. In addition to conducting a gen- 
eral store, Mr. Simon engaged in the 
Indian trade, then a very lucrative 
business. Many of the most success- 
ful Indian traders resided in Donegal 
township, and Mr. Simon very soon 
formed close business relations with 
Colonel Alexander Lowrey,which con- 
tinued for more than forty years. 
Many of these early traders suffered 
great losses from Indian depredations, 
and, to' meet their obligations to Phil- 
adelphia merchants, were compelled to 
borrow money and mortgage their 
farms. Mr. Simon advanced money 
frequently to these unfortunate trad- 
ers, and as early as 1750 he purchased 
some of their farms in Donegal, but 
soon sold them again. 

About the year 1750, the traders 


gradually extended their operations 
from the forks of the Allegheny to the 
Lakes on the north, the Mississippi on 
the west and to the headwaters of the 
Cumberland and Tennessee on the 

In June, 1755, when General Brad- 
dock arrived at Big Crossing, fifteen 
miles above Little Meadows, with his 
army, then on its way to capture Fort 
Duquesne, he met Mr. Simon's pack 
train in charge of Daniel East, who 
was the first person to 'bring news to 
Carlisle of the progress and position 
of the army. 

For their own safety, the Indian 
traders joined their pack trains and 
moved in a body, and it required great 
skill and generalship to' bring their 
skins and peltries over the mountains 
to the east without meeting hostile In- 
dians, in the interest of the French. 
They were not always successful. In 
January, 1750, a number of traders 
were captured at Salt Licks, near the 
Kentucky River, and their goods con- 
fiscated and their owners taken to De- 
troit and sold to the French officers. 
Some were taken prisoners and sent 
to France. 

In 1754, when Colonel Washington 
was marching with his little army to 
the Ohio, a number of French and In- 
dians advanced to check him. When 
the latter arrived at Gists, they at- 
tacked Lazarus, James and Alexander 
Lowrey's traders, who were then on 
their way east. The traders made a 
gallant fight, but were finally defeated, 
their goods taken, some killed and 
others wounded. 

In 1754, Mr. Simon purchased the 
store and lot on the southeast corner 
of Penn Square, being the same prop- 
erty which Watt & Shand lately pur- 
chased and built upon. For many 
years Mr. Simon and his son-in-law. 
Levy Andrew Levy, conducted a store 
there. Afterwards Simon and Levy 
Philips, another of his sons-in-law, 

( 167 ) 

carried on business tliere, and on Jan- 
uary 14, 1784, Mr. Simon and Solomon 
Etting, a son-in-law, entered into part- 
nership for three years, and, in 1813, 
Levy Philips, for six thousand, five 
hundred dollars, sold to Benjamin 
Ober and Peter Kline, who kept a dry 
goods store. 

On May 1st, 1762, Mr. Simon pur- 
chased from James Hamilton a three- 
story brick dwelling and store on the 
southwest corner of Penn Square, next 
to the Morning News building, and in 
1763 Mr. Simon purchased the three- 
story brick house adjoining his other 
house, now occupied by the Conestoga 
Bank. In connection with his sons- 
in-law, Philips and Gratz, he carried 
on a general store until his death. In 
1814, Mr. Philips sold the property to 
the late William Jenkins, Esq. Mr. 
Simon, prior to 1763, rapidly accumu- 
lated many thousand acres of land 
throughout the Province of Pennsyl- 

In the summer of 1763, the traders, 
to the number of twenty-three, went 
as far west as the Mississippi. This 
was at the time Pontiac was inciting 
the Northern and Western Indians to 
attack the border settlers and the 
English traders from Pennsylvania. 
Colonel Alexander Lowrey had com- 
mand of the "pack train," when he ar- 
rived at the place where Washington 
now is, in Southwestern Pennsylvania. 
He discovered that Pontiac was be- 
sieging Fort Pitt, and he marched 
rapidly and avoided the Indians, and 
encamped at a spring about four miles 
east of Fort Bedford. This was about 
November 30, 1763. When thus en- 
camped, Indiains of the Huron, Shaw- 
anese and Delaware Tribes attacked 
the tr'aders, and killed several em- 
ployes and destroyed and stole goods 
to the value of eighty-two thousand 
pounds. New York currency. Al- 
though pursued by the Indians to the 
shore of the Susquehanna, Colonel 


Lowrey escaped. Many of these .trad- 
ers lost their all, and some were 
thrown into jail for debt. They peti- 
tioned Sir William Johnson, the In- 
dian ageat for the Crown of England, 
for redress. 

And about November 1st, 1768, a 
congress of Indians was called to meet 
at "Fort Stanwix," nov/ Rome, in the 
State of New York. Among other sub- 
jects brought before them was one to 
remunerate these traders. Delegates 
from several colonies and provinces 
were there; also, William Trent, one 
of the twenty-three traders who re- 
sided in L/ancaster for a few years, who 
was appointed attorney-in-fact to rep- 
resent their claims. About November 
8th, the Indian chiefs executed a deed 
to William Trent for a. tract of land 
which embraced more than half of 
the present State of V/<9st Virginia. 

Mr. Simon was one of the heaviest 
losers. It may be of some interest to 
know the names of these traders. They 
were: Robert Callender, David 
Franks, Joseph Simon, William Trent, 
Levy Andrew Levy, Philip Boyle, John 
Baynton, George Morgan, Joseph 
Spear, Thomas Smallman, Samuel 
Wharton, John Welsh, Edward Moran, 
Evan Shelby, Samuel Postlethwait, 
John Gibson, Richard Winston, Dennis 
Croghan, William Thompson, Abraham 
Mitchell, James Dundass, Thomas 
Dundass, John Ormsley and Alexander 
Lowrey. They organized a company to 
settle the land called The "Indiana 
Company." Trent and Morgan were 
sent to England to procure a confirma- 
tion of the Indian deed from the 
Crown. This was about the year 1774, 
but on account of the trouble with the 
colonies nothing was accomplished. 
Under a patent by Queen Elizabeth to 
Sir Walter Raleigh in 1602, Virginia 
claimed all the land from the Atlantic 
to India on the West. Under this 
visionary claim Virginia refused to 
acknowledge the right of the Indiana 

( 109 ) 

Company to their grant, and drove 
off their settlers. 

Mr. Simon went to Williamsburg, 
Virginia, and employed counsel to pro- 
cure favorable action from the House 
of Burgesses on the land grant. Mr. 
Simon's mission was a failure, al- 
though the House of Burgesses agreed 
to give the Indiana Company a large 
tract of land in the northwest terri- 
tory, if the company would relinquish 
all claims to their grant in Virginia. 
Unfortunately for them, they refused 
to yield up their claim, and lost all. 
Up to the time of Mr. Simon's death he 
cherished the hope that his heirs would 
be able to recover his interest in the 
land grant. After the treaty between 
England and France in 1764, the for- 
mer sent Colonel Wilkins, who com- 
manded the Loyal Irish Legion, to 
America to take possession of the Illi- 
nois country, and he marched from 
Philadelphia, and passed through Lan- 
caster about the year 1767. Joseph 
Simon and a number of other Indian 
traders marched in the wake of the 
British soldiers with immense stores 
of merchandise and established stores 
and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Fort 
Chartres, and Fort Edward, in Illinois. 
They sold all kinds of agricultural im- 
plements, and you could purchase at 
the company stores the finest broad- 
cloth, hardware and all articles neces- 
sary to equip the settlers in house- 
keeping. Flat boats were sent to New 
Orleans with stores, and a flourishing 
trade was carried on with the French 
and Indians. I must not forget to 
mention that in addition to the tea 
sold large quantities of brandy were 
sold to the officers for use in hospitals, 
to kill malaria fevers, which were pre- 
valent. Dr. John Connolly, the Tory, 
who was born in Manor township, 
went as surgeon to Colonel Wilkins' 
command. After marrying and going 
to housekeeping, he thought he could 
make a fortune in the Indian trade. He 


purchaseu flat boats and several thou- 
sand pounds worth of goods from the 
company store. His venture was a dis- 
astrous failure, and he fled to Pennsyl- 
vania, and became a pet and adherent 
of Lord Dunmore, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, who Was also a Tory. In the 
month of July, 1773, Mr. Simon and 
twenty-two other Indian traders ob- 
tained a deed from the Illinois In- 
dians for a tract of land which covered 
more than half of the present State of 
Illinois. During the early part of the 
Revolutionary War Colonel Roger 
Clark was sent out to the Illinois 
country at the head of several hun- 
dred militia by Virginia to capture 
the forts then held by the British. He 
succeeded and in consequence Virginia 
claimed to own all of the northwest 
territory. Virginia refused to ratify 
the claim of these Indian traders, and 
again baffled them. These traders 
were great land grabbers, but they did 
not excel our own Washington in that 
respect. Virginia never contested the 
right of Washington to hold all the 
land he could grab, and, although he had 
many suits in the courts about his 
lands and tenants, the courts sus- 
tained him. 

In some of the European countries 
the Jew was not permitted to own real 
estate, but when he came to Pennsyl- 
vania there were no restrictions of this 
kind. The following are the names of 
some of the Hebrews who were named 
in this last Indian grant. They are 
names well known in Lancaster and 
Philadelphia, to wit: Joseph Simon, 
Levy Andrew Levy, Moses Franks, 
Jacob Franks, David Franks, Barnard 
Gratz, Michael Gratz, Moses Franks, 
Jr. Michael Gratz and Moses Franks 
were the commissaries who supplied 
Colonel Wilkins' army with live cat- 
tle. Mr. Simon owned many thousand 
acres of land in different parts of 
Pennsylvania. During the Revolu- 
tionary War he furnished powder. 


shot, and guns for the use of the mili- 
tia. Several of his descendants grad- 
uated at the military school at West 
Point. Mr. Simon was held in high 
esteem by his fellow traders and mer- 
chants. Several years before his death 
it w^as suggested that he and Colonel 
Alexander Lowrey, who had been con- 
nected with him in the Indian trade 
for forty years, ought to make a for- 
mal settlement of their partnership af- 
fairs to prevent any litigation among 
their heirs. Accordingly, arbitrators 
were mutually agreed upon, one of 
whom was the late AdamReigart, Esq., 
who, in giving an account of the af- 
fair, stated that it was the most uni- 
que one he ever witnessed; no books or 
papers were presented for their inspec- 
tion. When called upon, Mr. Simon 
reminded Colonel Lowrey that he paid 
the latter a certain sum of money at a 
certain spring in the far West, which 
was duly acknowledged; and Colonel 
Lowres^ reminded Mr. Simon that he 
paid him a certain sum of money when 
they were seated on a log in the Indian 
country, which was not disputed. And 
thus these old Indian traders referred 
to transactions which covered a period 
of forty years without a jar or dispute. 
Mr. Simon was always a welcome visi- 
tor to the homes of his neighbors, in 
Lancaster, and in his old days spent 
much of his time chatting with friends. 
He would walk into their houses unan- 
nounced and was always welcome. 

In 1747 Joseph Simon and other He- 
brews purchased half an acre of land 
in Manheim township, adjoining the 
northwest boundary of Lancaster bor- 
ough, from Thomas Cookson, the 
County Register, for a burial ground. 
Among those who are buried there, of 
which there is a record, are the fol- 

Joseph Solomon, died February 9, 
1779, aged sixty-nine years. 

Mrs. Rose Simon, wife of Joseph 


Simon, died May 3, 1790, aged sixty- 
nine years. 

Rachel Etting, wife of Solomon Ett- 
ing, died January 14, 1790. 

Joseph Simon, died January 24, 1804, 
aged ninety-two years. 

Mr. Simon had the following named 

I. Leah, who married Levi Philips, 
who moved from Lancaster to Phila- 
delphia, where he carried on a mer- 
cantile business. 

II. Miriam, married Simon Gratz, 
who moved to Philadelphia. This 
family became Gentiles. 

III. Belah, married Solomon Cohen. 
They moved to Philadelphia. Some of 
their descendants now reside in Balti- 

IV. Shinah, married M. Scuyler. 

V. Susanna, married Levy Andrew 

VI. Rachel, married Solomon Etting. 
They moved to Philadelphia and be- 
came Gentiles. 

VIT. Hester. 

VIII. Moses. 

VIIIL Myer. 

The sons were weak minded. 

Many of Mr. Simon's descendants en- 
tered the legal profession and became 
distinguished lawyers. 

There is a pamphlet in Yeates Li- 
brary, called "Plain Facts," which 
gives a full history of the Indiana Com- 


In the front wall of the Trinity Lu- 
theran Church, South Duke street, 
Lancaster, Is a tablet containing the 
following inscription: 

In perpetuation of the memory of 

Major General of the Revolutionary 
War of the United States, 
and late Governor of the State 
of Pennsylvania. 
A distinguished patriot and a zeal- 
ous friend of LIBERTY. 
Died January 19, 1800. 

It is fitting, indeed, that the people 
of Lancaster — her patriotic sons and 
daughters — should feel an interest in 
the history of the distinguished man 
Whose grave lies among them. 

The Mifflims were Quakers, who 
came over from Wiltshire, England, 
in 1679, and located in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia, and were thus among 
the earliest, if not the first, English 
settlers in Pennsylvania. They were 
granted a patent by the representa- 
tives of the Duke of York of a fine 
tract of 300 acres of land on the east 
bank of the Schuylkill; here they built 
a beautiful home, which they called 
"Fountain Green," and which is now 
included in Fairmount Park. Thus, at 
least three years prior to the coming 
of William Penn, the Mifflins were 
settled on land which, being confirm- 
ed by grant from Penn, remained in 
the family for many successive gene- 

Thomas Miiflin was a son of the 
Councillor, John Mifflin, and was born 
in Philadelphia, January 10, 1744. He 
entered the College of Philadelphia 
(now the University of Pennsylvania), 
and graduated from that institution 

, 174 ; 

when but sixteen years of age. It was 
intended that he should adopt a mer- 
cantile career, and he entered the 
counting house of William Coleman, 
one of the most upright men of the 
day, and one of whom Dr. Franklin 
spoke in terms of highest praise. 

As was the custom with families of 
means in those days, Thomas Mifflin 
was sent abroad on reaching his ma- 
jority, and went at once to London. 
Going from there to France, he spent 
some time studying the French lan- 
guage, and taking riding lessons, for 
which he had a master four times a 
week. Though he made the acquain- 
tance of young Lord Murray and 
other prominent people, his letters, 
preserved in the family, show, even in 
that early day, the love of country 
which distinguished him in later life. 
He writes: 

"I find myself as great a patriot for 
America as when I first left it. All 
the ciharms of that fine country 
(France) have had no other effect 
than in making me better pleased with 
the simple and honest manners of my 
own countrymen. The politeness and 
gayety of the French cannot stand 
the test with our sincerity, and I am 
sure they are as great, if not 
greater, strangers to true happiness 
as we are." After returning to 
America, Thomas Mifflin engaged in 
business with his brother, George, and 
was very successful. But he was not 
of the temperament to remain devoted 
to Quiet business pursuits while the 
air was vibrating with the coming of 
the Revolutionary storm. 

The city of Philadelphia was at this 
time represented in the Provincial As- 
sembly by two Burgesses, of which 
Thomas Mifflin was one in 1771, and 
he was re-elected the following year. 
"Thus, though but twenty-seven years 
of age, he entered upon his public ca- 
reer, which only ended with his 

At the time of the closing of the 
port of Boston, on account of the op- 
position to the duty on tea, Paul Re- 
vere was sent with letters to Joseph 
Reed and Thomas Mifflin, asking 
Pennsylvania to support the cause. 
Mifflin was in favor of sending the 
strongest messages of sympathy and 
aid. To secure the support of the pub- 
lic for a Continental Co^ngress, it was 
decided that Dickinson, Thomson and 
Mifflin should make a tour of the 
frontier counties. They succeeded in 
their mission, and Mifflin was one of 
the delegates dhosen to the First Con- 
gress. He was again elected to the 
Assembly in 1774, and was elected 
with Franklin in 1775. 

Though Mifflin's services in the 
Congress were undoubtedly valuable, 
the call to arms for the Revolution 
opened another field. Although a 
Quaker, he had a warlike spirit, and 
accepted a commission as Major, and 
on the organization, of the Continental 
Army he repaired to the encampment 
at Boston, where he became aide-de- 
camp to Washington. Irving, in his 
"Life of Washington," says: "Wash- 
ington, though social, was not conviv- 
ial in his habits. He would retire 
early from the board, leaving an aide- 
de-camp or one of his officers to take 
his place. Colonel Mifflin was the 
first person who officiated as aide-de- 
camp. He v/as a Philadelphia gentle- 
man, of high respectability, who had 
accompanied Washington from that 
city, and received his appointment 
shortly after their arrival at Cam- 
bridge." Bancroft writes: "Miffiin 
charmed by his activity, spirit, and 
obliging behavior." 

William Rawle, LL.D., wlien Presi- 
dent of the Historical Society of 
PennsylA^aniia, delivered an address on 
the life of Thomas Mifflin, and gives 
the folloiwing account of him whea 
the army was before Boston: "Desti- 
tute of materials for besieging a place 


even slightly fortified, the Americans 
could only restrain the excursions of 
General Gage and intercept his sup- 
plies. A detachment had been sent by 
the British for the purpose of collect- 
ing cattle, and Mifflin solicited and 
obtained the command of a party to 
oppose them. He succeeded, and an 
eye witness, the venerable General 
Cfaig, declared that 'he never saw a 
greater display of personal bravery 
than was exhibited on this occasion in 
the cool and intrepid conduct of Col- 
onel Mifflin.' " 

In 1775, Washington appointed Mif- 
flin Quartermaster-General, because 
(as he writes to Richard Henry Lee) 
"of a thorough persuasion of his in- 
tegrity, my own experience of his ac- 
tivity, and, finally, because he stands 
unconnected with either of these gov- 
ernments, or with this, that, or the 
other man." 

In 1776, when but thirty-two years of 
age, Mifflin was made a Brigadier-Gene- 
ral, and entered upon his duties In the 

Mr. Sydney George Fisher, in his 
"Pennsylvania Colony and Common- 
wealth," says: "Like most Quakers 
who took to fighting, Mifflin made an 
excellent soldier. He commanded the 
best-disciplined brigade in the Conti- 
nental Army." 

It is related that even the army was 
not enthusiastic over the Declaration 
of Independence, and, on an occasion 
of the reading of the document to the 
soldiers at Fort Washington, they re- 
ceived it in perfect silence. General 
Mifflin, knowing this was no time for 
hesitation, sprang upon a cannon, and, 
in a clear voice, exclaimed: "My lads, 
the Rubicon is crossed. Let us give 
three cheers for the Declaration!" The 
effect was electrical. 

On the retreat from Long Island, 
General Mifflin desired that his bri- 
gade be the last to leave the lines; 
this was granted, and this young Gen- 


eral had the post of honor in an ac- 
tion, of which General Greene wrote: 
"Considering the difficulties, the re- 
treat from Long Island was the best 
effected retreat I ever heard or read 

Thomas Mifflin's services as a re- 
cruiting officer were invaluable, and 
Keith says "that the cause of America 
was more than once saved by his pow- 
ers of persuasion over a colony of 
shopkeepers or 'husbandmen." Con- 
gress saw his ability and informed 
Washington that they wished to re- 
tain him in their service. 

Mifilin was directed to proceed 
through various parts of the State to 
arouse the militia to "come forth in 
defense of their country." A commit- 
tee was appointed to accompany him. 
Mifflin was a most eloquent speaker, 
and, with his fine address and ap- 
pearance, was well calculated to im- 
press his hearers. Full of enthusiasm 
for the cause himself, he was best pre- 
pared to present it to others. Bancroft 
says: "He fulfilled his mission with 
patriotism and albility." Everywhere 
meetings were called, and Mifflin ad- 
dressed the peo'ple, from pulpits, the 
Judges' bench.and from public resorts. 

They succeeded in bringing out the 
militia of Lancaster county and the 
frontier region; and "Mifflin, by his 
almost unaided efforts, had the satis- 
faction of marching to New Jersey 
with some eighteen hundred men, and 
in the picture of the battle of Prince- 
ton by Col. Trumbull, Gen. Mifflin occu- 
pies a prominent place." 

On February 19, 1778, Congress 
made him a Major-General. General 
Mifflin's actions as Quartermaster- 
General having been criticised, he of- 
fered his resignation, but Congress 
would not accept it; and instead 
showed their perfect confidence in him 
by placing in his hands a million dol- 
lars with which to settle the claims of 
his administration as Quartermaster- 


General, and in 1780 appointed him 
a member of a board to devise means 
for retrenching expenditure. Such is 
the statement of Keith in his "Provin- 
cial Councillors of Pennsylvania." 

In 1782 Mifflin was again sent as 
delegate to the Continental Congress, 
and became In 1783 President of that 
body. He thus occupied at that time 
the highest office in the nation. In 
this position he received the resigna- 
tion of Washington as Commander in 
Chief of the Army. This was an im- 
pressive occasion. After an affecting 
address, Washington advanced to 
President Mifflin and handed him his 
commission and a copy of his address, 
to which President Mifflin replied in 
beautiful and impressive language. 
This event is commemorated in a pic- 
ture which hangs in the rotunda of the 
Capitol at Washington. 

After Mifflin's retirement from Con- 
gress he was appointed Speaker of the 
Assembly of Pennsylvania, and in 1787 
was a member of the convention which 
framed the Constitution of the United 
States. Keith writes of Gen. Mifflin: 
"He was chosen in 1788 to the Supreme 
Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 
and was made its President. He con- 
tinued under that title the head of the 
State until the Constitution of 1790 
went into effect, being also President 
of the Convention which framed that 
Constitution. When the popular elec- 
tion was held to choose the first Gov- 
ernor, Thomas Mifflin received a large 
majority of votes, General Arthur St. 
Clair being his opponent." Mifflin was 
inaugurated in Philadelphia with much 
ceremony, December 21, 1790, and by 
re-elections served nine years, the 
greatest length of time, according to 
the Constitution, that one man could 
retain the office. 

During the period of his administra- 
tion as Governor the "Whisky Insur- 
rection" occurred, and Mifflin took ac- 


tive part in its suppression, going him- 
self with a command of troops. 

When Governor Mifflin's term of 
office expired he was again sent to the 
Assembly, then in session at Lancas- 
ter. "He began to attend the meetings, 
but was taken suddenly ill, and on the 
20th of January, 1800, in the fifty- 
seventh year of his age, breathed the 
last breath of an eventful life." 

His biographer, William Rawle, 
LL.D., says of him: "In patriotic prin- 
ciple never changing, in public action 
never faltering, in personal friendship 
sincerely warm, in relieving the dis- 
tressed always active and humane, in 
his own affairs improvident, in the 
business of others scrupulously just." 

Thomas Mifflin married, in 1767, his 
cousin, Sarah Morris, daughter of 
Morris Morris, of Philadelphia. 

In his country seat on the Schuylkill 
and in his town house Gen. Mifflin ex- 
tended hospitality to the leading men 
of his day; and many times Washing- 
ton was entertained under his roof. 

Mr. Sydney George Fisher says: 
"Mifflin was a thoroughbred Philadel- 
phia Quaker; a man of some wealth, 
living in a large, handsomely fur- 
nished house, where he entertained 
with the liberality that was then fash- 
ionable. He appears to have been a 
very vigorous and handsome man." 
Another describes General Mifflin as 
remarkably handsome, of athletic 
frame. His manners were cheerful and 
affable. His elocution open, fluent and 
distinct. A man of ready apprehen- 
sion and brilliancy." 

The portrait of General Mifflin in 
full uniform, painted by Gilbert Stuart, 
and now in the possession of the fam- 
ily of George Mifflin Dallas, shows him 
to be a man of fine appearance. 

Mr. Fisher calls Gen. Mifflin "one of 
the neglected Pennsylvanians." 

This brief record of the life and ac- 
tions of this distinguished man cannot 
be closed without a reference to the 


charge made against him of a desire to 
see Washington supplanted as Com- 
mander in Chief. A prominent states- 
man once remarked to the writer of 
this article "that, while we all honor 
and revere the character of Washing- 
ton, yet had he lived in this day to 
command the armies, we would un- 
doubtedly object to his methods as be- 
ing too slow, and he would have been 
superseded by some one more prompt 
in action." The impetuous Mifflin no 
doubt felt that the conduct of the war, 
according to Washington's methods, 
would not lead to success. Fortunately, 
he was mistaken, and no doubt he re- 
gretted his action; but he can never be 
accused of want of patriotism or 

I cannot do better than quote Keith 
on this subject. He writes: "Bancroft, 
in his celebrated History of the United 
States.has pierced the halo which sur- 
rounded every Revolutionary leader, 
and has brought them with all their 
incapacity and their intrigues into 
public gaze; but it may be doubted 
how far the character of any indivi- 
dual deserves the strong terms of the 
rhetorician. Mifflin is severely at- 
tacked But any honest man could 

have believed in the expediency of a 
change of commanders; the gloom over 
America after the loss of Philadelphia 
was such as to make people lose all 
confidence in Washington, and when 
the brilliant victory of Gates at Sara- 
toga came to brighten the prospect, it 
was natural to suggest that Gates was 
more competent 

"It is certain that Washington bore 
General Mifflin no malice, and their re- 
lations in public and private life after 
the Revolution gave no indication that 
Washington placed any trust in the 
charges made against Mifflin." 

In this day, when so much interest is 
shown in the history of our patriots, 
and an effort made to keep their mem- 
ory fresh and green in the hearts of 


the present generation by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution and 
by historical and other societies, 
would it not be well to do something 
to mark appreciation of the distin- 
guished services of this "neglected 



Intrepid orator and statesman bold. 
At whose impetuous and impassioned 

Men dropped the plowshares and took 

up their swords 
To fight for Freedom, in the days of 
Forgotten art thou in this lust for gold, 
Although thy strong and stirring life 

Deeds that were noble. But this age 

With calm neglect thy labors manifold. 
Champion of Liberty and of the Right; 
Brother in perilous arms, to Washing- 
Thou zealous Ruler of a glorious State- 
Is there no way thy service to requite? 
Sleep, Patriot, Sleep! nor wish to know 

thy fate — 
Th' ingratitude of Freedom for her son! 

—Lloyd Mifflin. 

In Memoriam. 

The committee appointed at the 
April meeting to prepare a minute on 
the death of our fellow-member, Hon. 
H. C. Brubaker, presented the follow- 

That in commemorating the death of 
the Hon. H. C. Brubaker we recognize 
his eminent ability as a jurist and his 
devotion to the best interests of Lan- 
caster county. The Historical Society 
appreciates the fact that he was inter- 
ested in the special work in which we, 
as a society, are engaged, and sincerely 
mourn his death, in the midst of a 
career of eminent usefulness. We sug- 
gest that the Secretary be directed to 
transmit to the family of the deceased 
the present minute and to express to 
them our profound sorrow in their sad 





ON rvlAY 5 AND JUNE 2, 1899. 

GENERAL WAYNE IN 1777-1778. 






VOL. III. NOS. 8 AND 9. 


Repeinted from The New Eba. 


General Wayne in 1777-1778. 

By F. R. Diffenderffer, 185 

Some Early Printers. 

By the late Hon. H. G. Long, . . . , » 203 

A General Knox Letter. 

By F. R. Diffenderffer, .212 


In thumbing over "Rupp's History 
of L/ancaster County" several weeks 
ago for, perhaps, the five hundredth 
time, I once more oame upon the Gen- 
eral Wayne letters, printed on pages 
412 to 420. Like a good many more 
persons, I had never questioned the 
fact that as they hore the name of 
Mountjoy at their head they were 


written at the town of that name in 
our own county. It was not until the 
paper of Mr. Samuel Evans, on "Col- 
onel James Crawford," was read be- 
fore this society that a light dawned 
upon the question, and I determined 


to investigate the matter thoroughly 
for my own satisfaction. I think I 
have done so, and I will attempt to 
show that General Wayne's brigade 
was never in winter quarters in this 
county, either at Mount Joy or else- 
where, and that the belief that it was 
was largely the result of a confusion 
between two places with the same 
name, widely separated, and only one 
of which was known to the persons 
who were discussing the question out 
of which this misconception arose. 

Major General Anthony Wayne — 
"mad Anthony," as the histories have 
it, and as the American people have 
always delighted to call him — ^was one 
of the three Generals which the Quak- 
er element contributed to the Revolu- 
tionary War, and one of the two born 
Generals, besides the Commander-in- 
Chief, who did gallant service in that 
struggle of the centuries. No General 
in the Continental army rendered his 
country better service. At the Bran- 
dj'-wine, at Paoli, at Germantown, at 
Valley Forge, at Monmouth, at Stony 
Point and at Yorktown, whether in 
victory or disaster, he was the Cheva- 
lier Bayard of the American forces,the 
knight without fear and without re- 
proach; and whenever his plumed 
crest was seen amid the gleam of bay- 
onets and the roar of battle, there the 
fight raged most furiously and the 
dead lay thickest. 

But it is not the purpose of thi^ 
brief paper to present to you the mili- 
tary or civil career of this skilful sol- 
dier, true patriot and wise statesman. 
The eloquent pen of history did that 
long ago, and to-day we can neither 
add nor detract from that proud re- 
cord. I, therefore, return to the main 
purpose of this paper. 

So far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, Rupp was the writer who first 
gave currency to this statement con- 
cerning Wayne. He publishes six let- 
ters, the first bearing date of Decem- 


ber 28, 1777, and the last that of April 
8th, 1778, with the name Mountjoy in 
the headline of five of them, and the 
words "Camp Mount Joy" in the re- 
maining one. E^vidently Rupp thought 
he had made a very important find 
when he discovered these letters 
among the unpublished archives of the 
State at Harrisburg. Concerning them 
he says: "When General "Washington 
took winter quarters. General Wayne 
encamped in this (Lancaster) county, 
in Mount Joy township, where his 
men endured no small degree of suf- 
fering, as appears from the following 
letters from the General to his excel- 
lency, Thomas Wharton, Esq., at Lan- 
caster." He was a careful historian, 
and nothing that he had ever seen 
bore out the seeming evidence of 
the headlines of these letters. Yea, 
more. He appears to have been fear- 
ful their accuracy, or, perhaps, even 
their existence might be questioned, so 
he carefully fortified his position by 
the following letter from the then Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth. Here it 

Secretary's Oflace, 
Harrishurg, October 11, 1843. 
Mr. I. D. Rupp. 

Sir: Your letter of the 9th instant 
was received, and, in reply, T would 
inform you that it appears from the 
letters you mentioned that General 
Wayne "had" his camp at Mount Joy, 
in Lancaster county, during the winter 
of 1777 and 1778. 

Very respectfully yours, 


You will observe Secretary M'Clure 
is not very positive He says: "It ap- 
pears that Wayne had his camp in 
this county." It may be, he had 
doubts, but the letters seemed to fur- 
nish evidence he could not overcome. 

Even the veteran Dr. Egle fell into 
the same trap so innocently, but skil- 
fully, laid by Rupp, and we find him 
saying in his "History of Pennsylva- 


nia" that "General Wayne's command 
was encamped during nearly tke whole 
winter and spring (of 1777-78) at 
Mount Joy, Lancaster county, assist- 
ing in securing supplies of provisions 
for the army at Valley Forge." 

I have not had time to investigate 
how many more writers have perpetu- 
ated this error, nor are further re- 
searches on this point required. The 
fact that it has remained uncontra- 
dicted for nearly half a century is the 
strangest part of it. 

The extreme improbability of the 
statement should from the beginning 
have led to a more careful investigt.- 
tion. No fact of the Revolutionary 
War is better remembered than the 
midnight assault on his forces at 
Paoli, on September 20, 1777, and his 
brilliant conduct at the battle of Ger- 
mantown in the following month of 
October. It is also well known that 
when General Howe occupied Philadel- 
phia in August, of 1777, the entire 
American force was concentrated in 
that neighborhood. The enemy num- 
bered 19,530 men and the patriot forces 
11,800. Not one brigade, nay not a 
company, could be spared anjd none 
were absent but the few who 
were away on special duties. How ex- 
tremely improbable, therefore, to sup- 
pose that Wayne, with his eight regi- 
ments, composing two brigades, had 
been detached at this critical moment 
to occupy a village of no strategic im- 
portance, eighty miles distant, while 
all the rest of Washington's army lay 
on the watch, only twenty miles from 
the British forces. Such a thing is as 
inconceivable from a military point of 
view as it is at variance with all the 
well-known facts. What was there for 
him to do at Mount Joy, Lancaster 
county, nearly a hundred miles from 
the nearest enemy, and he ever fore- 
most in the fray? Common sense as 
well as military science suggests that 
his place was by the side of his chief, 


and the fact is that he was there con- 
tinuously from the time he joined 
Washington's army in the Jerseys 
about May, 1777, until Howe abandoned 
Philadelphia in the summer of 1778. 

Again, if he, with his two brigades, 
was encamped during the entire win- 
ter of 1777-8 at the hamlet of Mount 
Joy, in this county, does any sensible 
person for a moment suppose no phy- 
sical evidences of the fact would re- 
main? Such a large body of men would 
select a favorable location and throw 
up suitable fortifications, earthworks, 
redoubts, etc. Then, too, it would 
have been well nigh impossible to have 
lived under canvas during that in- 
clement winter, destitute of suitable 
clothing as they were. They must 
have occupied some barracks or built 
huts, as was the usual custom. But 
who ever made such a claim? Where 
are the evidences of huts or barracks, 
of redoubts, trenches and earthworks? 
It is simply impossible that some re- 
mains of such works would not sur- 
vive until the present hour, had there 
been such. Even tradition, that gossip 
of the ages, is dumb when this encamp- 
ment of 2,000 or more men at Mount 
Joy is concerned. The army records 
of Valley Forge relate all too truly the 
story how insufficient food, inadequate 
clothing and camp diseases resulting 
from exposure sent hundreds of heroes 
to nameless graves. It is the story of 
every army long in camp. But has 
man ever seen or heard aught of such 
a thing in Mount Joy? WTiere is the 
graveyard where these unknown 
patriots sleep their last sleep? The 
people of Mount Joy would to-day di- 
rect the tourist to the sacred spot. But 
they do not, for neither history, tradi- 
tion nor the men of ancient days have 
preserved such cherished memorials. 

Once more, had Wayne at any time 
marched his brigade to Mount Joy, he 
must have come through Lancaster. 
Here he would have been captured as 


surely as fate. In this very town of 
Lancaster there lived at that time the 
diarist Christopher Marshall, who 
daily noted even the most trifling war 
news in (his "Remembrancer." Every 
body of importance that comes along 
and many that are unimportant find 
places in his pages. The arrival of 
troops and their departure is noted. 
Nothing escapes him. What the Eng- 
lish never succeeded in doing, Marshall 
would certainly have done, had Wayne 
put in an appearance — that is, captured 
him and given him a place in his most 
excellent book. 

But I think it can be clearly sihown 
from the very letters themselves, I 
mean those dated at Mountjoy, that 
they were not written in this county. 
The opening paragraph in the first one 
reads: "I was favored vrith yours of 
the 12th (Decemher, 1777) instant, but 
the enemy being then out, prevented 
me from acknowledging it sooner." 
This most certainly alludes to the va- 
rious foraging and other expeditions 
Howe kept sending out, and which 
had to be looked after. As none of 
these ever came up as far as Lancas- 
ter, how could Wayne have been on 
the lookout for them? In the same 
letter occurs this passage: "His Ex- 
cellency (General Washington) is also 
informed that Governor Henry, of 
Virginia, has ordered on clothing for 
the troops of that State, which he ex- 
pects every hour." Unless Wayne had 
been in daily communication with the 
Commander-in-Chief how could he 
have known these things?" 

In the Mountjoy letter, dated Feb- 
ruary, 1778, Wayne writes to General 
Wharton as follows: "Enclosed is a 
list of the officers sent on the recruit- 
ing service from my division, who, you 
will see by the within insti-uctions, ai-e 
directed to wait on your Excellency for 
recruiting orders." If Wayne had 
himself been on the spot his recruiting 
officers could have been put to work at 

( 191 ) 

OEce, and by himself, instead of being 
sent to the Governor, at Lancaster. 

In the letter dated March 27, 1778, 
from Mount joy.of course,he says: "It's 
at last concluded to throw the Penn- 
sylvania troops into one division, after 
reducing them to ten regiments, which, 
I believe, will be as many as we can 
fill." Such an important step could 
only have been done at headquarters, 
and after due consultation and deliber- 
ation. In the same letter he says 
there is a rumor in camp that the 
English have evacuated Rhode Island 
and are drawing all their forces to a 
focus. Had Wayne been at Mt. Joy, 
in this county, such news must have 
reached the Governor, at Lancaster, be- 
fore it did Wayne, and there would 
have been no use in his sending it. 

On April 10, 1778, he writes to the 
Governor: "Agreeably to your desire, 
I have 'ordered up' an additional num- 
ber of recruiting ofla^cers." A little 
further on in the same letter he adds: 
"I wish Your Excellency to order the 
recruits to be clothed and appointed 
before they leave Lancaster, as they 
can't be supplied here, the sixteen ad- 
ditional regiments, and the Carolina 
troops, being ordered to be supplied 
previous to any others." Common in- 
telligence will readily see that the 
writer could not have been in Lancas- 
ter county when he wrote the above 

The internal evidence supplied by 
these very Mount joy letters is so clear 
and decisive that it cannot be success- 
fully disputed. It will be seen that up 
to this time I have presented only 
negative evidence that Wayne's Bri- 
gades were never encamped in the 
town of Mount Joy. I have abundant 
positive evidence to the same effect, 
which I now proceed to give. 

The six Wayne letters quoted by 
Rupp, and dated at Mountjoy, are not 
the only ones written by him and dated 
at that place. Some are to be found 

( 193 ) 

in the Colonial Records, and many are 
quoted by Dr. Charles J. Stille in his 
"Life of "Wayne." I shall now quote 
from some of these and also from let- 
ters to him, written by others, v.'hile 
he was at Valley Forge, as well as from 
Dr. Stille's excellent work itself. 

Lancaster at this time was not only 
the largest town in the State after 
Philadelphia, but the richest, and, 
along with the country around it, was 
the main source of supply for the 
army. Nearly all the clothing for the 
Pennsylvania line was made here. 
Officials were continually at work se- 
curing cloth and linen and leather, 
and having them made up for the use 
of the soldiers in the camp. Here; is 
a letter from Commissary Lang, who 
was on such duty at that time. It is 
dated at Lancaster, on February 2Sth. 

"Hon'd Sir: You cannot Conceive 
how uneasy I am from want of Instruc- 
tions from Council concerning the 
Sending necessaries to Camp for the 
troops. You can now be furnished 

with 300 pairs of shoes more 

Some shirts and stockings and Good 
Breeches are in my possession, on 
which I await your Orders and their 
Leave. Pray send a receipt for the 
301 pairs you got of Mr. Henry, along 
with your first order, and oblige, Sir, 
Your Most Obedient Servant, 

The Hon'bl Anthony Wayne, Esq'r, 

Brigadier General, at Camp, near 

Valley Forge. 

Here we have a business letter sent 
to him at the Camp at the very lime 
the Rupp letters located him m I^an- 
caster county. 

In all the letters of the time, and the 
histories, we find Valley Forge spoken 
of as the "Camp," the words Valley 
Forge being not frequently used. In a 
letter from Wayne to Mr. Richards 
Peters, Secretary of War, dated at Mt. 
Joy, on February 8, 1778, he begins. 


"On my arrival in Camp;" he hail evi- 
dently been away on foraging duly. 

Another letter from Wayne to Col. 
Bayard, dated Mt. Joy. March 28, 1778 
(one of the Rupp letters is dated thy 
day previous, March 27), directs Bay- 
ard "To proceed Immediately to Lan- 
caster and call on Wm. Henry, Esq., 
there,forthe arms,etc., mentioned in the 
two Brigade Returns. 'You will also 
forward to Camp' all such clothing as 
may be provided for the Use of the 
Officers and Soldiers of the Penn'a 

Line As soon as you can Effect 

this Business, you will Return to 
Camp, taking care to forward all such 
Recruits belonging to the Penna. Line 
as may be in Lancaster, first providing 
them with their proper Uniform, Arms, 
and Accoutrements." 

In a letter to Secretary Peters, from 
Mount Joy, on April 12, he says: "At 
present the Enemy far outnumber us — 
and unless speedy supplies arrive — We 
shall not long retain this Ground." 

On March 4 he writes to General 
Washington from Haddonfield, N. J., 
that hearing that the enemy, in small 
partiss, were collecting cattle and 
forage in that vicinity, he made a 
forced march to cut some of them off. 
He describes at great length how, with 
General Pulaski, Col. Ellis and Capt. 
Boyle, he drove the various detach- 
ments back into Philadelphia; adding, 
"I shall begin my March for Camp to- 
morrow morning." 

On June 17, Washington called a 
council of war as to the expediency of 
attacking Philadelphia. Wayne was 
present, and his judgment was adverse 
to the contemplated step. On the fol- 
lowing day he gives his views to 
Washington in a long letter dated at 
Mount Joy. 

Believing that the English were 
about to evacuate Philadelphia, La- 
fayette was sent to Barren Hill, about 
half way to the city. The enemy laid 
a trap to surprise and capture his 2,500 

( 194 ) 

men, and were nearly successful. 
Wayne describes the event with, great 
minuteness a few days later in a long 
letter to Colonel Delany, dated at 
Mount Joy on May 21. 

I shall now leave Wayne's own let- 
ters and quote from a number of inde- 
pendent authorities his whereabouts 
and his acts at the time the Rupp 
letters locate him in Lancaster county. 
Dr. Stille, in his "Life of Wayne," 
says: "The army having gone into 
winter quarters at Valley Forge, 
Wayne was soon obliged to turn his 
attention to a very essential part of a 
General's duty, that of providing suit- 
able clothing for his men and recruit- 
ing their numbers diminished by sick- 
ness and desertion. His correspond- 
ence (part of which has been quoted) 
during the terrible winter of 1777-78 
shows how constant were his efforts to 

compass these two objects Such 

were the destitution and nakedness of 
the troops at Valley Forge that Wayne 
himself purchased the cloth for the ar- 
ticles his men most needed, hoping to 
have the garments made up in camp." 
I may say, Wayne himself came to 
Lancaster during the latter part of 
January, 1778, and went also to York 
on this mission, but his brigades were 
not with him, and his trip occupied 
but a few days. 

Marshall records in his diary on 
February 27, 1777, as follows: "News 

is General Wayne is gone with 

his brigade and four pieces of cannon 
into Billingsport." A week later he 
adds: "Accounts to-day are that Gen- 
eral Wayne, in the Jerseys, attacked a 
foraging party of General Howe's 
there, killed several, took a number of 
prisoners, 250 head of cattle, which, 
with 300 head he had collected, he sent 
unto Head Quarters." 

In the "National Cyclopedia of 
American Biography" I find this para- 
graph: "During the encampment at 
Valley Forge, in the winter of 1777-78, 

( 195 ) 

Wayne contributed greatly to the 
comfort of the patriot army by numer- 
ous successful foraging expeditions." 

In a well-known book, "Washington 
and the Generals of the Revolution," 
I find this: "It became necessary to 
obtain supplies from a greater dis- 
tance, and to combine with the opera- 
tions that of preventing the enemy 
from converting to his own use the 
substance so much wanted by the Con- 
tinental army. General Wayne was 
assigned to^ this duty, which was com- 
menced about the middle of February, 
in very severe weather, and carried 
into very complete effect in the dis- 
trict of country extending from Bor- 
dentown to Salem, in New Jersey, then 
within the limits of the enemy." It 
will be seen from the foregoing that 
there is a large amount of concurring 
evidence to show that General Wayne 
was at Valley Forge during the entire 
period of the army's encampment 
there, save when on short foraging 
expeditions, or trying to secure sup- 
plies of clothing for his soldiers. 

On May 18, the Supreme Executive 
Council of the State, sitting at Lan- 
caster, had a letter before it, from 
General Washington. The Command- 
er-in-Chief urged the necessity of a 
supply of arms for General Wayne's 
Division, and requested that about 300 
stand, with bayonets fitted to them, be 
sent him. Council ordered "that 300 
Musquets & Bayonets belonging to 
this State be sent to His Excellency, 
General Washington, for the Pennsyl- 
vania Troops in General Wayne's Di- 

In "Bean's History of Montgomery 
County," on page 168, is the following: 
"A camp was established for some 
days (after the battle of German- 
town) on the Gulf Hills,fourteen miles 
distant from Philadelphia, where the 
army remained until the 18th, when it 
retired to Valley Forge, going into po- 
sition with the right resting upon the 


base of Mount Joy, near the acute an- 
gle of tlie Valley Creek, the left flank 
resting upon and protected by the 
Schuylkill river, about one-half mile 
below Patland Ford, or Sullivan's 

This history gives v?ith much detail 
the assignment of all the fourteen bri- 
gades which at that time composed 
the army. I will quote another ex- 
tract: "The extreme right of the line, 
commanding the approaches from the 
Southwest, was held by Brigadier 
General Charles Scott, of Virginia, 
upon whose left Brigadier General 
Wayne, commanding the Pennsylvania 
line, was placed; then in succession 
from right to left came the brigades 
of General Enoch Poor, of Massachu- 
setts; General Ebenezer Larned, Gen. 
John Patterson, of Massachusetts; 
General George Weedon, of Virginia, 
who connected vsdth General Peter 
Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania, holding 
the extreme left of the line resting on 
the Schuylkill at a point near where 
the village of Port Kennedy is now 

In Lossing's "Our Country" I found 
this paragraph: "The little army at 
Valley Forge had not only suffered 
great privations in camp, but were 
subjected to attacKs upon their feeble 
outposts and detachments sent out for 
food and forage, by parties sent from 
Philadelphia. Among the most ac- 
tive of these was a corps of American 
Loyalists, called the Queen's Rangers, 
led by Major Simcoe, and numbering 
about 500 men. In February these 
went into New Jersey to capture 
Wayne, who was there, gathering up 
horses and provisions." (Vol. 1, pp. 

Now, if Wayne was up here at Mount 
Joy at that very moment, why was 
Major Simcoe looking for him in New 

The hundredth anniversary of the 
encampment at Valley Forge was cele- 


brated with much ceremony on Decem- 
ber 28, 1877. A noted Philadelphia 
orator, Henry Armitt Brown, delivered 
the oration. I malte room for a sing'le 
extract: "And Who are the leaders of 
the men whose heroism can sanctify a 

place like this? These are the 

huts of Huntingdon's Brigade of the 
Connecticut line; next to it those of 
the Pennsylvanians, under Conway. 
Beyond Conway, on the hill, is Max- 
well, a gallant Irishman, commissioned 
by New Jersey. Woodford, of Vir- 
ginia, commands on the right of the 
second line, and in front of him, the 
Virginian, Scott. The next brigade in 
order is of Pennsylvanians, many of 
them men whose homes are in the 
neighborhood, Chester county boys, 
and Quakers from the valley, turned 
soldiers for their country's sake. They 
are the children of three races — ^the 
hot Irish blood mixes with the colder 
Dutch In their calm, English veins, 
and some of them — their chief, for in- 
stance — are splendid fighters. There 
he is at this moment riding up hill 
from his quarters in the valley. A man 
of medium height and strong of frame, 
he sits his horse well, and with a dash- 
ing air. His nose is prominent, his 
eye piercing, his complexion ruddy; 
his whole appearance that of a man of 
splendid health and flowing spirits. He 
is just the fellow to win, by his head- 
long valor, the nickname of 'The Mad.' 

Pennsylvania, after her quiet 

fashion, may not make as much of his 
fame as it deserves, but impartial his- 
tory will allow her none the less the 
honor of having given its most bril- 
liant soldier to the Revolution, in her 
Anthony Wayne." 

A Wayne anecdote at Valley Forge 
will be allowed at this place. I found 
it in Puthey and Cope's "History of 
Chester County." While the army was 
lying there a well-known farmer of 
the valley went repeatedly to General 
Wayne to complain of depredations 


committed by the soldiers on his prop- 
erty. Wayne, annoyed by these fre- 
quent visitations, and unable to pre- 
vent the men from straggling away 
from camp, said to the complainant one 
day, in irritation: "Well, d — n 'em, 
shoot 'em. Why the devil don't you 
shoot 'em?" A few days afterward 
the farmer found one of these marau- 
ders calmly milking one of his cows. 
He returned to his house, got a gun 
and shot and killed him. He was ar- 
rested and tried by a court-martial, and 
only escaped with his life by pleading 
Wayne's hasty, unintended advice. 

Finally, something about the camp 
at Valley Forge and Mount Joy. About 
twenty miles from Philadelphia, up the 
Schuylkill river, is a deep and rugged 
valley, formed hy the debouchment of 
Valley creek into the Schuylkill. It is 
known as Valley Forge. 

The flanks of this valley were moun- 
tainous and wooded, easy of defense, 
and there General Washington, after 
the fearful repulse at Germantown, de- 
cided to go into winter quarters when 
General Howe occupied Philadelphia. 

I have found four maps of the Valley 
Forge encampment; one in "Lossing's 
Field Book of the Revolution;" a sec- 
ond in Futhey and Copes' "History of 
Chester County;" a third in Volume 14 
of the second Series of Pesnnsylvania 
Archives, and a fourth in the recently- 
issued Register of the Sons of the 
Revolution. The first three are com- 
paratively modern, while the last was 
made by a French engineer near the 
time of the encampment itself. They 
vary in no essential particular. The 
one here given is from the Colonial 

That was perhaps the most gloomy 
period of the Revolution. Never be- 
fore had the fortunes of the patriot 
cause and army been in such a perilous 
plight. The commissary department 
was badly managed. Upon several oc- 
casions the beef supplies were ex- 


Map of the Encampment at Valley Forge, showing the location of all the 
brigades and forces of the Continental Army. The wooded hill, where the 
brigades of Poor, Wayne and Scott are located, was known as Mount Joy. 


hausted, without any others being in 
sight. The Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment was equally deficient. Shoes, 
blankets and clothing were all want- 
ing. General Washington in a letter 
from the camp says: "For some days 
there has been little less than a famine 
in camp. A part of the army have 
been a week without any kind of flesh, 
and the rest, three or four days. Naked 
and starving as they are, we cannot 
enough admire the incomparable pa- 
tience and fidelity of the soldiery that 
they have not ere this been excited to 
mutiny and dispersion. Strong symp- 
toms of discontent, however, have ap- 
peared in particular instances." 

Along those ridges and on those 
hills, the army encamped on the 19th 
of December. The weather was too 
cold for tents and it was resolved to 
build a sufficient number of huts or 
cabins of logs. This was done. These 
quarters were sixteen by fourteen feet 
in size, and intended to accommodate 
twelve privates, while each General 
had one to himself and a limited num- 
ber of oflicers were assigned to others. 
It assumed the order of a regular mili- 
tary camp. The whole was surrounded 
on the land side by strong entrench- 
ments, and a number of redoubts were 
built at strategic points. The Schuyl- 
kill river ran along the rear of the 
camp, making it secure in that direc- 
tion. A bridge was thrown across it 
to facilitate communication with the 
other side. 

With that thriftiness characteristic 
of William Penn, he had as early as 
1683 caused his Surveyor General to 
survey 5,000 acres in the angle formed 
by the debouchment of Valley Creek 
into the Schuylkill, which was named 
Mount Joy Manor, and given to Letitia 
Penn. The Mount Joy about which we 
have been writing took its name from 
this manor. There was also a Mount 
Joy forge on Valley Creek, a few miles 


above Valley Forge. The iron works 
which gave the name to the locality 
were built in 1757 by the Potts family 
and were long owned by them. The en- 
campment was about two miles long, 
and was partly in Chester and partly 
in Montgomery counties. The head- 
quarters of Wayne, Lafayette, Knox, 
Poor, Woodward and Scott were in 
Chester, while the remainder of the 
army was in Montgomery. General 
Washington had his headquarters in 
the Potts mansion; General Wayne his 
in a stone house owned by a Mr. 
Walker, which is still standing. 

There is absolutely no evidence to 
show that Wayne's brigades were ever 
encamped in this county. That theory 
rested on the headlines to many of his 
letters, which Rupp, having no know- 
ledge of Mount Joy Hill in Chester 
county, mistook to mean the town of 
the same name in this county, and the 
evidence here submitted of the long 
believed fallacy dispels it beyond even 
the possibility of a doubt. 

Since completing the foregoing, it 
occurred to me to examine the account 
of Mount Joy township given in Ellis 
& Evans' History of Lancaster county. 
Somewhat to my surprise I there 
found the following: "In Rupp's His- 
tory of Lancaster county, it is stated 
that Gen. Anthony Wayne, with his 
army, spent the winter of 1777-78 in 
Mount Joy township, and several let- 
ters from the celebrated 'Mad Anthony' 
to Gov. Thos. Wharton, dated at 'Mount 
Joy,' are presented as proof of the as- 
sertion. Other writers have fallen 
into the error through their blind fol- 
lowing of Rupp and lack of original in- 
vestigation, and it has become a popu- 
lar belief that the General and his 
forces spent a winter encamped some- 
where in the township. There is, and 
was, literally nothing on which to base 
this supposition, except the fact that 
Wayne's letters were dated 'Mount 


Joy,' and that fact amounts to nothing 
at all in the way of proof when we 
bear in mind that there was another 
Mount Joy in the vicinity of Valley 
Forge, at which it was very natural 
the gallant officer should be, and 
where, as a matter of fact, he was. 
That Wayne and his forces should 
have been so far from the seat of war 
as Lancaster county, and remain there 
through a whole winter, is manifestly 


In the early days of the present cen- 
tury, in the then horough of Lancas- 
ter, at the conjunction of the old Mar- 
ket Square with Tvliat was then known 
by the unpretending name of Moravi- 
an alley, but which in this age of im- 
provement and change has been digni- 
fied with the commercial name of Mar- 
ket street, there stood an old one-story 
block house, having in front two win- 
dows and a door, and, from its ancient 
and dingy appearance,might have been 
looked upon as a contemporary of the 
old landmarks described by history, as 
the home of the frontiersman in the 
early settlement of our county, serv- 
ing him not only as a dwelling, but 
also as a protection against the at- 
tacks of the savages, who surrounded 
him. The building referred to, al- 
though not used as a defense against 
physical force or attacks, was, never- 
theless, occupied in aiding and carry- 
ing on a warfare in which was in- 
volved the political existence of one of 
the two great parties, which then po- 
litically divided this country, and was 
conducted with a bitterness and acri- 
mony which has not been witnessed 
since, frequently invading the social 
circles of domestic life, and inflicting 
wounds which required many years to 
heal. But in all this earnestness and 
enthusiasm the people were moved by 
honest impulse. The destructive vice 
of corruption, which is now the beset- 
ting sin of the nation, and over which 
they have just cause to mourn, was 
then unheard of, and, .f not corrected, 
will draw us into that whirlpool of de- 
struction which has engulfed nearly 
every Republic. 
In its outward appearance, how- 


ever, there was nothing in this odd, 
ungainly structure to indicate that 
there was in it an indwelling moral or 
intellectual force, which, politically, 
operated upon the minds of a large 
number of the staid citizens of the 
garden of America; this, however, is a 
fact well estahlished and acknowledg- 
ed by those who are acquainted with 
the history of our county in those 
days. The question may then be asked 
by some, wherein did that intellectual 
force reside, and what were the agen- 
cies employed to call it into existence, 
and caused it to operate for good or 
evil upon the minds of a considerable 
portion of the people of this county? 
After a lapse of half a century, during 
which time most of those who were 
engaged in the political contests of 
that day have passed away, and when 
the political views of many of those 
who have followed them, as well as 
their social habits and manner of liv- 
ing, are entirely changed, and who are 
disposed to consider the plain, simple 
habits and manners of the people of 
that period, more becoming the days 
when Adam delved and Eve spun, the 
truth of the answer will scarcely be 
realized when they are told that it 
was to be found in the persons of 
Henry and Benjamin Grimier, brothers 
and editors of a German newspaper 
of diminutive dimensions, called, in its 
vernacular langiiage, "Den Wahre 
Amerikaner," meaning, in English 
"The True American," and issuing 
weekly from this old block house, 
those two men, in the vigor of their 
manhood, plain in their manners and 
retiring in their habits, but earnest 
and diligent in their calling, without 
the patronage of influential or wealthy 
friends, little known in the community 
in which they lived, but resting in the 
conscientious convictions that the poi 
litical cause they had espoused was 
identified with the welfare and best in- 
terests of the people, and trusting in 

( 205 ) 

the blessings of God upon their efforts, 
with the aid of an old-fashioned print- 
ing press, worked by hand, they thus 
equipped made their advent as editors 
and launched their little boat upon the 
troublesome and agitated waters of 
politics, with no helmsman to guide or 
direct them. But soon this little bark, 
bearing at its head, in large German 
letters, its name, was seen floating on 
those unsettled waters, fighting man- 
fully in maintaining those political 
principles which they had undertaken 
to support, and in assisting in building 
up that party which, for many years 
afterwards, bore its banner in triumph 
and became the dominant or ruling 
party of this country. "While this paper 
was in full life, its weekly visits were 
anxiously looked for, and received as a 
welcome messenger in many a dwell- 
ing of this county. There appeared to 
be a living force or vital power in that 
little sheet which inspired many with 
its sentiments, who, embracing its 
teachings, joined to strengthen the 
ranks of that party which, for many 
years, as intimated before, swayed the 
political destinies of this Union, but 
who, in their might, forgetting that 
prudence and independence, which gov- 
erned them in their infancy, was shorn 
of its strength. Whether it shall 
again be restored time alone will tell. 

The majority of the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania, which then sat at Lan- 
caster, being Democratic, recognizing 
not only the fealty of this paper to 
their party, but that the influence 
which it exercised with the people was 
a power which not only demanded 
their respect, but their support and 
patronage, elected them printers of one 
of their bodies. 

The writer of this sketch of an ob- 
ject of a bygone age, and some of the 
incidents connected with it, does not 
wish to be understood that the True 
American was the only paper of that 
political faith in this county, and its 

( 306 ) 

editors the only ones to proclaim the 
doctrines of Democracy. Wm. Dickson 
was the editor of the English paper of 
tlie same political principles, and 
founder of the Lancaster Intelligencer 
of the present day, but which has been 
rejuvenated by its present efficient edi- 
tor, and whose efforts in behalf of the 
Democratic party are put forth daily. 
That paper in those early days, like at 
the present, labored faithfully in be- 
half of their party, but, as the German 
language was then preferred by many 
of our citizens, a paper printed in that 
ranguage was better calculated to labor 
efficiently with them, being better un- 
derstood and more appreciated than 
any other, and this was one of the 
causes which enhanced the merits, as 
well as the popularity,of the paper first 
incidentally introduced in the preceding 

While glancing at the character of 
the Democratic editors of the times re- 
ferred to, their labors will be better 
understood by touching also upon the 
character of the editor who conducted 
the Lancaster Journal, the leading 
paper of the Federal party in this 
county, William Hamilton, a man of 
fine abilities, a fluent writer, decided in 
his character, fearless in expressing his 
views, and unsparing in the pungency 
of his criticism upon the measures of 
the Government, which was Demo- 
cratic, denouncing them as detrimental 
to the best interests of the country. In 
reviewing the remarks and acts of his 
compeers he frequently wrote with 
a pen steeped in gall; the blows which 
he gave were struck with a strong 
hand. He was a journalist who had 
the ability and courage to conduct, 
with skill,the leading paper of a strong 
political party. 

It therefore required more than ordi- 
nary skill to ward off his blows, and 
still more to strike back with effect. 
Although denouncing the declaration 
of war as unpropitiously commenced, 


before, according to his views, proper 
preparations had been made by the 
government to meet that crisis, yet 
when the toscin of war was sounded 
and the British had landed on our 
shores, led by the indomitable spirit 
of General Ross, and were marching 
to attack the city of Baltimore, Hamil- 
ton and Hambright, two decided feder- 
alists, were among the first to raise 
volunteer companies and march as 
captains in defense of the threatened 
city. Hamilton soon after his arrival 
there was raised to the rank of a 
Colonel. These volunteer companies, 
after being encamped near Baltimore 
for about three months, were dis- 
charged a few days before Christmas. 
In their march back to Lancaster, dur- 
ing the night preceding their entry 
into the town they even quartered in 
a tavern on the Columbia turnpike 
about three miles from Lancaster, then 
known as Hornberger tavern. Next 
morning many of the citizens of Lan- 
caster, either from curiosity or a de- 
sire to manifest a proper appreciation 
of the value of the service rendered by 
the volunteers, went out to their place 
of rendezvous, and accompanied them 
into town. The writer of these remarks, 
then a lad of about nine years of age, 
traveling on foot, was among the num- 
ber. The day was cold, but the people, 
as if warmed by the spirit of patriot- 
ism, endured it patiently. With regard 
to the two companies their kind feeling 
for each other, for some reason, 
became estranged, and when they 
reached the head of the town declined 
to enter together, one of them march- 
ing down West King street and the 
other down Orange street. Some years 
after the war of 1812, Captain Ham- 
bright, who commanded one of the 
Lancaster Phalanx, offered himself as 
a candidate for the office of Sheriff of 
this county. His nomination, however, 
was strenuously opposed by a ma- 
jority of the leaders of the Federal 

( 208 ) 

party, although he was the choice of 
the rank and file of the people. The re- 
sult was that he was not nominated 
by the convention of delegates when 
they met for the purpose of settling a 
ticket, the successful nominee being a 
grandson of a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence from this county. This 
nomination was ill received by many 
and a mass meeting was soon after- 
wards called, without distinction of 
party, for the purpose of considering 
the claims and merits of Capt. Ham- 
bright and the meeting when assem- 
bled declared him the people's candi- 
date for the office to which he aspired. 
Benjamin Grimier, although a decided 
Democrat, was active in promoting this 
meeting, and when assembled was one 
of the active spirits in managing its 
proceedings. The address to the peo- 
ple of the county adopted by this meet- 
ing was drafted by him, and was ad- 
mirably drawn, in such way as to 
touch the patriotic feelings of the 
community, which was then very 
sensitive owing to the late war, and 
to awaken a sense of gratitude for the 
military services rendered by the can- 
didate in marching in defense of our 
country. The keynotes of the address 
were, "Shall patriotism be forgotten, 
shall love of country not be rewarded?" 
and upon those notes he played with 
so much skill and art that the feelings 
of a majority of the people were 
attuned to those sentiments and Cap- 
tain Hambright was elected. 

Henry Grimier died in the prime of 
life, being at the time of his death in 
the thirty-seventh year of his age. His 
physique was well developed, he being 
nearly six feet in height and well pro- 
portioned, his features were prominent, 
his countenance open and serious, his 
eyes and hair dark, and his whole ap- 
pearance indicated that he meant 
something in society. His education 
was confined to the schools of Lancas- 


ter as they were in his boyhood, but 
availing himself of the advantages 
which wei'e presented while he was 
learning the printing business, and by 
close and unremitting attention after- 
wards to the passing events of the 
times, he enlarged his mind by ob- 
servation and by hard study and un- 
remitting industry became well ac- 
quainted with the ancient and modern 
literature of his day. His English 
composition, some of which is still 
extant, shows that he was a deep 
thinker. His style was nervous, but 
pleasing and fluent, his sentiments 
were clearly expressed and thp per- 
spicuity with which he wrote mani- 
fested that he comprehended the sub- 
ject which occupied his mind and 
about which he wrote. He sometimes 
indulged in poetical effusions, which 
are not unworthy of consideration. As 
to his merits as a German scholar, the 
writer can only judge by the effect and 
influence which he and his co-partners 
uniting had upon the people whom 
they addressed and the success which 
they achieved as journalists. In 
Trinity Lutheran burial ground in 
Lancaster a marble slab marks the 
place where rests his mortal remains, 
bearing the simple inscription of his 
name, and a quotation from Pope, "'An 
honest man the noblest work of Cod." 
Benjamin Grimier was also a man of 
good appearance and a fluent writer, 
rather specious, however, than sound, 
and did not contain the strength of 
thought which was reflected in many 
of the articles written by his brother, 
but was apparently of a more social 
disposition, mixing a great deal with 
society, and rather of a genial lomper. 
He became popular with an extensive 
acquaintance, which he formed in his 
social intercourse with society, and 
was at one time elected a member to 
the Legislature from this county. He 
died at about the age of fifty-four 


years. His remains are also buried in 
the Lutheran burial ground at Lancas- 

After Henry Grimler's death his 
brother and co-editor succeeded to the 
entire editorship of the paper, but the 
vitality which at one time animated 
its columns appeared as if paralyzed 
by his death. His successor manifesting 
an indifference to its future prosperity, 
the controlling political power which 
it at one time exercised was relaxed, 
and after languishing for a few years 
was suffered to die by neglect. 

Hannah Grimier, the mother of 
Henry and Benjamin Grimier, was 
born in Charlestown, South Carolina, 
but came to Philadelphia when young, 
and made that city the place of her 
residence, when she was married to 
Henry Augustus Grimier, a native cf 
Wurtemburg.Germany. Of his early his- 
tory little is now known by the writer 
hereof: according to tradition, he ap- 
pears to have been of a restless dis- 
position, frequently changing his place 
of residence. At the time of his death 
he left his widow in a dependent con- 
dition with a large family claiming her 
support. Many a woman under similar 
circumstances and with less energy 
than she possessed would have de- 
spaired of carrying so heavy a load, 
but, instead of yielding to a spirit of 
despondency, she braced herself for the 
emergency which devolved upon her, 
and trusting to the guidance of her 
God whom she loved to worship, for 
she was a devout Christian, she went 
to work and by industry and frugality, 
and by her unaided efforts, raised her 
infant family and secured to her two 
sons before alluded to what was then 
considered an ordinary English educa- 
tion. She was a woman of more than 
ordinary natural abilities, and was 
what may be emphatically called a 
strong-minded woman, not according, 
however, to the modern acceptation of 


that term, for she was not ambitious 
of securing to herself the enjoyment 
of those political rights which are 
now possessed only hy the sterner 
sex; her aim was to instil into the 
minds of her children those religious 
and moral principles which would fit 
them for a faithful discharge of their 
duties in this life, and also to enable 
them to prepare for the performance 
of those higher duties which, if pro- 
perly performed, will lead us in safety 
through the trials and diflaculties of 
this life to that blissful abode secured 
by the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus 
Christ in the Paradise of Heaven. 

Judging from her maiden name, the 
presumption is that she sprung from a 
German ancestry, but in speaking 
English there was not the least idiom 
in her speech to indicate that she 
linew any but that language, although 
in speaking the German she was 
equally fluent. In her conversation 
she was rather serious, and, while her 
manners indicated that she was not a 
stranger to the amenities and refine- 
ments of social life, yet she displayed 
none of that timidity which is some- 
times shown by women while attend- 
ing to the business concerns of life. 
In her business transactions and in 
her social intercourse she appeared 
perfectly at ease, expressing her views 
with clearness, fluency and independ- 
ence, and which sometimes showed 
that she did not always subscribe to 
the teachings of others. She was un- 
wavering in her belief, in the teach- 
ings and revelations of the Scriptures. 

Often when engaged, and apparently 
busily occupied, she would suddenly, 
as if moved by some spiritual im- 
pulse, withdraw to some private 
apartment, and there, in humble pros- 
tration, offer up an ejaculatory prayer. 
In consequence of her limited means 
of accumulating property, it being con- 
fined entirely to her personal industry, 
necessity compelled her to exercise 


the most judicious economy; but she 
did so without complaining, and suc- 
ceeded not only in raising, by her in- 
dustry and frugality, a large family, 
but at her death left to them a small 
house and lot as an inheritance. When 
a girl in Philadelphia she was fre- 
quently employed as a seamstress in 
some of the prominent families of that 
place, which afforded her an oppor- 
tunity of becoming acquainted with 
some of those men who, in after life, 
especially during the Revolutionary 
War, became conspicuous. Among 
those was Benjamin Franklin, of 
whose early career she frequently 
spoke. Her remains, as well as those 
of her husband, now rest in the same 
burial place, where rests the remains 
of her two sons, the place Deing mark- 
ed with a head and a foot stone. 

A General Knox Letter.* 
Our President, Mr. Steinman, a few 
weeks ago became possessed of the 
following letter, written by General 
Henry Knox when he was Secretary of 
War. It has interest as having been 
written by one of the most illustrious 
soldiers of the Revolutionary period, 
and a special interest in that it was 
written to General Edward Hand, an- 
other illustrious soldier of that war, a 
resident of this county, whose coun- 
try-seat, known as "Rockford," still 
stands on the banks of our beautiful 
river, the Conestoga. As if to add ad- 
ditional interest to the letter, the sub- 
ject of it is one of the historic institu- 
tions of the last century, still remain- 
ing with us — ^the old Franklin College. 
The letter is as follows: 

265 War Office, 17th April, 1791, 
Sir: By some mistake I find your let- 
ter of the 18th of January last has not 
been answered. 

+A paper written by Frank R. Diffen- 
derffer and read before the Lancaster 
County Historical Society on June 2, 1S99. 


An expectation of some general 
arsenals being permanently estab- 
lished has hitherto prevented the re- 
moval or disposal of the few public 
stores at Lancaster. The expectation 
still continues, but its accomplishment 
does not appear to be immediate. I 
must, therefore, leave it to your judg- 
ment, in case the College should de- 
mand the buildings or rent for the 
same, to make the best disposition of 
the stores, in case of being obliged to 
remove them, or bargain for the rent 
of the buildings in which they now are. 

It will not be necessary to make any 
returns at stated periods; but only on 
occasions as changes, from any cause, 
shall happen. 

I am sir, 

With great respect. 
Your most obedient servant, 

The Hon'ble General Hand. 

One of the questions that suggests it- 
self after reading this letter is how the 
stores of the General Government 
should come to be stored in buildings 
belonging to the college, and that, too, 
four years after the founding of the 
college? Dr. Dubbs' address on "Old 
Franklin College," read before this So- 
ciety on February 4, 1898, throws light 
on this question. He quotes an Act 
of the Legislature of the State, passed 
on the 27th day of February, 1788, by 
which "the public storehouse and two 
lots of ground in the borough and 
county of Lancaster were vested in the 
Trustees of Franklin College for the 
use of said institution." Dr. Dubbs 
further tells us this "storehouse was 
situated on North Queen street, near 
James street, on the ground now occu- 
pied by Franklin Row." EJvidently 
those storehouses had been used con- 
tinuously by the Government since 
Revolutionary times, and the question 
arose over the disposition of the stores 
in them at the period in question. 


General Knox was born in Boston, 
on July 25, 1750, and was well edu- 
cated in the schools of that city. He 
early evinced a taste for military al- 
fairs and at the age of eighteen was 
an officer in a military company. At 
twenty he became a book seller, but 
when the trouble with the Mother 
Country began he joined the army and 
fought gallantly at Bunker Hill, and 
rose to the rank of colonel by the time 
Washington joined the army. 

Washington was much embarrassed 
for want of artillery to carry on the 
siege of Boston. Knox proposed to 
bring what was at Lake George and 
some old posts on the Canadian fron- 
tier. The scheme promised so little 
success that Washington discouraged 
it, but young Knox manifested so 
much enthusiasm that he was per- 
mitted to make the attempt. He set 
out in November with a detachment 
and returned in December, bringing 
with him on 42 sleds 13 brass and 26 
iron cannon, 14 mortars, a barrel of 
flints and 2,300 pounds of lead, 55 
guns in all, and as the procession 
marched into the American lines it 
was most enthusiastically received. 
These fifty-five guns were a most 
valuable addition to the be- 
sieging army and preparations 
were at once made to bombard Boston, 
but circumstances changed the plans. 
As a reward Knox was made a Briga- 
dier General of artillery, and until the 
close of the war was in command of 
that arm of the service. 

From that time forward he was the 
warm personal friend of Washington. 
Prior to the battle of Trenton he 
crossed the Delaware to march, on that 
city. Halting where the rest of the 
army was struggling with the flood and 
floating ice, in the darkness, he stood 
on the shore and with his voice direct- 
ed where the landings should be made. 
A few hours later his guns were pour- 
ing shot into the ranks of the bewild- 

( 21 f) ^ 

ered Hessians. He was regarded as 
a skilful artillery officer, but at 
Germantown he blundered and lost 
the battle for his country because he 
refused to pursue the fleeing enemy, 
while Chew's house, where several 
companies had taken refuge, remained 
untaken, he contending it was con- 
trary to all military rules to leave a 
fortified position in one's rear. His 
artillery brigade was in the Encamp- 
ment at Valley Forge. He fought at 
Monmouth and Brandywine, and was 
present at the taking of Yorktown, 
When Washington took farewell of 
his officers at New York, Knox was 
the first to advance and receive his 
parting embrace. He was made a Ma- 
jor General after the surrender of 
Yorktown, and in 1785 he was appoint- 
ed by Congress Secretary of War, and 
held that office eleven years. The 
Navy Department was added to it, and 
he discharged the duties of both with 
marked ability. The salary, however, 
was inadequate, and he resigned, and 
removed to Maine, where his wife 
owned a tract of land. His death oc- 
curred in 1806, and was caused by ac- 
cidentally swallowing a chicken bone. 
Knox was an honest, amiable man, of 
pure life, and, although ardent and im- 
pulsive, he was of sound judgment and 
cool in the hour of battle. The war 
for independence has, perhaps, no 
braver or more gallant soldier to show 
to us. 

Of General Edward Hand, to whom 
this letter was written, it is not neces- 
sary to speak to a Lancaster audience. 
He was originally a surgeon, but he 
threw down the scalpel and took up 
the sword. He fought from the siege 
of Boston to the end of the war. At 
first only a Lieutenant Colonel, In 
command of a battalion of riflemen, he 
commanded two brigades in 1780. and 
was made Adjutant General of the 
army near the close of the war. He 
was an able soldier and a true patriot 
He died in this city in 1802.