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MOSES 3ST. AiMl 8, 

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4? £ 

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Printers and Finders 


15 he 

Citizens national $3ank t 







* «i fc no Interest Paid on Deposits * n * 





JOS. G. BROWN, President. 

A. B. ANDREWS, Vice-President. 

H. E. LITCJIFORD, Cashier. 

Every legitimate business enterprise encouraged, and every 
facility extended its patrons, consistent with safe and 
conservative Banking. 

Safety Deposit Boxes, for Storage of valuable papers, 
silver, etc., for rent on reasonable terms. 



Raleigh's Only 

Department Store 

Trustworthy goods only, at uniformly right prices. 
All articles guaranteed as represented. :: :: :: :: 
One price to all and that the lowest. :: :: :: :: :: 
Money refunded to all dissatisfied buyers. :: ;: :: 
Courteous treatment to all. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 
Experienced salespeople in every department. :: 
Buying in large quantities and direct, saves for you 
the middleman's profit. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 
Reducing prices without reducing qualities. :: :: 
Modern Store Service and Equipment. :: :: :: :: 

You'll Find the Store as 
Good as Hdvertisedecc 

■. lllllillll.'UljlllM l- 

■ 1 1 lilLl 1 1 1 ■ f i LllLi 1 1 , , t 

i iilllUlllma 







Flooring, Ceiling, Weatherboarding, etc., Sash, Doors, Blinds, Windoic ^ 
and Door Frames, Mouldings, Mantels, Turned Work, and 
All Kinds of Building Material. 



120 South West Street, ^ ^ ^ Raleigh, North Carolina. ? 

Interstate Phone 332. I 




Jfuurral Dimtnr attft Embalmrr 

Nos. 207, 209, 211 


Undertaking, embracing Embalming and services at burials, con- 
dacted in the moel improved manner, by skilled and attentive opera- 
tors. Particular attention given the embalming of bodies for trans- 

Coffins, Caskets and Burial Cases 

of every made constantly In stock; also Robes for male and female, 
Burial Shoes, etc. 

Prompt attention to all calls, day or night, either in the city or 
county. Belt, Phone 336, Rat.etgh and Interstate 142. 

V >: pii ,T,.:iu ; |wi,! -^ ^- ifP npm mpni up 

Historical Raleigh 


pniir ATlOMAl INDUS= 


Page 49, twenty-fifth line, for 1796, read 1896. 
Page 111, second line, for " Rev." read Mr. 

Page 115 (fourth paragraph) the name of Jas. Lawrence should 
be among the survivors mentioned. 

Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1902, by M. N. Amis, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



of the Raleigh Bar, 

Author of Amis's N. C. Criminal Code and Digest. 







Flooring, Ceiling, Weatherboarding, etc., Sash, Doors, Blinds, Wi 
and Door Frames, Mouldings, Mantels, Turned Work, and 
All Kinds of Building Material. 





[Jndertaking, embracing Embalming and services at burials, 
dnoted In the most improved manner, by skilled and attentive o 
t«»r<. Particular attention given the embalming of bodies for t 

Coffins, Caskets and Burial Cases 

of every grade constantly in stock; also Robes for male and fei 

Burial Shoes, etc. 

Prompt attention to all calls, day or night, either in the ci 
i"y. Bei,l, Phone 336, Rat.etgh and Interstat 

Historical Raleigh 






Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1902, by M. N. Amis, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



of the Raleigh Bar, 

Author of Amis's N. C. Criminal Code and Digest. 


£, IN E- VV I W l\iV 1 



.GEN F *T',ONS. 

190b L 



£be Commercial and jfarmers Banfe, 


At Close of Business April 30, \ 902. 


Loans and Discounts $398,599.46 

Overdrafts 3,627.23 

North Carolina 4 per cent Bonds 30,000.00 

Banking House and Fixtures 18,702.48 

Other Real Estate 13,958.31 

Cash Due from Banks 90,084.02 

Cash Items and Checks 3,816.93 

Cash on hand 43,128.63 



Capital Stock paid in 8100,000.00 

Surplus Fund 25,000.00 

Net Profits 25,202.33 


Individual Deposits $431,940.44 

Bank Deposits 18,751.46 

Cashiers' Checks 1,022.53 $451,714.73 


J. J. THOMAS, President. B. S. JERMAN, Cashier. 

A. A. THOMPSON, Vice-President. H. W. JACKSON, Asst. Cashier. 


J. J. THOMAS, President. 

ALF. A. THOMPSON, of Johnson & Thompson. Cotton Exporters. 

CAREY J. HUNTER, Supt. Union Central Life Insurance Co. 

R. B. RANEY, General Agent Penn Mutual Life Insurance Co. 

THOS.H.BRIG-GS, of Thos. H. Briggs & Sons, Hardware. 

JOSHUA B.HILL.of J. R. Ferrall & Co., Grocers. 

JAS.E. SHEPHERD, of Shepherd and Shepherd, Attorneys at Law. 

HENRY A. LONDON, Attorney at Law. Pittsboro. N. C. 

JNO. W. SCOTT, Capitalist, Sanford, N. C. 

GEO. W. WATTS, Director American Tobacco Co., Durham, N. C. 

B. N. DUKE, President Fidelitv Bank, Durham, N. C. 

ASHLEY HORNE, President. Clayton Banking Co., Clayton. N.C. 

FRED. PHILIPS, Capitalist, Tarboro, N. C. 

D.Y.COOPER, Capitalist, Henderson, N. C. 

ASHBY L. BAKER, President Virginia Cotton Mills. 

Safe Deposit Boxes for Rent. No Interest Paid on Deposits. 


The arrangement of the subject-matter of this work precludes a table of con- 
tents by chapters. The following method, therefore, will prove, it is hoped, as 
-advantageous in enabling the reader to find any desired subject as if this de- 
parture from established custom had not been adopted. 

This table of contents has no reference to matters, things or conditions em- 
braced in the chapter, " A Glance at Raleigh of To-Day," this being but sup- 
plementary, in its character, to " Historical Raleigh." 


Formation of Wake County . 11 

Bloomsbury — the home of Col. Joel Lane 15 

Brief sketch of Col. Joel Lane and his descendants 19 

Sittings of the General Assembly before the Revolution 25 

Location and founding of a permanent capital 27 

Plan of the city _. 37 

First sale of city lots . 47 

The first Statehouse . . 49 

Sale of lots in 1819 51 

Erection of the Governor's " Palace" 53 

Burning of the Statehouse 57 

Erection of a new capitol 59 

First city government and its commissioners 63 

Mayors 66 

Early inhabitants 67, 68, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 91 , 93 

Inhabitants and business men of later times 61, 66, 75-77, 

85-89, 95-97, 107, 109, 112, 115-117, 119, 120, 125-129, 131-133, 

137-141, 173-177. 195 

Older living inhabitants ..77-81 

Newspapers in Raleigh's early history 67, 68, 109, 110, 111, 127 

Later newspapers 101 , 127, 180 

Fires and fire-engines of old times 81 

Street-cars 83 

Religious — churches and ministers 84 

Early hotels, or taverns 90 

President Andrew Johnson 92 

Educational — schools and teachers 93 

Physicians of old times 132, 133 

Lawyers 99 

Masonry and Odd Fellowship 101 



General La Fayette's visit to Raleigh . . 104 

The Nat. Turner Insurrection 108 

Early railroads and their employees _ . 113 

Removal of the old market . . 117 

Old-time common or • ' free schools " 121 

Henry Clay's visit to Raleigh 123 

A new impetus — organization and erection of new State institu- 
tions 129 

Inhabitants of later times 131 , 133, 13? 

Physicians of old times - 132, 133 

Military companies 134 

Visit of Stephen A. Douglas 142 

Business men of the old and the present time 143, 145 

Historical Scraps _ 165 

The Dawn of a Momentous Era — the Civil War 168 

The Stars and Bars unfurled 170 

Preparations for the conflict . . 1T2 

Raleigh boys who enlisted in the strife 173 

Events at home during the war . . 177 

Sacking of newspaper offices by soldiers and citizens . . 180 

Surrender of Raleigh to the Federal forces 183 

Return of the Confederate veterans . . 193 

Municipal affairs ensuing the war 195 

A notable event 197 

Raleigh's Centennial Celebration 199 

"A Glance at Raleigh of To-Day " 201 

Olivia Raney Library 221 

Raleigh tobacco market 223 

Cotton and Grocers' Exchange 228 



Residence of Col. Joel Lane 17 

Dr. F. J. Haywood 75 

Birthplace of President Andrew Johnson 87 

W. C. Upchurch 99 

Dr. W. H. McKee Ill 

Rufus H. Horton 124 

J. Ruffin Williams 135 

E. B. Thomas ..148 

Dr. Chas. E Johnson.. 161 

J. C. S. Lumsden 175 

N. B. Broughton 188 

A. M. Powell ..202 

Chas. F. Lumsden 214 

Horace B. Greason 219 

Malcus W. Page 222 

Joseph J. Bernard 226 

Herbert E. Norris 230 

J. W. CROSS, Prest. 

J. P. WRAY, Vice-Prest. 

W. A. LINEHAN, Sec. and Treas. 


In its general and popular acceptation, the term history is con- 
fined to records of events of a political character, and is seldom 
used in referring to any condition of things less broad than the 
State or nation. Hence, matters of interest so narrow as to be 
confined to a town or city are usually regarded as unworthy of 
preservation in literary form. This view is an erroneous one, 
for, apart from the general value of a knowledge of men and 
things passed and gone, by comparing the humble beginnings in- 
cident to every community with present conditions — whether 
these beginnings refer to events or to things — a laudable sense of 
pride becoming to every citizen is felt, and inspiration for future 
excellence encouraged. 

Except in rare instances, it has not been within the scope of the 
book to make mention of the names of any inhabitants who have 
not been in close touch with our people, however distinguished in 
State or nation, and though "native and to the manner born," the 
design of the author being to acquaint the reader with the life of 
the people of Raleigh in the olden time, rather than to undertake 
the narration of such events as ordinarily claim the attention of 
the historian. 

In the preparation of the book, the author's desire has oeen to 
make it not only interesting as a record of the early days of the 
capital, and of its people, but that it should serve also as a reposi- 
tory of present conditions as well as of past events, and thus 

prove valuable in future time. 

Raleigh, N. C, Aug. 11, 1902. 



AuillihiimlJllm.lljllllm.ltlllllimltilllllMMlilll^^ llllllniilllk i 

Popular Prices Reliable Goods 

Dealers ir\ 

flften's anb 38o\>8 Clothing 

Shoes, Trunks, Hats and 
Furnishing Goods 5* 5* 3* 5* 

Our Prices are Right 
Call and See Us 



Opp. Postoffice, -V RALEIGH, N. C. 








i^ 25 and 50c. a bottle. 

?'###€: !§€?##: IN§€J€i #?###' < 


"As he is a bad man who is ashamed of an honest parentage be- 
cause it was poor and humble, so he is no better who is ashamed of 
his country because its history records few or none of the bloody 
triumphs of ambition, but tells the simple story of a people's unob- 
trusive progress in civilization and homely comfort." 

—Dr. Francis L. Hawks, North Carolina's famous historian. 

The county of Wake, in which the capital of North 
Carolina is situate, was formed in 1771, from portions 
of Cumberland, Orange and Johnston — chiefly from 
the latter. The act of the Colonial Assembly author- 
izing the establishment of the new county was ratified 
in 1770, but was not to take effect, however, until 
March 12, 1771. The first term of court began June 
4th of that year. 

The first sheriff was Michael Rogers, grandfather 
of the late Mrs. Dr. F. J. Haywood. The first sheriff 
after the organization of the city of Raleigh (1792) 
was Richard Banks. 


"Whereas, the large extent of said counties of John- 
ston, Cumberland and Orange renders it grievous and 
burthensome to many of the inhabitants thereof to 
attend the courts, general musters, and other public 
meetings therein: 

"Be it enacted by the Governor, Council and Assem- 
bly, and by the authority of the same, that from and 
after the twelfth day of March next after the passing 
of this act, the said counties of Johnston, Cumberland 
and Orange be divided by the following lines, that is to 
say, beginning at Edgecombe line on Mocosin Swamp, 




445 Halifax Street, RALEIGH, EI. C. 


jfresb Drugs and Collet Articles 


Prescription Department 



J>J-J>Ma,'A Orders Receive^ Prompt Attention.^*^ 


a mile above James Lea's Plantation, running a di- 
rect line to Neuse River, at the upper end of John 
Bedding-field's Plantation ; then to David Mimm's mill 
and Tanner's old mill, then the same course continued 
to the ridge which divides Cumberland and Johnston 
counties; then a straight line to Orange line, at the 
lower end of Richard Hill's plantation, on Buckhorn ; 
then the same course continued five miles ; then to the 
corner of Johnston County on Granville line; then 
with the same line and Bute line to Edgecombe line, 
and along Edgecombe line to the beginning ; be thence- 
forth erected into a distinct county and parish by the 
name of Wake County and St. Margaret's Parish." 

This act was ratified January 26, 1771, by the Gen- 
eral Assembly, which sat that year in New Bern. 

A copy of the charter of the county may be found 
recorded in the office of the Clerk of the Superior 
Court. It is signed by Wm. Tryon, the Colonial Gov- 
ernor, and executed at New Bern the 22d day of May, 

The following is a literal copy of the order directing 
its registration : 

Wake Sepr Inferior Term, 1771. 
Wake County — 

Present His Majesty's Justices. 'Twas then Or- 
dered, that the within Charter of Wake Countv be 
Recorded, which was done accordingly this twelfth 
Dav of Sepr., 1771, in Book A and pages 4, 5 and 6. 

Test: JNO. RICE C. I. C. 

The countv was named for Roval Governor Trvon's 
wife, whose maiden name was Wake, though some au- 
thorities claim it was so designated in honor of Esther 
Wake, a sister of Lady Tryon. 



"* " 



IS 4<° %, 




206 AND 208 

ft RALEIGH, N. C. 

/ft Always the Latest Styles at Lowest Prices&jkjk 
|v Send for Samp\esJk&3k&&3kJk3k&&j&£L£L &J&*.*L 



The county seat of Wake was originally Blooms- 
bury. This name was adopted evidently because such 
was the title of the homestead of Col. Joel Lane, who 
was the owner of vast estates in this vicinity. Blooms- 
bury was situated at what is at present the western 
terminus of Hargett street, on Boylan Avenue, and 
embraced the lands now owned by the Boylan and 
Snow families. When the county was organized, and 
Bloomsbury became the county seat, a court-house was 
accordingly erected. This was a log building, which 
stood on the hillside in front of Col. Lane's residence. 
Subsequently, and until 1792, the county seat was 
known as Wake Court House. 

The residence of Joel Lane is still standing on Boy- 
lan avenue, near West Hargett street, facing east. It 
has been the property of the Boylan family since it 
was purchased by Wm. Boylan, nearly a century ago. 
Except the double-slanting roof and dormer windows, 
there is now nothing in its exterior to indicate its co- 
lonial origin, for the building has had many material 
repairs, especially on the interior. The fireplaces, 
originally, were evidently extremely large, as may 
be judged from the base of the chimneys, one of which 
is built at the end and on the outside of the house, 
and suggests that the pieces or "sticks" of wood used 
for fuel were at least five feet in length. One of the 
mantels is colonial in style, being five or six feet above 
the hearth, while the locks on the doors are of antique 
pattern and of great strength. At this season (mid- 
summer) the building and its environments — situated 
as they are in the background of a beautiful lawn, 
arched above with the thick foliage of towering oaks, 
with here and there a magnolia, roses and other shrub- 
bery — present a most picturesque scene. 

In an open field, about thirty-five feet south of Mor- 
gan street and near Boylan avenue on the east, under 
















Loaded Shells 

Gypsine, Jap-a-Lac Lava Floor Paint 

Stains Enamels 

P. C. Paint 

White Lead 


Best Goodss* Lowest Prices^Square Dealing 












2)ruggiet ant> 



We have rubbed and pounded, mixed and 
poured, many thousand times for the people 
hereabout. We have customers with whom we 
became acquainted 35 years ago. Who sells 
you your medicine? :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 




China, Crockery, 

Lamps, Table Cutlery. Silver- 

Plated Ware, Refrigerators, 

Tea Trays, Oil 

Stoves, Ice- 
Cream Freezers, 
Water Filters, and a Gen- 
eral Line of House Furnishings. 

Agent lor Odorless Reirigeraiore. 


what was once a stalwart mulberry tree, but now de- 
cayed and tottering with time, and without a stone or 
slab to mark the spot, is the last resting place of Joel 

This place, in the early part of the century, was 
owned by Peter Browne, one of the first lawyers to set- 
tle in Raleigh. Subsequently, in 1818, it was sold by 
him to Wni. Boylan. At present it is occupied by Mr. 
R. L. Potts and his cultured and interesting family. 

As many descendants of Col. Joel Lane are still liv- 
ing among us, a brief sketch of the Lane family may 
prove not uninteresting : 

There were five of the Lane brothers — Joel, Joseph, 
Jesse, James and Barnabas. The three first men- 
tioned settled in the vicinity of Raleigh in 1741. Col. 
Joel Lane's first wife was Martha Hinton, his second 
Mary Hinton, daughters of Col. John Hinton, of Wake. 
Joseph Lane married Perebee Hunter. He died in 
1798. The maiden name of the wife of James Lane 
was Lydia Speight. Jesse Lane had a son, John, who 
married Betsy Street, of Buncombe, and these two 
were the father and mother of General Joseph Lane, of 
Oregon, who was the candidate for Vice-President in 
1860, on the ticket with Breckenridge. Jesse Lane 
married Winifred Aycock, and these were grandpa- 
rents of ex-Governor Swain. 

Joel Lane had six sons and an equal number of 
daughters. The sons were: Henry, James, William, 
John, Thomas and Joel ; the daughters were, Nancy, 
Martha, Elizabeth, Mary, Dorothy and Grizzelle. The 
eldest son, Henry, was the grandfather of the late 
Henry Mordecai, and second cousin to General Joseph 
Lane. This relationship between the latter and Mr. 
Mordecai occasioned, in 1860, when the Vice-Presiden- 
tial candidate came to Raleigh, the most distinguished 
social gathering which had ever been observed here. 



~yr ▼ •*-- 7T" T~ 7T TT" "y ~~»^" ""IT" T" "V y -~vr- --*> -w T-T, y T "*p 


IRaleigb /Garble gjjorte 

COOPER BROS., Proprietors. 

WE have work erected 
in nearly every County 
in North Carolina, as 
well as in adjoining 

EVERY job is an adver- 
tisement of our work. 

WE will not send out an \ 
inferior piece of stone J 
or work if we know it. Jj 

WE furnish only the % 
best grade of work- -^ 
manship and material. 

SOME of the best 


in the State were 
erected by us. 

Free on application — 

Booklet "Testimonials," 

Booklet "Some Work 
Erected by Us " 





This was at the residence of Mr. Mordecai, on the 
northern limits of the city, to which were invited 
every one of consequence hereabouts and all the kins- 
people of the Lanes and Mordecais far and near. It 
is said to have been the most brilliant and elaborate 
affair ever known in the history of the capital. 
Among others present, and who were descendants of 
Joel Lane, were members of the following families: 
Devereuxs, McCullers (John Joseph Lane McCullers, 
father of Mr. Chas. E. and Dr. Joseph McCullers), the 
late Col. L. D. Stephenson, Matthew Stephenson, Aus- 
tin Jones, and a great many others whose names are 
not now recalled. 

The living descendants, now in this vicinity, of 
Henry Lane, are Mrs. Margaret L. Little and five sons ; 
Miss Martha Mordecai, Mrs. Mary W. Turk and two 
children ; Mrs. Ellen Mordecai, her son S. F. Mordecai 
and his eight children; Mrs. Margaret Devereux and 
daughters — Mrs. J. J. Mackay and five children, Mrs. 
J. W. Hinsdale and five children, and Misses Annie 
and Laura Devereux. 

Capt. J. J. Thomas, Dr. D. E. Everett, Joseph G. 
and Jno. W. Brown are also descendants of Col. Lane. 
The late W. H. Holleman was Col. Lane's great- 
grandson. Mrs. Margaret E. Rowland, of Middle 
Creek Township, and mother of J. T. and Rev. Chas. 
H. Rowland, is also lineally descended from Col. Lane, 
whose son James was Mrs. Rowland's great-grandfa- 

Mrs. Lydia Brown, mother of Messrs. Jno. W. and 
Joseph G. Brown, was a granddaughter of James 

Mrs. Phil. Thiem, her sons and daughters — one of 
the latter being Mrs. Walter Woollcott; Mrs. John 
Bedford ; Miss Janie Brown ; Mrs. Richard Young, 
her sons and daughter; the children of the late Nat. 



(incorporated ) 


Dealers in 

All kinds of Drugs, Chemicals, Perfumery, 
Toilet Articles, Sundries and Seeds. 

©ur prescription Department is Complete* 

We are Lieutenants to your Physician. 
We obey his Orders Implicitly. 

Remember this is the only drug Store THAT NEVER 
CLOSES. You can find us wide open night and day, and 
that necessarily makes us carry everything fit to smoke. 

Corner Fayetteville and South Market Streets* 



L. Brown, and Mrs. W. M. Brown, her sons and 
daughters — are also descendants (through their 
mother and grandmother, the late Mrs. Lydia Brown), 
of James Lane. 

Other descendants of the historic Lanes are Messrs. 
Thomas J. Stephenson and his brothers, David, James 
M., Lonnie D., Jr., Nathaniel R., Ralph Lane, and sis- 
ters, Sallie E. and Julia V. Stephenson — sons and 
daughters of the late Col. L. D. Stephenson — all of 
Middle Creek Township, this county. 

Mr. Chas. E. McCullers, of Raleigh, has in his pos- 
session a powder-horn and mahogany walking-cane, 
with the name of "Joseph Lane" carved on each, the 
lettering being still quite distinct. 

The following are the names of some of the inhabi- 
tants of Wake as far back as the Revolution, and 
as these names are borne by many families still living 
here, the latter are doubtless the descendants of these 
original residents : Aycock, Bunch, Atkins, Blake, 
Seagraves, Yates, Yarborough, Barbee, Barker, Bel- 
vin, Chavis, Whitehead, Whitley, Woodard, Utley, 
Terrell, Dunn, Earp, Ferrall, High, Hinton, Savage, 
Taylor, Strickland, Hood, Joyner, Lane, Martin, Pool, 
Rigsby, Speight, Rand, Tate, Tucker, Walton, Bryan, 
Ashley, Powell, Phillips, Peebles, Bledsoe, Banks, Col- 
lins, Pope, Pullen, Mooneyham, Holleman, Horton, 
Hutchings, Heartsfield, Hayes, Cole, Chappell, 
Cooper, Ellis, Dodd, Edwards, Goodwin, and of 
course a great many others. 

"No other community in the United States," said 
Capt. S. A. Ashe, in his Memorial Address, on the 
10th of May last, "is so completely and thoroughly 
the development of local influences as are the people 
of North Carolina. Since the Revolution we have 
had no considerable accessions of population from 
abroad. Our people to-day are descendants of the 




123 and 125 Fayetteville street 

Dry Goods of all Kinds 
and Kindred Wares. 

Raleigh's ^present ative Dry Goods Store* 

We always have in stock what you want and 
what you can not find elsewhere, and we 
always sell better goods at lower prices than 
an}^ other store. Since we started in business 
ours has been the leading Dry Goods House 
of Raleigh, but not content with merely a local 
trade, we began, years ago, a policy of ex- 
pansion that should place us side by side with 
the greatest department stores in the country. 
Our growth, though very rapid, has been 
along conservative lines, and our store is now 
not only the recognized trade center of all the 
territory adjacent to Raleigh, but likewise of 
all North Carolina. Our success is founded 
upon the principle of straigh forward dealing 
and exact truthfulness in stating the merits 
of the goods offered, and always selling the 
best goods at the lowest prices. :: :: :: :: 



men and women who came here when our woods were 
unbroken forests, who first cleared these fields, estab- 
lished their homes in the wilderness and subdued 
these native wilds to the use of man. Their past then 
is our past. As we constitute North Carolina to-day, 
our forbears constituted it in their time and genera- 
tion; and we are but the natural growth developed 
under the influences that surrounded them." 


Without attempting to give the reader any account 
of the sittings of the General Assembly — whether 
Royal or Proprietary — in ante-revolutionary times, 
his attention is directed to the sessions of this body 
during the Revolution. These were affected to a con- 
siderable extent by the exigencies of war. Those in 
1777 and the first session of 1778, as well as the first 
of 1780, were held in New Bern. The second session 
of 1778, the second of 1780, and those of 1782 and 1783 
were at Hillsboro. The third session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1778, which met in January, 1779, 
was at Halifax, as was likewise the second session of 
1779. The first of 1779 was at Smithfield. The first 
of 1781 was in Wake County, at the Lane homestead. 
One was appointed for Salem, but a quorum did not 

After the Declaration of Peace, the sessions of 1784 
were, the first at Hillsboro, and the second at New 
Bern, as was also that of 1785. That of 1787 was at 
Tarboro. Those of 1786, 1788, 1789, 1790 and the first 
session of 1793 were at Fayetteville. Those of 1791, 
1792, and the second session of 1793, held in June, 
1794, were in New Bern. 











Booksellers and 
Stationers ^ ^ 

RALEIGH***N. c. 



Earnest and Oldest Book and Stationery 
Store in tfoe State « « « founded in 1867 

/fl>UR personal attention 
^^ given all orders for any 
and everything in our 
line of business. Our 
policy of promptness, ac- 
curacy and reasonable 
prices have won us custom- 
ers in all parts of the 
United States. Your 
orders are solicited. :: :: 








The General Assembly of 1787, sitting at Tarboro, 
in providing for calling a convention to consider the 
adoption of the Constitution of the United States, re- 
commended the people of the State to "fix on the place 
for the unalterable seat of government." 

The Convention, which met at Hillsboro in 1788, 
resolved that "this Convention will not fix the seat of 
government at one particular point, but that it shall 
be left to the discretion of the Assembly to ascertain 
the exact spot, provided always, that it shall be within 
ten miles of the plantation whereon Isaac Hunter now 
resides, in the county of Wake." 

In 1791 an act was passed by the General Assembly 
to carry the ordinance of 1788 into effect. It was 
provided that nine commissioners be appointed to lay 
off and locate the city within ten miles of the planta- 
tion of Isaac Hunter, in the county of Wake, and five 
persons "to cause to be built and erected a Statehouse 
sufficiently large to accommodate with convenience 
both Houses of the General Assembly, at an expense 
not to exceed ten thousand pounds." 

This historic tract of Isaac Hunter lies about 
three and a half miles north of our city, on what was 
once the great road from the North to the South by 
way of Petersburg, Warrenton, Louisburg, Wake 
Court House to Fayetteville, Charleston and other 

This act provided for one commissioner from each 
of the eight Judicial Districts, and a ninth from the 
State-at-large. The following were elected: For the 
Morgan District, Joseph McDowell, the elder; Salis- 
bury District, James Martin; Hillsboro District, 
Thomas Person; Halifax District, Thomas Blount; 
Edenton District, William Johnston Dawson; New 



♦ ♦ 

Cbe People's Popular, Pushing, 


"llot bow Kbeap, but bow 
(food and Up=fo=Bate," « fc 


It Pays to Get the Best 


Bern District, Frederick Hargett; Fayetteville Dis- 
trict, Henry William Harrington; Wilmington Dis- 
trict, James B lood worth ; State-at-large, Willie 

Willie Jones, of Halifax, was the leader of the anti- 
Federalists, a member of the Provincial Congress at 
New Bern in 1774, and chairman of the Committee on 
Safety in 1776. He refused to accept a seat in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787 at Philadelphia, 
and led the party in the State Convention of 1788 op- 
posed to the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 
He eventually removed to Wake County, and bought 
the plantation now owned in part by the St. Augus- 
tine Normal School. It was on this place he was 
buried, but there is now no stone to mark the spot. 

Frederick Hargett was for many years Senator 
from Jones. 

James Martin was a colonel of militia in the Revo- 
lution, and participated in winning the victory of 
Moore's Creek Bridge and Guilford Court House. The 
deed from Joel Lane for the land purchased for the 
capital was to James Martin in trust for the State. 

Thomas Blount, of Edgecombe, had been a Revolu- 
tionary officer. He was the same year elected to the 
National House of Representatives, and afterwards 
represented Edgecombe in the State Senate. 

Thomas Person, of Granville, was a general of mi- 
litia in the early Revolution, and afterwards repre- 
sented his county in the General Assembly. He was 
a benefactor of the University, and in his honor the 
county of Person was named. 

James Bloodworth, of New Hanover, had often rep- 
resented his countv in the General Assemblv. He 
was a son of Timothy Bloodworth, a gunmaker, and 
was afterwards Speaker of the House of Commons, a 
delegate from North Carolina to the Confederate Con- 






fiardwood mantels, Cites and Grates 

If you are in need of anything in our line, we 
shall be glad to figure on your requirements. 

Just think, A Nice Cabinet Mantel, Plain Oak, 
Polish Finish, for $8.50, with Mirror 14 x 24. 




gress, a representative in the Congress of the Union, 
and a United States Senator. 

Col. Joseph McDowell, the elder, of Burke, was dis- 
tinguished for his services in the Revolution, and for 
being a leader of the Anti-Federalist party in the 
west, opposing, in the Conventions of 1778 and 1789, 
the proposed immediate and unconditional ratifica- 
tion of the Federal Constitution. 

William Johnston Dawson, of Chowan, was a mem- 
ber of Congress and a man of great influence in the 
Albemarle country. 

Henry William Harrington, of Richmond, was an 
officer in the Revolutionary struggle. He was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature and famed as a planter of 
immense estates and baronial style of living. 

The following were chosen as the Building Commit- 
tee Richard Benehan, of Orange; John Macon, of 
Warren ; Robert Goodloe, of Franklin ; Nathan Bryan, 
of Jones, and Theophilus Hunter, of Wake. 

Jas. Iredell, of Chowan, who was a member of the 
Convention, introduced the ordinance locating the 
seat of government in the county of Wake. The first 
to suggest "Raleigh" as the appropriate designation 
for the future capital was Governor Alexander 

Jas. Iredell afterwards had the distinction of being 
honored with a seat on the bench of the United States 
Supreme Court, and is to be distinguished from Jas. 
Iredell, his son, who was Governor in 1827, and at the 
time of his death, at an advanced age, a resident of 

The location of the county seat was entrusted to 
seven commissioners, also appointed by the General 
Assembly, viz : Joel Lane, Theophilus Hunter, Hardy 
Sanders, Joseph Lane, John Hinton, Thomas Hines 
and Thomas Crawford. The commissioners for build- 



Suits $25 to $75 

Trousers $8 to $J5 

High Class Tailoring 

Fayetteville Street 


ing the court-house and jail were Joel Lane, James 
Martin and Theophilus Hunter. 

As the first court-house in Raleigh was not erected 
till about 1800 (and that on Fayetteville street, where 
the present temple of justice stands), the building at 
Bloorusbury, or Wake Court House, erected for a 
court-house in 1770, continued, it seems, to be used as 
such for several years after the city was organized. 

The new court-house was on the Fayetteville street 
site — rectangular, of wood, of the shape of the old- 
fashioned country meeting-house. This was sold 
about 1835, and removed bodily to the southeast cor- 
ner of Wilmington and Davie streets, and was for a 
long time a family residence. It was afterwards con- 
ducted — first, as a boarding-house, by the Misses Pul- 
liam, and then as a hotel by Geo. T. Cooke, and 
known as Cooke's Hotel. The structure which re- 
placed the one removed was of brick, and erected in 
1835. This was remodeled in 1882, and constitutes 
the present court-house. 

Reverting to the commissioners and to their duty in 
planning the city, in addition to their authority to 
select the site within the ten-mile limit, they were 
directed to purchase not less than six hundred and 
forty nor more than one thousand acres, and to lay 
off a town of not less than four hundred acres. The 
main streets were required to be ninety-nine feet, the 
remainder sixty-six feet wide. Twenty acres or more 
were to be allotted for public squares. 

The commissioners were to be allowed twenty shil- 
lings (or two dollars) per day and expenses. 

On Tuesday, the 20th March, 1792, there assembled 
at the house of Isaac Hunter five of the nine commis- 
sioners, viz., Frederick Hargett, of Jones; William 
Johnson Dawson, of Chowan; Joseph McDowell, of 
Burke; James Martin, of Stokes; Thomas Blount, of 





T)ruggtst $ 




Iperfumes, Goilet Ar ticles, etc. j 

Also Wm. Simpson's Popular Remedies — SDf 

Catarrh Cream w 

Hivcr flMlls, etc yK 


Edgecombe. They did not organize, but adjourned at 
once to the house of Joel Lane, at Wake Court House. 
On the next day they began their work by viewing the 
lands which had been offered to them as suitable sites. 
On the 22d they were joined by Willie Jones, of 

The tracts offered to the commissioners, and which 
they were eight days riding over, not stopping for 
Sunday, were those of the following-named owners: 
Nathaniel Jones, Theophilus Hunter, Sr. ; Theophilus 
Hunter, Jr. ; Joel Lane, Henry Lane, Isaac Hunter, 
Thomas Crawford, Dempsey Powell, Ethelred Kogers, 
Michael Kogers, Hardy Dean, John Ezell, John Hin- 
ton, Kimbrough Hinton, Lovett Bryan, and William 

On the 27th of March, the commissioners took a sec- 
ond view of the lands of Joel and Henry Lane. 

On Thursday, the 29th of March, the commissioners 
proceeded to organize themselves into a board, choos- 
ing unanimously as chairman Frederick Hargett. 
They then proceeded to ballot for the place most 
proper to be purchased. Only three obtained any 
vote. John Hinton's tract on the north side of the 
Neuse, near Milburnie, received three votes; Joel 
Lane's tract at Wake Court House received two votes ; 
and Nathaniel Jones' tract, near Cary, received one 
vote. So there was no choice. On Friday, March 30, 
a second ballot was taken, with the result that Joel 
Lane's tract at Wake Court House received five votes 
and the Hinton land but one vote. 

The quantity purchased was the maximum allowed 
by the law, one thousand acres. The price was thirty 
shillings, or f 3, for the "woodland and fresh grounds," 
and twenty shillings per acre ($2) for the old-field. 
One-fourth of the tract, after being cleared and culti- 
vated, was abandoned because exhausted, and rated at 


Mechanics anfr IFn vestors Iflnion 

CHARTERED MAY, 1893 ««««««, 

Operated and Managed 

JOHN C. DREWRY, President. J. S. WYNNE, V.-President. 

B. S. JERMAN, Treasurer. GEORGE ALLEN, Secretary 

J. N. HOLDING, Attorney. 
C. G. LATTA and W. S. PRIMROSE, Directors 

The object of the Company is to provide a plan by which wage- 
earners and others can make monthly saving deposits, that will be 
available at any time, if needed, and which, at certain dates, will be 
returned with profits. 

The second object is to furnish the money by which families can 
be aided in owning homes, on the monthly payment plan. 

This Company has had fine success, and during the past eight 
years, it has aided more than four hundred men and women to save 
and invest Seventy-five Thousand Dollars, of which amount about 
Twenty Thousand Dollars has been advanced to the Certificate holders 
to aid them in times of financial difficulty. 

The Company has aided about Two Hundred families to own their 
homes, giving them one hundred months in which to repay the loan. 

The Company issues two kinds of Certificates. One Certificate 
requires the monthly payment, or deposit, of Eighty Cents for each 
One Hundred Dollars named in the Certificate, for a period of one 
hundred months. This is the Wage-earners Savings Bank Certificate. 
The other is a Full Paid Investment Certificate of $100, to which is 
attached twenty coupons, payable in June and December. This Cer- 
tificate is sold for $90 cash, and furnishes a six per cent investment, 
free of tax, which is paid by the Company. 

All Certificates are fully secured by First Mortgage on Residence 
Property, and form one of the safest investments. 

GEORGE ALLEN, Secretary, 

22 Pullen Building, Raleigh, N. C. 


only two-thirds the value of land covered by the origi- 
nal forest growth. The price of the whole was 
£1,378, or $2,756 — £1 at that time being the equivalent 
of but f 2, instead of $5, as now. 

The surveyor employed was William Christmas, 
State Senator from Franklin County, who agreed to 
accept in full compensation for his services, including 
six copies of the plan of the city, four shillings, or 
forty cents currency, for each lot. As there were 27G 
lots, his pay amounted to f 110.40. 


The work of the survey occupied four days. The 
plan was adopted on the 4th of April, 1792, the com- 
missioners assigning names to the public squares and 
streets. They gave the name Union to the Capitol 
Square, Avhich is nearly six acres in extent. Four 
other squares, of four acres each, they called in honor 
of the first three Governors of our State under the 
Constitution of 177G, and of the Attorney-General, 
viz. : Governor Caswell, Nash, Burke, and Attorney- 
General Moore. Caswell Square is the site of the In- 
stitution for the Blind; Nash is opposite the Union 
Depot, on the east ; Burke, the site of the Governor's 
Mansion ; Moore is in the southeastern portion of the 
city, and bounded by Wilmington, Martin, Hargett 
and Person streets. 

In naming the streets, the commissioners first hon- 
ored the eight judicial districts into which the State 
was divided, viz. : Those of Edenton, New Bern, Wil- 
mington, Hillsboro, Halifax, Salisbury, Fayette- 
ville and Morgan. The street leading from the centre 
of Union Square, perpendicularly thereto toward the 
north, was called Halifax street ; that to the east New 








Cut Flowers of 

Roses, Carnations and 
. other choice kinds for 
all occasions. 

Boquets and Floral Designs 
at short notice. 

Palms, Ferns and all kinds 
of pot and outdoor bed- 
ding plants. 

Magnolias, Evergreens and Shade Trees. Vegetable Plants in 

their season. 

All mail or telegraph orders promptly attended to. 

H. STEINMETZ, Florist v ™°™ "3 


Bern; that to the south Fayetteville, and that to the 
west Hillsboro. These are 99 feet, all the others are 
66 feet wide, their width being prescribed by the act 
of 1791. 

The streets running east aud west along the north 
and the south side of Union Square, were called, re- 
spectively, Edenton and Morgan. Those running 
north and south, along the east and west side, were 
called, respectively, Wilmington and Salisbury. 

The other streets ( with the exception of those most 
remote from Union Square, which, being the boundary 
streets, were called North, East, South and West) 
were named, firstly, after the nine Commissioners on 
Location. This left four streets. In naming them, 
the commissioners concluded to compliment the 
Speaker of the Senate, William Lenoir; the Speaker 
of the House, Stephen Cabarrus ; the former owner of 
the land, Joel Lane, and lastly, General William Rich- 
ardson Davie. 

William Lenoir was Speaker of the Senate. 
He was in the Revolution, and further distinguished 
as the President of the Board of Trustees of the State 
University. An eastern town and western county are 
named in his honor. 

Stephen Cabarrus, of Chowan, was an immigrant 
from France, and for several years Speaker of the 
House of Commons. He was a man much beloved by 
the people of the whole State. 

Joel Lane, of Wake, had represented this county in 
the Colonial Assemblies, the State Congress and the 
State Senate. 

William Richardson Davie was a gallant cavalry 
officer in the Revolution. After the war he was an 
eminent lawyer, and renowned as an advocate of edu- 
cation. As a delegate from North Carolina to the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1787 and in the State Con- 


Carolina Crust Company 

Capital Stock 8100,000 

Crusts * Beans <$, jBanhing t& Safe Deposits 

Transacts a 

General Banking and Savings 
Banking Business. :: :: :: 

Also Acts as Financial Agent for the Floating of 
Stocks and Bonds of 

municipal « Railroad « Cotton mills 

Htid Other Corporations. 

Acts as Executor, Administrator, Guardian, Trustee, Assignee, 
Receiver, Broker, Agent. 

Interest paid on Deposits in Savings Department. 

" Home Savings " boxes, strong and convenient, furnished with- 
out cost. 


W. W MILLS, President. 

LEO D. HEARTT, Vice President and General Manager. 
ROBERT C. STRONG, Trust Officer and General Counsel. 

Directors : 






Carolina Crust Building «& «& ffialeigb, UL C. 


ventions of 1788 and 1789 he was an advocate of the 
ratification of the Federal Constitution. He was af- 
terwards Governor of the State, and, on the prospect 
of a war with France, Avas appointed by President 
Adams a Brigadier-General in the Army of the United 
States. He was selected by the President as one of 
the three special envoys to France who succeeded in 
averting the war. 

Parallel to Edenton and Morgan streets, north of 
the capitol, are Jones and Lane ; to the south, Hargett, 
Martin, Davie, Cabarrus and Lenoir. Parallel to 
Wilmington and Salisbury are, to the east, Blount, 
Person and Bloodworth ; to the west, McDowell, Daw- 
son and Harrington. 

The commissioners made their report to the General 
Assembly of 1792, and it was adopted. It was en- 
acted that "the several streets represented in the plan, 
and the public square whereon the Statehouse is to be 
built, shall be called and forever known by the names 
given to them respectively by the commissioners afore- 
said." It was also enacted that the other four public 
squares shall be called and known by the names of 
Caswell, Moore, Nash and Burke squares, but the 
names were not made irrepealable. 

The following is the original plan: Counting the 
two boundary streets, there are from north to south 
12 streets, of which 11 are 66 feet wide and one 99 
feet ; from east to west there are 11 streets, of which 
10 are 66 feet wide and one 99 feet. From north to 
south there are 18 one-acre lots ; from east to west 16 
one-acre lots. Including the boundary streets, the 
city was 4,581 feet from north to south, and 4,097 2-3 
from east to west, supposing that the lots are 208 2-3 
feet square. If the lots are 210 feet square, as they 
are usually estimated, then the distance is, north to 
south, 4,605 feet, east to west 4,059. 






»"< A A A A A 

v. **- 'j*> v-i*?*-. «-£<?*. «_-"*TV. WBIi 

Has no effect on the heart or head, and does 
not produce a habit. Will prevent colds if 
taken immediately after exposure. : : : : : : 





rick house . noaern u *.,..•. 


low "lerhK; 
t wo dou-ble 

Lots fob. samV 


Real Estate 

Clin Properly and Forms 




and Rented 


J. M. 


& CO., 


The plan was not, however, a perfect rectangle. Be- 
tween Lane and North streets, at the northeast and 
northwest corners, were left out three lots of one acre 
each, and between Lenoir and South streets, at the 
southeast and southwest corners, were left out three 
lots of one acre each, or a total of twelve acres. There 
were, therefore, only ten lots fronting on North and 
ten fronting on South street. 

All the public squares are four acres each, except 
Union, Avhich is about six acres. All the private 
squares are four acres each, except those along Hills- 
boro street and New Bern Avenue on both sides, those 
along Halifax and Fayetteville streets on both sides, 
and those along North, East, South and West streets 
( within the original corporate limits) , which are not, 
mathematically speaking, squares, but rectangles of 
two acres each. The acres as laid out by surveyor 
Christinas were each 208 2-3 feet square (the true 
acre), but the conventional acre of 210 feet square has 
been adopted practically. This departure and the 
variation of the compass since have caused consider- 
able confusion in the boundaries of lots and streets. 

The city, as thus laid off, contained 400 acres, ar- 
ranged in five squares of four acres each, and 276 lots 
of one acre each. 

Joel Lane deserved the honor of having a street 
named after him, not onlv because he was the owner 
of the site, but because of his military services as colo- 
nel of militia, and his representing the county of 
Wake in the Colonial Assemblies, the State Con- 
gresses and the State Senate, and whose ancestors had 
been useful citizens in the Albemarle country and 
then in Halifax. The grandsons of his brother Jesse 
Lane became eminent in distant States. General Jo- 
seph Lane was Federal Senator from Oregon, and can- 
didate for the Vice-Presidency on the Breckinridge 

jb^7 95 5* ts*w*9 WVT9 syjyyy jy* -^- • *< ■ ^- jyyy-y lyyiysy :y lyiy^yjy^y^yiyiycsji 

I John C. Dretoru, I 

1 = 0/ 



...State Hoent... 

I f l ^ 


$ i 

/j\ The Best, Largest and Strongest Life and $ 
jjj Fire Insurance Companies Represented. 3* 3*5*^ jjj 


yV' £; ^- ^ >^- ,<:■ ■<■ ^- ^ ^ ^ ><• .g.- ^ >g- .<■ ^- ><■■ ^- ><> ^ ^ ■<• >r- ^ ■<.■ ^ ^' ^ ^ ^ ^' ■<■ ^ ^- ^ ■<■ ^ x_ ^' /ivg: 


ticket; George W. Lane was District Judge 
of the United States for Alabama. Joel Lane's de- 
scendants, through his son Henry — two of whose 
daughters married the eminent lawyer, Moses Morde- 
cai — are still among us. One of these is Samuel F. 
Mordecai, Esq., of the Raleigh Bar, who properly 
ranks with the ablest lawyers in the State. 

The plan of the city thus laid out and adopted by 
the General Assembly continued unchanged for over 
sixty years. The area was one square mile, but by the 
acts of the General Assembly of 1856-'57, the corpor- 
ate limits were extended one-fourth of a mile each 
way. Within this new part other streets have been 
opened : In the eastern part Swain street, after Da- 
vid L. Swain, who held the posts of legislator, Solici- 
tor, Judge, Governor, and President of the Univer- 
sity; Linden Avenue, a fancy name; Watson, Hay- 
wood and Elm streets; Oakwood A venue. West 
of the capitol, Boylan Avenue, after William Boy- 
Ian; Saunders street, after Romulus M. Saunders, 
long a public servant as member of our General As- 
sembly and of Congress, Judge, and Minister to Spain. 
North of the capitol are Peace street, after William 
Peace, a leading merchant for many years, and after 
whom Peace Institute is named ; Betts street ; Johnson 
street, after Albert Johnson, connected with the Ra- 
leigh and Gaston Railroad from its completion to a 
few years ago as superintendent of shops and superin- 
tendent of the road; Polk street, after Col. William 
Polk; and Tucker street. South of the capitol are 
Smithfield street, after the town of Smithfleld; Can- 
non street, after Robert Cannon, once a leading citi- 
zen and owner of the land through which it runs ; Bat- 
tle street, after Hon. Kemp P. Battle, Professor of 
History, University of North Carolina; Manly street, 
after Charles Manly, Governor, and for many years 



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Jewelers and Opticians 











JwjJA S^^^Sli^^y 



ffm Jp^^-S^ KM 



/ir « Pv^J/ /C^XAX ^J^BI ^\^ 


If-^^y^v^Ui 1 ^oVtfW^. JH 



^^^i^i^ ISvtt^^H r-^ li 




Fine UJatcb and Jewelry Repairing 

If there is anything the matter with your 
eyes or your glasses, let us make them right. 
No charge for examination. :; :: :: :: :: 

Jolly & Wynne Jecuelry Go. 


identified with the University as its Secretary and 
Treasurer ; Fowle street, after our distinguished Gov- 
ernor, whose sudden death was such a shock to our 
State; Blake street, after the late John C. Blake; 
Pugh street, after John Pugh Haywood ; Worth, Hun- 
ter, Jenkins, Railroad, McKee, Canister and Grape 


The same commissioners who located the city made 
the first sale of lots, one acre each. The square on 
which Dr. Hogg lives, bought by General Davie, 
brought $254 — the two lots fronting on Wilmington 
street, $60 each ; the two others on Blount street $66 
and $68 respectively. The lot (No. 211) on which the 
Supreme Court and Agricultural Buildings are situ- 
ate brought $263. At this sale, Treasurer John Hay- 
wood — grandfather of Mr. Ernest Haywood — pur- 
chased the site on which the latter now resides (on 
New Bern Avenue), and in 1793 erected thereon the 
house which has been the residence of the Haywood 
family to this day. 

Raleigh is situated about the centre of the State, 
and is in latitude 35 degrees 47 minutes north, longi- 
tude 78 degrees 48 minutes Avest, a little to the north- 
east of the geographical centre of the State. It is lo- 
cated in a gently-rolling region of the oldest Lauren- 
tian system. Average temperature: Spring, 58.7; 
summer, 77.6 ; autumn, 61.0 ; winter, 43.2 — comparing 
favorably with Los Angeles, Mexico, Naples and 
Rome. During the Civil War it was designated by a 
board of eminent surgeons, appointed to select sites 
for hospitals, as one of the several sites in the State 
most suitable for that purpose, because of its remark- 
able salubrious climate, combining as far as possible 
all influences conducive to convalescence of invalids 


Hotel Dorsett 

STREET •$ *& 


% LOCATED ^ f 
^ N E W L Y r 

The best Two Dollar hotel in the State. 
Best table, best rooms, best service, and 
the most courteous consideration for 
guests and visitors. : : : : : : : : : : 

W. L. DORSETT k 3* X 3; Proprietor. 
W. W. NEWMAN & & Su & Manager. 


and health of attendants. The fine old trees which 
were spared by the original settlers, but rapidly dis- 
appearing with city improvements, gave it the sobri- 
quet of the "City of Oaks." 

At the southeast corner of the Capitol Square it will 
be observed there are three large stones set in the 
earth, being about four feet apart, and all aparently 
three feet in height. Between two of these stones, and 
nearly level therewith, is another though smaller 
stone, into which is cut a cross mark, representing the 
points of the compass. The question is frequently 
asked concerning the significance of these stones and 
mark. The answer is found in the above reference to 
the longitude and latitude of the city. This was oflfi- 
ciallv determined manv vears ago under direction of 
the United States Geodetic Survev, and these stones 
were then erected to mark the spot from which the 
officials took their reckoning. 

The altitude of Raleigh is 363 feet, denoted by an in- 
scription on a small copper plate, set in the corner- 
stone of the capitol, on the north side of the building. 
This was authorized by the United States Geological 
Survey, which, through its Engineer, Mr. W. Carvel 

all, obtained permission from Governor Carr, in 
1*96, to make a permanent record of this fact in the 
manner above mentioned. 


The proceeds of the sale of 1792 were used in build- 
ing the first Statehouse. The more ambitious term 
"capitoP" was not adopted until 1832. In November, 
1794, the General Assemblv met in it for the first time. 
Richard Dobbs Spaight was then Governor. He was 
killed in a duel eight years thereafter by John Stanly. 




Walter Woollcott 



The Oldest Dry Goods House in Raleigh 

We keep full stock Dry Goods, Shoes 
and Millinery. :: :: :: :: :: :: 

Out-of-town business receives prompt 
attention. :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 

I, j& j& Institutions furnished at Low Prices j& j& 

It tcill gioe us 

" r'p p"b B t e pleasure to 

y— F1 — » 1 -^— n— fi—tl ^ examine uour 

lli yi drawings and 

\~ to furnish 

terms. :: :: :: 

J. T. Jones Sheet MetaJ Works, 


Slate, Tin and Iron Roofers 

and Manufacturers of 

cornices, snyngins, and on kinds 01 omomeoioi snee 


The old Statehouse was smaller than the present 
structure, but the arrangement of the interior said to 
be about the same. The exterior was very plain. It 
was built of brick, made at the State brick-yards, 
which were situated on the northwest and southwest 
corners of Harrington and Hargett streets. These 
sites had been reserved for that purpose at the origi- 
nal sale of lots. 

It was intended that the Statehouse (as it was then 
called in the act of Assembly — a name taken from the 
United States of Holland) should front toward the 
east — "Orientalization" at that time being all the 
fashion. It was therefore built so as to look down 
New Bern Avenue in one direction, and Hillsboro 
street towards the west. This was continued when 
the present stone structure replaced the old. The 
same supposed necessity to front towards Jerusalem, 
says Dr. Kemp Battle, prompted the eminent French 
engineer, with the assent of Washington and other 
great officers, to plan the city of Washington with the 
capitol looking eastward. 

As there was no other public hall in the city, it is 
said the authorities were generous in opening the 
passages of the Statehouse below and halls above for 
Fourth of July dinners, theatrical performances, 
balls, and for religious services of all denominations. 

In 1819, five commissioners were appointed to sell 
all the public lands remaining unsold, except a tract 
not exceeding twenty acres, to be reserved for the rock 
quarry, and except the reservations at the corners 
of the city. The "Mordecai Grove," as it was called 
for many years, northeast of the city limits, owing to 
the spirited competition between Moses Mordecai, the 
successful bidder, and Col. William Polk, brought the 
unheard of price of f 100 per acre. The lots near the 
city on the east and southeast averaged about $50 per 



Jot\i\ E\. bail 

Dealer in 

lfliri\itlir£ ai\& F\oli5£ JfUn\i2t\ii\g 
£00^5, StoV^^, £trj 


Cash and Installment House. 





Repairing of Gas and Oil Motors 
Promptly Attended to. 3* 3* 3* 3* 3* 

206 South Salisbury Street, RALEIGH, N. C. 

Globe Clothing House 


iTfne 1fieady=made Men's, youth's and Children's Clothing. 

Sample and Union-made Shoes 
a Specialty. — 

Hats, Gent's Furnishings, etc., 
altoaus on hand. 

, J. M. KOHN, 



acre. The proceeds of this sale were directed to be 
used in improving the Statehouse. 

The improvements were designed by and executed 
under the supervision of Capt. William Nichols (who 
had been recently appointed State Architect), and 
completed early in the summer of 1822. He was a 
skillful and experienced artist, and made the public 
greatly his debtor for decided impulse given to archi- 
tectural improvements throughout the State, in pri- 
vate as well as in public edifices. The construction 
of the dome, the erection of the east and west porti- 
coes, the additional elevation and covering of stucco 
given to the dingy exterior walls, the improvement of 
the interior, and especially the location of the statue 
of Washington, from the chisel of Canova, di- 
rectly under the apex of the dome, converted the 
renovated capitol into a sightly and most attractive 
edifice. There were but feAv of the better class of 
travellers who did not pause on their passage through 
Raleigh to behold and admire it. 


The main body of the six hundred acres of land, re- 
tained after the first sale, lay to the east of Raleigh. 
There were fragments lying to the south, west and 
north of the old corporate limits. For the purpose of 
providing better accommodations for the Governor, 
who had occupied a plain residence of wood on the lot 
where the National Bank of Raleigh now stands, the 
General Assemblv of 1813 ordered the sale of those 
portions described as extending from Sugg's branch 
on the southeast of the city, all south around the Pal- 
ace lot and west to the extreme northwest of the city, 
comprising about one hundred and eighty-four acres. 




Debuting Agent, mm R [Rfl m m[ m p^ 

for the 


All-Right Cook Stoves, the same your mother used, better than ever. 
Your money back if goods not exactly as represented. 


J. B. GREEN &» CO. 





The OLDEST Drug Store in Raleigh is KING'S, 

corner of Fayetteville and Hargett Streets. 
The NEWEST Drug Store in Raleigh is KING'S, 

near A. and M. College. 
The BIGGEST Drug Store in Raleigh is KING'S, 

corner Martin and Wilmington Streets. 
Take your choice. At either store you get prompt 

service, reasonable prices and ''King Quality. " 

W. H. KING DRUG CO.. Raleigh, N. C. 


The prices paid were low, for the reason that the War 
of 1812 was then raging. Eight acres at the foot of 
Fayetteville street were reserved for the Governor's 
residence. Other reservations were the Rex Spring, 
near the Ealeigh and Gaston depot, the spring near 
the Governor's Mansion, and that near the Colored 
Deaf and Dumb Institution. 

At this sale, John Rex, the philanthropist, bought 
for $481 fifteen and a half acres of land in the south- 
west part of the city, afterwards devised by him, with 
other property, for a hospital for the sick and afflicted 
poor of the city. 

The proceeds of sale were devoted to the building, 
under the superintendence of one Calder, as architect, 
of the Governor's a Palace," at the foot of Fayetteville 
street, which was afterwards, in 1876, sold to the city 
of Ealeigh, and the brick composing it used in the 
construction of the Centennial Graded School. Al- 
though outwardly plain and inwardly uncomfortable, 
it was considered grand on account of the magnitude 
of its halls and chambers, and was, therefore, in imita- 
tion of Tryon's residence, in New Bern, styled "The 
Palace." The first occupant was Governor William 
Miller, of Warren. 

Until 1794 the Chief Executive was not required to 
reside in Raleigh, but in that year the General Assem- 
bly required Ashe and future Governors to spend at 
least six months within its limits, exclusive of the 
time occupied by the General Assembly, and ordered 
that they should advertise the period of their sojourn 
in all the gazettes of the State. Four years later, in 
1798, when Davie was Governor (doubtless with his 
approval, as he had purchased eligible Raleigh lots), 
an act was passed requiring the Governor to make the 
city of Raleigh his "place of common residence." 
Whenever he should leave his home for over ten davs 



Watson's Photograph Gallery 

Satisfactory Results. 
Special Efforts to Please Every Patron. 

W. C. McMACKIN, V. S., 






O. G. KING, 



Only the Purest Drugs DAT Ciru XT r 

and Chemicals employed. KALE-iLrrl, PS. L/„ 


lie must give notice by advertisement in the gazettes, 
and his private secretary was required to keep the 
Executive office open during his absence. 


On the morning of a bright summer day, the 21st of 
June, 1831, the citizens rising from their breakfasts 
were startled with the cry of "Fire!" Volumes of 
smoke were seen issuing from the ventilators under 
the roof of the capitol. As the fire descended from the 
roof, where it had been kindled by the carelessness of 
a workman, there was ample time for saving most of 
the State papers, but all the acts of Assembly were 
destroyed. In the excitement, although there were 
numerous willing hands, their strength could not be 
organized for removing the ponderous Washington 
statue. It is said old citizens never forgot their hor- 
ror as they gazed on the beautiful marble, white hot 
and crumbling, among the forked tongues of flame, 
then shattered into fragments as the blazing timbers 
fell. Portions of the statue, including the body and 
some of the pedestal, are now preserved in the State 

This statue was of Carara marble, and was brought 
by water to Fayetteville, and thence by mule power 
to Raleigh. It is said to have been escorted into the 
city in grand style by the "Raleigh Blues," the first 
military company organized at the capital. 

The magnificent oil painting of George Washington 
which now hangs on the eastern wall of the House of 
Representatives, was in the burning building, and the 
only valuable that was rescued from the flames. 








There are hundreds of such homes in North 
Carolina which have been furnished by us. 
Such taste and discrimination does not neces- 
sarily 7 mean a large outlay of money, for we 
have Furniture designed after the time of Sir 
Walter Raleigh down to the most modern, at 
moderate as well as at high prices. 

It's the knowing Where to Buy! 

If you visit our store You Wiee Know ! 

Mail Orders promptly 7 attended to. 

IRoyall & Borden jfurniture Co 








The handsome bronze statue of Washington, which 
stands at the south front of the capitol, was erected 
in 1857. Other monuments are the speaking bronze 
statue of Zebulon V. Vance, unveiled August 22, 1900, 
the cost of which was $7,000, and the Confederate 
Monument, erected in 1895, costing $28,000. 

From the time of the burning of the old till the erec- 
tion of a new capitol, the sessions of the General As- 
sembly were usually held in the Governor's "Palace." 


The narrow escape from losing the archives of the 
State, experienced in the burning of the first capitol, 
determined the leaders of public opinion to provide 
the present noble fire-proof structure of granite. 
There was formidable opposition to a liberal appro- 
priation. A convention was expected to be called in 
order to secure changes in the Constitution, and the 
effort to have the seat of government at another point 
was resumed. Tradition says that Haywood, at the 
junction of the Cape Fear and Haw, lacked only one 
vote to defeat Raleigh. The record does not support 
this, as the bill to appropriate $50,000 for rebuilding 
on the old site passed by 73 to 60 in the House and 35 
to 28 in the Senate. 

In considering the amount it should appropriate for 
rebuilding the capitol, the General Assembly at first 
thought $50,000 quite sufficient, and that was the 
amount appropriated. The commissioners having 
charge of the erection of the building, soon discovered 
this amount would barely pay for the completion of 
the foundation alone. They accordingly expended the 
entire sum, although apparently there was no warrant 
of law for so doing. However, the act granting the 



B. W. 




nothing but the Best goods Bandied, 

We invite you to call. 

Mail Orders promptly rilled. 

Ask for our weekly price list— the "HUSTLER. " 


No. 15 E. Hargett Street, 

N. C. 


appropriation was construed in favor of their action, 
and sufficient additional sums, amounting in the ag- 
gregate to $530,684.15, appropriated to complete one 
of the most imposing edifices of the kind to be found 
anywhere, at that time at least, in the United States. 

Two architects were consulted — William Nichols 
(who repaired the old building in 1820) and Ithiel 
Town, of New York. The latter acted for a short 
while as the chief director, but soon his services were 
dispensed with and the work was left to W. S. Drum- 
mond, Col. Thomas Bragg, father of Governor Bragg, 
and David Paton, superintendents of different 
branches. Paton was the chief draughtsman. Of the 
skilled laborers employed from time to time somp %^- 
tled in Raleigh, and their descendants are among our 
best citizens. 

William Stronach, father of Messrs. A. B., Frank, 
and the late Geo. T. and Wm. C. Stronach, was the 
contractor for the foundation. The late Patrick Mc- 
Gowan, at that time working at his trade as a stone- 
mason, was also engaged on the work. Silas Burns, 
who for many years was the proprietor of the only 
foundry here, was later given the contract for con- 
structing the iron fence. This last was removed in 
1898, and now encloses the old Citv Cemeterv. 

Mr. Burns was the father of Mrs. Jno. W. Cole, now 
living in the northern suburbs of Raleigh. 

The new building was completed in 1840. It is 160 
feet in length from north to south, by 140 feet from 
east to west. The whole height is 97 1-2 feet in the 
centre. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. 
The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of 
the east and west porticoes are 5 feet 2 1-2 inches in 
diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, 
is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 



George N. Walters 



No. 115 Fagettecille Street, 








mm* Blank Book manufacturers 

From the beginning doing first-class work, with special 
attention to quick delivery and entire satisfaction. 



M£B-\Ve are still on hand to serve all who 
may want any kind of printing: or binding 



The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, 
and copied from the Temple of Minerva, commonly 
called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens 
about 500 years before Christ. An octagon tower sur- 
rounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Gre- 
cian cornice, etc., and its dome is decorated at top 
with a similar ornament to that of the Choragic Mon- 
ument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lan thorn of 

Governor Swain, who was then Chief Magistrate, 
laid the corner-stone on July 4, 1833. 

Note. — In the preparation of some of the foregoing articles the 
author has availed himself of the several very able and interesting 
papers heretofore published from the pen of don. Kemp P. Battle, 
to whom he desires, in this manner, to return thanks for the per- 
mission granted. 


The first act for the government of the city was 
passed February 7, 1795. The act did not vest the 
control of the city with its citizens. Seven ap- 
pointees of the General Assembly, styled Commission- 
ers (the usual name for public agents appointed for 
special purposes) were vested with the government 
for three years. When their term was about to ex- 
pire in 1797, it was renewed. In 1801, there was a 
similar renewal, and three others were appointed "as 
additional and permanent Commissioners." Only in 
case of death, refusal or resignation could the citizens 
have a vote to fill the vacancy. These Commissioners 
were vested with the right to make laws for the gov- 
ernment of the city, and also to choose an Intendant 
of Police, charged with the execution of the laws, and 
also a Treasurer, out of their number, to hold office 
for one year, and a Clerk to hold during good behav- 






For all Crops, Soils and Conditions 







ior. The Intendant held his office indefinitely, as did 
the Commissioners. None of these officers were re- 
quired to be residents of the city, and some of them 
are known not to have been such. Raleigh, therefore, 
for the first few years of its life was very far from be- 
ing free. No evil, however, resulted to the people 
from this long withholding of their freedom, because 
the Commissioners were men of wisdom and fairness. 
They were John Haywood, Dugald McKeethan, John 
Marshall, John Rogers, John Pain, James Mares and 
John Craven, who were properly the first City Fa- 
thers. Those added in 1797 were Joshua Sugg, Wil- 
liam Polk and Theophilus Hunter. John Rogers was 
a member of the Legislature from Wake, and was a 
non-resident. Joshua Sugg, William Polk and The- 
ophilus Hunter, though owners of lots in the corpor- 
ate limits, did not reside therein. 

John Haywood, who was elected by them "Intend- 
ant of Police," was the first chief executive officer. It 
was not until 1803, eleven years after the sale of lots, 
that, in the judgment of the General Assembly, the 
city was sufficiently populous to supply officers whose 
homes must be in the city limits. A regular charter 
was granted. The Commissioners, seven in number, 
as well as the Intendant of Police, were to be elected 
by freemen having the qualification of residence and 
of owning land within the city. Free negroes were 
included among the freemen. 

The name of Mayor was not adopted until 1856. 
The name Commissioners gave way to the word Alder- 
men in 1875. 

The Commissioners claimed the right to force the 
citizens to patrol the city at night, distributing them 
for the purpose into twenty classes of six each, one 
of the number being captain. When the public mind 
was disturbed by frantic terrors of insurrections 


among the slaves, as it was during the alleged insur- 
rection headed by Frank Sumner in 1802, and the Nat 
Turner atrocities of 1831, there was no difficulty in 
procuring efficient action by this unpaid police. But 
in tranquil times the penalty of one dollar fine for 
non-attendance, authorized in 1814, became necessary. 
It was the fashion, however, to avoid the penalty by 
hiring substitutes, some men almost making a living 
by taking the places of sleep-loving principals. Slaves 
not on their owners' premises were required to have 
written "passes," as they were called, after a designa- 
ted early hour of the night, on the penalty of receiving 
a whipping for the lack thereof, and also of being 
locked up if their behavior led to suspicion or crime. 
The adventures of the night-watch and their morning 
report were a notable part of the gossip of the com- 
munity. There were no policemen or day watchmen 
at all, one man, called the constable, being regarded 
sufficient to keep order during the day. 

The city comprised but three wards until the Gen- 
eral Assemblv of 1874-'75 divided it into five. This 
continued until 1895, when it was changed to four. 

The following have been the chief officers of the 
city, either as Intendants of Police, or Mayor, as the 
case may be : John Haywood, Wm. White, Wm. Hill, 
Dr. Calvin Jones, John Marshall, Jno. S. Eobeteau, 
Sterling Yancey, Joseph Gales, Weston K. Gales, 
Wm. C. Carrington, Thomas Loring, Wm. Dallas 
Haywood, Wm. H. Harrison, C. B. Root, Wesley 
Whitaker, Joseph W. Holden, John C. Gorman, Jo- 
seph H. Separk, Basil C. Manly, W. H. Dodd, Alf. A. 
Thompson, Thos. Badger, W. M. Russ. A. M. Powell 
is the present incumbent. 

John Haywood (father of the late Dr. E. Burke 
Haywood) was the only Intendant elected by the 
Commissioners. The first Intendant to be elected bv 


the people was Wm. White, who was chosen to that 
office in 1803. He was born in 1762, died in 1811. 
Wm. Hill was the next incumbent, and was born in 
Surry Countv in 1773 ; he died in 1857. 


; ' They who have no reverence and affection for the memory of their 
ancestors can make no just claim to the remembrance of posterity." 

Among the most illustrious men of Raleigh's early 
history who honored it with their residence, and gave 
to the city and State the benefit of their wise counsel, 
and whose descendants are living among us now, were, 
Jas. F. Taylor, elected Attorney-General in 1825; 
Joseph Gales, founder of the Raleigh Register; Wm. 
Boylan, editor and publisher of the Minerva; Moses 
Mordecai, a distinguished lawyer, who died at the 
early age of twenty-nine years ; John H. Bryan, who 
represented this district in Congress in 1823; R. M. 
Saunders, a distinguished lawyer and statesman, who 
died in 1866 ; Wm. H. Haywood, elected United States 
Senator in 1842; Geo. E. Badger, Secretary of the 
Navy in 1842; Wm. Hill, Secretary of State; Maj. 
Chas. L. Hinton, and many others Avhose names are 
not now recalled. 

Joseph Gales became an inhabitant of Raleigh when 
the place was but seven years old. He came here in 
1799 from Sheffield, England, and established the 
Raleigh Register, which was continuously published 
for more than sixty years. After the death of Joseph 
Gales the paper was published by his son Weston R., 
and later by a grandson, Seaton Gales. Joseph Gales 
was for many years State printer. He established 
the first paper-mill in this section, on Rocky Branch, 
thence removed to Crabtree Creek. In politics he 


belonged to the dominant party, the Republican, and 
when that was disrupted in Jackson's time he be- 
came a Whig. Joseph Gales had the distinction of 
being the first to practice stenography in the United 
States, and was the first official stenographer to re- 
port the proceedings of Congress. He died in 1842, 
aged eighty years. 

The name of no man is more honorably connected 
with Raleigh's early history than that of William 
Bovlan, who came here the same year as did Mr. Gales. 
Mr. Boylan was from New Jersey, coming to North 
Carolina in 1791, when he located at Fayetteville, 
where, with his uncle, Abraham Hodge, he published, 
in 1796, the Fayetteville Miner ra. After his removal 
here in 1799, he continued the publication of the pa- 
per, which advocated Federalist principles. Mr. Boy- 
lan was often a Commissioner of the city, and was at 
one time President of the State Bank. He was an 
active promoter of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, 
and at one time its president. A man of the highest 
integrity, kind hearted and generous, his hand was 
always open to deserving charity. A large number 
of his descendants are livine; anions us to-dav. He 
was born in 1777; died 1861. 

It has been said that it was Mr. Bovlan who intro- 
duced the cultivation of cotton in this countv. How- 
ever that may be, in this connection the following, 
with reference to the cotton-^in and baling of cotton 
in this State may prove interesting: 

Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton-gin, "cotton- 
machine," or "saw-gin," as it was then called, passed 
through Raleigh early in 1802, on his way from 
Charleston, S. C. (where he had been a school teacher, 
and had invented the cotton-gin) to his home in Con- 
necticut. It seems that the art of baling cotton was 
then in its infancv, for it was said that "Mr. Whitnev 


is in expectation of soon bringing forward an im- 
proved plan of packing cotton, which shall comprise 
an incredible quantity of cotton within a very narrow 
compass, and thereby make the cotton much easier of 
transportation than at present." 

With reference to this cotton-gin, the General As- 
sembly, the same year — after considering "that the 
cultivation of cotton is increasing in this State, and 
from the invention and use of the saw-gin, likely to 
become a valuable staple article of exportation" — en- 
acted that "the State of North Carolina do purchase 
from the said Miller and Whitney (the former being 
the owner of a one-half interest in the patent with 
Whitney, the inventor) the patent right to the mak- 
ing, using and vending the said new invention of a ma- 
chine for cleaning cotton from its seeds, commonly 
(ailed a saw-gin, on the terms and conditions herein- 
after mentioned — that is to say, that there shall be 
laid and collected by the State of North Carolina, on 
each and every saw-gin which shall be used in this 
State, between the passing of this act and the first 
day of April next, a tax of two shillings and six pence 
upon every saw, or annular row of teeth, which such 
gin may contain, and a tax of two shillings and six 
pence for each and every saw, or annular row of teeth, 
which shall be used in said gins, in each and every 
year, for the term of five years thereafter." The 
amounts collected for the years 1802 and 1803, under 
the provisions of this act, were directed to be paid to 
said Whitney and Miller as the price of the patent 
right agreed upon between them and the State. The 
tax collected for the five years thereafter was, of 
course, appropriated by the State — for the encourage- 
ment, perhaps, of the cotton industry ! 

How long this continued to be the law must be left 


to conjecture, as no record of any further legislation 
on the subject is found. 

One of the earlier "City Fathers" was William 
Polk, always called Col. William Polk, who built 
what was a grand residence in those days just out of 
the city limits, fronting Blount street. Later, in 
1872, this house, after being owned by Hon. Kenneth 
Rayner for many years, was moved to one side to al- 
low for the extension of Blount street, and is some- 
times called the Park Place. 

William Peace was another of the earlier citizens. 
He and his brother Joseph, under the firm name of 
W. & J. Peace, opened a mercantile business on Fay- 
etteville street almost as soon as the city was founded, 
and so continued for manv years. Because of his 
large contribution to the founding of Peace Institute, 
this widely and favorably known institution of learn- 
ing is named in honor of his memory. 

William Peck was also one of the early settlers, and 
conducted a store at the southeast corner of the Cap- 
itol Square. His son, Louis Peck, was his successor 
in business at the same stand. He died several years 

John Rex, the founder of Rex Hospital, was one of 
the earlier citizens. He was said to be a grave, sedate, 
quiet, retiring, modest man, and accumulated a hand- 
some fortune, which he bequeathed to the endowment 
of the hospital here bearing his name. He died in 
1839, aged seventy-four years. 

David Royster was also among the earlier residents, 
coming to Raleigh from Mecklenburg County, Va., in 
1801. His business was that of a cabinet-maker, which 
he conducted for more than sixtv vears, on the cor- 
ner of Hargett and Blount streets. He was a man of 
sterling character, and held high in public esteem. 
His death occurred in 1865, when in his eighty-ninth 


year. One of his sons is Mr. David L. Royster (fa- 
ther of Mr. Vitruvius Royster, the efficient assistant 
in the Superior Court Clerk's office), who has been 
identified with Raleigh a lifetime, and at one period 
was a leading building contractor. In this city he 
has been a man of considerable influence. Miss Susie 
P. Iden, of Raleigh, an interesting and promising 
young writer of fiction, is a granddaughter of Mr. 

Another son of David Royster was the late Jas. D. 
Royster, a man of superior ability, also prominently 
identified, in his time, with the city and its interests. 
The older citizens remember him as a man upon whose 
judgment they could safely rely, and in matters of 
public interest his opinion was always valuable. He 
was the father of Dr. Wisconsin I. Royster, whose 
eminence as a physician, as well as a man of profound 
learning, is as wide as the State which delights to 
claim him as its worthy son, and the grandfather of 
Dr. Hubert Royster, who enjoys the enviable distinc- 
tion of being one of the most skillful surgeons and 
capable physicians ever in practice at the capital. 

The first number of the Raleigh Star made its ap- 
pearance in October, 1808. Messrs. Jones and Hen- 
derson were the publishers. This journal, under the 
control of various managements, had a useful career 
for more than forty years. Mr. Wm. M. Brown, now 
seventy-seven years of age, served his apprenticeship 
in this office, which he entered in 1840. 

At this early period (1808) there were yet but few 
business houses. Thos. Burch, John Scott, Robert 
Cannon, Robert Callum, and Wm. Shaw were the lead- 
ing merchants. The population was then less than 
one thousand. James McKee and Lewis & Muse 
opened business a year or two later. All the stores 
were then on Fayetteville street and built of wood. 


The town continued to jog along for a full decade, 
when it is found that John Stewart, James Coman, 
the Shaws, J. S. Robeteau, J. D. Newsoni, Alfred 
Jones, R. & W. Harrison, Richard Smith, B. B. Smith, 
and S. Birdsall had joined the mercantile ranks. 
Among these was Euffin Tucker, father of the late 
Major R. S. Tucker, who began life a clerk in the 
store of Southy Bond in 1815 at a salary of $25 per 
year. In 1818, in connection with his brother, Wm. 
C. Tucker, (who was a printer, and had worked for 
Col. Henderson, in the office of the Raleigh Stew), he 
opened a store, with a cash capital of f 125, in a frame 
building of moderate dimensions on the site of the 
store now so ably conducted by Messrs. Dobbin & 

In 1829 Wesley Whitaker was manufacturing 
pianos on East Hargett street. W C. & R. Tucker 
had dissolved co-partnership by mutual consent, and 
each brother Avas prosecuting a successful business on 
his own account. The first millinery store was then 
being conducted by Mrs. Andrews, while E. P. Guion, 
at the Guion Hotel, was advertising that he would 
"accommodate boarders for $120 a year." Mrs. An- 
drews was the mother of the late Ralph Andrews. 

John J. Briggs, father of the late Thos. H. Briggs, 
became identified with Raleigh in its early history, 
both industrially and religiously. He was a leading 
builder, and prominent as one of the founders of the 
Baptist church. 

Jacob Johnson should be remembered, too, for he 
was the trusted janitor of the Bank of the State, and 
conspicuous in the history of Raleigh because the 
father of a President of the United States — Andrew 

John Stewart is said to have been among the first 
merchants in Raleigh. He married Hannah Paddi- 


son, and many of their descendants are living among 
us now. Among these are Miss Susan Stewart, (the 
only surviving child), now seventy-five years of age; 
Miss Hannah Coley, Mrs. Walter Edwards, Mrs. W. 
H. Billings, and Messrs. Seymour and Chester Whit- 
ing, who are the grandchildren of John and Hannah 
Stewart. Hannah Paddison's mother, when a widow, 
married Peter Casso, the hotel keeper. When Presi- 
dent Johnson was born his father was an hostler at 
Casso's hotel, and Mrs. Casso gave the name of An- 
drew to the new-born child. 

W. H. Williams, in 1812, kept an apothecary (as 
drug stores were then termed, after the custom in 
England), and advertised that he Solicits a continu- 
ance of public patronage, either in the common way of 
making an apothecary of one's stomach, or upon the 
new plan of no cure no pay," and adds, that "the hon- 
est, temperate and industrious poor would be granted 
favors if desired." 

Randolph Webb's apothecary was established about 
1820, on the corner of Fayetteville and Hargett 
streets. Subsequently the proprietors were Alfred 
Williams and Dr. F. J. Haywood. During the con- 
tinuance of this firm, in 1836, Mr. J. Rufifin Williams, 
then a youth of sixteen years, entered the store as 
clerk, continuing as such for several years, until 
1840, when he became one of the proprietors with his 
brother and Dr. Haywood. This business had the 
longest existence of any firm ever established in Ra- 
leigh. Mr. Williams is still living, eighty-two years 
of age. He retired from business several years ago. 
The present proprietors are W. H. King & Co. 

J. J. Christophers, who was born in 1803, in his life- 
time was a man of much prominence and usefulness. 
He filled the office of City Clerk for a great number 


of years, and at one time was the owner of an entire 
square of real estate in the eastern part of the city. 
He lived to be ninety-one years of age. 

Edmund B. Freeman, for thirty-seven years Clerk 
of the Supreme Court, was an early resident of the 
capital. He was a native of Massachusetts and born 
in 1796. His first wife was a sister of Albert Stith, 
a merchant of Raleigh in the forties. Mr. Freeman 
was a grandfather of our efficient and popular City 
Clerk, Mr. Ham Smith. 

Jacob Marling was another early resident. He had 
some local celebrity as a portrait and landscape 
painter. A specimen of his work is now in the State 
Library, loaned for exhibition by Dr. F. J. Haywood. 
It is a representation of the capitol as it was previous 
to its destruction bv fire in 1831. The Havwood resi- 
deuce at the head of Fayetteville street is also repre- 
sented in the picture. Mrs. Marling kept a millinery 
store on Fayetteville street, in the building occupied 
by A. D. Royster & Bro. 

In the entire history of Raleigh it would be difficult 
to think of a man who, in his dav. was more identified 
with the general welfare of the people, or who contrib- 
uted more to their substantial good, than the late Dr. 
F. J. Havwood. He was born in Raleigh in 1803. 
In the practice of his profession he became one of the 
most eminent physicians in the State. His character 
and ability as a medical man was no greater, however, 
than that which he sustained in his private relations, 
for in these he was distinguished as one who revered 
the golden rule, and who never turned a deaf ear to 
the cry of the distressed, from whatever source it was 
heard. He married in 1831 Martha Helen Whitaker. 
She passed away on the 22d of July, ID 02. She had 
many warm friends, especially among the older inhab- 
tants. At her death she was ninety-one years of age. 


W. T. Bain, whose name is so prominently associa- 
ted with Masonic history, was also intimately con- 
nected with the early times of Raleigh. A man of 
purer heart and more charitable disposition our peo- 
ple had never known, lie was born in 1793, and died 
in 1867— aged seventy-four years. The late Donald 
W. Bain was his honored son. 

r S* ; 



Died in 1S80 ; aged seventy-six years. 

Frank P. Haywood, who passed away in 1900, be- 
fore his death was Raleigh's oldest inhabitant. He 
was born here in 1810, and was one of Dr. McPheeters' 
pupils at the Raleigh Academy, the only school here 
in the early part of the century. Mr. Haywood was 
a gentle and kind-hearted man, and beloved by a wide 
circle of friends. 

J. C. S. Lumsden for many years before his death 
(which occurred but recently), was prominently iden- 


tilled with the business history of Raleigh. Some 
time before the Civil War he opened a store of small 
dimensions on the Hillsboro road, just outside the 
city, and in 1873 resumed business on Payetteville 
street, conducting the same successfully until his 
death in 1901. lie had been alderman and held other 
positions of honor and trust. Mr. Lumsden was the 
father of Mr. Chas. P. Lumsden, our present efficient 
and very popular City Tax Collector. 

Few men ever lived in Raleigh for whom the people 
had higher regard than Mr. Ralph Andrews, or "Un- 
cle Rafe," as he was familiarly called. He was a 
blacksmith bv trade, and for many years before his 
death had conducted a shop on South Salisbury street. 
Retiring and modest in disposition and gentle in man- 
ner, there were none but could claim "Uncle Rate" as 
their friend. He died the present year (1902), aged 
seventy-four vears. Mr. Andrews was a brother of 
Win. Andrews, one of the old-time constables of Ra- 

E. D. Havnes, a most worthy and industrious man, 
at the time of his death, in 1894, had been a resident 
for more than sixty vears. He was a cabinet-maker, 
his first work being with the late H. J. Brown, who 
conducted a business of that character. Mr. Havnes 
was a good citizen, a very superior mechanic, and a 
high-toned, honorable gentleman. 

Some men are forgotten as soon as they die — others 
leave evidences of good deeds, which continue to groAv 
in the affections of the people as time passes. Of the 
latter class was J. Stanhope Pullen, who was born 
here in 1822. During this good man's life he did as 
much, if not more, to make Raleigh the beautiful and 
lovelv citv that it is to-dav than anv other of its citi- 

9 9 9 9 

zens. He was one of the foremost promoters of the 
late improvements in the northeastern part of the 


city, gave to Raleigh the beautiful park that bears his 
name, and was a liberal contributor to many of the 
schools, charitable institutions and churches in the 
city. The good deeds of Mr. Pullen live after him, 
and his memory will be perpetuated in the history of 
the capital of his native State. He died in 1895, aged 
seventy-three years. 

The valuable citizen is he who makes the greatest 
impress for good upon the community in which he 
lives. Thomas H. Briggs, who died in 1886, at the 
age of sixty-five, was one of those whose enterprise as 
a citizen and kind deeds as a Christian man entitle 
him to the fond remembrance of our whole people. 
Mr. Briggs was for many years the leading contractor 
and builder of Raleigh — first on his own account, and 
for many years as the leading member of the firm of 
Briggs & Dodd. For several years before his death 
he conducted with much success a hardware business, 
on Fayetteville street, in which he was succeeded by 
his sons, Thos. H. Briggs, Jr., and Jas. A. Briggs, who 
are now its proprietors, under the name and style of 
T. H. Briggs & Sons. 


Among the older living inhabitants must be men- 
tioned Mr. Jno. R. Taylor, who was born in 1817, and 
has lived here eighty-three years — since he was two 
years of age. He remembers well Andrew Johnson, 
the tailor President. Mr. Taylor is still living, though 
his eyesight has all bat failed. He has always been a 
man of high integrity, and at one time was one of 
property and influence. Mr. W. A. Taylor, the well 
known Fayetteville street tailor, is his eldest son. 


Few men have been more identified with Raleigh's 
early history than Mr. W. M. Brown, who is now sev- 
enty-seven years of age. He was born here in 1825, 
in a log cabin which stood on the northeast corner of 
Morgan and Person streets. In those days framed 
buildings were luxuries. Mr. Brown was but a lad 
when the capitol was being erected, and worked at the 
old rock quarry in the eastern part of the city, helping 
the stone-cutters bv running errands. Later he 
learned the art of printing. His father was Neal 
Brown, a boyhood friend of Andrew Johnson. Mr. 
Brown is a man of high character, of unassuming 
manner, and held in high esteem by a wide circle of 
friends. In connection with Mr. W. M. Utley, in 1879, 
he established the Evening Visitor. For some time he 
has been in feeble health. 

Mr. J. Ruffin Williams is another of the older resi- 
dents. He came to Raleigh in 1836. (A more ex- 
tended notice of Mr. Williams will be found in the 
reference to earlv inhabitants.) 

One of the best-known men to the older inhabitants 
of Raleigh is Dr. Thomas D. Hogg. He has been the 
pioneer in many useful enterprises inaugurated here 
and in the State, although some of them he did not 
carry beyond the experimental stage. Doctor Hogg 
is thoroughly familiar with a great many scientific 
subjects, of a practical nature, and takes the keenest 
interest in all the great economic questions or prob- 
lems of general importance. In aiding the Raleigh 
and Gaston Railroad Company at a critical period, 
and performing a like service for the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad Company, he rendered the State val- 
uable services. The same is true of his connection 
with the erection of the Central Hospital for the In- 
sane and of the duties discharged by him as an inspec- 


tor of the North Carolina Railroad. Dr. Hogg is now 
seventy-five years of age. 

No man in Raleigh's history has been more essen- 
tially identified with its people and their interests 
than Mr. Chas. B. Root, who has been a resident since 
1837. After a brief residence he embarked in the jew- 
elry and watchmaking business, which he conducted 
very successfullv until 1860,when he then retired from 
trade. He married in 1848 Miss Anna F. Gales, daugh- 
ter of Weston R. Gales, and granddaughter of Joseph 
Gales, founder of the Raleigh Register. Mr. Root has 
filled many places of honor and trust, among them the 
presidency of the Raleigh Gas Works, to which posi- 
tion he was elected in 1860. For several terms he has 
been alderman, and during the Civil War was Mayor, 
during which time he refused to accept any compensa- 
tion AYliatsoever, choosing rather — be it said to his 
great credit — to devote the same to benevolent objects 
and purposes. No man has ever lived among us who 
was more beloved by our whole people than Charles B. 
Root, He is now eighty- three years of age, and for 
one of his years remarkably vigorous. 

One of the oldest native-born citizens, and who is 
yet abiding with us, is Richard Bullock Seawell, now 
eightv-four vears of age. He is the voungest son of 
Henrv Seawell and Grizzelle Hinton Seawell, and was 

«.' 7 

born in the house now owned by Dr. Hogg on the 
northeast corner of Wilmington and Lane streets, 
May 26, 1818. He engaged extensively in agriculture 
the greater portion of his life, but becoming embar- 
rassed by the results of the Civil War, he surrendered 

t/ 7 

his vast estate to the payment of debts and has since 
resided in the city. He has been intimately associa- 
ted with many of the historical events of Raleigh. 
His faculties are remarkablv vigorous for one of his 
advanced age. 


Our venerable and esteemed townsman Mr. W. C. 
Upchurck is another citizen of the olden time. He 
came here in 1833 — nearly sixty-nine years ago, and 
shortly thereafter opened a grocery store on Hargett 
street near Wilmington, which he conducted with suc- 
cess during his whole business career, until five years 
ago. In the early part of his business life he was in 
copartnership with the late W. H. Holleman. He is 
now in the eighty-ninth year of his age. Mr. Up- 
church has sixty-seven living descendants. One of 
these is Mr. B. W. Upchurch, a grandson, who is a 
prominent Hargett street grocery merchant. 

Major Moses A. Bledsoe has been a resident of Ra- 
leigh since 1840, coming from Franklin county in 
that year. He married a Miss Hunter, a descendant 
of Theophilus Hunter, and before the Civil War was 
a man of much property and influence. He is now in 
the eightieth year of his age. Major Bledsoe and the 
late W. W. Vass were clerks, late in the thirties, in the 
store of John Eaton, in Henderson. 

Mr. E. B. Thomas, who has been an inhabitant for 
half a century, is a native of Wake, and came here 
first as a teacher of the Western Ward common school. 
No community was ever blessed with a more honora- 
ble citizen and devoted Christian, nor one more faith- 
ful in all his relations of life. He is the father of 
Mr. W. G. Thomas, proprietor of the Xorthside Phar- 
macy. Mr. Thomas is now eighty-one years of age. 

Mordecai B. Barbee, Hugh W. Earp, Wm. A. Lamb, 
survivors of the Mexican War. are others who must be 
numbered with the older inhabitants. Mr. Barbee 
has resided here for half a century, coming to Raleigh 
from Chatham, the county of his birth, in 1852. For 
many years he was in the coacli -making business, but 
for a quarter of a century past has been the leading 
Justice of the Peace of Raleigh. 


Mr. Earp was born here, and is now more than 
eighty years of age and quite feeble. He has been 
always noted for his modestv, integrity, and fulfilled 
all his relations of life with fidelity. In earlier life 
Mr. Earp was a shoemaker by trade. He stood high 
among his craftsmen, and had always the good will 
of his numerous customers and the public. 

Mr. Lamb, the remaining survivor mentioned above, 
well known as a worthy mechanic, has always stood 
well with his fellows, and been properly regarded as 
a man of superior skill in his trade. He is now sev- 
enty-four years of age. 



In the settlement of all communities, which are 
at first but mere villages, the chvellings and places 
of business are nearly always of wood. Many fires 
must necessarily be experienced before more durable 
and pretentious buildings are erected. Raleigh was 
no exception to this rule, but her citizens prepared 
themselves for such emergency by purchasing, in 
1802, the first fire engine they had ever seen. There 
was not then a pump in the city, and in case of fire 
entire dependence was upon the wells, of which "not 
one in four was supplied with buckets." Such was the 
comment made by a newspaper of that period. The en- 
gine referred to was bought by voluntary contribu- 
tions. It employed sixteen hands, throwing eighty gal- 
lons per minute one hundred and thirty-two feet, and 
cost $374. Eleven years later the city bought a new en- 
gine, and in 1821 the first regular fire company was 
organized. Six years before this an abortive attempt 
to supply the city with water was made. A water- 


wheel, worked from a pond in front of the Insane 
Asylum hill, made by damming Rocky Branch, forced 
the water to the top of a water-tower on a hill in the 
southwest part of the city, whence it flowed by gravity 
to Hargett and along Fayetteville street. There was 
no filtration. The water was delivered at intervals 
through wooden spouts. The engineer was Samuel 
Lash, of Salem, an ingenious mechanic. The pipes 
were of wood. They became frequently clogged with 
mud, and often burst with the pressure. The citizens 
living on the streets not benefited became clamorous 
against the taxation levied for repairs, and the scheme 
was abandoned. 

Street Commissioner Blake, while excavating on 
Fayetteville street a few years ago, dug up several 
pieces of this pipe, the inside diameter of which was 
about three inches. On South Saunders street, near 
Cabarrus, a section of this pipe may also be yet seen, 
imbedded in the earth as it was originally eighty-seven 
years ago. 

The first srreat fire on record was in 1816, on the 


east side of Fayetteville street, extending from Martin 
to Hargett, and thence nearly to Wilmington street. 

In 1821 a second fire broke out near the site where 
the Market House now stands, consuming the east 
side of Fayetteville street north, above Hargett, as far 
as where Dobbin & FerralPs store now stands, and 
east to Wilmington street. 

In 1831 another fire occurred ; this was on the site 
of the present Market House. 

In the same vear all the buildings on the west side 
of Fayetteville street, from Morgan to Hargett, with 
the exception of that next to Morgan street — the' Dr. 
Fabius J. Haywood residence, but then occupied by 
the Newbern Bank — were swept away. This was kin- 
dled by an incendiary, Benjamin F. Seaborn, a clerk 


of Richard Smith, who endeavored by arson to hide 
the crime of theft. Smith was Register of Deeds, and 
twenty registry books were destroyed with his store- 
house, causing much confusion of titles in our county. 
Seaborn was hung for his crime. 

Another fire broke out in 1841, in Depkin's shoe 
shop, on Fayetteville street. The flames swept down 
Hargett street until checked within one house of Wil- 
mington street. The weak hose of the engine burst 
soon after it was brought into action. The water 
flowed on the ground, and mixing with red clay 
formed a plastic material, which the ready-witted 
firemen gathered by handsful and bucketsful, and 
dashing it against the walls of a threatened store, 
formed a non-conductor, impervious to heat. The fire 
was extinguished, and the grateful citizens dubbed 
this heroic band as the "mud company," and this well- 
earned name stuck fast up to the day of its dissolution. 


The Raleigh Experimental Railway was the first 
attempt at a railroad built in North Carolina. It was 
finished January 1, 1833. It was a cheap strap-iron 
tramway, costing $22.50 per mile. It was the sugges- 
tion of Mrs. Sarah Polk, widow of Col. Wm. Polk, and 
the mother of Bishop Polk. She was the principal 
stockholder, and the investments paid over 300 per 
cent. Capt. Daniel H. Bingham was the engineer, an 
accomplished scholar who taught a military school in 
the old Saunders house, on Hillsboro street, who was 
assisted by two of his advanced students, Dr. R. B. 
Haywood, of this city, and Col. Wm. M. Abbott, of 
Mississippi. The road ran from the east portico of 
the capitol to the Rock Quarry, in the remote eastern 


portion of the city. It was constructed principally 
for the purpose of hauling stone to build the present 
capitol. A passenger car was placed upon it "for the 
accommodation of such ladies and gentlemen as de- 
sired to take the exercise of a railroad airing." 


For a long time after the foundation of the city the 
people worshipped in the Statehouse or courthouse. 
The great Methodist Bishop Asbury held a "big meet- 
ing" in the former place in 1800. 

In 1805 or 1806 William Glendenning, a native of 
Scotland, removed to Raleigh and established a gro- 
cery store on Newbern Avenue opposite the present 
Episcopal Rectory. He had been a preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, but seceded with James 
O'Kelly. He built the first church in the city, on 
Blount street, between Morgan and Hargett, and 
called it Bethel. He became insane and was called 
the "Crazy Parson," and, of course, made little re- 
ligious impression on the community. 

The first Methodist church built in Raleigh was 
constructed of hewn logs, and stood in Joel Lane's 
woods on what was then Halifax road, about where 
Col. Heck's residence now stands, on Blount street, 
and was called Asbury Meeting House. Bishop As- 
bury was probably the founder of this church, in 1784, 
as he travelled frequently into North Carolina, and 
Wake Court House was an important point. 

In 1811 the Methodists had finished their church, 
the first erected after the organization of the citv. on 
the lot donated by Willie Jones, of Halifax, and 
bought by him at the sale of 1792. 

This church having been destroyed by fire in 1839, 


another was erected in 1841. Benj. B. Smith, Ra- 
leigh's leading merchant, contributed three hundred 
dollars toward this object. This church was removed 
a few years ago to give way to the present imposing 
edifice. It has a seating capacity of eight hundred. 
Mrs. Badger, the mother of the late George E. Badger, 
was a prominent member of this church after coming 
here in 1820 from Newbern, and often led in prayer, 
or "prayed in public,' 7 as it was called. 

Among the early pastors were Bennett T. Blake, 
John Kerr, John T. Brame, John E. Edwards, R. O. 
Burton, Wm. E. Pell, Joseph H. Wheeler, L. L. Hen- 
dren, N. F. Reid, John S. Long. 

Of those who were prominently connected with the 
church in its earlier days were Miss Emma Hunter, 
Miss Louisa Hill, Mrs. Sarah McCauley, Misses. 
Susan and Emma White, Mrs. Eliza Lemay, Mrs. Lu- 
cinda Tucker, Henry J. Brown, Mrs. Lucy Evans, 
Rev. Thos. J. Lemay,' L. W. Peck, S. H. Young, C. W. 
D. Hutchings, Jno. C. Palmer, Mrs. Ann R. Lipscomb, 
Henry Porter, Mrs. Elizabeth Busbee, Jno. Myatt, 
Miss Priscilla McKee, Eldridge Smith. 

The Baptists were next to organize a congregation. 
This was in 1812, and a church building of an humble 
character was erected on Moore Square, or in what 
was then known as the Baptist Grove. The bell was 
of the size and sound of those generally in use by to- 
bacco factories. In this Grove the founders of the 
First Baptist church worshipped. There is high au- 
thoritv for the statement that the members were ac- 
customed each to take a tallow candle to this humble 
building in order to produce a "dim, religious light" 
(so conducive to spirituality, it was thought) for ser- 
vices at night. The membership of the church, says 
Mr. W. C. Upchurch, was never more than eighteen — 
seven males and eleven females. Of the former there 


were Madison Royster, Jas. Nunn, J. D. Briggs, Mark 
Williams, and W. C. Upchurch; the late Mrs. Alfred 
Williams was among the female members. 

About 1835, owing to differences of opinion among 
the members, dissension arose, and a new and better 
edifice was accordingly erected at the southeast cor- 
ner of Wilmington and Morgan streets. The pastors 
of this church, in the order named, were Kevs. Amos. 
J. Battle, Louis Dupree, T. W. Toby, J. J. Finch, G. 
W. Johnston, T. E. Skinner. 

In 1858 the present imposing First Baptist Church 
was erected. Rev. Dr. T. E. Skinner, one of our most 
distinguished theologians (who is yet living and much 
beloved by all) was the first pastor. The late Rev. 
Dr. T. H. Pritchard was another of the early pastors. 

Among the members of this church in the old days 
were, Mrs. Alfred Williams, Miss Lucinda Briggs, 
P. F. Pescud, J. J. Biggs, Miss Sallie Towles, M. B. 
Royster, Jas. D. Royster, Lynn Adams, W. D. Wil- 
liams, Caswell Lee, Jas. D. Nunn, Jordan Womble, 
Jr., Robert Jones, Miss Selina Jenkins. 

A prominent feature of the Sunday School of this 
church is the Infant Class, which numbers one hun- 
dred and sixty-five. The class was organized in 1865, 
with but twelve pupils. Dr. W. I. Royster was the 
first teacher in charge. If is now conducted bv Mr. 
and Mrs. W. H. Dodd and Miss Elizabeth Briggs. 

In 1874 a few members of this church, led by Messrs. 
N. B. Broughton and J. S. Allen, organized a new con- 
gregation, and purchased on Swain street a house of 
worship and denominated it the Second Baptist 
Church. The congregation assumed in a year or two 
such proportions that it became necessary to secure 
a more commodious structure, and a site was accord- 
ingly purchased on the corner of Hargett and Person 
streets, upon which was erected the present edifice, 



known as the Tabernacle Baptist Church. Its seat- 
ing capacity is about one thousand. The Sunday 
School is the largest in the city and its fame in this 
department of religious work extends throughout the 
country, due, in a great measure, to the zeal and pop- 
ularity of Mr. N. B. Broughton, known throughout 
the State as foremost in all that makes for the ad- 
vancement — moral and material — of the people. 

Steps were taken to organize an Episcopal Church 
in Kaleigh about 1820, Rev. John Phillips, of Calvary 
Church, Tarboro, being missionary in charge. In 
1822 a vestry was elected, consisting of Chief Justice 
John Louis Taylor, Wm. H. Haywood, and Dr. Bur- 
ges. A wooden church was built in 1829. It was 
situated a little nearer Edenton street than the pres- 
ent beautiful edifice known as Christ Church. About 
1845 or 1846 the stone church was erected under the 
supervision of Mr. Upjohn, the leading ecclesiastical 
architect of the country. The first Rector was Rev. 
John Ravenscroft, who died in 1830. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Geo. W. Freeman, who resigned in 
1840, when Rev. Richard S. Mason, a man of great 
learning, was elected, who ministered to the congrega- 
tion until his death in 1874. 

The original vestrymen of the church were, Jno. 
Louis Taylor, Dr. Burges, Wm. H. Haywood, Jr. The 
prominent communicants in early times were, Gavin 
Hogg, Duncan Cameron, Thos. P. Devereux, Geo. E. 
Badger. Chas. L. Hinton, Chas. Manly, Geo. W. Mor- 
decai, Jno. H. Bryan, R. M. Saunders, Jas. McKim- 
mon, Wm. H. Battle, Thos. D. Hogg, Kemp. P. Battle, 
Wm. E. Anderson, R. H. Battle, P. A. Wiley. 

Until 1827 the Sundav schools of the several 
churches were united in one, which was known as the 
Union Sunday School. The late Miss Lucinda Briggs 


represented the Baptist denomination. A more ear- 
nest and faithful disciple of Christianity this city has 
never known than Miss Lucinda Briggs. She died 
at an advanced age a few years since. Two daughters 
of Dr. McPheeters represented the Presbyterian and 
Miss Louisa Hill the Methodist denomination. Web- 
ster's blue-back speller was one of the books used. 

The first Presbyterian congregation in Raleigh was 
organized in 180G. The first regular pastor was Rev. 
William Turner, of Virginia, his Elders being Judge 
Henry Potter, William Shaw, and Thomas Emons. 
The religious services were held in the hall of the 
House of Commons. The first church was erected in 
1817, and Rev. Wm. McPheeters became the first 
pastor. Rev. Drury Lacy was long a pastor, occu- 
pying the pulpit of his church for eighteen con- 
secutive years. Rev. J. M. Atkinson was also one 
of the pastors. Mr. Lacy was the father of Mr. B. R. 
Lacy, our widely-popular State Treasurer. The pres- 
ent handsome edifice was erected in 1899 ; it has a seat- 
ing capacity of one thousand. 

The following were among the prominent members 
of this church in its early history: H. D. Turner, S. 
W. Whiting, Wm. Peace, Jesse Brown, Chas. Dewey, 
John Primrose, J. M. Towles. 

At this time there are in Raleigh eighteen white and 
a similar number of colored churches. Of the white, 
eight are Baptist, one Catholic, one Christian, three 
Episcopalian, four Methodist, and one Presbyterian. 
The colored are: Baptist, seven; Christian, two; Con- 
gregational, one; Episcopal, one; Methodist, six; 
Presbyterian, one. 

The first Young Men's Christian Association in 
Raleigh was instituted in 1859, with H. P. McCoy as 
president, and W. J. Young as secretary. The object 



of the organization was said to be "to visit the sick, 
administer to the wants of the needy, establish Sun- 
day Schools, distribute tracts/' etc. 

The first Mass ever celebrated in Raleigh was by the 
Rev. Father Peter Wheelan, about the year 1832, in 
a boarding-house kept by Matthew Shaw, a Presby- 
terian. A Catholic church was built here in 1834, at 
a cost of $800. It was dedicated by Bishop England, 
in 1835, who often said Mass and preached therein. 

In 1859 the building which had been the Baptist 
church, corner of Morgan and Wilmington streets, 
was purchased, and in 1860 formally dedicated by 
Bishop Lynch, of Charleston. The first pastor was 
Rev. J. V. McNamara, who was installed in 1869, until 
which time the church had been served by missionary 
priests. The present church edifice is on the corner 
of Hillsboro and McDowell streets, and was pur- 
chased in 1875, at a cost of $13,000. The pastor is 
Rev. Thomas. P. Griffin. 


The hotels, or taverns, as they were formerly called, 
were of a primitive nature. In 1803 Henry H. Cook 
advertised that at "Wake Old Court House, about a 
quarter of a mile of the Statehouse, he can accommo- 
date ten or twelve gentlemen with board during the 
session of the General Assembly, and will take a few 
horses to feed at 2s. 6d. a da v." 

In the same year the "Indian Queen,'- kept by Cap- 
tain Scott, was advertised as the best hotel in the city, 
"with thirteen rooms, nine of which have fire-places." 
This was on the site of the present Federal Courthouse 
and Post office. 


Peter Casso, in 1804, opened a hotel on Fayetteville 
street. This was on the site of H. T. Hicks's Phar- 
macy. The proprietor advertised that "Northern and 
Southern stages leave his door three times a week." 

On the first of July, 1812, Charles Parish opened a 
new hotel and called it the Eagle. This was on the 
site now occupied by the State Agricultural Building. 
It was of three stories, and the same which was after- 
wards known as the Guion Hotel. With the excep- 
tion of the Statehouse, this was the first brick build- 
ing erected in the city. 

The following was the proprietor's announcement 
to the public : 

"Charles Parish informs his friends and the public 
that his tavern is now open for the reception of trav- 
ellers and boarders in the new three-story building 
north of the Statehouse and fronting Union Square. 
The house is spacious, completely furnished, and the 
stables equal to any. For a well-supplied table 
(served from a neat and cleanly kitchen), luxuries of 
the rooms, beds, attendance, etc., it is determined that 
this tavern shall excel any in the Southern States." 

"N. B. — An ice-house and bathing-rooms will be 
constructed by next season." 

The ice-house and bathing-rooms were probably 
the earliest introduction of these luxuries among the 
growing refinements of the city. 

John Marshall and John Mares had also opened 
hotels, or taverns. These were framed buildings. In- 
deed, for thirty years after the foundation of the city 
(1792 until 1822) there were but four brick struc- 
tures. These were the Eagle Hotel, the Bank of New 
Bern (the Dr. Fab. Haywood residence at the head of 
Fayetteville street), the Presbyterian Church, and the 
Register printing office. The Governor's "Palace" 
was of brick, but this was beyond the limits of the 



No man known to the history of any people ever 
rose, perhaps, to such distinction from so humble a 
beginning as Andrew Johnson, better known as the 
tailor President. He first saw the light of day in 
Raleigh, on the 29th of December, 1808. At the age 
of ten years he was apprenticed to Mr. Jas. Litchford 
(grandfather of Messrs. James and Henry Litchford) 
to learn the trade of a tailor. Before his term of ap- 
prenticeship expired he resolved to seek a field of use- 
fulness elsewhere. He and Neal Brown, the latter 
a] so a young man (and the father of Mr. W. M. 
Brown) were intimate friends, and to Neal, Andrew 
confided his intention of "running away" from his em- 
ployer. Brown agreed to assist him in doing so. To 
that end he carried his friend Andrew's luggage, or 
carpet-sack of his meagre belongings to a safe dis- 
tance on the road outside of town in order to facilitate 
the latter's escape. Johnson journeyed on foot from 
here to Laurens Court House, S. C., where he fol- 
lowed his trade for two vears. There he became en- 


gaged to be married to the daughter of a gentleman of 
wealth and position, but was refused her hand because 
of his poverty. He returned to Raleigh in 1826, but 
after remaining here but a few months, went to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he was married. Up to this 
time he knew nothing of writing or arithmetic; his 
wife, however, sedulously labored to instruct him in 
those branches of rudimentary education, and with 
success. In 1829 he became an alderman; in 1830 
Mayor ; in 1835 he was sent to the Legislature. Here 
he made his maiden speech on public affairs. In 
1.841 he was elected to the State Senate, and in 1843 
he was first chosen as a Representative in Congress. 
In this position he served until 1853. He was twice 


elected Governor. In 1857 he was sent to the United 
States Senate for a full term, ending in 1863. And 
finally, after filling almost every official position in 
the gift of the people, he became President of the 
United States, which last position he obtained, how- 
ever, by the occasion of Lincoln's death while in office. 
The house in which this remarkable man was born 
is still in existence, though in a bad state of decay. It 
is situated on East Cabarrus street, between Wilming- 
ton and Blount streets. The double-slanting roof 
indicates that it was erected at a period when the 
colonial style of architecture was yet in vogue. For 
a long time it has been occupied by colored people. 


The Raleigh Academy, inaugurated in 1802, was 
a corporation chartered in that year, and was situated 
in what was then called Burke's Garden, otherwise 
known as Burke Square — the site of the Governor's 
Mansion. The Trustees were John Raven, Wm. 
White, Sherwood Haywood, Theophilus Hunter, John 
Ingles, Nathaniel Jones, Matthew McCullers, Wm. 
Hinton, Simon Turner, Samuel High, Joseph Gales, 
John Marshall, Wm. Boy] an, Henry Sea well. The 
school was for both young men and young ladies. 
Great stress was laid on Latin and on the training of 
the boys, while the education of the girls was confined 
to the English branches. The boys were instructed 
as if they were designed for one of the learned profes- 
sions. The girls were educated to be good spellers 
and readers, to be well acquainted with geography, 
and their hands were trained to be able to use deftly 
the needle. Many of them, too, learned to play on the 


piano or guitar under a music teacher of reputation, 
an Englishman named Thomas Sambourne. 

In 1810 Rev. Wm. McPheeters, of Virginia, a young 
minister of the Presbyterian Church, was elected by 
the Trustees of the Academy not only to teach but to 
be "Pastor of the City." He was described as a man 
of learning and of the strongest character, of great 
personal magnetism, and an admirable teacher, kind 
to all, but inflexibly severe to offenders.. His school 
was patronized, it was said, from all parts of the 
South — from Virginia to Louisiana. 

He preached most acceptably in the Statehouse 
until 1817, when the Presbvterian church was erected. 
He gave up the Academy in 1826. In 1837 he spent 
a year in Fayetteville in charge of a large female 
seminary, and resigned on account of failing health. 
For the same reason he declined the tender of the pres- 
idency of Davidson College. He returned to Raleigh, 
and died in 1812. There was said to be no more influ- 
ential man in the State than Dr. McPheeters. 

St. Mary's School, for young ladies, was founded in 
1812, by Rev. Aldert Smedes, who had rare qualifica- 
tions for this work. He was a man of big brain and 
great heart. During the privations of the great Civil 
War, and in the troublous years afterwards, the doors 
of his school were kept open, even when he was suffer- 
ing a pecuniary loss. His benefactions in the way of 
free tuition and board on credit, at all times liberal, 
were in those days princely. There is no calculating 
the amount of his influence in the thousands of homes 
adorned by his pupils all through the Southern States. 
The buildings of this school were erected in 1832, as a 
school for boys, but failed, in 1838, for lack of proper 
support. The present Rector is Rev. Theodore D. 

Joshua Lumsden, (referred to more fullv else- 


where) taught a school for boys. The late Thos. H. 
Briggs was one of his pupils. 

Mrs. Marti ndale's school for hoys and girls will be 
remembered pleasantly by many of her old pupils. 
She was a very thorough teacher and a good discipli- 
narian. Her school was on the corner of Morgan and 
Person streets. Miss Eliza Hill conducted a school 
of like character in the old Masonic Temple. This 
was a two-story frame building which stood on the 
corner of Dawson and Morgan streets. 

Rev. Drury Lacy also had a superior school for boys. 

In 1840 Messrs Gray and Dorratt opened their 
"North Carolina Classical, English and Mathematical 
Institute" near the capitol, and the same year Silas 
Bigelow established a school for young men. 

Jefferson Madison Lovejoy, or "Old Jeff," as his 
boys called him, was the last of the old-time schools 
for males. This school was established in 1842, and 
became famous as one of the best institutions of learn- 
ing, of its kind, in the State. Many of those who were 
his pupils are to-day among the most prominent and 
influential men of the city. The school was on the 
site of the Governor's Mansion, and was conducted 
with much success until the close of the Civil War. 
Among those now living among us who were pupils of 
Mr. Lovejoy were Hon. John Nichols, ex-Mayor Thos. 
Badger, Dr. F. J. Haywood, Jr., Messrs. Jos. A. Hay- 
wood. Chas. McKimmon, and others. 

The common school or "old-field free school," as 
it was sometimes termed, is referred to elsewhere. 
It may be here stated, however, that while the ed- 
ucation of the masses did not escape the attention 
of the founders of our State government (for we 
find a provision to this effect in the Constitution of 
1776), yet it was not until 1852 that anything like a 


working system of public education was adopted. 
Calvin H. Wiley was made State Superintendent. 

Late in the forties the Sedgwick Female Seminary 
was opened. It was situated on Halifax, between 
North and Johnson streets, on the lot now occupied 
by the residence of C. C. McDonald. The seminary 
was under the superintendence of Mrs. Finch, wife of 
Rev. Joseph J. Finch, who was at that time pastor of 
the Baptist church. After the death of Mr. Finch, 
which occurred in 1850, Mrs. Finch was assisted in 
conducting the school by Rev. G. M. L. Finch and a 
corps of able teachers, who instructed in all the 
branches usually taught in seminaries. The follow- 
ing are the names of many who were pupils of this 
school, some of whom are still living. Many of these, 
having married, of course now bear other names : Vir- 
ginia Gorman. Sallie, Julia, Annie and Martha Litch- 
ford: Mary and Annie DeCarteret; Ellen, Hattie and 
Joanna Johnson; Julia Hutchings, Marianna Hill, 
Maggie and Sarah Outlaw, Geneva Harrison, Helen 
Battle. Victoria Womble, Laura Bryant, Frances J. 
Royster. Mr. and Mrs. Finch were the parents of 
Mrs. Dr. W. I. Royster and Mrs. Dr. Wm. T. Hodge. 

In 1860 Albert H. Dowell organized a classical 
school, for bovs. The school-house was near the resi- 
dence of the late Henry Mordecai, just beyond the 
city limits. Among his pupils were Sani'l F. Mor- 
decai. Joel Whitaker, Chas. E. Johnson, J. I. Johnson, 
T. H. Briggs, Jas. A. Briggs, Willis Whitaker, Peter 
Pescud. Jas. Boylan, Wm. Boylan and J. Pugh Hay- 
wood. The originators and promoters of the school 
were Wilson Whitaker and other prominent gentle- 
men of means. Mr. Dowell is said to have been one of 
the most thorough and capable teachers of his time. 
He was the father of Mrs. D. G. Conn, of this citv. 

The Select School for Girls of the Misses Partridge 


(Sophia and Caroline — the latter subsequently be- 
coming Mrs. Jordan) was opened in 1846. It was 
held in high esteem, as shown by the liberal patronage 
it enjoyed for nearly twenty years. The school was 
situated on East Hargett street, near Swain. The 
Partridge family were natives of Newark, N. J., and 
came to Kaleigh but a short while prior to the opening 
of the school. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Bobbitt also conducted schools 
at this period. Mrs. Bobbitt was an aunt of Miss 
Partridge and Mrs. Jordan, above mentioned, and 
came here from Louisburg, where she and her husband 
had been engaged in teaching. After the death of Mr. 
Bobbitt, his widow assisted Miss Sophia Partridge in 
the conduct of her school. 

No institution of learning in Raleigh was ever more 
favorably known than that of Mrs. Eliza Taylor, who, 
shortly after the death of her husband (Attorney-Gen- 
eral Taylor) in 1828, opened a select school for boys 
and girls on the corner of Hargett and Salisbury 
streets, which she conducted almost without interrup- 
tion, for more than forty years. Dr. Thos. D. Hogg. 
Bishop Beckwith and Mr. A. M. McPheeters were 
among her first pupils. There are many other people 
now living in Raleigh who also received from her their 
early instruction. Among these are Hon. Thos. R. 
Purnell, Judge of the District Court of the United 
States, who attended this school for several years im- 
mediately preceding the Civil War. Judge Purnell is 
further identified with Raleigh's earlier history by the 
fact of his relationship with the distinguished Hay- 
wood family, (Wm. H.,) Gov. Chas. Manly, and Gov. 
Edward B. Dudley, the last mentioned being Judge 
PurnelPs grandfather. 

A more historic house and its appurtenances do 
not stand in Raleigh than those known as the "Old 


Taylor Place," which have been in the Taylor and Bus- 
bee families since early in the last century. The 
house then stood on Hillsboro street, and was owned 
by Judge Potter, who in 1818 sold it to Col. Jas. F. 
Taylor. The building was then removed to its pres- 
ent site. The little "office" on the corner was subse- 
quently built by the new owner, who used it for a law 
office. After his death it was occupied by Judge 
Gaston, who was Mrs. Taylor's uncle and guardian. 
It was here that this distinguished Carolinian and 
eminent jurist wrote the renowned poem, which was 
subsequently set to music, and since known as the 
"Old North State." This was in 1835. The poem 
was suggested by Mrs. Taylor, who, having heard her 
daughter Miss Louisa — then but thirteen years of age 
— render a song having a particularly pleasing air, 
thought the music appropriate for a patriotic hymn. 
This view she communicated to Judge Gaston, who at 
once complied with Mrs. Taylor's request to write the 
poem, as above stated. 

Miss Louisa Taylor was the first to sing the hymn ; 
she is still living and sings it still. The piano on which 
it was first played is still in the family. 

Peace Institute was not opened until 1868, thougli 
its erection had begun before the Civil War. This 
school is at the northern terminus of Wilmington 
street, and occupies large and well-arranged brick 
buildings, in an oak grove of about fifteen acres. It 
is well patronized. The first Principal was Rev. Rob- 
ert Burwell, D.D. Mr. Jas. Dinwiddie is now the 

Shaw University (colored) was opened in 1865. It 
had its origin in the formation of a theological class 
of freedmen in the old Guion Hotel (the site of the 
State Agricultural Building), with Rev. EL M. Tup- 
per and his wife as teachers. Subsequently the school 


was removed to the corner of Blount and Cabarrus 
streets, and, until 1870, known as the Raleigh Insti- 
tute. Buildings were erected from time to time until 
1879, when it was incorporated as Shaw University. 
The institution has Law and Medical Departments, 
and continues in a prosperous condition. The Presi- 
dent is Dr. 0. P. Meserve. 


One of the first practicing lawyers connected with 
the history of Raleigh was Henry Seawell. He was 
born in 1774 in what Avas then Bute (now Franklin) 
county, and came here in 1800. After serving as At- 
torney-General he was appointed Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, which position he filled with great credit. 
tie was said to be a lawver of great abilitv. His wife 
was Miss Grizelle Hinton, whom he married in 1800. 
Mr. Richard Seawell, of Raleigh, already mentioned, 
is one of his sons. 

A contemporary of Mr. Seawell Avas Peter Browne, 
who came here in the early part of the last 
century. He was the owner of the land later pur- 
chased by Wra. Boylan in the western section of the 
city. He died in 1883, sixty-two years of age. 

Moses Mordecai was another early attorney. Coin- 
ing to this State from New York, he settled in Green- 
ville, and came to Raleigh about 1820. He was a jurist 
of note and an advocate of great ability. He died in 
1821. He was the grandfather of Sam'l F. Mordecai, 
Esq., of Raleigh, one of the State's ablest lawyers, 
and now Professor of Law of Wake Forest College. 

Another attornev of distinction was Gavin Hoau. 
Removing here from Bertie in 1820, he soon had a 
large practice, which, however, was confined to the 
Supreme and Federal Courts. 



Later attorneys of recognized ability as jurists and 
advocates were the following: Henry W. Miller, a 
lawyer of great eloquence; Perrin Busbee, an attorney 
whose ability and great popularity would have in- 
sured for him the enjoyment of the highest offices in 
the State, but for his death at an early age, which 
occurred in 1853. Judge Badger, B. F. Moore and 
Thomas Bragg were truly great lawyers. The first en- 


Oldest living male inhabitant ; aged eighty-nine years. 

joved the distinction of being Secretary of the Navy 
under President Harrison; Mr. Moore devoted his life 
to his practice, and accumulated a large fortune; Mr. 
Bragg became a jurist and statesman of great distinc- 
tion, and served for awhile in the Confederate States 
Cabinet. Mr. Badger was born in 1795, died 1866; 
Mr. Moore was born in 1801, died 1878. 

Jas. F. Taylor was another lawyer of celebrity. He 
graduated at the State University in 1810, and in 


1825 was elected Attorney-General. He died in 1828, 
at the age of thirty-seven years. 

Hiram W. Husted and G. Wash. Haywood were also 
lawyers of prominence more than half a century ago. 
Mr. Husted was possessed of fine literary attain- 
ments. In politics he was an ardent Whig. In 1844 he 
was the editor of the Clarion, the campaign organ in 
Raleigh of the Whig party. Mr. Haywood was an 
able lawyer and a brother of the late Drs. F. J. and 
E. Burke Haywood. 

Charles Manly, too, was a lawyer of considerable 
note. He was elected Governor on the Whig ticket, in 
1848, and filled many other offices of honor and trust. 

William H. Haywood was another illustrious law- 
yer of early times. He was born here in 1801, and in 
1822 commenced the practice of his profession, in 
which he earned great distinction. He was the father 
of Edward Graham Haywood, a lawyer of eminence. 

Succeeding these lawyers in order of time were 
Quentin Busbee, S. H. Rogers, Kemp Marriott, Ed- 
ward Graham Haywood, Daniel G. Fowle, W. S. Ma- 
son, A. M. Lewis, R. G. Lewis, R. C. Badger. John Gat- 
ling, H. A. Gilliam, Geo. H. Snow, Thos. C. Fuller, A. 
S. Merrimon, W. H. Pace, B. B. Lewis, W. H. Bledsoe, 
J. E. Bledsoe, Spier Whitaker, R. O. Burton. 


The first Masonic Lodge established in Raleigh was 
in 1792. It was chartered by the Grand Lodge of the 
State, which met in Newbern that year — Grand Mas- 
ter William R. Davie presiding. This Lodge was 
known as Democratic Lodge No. 21. Its meetings 
were held at a little hotel located on the corner of 


Fayetteville and Morgan streets, and known as Casso's 
Tavern, which was kept by Peter Casso, a member of 
the Lodge. 

The Lodge was little more than a club, and the old 
fashioned custom of serving refreshments in a liquid 
form was one of the chief attractions at the meetings, 
and often, 'twas said, 

"There was a sound of revelry by night." 

This was during the period of the French Revolu- 
tion, when atheism had entered so largely into the sen- 
timents of the French people. There were sympa- 
thizers with this French sentiment among the foreign 
element of Democratic Lodge; and in consequence of 
this sentiment there arose confusion, dissensions and 
discord in the Lodge. 

One Eodman Atkins, or "Body Atkins," as he was 
called, was the leader of the foreign element, while 
Col. William Polk, a pronounced Churchman, led the 
home or native element. The consequence was that 
the charter of Democratic Lodge was finally surren- 
dered, and its jewels, regalia and furniture turned 
over to the Grand Lodge. 

Hiram Lodge No. 40 was established in the vear 
1800, the charter being issued by the Grand Lodge of 
that year, signed by William Polk, Grand Master. 
The charter is in a good state of preservation in the 
hall of this old Lodge. 

In 1S(U William G. Hill Lodge No. 218 was estab- 
lished, and is still a flourishing Lodge, having a larger 
membership than any other in the city. 

In the year 1900, just one century after the estab- 
lishment of Hiram Lodge Xo. 40, Raleigh Lodge No. 
500 was established. This young Lodge is also in a 
rery flourishing condition. 

The Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows of North Caro- 


lina, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was institu- 
ted in Wilmington on the 6th day of January, 1843, 
by District Deputy Grand Sire, George M. Bain, and 
therefore has been in existence fifty-nine years. 

The order in Raleigh consists now of Manteo Lodge 
No. 8, Seaton Gales Lodge No. 64, Capital Lodge No. 
147, Ruth-Rebekah Lodge No. 4, and Litchford-McKee 
Encampment No. 15. 

Manteo Lodge No. 8 was instituted January 14th, 
1846, by Alexander McRae, then Grand Master, and 
with the exception of the war period, and a few years 
thereafter, has worked continuously for fifty-eight 
years, and is now continuing its great work of benevo- 
lence and charity, and in the upbuilding of the great 
fraternal principles of that institution. 

Seaton Gales Lodge No. 64 was instituted by Sea- 
ton Gales, then Grand Master, for whom the Lodge 
Avas named, on the 21st "day of January, 1871, and is 
now, as it always has been, one of the banner Lodges 
of the State. It is full of energy and push, and when- 
ever any good thing for the promotion of the order is 
put forward, it is always in the front rank. 

Capital Lodge No. 147 was instituted August 31, 
1892, by Phil. H. Andrews, District Deputy Grand 
Master. This progressive Lodge is composed largely 
of vounoer men, and has been noted at all times for 
its charitable deeds and kindly offices to those in dis- 

Ruth Lodge No. 4, D. of R., is composed largely of 
the wives, daughters and sisters of the male members 
of the above Lodges. One of its prominent features is 
to cultivate and extend the social and fraternal rela- 
tions of life among the Lodges and the families of Odd 

McKee Encampment No. 15 was instituted by Win. 
L. Smith, Past Grand Master, then District Deputy 


Grand Sire, on the second day of Mav, 1871. As this 
branch of the order is only one of higher grade than 
the Lodge, it is composed of members who are also 
members of the three Lodges. It has a system of 
charitable work arranged similarly to the Lodges. 
"The Camp," as it is frequently called, prides itself 
upon its dramatic rendition of its secret work as well 
as its binding closer into the fraternal relation th$ 
membership of the order. It teaches toleration, hos- 
pitality, and endeavors to impress its members with 
the idea of unselfishness. 

Mr. B. H. Woodell, of this city, has been Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Lodge for sixteen years. A 
more efficient and faithful officer, or one more devoted 
to the interests of the order could not be found. 

The local Lodges of the order of Eed Men, the Elks, 
Junior Order of American Mechanics, Knights and 
Ladies of Honor, Royal Arcanum, the Heptasophs, 
Ancient Order United Workmen, and the Modern 
Puritans, are organizations of recent date. 


The expected arrival in Ealeigh of this dis- 
tinguished visitor created no little enthusiasm in the 
minds of the people, and was anticipated as one of the 
most interesting events ever having occurred in our 
history. From the Raleigh Register of March 1, 1825, 
is taken the following : 

"This great and good man has, ere this, arrived 
within our State borders. Before our paper is again 
issued, we shall have welcomed to our city the hero 
whose military fame, unsullied patriotism and un- 
merited sufferings, have excited the admiration of all 


who have either witnessed or heard of his noble deeds 
and virtuous conduct." 

In its issue of March 8, 1825, the Register contains 
the following description of La Fayette's arrival : 

"On Tuesday night they (La Fayette, his son 
George Washington, and Secretary) slept at Col. 
Allen Page's, eleven miles from this city, and about 
twelve o'clock on Wednesday arrived in town. They 
were met a few miles from this place by the well dis- 
ciplined corps of cavalry, under the command of Col. 
Thomas Polk, of Mecklenburg. The General and suite 
alighted from their carriages, and were introduced to 
the company individually, after which, preceded by 
the cavalry and followed by nearly a hundred citizens 
on horseback, who had gone to meet him, they pro- 
ceeded to this city. At the limits thereof they were 
met by the handsome company of light infantry, com- 
manded by John S. Ruffin, which received him with 
military honors. Here the General again alighted, 
and was presented to each member of the company — 
the interest of which scene was heightened by fine 
martial music from an excellent band. After this cer- 
emony, the procession moved in the following order to 
the Government House : First, the cavalry ; then fol- 
lowed the infantry, succeeding which, in an open 
barouche, drawn by four elegant iron-grays, with out- 
riders, were General La Fayette and Col. Wm. Polk ; 
after which, in carriages, also drawn by four horses 
each, were George W. La Fayette, the Secretary — M. 
Le Vasseur — the State escort, etc. As the cavalcade 
proceeded a Federal salute was fired from cannon 
placed in the Capitol Square, on reaching which the 
General was greeted with the cheers of the assembled 
multitude. Every door, window and piazza on the 
street was crowded with ladies, who manifested their 



gratification by waving their handkerchiefs, etc. On 
reaching the Government House the military filed off 
on each side, leaving a space through which the Gen- 
eral, suite and escort passed. In the vestibule they 
were received by the Governor and committee of ar- 
rangements, and conducted to the reception chamber, 
where were the heads of the Departments, Judiciary 
and other citizens. Governor Burton then welcomed 
him in an eloquent address. In the evening a ball was 
given complimentary to the General, held at the Gov- 
ernment House. In the centre of the room, surmount- 
ing the pillars, appeared in large golden characters, 
the name La Fayette. Though no military trophies 
adorned the walls, no splendid ornaments excited ad- 
miration, yet there were two subjects which spoke to 
the memory and feeling — a large, full-length portrait 
of Washington, and the living presence of his great 
coadjutor in the work of glory." 

In the familv of the late Dr. E. Burke Havwood 
there may now be seen a beautiful lithographic repre- 
sentation of General La Fayette and Miss Betsv Hav- 
wood — daughter of Treasurer Havwood, and sister of 
Dr. E. Burke Haywood — as they appeared viewing in 
admiration the Canova statue of Washington in the 
rotunda of the Capitol. The following is the inscrip- 
tion at the foot of the picture : 

"Canova's statue of General George Washington 
as it appeared on the pedestal in the Statehouse 
rotunda at Raleigh, Xorth Carolina. 

"A beautiful light, falling from the dome window 
upon the slab of marble, illuminates the whole statue. 

"La Fayette is represented viewing this masterly 
representation of his beloved General. 

"Respectfully dedicated to the Legislature of Xorth 
Carolina bv J. Weisman. 

"Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 


1840, by J. Weisman, in the Clerk's office of the Dis- 
trict Court of the Eastern District of Pa. 

a P. S. Duval, Lith., Phila." 

Resuming consideration of the early inhabitants, in 
1826 Henry J. Brown came to Raleigh, in company 
with his father, from Petersburg, Va. He was then 
fifteen years of age. Ten years later he embarked in 
the furniture and undertaking business. This he con- 
ducted with much success until his death in 1879. A 
more devout, godly man and upright citizen was never 
a resident of Raleigh. He married in early life Lydia 
Lane, a descendant of Col. Joel Lane. Mr. J. W. 
Brown, the well known undertaker, and Jos. G. 
Brown, President of the Citizens National Bank, are 
his only living sons. 

In 1830 Jordan Womble had opened his grocery 
store on Hargett street, which he conducted until a 
few years before his death, which occurred in 1891. He 
left many descendants, most of whom live in Raleigh. 

The population in 1833 had grown to about 1,800. 
Jas. Litchford was still the leading tailor, whose shop 
was near the Rectory of Christ Church. C. D. Leh- 
man had opened a drug store, and Neal Brown had 
found that Raleigh would support a wool hat factory. 
The traveling public was thought to need better hotel 
accommodations, for Edward Rigsbee had opened the 
City Hotel. Wesley Whitaker was still conducting 
his business of manufacturing pianos. 

J. E. Lumsden, who evidentlv believed that "cleanli- 

7 t/ 

ness was next to godliness," was the proprietor of a 
bathing establishment, which he advertised would "be 
kept open from sunrise till candle-light, and where 
hot and cold baths could be procured at reasonable 


Others who had opened business by this time were, 
Benj. S. King, William White, Jno. G. Morehead, 
Wm. W. Taylor, and Turner & Hughes. The last 
mentioned firm were also the publishers of the North 
Carolina Almanac. 


When Nat. Turner's massacre of fifty-five persons 
occurred in Southampton, Virginia, in 1831, the whole 
of Raleigh was placed under arms. The able-bodied 
were divided into four companies, each to patrol the 
streets every fourth night. The old men were organ- 
ized as "Silver Grays." The fortress was the Presby- 
terian church, and it was agreed that whenever the 
Statehouse bell should sound the women and children 
were to hasten to its protecting walls. At last, one 
night O'Rourke's blacksmith shop took fire. It was 
night, and one of the most fearful scenes ever beheld 
in Raleigh, it is said, was that of hundreds of women 
and children flying through the streets to the place of 
common refuge. A gentleman, still a resident of this 
city, then a mere boy, becoming also excited, refused 
to leave his home, and seizing his deceased father's 
sword, brandished it in the air and declared his pur- 
pose to there die in the defence of the household. The 
negroes were frightened more than the whites. They 
fled and hid under houses, in garden shrubbery, lay 
between corn rows — anywhere. 

There never was a time when the colored people of 
Raleigh would have risen against our people. It is 
greatly to the credit of both races that notwithstand- 
ing party animosity and sudden emancipation, the 
kindly personal feeling between the whites and their 
old servants has never been interrupted. 


Recurring again to the early inhabitants, E. R. Col- 
burn was early identified with Raleigh, especially in 
an industrial capacity. He came here from Massa- 
chusetts in 1833, as a stone mason, with a large num- 
ber of others, to assist in re-building the capitol. Mr. 
Colburn was the father of Mrs. Ellen Seawell, wife of 
Mr. Richard Seawell. 

John Dunn was then the proprietor of the City 
Hotel, situated on Fayetteville street, near the court- 
house. It had formerly been kept by Mrs. Jeter. 

Beck with, Blake & Co., in 1834, were in the drug 
business, and Wm. H. Grinime had opened a dry goods 
and grocery store. Thos. Cobbs was a coach-maker, 
whose shop was on Edenton street near the Methodist 
church. Mordecai & McKimmon, Dunn & Ligon, and 
Mead & Avery, had been added to the list of dry goods 
and grocery merchants, and Jas. W. Jeffreys was run- 
ning a stage line from Raleigh to Weldon. Jno. C. 
Stedman was in the jewelry business. Carter Jones 
had opened a military school, while Matthew Hard- 
ford was cutting and making gentleman's clothing at 
prices "to suit the times." 

The Star and the North Carolina Gazette had com- 
bined and was published by Lawrence and Lemay. 

Henry Porter came among us about this time from 
his former home in Sampson County, and opened a 
shoe-making business. Later, in 1852, he opened a 
boot and shoe store on Fayetteville street, which he 
conducted successfully for many years. Identified 
with the Methodist church from his arrival here, he 
soon became a leader with its members, and is remem- 
bered by the older citizens as a very devout man. He 
was a prominent citizen and held in high esteem. Mr. 
Porter was the father of Messrs. John and George 
Porter and the late Mrs. Martha Brewster. 

In 1836 an obscure voun^ man, who was later des- 


tined to be the Governor of his native State, came to 
Raleigh, to learn the art of printing. This was Wil- 
liam W. Holden, and his age eighteen years. He 
worked for several years in the office of the Star and 
Gazette, and boarded with one of the editors, Thos. J. 
Lemay. The latter lived on the corner of Harrington 
and Jones streets. In the language of Governor Hol- 
den himself, while so working he slept a whole winter 
in a log cabin, which was daubed with red mud, with- 
out any fire, even in the coldest weather. This cabin 
was on the opposite corner from Mr. Lemay's, on the 
site of the late residence of Mr. W. B. Hutchings. In 
1843 Mr. Holden purchased the Standard newspaper, 
in the editorial conduct of which he proved to be a 
writer having but few equals in the country. 

Mr. Joseph W. Holden was the eldest son of ex-Gov. 
Holden. He was Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1868, 1869 and 1870, and enjoyed the 
reputation of being the most capable officer who has 
ever occupied that position in this State. He was 
afterwards elected Mayor of the city of Raleigh. He 
died at an earlv age and was undoubtedlv one of the 
most talented men that the State has ever produced. 
His poem of Hatter as was written before he entered 
politics, and this piece of composition will live until 
the everlasting rocks of Cape Hatteras and time are 
no more. He died in 1875, aged thirtv-one vears. 

In 1838 the Biblical Recorder was removed from 
New Bern to Raleigh. It was then but three years 
old. Rev. Thos. Meredith, one of the most distin- 
guished ministers of the Baptist denomination in this 
State, was the editor. It has since changed hands 
many times. Mr. J. H. Alford, long identified with 
our people as a man of exalted character, and with 
the Baptist denomination as one its most devout mem- 
bers and deacons, was an apprentice in the office of 



this paper, which he entered in the year 1848. The 
Recorder is now edited by Rev. J. W. Bailey, one of 
the ablest writers for the religions press in the South. 
The North Carolina Christian Advocate was not 
founded until 1855. In 18(17 the name was changed 
to the Episcopal Methodist, and three years later it 

DR. W. H. M'KEE. 

Died in 1875 ; aged sixty -two years. 

became the Raleigh Christian Advocate. This paper 
is the organ of the North Carolina Conference. 
Its first editor was Rev. Rufns T. Heflin. Among 
other editors, there have been Rev. W. E. Pell, 
Rev. F. L. Reid, Rev. Dr. Black. It is now conducted 
by Rev. Thos. N. Ivey, a journalist of eminent ability. 
At this period (1S38) there were but two residences 
of the least pretension in that part of the city north 


and west of the Methodist church; these were the 
Leniay residence, above mentioned, and the Iredell 
place, late the residence of Col. W. J. Hicks, corner of 
Edenton and Dawson streets. The site of the Deaf 
and Dumb Institution was open, unoccupied land. 

Among the leading business men at that time were 
Euffin Tucker, T. H. Selby, Joshua Lumsden, C. W. D. 
Hutchings, Win. T. Bain, Henry J. Brown, Henry 
Porter, Lewis W. Peck, Wesley Whitaker, Eldridge 
Smith, Turner & Hughes, Jno. G. Marshal, Jno. 
Stuart, Win, W. Taylor, Benj. S. King, and Williams 
& Haywood. John Primrose, father of W T . S. Prim- 
rose, was then in the dry goods business. Thos. B. 
Oliver was keeping a ready-made clothing house, Jas. 
Newland had a boot and shoe store, and Bernard 
Dupuy was conducting a jewelry business. Mr. 
Dupuy was later succeeded by Mr. Chas. B. Root. 

In these "good old days," when everyone traveled 
(who traveled at all) by stage-coach, Petersburg, Va., 
was the northern market in which merchants bought 
their goods. The time consumed in going to or com- 
ing from this place was as great as it now takes to go 
to Boston and return. The only mail and passenger 
stages from the North via Raleigh left Petersburg on 
Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays at 3 a. m. They 
arrived at Warrenton on the same days at 8 p. m., sev- 
enteen hours on the road. Thev left Warrenton at 
3 o'clock next morning, and were expected to be in 
Raleigh the same day at 6 p. m., covering fifty-five 
miles in fifteen hours. The travelers and mails go- 
ing further South left Raleigh on Mondays, Wednes- 
days and Fridays at 3 a. m., and were to be in Fayette- 
ville on the same days at 5 p. m. 



Any attempt to record the progress of a city a cen- 
tury old which should fail to notice the introduction 
of travel by the locomotive would be unpardonable. 
Therefore some reference to the first railroad with 
which Raleigh became acquainted may, it is hoped, 
prove somewhat interesting. 

The capital of the State was fifty years old before 
its population had scarcely exceeded two thousand, 
Being an inland town, and having communication 
with the outside world only by stage-coaches and like 
vehicles, this small number of inhabitants were not 
unreasonable. But with the advent of 1840 signs of 
better times appeared, for that year witnessed the 
completion of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. The 
northern terminus was first at Gaston, instead of Wel- 
don, as in later years. The name of Gaston was given 
in honor of Judge William Gaston. The completion 
of the road was hailed by a celebration which lasted 
for three days. From distant counties men, women 
and children came to see the new wonders — the State- 
house, the railroad and locomotive. At night the 
trees of Capitol Square were illuminated with colored 
lamps, as well also as Fayetteville street. Gorgeous 
transparencies could be everywhere seen. One was a 
representation of a locomotive, another of the State- 

The name of the first locomotive was the "Torna- 
do," which was a one-wheel driver, and without any 
cab. It reached Raleigh on the 10th of May, 1840. 
The iron for the track became exhausted when the 
construction crew were within a few miles of Raleigh, 
and as the engine was due here on the above date, it 
ran that distance and safely into town over the bare 


"stringers." Mr. C. B. Root, then but a very young 
man, had the distinction — together with several other 
friends — of riding into the city on the tender of the 
engine, from Crabtree Bridge, three miles distant, 
where they had gone for that purpose. 

The name, "Tornado," was evidently not without 
significance, being probably suggested by the great 
speed the "machine" could make, the schedule time 
being eighty-six miles (the distance between Raleigh 
and Gaston) in twelve hours, provided it could be 
kept on the sills, or "stringers," as the wooden rails 
were called. These were from fifteen to twenty feet 
in length and about eight inches in height, to which 
were nailed strips or bars of iron. On these the cars 
ran. These strips were of three separate dimensions : 
two inches by one-half inch, two inches by five-eighths 
of an inch, and two and one- fourth inches by five- 
eighths of an inch. 

Frequently the locomotive would jump the track as 
if attempting to take to the woods, leaving the train 
crew helpless until assisted by the neighboring farm- 
ers and field hands to place it back on the track. 
Sometimes the passengers would be forced to get out 
of the coach — one only of which could be drawn at a 
time — and push the engine up the hill or grading. 

Mr. Rufus H. Horton (now retired and seventy-six 
years of age) came on the road as fireman in 1845. 
His compensation was the munificent sum of six dol- 
lars per month and "rations." It was a common oc- 
currence for the engineer to be forced to stop the 
engine for lack of wood, and to tear down the farmers' 
fences to get fuel suflicient to get to the next station. 

The names of other engines were equally significant 
as that of the Tornado ; these were, the Tempest, Vol- 
cano, Whirlwind, and Spitfire. 


"This road," said Turner & Hughes, in their alma- 
nac of 1841, "is esteemed one of the best in the United 
States. 1 ' 

The following are the names of some of the earlv 
conductors: J. B. Timberlake, Littleton E. Riggin, 
Jeptha Horton, Oreighton Williams, Thos. G. Arring- 
ton, the first and last mentioned yet living. Capt. 
Timberlake, though more than eighty years of age, is 
still in railroad service, being the ticket agent for the 
S. A. L. Railroad at Johnson Street Station. Capt. 
Arrington yet entertains his numerous friends at the 
Yarborough House. 

The oldest man in the service of the company in 
Raleigh, is Rufus H. Horton, above mentioned. Dur- 
ing his fifty-six years in Raleigh no one has been more 
honored by a large circle of friends, nor held in higher 
esteem, his life and character having been such as to 
merit all the consideration that he and his numerous 
friends could wish. He is now seventy-six years 
of age. Mr. Horton, after serving for two years as 
fireman, became an engineer. 

Other old-time engineers were Wortham Newton, 
Jesse Shaw, Thomas Jenkins, John Cooper, Jno. L. 
Stone, Alex. Davis, Charles Holleman, Sidney Hin- 
ton, John Metcalf, Ed. C. White, Jack Sledge, Fab. 
Beavers, Joe H. Perry, Jas. Lawrence, Alpheus Fai- 
son, Mortimer Fleming, John Beckham. Besides 
Rufus Horton and Jesse Shaw, the two last mentioned 
are the only survivors. 

In the machine shops in the earlier periods were 
Albert Johnson, J. B. Gayle, B. R. Harding, Peter 
Fleming, Sidney Smethurst, Joseph Jackson, Emery 
Burns, John Utley, H. Clay Johnson, Augustus Per- 
due, Frederick Rideout, Eel. C. Lougee, Robert Pace, 
Josiah Willson, Jas. Hollister, Henry Pace, Wm. Hor- 


ton, Jas. Pace, Joe DeCarteret, J. 0. S. Lunisden, 
Jas. West, A. V. Frost. O. D. Lipscomb, Marshall 
Betts, Harris Vaughan and Anderson Betts were en- 
gaged in the carpenters' department. 

Among the officers of the road, the following have 
been President: Wesley Hollister, W. J. Hawkins, 
L. O'B. Branch, Geo. W. Mordecai, Gaston H. Wilder, 
R. W. Lassiter ; Superintendents : P. A. Dunn, S. S. 
Royster, W. G. Lewis, A. B. Andrews, J. C. Winder. 

Major W. W. Vass was for nearly half a century the 
Treasurer. From 1848 till 1851, when the road was 
owned by the State, he was the President. In the 
last mentioned year the State disposed of the road to a 
new organization — the old name of Raleigh and Gas- 
ton Railroad being retained — and Major Vass was 
again elected Treasurer. He was a man of honor, 
and held in the highest esteem wherever known. He 
died in 1896. 

Mr. J. B. Martin, until his resignation in 1901, had 
served in Raleigh as Auditor for the old Raleigh and 
Gaston Railroad, and later as General Auditor for the 
Seaboard Air Line System in Portsmouth, Va. Be- 
fore his removal to the latter place in 1893, he had 
been a resident of Raleigh for more than a quarter of 
a century. Here his life had been one of most faith- 
ful devotion to duty, and his character a fit model for 
rising youth. By integrity, industry, indomitable will, 
together with fidelity to every trust, and fulfilling 
every obligation to society and to his fellow man, he 
rose to positions such as are occupied but seldom by 
men other than those possessing these qualities. 

Mr. Martin is again a resident of Raleigh, where he 
is engaged in business enterprises involving the exer- 
cise of the soundest judgment and intelligence of the 
highest order. 


In 1840 the population was but 2,240. Among the 
tailors was T. R. Fentress, who had a shop where the 
Dime Savings Bank stands. T. C. Jones was the 
proprietor of a new house of entertainment at the 
northeast corner of the Capitol Square. Lawrence 
& Christophers (the latter the father of Mr. C. D. 
Christophers) were bakers. John H. DeCarteret had 
a bookbindery, the first which Kaleigh had felt able to 
support. W. J. Ramsey had a jewelry store, and Mrs. 
Martha Ann Ramsey was conducting a millinery 

The Methodist Female Seminary, under the direc- 
tion of Rev. Bennett T. Blake, was also then in a flour- 
ishing condition. This was on Hillsboro street, be- 
tween Dawson and McDowell. Later principals of 
this school were Rev. D. R. Bruton, Rev. W. E. Pell, 
Rev. Mr. Christian, and perhaps others. 

The "Raleigh Guards," about this time was the 
name of a flourishing military company ; it was under 
the command of Captain Lucas. 


It was about the year 1840 that the market was re- 
moved from Hargett street to its present location. 
When on that street the structure was but a mere 
shed. It was situated in the centre of that thorough- 
fare between Wilmington and Fayetteville streets, 
facing west, with a narrow driveway on either side, 
the same as the present market building. Much ex- 
citement was occasioned by the agitation of the ques- 
tion of its removal, the saloon keepers and others who 
had places of business contiguous, naturally fearing 


that such action would bring to them serious business 
loss. The matter was put to a popular vote, resulting 
in the defeat of those opposing the removal. The vic- 
tors desired to celebrate the event, and accordingly or- 
ganized a torchlight procession, in which a large num- 
ber of the people joined. On the night of the " jubi- 
lee," while the procession was passing through Har- 
gett street, some one threw a stone which struck a 
member of the saloon faction, whereupon a riot at once 
followed. Blows with bottles, bricks and sticks were 
freely exchanged, but with one exception no injuries 
were sustained. Jack Buffaloe received a slight 
wound with a knife in the hands of some unknown 

The conditions existing about the bar-rooms and in 
the dens around the old market constituted the prin- 
cipal reason for the better element of society being 
anxious for the change. The locality was then called 
"Grog Alley" — Wilmington street, between Hargett 
and Martin, was known as "Cologne." 

Raleigh had no police force at that period, a town 
constable — who, at this time, was Jas. Murray — being- 
all the protection, in that respect, the city had — the 
night watch, composed of private citizens, not going 
on duty till 9 p. m. 

After the destruction of the old market building on 
Hargett street, a new one Avas erected on Fayetteville, 
and on the present site. The structure was a small 
affair, though it had a hall above for public enter- 
tainments. It had not, however, any rooms devoted 
to offices for city officials. Indeed, all the officers the 
city had, besides the commissioners (as the aldermen 
were then called), were the mayor, clerk and town 
constable, the clerk performing the functions of tax- 
collector. The mayor's office was compelled to do 


duty for this entire business. This was in a small 
brick structure in the rear of the market, and fronted 
on Wilmington street. In the rear of this room was 
the "guard-house," as it w T as popularly termed. 

Before the removal of the market from Hargett 
street, Eldridge Smith, J. J. Christophers and Shad- 
rach Weddon were the only butchers. It is stated on 
the authority of one of the older inhabitants that the 
demand for fresh beef was so meagre, and the popula- 
tion small, that before the slaughtering of any ani- 
mals was undertaken, the butchers, from time to time, 
would call en the people and take their orders, that 
the former might accommodate the supply of fresh 
meats to the demand. 

Among others remembered by the older inhabitants, 
was W. J. Griffice, who kept a confectionery shop in 
a little house, which is yet standing on the corner of 
Morgan and Salisbury streets. He came here in 1810. 
He was a devout man, a consistent member of Eden- 
ton Street Methodist Church, and had manv friends. 
He was the first candy manufacturer Raleigh had 
ever known. 

Bartlett Upchurch, in the early forties, came here 
to engage in the business of coach-making. He estab- 
lished a shop on East Hargett street, where he con- 
tinued to the time of his death in 1857. He was a 
brother of Wm. C. Upchurch. 

Alfred Upchurch, brother of Wm. C. and Bartlett 
Upchurch, came later, and after serving an appren- 
ticeship in coach-making under his brother Bartlett, 
engaged in business for himself, which he conducted 
with success throughout the greater part of his life. 


He died a few years ago, at an advanced age. Mr. Up- 
church represented at one time his ward in the city 

Wiley W. Johnson and Jno. R. Harrison in 1848 had 
then formed a copartnership for the manufacture of 
carriages, buggies and wagons. Their place of busi- 
ness was at the old Clark Shop, corner of Morgan and 
McDowell streets. Afterwards Mr. Johnson con- 
tinued the business alone, on the site of the Trade 
Building on Wilmington street, and Mr. Harrison had 
gone into the manufacture of cars for the N. C. Rail- 
road. His shop was immediately west of West street. 
Later, Messrs. W. David Williams and N. S. Harp, 
John O'Rourke and Thomas Jenkins also embarked 
in the business of coach-making. 

The late Jas. H. Enniss accompanied Peter F. Pes- 
cud from Petersburg here in 1844. Mr. Enniss for a 
long time was a clerk in the store of the Stiths. He 
afterwards made his home in Salisbury? but returned 
to Raleigh in 1869, where he resided until his death 
in 1900. He was a man of very superior intelligence, 
and for a long time the publisher of the N. C. Al- 

John R. Whitaker in 1844 had opened a dry goods, 
hardware and grocery store, W. J. Clarke was prac- 
ticing law, and W. H. & C. Grimme had opened a 
dry goods and grocery store on the corner of Fayette- 
ville and Hargett streets. S. W. Whiting (father of 
Whiting Bros., proprietors of the popular clothing 
house of that name), was agent of the Aetna Fire In- 
surance Company. T. H. Snow had then been added to 
the list of Favetteville street merchants, and Jas. 
Litchford and Burbon Smith were conducting a tailor- 
ing business. C. C. Nelson was selling dry goods. 

The "Raleigh Fire Company" was organized in 


1844. Two of the officers were C. B. Root, Captain ; 
William C. Upchurch, Treasurer. Both of these pub- 
lic-spirited citizens are yet living. They are referred 
to more fully elsewhere in this work. 


While the private schools of Raleigh were, as a rule, 
of a high order, the "free schools," as the common or 
public schools were sometimes opprobriously termed, 
were confined to the lower grades of study — reading, 
writing and arithmetic. The school-houses here were 
built about 1841, Payetteville and Halifax streets be- 
ing the dividing line between two districts. The 
Eastern Ward school-house was in Moore Square, 
usually known as the "Baptist Grove"; the Western, 
on William Boylan's land, immediately west of the 
land of Sylvester Smith. This latter was abandoned 
in a vear or two, and another built on the southwest 
corner of Cabarrus and McDowell streets, and known 
as the Gum Spring school. After a few years a third, 
designed for females only, was built at the northwest: 
corner of the old City Cemetery. The Cabarrus and 
McDowell street house was sold to the Gas Company 
in 1858, and another erected in Nash Square. Sub- 
sequently the school was taught in an old field (on 
which now stands a block of residences) immediately 
west of the residence of Mr. C. S. Allen, on West 
Hargett street. Our venerable and highly esteemed 
citizen, Mr. E. B. Thomas, now eighty-one years of 
age, was the teacher for two years or more. The 
Eastern Ward school, in the "Baptist Grove," was 
taught by Mr. Wm. T. Womble. He now has a private 


school, for boys, and uses the "rod," it is said, as freely 
as in the "good old days." 

"It was not at all uncommon," says the North 
Carolina historian, Mr. Stephen B. Weeks, in com- 
menting on the old-time "free school," "to find 
the school-houses without ground or loft floors, 
and with chimneys built of sticks and dirt. Fuel 
was supplied by brush, which the children were 
sent out every few hours to gather; and about the 
fire there was a perpetual scramble for the inside 
position, while the young men and women and 
older children ciphered out of doors in the sun, 
forming very social but not studious little parties on 
the sunny side of surrounding trees." Continuing, 
Mr. Weeks says : "The large majority of teachers in- 
structed only in the elementary branches of spelling, 
reading, writing and arithmetic. English grammar 
was not taught, perhaps, in a majority of the schools, 
and geography, as a general thing, was an unknown 
science. The teacher, in most cases a law unto him- 
self and a neighborhood oracle, knew little of the 
methods of his brethren in other places, and never re- 
garded himself as an element of a general system; and 
his progress was only in the mechanical art of writing. 
The method of teaching was extremely primitive — to 
look on the book and make a decent droning noise of 
any kind, not out of the common key, would insure 
immunity from the all-potent rod. There were no 
lectures, few explanations, no oral instruction — to 
get through the book was the great end, and to whip 
well the paramount means." 



No event that had ever occurred in the history of 
Raleigh was hailed with so much joy, or aroused 
more enthusiasm, than the visit, in April, 1844, of 
Henry Clay, the Whig candidate for President. Thou- 
sands of people came from various parts of the State 
to do honor to the statesman. The hotels were all 
full, as were the boarding-houses, and more than a 
thousand persons camped out, in the suburbs of the 
city, having journeyed their way to Raleigh in wag- 
ons — a great number of them many miles — in full ex- 
pectation of caring for themselves while here in this 
manner. Four or five acres were closely studded 
with vehicles of every description, with baggage wag- 
ons and tents of every form and variety. 

Mr. Clay arrived on the 12th of April, at 7 o'clock in 
the evening, under escort of a committee who had 
gone to meet him ? accompanied by Capt. Stith's Cav- 
alry, Capt. Lucas' infantry, and the Committee of 
Reception. On his arrival here, Hon. Geo. E. Bad- 
ger delivered an address of welcome, after which Mr. 
Clay was escorted to the Governor's "Palace," where 
he was introduced to the Chief Executive. Later, he 
was escorted to the residence of Mr. Badger, at whose 
home he was the guest during his sojourn here. 

On the next day a procession formed at the Capitol 
Square at 11 o'clock. It then moved to the Govern- 
or's "Palace," where Mr. Clay was received in an 
open carriage, drawn by four gray horses, and escorted 
to the capitol. Here, after being introduced to the 
vast assemblage of people present, he delivered an 
address of two hours length. 

Then followed a big barbecue at Bennehan's Grove. 
Mr. T. H. Snow, who was orderly sergeant of the Ra- 



leigh Guards, was chairman of the committee of ar- 
rangements. (Bennehan's Grove was on the square or 
block bounded by Morgan, Bloodworth, Blount and 
Hargett streets.) 

At night the city was illuminated in honor of this 
event and a grand display of fireworks was wit- 


i nn ''mv ii "nn" a^^w 


Veteran locomotive engineer ; aged seventy-six years. 

nessed, under the direction of the late Col. W. H. EL 

The next dav, being Sunday, Mr. Clay attended di- 
vine worship at Edenton Street Methodist Church. 

An interesting incident of Mr. Clay's visit was the 
presentation to him, by Miss Lucilla Harriss, of Gran- 
ville county, of a beautiful silk vest pattern, "of her 
own manufacture, from the cocoon to the beautiful 


fabric, with the request that he should wear it 
when he shall deliver his inaugural address on the 4th 
of March, 1845, as President of the United States." 

Mr. Clay received the vest with many thanks, most 
heartily and delicately expressed, and said that if he 
lived and should be the choice of the people for the 
Presidency, he would be too glad to comply with the 
request. He then turned and exhibited the vest to the 
audience, who "applauded in rapturous peals of grat 
ulation" — as one enthusiastic supporter of the Whig 
candidate expressed it. 

The distinguished guest left Raleigh Monday for 
Petersburg, under escort of a special committee from 
that city. 

It will be remembered that it was in Raleigh that 
Mr. Clay wrote the ill-fated letter opposing the annex- 
ation of Texas to the United States, which it was 
thought defeated him for the Presidency. 

Puffin Tucker, in 1816 was still one of the leading 
merchants. TV. IT. H. Tucker, his eldest son, was then 
received by his father as a partner, and the firm of 
R. Tucker & Son conducted their affairs with success, 
until its dissolution by the death of the senior partner 
on the 9th April, 1851, when W. H. H. Tucker united 
his two younger brothers, Rufus S. and the late Dr. 
J. J. W. Tucker, with him, the latter as a silent part- 
ner, under the name of TV. H. & R. S. Tucker. Under 
this name they continued their pursuits with undimin- 
ished energy, but with an unavoidable cessation of 
two years during the Civil War. After the death of 
the senior partner, W. H. EL Tucker, in 1S82, Major 
R. S. Tucker continued the business until 1883, when 
he retired, succeeded by Messrs. Boylan, McKimmon, 


Dobbin and Poe. the new firm retaining the old firm 
name of W. H. & R. S. Tucker & Co. After several 
changes in the personelle of the firm, in 1898 W. H. & 
R. S. Tucker & Co. dissolved, and the business has 
since been continued bv T. W. Dobbin and Jos. F. 
Ferrall as Dobbin & Ferrall. 

Mr. Henrv S. Wilton, who died but recentlv, had 
moved among us continually for more than half a cen- 
tury, and at his death was eighty-three years of age. 
He came to Raleigh in the early forties. For many 
years he worked in the car shops of the old Raleigh 
and Gaston Railroad, where he was engaged as decora- 
tor of fine coaches at the time when the company con- 
structed most of its own property of that character. 
Mr. Wilton was a man of spotless character, and had 
manv friends. 

A prominent resident of the old days was Major 
John Devereux, who was born in Raleigh in 1819. He 
was a son of Thos. P. Devereux, Esq., and was gradu- 
ated with distinction at Yale College in 1840. During 
the Civil War he was Assistant Quartermaster of 
State troops, and to his skill and energy was due the 
fact, it is said, of North Carolina soldiers having been 
better clothed and fed than anv others of the Armv of 
Northern Virginia. In early life he married Margaret 
Mordecai, a descendant of Col. Joel Lane, and a daugh- 
ter of Moses Mordecai, who was a noted Raleigh lawyer 
in his day. Major Devereux was an upright man. He 
died in April, 1893. His widow is yet living, now 
seventy-nine years of age. and much beloved by a wide 
circle of friends. 

Patrick G. Linehan was another old-time inhabi- 
tant. He settled among us in 1849. He was one of 
the sturdiest and most industrious of men, and in his 
lifetime proved of much usefulness to the people. By 


trade he was a stone-mason ; he became largely inter- 
ested in quarrying, and was the contractor for the 
masonry of many important enterprises, principally 
bridge building on the various lines of railroads in the 
State. An enduring monument to his skill was the 
foundation of the present Post Office Building, the 
corner-stone of which was laid in 1874, on which occa- 
sion Hon. John Nichols, then Grand Master Mason of 
the State, conducted the Masonic ceremonies. Mr. 
W. A. Linehan, of the clothing firm of Cross & Line- 
han, is Mr. Linehan's eldest son. 

Mr. Robert Dobbin, the veteran shoemaker, has been 
a resident for more than half a century. He came 
here in 1848, since which time he has been one of our 
staunchest citizens and most honorable men. His 
first work was for O. L. Burch, who kept a shop on 
Fayetteville street. Although now seventy-five years 
of age, Mr. Dobbin still works with that clock-like 
regularity that has characterized him through life. 
No better man can any city claim than Robert Dobbin. 

In 1845 another hotel was added to the number of 
houses of entertainment. This was the Washington 
Hotel. It was situated on East Morgan street, on 
the site now occupied by the shops of Building Con- 
tractors Bonniwell & Coffey. It was then kept by 
Alfred M. Lewis, who was afterward succeeded bv 
Frank King, and later by Robert Perry. Subse- 
quently the house grew into disrepute, and was then 
knoAvn as the "Buttermilk Tavern." 

The Spirit of the Age, a great temperance paper, 
made its appearance in 1848. It was published by 
Alexander M. Gorman, an editorial Avriter of force 
and influence. At one time this paper was one of the 
State's leading journals. The last number was pub- 
lished in 1862. Mr. Gorman died about the close of 
the war, aged fifty- three years. 


At this period (1848) Oliver and Proctor were con- 
ducting a tailoring business, and Jas. McKirainon 
(father of Mr. Chas. McKirainon, of the firm of Boy- 
Ian, Pearce & Co.), Alexander Creech, T. H. Selby, 
J. G. B. Roulhac, the Stiths, Samuel H. Young, Henry 
L. Evans, Heartt & Litchford, John Primrose, Jas. M. 
Towles, were the leading dry goods merchants. C. B. 
Root and Palmer & Ramsay were continuing their 
jewelry business, while Turner & Hughes and W. L. 
Pomeroy were booksellers. W. G. Lougee (father of 
the late Louis O. Lougee) was the proprietor of the 
only tinware business in Raleigh. 

In 1855 J. P. Adams and Joseph Watson had 
opened shops for making and repairing shoes. Henry 
Porter had ceased working at the bench, and was con- 
ducting a boot and shoe store on Fayetteville street. 

About this time in Raleigh's history Phil. Thiem 
came here to make his future home. He opened a 
confectionerv and toy store on Favetteville street, 
which he conducted until the breaking out of the 
Civil War, when he engaged with A. W. Fraps in the 
manufacture of munitions of war for the Confederate 
government. In 1861 he married Miss Annie Brown, 
a daughter of Henrv J. Brown. Mr. Thiem was a 
modest, retiring man, an honorable gentleman, and 
one whose friends were legion. He was a Mason and 
Odd Fellow of prominence. He died in 18 9, aged 
seventv-two vears. 

Silas Burns was the first man to open an iron foun- 
dry in Raleigh. He came here in the forties, and in 
his day proved himself a man of much usefulness to 
our people. The iron fence, which until of late sur- 
rounded the capitol, was moulded at his foundry. 
This, with his extensive machine shops, was on the site 
of Allen & Cram's shops, who now conduct a similar 


business. Mr. Fleming Bates, now seventy-two years 
of age, was for a long time, just before tin* Civil War, 
a partner with Mr. Burns. 

The census of 1850 gave the number of inhabitants 
of Raleigh as only 4,518. This is not strange, for we 
had no cotton market, and although half a century 
had elapsed since the invention of the cotton-gin, still 
only enough of the fleecy staple was grown to supply 
the demands of the grower. This was made into 
"homespun' goods by the use of hand-cards, the 
spinning-wheel and the loom, which were found in the 
homes of all thrifty country people. Little wonder 
then that the population lagged, for it is largely by the 
growth of cotton and its manufacture that Ave are now 
maintained, especially so in the absence of a better 
market for tobacco. 

John Malone was at this time a well known factor 
in Raleigh's business affairs, from the fact that he 
was a colored man and owner of a livery stable, and 
conducted a hack line to various points. His stables 
were on the corner of Blount and Davie streets. He 
was the father-in-law of the late Jas. H. Harris, the 
colored politician. 


The decade from 1850 to 1860 was one of the most 
prosperous since the establishment of the State Gov- 
ernment at the city of Raleigh. During that period 
many public enterprises were commenced, aud rapid 
progress in the development in the State's resources 
had been made. The handsome building for the edu- 
cation of the Deaf, Dumb and the Blind had been com- 
pleted and occupied; the Insane Asylum (now the 


Central Hospital for the Insane) had been established 
and the buildings erected; a fine female school had 
been established by the Methodists on Hillsboro 
street; St. Mary's School, which had been in success- 
ful operation for ten years or more, had been greatly 
improved; the North Carolina Railroad had been 
built from Goldsboro to Charlotte, making connec- 
tion with other railroads on the south and east; con- 
nection had been made with the Wilmington & Wel- 
don Railroad and the Raleigh & Gaston road by build- 
ing the connection between Gaston and Weldon; the 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was completed 
from Goldsboro to Morehead City, thus connecting 
the Atlantic Ocean on the east with the mountains on 
the west. The North Carolina State Agricultural 
Society was organized during this decade, and the first 
State Fair was held in 1853; gas works were estab- 
lished and Raleigh was first lighted with gas in Octo- 
ber, 1858; the public school system was thoroughly 
reorganized, and the first Superintendent of Public In- 
struction was elected by the Legislature at the session 
of 1852-'53. 

Dr. Edward C. Fisher, who was a Virginian by 
birth, was the first Superintendent of the Insane Asy- 
lum, and \Y. D. Cooke the first Principal of the Deaf 
and Dumb Institution. Dr. Jas. McKee is now the 
Superintendent of the former and Mr. Jno. E. Ray 
the Principal of the latter institution. 

Rev. Mr. Christian was the Principal of the Raleigh 
Female Seminary. 

The first President of the North Carolina Railroad 
was Jno. M. Morehead. 


It was in 1850 that Hon. John Nichols came to Ra- 
leigh from his country home near Eagle Rock, in this 
county. Here he at once engaged as an apprentice 
in the printing department of the Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. Subsequently he was 
the foreman of the office, and later became the Princi- 
pal of the Institution. In the seventies he was the 
senior member of the firm of Nichols, Gorman and 
Neathery, a printing house of Raleigh widely known 
throughout the State. Mr. Nichols has held many po- 
sitions of honor and trust, prominent among which 
have been postmaster of Raleigh and Representative 
in Congress, in all of which he served with fidelity. 
He has been a most worthy and useful citizen. 

Hon. Kemp Plummer Battle was for many years a 
resident of Raleigh. He came here about the year 
1852, and commenced the practice of law, and built up 
a lucrative practice. Afterwards he was State Treas- 
urer. When the State University was re-organized, 
Mr. Battle became its President, and at present he 
fills the Chair of History, for which he is so eminently 
qualified. He is a man of fine literary attainments, 
and few men have contributed more to the history of 
Raleigh and the State than he. Mr. Battle is a man 
of high social attainments, agreeable manners, and 
one of the most beloved men in the State. 

St. Mary's Seminary (now St. Mary's College) has 
been noticed at length in considering matters edu- 

The Raleigh Gas Works were constructed by Messrs. 
Waterhouse and Bowes in 1858, for the Raleigh Gas 
Company. Mr. Bowes is still living among us, hon- 
ored and respected by our whole people. He is now 
in his seventy-ninth year, yet hale and hearty, and one 
of the most companionable of men. He is still ac- 


tively engaged in business, being a partner, in the 
plumbing business, with Mr. Theodore Keuster on 
South Salisbury street. 

The late Wni. H. High, who for many years was 
Sheriff of Wake, was another resident of earlv times. 
He was a man much beloved bv everybody. Contem- 
poraneous with Mr. High was Col. W. F. Askew, the 
late W. H. Holleman and J. W. B. Watson ; all of 
whom were men of property and influence, as were 
John C. Moore (father-in-law of Col. Askew), the late 
Jas. M. Harris, Jefferson Fisher, and Col. J. P. H. 
Russ. All of these were men of prominence in Ra- 
leigh and Wake County in the fifties. 

Dr. Richard B. Haywood, in 1850 had joined the 
ranks of practicing physicians, and before his death 
was among the ablest practitioners in his profession. 
At one time he was honored with the Presidency of 
the State Medical Society. 

Dr. E. Burke Haywood was also then winning dis- 
tinction. He soon became one of the most eminent 
surgeons in the State. 

Dr. Wm. H. McKee was also in full practice. He 
was an able physician and distinguished for his benev- 
olence, which secured for him the love and honor of 
the needy poor. 

Another prominent physician at that period, and 
who was enjoying a good practice, was Dr. Wm. G. 

Dr. Chas. E. Johnson had then been a resident of 
Raleigh five years, coming here from the east, where 
he had acquired a good practice in Bertie and Chowan 
counties. He, too, was a physician of distinction, 
and noted for his charitable disposition. 

Dr. F. J. Haywood is noticed elsewhere, — among 
the earlier inhabitants. 


Dr. McKee was the father of Dr. Jas. McKee, Su- 
perintendent of the Central Hospital for the Insane. 
Among Dr. Johnson's descendants are Mr. Ghas. E. 
Johnson, of the well known firm of Messrs. Thompson 
& Johnson, cotton exporters, and Mr. J. I. Johnson, 
the prominent Fayetteville street pharmacist. Messrs. 
Marshall DeLancey, Graham and Sherwood Haywood 
are among* the descendants of Dr. Eichard B. Hay- 
wood. The late Theophilus H. Hill, the famous North 
Carolina poet, was a son of Dr. Hill. Messrs. A. W., 
Ernest, and Dr. Hubert Haywood are among the de- 
scendants of Dr. E. Burke Haywood. The surviving 
children of Dr. F. J. Haywood are Dr. F. J., Jr., 
Jos. A. and J. P. Haywood. 

The Yarborough House was not opened to the trav- 
eling public till 1852 — the need of a swell hotel of this 
character not hitherto having been felt. In that year, 
however, a stock company, with a capital of $20,000, 
was formed, for the purpose of erecting this building. 
The stockholders were, Major Moses A. Bledsoe, Jerry 
Nixon, Dabnev Cosbv and Edward Yarborough. The 
hotel was placed under the management of the latter 
gentleman, and for this reason Avas designated the 
Yarborough House. Mr. Yarborough, prior to this 
time, had been proprietor of the Guion Hotel (the 
present Agricultural Building). 

K. R. Weathers was then a large grocery merchant, 
doing business on Exchange Place. He was a man 
of piety and charitable impulses, and had a great 
manv friends. At one time he was a man of consider- 
able means. He was the father of Mrs. J. B. Martin 
and Mr. K. W. Weathers, of Raleigh, Mrs. Emma 
Jones, of Kernersville, N. C, and Mr. C. M. Weath 
ers, of Richmond, Va. 

Henry Fendt, so long and well known to our older 


citizens, and yet living, has been a resident for half 
a century, coming here from Germany in 1852. He 
first clerked in the confectionery store of F. Mahler, 
and later worked for Peter Seilig, who kept a small 
music store in a little wooden building on the site of 
the Fisher Building. Subsequently Mr. Fendt went 
into the confectionery business, and for a long time 
was the only merchant, besides Williams & Haywood, 
who kept a soda-fountain in the city. 

M. Grausman became a resident of Raleigh about 
the year 1855, and soon became a leading business 
man. He was a merchant tailor, and had his store 
on the site now occupied by M. M. Smith as a book- 
store. Mr. Grausman was a man noted for his learn- 
ing and purity of character, and had many friends. 
He died in 1892. The sons and daughters surviving 
him are Dr. Philip Grausman, of New York; Mr. M. 
Grausman, Mrs. Hannah Rosenthal and Mrs. Helen 
Elias, residents of Raleigh. 



The martial spirit of the young men was quite as 
prominent in ante-bellum days as now. At this pe- 
riod (1856) two military companies flourished — the 
"Oak City Guards" and the "Independent Guards" — 
and of one or the other nearly every young man was 
a member. Shortly after their organization these 
companies were invited to Haw River (a station on 
the North Carolina Railroad) by one General Trollin- 
ger, who had just completed a big hotel at that place, 
to join in the banquet with which the opening of the 



house was to be celebrated. The boys accepted and 
went off in high glee. They arrived in proper time 
and in good shape for the festivities, in which latter 
they all indulged to a degree. After supper each one 
of the guests was called upon for one dollar as com- 


The veteran pharmacist ; aged eighty-three years. 

pensation to the host for his spread, which many re- 
fused to pay. The incident was the occasion of the 
following rhyme, which was afterwards sung on the 
streets by every boy in town : 

" The Independent Guards went off on a spree. 

Up to General Trollinger's to get their supper free : 
When they got their supper they had it all to buy, 
And had to pay a dollar or ' root hog or die.' " 


The first planing-mill Raleigh had ever known was 
erected in the latter part of the fifties by Dr. T. D. 
Hogg and Robert Haywood. It was situated in the 
northwest portion of the city, near the tanks of the 
Standard Oil Company. Until this time all weather- 
boarding, flooring and trimmings were planed by 
hand. Briggs & Dodd were soon competitors of this 
enterprise, and the former, after a year or two, went 
out of business. 

Now and then there leaves his rural home some 
young man, who, recognizing the man} 7 advantages 
for development in a city, not found in a less thickly 
settled community, comes hither, and by industry and 
integrity hews his way to the front and leaves his im- 
press for good on generations yet to come. In 1856 
one such as this — then a mere lad — came to Raleigh. 
This was Xeedham B. Broughton, whose father died 
when he was but seven years of age. His widowed 
mother succeeded to the sole care of seven small chil- 
dren — four sons and three daughters. Needham was 
the fifth child, and his mother placed him, in early 
life, in a printing office to be trained to the art of 
printing, and how well he learned it results have 
shown. In 1872 he united with Mr. C. B. Edwards 
in the establishment of a book and job printing office, 
which is now one of the largest and most complete 
printing concerns in the South. 

In church and Sunday School work Mr. Broughton 
has no superior. A deacon in the Raleigh Baptist 
Tabernacle, in all the efforts made bv this church to 
attain its present prominence he has always been in 
the lead. He is the Superintendent of the Sunday 
School of that church, Secretary of the Baptist State 
Convention. Trustee of Wake Forest College and of 
the Baptist Female University, besides holding many 


other positions of honor and trust. For many years 
he has stood in the front rank with those who have 
labored and are still laboring for the moral, relig- 
ious and educational advancement of our city. But 
his efforts in this direction have not been confined 
wholly to Raleigh — other sections of the State, yea, 
the State itself, have shared the benefits of his zeal 
and ability, put forth for the furtherance of the very 
best interests of our people. Possessed of strong con- 
victions, and being a man of undaunted moral and 
physical courage, he has always planted himself firmly 
against the evil and in favor of the good. He pursues 
no temporizing policy — you always know where to 
find him whenever the forces of good and evil range 
themselves for battle; with pen and tongue and purse 
he boldly takes his position, and no soldier performs 
more valuable service than he for any cause in which 
he engages. 

Mr. Richard H. Battle for more than a generation 
has been prominently identified with Raleigh, having 
been a resident since 1S<>2, when he was appointed by 
Gov. Z. B. Vance as his private secretary. Two years 
later he was appointed to the office of Secretary of 
State by the same authority, to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the resignation of Hon. Sam'l P. Phillips. 
He has filled many other positions of honor and trust, 
and in them all proved faithful. Mr. Battle was 
born in Louisburg in 1835. He married in 1860 An- 
nie Ruffin, daughter of Hon. Thos. S. Ashe, a lady of 
rare endowments of mind and person. She died in 

One of Raleigh's staunchest inhabitants of more re- 
cent times was E. P. Wvatt. He came to Raleigh 
more than forty years ago, and continued here his 



residence until his death in 1901. He was a saddler 
and harness-maker, and under the firm name of E. P. 
Wyatt & Son conducted successfully a business of 
this character on East Martin street. Although of 
unassuming manner and modest disposition, he was 
a man of exalted character and sterling qualities. At 
his death he was eighty-one years of age. 

Mr. Pulaski Cowper, who died some months ago, 
was one of the prominent citizens of Raleigh. He 
came here to reside in 1855. He was of a most genial 
disposition and much beloved by everyone who knew 
him personally. A man of fine literary attainments, 
he left many valuable productions of his pen. At the 
time of his death he was President of the North Caro- 
lina Home Insurance Company, and theretofore held 
many other positions of honor and trust. 

Of those who came among us at this period, and is 
pleasantly remembered by a wide circle of friends, 
was Samuel Parish. For some time his business was 
that of a carriage-painter, but later he opened a busi- 
ness for house and sign painting. He was a very 
superior workman and a good citizen. He was the 
father of Ex- Alderman Walter Parish. 

Jno. B. Neathery, who died in 1894, had been a resi- 
dent of Raleigh since 1861, and held many positions of 
responsibility. He was a man of fine literary attain- 
ments, and possessed as he was of a fund of wit and 
humor, his writings were always instructive and en- 
tertaining. He was one of the most companionable 
of men and universally popular. He served as county 
treasurer for several vears. 

Few men were better known than Jno. C. Gorman. 
He was printer, journalist and soldier. Before his 
death he had been a member of the General Assembly, 
Mayor of Raleigh, and was at one time Adjutant-Gen- 


eral of the State. While serving as captain in the 
Civil War, he wrote many newspaper articles "from 
the front/' which were pronounced the equal of "Rus- 
sell," the war correspondent of the London Times. 
No braver man or truer friend has lived in Raleigh 
than Jno. C. Gorman. He died in Washington, D. C, 
in 1892. 

In 1858 Lynn Adams and Wiliford Upchurch were 
in the grocery business on the south side of Exchange 
Place — Mr. Adams on the site now occupied by the 
store of G. S. Tucker & Co., Mr. Upchurch on the 
corner where W. H. King & Co.'s drugstore is situated. 
Mr. Len H. Adams, one of Raleigh's most highly re- 
spected citizens and business men, came to the capital 
at this time and worked in the store of Lynn Adams. 
Mr. Upchurch and Mr. Lynn Adams were among the 
leading merchants in their day. Many of their de- 
scendants are still living among us. Mr. Upchurch 
was the father of the late Mr. R. G. Upchurch, for a 
long time the very popular and efficient city auditor, 
Mr. Thomas Adams, the popular mail-carrier, is a son 
of Lynn Adams. 

Isaac Oettinger, one of the most popular and kind- 
hearted Hebrews who ever lived in Raleigh, in 1860 
was selling dry goods on Fayetteville street. Later 
he opened a millinery business, which he conducted 
very successfully for many years. 

At this period the post-office was in an old wooden 
building occupying the site of Berwanger Bros. Cloth- 
ing House. The postmaster was Geo. T. Cooke — the 
clerks, Chas. H. Belvin and the late Thos. Jenkins. 

Alexander Creech was a prominent merchant of the 
old times, and a man of great energy and pluck. 
Starting in 1855 in the dry goods business on small 
capital, he soon ranked high and was afterwards 


known as the "merchant prince." He was a very 
friendly man, and Avould rather suffer imposition 
than contend with an adversary. Good natured, kind 
and gentle to everyone, he is pleasantly remembered 
by a host of friends of the old days. He died in 1894, 
aged sixty-nine years. 

Jas. J. Litchford was contemporaneous with Mr. 
Creech, and at one time was his partner in business. 
Honest and upright in character, James Litchford 
was a man who had the entire confidence of all with 
whom he had dealing. He was a prominent Odd 
Fellow, and for many years Secretary of the Grand 
Lodge. At his death he was sixty-five years of age. 
Messrs. Henry E. and Jas. O. Litchford are his only 
surviving sons. The former is cashier of the Citizens 
National Bank, and the latter occupies a like position 
with the Raleigh Savings Bank. 

Although the population of Raleigh in 1860 was but 
4,780. yet the culture and refinements of the capital 
city seemed to justify the opening of a floral business. 
This was done by Messrs. Hamilton & Carter, Avho 
embarked in this enterprise on the block bounded by 
Morgan, Blount. Person and Hargett streets. It was 
a small affair, and suited the times, but bore no com 
parison to the establishment of Mr. Steinmetz, which 
is now conducted so creditably on the northern 
suburbs of the city. 

Havens & Andrews were in copartnership as photo- 
graphic artists, and advertised they were taking a new 
style of picture known as "the melainotype, for fifty 
cents upward." Andrews was also a portrait painter 
of fine talent. 

Raleigh now enjoyed the distinction of having a 
"mineral spring." It was in the vicinity of Smith- 
field and East streets, and was owned by J. 


H. Kirkham. Season tickets sold for three dollars. 
Of course the water would cure "any disease which 
flesh was heir to." The enterprise soon failed. 

J. B. Franklin had found that a new bakery was 
in demand, and John Maunder was conducting a pros- 
perous marble yard. Strother & Marconi had opened 
a printing office exclusively for book and job work, 
while P. Babcock and L. S. Perry were the onlv den- 

The Lawrence Hotel, which had been on the site of 
the Federal Post Office Building, and one of the lead- 
ing hotels of the city, was destroyed by fire this year. 
The late Hon. Josiah Turner, of Hillsboro, was in the 
building at the time, and narrowly escaped with his 

Jas. D. Pullen had opened the Planters Hotel, oa 
the site now occupied by M. T. Norris & Bro., on Wil- 
mington and Martin streets, and Jas. Bashford was 
conducting a carriage-making business on the corner 
of Morgan and McDowell streets. 

L. D. Heartt was conducting a dry goods store, as 
successor to Heartt & Litchford. 

Williams & McGee (the late Alfred Williams and 
Thadeus McGee) were also keeping a dry goods store. 
Their place of business was the house now occupied 
by Mrs. Fashnach as a jewelry store. 

Dodd & Scheib had opened a confectionery store on 
Fayetteville street, where is now kept the Music Store 
of Darnell & Thomas. 



A notable event in the history of Raleigh was the 
arrival here in August, 1860, of Stephen A. Douglas, 
one of the four candidates for President of the United 
States. He arrived on the evening of the 29th, and 
was met at the depot by a committee and escorted to 
the Yarborough House, where he was welcomed to our 
city and State by Hon. Henry W. Miller. On Thurs- 
day afternoon he spoke from the eastern portico of the 
Capitol to a large audience. Mr. Douglas had but lit- 
tle following here, and hence his visit created no en- 
thusiasm, further than was shown by a great number 
of people coming out to hear him, because, perhaps, 
of his renown as a statesman. 

At this time the "Oak City Savings Bank" was or- 
ganized, with Dr. T. D. Hogg, President ; Jno. G. Wil- 
liams, Cashier; Directors, Dr. T. D. Hogg, Quentin 
Busbee, H. S. Smith, Jno. G. Williams. 

Mr. C. B. Edwards came to Raleigh about this 
period, and for many years has been one of its leading 
business men. His first work here was as an appren- 
tice in the office of the Church Intelligencer. After 
finishing his apprenticeship he worked as a composi- 
tor in a number of other offices until 1872, when he 
formed a copartnership with Mr. N. B. Broughton, 
and established a book and job printing establishment, 
which is now one of the leading enterprises in the 
city, giving employment to more people than any pri- 
vate establishment in Raleigh. Mr. Edwards is a 
prominent Mason and has several times represented 
his ward as alderman. 


All men can not be merchants — there must be arti- 
sans, or mechanics, as well as tradesmen; producers 
as well as distributors and consumers. Were this not 
true, houses would not be constructed nor cities built. 
Thus, in the different periods of our history there 
came to Raleigh, and also grew up within its 
borders, mechanics and others who pursued their re- 
spective vocations, and without whom the city could 
not have grown and flourished and been the beautiful 
metropolis it is to-day. Among the representative 
men of this character have been Jno. G. Briggs, Thos. 
H. Briggs, David L. Royster, Madison Royster, Ander- 
son Nixon, carpenters; C. Kuester, gun and lock- 
smith; John O'Rourke, Jas. Bashford, Bartlett Up- 
church, Wm. F. Clarke, Jno. R. Harrison, N. S. Harp, 
W. David Williams, Thos. G. Jenkins, Alfred Up- 
church, carriage-makers; Henry J. Brown, E. D. 
Haynes, David Royster and W. J. Thopmson, cabinet- 
makers; Henry Smith, Mark Williams, bricklayers; 
W. G. Lougee, tinner; H. I. Hasselbach, coppersmith; 
Silas Burns, iron-worker ; Joseph Waltering, axe- 
maker and manufacturer of edge tools; John Maun- 
der, Wm. Stronach, marble-cutters; Dabney Cosby, 
architect. The following have been artisans of more 
recent times, many of whom are still living and ac- 
tively engaged in business : Marshall Betts, Harris 
Vaughan, Benj. Park, Jacob S. Allen, Anderson Betts, 
L. H. Royster, W. Jeff. Ellington, Arthur D. Zach- 
ary, building contractors; T. F. Brockwell, expert 
gun and locksmith; H. J. Hammill, plasterer; Jno. J. 
Weir, F. H. Hunnicut, bricklayers, stone-masons and 
general contractors; M. R. Haynes, cabinet-maker; 
Geo. M. Allen, Wm. C. Cram, J. H. Gill, founders and 
machinists; S. W. Holloway, J. W. Evans, carriage- 
makers; W. W. Parish, Wm. C. Parish, H. E. Glenn, 



Jesse Williams, H. M. Farnsworth, Win. F. King, C. 
F. Bullock, W. R. Macy, John Howell, painters; Lon- 
nie Weathers, Wm. T. Utley, J. C. Ellington, paper- 
hangers; T. S. Stevenson, W. J. Young, W. H. Hughes' 
Jr., Wm. Taylor, M. Bowes. A. T. Kuester, plumbers. 




Many of our present commercial establishments are 
located on sites that have interesting history connec 
ted with them. The earlier mercantile spirits of the 
capital city dedicated these sites forever to successful 
commercial and industrial activity. 

D. C. Murray in 1860 was one of the leading dry 
goods merchants. His store was on Fayetteville 
street, on a portion of the site occupied now by Sher- 
wood Higgs & Co., than which there is not a more en- 
terprising firm in the State. A distinguishing feature 
of this house is the fact that its head is one of the 
youngest business men of his rank to be found any- 
where. Yet, in quickness of discernment, enterprise 
and business sagacity, Mr. Higgs has few superiors. 
His success has been phenomenal. In the conduct of 
its extensive and elaborate business the firm is as- 
sisted by a corps of more than forty obliging sales- 
men and salesladies. 

The site on Fayetteville street now occupied by 
Messrs. Dobbin & Ferrall, dry goods merchants; W. 
H. Hughes, dealer in china, crockery, etc. ; C. P. 
Wharton, photographer; A. Williams & Co., booksell- 
ers and stationers, and T. W. Blake, jeweler, was 
then a vacant lot, afterwards made famous as the 
spot over which had floated the first secession flag in 

Messrs. Dobbin & Ferrall are among the leaders in 
their line, not only here, but in the State. Being the 
worthy successors of the dry goods business of the his- 
toric Tuckers, they feel a worthy pride in exerting 


their best energies to maintain the reputation, in all 
respects, earned by their predecessors, beginning with 
the city's earliest history and extending through 
nearly a century. 

Messrs. Alfred Williams and Edgar Haywood, who 
compose the firm of A. Williams & Co., are among the 
leaders in their line in the State. The founder of 
this house was the late Alfred Williams, who estab- 
lished the business more than a generation ago, and 
who was rewarded with much success. The business is 
now prominently known throughout the State, from 
every part of which it draws its patronage. Mr. Wil- 
liams is a grandnephew of Mr. Alfred Williams, the 
founder, who was one of Raleigh's earliest inhabitants 
and prominent citizens; Mr. Haywood is a son 
of the late Dr. E. Burke Haywood, who was one of 
our most distinguished physicians and eminent sur- 

The establishment presided over by Mr. Hughes is 
one of the largest and oldest in this line of trade in 
the city. This house was established nearly a score 
of years ago by the present proprietor, who, by his uni- 
form courtesv and reliable business methods, has 
secured an enviable patronage. The career of this 
enterprise has been a record of uninterrupted success. 
In its highest and broadest sense, Mr. Hughes is a 
most valuable citizen. He is a Confederate veteran, 
and Second Lieutenant Commander of L. O'B. Branch 

Mr. Wharton is regarded as an artist of rare merit, 
his skill beins: rewarded by an extensive and select 
patronage. An examination of his work reveals the 
fact that his pictures are executed by the true artist, 
an easy, graceful and natural pose being always ob- 
served — results not to be secured except by masters 


of this art. In the excellence of his work he yields 
the palm to none. 

There were then no places of business on Fayette- 
ville street below the court-house and the Yarborough 
House. Where now stands the Pullen Building, — 
occupied as law offices by Messrs. Armistead Jones & 
Son, M. N. Amis, B. C. Beckwith, W. L. Watson, J. N. 
Holding, J. H. Fleming ; the offices of Dr. D. S. Row- 
land, the Mechanics and Investors Union, R. G. Reid, 
J. P., the Morning Post, and the Barnes Printing Co., 
— was the old Gales residence. 

The Mechanics and Investors Union is a mortgage 
investment company, and has for nine years been re- 
ceiving monthly deposits from our citizens, which 
money has been invested in the erection of city resi- 
dences. The company is managed by a board of direc- 
tors, and George Allen, its Secretary. Mr. Allen was 
for nearly a third of a century connected with the 
business interests of New Bern, but for the past ten 
years has been one of our active and busy citizens. 
He is Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and 
President of the Board of Trustees for the N. C. Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind. 

On the opposite side of the street, and below Davie, 
where Cooper Bros, conduct their marble works, was 
the residence of Mr. C. B. Root. The gentlemen 
composing the firm of Cooper Bros, have been identi- 
fied with Raleigh since 1894. The progress and suc- 
cess of their business has seldom been equalled in this 
community. This is not surprising when it is con- 
sidered that the members of the firm are men of the 
highest integrity, business skill, and faithful to every 
obligation of whatsoever nature. Their business op- 
erations extend to other States, and orders have of 
late been received from the West Indies. The hand- 



some monument erected to the memory of the late J. 

M. Heck was constructed bv this firm. Mr. W. A. 

Cooper, the senior member, is also a skillful designer. 

Where Senator Win. Haywood's residence then 


stood, on the corner below, is now the popular Hotel 
Dorsett. The opening of this house of entertainment 
was occasioned by the demands of the public, which 


Aged eighty-one years. 

had so long required superior hotel accommodations. 
This is secured at the Dorsett, where the wayfarer is 
cared for in a manner experienced only at the best 
hotels, and on terms such as are but reasonable for 
high-class entertainment. The house is noted for the 
courteous consideration of guests and for its excellent 
service. The proprietor, Mr. W. L. Dorsett, is the 
youngest hotel man in the South, and one of the most 
successful. The cuisine is the best. 


Jno. G. Williams & Co., at this time, were doing a 
brokerage business on Fayetteville street. This was 
on the site now occupied by the tailoring business of 
Mr. Geo. N. Walters, who conducts here, in his commo- 
dious parlors, a business second to none. Commenc- 
ing this industry here seventeen years ago, by the skill, 
finish and taste which has characterized his work, 
he has won a reputation extending throughout the 
State. The best test of his excellence in this industry 
are his frequent invitations, from time to time, by 
prominent artists in his profession, to accept positions 
of designer and cutter in New York and other leading 
cities. Mr. Walters is a leading citizen and a Mason 
of prominence. 

The site on Hargett street occupied for sixty years 
by Wm. C. Upchurch, now eighty-nine years of age, 
and retired, is now conducted by his grandson, Mr. 
B. W. Upchurch, one of the most enterprising business 
men of the capital. With much sagacity and business 
tact he has, within a few years, secured such a share 
of patronage as should be a source of just pride to 
anyone, however long in the business. His dealings 
are honorable to a high degree. 

The floral business here at that time was scarcely in 
its infancv, but the establishment of H. Steinmetz is 
now an enterprise that is in full accord with our 
growing population and the growing refinements of 
the capital. His establishment is on the northern 
suburbs of the city, to which a visit is always enjoyed. 
Under the skillful and artistic management of its pro- 
prietor, the business of Mr. Steinmetz now has a repu- 
tation extending to every part of North Carolina. 
This enterprise is a credit to the city, and its proprie- 
tor a very agreeable man and highly respected citizen. 

One of the leading and oldest jewelers at this period 


was Chas. H. Thompson. His place of business was 
on Fayetteville street, in the store now occupied by the 
Jolly- Wynne Jewelry Co. This enterprising firm, 
while satisfying at all times the most exacting and 
fastidious tastes of a high-class trade, yet caters to 
the demands of the masses, who are always willing to 
pay substantial prices for reliable goods. At this 
house courteous treatment and fair dealing are as- 
sured, for the gentlemen composing the firm — Messrs. 
B. R. Jolly, F. M. Jolly, J. S. Wynne and R. S. Wynne 
— are among our most estimable citizens and honor- 
able men. 

The leading confectionery in Raleigh at this time 
was in an old rickety frame building, on the site of the 
Raney Library, and which for many years before had 
served as one of the early taverns of the city. One 
of the proprietors had been Wm. T. Bain. Besides 
the Library proper, there is now on this site, and on 
the first floor of the Library building ; one of the 
handsomest and most tastefully equipped pharmacies 
in the city or State. The proprietor is Mr. Robert 
Simpson, whose excellence as a pharmacist is no 
higher than his value as a man and citizen. These 
are the secrets of the success of this widely popular es- 

On the west side of Fayetteville street, from Har- 
gett to Martin, the stores were old framed buildings, 
occupied by W. G. Lougee, tinner; F. Keuster, gun 
and locksmith; I. Hesselbach, coppersmith; Henry 
Depkin, shoemaker; Robert Dobbin, shoemaker, and 
others. Where now stands the National Bank of 
Raleigh was the site of the first residence erected at 
the capital for the State's Chief Magistrate. Among 
the prominent merchants and business men now on 
other sites below, are Boylan, Pearce & Co., Daniel 


Allen & Co., T. H. Briggs & Sons, the Hart-Ward 
Hardware Co., Hubert Belvin, the Carolina Trust 
Company, John C. Drewry, J. K. Marshall, Carey J. 
Hunter. The first-mentioned firm is composed of 
Jas. Boylan, Chas. McKimmon and J. B. Pearce. Mr. 
Boylan is a descendant of the historic family of that 
name — William Boylan, its founder, having been one 
of the most prominent of Raleigh's early residents. 
Mr. Jas. Boylan has been identified with the dry goods 
trade for nearly a lifetime. Mr. McKimmon is a son 
of Jas. McKimmon, who, more than half a century 
ago, was one of the two leading dry goods merchants 
of Raleigh, and possesses in an eminent degree that 
taste and judgment the exercise of which has con- 
tributed so much to the reputation of this popular dry 
goods emporium. Mr. J. B. Pearce, another member 
of the firm, is a gentleman endowed with a superabun- 
dance of energy, and his many admirable social quali- 
ties, clear judgment and general business capacity, 
render him very popular with all classes. The repu- 
tation of this establishment is co-extensive with the 

The business of the house now controlled by T. H. 
Briggs & Sons was established in 1865 by T. H. 
Briggs, Sr. (the father of the present proprietors > 
and Jas. Dodd, who conducted the same until 1868, 
when Mr. Briggs became the sole proprietor. In 1871 
the sons were made copartners. The firm then be- 
came T. H. Briggs & Sons. Since the death of T. H. 
Briggs, Sr., in 1886, the business of the house has been 
conducted by the sons, Thos. H. Briggs and Jas. A. 
Briggs, under the style of T. H. Briggs & Sons. In 
the hardware line this house is arraved in the front 
rank, and has reaped that reward it so richly deserves. 
The members are among the city's most substantial 
citizens and respected men. 


The president of the National Bank of Raleigh is 
Mr. Chas. H. Belvin. No one who knows Mr. Belvin 
and has watched his rapid rise from a clerk in the 
postoffice to the presidency of a bank, can be surprised. 
Possessed of naturally bright business capacity, his 
integrity of character, unassuming manner and affa- 
ble disposition pushed him forward to his present pop- 
ularity and business position. Mr. Belvin is gener- 
ally regarded as one of the safest financiers in the 
State. He is and long has been a steward of the 
Edenton Street Methodist Church. 

The members of the firm of Daniel Allen & Co.'s 
shoe emporium, on Fayetteville street, are among the 
leading spirits in Raleigh's business circles. The se- 
nior member, Mr. Geo. E. Hunter, is also a member 
of the well-known firm of Hunter & Dunn, wholesale 
grocers, on Wilmington street, and is one of the most 
thoroughgoing business men in the city. Mr. Allen, 
the junior partner, is a man possessing the very high- 
est business qualities, and under his active manage- 
ment the enterprise has become a leading one at the 
capital. Mr. Allen is a gentleman of culture and 
widely and favorably known for his eminent social 
qualities, which secure for him not only a host of per- 
sonal friends, but the patronage of an appreciative 
and discriminating public. 

In the next building to the above mentioned firm is 
the merchant tailoring business of Mr. Hubert Belvin, 
whose push, energy and determination to master his 
vocation has won for him a patronage of the best class 
of customers, who desire stylish and perfect fitting 
clothing. He is a first-class expert cutter, and per- 
sonally superintends all work turned out from his 

The Oak City Steam Laundry, owned and con- 


ducted by Mr. Jos. K. Marshall, is the only real up-to- 
date industry of the kind in the State, being fitted up 
with all the latest improved machinery for such work, 
obviating the use of chemical preparations, which so 
greatly damage garments. Mr. Marshall's establish- 
ment uses nothing but pure water and soap, and the 
improved machinery accomplishes the finest speci- 
mens of laundrying ever seen in this city. Mr. Mar- 
shall takes great pride in his business, and spares no 
expense in turning out high-grade laundry work. 

The buildings on the east side of Fayetteville street, 
below the market, were then likewise of wood. No- 
where, along the entire length of this street, was there 
as handsome a building as that in which the Bobbitt- 
Wvnne Drug Co. conduct their extensive business. 
The stock of this house is large and contains all the 
articles that belong to a first-class drugstore. The 
business is wholesale and retail. The officers of the 
company are gentlemen of the highest personal integ- 
rity and widely known for their sterling worth. Mr. 
J. Stanhope Wynne, the president, not only possesses 
business qualifications of the highest order, but the 
interest he manifests in all that make for Raleigh's 
progress proves him one of the most public spirited 
men who ever resided at the capital. Mr. Wynne 
was a close relative of the late Stanhope Pullen and 
stood near to him in all that touched him deepest. It 
was this, it is said, that occasioned Mr. Pullen's mu- 
nificent gift to the city of the beautiful park bearing 
his name. Mr. Rawlev Galloway, the manager of the 
company, is a pharmacist of fine ability, whose busi- 
ness acumen and professional acquirements fit him 
admirably for his responsible duties. He is a gentle- 
man of winning personality, and his friends are le- 



gion. In the prescription department Mr. Galloway 
is ably assisted by Mr. Robert I. Williams — a son of 
Mr. Ruffin Williams, Raleigh's retired veteran drug- 

The Carolina Trust Company's Building, on Fay- 
etteville street, near Martin, is an honor to the city. 
The business of the company may be classified under 
four heads — general banking, savings banking, trusts, 
and safety deposits. The savings department is to 
give security to those saving their money, and interest 
is paid on money deposited in this branch. The trust 
feature is that of all trust companies, while in the bur- 
glar-proof vault are the most approved boxes for the 
safe depositors. 

In this building are located the offices of the life in- 
surance business of Mr. Carey J. Hunter, whose splen- 
did business qualifications and personal excellencies 
have so attracted the attention of the public as to draw 
him into service, officially, with many prominent insti- 
tutions and enterprises. Some of these are Secretary 
Board of Trustees of Wake Forest College ; Chairman 
Executive Committee of Baptist Female University 
North Carolina ; President Biblical Recorder Co. ; Di- 
rector Mechanics' Dime Savings Bank ; Director Com- 
mercial and Farmers Bank; Deacon First Baptist 
Church ; Director Bobbitt- Wynne Drug Co. ; Director 
Melrose Knitting Mill; Director Caraleigh Cotton 
Mills ; Director News and Observer Publishing Co. — 
in connection with his general a^encv of the Union 
Central Life Insurance Co. In all these various posi- 
tions his careful, svstematic business faculties make 
him prominent among his associates at all their meet- 
ings. An aggressive, yet unassuming gentleman, Mr. 
Hunter is withal possessed of that magnetism which 
attracts the attention of all who wish a safe counsel- 
lor, diligent worker and earnest advocate. 


One of the old-tiine inhabitants was C. W. D. 
Hutchings, who for many years had a harness and 
saddlery business on the site occupied by the building 
in which F. A. Watson conducts his photographic 
gallery. Mr. Watson's determination to deserve the 
public favor has been rewarded by a liberal share of 
patronage, and his desire to please, and to execute but 
the best work, are shown by his popularity both as a 
man and as an artist. The original proprietor of this 
establishment was Mr. J. W. Watson, who had the dis- 
tinction of making the first photograph ever made in 
the State. 

P. F. Pescud, one of our leading druggists in 1800, 
was continuing his business on Fayetteville street. 
At his death in 1884, his eldest son, John S. Pescud, 
succeeded to the business, which he is still conducting. 
His store is noAv on West Hargett street, near Fayette- 
ville. No one ever engaged in any business in this 
city who enjoyed in a greater degree the confidence 
and esteem of all, in whatsoever manner received, 
than John S. Pescud. He married in 1872 Miss Belle, 
eldest daughter of Laurens Hinton, of this county. 

Harry Keim, a typical Dutchman, who introduced 
lager beer and porter in Raleigh, in 1800 was selling 
his beverages in a small wooden building where now 
stands the reliable and popular pharmacy of J as. 
Iredell Johnson. The business of this old established 
pharmacy is wholesale and retail, and extends to 
every portion of the State. The proprietor is a 
son of the late Chas. E. Johnson, one of Raleigh's 
early and eminent physicians, and grandson of Gov. 
James Iredell, one of the State's earlv chief magis- 

At the time herein referred to, the construction of 
buildings had not reached the excellence to which they 


have since attained. Much of the beauty of our mod- 
ern residences is owing to the skill of such enterpris- 
ing men as Mr. Jno. T. Jones, who has a prosperous 
slate-roofing business. His office is on South Salis- 
bury street, near Martin. Mr. Jones, in his line, 
stands at the head. His perfect reliability in all re- 
spects has secured the confidence of an appreciative 
public, and his superior workmanship been rewarded 
with much success. 

Among the jewelers of the capital city, T. W. Blake 
occupies a position in the front rank. His stock of 
goods are of the best quality, while his workmanship 
is equal to any. His well known integrity insures for 
customers, at all times, complete satisfaction. Mr. 
Blake is a leading citizen, a man of sterling qualities, 
and deservedly esteemed for his Christian virtues. 

The house-furnishing or furniture business has 
grown to be of much importance in Raleigh, and that 
conducted by Mr. J. H. Bail, 117 East Martin street, 
is reaping merited reward for good management and 
fair dealing. Mr. Dail is an agreeable man and relia- 
ble citizen. He has conducted this business for a 
period of three years, and has the confidence of a large 
number of patrons. 

On the north side of Hargett street, between Wil- 
mington and Fayetteville, the stores were occupied by 
E. E. Harris, A. Karrar, Jordan Womble, W. C. Up- 
church, Jas. Rogers, W. H. Holleman and others. Tal- 
bot Ligon had a small shop where J. B. Green & Co. 
now conduct their well stocked store of select grocer- 
ies. In its collection of choice household supplies this 
firm ranks with the foremost in the city. The firm is 
composed of Messrs. J. B. and T. E. Green, both of 
whom are men of energy and enterprise. G. B. Bag 
well, Bernard Abt, and E. A. Whitaker then kep 


grocery stores on the opposite side of this street. 
There were then no drug stores east of Fayetteville 
street. The growing demands, however, of an in- 
creased and varied population induced Mr. O. G. King, 
several years ago, to open an attractive pharmacy on 
the corner of Wilmington and Hargett streets, where 
are kept the purest goods and at reasonable prices as 
can be found anywhere. Mr. King is one of our most 
substantial citizens, a man of high integrity, and in 
his profession ranks high. 

No line of industry is more important to the mate- 
rial welfare of a community than the furniture busi- 
ness, and in Raleigh the leaders are the Royal & Bor- 
den Furniture Co. Seldom is an enterprise found 
enjoying a higher degree of prosperity than is this 
company. Its members are Messrs. J. L. Borden and 
George Royall, of Goldsboro, business men of much 
prominence, who are president and vice-president of 
the company, respectively; Mr. T. P. Jerman, Jr., sec- 
retary and treasurer, a gentleman of pronounced abil- 
ity in mercantile affairs; and Mr. Miles Goodwin, 
manager, who has proven, during his long connection 
with the establishment, a most valuable adjunct in 
securing for it the great popularity it now enjoys. 
Their commodious establishment is a great credit to 
the city. 

Near where Briggs & Dodd then had their planing- 
mill and shops is now the* establishment, on West 
street, of Wyatt & Ellington, Avho are conducting a 
business of like character. The extent of this enter- 
prise is in proper keeping with the constantly growing 
population of our beautiful metropolis. The mem- 
bers of the firm are Walter J. Wyatt and Edsmr E. 
Ellington, both of whom are substantial men and 
occupy favorable positions in industrial circles here 


and in surrounding country. Their progressive spirit 
is being rewarded by increasing demands for their 
superior productions. 

The H. J. Brown Coffin House was established in 
1836 by the late Henry J. Brown, who conducted it 
successfully until his death in 1879. Mr. Jno. W. 
Brown then became the manager, and under his con- 
trol the business has been a leading one at the capital. 
Mr. Brown is a proficient funeral director and skilled 
embalmer. The establishment is fitted out with the 
latest improvements in every branch of the business. 

The H. T. Hicks Drug Co. is among the most promi- 
nent pharmacies in the city. The business is in charge 
of Mr. Henrv T. Hicks, who has achieved a marked 
success as a skillful pharmacist. He has brought to 
the relief of those who suffer from headache his fa- 
mous cure, "Capudine," one of the most popular pro- 
prietary medicines on the market. Mr. Hicks is a 
young self-made man, whose careful business methods 
and push, energy and integrity of character have 
brought him success. 

It is not the business makes the man, but the man 
who possesses all the qualities of attraction, the 
clear insight to business, the indefatigable determina- 
tion to succeed. Such a man makes any business. 
One of these men is John C. Drewrv, who is a leader 
among insurance men at the capital. Mr. Drewrv has 
all these capabilities, and Raleigh, its internal im- 
provements, particularly its streets, speak but the 
result of Mr. Drewry's good judgment and energetic 
work. He has served the citv several terms as alder- 
man, is Grand Secretary of the Masons, prominent in 
other fraternal societies, and a brilliant luminary in 
the social realm. Mr. Drewrv's creat popularity and 
familiarity with public interests have drawn him into 


prominence as a candidate for Representative in the 
General Assembly from Wake County. He was a few 
days since nominated for this position by the prima- 
ries, and this is equivalent to an election. His past 
record is a guarantee of the valuable services he will 
render not onlv the countv of Wake, but the entire 

John Kane then had a liquor shop in a little frame 
building on the corner where now stands the Citizens 
National Bank. This institution is built upon a solid 
foundation. Mr. Joseph G. Brown, its president, and 
a most modest and unassuming gentleman, has devel- 
oped most remarkable financial ability, and having 
filled almost every position from messenger up, now 
holds the presidency and management of this popular 
banking house. Mr. Brown is also Treasurer of the 
City of Raleigh and Vice-President of the State 
Bankers Association; also steward of the M. E. 
Church and superintendent of its Sunday School. 

The Cross & Linehan Co. is composed of Messrs 
Jno. W. Cross, Wm. A. Linehan and P. J. Wray, 
three young men, who, by their energy, integrity and 
most excellent business qualities, have builded up per- 
haps the best arranged and most successful clothing 
and gentlemen's furnishing business in the State. 
Mr. Linehan is the eldest son of the late Patrick Line- 
han, who assisted in the construction of the Federal 
Post Office Building. 

The northern limits of the city, at this time, were 
bounded bv North street. Bevond this were few resi- 
dences, and no pretense to business. The growth of 
the citv has been such that of late years various busi- 
ness enterprises have been established. Among these 
is the Northside Pharmacy, which is now conducted 
by Mr. Wm. G. Thomas. He is a most enterprising 


business man, and his courteous manners, fine busi- 
ness capabilities, integrity and social qualities make 
his store a most popular one. He is a son of Mr. E. B. 
Thomas, one of our oldest and most esteemed citizens. 
His goods are of the best, and as a pharmacist his rank 
is superior. 

The Zachary Mantel Co., successors to Zachary & 
Zachary, 108 W. Martin street, are conducting a most 
successful business in the furnishing of hardwood 
mantels, tiles and grates. This is a comparatively 
new firm in our midst, though the gentlemen compos- 
ing it, by their strict attention to business and liber- 
ality in their dealings, have struck the channel to pop- 
ularity. They are rapidly spreading out into larger 
capacity for the management of their constantly in- 
creasing trade, their business engagements extending 
to South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and other South- 
ern States. The manager, Mr. Arthur D. Zachary, 
is one of Raleigh's substantial citizens, a man of fine 
business attainments, a gentleman of most agreeable 
and engaging manners, and one with whom it is a 
pleasure to know and deal. 

From Johnson's Pharmacy, on Fayetteville street, 
to the Yarborough House, at the period mentioned 
above, was a row of old framed houses, occupied as 
confectionery shops, law offices, etc. These structures 
long ago gave way to the present handsome buildings, 
in which are now conducted various lines of business. 
Among these is the well known and long established 
enterprise of Messrs. J. M. Broughton and T. B. 
Moseley, who, since 1888, have been associated in the 
business of dealing in real estate. These gentlemen 
are among the prominent business men of Raleigh, 
and have contributed, during their business career, 
much to the advancement of the citv's interests. In 



personal integrity and social qualities they occupy 
high positions. 

The business part of the city was then confined 
mainly to Fayetteville street, no stores having been 
erected east of that thoroughfare except on Hargett 


Died 1876; aged sixty-three years. 

street. Where now stands the Farmers and Com- 
mercial Bank, the dry goods house of Walter Wooll- 
cott, the clothing establishment of Whiting Bros., 
were the premises of Mrs. Ruffin Williams. 

Mr. Woollcott is the successor of Messrs. Woollcott 
& Son, who conducted so successfully a dry goods 
business here for many years. Mr. William Wooll- 


cott retired from the firm in 1900. The present pro- 
prietor is one of Raleigh's most prominent citizens, 
and ranks with the foremost Younsj business men of 
the city. No enterprise ever established at the capital 
enjoys the confidence of a wider circle of friends than 
the dry goods business of Walter Woollcott. 

The clothing business of Whiting Bros, is 
the oldest establishment of its kind in the city. Mr. 
Seymour Whiting has been identified with this branch 
of business for many years, and with his brother, Mr. 
Chester Whiting has successfully conducted a large 
and prosperous trade. There are few visitors to Ra- 
leigh who do not know and patronize Whiting Bros. 

The Commercial and Farmers Bank, und\er the man- 
agement of Capt. Thomas, must go forward to success, 
for as cotton broker, wholesale merchant and commis- 
sion merchant. Captain Thomas developed such excel- 
lent business capabilities that when this banking 
house was established he was called by the stockhold- 
ers to take the presidency. Capt, Thomas is one of 
our most prominent figures in all the phases of good 
citizenship and business management. 

Gathering their materials from Germany, Spain, 
England, South America, Florida, Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia and the Great West, the Caraleigh Phosphate 
and Fertilizer Works manufacture every grade of fer- 
tilizers demanded by the North Carolina trade. Their 
business is verv successful, due lar^elv to the fact that 
its management is composed of such energetic and 
reliable men as J. R. Chamberlain, Ashley Home, S. 
R. Home, E. C. Smith, F. O. Moring, J.' W. Barber 
and A. L. Chamberlain. They have a large up-to-date 
plant, and the fact that a mile of side-track is re- 
quired around their factory to handle heavy ship- 
ments, indicates somewhat the enormous business 


done. Raleigh is justly proud of this large industry. 
The success of this North Carolina enterprise is 
largely due to the eminent ability and intelligent man- 
agement of the business of the company by its presi- 
dent, Prof. J. R. Chamberlain, who has been ably 
assisted by Mr. A. L. Chamberlain, the secretary and 
treasurer. Few manufacturing enterprises have been 
more ably managed in all its departments than the 
Caraleigh Phosphate Works, of Raleigh. 

Among the most prominent insurance men in Ra- 
leigh is J. D. Boushall, whose personal and business 
qualities attract all who come in contact with him. 
In the General Assembly of 1899, he was among the 
ablest representatives of that body ; he also served the 
city as alderman until his rapidly increasing insur- 
ance business demanded his entire attention. He is 
a prominent member of the First Baptist church, and 
for a long time was the superintendent of its Sunday 
School. Mr. Boushall is deeply interested in all that 
concerns the material welfare of the capital city. 

G. A. Strickland & Co. is a firm of undertakers oc- 
cupying spacious accommodations in the Trade Build- 
ing, on S. Wilmington street. The firm is composed of 
G. A. Strickland and L. W. Duskin. Mr. Strickland 
is a well and favorably known resident of the capital, 
while Mr. Duskin is formerly of Seattle, Wash., where 
for many years he was successfully engaged in the 
same business now claiming his attention here. These 
gentlemen are highly capable in every department iu 
their line of industry, and those dealing with them 
will find them courteous and agreeable. The equip- 
ments of this establishment are the latest and most 
improved in every detail. Their terms are reasonable, 

On Wilmington street and Exchange Place J. M. 
Kohn is a dealer in ready-made clothing, sample shoes, 


and gents' furnishing goods. He is a polite and cour- 
teous gentleman, has a corps of obliging clerks, and 
the excellent quality and low prices which obtain at 
his store secure for him a popular trade. Since Mr. 
Kohn has been in business here he has succeeded in 
building up a most enviable reputation for reliability 
and fair dealing. His personal friends are many. 

The Hart- Ward Hardware Co., on Fayetteville 
street, successors to Julius Lewis Hardware Co., is a 
business under the management of Messrs John and 
Frank Ward and Mr. Chas. B. Hart, three of the 
brightest young business men in Raleigh. Messrs, 
Ward and Hart have grown up in the hardware busi- 
ness, and no one who knows them will wonder at their 
rapid advancement. Their trade embraces the limits 
of the State and is constantly increasing. 

W. H. King & Co. conduct two of the largest drug 
stores in Raleigh. This is the result of the enterprise, 
zeal, professional efficiency and excellent business 
capacity of Mr. W. Henry King, whose popularity in- 
creases every year. Mr. King has from a clerk risen 
to the control of two elegantly fitted up drug houses 
and well merits the large trade he enjoys. 



For the benefit of those who are accustomed to crv 
"hard times," and who think there is no time like the 
"good old times," the following prices of articles of 
everyday consumption sixty years ago, is appended : 
The cost of a dozen needles was 25 cents, a silk hand- 
kerchief (bandana) $1.25, a muslin handkerchief 70 
cents, a yard of broadcloth $7, a pound of pepper 70 
cents, a pair of cotton hose $1.40, one dozen pewter 
plates $4.50, a pound of Hyson tea $2.50, a yard of 
linen 70 cents, a pound of gunpowder $1, a pound of 
shot 15 cents. Nails were sold by number, not by the 
pound, e. g., fifty ten-penny nails 15 cents. Brown 
sugar was sold at from ten to fifteen cents per pound 
[there was no white sugar except loaf, which was 
twenty-five cents per pound] ; Rio coffee was twenty- 
five cents; flour six dollars per barrel, molasses sixty 
cents per gallon, and bacon from eight to ten cents 
per pound. Candles were Hye cents each. Lighting 
by gas was not known here until 1858. The charge 
was $6 per thousand feet — now it is $2. 

The last wooden structure on the business portion 
of Pavetteville street was demolished but a short while 
since, to make way for the Carolina Trust Building, 
just completed, adjoining the Tucker Building. 

Raleigh during the Civil War had a match factory. 
Mr. William Simpson, the pharmacist, was the pro- 
prietor. The operatives were boys and girls, which 
were employed in great numbers. 

In 1861, after the Civil War had begun, A. W. 
Fraps and Phil. Thiem, anticipating a great scarcity 
of leather, because of the closing of the Northern 
markets to Southern trade, with that foresight and 


sagacity worthy of enterprising business men, opened 
a factory for the manufacture of wooden shoes. They 
made two different kinds — one with wooden soles 
only, the remainder of leather; the other (of boat-like 
shape) was entirely of wood, except a small flap into 
which to place the strings. They were lined with cot- 
ton or felt. It was thought the Confederate govern- 
ment would place with the promoters of this enter- 
prise big contracts to supply the soldiers with these 
shoes, but this was a mistake, and the business was 
soon abandoned. The same firm continued, however, 
to manufacture other articles, such as putty, sand- 
paper, pencils, curry-combs, and many other things 
for home consumption. 

A substitute had now to be found also for coffee. 
To the ingenious mind this was comparatively simple. 
This substitute consisted principally of potatoes, 
which were first cut up, dried and then baked ana 
ground. Roasted or parched corn, wheat, rye, barley, 
etc., were also used by many people. An Irishman 
by the name of Kelly opened a factory for the turning 
out of some of this "coffee." Some uncharitable peo- 
ple said he mixed acorns with the above ingredients. 
He soon earned the sobriquet of "Coffee Kelly." 

Messrs. Keuster and Smethurst secured contracts 
for the manufacture of gun caps, and in 1862 Capt. 
B. P. Williamson and the late Col. J. M. Heck manu- 
factured belt buckles and spurs to supply the Confed- 
erate cavalry. Cartridges, too, were manufactured; 
the "plant" was at the Deaf and Dumb Institution, 
and the operatives were the pupils and other boys and 
girls of the city. 

Away back in the fifties, in "log cabin and hard 
cider times," political enthusiasts would sometimes 
resort to methods in elections that would put to 
blush many of the tricks and schemes heard of now. 


One instance of this character was that of old man 
Archie Drake, who kept a liquor shop on Hillsboro 
street, near the railroad bridge. On the mornings of 
election days, after loading up his "heelers" with a 
quantity of his liquid goods sufficient to arouse their 
patriotism ( ?) he would arrange them into a com- 
pany, and then, in the centre of the street, single tile, 
they would, to the time of drum and fife, march to the 
polls in a body. Arriving there, each man would de- 
posit his ballot under his boss's direction, and then 
return to the shop to receive the reward of having 
performed the duty of a patriot! In those days the 
law did not require saloons to be closed on election 
days, as now. 

No sport was so popular in this State in the good 
old days as cock-fights. Sometimes it would be an- 
nounced in the papers and in posters that festivals of 
this character would be held for three days in certain 
towns. Warrenton and Pittsboro had quite a reputa- 
tion for furnishing this sport to the public. The 
stakes were sometimes as high as five hundred dollars. 

The postage on letters in 1827, and many }^ears af- 
terward, was six cents for any distance not exceeding 
30 miles; over 30 and not exceeding 80 miles, 
ten cents; over 80 and not exceeding 150 miles, twelve 
and a half cents; over 150 and not exceeding 400 
miles, eighteen and three-fourth cents; over 400 miles, 
twenty-five cents. 

In the latter part of 1863, corn meal was selling for 
$12 per bushel, and bacon at $3 per pound. The per 
diem of legislators was $6 per day, while their ex- 
penses were not less than $10 per day. Later, in 1864, 
a suit of clothes would cost a thousand dollars, a bar- 
rel of flour eight hundred, bacon, a dollar and a half 
a pound, molasses (home-made) fifty dollars a gallon. 
Hats sold for three hundred dollars. 



The incidents of May 20, 18(>1, will remain as per- 
manent in the history of Raleigh as the granite hall 
in which they occurred. From that eventful and his- 
toric dav new scenes, new incidents and a dark future 
wound before our people. It was a turning point in 
its history. The dark clouds of the approaching 
storm arose before our people. The following pages 
will tell of some of the stirring events that lay in the 
immediate future. 

North Carolinians, and especially those of Raleigh, 
are not a mercurial people. They are rather slow to 
move, but when once aroused, they enter into the 
cause in which thev are interested Avith an earnestness 
unsurpassed by any. The exciting times of the latter 
part of 1860 and early part of 1861, incident to the 
Presidential election, did not seriously disturb our 
people, but when it was announced that Fort Sumter 
had been bombarded they awoke to the necessities of 
the occasion, and became prepared to bear their part 
in the conflict that was now inevitable. 

The Raleigh Register, in its issue of March 6, 1861 r 
referring to Lincoln's inauguration and his policy , 
said : "For the first time the Federal capital will bris- 
tle with arms to protect the person of the President 
from violence, and the property of the Federal govern- 
ment from seizure and depredation. These will con- 
stitute most momentous and memorable events 
throughout coming time." 

Later the same paper said, in referring to the States 
that had seceded from the Union : "Just let them 
alone, and leave them to work out the problem of a 
separate and independent government, and before 
Christmas some of them will be glad enough to return 
to the fold of the Union. Texas and Florida are not 


able to support themselves, much less contribute any- 
thing to the support and strength of the new Confed- 

A month or so afterward the same paper said: 
"Seven States have left the Union, declaring they will 
never willingly return to it. We believe that Abra- 
ham Lincoln is about to wage a war of coercion against 
these States ; we believe that in this war the remaining 
slaveholding States will be involved, and we shall be 
found on the side of the section in which we were born 
and bred, and in which live our kindred and our 
friends. If this makes us secessionists then so let us 
be called." 

At that time "State's Rights" or secession meetings 
were being held all over the State. 

The first official information that a conflict be- 
tween the North and South would ensue from the elec- 
tion of Lincoln was by the following telegram from 
Simon Cameron, Secretary of War of the United 
States, sent to Governor Ellis : "To J. W. Ellis, Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina: Call made on you by to- 
night's mail for two regiments of military for immedi- 
ate service." 

The Governor promptly replied by saying: "I can 
be no party to this wicked violation of the laws of the 
country and to this war upon the liberties of the peo- 
ple. You can get no troops from North Carolina." 

On the 17th of April Governor Ellis issued a procla- 
mation, in which, after alluding to the foregoing facts, 
he exhorted "all good citizens throughout the State 
to be mindful that their first allegiance is due to the 
sovereignty which protects their honor and dearesr 
interests, as their first service is due for the sacred de- 
fense of their hearths, and of the soil which holds the 

graves of our glorious dead." 




Things were then getting warm, and personal en- 
counters between champions of secession and "Union 
men" were common. Later in April a "secession 
pole" and flag were raised on a vacant lot on Fayette 
ville street, and was fired upon by a "Union man 
which act came near precipitating a riot. Duncan 
Havwood and Basil C. Manly, both of whom were 
among the first to manifest their secession proclivities 
by wearing upon their hats a red cockade — the badge 
of secession — had gone to this place with a secession 
or Confederate flag, for the purpose of hoisting it on 
a pole which had been erected for that purpose. On 
their arrival, with their friends, they found a number 
of antagonists, or "Union men, 7 ' who displayed great 
opposition to the raising of this symbol of war. One 
of this number was armed with a shotgun, who 
avowed his determination to shoot down the flag the 
instant it was raised. The hot-headed secessionists 
were not to be thus deterred, and proceeded to carry 
out their purpose. By this time a reckless young 
fellow, by the name of Tom Yates, had secreted him- 
self under an old shed near Wilmington street. The 
flag was hoisted, but no sooner had its folds unfurled, 
than bang ! went Tom Yates's gun. At that moment 
Wiley Sauls, a daring leader of the "Union men," ad- 
vanced to the pole, declaring his intention of cutting 
down the flag. One of those who had been promi- 
nent in the movement, being equally determined, at 
this juncture drew a pistol and threatened war upon 
Sauls and his friends if the emblem of State's rights 
was further molested. By this time cooler heads had 
arrived on the scene, and their wise counsel prevail- 
ing, what had promised a serious riot was averted. 


The young men who had shown so much opposition 
to the secession movement in this and other ways, 
were afterwards among the first, be it said to their 
credit, to shoulder their muskets and prove their 
loyalty to their native land. Many of them are sleep- 
ing to-day on Virginia's soil. 

Shortly after the occurrence of the foregoing inci- 
dent, a large and enthusiastic meeting was held, to 
which were invited all parties who desired "to unite 
in resisting the usurper Lincoln," as the newly elected 
President was termed. Dr. Fabius J. Haywood (fa- 
ther of Dr. P. J. Haywood, Jr.), was made chairman 
of the* meeting, and Mr. C. B. Root, secretary. At 
this meeting the reply of Governor Ellis to Lincoln 
for troops was heartily endorsed. Major A. M. Lewis 
was the chairman of the committee to draft resolu- 

The most exciting time ever experienced in Raleigh 
was on the 20th of May, 1861, the day on which the 
State severed its connection with the Union bv the 
adoption of the Secession Ordinance. This was done 
through a State Convention, which had been called 
for the purpose of considering what should be the atti- 
tude of the commonwealth with regard to the seces- 
sion movement, which was rife throughout the South. 
As soon as the result was announced, one hundred 
guns were fired in the Capitol Square, and the bells of 
the city rung, amid the deafening shouts of an excited 
multitude. The people were wild! 

The following is a verbatim copy of the Ordinance 
of Secession : 

"We, the people of the State of North Carolina, in 
convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is 
hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance 
adopted by the State of North Carolina in the Con- 


yention of 1789, whereby the Constitution of the Uni- 
ted States was ratified and adopted, and also all acts 
and parts of acts of the General Assembly, ratifying 
and adopting amendments to the said Constitution, 
are hereby repealed, rescinded and abrogated. 

"We do further declare and ordain, that the Union 
now subsisting between the State of North Carolina 
and the other States under the title of the United 
States of America, is hereby dissolved, and that the 
State of North Carolina is in full possession and exer- 
cise of all those rights of sovereignty which belong 
and appertain to a free and independent State." 

The military spirit of the people was by this time 
fully aroused. Besides organizations for field duty, 
a company known as the "Home Guard" was formed, 
composed of men beyond the age of forty-five, the most 
active members of which were to patrol the city every 
night when so directed. However, a communication 
was sent to one of the papers signed "Lady," saying, 
"we desire no such company — let them go where they 
are needed." The editor, after commending the lady's 
spirit, commented thus : "Nearly every lady in town 
was for secession long before the war begun, and now 
they actually want all the men to leave and go into 
the field, while they will protect themselves. Hurrah 
for the ladies of Raleigh!" 


At the outbreak of the war there was organized in 
Raleigh three companies — one of artillery and two of 
infantry. Nearly every one who enlisted at that time 
joined one or the other of these organizations. Still, 


there were some avIio united themselves with other 
commands. Their names are herein given, as well as 
those joining the home companies. Later, in 1862, 
another company was formed here, most of the mem- 
bers of which had resided in Raleigh. 

The following are the names of all the Raleigh 
boys who were in the Confederate service in any ca- 
pacity — whether as officers or privates — at any time 
during the war, from the firing on Fort Sumter in 
1861, to the surrender at Appomattox in 1865 : 


" Forth from its scabbard, pure and bright 

Flashed the sword of Lee ! 
Far in the front of the deadly fight, 
High o'er the brave in the cause of Right, 
Its stainless sheen, like a beacon light, 

Led us to victory." 

— Rev. Father Ryan. 

This company was first known as Ramseur's Bat- 
tery, and organized in Raleigh in April, 1861, with 
S. D. Ramseur as captain. This officer was after- 
ward promoted, and Basil C. Manly, of Raleigh, com- 
missioned in his stead. The only other officers of this 
company who were residents of Raleigh at the time of 
their commission were B. B. Guion and Wm. J. 

The non-commissioned officers were, Phil. H. Sas- 
ser, 1st Sergt. ; Jas. D. Newsom, 2d Sergt, ; Jas. Mc- 
Kimmon, 4th Sergt, ; Wm. E. Pell, 1st Corp. ; N. W. 
West, Artificer. The privates were, C. R. Harris, C. 
Harward, J. S. Harward, E. Telfair Hall, G. W. 
Perry, Samuel Snow, W. A. Wedding, W. H. Bledsoe, 
J. Pugh Haywood, Herbert Bragg, E. F. Page, J. Q. 
DeCarteret, J. J. Iredell, C. T. Iredell, Geo. M. Whit- 
ing, W. F. Ramsey, Ohas. McKimmon, W. M. Jones. 



This company was organized in 1861, with George 
H. Faribault as captain. Other captains at later 
periods were, Wm. T. Poole, Jefferson M. Henson. 
Other officers were : Marcellus Thompson, 1st Lieut. ; 
John W. Harrison, 2d Lieut. ; Jas. Murray Royster, 3d 

The non-commissioned officers were : W. H. Hamil- 
ton, Wm. H. Finch, Wm. C. Parker, Wm. H. Vaughn, 
Albert D. Carter, Jas. J. Lewis, Washington W. 
Overby, Rufus W. Smith, Joseph Woodroe. 

None of the privates of this company, except Wash- 
ington Overby, Sidney Taylor and Joseph Woodroe, 
were residents of Raleigh, and hence their names are 


This company was organized in 1861, with Wm. H. 
Harrison as captain. Captain Harrison resigned in 
1862, and Joseph Jones was promoted to this rank. 
The other commissioned officers were: Lieutenants 
Sion H. Rogers, Pinckney C. Hardie, Quentin Busbee, 
Seaton Gales, John S. Bryan, Chas. W. Beavers. 

The non-commissioned officers were: Jas. D. Hol- 
lister, R. C. Badger, E. M. Roberts, Jas. A. Puttick, 
Peter Suggs, Rufus H. Ruth, Austin Moss, Chas. 
Kruger, Henry Hahn, Henry Freibes. 

The privates were, J. Quint. Bryan, Peter Blum, 
Wm. Champion, Win. Chamblee, John L. Cooper, 
John Driver, Bryant Dinkins, R. N. Fennell, Wm. L. 
Gooch, Geo. W. High, M. Harrison, Wm. J. Hall, 
George Hood, Thos. G. Jenkins, Eldridge Johnson, 
L. N. Keith, F. Kuester, H. H. Martindale, W. T. 



Moss, Geo. D. Miller, W. L. Nowell, R G. Nowell, 
Wm. H. Putney, J. B. Perkinson, Henry Pennington, 
David W. Royster, J. R. Eenn, S. A. Smith, I. D. 
Smith, Marion Smith, S. W. Smith, Geo. T. Stronach, 
Jno. W. Syme, Sim Smith, Wiley Sauls, Jno. D. 


.1. C. S. LTJMSDEN. 

Died 1901 ; aged seventy years. 

Thompson, E. M. Wagstaff, Sam'l C. White, W. W. 

The foregoing lists of members of the Tenth and 
Fourteenth Regiments refer to the men as they en- 
listed, or to officers as they were commissioned or ap- 
pointed, when entering the army. This fact must be 
considered if it should be discovered that at a later 


period any private or officer bore a rank or filled a 
position differing from that herein set out. 


This company was organized in Raleigh in Febru- 
ary, 1862, with Everard Hall, captain; Campbell T. 
Iredell, 1st Lieutenant; David W. Whitaker and Geo. 
M. Whiting, 2d Lieutenants. Other members of this 
organization were: Nat. L. Brown, J. C. Syme, Wm. 
J. Hall, L. M. Green, George B. Moore, W. P. Bragg, 
Jonas Medlin, Lieut. Jas. M. Royster, Joseph Wood- 
ard, E. A. Williams. 

Other officers and men of this regiment, but mem- 
bers of other companies, were : Col. Sion H. Rogers, 
Chaplain W. S. Lacy, Capt. Geo. M. Whiting, Lieut. 
Jno. T. Womble, Lieut. Chas. C. Lovejoy, Lieut, C. 
Hutchings, Jas. F. Andrews, A. D. Royster, Jno. S. 
Primrose, Mart. Thompson, Drum Major W. D. Smith, 
W. C. Stronach, Richard Putney, Nicholas Gill, Geo. 
S. Hines. 

The folloAving, residents of Raleigh, were members 
of various commands : Lieut. F. H. Busbee, 71st 
Reg. ; Sherwood Badger ; George Badger ; Wm. Car- 
ter, 31st Reg. ; Dr. P. E. Hines, Surgeon 1st N. C. 
Bethel Reg. ; F. J. Haywood, Adj't. 5th N. C. Reg. ; 
C. M. Busbee, Sergt. -Major 5th X. C. Reg. ; Lieut. 
Jos. Haywood, Mallett's Bat. ; Lieut. Ethelred 
Jones, 12th Va. Regt. ; J. C. Marcom, Sgt. Cummings 
Bat. ; L. D. Womble, Cumming's Bat. ; Major H. M. 
Miller, Cox's Brigade ; W. B. Royster, 56th Reg. ; A. B. 
Stronach, Starr's Bat. ; Rev. B. Smedes, Chaplain 5th 
Reg. ; Lieut. Edward Smedes, 5th Reg. ; Ives Smedes, 
Tucker's Cavalry ; Lieut. A. K. Smedes ; Major W. J. 
Saunders ; Courier G. L. Tonnoffski, 17th Reg. ; C. D. 


rpchurch; Lieut. Wm. Haywood; Lieut. Duncan Hay- 
wood, 7th Reg. ; Geo. Lovejoy, Lieut. -Col. 14th Keg. ; 
G. N. Richardson, 52d Reg. ; A. J. McAlpin, Thos. 
Chrisman, Major Jas. Iredell, Henry J. Brown ; Sin- 
gleton Lacy, Va. Reg. ; Lieut, Jno. Bragg; Capt. A. W. 
Lawrence; Surgeon-General Chas. E. Johnson, Sur- 
geon-General E.Burke Haywood, Col. Dan'l G. Fowle, 
Lieut. Jno. B. Neathery, Major Jno. C. Winder, Major 
A. M. Lewis; Jas. B. Jordan, Adjt. 26th Reg.; Major 
Jno. Devereux, Capt. M. A. Bledsoe; Major Thos. D. 
Hogg; Lieut. Thad. McGee; Lieut, Chas. H.Thompson; 
('apt. Delamar Husted; Capt. J. R, Smith, 70th Reg.; 
W. H. Bledsoe, Manly's Bat.; Hugh Campbell, 70th 
Reg. ; Lieut, Jno. S. Pescud, Reese's Bat. ; J. M. 
Towles, 70th Reg. ; C. S. Weddon, 70th Reg. ; Lieut. 
Thos. G. Jenkins, 44th Reg. ; Lieut. M. B. Barbee, 6th 
Reg. ; Capt. R. S. Tucker, 3d Cav. ; Lieut, Cadwalader 
Iredell, 3d Cav. ; P. H. Young, 3d Cav. ; Capt, Drury 
Lacy, 43d Reg. ; Lieut. -Col. Ed. Graham Haywood, 7th 
Heg. ; Lieut, Thos. Badger, 43d Reg. ; Lieut. Jas. Mc- 
Kee, 7th Reg. ; T. P. Devereux, 43d Reg. 


There was now settled conviction in the minds of all 
that Avar was inevitable, and that although the conflict 
might be brief, yet hardship and deprivation in all 
probability would have to be endured, not only by the 
soldiers in the field but by their loved ones at home. 
Means were early sought to diminish, as much as 
possible, this condition, especially in so far as the fam- 
ilies of the soldiers were concerned. The first action 
taken in this direction was the holding of a mass 


meeting, at which resolutions were adopted "instruct- 
ing the mayor and commissioners to appropriate an 
amount sufficient to furnish at least the necessaries 
of life to the needy families of those who may enter 
the volunteer service from the city, during their ab- 
sence." Hon. John H. Bryan, Major Moses A. Bled- 
soe and Rev. T. E. Skinner composed the committee to 
draft the resolutions. It is not learned what amounts 
were afterwards realized for this purpose, but, of 
course, donations were liberal. 

The battle of Bethel, the first engagement of the 
war, was fought within a month after the State had 
seceded from the Union. In Raleigh there Avas great 
rejoicing over the news of our victory, announcing 
"the defeat of 4,500 of Lincoln's hirelings by 1,160 
North Carolinians and Virginians," as a current news- 
paper stated it. This was the battle in which fell the 
first martyr to the "Lost Cause" — Henry Wyatt, who, 
although not a Raleigh boy, was a valiant soldier. 

The two parties at this time — the Democratic and 
the Whig — were known, the former as the Disunion 
or Secession party, the latter as the Conservatives. 
These, though nominally favoring secession, were in 
reality Unionists. In other words, the Whigs reluc- 
tantlv favored the war, while the Democrats were anx- 
ious for the conflict. The two leading papers — the 
Register and the Standard — represented these par- 
ties — the former the Whigs and the latter the Demo- 
crats. On one occasion, in 1861, Mr. Jno. W. Syme, 
one of the editors of the Register, having taken offense 
at an editorial in the Standard, challenged its editor, 
Mr. Holden, for a duel. This was in May, 1861, be- 
fore the State had formally withdrawn its allegiance 
to the Union. Mr. Syme, in the note or letter consti- 
tuting the challenge, said he had found language 


used which was highly offensive to him. He added ; 
"As soon as I can procure the services of a friend you 
shall hear further from me on the subject." J. W. 
Cameron was the bearer of the challenge. 

Mr. Holden, in refusing to accept the challenge, 
replied : "I do not approve of or practice the code of 
the duelist. The code of honor is barbarous and un- 
christian. If I wrong a man I will right him and do 
him justice. I do not fear you, nor any one else; nor 
do I, when I know I am right, fear the public opinion 
which sustains the code of the duelist." This was the 
last of the matter and no more was heard of it. 

At this period there were a great many Unionists 
(as they were called) in Kaleigh, and much feeling 
existed between these and the secession papers, espec- 
iallv the State Journal, which was extremelv violent 
in its denunciation of Union men. At one time some 
of these latter had threatened the editor. This reached 
his ears, and the following are his observations in the 
next issue of his paper : "A reign of terror on a small 
scale exists in Kaleigh. The people will one day open 
their eyes to its originators. We have been notified 
that a body of one hundred men were ready to 'ride us 
on a rail.' They may do so, but it will be when life is 
extinct and when we have taken some of them with us 
to the judgment seat. We defy the whole pack." 

The news of the Battle of Manassas, which was 
fought on July 21, 1861, created great joy. One news- 
paper headed the article announcing the battle thus : 
"Another great victory ! The plains of Manassas ren- 
dered immortal ! The great Army of the Potomac 
routed ! Victory crowns our arms ! The Hessians 
flee! The Confederates pursue! One hundred and 
sixty thousand men on the field ! Great slaughter on 
both sides!" After describing the battle, the paper 


thus expresses its enthusiasm : "This blow will shake 
the Northern Union in every bone — the echo will 
reverberate round the globe. It secures the indepen- 
dence of the Southern Confederacy." 

Dr. Chas. E. Johnson, of Raleigh, who was then Sur- 
geon-General of the State, with several of his staff, 
was at once dispatched to the hospitals near Manas- 
sas, to render proper assistance to the wounded. Some 
visible signs of victory soon appeared, for in the early 
fall of that year more than two hundred Yankee pris- 
oners passed through Raleigh — "on their way to win- 
ter quarters in Columbia,'' as one paper stated. 

The first Regimental Hospital was organized in 
May, 1861, by Dr. P. E. Hines, who accompanied the 
1st Regiment to Yorktown as its surgeon. 

The first military hospital for North Carolina 
troops was established in Raleigh in April, 1861, by 
Dr. E. Burke Haywood. The memory of this good 
man is revered by many old soldiers, who were re- 
lieved of much pain and saved from an untimely 
death by his great love, skill and sympathy. The hos- 
pital was subsequently known as Pettigrew Hospital. 
Mr. W. H. Dodd was for some time hospital steward. 


For more than two years anterior to the period 
herein mentioned there had not been entire unanimity 
between the Raleigh newspapers in regard to the pol- 
icy thought proper for the Confederacy to pursue in 
regard to the war, the State Journal favoring the "last 
man and last dollar'- course, while Mr. Holden's pa- 
per, the Standard, insisted on policies of peace on less 
stringent terms. This was as well known to soldiers 


at the front as to citizens at home, and their disap- 
proval of such policy culminated in disaster to the 
publication of the paper for some time. The soldiers 
who sought an expression of their displeasure were 
members of Col. Wright's regiment, Benning's (Geor- 
gia) Brigade, and the opportunity was furnished 
them while being delayed in Raleigh a few hours on 
their way from Northern Virginia to Chicamauga in 

On their arrival here, one night in September of the 
above mentioned year, they soon learned of the situa- 
tion of the Standard office, when they at once marched 
in a body to the object of their violence, and without 
ceremony proceeded to batter down the doors of the 
building from which this paper had been published. 
They grasped everything within their reach, and then 
the work of destruction began. Nothing upon which 
they could lay their hands was spared from injury. 
Cases of type were emptied on the floor, and many of 
them flung into the street ; the ponderous marble slabs 
on which lay the pages of set type, ready for the next 
issue, were turned over, throwing the type into a huge 
heap on the floor, and kegs of ink turned out or spilt 
over everything. For some unknown cause the press 
escaped, perhaps because it was in another part of the 

During this proceeding. Gov. Vance was made ac- 
quainted with the affair, who lost no time in going 
rapidly to the scene to avert, if possible, the destruc- 
tion of the office. He arrived, however, too late, for 
the soldiers had accomplished their purpose. 

Mr. Holden was not without friends and supporters, 
so on the day following they proposed to be avenged. 
About nine o'clock in the morning the town bell was 
heard to ring vigorously, as if for an alarm of fire. Of 


course a great crowd gathered, as usual, at the market- 
house. On the south side of this, on the site of G. S. 
Tucker & Co.'s store, was the office of the State Jour- 
nal. Before the bell had ceased ringing it was ob- 
served that a scene similar to the one above described 
was again being enacted in this office — not by sol- 
diers this time, however, but by "Union men," (or 
"red strings," as they were sometimes called), and 
supporters of the Standard's peace policy. The leader 
of the crowd was Mark Williams, a man of great de- 
termination, who declared his intention of lending 
his aid toward meting out to the Journal the same 
fate as had been suffered by the Standard the night 
before. No less than forty people, mostly young men, 
joined in this work of destruction, and but a few 
minutes were required to shoAV how intense had been 
their spirit of retaliation. Every case of type was 
pitched out of the windows, and all the other printing 
material of every description rendered absolutely 
worthless. In this instance the printing-press did not 
escape — it was broken to pieces and so completely de- 
molished that repair was beyond hope. 

During this time the police were powerless, for, be- 
sides their numerical weakness, their inability to cope 
with the mob was augmented by their knowledge of 
the violent character of the men composing the mob. 

The Journal did not again make rts appearance. 
The next issue of the Standard was delayed for more 
than a month. 

The course of events which now followed until the 
close of the war, though of vast moment, many of 
them, to the people of the State and our Southland, 
yet as they touched not the interests of Ealeigh more 


particularly than other sections, to relate them here 
would be foreign to the scope and purpose of this pub- 
lication. Therefore, after an account of the closing 
scenes of the great drama, as Avitnessed here, and 
which consisted of the surrender of the city to the 
liiion forces, under General W. T. Sherman, on the 
13th of April, 1865 ; a brief reference to the Confed- 
erate Veterans; and the visit of President Johnson to 
his native city in 1867, our story of Raleigh of the 
olden times will close. 


It was not until the arrival of Sherman's army in 
Goldsboro, in April, 1865, and his long halt at that 
place, for the purpose of refitting and recruiting his 
exhausted troops, that the people of Raleigh enter- 
tained any serious apprehensions of being visited by 
the enemy. 


The surrender of General Lee, which took place on 
the 9th of April, 1865, rendered it absolutely necessary 
that General Johnson should retreat as rapidly as pos- 
sible to Western North Carolina. The news of Lee's 
surrender reached Raleigh on the 10th, and it was 
then that our people realized the fact that in our im- 
mediate vicinity the closing acts of the great drama 
would take place, and that in all probability "an army 
of occupation" would be quartered upon us to destroy 
what little of our substance remained. We were not 
long in suspense. About the 10th of April the ad- 
vance of Johnson's retreating army entered and 


passed through the city. It was truly a sad sight ; the 
band played Dixie, and the worn out veterans seemed 
to arouse up every muscle to appear in their best 
plight; their careworn faces, however, told the sad 
tale, and silentlv thev wended their way westward. 
They were several days in passing through, and, as 
they came, the news was communicated that the 
"Yankees" were near at hand. 


In the meantime it was considered best that the city 
authorities should take some steps for the proper sur- 
render of the city, which Johnson's retreat would nec- 
essarily leave at the nierc}' of the enemy. A meeting 
of the Board of Aldermen, then called Commissioners, 
was called, and a committee appointed, consisting of 
several members of that body and some four or five 
other citizens. The duties of the committee thus ap- 
pointed were understood to be somewhat as follows: 
They were expected to meet the advance of the Federal 
army a short distance from the city and formallv sur- 
render the same. The particular manner in which 
the programme was to be carried out was left, to a 
great extent, to Mayor W. H. Harrison. 

The night of the 12th of April was one of extreme 
anxiety. Gen. Wade Hampton with his cavalry force 
occupied the city, nor did many of them leave until 
within a few hours of the enemy's approach to the cor- 
porate limits. Col. Harrison was up the entire night 
in the discharge of his official duty. It was known 
that many of Hampton's Cavalry, as was natural un- 
der the circumstances, were desperate and daring men. 
and the utmost vigilance on the part of the civil au- 
thorities was necessary to preserve the peace. 



The morning of the 13th of April was a gloomy one 
indeed. A steady rain had set in and the sky was 
draped with black and ominous looking clouds. 
About sunrise the committee procured a carriage and 
proceeded out on the Holleman road to a point where 
it was crossed by the fortifications. The carriage 
contained, among others, Kenneth Rayner, P. F. Pes- 
cud, Mayor Harrison, Dr. E. B. Haywood, Alexander 
Creech and W. R. Richardson, the latter riding on the 
seat with the driver and carrying a staff to which was 
attached a white handkerchief to be used as a flag of 
truce. Arriving at their destination they awaited, 
amidst a drenching rain, the coming of the enemy. 


About 8 o'clock, from the summit of the hill beyond 
Walnut Creek, near the residence of the late W. H. 
Holleman, was seen a body of horsemen approaching 
Suddenly they were observed to halt and one of the 
foremost leveled a field spy-glass towards the place 
occupied by the committee. Then it was that Mr. 
Richardson, who had been assigned the duty of waving 
the flag of truce, stuck the emblem of peace on the 
top of the fortification. A few minutes afterward a 
detachment rode up to the committee, the officer in 
charge enquiring, "What does this mean?" Mr. Ray- 
ner replied that they were a joint delegation of city 
officials and citizens, who, in the absence of any mili- 
tary organizations, desired to surrender the city and 
ask protection for its non-combatants and public and 
private property. The officer replied that Gen. Kil- 
patrick alone had authority to arrange terms of sur 



The officer with his escort then returned to the main 
body of troops, and in a short while Gen. Judson Kil- 
patrick, the notorious Federal cavalry commander, 
made his appearance before them. Mr. Rayner stepped 
forward and said : "This is Gen. Kilpatrick, I pre- 
sume." "That is my name," replied Kilpatrick, 
"whom do I address?' 7 "My name, sir, is Rayner — 
Kenneth Rayner," replied our spokesman, "and 1 
have been selected to formally surrender the city of 
Raleigh to Gen. Sherman's army." Mr. Rayner made 
an earnest and tender appeal for the protection of the 
city and her people, at which the committee found it 
difficult to repress their feelings, and tears moistened 
the eyes of all. Kilpatrick received the words of the 
speaker with cold indifference. He said he would pro- 
tect the lives and property of all who yielded "obe- 
dience to law and order, but should pursue with re- 
lentless fury all traitors in armed opposition to the in- 
tegrity of the Union." 

The committee then returned to the citv. 


In a short while after the committee had returned. 
Kilpatrick's cavalry began to enter the city. Passing 
rapidly up Fayetteville street towards the capitol, 
suddenly they came to a check, and at the same in- 
stant was heard a loud exclamation, "Hurrah for the 
Southern Confederacy !" accompanied by the report of 
a pistol in the hands of a Confederate officer, mounted 
and occupying the middle of the street between what 
is now Hicks's Pharmacy and the Christian Advocate 
office. He had fired at Kilpatrick advance. Attempt- 


ing to escape, he was captured and carried before Kil- 
patrick in the Capitol Square. 

Said the orderly having the prisoner in charge to 
Kilpatrick, "General, here is the man who fired at our 

"To whose command do you belong?" asked Kil- 

"I belong to Hamilton's Cavalry, and am from 
Texas," replied the man. 

"Don't you know, sir, what the penalty is for re- 
sisting after terms of surrender have been agreed 
upon?" said Kilpatrick. 

a I knew nothing about the surrender, and I didn't 
shoot at anvbodv." 

"I understood," said Kilpatrick, "that you are one 
of these fellows who have been breaking open stores, 
and committing robberv during last night and early 
this morning, and your action to-day has endangered 
the lives of many of the citizens of this town; you 
deserve death, sir. Orderly," he continued, "take this 
man out where no ladies can see him, and hang him." 

Efforts were made by some of our prominent citi- 
zens to save the man who was about to yield up his 
life for an act of folly, but to no purpose — he was 
taken to the southeast corner of what was then known 
as the Rayner Grove, beyond the Governor's Mansion, 
and hung to a tree, under which he was buried. His 
remains were afterwards taken up and deposited near 
the northwest corner of the Confederate Cemetery. 

A similar incident, ending more fortunately, soon 
afterwards took place. 

Early on the morning of the surrender. Lieutenant 
James, of the Confederate service, who had been at- 
tached to the Provost Marshal's office here, while re- 
turning on horseback from a visit to lady friends in 



the northeastern part of the city, was met by some of 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry who, observing that he wore the 
uniform of a Confederate officer, summoned him to 
surrender. This he refused to do, but endeavored to 
defend himself by reaching for his pistol. He was, 
however, overpowered and taken prisoner. This was 
soon after Kilpatrick had so summarily disposed of 


Senator from Wake. 

the unfortunate Texan. Being also carried before 
Kilpatrick, the latter, looking the young officer sternly 
in the face, said : 

"Who are you, sir?" 

"My name, sir, is James — Lieutenant James, of the 
Confederate service," was the reply. 

"Whv are vou not with vour command? What are 
you doing straggling about? Are you a spy?" in- 
quired Kilpatrick. 


"I am no straggler or spy either — I am attached to 
the Provost Marshal's office in this city," answered 

"Ah, indeed/' said Kilpatrick, "so much the worse 
for you, sir; you must have known of the surrender 
of the city, and yet, as I am informed, you showed 
fight when my men attempted to arrest you." 

"I did not know of the surrender," said James; "I 
had been visiting, and supposed from the action of 
your men that a skirmish was going on between your 
advance and some of General Hamilton's rear. Such 
being my impression, I attempted to defend myself — 
I would do so again, sir." 

"I have just hung a man for an offense similar to 
yours, sir," said Kilpatrick. 

"Very well, sir," said James, "you have me in your 
power — you can hang me if you like." 

As this was said, a thrill of terror ran through the 
bystanders, for there were numbers of our citizens on 
the spot, who surely thought that the reply would 
be an order for another execution. Kilpatrick paused 
a moment, and looking the young officer full in the 
face — the latter returning the gaze in a bold and de- 
fiant manner — answered: 

"No, I'll not hang you. Orderly," he continued, 
addressing the man in charge of the squad, "take 
charge of this young man until further orders." 

James was taken from the guards and placed in 
prison. He was released on parole in a few days. 



News of the assassination of the President was re- 
ceived here on the 15th of April, 1865, — the day fol- 
lowing the tragedy. The news spread rapidly among 
the soldiers of the army as well as among the citizens 
of the town. As the story spread from month to month 
the dimensions of the affair hugely increased, and the 
perpetrators of the deed were declared to be promi- 
nent officers of the Confederate Government, acting 
directlv under instructions from President Davis and 
his Cabinet. Of course there were not wanting those 
who sought by the most absurd recitals to add fuel to 
the flames of excitement, in the hopes of exciting the 
mob element of the Federal army to wreak vengeance 
upon the inhabitants of the city, and thereby afford an 
excuse for plunder and other outrageous deeds of vio- 
lence. In the meantime a few of the citizens endeav- 
ored to obtain authentic information concerning the 
assassination from General Sherman, but without 


On the 15th, night fell upon our people in a state of 
the wildest excitement and alarm. All kinds of ru- 
mors were afloat as to the intention of the army. 
Crowds of soldiers were to be seen standing at the cor- 
ners of the different streets, loud in their expressions 
of indignation, and open in their declarations to have 
vengeance for what they termed the "rebel murder." 
It was a terrible time. Many of the citizens petitioned 
for extra guards. Hundreds of people sat up during 
the entire night, expecting every moment mob vio- 
lence. About 9 o'clock additional alarm was created 
by the alarm of "fire !" Many thought that the work 


of destruction had commenced. Hundreds of citizens 
repaired to the scene of the flames, but the cause of 
excitement was happily discovered to be the acciden- 
tal burning of a deserted workshop in the remote 
southeastern section of the city. The remaining por- 
tion of the night passed off in a comparatively quiet 

It is authoritatively stated that but for the prompt 
action of Major-General Logan a mob would have 
sacked the city on the night above alluded to. He had 
arrived in the city during the day from Morrisville, 
and was, in the early part of the night, at the house of 
a well-known citizen, when he was called out by a pri- 
vate soldier, who told him that a part of his com- 
mand, encamped near the Insane Asylum, were on 
their way to the city for the purpose of burning it. He 
immediatelv mounted his horse and met the mob at 
the bridge over Kocky Branch, where with mingled 
threats and entreaties he dissuaded them from their 
vile purpose. 


At the time of the surrender of the city, among other 
papers published here was the Daily Progress. After 
Sherman's occupation this journal was permitted to 
continue issuing its regular editions. The late Col. 
W. K. Richardson, of Raleigh ( father of our esteemed 
townsman, Mr. Walter Richardson), Avas one of the 
proprietors. A few days after Lincoln's assassination 
the paper was seen to contain an article reflecting 
upon Sherman for allowing private property to be 4 
taken for army purposes without compensation. The 
property alluded to was the residence of the late Dr. 
F. J. Havwood, at the head of Favetteville street. 


Early in the forenoon of the same day Col. Richardson 
received the following note from Gen. Sherman, run- 
ning somewhat as follows : 

"To the Proprietors of the Progress: 

"You are hereby ordered to suspend your paper and 
report at once to headquarters. 

(Signed) "W. T. Sherman." 

Col. Richardson prepared as soon as possible to obey 
the summons, while, in the language of that gentle 
man himself, "the ghost of the unfortunate Texan 
flitted before him, and the case-mated walls of For- 
tress Monroe angrily frowned in prospect." Appear- 
ing before Sherman, the latter said, "So you are an 
editor?" and continued : "There is one thing I want 
you newspaper men to understand, and that is, you 
are not conducting a newspaper in Massachusetts or 
New York, but in a conquered territory ; and I'll have 
you to understand that if you can't carry on your pa- 
pers without reflecting on my army, I am determined 
that they shall be suspended." 

An explanation was made by Col. Richardson which 
was deemed sufficient to excuse him from what Sher- 
man thought had been almost treasonable, and the 
Progress afterwards made its appearance as usual. 

About the 25th of April Gen. Sherman left the army 
in command of Schofield, and proceeded to Savannah, 
for the purpose of directing matters in South Carolina 
and Georgia. Upon his return to Raleigh arrange- 
ments were made for the disposition of the forces un- 
der his command. The Tenth and Twenty-third Corps, 
together with Kilpatrick's Cavalry Division, were or- 
dered to remain in North Carolina until further or- 
ders. Most of the remaining portion of the army was 


ordered to march to Washington, where a grand re- 
view took place on the 24th of May. On the 30th of 
the same month Sherman issued his farewell orders to 
his troops. 

L. O'B. BRANCH CAMP 515 U. C, V. 

Officers : 

A. B. Stronach, Commander. 

J. S. Allen, 1st Lieut. Commander. 

W. H. Hughes, 2d Lieut. Commander. 

J. C. Birdsong, Adjutant. 

R. H. Bradley, R. H. Brooks, Color Bearers. 

W. D. Smith, Drum Major. 

Of the large number of officers and men in Raleigh 
who went forth to battle for victory, all now remain- 
ing, who reside still in their boyhood home, to tell the 
story of their struggles, their deprivations, their 
hopes, their triumphs, and alas ! their defeat, are the 
following. Most of these are members of the above 
organization : 

Jas. D. Newsom, N. W. West, Telfair Hall, J. Pugh 
Haywood, Jos. A. Haywood, Chas. McKimmon, J. J. 
Lewis, Chas. W. Beavers, Wm. L. Gooch, Wm. J. Hall, 
W. Loftin Nowell, David W. Royster, Sim. Smith, 
Jno. D. Thompson, W. W. Wynne, J. C. Syme, Alfred 
Lewis, L. M. Greene, C. Hutchings, Mart Thompson. 
W. D. Smith, Richard Putney, Dr. F. J. Haywood, 
C. M. Busbee, F. H. Busbee, C. R. Harris, J. C. Mar- 
com, L. D. Womble, W. B. Royster, A. B. Stronach, 
W. J. Saunders, Geo. L. Tonnoffski, M. A. Bledsoe, 


Dr. T. D. Hogg. Dr. Jas. McKee, T. P. Devereux, Jno. 
S. Pescud, M. B. Barbee, D. H. Young, Thos. Badger. 

i < 

Furl that banner ! True 'tis gory, 
Yet 'tis wreathed around with glory, 
And 'twill live in song and story, 

Though its folds are in the dust. 
For its fame on brightest pages, 
Penned by poets and by sages, 
Shall go sounding down the ages — 

Furl its folds though now we must." 

— Rev. Father Ryan. 



As showing the condition of things in city affairs 
shortly after the termination of the war, the following, 
it is thought, may prove not uninteresting : 

W. W. Holden having been made Provisional Gov- 
ernor on the 29th of May, 1865, by President Johnson, 
the former, on June 30, appointed W. H. Harrison, 
Mayor; W. R. Richardson, Treasurer; J. J. Christo- 
phers, Clerk ; J. J. Betts, Chief Constable. The Com- 
missioners were : Alexander Creech, C. M. Farris and 
Parker Overby, representing the Western Ward; W. 
R. Richardson, H. Mahler and A. L. Lougee, the Mid- 
dle Ward; N. S. Harp, J. J. Overby and Hackney 
Pool, the Eastern Ward. 

At a special meeting of the Commissioners on July 
18th of same year, as evidencing the loyalty of the 
citizens of Raleigh to the United States Government, 
a resolution was adopted, as follows: "Resolved, 
That it is the opinion of the Commissioners of the city 
of Raleigh, derived as well from their personal inter- 
course as from well accredited reports, that the citi- 
zens have willingly accepted the terms of peace and 
restoration to the Union, tendered by the President 
of the United States, and are now loval and obedient 
to the Federal Government." 

It was not until October, however, that it was 
learned that we were free from militarv rule, for on 
the 10th of that month it was ordered bv the Commis- 
sioners, "that a committee be appointed to wait on the 
Governor and Provost Marshal and ascertain if the 
city is turned over to the civil authorities." At the 
same meeting "W. H. & R. S. Tucker were appointed 
auctioneers for the city," as was also B. P. Williamson 


The committee above mentioned, after obeying the 
instructions of the Board, at a subsequent meeting 
reported that they had "waited on the Governor, who 
so understands that the city is turned over," etc. 

At a meeting of the Commissioners on October 25, 
it was "Ordered : That a captain of the police of the 
city be appointed, whose duty it shall be to station 
himself at or near the guardhouse during the night 
(unless otherwise called off by duty), whose duty it 
shall be, in case of riot or other disorder, to cause the 
town bell to be rung, calling the entire police force to 
repair to the scene of disorder and quell the disturb- 
ance, and afterwards to repair to their respective 

On October 28, it was ordained by the Board "that 
no free person of color shall serve in any storehouse 
or shop within the corporation where ardent spirits 
are sold, as tapster or bar-keeper, or in any way assist 
in the vending of such ardent spirits in such store- 
house or shop, under a penalty of ten dollars." Three 
days thereafter the ordinance was repealed. 

Before 1867 the meetings of the Board of Commis- 
sioners seemed to have been secret, as it is found by 
the minutes of the meeting held in January of that 
year that "it was moved and agreed that the doors of 
the mayor's office be thrown open to all citizens at the 
time of the meetings of the Board." 

As throwing some light on the question of domestic 
animals running at large, it may be interesting to the 
average resident of Raleigh to learn that at a meeting 
of the Board of Commissioners about that time, it was 
"ordered that the chief of police be allowed two per- 
sons two days in each week for the purpose of taking 
up all hogs and goats running at large, and that they 
be allowed the sum of f 1.50 per day each for their ser- 


The city seems to have been pushed for revenue, too, 
about this time, for a tax of fifteen cents was imposed 
"on each beef and five cents on each sheep sold on 
Market Square." 


The visit of President Andrew Johnson to Kaleigh, 
the place of his birth, on June 3, 1867, was an occasion 
of much interest, not merely because he was a Presi- 
dent, but for the additional reason that it was here 
he was born and from the humblest station in life had 
risen to the most distinguished position in the gift of 
the people of the United States. 

The President's visit was occasioned by the comple- 
tion of the monument that had but a short while be 
fore been erected to the memory of his father, Jacob 
Johnson, who died in 1712, and in response to an 
invitation bv the citv to be present at the memorial 
exercises to be observed on June 4th, following. 
The President was accompanied by Secretary of 
State Seward, whose life had been so seriously at- 
tacked on the night of President Lincoln's assassina- 
tion in Washington, and Postmaster-General Randall. 

The President and party were met at the depot by 
a large concourse of people, more than two-thirds of 
whom were colored — the other third being made up of 
military, State and municipal authorities, and white 
citizens. Gov. Worth, ExGovernors Graham, Swain, 
Manly and Bragg, together with Judge E. G. Reade, 
B. F. Moore, Esq., and Mayor Dallas Haywood, hon- 
ored the occasion with their presence. 

Mayor Haywood tendered the hospitalities of the 
city in a brief address, when the President responded 


by returning his gratification at the kindness of the 
citizens of his native town, who had known him long- 
est and best and who thus honored him. 

After the arrival of the distinguished guests at the 
Yarborough House, Gov. Worth introduced the Presi- 
dent from the balcony, to the large audience which 
had gathered. This was feelingly responded to by 
Mr. Johnson, who said, among other things, that forty- 
one years before, poor and penniless, he had left his 
native town to make his wav in the world. He had 
ever loved his native State, and though she had not 
been to him a cherishing mother, nevertheless she was 
his mother. He would not discuss political matters, 
said he, but invoked all to stand by the Union and the 
Constitution. Before closing his remarks, he ad- 
dressed himself to the young men of the city and bade 
them labor to make themselves men of learning, dis- 
tinction and power. 

On Tuesday the President gave a public reception 
in the House of Representatives, after which, accom- 
panied by Secretary Seward, Postmaster-General Ran- 
dall, the State and municipal authorities, and Ex- 
Governor Swain (who was orator of the day), he re- 
paired to the City Cemetery (corner of Morgan and 
East streets) to witness the memorial exercises at the 
erection of the monument of his father, Jacob John 
son. Ex-Governor Swain then delivered the address 
in the presence of a vast assembly. 

On the next day the President returned to Wash- 



In 1892, it was thought eminently fitting that there 
should be celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of 
the founding of the city of Raleigh. To this end, an ad- 
dress was printed and sent throughout the State and 
to a great number of distinguished native North Caro- 
linians then residing in other States, inviting them 
to be present on the 18th, 19th and 20th of October, 
to join in the festivities. 

Besides a festival recalling colonial days, and a 
magnificent pyrotechnic display, there was a grand 
allegorical and trade procession. Appropriate ser 
vices were held in all the churches, but the most elab- 
orate observance took place at the Church of the 
Good Shepherd (Protestant Episcopal), in commem- 
oration of the one hundredth anniversary of the con- 
secration on American soil of a Bishop of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church. This was at the morning 
service. At night the service commemorated the Cen- 
tennial of Raleigh and the quadri-centennial of the 
landing of Columbus. Hon. Chas. M. Busbee, of Ra- 
leigh, delivered an able address, as did also Hon. Geo. 
T. Winston. 

The most attractive feature of the celebration was 
the procession, in which were* a great number of 
"floats" or "cars," (as they were called), constructed 
to represent different historical events, some of which 
were the following : Sir Walter Raleigh before Queen 
Elizabeth ; reception of Lafayette in Raleigh in 1825, 
by Governor Burton. Included in this scene was a 
faithful representation of Lafayette and Miss Eliza- 
beth Haywood before Canova's statue of Washington. 


during Lafayette's visit to Raleigh the above men- 
tioned year. 

In the procession also was a fac simile representa- 
tion of the "Tornado," the first locomotive that came 
to Raleigh, for the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, with 
a freight car attached, the original coming here in 
1840. One of its first engineers, Mr. Albert Johnson, 
(now deceased) — was on the "float," and held the 
throttle as he had of the original engine fifty years 
before. Another "float" was in commemoration of 
the services of citizens of Raleigh in the War of 1812. 
This was represented by five Raleigh gentlemen, whose 
ancestors, in a direct line, served in that struggle. 
Four veterans of the Mexican War represented that 
event, viz., Messrs. Mordecai B. Barbee, H. W. Earp, 
Wm. H. High and W. A. Lamb. Eight ex-soldiers of 
the Civil War, attired in the identical grey uniform 
they had worn thirty years before, honored the mem- 
ory of the Lost Cause. 

On Tuesday evening, the 18th, Dr. Kemp P. Battle 
delivered an historic oration, and on Wednesday night 
a grand display of fireworks was witnessed at Moore 
Square by not less than ten thousand people, the fes- 
tivities of the Centennial occasion closing on Thurs- 
day night with a magnificent ball at Stronach's audi- 







Raleigh was born a State capital. The wise men of 
the State selected the location when it was a primeval 
forest because it possessed every natural advantage. 
There is no finer climate in the world. It was built 
in a magnificent natural oak forest. It is on an ele- 
vation and Avell drained. It is centrally located, and 
is surrounded by a fertile section, whose lands are 
well adapted to diversified agriculture. It is the 
Capital of a large and prosperous county, peopled for 
generations by a fine class of men and women, noted 
for their patriotism and their hospitality. 

Born as the political centre of the State, many year's 
passed before its people appreciated the importance of 
establishing manufacturing industries that would give 
employment to hundreds of skilled workers. Rut the 
present generation, alive to the industrial activities 
of tin 1 times, has come to appreciate that city growth 
and manufacturing are synonymous terms. Within 
the past ten or twelve years three large cotton facto- 
ries and two large knitting mills have been established 
in addition to other industries that give employment 
to hundreds of men and women. The success of the 
industries that have been established has been so 
marked that tin 1 establishment of others is on foot, 
and only recently the stock was subscribed for the es- 
tablishment of a collar and cuff factory, to be man- 
aged by an expert from Troy, X. Y., the centre of man- 


9 no 



ufacture of collars and cuffs. The spirit of progress 
is alive, capitalists at home and abroad have their eyes 
upon Raleigh, and the next ten years will witness a 
development that will double Raleigh's manufactur- 
ing plants. 

The cotton and tobacco industries are referred to at 
length hereafter. 


Mayor of Raleigh. 

It should be emphasized that Raleigh is the educa- 
tional centre of North Carolina. More young men 
and young women are educated in Raleigh than in 
any other city of the State, and the fame and patron- 
age of its schools and colleges are not confined to 
State lines. 

It is likewise and naturally a centre of literary life, 
embracing manv of the first minds in the State and 


attracting hither men of talent in all the professions 
and callings. 

In Oakwood Cemetery are monuments erected to 
the memory of many of the State's distinguished dead, 
and in Capitol Square within the past few years a 
magnificent monument has been erected to the mem- 
ory of the Confederate dead, and a speaking bronze 
statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, twice a resident of 
Raleigh while Governor of the State. Soon a bronze 
statue of Ensign Worth Bagley, a native of Raleigh, 
the first to give his life for his country in the Spanish- 
American war, and the only naval officer to be killed 
in that war, will be placed in Capitol Square. 

As a resident city, Raleigh is as near perfect as any 
city could be desired. Its beautiful homes; wide 
macadamized streets; its well-kept lawns; its three 
parks in the very heart of the city and its large and 
delightful park in the western limit; its Raney Li- 
brary, the pride of the city and the best public li- 
brary that is to be found anywhere in a city of its 
size; its elegant club house, a dream of architectural 
beauty; its numerous social, historical and business 
societies — all these and others go to make Raleigh a 
thoroughly delightful residence city. Because of these 
advantages retired business and professional men 
have made their homes in the capital city, and it is 
the home of a multitude of families of men whose busi- 
ness keeps them on the road. 

But it is impossible in any brief space to enumerate 
the advantages that Raleigh offers to home-seekers, 
business men and manufacturers. Property has never 
been placed at any speculative values, but can be 
bought cheaply when the population and advantages 
of the city are considered. There are many openings 
for profitable investment. The city is on the eve of its 
greatest expansion, and within the past five years has 


built more residences and handsome structures than 
in any previous ten years, and the development is but 
on its threshold. 

The fine water power on the Neuse, near Raleigh, 
has been developed, and will furnish power cheaply 
to factories. This will greatly accelerate the manu- 
facturing growth. 

Raleigh's material advancement is at this time more 
notable than at any previous period. In almost every 
line of business and commerce, we see marked evi- 
dences of a rapid, but not mushroom growth. The 
cotton manufacturing industry shows signs of a 
steady and safe increase. All the three large cotton 
mills in Raleigh have been enlarged, the demand for 
their products necessitating over-time work, and the 
stock has risen from fifteen to twenty-five per cent in 
value within the last few years. The two knitting 
mills are in a most flourishing condition also. 

At the Falls of Neuse, near the city, another large 
cotton mill has recently been established. 

At Milburnie, six miles from the city, the superb 
water-power of the Neuse River is being used by a 
new electric company, which is transmitting the 
power to the city for lighting and other purposes. 

There is great activity and success in all the estab- 
lished manufactures in Raleigh. All of them are run- 
ning on full time, some of them over-time, and there 
are new corporations organized for new manufactur- 
ing and development which promises big things in the 
way of adding to Raleigh's manufacturing greatness. 
Alreadv it has a multitude of small industries which 
will grow into great ones. 

The most conspicuous advance in Raleigh is to be 
seen when we turn to the consideration of the work of 
the architects and contractors. Ten vears asfo Ra- 
leigh had one sole architect, who was not kept busy. 


To-day a dozen expert and experienced graduates of 
the best schools of architecture have a large clientele, 
and there is an increasing demand for their profes- 
sional services. The number of prosperous firms of 
contractors and builders has increased even more 
rapidly, and the demand for new factories, new stores 
and new homes is even greater than the army of con- 
tractors and skilled mechanics can keep up with. 

The building of the Baptist Female University, the 
Capital Club, the Tucker Building, the Olivia Raney 
Library, the Carolina Trust Company's new building, 
and the new Presbyterian church marks the departure 
from a. city of small buildings to a metropolitan city. 
Those buildings set the pace for the new architecture 
that is transforming Raleigh into a modern city. 

Raleigh's crowning glory is its educational primacy. 
The centre of official and political life for generations, 
it has always been noted for its excellent educational 
advantages. The youth from all portions of the State 
have been attracted to Raleigh by its fine schools and 


With its numerous schools and colleges, Raleigh can 
well be called an educational center. The graded 
schools are models of their kind. 

The North Carolina College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts has a fine site, just beyond the western 
corporate limits. The college is of brick, with Wake 
County granite and Anson brownstone. It has a 
thorough course, with military features. There is a 
magnificent new Textile School Building, which cost 
|20,000, and the new Watauga Hall, which will cost 

St. Mary's School for young ladies, under Episco- 
palian auspices, is famous throughout the South. It 


is now doing a greater work than ever under the presi- 
dency of Kev. T. D. Bratton, and its career of useful- 
ness promises much for the future. 

Peace Institute, under Presbyterian patronage, is 
another well-known school for young ladies. It has 
an able corps of twenty instructors, and its patronage 
embraces many States. Mr. Jas. Dinwiddie is the 

The Baptist Female University is one of the new in- 
stitutions of the city, and has been remarkably suc- 
cessful, having a splendid faculty and possessing 
every advantage for doing the best work. 

The Kaleigh Male Academy is a splendid school for 
boys, in its twenty-fourth year. The record of its 
students in universities and colleges is unexcelled. 
The aim of this school is to teach its pupils to think 
and reason for themselves — to give them such mental 
discipline and training as will be valuable to them in 
after life. Mr. Hugh Morson is the highly-efficient 

Shaw University, for colored people, is a huge brick 
structure. Adjoining is Estey Seminary for females, 
and near by is Leonard Medical College. There is 
also a law department. 

A medical department of the State University has 
been established in the city, with a faculty composed 
of the leading physicians and surgeons of the State. 
The course is two years, and is intended to supplement 
the regular University course in medicine. Dr. Hu- 
bert Royster, so eminent for his superior surgical 
skill, is the Dean. 

St. Augustine Normal School is a large institution 
for the education of the colored people. It has many 
handsome and commodious buildings. 

There are State schools for the white and colored 
blind, and the colored deaf and dumb and blind. 


Two orphanages have recently been established, one 
for Methodist and one for Catholic children. 

The University of North Carolina is twenty-eight 
miles west of the city, Wake Forest College seventeen 
miles north, and Trinity College twenty-eight miles 


Raleigh is the newspaper center of the State, hav- 
ing two large morning dailies, and one evening daily. 
Here are published the organs of the Methodist, Bap- 
tist and Catholic denominations. There are two week- 
lies devoted entirelv to farming. 


The city has five banks, all sound financial institu- 
tions, as follows : The Citizens National Bank, incor- 
porated 1870, capital $100,000. The Commercial and 
Farmers Bank, began business 1891, capital f 100,000. 
The National Bank of Raleigh, incorporated 1885, 
capital $225,000. Raleigh Savings Bank, commenced 
business 1887, capital $15,500. Mechanics Dime Say- 
ings Bank, incorporated in 1895, capital $15,000. 

Private bankers are Grimes & Vass, Raleigh Loan 
and Trust Company, and Carolina Trust Company. 


The North Carolina Home Insurance Company, of 
Ralei°h, y> T as organized as a fire insurance companv 
in 1868. 

The People's Mutual Benevolent Association, of 
Raleigh, was incorporated in 1897. 

The People's Benefit and Relief Association, of 
North Carolina, is a colored institution. 

The Mechanics and Investors Union is a model 
building and loan association. 



The State Hospital, on Dix Hill, overlooking Ra- 
leigh, is an asylum for the insane, accommodating 
about 400 patients. 

The Rex Hospital is a public hospital for patients 
suffering from all except contagious diseases. 

The North Carolina Soldiers Home has an appro- 
priation from the State Treasury, and also receives 
voluntarv contributions. 

St. Luke's Home for Old Ladies is managed by the 
King's Daughters. 

Leonard Medical School Hospital, Shaw univer- 
sity, is for the colored people. 

St. Agnes Hospital and Training School for Nurses, 
is also for colored people. 


The following is a partial list of enterprises that 
have recently been added to the industries and im- 
provements of the city. 

The Melrose Knitting Mill, for manufacture of 
men's underwear; the Williard & Ashe Hosiery Mill, 
for which a new brick factorv has been erected; the 
Copperville Brick Company, with the most approved 
steam brick machinery; the electric plant at Milbur- 
nie, on Neuse River; a large cotton mill at Falls of 
Neuse, owned in Raleigh; Norwood Cigar Fac- 
tory; the Pogne plug tobacco factory, in new quar- 
ters; large additions to the Caraleigh Fertilizer 
Works ; the Cotton-seed Oil Mill ; the Caraleigh Ging- 
ham Mills; the Raleigh Yarn Mill, and the Pilot Plaid 

The Water Company has greatly enlarged their 
plant. An entirely new system of works and mains 
have been put in by the Raleigh Gas and Electric 
Company, at a heavy cost. 


The city of Raleigh rejoices in the completion of the 
Greater Seaboard Air Line Railway, which places our 
city on the through route from Boston to Florida ; it 
also appreciates the advantages of being on the line of 
the Southern Railway system — both giving to our citi- 
zens the advantages of frequent trains and competi- 
tive rates. 

This city now has free rural, as well as city postal 
deliveries, and Avith greatly increased business re- 
ported by the postoffice, banks, manufacturers, mer- 
chants, and by the real estate, tobacco and cotton op- 
erators, can confidently anticipate a continued in- 
crease of business prosperity. 

The Raleigh Leaf Tobacco Company has been organ- 
ized within the last few months, for dealing in and 
manufacturing leaf tobacco. Two warehouses are 
already in active operation. 


The Electric City Railroad, run by the Raleigh Elec- 
tric Company, is about five miles in length. It en- 
ables passengers to visit all the main points of interest 
in the city, including the State Capitol and surround- 
ing State buildings, Governor's Mansion, Pullen 
Park, Brookside Park, Oakwood Cemetery, and the 
various schools and colleges. It has lately added to 
its line and equipment. 

The Standard Gas and Electric Company and the 
Raleigh Electric Company supply electric lights to 
the city, the first company supplying botli gas and 

There is also an electric fire alarm system. 


This imposing and magnificent building is located 
on the northwest corner of Martin and Fayetteville 


streets, facing on Martin street, opposite the post- 
office. The building is of pressed brick, is imposing 
in appearance, pleasing in design, its five stories 
standing forth a living monument to the memory of 
Major Tucker, and a credit to the thrift and progress 
of the capital city. The building is five stories in 
height, with a frontage of 72 feet on Fayetteville 
street and 68 feet on Martin street. 


The handsome office building of the Carolina Trust 
Company is situated on Fayetteville street, near the 
postoffice. This company was organized early in the 
year 1901, and began at once to form plans for the 
erection of its building, and putting in the most mod- 
ern equipments for its own banking and trust offices. 
These are located on the first floor. The upper floors 
are used exclusively for offices of various professions 
and different lines of business. 

On June 13, If) 02, the building was completed for 
occupancy, and on July 22, the extensive banking ar- 
rangements and furnishings were finished. The com- 
pany at once threw open its doors for business. This 
witnessed a change to meet the financial conditions of 
the twentieth century and the demands of our citizens 
for an institution to manage estates in trust and put 
in active operation the industries that awaited devel- 


The State Capitol is a magnificent building of gran- 
ite. It is one of the finest specimens of architecture 
to be found in the country, 140 by 160, and 100 feet 
high. When it was completed it was the handsomest 
State capitol building in the United States, and 
though others have surpassed it in size and modern 


conveniences, it is still a model of architectural 
beauty. It is a classic structure, with many attrac- 
tive features, being modelled after the Parthenon, the 
Lanthorn of Demosthenes, the Ionic Temple on the 
Illisius, the Octagon Tower of Andronicus, and the 
Acropolis of Athens. 

The North Carolina Insane Asylum is 730 feet in 
length, and has room for about 400 patients. It is 
situated on Dix Hill, a beautiful site, and is one of the 
finest institutions of its kind in the country. 

The North Carolina Institution for the Blind occu- 
pies Caswell Square. The colored department of this 
institution is a spacious brick building on the opposite 
side of the city, and is equipped in every respect for 
this important service. 

The State Penitentiary is a splendid building, con- 
structed of brick, with granite enclosing walls, and 
was about twenty years in construction. It is a 
model structure of its kind. 

The Agricultural Department contains the neces- 
sary offices, the State Geological Museum ( Avhich also 
is a museum of the forestry, mines, fisheries, agricul- 
ture, etc., of the State), the Corporation Commission, 
and the rooms of the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion. A large addition is now being erected which 
will ffreatlv increase the attractiveness of the Mu- 

The Supreme Court and State Library Building 
fronts Capitol Square. Its exterior is plain, but it is 
admirablv fitted within. The State Library contains 
45,000 volumes, and many portraits of citizens emi- 
nent in everv walk of life. 

The Governor's Mansion is built of brick and mar- 
ble, and occupies the center of Burke Square. Its 
hall is adorned with portraits of the Governors. The 
beautiful marble from the Nantahala, Macon County, 


was used in the construction of portions of the build- 

The Postoffice Building is a splendid structure of 
granite, erected at a cost of about half a million of 

Wake County Court House is a unique building of 
brick and brownstone. It is supplied with spacious 
fire-proof vaults for the safe keeping of records. A 
statue of Justice ornaments the exterior of the struc- 

There are five graded school buildings, all splen- 
didly arranged and furnished for the important uses 
to which they are put. 

The Town Hall contains the municipal offices and 
police headquarters, as well as providing a spacious 
hall for public meetings, and a market square. 

An elegant Union railroad passenger station has 
been completed at a cost of eighty-five thousand dol- 
lars, and is an adornment to the city. 

The State Fair Grounds, with spacious buildings 
and splendid race-course, are located two miles west 
of the capitol. 

The Federal and Confederate cemeteries are both 
on the eastern boundaries. They are well kept, and 
are adorned with appropriate monuments. 


All of the church denominations are represented, 
and the sacred edifices are of very handsome archi- 
tecture, adding considerably to the beautv of the citv. 
There are four Methodist, four Baptist, two Episco- 
pal, one Catholic, one Christian, one Presbyterian, 
and one Primitive Baptist church, besides other 
congregations, and not including several colored 



The city is splendidly equipped willi an ample sup- 
ply of excellent water, an efficient Board of Health 
and careful sanitary inspection, a complete sewerage 
system, a city hospital, a well-fitted up fire depart- 
ment ; it has an Academy of Music, Metropolitan Hall, 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, a Home for 
Old Ladies and Incurables. 


The people of Raleigh and Raleigh Township real- 
ize the vast importance of good roads, and much at- 
tention is being given to the improvement of the pub- 
lic roads. All of the roads leading out of Raleigh 
have alreadv been macadamized for about six miles, 
and the work is being pushed on to the great advant- 
age of the locality generally and to the enhancement 
of real estate values. It is onlv a matter of time when 
the good roads will penetrate the entire county. This 
improved condition of our roads is due, mainly, to the 
genius and untiring industry of Mr. W. C. McMackin, 
Superintendent of Wake County Roads. 

The Good Roads Convention here last February re- 
suited in still more active work. 


Being the State capital, Raleigh is naturally the 
political centre of the State, and here are held innu- 
merable important meetings and conventions of all 
kinds. This fact brings considerable business of every 
description to the city, and occasions the presence of 
many strangers almost continually. This cives a 
somewhat cosmopolitan air to the place, and prevents 
any appearance of provinciality whatsoever. As the 
seat of the State government, here are to be seen the 
State buildings and institutions, including the State- 



house, with surrounding park; the Governor's Man- 
sion, the State Agricultural Building, State Museum, 
containing as fine an exhibit of State products as can 
be found in any State, of the Union. The Supreme 


City Tax Collector. 

Court building and State Library, with a large and 
valuable collection of books and manuscripts, is open 
free to visitors, and is a place of much interest. 


Raleigh enjoys the blessing of a good and wise city 
government. Her Board of Aldermen is presided 


over by a Mayor whose zeal for the public good has 
won for him the sincere regard of all classes of our 
people. This officer is A. M. Powell, Esq. The Po- 
lice Department has for its chief Mr. J. H. Mullins. 

Mr. Powell was first elected in 1899. He met every 
expectation of his friends and the public in the dis- 
charge of his duties, and proved an efficient and faith- 
ful officer. Neither was anv mistake made in electing 
him for a second term. His good common sense, well- 
known integrity and uprightness of character, have 
proven that the possession of these qualities in a judi- 
cial officer are quite as important in the administra- 
tion of justice as a knowledge of technical rules of 
legal procedure. Seldom do the guilty escape, and 
never do the innocent suffer, when he is in control of 

Mr. Mullins is also serving his second term as Chief 
of the Police Department, having been first elected in 
1899. No man occupying a similar position in the 
State has filled the office with more credit to himself 
and his constituency than Mr. Mullins. Besides pos- 
sessing executive ability of a high order, his personal 
qualities are such as to have won for him the esteem 
and admiration of all. 

The city tax-collector is Mr. Chas. F. Lumsden. 
Rarely does one find such a happy combination of per- 
sonal qualities and official ability as are possessed by 
this officer. This is evidenced by his continuance in 
office, for he is now filling his third term. Mr. Lums- 
den is a public-spirited citizen, and a man deeply in- 
terested in all that makes for his fellow-man's wel- 
fare ; he is a prominent member of the Masonic frater- 
nity, Odd Fellows, Red Men, and is Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of the Odd Fellows Orphan Home, 
besides occupying other positions of honor and trust, 



Conspicuous among the acts of the city government 
during the last few years was the issue of bonds for 
street improvements. This did more to start Raleigh 
forward than anything else in her history. It opened 
up streets that were hitherto nothing but alleys, im- 
proved many of the main thoroughfares and enhanced 
the value of property all over the city. Those who 
remember Raleigh before the issue of those bonds can 
speak eloquently on the tremendous improvement 

There were two issues, the first of $50,000 on Octo- 
ber 1, 1897, at 5 per cent, and the second of $100,000 
on July 1, 1899, at 4 per cent. Both these issues were 
to be redeemed in thirty years. The prices they 
brought speak of themselves for the city's groAvth. 
The $50,000 issue brought $109,327, and the $100,000 
issue $105,525. In 188 J a $50,000 issue of 5's brought 
only $105.25, and an issue of $50,000 5's in 1890 
brought only $103.50. Thus the $100,000 4's in 1899 
brought more than the $100,000 5's in 1899 and 1890. 

As a result of these issues of bonds in 1897 and 1899. 
Raleigh has now eight miles of paved and macadam- 
ized streets, and thirty-two miles of paved and curbed 
sidewalks. The material used on the sidewalks is 
brick, Belgian blocks and granolithic pavement. The 
streets for heavy traffic are paved with cobble stones 
and the rest with macadam. 

This movement originated, was agitated and suc- 
cessfully carried through, principally, by the energy 
and business ideas of Mr. John C. Drewry, for several 
vears an Alderman and Chairman of the Street Com- 
mittee. No man who, without compensation, has ac- 
cepted the position of Alderman, has given Raleigh 
more valuable service than Mr. Drewrv. He is no en- 
thusiast to spring sensational matters for considera- 


tion, but having accepted the call of his constituents 
to serve the city as representative from his ward, he at 
once concentrated all his faculties and energies to in- 
augurate such improvements as would be permanent. 
This he thought should be done in permanent street 
work, and to-day our people are in the enjoyment of 
thoroughfares comparable with any in the South, and 
the credit for which is very largely due to the wisdom, 
persistence and personal supervision of Mr. Drewry. 

In 1897 the city took up $40,000 of the funded debt 
bonds, sixes, and issued $25,000 current expense 
bonds, fives. These sold for f 109.45. The 1S98 more 
current expense bonds were issued to take the place of 
|25,000 fives floating debt bonds. These sold at par 
on the very day that Avar was declared with Spain. 
That speaks volumes for the city's credit. Under the 
circumstances it was rather remarkable that they 
could be sold at all. 

The amount of the sinking fund on hand March 1st 
was |40,510. The next bonds due are funded debt 
bonds, |40,400, at per cent, on July 1, 1907. 


The two best evidences of a city's growing prosper- 
ity is to be found in its postoffice receipts and in the 
deposits in its banks. By this test Raleigh stands 
among the first cities of its population in the whole 
country. In 1898 the receipts at the Raleigh post- 
office were less than $30,000. For the year just closed 
(June 30) they have risen to over $45,000. 

In the matter of bank deposits the gain for 1902 
over 1892, a period of ten years, was over one hundred 
per cent. Here is the statement of increase: 

Deposits in 1102 |2,074,027 

Deposits in 1892 1,165,611 



This gain is a fair index of the entire growth of the 
business and manufacturing expansion of the city. 
Ten years ago the banks of Raleigh had 

Capital stock f 440,000 

Surplus and profits 94,709 

Total capital and profits 534,709 

Total deposits ten years ago 1,165,611 

To-day : 

Capital stock 455,000 

Surplus and profits 242,7<>2 

Total capital and profits 697,762 

Total deposits now 2,074,027 





Mr. Greason has been a resident of Raleigh since 
1890. He was born in Stuyvesant Falls, N. Y., in 
1859. Later he removed with his parents to Cohoes, 
in the same State, where he worked to learn the busi- 


Superintendent Raleigh Cotton Mills. 

ness of cotton milling. After remaining at Cohoes 
for eighteen years — until 1881 — he removed to Utica, 
N. Y., where he was engaged for several years with 
the Skenandoah trills. It was there his duties enabled 
him to familiarize himself with every detail of the 
business, and in 1890 his proficiency in this industry 
occasioned the securing of his services by the Raleigh 



Cot toil Mills. Subsequently, when a vacancy occurred 
iu the position of Superintendent, Mr. Greason was 
chosen, being the successful competitor over a large 
number of others, who were regarded as experts as 
well as himself. In 1881 he was united in marriage 
to Miss Catherine Grey, of Cohoes, N. Y. Mr. Grea- 
son is esteemed as one of our substantial citizens, and 
is popular with a wide circle of friends. 



Someone lias beautifully said: "Carve your name 
on hearts, and not on marble ; those who loved you and 
were helped by you will remember you when the mar 
ble has crumbled and forget-me-nots have perished.'' 

To no one in the vast domain of our State could this 
sentiment be more fittingly applied than to Richard 
Beverly Raney, the donor of the Olivia Raney Library 
to the white people of Raleigh, for the donation ex- 
ceeds in beneficence any before bestowed by anyone 
upon any community in our commonwealth. It was 
donated by Mr. Raney as a memoriam to his deceased 
wife, Olivia Cowper Raney, eldest daughter of the late 
Pulaski Cowper, of this city. 

The Library was chartered in 1899, and on Febru 
ary 1, 1900, the site and building, together with nearly 
six thousand volumes of literature, were conveyed to 
the Olivia Raney Library corporation. The cost of 
this gift was over forty thousand dollars — "every 
available dollar," it was said, "of the owner's means.'" 

The building is of terra cotta brick, with tile roof, 
and includes, besides the reading-rooms and book- 
stacks, parlors for gentlemen and ladies, smoking- 
room, trustees- rooms, librarians' rooms, drug store, 
music rooms, and one of the finest auditoriums in this 
section, the curtain being a fine painting of the Taj 
Mahal, in Agra, India. 

The running expenses of the Library are about two 
hundred dollars per month, of which sum the city ap- 
propriates one hundred dollars; the remainder is real- 
ized from the rents of the auditorium above and the 
stores underneath. 

The very efficient and obliging librarians are Misses 
Jennie H. Coffin and Theodora Marshall. 




Malcus W. Page, the present Sheriff of Wake 
County, was born twelve miles north of Raleigh, Feb- 
ruary IS, 1836. His first public service for the county 
was as Register of Deeds, to which office he was ap- 
pointed in 1883 to fill the unexpired term of W. W. 
White. In 1884 he was elected to the same office, 


M. W. PAGE, 

Democratic nominee for Sheriff. 

which he filled during the term. He was elected to 
the office of Sheriff in 1890, and, with the exception 
of one term, has occupied the same continuously since. 
Few men could be mentioned of such efficiency and 
popularity in the discharge of their public duties as 
Malcus W. Page. On August 2, last, he was again 
honored with the nomination for the same office by the 
primaries, and this is equivalent to an election for an- 
other term. 



The tobacco market of Raleigh dates back to Sept. 
26, 1884, when the Stronachs opened the old Pioneer 
Warehouse, at the corner of Wilmington and Davie 
streets, for the sale of leaf tobacco, Mr. Frank Stron- 
ach selling the first pound ever sold on the market. 
Subsequently, the Capital Tobacco Warehouse, at the 
corner of Davie and Blount streets, was erected by 
a stock company of enterprising citizens, and the first 
sale held on November 12th of the same year. To 
further meet the demands of this groAving industry, 
Capt. Thos. L. Love at once commenced building, and 
soon completed his large warehouse, on the corner of 
Bloodworth and Davie streets, which was leased to 
Messrs. Moore & Proctor, who opened it for business 
on the 23d of December, under the name of the Farm- 
ers Warehouse. Thus, with the Pioneer, Capital and 
Farmers warehouses our market developed rapidly. 

In the early days of 1885, Mr. Wm. C. Stronach con- 
tracted for the large and commodious warehouse on 
Wilmington, between Davie and Cabarrus streets. 
The opening sale was held on April 15, 1885, under 
the happiest auspices, with the largest quantities of 
the golden weed on the floors ever seen here. 

In September, 1885, Mr. Jos. E. Pogue moved his 
large manufacturing plant from Henderson to Ra- 
leigh, and has since been successfully engaged here 
in the manufacture of some of the most meritorious 
and popular brands of chewing tobacco ever put upon 
the market. 

During the following years, 1886 and 1887, Messrs. 
T. L. Love and M. A. Parker each built large prize- 
houses, and Mr. Chas. L. Hervey, of Kinston, opened 
another plug factory. Soon afterward Mr. Phil. Tay- 


lor retired from the grocery business here, and built 
a large and substantial plug tobacco factory at the 
corner of Cabarrus and Blount streets, thus giving 
Raleigh three tobacco warehouses and three tobacco 

Mr. Jesse G. Ball about this time commenced the 
manufacture of smoking tobacco, having bought out 
Mr. A. B. Love. The business interests of Raleigh re- 
ceived a great impetus from the tobacco business thus 

At a later period Messrs. Latta & Myatt erected a 
large prize-house on Blount street, corner of Martin, 
and Messrs. Julius Lewis & Co. built the largest and 
best equipped prize-house in the city, at the corner of 
Wilmington and Cabarrus streets, out which was un- 
fortunately consumed by fire in the spring of 1901. 

The Raleigh Leaf Tobacco Company was organized 
in January, 1902, with ample capital, and propose to 
build a large stemmerv and re-drying establishment. 
They will handle the first year, perhaps, two million 
pounds of tobacco for both export and domestic trade. 
A large number of native operatives will be employed. 

Vigorous and concerted efforts are now being made 
by the progressive element of our city to put the to- 
bacco market on a higher plane of activity. A leading 
tobacconist says that if Raleigh had done her full 
dutv during the last ten or twelve vears, she would 
to-day be enjoying a ten-million-pound leaf market, 
and her population and trade practically doubled. It 
is evident, however, that Raleigh will in future prove 
true to herself and do her full dutv by this important 

At present the Capital Warehouse is being success- 
fully managed by Messrs. Canady and Knott, two ex- 
perienced tobacconists, who recently came to Raleigh 
from Oxford. 


The Farmers Warehouse is also being conducted by 
two most active and successful young warehousemen, 
Messrs. Cheatham and Mitchell, formerly of Oxford. 

Mr. R. F. Knott, one of the leading leaf tobacco 
dealers in the State, has recently moved to Raleigh, 
and is a most important factor in the re-establishment 
of our tobacco industry. 

Mr. C. P. Sellers, formerly of Greensboro, has be- 
come the Raleigh representative of the American To- 
bacco Company, and is doing wonders for the Raleigh 

The Imperial Tobacco Company has signified its in- 
tention of placing a man on the Raleigh market, as 
well as other leading manufacturers in this country 
and abroad. 

The Raleigh market has taken on a new lease of life, 
and the best evidence of this fact is its large daily sales 
of the golden weed, the sales in one day during this 
season having been as much as eighty thousand 




Capt. Bernard is, in its broadest sense, a represent- 
ative man. He has been the incumbent of the office of 
Register of Deeds since February 1, V. 01, when he 
was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of W. H. Hood. No man who ever occupied 
this position lias exhibited more skill and ability in 


Democratic nominee for Register of Deeds. 

the discharge of his duties, or exercised more judg- 
ment in the convenient arrangement of his office, than 
lias the present incumbent. Among the people of 
Wake this is common knowledge, as was evidenced by 
his recent victory at the primaries, and by his nomi- 
nation for this office for the ensuing term, on August 
2, 1902. 

In 1885, Capt. Bernard was elected bookkeeper of 
the State Penitentiary, but in 1898 was displaced by 


the Fusion Board under Governor Russell. Since 
1877 he has been a member of the State Guard, and at 
present is captain of the Raleigh Light Infantry. He 
is among the progressive, public-spirited young Demo- 
crats of his county, a man of high integrity, generous 
impulses and a most charitable disposition. His char- 
acter is without blemish. Capt. Bernard is a de- 
scendant of one of the oldest and most highly esteemed 
Wake county families, being a grandson of Rev. 
Win. White, of St. Mary's Township, who, in his life- 
time 1 , was a man of much influence in his community. 
Messrs. W. H. Penny and W. H. Hood are Capt. 
Bernard's efficient and courteous clerks. 



In 1874 the merchants here organized the Raleigh 
Board of Trade, which a few rears later grew into the 
Cotton and Grocers' Exchange. 

The object of this association was for the purpose of 
uniting the individual efforts of the cotton dealers and 
grocers of Raleigh, and fostering and maintaining 
whatever pertained to the advancement of Raleigh as 
a cotton market, and of North Carolina as a cotton 
producing State. 

The efforts of the Exchange have been wisely direc- 
ted; the surrounding country has been benefitted as 
well as the city, and Raleigh has enjoyed for a gener- 
ation the reputation of being one of the best cotton 
markets in the State. 

The quality of cotton grown in this section has no 
superior in the upland section of the cotton belt. 

The system of weighing cotton at Raleigh is emi- 
nently just and fair to all parties; the County Com- 
missioners elect two of the weighers from among the 
farmers, and the Cotton and Grocers' Exchange re- 
commend one, and the County Commissioners elect 
him. The cotton is weighed on standard and well- 
tested scales by sworn and bonded cotton weighers, 
and by men whose integrity prompts, and whose oath 
and bond compel them, to give fair and impartial 
weights. Under this system but few complaints have 
arisen ; the buyer knows that he will get what he pays 
for, and the seller is convinced that justice will be 
done him. Mill owners generally recognize our 
weighers' certificates, and complaints from either side 
are rare. 

The Exchange has induced the railroad companies 
to establish conveniences for handling and shipping 


cotton that give the market advantages over almost 
any interior cotton market in this section. 

Formerly a large percentage of the cotton sold on 
this market was exported, but in recent years the es- 
tablishment of cotton mills at Raleigh and adjacent 
towns has enabled the farmers to sell their cotton 
here at very satisfactory prices to State mills. 

The Raleigh Cotton and Grocers' Exchange will 
continue to do all in its power towards maintaining 
the highest prices for cotton, and it will always try to 
make Raleigh the leading interior cotton market of 
this section. No market has better facilities for stor- 
ing and handling cotton. It has large and commodi- 
ous warehouses, and ample funds may be secured 
from the banks for making advances on cotton stored. 

The buyers are prepared to give the highest price for 
any number of bales that may be offered any dav in the 
year ; they can handle to advantage every bale of cot- 
ton that may be hauled or shipped here. Our mer- 
chants are, and always have been, reasonable in their 
charges for handling cotton, and these charges are 
probably less than those of any market where the same 
advantages are offered. Besides this, every grower of 
cotton has the privilege of selling his own cotton from 
the wagons, thus avoiding anv warehouse charges 
whatever. This custom does not prevail in the larger 
markets of the South. 

The cotton men here are among our most enterpris- 
ing and energetic citizens, and have worked year in 
and year out to establish a market that would meet the 
demands of our cotton producers. 




Wake County's Democratic nominee for State Sen- 
ator is a young man in the full vigor of robust man- 
hood, a sound thinker, and a ready and logical deba- 
ter, whose legal attainments have made him a promi- 
nent figure at the Raleigh Bar. His practical knowl- 


Democratic nominee for Senate. 

edge of farming, his thorough understanding of the 
people's needs and wants, his acknowledged ability as 
a speaker upon the hustings, caused his many friends 
to urge him into the campaign for State Senator. 
With a number of aspirants already in the field, when 
Mr. Norris announced his candidacy all others with- 
drew, thus gracefully acknowledging him eminently 
equipped to represent the metropolitan district in the 
Senate. His unanimous nomination is but the guar- 
antee of his election. 


Chartered in 1820^ ~~ , Assets $60,000,000 $ 

J5he jjj 

| Jletna Lik Insurance Company | 

of fjartfordy Conn. % 


The Largest Company in the World Writing \|/ 

Life, Accident and Health Insurance { 

| Every Desirable Form of me, mem and Hem insurance Policies issued, f 


Address j£ 

t TRe Company, or J. D. BOUSHALL, Manager, | 


dbe ^Rational Bank of TRaleigb, 


Capital Paid in, 3225,000 00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits, 100,000.00 

J7 Hew Vault, 

Which is entirely fire-proof and burglar-proof, has been added, 
the doors controlled by combination automatic and time locks. 

Safe Deposit Boxes 

of the very latest design, the convenience of which can not be ap- 
preciated until they are seen, and all are invited to see them. 

The renter of the box has the key, and no one can gain access to 
the contents of the box without the presence of the renter, and 
if he should lose his key, the finder could not gain access to the 
iiox, the contents of which can be known only to the renter. 
There is ample room in the boxes for the filing of deeds, valuable 
papers, wills, bonds, stocks, etc., and perfect security is obtained 
for very moderate cost. < 

Directors : 

Chas. H. Belvin, P. O. Moring, J. A. Bkiuus, 

Jos. B. Batch elor, C. M. Busbki. T. B. Crowder 

Chas. E. Johnson, W. W. Va.-s, Julius Lewis 

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09»&»&9»»a »»»»»99 3>» »»&»»*& 9»»»$»&»9»i»a» 





— w 

Some of the rea- 
sons why we sell 
far more SHOES 
than any other 
Store in Raleigh are 


North Carolina.. 





We sell at smaller profits. 

We select Better and Nobbier 

We sell nothing but Leather 
and guarantee every pair. 

We wait on you courteously. 

We have the largest stock in 
the State to select from. 

We have nothing but New Shoes 

W r e buy more Shoes and conse- 
quently get them cheaper, 
hence we can sell them 

It costs you nothing to see them .