Skip to main content

Full text of "Historical records of the town of Cornwall, Litchfield County, Connecticut;"

See other formats


THF.ODORE SEDGWICK GOLO. 



HISTORICAL RECORDS 



OF THE 



Town of Cornwall 

LITCHFIELD COUNTY 

CONNECTICUT 



COLLECTED AND ARRANGED BY 

THEODORE S. GOLD 



SECOND EDITION 



The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company 
1904 



/- ( 1 



Preface to the 2d Edition. 



This contains all the printed matter of the first edition, 1877, 
and correction of errors found in the same. Part second has been 
made up on the same plan as the first — largely from papers col- 
lected from those best qualified to give facts, especially the Rev. 
E. C. Starr — rather than fused and colored by the compiler ; also 
an appendix. Some repetition exists in Part 2d, but this has been 
avoided as much as possible. 

In the appendix will be found: Major-General John Sedg- 
wick's funeral sermon, by Rev. Charles Wetherby, May 15, 1864; 
sermon of Rev. Dwight M. Pratt, in memory of Rev. Samuel 
Scoville, North Cornwall Church, Aug. 24, 1902. 

The good words we have received for the first edition have in- 
duced us to make this second effort in recording events of the past 

and present. 

THEODORE SEDGWICK GOLD, 

Editor and Publisher. 

West Cornwall, March 2, 1904. 



PREFACE- 



The importance of preserving in permanent form the incidents 
in the history of every community has induced me to gather the 
materials for this volume. No one untried in such work is aware 
of the diflBculties encountered in collecting unpublished facts. 

My honored father, Dr. Samuel W. Gold, in his advanced years 
undertook this work, and I shall confine myself mostly to editing 
his papers, adding such historical discourses as present our Hfe in 
its home details, omitting in large degree what the sons of Corn- 
wall have done in national affairs, as finding its appropriate place in 
national history. 

Of course this implies some repetition, but it is better to give 
original records than to trust to reorganizing them, for thus much 
of their peculiar value will be destroyed. If undue prominence 
appears to have been given to any events, we must remember that 
they were not considered as small by the actors in them, and per- 
haps may thence derive some useful lessons for personal appli- 
cation. 

I have solicited full details of family histories, and have waited 
a year for such documents. Too few have been presented. The 
leanness of this department is due to the neglect of those who 
ought to feel most interest. 

T. S. GOLD. 

West CoRjfWALL, Conn., Sept. 10, 1877. 



HISTORICAL EEOORD. 



CHARTER AND SURVEY OF THE TOWN OF CORNWALL, 
RECORDED IN THE FIRST BOOK OF PROPRIE- 
TORS' RECORDS, PAGES 275-280. 

At a General Assembly hoi den at New Haven, in His Majesties English 
Colony of Connecticut, in New England, in America, on Thursday, the 
13"= Day of October, Anno R' R' Georgii 3*' Magn Britan, &c., 11 ^ 
Annoq: Dom. 1737, and continued by several adjournments till the 
second day of November next ensuing. 

An Act for the Ordering and directing the Sale and Settlement of all 
the Townships on the western Lauds. 

Be it enacted by the Deputy Governor, Council, and Representatives 
in General Court Assembled, and by the Authority of the same, that all 
the Townships in the western Lands on both sides the Ousatunnuck 
River be disposed of and settled, and that each Town on the east side 
of said River shall be divided into fifty-three Rights, (exclusive of the 
Lands granted to the College and all former Grants of this Court that 
are surveyed and recorded in the public Records of this Colony and are 
lying in either of said Towns,) of which fifty-three Rights one shall be 
for the use of the Ministry forever that shall be settled in the Town, 
according to the Constitution and Order of the Churches established by 
the Laws of this Government, as is provided in the first Paragraph in 
the Act entitled an Act relating to ecclesiastical aflfairs ; one for the first 
Gospel Minister as afores^ and one other right for the support of the 
School in such Town, and the same Rule shall be attended in every of 
said Townships, being five in number ; and the remaining fifty Rights 
in said Towns shall be sold at a public Vendue to the highest bidders, 
being of His Majesties Subjects Inhabitants of this Colony, that will 
settle and inhabit at least three years in such Towns, and to no other 
Persons. 

5): * * * * * 

It is further enacted by the authority aforesaid that any person quali- 
fied as abovesaid, and being desirous to purchase an Interest in said 
Lands and proposing to settle the same, and his Agent being esteemed 
able and likely to do and perform all duties and orders of the Place, 
shall be allowed so to do ; and every pm-chaser shall be obliged within 
three years next after their purchase to build and finish an House of 
eighteen feet square and seven feet studd and to subdue and fence at 
least six acres of land in such Town, where he is a settler or hath fixed 
his Agent, and no person shall have any benefit by their purchase, but 
shall be liable to forfeit the same unless by himself or his Agent he 
perform all duties, pay Taxes, &c., as shall be enjoined. 



6 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Further, that the Middle Town, bounded west on Ousatunnuck Eiver, 
shall in like manner be Vendued and Sold at the Court House in Fair- 
field on the first Tuesday of February next, at one of the Clock after- 
noon, and continued by adjournment as afores*, till the whole be sold, 
and that the same be set up at fifty pounds a Right ; and that John 
Burr, Esq., Edmund Lewis, Esq., and Mr. Ebenezer Silliman, or any 
two of them, are appointed a Courte to sell the Rights, take bonds, give 
Deeds with Defeazances in manner and form as hereafter in this Act shall 

be directed. 

****** 

And it is further enacted by the Authority afores* that the several 
Committees appointed for the sale of the said Townships in the Respec- 
tive Counties are hereby authorized and fally impowered, in the name 
of the Goveruor and Company, to execute Deeds of Conveyance of the 
several Rights or parcels of Land afores'^ to the highest bidders, quali- 
fied as afores"*, with conditions to each Deed annexed that if the pur- 
chaser do by himself or his Agent enter on the said land within two 
years next after the purchase of the Right, and do liuild and finish an 
House thereon not less than eighteen feet square seven feet studd, and 
do fence and clear six acres of land, and do continue thereon for the 
space of three successive years commencing after the two years afores*, 
(unless prevented by Death or inevitable Providence,) then the said deed 
to remain in full force and virtue, but on default or neglect in either or 
all of the said Articles the same shall be void and of none efiect, and 
the several Committees afores"' shall take Bond obligatory in double the 
sum for which each right shall be respectively sold, on each respective 
purchaser to whom thesame shall be sold, together with one good surety 
with him, payable to the Treasurer of this Colony for the time being 
for the use of tlie Governor and Company of said Colony, within two 
years after the purchase of such Right. 

SURVEY OF THE TOWN OF CORNWALL. 

Vol. IV, pp. 663-665 of Deeds. 

Ths Governor and Company of the English Colony of Connecticut in New 
England in America to whom these Presents shall come. — Greeting. 

Whereas, the said Governor and Company assembled at Hartford, 
May, Anno. 1731, Did Order that the Western County Lands on the 
east side of the Ousatunnoc River, should be laid out into Townships, 
and appointed Messrs. Edmond Lewis, William Judd, and John Buel a 
Committee to lay out the same; and whereas, in Pursuance of said 
Order, the said Committee laid out the same into Two Townships, one 
of which in this survey is called the township of B, now called Corn- 
wall, bounded as followeth : Running from the southwest corner bounds 
of A, now called Goshen, West, ninety-two Degrees, North, five miles 
and Seventy-two Rods to the Ousatunnoc River, where is marked a wliite 
Oak tree, and set the letters, E. L. W. J. J. B., on said tree, and laid 
many stones to it for a monument, at the Southwest Corner of the 
Townsliip of B. Then beginning at the White Oak Pole at the North- 
west corner of the Township ol" A, and run west ninety-two Degrees 
north, four miles and a half to the Ousatunnoc River, and made a monu- 
ment for the Northwest corner of the Township of B, and the South- 
west corner of the Township of C, now called Canaan, it being Three 
Black Oak trees growing from one root marked, and many stones laid 
to them with the letters E. L. W. J. J. B., set on them, thus the Town- 



SURVEY OF CORNWALL. I 

ship of B is surveyed and laid out, and the lines thereof are set forth by 
marked Trees and monuments and is bounded south on the Township 
of E, now called Kent, north on the town of C, east on the Township 
of A, and west on the Ousatunnoc River. And — 

Whereas, Said Governor and Company in General Court Assembled 
at New Haven in the year of our Lord, 1737, by their act did order that 
the said Township should be divided into fifty-three rights exclusive of 
all former Grants of the General Court, that was thus surveyed and re- 
corded in the Publick Records of this Colony and lying in said town- 
ship, of which fifty-three rights one should be for the use of the minis- 
try that should be settled in said town according to the regulation in 
said act. Provided, one for the first Gospel minister settled as aforesaid 
and one other Right for the support of the school in said Town ; and 
ordered that fifty of said rights should be sold and that the other three 
rights should be for the uses aforesaid, and that the (Jommittee by said 
Act appointed should sell and in the name of the Governor and com- 
pany aforesaid execute deeds of conveyance of the said several rights 
to the purchasers thereof respectively with conditions to each deed 
answered according to the directions in said contained ; and 

Whereas, in Pursuance of and according to said Act the said Com- 
mittee have sold and by their several deeds under their hands and seals 
have granted unto George Holloway, Jonathan Squires, Samuel Robards, 
Stephen Burrows, John SJierwood, Joseph Allin, James Dennill, Daniel 
Harris, James Smedley and to the rest of the original purchasers of 
Rights or fifty-third parts of said Township upon conditions as afore- 
said, which Township is now called and known by the name of Corn- 
wall; and whereas Mr. Solomon Palmer is settled in the ministry in said 
Town according to the direction aforesaid, and the several purchasers 
aforesaid, their heirs or assigns, having performed the conditions in the 
said deeds expressed, and now moving for a more full confirmation of 
the land sold and granted them as aforesaid. Know ye, that the said 
Governor and Company by virtue of the Power and authority, granted 
unto them by our Lawful Sovereign King Charles, the Second, of Blessed 
memory in and by his letters Pattent under the Great Seal of England, 
bearing date the 23rd day of April, in the 14th year of his Magisties 
Reign, Have given and granted, and by these Presents for themselves 
and their successors. 

Do give, grant, I'atify, and confirm unto them the said George Hollo- 
way, Jonathan Squires, Samuel Robards, Stephen Burrows, John Sher- 
wood, Joseph Allin, James Donnill, Daniel Harris, James Smedley, and 
to the said Mr. Solomon Palmer, who is their settled minister in said 
Town, and to the rest of the original Purcliasers, or their respective 
Heu"s or assigns, or Legal Representatives of such Original Purchasers, 
to whom such Original Deeds were made and executed, all the aforesaid 
Township of B. now called Cornwall, within the bounds and limits 
described by the survey aforesaid to be the bounds of said Township of 
B., exclusive of former grants surveyed and recorded in the Publick 
Records aforesaid Forever as College Lands. Together with all and 
singular the woods, timber, trees, undei'woods. Lands, water, Brooks, 
Ponds, Fishings, Fowlings, Mines, minerals, and Precious Stones within 
and upon the said Tract of Land and Township aforesaid hereby 
granted, mentioned, or intended to be granted as aforesaid, and all and 
singular the rights, Profits, Privileges, and appurtenances whatsoever of 
and within the said townsliip and every part thereof to have and to 
hold the above said tract contained in the Township of Cornwall afore- 
said with the appurtenances unto them tlie said George Holloway, 



8 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Jonathan Squires, Samuel Robards, Stephen Burrows, John Sherwood, 
Joseph AUin, James Dennill, Daniel Harris, James Smedley, and to the 
said Mr. Solomon Palmer, and to the rest of the original purchasers, 
their heirs and assigns, or Legal representatives of such Original Pur- 
chasers to whom such rights do belong, and to their only proper use, 
benefit, and behoof, Forever, as a good, sure, absolute, and indefeasable 
estate of inheritances in fee simple without any condition. Limitations, 
use, or other things to alter and make void the same to be holders of 
his Majestie, his Heirs or successors, as of his Majesties Manor of East 
Greenwich in the county of Kent and kingdom of Great Britain in free 
and common. Socage and not in Capite nor by Knights' service yield- 
ing and paying therefor unto our soverign Lord the King, his Heirs and 
successors forever, only one fifth Part of all the ores of Gold and Silver 
which from time to time, and at all times hereafter shall be gotten, had, 
or obtained, then, or in Lieu of all services, duties, and demands what- 
soever. In witness whereof we, the said Governor and Company have 
caused the seal of said Colony to be hereunto aflixed the 25tli day of 
May, in the 21st year of the Reign of our Soverign Lord George the 
Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain, &c., King, Anno Dom, 
1748. 

JONATHAN LAW, Governor. 

By order of the Governor and Company of the English Colony of Con- 
necticut in New England in America, assembled in General Com't, 
May, 1748. Signed, 

GEORGE WYLLYS, Secreta/ry. 

Received, May, 1748, and then recorded. 

Test,— 

The township of Cornwall, containing about thirty thousand 
acres, lies in Litchfield county, near the northwestern corner of 
the State. 

The township was sold at public auction by a committee of the 
General Assembly; said committee were John Burr, Edmund 
Lewis, and Ebenezer Silliman, Esqrs., at Fairfield, February 8, 
1738. The State had previously given three hundred acres, lying 
in the southeastern part of the town, to Yale College. There were 
fifty rights or equal shares sold, and three other shares were 
reserved, one for the first minister; one for the support of the 
gospel ministry, as a perpetual fund ; and one for the support of 
schools. 

The length of the town is nearly ten miles, and the average 
breadth short of six miles. Its length on the Housatonic is 
greater than at the Goshen boundary. No right was sold for less 
than $99, or for more than $112. The average price per acre 
was not over twenty cents. 

On the 14th of November, 1738, at a meeting of the proprie- 
tors held at Litchfield, Samuel Messenger was appointed surveyor 
of the lands of Cornwall. 



PROPRIETORS FIRST MEETING. 9 

Previous to the year 1738, there is no evidence that Cornwall 
contained any white inhabitant. The entire surface of the town 
at that period was covered with dense woods, composed of large 
trees and a thick growth of underbrush. The first inhabitant of 
the town, named in the records, was Peter Eastman ; where his 
house was, the record does not state. But it was at his house that 
the first proprietors' meeting was held in the town. 

One of the conditions required by the proprietors of Cornwall 
was, that the owner of each right should erect a house sixteen 
feet square and seven feet in the clear, and occupy the same for 
three years, except in case of death of the owner. These were 
built of logs. 

The first meeting of the proprietors of Cornwall was held at 
Hartford, in the state house, on the 6th day of September, A.D. 
1738. Mr. John Hall of Fairfield was chosen moderator, and 
Timothy Collins of Litchfield, clerk of said meeting. He was 
sworn into office as proprietors' clerk, before Capt. Samuel Chap- 
man, a justice of the peace. The meeting was adjourned to the 
house of Mr. Ebenezer Williamson for a quarter of an hour, 
where the proprietors met according to adjournment. 

At that meeting they voted to lay out fifty acres of land to 
each proprietor. Messrs. Benajah Douglass, Joseph Waller, Joseph 
Kilborn, Joseph Allen, and Samuel Roberts were appointed a com- 
mittee to lay out said lots, also to lay out the highways in Corn- 
wall. Each proprietor was to be at the cost of the survey of his 
piece of land, and in making the survey bill. 

At the same meeting, it was voted to divide off another fifty 
acres to each proprietor by the same committee. 

Ten shillings per day was voted to each of said committee from 
the time they set out from Litchfield, they boarding themselves. 
At this meeting, it was voted to give to Mr. Benajah Douglass 
£ 12 10 shillings for warning the same. The privilege was granted 
to Mr. Timothy Collins, and such partners as he should take with 
him, of the exclusive right to any streams on undivided lands 
for mill or mills, provided that he shall set up a saw mill by the 
1st of November, 1739, and he was to have the privilege so long 
as he kept a saw-mill upon the stream in good repair. 

This first meeting was adjourned to the house of Ensign Eben- 
ezer Marsh, in Litchfield, on the second Tuesday of the following 
November, at 9 a. m. 

At this adjourned meeting, a tax of 26 shillings was levied on 
2 



10 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

eacii proprietor, to defray expenses of laying out; for the collec- 
tion of which tax, Joseph Allen was appointed. The lots were 
laid out and numbered ; they were then divided by drawing lor 
them in the way of a lottery. Permission was granted that such 
as were dissatisfied with their lots, could change them before the 
next meeting of the proprietors, by paying the expense of the 
survey. Messrs. Osborn, Joseph Kilborn, and Daniel Allen were 
appointed a committee to make out the rate bill on the proprietors 
for the tax of 26 shilhngs, before named. 

The highways were to be six rods wide (many of which, 
although they may be as long in our day as our fathers made 
them, have shrunk wonderfully in breadth). 

At this meeting, it was voted to lay out a highway from Litch- 
field to Cornwall, also from Kent to Cornwall. Mr. Messenger 
was empowered to expend £25 in surveying and opening said 
highways, and Messrs, Waller, John Dibble, John Hall, Samuel 
Messenger, Daniel Allen, and Joseph Allen, were appointed a 
committee to lay out and clear up highways from Litchfield and 
Kent, as far as they could for the £25. One half of said sum to 
be expended on each highway. 

This meeting was adjourned to the third Wednesday of Sept., 
1739, at 12 o'clock, at the house of Peter Eastman in Cornwall. 

These meetings of the Proprietors were adjourned from time to 
time and a division to the amount of three himdred acres set to 
each. The one who drew by lot the first choice was required to 
take the last in the following division ; this plan was adopted to 
equalize the division of property in which all were equally inter- 
ested. 

The names of those who drew in the first and second divisions 
were 

Nathan Lyon, Joseph Frost, 

Stephen Burr, Andrus Truby, 

Jonathan Squires, Gideon Allen, 

J. Sherwood, Stephen Boroughs, 

James Smedley, John Dibble, 

James Dennie,* Wm. Gaylord, 

Eeuben Dibble, Samuel Roberts, 

Nathaniel Spaulding, Tim. Pierce, 

Samuel Bryant, Ebenezer Seely, 

* Spelled in different records Dennil, Dennis, Donnil. 



RELIGION AND EDUCATION. 1 1 

Benajah Douglass, Jacob Patclien, 

Samuel Hall, Elizur Seely, 

Peter Eastman, Benjamin Osborn, • 

Thomas Harris, Isaac Bissel, 

Joseph Kilborn, Samuel Smedly, 

Samuel Kilborn, Ephraim Smedly, 

Timothy Collins, Joseph Waller, 

Joseph Allen, Ebenezer Whitlesey, 

Daniel Allen, Samuel Butler, 

Ehphalet Seely, Thomas Ballard. 

Ten of the above had two rights each, and one three. 

Previous to the allotment of any of these proprietors' rights, a 
division of three hundred acres was set apart and located for each 
of the three important objects, viz. : first, for a parsonage, second, 
for the support of a minister, third, for the establishment and 
maintenance of schools. 

If we had no other evidence that these our fathers who were 
the early settlers of Cornwall were of Puritan origin than the 
adoption of such measures for the promotion of education and 
religion, the proof is well established. 

These three divisions set apart for such important objects were 
called "public rights." How expressive the term, embracing all the 
great interests of society ? Even civil liberty so highly prized 
has a secure basis only in the maintenance of education and relig- 
ion. These measures were adopted even before the town had been 
incorporated. 

At a Proprietors Meeting held on the 8th day of May, 1740, Mr. 
Joseph Allen was chosen Moderator. This meeting Voted To peti- 
tion the Assembly for town privileges and hberty to settle an ortho- 
dox Gospel Minister, also to grant a tax of four pence per acre on 
each of the three hundred Acres laid out to each proprietor to 
defray the charge of settling and maintaining a minister and build- 
ing a meeting house in the town, and that said tax continue for 
the space of three years, the first of said tax to be paid upon the 
1st of August following. Also voted To pray the General Assembly 
to extend the time for the payment of the several rights; lawful 
interest to be paid for the same. Mr. George Holloway was 
chosen agent on the part of the township to attend the Assembly 
to obtain the object of their petition and everything else which 
Mr. Fitch, ^who had been appointed at a previous meeting as a 



12 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

member of a committee, for various duties, shall think proper to 
pray for. 

• It was also voted at this meeting empowering the Committee pre- 
viously chosen to lay out the Mill Brook land, to lay out at the 
mouth of the Pond at the foot of Cream Hill what they shall 
judge proper for draining and damming said pond as a further 
encouragement of building mills upon the stream that comes out 
of said Pond. Voted, To sequester 30 acres of land on Mill 
Brook to encourage building a Mill or mills on said stream to be 
laid out by the Committee formerly appointed to lay out the Mill 
land. 

This privilege of the Cream Hill Mill stream together with the 
sequestered land was given to Mr. Mathew Millard with liberty of 
damming and draining the pond and stream flowing out of it, he 
to build and maintain a good Corn Mill upon said stream by the 
1st of August, 1741, also a good saw-mill by the same time. 

Mr. George Holloway was chosen Clerk in the place of Timothy 
Collins. 

According to their requests immediately an act of incorporation 
with town privileges was granted by the General Assembly. This 
was done in May, 1740. Mr. George Holloway was appointed to 
call the first town meeting. 

Up to the year 1740, there probably were no other than log 
houses in this town. About forty of these rude tenements were 
erected, usually upon the owner's land, and of course scattered 
very widely over the different parts of the town. The occupants 
of the dwellings we are enabled to learn, to a general extent, from 
tradition. Samuel Abbott, who was from Danbury (1792), lived 
near the place formerly owned and occupied by Mr. Birdsey, 
now owned by Rogers White. (William Stratman, 1877.) Dan- 
iel and Joseph Allen, from Litchfield (1740); one lived opposite 
the house of Col. Anson Rogers, and the other on the Joel Catlin 
farm. (Harvey Baldwin, 1877.) Eleazer Barritt, from Plainfield. 
lived near Pangmans by Housatonic River. David Baldwin, from 
Litchfield, lived on Great Hill. John Blinn lived south of the 
Cotter place, near the Housatonic River. Thomas Ballard, from 
Plainfield, lived opposite Noah Rogers. John Clothier lived near 
Cotters (Shepard, 1877), at West Cornwall. John Dibble, from 
Stamford, lived a little west of the Capt. Miles place, now Edward 
Kellogg's. (A. Bennett, 1877.) James Douglass, from Plainfield, 
settled on Cream Hill. His log-house was located a few rods north- 



ORIGINAL SETTLERS. 13 

easterly from the late residence of Capt. Hezekiah Gold, which 
house he afterwards built about the year 1750, making this prob- 
ably the oldest house in town now standing and still occupied. 
Reuben Dean was a celebrated hunter and doctor. He lived near 
Chandler Swifts. (Ira Frink, 1877.) He was from Norwalk. 
Woodruff Emmons came from Litchfield. He lived where Dr. 
Joseph North lately resided — north of the residence of the late Car- 
rington Todd. Nathaniel Green lived near the orchard of Capt. 
Miles, north of the ancient burying ground. He was from Stam- 
ford. Thomas Griffis, from Litchfield. He lived on Dudley Town 
Hill, near the residence of the late Caleb Jones. John and George 
Halloway, were from Middlebury, or Pembroke, Mass. They lived 
where Mrs. Ithamer Baldwin now resides. George died in 1750. 
He built the house used as a tavern in 1776, kept by Woodruff 
Emmons. Benjamin Hough, from New Milford, settled in the 
northwest part of the town. Thomas Hari-is was from Plainfield. 
He Uved where the late Capt. Elias Hart resided. (Geo. Potter, 
1877.) Moses Harris, from Plainfield, lived near the late Capt. 
Clarke's. (William Bennett, 1877.) Nathaniel Jewell, from Plain- 
field. He lived near the present residence of Mr. Fowler Brad- 
ford. Joshua Jewell, from the same place, lived on the present 
Maj. Pierce's farm. David Jewell, also from Plainfield, lived near 
the present residence of Wm. Hindman, Esq. (Tyler Miner, 
1877.) Stephen Lee, from Litchfield, lived on Great Hill. Mat- 
thew Millard, from East Haddam, lived opposite the residence of 
the late Oliver Burnham, Esq. Samuel Messenger, from Harwin- 
ton, lived near the center of town, now Mr. Johnson's. James 
Packett, from Danbury, lived in Great Hollow. Timothy Pang- 
born, from Stamford, lived a little north of Mr. Luther Emmons' 
place. Benoni Palmeter lived near the Baptist meeting house. 
(Elias Scoville, 1877.) Thomas Tanner, from Litchfield, lived on 
the hill east of the late residence of the Hon. 0. Burnham. He 
was grandfather of Tryal Tanner. Ebenezer Tyler Uved in Corn- 
wall Hollow, on the Samuel Johnson place. Jonathan Squires, 
from Plainfield, lived south of the residence of the late Riley M. 
Rexford. Reuben Squires, also from Plainfield, lived near the 
late Capt. Joel Wright's. (T. Wilson, 1877.) Phineas WaUer 
lived near the late residence of Deacon Samuel Adams (Judson 
Adams, 1877). 

These are all the residences of the first settlers of Cornwall, on 
the list of 1740, that are well authenticated. 



14 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

In 1744, we find additional settlers. 
Samuel Benedict, from Danbury, lived opposite K. Birdseys'. 
Benjamin Dibble, from Stamford, near Seth Dibble's farm. 
William Joyner, near R. M. Rexford's on Cream Hill. 
Amos Johnson, from Branford, near the late residence of Earl 

Johnson. 
Thomas Orton, from Litchfield, lived near the Sedgwick farm. 
Joseph Pangborn, from Stamford, lived near Hart's Bridge, south 

of the mill. West Cornwall. 
Samuel Robards, from Colchester, lived thirty rods east of Benja- 
min Catlin's. (Niles Scoville, 1877.) 
Patrick Hindman, a foreigner, settled near John Hindman's. 

(Tyler Miner, 1877.) 
Abraham Raymond, from Norwalk. 
Joseph Peck lived where Stiles Peck last lived. 
In 1748, Jonathan Hurlburt, east of Sedgwick's. 
Jacob Bronson, from Norwalk, near the late Wm. Stoddard's. 

(Peter Fritz, 1877.) 
Israel Moss hved where Ezra Taylor hves: was a merchant. 

The list for 1742 is the oldest extant, and a complete copy is 
here given. It is written on a single sheet of foolscap paper — hav- 
ing on one page C, I, K, E, F, D, R, in water Hnes, and on the 
other, a large shield, the design on which is not very plain. Whole 
No. of Polls, 52; horses, 43; cows, 52; oxen, 41; young cattle, 9; 
swine, 21. 

A General List made on Polls and other Rateable Estate in Corn- 
wall, in the year of our Lord 174^. 

A. — Sam' Abbott, one head, 18; two cows, 6; 2 3-year olds, 6; 
one mare, 3; one swine, 1. — 34. 

Dan' Allen, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, two horses, 
12; one 2 -years old steer, 2; one yearling heifer, 1; five swine, 
5.-46. 

Joseph Allen, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, two horses, 
12; one swine, 1. — 39. 

B. — Elea"" Barrett, one head, 18; one mare, two cows, 9. — 27. 

Benj° Bissell, one head, 18; one cow, 3. — 21. 

David Baldwin, one head, 18; one cow, one horse, 6. — 24. 

John Blinn, one head. — 18. 

Tho" Ballard, one head, one horse, one cow. — 24. 



A GENERAL LIST. 16 

C. — John Clothier, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two horses, 6; 
two cows, 6. — 38. 

W". Chittester, one head, 18; two horses, one cow, 9. — 27. 

D. — John Dibbell, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, one 
horse, 9; one yearling, one swine, 2. — 37. 

Benj° Dibbell, one head, 18; a house lot, 3; one cow, one horse, 
6; one yearling colt, 1; one swine, 2. — 30. 

James Douglass, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, 6; one 
horse, 3. — 35. 

Reuben Dean, two heads, 36; two oxen, 8; three cows, 9; three 
horses, 9.-62. 

E. — Woodruff Emmons, one head, 18. 

F. — David Frisbie, one head, 18. 

G. — Nath' Green, two polls, 36; one ox, 4; one horse, 3. — 43. 

Thos. GriflBs, two heads, 36; two oxen, 8; two cows, two horses, 
12.— 56. 

H. — George Holloway, one head, 18; five oxen, 20; two cows, 
6; one horse, 3. — 47. 

John Holloway, one head, 18. 

Benja" Hough, one head, 18; two horses, one cow, 9; one swine, 
1.— 28. 

Thorn. Harris, two heads, 36; two cows, 6; one horse, 3. — 45. 

Moses Harris, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; one cow, three swine, 
6.-32. 

Samuell Horsford, one head, 18. 

J. — Nath'. Jewell, one head, 16; one mare, one cow, 6. — 24. 

Joshua Jewell, two heads, 36; two oxen, 8; three cows, 9; two 
horses, 6; one swine, 1. — 60. 

David Jewell, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; one cow, one horse, 
6.-32. 

L. — Rich*^ Love joy, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, 6; 
one horse, 3. — 35. 

Stephen Lee, one head, 18; one horse, 3. — 21 = 557. 

M. — Math"^ Millard, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; three cows, 9; 
horse, 3.-38. 

Sam' Messinger, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; two cows, 6; one 
one horse, 3; one 2-years old, 2; three swine, 3. — 40. 

Peter Mallory, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; one cow, two horses, 
9; one swine, 1. — 36. 

N. 

0. 



16 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

P. — James Pickett, one head, 18; two horses, one cow, 9. — 27. 
Tim^ Pangborn, one head, 18; one horse, 3; one cow, 3; two 
yearlings, 2. — 26. 

Benoni Palmeter, one head, 18. 

Q. 

R. — Sam^ Robards, one head, 18; one cow, 3; one mare, 3. — 24. 

T. — Tho^ Tanner, one head, 18; a yoak of oxen, 8; two cows, 
3; one horse, 3. — 42. 

Wm. Tanner, one head, 18. 

Eben"" Tyler, one head, 18. 

U. 

S. — Jonath" Squier, three heads, 54; two oxen, 8; two horses, 
6; one cow, 3; one swine, 1. — 72. 

Reuben Squier, one head, 18; two oxen, 8; one horse, 3. — 29. 

William Smiley, one head, 18=406. 

W. — Phin^ Walker, one head, 18; one ox, 4; one horse, 3. — 25. 

John Young, one head, 18; one cow, 3. — 21. 

The sum of the several footings, - - - 46 

406 
557 
424 



1433 



The sum totall of this list made by us, 

JONATHAN SQUIER, 
NATH'^^ GREEN, )■ Listers. 

SAMi' MESSINGER, 

In 1745 there were in the list two less than in 1742, and three 
less than in 1744. 

In 1748 there were seventy persons in the list, and the property 
amounted to £3,054 18s. Jonathan Squire had the largest list of 
any one in town, being £109 \Ss. Matthew Millard stood next, 
being £99 2s. John Dibble was next, £93. Next was Thomas 
Orton, £79 145. Next was Joshua Jewell, £77. The next was 
James Douglass, £68. Several were as low as five pounds. 

SURFACE OF THE TOWNSHIP, HILLS, VALLEYS, LAKES, AND STREAMS. 

In the northwest part of the town is a high hill called Hough 
Mountain, from Mr. Hough, who settled in that vicinity. Follow- 
ing the Housatonic River south, a valley is crossed, through which 
runs a small trout brook, when we come to another hill, called 



SURFACE OF THE TOWNSHIP. 17 

Rugij Hill, named after a man by the name of Daniel Rugg, who 
built a house there, and occupied it for a few months. 

Going south from Rugg Hill across a small stream, we find 
Waller Hill, at the foot of which lived Deacon Waller, near the 
place of Mr. Judson Adams. About half a mile south from his 
house we find another large hill, properly called Tower Dale. This 
noble name, thus written by the early settlers, has degenerated, in 
common speech, into the insignificant title of Tarry diddle. Its 
north and western side is precipitous and mostly wooded, while its 
eastern and southern slope is nice farming land. Going in the 
same direction, but a little farther removed from the river, we find 
Buck Mduntain, so called from the great number of deer that used 
to be found there. The northeastern part of this elevation is 
terminated by a conical and steep hill known by the name of Tlie 
Cobble. 

The first hill below West Cornwall, and nearer the river, was 
called Green Mountain before it became denuded of its pines and 
hemlocks, whicli in early times covered it densely. Then next 
south and easterly lies a long and high hill called Mine Mountain, 
from the minerals it was supposed to contain. Cream Hill, lying in 
the north-middle part of the town, received this appellation from 
the superiority of its soil and beauty of scenery, A pretty lake 
lies at its foot, and in fair view from its southern aspect, called 
Cream Hill Lake. North from this lake is a high range called 
Pond Hill. East of this is the Great Hollow extending over four 
miles, nearly north and south, called, in the northern part, Sedg- 
wick Hollow, and Johnson Hollow in the southern. A high and 
steep mountain range lies at the northwest of Sedgwick Hollow, 
called Titus Mountain, and was so named from a young man of 
that name who, with others, was amusing himself in rolling rocks 
down the steep side of the mountain, and who had the misfortune 
to break his thigh. 

South of Cream Hill rises an isolated hill of no great height, 
but rough and uncomely, to which is given the name of Rattlesnake 
Hill. I set down here the tradition of fifty rattlesnakes killed at 
one time on this hill, lest the story grow larger and tax our credu- 
lity too much as to the origin of the name. This raid was too 
much for the snakes, as none have been found there in the period 
of authentic history. 

That such vermin were not unknown to the early settlers, the 
3 



18 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

following resolution adopted at a town meeting held Dec. 17, 1745, 
will show: 

Voted, That two shillings should be given for each rattlesnake tail 
that shall be killed within the bounds of tliis town, by any of the in- 
habitants of it, from this time to the fifth of June, to such persons as 
shall bring said tails and rattles to either of the selectmen of this town 

The hill up which the road from Cornwall to Goshen winds is 
named Bunker Hill, from the residence on it of Rufus Bunker, an 
Indian of the Schaticoke tribe ; an old and honest man whose 
name is associated with a more enduring monument than the pyra- 
mids of Egypt. North and easterly of this hill is situated Red 
Mountain, so named from the color of the oak-leaves in the autumn 
when touched by the frosts. Southerly is Clark Hill, so called 
from a family of that name who removed nearly one hundred years 
since from Hartford to that locality. Southeasterly from Clark 
Hill is the most elevated land in the State, lying mostly in Goshen, 
from the apex of which is a view of Long Island Sound. This 
elevation is called Mohawk Mountain. Southeast of Cornwall 
Plain, forming a part of the same range as Clark Hill and Mohawk 
Mountain, lies Great Hill. Three hundred acres of land given by 
the General Assembly to Yale College, is located here, and goes 
by the name of College land. Bloody Mountain., so named from a 
bloody tragedy not enacted there, lies north of the Old Goshen and 
Sharon turnpike, northwest from the center of the town. 

In the southeast part of Cornwall is a high range called Wood- 
bury Mountain. West of this, and separated from it by a deep 
gorge, is Dudley Town Hill, so called from a family of that name 
among its early settlers, late the residence of Caleb Jones. North 
of this elevated neighborhood is CoWs-foot Mountain, which rises 
boldly from the beautiful valley, formerly called Pine street, then 
the Plain, where is the pleasant village of Cornwall. 

From the summits of many of these hills extensive and mag- 
nificent views are presented, extending west of the Hudson River 
and over a large share of Berkshire County, in Massachusetts. 
There are many other minor hills the beauty and picturesque 
appearance of which, to be fully appreciated, must be seen. 

Cream Hill Lake, in the north part of the town, and Mohawk Pond 
in the southeast, and the Housatonic River — River of the Moun- 
tains — forming the western boundary, give life and character to 
the scenery, which is never perfect without water views. Small 
streams are numerous, the most important of which are the North 



NATURAL CONDITION OF CORNWALL. 19 

Mill Brook, having ifs source in Cream Hill Lake, and flowing 
southwesterly three miles to the Housatonic, with a descent of sev- 
eral hundred feet; the South Mill Brook, rising in the hills about 
Cornwall Plain, and flowing southwest into the Housatonic; the 
Hallenbeck, rising in the Great Hollow and flowing northwesterly- 
through Canaan to the Housatonic. These are good mill streams, 
furnishing permanent water-power, but the Housatonic, in its 
whole course by the side of the town, flows rapidly, and might 
form the basis of active industry. But a very small part of the 
power of this river is yet utilized in any part of its course. These 
streams are all fed by abundant, never-failing springs, so that the 
name of " the sweet water country" may most aptly be applied to 
this township. 

NATURAL CONDITION OF CORNWALL. 

Cornwall, as a township, is ^irregularly hilly and mountainous. 
Thick forests covered its whole area. When the question of a county 
seat was early agitated, and Cornwall put in her claim for the lienor, 
" Yes," it was said, "go to Cornwall and you will have no need of 
a jail, for whoever gets in can never get out again." The old 
divine who, passing through Cornwall, delivei'ed himself of the 
following couplet, gave more truth with his poetry than is consid- 
ered essential: 

" The Almighty, from his boundless store, 
Piled rocks on rocks, and did no more." 

Another authority attributes it to Dr. Dwight, President of Yale 
College, who came up to look after the college lands and thus 
expressed himself: 

" Tlie God of Nature, from his boundless store, 
Threw Cornwall into heaps, and did no more." 

While the surface is so much broken, there is but little waste 
land, for even the steepest sides of the mountains furnish wood 
and timber. None have proved inaccessible to the collier, and but 
few bits of original forest remain as samples of the timber that 
clothed these hills and darkened the valleys. 

Most of the timber was oak, chestnut, hickory, and other hard 
woods, which sprout readily when cut over, thus renewing the 
forest growth unless the fields are subdued by cultivation. The 
great Hollow abounded in the white pine, but this was especially 
the prevailing tree on the Plain, hence called Pine Street. Some 



20 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

noble specimens of this forest remain; one grove adjoining on the 
southeast of the village of Cornwall. No other village in the 
State has such a treasure in the way of a natural park. Such a 
dense growth of lofty pines is rarely seen in any part of our 
country. 

Though the surface is rough and encumbered with rocks and 
stones, yet it is very fertile, yielding fruit, grain, and grass in 
abundance to the hand of culture. Only forty years ago the 
notion of using a mowing machine on these hills would only have 
excited laughter, for not one single acre was cleared so that it 
could operate. Now they are a necessity upon every principal 
farm. 

For many years after the settlement of the town, markets were 
so remote that it was for the interest of the farmer to raise every- 
thing he needed for his family on the farm and to sell but Uttle_ 
A generous but stubborn soil thus yielded an abundance for the 
necessities of its inhabitants; but in the current of events other 
towns found more easy access to market and this was left in the 
background. The Housatonic Railroad, opened in 1840, again 
gave an impulse to our industry, and the dairy, to which the soil 
is well adapted, took precedence as a farm industry. Though the 
experience of thirty years has greatly improved our dairy products, 
yet it is safe to say, that more knowledge and skill, which already 
exists, if generally applied on our farms producing butter and 
cheese, would add at least twenty -five per cent, to their net returns. 

MINERALS AND MINING. 

The rocky surface of Cornwall gave large indications to the 
early settlers of mineral wealth, and the township was named after 
the rich mining region in the old country. 

Mine Mountain, near the Housatonic, south of West Cornwall, 
presented rich promise of plumbago or black lead, and a consider- 
able excavation was made in the rock for it, even before the time 
of the Revolution. The principal vein runs downward and grows 
narrower, so that although the plumbago is of excellent quality it 
cannot be obtained in paying quantities, and after repeated trials 
at subsequent periods the search has been abandoned. 

On Cream Hill, James Douglas dug two mines, one for gold and 
the other for silver. The gold mine was one hundred and twenty 
feet deep, and drained by four sets of pumps and a deep ditch. 
Tradition is that, tlie assayists returned a small button of gold as 



MINERALS AND MINING. 



21 



obtained from the ore, which appears to have been iron pyrites, 
and may have been gold bearing. The mine was abandoned 
temporarily, not because their hopes were gone but means were 
exhausted. Tlie labor of excavating one hundred and twenty feet 
in solid rock, with necessary drainage, if applied to the surface 
would have gone far towards its amelioration. 

The silver mine, of sixty feet, was in the hill near the school 
house. Large quantities of magnetic iron ore were thrown out. 
which were afterwards carried away and worked up in tlie old 
forge near the present i-esidence of Chauncey Baldwin. 

This work was all done in the last century; but in my boyhood 
I remember Captain Holmes, an old English miner, who had 
worked in the mine, and was still full of faith in its value, and 
was anxious to have it reopened. He had seen a vein of silver ore, 
but the warnings of those who had buried their fortunes in these 
enterprises prevented any farther explorations.* 

About 18G0, at the urgency of a friend, we opened this mine to 
a depth of forty feet, but found nothing of interest but a wheelbar- 
row made entirely of wood and a pump of the same material; with 
new valves the latter did excellent service in removing the water. 

About the same date a company from New York purchased the 
adjoining field, and by blasting obtained samples of nickel ore, but 
have prosecuted their enterprise no farther. 

Search has been made in various places for iron ore, but no 
workable deposits have been found. 

About 1860 a deposit of porcelain clay was found in the south 
part of the town, and extensive buildings were erected for prepar- 
ing it for market. The supply soon failed and the works were 
abandoned. 

Granite of excellent quality abounds, but it is only near the 
South Cornwall cemetery that it has been wrought for monumental 
uses. Large blocks are there obtained of fine grain and free from 
blemish. 

Quarries of limestone, suitable for use in smelting iron, have 

* Captain Holmes having been disappointed in his search for mineral wealth, 
became a hermit, building himself a cabin near the spring by the side of the road 
on the Blakeslee Hill. Here he lived many years by himself, cultivating a 
garden and working out among the farmers to obtain the necessaries of life. 
Too sensitive and too proud to return to his friends or to ask assistance of them, 
he died about fifty years since in the poor-house in Salisbury, in which town he 
had gained a residence. 



22 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

been opened near Cornwall Bridge, but have only been used for 
this purpose. 

BRIDGES, ROADS, FERRY. 

The Housatonic is now crossed by three bridges, maintained 
jointly with Sharon, two of wood and one of iron: one at West 
Cornwall, formerly Hart's Bridge; one at Cornwall Bridge; and 
one in the southwest part of the town, caUed Swift's Bridge. This 
latter was rebuilt in 1875 of iron, at a cost of $2,500, a single span, 
as it was difficult to maintain a pier from the ice. 

Chichester's ferry. 

The river is fordable at low water in certain places; yet before 
bridges could be built a ferry was established and maintained for 
many years near Cornwall Bridge. Originally the rates for ferri- 
age were, — for man, horse, and load, one penny; footman, one-half 
penny; led horse, three farthings; ox or other neat kine, one 
penny; sheep, swine, or goats, one farthing. 

The rates of ferriage afterwards were ( Conn. Statutes^ 180S,) — 
man, horse, and load, one cent four mills; footman, seven mills; 
led horse, one cent; ox or other neat kine, one cent four mills; 
sheep, swine, or goats, four mills. We are not informed how they 
made change, or as to the market value of the stock. 

Roads were laid out of a liberal width, usually six rods, 1 )ut in 
other respects the layout fails to command our respect. To get to 
the top of the highest hill by the shortest route and thence to the 
top of the next, seems to have been the chief object in view, and 
though many of these old roads have been discarded, yet the 
traveler, if he has any taste for engineering, still has an oppor- 
tunity to exercise his propensity. The old Sharon and Goshen 
turnpike crossed the town from west to east near the middle, and 
though relinquished as a turnpike and its gates removed in 1850, 
still it remains one of the chief avenues of travel. The Warren 
and the Washington turnpikes are still maintained as town roads, 
yet have lost their importance for travel. The town now maintains 
between eighty and ninety miles of road, at an annual cost of 
about $3,000. Natural difficulties, aggravated by bad location of 
our highways, impose a heavy tax to keep the roads passable; yet 
there is decided improvement in the majority. Fewer roads and 
better ones, at less total expense, should l)e our aim. 



DRESS ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO. INDIANS. 23 

DRESS ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO. 

The men and women of one hundred years ago might, to those 
of the present age, well appear strange, for their style of dress was 
very different from ours. 

Gentlemen wore the cocked hat, leather breeches, long-skirted 
coat, a doulilet with large metal buttons, liroad round-toed shoes 
with massive buckles, in winter leggins and in summer the leg 
bare from the knee down. On .Sundays the hair was crimped and 
powdered. A scarlet colored coat was not unfrequent, especially 
among the young men. 

The ladies were distinguished by long waisted dresses, hoopskirts, 
high-heeled shoes, the hair crimped and powdered, when in full 
dress wearing a rich pink damask silk with a profusion of rich 
lace and other ornaments. 

The manners of that day were as distinctly marked as the dress. 
The usual way of riding was on horseback; the gentlemen on the 
saddle, the lady on a pillion behind him. Wagons and carry -alls 
were unknown. Hospitality was held in high estimation by them, 
and a good degree of that same choice quality in character still 
holds a place among their descendants, and may it never be less. 
Their habits of living were plain and simple, but few luxuries 
were theirs. They were a temperate, industrious, bold, and hardy 
people. We may well be proud of such an ancestry, and should 
be careful not to disgrace them by our degeneracy. 



The Moliawks seem to have possessed this part of the state. 
We do not learn that they had any permanent settlement within 
our borders, yet the numerous arrow-heads and other relics turned 
tip by the plowshare, show these to have been favorite hunting 
grounds. Occasionally the Indians from Bantam (Litchfield), 
Schaticoke (Kent), and Weatogue (Salisbury), hunted on the hills, 
and in fishing followed the Housatonic. From Bantam to Weatogue 
they maintained a trail or path which was well known to the first 
settlers. It crossed the great valley called the Hollow from south 
east to northwest about one hundred rods north of the residence of 
the late Samuel Johnson, and passed near a living spring where they 
were accustomed to encamp, and where occasionally have been found 
the remains of their domestic utensils. As a protection against them, 
and a place of refuge in case of attack, a palisade fort was early 



24 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

erected near the residence of the late Judge Bui-nham. The alarm 
signal was three guns fired in rapid succession. An occasional 
lurking Indian kept them on the alert, but happily we have no out- 
rages to record. 

One evening as James Douglass was on his way to the fort, from 
Cream Hill, having remained at work later than usual, his family 
having gone before, as he was passing through the low land, Pratt's 
meadow, then covered with a dense growth of timber, in a narrow 
foot-path, ho discovered two Indians, one on either side of the 
path awaiting his approacli. As Mr. Douglass had advanced too 
near to retreat before he saw them, he assumed a bold and daring 
manner and walked coolly between the two savages, who. remained 
without motion, being overawed by his fearless manner or out of 
respect to the courage he displayed, and offered him no molesta- 
tion. 

They kept constant guard when at work in the fields, and when 
James Douglass and his sons were at work his daughters, [one my 
great grandmother — T. S. G.] often sat by the loaded guns to give 
the alarm. 

As a race they have passed away. The older inhabitants still 
remember several families of them, and the bravery of one gains 
him a place elsewhere in these records. (See William Coggswell.) 

We are indebted to Gen. Chas. Sedgwick for the following 
sketch of the Indian 

TOM WARRUPS. 

This noble old Indian Warrior died in Cornwall early in the pres- 
ent century, and was well known throughout the township. In his 
old age his hair became perfectly white, and his visits to all parts 
of the town were frequent and acceptable, while his witty pleas- 
antries were long remembered. He was of the Schaticoke tribe 
but he became a resident of Cornwall in his early life. In the 
Revolutionary war he enlisted into a company commanded by 
Edward Rogers, Esq., as Captain, of which Loyal Tanner was 
Lieutenant; this company was in the battle of Long Island and 
shared in all the disastrous results of that conflict, and in the 
perils attending tlie retreat of the army from New York, 'J'om was 
always spoken of by his surviving comrades as a brave and daring 
soldier, ready for every duty and danger required by the service. 

The following anecdote used to be told as illustrating his Indian 
character. After the retreat from New York tlie company was sta- 
tioned on the shore of the East River, and one morning a party of 



FARMING AND FARMERS. 25 

British, went up the River in boats on a foraging expedition, and 
landed not far from the Cornwall company. Captain Rogers pro- 
posed that the company should attempt their capture, as the party 
was small and could probably be easily taken prisoners, and sub- 
mitting the proposal to the company, some favored and others dis- 
approved of it. "When the question was asked Tom he said, I guess 
we had ietter kill ivhat prisoners ive noio have hefore we trij to get any 
more. He was celebrated for his ready wit, and stories of it were 
often related in the early years of this century. 

Like the generality of his race he was addicted to intoxication, 
and even in the army, he was sentenced for that offence to a ride 
on the wooden horse in front of the regiment. While being thus 
transported on the shoulders of his comrades Lieut. Tanner asked 
him if he did not feel ashamed to be presented to the Regiment in 
that way. "Yes," said Tom, "I am ashamed to think that our 
Lieutenant must go on foot, while a poor old Indian can ride." 

Here is another anecdote: Capt. Jeffers once meeting him said, 
" Why, Tom, I was in hopes you were dead." " Why," said Tom, 
" do you want the widow ?" 

Very few among the living can remember him, but his revolu- 
tionary services and the universal kindness with which lie was re- 
garded renders it proper that his memory should be preserved. 

FARMING AND FARMERS. 

Farming has ever been the general occupation of the citizens of 
this town. A thick and unbroken forest covered the whole town- 
ship. The first explorers found it difficult to select the most desira- 
ble locations, hence we view with surprise the choice made by many 
for their homes. We can hardly conceive of the labors and trials 
which they endured in clearing and subduing to culture these wild 
hills. The possession of capital gave little advantage or very 
sHght exemption from toil and hardship. House-building, road- 
building, clearing of land, culture of crops, planting of orchards, 
destruction of noxious animals, protection from the Indians, the 
erection of mills, the establishment of schools and churches, and 
of town government, gave abundant employment for all. Popula- 
tion increased rapidly, both by immigration and natural growth — • 
all supported by home-grown products. The few supplies brought 
with the settlers from earlier settlements were soon exhausted, 
and the difficulty of transportation rendered them dependent upon 
their own resources. The native forest, consisting largely of white 
4 



26 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

oak, cliestnut, and hickory, indicated a strong and productive soil, 
adapted to the growth of Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, grass, fruit; 
in fact, all the great staples of northern agriculture. Potatoes 
were then unknown as an article of food. Though a native of 
America, they were only known as a tropical product. The mem- 
ory of the generation just passing away reaches the date of their 
introduction, and for some time a store of two or three bushels 
was considered a full family supply. Turnips, beans, green corn, 
and pumpkins were the principal vegetables, while dry corn in the 
shape of samp or hominy, coarsely pounded in the old samp mor- 
tars, formed the main reliance. These mortars were made of a 
pepperidge log, about one foot in diameter and two feet long. The 
ends were cut o3 square, so that it stood on end, and the upper 
hollowed to receive the grain. The pestle was of hard wood, two 
feet or more in length, with a handle inserted in the side like a 
common hammer. These mortars are still to be found around old 
homesteads, having been in use even in this century for pounding 
corn, salt, etc. 





,":>amp Mortar and Pestle. 

As soon as mills could be erected, wheat and rye were raised in 
considerable quantity. The virgin soil yielded a rich return even 
to their rude culture. No soil exhaustion troubled them. The 
Canada thistle, and other noxious weeds, were unknown. The 
hardhack [Potentilla fruticosa) had not invaded their pastures. The 
apple- worm, the borer, pear-blight, peach-tree yellows, curculio, 
and plum-knot, were evils of which they never heard. So that 
they had some happy compensations to make up for their priva- 
tions, and, to balance the supposed necessities of the present day, 
when our farmers feed upon wheat grown beyond the Missouri, 
the cattle of Illinois and our own cattle are fattened upon the corn 
of the far west. 

The rich grass springing everywhere where the forest was 
cleared, indicated the dairy as a leading branch of their hus- 
bandry. As soon as their family wants were supplied, the dairy 
furnished a product which would allow of transportation, and 
which, with beef and pork, has continued to be the main rehance 



FARMING AND FARMERS. 27 

of our farmers for supplying their outside wants. The distance of 
markets for the sale of produce and purchase of supplies, made a 
self-reliant system of mixed husbandry a necessity. Not only was 
the food supply homegrown, but clothing, in its material and man- 
ufacture, was all homesjmn. The farmer and his family were clad 
in linen spun and woven in the house from flax grown and dressed 
on the farm, or woolen from his own sheep, colored with native 
dyestuffs, as butternut or 'oak, when the black sheep were too few 
to give the due proportion of colored wool. Shoes were from the 
hides of his own animals, tanned by himself, or, later, at some 
neighboring tannery, and made up by the traveling shoemaker, 
who, " whipping the cat," carried his own tools and wax, but 
worked up the homegrown leather with shoe-thread and pegs all 
grown on the farm. A wooden standard at one end of his bench 
provided for two candles, an extravagance otherwise not allowed — 
but these were of home material, tallow with a tow wick — their 
slender proportions reveahng more clearly than any other single 
thing the leanness of their housekeeping. 

Stoves were unknown. Fifty years count back to the time 
when they were as rare as open fireplaces now are. Most ample 
fireplaces received wood as large as could be handled, the object 
being to consume it as rapidly as possible. The huge chimney was 
a perfect ventilator; and in spite of their fatigues and toU, and 
lack of now called comforts, they enjoyed life with a zest surpass- 
ing the present. Four families in one school-district, with twelve 
children each (West District), made lively times — and all earned 
their own bread. 

Acute disease often carried them off suddenly, and the feeble 
had httle chance of life; yet their very hardships gave them 
strength and long lives, and strong vitality marked our ancestors. 
But this has no connection with farming, except as showing how 
farmers lived. 

For stock, their cattle were small and rough, of various colors, 
brindle and brown being favorites ; yet many of the cows were 
good milkers. The sheep were a long-legged, scraggy race, with 
thin and coarse wool, but hardy and good nurses. The swine 
were especially coarse and thick-skinned, often large. 

Tools of all kinds were of the rudest description. The plow was 
of wood, the point being of steel or iron fashioned by the black- 
smith, whose shop was located in every neighborhood for the con- 
venience of shai-pening the plow-irons; the harrow home-made, with 



28 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

wooden teeth; the hay and manure forks of iron, so heavy that no 
man now would use them ; in fact, the change in farming tools has 
been almost as great as the change in the aspect of the township 
from the primeval forest to the cultivated field of the present. Yet 
we should make as poor work farming with the stock of a hundred 
years ago as with their tools. Because we have no specimens left 
of the former, we do not notice the change. 

THE farmers' club. 

This institution, which has effected much good in this commun- 
ity, socially, morally, and physically, originated in the year 1846. 
One evening in the month of November of that year, six men, by 
previous agreement, met at the house of T. L. Hart, Esq., and 
organized this club. Meetings were held in several neighborhoods 
once in two weeks during the winter. The numbers increased; 
some addresses were delivered, and the public mind became 
informed and interested in the objects aimed at; which were the 
gathering and diffusion of agricultural and horticultural knowledge 
among the people. 

The peculiarly social features of this club, the farmers and their 
wives and children meeting for social intercourse, as well as 
instruction, have given it a permanence and practical value that 
otherwise could not have been attained. The enthusiasm of num- 
bers has given strength to the institution. Meetings have been 
continued with more or less regularity every winter since its form- 
ation. 

It is entirely beyond the reach of human calculation to estimate 
all the good which the organization and continuance of the Farmers' 
Club has produced. In a pecuniary point of view it has well paid, 
while in intellectual, social, and moral benefits it has accomplished 
still greater good. It has multiplied knowledge, improved man- 
ners by increasing social intercourse, eradicating those petty jeal- 
ousies and bickerings which are too common a source of trouble 
in neighborhoods. Who, that has been well acquainted with this 
community for the last twenty-five years, is not aware of its bene- 
fits ? Cherish this institution, and, while you labor for its success, 
you will share its blessings. Beautiful homes will more and more 
adorn your hills and valleys. A broader and kinder spirit of good 
feeling will mark this people in all their social relations; and to 
have a residence here will be no common blessing. 




FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 



SCHOOLS. 29 



Foreign Mission School. — The Board of Foreign Missions, in 1816, 
resolved to establish a school in this country for the education of 
foreign youth, designing to fit them to become "missionaries, 
schoolmasters, interpreters, and physicians among heathen nations: 
and to communicate such information in agriculture and the arts 
as should tend to promote Christianity and civilization." For this 
object a farm was purchased in Cornwall, and suitable buildings 
erected, and a school commenced May 1, 1817, with twelve pupils. 

Mr. Edwin W. Dwight, of Stockbridge, Mass., took charge of 
the school for one year, till Eev. Herman Dagget, of New Canaan, 
could be at liberty to take the post, which he held acceptably for 
about six years. He was succeeded in 1824 by Rev. Amos Bas- 
set, D. D., who continued in charge till the school was disbanded, 
in 1827. Rev. Herman L. Vaill was, for a time, an assistant 
teacher. The school was a decided success as far as its original 
plan was concerned, and was closed because the opportunities of 
educating the heathen on their own ground were opened, thus ren- 
dering it unnecessary and from the local opposition produced by 
the marriage of two Cherokee Indians with respectable white girls 
residing in the town. 

The number of pupils in 1822 had risen to 34, representing the 
leading then known Indian tribes, and many of the Pacific Islands. 
Henry Obookiah, a Sandwich Islander, was a devoted Christian, 
and gave great promise of usefulness, but he died whUe a member 
of the school, Feb. 17, 1818, aged 26. A tablet erected to his 
memory in the cemetery at Cornwall bears this inscription: 

In 

memory of 

Henry Obookiah, 

a native of 

Owyhee. 

His arrival in this country gave rise to the Foreign Mission School, 

of which he was a worthy memlser. He was once an Idolater, and was 

designed for a Pagan Priest; but by the grace of God, and by the 

prayers and instructions of jiious friends, he became a Christian. 

He was eminent for piety and missionary zeal. When almost prepared 
to return to his native Isle, to preach the Gospel, God took him to him- 
self. In his last sickness he wept and prayed for Owyhee, but was sub- 
missive. He died without fear, with a heavenly smile on his countenance 
and glory in his soul, 

Feb. 17, 1818, 
Aged 36. 



30 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

A sketch of his life, by Rev. E. W. Dwight, the first instructor 
of the school, has been published by the American Tract Society, 
and forms a most interesting and valuable volume for Sabbath 
schools. His memory is cherished by all who knew him, and the 
cause of missions has a stronger hold upon christians in Litchfield 
county, that he was permitted to bear his testimony before them 
to the power of the cross. 

Thomas H. Patoo, another converted heathen, is interred beside 
him. His monument bears this inscription: 

In 

memory of 
Thomas Hammatah Patoo, 
a native of the Marquesas Islands, and a member of the Foreign Mission 
School, who died June 19, 1823, aged about 19 years. 

He was hopefully pious, and had a great desire to be qualified to 
become a missionary to his ignorant countrymen. But he died in hope 
of a better country. 

This stone is erected by the liberality of his Christian friends in N. 
Coventry, Conn., among whom he first found the Saviour of sinners. 

The annual commencements of the school drew together a large 
concourse of christian ministers and other citizens. These exercises 
of song and rehearsal in their various languages, then so little 
known, were of great interest. At this school was educated John 
Boudinot, the Cherokee who reduced that language to a written 
form. The influence of this school may be seen to-day in the 
advanced civilization of the Cherokees, and other Indian tribes, 
among whom the institutions of religion and education are most 
dearly cherished, and their refining effects most clearly shown. 

Cornwall was selected as the location for this school from the free- 
dom from temptation in its seclusion, the healthfulness of its 
climate, and its kindly soil, and the sound moral and christian 
influences which pervaded the community. The same reasons 
have made it a favorite location for various select or private 
schools. The school building of the Foreign Mission School was 
for many years used for a select school, under the charge of vari- 
ous teachers, then for a public school, till it was removed, in 1873, 
to give place to the chapel of the First Congregational Church, 
erected on the same ground. 



FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. INDIAN SONG. 



31 



List of Members of the Foreign Mission School, Cornwall, Conn., 
July 23, 1823, by Caleb Jones. 

Names. 
George D. Weed, 
Horatio N. Hubbell, 
Benuet Koberts, 
Joseph Potang Suotv 
John C. Trepoah, 
Robert Whyhee, 
Henry Taheete, 
David Brainerd, 
Charles Arohekaah, 
John E. Pheljis, 
Charles Backus, 
Samuel J. Mills, 
John Newcom, 
John N. Chicks, 
Solomon Sabattis, 
Peter Augustine, 
Guy Chew, 
William L. Gray, 
David Gray, 
Jacob P. Tarbel, 
Thomas Zealand, 
Jaines Lewis, 
William Botelho, 
Heniy Martyn Alan, 
William Alum, 
Jonas I. Abrahams, 
John Joseph Loy, 
Photius Kavasales, 
Auastasius Karavelles, 
George Fox, 
John Saunders, 
David C. Carter, 
Miles Mackey, 
James Terrell, 
Isaac Fisk, 
George Tyler, 

There were not only Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese, but the 
Cherokee tribe of Indians was there represented. Two members of this 
tribe became enamored with two of the young ladies of the village, 
offered marriage and were accepted. This created a good deal of feel- 
ing, and finally ended in breaking up the school. The famous John 
Ridge was one of the Indian lovers, and during the excitement the poet 
wrote the following song : 

TO THE INDIANS OF CORNWALL. 

O, come with me, white girl fiiir, 

O, come where Mobile's sources flow ; ' 
With me my Indian blanket share. 

And share with me my bark canoe : 
We'll build our cabin in the wild, 

Beneath the forest's lofty shade. 
With logs on logs transversely piled, 

And barks on barks obliquely laid. 



Native Names. 




Country. 




Anglo-American, Catskill, N. Y. 






•' " Trumbull, Conn. 






" " Tompkins, N. Y. 


Sar-duk, 




Malay. 


I-re-p6-ah, 




Owyhee. 


Whv-hee, 




Mowhee. 


Ta-hee-te, 




Owyhee. 


Mak-oo-wi-he-: 


aa. 


11 


A-ro-he-ka-ah, 




11 


Kal-la-ah-ou-lun-nah 




Na-muk-ka-h:'i- 


-loo. 


U 


Pau-loo, 




Woahoo. 


Wau-ne-mauk-theet, 


Stockbridge Indian. 


Pau-poon-haut 


't 


ii. '' u 


Sol-lo-loh, 




Mohegan. 


Ta-kon-o-tas, 




Oneida. 

Tuscarora. 

Iroquois. 

a 


Ka-la-la, 




New Zealand. 
Narragansett. 


Lieaon Asee, 




Chinese. 


A-lan, 




n 


A-lum, 




u 

Jew. 

Portuguese. 

Greek. 


A-to-Koh, 




Seneca. 
Cherokee. 

Choctaw. 



Owyhee. 



32 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

O, come with me, my white girl fair, 

Come, seek with me the southern clime, 
And dwell with me securely there. 

For there my arms sliall round thee twine ; 
The olive is thy favorite hue. 

But sweet to me thy lily face ; 
O, sweet to both, when l)oth shall view 

These colors mingled in our race. 

Then come with me, my white girl fair, 

And thou a hunter's bride shalt be ; 
For thee I'll chase the roebuck there. 

And thou shalt dress the feast for me : 
O, wild and sweet our feast shall be. 

The feast of love and joy is ours ; 
Then come, my white girl fair, with me, 

O come and bless my sylvan bowers. 

By Silas Hurlbut McAlpine. 

[The following metrical essay is part history and part romance. 
Though it graces no volume of " Connecticut Poets," it nevertheless 
once had a considerable local fame, and there are many among our aged 
readers who will remember having read it more than forty years ago.] 

THE INDIAN SONG, SARAH AND JOHN. 

[Composed by Emily Fox of Cornwall.] 

Behold, there came into our town, 
A man of fame and great renown ; 
He had thought to live in splendor liere, 
And brought with him a daughter dear. 

She was blest with beauty bright and fair, 
There were few witli her could compare. 
O, 'tis hard for to relate the truth. 
She fell in love with an Indian youth ! 

He was a bright young man, we know. 
And with him she resolved to go. 
He flatter'd her to be his young dove. 
Till her young heart was filled with love. 

Then to her mother he did go, 
To see whether he might have her or no. 
She was well pleas'd at the words of John, 
And consented that he should be her son. 

They kept it a secret, and did not tell. 
How Sarah loved an Indian well ; 
Nor was the secret thing made known, 
Till from his country he did return. 

Her father then being out of town. 
And wlien he heard that John had come. 
He sighed, and for his child did mourn. 
Saying, O that my Sarah had not been born. 



AN INDIAN SONG. 33 

And when this Indian he had come, 
She thought her daughter was undone ; 
She made as though her lieart woukl break, 
And it was for her daugliter's sake. 

She being then borne down with grief, 
Went to her neighbor for relief, 
Sajang, my sorrows, friend, are hard to tell ; 
Our Sarah loves this Indian well. 

What shall I do, what can I say ; 
Can I bear my child should go away? 
For she is young and in her bloom, — 
We'll fasten her tight in a room. 

O fasten her, I think to say ; 

She with the Indian shall not stay ; 

Then in distraction this fair maid did run. 

It was for the love of an Indian man. 

Declaring if she was not his wife, 
Most suddenly she would end her life. 
Sickness on lier then did fall. 
And for the doctor they did call. 

He gave them soon to understand, 
'Twas for the love of an Indian man. 
Unto her parents he did tell. 
Let her have him and she will be well. 

The Reverend Vaill we would not blame; 
On Sabbath next he published them, 
But Reverend Smith feared not the law. 
He married this lady to be a squaw. 

Higlily promoted were Sai-ah and John, 
Col. Gold did them wait upon, 
He waited on them most genteel too. 
And seated them in his own pew. 

Upon her side it does look dark. 

To think how she used her neighbor Clark — 

Has left behind for to make sport. 

To think she did with an Indian court. 

He went with her both night and day, 
Wliile her dear John was gone away. 
And unto him she did not tell 
How that she loved an Indian well. 

He being absent from his friends, 
A letter unto her he did send. 
And unto it she woukl not hear. 
But married John her only dear. 

Her parents with her a piece did go. 
To bid their lovely child adieu — 
Now with her mother she .must part. 
Which was enough to break her heart. 



34 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

She hung upon her mother's breast, 
With sighs and tears did her embrace, 
I cannot bear, I am sure, said she, 
My tender mother, to leave thee. 

He snatch'd her from the mother's breast. 
And his tawny arms did her embrace, 
Sarah, said he, you are mine you know. 
And with me you have got to go. 

Now Sarah is gone and seen no more — 
She has gone and left her native shore — 
Ah ! yes, she has gone but proved unkind, 
And left her whole disgrace behind. 

She thinks great splendor slie shall see, 
When she arrives at Cherokee — 
She thinks great splendor there is seen, 
And she be crowned for a queen. 

She would be disappointed of her home. 
To find a little, small wigwam. 
And nothing allowed her for a bed. 
But a dirty blanket, it is said. 

And this be hard for Sarah fair. 
Who long did live in splendor here. 
To lay aside her laces and fine gowns. 
Her Indian blanket to put on. 

'Twould sink her pride — 'twould raise her shame. 
To follow him and carry game. 
And with her John must march along, 
Amidst a savage whooi^ing throng. 

Come all young maids I pray take care 
How Indians draw you into a snare. 
For if they do I fear it will be 
As it is with our fair Sarah. 

And what a dreadful, doleful sound 
Is often heard from town to town. 
Reflecting words from every friend. 
How our ladies marry Indian men. 

Now Sarah is gone — her we ne'er shall view — • 
She's gone, and to her love proves true, 
O yes, she's gone, and her Indian too — 
Now Sarah we will bid adieu. 

A Fragment of the Funeral Sermon of Rev. Herman Daggett, hy Rev. 

Timothy Stone. 

He had already, by an early discipline, formed his mind for systemati- 
cal study ; and had learned the necessity of order and close application 
to ol)tain science. Having little or no patrimony to aid him, and being 
infirm in hcaltli, it was a great efi'ort for him to go through a course of 
collegiate study. No education society then existed, to cherish the hopes 
of indigent and promising youth who souglit knowledge. By strict 



FRAGMENT OF A FUNERAL SERMON. 35 

economy, and some aid from friends, he went thronnh the regular course 
of four years study, in Brown's University, in Providence, R. I. His 
standing in college as a scholar was so respectable that an honorable 
appointment was allotted him in the exercises of commencement, when 
he graduated, Sept. 1788. Among his fellow students in college he was 
much esteemed. 

Mr. Daggett entered college without vital piety. But in an early period 
of his residence there, his heart and affections were changed by the 
grace of the Holy Spirit. 

This revolution in the character of Mr. Daggett w^as the commence- 
ment of a course of uncommon devotedness to God. He no more 
regarded himself as his own, but as consecrated to the service of Jesus 
C'hrist. In prosecuting study, he was now incited by motives elevated 
above the desire of being a distinguished scholar, or of gratifying his 
taste for literature, or of enjoying the pleasures of science: it is true, 
that he did not lose his relish for these innocent enjoyments. He loved 
knowledge, and delighted in the cultivation of letters : but he had found 
the pearl of great jirice, and to obtain it, he could cheerfully sell all. 
Like Paul, he " counted all things loss for the excellency of the knowl- 
edge of (Jhrist Jesus his Lord." 

It is known that Mr. Daggett wrote to a considerable extent a regular 
joui'nal ; but a small part, however, of such manuscripts, has been seen 
since his decease ; he no doubt destroyed many of them. 

No one appeared more opposed to egotism and vanity than he, and 
to speak of himself. 

The following lines were written by him in college, not long after he 
was of the age of nineteen. They express his firm confidence in the 
Saviour, and in the belief of his being united to Him by faith; and that 
he was resolved to be wholly devoted to his service. 

" Come my beloved, let us go forth into the fields." — Solomon's Song, 
Chap, vii, 11. 

This world's a wide uncultivated field, 
Through which like weary travelers we pass, 
Unskilled in all the dangers of the way. 
Deceitful prospects open to our view 
To lead the simple on to vain pursuits. 
Happy the man, that finds a faithful friend, 
A kind, compassionate, exjierienced guide. 
With whom to travel through this wilderness, 
Who knows where danger is, and who can point 
The way to true felicity and rest. 
O Jesus ! kind redeemer, thou art He — 
Thou wast in all points tempted like as me. 
Thou shalt conduct me — I am wholly thine. 
And thou hast shown that thou art wholly mine. 

No writings are found, which give any particular account of his conver- 
sion. But a moral change of such vast moment, as a transition from the 
darkness and bondage of sin, into the light and liberty of those who are 
regenerated, is an event which cannot but excite a strong desire to know 
how such a moral revolution is eflTected. But " the wind bloweth where it 
listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it 
Cometh and whither it goeth : " to this declaration our Divine Teacher 
adds — " so is every one that is born of the Spirit." 

Everyone possessing genuine piety is born of God, having been 
renewed by the Holy Ghost. But to ascertain and point out the mode 



36 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

of operation by which this divine agent eftects such a moral change in 
the hearts of sinful men, is a matter greatly overvalued : and to judge 
of the reality of tliis spiritual renovation, by the circumstances which 
precede and accompany it, and with positiveness as some do, is both 
preposterous and antiscriptural. Such not only assume a wisdom above 
"what is written," but oppose the bil)le, by their traditions. That this 
last proposition is not unfoimded, let it be considered that the bible 
gives us scarcely any account of the manner how the ancient saints were 
converted. AVhile their holy characters are represented in a manner 
most striking, and in colors the most vivid ; and wliile faitli, the fear of 
God, holiness, and all the virtues and graces of the christian character, 
are not only clearly defined in precepts, but illustrated in the examples 
of holy men of old ; where do we find one specimen iu the bible of what 
is called the work of conviction, unless very briefly stated, and without 
any particulars? 

Saul of Tarsus, the Philippian jailor, Lydia, and the numerous con- 
verts to Christianity in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, are almost all, 
if not the whole number, of the instances of the operation of the Holy 
Spirit on the conscience, usually termed conviction, which are recorded 
in sacred history. These cases are stat(;d in the briefest and mcjst gen- 
eral terms, and without any recital of circumstances. 

Such silence on this subject furnishes conclusive proof that the spirit 
of infinite wisdom regarded the holy example of good men, and the 
illustration of holiness by their conduct, and the emotions of their hearts 
expressed in their prayers and praises, as inexpressiV)ly more instructive 
to us than any representation of the mode by which their souls were 
turned from the death of sin to spiritual life. Life and activity are 
unquestional proof of a man's birth. 

So the fruits of the Spirit ; " love, joy, peace, long-sutteriug, gentleness, 
goodness, teniperance, faith, meekness," give the most conclusive evi- 
dence that all who possess these moral qualities are born of God. 
According to this rule of judgment, but very few of the professed disci- 
23les of Jesus Christ have given more decided evidence that they were 
the subjects of the new birth, than was seen in Mr. Daggett. 

Having completed his studies in college, Mr. Daggett commenced 
reading theology, under the direction of that distinguished divine, the 
Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Emmons of Franklin, Mass. The peculiar sentiments 
of Dr. Emmons, in connection with his uncommon clearness of intellect, 
and very perspicuous mode of writing, have made him a divine of great 
celebrity. His amiableness as a christian and his talents were held in 
high estimation by Mr. Daggett, But, however much he venerated the 
man, it is not to be understood that he, as a necessary consequence, 
adopted all tlie peculiarities of his instructor's doctrinal tenets. If Mr. 
Daggett did imbibe them, his preaching in the latter part of his life 
never indicated it. In his communications from the desk, and in his 
more private religious instructions, he was remarkable for an entire free- 
dom from any thing of polemical divinity. 

Dr. Emmons ever held Mr. Daggett in liigh esteem ; and this aifection 
and friendshijj met in return with the cordial respect and gratitude of 
his pupil. 

In October 1789 he was licensed to preach, as we learn in the following 
extract of a letter to an intimate female friend. He writes : " Wednesday 
7 inst. I attended the Association at North Bridge ; was examined, 
received recommendation, and last Sabbath I spent at Franklin. 

" 1 feel in some measure the importance of that work U])on which I 
have entered ; at the same time my insufficiency and unworthiness, and 
can say with the prophet — ' Ah ! Lord I cannot speak, for I am a child.' 



VISIT TO THE CHEROKEE NATION. 3*7 

Yet necessity is laid upon me, and I must "o forward, and with the apos- 
tle I know that through t^hrist strengthenino; me I can do all things. 
I do not wish to go back, but thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath 
enaliled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the minis- 
try. — My dearest Sister — will you give me your prayers ? " 

Mr. Daggett was ever remarkable, as all his acquaintance will bear tes- 
timony, for simplicity and sincerity in what he said or wrote. Never 
would" he use words without meaning, as some do. What he expressed, 
lie believed and felt. Very deeply did he feel the vast responsibility of 
a minister of Christ — of an ambassador of the King of Kings, whose 
duty is to urge sinners to become reconciled to God. Were all, who 
enter upon this most solemn service of God's altar, to feel their respon- 
sibility to their final judge, as we believe this young candidate for the 
ministry did; and be regardless of mercenary and personal considera- 
tions as he appears to have been, — relying entirely on the Lord Jesus for 
righteousness, spiritual strength, and success in their work; what a glo- 
rious accession of energy would be seen in the church. How beautiful, 
and how strong, yea, how impregnable would be the walls of Zion ! — 
Then tlie church would " look forth as the morning, tair as the moon, 
clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with Ijiinners." 

May thousands of such ministers be brought forward, speedily, by the 
exalted head of the church. 

During all his life, Mr. Daggett suffered much bodily infirmity. His 
lucid and sound mind was united to a corporeal system so frail that it 
was wonderful that he was so useful to society for so many years. 

For about twenty years or more, he was able to preach for the most 
part, and also to instruct youth. For two years and a half he preached 
as a candidate very acceptably in various places; but chiefly on Long 
Island. He went there, soon after he was licensed to preach, and with 
hope of receiving benefit to his health, l)y inlialing the mild and salu- 
brious air of that island ; and his health was improved. He spent a 
year at Southhold, a town on the north shore, where he received from 
the Presbyterian church and society a unanimous invitation to be their 
pastor. But for reasons, not now known, he did not accejit it. 

Col. Benjamin Gold and wife visited their daughter Harriet, 
who married the Cherokee, Boudinot, at her home in the Cherokee 
nation in Georgia, making the trip in a one-horse wagon, and 
writes thence to his brother Hezekiah his impressions. To get a 
correct view, we must look on all sides. 

New Echota, Cherokee Nation, 8th Dec, 1829. 
Dear Brother: We arrived here on the 37th day of October, 47 
days on our journey — we might have performed the journey sooner — but 
we chose not to be in haste, and to give ourselves time to view the 
country and get acquainted with the people by the way, and moderately 
drive our horse, as a thousand miles is a pretty serious journey for a 
horse, and to carry as much of a load as we had. But by a merciful 
Providence we were upheld and wonderfully supported all the way — in 
good health and good spirits. We are now in good health, and can say 
with truth that now — nearly three mouths since we left home — has been 
as pleasant and interesting as any part of our lives. We traveled 
through a very pleasant part of the countiy — from Newburgh through 
Orange county into New Jersey ; then into Pennsylvania, through Eas- 
ton, Lancaster, Reading, Bethlehem, and many other large and beautiful 



38 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

villages in Pennsylvania; then throngh a small part of Maryland, and 
over the Potomac, about 30 miles north of Baltimore; then into the 
great State of Virginia, four hundred miles ; then into Tennessee about 
200 miles; then crossed the Highwassey River at a place called Calhoon 
into the Cherokee Nation, vs^here an agent of the United States resides 
to manage the Indian concerns of the Cherokee Nation. We put up at 
the house of Mr. Lewis Ross, one of the princijial chiefs of tlie Cherokee 
Nation; being a very rainy day, we tarried there two nights. His 
house is an elegant white house near the bank of the river, neatly fur- 
nished as almost any in Litchtield county ; his family of four pretty 
children, the eldest a daughter of about 12 years, attending a high 
school in Tennessee, appears well as any girl of her age. Mr. Ross, 
a brother of the j^rincipal chief, has two or three large stores, no doubt 
independent ; has negroes enough to wait on us ; made us very welcome ; 
said he would take nothing of any one who had connections in the 
Nation. He is part Cherokee — his wife a white woman of the Meigs 
family, but you would not suspect him or his children to be any part 
Indian. We then traveled about 20 miles, and came to a Mr. McVann's, 
a white man who married a Cherokee woman, sister of Mr. Joseph Vaun, 
another Cherokee chief. He has a beautiful white house, and about six 
or seven hundred acres of the best land you ever saw, and negroes 
enough to manage it and clear as much more as he pleases ; raised this 
year about live thousand bushels of corn ; and it would make you feel 
small to see his situation. Mr. McVann lives in a large elegant brick 
house, and elegantly furnished. We staid there over night, and he 
would take nothing of us. We have considerable acquaintance Avith 
most of the principal men of the Nation. We were here two or three 
weeks while the Council were in session, and were introduced to all of 
them, and became familiar with most of them. We have traveled about 
100 miles in the Nation, visited three mission stations, and are much 
pleased with the missionaries; have seen most of them and become 
acquainted. Mr. Boudinott has much good company, and is as much 
resjjected as any man of his age. His paper is respectable all over the 
United States, and known in Europe; has about 100 newspapers sent 
him from the different parts of the United States by way of exchange; 
so that you may perceive we have an interesting stand, where we have 
the news from all quarters of the globe. We are in good health, and 
likewise Mr. Boudinott and his family. They have two beautiful and 
interesting children ; would pass in company for full-blooded Yankees. 
My wife says she thinks they are rather handsomer than any she has 
seen at the north ; am uncertain when we shall return to Conn. Har- 
riet says she well remembers the conversation with Dr. Gold, and he 
labored with her to dissuade her from her purpose, he supposing she 
was going to place herself in an unhappy situation ; but she wishes you 
to present her regards to the Doctor, and tell him that she has never yet 
seen the time that she regretted coming here in the manner she did, but 
has ever rejoiced that she placed herself here; that she envies the situa- 
tion of no one in Conn. She has a large and convenient framed house, 
two stories, 30 by 40 feet on the ground, well done off, and well furnished 
with the comforts of life ; they get their supplies of clothes and groceries 
— they have their year's store of teas, cloths, paper, ink, &c., from Bos- 
ton, and their sugars, molasses, »&c., from Augusta ; they have two or 
three barrels of flour on hand at once. This neighborhood is truly an 
interesting and pleasant place; the ground is level and smooth as a 
house-floor; the center of the Nation — a new place, laid out in city 
form — 100 lots one acre each — a spring called the public spring, about 



CREAM HILL AGRICUI-TURAL SCHOOL. ADELPHIC INSTITUTE. 39 

twice as large as our saw-mill brook, near the center, with other springs 
on the plat; six new framed houses in sight, besides a Council House, 
Court House, printing office, and four stores, all in sight of Mr. B.'s 
house ; but the stores are continued only during the session of the 
Council, and then removed to other parts of the Nation — except one, 
steadily continued. The stores in the Nation are as large as the best in 
our towns in Litchfield county — their large wagons of six horses go to 
Augusta and bring a great load ; and you will see a number of them 
together. There is much travel through this place. I have seen eleven 
of those large wagons pass by Mr. Boudinot's house in company. John 
Ridge* was clerk of the Cherokee Council, and is now clerk of a Creek 
Delegation to Congress for the winter, and likely will get his five or ten 
thousand dollars, as he did liefore. The Cherokee delegation has gone 
on to Congress again this winter. I could tell you many pleasant things 
about the country, but for fear you may not be able to read, or get tired, 
I must close by telling you that you must give our love to your family 
and friends, and accept the kind regards of your aftectionate 

Brother, B. Gold. 

CREAM HILL AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, 

was established in May, 1845, by Dr. S. W. & T. S. Gold, at 
their farm on Cream Hill, and continued till April, 1869, twenty- 
four years. 

At the beginning there were bnt four pupils, afterwards 
increased to twenty, the limit of the school. The object was to 
unite, with classical and scientific education, theoretical and prac- 
tical instruction in agriculture : to encourage a taste for the pur- 
suits of rural life, to develop and strengthen the body as well as 
the mind. The results of the plan were eminently satisfactory, 
and we look with pleasure upon our pupils, scattered everywhere, 
in positions of honor and usefulness, but especially in the record 
of those who, in the opening of their manhood, took up arms in 
defense of their country, is our especial delight and pride, while 
with tender hearts we recall those who were permitted to offer 
their lives a sacrifice that the nation might live. 

THE ADELPHIC INSTITUTE. 

Mr. Ambrose Rogers, a native of Cornwall, and a graduate of 
Union College, opened a family boarding school, with the above 
title, at North Cornwall in 1847, and continued there until 1860, 
when he removed his school to New Milford, where he taught till 
Sept., 1876, a total of thirty-nine years. His house was always 
full. 

* The other Indian who married a Cornwall girL Sarah Northrup. 



40 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 



SCHOOL OF W. C. AND MISS L. ROGERS. 

In 1852, Mr. Wm. C. Rogers, succeeded by Ms sister, Miss Lydia 
Rogers, opened a school for young ladies, with good prospects, at 
the residence of their father, near the church in North Cornwall. 
They had about one dozen pupils, but closed after two years, 

NOAH AND BURTON HARt's SCHOOL. 

In the spring of 1853, Noah R. Hart, assisted by his brother, 
E. Burton Hart, established a private boarding school for boys, 
on the place now owned and occupied by the latter, in West Corn- 
wall. Both had previous experience in the instruction of youth 
in the district schools of the town. Their efforts in the boarding 
school were crowned with success, being sustained by a choice 
and generous patronage from New York city, while from Maine 
to Texas and California nearly all sections of the Union were 
represented by pupils. 

In the spring of 1857, Noah R. Hart left the school to engage 
in the mercantile business with his brother, Julius L. Hart, in 
West Goshen, Conn. E. Burton Hart, then twenty-three years of 
age, continued the school with unabated prosperity, and soon 
through the kindness of his friend and patron, Horace Webster, 
LL.D., Principal of the New York Free Academy, received the 
honorary degree of Bachelor and Master of Arts, from the Uni- 
versity of Vermont. 

In the spring of 1863, he discontinued the school and gave his 
personal attention to the produce business, in New York City, in 
which he was engaged some five years in company with his 
youngest brother, G-eorge S. Hart. This enterprise has also 
proved very successful. The firm now, George S. Hart & Howell, 
with warehouses 33, 35, and 38 Pearl street, and 22 and 24 Bridge 
street. New York City, is second to no house in this country, in 
the magnitude and success of its business. 

THE YOUNG LADIES' INSTITUTE (biRDS' NEST). 

Mr. Hopkins T. S. Johnson, an influential member of the fourth 
school district, feeling aggrieved at the action of the district in 
school matters, withdrew from all support of the public school, 
erected a commodious school building near his dwelling, in John- 
son Hollow, employed teachers and opened a school in 1852, 
mostly for young ladies. 



THE ALGER INSTITUTE. 41 

The first term began in May with twenty pupils, under the 
charge of Misses L. S. Kellogg and P. O. Sanford, with Miss M. 
J. Everest, teacher of music. 

Mr. Johnson died December 22, 1852, aged thirty years, but the 
school was continued by his widow, Mrs. Sarah A. Johnson, till 
1859, when her failing health compelled her to relinquish the 
charge. Mrs. Johnson died February 6, 1861, aged thirty-seven 
years. 

Miss Mary J. Murdock, a graduate of Mt. Holyoke, afterwards 
wife of George R. Gold, Miss Sarah C. Bliss, Miss Caroline Went 
worth, Miss Josephine H. Barton, Miss Clara Vaill, Miss Mary C. 
Cleveland, and Prof. G. D. Wilson, were valuable teachers em- 
ployed by Mrs. Johnson, and under their charge the enterprise 
enjoyed merited success. 

The memories of "Our Birds' Nest," are cherished by many 
scattered here and there in our land, as among the brightest and 
happiest associations of their lives. 

THE ALGER INSTITUTE, 

located at Cornwall, was commenced November, 1847, and 
completed May 1, 1848, was built by subscription by Joshua 
Peirce, John Miles, Seth Peirce, Charles Alger, Frederick Kellogg, 
E. W. Andrews, B. B. North, D. W. Pierce, and E. F. Gold at a 
cost of about $5,000.00. 

It was named the Alger Institute after Charles Alger, Pludson, 
N. Y., but with small endowment from him for its name. 

The building was used for a boarding school by E. W. Andrews 
as principal, James Sedgwick of Great Barrington, Mass., and 
Oliver St. John of Easton, Pa., as assistants. It was a very 
successful school for several years, when it was sold by E. W. 
Andrews to Wait Griswold of Wethersfield, Conn., under whose 
administration it drooped. It was sold again to Rev. Ira Petti- 
bone of Winchester, Conn., who kept a flourishing school for 
four years. It was then sold to L. F. Dudley, who started a 
school, and after about one year it was given up, since which time 
it has been used as a boarding house for summer boarding. 



42 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CORNWALL, CONN. 

BY REV. TIMOTHY STONE. 

Sketches of tlie Ecclesiastical history of Cornwall, commencing 
at the settlement of the town, and continued to 1849, are presented 
to the reader of the following pages. A continuous narrative of 
events will be necessarily and not unfrequently interrupted after 
the town was divided into two religious societies, so that it will be 
requisite at one time to advert to one of them and then to another. 

Congregationalists have ever formed the mass of the population 
of Cornwall and of Connecticut; they therefore will be chiefly 
brought to view. The Episcopal, Methodist, and Baptist denomi- 
nations are also to be exhibited, so far as information has been re- 
ceived; much effort having been made to obtain it, but not so 
successfully as the widter desired. Of them but little is known. 

Connecticut Congregationalists, who are not so democratic in 
their church government as those of Massachusetts, have been 
termed by many, Presbyterians. Some of the first ministers of 
this State, as the Rev. Samuel Stone of Hartford, the colleague of 
Rev. Mr. Hooker, were partial to Presbyterian church government ; 
and tlie church of Hartford, the oldest in Connecticut, was regu- 
lated by ruling Elders, as some others were. But soon, all the 
churches adopted more democratic principles, and the majority of 
the brotherhood in a church, decided every thing in its internal 
concerns without such rulers. Still the churches generally (for 
there were some exceptions) were united in consociations, by which 
adjacent christian communities were so far amenable to each other 
as to be liable to public censure, in case of heresy, scandalous and 
unchristian conduct, and schisms. But no censure could extend 
farther than the declaration of non-communion with the offending 
church. Such are the principles of the Saybrook platform so 
often spoken of, which was formed 1708. The Massacliusetts 
churches, according to the Cambridge platform established in 
1648, are not at all consociated, but each individual church is 
regarded as entirely independent. Thus, the Congregational 
churches of this State in some measure approximate to Presby- 
terianism. The Presbyterians ai'e governed by ruling Elders, and 
are united in Presbyteries, and Synods, and are subject to the de- 
cisions of the General Assembly that meets annually, to whom 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 43 

appeals may be made from all inferior church judicatories, in all 
cases of duty and conscience, and whose decisions are final; ex- 
cepting, that a case may be referred to all the Presbyteries, the 
majority of whom may reverse any act of the General Assembly. 

Without any attempt to show whether the Congregational or 
the Presbyterian church discipline is the most accordant with the 
word of God, it is obvious, that Connecticut Congregationalism is 
somewhat of a medium between these two forms of ecclesiastical 
polity. The Evangelical Congregational ists of New England, 
forming a large majority of the denomination, are united with 
the Presbyterian church in doctrinal sentiments, the Westminster 
catechism being, next to the Bible, the standard of their faith. 
Hence, Congregationalists have been often termed, though incor- 
rectly, Presbyterians, while in church government they are 
essentially different. 

There is a class in our community, too large in number for the 
credit, and it is feared the safety of Connecticut, who ridicule the 
character and sneer at the opinions and conduct of the puritanical 
fathers of New England. Such are corrupt in principle, betray- 
ing great ignorance of facts, while they are chargeable with base 
ingratitude toward their ancestors. Very unnatural is such a 
disposition. Little do they consider their obligations to their 
ancient benefactors whom they vilify, to whom they are indebted 
for that peace, good order, and general prosperity which they 
enjoy. "But wisdom will be justified of her children." Not- 
withstanding some acknowledged defects, our fathers of Connecti- 
cut and of New England, were generally a noble, and even a 
superior race. They hated and ever frowned on vice. Their 
laws against every species of immorality were very strict, and they 
were enforced too. Demagogues had far less influence than in 
more modern days. A man who ardently desired office, and strove 
to gratify aml)ition was not often successful. The aged were 
honored, and magistrates duly respected, far more than now. 
They believed the Bible. They were not sceptical in regard to 
the fundamental principles of christian doctrines and morals. 
This was eminently their character. Like our great and immortal 
Father of the American republic, and the late excellent President 
Harrison, they were firm in their convictions that Christianity was 
the only basis of sound morals. Hence, our puritanical fathers 
laid the foundation of all that respect to law, good order, and 
regularity and peace in society, for which Massachusetts, Con- 



44 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

necticut, and the New England states have been distinguished. 
Their personal character, as for the virtues of fortitude, heroic 
constancy in duty, public spirit, and love to their coiintry, was 
highly commendable, and has never lieen surpassed in any human 
community. In comparison with them, their descendants in these 
respects are, with few exceptions, no more than pigijues. In olden 
times, the laws of Connecticut and Massachusetts required that if 
the inhabitants of a new plantation, containing a certain number 
of people, did not support public worship, a gospel minister, and 
schools, the authority of the State would interpose, and enforce on 
them such institutions at their expense. But it is not known that 
such cases were ever brought to an extremity; they were at least 
very rare; the inhabitants of new settlements were like those of 
Cornwall, ready to anticipate the desires of their rulers. No per- 
son was obliged to make a public profession of religion ; but every 
one was required to attend the public worship of God on the 
Sabbath, unless a reasonable excuse could be rendered. These 
laws were formed and executed by rulers chosen by the majority 
of freemen, who were led and guided by leaders of their own 
choice. The magistrates and religious teachers did not, as unprin- 
cipled demagogues ever do, attempt to blindfold the people by 
artifice ; but on the contrary, they endeavored to open as wide as 
possible the avenues to knowledge, that all might learn and fully 
know what was the direct and straight road to their highest 
happiness. These leaders regarded schools of learning, the Sab- 
bath public worship, and christian instruction, of infinite value. 
It is true that oiir forefathers had less correct ideas of religious 
toleration than we have. At the same time, they were far less 
intolerant, and far less of a persecuting spirit than their enemies 
have represented tliem to be. They were nmch more tolerant 
than almost all the civilized nations of that period of time. There 
were those among our forefathers, who upon pretence of religious 
liberty, went through the streets naked, both men and women, who 
broke into public worship on the Sabbath, and were guilty of 
outrage. Ought not such to have been punished ? Should not 
such be severely punished now ? Such were whipped, as they 
surely should have been. They were banished from the Common- 
wealth on penalty of death if they returned. 

Our fathers were not perfect men ; but they were beyond expres- 
sion superior in moral character to their slanderers and very ma- 
lignant revilers. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 45 

The first settlers of this town were possessed of the general traits 
of the New England Puritans. They were hold, daring, and 
resolute men. It required no small share of courage and heroic 
fortitude to establish a permanent settlement among these moun- 
tains and deep valleys, all densely covered with heavy timber and 
thick underbrush. 

There is not evidence of any permanent inhabitants in Cornwall 
until 1739, in the summer of which year several families came that 
remained through the succeeding winter. This winter was severe 
almost without a parallel. Throughout New England the earth 
was for many months covered with many feet of snow, and the 
cold was intense. This was called the hard winter. These new 
settlers had a few months before left comfortable habitations in 
the older towns, and entered the dense forest little anticipating so 
tremendous a winter. Their stores of provision were scanty, as 
they could not have produced much food the summer preceding, 
on their lands. They expected aid from their former homes, and 
from their friends there. But the huge snow-banks shut them in 
their log cabins for many weeks. It was impossible to travel to 
the towns adjacent but on snow-shoes. Several of the people were 
located far apart from each other. The exact number of families 
that continued through the winter of 1739-40, is not known. 
Probably there were not far from twenty or twenty-five. Had 
not deer been abounding, that could be easily caught by hunters 
on their snow-shoes while the animals were helpless and wallowing 
in the deep snow banks, many of these settlers would, in all proba- 
ability, have perished by hunger and privation. One small child 
died from want of the necessaries of life. In addition to the priva- 
tions unavoidably incident to the pioneers of a new settlement in 
the forests, our fathers were near the habitations of the savage 
dwellers of the wilderness, whose friendship could be, for the 
most, confided in no further than the Indians feared the superior- 
ity of their white neighbors. It is true that the aborigines at 
Kent, Sharon, and Salisbury, had been instructed by a few pious 
missionaries, which tended no doubt to furnish greater security 
to the first settlers here and in the vicinity. A few rods northeast 
of the mansion of the late Oliver Burnham, Esq., a palisaded fort 
was erected for a public storehouse of provisions, and a place of 
defense in case of a sudden attack, and where ammunition was de- 
posited. But Cornwall was never assaulted by enemies. 

No sooner was that hard winter gone, and the vernal sun began 



46 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

to shine on the few openings in the wilderness of these high moun- 
tains and deep valleys, than the people, having been sustained in 
their hardships by the kind hand of God, resolved to prepare im- 
mediately for the public worship, and to enjoy the blessings of the 
preaching of the word of the God of their fathers. They employed 
a Mr. Harrison, who seems to have been taught and graduated 
about 1737, at Yale College, to preach to them. From whence he 
came, and whither he went when he left Cornwall, it is not known. 
He was the first who exhibited on these mountains the good news 
of salvation. 

At the May session of the Legislature at Hartford, 1740, the 
town was incorporated. 

On the 1st of July following, the inhabitants met, and accord- 
ing to law constituted themselves a legal community. Whether 
they assembled in a log cabin, or under a wide-spreading tree, is 
not known. Probably they met near the house of Darius Miner. 
Having chosen George Hollo way, Esq., to be their clerk, and the 
other town officers having been appointed, they commenced their 
public business. 

Now what was the first public conduct of the fathers of this 
town ? Surely, it was such as will surprise many, and all such 
as despise religious institutions, who disregard the Sabbath, and 
consider the support of the gospel ministry as a great burden. But 
these fathers of Cornwall were trained up to believe that the Most 
High God was to be publicly honored, — that his protecting provi- 
dence and favor were of infinite importance ; therefore, the first 
vote of the first town meeting was in these words: '^ Voted, That 
the whole charge of Mr. Harrison's preaching amongst us, together 
with the charge of bringing him here and boarding him, we will 
pay out of the first tax that shall be assessed." 

The next vote in this meeting was: " Voted, We will send Mr. 
Millard to agree with a minister, and bring him to preach amongst 
us." And also, " Voted, That said Millard do advise the ministers 
what sort of a man to bring to preach amongst us." At this meet- 
ing it was also " Voted, That we think it necessary and convenient 
to build a meeting-house;" which vote was unanimous to a man. 

Mr. Millard not being successful in obtaining a preacher, seven 
weeks after that first town meeting the inhabitants again assem- 
bled, 18th of August, and renewed their efforts for a minister, 
appointing a committee of George Holloway, Joseph Allen, and 
Nathaniel Jewell, to secure, as soon as possible, a preacher to con- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 47 

tinue to them until the first of April, 1741, that is, for seven or 
eight months. And this committee was directed to take the advice 
of neighboring ministers in the choice of such a preacher. At the 
same meeting, it was " Voted, That we will build a meeting-house 
for public worship, 48 feet in length and 38 in breadth, and 24 
feet between joints." Also, " Voted, That George Holloway shall 
be an agent to address the General Assembly at New Haven, Oc- 
tober next, to appoint a committee to state the place where the 
meeting-house shall stand." Also, ''Voted, That David Kugg 
should be the chorister till we agree otherwise." Also, " Voted, 
That George Holloway shall read the Psalm." Also, " Voted, That 
we will meet for public worship at Mr. Samuel Messenger's house, 
till the town order otherwise." 

This place was where Darius Miner resides. The people main- 
tained public worship of God at their settlement at the very first, 
and when they had no preacher. Psalm-books were few; there- 
fore Mr. Holloway, no doubt, gave out the psalm by reading to 
the singers line by line. 

When and by whom the church, the articles of faith, and church 
covenant were formed, are now entirely unknown. Nor is it 
known who were the members comprising the church. Whether 
such organization was previous or subsequent to their first minis- 
ter's preaching to them, cannot be ascertained. It is evident that 
the "half-way covenant," so termed, which admitted persons of 
good moral character who publicly assented to the doctrinal tenets 
of the church, and still did not profess to believe that they were 
the subjects of regenerating grace, to the privilege of presenting 
their children in baptism, was a practice of this infant church of 
Cornwall. 

Whether any preacher was employed during the winter of 1740- 
41 is uncertain, but the people did not "forget the assembling of 
themselves together" in the worship of God, and David Rugg 
continued their stated leader in singing. 

The Rev. Solomon Palmer, of Branford, Conn., educated at 
Yale College, who graduated there 1729, was in the town in the 
spring of 1741 as a preacher. 

On the first Thursday of March, 1741, the people met according 
to an adjournment of a meeting three months before, and voted 
to hire Mr. Palmer to preach to them until the first of June as a 
candidate for settlement. 

Ten weeks after, May 24th, the town met at the house of 



48 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Samuel Messenger, and passed the following vote: "That with the 
advice and consent of the neighboring ministers, we will call the 
Rev. Mr. Solomon Palmer to a settlement with us in the gospel 
ministry in this place." Such was their deference to the opinion 
of the ministers of the vicinity on a subject of high moment: 
certainly the union of the ministers of Christ is essential to their 
mutual usefulness. They added to this call, " That we will give 
Mr. Palmer the following salary, to be paid in money equal in 
silver at twenty-eight shillings per ounce, for the first year, which 
is to begin at the day of his ordination; £200 — the half of which 
shall be paid at said ordination; the second year, £100; the third, 
£110; and so rise £10 pounds a year till it comes at £160, to be 
paid annually, so long as he continues in the work of the ministry 
in this place." Soon after, the town granted Mr. Palmer £50 
additional to his settlement of £200. In addition to his salary 
and settlement, Mr. Palmer was entitled to a whole right of land, 
or what was one fifty -third share of the town, the amount of which 
in land was not far from six hundred acres. His ministerial sup- 
port was, according to his circumstances and the state of society as 
it then was, far superior to the salaries of ministers and their sub- 
sistence at the present time. Also the supporters of Mr. Palmer 
were many a fold more liberal in maintaining religious institutions 
than any societies of this period of time in any section of our 
country. Some will no doubt be surprised at this statement; but 
facts, amply supported, and figures cannot falsify. 

Mr. Palmer was ordained on the second Wednesday of August, 
1741; this was the time appointed by a freemen's town meeting, 
but no records remain confirming this fact, nor anything relating 
to the ordination. Who composed the ordaining council is \m- 
known. The pastors of the churches of Litchfield County at that 
period were the Rev. Messrs. Jonathan Marsh, of New Hartford, 
Timothy Collins, Litchfield, Daniel Boardman, New Milford, An- 
thony Stoddard, Woodbury, Andrew Bartholomew, Hai'winton, 
Elijah Webster, Canaan, Stephen Heaton, Goshen, Joseph Bellamy, 
Bethlehem, Peter Pratt, Sharon, and Cyrus Marsh, Kent. 

The first deacons of Cornwall church were Jonathan Harris, 
who came from Derby and settled on Clark Hill near Goshen ; and 
Phineas Waller, who emigrated from New Milford, and whose 
residence was half a mile northwest from Deacon Nathan Hart's 
on Waller Hill. 

For twelve years and seven months Mr. Palmer remained peace- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 49 

fully with his flock, during which time the town increased in 
population very considerably. No rcicords of the church of those 
years are extant, and no list of church communicants. 

Tradition gives Mr. Palmer the character of a gentleman, affable 
and pleasant in manners, unimpeachal»le in his morals, and that he 
was united with his ministerial brethren in doctrinal sentiments 
until he became an Episcopalian. That he was a good English 
scholar, the town records of twelve years, during which he was 
town clerk, are evidence, as his handwriting and orthography are 
good specimens throughout. 

At his settlement there had been a very uncommon religious 
revival in all New England, in which Connecticut enjoyed a large 
share. But the pastor of Cornwall did not favor that religious 
excitement. It was so with many C/onnecticut ministers. Before 
Wesley and Whitefield in England were known in our land, there 
had been at Northampton, Mass., under the ministry of Mr. 
Edwards, and in several other places, a deep sense among multi- 
tudes of the infinite importance of the salvation of the soul. Eor 
many years before this revival, pastors and churches were, with 
several happy exceptions, cold and lifeless and almost entirely 
formal in devotion; a dead and worldly morality was inculcated 
by many in the sacred desk; dangerous errors became prevalent; 
and as a necessary consequence immorality increased. Pious 
ministers and many devout Christians feared that the power of 
godliness would perish in the land of the Puritans. But God 
interposed. He heard the prayers of those who trembled for the 
prosperity of the churches. He raised up the pious father of 
Jonathan Edwards. This father, the minister of East Windsor, 
was greatly blessed in his labors, especially those of his son at 
Northampton. Also Tennant in New Jersey, Moody of the dis- 
trict of Maine, and Bellamy of Connecticut. Whitefield came 
into our country, whose piety, holy zeal, accompanied with an 
eloquence that was scarcely ever before equaled, drew the atten- 
tion of many thousands who followed his preaching from town to 
town. Multitudes became truly religious. But although this 
excitement undoubtedly originated from the force of divine truth 
and the influence of the Spirit of God, yet there was soon a great 
degree of wild-fire, disorder, enthusiasm, confusion, and false 
religion which marred this revival. Religion was counterfeited. 
There were dreams and visions and hypocritical imposters. And 
even some pious people and ministers, too, were sadly deluded 
V 



50 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

into great errors of conduct. They were led into great extrava- 
gance. Not a little of the zeal of that day was a fire never 
kindled on God's altar. 

As natural consequences, two terrific evils were immediately 
manifest. The first was, the enemies of vital religion rejoiced and 
openly exulted in the confusion produced by enthusiasts. They 
strengthened each other in their opposition to the doctrines and 
practice of godhness. On the other hand, some persons of cool 
temperament, and whose fears of evil were bordering on extreme 
caution, and who still were the friends of religion, were prejudiced 
against this extraordinary excitement. They were astonished at 
the extravagances of the enthusiasts, who thus injured the cause of 
truth. They did not with candor discriminate the truth from the 
errors and disorders of the times. 

Mr. Palmer was not favorable to this religious revival; and it is 
believed that his church and congregation were with him in his 
views on this subject. 

The spiritual rain and dews of heaven, which descended so 
copiously on many towns in New England, and especially in 
Connecticut, were not enjoyed here. These mountains were like 
those of GUboa, having had neither rain nor dew. The new 
settlements of Litchfield County were not, unless the society of 
Bethlehem under the ministry of Mr. Bellamy is excepted, much 
blessed by the spirit of this revival. 

The church of Litchfield did not at all favor the ministers that 
zealously advocated this revival. It is not improbable that the 
feelings of Mr. Palmer toward this subject, and the irregularities 
and enthusiasm accompanying these scenes of religious excitement, 
had influence on him to become an Episcopalian. 

In March, 1754, Mr. I^lmer declared on the Sabbath, and to the 
great surprise of all his people, that his ordination had no validity, 
that he was an Episcopalian, and that he now renounced his 
ministry among them. 

He preached from Joshua 24: 15 — " And if it seem unto you to 
serve the Lord, choose ye this day whom ye will serve; whether 
the gods your Fathers served, that were on the other side of the 
flood, or the gods of the Amorites, in which land ye dwell ; but as 
for me and my house we will serve the Lord." 

There were but few Episcopalians in Connecticut; a church of 
that denomination had been existing in Stratford, and in 1722 the 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 51 

Rev. Mr. Cutler, rector of Yale College, became an Episcopalian. 
After this there were a few more added to the number. 

It is believed that several of Mr. Palmer's parishioners were at 
first inclined to think favorably of his change of opinion. But 
very few only continued so, for he claimed his land which was 
granted to the first minister, but the people resented the claim as 
unjust, for he had deserted his charge. A lawsuit was commenc- 
ing; but the matter was compromised, he giving us a part of his 
demand. 

This controversy it is probable prevented the establishment of 
an Episcopal church in this town; for the people had held their 
pastor in high estimation. 

Mr. Palmer went to England, was there ordained as a priest, 
and sent back as a missionary of the church of England. He had 
an offer of a permanent settlement at Amboy, N. J., with an ample 
salary, but from the reluctance of his wife to go thither, he 
remained in Connecticut. He preacJied at Goshen, at New Milford, 
and itinerated in various parts of the western section of the state. 

Mr. Palmer derived no pecuniary benefit from leaving his 
parochial charge at Cornwall, but experienced the contrary. 

For seventeen months after this defection of the first pastor, the 
town had no settled minister. 

The disappointment of the people in the conduct of their 
spiritual guide was sensibly felt and the effect was quite unhappy, 
tending to discourage them, when their efforts to enjoy the benefits 
of the stated gospel ministry had been almost unparalleled in such 
an infant state, and when no man was wealthy. 

Whether Mr. Palmer took away or destroyed the records of 
this infant church, or they were lost by the careless neglect of 
others is unknown; not a scrap of such history is extant. It is 
not known whether any one preached in Cornwall except Mr. 
Gold until his installment. This was on the '27th of August, 
1755. Rev. Dr. David Bellamy of Bethlehem preached on the occa- 
sion from Jeremiah iii, 15 — " And I will give you pastors according 
to my heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and understand- 
ing." The Rev. John Graham, minister of Southbury, gave the 
charge to the pastor, and Rev. Daniel Brinsmade, of Judea Society 
of Woodbury, now Washington, presented the right hand of 
fellowship. Who were the other members of this ordaining 
council are not on record. 

The Rev. Hezekiah Gold was a native of Stratford, a descendant 



52 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

from a family highly honorable, being a grandson of the Hon. 
Lieut. Governor Nathan Gold, and a son of the Rev. Hezekiah 
Gold of Stratford. His father, who was an evangelical pastor of 
the First Congregational church of Stratford, advocated the cause 
of the revival of religion first referred to, and was a friend to Mr. 
Whitefield and to his associates. His son, who became the minister 
of this town, was educated at Yale College, where he graduated 
1751. He possessed a superior mind, having talents comprehen- 
sive and penetrating, by which he easily obtained a tliorough 
knowledge of human nature, and of course able to acquire much 
influence with whom he associated. Until unhappy dissensions 
took place in the latter part of his ministry, Mr. Gold's influence 
among the people and families of his charge was almost unbounded. 
In every concern, private and public, civil, military, and domestic, 
the advice and opinion of Mr. Gold was esteemed as highly 
important. During the former and greater part of his ministerial 
labors a very large assembly gathered at the house of God on the 
Sabbath, which stood nearly opposite to the house of George 
Holloway, Esq., — the house now owned by Ithamar Baldwin. 

No dissenting society existed ; and the people on the borders of 
Kent, Warren, and in the northwest corner of the society of 
Milton, all came to the meetingdiouse of Mr. Gold. These inhabi- 
tants of our lofty hills and deep valleys came regularly to the 
worship of the God of their fathers, both in the winter and 
summer, and on roads far worse than they are now; and 
when there were no warm stoves to cheer them when they 
arrived half frozen at the house of worship. They were ready to 
endure hardships to attend public worship, which their descendants 
of this day would I'egard intolerable. Not a few came froin six 
miles distance. From well founded tradition it is certain, that at 
that time the people of Cornwall were more disposed to honor the 
sanctuary of God by their constant attendance there, than most 
other country towns. It is true, that regular attendance on exter- 
nal ordinances of religion does not prove the extent of vital piety 
— but can people be the lovers of God, when they express no 
public honor to his Sabbath, and to religious institutions ? From 
the time of Mr. Gold's settlement till his death, a period of thirty- 
five years, religious revivals in our country were far less frequent 
than in almost any other course of time of the same space since 
our pilgrim fathers came hither. 

The last French war, previous to the American revolution, till 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 53 

the reduction of Quebec and of Canada, in 1759, was a season of 
great military excitement throughout all the British colonies. 
War and Christianity cannot coincide. The spirit of religious 
revivals witnessed in former years was now little known, while the 
effects of the disorder and enthusiasm of that day were sensiljly 
felt. Soon after Bz-itain had reduced Canada, our colonies were 
crowded on by the mother country, by striving to take away our 
chartered rights. Hence commenced the contest with liritain, term i- 
nating in tlie independence of our nation. During this period of 
great public disturbance, religion was unusually disregarded, as a 
natural result. In the ministry of Mr. Gold, revivals of religion 
were very little known in Cornwall, or in the country at large. 

Mr. Gold was a sound divine, being evangelical in his views of 
divine truth. The antisci'iptural and very preposterous practice of 
allowing persons who did not profess to be sincere believers in 
Christ to have their children baptized had been very prevalent in 
the churches. By the influence of Mr. Gold this practice was done 
away in his church. 

In the book of church records, in the handwriting of Mr. Gold, 
we find a list of baptisms, apparently accurate and complete, con- 
tinued thirty-two years, from 1755 to 1787. There are the records 
of several acts of the church, but those of church meetings and 
transactions are not many. The list of marriages and of deaths is 
quite imperfect; and there is no copy in this record book of the 
creed and covenant of the church ; nor is there anything of the 
kind now extant. It is evident that in the most pros})erous part of 
his ministry Mr. Gold's church was large.* 

In a few years after his ordination, and till tlie close of the rev- 
olutionary war, there were many of Mr. Gold's parisliioners and 
church communicants who removed to various places out of Connecti- 
cut. This emigration was for several successive years such that 
the population of Cornwall decreased considerably. 

It is requisite to bring to view the unpleasant scenes witnessed 

* I copy from an old record a list of male members of Mr. Gold's church in 
April 3, 1783. (The totiil calls for another name.) T. S, G. 

Joshua Pierce, Caleb Jones, Woodruff Emmons, Amos Jones, Edward May, 
James Beirce, Joseph Pangman, Jacob Brownson, John Pierce, John Wright, 
Jacob Brownson, Jr., Nath'l Swift, Zeehariah H. Jones, Seth Pierce, Nehemiah 
Beardsley, Ralph Grimes, Timothy Brownson, Dea. J. Kellogg, Ketchel Bell, 
Lem'l Jennings, Dar. Everest, Ebenezer Symonds, Thom. Tanner, John Bene- 
dict, Austin Bierce, John Jones, Josiah Stephens, Seymour Morse, Elias Birdsey, 
Joel Wood, Amos Camp. Mr. Gold, the pastor, makes 33. 



54 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

in the town in the latter part of Mr. Gold's life, and which pro- 
duced the division of the society and church into two distinct 
religious communities. It is painful to exhibit the long conflict 
which subsisted between the majority of the town on one part, and 
the major part of the church and the pastor on the other. Impar- 
tiality demands that the truth be exhibited. 

Were the writer to assert that one of the contending parties 
was wholly right, and the other entirely wrong, no person possessed 
of common understanding would credit the declaration. After 
more than twenty years of external prosperity, having possessed a 
very uncommon influence among his people, the days of darkness 
came, and Mr, Gold met with no small trials. Few, however, would 
bear them with more fortitude. While one of the parties claimed 
that equity was on its side, and the other defended itself on the 
strength of the law of the State, they both viewed themselves 
much injured by their respective antagonists. 

What first excited dissatisfaction toward the pastor, who had 
been so much respected for his abilities and hospitality, it is diffi 
cult to ascertain. Many maintained that the origin of the contro- 
versy was that Mr. Gold used his influence in favoring a friend 
and relative in his military promotion, to the prejudice of a very 
respectable gentleman of the town who had a prior claim from his 
merit or seniority as an officer in the French war in Canada. 
How far the opposers of Mr. Gold would concede this to be a 
fact, is unknown. But Mr. Gold ever denied the charge alleged 
against him. He became more wealthy than most of his ministe- 
rial brethren, and his capacity was greater than most of them to 
acquire property without any dishonorable means. Though re- 
markable for hospitality, he was a superior economist. His salary 
was in value greater than the support of any minister of Cornwall 
since his day. The nominal salary of Mr. Gold was £65 and ten 
cords of fire wood; being at least as much as 218 dollars in silver 
in real value, in addition to fuel. He had a noble farm. 

Such independency gave him advantages to maintain his ground. 
Several things were alleged to the injury of his character ; that, 
notwithstanding his great hospitality, acknowledged by all, he was 
covetous; that he was exceedingly subtle in his designs. It was 
doubtless true that Mr. Gold possessed uncommon sagacity. It 
was not easy to ensnare him. His opposers, too, were no inferior 
men ; they had a large share of discernment, as their management 
proved in their opposition. These things commenced about the 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 55 

time of the beginning of the American Revolution. Embarrass- 
ment of business, the confusion of the pubhc mind, and the priva- 
tions resulting from the condition of the country, made it more 
difficult to pay a minister's salary. 

All ministers, settled as pastors, according to the laws of the 
State, were exempted from all taxes. Mr. Gold was an ardent 
friend to the revolutionary movements of the country. And he 
offered to deduct from his annual salary so much as his property 
would demand and the exigencies of the times required. How 
far this proposal was accepted is not now known. After a long 
season of increasing dissatisfaction, the town voted, July 26, 1779, 
to call a council for the purpose to obtain a dismission of the 
pastor. 

It is not recorded how large a majority of the town voted for 
such a council; but it was a fact that a majority of Cornwall were 
dissatisfied with the minister. 

In about six weeks after, the church met to act upon the vote of 
the ecclesiastical society. Dr. Bellamy, of Bethlehem, presided as 
the moderator of the meeting. According to the record of that 
meeting the result was that the church voted by a large mafority 
not to concur with the town in calHng such a council. 

It was the advice of Dr. Bellamy to the church, not to concur 
with the vote of the town. His influence with the churches of 
this country was great, and his ministerial brethren regarded him 
with much deference. Mr. Gold ever enjoyed the confidence of 
Dr. Bellamy, and therefore felt strong. 

Afterwards, a council of nine ministers was convened in Corn- 
wall, to advise the people in regard to their unhappy situation ; 
Dr. Bellamy was present. Mr. Gold was not dismissed. One of 
the most distinguished citizens of the town, who had become 
unfriendly to the ministry of Mr. Gold, wrote and published a 
statement of what he regarded as "the extraordinary conduct of 
nine ministers in a meeting in Cornwall." Mr. Gold replied by the 
press. This Cornwall controversy became, therefore, a subject of 
public notoriety. Its influence on the religious feelings of the 
people of this town, and on their domestic enjoyments and moral 
character, was pernicioxis. Jealousies and calumnies and unchris- 
tian temper were the natural result. 

A majority of the town were unwilling to support their religious 
instructor, believing that they and their children could receive no 
religious benefit from his ministry; and the church, on the other 



56 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

liand, determined not to separate from their pastor ; and in this 
determination they were supported by the ministers and sister 
churches of the vicinity. 

Had the pastor been in a regular manner impeached for immo- 
ralities, there would have been, no doubt, a very different state of 
things — but it was not so. Unchristian conduct was indeed 
charged on Mr. Gold by his accusers, but was not proved before 
the council. A minister of both Sharon and of Kent had been 
deposed for immorality. 

Had the Cornwall minister been accused of conduct injurious to 
his reputation as a christian minister, so as to destroy his public 
character, there would have been no just reasons in his refusing to 
be dismissed. 

Apprehending that they could obtain no redress by councils and 
from the sister churches, and feeling themselves exceedingly 
aggrieved, while, as they thought, equity was on their side, and the 
law of the state supported the pastor and the majority of the 
church, the major part of the town was exasperated greatly. 
There were, in this majority, very many of wortliy christian char- 
acter, *as well as quite respectable in community at large. 

They were resolved that Mr. Gold should not have his salary, 
and that by a public town vote, so that Mr. Gold was obliged to 
commence a suit at law. A compromise, however, was effected. 
This majority claimed the right of holding the house of worship, 
and with force attempted to shut out Mr. Gold from the pulpit on 
a Thanksgiving day. Those who did this were prosecuted by the 
state's attorney, and by a court of law fined to a considerable sum. 
Having no other legal remedy to redress their wrongs, which they 
regarded as great, the majority of the town, in the year 1780, 
twenty-five years after Mr, Gold's ordination, formally, and as the 
law of the State allowed, separated from the society to which they 
had been united, and styled themselves, "Strict Congrcgation- 
alists." Those of them who had belonged to the church of Mr. 
Gold, formed themselves a new church with the name that the 
new society had assumed. The articles of faith by them adopted 
were entirely evangelical and conformable to the Calvinistic creed 
of Connecticut Congregationalists. By this act they were entirely 
separated from all connection with the Saybrook platform of 
church discipline and of consociations. 

The old church connected with Mr. Gold regarded this separa- 
tion as censurable conduct ; but they did not undertake to deal 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 57 

with their separating brethren in way of discipline. That there 
was real piety in both of these churches, is unquestionable, and 
that an unchristian spirit, manifested in various ways, was charge- 
able on them both, is also evident. Which of them was the most 
aggressive to each other and the most guilty, is not to be decided 
by us, but is left to an impartial judge. Peace to the memory of 
those imperfect men. Paul and Barnabas separated from each 
other, having had " a sharp contention," — but they are now united 
in the most glorious and happy union. 

As a large proportion of these dissenters resided in the northern 
section of the town, this society has been denominated the north 
society. 

In the course of a few months, the north society engaged the 
Rev. Mr. Bird to be their preacher, and who for a few years had 
been the pastor of a church in New Haven. He was a very 
respectable minister, of piety and fair talents. How long he con- 
tinued their preacher is now unknown. Afterward the Rev. John 
Cornwall was their stated minister, officiating as a pastor for seve- 
ral years, though he was not installed as such. He had not a 
liberal education, but possessed a vigorous mind ; not much culti- 
vated in general knowledge, but was well versed in the holy 
scriptures, and was sound in the faith and of. devoted piety. He 
was of eccentric manners in the pulpit, and in his mode of exhibit- 
ing and illustrating divine truth, which singularity was not pleasing 
to a refined audience ; yet from his simplicity, fervency of feeling, 
and love to the cause of religion, he would command the attention 
of an audience much more than many well educated men. 

The ministry of Mr. Cornwall was blessed to the religious bene- 
fit of several of his hearers, notwithstanding the unhappy contro- 
versey between the two contending parties. He resided in the 
house now occupied by Carrington Todd, and in which he gene- 
rally preached. In 1785, the north society, by subscription, 
erected a house for public worship; it was nearly on the site of the 
present school-house, on the north of the mansion built Ijy George 
Wheaton, Esq. It was small and never completely finished, and 
was taken down in 1826, when the present commodious congrega- 
tional church was built. Although these societies were separated, 
and Mr. Gold and Mr. Cornwall officiated to .their respective 
people, party spirit still remained, to the detriment of vital piety, 
and of the enjoyment of friendship and social intercourse. Each 
of the societies felt the evil of separation. Frequently the 



58 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

thought and desire of reunion was intimated, until it was at 
length attempted, but without success. It was requisite that both 
the ministers should be dismissed. Mr. Cornwall did resign his 
charge; and Mr. Gold offered to relinquish his salary and pastoral 
charge, so soon as the two societies and churches should unite in 
settling a sound, learned, and suitable minister. 

Before Mr. Cornwall left the town, all past disagreement that 
had subsisted between him and Mr. Gold was most happily settled 
on Christian principles, as they cordially forgave each other. In 
the autumnal session of the Connecticut Legislature, 1787, both 
Mr. Gold and Mr. Cornwall were the representatives of this town, 
and in the ensuing spring Mr. Cornwall was again elected and sent 
to the Assembly. The confidence of the opposers of Mr. Gold was 
again so reposed in him that they respectfully invited him to 
preach in the new house of worship of the dissenters. As about 
that time, the people seriously, and with many then sincerely, con- 
templated the reunion of the two societies, the Rev. Medad Rogers, 
a very respectable minister well adapted to harmonize the town, 
was engaged to preach for a year. Mr. Cornwall, after he left this 
town, was for a number of years a zealous and faithful preacher 
of evangelical truth to a church and society of Congregationalists 
in Amenia, in New York State, bordering on Connecticut, in 
Dutchess County. He died there in a good old age, May 12, 1812. 

The efforts to unite the two societies proved abortive; Mr. 
Rogers, with all his prudence and wisdom, could not prevent jeal- 
ousies and suspicions, and therefore left the place. He went to 
New Fairfield, where for several years he was a very worthy 
pastor. 

One cause preventing the proposed union in Cornwall was in 
respect to the payment of Mr. Rogers' preaching; one party 
charged the other with the neglect of paying its due proportion, 
which the accused entirely denied. 

All the first agents and principal actors of the Cornwall contro- 
versy have for several years gone to the grave. Peace be to 
their memory. They had their imperfections — and their virtues 
too. Several of them, of both parties, were undoubtedly persons 
of real piety, notwithstanding their contentions on earth. 

Several families of the southwestern part of the town were 
annexed to the religious society of Kent, by the act of the Legis- 
lature; the boundary of the Cornwall Society on the south was 
about half a mile below Gen. Swift's, taking a mile or more of this 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 59 

town into the parish of Kent. A few famihes were in the same 
manner added to the ecclesiastical society of Warren, and many- 
more were united to the society of Milton, including the Great 
Hill and the College Farms. This curtailment of territory on the 
south of the town lessened the south society of Cornwall and 
enlarged the north ; the new dissenters and unlocated society, which 
formed the majority of the inhabitants of Cornwall, readily 
assented to these alterations, while the people that adhered to the 
old pastor were not a little dissatisfied, and complained much of 
the doings of their northern townsmen. Thus the two parties were 
not easily harmonized. 

In the spring of 1790 the house of God built in the days of Mr. 
Palmer was taken down, and rebuilt with considerable enlarge- 
ment, having a little steeple added to it, and was situated in the 
east part of Cornwall valley. It had no bell until 1825, when the 
steeple was rebuilt. 

The south society had a committee appointed by the General 
Assembly to place the spot of the church of the south society. 
But the north people took no part in the matter, determining not 
to move any further south to favor any union of the societies. 

Mr. Gold relinquished his salary and his pastoral charge in an 
agreement with his church and people, but was not formally dis- 
missed. He died on the 29th of May, 1790. 

The Rev. Mr, Smith of Sharon, with whom he had ever been 
intimate as a ministerial brother, preached his funeral sermon. 
The following is inscribed on Mr. Gold's monument in the ceme- 
tery: 

" In whom a sound knowledge of the Scripture, extensive charity to 
the poor, unshaken fortitude in adversity, were united with uncommon 
discerning of the human heart, and shone conspicuously thro, an active 
and useful life." 

During the thirty-five years of Mr. Gold's ministry, religion de- 
cayed in the country, through the baleful influence of political and 
military conflicts. The effects of the great revival of a few years 
before were not gone indeed, but the spirit of fervent piety was 
dying away. The French war, at the commencement of Mr. 
Gold's ministry, that closed in 1759, was soon succeeded by the 
quarrel between Britain and her American colonies that prepared 
the way for the revolutionary contest, produced a perpetual tumult 
in the country at large, while this town was involved in its own 
controversy respecting the minister. Religion, when externally 



60 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

persecuted with, violence, lives and flourishes, if the church is pure 
and sound in doctrine, and retains in her bosom ardent love; but 
when those who should be " the light of the world " are contentious 
and feuds and animosities prevail, woe be to Zion. 

Still in this dark period Cornwall church had some worthy- 
Christian characters whose examples deserved imitation. The 
Kev. Mr. Gold's talents would have made him conspicuous in any 
situation. As a preacher he was not popular in speaking, though 
capable of writing good discourses. He had such sagacity, firm- 
ness of purpose, and fortitude, that had' he been a warrior he 
would have been no inferior military oflBcer. 

When Deacon John Harris and his associate. Deacon Phineas 
Waller, the first deacons here, died, is not known. The latter was 
one of those who became dissenters from Mr. Gold. Deacon Ben- 
jamin Sedgwick and Deacon Samuel Abbott were elected, oflBciated, 
and deceased during Mr. Gold's ministry. They sustained a 
worthy reputation. It is not known when they were elected. Not 
a church in the State was more favored with a worthy and judi- 
cious deacon than Cornwall was in Thomas Porter, Esq., who was 
elected deacon October 8, 1V67, and continued in office till 1779, 
when he removed to Tinmouth, Vt. In June 24, 1773, Elijah 
Steele was chosen deacon. In a short time he became a Quaker in 
sentiment. Whether the church did anything in attempting to 
reclaim him, or in disciplining him, we now know not. Upon this 
defection of Deacon Steele, Judah Kellogg, Esq., was, in 1776, 
June 20th, elected deacon. It appears that after the removal of 
Deacon Porter no one was elected to this office during Mr. Gold's 
life, and Judah Kellogg, Esq., was the sole deacon of this church 
for a course of years. 

Before Mr. Gold's decease, the Rev. Hercules Weston of Mid- 
dlebury, Mass., who was an alumnus of Dartmouth College, came 
here as a licensed preacher. He was patronized by Mr. Gold ; and 
in 1792, June 20, was ordained pastor of Cornwall South Church, 
after having repeatedly preached to this society in two or three 
years preceding. He was installed by the north consociation of 
this county : formerly the churches of the county were united in 
one association and consociation ; but now the body had been 
divided. The Rev. Mr. Smith of Sharon, preached the ordination 
sermon from Acts xxviii, 15. " Whom when Paul saw, he 
thanked God and took courage." The charge to the pastor elect 
was given by the Rev. Mr. Mills of Torrington, and the right 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. ' 61 

hand of fellowship was presented by the Eev. Mr. Starr of 
Warren. 

The prospect of this people was not very promising at this time: 
the church was reduced more than one-half within ten years, by 
death, removals, and by the desertion of not a few. In 1782 there 
were in Mr. Gold's church, thirty-three male members, and a 
larger number than this of female professors. Now, no more than 
thirty members composing the church, and of which sixteen were 
male members, and fourteen females; a very singular fact, as in • 
almost all Congregational and Presbyterian churches, female mem- 
bers are most numerous. 

The sisters in the church, though they do not vote, are no incon- 
siderable part of the spiritual strength of a christian community. 

Their prayers, private and domestic influence is immensely 
important: therefore, when females in a church are few, its pros- 
pects cannot but be gloomy and portentous. 

Mr. Weston commenced his pastoral duty in very inauspicious 
circumstances. His health was very infirm when he first came to 
Cornwall. 

The society was forming itself anew, and had continual alterca- 
tions with their dissenting brethren at the north. Mr. Weston 
was an ardent partizan for his people's cause. One of the most 
respectable citizens, Judah Kellogg, Esq., who was the only deacon 
of the church, considered the infirm health of Mr. Weston to be 
such that he ought not to be settled. After the ordination. Deacon 
Kellogg left the communion table, for which he was disciplined 
and excommunicated as an offender for a very high crime, and 
without the discrimination which the apostle Paul required in his 
directions. 

Mr. Weston's health was such that, many times, and for weeks 
in succession, he was entirely unable to perform any pastoral duties. 
And during his eleven years' ministry the sacrament was not 
administered in more than three or four instances. Cases of dis- 
cipline relating to persons who had not united with the dissenting 
society, and had been members of the South church, and had 
deserted it, occasioned trouble. At this time the feelings of the 
two parties in Cornwall were to each other exceedingly unpleasant. 
And thus were the religious circumstances of Mr. Weston's church 
and people, until 1799, a period of uncommon interest in the 
county of Hartford and that of Litchfield for the revival of piety. 
In 1798 a very uncommon religious excitement, and greater than 



62 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

had been known in Connecticut for many years, took place in the 
town of Mansfield, "Windham county. Soon after a revival was 
witnessed at Hartford, which spread through the county and in 
that of Litchfield, and of Berkshire, Mass. No religious revivals 
had been known since those of half a century before of so great 
extent as were seen now in the northwestern part of the State. 
Many towns were deeply interested in the subject of salvation. 
Now, for the first time, was Cornwall visited with a revival that 
excited public notice. Both the north and south societies were to 
some considerable degree blessed with the influences of the Holy 
Spirit. There were between twenty and thirty hopefully the sub- 
jects of regenerating grace in the society of Mr. "Weston; several 
of whom were eventually united to his church, and became con- 
sistent professors. About the same number were added to the 
church of the other society. Never before had Cornwall witnessed 
a similar event. This interesting time was at the close of the last 
century and the first years of the present one. These religious 
excitements were remarkably free from those disorders and that 
wild enthusiasm which so much disfigured the revivals of fifty and 
sixty years before. Many thousands in Western Connecticut made 
a good confession before the world, and Hved answerably to 
their christian views. Most of them have fallen asleep, but a few 
of them still remain, proving the sincerity of their profession. 

The influences of the Divine Spirit were at the same time en- 
joyed in several other places in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 
accompanied with the most happy results. Also in Kentucky, 
about the same time and a little after, a rehgious excitement was 
widely spread, which was much more remarkable for bodily 
operations, produced by the impressions on the mind, than were 
witnessed in New England. Many were entirely deprived of the 
use of their limbs, or were convulsed with spasms; they were 
instantly cast down and sunk into a trance. In repeated instances 
persons were very strangely and involuntarily agitated in their 
limbs. But in New England such cases were very rarely known. 
This is an unquestionable fact, that those who had been most 
acquainted with the sacred writings, and had the best means of 
knowing divine truths, were far the least subjected to such singular 
phenomena. But to return from this digression. The society and 
church of Mr. Weston received from this revival an impulse of 
rehgious activity unknown before; at the same time the pastor's 
health decayed, and when the people needed the increased labors 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 63 

of a pastor's duty, Mr. Weston was very incapable of doing what 
he wished to perform and the circumstances of the people required. 
The venerable Mr. Mills of Torringford, with his associates in the 
work of God, Messrs. Gillett of Torrington, Starr of Warren, 
Hallock of Canton, and the excellent Mr. Hooker of Goshen, and 
other zealous ministers, were ready so far as they could to aid Mr. 
Weston in his infirmities, to promote the religious welfare of 
South Cornwall. 

After continuing eleven years and one-half in his pastoral ofBce, 
Mr. Weston was dismissed an account of his increasing ill health. 
Both pulmonary and nervous diseases afflicted him. He was a 
good economist. His wife, who was Miss Abigail Mills, of Kent, 
an excellent lady of good health, proved a helper in all respects, 
and having no children to provide for, he acquired a comfortable 
share of property, and retired to Kent, where he died, November, 
1811, being supported in death by the promises of the Gospel. 
Had he been blessed with a firm constitution of body, he would 
have been an active and, no doubt, energetic minister. His mind 
was naturally vigorous. He was distinguished for a keenness of 
wit and a talent of sarcasm, so that those who knew him were not 
very ready to attack him with the shafts of satire, well knowing 
that they would be losers in such a conflict. In the course of his 
ministry, the subject of the standing of baptized children was 
seriously discussed by the church, and an opinion was stated in a 
written document, in Mr. Weston's handwriting, in which the 
church concurred with the pastor. This paper is still extant, 
expressing the belief that baptized children are to be regarded as 
in a covenant relation to God, but not to be allowed to be commu- 
nicants at the Lord's Supper, or to offer their children in baptism, 
without faith and repentance. 

Some time previous to Mr. Weston's dismission, several candi- 
dates preached to the people. 

In March, 1803, the writer of these historical sketches came 
here to preach as a candidate for settlement, while he anticipated 
a residence not longer than four or six weeks. " But it is not in 
man to direct his steps." His first preaching, on the 15th of 
March, was from the text, "Love worketh no ill to his neighbor, 
therefore love is the fulfilUng of the law." Within ten weeks, he 
was invited by an unanimous vote of both the church and society 
to be their pastor. The salary offered was $420 only. Having 
been sought for, some time before he came to Cornwall, to preach 



64 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

as a candidate at Sunderland, on Connecticut river, Massachusetts, 
and receiving another and special request from that town, he went 
thither in June, and in six weeks was invited to settle there, with 
a salary equal to that offered at Cornwall. After hesitating for 
many weeks, he accepted the invitation of Cornwall. South Corn- 
wall had, with much effort, raised a fund for the support of a 
minister, the interest of which amounted toward $300. The 
people here were unanimous in their call, while those of Sunderland 
were not so perfectly united. Four church members objected — 
doubting whether the candidate possessed vital piety, as they 
found, after examining him, that his experience at his regeneration 
did not agree with theirs. He engaged to stay at Sunderland, 
provided those four dissenters would not oppose. They did not 
consent so to do, therefore he returned to Cornwall, and, on the 
'20th of November, 1803, was ordained. He was previously exam- 
ined by the association held in Torrington, before which body he 
preached, and he was approved to be allowed to accept the Corn- 
wall call. This rule is an excellent one, and prevents improper 
candidates from intruding themselves into the consociation of the 
churches. At that period, the north consociation of Litchfield 
County had the following pastors, viz. : the Rev. Messrs. Bordwell 
of Kent, Starr of Warren, Smith of Sharon (the father of Gov. 
Smith), Parker of Ellsworth, Crossman of Salisbury, Morgan of 
North Canaan, Hooker of Goshen, Gillett of Torrington, Bobbins 
of Norfolk, Mills of Torringford, Lee of Colebrook, Hallock of 
Canton, Miller of Burlington, and Jerome of New Hartford. 

Rarely has there been a more worthy association of pastors than 
those who have been now enumerated. They were closely united 
in christian and ministerial friendship, and of one accord in their 
views of divine truth. Every one of them had been more or less 
blessed with religious revivals; one of them, indeed, who preached 
sound doctrine, and had witnessed a revival among his people, 
was, in 18 17, deposed from the ministrj^, after he had left his 
flock, for dishonesty. Every one of them is in the grave, and 
the writer of this statement is the only surviving associate of that 
body with which he had the honor of being once connected. 

At the ordination of the writer, the Rev. Bezaleel Pinneo of 
Milford, the brother-in-law of the pastor-elect, preached from 
2d of Timothy, ii, 15: "Study to shew yourself approved of God, 
a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the 
word of truth." It was an excellent discourse. Rev. Mr. Rob- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 65 

bins, of Norfolk, who was moderator of the consociation, offered 
the consecrating prayer, the candidate, according to his own 
request, received consecration on his bended knees, on a platform 
stage prepared before the pulpit. Rev. Mr. Starr, of Warren, gave 
the charge to the pastor, and Rev. Mr. Hooker, of Goshen, pre- 
sented him the right hand of fellowship. It had not then become 
customary to give a charge to the church and people. The whole 
number of the church then, including several that had removed 
from the town and were not dismissed, was fifty-five — twenty-one 
males and thirty-four females. The confession of faith of this 
church was essentially defective, as the divinity of Christ, His 
atonement for sin by vicarious suffering, and other important 
principles of the Christian faith, were omitted. Therefore the 
pastor, in a few months, proposed to the church the articles of 
faith and the church covenant, the same that are now in use, and 
are published in the church manual prepared by the Rev. Mr. 
Urmston, in 1838. In May 4th, 1804, the church unanimously 
adopted it. Both Mr. Gold and Mr. Weston were sound in their 
doctrinal opinions; it was, therefore, a matter of surprise that such 
a lax creed was in use for so long a period. 

It is now requisite to advert to the North Church and society. 
While the South Church had a creed exceedingly lax and such as 
Unitarians would readily admit, the other church at the north 
had adopted a creed very explicit and sound, declaring in language 
very copious, without the least reserve or ambiguity, all the tenets 
of that Saybrook platform, the church government of which they 
had formally rejected. 

Thus, while the old church strenuously maintained the discipline 
and consociational polity of the Saybrook platform, and at the 
same time did not insert in her creed the doctrinal sentiments of 
that platform, the dissenting church received cordially those 
doctrines, but had rejected that which was less important, to wit, 
the church discipline and consociational principles. Bach party 
in Cornwall was willing and even desirous to form a union. But 
the removal of the old meeting-house to Cornwall Valley, a mile 
beyond its former site, proved an insuperable obstacle to such a 
compromise. This obstacle became afterwards still more insupera- 
ble by the ecclesiastical fund of the south society, as the validity 
and existence of it depended upon the continuance of the meeting- 
house being in Cornwall Valley. 

The north society had no incorporation, and no local bounds. 
9 



66 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

For about five years, in the period of Mr. Weston's ministry, the 
Rev. Mr. Israel Holley, who had been a minister in the Society of 
Salmon Brook in Granby, Hartford county, was their stated 
preacher and oflBciated as pastor, though not installed. He was a 
pious man and of sound theology. His ministry was blessed, for 
the spirit of revival that had been spreading in the county, and 
had reached South Cornwall, was soon enjoyed in the north part 
of the town. This revival was not an event that could be ordina- 
rily expected, when there were such discordant feelings between 
professed friends of Christ here. Still it was so. The two 
ministers of the town had scarcely any intercourse with each 
other. They did not associate at all in religious meetings, and yet 
both of them were the sincere friends of Christ and of His cause ! 

The claims of conscience, and a religion that is established by 
civil government, cannot well coalesce anywhere, but above all, not 
in a free government like ours. The people that had separated 
from the society of Mr. Gold some years before, believing that they 
and their families could not be edified by the instruction of the 
pastor, formed the majority of the legal voters of Cornwall. But 
the statutes of Connecticut bound them to the decision of the 
minority, by means of the union between church and the ecclesiasti- 
cal society. 

At this time Mr. Gold was disconnected from his people by his 
resignation of oiEce as pastor, and also by death. 

Those dissenters, respectable in character and for number, being 
in their religious opinion united with the churches and societies of 
the vicinity, were very desirous to have christian intercourse and 
fellowship with the adjacent churches. But the south church and 
society opposed them, unless they would come down to Cornwall 
Valley to worship there, which the northern people regarded as a 
mile beyond the center of the town. They were regarded by the 
south as schismatics and disorganizers, and the neighboring 
ministers and churches countenanced the conduct of the south 
church by refusing to associate with them as a regular body of 
Christians. 

Therefore the north church and people applied to the Morris- 
town Presbytery (a body of churches and pastors that had from 
some reasons separated from the Presbyterian Church of the 
United States), to be united with them as a regular church. They 
were so far received as such that for eighteen months they had 
their patronage and were in a sort of connection with that presbytery. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 67 

The Rev. Mr. Somers, afterwards the pastor of a church in 
Spencertown, in Columbia County, N. Y., preached to them for 
some time. They applied to the legislature for incorporation with 
local bounds, but unsuccessfully, as the society bounds they 
petitioned for took in several families that had uniformly belonged 
to the south society. 

A few months after the ordination of the writer at South Corn- 
wall, the people of the north made another attempt to become an 
incorporated society, and to obtain an equal part of the property 
that belonged to the Ecclesiastical Society of Cornwall which was 
appropriated in a right of the town for that purpose at the survey- 
ing of the -township. This property was not granted, as it was 
designed for the first society, and these petitioners were dissenters 
from it. But an act of the legislature in 1804, at the October 
session held in New Haven, gave them an incorporation, but with- 
out any local boundaries: allowing any one to join the society, 
if done within a specified time prescribed in the act. 

More than a year before this incorporation, at a meeting of the 
north association of this county, held at the Rev. Mr. Starr's of 
Warren, a delegation from the north church met them, requesting 
that the pastors of the vicinity would visit the north society and 
church and open a friendly and christian intercourse with them, 
and thereby acknowledge their christian character. They having 
been connected with the Morristown Presbytery, the association 
appointed a committee of their body to unite with a committee of 
that Presbytery, to investigate into the state of North Cornwall 
Church. This proposal was much opposed by Mr. Weston, who 
was present; and no doubt the opposition was agreeable to some 
of the leading persons of the south church, but not to all of them. 
Those who with Mr. Weston opposed such compromising measures, 
thought that all the northern people ought to come down to the 
meeting-house in Cornwall Valley, and quitting their old prejudices, 
unite and form one large church and society. The joint com- 
mittees of this association and of the Morristown Presbytery met 
at North Cornwall in the summer of 1803, and recommended such 
a course, or rather did such things, as tended to a reconciliation 
of the two contending parties. 

Having been incorporated as an ecclesiastical society, as has been 
already stated. Rev. Josiah Hawes, a native of the adjacent town 
of Warren, was invited to preach to the north society, and he 
commenced preaching in the latter part of 1803, and continued his 



68 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

labors in the succeeding winter. He had studied and graduated 
at WilKams College, and -was a pupil of Dr. Backus of Somers, of 
this State. Having been invited by the church and people with 
much unanimity to the pastoral office, he was ordained on the 14th 
of March, 1805. 

The ordaining council consisted of the pastors and delegates of 
the North Consociation, although the church of North Cornwall 
was not yet consociated. The church and pastor of South Corn- 
wall were invited to the council. Some of the worthy members of 
this church were not very ready to acknowledge the North Church 
as a sister church, — they had not sufficiently forgotten former trou- 
bles. But the venerable General Heman Swift was then retain- 
ing his ample powers of mind, and he wished to see the peace of 
Cornwall. The pastor, too, earnestly desired the same, and, in 
opposition to the feelings of his friends, his church, by a majority, 
voted to comply with the request of North Cornwall, and appointed 
Gen'l Swift delegate. Previous to the ordination of Mr. Hawes 
the South Cornwall minister determined, so far as he could do it, 
to break down the separating walls between the two churches, and 
therefore exchanged labors in the pulpit with Mr. Hawes. The 
Rev. Mr. Stowe, the pastor of Mr. Hawes, preached the ordination 
sermon. The venerable and reverend Mr. Cornwall, the former 
spiritual guide of the people of North Cornwall, was appointed by 
the council (he being one of the body) to give the charge to the 
pastor elect. This he did with great propriety and solemnity. He 
presented to Mr. Hawes the holy Bible, and, putting it into his 
hands, charged him to regulate his own conduct and all his minis- 
try according to the orders of this sacred directory. 

The right hand of fellowship was allotted to the writer of this 
account. With great pleasure was the right hand of his presented 
to that most worthy and very amiable ministerial brother. This 
event was interesting, highly so, to the religious prosperity of this 
town. 

During the ministry of Mr. Hawes, which was more than eight 
years, his ministerial connection with the pastor of South Corn- 
wall was unusually cordial; and when their respective flocks were 
not on the most friendly terms, the two pastors never indulged a 
suspicion of the friendship of each other. There was, indeed, 
much more harmonious feeling between the two churches and 
societies than had been before known. In more instances than one 
the two churches, with their pastors, met for prayer and Christian 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 69 

conference. These meetings were delightful. The North society- 
had never been accustomed to pay taxes for the support of the 
ministry, as the South society had been, and which had now an 
ecclesiastical fund of nearly three hundred dollars a year; and the 
people of Mr. Hawes, who were less in number than the South 
parish, and supported their minister by subscription and donations, 
found it somewhat hard to raise the salary of about three hund- 
red and thirty- three dollars for Mr. Hawes. 

Therefore they were desirous that the South society should con- 
sent and propose to give up some families that belonged to them 
to be united with the North. For this purpose the North Church 
requested that the sister church should, in a meeting with them, 
favor such a concession, and that some important members of the 
South society, living in the north part of the town, should be 
allowed and recommended by the South Church to join the North 
society. This was, indeed, a dehcate matter to handle. Fearing 
that such a meeting of the two churches for such a purpose would 
tend to lessen friendly feelings which had been enjoyed already, the 
influential members of the South Church, with the pastor's advice, 
opposed such a meeting, and it did not take place. This was in 
the summer of 1810. This rejection produced unpleasant feelings 
among many of the North society toward the pastor of the South 
Church, charging him with too much influence on the minds of 
his people and church. In the summer of 1811, proposals were 
made by the North society, in a meeting for a union of the 
town in one society, and for the accomplishment of which the two 
ministers would be necessarily dismissed. 

The South society met on this subject, and about or nearly one 
half of the voters approved, in general terms, this project. But 
as it excited much agitation, and was strongly opposed by some of 
the most important members of the church and society of the 
South, the plan was soon given over by those who at first had 
strongly advocated* it. Some time before this, in the spring of 
1809, Mr. Hawes proposed to be dismissed on account of his inad- 
equate support, and the consociation was convened. It should be 
stated that soon after the connection of Mr. Hawes with his 
church it was formally united to the North Consociation of the 
county. At that consociational meeting in North Cornwall, in the 
spring of 1809, it was not thought proper to dismiss Mr. Hawes, 
as his people did not wish it, and they made a compromise with 
him. He did not leave his charge till he was dismissed by a 



70 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

special meeting of consociation, convened at Ellsworth for a case 
of an appeal from Ellsworth Church. Mr. Hawes and his church 
and society, being united, then requested the separation, and it took 
place. 

The eight years of Mr. Hawes' ministry at North Cornwall was 
a very great blessing, as will be shown in the following pages, and in 
the statement of the condition of the South society, to which we 
are now to advert. 

There were several cases of discipline, demanding the immediate 
attention of the church of South Cornwall, on the commencement 
of the pastor's duty. The adoption of a sound and sufficiently 
explicit creed has been brought to view already. Such was the ill 
health of Mr. Weston that it had been impossible for him to 
attend to pastoral visits among the families of his flock. This 
being known, the new pastor was under the necessity of paying 
special attention to service, and immediately entered upon it. He 
soon saw the benefit of communicating religious instruction in the 
family and at the fireside; where a friendly familiarity inspires 
confidence and friendship. But little did he at first apprehend 
that, maintaining the advantages resulting from it, required a con- 
tinuance of such a practice, and at the expense of the time essen- 
tial to faithful study for the all-important services of the pulpit. 
Little did he think that to prepare "well beaten oil " for the light 
of the sanctuary demanded much time. He, indeed, at first 
intended to be more of a studious minister than many times he 
was. Cases of discipline were attended to, and with apparent suc- 
cess, as the delinquents gave satisfaction to the church. 

Early in 1806 the church appointed a committee to visit with 
the pastor the families of the society, and especially members of 
the church, and to converse on religion, and urge on baptized 
children their duty. This plan had been recommended by the 
Association to the churches a few months before. In a few in- 
stances this course was prosecuted, but not so effectually as the 
importance of it demanded; still it was not unsuccessful. In the 
course of the summer of 1806 a revival of religion, almost imper- 
ceptible, commenced. Here and there in different and various 
sections of South Cornwall there were cases of rehgious impres- 
sions. The excitement was still and solemn ; it gradually increased 
more and more for several months. Youth, the middle aged, and 
many younger heads of families now felt the infinite importance 
of salvation. Some had very deep convictions of the truths that 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 71 

had been urged before in tlie pulpit. The entire depravity of man- 
kind, the spirituality and strictness of the law of God, the neces- 
sity of renewal of heart and affections by the Holy Spirit, the ina- 
bility of sinners to come to Christ on account of their alienation 
from God, and the endless destruction of the finally impenitent 
sinner, were the doctrines which had been plainly exhibited. Nor 
was the doctrine of divine sovereignty in the predestination of the 
elect at all disguised. At this time, when religion was the absorb- 
ing subject of attention, these doctrines were deeply reflected 
upon, and had very great influence. For it is not to be forgotten 
that in connection with the preaching of those truths, the moral 
agency of sinners and their accountability to God, were strenu- 
ously maintained. In all the religious conferences, and meetings 
on the Sabbath, there was solemnity, and nothing like outcries, 
but not a few tears. Cases of great opposition to certain truths 
were manifest, when conscience felt the truth, which the heart per- 
fectly abhorred, which opposition terminated in a peaceful and 
joyous submission. Some saw that the heart was so opposed to 
the spirituaUty of the Divine law, that it was apprehended by them 
that the Holy Spirit had nothing to do with the production of such 
a conviction of the truth, but that they were given up to their 
native wickedness. They could not believe that God's Holy Spirit 
could have any connection with such hearts as theirs. Some that 
lived within a few rods of the house of worship, and had scarcely 
ever attended it, were alarmed at their situation — were enlightened, 
and became decidedly pious members of the church that they 
formerly detested. In short, this was a most interesting event to 
South Cornwall. Before, the youth had been quite lawless; had 
their midnight balls, and violated the rules of propriety with very 
little restraint. But now there was a surprising change among 
the youth. Most of the influential of them turned their course en- 
tirely, and were sober-minded and truly pious. For twenty years, 
until about the time the pastor of those youth was dismissed, in 
182'7, there was scarcely an instance of a midnight dance or party 
of the youth known in South Cornwall. Then, when their pastor 
was to be dismissed, parties were again renewed, to the alarm of 
their more sober parents, who, for their own credit and for the 
reputation of the society, determined to break up such disorder. 
More than seventy, most of them youth and younger heads of 
families, were the subjects of religious hope at that period, and 
about that number united with the church in a few months. Al- 



72 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

though this revival commenced in South Cornwall, the North 
society soon shared in this effusion of God's regenerating and 
sanctifying spirit. The same solemn scenes of religious anxiety for 
the salvation of the soul were witnessed among the people of Mr. 
Hawes. The same doctrinal preaching was heard from both of 
the pulpits, and the confessions of faith of the two churches were 
essentially the same ; and the operations of the divine Spirit, in 
awakening, convincing, and converting sinners, were similar in 
both parts of the town. A considerable number of heads of fam- 
ilies of North Cornwall, and of the most respectable class, became 
publicly the disciples of the Lord Jesus. 

In this season of revival much ministei'ial labor was demanded; 
religious meetings and evening conferences were multiplied far 
more than in a former period. Neighboring pastors and other 
ministers were not unfrequently here, rendering their benevolent 
aid, in both of the societies. The venerable fathers of the 
consociation, the Eev. Messrs. Mills, Starr, Gillett, and that emi- 
nently pious servant of Christ, Jeremiah Hallock, were here in 
Cornwall, to bear their witness to the great truths of the gospel. 
None were here oftener in this precious season, than Messrs. Gil- 
lett and Hallock. Opposition to this work of God was veiy little 
known. 

It ought not to be forgotten that previous to the commencement 
of the solemn scenes in South Cornwall, there had been, within a 
year or two, religious camp-meetings of the Methodists in adjacent 
towns. Although those meetings were accompanied with irregu- 
larities and confusion, yet, no doubt there were in those meetings 
real conversions to God. And those scenes, in all probability, had 
their influence in leading some persons who had been entirely 
thoughtless of their souls, to think seriously on their situation. 

Religious conversation was more common in Cornwall. The 
youth were unusually sober-minded throughout the town. At that 
time the religious youth in South Cornwall maintained, at stated 
times, meetings of their own for prayer and familiar conversation 
on religious subjects. 

The plan of uniting the two societies in the summer of 1811, 
already mentioned, was fraught with danger to the peace of the 
South church. The fund of the South society was so managed as 
to give great dissatisfaction to many; it was indeed conducted in a 
manner that could not bear a legal trial at law. A fund for a 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 73 

society is oLvioixsly intended (unless otherwise specified in its con- 
stitution) to be an equal benefit to eacli individual. Therefore, if 
the fund is not sufiicient to pay the annual support of the minister, 
the deficiency must be made good by subscriptions, or by a tax 
laid on all equally. But some individuals had given for the fund 
more than their property would have required had there been no 
fund. Such were resolved not to pay more by a tax over and 
above their fund subscription. But this was not legal proceeding, 
and it produced a continual dissatisfaction in South Cornwall. 
By the proposed union of the two societies, the entire abolition of 
this fund was intended. But the goodness of Divine Providence 
interposed by a very great and most interesting revival of religion 
in the South church and society not long after the project of union, 
and which commenced in the beginning of October, 1811. This 
solemn excitement silenced all present agitations of union and of 
the fund. 

The youth had maintained their stated religious meetings, and 
the church also had not neglected to attend their meetings in a 
somewhat regular manner. But in the summer of 1811, both the 
meetings of the youth and of the church had become less regarded. 
The zeal of christians among us in the midst of the agitations of 
union of societies and of the fund, was dying away apace. Thomas 
Euggles Gold, a most excellent character, and Victorianus Clark, 
Esq., afterwards a deacon of the church, made efforts to revive 
the spirit of zeal in the youth's religious meetings. God mani- 
festly smiled on these efforts. The youth were the first fruits of 
this revival of 1811 and 1812. Very many of them, and many 
children, turned to the Saviour. Gradually, and with solemn 
silence, this interesting state of mind concerning the unseen 
realities of a future world, increased from October to the succeed- 
ing spring. The charge of the Rev. Mr. Hawes, in North Corn- 
wall, shared not a little in these things. One after another of the 
youth, and several children of the age of twelve and somewhat 
older, were solicitous to find their Saviour. The Center School of 
South Cornwall, taught by a young man who had been one of the 
first to hope in God, was in a very singular situation. Often in 
the intermission of the school hours, the children would resort to 
their pastor's house, a few rods distant, to receive his instructions, 
and to unite in his prayers for them. Deeply interesting were 
these interviews. To behold a group of children, forsaking their 
accustomed pastimes, and from the number of six or ten to double 
10 



74 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

of that sum, asking with the utmost simplicity, and with tearful 
eyes, " What shall we do to be saved," would affect the stern heart 
of any stoical and proud pharisee that opposed the effusions of 
the Holy Spirit. Many in that season were most solemnly im- 
pressed with the belief of the reality of vital religion, who never 
gave evidence that they knew it experimentally. Yet a very con- 
siderable number of both societies eventually united themselves 
with the visible church, whose deportment as christians hon- 
ored their holy profession. A large accession there was to the 
church of South Cornwall, not only of youth, but of those of 
respectable standing in middle life. The two pastors beheld with 
great delight, a happy change in the religious state of their 
respective charges. 

On a very pleasant Sabbath morning in May, 1812, the minister 
of the South society had the great satisfaction of beholding from 
his pulpit about forty seated in the galleries of the house of God, 
most of them youthful singers, who with two or three exceptions 
were young converts, and had united with the church, or expected 
to do it soon. Few pastors had more reason to rejoice than he, in 
seeing so large a number of the youth of his flock apparently 
walking in the truth, conducting soberly and amiably as young 
christians, and honoring the great Saviour by a public profession of 
faith in Him. 

One extraordinary case of conversion in a man of more than 
eighty-one years of age is demanding peculiar notice. Samuel 
Abbott, eldest son of the ancient Deacon Abbott, was at his com- 
mencement of active hfe amply furnished with patrimonial 
property, which he entirely lost, by a peculiar providence, not 
long after he began to take care of himself and family. His loss 
made him almost a misanthropist. He for a long course of years 
was scarcely ever seen in the house of worship, though within 
half a mile of his residence. He indulged strong prejudices 
against professed christians, and felt and expressed bitter feelings 
to the minister of South Cornwall. In the summer of 1811 he 
was sick, and apparently near death. He was often visited by his 
minister in his sickness, and was solemnly and yet tenderly urged 
to repentance, being told that he was a ruined sinner. But the 
agonizing sufferer felt himself insulted, and indignantly turned a 
deaf ear. When requested by his wife, who was a professor of 
religion, to ask Mr. S. to pray for him, he sullenly assented to the 
request, turning on his side, intending to hear nothing. He com- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 75 

plained of the minister as wishing to torment him in his distress, 
and even declared that he believed that the Almighty loved to tor- 
ment him in his distresses. He indeed seemed like a wild bull 
tossing in a net which he could not break. Contrary to all expec- 
tations, he recovered to his former activity. The revival came, he 
knew nothing of it, as he was quite a deaf man, and none wished 
to speak to him of a subject that would provoke his wrathful 
feelings. Thus this aged man appeared to be given up to repro- 
bation and final impenitence; and as such was he regarded by him 
who gives this narative, and so he wrote of him in his private 
writings of that time. 

When the cold season had commenced, and the anxiety of 
many youths concerning their salvation was increasing, this old 
man became unhappy, and silent, sullen, and unpleasant in temper; 
often he retired to the woods, continuing there alone. When his 
wife, noticing his singular conduct, inquired of him what affected 
him, his answers were ci-oss and evasive. She, suspicious that he 
was under serious impressions about his soul, asked him whether 
it was not so, he indignantly denied it. Kepeatedly it was so 
when the wife thus inquired of him. His pride and the force of 
truth and conscience made him miserable. 

For many days, in which he would hide himself in the woods 
among the rocks, and seated on the stumps would he bemoan his 
woeful situation. At length his agony of soul was too much to 
be concealed, and soon his state of mind was entirely altered. 

It was reported to his minister that Samuel Abbott was under 
deep conviction, and was even converted. This astonishing report 
soon brought the minister to his little, cold habitation, who in his 
way thither, took with him a judicious christian brother of the 
church, to ascertain what was truth relating to this marvelous 
story. 

On meeting him in his house, he seized the hand of his minister 
with much emotion, while tears rolled down on his wrinkled 
cheeks, and said to him : "I have hated to see your face, but O, 
how glad I am now to see you ! " sobs and cr3dng checked further 
speaking. He then stated that he had been some time before 
made to think that he had become a very old man, and must soon 
die; — that he was an old and great sinner against God, who had 
borne with him in his sins with astonisliing patience, and these 
impressions filled him with great horror. He said, that as long as 
possible he had endeavored to conceal his distress of mind, there- 



76 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

fore he went often into the woods alone to think on his wretched 
condition. He felt so guilty that he did not dare to offer one 
petition to God for mercy. At length, a few days since, he, when 
in the woods, was so entirely overwhelmed with distress, that he 
thought his heart would break. Then he was compelled to cry 
out for the mercy of God. Soon he was led to reflect on the long- 
suffering goodness and patience of God toward him, and to other 
sinners. It seemed to him most wonderful. Also, at the same 
time, he saw God in every object around him, and as he expressed 
himself : " God was in all the rocks and trees." Having stated 
these facts, he added that he loved to think of God, but if he 
looked on himself, he was distressed. As yet, the old man did 
not seem to have any peace in believing in the pardon of his sins 
through Christ. But from instructions, accompanied with the 
influence of God's good Spirit, he very soon enjoyed great peace 
and even joy, — as Christ, no doubt, was formed in him the hope 
of glory. Now he greatly loved christians, and was much en- 
deared in his feelings to his pastor, whom, a few months before, 
he so much hated. 

After a trial of the continuance of his faith, which was accom- 
panied with a corresponding deportment, he was, from his earnest 
request, received into the visible church. He was, indeed, a won- 
der to all who had before known old Mr. Samuel Abbott. 

During the remainder of life, there was nothing in his conduct 
that could justify any doubts of the sincerity of his faith and pro- 
fessions. His mental powers had been decaying for some time, 
when he died in peace in July, 1816. 

The deacons of the north church were, Beriah Hotchkiss, Heze- 
kiah Clark, and David Clark, two brothers, Jesse Hyatt, Ehakim 
Mallory, Titus Hart, Noah Rogers, 2d, Nathan Hart, and James 
Wadsworth. The two last mentioned are at present officiating. 

Invidious comparisons among characters of worth are to be 
wisely avoided. But without reflecting at all on the worthiness of 
the deacons of North Cornwall, all of whom have been not a little 
respected by their christian friends. Deacon Hyatt and Deacon 
Titus Hart deserve more than ordinary notice. 

The former was eminently amiable and meek, and few chris- 
tians have lived and died with fewer enemies than Deacon Hyatt. 
Until the latter part of his life, he did not believe that infants 
should be baptized ; but before his death he was convinced of that 
duty; yet he was never a close communionist, but with the utmost 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. "77 

cordiality was ever glad to receive everyone that loved the essen- 
tial doctrines of the cross. He removed to Georgetown, Che- 
nango County, N. Y. There his light shone with mild and 
amiable lustre, until in good time he was summoned to the church 
triumphant. 

Deacon Titus Hart was truly a good man, an Israelite indeed, 
and ever firm and steadfast in duty; possessing the qualifications 
which Paul required of the office of deacon. 

For thirty-six years from the election of Judah Kellogg, Esq., 
until 1812, no deacon was chosen by the South Church. Capt. 
Seth Pierce and Col. Benjamin Gold acted in some sort as dea- 
cons; they waited on the church at the communion table, but did 
not formally accept the office of deacons. 

The church was three times larger than it was six years before, 
and these three deacons were chosen July 9, 1812 : Josiah Hop- 
kins, Sen., Benjamin Gold, and Abel Carter. Deacon Hopkins 
possessed a sound judgment, but he was slow in speech, having no 
eloquence, and his education had been no more than ordinary. 
He could not plead a cause before an earthly court to any advan- 
tage ; but his eloquence in the court of Heaven, with which he 
maintained an invincible intercourse by prayer, was mighty. Very 
few disciples of Christ imitated their Master more than Deacon 
Hopkins. His pastor ever regarded his secret prayers in the 
closet, and in the retirement of the woods, one of the most im- 
portant means of bringing down the rich effusions of the Divine 
Spirit, with which South Cornwall was favored. 

In 1819 he resigned his office, and Deacon Jedidiah Calhoun, 
in December, was elected. 

In Nov. 1824, Deacon Hopkins peacefully exchanged earth for 
heaven. 

Deacon Gold, after a long, active, and useful life, having been 
much employed in public business, died. May, 1847, with great 
calmness and peace, relying on his Saviour. 

The people of South Cornwall, and of the north society, also, 
were generally interested in the promotion of an institution called 
"The Moral Society," which had excited not a little attention in 
New England. Between 1812 and 1816, many meetings were 
held in this State, and in various places, also very extensively 
throughout the country, to promote this cause. Probably it pro- 
moted morality and good order. But previous to this voluntary 
organization, the temperance cause had secured a large share of 



78 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

notice, and soon superseded "The Moral Society." The authority 
of this town, at its annual meeting on the first Monday of June, 
1814, was respectfully solicited by the minister of South Cornwall 
to favor the moral society; and all the gentlemen of that meeting 
signed their names to the moral society. For a time, this society 
flourished. 

The standing in which baptized children are to be regarded in 
their relation to the church in which their parents are members, 
had been seriously attended to by the church here in the ministry 
of Mr. Weston. His successor often brought to view this highly 
important subject in the pulpit. It weighed very heavily on his 
mind. The greal neglect of poedobaptist churches to their baptized 
children, seemed to him an aggravated sin, and their amazing 
inconsistencies of conduct, as one great cause of many sincere 
christians renouncing infant baptism. The subject having been 
once and again pressed on the church, a meeting, in March 6th, 

1814, was held, in which thirty-four brethren gave their assent and 
signatures to a system of discipline of baptized children. This is 
on the records of the church ; and in a future period, this church, 
(which no doubt will, with her sister churches, become obedient to 
God's institutions and laws, much more than any now are,) will 
duly regard the important duty the church owes to her baptized 
children. 

All members present at that meeting gave their consent; a few 
brethren were absent; and some felt uninterested in the subject, 
but no one opposed it. Such had been the harmony of the 
church on every subject, excepting in regard to the ecclesiastical 
fund, that the pastor indulged considerable hope of seeing baptized 
children more faithfully trained up "in the way that they should 
go," and "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." The sub- 
ject was brought, not long after, to the consociation to be consid- 
ered. They generally approved of a system somewhat similar, 
and suggested it to the consideration of the churches. But 
nothing was effected. 

Not long after this act of the churches of South Cornwall, the 
plan of union of ■ the two churches and societies engrossed all the 
attention of the people of the town for many months in the year 

1815, and directly after, in 1816, the Foreign Mission School was 
instituted in Cornwall Valley. These things tended directly to 
turn off the mind from the duties devolving on believing parents 
and the church in respect to their baptized children. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 79 

The North church and society demands now our attention. 

The church of Mr. Hawes and his society were favored with a 
good share of the revival of religion enjoyed in 1806 and 1807, 
and also in 1811 and 1812, that commenced in South Cornwall. 
There was a harmonious feeling between Mr. Hawes and his flock. 
But the people felt a considerable burden in supporting him. 
Without any unpleasant feelings toward each other, in July, 1813, 
at an extra meeting of the consociation at Ellsworth, which was 
convened to hear an appeal of an excommunicated member from 
the Ellsworth church, Mr. Hawes and his people were amicably 
disunited. In the ensuing winter, efforts were made by some of 
the neighboring ministers to induce the people of the north society 
to recall Mr. Hawes, but without any success. He was, in a year, 
settled at North Lyme, in this State, where, for more than eight 
years, he was beloved by his flock. He eventually removed to the 
the State of New York. 

His people hired preaching; two ver}- respectable candidates 
were employed for a season in the two years after Mr. Hawes' 
dismission, viz.: Eev. Francis L. Robbins, settled at Enfield, and 
Rev. Mr. Hawley, who settled at Hinsdale, Mass. In the year 
1815, serious efforts were made to unite the societies and churches, 
it being intended that the minister of the South society should 
take the charge of them both, they forming one society and 
church. The north parish and the church were apparently unani- 
mous, and a large proportion of the south concurred; but three 
very respectable members of the South church, Capt. Seth Pierce, 
Col. Benjamin Gold, and Samuel Hopkins, Esq., opposed through 
fear of the removal of the meeting house, and the consequent loss 
of the ecclesiastical fund. For a short season, there was a very 
fair prospect of success. Had the minister of the South society 
been active in pi'omoting this design, and had he not thrown some 
obstacles in the way, probably a compromise of the two parties 
would have been effected. No one was more urgent than Gen. 
Sedgwick, who was a member of the South church, and a sincere 
friend of the pastor; he was desirous to hasten on the union by an 
immediate application to the State legislature, to pass an act of 
uniting the two ecclesiastical societies into one. Had this been 
done without any specific arrangement, as for who should be the 
minister, the pastor of the South church would have been without 
a society, and the society without a minister. But this obstacle 
having been stated in a letter sent to the members of the joint 



80 HISTORY OF CORNWALL, 

committee of the two societies, broke up the project. A large 
proportion of the North church and society were, it is believed, no 
way insincere in their professed desire that the minister of the 
South society should be the pastor. Some living in the south of 
the town were willing to have the fund destroyed, and to run the 
risk of losing the meeting house in Cornwall Valley. Cornwall is 
not favorably located for one society. Not only its length from 
north to south is about double its breadth, but, also, the mountains 
and valleys are so located that a convenient center cannot be found 
to accommodate, the inhabitants in assembling in one place for 
public worship. Experience has clearly proved that it is highly 
expedient for this town to have two distinct societies, and nearly 
two thousand people demand two ministers. 

When this plan of union was agitated, Mr. Grove Brownell, of 
Vermont, a graduate at Burlington College, Vermont, who afterward 
was the minister of Woodbury, (north society,) Conn., and more 
recently of Sharon, was employed as a preacher in North Corn- 
wall. He continued there for some months in the winter of 1816, 
and his ministry was much blessed with a special revival of reli- 
gion. Quite a considerable number were eventually united to the 
north church. 

A revival also was then enjoyed in the south society, but it was 
somewhat subsequent to that of the north. A considerable addi- 
tion was made at that time to the south church. From this 
period all serious thoughts of union of the societies was given up. 

The revival of rehgion in North Cornwall, through the instru- 
mentahty of the Rev. Mr. Brownell, was not only highly auspi- 
cious in promoting piety, but also, it animated the hopes of the 
friends of the ecclesiastical society, and excited their efforts to 
support and elevate it. Occasionally their pulpit was supplied, 
but until June, 1819, no pastor was obtained. At that time, the 
Rev. Walter Smith, a native of Kent, who graduated at Yale col- 
lege, 1816, and had studied theology under the guidance of the 
Rev. Dr. Perrine, of New York, was installed by the consociation 
as pastor; the society had engaged his support for five years at a 
salary of $500. At his ordination, the Rev. Asa Blair, of Kent, 
the pastor of Mr. Smith, preached the ordination sermon, and the 
minister of South Cornwall was appointed to give the right hand 
of fellowship, as he was fourteen years before at the installment 
of Mr. Hawes. 

During a few years previous, after the plan of union of 1815, 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 81 

the two churches and societies had not been so perfectly harmoni- 
ous toward each other, as they had been before. A military 
union, occasioned by a new arrangement of the militia companies, 
produced unpleasant consequences; and as it ought not to have 
been, soured the feelings of several professed christians of the 
respective churches. This, though very unpleasant, was only 
temporary. 

The two ministers were not at all drawn aside from each other 
in their cordiality as brothers in the ministry. Mr. Smith's minis- 
try in North Cornwall was not limited, as it was first proposed, to • 
five years, but he continued in his office until 1838. For the nine- 
teen years of his pastoral duties, Mr. Smith was an able and useful 
minister, being a respectable scholar no less than a faithful pastor. 
He was the means, under God, of enlarging his church not a little; 
as he received, during his ministry, a hundred members or more. 
Repeatedly his ministry was blessed with hopeful conversions. 
Not improbably he would have continued longer with his people, 
had he not been deranged in mind, produced by ill health. He 
was constitutionally, and in a measure hereditarily, prone to men- 
tal derangement; and he was four times placed in the Hartford 
retreat for the insane, and by medical aid was restored. In the 
summer of 1838 he was dismissed. In the spring of 1840 he 
removed to Vernon, in Ohio, and while occasionally he preached, 
he became an instructor, and eventually a merchant with his eldest 
son. Previous to his dismission the enterprise of North Cornwall 
erected a very commodious and handsome house for divine wor- 
ship, now standing toward a mile north of the former house that 
was demolished. 

The south church and society now demand attention. 

After the project of the union of the two societies was in 1815 
given up, the people of the south were much involved in debt, by 
the neglect and inattention of those who had the charge of their 
financial concerns. By this means many of the people were dis- 
satisfied. There was such an unpleasant set of feelings as threat- 
ened almost the dissolution of the ecclesiastical society. There 
were many that had greatly desired a union with the other society; 
and they earnestly wished the ecclesiastical fund to be destroyed. 
Therefore there were jarring opinions and feelings among those 
who were members of the church. Hence religion did not prosper. 

Notwithstanding the considerable revival enjoyed in the winter 
of 1816, when the same blessing was granted, and to a greater 
11 



82 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

extent, to North Cornwall, spirituality in religion was now much 
diminished in this church. The prospect was indeed gloomy. 
About that time, the pastor, with the concurrence of the church, 
instituted meetings to be held once in two weeks in different parts 
of the society, to consist of members of the church and of baptized 
children. The places of the meetings were so allotted as to accom- 
modate in their rotation all the various church members and their 
famihes. One great object was to lead baptized children to consider 
their pecuhar relation to God to whom they had been dedicated, also 
to impress on beheving parents their solemn obhgations to train up 
their dedicated children in "the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord." This plan was prosecuted for a considerable time; and 
several of those meetings were deeply interesting. Such should 
have been the conduct of this church long before; and every pedo- 
Baptist church, to be consistent with their views of infant bap- 
tism, ought ever to regard their dedicated children in a very dif- 
ferent manner from what any church has ever done. Let this 
subject be treated as God, and the conscience of a well-informed 
believer in Christ, and in infant baptism dictate, and infinite and 
most glorious consequences would unquestionably follow. God 
would then turn the hearts of parents to their children, and chil- 
dren to their parents, in a way that has never yet been seen. In 
the blessed and approaching period, when all shall know the Lord, 
something like such meetings will be regarded universally by all 
the churches of the Lord Jesus. Then the -baptism of infants 
will be viewed as something infinitely more important than a mere 
ceremony, and to give a name to a child, and which, according to 
the solemn working of almost all christian churches holding to 
infant baptism, very significantly is called cliristening. Such a 
term is very appropriate when baptism is regarded as the same as 
that regeneration which is requisite to reach heaven. 

In the autumn of 1816, an event interesting to the people and 
church of South Cornwall, excited their feehngs and greatly ab- 
sorbed their attention. The foreign mission school was by the 
American Board of Foreign Missions located in Cornwall Valley. 
This place was chosen because of its retirement, the salubrity of 
air, and the moral character of the people, and especially of the 
youth; many of them, more than almost in any other society, were 
professors of rehgion. The youth of the society were then un- 
usually sober and promising, and many of them were, more 
than in most other places, informed in books, and bad a respect- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 83 

alile library of their own, most of wMch books were chosen by 
their pastor. 

Few of this village were at first pleased with the proposal of 
this establishment among them. The committee appointed by the 
American Board of Foreign Missions came to propose to the people 
this seminary when the minister was abroad, and they received 
very little encouragement from the inhabitants of the village. 

But on the return of the minister, and on his giving informa- 
tion of the design, and of its high importance, the people of the 
vicinity altered their opinion concerning it, and several were very 
liberal in their donations to it. 

Henry Obookiah, with Thomas Hoppoe, his coiintryman, who a 
few years before came from Hawaii, were instructed in New Eng- 
land, and were patronized by the ministers and religious people of 
Litchfield County, especially those of the north consociation of 
the congregational chu^rches. A few other Sandwich Islanders, 
with some other pagan youth, were collected at the school of 
James Morris, Esq., of Litchfield, South Farms, in 1816. But 
the decision of the American Board of Foreign Missions, from 
the report of their committee, at their meeting at Dr. D wights', 
at New Haven, in October of that year, placed the institution at 
Cornwall Valley. Rev. Mr. Harvey, of Goshen, who was the 
most active in promoting this design, was appointed the principal 
of the school. But the great unwillingness of the people of Mr. 
Harvey to lose their pastor decided the consociation not to allow 
his dismission. 

The Rev. Herman Daggett, who then was engaged for a year 
as teacher of a respectable academy at New Canaan, in Conn., and 
had been both a pastor on Long Island, and a distinguished in- 
structor of youth, was by Rev. Mr. Beecher, then at Litchfield, 
recommended and immediately appointed to take the charge of 
the infant institution of Cornwall Valley. But the instruction of 
it was committed to Rev. Edwin Dwiglit, who came with the for- 
eign youth to this place from South Farms in May, 1817. The 
school flourished under his care. The death of Obookiah, in Feb- 
ruary 18, 1818, and the narrative of him, written by Mr. Dwight, 
excited very uncommon interest in the minds of all friends to the 
foreign missionary cause throughout our country. This school 
had a celebrity beyond all expectation. The vale of Cornwall 
became known in almost all the world by this singular, interesting, 
and highly prosperous seminary. 



84 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

In May, 1818, Mr. Daggett came here, and with very uncommon 
prudence, piety, and wisdom from above, guided and instructed 
for six years between eighty and one hundred youth of various 
foreign and pagan nations. There were here more languages 
spoken than are specified in the account of the various tongues at 
the day of pentecost at Jerusalem, which we read in the 2d of 
Acts. 

The blessings of God's spirit were very unusually sent down 
once and again on this school. Many of Mr. Daggett's scholars 
were baptized and received in the church of South Cornwall. 
And most of these conducted consistently with their holy profes- 
sion. 

It was regarded as an honor, and no small benefit to our church, 
that a man of Mr. Daggett's intelhgence, wisdom, and uncommon 
piety, was received as a member. His opinion and judgment were 
highly estimated, and indeed in one instance, in a case of very 
difficult and unhappy controversy and discipline, it was believed 
by the pastor, too much confidence was placed in that wise and 
goDd man's guidance, which led the church to an error of judg- 
ment. 

Still the example and advice of this good man was a great 
blessing, and had his practical illustration of vital piety been 
much more regarded and imitated, the ehurch of South Cornwall 
would have been immensely more benefited. This school was 
almost continually more or less visited by the divine Spirit, — at 
times it resembled a green oasis amidst a sandy desert.* 

In 1822 and until 1824-5, the Foreign Mission school in Corn- 
wall Valley was highly prosperous, and was of great celebrity 
among all friends to the cause of protestant missions. In the 
winter of 1823-4 the marriage between John Ridge, a Cherokee 
youth, who had been a piipil of Mr. Daggett, and had gone 
home, and had now returned to Cornwall, and Sarah Northup, a 
daughter of Mr. John Northup, steward of the mission school, 
produced much agitation in South Cornwall; an agitation which 



* We omit an account occupying eight closely written pages, of a difficulty 
between two church members, names not given, in which one sued the other in 
the courts, resulting in the excommunication of one of them from the church. 
Fourteen meetings of the church and one council of ministers were held on the 
case. Mr. Stone closes his account of the affair thus : " But the church has 
never enjoyed as nmch internal peace, united with so much spiritual vigor since 
that period as before." 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 85 

would not have been, had all the people been more wise, and if 
both the friends of the connection and the opposers of it had 
possessed more discretion. Many things are lawful which are far 
from being expedient. Had such who wished this connection to 
take place, known more of human nature, and the prejudices of 
society in which they lived they would not have involved them- 
selves and others in such evils as actually took place. This event 
greatly embarrassed the mission school, and led to great evil in 
the church and society. Especially, the repetition of a similar 
connection between Ellas Boudinot, a most promising and pious 
Cherokee youth who had been a pupil of Mr. Daggett, with Har- 
riet "W". Gold, a young lady of no small excellence, and of one of 
the most respectable families in the county of Litchfield had a 
fatal influence in the community of South Cornwall. Enemies to 
the missionary cause, and who had ever disliked the Cornwall 
school, exulted in these things as they well presumed that they 
would exceedingly injure the school. 

The impartial and well-informed friends of this missionary 
institution, who were personally acquainted with the operations 
of these concerns, being eye-witnesses, were much grieved, and 
involved in great embarassments. The interests of the church 
in South Cornwall were hurt extremely, as unpleasant feehngs 
were cherished toward the respectable family connected with this 
last Indian marriage, it being believed that there was not that 
sincerity maintained, which ought to have been, in so long conceal- 
ing from public view the intended design. 

A large proportion of the young females of the vicinity of the 
F. M. School, were worthy members of the church, and most 
favorably disposed to the missionary institution. Their fair char- 
acters were grossly calumniated by enemies to the seminary. All 
our youth were excited to a spirit of indignation and tempted to 
some acts of impropriety. 

But none suffered so much as the pastor of the church. He 
loved the mission school ai^dently, and saw the prospect of its dis- 
solution. He loved Boudinot and had been much loved by him ; 
the young lady was a most sincere friend of her pastor. Had he 
been in the Cherokee nation as a missionary, he would most cor 
dially have married these young christian friends, whom he loved 
as his spiritual children. But for him to have married, in Corn- 
wall, Boudinot to Harriet, would no doubt have exposed him to 
immediate personal insult and abuse, and his dismission would 



86 HISTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

have been the direct consequence. He endeavored to harmonize 
and conciliate the feelings of the contending parties so far as pos- 
sible — ^but to do it was impossible. He, like many others, who 
have striven to reconcile combatants, received the blows of both, 
and his dismission, a few years after, was in no small degree the 
effect of this Indian marriage connection. 

Ill health, which he had experienced for four years and a half, 
from November, 1822, and from which he had been gradiially 
recovering, was the professed reason why about one-half of the 
society requested his dismission, which took place May 1, 1827. 
Other motives beside these ostensible reasons, operated on the- 
minds of the younger class. A more popular preacher and one 
of more eloquence was desired. He would not contend with the 
flock with whom he had been connected for toward a quarter of a 
century, as pastor. It was a peaceful separation, although to him 
it was extremely painful. After the severity of his feelings sub- 
sided, he ever rejoiced that he conducted as he did. Nothing 
tends more to injure the cause of religion than for a pastor to 
quarrel with his flock. The thought of a quarrel of this sort was 
more painful than a dismission. 

The sickness referred to, was a severe fever, continuing many 
weeks; life was almost extinct, and death thought most probably 
to be the result. For seventy days strength was too much pros- 
trated to allow walking. He had two watchers every night for 
nearly three months ; during which period the kindness of his 
people was exceedingly great ; especially the foreign youth of the 
mission school manifested the most peculiar affection to the sick 
minister and to his family. On his recovering in the spring of 
1823, the Rev. Mr. Strong, who had been pastor of North Wood- 
bury, was hired by the society for four weeks. Afterward the 
pastor, being still an invalid, hired preaching at his own expense 
to the amount of between thirty and forty dollars. 

In the winter of 1827-8, the dismissed minister was so well as 
to go to East Hampton, the east parish of Chatham, on Connec- 
ticut river, where he was, on the first of May, 1828, installed pas- 
tor. There he continued three years and eight months. His 
family could not leave Cornwall, chiefly on account of the ill 
health of his wife. During his ministry at East Hampton, there 
was, in the winter of 1828-9, a very uncommon religious ex- 
citement among his people, and no doubt many were truly con- 
verted. The Methodists took an active part in this revival, with 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 87 

whom the East Hampton pastor had, for the most part, a friendly 
correspondence, often meeting together. 

It is important to refer back to the summer of 1826. At that 
time there were many indications of a religious revival in South 
Cornwall. There were a few hopeful conversions; but the influ- 
ential members of the church did not (a very few exceptions 
only) take any interest in the prospect of a rQvival. At that time 
the dismission of the pastor was no doubt secretly intended, and 
when he knew nothing of it ! I ! I 

On July 25, 1827, the Rev. William Andrews, who had been 
the pastor of Danbury, and previously of Windham, was installed 
pastor of South Cornwall. 

After the dismission of Mr. Smith in 1838, the north church 
and society were destitute of a pastor until January, 1841. In the 
summer of 1838, and in the succeeding autumn and winter, the 
Rev. Mr. Tracy preached to them, and his ministerial labors were 
accompanied with happy success. He was unusually plain and 
pungent both in public and private in urging sinners to repent- 
ance; and so much so, as to give oifence to many. Whether he 
was in all cases entirely wise and prudent is doubtful ; still his 
endeavors to excite and promote a religious revival were not in 
vain. Many were the subjects of hopeful conversion, and many 
of them were young heads of families, and of respectable, influ- 
ential characters. In the spring of 1839, fifty were united with 
the church, most of that number at one time. This church and 
society were now rising fast in respectability and in the order 
and peace of the gospel, manifesting most evidently that the union 
of the two congregational churches of Cornwall was not a desir- 
able event. After Mr. Tracy had left them, who had no intention 
of being settled as the pastor of this people, no candidate was 
employed with view of his settlement, until the summer of 1840, 
when the Rev. Mr. Joshua L. Maynard, a native of New London 
county, who was educated at New York City, and studied theology 
there, preached as a candidate. With great unanimity he was 
settled as their pastor. His ordination was January, 1841. Rev. 
Mr. Andrews of Kent preached on the occasion. 

Mr. Maynard's ministry was blessed uncommonly; and in the 
winter of 1846 and 1847 a great religious excitement was, for sev- 
eral months, witnessed among the people of his charge. The scene 
was deeply solemn; no irregularities or any indications of enthusi- 
astic feelings were displayed, as had been so unhappily manifested 



88 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

in the course of the twenty years past, in many parts of our coun- 
try, where new measures and artificial management had produced 
among thousands a prejudice against genuine revivals of religion. 
At North Cornwall all was still and impressive; and, what was yet 
more extraordinary, there was no similar revivals in any adjacent 
society. In the society of South Cornwall repeated weekly meet- 
ings of the church were held with the pastor, Eev. Mr. Day; and 
a small degree of interest was felt in regard to the spiritual condi- 
tion of the people; and a few were the hopeful subjects of religion. 
But nothing more appeared to be the result of the prayer meetings. 

A more solemn and impressive scene of a religious revival was 
never witnessed by the writer of this narrative, during his observ- 
ations of fifty years; nor, indeed, did he ever hear of a revival 
much more interesting or more happy in its results. At the com- 
munion of North Cornwall, on the first Sabbath of May, about 100 
were received into the church. Several of them were respectable 
and influential heads of families. This society is not large, and 
therefore, according to the population, not any ecclesiastical society 
of Congregationalists in any place have enjoyed a religious revival 
greater than North Cornwall. 

Tlius the historical sketch of that church and society is brought 
to a close. North Cornwall's Congregational church is now in a 
very prosperous condition, as much so as any in our own country, 
excepting that, as in most of her sister churches, zeal and love are 
now apparently declining. The installation of Rev. Mr. Andrews, 
the immediate successor of the writer, was July 25, 1827. Rev. 
Mr. Punderson, of Huntington, a special friend of Mr. Andrews, 
preached on the occasion. There was but a small congregation 
assembled. In the call of Mr. Andrews by the church and society 
there was unanimity The dismissed minister exerted his influence 
for Mr. Andrews' settlement. Rev. William Andrews was born at 
Ellington, in this State, and graduated at Middlebury, Vermont. 
Having studied theology with Dr. Burton, of Tlietford, Vt., he 
was settled as pastor of the Congregational Church of Windham, 
of this State. Having been dismissed at his own request, he was 
installed pastor of the First Church of Danbury. He continued 
there, until a very unhappy controversy took place, occasioned by 
a very perplexing case of church discipline (when the majority 
of the church sustained Mr. Andrews in his proceedings, while a 
majority of the society was adverse to him), he was then dismissed. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 89 

Mr. Andrews was a sound divine, an uncommonly good sermonizer, 
possessing a good logical mind, and was a superior scholar. 

His ministry at Danbury was, until a controversy commenced, 
more than usually happy and successful. He continued here in 
his ministry for ten years and nearly six months, till, on the first 
day of January, 1838, he died peacefully, relying on Christ; hav- 
ing been for considerable time very infirm, and for several weeks 
incapable of performing any ministerial services. 

Previous to the dismission of his predecessor the society was, in 
consequence of the confusion of the Indian marriages, and the 
infirm health of the pastor, although he was gradually recovering 
it, sinking down into a declension. On the settlement of Mr. 
Andrews, efforts were made to build up society secularly, and to 
maintain respectability as a parish, manifestly appeared to have 
been no small object in their efforts. When vital piety is the chief 
object of a church, and genuine revivals are enjoyed, temporal 
prosperity is the invariable result. Considerable pains were taken 
to advance the interests of the Sabbath-schools. Mr. Andrews 
was a sermonizer of superior order. His style was exceedingly 
neat and perspicuous, and the truths of divine revelation and 
sound Calvinistic doctrines were plainly and faithfully exhibited. 
His speaking was good, without any oratorical display. It was evi- 
dent that his manner was regarded not a little. 

His ministry was accompanied with success. A special revival 
was enjoyed in the winter of 1829 and 1830, and during his ten 
years' ministry sixty-three, by profession, were received into the 
church. 

His health was, during the latter half of his ministerial labors, 
quite infirm. The society, as such, was becoming weaker, and the 
old house of public worship was less frequented, while the youth 
in the gallery were light and irregular in their deportment. 
Religion sensibly decayed. At the decease of Mr. Andrews the 
prospect was dark. His funeral was very respectfully attended by 
several ministers and by a full congregation. The Rev. Grant 
Powers, of Goshen, preached on the occasion a sermon that was 
soon issued from the press. 

The Rev. Wm. W. Andrews, who was ordained pastor of Kent, 
May, 1834, the oldest son of Mr. Andrews, was exceedingly pop- 
ular as a preacher, and of a most amiable character. He was a 
superior scholar, and was highly esteemed by all the people of 
South Cornwall, being everywhere popular. It had been reported 
12 



90 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

that his father gave as his dying request that this son might be his 
successor at South Cornwall. 

The influential members of both church and society deemed it 
highly important for the building up of the society that this young 
minister should be removed from Kent to this place. 

Nothing could have been more pleasant to the family of that 
lovely and most intelligent young man, especially to his widowed 
mother, than for him to come and take the place of his father. 
But Kent regarded itself no way inferior in respectability to South 
Cornwall. That people were strongly attached to their minister, 
and therefore were highly indignant at our people in calling away 
their pastor by an offer of an increase of one hundred dollars to 
his salary. This was disingenuous conduct. But great allowance 
should be made for the friends of Mr. Andrews and his family in 
their peculiar circumstances of temptation. The writer was an 
ardent friend of this young minister, and had he not been settled 
a pastor, Mr. Andrews would have been chosen to be the pastor 
here in preference to another candidate, excepting that Mr. 
Andrews was much attached to the singular views of the celebrated 
Irving of Holland, who maintained the doctrine of the near 
approach of Christ's second advent, in opposition to the spirit- 
ual millennium which is so clearly foretold in the prophetical 
writings. 

These views of Mr. Andrews were regarded by the writer of 
this statement as quite injurious to those efforts which the church 
is under obligations to make to evangelize the world. Hence, with 
all the partiality of friendship, and a high esteem for Mr. Andrews, 
as a man of uncommon amiability, and of excellent mental endow- 
ments and acquisitions he could not desire him to be pastor of this 
church. At a meeting of the church he remonstrated against an 
invitation of Mr. Andrews — and was thereby an object of no small 
reproach for a season. Mr. Andi-ews did not accept the call. His 
conduct was altogether honorable, as he did not encourage his 
friends here that he would accept such an invitation. 

The Rev. Nathaniel M. Urmston, a native of Chillicothe, Ohio, 
who had studied theology at Princeton, N. J., and had been pastor 
for two or three years at Newtown, Conn., was installed here June 
28, 1838. He continued in his office only twenty-two months. 
There was opposition to his settlement at first; it was not large in 
number, but the character of the opposers was respectable. These 
persons had been the most ardent advocates for inviting Mr. An- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



91 



drews, of Kent. This opposition did not decrease. Mr, Urmston 
was truly a worthy man, of good mind, sound and thorough in his 
views of divine truth, had good health, was able to perform all the 
laborious services of a pastor with ease, and possessed a strong 
voice and was easily heard by such as were afflicted with deafness. 
His voice, however, was not pleasant, but rather displeasing to such 
as were fastidious as to what they heard. 

Mr. Urmston was quite independent in his judgment and 
opinions; and did not possess that ease and familiarity in his con- 
versation that distinguished his predecessor, Mr. Andrews. Also he 
took a deep interest in the district schools, of which he was chosen 
the first school visitor. He, in his determination of maintaining 
strict order in the conduct of the school boys, was in a measure 
imprudent, by which he lost some influence. His wife was an 
infirm person, and therefore he did not visit his people so much as 
he otherwise probably would have done. No prospect appeared 
that his influence would be increased for doing good; and as the 
opposition to him was evidently increased his best friends intimated 
to him the propriety of calling a consociation to decide whether 
a dismission was not advisable. Mr. Urmston, being a man of 
good sense, took no umbrage at the suggestion, as he knew his 
friends were sincere in their friendship, and therefore the majority 
of his church at his request called the consociation which met the 
first of April, 1840. That body did not advise his dismission. 
But the first of May, at the installation of Kev. Mr. Brownell at 
Sharon, Mr. Urmston having obtained the consent of the church 
urged and obtained a regular dismission ; and a very good recom- 
mendation was given him by the consociation. 

In the course of the winter of 1838 and 1839 there was a 
manifest revival of religion in the society, at the time when 
Eev. Mr. Tracy was laboring successfully in North Cornwall. 
Several were anxious for their salvation, and a few were hopefully 
converted. About sixteen were received into the church during 
his ministry of twenty-two months. He was active in his minis- 
terial duty, not only on the Sabbath but in attending religious 
meetings in the week. His bodily health was firm, and he had no 
occasion to call in the aid of his ministerial brethren. There was 
indeed a very favorable prospect of an extensive revival in South 
Cornwall. But Mr. Urmston soon felt discouragements on account 
of the apparent indifference of influential members of the church. 
And certainly he had some ground for such an apprehension. 



92 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

It is truly melancholy to witness the private and partial feelings 
of Christ's disciples operating against His cause. Had there not 
been opposition to Mr. Urmston's settlement, there is just reason 
to believe that he would have had more effectual aid from his 
church. Mr. Urmston was afterward installed pastor of a Pres- 
byterian Church. 

In the summer of 1840 the Rev. John Williams Salter, a native 
of Mansfield, in this State, who had been a pastor at Kingston, 
Mass., near old Plymouth, was employed as a preacher and candi- 
date for settlement, and continued here until April, 1841. 

His preaching was acceptable, and his manners and disposition 
were, though somewhat eccentric, very agreeable. Had he been 
disposed to have continued still longer, and until the new church 
(which he was influential in building) had been erected, most 
probably he would have been chosen pastor by a large proportion 
of the society. 

Energetic efforts were made, especially by the inhabitants of Corn- 
wall Valley, to build this church edifice. The southern sections of 
the society, beyond Colt's-foot mountain and on the Housatonic river, 
were at first quite favorable, or at least apparently, to this design. 
When the people of the vicinity of the meeting-house were found 
quite active and liberal in their intentions of building, the people 
of the northern sections appeared to draw back, pleading that 
they intended to build a house for worship to their accommoda- 
tion in their vicinity. This excited a set of very unpleasant feel- 
ings which are not yet forgotten — especially as they have not to 
the present day done anything to erect such a building. 

It should be not forgotten, that after the dismission of Rev. Mr. 
Urmston all previous unpleasant feelings among the people during 
Mr. Salter's preaching were apparently gone. His influence was 
unusually happy in promoting harmony. The temper of the 
friends of Mr. Urmston in their concessions to his dismission 
tended not a little to this peace. 

The situation of the people of the southern section of the 
society, being quite remote from Cornwall Valley, which is situated 
on the northern border of the parish, naturally produced among 
those who were thus separated by Colt's-foot mountain from the 
village of the church edifice, unpleasant feelings. This sectional 
party spirit was promoted at the erection of the new house of 
worship. This new building, begun in the summer of 1841, was 
finished in the winter of 1842, and in February was dedicated, a 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 93 

very large assembly being convened, an excellent sermon was 
preached by the Kev. Adam Reid, of Salisbury. Various candi- 
dates were called to preach after Mr. Salter, without suflBcient 
union to obtain a pastor until February 28, 1844, when the Rev. 
Hiram Day was ordained. 

It is doubted whether, within half a century, there has been in 
our churches an instance of a pastor being installed against so 
great an opposition as in the case of Mr. Day. About one-third 
of the legal voters of the society and nearly one-fourth of the 
church appeared in their formal protest before the consociation 
against his ordination. All but two or three of the ministers in 
this council, voted at first that although they approved of the 
character and qualifications of the candidate, still they ought not 
to disregard so large an opposition* A majority of the delegates 
of the churches voted to ordain him ; and at length a majority of 
the presbyters concurred. 

Previous to this, an unhappy party spirit existed. The Rev. Mr. 
Blodgett (afterward the pastor of Greenwich, in Mass.) was the 
object of the choice of almost all, but there was some opposition; 
and as he had declared that he should not receive any call that 
was not unanimous, no formal invitation was extended to him. 
He was an excellent man, a fine classical scholar, a distinguished 
Hebrewist, and a sound and well-read divine. Many were very 
urgent to settle him as their pastor. 

In the winter and spring of 1843, the Rev. John Sessions, who 
had been Presbyterian pastor of a church in the town of Norwich, 
Chenango County, N. Y., was invited to settle. He was a very 
superior man in intellect, and a thorough theologian. He was a 
student at the theological seminary of Princeton, and an excellent 
sermonizer. All the church, except the youngest deacon, were, 
at the first vote, united in calling him, and the society was nearly 
as much desirous to settle him. 

But through the opposition of one of the officers of the church, 
and hesitancy as to the support offered, he gave a negative answer, 
to the great regret and (it is believed by the writer) to the very 
great injury of the society. After this, he offered to come back, 
but a large minority opposed him. This produced a most unhappy 
schism, and renewed the sad sectional divisions already referred to. 
This undoubtedly had influence in dividing the society, about one- 
third being against and two-thirds for the settlement of Mr. Day. 
This opposition did not decrease. At the annual meeting of con^ 



94 HISTOKY OF CORNWALL. 

sociation, in September, 1848, Mr. Day was dismissed; when it is 
evident that he determined, if possible, to retain his ground, in 
spite of so large an opposition. Let a minister be possessed of all 
ministerial qualifications, he is not an object of the choice of the 
writer, who is willing to continue in his ministry against such 
opposition, excepting where he is opposed on account of his holding 
to essential truths of the Gospel. In such case, it may be proper 
for such a pastor to stand firm against heresy. But this was not 
the situation of Mr. Day. Never has the writer, who has been 
toward half a century a minister of the Gospel, seen so much evil 
in any ecclesiastical society, by party spirit, as was promoted by 
the determined purpose of Mr. Day to stand his ground. Still, 
Mr. Day was a man of piety. He was supported by the party 
spirit of his advocates. Rev. Warren Andrews, the principal of 
Alger Institute, supplied the pulpit till the spring of 1849, when 
his younger brother, Rev. Ebenezer Andrews, was engaged to 
preach for a year. 

.Extract from the Centennial Sermon o/ Rev. Samuel J. White, D.D., 

taking up the history of the First Congregational Church as left by 

Mr. Stone: 

Two years after the dismission of Rev. Mr. Day, the Rev. Ralph 
Smith was installed pastor, September, 1851. He is regarded by 
the people of his charge as a refined and cultivated scholar and 
able preacher. The church records contain no account of his 
labors. He was dismissed May 3, 1855. As near as I can learn, 
thirty-three united with the church during his pastorate. What 
proportion by profession of faith, I cannot learn. 

From September, 1855, to September, 1857, Rev. Ira Pettibone 
was " acting pastor " of the church. The church records are silent 
in respect to his labors. I learn, from the hst of members, that 
twelve united with the church during his ministry; how many by 
letter, and how many by profession of faith, I cannot learn. 

Rev. Stephen Fenn was installed pastor May, 1859, and dis- 
missed December, 1867. During his pastorate of eight years and 
six months, fifty-eight united with the church. The church records 
do not contain much in respect to his ministry. I have ah-eady 
stated the substance of all that I can gather. His labors were very 
acceptable to the people, and were very much blessed. He loved 
his people ardently, and was tenderly loved by them. 

Rev. Elias B. Sanford was ordained and installed pastor of this 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOEY. 95 

church July 7, 1869. The installation sermon was preached by- 
Rev. Mr. Backus, of Thomaston. There is a copy of Mr. Sanford's 
letter of acceptance on the church book, and the action of the 
church preparatory to his installation. At a meeting of the 
church, September 7, 1871, they voted to unite with Mr. San- 
ford in dissolving the pastoral relation. During his pastorate of 
two years and three months, ten were added to the church. 

Rev. N. A. Prince was installed pastor of this church, June 28, 
1872. There is no record in the church book of any action of the 
church in respect to the dismission of Mr. Prince. I learn from 
the society book that he was dismissed May 12, 1874. Six united 
with the church during his pastorate. He was regarded by his 
people as a preacher of much ability. He labored under peculiar 
embarrassments and discouragements, which those who know the 
facts can appreciate. 

This brings us down to June 1, 1875, at which time the writer, 
Rev. Samuel J. White, became "Acting Pastor." 

At this writing, July 3, 1877, he has been connected with this 
people two years and one month. So far as he knows, there is 
great harmony in him among his people. He has received many 
tokens of their good will and affection, and they are assured of his 
pastoral love and care. 

Last winter, the Second church, with their pastor, Rev. C. N. 
Fitch, united with us in observing the week of prayer. As a fruit 
of our quickened and improved spiritual state, twenty-one have 
already united, by profession of faith, with the church, and more 
are expected to unite in due time. During the writer's ministry 
with the church, twenty-three have united by profession, and two 
by letter. 

This church has had ten settled pastors, whose united pastorates 
cover one hundred and thirty-six years; and allowing twelve years 
for intervals between the pastorates, the length of each is about 
twelve years and six months. 

Since the formation of the church nineteen deacons have been 
ordained, viz. : 

Deacons of First Congregational Church since its Formation. 

John Harris, - - - Date of appointment unknown. 

Phiuehas Waller, . - - " " " 

Benjamin Sedgwick, - - - " " " 

Samuel Abbott, . - - " " 

Tliomas Porter, - - - Chosen Oct. 8th, 17G5. 

Elijah Steel, - - - » June 34th, 1773. 



96 HISTORY OF CORNWALL, 

Judah Kellogg, - - - Chosen June 20th, 1776. 

Josiah Hopkins, 



Benjamin Gold, 
Abel C. Carter, 
Jedidiah Calhoun, 
Victorianus Clark, 
Henry Swift, 
Silas P. Judson, 
Marcus D. F. Smith, - 
Robert T. Miner, 
George H. Swift, 
Silas C. Beers, 
Harlan Ives. 



July 9th, 1813. 

u u u 

Dec. — , 1819. 
March 4th, 1831. 
July 21st, 1839. 

u (( u 

Jan. 5th, 1855. 
Jan. 6th, 1867. 

U U (( 

Dec. 13th, 1868. 



Of these deacons, Phinelias Waller and Elijah Steel, at the time 
of division, went with the Second Church. It is said that Deacon 
Steel became a Quaker in sentiment, and his successor was chosen 
four years before the division, and that Deacon Waller was not act- 
ing. So far as I have been able to learn, these nineteen deacons 
were all true men. They may sometimes have erred in judgment, 
but by divine grace they honored their profession and office. Of 
course some of them were more marked in their intellectual 
strength, moral power, and Christian activity, than others. 

Among the first elected was Benjamin Sedgwick, patriarch of 
a large and distinguished family, some of which have ranked 
high in civil and military life. 

If time would permit, we might speak of Deacon Judah Kellogg, 
a gentleman of liberal education — a graduate of Yale College — a 
man whose counsel was sought when questions of civil law were 
involved; of Thomas Porter, Josiah Hopkins, Benjamin Gold, 
Victorianus Clark, Henry Swift, Silas P. Judson (for many years 
clerk of the church), Jedidiah Calhoun, always prompt and lib- 
eral, and kept "loose ends " well tied up. These having witnessed 
a good profession, died in faith and hope. 

In passing, we would not fail to pay our tribute of respect to 
the late John C. Calhoun, the warm friend and benefactor of this 
town and church. He was the founder of the Cornwall Library, 
and bequeathed to it $2,000, the interest of which is to be annually 
expended in the purchase of books. He also bequeathed $2,000 
to our cemetery, the interest to be annually expended in improv- 
ing and ornamenting the grounds. These noble bequests can but 
perpetuate his influence and embalm his memory in the affections 
of the citizens of this town. 

I have been giving a short history of the Spiritual temple of God ; 
I will now briefly speak of the house or houses made by hands. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 97 

The first resolution passed by the people of Cornwall — in town 
meeting assembled A. D. 1740 — was to get a minister; and the 
second was like unto it, viz., to build a "Meetinghouse." In due 
time the minister was obtained, and the house was commenced — I 
will not say built — I think it never was built. 

In 1745 the town passed a resolution accepting the house of the 
builders, so far as the work had progressed, and ordered that it be 
set apart to God for purposes of worship. 

The house was only covered with shingles and clapboards, and 
in it the people worshiped, summer and winter, without fire, except 
what burned upon God's altar. The church was located in Corn- 
wall Center, a mile distant from this village. 

In 1790 this church was taken down, enlarged, and put up 
again in this village, near where the liberty-pole now stands. 

In 1840 or 1841, the " old house " was torn down, and the pres- 
ent one built. 

While upon this subject I would call your attention to this pul- 
pit, from which I am now addressing you. A few days since 
Esquire Kellogg said to me that he had in his garret a relic which 
might be of some interest on this Centennial year. He brought it 
out from its hiding place, brushed the cobwebs and dust from it, 
and it proved to be the veritable primitive pulpit of the town of 
Cornwall. 

When the old church was being torn down. Esquire Kellogg 
requested that he might have the pulpit as his share of the spoils. 
We owe him a vote of thanks for his thoughtful care of what is 
primitive. The Pope places his rehcs on exhibition, why not we 
ours ? 

This pulpit has not a seam or joint in it. It is carved solid from 
a primitive pine tree that grew upon these primitive hills. 

Rev. Solomon Palmer was the first to read the word of God and 
preach the gospel of Christ from this pulpit ; and after the lapse of 
one hundred and thirty-one years, I have the honor to be the last 
who has read this same word of God and preached the same gos- 
pel from this pulpit. And what a history that of which this relic 
is witness, lying between the dates 1745 and 1876 ! 

In 1874 our beautiful chapel was built upon the grounds upon 
which the old mission house of the American Board once stood. 

One century ago we became a free and independent nation. It 
is wonderful to contemplate the progress made during this time. 
In what is useful and facilitates the labor of man, there has been 
13 



98 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

more progress than in many centuries before. Light is shining 
brightly in some places, and beginning to dawn in others; and 
progress, slow and sure, is a clear omen that in the end the whole 
earth shall be radiant with the light of science, art, literature, free 
institutions, and the knowledge of God. 

We joke about seeing the next Centennial. It is no joke. 

It is no joke that none of us will be present when the next 
Centennial Sermon is preached from this desk; that we shall all 
be on that shore of life where years and centuries are like the 
seconds and minutes on our clock-dials; where " a thousand years 
is as one day." Time ! thy greatest measurements are but the 
tickings of eternity's watch. 



On Sunday, July 15, 1866, when there was no one to supply the 
pulpit. Deacon E. R. Pratt read to the congregation the substance 
of the following discourse on the history of the Second Ecclesias- 
tical Church and Society in Cornwall. He subsequently extended 
it to a later date, and furnished it for publication in this work: 

History of North Cornwall Church and Society. 

1 think I may safely infer that there are none present here to-day 
who have arrived at mature years, who do not often find themselves 
communing with the past and hstening to the voices that come out 
of it. 

The hours thus employed may be sad or joyous, but whatever 
their character, if they are properly viewed and improved they will 
be a source from which we may get strength and power for present 
work and duty, and our pathway in the future may thereby be 
made more distinct, bright, and hopeful, for 

" There is a history in all men's lives, 
Picturing the nature of the times gone by. 
The which — observed — a man may prophesy, 
With a nearer aim, the chance or form of things 
That are yet to be." 

From the standpoint which we occupy to-day I will speak to 
you of the past history of our church and society. My words may 
be dull, and my thoughts feeble, but as I have examined the subject, 
1 have felt that it was full of eloquence. There are memories, and 
associations, and events Knked with it, that, if properly presented, 
would be inspiration to our hearts. 

It is about one hundred and fifty years since the rays of civiliza- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 99 

tion first dawned over these hills, and began to lighten up these val- 
leys. At first this new order of things unfolded itself but slowly, 
but gradually the better days were ushered in. 

In 1731 the Governor and Company of the Colony of Connecti- 
cut, in council assembled at Hartford, ordered that the western 
county lands lying on the east side of the Housatonic River be laid 
out into townships. 

In that survey the boundaries of Cornwall were established. 
The town is said to be five miles and seventy-two rods wide on the 
south end, four and one-half miles wide on the north end, nine 
miles in length, and to contain 23,654 acres of land. 

Tradition says that when this original survey was nearly com- 
pleted the surveyor came to the top of the hill a short distance 
north of where the residence of Hon. T. S. Gold now stands. As 
he stood looking at what presented itself from that point, he said, 
"This is the cream of the town;" and from that day that part of 
the town has borne the name of " Cream Hill." 

The town was divided into fifty-three rights, one of which was 
to be given to the first orthodox gospel minister that should be 
settled in the town; one was to be for the use of the ministry; and 
one for the benefit of schools. The fifty remaining rights were 
sold at auction at the court-house in Fairfield on the first Tuesday 
in February, 1738, at 1 o'clock p. m. They were not to be sold for 
less than fifty pounds for each right. Each purchaser was obli- 
gated to build, or have built, upon the land he might purchase, 
within three years, a house not less than eighteen feet square, with 
not less than seven-foot posts, and to fence in not less than six 
acres of the same. A failure on these points forfeited his title to 
the property. 

The sale was made, and averaged £110 for each right, which 
was at the rate of 821 cents an acre. In 1740 there was quite a 
settlement in the town, and in May of that year a town organiza- 
tion was formed, and measures adopted to settle a minister and 
build a meeting-house. The first minister was Rev. Solomon 
Palmer, who was ordained and settled in August, 1741. He lived 
at what is now known as the Oliver Burnham place. 

He continued here until March, 1754, when from the pulpit, on 
the Sabbath, he announced himself an Episcopalian in sentiment, 
and asked for a dismission, which was granted. The next pastor 
was Rev. Hezekiah Gold. 

He came from Stratford, was educated at Yale College, and 



100 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

settled here in 1756. He lived at the place now owned and occu- 
pied by Benjamin P. Johnson. At his installation Dr. David 
Bellamy of Bethlehem preached the sermon from Jeremiah iii, 15. 
Rev. John Graham of Southbury gave the charge to the pastor, 
and Rev. Daniel Brinsmade of Washington, the right-hand of 
fellowship. 

He appears to have been a man of good abiHty and an acceptable 
preacher, and to have exerted quite an influence in the town, not 
only in its religious but also in its civil affairs. 

He once or twice represented the town in the General Assembly 
of the State. He continued to preach until about 1786, when he 
retired from active ministerial labor, and died here in 1790, at 
fifty-nine years of age. 

He had five sons, all of whom became prominent and influential 
men. Two of them only remained in this town, one, Hezekiah, 
settled on Cream Hill, the other, Benjamin, in South Cornwall, and 
we are aU witnesses of, and can testify to, the good his descendants 
have done and are doing in this town. 

During the first forty years of our town history, there was but 
one church and society in the town of the Congregational order. 
Their meeting-house stood very near the present residence of Jas. 
D. Ford. To that point, from all parts of the town, for about forty 
years, the tribes went up to worship God. 

But it was not thus to continue. Then, as now, there were 
"many men of many minds." Saybrook platforms, church cove- 
nants. Congregational theories and customs, ecclesiastical connec- 
tions, and divers other matters, were exciting topics of discussion. 
Discussion led to action; action brought forth a division; and in 
1780 the Second Ecclesiastical church and society of Cornwall 
came into being. 

Soon after the separation the First Society moved their meeting- 
house to near where it now stands. 

This society hired the Rev. John Cornwafl, not to supply their 
pulpit, for they hadn't any, but to officiate as their pastor and 
teacher in things pertaining to the kingdom of heaven. They had 
no stated place of worship, and the meetings were held around at 
the houses of the members, being more often than elsewhere at 
the house of Mr. Cornwall, which was where Mr. Carrington Todd 
now resides. 

Mr. Cornwall came from Branford, in this State, as did quite a 
number of the early settlers of this town. He was a poor boy, and 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 101 

was bred to the trade of a shoemaker. In his family Bible there 
was this record in his handwriting: "Lived without God in the 
world until twenty years old." This would indicate that his con- 
version occurred at this date. 

After Mr. Cornwall became a Christian he seems to have been 
possessed with the feeling of the great apostle when he exclaimed, 
" Wo is me if I preach not the gospel" He was a young man of 
much native ability, and he apj)lied himself as diligently as his 
circumstances and means would permit to a preparation for the 
gospel ministry. While engaged in his daily labors as a shoe- 
maker he would have his book lying open before him, and thus his 
studies and his work went on together, and by a diligent use of his 
time he acquired means for, and obtained his education. In due 
time he was licensed to preach, and this church, in the early morn- 
ing of its existence, while recognizing Christ as the Great Shepherd, 
chose Mr. Cornwall as the under shepherd of the flock. It is re- 
ported of him that he was an earnest preacher, a warm-hearted 
Christian, a good man. In 1787, five years after its organization, 
the society having obtained the needful authority from the Gen- 
eral Assembly, made arrangements for, and proceeded to build a 
meeting-house. It stood where the school-house near Mr. John R. 
Harrison's now stands, and there, for many years, our fathers 
gathered to worship the Most High God. 

It was for a number of years but little more than the shell of a 
building, with some kind of a rough floor, and rough, uncomfort- 
able seats. There was no lath or plaster, and it was often the 
case that while the worship was going on below the birds held high 
carnival and built their nests among the rafters overhead. The 
only railing aroimd the gallery was some strips of timber standing 
upright, nailed on to the front, across the tops of which were nailed 
strips of boards. On one occasion, while the services were going 
on, a boy by the name of Job Simmons leaned his head down 
against this railing and soon feel asleep. When he had got fairly 
under way in a good sound nap, his head slipped from its support 
and pitching forward, he landed on the floor below. It was not as 
fatal as in the case of the young man who fell out of the window 
on one occasion when Paul was preaching. Job soon gathered 
himself up, order was restored, and the services went on as usual. 

Mr. Cornwall remained here until about 1792, when he removed 
to and was settled as pastor over a church in Stamford, New York, 
where he remained until his death, which occurred in 1812. Noah 



102 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Eogers the 4th married a daughter of his, and thus hi^ (Mr. 
Cornwall's) blood runs in the veins of quite a number who are 
living in this society. 

In those early days ecclesiastical matters were managed to a large 
extent by the town when in town meeting assembled. Thus in 
one instance we find the town voting, that we will unite to call and 
settle a serious, pious, godly, orthodox, and learned minister in the 
town, according to the rules of the gospel. In another instance 
they voted a tax of four pence on the pound upon all polls and 
ratable estate of the inhabitants of the town of Cornwall, to be 
collected forthwith, to be paid to Rev. Hezekiah Gold, Rev. John 
Cornwall, and to the missionary of the Church of England who 
hath preached to the inhabitants of this town the past year who 
are professors of the Church of England, and each individual 
person in the town may pay his proportionate part of said tax to 
the minister whose worship he attends — he or she giving the col- 
lector directions to which minister or candidate who officiates in 
the town, his or her proportion of said tax shall be paid. Noah 
Rogers 3d, was collector at this time. 

About the year 1795 the Rev. Israel Holley was employed by 
the society, and he preached here for five or six years. He was an 
old man of nearly seventy years when he came here. Whence 
he came or whither he went I don't know. That he was a priest 
of the Most High God we have good reason to believe, for under 
his ministry occurred, so far as is now known, the first one in that 
series of revivals with which this church has been so signally 
favored. The questions here naturally arise. Who were the co- 
laborers with Mr. Holley in that revival ? Who were the men and 
who the women that in those early days held up the pastor's hands 
while the work of the Lord went on ? Who luere they who offered 
the effectual, fervent prayer that called down the blessing ? Who 
were they that thus helped to lay the foundations of this church, 
sure and steadfast, on the unfailing promises of a covenant-keeping 
God ? There are no original records that give their names that can 
now be found. Our church manual gives the names of eleven 
males and two females who were members of the church at the 
time of its organization in 1780. They were James Douglass, who 
lived on Cream Hill, Phineas "Waller and wife, who lived where 
Judson Adams now lives or near there, Noah Bull, Andrew Young, 
David and Hezekiah Clark, of Clark Hill, Elijah Steele, Beriah 
Hotchkin and wife, who resided where Mr. Jacob Scovill now 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 103 

lives, Noali Rogers the 3d, Ethan Allen, and Jesse Hyatt, who 
lived in the house next south of that of Noah Rogers. 

In 1784 five more were added to the church, viz., Mrs. Silas 
Dibble, Mrs. James Travis, Mrs. Samuel Scovill, Mrs. Uriel Lee, 
Joseph Wadsworth, and Mrs. Henry Fillmore, who was grand- 
mother of ex-President Millard Fillmore. 

In 1789 and 1790 there were further additions of Mrs. Asa 
Emmons, Joseph Hotchkiss and wife, Mrs. Silas Clark, Mrs. 
Solomon Emmons, and Abigail Rogers (afterwards Mrs. Asahel 
Bradley of Stockbridge, Mass.). Thirty names, fourteen males and 
sixteen females, thus appear as having been members of the church 
from its organization in 1780 up to the time of the first general 
revival in 1795. 

If there were any others, we know of no source from which 
their names can now be recovered. The "LamFs Book of Life " 
will alone reveal them. How many of the thirty whose names we 
have, were left to help on that work of ninety-five we do not know, 
as removals and deaths had considerably lessened their number. 
But this much is evident, there were enough, so that meeting in 
the name of Christ, they could claim and secure the fulfillment of 
Christ's most precious jjromises. Those few disciples, whether more 
or less, were surely with one accord in one place, and that the 
place of prayer. They felt the need of a divine blessing — for that 
they prayed — and it came. Sinners were converted, additions 
were made to the church, and among the number then brought 
into this fold of Christ were Nathan Hart, James Wadsworth, 
Ichabod Howe, Thomas Hyatt, Thaddeus Cole, and others. Men 
who, clothing themselves in the armor of God, fought valiantly 
the good fight of faith, and on many a well-contested field, with 
■the Great Adversary, were enabled, by the grace of God assisting 
them, to bear the banners of this church on to victory. Of all the 
number who composed the church at the beginning of this century 
none remain; all have passed the dark river, and, as we trust, they 
to-day worship in a "building of God, a house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens." Rev. Mr. Holley remained here 
until about the year 1801. About twenty persons united with the 
church during his ministry. 

The deacons of the church from 1780 — when it was organized — to 
1800, were Beriah Hotchkin and Phineas Waller. Mr. Hotchkin 
lived near where Mr. Jacob Scovill now resides. He was a man 
of much intellectual abihty. About the year 1798 he removed to 



104 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Black River country, and was afterwards licensed to preach. He 
had a son who was also in the ministry. Mr. Waller filled the 
office of deacon with credit to himself and to the edification of 
the church. 

He also removed into the western country about the year 1800. 
From the time Mr. Holley left in 1801 until 1805, we do not know 
who supplied the pulpit. We expect the people then, as now, were 
somewhat afflicted with deacons' meetings. 

Hezekiah Clark and Jesse Hyatt were deacons at this time, 
having been chosen in 1800. Mr. Clark was quite gifted in ideas 
which he was able to communicate intelligently to others. Mx-. 
Hyatt was a strong, substantial man, upon whom the church could 
lean with trust and confidence. In addition to the deacons, Eliakim 
Mallory and Noah Rogers the 3d were relied upon to a consider- 
able extent to sustain the meetings, although there were some of 
the younger members who were getting on the harness and aided 
in rehgious work and labor to some extent. In 1805 the church 
and society called the Rev. Josiah Hawes, of Warren, Conn., who 
was then a young man, to be their pastor. He accepted the in vita, 
tion, and was installed March 14, 1805, on a salary of three hundred 
dollars. Rev. Mr. Starr of Warren preached the ordination sermon ; 
Rev. Mr. Cornwall gave the charge to the pastor-elect, and Rev. 
Timothy Stone of the First Society gave the right-hand of fellowship. 

Mr. Hawes occupied a house now owned by Theodore Ives, 
which stands a few rods north of the Burnham house. 

The first written records of our church history that now exist 
commence immediately after Mr. Hawes came here. We conclude 
he stirred the people up to good works in that line, for just then 
we find, that by a vote of the church, a committee was appointed, 
consisting of Noah Rogers, Sr., Nathan Hart, David Clark, and 
Eliakim Mallory, who, in connection with the pastor, were to 
examine the church records and select such as they thought proper, 
and have them recorded in a book to be kept for that purpose. 
(The records up to this time seem to have been written on loose 
papers and kept in a file.) And what was the result of this ex- 
amination ? Simply this : the committee reported that " they had 
attended to the duties of their appointment, and that thoy did not 
deem it expedient to introduce into the book any transactions of a 
date previous to the settlement of Mr. Hawes." 

They had the records on file, a few hours' writing would have 
put every important transaction that had occurred in the history 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOBY. 105 

of the cliurch up to that date into a permanent form, but they did 
not do it, and after a few years they were lost past recovery. We 
expect that committee had not searched through the musty records 
of a past age to ascertain what those who had gone before them 
had said or done, to the extent that some of us who are here to-day 
have done; if they had, they would never have passed a vote hke 
that. 

Mr. Hawes, during his ministry, kept a fair record of the trans- 
actions of the church, but from the time he left, except at brief 
intervals, they are very imperfect, and not at all what they should 
have been. In matters of this kind we are too apt to think only of 
the present, and the future is left to take care of itself. 

Mr. Hawes recorded the names of those who were members of 
the church at the time of his settlement in 1805. They are as 
follows : 

Noah Rogers, Sen. (3), Mrs. Samuel Scovill, Jr., 

Eliakim Mallory and wife, Wife of Capt. Williams, 

Hezekiah Clark, Clarissa Irene Rogers, 

David Clark, Wife of Joseph Ford, 

Jesse Hyatt and wife, Wife of Pliilo Hawes, 

Nathan Hart and wife, Mrs. Silas Clark, 

Thaddeus Cowles and wife, Abigail Hart, widow of John Hart, 

Titus Hart, Wife of Asa Emmons, 

Ichabod Howe, Ira Gleason, 

Silas Meacham, Wife of Joseph Hotchkin. 

Mrs. Samuel Scovill, Sen., 

The whole number, so far as we can discover, who had belonged 
to the church from its organization to this date (1805) was forty- 
eight persons. 

Twenty five (twelve males and thirteen females) only remained 
when Mr. Hawes was settled. In the winter of 1806-7, there was 
another revival of religion, which was very general throughout 
the society, and the result of it was an addition of fifty-two mem- 
bers to the church. Among them were James Wadsworth and 
wife (Mr. Wadsworth was a subject of the revival in 1795, but 
did not unite with the church until this time), Joel Millard and 
wife, Elias Hart and wife, Capt. Hezekiah Gold and wife, Eliakim 
Mallory, Jr., and wife, James D. Ford, James Bunce, and others. 
For more than twenty years this church, comparatively weak in 
numbers and in financial strength, but strong in faith, had struggled 
with difficulties, beset with dangers without and fears within, until 
at length a blessing came which filled their hearts with a new joy 
and caused them to sing aloud of the goodness and mercy of God. 
14 



106 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

•From twenty-five they were at once increased to seventy-five in 
number, and a new life and power was infused into the whole 
body. 

Rev. Mr. Hawes was dismissed July 6, 1813, having been here 
eight years and four months. 

All who remember Mr. Hawes speak of him as a devotedly pious 
and an earnest Christian man. 

About this time — we think in 1812 — there was some special 
degree of rehgious interest in the parish, and eight persons joined 
the church. Among the names are Luther Emmons, Mrs. Oliver 
Burnham, Miss Rhoda Burnham, Mrs. Jasper Pratt, Miss Hannah 
Pratt, and others. 

After Mr. Hawes left, a son of Rev. Mr. Robbins, of Norfolk, 
supplied the pulpit for a number of months. He is remembered 
as a young man of talent, eloquent, and a popular preacher. 

Afterwards came the Rev. Grove L. Brownell, fresh from his 
theologic studies, who supplied the pulpit for a year more or less. 
That was in 1817-18; and under his ministry there was another 
pheasant and interesting revival of religion, and twenty -two were 
added to the church. Among these we find the names of Joseph 
Scoville, John P. Wadsworth, John and Eber Cotter, Amanda 
Johnson, and others. Of those who then joined the church, we 
think John P. Wadsworth and Amanda Johnson (now Mrs. Milo 
Dickinson) are the only survivors. 

In 1819 the church and society gave a call to the Rev. Walter 
Smith, of Kent, Conn., which he accepted, and he was ordained 
and installed on the second day of June, of that year, on a salary 
of five hundred dollars. Rev. Mr. Blair, of Kent, preached the 
sermon, from Daniel xii, 3: " And they that be wise shall shine as 
the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to 
righteousness as the stars for ever and ever." 

Rev. Cyrus Yale, of New Hartford, gave the right hand of fellow- 
ship; Rev. Ralph Emerson, of Norfolk, the charge to the people; 
and the Rev. D. S. Perry, of Sharon, the charge to the pastor. 
Mr. Smith's sermon on the Sabbath morning next after his instal- 
lation was from Acts x, 29: "Therefore came I unto you without 
gainsaying, as soon as I was sent for: I ask therefore for what 
intent ye have sent for me ? " In the afternoon the text was 
Acts X, 33: "Immediately therefore I sent to thee; and thou hast 
well done that thou art come. Now therefore we are all here 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 107 

present before God to hear all things that are commanded thee of 
God." 

Eev. Mr. Smith was a sound and substantial preacher of the 
gospel. The state of his health was such that he could not endure 
much excitement, or with safety to himself sustain and carry on 
a continued series of meetings. But notwithstanding this, the 
church and society were during his ministry repeatedly blessed 
with the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. 

In one instance, and we think in two, there were quite extensive 
revivals when Mr. Smith, on account of ill health, was absent nearly 
if not quite the whole time of their continuance. In one of these, 
those efficient laborers, John C. Hart and Augustus T. Norton, 
rendered valuable aid. 

In 1821 five persons joined the church, among whom were 
Benjamin Sedgwick, Mrs. William Pendleton, and others. Benja- 
min Sedgwick — what a power he was in this church ! Large and 
well developed in his physical proportions, these seemed to repre- 
sent the largeness of his faith and of his trust in God. He was 
seldom absent from his seat in church on the Sabbath Day. His 
prayers always seemed to come from a warm and sympathizing 
heart, and in his intense earnestness he often appeared to be taking 
this whole congregation in the strong arms of his devotion, and 
thus he bore them up before the mercy seat, while he pleaded for 
heaven's richest blessings to rest upon them. 

In 1822-3 there were further tokens of God's favor in the midst 
of this people, and sixteen were added to the church. Among 
them were Darius Miner, WilHam Clark, Erastus Gaylord, Mrs. 
William Clark, Mrs. Samuel W. Gold, Mrs. Micajah Barnum, and 
others. 

In 1824 there was an addition of twenty, and in this list we find 
John C. Hart, Chalker Pratt and wife, Isaac S. Wadsworth, Mrs. 
Ithamer Baldwin, Catharine Clark (now Mrs. Noah Rogers), etc. 

In 1826-7 there was held in most of the churches in this section 
a series of what were called delegate meetings. At an appointed 
place and time, two or three delegates from each of the surround- 
ing churches came together, with the society in the midst of which 
the meeting was held, and special efforts were made for the 
extension of the Redeemer's kingdom. Some of these were meet- 
ings of great power, and were attended with great success. One 
of these meetings was held here with beneficial results. At this 



108 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

meeting Rev. Messrs. Yale of New Hartford, and Halleck of 
Canton, Conn,, were present. 

I remember a meeting which they attended in this house on a 
Sabbath evening. A large congregation was present, and the 
influences of the Holy Spirit pervaded the place. After the pre- 
liminary exercises were gone through with, Rev. Mr. Yale arose 
and announced his text, viz., " that my head were waters, and 
mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night 
for the slain of the daughters of my people." 

The value of an immortal soul, the agencies that were at work to 
effect its ruin, and the anxiety of Christian men and women in 
regard to it, and the sacrifices they were willing to make as co- 
workers with Christ to save it, were the themes of the discourse, 
which was given with all that thrilling earnestness which might be 
expected from a master ivorkman who felt the importance of the 
subject he was handling. Under the inspiration of that hour souls 
were drawn up towards a higher and purer life. 

In 1830-31 protracted or four days' meetings were in vogue. 
They were held in many of the churches through all this region, 
and in many cases great spiritual blessings came with and followed 
them. The one held here was attended with a good degree of 
success. During its continuance, inquiry meetings were held 
between the forenoon and afternoon services in a house where Mr. 
Harvey Baldwin now resides. That house and its surroundings 
were very different from what we now see at the same place, the 
difference being very decidedly in favor of the present. As the 
result of these meetings, and of the revival in connection with 
them, there were twenty-nine added to the church. Among them 
were Henry F. Wadsworth, H. Milton Hart, A. B. Pratt, Harvey 
Wheadon, Esther and Sylvia Ann Hart, Harriet Clark, Harriet 
Miner, Julia and Caroline Hitchcock, and others. 

From 1832 to 1837 we find the following additions to the church, 
viz. : Noah Baldwin, Eliza Rogers, Mrs. Noah Rogers, 4th, Mrs. 
T. L. Hart, Mrs. Fowler Bradford, Ambrose S. Rogers, Mrs. 
Anson Rogers, Olive and Emily Sedgwick, Laura Wheadon, Mrs. 
H. M. Hart, etc. 

In 1838 the state of Rev. Mr. Smith's health was such that he 
was led to ask for a dismission, which was granted April 3d of 
that year. We doubt if he would have remained here as long as 
he did, but for the fact that his wife was one of the most efficient 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 109 

of women, being very much beloved by all the people, and fully 
equal to all the duties of a minister's wife. 

We I'emember her especially as an efficient worker in the Sun- 
day-school. She had been a resident in the city of New York, 
and was there interested in Sunday-school work. 

Coming as the bride of the newly-chosen pastor, with gifted mind 
and ready heart and hands, she here took up the work she there 
laid down. She found ready co-workers, but she seems to have 
been the moving spirit in the organization of a Sunday-school in 
1820, with Deacon Nathan Hart for superintendent. 

In our imagination and recollection many of us to-day see her 
as she was wont, on Sabbath noon, to take her seat in yonder cor- 
ner pew, where she was surrounded by a large company of the 
elderly ladies of this church, to whom she earnestly and intelli- 
gently expounded the Scriptures. All loved and respected her, 
and she was worthy of it. 

During Mr, Smith's ministry, in 1824 and 1825, a considerable 
majority of the society had come to think that the meeting-house 
was not situated where it accommodated the greater number, and 
that, as the house was old and uncomfortable, a new one should be 
built, and its location changed. The subject was discussed — 
talked about. Talk and discussion resulted in action. Locations 
were canvassed, roads were measured, and there was much excite- 
ment upon the subject. At length the Judge of the County Court 
was called upon, as the law provided, to settle the contest, and the 
stake was placed where this house was built and now stands. 

The first stick of timber for the new church, a white-oak, fifty 
feet long, was drawn on to the ground by Ambrose S. Rogers, then 
ten years old, with four heavy yoke of oxen, that belonged to his 
father. T. L. Hart says he scored a stick of that kind one hot 
June day that went into the building, and he thinks the harder 
part of the job was his. All the people had a mind for the work! 

The old house, coarse, uncouth, and uncomfortable, but hallowed 
by many years of sacred worship — by many a sacred song — by 
many a sermon, and many a prayer — by many a holy sacred mem- 
ory; yes, hallowed by many a communication from God the 
Father — God the Son — and God the Holy Ghost, was taken down, 
and this new house was built; and many a beam from that helped 
to erect and sustain this, the new temple, which was dedicated to 
the|worship of Almighty God in 1826. 

About the beginning of this century, there was a boy living in 



110 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

New Marlborough, Mass., by the name of S. J. Tracy. He was a 
wild and somewhat reckless youth, caring very little for religion, 
or its duties and obligations. He went out one Sabbath day with 
a company of young persons for a pleasure sail on a pond near 
where he lived. While they were thus enjoying themselves a 
sudden and severe gust of wind struck them, the boat was capsized, 
and those in it were thrown into the water. Two or three were 
drowned, and we think two were saved. Young Tracy was one 
of the rescued ones. He was deeply affected by the event. He 
was led to feel that the command. " Remember the Sabbath day to 
keep it holy," could not, with impunity, be violated. He made 
haste to seek pardon of an offended God, whose law he had broken. 
He became a Christian, and studied for and became a minister of 
the Gospel of Christ. 

In the orderings of Providence it so happened that, soon after 
Rev. Mr. Smith left, this same Mr. Tracy was invited here to 
preach. We expect that, from the day the foundations of this 
house were laid until the present, there has never been preached, 
from this pulpit, in one day, two sermons which so aroused and 
stirred up the people as did those preached by Mr. Tracy on that 
Sabbath. They were eloquent, searching, and sharp as a two-edged 
sword. 

The society was stirred from its center to its circumference. 
After a brief time Mr. Tracy was hired to supply the pulpit. 
Meetings were multiplied, religious interest increased. On an 
appointed day members of the church, in committees of two, visited 
all the families in the several school districts. At evening all 
gathered in this house, the presence of the Infinite seemed to fill 
the place, and it became as the gate of heaven to many souls. 
For thirty weeks the work went on with power, forty -nine were 
added to the church, fifteen of them being heads of families, and 
twenty-six children were baptized. Among those who then joined 
the church were Col. Anson Rogers, Jehial Nettleton, William and 
Tthamer Baldwin, J. P. Brewster, N. R. Hart, H. L. Rogers, D. M. 
Rogers, F. Bradford, N. Hart, Jr., D. Miner, Jr., and others. 

Much fallow ground in this moral vineyard was then broken up 
which has continued to bear fruit to this day. 

In 1840, Rev. Joshua L. Maynard was introduced here by Rev. 
A. B. Pratt, they having been students together in the Theological 
Seminary in New York. Mr. Maynard proved to be an acceptable 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. Ill 

preacher, a call was given liim, and he was installed as pastor of 
this people January 14, 1841, on a salary of five hundred dollars. 

He was a man of ardent piety, consistent in his daily walk and 
conversation, and his sermons were filled with the spirit of the 
gospel of Christ. In Banyan's " Pilgrim's Progress " we have this 
description of a faithful minister: 

" In the house of Interpreter, Christian saw a picture of a very 
grave person hung against the wall, and this was the fashion of it: 

"It had eyes lifted up to heaven, the best of books was in his 
hand, the law of truth was written on his lips, the world was 
behind his back; he stood as if he pleaded with men, and a crown 
of gold did hang o'er his head." 

We think this as applicable to Mr. Maynard as to any of the 
ministers who have been settled here. He plead earnestly with 
men that they be reconciled to God, and his pleadings were not in 
vain. There were frequent seasons of more than usual religious 
interest, and in 1846 there was a more extensive work of grace 
than this society had previously enjoyed. Its first development 
became manifest in a series of prayer meetings held at the resi- 
dence of Deacon Wadsworth. The work spread rapidly. Inquiry 
meetings were multiplied. They were thronged. The pastor's 
hands seemed more than full with his abundant labors. The 
deacons asked him if he would not have ministerial help from 
abroad. He said "No! If the church members will do the praying, 
I will do the preaching," and thus they worked on. 

On the first Sabbath in May, sixty-four persons united with the 
church. Five had united at the previous communion in March, 
five more came in during the summer, making seventy-four in all, 
thirty-six males and thirty-eight females, who joined the church as 
the result of that deeply interesting winter's work. 

Among these were George Wheaton, Julius Hart, D. L. Rogers, 
John W. Beers, Ralph I. Scovill, Samuel ScoviU, 2d, etc. In 
1851, there was another season of general religious interest, and 
forty united with us on profession of their faith, and seven by 
letter. 

The whole number admitted to the church during the eleven 
years of Mr. Maynard's ministry was one hundred and sixty-three 
persons. 

In the spring of 1852 he had a call to East Douglass, Mass., 
which he accepted, and was dismissed from here. Mr. Maynard 



112 HISTORY OF CORNWALL, 

was an earnest, devoted pastor, and he served us faithfully and 
well. 

From 1852 to 1855 ministerial candidates came in quick succes- 
sion. We remember Mr. Russell, with his eloquence; Mr. Bradley, 
and his sermon to "the little foxes that spoil the vines," many of 
which are still running around here ; Mr. Bartlett, with his strong 
logical presentation of divine truth; Mr. Peck, Mr. Aikman, etc. 

In 1855 a call was given to the Rev. Wm. B. Clarke, of New 
Haven, and he was installed May 4th of that year on a salary of 
seven hundred dollars. The next winter there was another revival, 
as the result of which thirty persons united with the church. 

During that winter extra meetings were held at Deacon Wads- 
worth's, Deacon E. D. Pratt's, Harvey Baldwin's, Wm. Stoddard's, 
and Deacon Gibbs's. 

Most of these were solemn, impressive meetings. Those at Dea- 
con Gibbs's will be remembered by those who attended them as being 
peculiarly so. 

There were other seasons during Mr. Clarke's ministry when 
there was more than usual religious interest, but nothing of a very 
marked character. 

In 1859, Mr. Clarke wished to go to Europe and the Holy Land. 
He asked for a dismission, which was granted May 18th of that 
year. 

Mr. Clarke was a man of refined taste — of great purity of char- 
acter — kind and generous in his disposition — an earnest Christian, 
and. of much ability in his pulpit ministrations. 

He left with us two memorials which will long perpetuate his 
name here. One is our Church Maniial, of which he is the author; 
the Ooher, the elms in front of the meeting-house, which he planted 
with his own hands. 

As future generations shall read the one, or recline under the 
shade of the other, they will revere his memory. 

Very soon after Mr. Clarke left, Rev. Chas. Wetherby of New 
Haven, Vermont, was introduced here, and preached for us two or 
three Sabbaths. On the 2d of July, 1859, the church and society 
gave him a call to settle. 

He accepted the same, and was installed on the 28th of Septem- 
ber of that year, on a salary of eight hundred dollars. His style 
of preaching was attractive and interesting, and our congregation 
increased in numbers under his ministry. 

There was very soon an increase of religious interest, and in the 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 113 

winter of 1859-60 there was another revival throughout tlie 
parish, and in the spring, forty-one were added to the church. 

In the winter of 1861-2, there was another revival, as the 
result of which about twenty united with the church. At this 
time a very large proportion of the congregation were naembers of 
the church. One of the subjects of this revival (John B. Sedg- 
wick), in his examination for admission into the church, said he 
was told, about the time that he came over to North Cornwall to 
live, that they would have him into the church before he had been 
there a year, and his reply at the time was, " I guess not." But the 
prediction was about to prove true, and he thanked God that it 
was so. 

In 1864 and 1865, there was another season of special rehgious 
interest, out of which came eighteen persons who united with the 
church. One great benefit of this revival was the renewed spirit- 
ual life that it infused into many members of the church. 

They seemed to attain to a higher elevation in their christian 
life and experience, and to become more efficient workers in their 
Master's vineyard. Mr. Wetherby received a call from the church 
and society at West Winsted, and was dismissed from here June 
3, 1866. Mr. Wetherby was a man of warm affections and many 
generous impulses. Being an extensive reader, he gathered up 
many things new and old, and so wove them into the web of his 
thought as to instruct and edify his people. His great strength 
lay in his pulpit labors, which were often eloquent and forcible. 
Being sustained by an energetic, working church, his labors here 
were crowned with abundant success. 

In 1860, the premises now occupied as a parsonage, with the 
lecture room in connection with the same, were bought of A. S. 
Rogers, and appropriated to the uses for which they were purchased. 

On the 7th of March, 1867, Rev. Jesse Brush of Vernon, Conn., 
came, and he was invited to become our pastor. Accepting the call, 
he removed here with his family, and was installed on the 20th of 
June of that year, on a salary of eleven hundred dollars and use 
of parsonage. An effort was made to have the installation servi- 
ces on this occasion conducted entirely by those who had been our 
former pastors. It however failed in part in that respect. Rev. 
Chas. Wetherby preached the sermon, and the charge to the pastor 
was by Rev. Wm. B. Clarke, then at Litchfield, Conn. Commenc- 
ing with the week of prayer, in January of 1867, there was an 
increase of rehgious interest, which continued along through the 
15 



114 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

winter. There were some conversions, but the fallow ground did 
not get broken up, and there were no very marked results. In 
March the condition of things was such that it was thought best 
to invite the Evangelist, Rev. J. D. Potter, to come and aid in the 
work. He came in April, and a continued series of meetings were 
held. The attendance was large, and there were very soon 
marked indications of the Divine Presence. Cases of conviction 
and conversion were multiplied, and a goodly number rejoiced in 
a new-born hope in Christ. The closing meeting of the series 
was very impressive. The house was full of people, and when at 
its close they all rose and sang the familiar hymn, 

" Shall we gather at the rivei-, 
Where bright augel feet have trod," 

it seemed as though none could willingly leave the place un- 
reconciled to God. As the result of that revival forty -two persons 
united with the church. The additions during Mr. Brush's ministry 
were seven by letter and fifty by profession. 

In June, 1873, Mr. Brush received a call from the church and 
society at Berlin, Conn., and he was dismissed from here on the 
23d of that month. Mr. Brush wrote a good sermon. He was 
pleasant and genial in society, attentive to all parish work, and all 
honored and respected him. His wife was gifted with many 
qualifications for her position, and was an efficient co-worker in all 
duties pertaining to the ministry that came within her scope. 

In December following Mr. Brush's departure, Rev. Chas. N. 
Fitch, of Geneva, Ohio, and from the Theological Seminary at 
New Haven, came to preach for us. The people were pleased with 
him, and with his wife also, who was a daughter of Hon. James 
Monroe, a prominent member of Congress from Ohio. Mr. Fitch 
continued to supply the pulpit, and on the 14th of February, 1874, 
a call was given him to settle, which he accepted, and his installa- 
tion was on the 12th of the next May. His salary was to be 
$1,000 and use of parsonage, with a summer vacation of four 
Sabbaths. Dr. Eld ridge of Norfolk preached the installation 
sermon ; right-hand of fellowship by Rev. Mr. Bonney of Falls 
Village; charge to pastor by Rev. Wm. E. Bassett of Warren; 
charge to the people by Rev. J. B. Bonar of New Milford. 

Mr. Fitch proved to be an active, earnest worker, with an eye 
to all parts of the parish, and a good degree of executive force, in 
the exercise of which he succeeded to a good degree in bringing 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 115 

the latent force, in the members of the church, into a harmonious 
working channel, for the upbuilding of the Redeemer's Kingdom 
in our midst. His work has not been in vain. In the winter 
of 1875-6 there was an increased religious interest in the 
church, especially during and after the week of prayer on the 
first of January. The indications were siich that it was thought 
best to invite the Litchfield Northwest Conference to hold a meet- 
ing here. The appointment for it was made to be held in West 
Cornwall on the 26th of January. Most of the churches were repre- 
sented, and there was a large attendance of the people in this 
vicinity. It was one of the memorable days in the history of our 
church. From the commencement of the meeting in the morning 
to its close late in the evening, there were increasing indications of 
the presence of the Holy Spirit. A sermon by the Rev. J. B. 
Bonar, in the evening, made a deep impression on many minds, 
and at the close of the services a deep solemnity rested upon the 
entire assembly. A winter of active religious and revival work 
followed this meeting, and fifty persons united with the church as 
the fruits thereof. Since Mr. Fitch commenced his ministry, sixty- 
nine persons have thus joined us. As an educator and trainer of 
young converts into the work and experience of a christian life, 
Mr. Fitch has excelled. 

For a long time there has been a pressing need for a better 
place for holding meetings in West Cornwall than they have had- 
Several of our pastors, previous to Mr. Fitch, have urged its im- 
portance, and repeated efforts have been made to obtain one, but 
without success. Soon after he came here, Mr. Fitch began to 
agitate the subject, but there was but little prospect of reaching 
the desired result. As a last resort he, with Deacon T. S. Gold, 
went to New York, and called upon C. P. Huntmgton, Esq., Vice- 
President of the Union Pacific Railroad, whose wife was a daughter 
of the late Wm. Stoddard of this place. The proposed building 
of a chapel as aforesaid was talked over with Mr. and Mrs. Hunt- 
ington, and they were requested to aid the effort. They responded 
favorably, and said if we would Iniild the chapel, costing not 
less than twenty-five hundred dollars, they would pay the last one 
thousand of it, provided that cleared off all the indebtedness in- 
curred in its erection. Under the inspiration of this generous offer, 
the people here took hold of the work, the required amount was 
raised, the material has been purchased, contracts made, and the 
foundations are now (July, 1877) being laid, and we trust it will 



116 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

be completed in time so that the dedicatoiy services can form a 
part of these records. The names of C. P. Huntington and wife 
will ever be held in grateful remembrance by this people for 
their liberal aid in the erection of the chapel. 

The Deacons. 

Beriah Hotchkin and Phineas Waller were the first chosen 
deacons of this church, and they held the office until 1800. Then 
Hezekiah Clark and Jesse Hyatt were chosen. They resigned in 
1807, and Eliakim Mallory and David Clark succeeded them. 
Mr. Clark died in 1811, and Titus Hart was chosen. Nathan 
Hart and Noah Rogers, 4th, were chosen in 1816. Mr. Rogers re- 
signed in 1836, on account of ill health, and James Wadsworth 
was elected. Messrs. Hart and Wadsworth resigned in 1854, and 
E. D. and R. R. Pratt were then chosen to fill the places thus 
vacated. 

These deacons, on Sunday, Nov. 1, 1868, eighteen years after 
their appointment, resigned back to the church the positions it 
hiid so generously given them. The church seemed unwilling to 
release them, and an arrangement was made by which they were 
to continue in the office three years, or until January 1, 1872. 
When that time arrived, by vote of the church, a limitation was 
put to the official term of the diaconal office, and T. S. Gold and 
E. M. Rogers were elected deacons for five years. 

Deacon Rogers died in the winter of 1876, and E. D. Pratt was 
again elected deacon, his term of office to expire on the first of 
January, 1881. Deacon Gold's term of office having expired on 
the 29th of January, 1877, he was again elected for five years, 
from January 1, 1877. 

I woiild like to speak a word in regard to those who have con- 
ducted our service of song in the sanctuary, but I will not detain 
you on this point, further than to recall the faithful, sacrificing 
service in this department of our deceased brother, H. M. Hart. 
Neither summer's heat nor wintej''s cold deterred him from the 
performance of his work and duty in this line, and when he was 
taken away we realiziid more than ever before how great a bless- 
ing he had been to us. 

SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 

Paul at Athens had his spirit stirred within him when he saw 
the whole city given to idolatry. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 117 

So, in 1781, in Gloucester, England, a warm-hearted christian 
man had his spirit stirred when he saw the multitudes of children 
violating God's holy day, and going on in ignorance of the great 
command to remember and keep it holy. 

The great question with him was, wliat can he done ? The result 
was the gathering of the children in on the Sabbath day to study 
the word of God. Thus a Sabbath-school was formed, and Rob- 
ert Raikes became one of the world's benefactors. 

How great a fire that Httle spark has kindled I The little hand- 
ful of corn has become like unto the cedar of Lebanon, that to- 
day scatters its fragrance over all the civilized world. Sunday- 
schools were transplanted to this country about 1806, and we first 
find them in and around Boston. 

The first organization of one in our church was in 1820. 

Mrs. Smith, the young bride of the pastor, had been connected 
with a Sunday-school in New York, and soon after coming here 
she stirred the people up to good works in that direction. A 
school was formed, with Deacon Nathan Hart for Superintendent. 
Only those between five and fifteen years of age were invited in 
as scholars, and of these there were about fifty. , 

In 1829 there existed in this State an organization known as 
the State Sunday-school Union. To that this school was an aux- 
iliary, and about that time new rules and regulations were adopted. 
Scholars of all ages were invited to come in, and the school in 
creased to an average attendance of about eighty. 

Deacon Hart continued as superintendent nearly twenty years. 
He was succeeded by Chalker Pratt, and the others who followed 
in that office were Eber Cotter, H. M. Hart, T. L. Hart, A. S. 
Rogers, E. D. Pratt, A. B. Pratt, R. R. Pratt, T. S. Gold, Stephen 
Poster, N. R. Hart, N. Hart, Jr., E. B. Hart, and E. M. Rogers. 

In the oft-recurring revivals with which this church has been 
blessed, the Sunday-school has largely shared. 

In 1858, Samuel Scovill, 2d, then in his theological studies at 
New Haven, while at home in one of his vacations, was impressed 
with the necessity that something be done to bring about a better 
observance of the Sabl3ath in West Cornwall. 

He went to work and secured the organization of a Sunday- 
school in that part of the parish. From its commencement it has 
been an active and prosperous institution in connection with this 
church, and beneficial to the section where it is located. 

At tiie time of its organization Wm. C. Rogers was chosen super. 



118 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

intendent. After two or three years Mr. Rogers removed from 
the town. R. R. Pratt succeeded him, and from that time on has 
had charge of that school. 

The admissions to this church have been as follows: 

From its orgunization in 1780 to 1805, when Mr. Hawes was set- 
tled, the number was, ------ 48 

During eight years of Mr. Hawcs's ministry, - - - 62 

From 1813, when Mr. Hawes left, to 1819, when Mr. Smitli came, 26 

Under Mr. Smith's pastorate, of nineteen years, - - - 113 

Under Mr. Tracy in 1839, and other intervals, - - - 59 

Mr. Maynard, eleven years, - - - - - - 162 

Mr. Clarke, four years, ..-..- 34 

Mr. Wetherby, seven years, ... - - 70 

Mr. Brush, six years, --...- 61 

Mr. Fitch, three and one-half years, .... 69 

"Whole number, . - . _ - 704 
Our present membership is 181. 

Were it best, I could describe the footprints I have seen, as I 
have followed up the lines of family histories. Some of them 
would remind us that 

"We may make our lives sublime,'* 

while others show that evil words and deeds are 

"A blot on human character which justice must wipe out ;" 

and all verify the truthfulness of those words uttered by the 
Lord God amid the thunders and lightnings of Sinai, wherein 
he declared that the iniquities of the fathers should be visited upon 
the children unto the third and fourth generations of those that 
hated him, while mercy should be shown unto thousands of those 
that loved him and kept his commandments. 

Influence — Who shall measure its height or its depth, its 
length or its breadth ? 

" The smallest bark on life's tempestnous ocean 
Will leave a track l)ehind for evermore; 
The lightest wave of influence, set in motion, 
Extends and widens to the eternal shore; 
We should be watchful, then, who go before 
A myriad yet to l)e ; and we should take 
Our bearing canifully, where breakers roar. 
And fearfuf tempests gather ; one mistake 
May wreck unnumbered barks that follow in our wake." 

I have thus brought before you some of the more prominent 
points of our past history. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 119 

What are its lessons ? 

1. "The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting 
upon them that fear him, and his nghteousness unto children's 
children. 

2. If pastor and people properly use the means God has placed 
within their reach for the cultivation of his moral vineyard, a 
divine blessing will surely attend and follow their efforts. 

3. The religion of the bible made practical in life, exalts, enno- 
bles, and dignifies human character. 

Therefore, in the language of another, I inquire in all earnest- 
ness, 

" Who would not be a Christian ? 
And yet we see men shrinking from the term 
As though it brought a charge against them. 

But it is the loftiest name tlie language knows, 
And all the names in all the languages 
Have none sublimer. 

It breatlies of heaven and of an 
Innnortal life with God. 

We have seen it take the old man, 
With evening shadows resting thick upon him ; 
Oppressed with years, and wrinkled o'er with cares. 
And to his view disclose a vision 
Whicli has made the old man's heart to sing with gladness. 

We have seen it take those in all the vigor 
Of life's noontide hours, 
And make them co-workers with Christ, 
For a world's salvation. 

We have seen it take the youth 
In the bright morning of their existence, 
And train them up in wisdom's ways. 
And make them meet 
For an inheritance beyond the skies. 

We have seen it take the child 
And kiss away its tears ; 
Press it to its bosom. 
And send it on its way rejoicing. 

We have seen it take the outcasts, 
Whose names were odious m the streets, 
And bring them back to virtue and to God." 

And hence it is that "godliness is profitable unto all things 
having the promise of the life that now is and of that which is to 
come." 



120 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



MEMORIAL SERMON, OR THE HISTORY OF THE SECOND 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH OF CORNWALL, AT 

NORTH CORNWALL, CONN., JULY 9, 1876. 

By Rev. Charles N. Fitch, Pastor. 

Job viii, 8 — " For inquire I pray thee of the former age, and prepare thyself to 
the search of their fathers." 

Rev. iii, 1, 2 — " I know thy works. . . . I have not found thy works perfect." 

The sources of information for this historical discourse are: 

1. Town Records from 1740 to 1800. 

2. Societies' Records — 1st and 2d. 

3. Church Records — 1st and 2d. 

4. Historical Sketches, by Rev. Timothy Stone, of the Ecclesiastical 

History of Cornwall. 

5. Records of L. N. Consociation, and L. S. previous to 1790. 

6. Association Records, L. N. 

7. Contributions to Eccl. Hist, of Conn. 

8. Genesis of New England Churches — Dr. Bacon. 

9. History of North Cornwall Church, by Deacon R. R. Pratt. 
10. Rev. B. C. Megie, D. D., Pleasant Grove, New Jersey. 

The history of the Second Congregational Church of Cornwall 
properly begins with the settlement of the town of Cornwall in 
1738-40. In that early day every citizen was considered to 
be a member of the ecclesiastical society of the town in which he 
resided. He was taxed to support worship; and the law recognized 
no churches but Congregational churches. Up to 1784 every citi- 
zen could be compelled by law to aid in supporting the Congrega- 
tional church of his town. So it came about, that the church 
planted in Cornwall was the Congregational church of Christ. 

The town was incorporated at the May session of the Legislature, 
1740. Some families had moved in two winters before, and had 
braved the rigors of the hard winters among the hills; bixt the 
incorporation was not secured until the spring of 1740. 

On the first day of July following — thirty-six years before the 
signing of the Declaration of Independence — the fathers met to 
take the requisite steps towards a permanent legal settlement. 
This was the first town meeting; and how was its business opened ? 
Undoubtedly hy prayer, as was in that day the universal custom. 
AU business pertaining to the worship of God was transacted in 
town-meeting, and so naturally God was invoked to bless their 
meeting and their business. The first item of business, according 
to the records, shows what high value the fathers set upon religious 
privileges. It was " Voted, that the whole charge of Mr. Harrison's 
preaching among us, together with the charge of bringing him 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 121 

here, and boarding him, we will pay out of the first tax to be 
assessed." The next vote of the meeting was of the same tenor, 
to wit: "Voted, that we will send Mr. Millard to agree with a 
minister, and bring him to preach among us." 

There was one other action of this ancient and honorable body 
which deserves notice. Before dispersing to their own rude and, 
in many cases, unfinished homes, they remembered the promise of 
the Lord: "My tabernacle shall be with them; yea, and I will be 
their God, and they shall be my people." They voted, therefore, 
" ' That we think it necessary and convenient to build a meeting- 
house:' which vote was unanimous to a man." 

Thus early we discover, in their high regard for the worship of 
God and the services of the christian religion, a marked relation- 
ship with those earlier fathers who, " as soon as the Mayflower liad 
brought them into a safe harbor, fell upon their knees and blessed 
the God of heaven, who had brought them over the vast and 
furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries 
thereof, again to set their feet upon the firm and stable earth, — 
their proper element."* 

The population of Cornwall in 1740 was twenty-five families. 
Among these are the names of Jewell, Spaulding, Barrett, Squires, 
Allen, Griffin, Fuller, and Roberts. These early settlers main- 
tained public worship from the first, even though occasionally 
without a settled pastor. For the first forty years the only church 
in Cornwall was the Consociated Congregational Church, which 
jvas laid at first as the corner-stone upon which the town was built. 
Forty years from the time the first corner-stone was laid, the 
fathers laid another, and called it "The Strict Congregational 
Church of Cornwall." But although the second stone was laid 
beside the first, the ceremony lacked the fine feature of harmony. 
The second church was formed in the early autumn of 1780, by 
secession from the first. "The Separates," as they were called by 
their opponents, at first numbered only nine souls, but theirs were 
unusually large souls, as the sequel will show. The names of the 
Separates were: 

Andrew Young, James Douglass, 

Phineas Waller, Marsh Douglass, 

Elijah Steele, David Clark, 

Samuel Butler, Hezekiah Clark. 

Noah Bull, 

* Bacon's Genesis of The N. E. Churches, p. 310. 
16 



122 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Of this list, two — viz., Phineas Waller and Elijah Steele — ^had 
been deacons in the First Church, but were not holding that posi- 
tion at the time of the separation. It does not appear why Deacon 
Waller was succeeded, but Deacon Steele became a Quaker in senti- 
ment, and his successor had been chosen four years before he, with 
his brethren, withdrew. Samuel Butler and Marsh Douglass 
never united with the new church. By reference to the Manual 
we find that within two years six others were added to this little 
company, viz.: 

Beriah Hotchkin, Jesse Hyatt, 

Noah Rogers, 3d, Mrs. B. Hotchkin, 

Ethan Allen, Mrs. P. Waller. 

This ma.de a, grand total in 1782 of thirteen members. If this 
seems to us a small nucleus for a church, we should be reminded 
that back of this little handful was a majority of the voters of the 
township of Cornwall to give it courage and strength. In fact the 
cause of the secession was the dissatisfaction of the ecclesiastical 
society of the town with the pastor, Rev. Hezekiah Gold. 

Mr. Gold, be it known at the outset, had ministered to the First 
Church twenty years before the separation, and continued its pastor 
for six years thereafter. And I am unable to find any suflBcient 
evidence that would lead one to question his purity and integrity 
of Christian character, or his soundness in Christian faith. On 
the contrary, Mr. Gold had enjoyed an unusual influence among 
his own people, as is sufficiently proven by the fact that when the 
crisis came, and the major part of the town refused to support the 
pastor, and demanded of the church that they should dismiss him, 
they refused to comply, but stood by him instead. Then there 
was presently a great gulf opened, on the one side of which stood 
the pastor and the majority of his church; behind them were all 
the consociated churches of this county, together with their min- 
isters forming the Consociation, and led by the celebrated Dr. 
Bellamy. On the other side stood only a single rank of "rebels," 
with that "baker's dozen " of resolute and honest church members 
in the center, flanked by a majority of the citizens who were out- 
side the pale of the church. 

To comprehend the situation of the "Separates," you must bear 
in mind the condition of religious toleration in Connecticut at that 
time. It will be necessary to go back with me to Old Saybrook, 
where, in 1708, the Saybrook Platform was adopted. The adop- 
tion of that platform fastened the peculiar system of discipline upon 
the Connecticut churches known by the name of Consociational; 



ECtLESIAgriCAL HISTORY. 123 

for the- platform, when it was adopted by the council at Saybrook, 
was ratified by the Legislature, and declared binding upon all the 
churches which voluntarily accepted it. 

After 1708, then, there was an "established" church in Con- 
necticut. " If Congregationalists became disaffected with either 
their pastor or brethren, and wished to worship by themselves, they 
were still obliged to pay their taxes for the support of the church 
from which they had seceded" (Ecc. Hist, of Conn., p. 119). 
This class was called "Separates," although they preferred the 
name of "Strict Congregationalists." 

The Separates of different churches had different local causes 
for separating, but the principle underlying the action of every 
separate church was the same. They fretted against the bars of 
Consociational authority, and believed in the superiority of the 
individual church in all matters of discipline. They objected to 
the system of discipline laid down in the Saybrook platform, and 
to having that system crowded down their throats by the civil 
authority. The last court of appeal was not, in their view, the 
Consociation, but the church itself. In this they were what their 
name signified, "Strict Congregationalists," and so, in a certain 
sense, reformers. 

" They abhorred the civil enactments which authorized and regulated 
our associations and consociations, which enactments liave long since 
become obsolete, and have left these institutions to rest, as they should, 
on the voluntary principle." (Eccl. Hist, of Conn., p. 281.) 

So far this church was, at its establishment, a separate church. 
But one other feature, which characterized the separate churches, 
I cannot learn that this church ever introduced, viz., that each 
church should ordain its own pastor. 

But with the principles of religious liberty advocated by the 
Separates, this church was in full and cordial sympathy. Let it be 
here recorded, and ever remembered, that that little band of " hig 
souls " contended for a principle in their act of separation from the 
mother church just as truly, if not as heroically, as the same gene- 
ration of noble men had done, but four years before, in their 
separation from the mother country ! 

What was that principle ? It was the principle of " no taxation 
without representation.^^ 

The "tea-chests " that they threw overboard were the planks of 
the Say 1) rook platform, which held them in bonds to support a 



124 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

minister whom they did not wish to support, but whom the 
majority of the church decided to stand by, and whom both the 
consociation and legislature decided they must support; and so by 
law they were obHged to comply with the decision of conso- 
ciation. 

They rebelled against this decision, and maintained the right to 
withdraw and support the minister of their choice. 

It was not until four years later, or 1784, that tlie law was 
enacted permitting persons to choose their own church. There 
had been, up to this time, no alternative recognized by law to the 
true Congregationalist in sentiment. If he chose to attend and 
support a " Strict Congregational " church, he was not relieved of 
his tax in support of the church of the " standing order." The 
only exceptions were in favor of Episcopalians, Baptists, and 
Quakers. These had been, as early as 1729, exempted from the 
support of Congregational churches. This act of exemption is 
said to have made many Baptists and Episcopalians. 

We see then the situation 'of the citizens of the town during the 
period of which we speak. A majority of the town voted, July 26, 
1779, to call a council to dismiss the pastor. Rev. Hezekiah Gold; 
but unless the church would concur in calling the council, the town 
could be compelled to continue his support. This was virtually 
taxation without a voice or a vote, and the same spirit that led 
them four years before to declare war in behalf of civil liberty, 
inspires now the step they take for religious liberty. 

This may serve to explain, in part, why, in their difficulty witli 
their pastor, they were opposed, and Mr. Gold was supported, by 
the body of the clergy and the neighboring churclies. 

They declared themselves "Strict Congregationalists," and in 
sympathy with the Separates, who were exciting great hostility 
among the churches of the "Standing order," but who numbered 
at one time over thirty churches in the State. To this class of 
Separates, however, Connecticut owes more than to any other 
single influence, for the repeal of the law restricting religious 
toleration. They aided in cultivating public opinion, which 
secured the privilege to every man of w.orshiping God "accord- 
ing to the dictates of his own conscience." 

This was one of the last Separate churches formed in the State, 
but the difficulty between these two churches being submitted to 
the legislature, in 1784, was one of the causes in securing the 
repeal of the law above referred to. 



KCCLKSIASTICAL HISTORY. 125 

The names of the committee who presented the case to the 
legislature have a peculiar historic interest. They are Major John 
Sedgwick, Dr. Timothy Rogers, and Andrew Young. 

This was then a " Separate " church, and notwithstanding the 
occasional displays of unchristian temper during the controversy, 
it is a cause of great satisfaction to know that the fathers who 
founded it were impelled to the step by their loyalty to christian 
conviction, and their truly Puritan regard for religious liberty. 
• In behalf of the First church, and of the town in general, it 
should be said, also, that they never compelled the Separates to 
pay taxes to support the "standing order," owing partly, perhaps, 
to the fact that the " Separates " were in the majority; but mainly 
to the spirit of toleration, which was at work here, and which 
was preparing the town to pass a vote, 1782, two years subsequent 
to the separation, but two years before the repeal of the law by the 
State Legislature, permitting each person taxed to say to which 
church he preferred to have his tax applied, whether to the First 
or Second Congregational, or to the support of a missionary of the 
Church of England, who had been preaching in the town for a 
few months. 

So much by way of setting the actors on this ecclesiastical 
stage, one hundred years ago, in the midst of the ecclesiastical 
history of that early day. In no other way should we be able to 
comprehend their acts, and do justice to their motives. 

I pass now to speak of the mysterious local causes of this 
separation. 

A vote was passed at a town meeting held July 26, 1779, call- 
ing a council to dismiss the pastor of the First church. So much 
is clear. It is in evidence, also, that the church met six weeks 
later to consider this question forced upon it by the town, but 
decided not to join in calling a council.* It is understood that 

* Question 1st. Doth this church advise the Rev. Mr. Gold to concur in the 
vote passed by this town, July 26, 1779, to call a council to dismiss him from the 
work of the ministry among them ? 

Voted, We do not choose so to do. 

Question 2d. Is it the duty of a christian people to make a minister's salary 
good as well as the wages of day laborers ; the minister deducting towards the 
extraordinary expense of the present war, a (juota equal to the estate which he 
possesseth ? 

Voted, It is their duty ! 

Test, JOSEPH BELLAMY, ModW. 

Cornwall, Sept. 6, 1779. 



126 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Dr. Bellamy gave his advice against the council. The association 
was asked also for its advice, and gave it against the council. 

The result was, the council was not called; the pastor was not 
dismissed. 

The next action of the town relating to the matter in hand) 
dates April 10, 1780, when three votes were passed, as follows: 

1. "Are the inhabitants of this town willing any longer to be gov- 
erned by and subjected to the Ecclesiastical Constitution of this State, 
as set forth in the Saybrook Platform, and established and approved by 
General Assembly of this State, or with the same with the exceptions 
or alterations made and agreed to by the Consociation of Litchfield 
County ? Voted in the Negative ! " 

Vote 2d (declares them to be Strict Congregationalists both in doctrine 
and in discipline ; but as no exception had ever been taken to Congre- 
gational doctrine, the emphasis was, of course, upon the discipline of 
tlie Platform.) 

Vote Sd. " That the Rev. Hezekiah Gold be desired not to perform 
divine service any more in this town." 

One month later the vote styling themselves Strict Congrega- 
tionalists was rescinded, only to be re-passed June 19th, with 
renewed vigor, as though the vote of May 4th represented only a 
minority, and the town had rallied again in June, and re-asserted 
its authority. 

The vote as last passed, remained without change for at least 
twenty years. 

Besides the above action, Mr. Gold was again desired not to 
preach in the meeting-house. 

A committee, with Capt. Edward Rogers as chairman, was 
appointed "to procure a preacher for the following Sabbath, 
according to the Congregational mode of worship." And another 
committee, consisting of Elijah Steele, Ithamar Saunders, and 
Noah Rogers, were constituted with the rather unlimited powers 
of "taking care of the meeting-house;" which I take to mean, 
that if Mr. Gold should attempt to preach in the meeting-house, 
this committee were to take care of the minister. Tradition says 
that Saunders was the member who " took care " oi the minister, 
keeping him out of the pulpit by taking up his position on the 
pulpit stairs, and preventing Mr. Gold'^ entering to deliver the 
sermon on Thanksgiving day. For this unlawful proceeding 
Saunders was fined to a considerable amount. 

The record shows that the above votes were ratified June 30th, 
and that January 22, 17H1, the town voted that Mr. Gold should 
not receive his salary for the previous year. A lawsuit followed 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 127 

which ended in a compromise. The separation took place some 
time during the year 1780, at least before the middle of October.* 
The causes which led up to this unfortunate rupture between 
the men of the town on the one side and the pastor and church 
on the other, are not very clearly defined in any of the records 
which I have been able to find. According to Mr. Stone — whose 
sketches are the most thorough and satisfactory, impartial, dis- 
criminating, and candid — in fact, the only consecutive history of 
Cornwall yet written: 

" Embarrassment of lousiness, the confusion of the public mind, and 
the privations resulting from the condition of the country, made it more 
difficuU^ to pay a minister's salary. 

" All ministers settled as pastors, according to the law of the State, 
were excmjited from all taxes. Mr. Gold was an ardent friend to the 
revolutionary movements of the country, and he ofFei'ed to deduct from 
his annual salary so much as his ])roperty would demand, and the 
exigencies of the times required. How tar this proposal was accepted 
is not now known." (For particulars, see Stone's Sketches, p. 31, seq.) 

The real nub of trouble was the minister's salary. It became 
difficult, owing to the war, to raise the stipulated salary. Mr. Gold, 
in what he regarded the spirit of patriotic sympathy, no doubt, 
submitted his property to taxation. Even this concession did not 
satisfy the people. Instances in which pastors had voluntarily 
resigned an entire year's salary in order to make the burdens of 
the people lighter, were not uncommon ; one had occurred so near', 
as in the parish of Kent, where Nathaniel Taylor was the minister. 

The people felt that one who was so well able to release them 
from a part of their pecuniary obligations as was their pastor — as 
he was reputed wealthy — was not evincing sufficient consideration 
for their distressed situation, in holding them to the strict letter 
of their engagement. But Mr. Gold felt that as he had submitted 
to taxation, ''and such a reduction from his salary as the exigencies 
of the times required," it was unreasonable to require yet further 
reductions. 

Before the actual separation, feeling ran high, and unchristian 
conduct is chargeable to both parties. 

Mr. Gold not feeling inclined to withdraw his claims, and the 
disaffected citizens feeling that the claims were unjust, and yet 
that, owing to Mr. Gold's wealth and personal influence, an appeal 
to Council was not likely to result favorably to them, at length 
withdrew, and began to hold services separately, during the sum- 
mer of 1780. 

* See Records of First Church in Mr. Gold's handwriting : also Records of 
Consociation for June 5, 1781. 



128 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

For some time after the separation, the new church had neither 
permanent pulpit nor priest. It met, however, for pubHc worship, 
regularly, in such of the houses of the Separates as were central 
and suitable. 

While John Cornwall was the stated preacher, the services 
were more commonly held at his own residence, on the site more 
recently known as "the Carrington Todd residence." 

The first minister which the new church had was not Mr. Corn- 
wall, as is usually stated, but Rev. Samuel Bird, who had been 
pastor of a New Haven church — now the North Church. This 
" Bird " was not " in hand " of the infant church but a few months. 

After him came the Rev. John Cornwall, a recent " graduate " 
from a shoe-shop in Branford. In Mr. Cornwall's family Bible is 
this sentence, written on the fly-leaf: "Lived without God until I 
was 20 years of age."* He was converted to Christ at that age. 

J ohn Cornwall was a strong, eccentric preacher, devoted to his 
calling; with powerful convictions, and fearless in expressing 
them; having little of the learning of "the Schools," but with 
such a fund of general knowledge, and an acknowledged ability, 
as gave him great respect among his people. 

He was twice sent to the legislature. 

At one session of legislature, Mr. Cornwall and Mr. Hezekiah 
Gold were the representatives from Cornwall. 

Mr. Cornwall was never installed over the church, but it was 
while he was preaching to them that the first house of worship 
was erected, 1785. -j- 

In this connection, I will speak of the locations of the various 
houses of worship which these two societies have had. 

The old First meeting-house in the town was built on the site of 
Jas. D. Ford's homestead. In 1785, the second meeting-house 
was begun by the " Separates," on the site of the present school- 
house at Cornwall Center. 

In 1790, the first house was pulled down, enlarged,'' and rebuilt 
in the vicinity of the present church at Cornwall. 

In 1826, the Second society built this house in which we are at 

* See Deacon Pratt's History. 

t Respecting the date of the erection of this first house, it may bo well to say 
that Mr. Stone gives it 1785, and an indirect reference is made to such a house 
in one of the old papers on tile, dated February, 1786, which shows it to have 
been standing then and partially finished. Mr. Stone says it was never com. 
pleted, so wc conclude that it was begun, at least, in 1785. The date in the 
manual of 1858 is therefore too late (1787) by two years. 



ECCI^ESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



129 



present assembled at North Cornwall. (See Nathan Hart's sketch 
of erection of North Cornwall meeting-house.) 

Mr. Cornwall removed, in 1792, to Amenia, N. Y., where he 
ministered to a Congregational church until his death, which 
occurred May 12, 1812. 

Before Mr. Cornwall ceased his labors with the Second church, 
christian fellowship had been so far revived as that Mi-. Gold was 
invited to preach in its new house of worship. 

And after Mr. Cornwall's departure, efforts to re-unite the two 
churches were begun, which, though never resulting in anything 
satisfactory, were continued at intervals for thirty years. One 
would judge from the records that every proper expedient had 
been employed to bring about this desirable end. It is unneces- 
sary to go into the history of those fruitless efforts at reunion 
which fill the pages of our society's records. Besides the latent 
feeling founded upon the history of the separation, there were 
geographical objections to the reunion. No site sufficiently central 
to accommodate all the citizens could be settled upon. It is difli- 
cult to avoid the impression that, while men had by their variances 
caused the separation, a "divinity " shaped their " ends " to prevent a 
reunion. 

Mr. Cornwall was ordained by the " Morris County Presbytery " 
of New Jersey, which was organized in 1780, "by secession from 
pure Presbyterianism." It was "based mainly on the principle of 
the independency of the local church, yet assuming that the power 
of ordination was vested in the Presbytery."* As it is known that 
Mr. Cornwall was accustomed to attend the sessions of this Pres- 
bytery, and that he also took with him one or more members of 
this church, it is probable that it was, for a year or two, connected 
with this " Presbyterio-Congregational Presbytery." 

The earliest records of the Second society which have been pre- 
served, date from the year 1793, when Wm. Kellogg was chosen 
clerk, and since which time the records have been, in the main, 
well kept. Mr. Kellogg's entries are thorough and business-like. 
He was clerk eight years, then was succeeded by Noah Rogers, Jr., 
or "Noah 4th," who served eighteen years, until 1819. It is 
barely possible that the records of this society, from 1780 to 1793, 
are yet in existence, but though I have made diligent search, they 
are not to be found. 

*Rev. B. C. Megie, D.D. 
17 



130 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

In this connection it should be said that the church records 
begin with the settlement of the first pastor, Rev. Josiah Hawes,* 
called December 18, 1804, and ordained March 14, 1805. By a 
vote passed by the church in 1807, it was decided not to copy 
into the new book "transactions of a more ancient date than those 
pertaining to the settlement " of Mr. Hawes. 

Whether the fathers thought best not to transmit to their chil- 
dren the particulars of the early difficulties, or whether they thought 
they might be sufficiently secure in their place "on file," it is to be 
deplored that they failed to leave in more enduring form their 
written testimony upon their actions and motives of action during 
those " times that tried men's souls." 

In the early spring of 1794, the Rev. Israel Holley came to 
preach to the "North Church," as it was called. Mr. Holley was 
ordained over the church in Suffield, Conn., June, 1763. He was 
pastor of the church in Granby nine years, and was, it is said, 
seventy years of age when he came to Cornwall. 

The society voted, June 11, 1794, to hire Mr. Holley "to take 
charge, in this society, as a Gospel minister, and teacher of piety 
and morality, for the term of five years." The society had pre- 
viously offered to join with the church in setthng Mr. Holley, but 
as he did not wish to be settled, he was accordingly hired for a 
limited term. Mr. Holley's salary was " £60 lawful money, one- 
third part of which was to be paid in necessaries of living, and 
fifteen cords of firewood of good quality, delivered at his dwelling." 

In the last decade of the last century, and near its close, a 
revival of religion, beginning in Hartford, and extending over 
Litchfield County, reached this church in the latter part of Mr. 
Holley's ministry. How much its advent was due to Mr. Holley's 
labors, it is not easy to say. It was one of Connecticut's "revival 
periods," and this church, with many of its sister churches, received 
a blessing. 

Dr. Griffin says: "From 1792, I saw a continued succession of 
heavenly sprinklings, until I could stand at my door in New Hart- 
ford, and number fifty or sixty congregations laid down in one 
field of divine wonders." 

This church was one of those "divine wonders" of that " field " 
which the good Doctor saw, as it received twelve additions in 
September, 1800, as the result of that revival. 

* The initial " B.," which was sometimes inserted in this name, did not belong 
to it. 



ECCLESIASTICAL mSTORY. 131 

It was also the first in a long series of revivals with which this 
church has been blest.* It may be regarded as a happy prophecy 
of the better days to come, both for the cause of Christ in this 
town, and for the peace and prosperity of the local churches. 

Up to 1804, the Second society had had no legal establishment. 
It was incorporated at the October session of the legislature, and 
called a " poU-point, " i.e., any person could join the society by 
lodging his certificate of his intention, within a specified time, 
with the town clerk. The society thus formed was taxed to 
support its own form of worship according to the number of polls 
and the amount of "ratable property." The tax in 1805 was 
thi'ee cents and five mills on the dollar. 

The minister's salary was raised in this manner until the settle- 
ment of Walter Smith, with the single exception of the year 1814, 
when a subscription was circulated to procure preaching for the 
summer and fall. The tax of the poor was abated by subscription. 
I subjoin a list of the members of the society at its incorporation, 
October, 1804.f 

The church now began to cast about for a suitable man to settle 
with them in the full relation of pastor to the flock. They thought 
they had found the right man in Rev. Alvin Somers, of Sharon. 
But notwithstanding their very cordial call, they were not success- 
ful in retaining Mr. Somers. They succeeded better with Mr. 

*The total number of additions to the church through the aid of twelve 
revivals, is four hundred and seventy -four, or an average of nearly forty to each 
revival. This includes the year 1876. 

tNoah Rogers, Abraham Hotchkin, Eliakim Mallory, Sam'l Scovel, Solo- 
mon Hart, Silas Clark, David Clark, Timothy Scovel, Titus Hart, Thadeus 
Cole, Jesse Hyatt, Nathan Millard, Stephen Scovel, Elias Hart, Bradley Catlin. 
Oliver Burnham, Joseph Scovel, Joel Harrison, Jason Coles, Daniel Harrison, 
William Kellogg, Jasper Pratt, Ichabod Howe, Elisha Carrier, Benjamin Carrier, 
Luther Harrison, Oliver Ford, Henry Baldwin, Lemuel Jennings, Phineas Hart, 
Saml. Doming, Jacob Scovel, Oliver Hotchkin, Abner Hotchkin, David Jewel, 
Levi Miles, Richard Wickwire, 2d, William Johnson, Saml. Scovel, Jr., Israel 
Dibble, Justi.s Sceley, Asa Emmons, Asaph Emmons, John JefFers, Joseph North, 
John Kellogg, Theodore Norton, Seth Wadhanis, Jr., Sturges Williams, Minor 
Pratt, Noah Rogers, Jr., Charles T. Jackson, Timothy Johnson, James Wads- 
worth, Jr., Joel Millard, Saml. Rexford, Elias White, Andrew Cotter, Eliakim 
Mallory, Jr., Ezra Mallory, Nathan Hart, Saml. A. Cole, Silas Meashum, John 
Dean, Theodore Colton, Joseph Ford, Zephaniah Hull, Jonathan Scovel, 
Edmund Harrison, Henry Balilwin, Jr., Erastus Beirce, Lumau Seeley, Fred- 
erick Tanner, John Dobson, I^evi Scovel, Stephen Scovel, 2d, Jerijah Dean, 
Gildmore Hurlburt, Jo.siah Hawley, Joel Trowbridge, Mathew Morey, Noah 
Dibble. 



132 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Hawes. Josiah Hawes, the first pastor of this church, was a 
native of Warren, Conn. He graduated at Williams College in 
the year 1800; studied theology with Dr. Chas. Backus, of Somers, 
so celebrated in his day for his " School of the Prophets," in which 
many of the clergymen of Connecticut were prepared for the 
ministry. Mr. Hawes was licensed by Litchfield North Associa- 
tion Sept. 28, 1802. This was his first parish. He was settled by 
ordination March 14, 1805, the ordaining council being the Litch- 
field North Consociation, from which this church had withdrawn 
a quarter of a century before. 

The explanation of this condescension on the part of the Con- 
sociation is found in the fact that the church and society had 
rescinded the odious vote by which they had styled themselves 
" Strict Congregationalists." Having worn for twenty- two years 
the name, and having seen the changes wrought in the Consocia- 
tion which they had desired, and having no desire to maintain a 
name which did not at that time signify any living issue, the 
society voted, Sept. 23, 1802, "to reconsider and make null the 
vote" referred to. The church was received back into Consocia- 
tion Sept. 27, 1809. 

Mr. Hawes' salary at settlement was three hundred and thirty- 
four dollars and eighteen cords of firewood. 

The services of Mr. Hawes' ordination have a peculiar interest 
from the fact that the First Church was invited to the council, and 
was represented by its pastor, Rev. Timothy Stone, and the vener- 
able Gen. Heman Swift. This ordination marks a new era in the 
history of these churches. The pastor of the parent church gave 
to the pastor-elect of the seceding church the "right hand of 
fellowship." During the eight years of Mr. Hawes' ministry here, 
there was no cessation of the friendly christian intercourse thus 
delightfully begun between these brethren and participated in to a 
good degree by their people. On several occasions the pastors 
with their flocks met together for christian conference and inter- 
course. 

The other parts to Mr. Hawes' ordination were a sermon by 
Rev. Mr. Starr of Warren; and the charge to the pastor by the 
venerable John Cornwall. It had not then become the custom to 
charge the people. 

The ministry of Mr. Hawes proved a very prosperous one for 
the church, and must have done much to satisfy the conscientious 
"Separates" that their enterprise was approved of God. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 133 

At his ordination the church numbered twenty-five members, to 
wit, eleven males and fourteen females. When he was dismissed 
he had received sixty-two members, of whom forty-six entered at 
one communion, the fruit of the revival of 1807. 

Mr. Stone bears cheerful and hearty testimony to the work and 
worth of his cotemporary and co-la])orer in this vineyard of the 
Lord. He is also spoken of in our church manual as " an earnest 
and faithful pastor, a man of prayer and effort." 

He seems to have had, to an unusual degree, the confidence and 
love of his people. They found it difficult, nevertheless, to raise 
the stipulated salary. In 1809 Mr. Hawes, being persuaded tli"&t 
his salary was not sufficient to meet his expenses, asked for a 
dismissal. 

But as the society raised by subscription the sum of four hun- 
dred dollars to enable him to purchase in part the place on which 
he lived, Mr. Hawes was relieved for the time being and remained. 
It is worthy of note that at this time the society took care to speak 
of their " great reluctance at being called to part with our beloved 
teacher in the gospel rules of our Lord." Again, however, in 
June, 1813, the pastor informs the society of renewed embarrass- 
ment on account of the insufficient salary, and asks to be dis- 
missed. 

The resignation was received with regret, and the pastor was 
dismissed by Consociation at Ellsworth, July 6, 1813, with the 
" full approbation " of his brethren in the ministry "as a prudent, 
faithful, and holy minister of Christ," and cordially commended 
to the confidence of the churches. Mr. Hawes was settled eighteen 
months later over the church in Lyme, where for more than twenty 
years he resided, "beloved by his flock." From Lyme he removed 
to Sidney Plains, N. Y., in 1835. From thence, in 1840, he went 
to Scienceville, N. Y., supplying the Congregational Church until 
1847, when he removed to Unadilla, Ctsego Co., N. Y., and sup- 
plied the First Presbyterian Church until his death, June 26, 1851. 

Mr. Hawes died at the advanced age of seventy-three, and is 
buried at Sidney Plains, N. Y. 

During the interim between the dismissal of Mr. Hawes and the 
choice of his successor, the question of union again came up, and 
never was the effort so nearly successful as at this time. 

The North Society proposed to unite under Mr. Stone, then 
pastor of the First Church. This proposition all of the First 
Church were ready to accept, save three, viz., C^apt. Seth Pierce, 



134 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Col. Benj. Gold, and Samuel Hopkins, Esq. Their opposition is 
said to have been called out by the fear that the plan would ulti- 
mately result in the removal of the meeting-house from the valley. 
Furthermore, it is clear that the plan was discouraged by Mr. Stone, 
who himself records the anxiety he felt lest " the pastor of the 
First Church should have been without a society and the society 
without a minister." This failure of effort occurred in 1815. 

We find the names of only two ministers who preached for the 
church during the first two years after Mr. Hawes' dismissal. 

The first, Francis L. Robbins, a young minister licensed by 
Litchfield North, and afterwards settled at Enfield, where, after a 
pastorate of thirty-four years, during which he had witnessed four 
powerful revivals, his death occurred in the progress of a revival. 
Mr. Robbins was liked, but was not a candidate. The second 
name mentioned is that of a Mr. Hawley, from Hinsdale, N. Y. 
But the only man who left his mark upon the church during this 
interval was Grove L. Brownell. 

He was raised up for the ministry in the neighboring church in 
North Canaan; graduated at Burlington College, Vt. ; preached 
for a time at Woodbury, Conn. ; and was for eight years pastor at 
Sharon. 

The labors of Mr. Brownell, under the lead of the Holy Spirit, 
resulted in a revival which brought from twenty to twenty-five 
members into the church, and stimulated the entire community to 
renewed efforts for the permanent success of the gospel in Corn- 
wall. 

This revival was in the winter of 1815-16. For three years 
thereafter the church depended upon occasional supplies, concern- 
ing whom nothing has been loft on record. 

About the beginning of the year 1819 the church seems to have 
had a fresh infusion of life or effusion of the Holy Spirit. Tins 
effusion may have been the result in part of a renewed devotion 
to prayer; and in part, of a report of the "Committee on Ways 
and Means " — a special committee, — who reported a plan of volun- 
tary subscription for the support of preaching, saying that a paper 
was then in circulation, which was meeting with such good success 
that they would advise the society to proceed at once to call and 
settle a minister on a salary of five hundred dollars. 

Until" the settlement of Mr. Smith, members of the society had 
been taxed for the support of preaching. There is no evidence 
previous to this time of money having been raised for this purpose 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 135 

by subscription, with the single exception of 1814, unless we con- 
sider that the gift of four hundred dollars to Mr. Hawes ought 
also to be excepted. 

The tax system was the prevailing system until 1819. 

And just here permit me a word as to the custom of the early 
churches of Connecticut with respect to raising the salary of the 
minister. 

It was raised, as you all know, by a tax, up to 1784; and the 
taxes thus raised went to support Congregational churches only, 
and such only as were consociated. 

In 1784, four years after this church was established, the law 
requiring citizens to be taxed for support of churches of the 
"established order" was repealed in the legislature, as before 
stated. This left all free to worship with whatever denomination 
they preferred. This was a step toward religious liberty, and but 
a stej), for still all were taxed for the support of the church of 
their choice. Every one was at liberty to choose behveen churches^ 
but no one was allowed to choose "no church." Persons could 
withdraw from one society by lodging with the clerk a certificate 
to the effect that they were to join another; but they were not 
permitted to ".sign off to nothing." 

In 1818, however, when the new State constitution was adopted, 
this compulsory law was repealed, and every man was left free to 
support any church or no church, just as he might choose. This 
was regarded by many excellent men as a dangerous expedient. 
It seems strange that men should have been found as late as 1818 
who looked with forebodings to the future of the church of Christ, 
if christians should be left free to not serve God, as well as to 
serve Him according to the dictates of their own consciences. 

Yet Dr. Lyman Beecher has left a sermon against the plan and 
idea of voluntary support of the gospel. But I am happy to be 
able to chronicle the superior faith of the fathers of this church, 
who in 1819 reported that, in their humble opinion, the voluntary 
plan was the best plan. The committee thus reporting were, Oliver 
Burnham, Benjamin Sedgwick, George Wheaton, Joseph North, 
Hezekiah Gold, Joel Catlin, Nathan Hart, Seth Dibble, William 
Clark. Their report was accepted, and from that time until the 
year after the erection of this house of worship the minister's 
salary was raised by "the subscription plan." 

In 1827 the custom of renting the pews arose, and this has 
been continued up to the present time.. 



136 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Rev. Walter Smith, the next pastor of this church, was born in 
Kent, in the year 1793; graduated at Yale in 1816; pursued the 
study of theology two years with Dr. Matthew Perrine, of New 
York city. Returning to Kent, he was hcensed by Litchfield 
North Association, Sept. 30, 1818. 

Then came an invitation to him to preach at the North Church 
in Cornwall. He accepted, and was asked in the following March 
to settle as pastor. He consented, and was ordained June 2, 1819, 
at the age of twenty-six. The salary was five hundred dollars. 

Mr. Stone gave the young pastor the "right hand" at his 
ordination, as he had done to his predecessor; and as before, so 
now, this public act was a real index of the private fraternal feel- 
ing which ever existed between these neighboring pastors. 

Mr. Smith's ministry spanned nineteen years. His labors were 
blessed with frequent conversions. Twenty members were added 
to the church in 1824, in 1831 twenty-eight, and in 19 years, 113. 

Mr. Smith was, in his pulpit ministrations, scholarly and effec- 
tive, and in private life an amiable and estimable man. Toward 
the close of his ministry the state of his health precluded his doing 
much pastoral labor, but the state of feeling between pastor and 
people never ceased to be that of mutual christian kindness and 
confidence. Upon the records of Consociation he stands com- 
mended as follows: "The Consociation feel it their privilege to 
record the assurance of their unabated confidence in Mr. Smith as 
an able, faitliful, and devoted minister of Jesus Christ." 

The church accepted Mr. Smith's resignation April 3, 1838, 
solely on the ground of failing health and consequent disability to 
perform the duties of his ofilce. They voted at the same time — 
although he had not been able to supply the pulpit since January 
— to continue his salary until June 1st. 

He removed in the spring of 1840 to Mt. Vernon, Ohio, where 
he resided until his death, which occurred at the age of seventy- 
seven. 

"We cannot do better than to quote the language of his estimable 
widow, still living: "His ministry is adjusted on the other side;" 
adding only, that Mr. Smith is spoken of only with affectionate 
regard by those that are still on this side. 

It will be, I am confident, no digression from the legitimate 
scope of this history, if I introduce just here a brief testimonial to 
the worth of the wife of Walter Smith. She is remembered with 
marked expressions of admiration, by many present, for her pru- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 137 

dence, piety, and ability to honor the position of pastor's wife. 
To Mrs. Smith is attributed the leading part in establishing the 
Sunday-school in Cornwall. Her bible class was always the prom- 
inent class in the school. She formed the " Ladies' Sewing Cir- 
cle," an important department of the church work. She has sur- 
vived her husband, and now, in the evening of her Ufe, reverts to 
her Cornwall home and friends with affectionate and hallowed 
memories.* 

A sister of Mr. Smith, Mrs. Noah Baldwin, is at present the 
oldest resident member of this church, a woman of devout piety 
and true worth. 

I shall speak, in this connection, of the revival of 1830-31, 
which, though not conducted by Mr. Smith, took place during 
his ministry. He was absent, to regain his health. Among the 
methods by which it was promoted, the " four-days' meetings " 
are spoken of as most effective. Delegates from neighboring 
churches, with now and then a pastor, visited their sister churches, 
" to provoke unto love and to good works." Messrs. John C. Hart 
and Augustus Norton, young men fresh from the theological 
school, labored also with much acceptance during this revival. 

The church received twenty-eight members, mostly the fruit of 
the revival. The following persons, now living, and in full con- 
nection with the church, joined previous to this revival, to wit: 
Mrs. Sabra Baldwin (Noah), Mrs. Ithamar Baldwin, Mrs. Jacob 
Scoville, Mr. Titus L. Hart, Mrs. ThLrza Wheeler (Samuel). 

At Mr. Smith's dismissal, there ensued an interval of nearly 
three years in which the church was without a settled pastor; but 
it was by no means an eventless interval. 

By reference to the Manual, it appears that fifty-four members 
were added to the church during that interval, of whom forty-four 
were at our communion in March, 1839. This is good work for 
interval-work, surely ! What is the explanation of this important 
addition while the church is without an under-shepherd ? Evan- 
gelistic labor by Rev. S. J. Tracy ! Mr. Tracy was introduced to 
the church in the early summer of 1838, soon after Mr. Smith's 
ministry closed. He preached one Sabbath, and was then absent 
from Cornwall until fall, when his protracted labors were begun, 
and continued until the following May. 

One of Mr. Tracy's first methods was through parish visitation, 

* Mrs. Smith's death occurred near the close of the year 1876. 
18 



138 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

with which this parish has been familiar, and from which it has 
reaped rich fruit. Before the committees salUed out upon their 
work, they met early in the morning at the school-house near the 
church, for a season of prayer and christian conference. 

In the evening they convened at the church to report to a public 
meeting the important features of the day's work. 

Mr. Tracy's manner of presenting gospel truth had the merits 
of clearnesss, force, and pungency, and usually awakened convic- 
tion in the minds of the masses. While he drew upon himself 
much criticism by his disregard of conventionalities, and some- 
times gave offense by his unwise personal appeals, he found the 
way to many hearts that remained closed to other men's approaches. 
It would have been more acceptable to a large class of respectable 
people, if Mr. Tracy had had more of that gospel grace of "gentle- 
ness " by which the great apostle to the Gentiles was marked, and 
which distinguished " the Beloved disciple " from the Baptist. Elisha 
from Elijah, or even which makes Christianity to differ from Juda- 
ism; and yet, as we honor the bold, dauntless man of God, "the 
Prophet of the Mountains," for faithfully fulfilling his peculiar 
mission in his own chosen way, so now should we commend to a 
charitable memory the evangelist who manifested such devout 
loyalty to the person and " works " of " Him who " had doubtless 
" sent " him. 

When the candidates, converted through Mr. Tracy's instrumen- 
tality were received into the church, he was asked to admit and 
baptize them, which he did. Mr. Tracy is still living. He resides 
in Bast Springfield, Otsego Coimty, New York. 

In November, 1840, the church heard as candidate, Joshua L. 
Maynard, a graduate of Union Seminary, New York City, and a 
Ucentiate of the Association of New London County, his native 
county. His call, with "great unanimity," was voted November 
23d; he was ordained January 14, 1841, and settled with a salary 
of $500. 

Mr. Maynard "was a man," says Deacon Pratt in his history, 
" of ardent piety, consistent in his daily walk and conversation, 
and his sermons were filled with the spirit of the gospel of Christ." 
He, like both his predecessors, was a young man. 

During all the first years of Mr. Maynard's ministry there were 
seasons of religious interest; but it was not until 1846 that there 
occurred a general revival. This revival began in a series of 
prayer-meetings held at the residence of Deacon Wadsworth. The 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 139 

pastor was supported by a strong corps of earnest workers, and 
soon the good work spread through the parish. In illustration of 
the judgment of the pastor, this incident : When the interest was 
at its height, the deacons asked Mr. Maynard if he would not like 
some evangelical aid from aWoad. "No!" he replied, "if the 
church will do the praying, I will do the preaching, and we will 
keep quietly along with the work God has given us to do ! " Rev. 
Mr. Stone speaks of this revival as truly remarkable for the depth 
and earnestness of feeling manifested, combined with a quiet but 
impressive solemnity scarcely ever witnessed by him. 

" But at North Cornwall all was still and impressive, and what 
was yet more extraordinary, there was no similar revival in 
any adjoining society."* Respecting Mr. Maynard's ministry, his 
successor, Mr. Clarke, bears cheerful testimony that "It was at- 
tended signally by the ministrations of God's spirit, and the church 
was very greatly enlarged and strengthened under it." 

This would indicate what, from my own observation, I believe 
to be the truth, that Mr. Maynard was not a man who merely 
planted and labored for others to enter into his labors, but thanks 
to the great Head of the Church, he was able to see some of the 
fruit of his labors before he went hence. 

The largest company ever received into this church at any one 
time, it was Mr. Maynard's happiness to receive, in May, 1846, 
numbering sixty-five. During that same year the total admissions 
were seventy-six. Another revival in 1851 brought in forty-seven 
members. It was Mr. Maynard's privilege to see this church in- 
creased during his ministry of eleven years, by one hundred and 
sixty-two members, of whom thirty-nine were by letter, and one 
hundred and twenty-three on profession. 

In 1852 a call was extended to Mr. Maynard from the Congre- 
gational church in East Douglass, Mass. The call was accepted; 
he was dismissed May 25, 1852, with the assurance of " the undi- 
minished confidence and affection " of his people. His death oc- 
curred in the spring of 1873, at Williston, Vt. 

From 1852 to May, 1855, the church was again listening to 
"candidates." But the only name to which reference is made, 
that I can ascertain, is to a Mr. Bradley of Lee, Mass. The church 
gave him a call, but it being not entirely unanimous, he did not 
accept. 

In March, 1855, a unanimous call was extended to the Rev. 

* Parson Stone's Sketches. 



140 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

"William B. Clarke, of New Haven. It was favorably received, 
and he was ordained May 4th. Mr. Clarke was graduated at Yale, 
class of '49, and licensed by New Haven East, in 1852. As had 
been the case with each of his three predecessors, this was Mr. 
Clarke's first settlement. He remained with the churcli but four 
years, on a salary of seven hundred dollars. 

Mr. Clarke was, in private character, marked by purity, refine- 
ment, and the union of true courage and Pauline "gentleness." 
In manners he was a thorough gentleman ; in pulpit ministrations 
he was appropriate, scholarly, and edifying, while in the special 
field of bibUcal training of the young he was thorough and 
inspiring. 

The Church Manual was revised and printed under his supervis- 
ion, and is thorough and systematic. While some corrections are 
needed in the historical part, the roll has been carefully prepared. 

I notice, at the close of this address, several errors in the man- 
ual, which please see. 

In the winter of 1855-6 another gracious revival was enjoyed, 
and thirty-one names were addded to the roll, all but three on 
profession of faith. Similar to the revival of 1 846, this liegan with 
a series of neighborhood prayer-meetings. 

Mr. Clarke asked for his dismission in 1859, in order to enable 
him to carry out a cherished plan of European travel. It was left 
by the church for Consociation to decide, while no formal opposi- 
tion was made to the proposition. Mr. Clarke was unmarried at 
the time of his dismissal. 

He was dismissed May 18, 1859, spent two years in Europe, 
and on his return was called to the pastorate of the church in 
Yale College. After three years' service at Yale, he went to the 
charge of the Congregational church, Litchfield, where he spent 
three years as acting pastor. Mr. Clarke married the daughter 
of Dr. Arms, of Norwich Town. 

Mr. Clarke was succeeded in September following by Rev. 
Charles Wetherby, a graduate of Middlebury College. He was 
ordained September 29, 1859. President Labaree of the college 
preached the sermon. Mr. Wetherby's salary was .$800. 

Mr. Wetherby had a popular pulpit-power which " drew," an en- 
thusiastic, fearless spirit, which interested an audience. He had 
quick sympathies, ardent impulses, a generous nature. He made 
original interpretations: struck out new lines of thought vigorously. 
He had striking analogies, made remarks calculated to be remem- 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 141 

bered: drew out to church some who had long neglected public 
worship. He had a versatile and ready mind, great social powers, 
quick wit. He had his friends, and loved them on the principle, 
doubtless, — 

" The friends thou hast and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel." 

His traits and merits were positive, his tastes pronounced, his con- 
victions prompt, his views humanitarian, and closely bordering 
on what is known in the vicinity of Boston as " broad." Like all 
positive characters, Mr. Wetherby laid himself open to much 
criticism, but on the whole his ministry was acceptable and useful. 
A sermon dehvered by him at the funeral of Captain Allen was 
published. 

The winter of 1860 witnessed another revival, the first interest 
being awakened at the annual meeting of the church in January. 
Forty-one members were added to the church during that year. 
Twenty-one joined in 1865. The whole number of additions dur- 
ing the six years and eight months of his ministry, is seventy. 

On the 25th of March, 1866, the pastor presented his resignation 
by letter, which is on record. He was earnestly solicited to witli- 
draw it, but could not think it his duty to do so, and was cojise- 
quently dismissed June 13, 1866. After leaving Cornwall, Mr. 
W. was pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Winsted, 
and thence went to one of the Congregational churches of Nashua, 
N. H. 

Interval No. 5 in the history of this church was of one year's 
duration. 

Rev. Jesse Brush was called from Vernon, and accepted; was 
installed June 20, 1867, upon a salary of eleven hundred dollars 
and the use of the parsonage. Mr. Brush was an acceptable 
preacher, a man of character and cultivation, and a thorough 
pastor. 

During the winter of 1868, commencing with the Week of 
Prayer, a revival of religious feeling was manifested; meetings 
were increased, well attended, and fruitful; but not to that degree 
which was desired. The work of bringing those interested to the 
point of consecration was committed, under the Spirit, to the 
evangelist, John D. Potter. Respecting Mr. Potter's work here, 
there is not entire unanimity of view. That those who were 
awakened through his efforts and added to the church have "run 



142 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

well," and "faithfully endured," with a few exceptions, I can tes- 
tify. The great majority of those who were received in July of 
1868, numbering forty-two, are with us still, and following the Mas- 
ter. The number added to the church during Mr. Brush's minis- 
try of six years is sixty-one. Mr. Brush was dismissed to accept 
of a call to Berhn, June, 1873. (See Church Records.) 

The present pastor, Chas. N. Fitch, is a graduate of Yale Theo- 
logical Seminary, class of "73; licensed by N. H. West Consociation, 
April 30, 1872; ordained by Litchfield North Consociation, May 12, 
1874; settled on a salary of $1,000 per annum, and the use of the 
parsonage. 

1. To recapitulate: This church has had and parted with six 
pastors, whose average period of pastorate has been nine years and 
one month. It is a proper cause for pride that you " have never 
turned away a minister." It has, the rather, been your privilege 
to become a training-school for taking ministers fresh from the 
seminary and preparing them for " wider fields of usefulness." 

If you cannot boast of having had the lifelong ministries of 
each successive servant of Christ in the gospel, nor can point out 
in your burial-place on yonder hillside the grave of a single minis- 
ter * whose service ended among you, you can nevertheless rejoice 
that you were able to retain the affectionate regard and warm 
commendation of every pastor released. You are entitled to no 
slight satisfaction from the thought that your sacrifice has in 
several instances been richly rewarded by the increased usefulness 
which has come to them in their new fields; and it is not unnatural 
for you to believe that some have been disappointed in their 
endeavors to find either wider fields or happier ones by making a 
change. 

2. The church has been pastorless fifteen years since 1805. 
For forty years, since its establishment, or during forty-one per 
cent, of its life, it has had to depend for pulpit instructions upon 
either stated supplies, or evangelists, or " deacons' meetings." 

3. The many revival eras to which you can look back with 
deep gratitude to the Great Head of the Church, are perhaps the 
chief features of your religious history. 

Being "addicted" to revivals has, however, one drawback if it 
becomes the master-habit of a church, that is, it will be likely to 

* The first wife of J. L. Mayuard is the only minister's wife buried in the 
churchyard. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 143 

overlook the need of training in christian work and developing in 
lyractical righteousness, those confessedly immature " plants of right- 
eousness " whose growth has been started by hot-house methods- 

There have been since 1805 twelve distinct revival eras, from 
which an average of fortg persons to each revival have been added 
to the church.* 

The distinguished capacities for work and noble christian char- 
acters developed in the few of each past generation, upon whom the 
church burdens have rested, may well lead us to reflect what a 
symmetrical and uniformly strong church-life might have been 
developed had the work been judiciously distributed: "to every 
man his work." 

4. The total admissions to the church from 1780 to 1877 is 
seveti hundred and four 7nemhers, as follows: 

The first nucleus, 13 

Before Mr. Hawes' settlement, - - - - 35 

During Mr. Hawes' pastorate, . - - - 62 

During Mr. Smith's pastorate, - - - - 113 

During Mr. Maynard's pastorate, - - - 162 

During Mr. Clarke's pastorate, - - - - 34 

During Mr. Wether by 's pastorate, - - - 70 

During Mr. Brush's pastorate, - - - - 61 

During first three years of Mr. Pitch's pastorate, 69 

During the various intervals, ■ - - - 85 

Grand total, - - - ■ - -704 

The hving membership of the church, January 1st, 1876, is 
one hundred and eighty-one. 

5. The practical benevolence of the church can be only approx- 
imately estimated, as we have access to the figures for only the 
past thirty years: 

From 1847 to 1876, inclusive, the church collections 
amounted to $6,330.44 

A yearly average of - - - - $211.00 

The Ladies' Benevolent Society has raised in twenty- 
two years .------•- 1,303.33 

A yearly average of ... - $59.24 

Total, $7,633.77 



* la twelve revivals there were added 474 members. 



144 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

As it is known that the Ladies' Society lias been in existence 
nearly fifty years, if we allow only one-half of this yearly average 
for the twenty-eight preceding years, we will still have a total of 
over ttuo thousand dollars to be accredited to the benevolence of 
the faithful women of the church. 

If a like estimate of the benevolence of the chui'ch previous to 
1847 be made, on the low average of seventy-five dollars per year, 
we shall find that the amount of twelve titoasand dollars would not 
be too large an estimate in money of the benevolent contributions 
of this church in its entire history. 

6. Thus far we have limited our review to the narrow home-field 
which we can almost compass in a bird's-eye view from the steeple 
of the old church. But manifestly such a limitation is unfair, as 
one notable feature of christian work in a country church in New 
England is her far richer gift of consecrated sons and daughters 
to the attractive cities of the east and west and to the missionary 
fields of all the world. For while this august sacrifice yields ulti- 
mately vast harvests of good in both the home church and the 
churches that receive these our precious gifts, still this perpetual 
draft upon the young corps of the old Home Guard leaves it in 
crippled condition as compared with growing churches. 

The country church thus becomes to America what the 
"Cohen Caph El" was to Egypt — a "royal seminary, from whence 
they drafted novices to supply their colleges and temples." 

In the fist of "ministers raised up," you may see the mission 
the church has had and is still fulfilling in this the noblest work of 
the ages. 

If now you add to this list the names of those noble women 
whom she has given as " helps " to the ministers, " meet " to be their 
partners in the work of winning souls; those teachers who have 
had leading positions in the great work of moulding the minds 
and characters of the youth of the land ; those christian lawyers 
and physicians who owe a good part of their religious impressions 
to their spiritual fathers and mothers in this church ; besides the 
long list of worthy laymen who have illustrated the nobility of 
patriotism in times of war, and the fidelity of christian faith in 
times of peace; you may have some slight conception of the good 
that has been done in the fields of the world, through what may be 
termed the missionary work of this ancient church. 

If I may give expression, in a few words, to the lessons to be 
learned from this "inquiry into the former age," and this "search 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 145 

of the record of the fathers," I will remind you that as christians 
we should estimate the church hy means of spiritual standards. 

As stewards of an heavenly Master, our supreme desire should 
be to do our work so as to merit His approval. 

When Lord Beaconsfield was asked in what style his official 
residence should be furnished and decorated, he replied, pointing 
to the portrait of Sir Robert Walpole, "Furnish it for that 
portrait." 

So would I point you to day to the Great Head of the Church, 
whose image not merely, but whose presence is with us and whose 
eye is ever upon us, and ask you to keep always in mind His 
standard, both in judging of the work that has been done and in 
planning the work yet to be done. 

"I know," says the Master, "thy works," and He rejoices more 
in them, be assured, than men are able to, for He knows amid 
what trials and sacrifices the noble history of the past has been 
wrought out. "God is not unrighteous," says the apostle, "to 
forget your works and labors of love that ye have shewed toward 
His name." 

But think not too much upon the past. Think reverently, think 
charitably, think sensibly, but let your thoughts of the past be 
brief ! Look back just long enough to take your bearings, and 
then push right onward. " Be watchful and strengthen the things 
that remain, for I have not found thy works perfect." 

This is the spiritual standard; — perfect trust, perfect consecration, 
perfect work: and you are a long way from reaching that standard. 
Although this church has not been the residence of ancient Lydian 
kings, she has an honored roll of "the just made perfect." "What 
are we doing to-day to add to that roll ? 

While you cannot boast of Cornwall as having been the birth- 
place of any rich Croesus, your homes have long been abodes of 
comfort and signs of abundance. Are the gifts and sacrifices as 
abundant as the Master would like ? Does your benevolence yet 
bear the proper ratio to your abundance ? Apply the spiritual 
standard. 

Christ does not ask for your gold to gild some splendid heathen 
god's statue, but to bear to living, sinning, suffering neighbors both 
sides the sea, the good news of freedom and peace. And He asks 
for your sons and daughters: that you train them, some for the 
work of the church at home, some for the august sacrifice upon far 
off, unknown altars, and all for His service, so loyally, that when 
19 



146 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the word comes to any one, " The Master is come and calletli for 
thee," he shall promptly respond, " Here am I, send me ! " 

Therefore, brethren, let us one and all "be watchful and 
strengthen the things that remain," for we know not but that they 
may be ready to die even while we are rejoicing. But this we 
know, that He saith (whose praise we covet more than the praises 
of all men), "I have not found thy works perfect." 

Addenda. In its deacons this church has been no less favored 
with earnest and godly men than in its pastors. 

The Separates at first had for deacons Beriah Hotchkin and 
Phineas Waller, who served eighteen years. Respecting either of 
these deacons, all that is known of them now is that Deacon Waller 
was the first deacon of the First Church ; that he came from New 
Milford; that his residence was on the north side of Waller Hill, 
where Judson Adams now lives; and that they served until 1800. 
Their successors were Jesse Hyatt and Hezekiah Clark. Both 
these brethren were serving at the time of Mr. Hawes' ordination. 
A short time previous to 1807, Deacon Clark died, and Deacon 
Hyatt removed to Georgetown, New York. 

Mr. Stone, pastor of the First Church, has recorded his estimate 
of Deacon Hyatt in these very commendatory words: "He was 
eminently amiable and meek; few christians have lived and died 
having fewer enemies than had Deacon Hyatt. He was never a close 
communionist [sectarian is intended, I presume— c. n. f.], but was 
ever glad to receive every one that loved the essential doctrines of 
the cross." 

David Clark was chosen, April 10, 180*7, to succeed his deceased 
brother as deacon, and Eliakim Mallory was chosen Deacon Hyatt's 
successor. Deacon Clark served but four years, when he died, and 
was succeeded by Titus Hart in 1811. 

That the church should make choice of two deacons from the 
same family in the same generation is clear proof of the worth 
and piety of Hezekiah and David Clark. 

Eliakim Mallory honored the office of deacon eight years, and, 
for his faith and devotion to the Church, " obtained a good report." 
He was a man of more than average abihty. He was a frequent 
delegate to Consociation in that day when the choice of delegate 
was quite an honor. He was the delegate, with the pastor, when 
this church was admitted to that body in 1809. He frequently 
served on committees of conferences between the two churches, 
when the question of union was so much discussed. Deacon Mallory 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 147 

was prominent also in the business of the society. A man of 
noble spirit, unexceptional character, and decided dignity of man- 
ner, his death, occurring near the close of 1815, left a large vacancy 
in both society and church. 

At Deacon Hart's election, a day of fasting and prayer was ob- 
served, according to prevalent custom. It is said of Deacon Hart, 
by Mr. Stone, that he was "an Israelite indeed, ever pious and stead- 
fast in duty, possessing the qualifications which Paul required of a 
deacon." At his death, in 1830, he had held the office nearly 
twenty years. Titus Hart and Jesse Hyatt are the only deacons 
from this parish who received notice in Stone's History of Corn- 
wall* 

Nathan Hart was chosen deacon in 1816, and retired in 1854. 
His term of office is the longest of any of the deacons, embracing 
three distinct periods in the history of the church, to wit: the 
ministry of Walter Smith, the evangelical labors of S. J. Tracy, 
and the entire ministry of Joshua Maynard, — a period of thirty- 
nine years. He was chosen while his father, Dea. Titus Hart, was 
living, but because he was too old and infirm to perform the office 
of a deacon, and too much beloved to be asked to resign. Deacon 
Nathan Hart had high regard for purity and consistency of chris- 
tian character, "was very jealous for the Lord of hosts," and was 
very faithful in labors to secure righteousness of life in all who 
professed and called themselves christians. He was also a peace- 
maker. I notice in the C/hurch Records for March 20, 1822, that 
Deacons Noah Rogers and Nathan Hart, and Ichabod Howe, were 
appointed a Standing Committee "to settle difficulties between 
brethren." Before his death Deacon Hart joined with Deacon 
Wadsworth in gifts to the church, of which I shall speak presently. 
At his death, in 1861, he had been a member of the church sixty- 
one years, for nearly two-thirds of which time he had been deacon; 
and he was for many years superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
Of his many excellent qualities none were more marked than his 
def otional spirit, which had for a substantial basis good sense and 
integrity. Deacon Hart was "faithful over a few things," and 
has doubtless entered into the joy of his Lord. 

Noah Rogers was chosen deacon in 1816. In a church which 
has had four men by that name connected with it this would not, 
at least, be speaking very definitely. But the Noah chosen deacon 
joined the church about 1814, and is known to this community as 

* Parson Stone's History was not brought down to the present day. 



148 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

"Deacon Noah." His place in the genealogical tree is, I believe, 
Noah 4th. Eespecting the worth and work of Deacon Noah 
Eogers, I cannot do better than to cite the testimony of the late 
George "Wheaton, Esq., for many years associated with him in 
social and business relations of hfe. His words will be all the 
more weighty, because coming from one not at that time a profess- 
ing christian. " The ardent desire of Deacon Rogers was ever for 
the prosperity and upbuilding of the North Congregational Church. 
Through his influence, and the material aid which he furnished, 
it received much of that material and spiritual aggressive power 
which has brought to it its present degree of prosperity. He was 
ever kind and liberal to the poor, and gave freely of his abundance. 
He lived a christian life, and died the death of the righteous." 
From the records of both church and society it is clear that Deacon 
Rogers served this church with a fidelity which it would be hard 
to match, and impossible to excel, in the long list of her worthy 
sons. His qualities were of the quiet kind, substantial and worthy. 
His fitness answered to Paul's test, in that he was "grave," "not 
double-tongued," "ruled his children and his own house well," 
"ministered in the office of a deacon well," and "purchased for 
himself a good degree," both as respects grace of character and 
favor among men. Deacon Rogers retired in 1836, three years 
before his death, having served twenty years. 

His successor was James Wadsworth, who was about as near a 
"blameless " man, doubtless, as men become. He exemplified his 
faith by " walking in the hght," and seems to have deserved Paul's 
requirement to be put as his epitaph: for " he held the mystery of 
the faith in a pure conscience." 

A few months before the retirement of the two venerable dea- 
cons, Hart and Wadsworth, they each made a valuable gift to the 
church — Deacon Hart giving this Bible, and Deacon Wadsworth 
that service, which is at present used at the Communion table. 
The church acknowledged the gifts in the following resolution: 

Besohed, That these tokens of their regard for us, crowning, as they 
do, many years of active, efficient, and successful labor in this church, 
entitle the givers to our highest respect and consideration, and in all 
coming years they shall be held in grateful remembrance, as bright 
examples of Christianity, as taught by our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ." 

R. R. and E. D. Pratt were chosen in September, 1854, to be 
their successors. Deacon Wadsworth lived, after his resignation, 
Tin til April, 1867. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 149 

In 1872 both active deacons tendered their resignation, from a 
conviction that the good of the church required that the deacon's 
term of office be hmited, with the privilege of reelection if it 
seemed best. They were accordingly succeeded by T. S. Gold and 
Egbert M. Kogers, in 1872, who were chosen for the term of five 
years. 

As both retired deacons are still present with us, I shall pass by 
their service at this time without encomium, speaking only a few 
words respecting Deacon E. M. Rogers, deceased in February last. 
My own estimate of Deacon Rogers's character is incorporated in 
the resolutions adopted by this church in April last: 

Whereas, In the providence of God, it has pleased Him to remove, by 
deatli, brother E. M. Rogers, who has " walked with this church faith- 
fully in all the ordinances of the Gosj^el " for thirty years, the last four 
years of which time he filled the otfice of deacon ; therefore, 

Resolved, That it gives us jileasure to express and record the affection 
in which Deacon Rogers was held by his brethren in Christ, for the devo- 
tion which he manifested to the cause of the Master, making himself a 
servant to all, that he might "gain the more;" and becoming a cheerful 
" burden-bearer," in obedience to the law of Christ ; and furthermore, 
that we believe that his faith and good works were a " light upon a 
hill " to lead men " to glorify our Father which is in heaven." 

Ministers Raised Up. 

John C. Hart, oldest son of Deacon Nathan Hart, a graduate of 
Yale, class of '31, was pastor in Springfield, N. J. ; thence to church 
in Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio; thence to Congrega- 
tional Church, Ravenna, Ohio. Death in 1870 from paralysis, at 
Ravenna. 

Almon B. Pratt, born North Cornwall 1812, son of a farmer, and 
worked with his father until nineteen years of age, then began to 
study with the ministry in view. Entered Yale College, but failing 
in health, withdrew. Studied theology at Union Seminary, New 
York City; licensed by Litchfield North Association July 20, 1841 ; 
ordained June 12, 1850, by Litchfield North Association, at "Wol- 
cottville. Conn.; acting pastor of a church in Genesee, Genesee 
County, Michigan, several years ; treasurer of college at Berea, Ky. ; 
thence removed to Camp Creek, Neb., as acting pastor, in which 
capacity he died December 28, 1875. 

Henry G. Pendleton graduated at Amherst, August, 1836; 
licensed at Dayton, Ohio, November, 1838, by Presbytery; gradu- 
ated at Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1839; ordained January, 
1840, by Peoria Presbytery at Granville, 111.; remained at Gran- 
ville four years; Lacon one year; Henry, Marshall county, twenty- 



150 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

five years. He organized a Congregational Church in Chenoa, 111., 
in summer of 1867, and was acting pastor until 1872. At present 
he is acting pastor of Congregational church at Gridley and Chenoa; 
some of the time Mr. Pendleton has suppKed two churches "yoked." 
He has been very successful in gathering churches and building 
meeting-houses. The hand of the Lord has evidently been with 
him. P. 0. address, Chenoa, Livingston Co., III. 

H. F. Wadsworth, son of Dea. James Wadsworth, graduated 
at Union College, July, 1836; was hcensed by Litchfield South 
Association, July, 1838; was ordained as an Evangelist, in the 
Tabernacle in the city of New York in 1842, by Manhattan Asso- 
ciation. In the same month was settled as pastor over the Pres- 
byterian church at Newfoundland, Morris County, N. J. He 
resigned this charge November, 1858, for the Presbyterian church 
at Unionville, Orange County, N. Y., where he was installed pastor 
the following May, and where he continues to labor in the gospel. 

John A. R. Rogers, son of Jno. C. Rogers, graduated at Oberlin 
College 1851; from the theological department 1855. Holds the 
chair of the Greek Professorship in Berea College, Ky. 

Samuel Scoville, son of Jacob Scoville, is a graduate of Yale 
College, of the class of '57. After spending one year in theologi- 
cal study at Andover Seminary, he took an extended European 
tour. Returned to his theological studies at Union Seminary, New 
York City, graduating 1861. He was settled as pastor over the 
First Congregational Church in Norwich, N. Y., in 1862. 

John Hart, son of H. Milton Hart, graduated at Yale, class of 
'67; taught in public schools of New Haven several years; 
graduated at Union Theological Seminary 1876.* 

List of Ministers^ Wives who ivere Daughters of the Church. 

Eliza W. Rogers, daughter of Dea. Noah, married Rev. A. T. 
Norton. 

Amanda Rogers, her sister, married Rev. A. B. Pratt. 

Amelia Rogers, daughter of John C, married Rev. Mr. Davis. 

Sarah A. Nettleton, daughter of Dea. Elijah, of Baptist Church, 
married Rev. Mr. Jencks, Baptist. 

Clarissa Clark, daughter of Wm., married Rev. A. Munson. 

Mary Burnham, daughter of Oliver, married Rev. A. Judson, 
Philadelphia. 

Emily Burnham, her sister, married Rev. J. C. Hart. 

* Mr. Hart was ordained and installed over Cong. Church in Bristol, N. II., 
in the fall of 1877. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 151 

List of prominent Laymen not previously mentioned in the Sermon. 

Ichabod Howe will be remembered as a man of Pauline gentle- 
ness, and Christlike spirit of self-sacrifice for his brothers' good. 
To a life of rectitude and consecration he added a very fitting 
closing chapter, by giving himself almost wholly to visitation of 
the parish and prayerful lay-labors for the conversion of men to 
his dear Lord. He died in 1857. 

A man of more marked ability, of strict integrity, of unim- 
peachable veracity, and of wide-spread influence was Benjamin 
Sedgwick, Esq. In private life and places of public trust he was 
an honorable man and a christian gentleman. 

William Clark of Clark Hill, was a self -depreciating but valua- 
ble citizen, who took up his christian crosses late in life, but bore 
them with fidelity to the close. 

Chalker Pratt you remember as a strong, resolute, self-reliant 
man, ever devising liberal things for the cause of his Master, and 
energetic in carrying them through. Born on Cream Hill, he 
moved to West Cornwall, at the time of the building of the railroad ; 
was identified with the interests of the place; was an able and 
zealous laborer in his Master's vineyard, as well as an earnest and 
honorable citizen. 

Noah Baldwin was for fifty-five years connected with the choir, 
and by his faithfulness to his post, his love of music, and his regu- 
larity, did what he could for the service of Christ; keeping his 
place even after old age had made his service as an effort. 

Reuben Hitchcock was a regular and conscientious attendant 
upon public services, and a supporter of the prayer meetings. 

There are many that will remember the commander of the regi- 
ment of militia, Col. Anson Rogers. In stature tall, athletic; in 
nature cordial, genial, sympathetic ; in character benevolent to a 
fault; his liberality was proverbial, and proceeded not from the 
love of display, but a natural susceptibility to the appeals of the 
needy, and from an instinctive desire to do a good and generous 
action. 

Col. Rogers was also a christian soldier. As he was at the head 
of his regiment on public parade, so his name stands first on the 
list of those recruited for the Master in 1839, by Mr. Tracy. And 
he was behind none of his fellow citizens in interest in the pros- 
perity and perpetuity of the kingdom of Christ no less than in 
his public spirit. Of his prominence in town matters, and the 
acceptable administration of his public trusts, poHtically, honorable 



152 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

mention should be made here, and the record in detail will be found 
elsewhere. 

Daniel Leete Rogers, Noah Rogers, and John C. Rogers are 
worthy descendants of an honored sire, who hand down the 
precious legacy untarnished and undiminished of solid christian 
character. They have stood manfully " holding the fort " for 
Christ, here where their father helped to plant it. 

They were men to he relied upon for sound judgment and with 
abundant means, and while exact and punctual in their business 
transactions, they were generous to the poor, liberal toward the 
church, and invariably found on the right side of questions of 
general interest in church or state. 

The devotion of these men and their children to christian prin- 
ciples and christian liberty, when considered in connection with 
their boast that they were " descendants of the John Rogers of 
Smithfield fame," furnishes a new illustration of the faithfulness 
of God in "showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of 
them that love me and keep my commandments." 

(jreo. Wheaton, Esq., was a lawyer of prominence in "West Corn- 
wall, who declared at last that he was " not ashamed of the gos- 
pel of Christ." Entering the church during Mr. Maynard's ministry, 
he ever afterward interested himself in the material interests of 
church and society. 

Dr. Samuel W. Gold, whose residence was on Cream Hill, until 
his removal to West Cornwall, near the close of his life was a man 
of wise counsel, great energy, and remarkable public spirit. 

He offered to donate $1,000 toward building a chapel for the 
use of the citizens of West Cornwall, but did not live to see the 
project begun. Mr. Gold gave liberally of his abundance for the 
support of the gospel, and had a deep interest in the welfare of 
his town and country. He had in mind the publication of the 
history of Cornwall, which he did not live to carry out, but which 
is likely to be completed by his son, Theodore S. Gold. 

H. Milton Hart was a man who was to the minister as Asaph to 
David, in the service of song in the sanctuary. He filled besides, 
with ability and christian fidelity, every position of trust in church 
and society to which he was appointed; was a man beloved for 
his graces of character, and esteemed for his cultivation of mind, 
by a wide circle of friends. His interest in the musical training 
of the young was a prominent characteristic. 

Stephen Foster was one of the promising men of the church of 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 153 

the last generation, and one whose death occurring in the very- 
prime of life was deeply deplored. 

He was already ''proving his lance" in his defense of the right, 
and showing his zeal in the service of his Master, when cut down 
by death. He was calculated by his enthusiasm, executive and 
financial ability, no less than by his eminent social traits, to be of 
great usefulness in this community. His work may have been 
finished, in the ^timation of God, but from the human standpoint, 
it hardly seemed more than just begun.* 



A Semi-Centennial 



Celebration of the erection of the church at North Cornwall was held 
July 19, 1876. 

The morning exercises consisted of singing by the choir; reading 
the scriptures and prayer by the pastor, Rev. C. N. Fitch; an his- 
torical address, "Ye Olden Time," by Gen. Chas. F. Sedgwick, of 
Sharon ; music, by the band ; sketch of the erection of the church 
edifice by Nathan Hart; an address by Rev. Samuel Scoville of 
Norwich, N. Y. ; a poem by Dwight M. Pratt, of Cornwall, and 
singing an anniversary hymn written by Mrs. C E. Baldwin. 

The afternoon exercises in the grove were refreshments, exhibi- 
tion of relics, reminiscences of the olden time, in short, regular 
and volunteer sentiments and addresses, interspersed with vocal 
and instrumental music. The affair was a success, affording both 
instruction and entertainment. 

HISTORICAL ADDRESS OF GEN. CHARLES F. SEDGWICK AT 
NORTH CORNWALL, JULY 19, 1876. 

Several weeks since I was requested to write up some sketches of 
incidents and events illustrating the history of this ecclesiastical 
society. Without thinking much on the extent of my knowledge of 
such incidents, I consented to do so, but I soon found that any 
certain degree of reliable accuracy in many things pertaining to 
the history of the parish were not within the reach of my investi- 
gations. There are many things which rest in dim and unreliable 
tradition, which can only be illustrated by a thorough and careful 
examination of the records of the State, of the town, and of the 

* In these biographical sketches I have limited myself to the deceased, not 
thinking it wise to attempt an estimate of the work of any one while he is still 
with us, or, at least, yet living. 
20 



154 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

parisTi. And such examination I have had no opportunity to 
make. I shall give you as good a statement of facts relating to 
the history of the society as the materials at my command will 
furnish, not holding myself responsible for the uncertainties of 
tradition, or the barrenness of documentary proofs. To illustrate 
more fully the history of the parish, it will be necessary to con- 
sider briefly the early ecclesiastical history of the town previous 
to 1738. This northwestern corner of Connecticut had been 
surveyed and laid out into townships and sold to proprietors. 
This territory embraced the townships of Salisbury, Sharon, Kent, 
Cornwall, Canaan, and Goshen, and the settlement of each of those 
townships commenced about that time — Kent then included War- 
ren, and Canaan included North Canaan, but with these exceptions 
the integrity of the territory of each township has not been dis- 
turbed. The acts of the legislature incorporating each township, 
vested both municipal and ecclesiastical power in the inhabitants, 
and made it as much their duty to provide for the establishment 
of the one polity as of the other. It was as much their duty to pro- 
vide for the early settlement of the gospel ministry of the order and 
faith then recognized as the standing order in the colony, as it was to 
provide for the support of the poor or the maintenance of high- 
ways. And to help the towns thus organized to carry out the 
purposes of the legislature in providing for the establishment of 
gospel ordinances, grants of land were made; one right to the 
first minister, and one right in perpetuity to the town for the 
support of the ministry for ever. 

Some of the towns have since been subdivided into located 
parishes, but with the exception of a small portion in the south- 
west part of the town, which many years since was annexed to the 
ecclesiastical organization of Kent, and a larger portion on the 
Great Hill, which now forms a part of the Society of Milton, 
Cornwall remained one parish until the incorporation of this 
society in 1804. 

Cornwall was not backward in fulfilling the purpose of the 
Assembly in regard to the settlement of a minister. The Rev. 
Solomon Palmer was the successful candidate for* the place, and 
he was settled over the town as its religious teacher in August, 
1741. He was a native of Branford, in New Haven County, and 
graduated at Yale College in 1729. Previous to his settlement in 
Cornwall he had been settled over a Congregational parish on Long 
Island. He continued in the ministry here about thirteen years. 
I know of nothing to distinguish his ministry from that of other 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 155 

clergymen of that day in this region. Religious interests were not 
neglected. A spacious meeting house was erected, which stood on 
the high ground nearly opposite the residence of the late Ithamar 
Baldwin, with a broad and extensive green, opening to the south, 
before it. Mr. Palmer's residence was on the spot afterwards 
owned and occupied by the late Judge Burnham, and there several 
of his children were born. My friend, Mr. Solon B. Johnson, in a 
sketch which he gave me several years ago of the Johnson family 
in Cornwall, in speaking incidentally of Mr. Palmer's family, with 
which the Johnson family was connected, informed me that Mr. 
Palmer's only son was a sot — I could have added to the stock of 
Mr. Johnson's information on the subject, by the statement, that 
when I went to reside in Sharon, fifty-nine years ago, that son of 
Mr. Palmer's was an inmate of the poor-house there, where he con- 
tinued during his life, and that his remains, after his death, were 
buried at the expense of that town. I never knew how he became 
chargeable to Sharon, but the fact as to his residence and depend- 
ence there is as I have stated it. 

I never heard but that the ministry of Mr. Palmer was entirely 
acceptable to the people of his charge. His subsequent career 
would intimate that he was not deficient in intellectual ability, and 
old people who, in my early yeai's, spoke of him, never intimated 
any defect of moral qualifications. In March, 1754, to the great 
surprise of his people, he announced from the pulpit that he had 
become an Episcopalian in sentiment. His ministry in Cornwall 
ceased from that time, but after going to England and receiving 
Episcopal ordination there, he returned to this country and entered 
upon clerical duties in congregations of that faith. He ministered 
successively at Great Barrington, New Haven, and Litchfield, 
at which last mentioned place he died in 1771, at the age of 
sixty-two years. I never heard that any of his people here 
followed him into the Episcopal church, or that his' defection in any 
degree impaired the stability of the ecclesiastical organization here. 
He sold his place here, which came to liim from the gift of the 
colony by virtue of his being the first minister, in 1757, to Noah 
Bull of Parmington, and thus compelled the town to assume 
additional burdens in the support of the gospel ministry there- 
after. 

The next minister of Cornwall was the Rev. Hezekiah Gold. 
His father, of the same naitie, was the minister of Stratford, and 
his grandfather was the Hon. Nathan Gold, for many years 



156 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

chief-justice of the supreme court, and lieutenant-governor of 
the colony. 

Mr. Gold was in comfortable pecuniary circumstances when he 
came here, having received an ample patrimony from his father or 
grandfather, and he purchased the farm which was afterwards 
owned by Mr. Darius Miner, which was near the meeting house, 
and which was eVery way convenient for a parsonage. There he 
lived, and there he died, after a ministry of about thirty-five years. 
I believe that the first twenty years of his ministry were acceptable 
to the town, but the exciting times of the opening scenes of the 
Revolution, and the opinion which some of the people entertained, 
probably unjustly, that their minister was not quite as fervent in his 
patriotisin as in his purpose to increase his worldly estate, produced 
complaint — not very loud at first, but which finally ripened into 
an open opposition, which in the end included a majority of the 
legal voters of the town. Through the whole conflict a decided 
majority of the church stood by the pastor, and the influence 
of his clerical brethren in neighboring towns sustained him. 
The laws of the colony, too, strongly favored the stability of the 
clerical relations in the town, and appeals to the courts, which in 
this case were made, furnished no aid to the discontented portion 
of the people. At length the town, claiming that it, and not the 
church, owned the meeting-house, voted to exclude Mr. Gold from 
it in the performance of Sabbath services, and in his absence it 
became the duty of the deacons to conduct the ceremonies of public 
worship. When the trial came to test the right of the contending 
parties to the meeting-house for Sabbath worship, a scene occurred 
which would now be deemed a disgrace to the civilization of the 
times, reminding one of the times spoken of by the old English 
humorist, Hudibras: 

When civil dudgeon first grew high, 
And men fell out, they knew not why ; 
When hard words, jealousies, and fears 
Set men together by the ears ; 
When pulpit dean-ecclesiastic 
Was beat with j^s^ instead of a stick. 

I heard a statement of it given to my father, probably more than 
seventy years ago, by an aged widow lady. It may be interesting 
to my friend, Deacon Russell R. Pratt, if I state that she was Mrs. 
Brown, a sister of Mrs. Jasper Pratt,- who was his grandmother. 
The deacon who intended to conduct the proceedings was Elijah 
Steele, one of the opposers of Mr. Gold. From the statement of 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 157 

Mrs. Brown, it would appear that Mr. Gold had taken his seat in 
the pulpit to conduct the exercises of worship in the usual manner, 
and that Deacon Steele, in his seat below, by whom Mrs. Brown 
was sitting, was preparing his book to give out the opening psalm. 
Said she, " Just as Steele was about beginning to read the psalm, I 
laid my fan right down on to Steele's book, and thus gave Mr. 
Gold an opportunity to start first in the race." The common-sense 
of sober-minded people must have revolted at such unhallowed 
proceedings, and the result was, that the dissenters of the congre- 
gation, in 1780, formed themselves into a separate society, which 
they called a society of Strict Congregationalists, and the dissent- 
ing members of the church formed themselves into a separate 
church, to act with the society in cases where their joint action 
might be necessary. I can find no law of the State which then 
Justified these proceedings, but in 1791 an act was passed which 
seemed to recognize the legal status of such voluntary religious 
associations and churches, and which provided that all such 
churches and congregations which shall, or shall have, formed 
themselves, and maintain public worship, were vested with power 
to levy taxes on the members. By virtue of this law, the Strict 
Congregationalists of Cornwall laid taxes on their members, and 
thus, for several years, supported preaching in their meetings ; but 
the church thus formed had no connection or association with any 
other ecclesiastical body. It will be seen in the sequel, that this 
society was abandoned and dissolved when that now subsisting 
here was organized, and that the church, then independent, finally 
fell into sympathy with the Christian churches of like faith, and 
co-operated with them in religious duty and action. 

The meetings of the Strict Congregationalists were held at the 
house of their minister, the Rev. Mr. Cornwall, the house lately 
owned and occupied by the late Mr. Carrington Todd; but in 1788 
the meeting-house, which stood on the ground now occupied by 
the Center school -house, was built by subscription. Some of the 
subscribers for its building were living when the present place of 
public worship was established in the society, and some of them 
claimed that they were still owners of the building. 

The old society maintained their ownership of the old meeting- 
house, and 1 suppose held their meetings there until 1790, when it 
was taken down, and a new and fashionable house of worship was 
erected on the plain. Mr. Gold continued his relation as pastor of 
the church till his death, but he gave up his claim for salary, and 
remitted pastoral labor some three or four years before his decease, 



158 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

wMcli occurred in 1790, at the age of sixty-two years. It would 
seem tliat in 1787 the asperities of the conflicting parties were 
somewhat abated, for in the fall session of the legislature of that 
year, both ministers, Mr. Gold and Mr. Cornwall, were elected rep- 
resentatives from the town, and Mr. Cornwall was a member at the 
next session. Mr. Gold was undoubtedly a man of uncommon 
shrewdness and vigor of action, as is shown by his being able to 
baffle all the efforts of his opposers to remove him from his pas- 
torate of Cornwall. I remember reading his epitaph many years 
ago, in which there is the expressive statement of one element in 
his character: that he was a very accurate judge of the human 
heart. 

Mr. Gold was succeeded in his ministry by the Eev. Hercules 
Weston. He remained the minister of the old parish from 1792 
to 1803. I never saw him, but well remember that he was noted 
for his keen specimens of polished wit, which were often related 
in social gatherings. He had a parishioner, Rufus Paine, senior, 
whose wit, though of a coarser kind, was equally pungent and 
effective, and they sometimes had passages of intellectual sharp- 
ness with each other. As this is a purely secular meeting, it may 
not be improper that I should give a specimen. 

They were the joint owners of a slaughtered animal, and in 
dividing to each owner his share, they had no difficulty until they 
came to the division of the head. Each asked the other to propose 
a method of division. After due deliberation Mr. Weston said, 
" It is an old saying that each part strengthens ^V5part. I preach; 
you give me the tongue and you may have the remainder." Said 
Paine in reply, " According to your rule, that each part strength- 
ens its part, I think you need the whole head. Take it all." 

The Strict Congregationalists maintained their standing under 
their original self-constituted organization for nearly twenty-five 
years. In one sense they were isolated from the neighboring par- 
ishes, being, as I believe, the only society organized on that platform 
on this side of the Connecticut River. They received no sympathy 
from neighboring parishes, and were merely tolerated, not encour- 
aged, by the laws of the State. The South Society had the advan- 
tage in this respect, that every new-comer into the town was, by 
law, a member of that society, as the legal society, whose limits 
embraced the whole town, and could not be relieved from his con- 
nection there without going through with the legal ceremonies 
which the law provided for such cases. Their ministers, Mr. Corn- 
wall, and after him Mr. llolley, though on personal friendly terms 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 159 

with the neighboring ministers of the standing order, were excluded 
from all ecclesiastical relations to them, and were shutout from all 
their official gatherings. Still the parish maintained itself with a 
considerable degree of vigor down to 1804. I have been shown a tax- 
list laid on the last of 1795, and signed by Daniel Harrison, Oliver 
Burnham, and David Clark, committee, to which is annexed a tax 
warrant in due form, signed by Judah Kellogg, Esq., justice of the 
peace, and directed to Hezekiah Gold, collector. There were about 
one hundred tax-payers assessed on the list at different sums, none 
very heavily, and nearly every name is mentioned as paid or abated. 
It embraced nearly all the persons liable to pay taxes in the east part 
of the town, where the Johnsons were thickly planted, all on Clark 
Hill, and some, Mathew Patterson, for instance, who lived far 
within the limits of the South Society. It was a seemingly tedious 
process to collect it, for seven years after the tax was laid I find 
the following entry on the tax-book in the handwriting of Judge 
Burnham : 

On the 7th day of September, 1803, on view of the foregoing bill, we 
are of opinion that all that is now due on this bill, after the orders are 
severally brought in for that is chargeable, ought to be abated, and there- 
fore do abate the same. 

ELIAKIM MALLORY, } ^ 
TITUS hart; \ Committee. 

The difficulty of conducting efficiently the affairs of the parish, 
owing to their ecclesiastical exclusion and the advantages which 
the law gave the other society, in the acquisition of new members, 
instigated a movement in 1804 for the legal establishment of a new 
society with definite boundaries, and for the granting to it all the 
privileges enjoyed by other societies in the State, the old organiza- 
tion as Strict Congregationalists to be for ever abandoned. A peti- 
tion to this effect was presented to the October session of the 
Assembly for that year, and a desperate struggle with the old 
society was a natural result of such proceedings. The exciting 
incidents which accompanied them are just within the reach of my 
recollection. The word locate and location 1 remember to have been 
in very common use, and it was a considerable time after all the pro- 
ceedings before the Assembly were brought to a close, before the 
use of these words, as bearing on the condition of the society, was 
given up. The petition for the location of a new parish probably 
contained a prayer for aid in some other way if that relief of 
location could not be afforded, and under that clause of the peti- 
tion the Assembly passed a resolution in the words following, 
which I copy verbatim from the records of the State: 



160 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

" Resolve incorporating the Second Ecclesiastical Society in Cornwall^ passed 
' OctoUr, 1804. 

"Upon the petition of Noah Rogers, and others, Resolved by this 
Assembly, that such of the petitioners and others, inhabitants of town 
of Cornwall, residing within the limits of the First Ecclesiastical Society 
in Cornwall, as shall, on or before the first day of December enrol them- 
selves as hereinafter directed, shall be and constitute an ecclesiastical 
society by the name of the Second Ecclesiastical Society in Cornwall ; 
and Noah Rogers J% of said town is hereby appointed to enrol the 
names of all such persons as shall by said day elect to be enrolled as 
aforesaid ; and after such enrollment the inhabitants so enrolled may 
proceed to form themselves, and choose officers in the same manner as is 
by law provided for societies in such cases, and the persons who shall not be 
enrolled as aforesaid by the time aforesaid, shall be and remain members 
of the First Ecclesiastical Society in said Cornwall." 

Thus it may be seen that the petition for a located society was 
negatived, but permission was given to form what is called in law 
a iwll-parish to act in sympathy with other parishes of the same 
faith. Although there was a great disappomtment in the result of 
the application to the Assembly, it was deemed expedient to accept 
it, and the society was duly formed under the Act of the Assembly, 
and the Article I have just read is the charter of your society. I 
do not know who, or how many, were members under the first 
enrolttient, nor was it important, as, after a society was formed, the 
law made ample provision for the accession of new members. Thus 
while the society had been in existence since 1780, it was not until 
this time that it came under the privileges and Kmitations of 
statute law, for such cases made and provided. 

The society being thus organized, the way was prepared for the 
church, which was formed under an old Strict Congregational organ- 
ization, to connect itself with the new society, according to the forms 
and usages of Congregational churches in Connecticut. It had 
existed for nearly a quarter of a century in a kind of ecclesiasti- 
cal isolation, holding no religious communion with the established 
churches in the neighborhood. Tired of this seclusion, it for a 
short time connected itself with a distant organization of the 
Presbyterian church, and the late Deacon Nathan Hart informed 
me that he once went as delegate from the church here to a meet- 
ing of the Presbytery to which it belonged, which was that of 
Morristown, New Jersey. It was a most unnatural and inconven- 
ient union, and Providence kindly opened a way for its speedy 
dissolution. 

After the new society was placed in successful operation here, 
the North Consociation of Litchfield County, without waiting for 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 161 

any action of this church, extended to it a kind and fraternal invi- 
tation to unite itself in Christian relations to that body, and tlie 
union was at once consummated, and I doubt not that all parties 
concerned felt relieved from a most untoward perplexity. The 
society and church were thus placed in a good condition to pros- 
ecute religious enterprises, and well have they performed that 
duty. 

The old meeting-house by the turnpike was the place of wor- 
ship for the new society for about twenty years. It was an old 
brown building, open from the ground floor to the ridge, with 
rafters, beams, braces, and roof -boards in plain view, but it shel- 
tered many sincere and pious worshipers. Long seats extended 
from the aisle in the center to the walls, but nearer the pulpit the 
seats faced towards the center. The males were all seated on the 
right of the pulpit and the females on the left, and this arrange- 
ment was continued while I remained in Cornwall; but I was told 
there was some change in it before the old house was abandoned, 
Mr. Hawes and Mr. Smith were both ordained there. I attended 
the ordination of Mr. Smith, and the late Mr. James Wadsworth 
informed me, many years after, of a circumstance which I had 
forgotten, and which I still very dimly remember, that the beauti- 
ful hymn composed by Helen Maria Williams, commencing 

" Whilst thee I seek, protecting power," 

was sung at my suggestion, as a part of the ordination services, 
from manuscript copies in the hands of the performers, the hymn 
not having then been introduced into any of the books of psalmody 
in common use. 

Before the settlement of Mr. Hawes, those in the hollow who 
were in the habit of attending congregational meetings went to 
Goshen for the service of public worship, where the Rev. Mr. 
Heaton was then pastor. The first outlet for travel in carriages 
from that locality was furnished by the construction of the Litch- 
field and Canaan turnpike road, and that circumstance turned the 
worshipers in that section towards Goshen. But after the settle- 
ment of Mr. Hawes, we attended meeting here. From my recol- 
lection of that gentleman I should say he was a very good preacher, 
and would be so esteemed at the present day. Mr. Hawes lived 
first in the house called the Tailor Brown house, on the corner 
south of the meeting-house, but his more permanent residence 
was in the liouse north of Judge Burnham's, said to have been 
21 



162 HISTOKY OF CORNWALL. 

once owned by the grandfather of President Fillmore. He was in 
the habit of riding on horseback to meeting with his good lady 
on the same animal behind him, a method of travel not only not 
uncommon, but very common among all classes in those days. 

Mr. Hawes was a very faithful pastor, and had the confidence 
and respect of all classes in the parish. I never heard him spoken 
of from that day to this, but with the utmost respect and defer- 
ence. He was compelled to leave because he could not live on 
the salary which the society was able to pay; but he went with 
the good wishes and respect of the whole community. After 
leaving this field of labor he was very soon settled over a parish 
in Lyme, in this State. 

The first deacon whom I can remember in active duty here 
was Deacon Hyatt. I never knew the Deacon Clark who lived 
on Clark Hill. I remember once attending deacons' meeting, 
where Deacon Hyatt conducted the proceedings. I was then quite 
young, and only remember that the sermons were so short that 
two of them were read in the morning service, the singing of a 
psalm intervening the reading of the sermons. 

The next succeeding deacons whom I can remember were Deacons 
Mallory and Titus Hart. During the time intervening between 
the dismission of Mr. Hawes and the settlement of Mr. Smith, it 
often occurred that there were long intermissions of clerical ser- 
vices in the parish, and during such intermissions the meetings 
were conducted by the deacons, assisted sometimes by Mr. Daniel 
Harrison and Mr. Timothy Johnson. There was no apparent dimi- 
nution in the attendance at such seasons, as the presiding Deacon 
Mallory had a method of conducting the proceedings which made 
them very satisfactory to the congregation. His prayer was very 
free, appropriate, and fervent, and he sometimes added an exhor- 
tation of his own, which showed the depth of his christian sym- 
pathy, and the fervor of his christian zeal. It might have been 
expected that, as preaching was constantly had in the other parish, 
many of this congregation, for that reason, would have attended 
meeting there, but there was a kind of home feeling in those 
christian gatherings in that old tabernacle of the Lord, which 
made it very amiable to the worshipers there, and very few de- 
serted the meetings. Mr. Nathan Hart, afterwards Deacon Hart, 
well known to this day, usually read the sermon, and I was some- 
times called upon to perform that service myself. 

The first chorister whom I remember to have seen officiating in 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 163 

leading the singing in the meeting-house, was Thomas Hyatt, a 
son of the deacon of that name whom I have mentioned. He was 
succeeded in that office by Joel Millard, who lived at the foot of 
Cream Hill, and who, with a clear strong voice, led the choir for 
several years. He was succeeded by Bradley Mallory, who him- 
self sometimes taught a singing-school in the parish, and he was 
in charge of the choral services when I left Cornwall. In the 
absence of the regular chorister Mr. Nathan Hart usually officiated. 

The decayed condition of the old meeting-house, and the fact 
that it was on the very ouiskirt of the parish, prompted a move- 
ment, soon after the settlement of Mr. Smith, to erect a new house 
of worship. The strength of the parish lay in portions north and 
west of the old house, but the neighborhood in which it was 
located, and some others, were strongly opposed to the change of 
site. The requisite number of two-thirds of the voters at a society 
meeting could not be obtained to effect the object, although a 
majority favored the place which was afterward selected. The 
law provided that in such cases the judges of the county court 
should be called upon to designate the place for the erection of 
the building. Those judges, at that time, were Augustus Pettibone 
of Norfolk, chief judge, and Martin Strong of Salisbury and 
John Welsh of Milton, associate judges. After a due hearing of 
all the parties concerned, these gentlemen stuck the stake, as the 
proceeding was called in those days, at the place now occupied by 
this house of worship (I will not say church, as applied to the 
building), and here that house was erected in 1826, fifty years 
ago. In the interval between the taking down of the old house 
and the finishing of the new one, public worship was celebrated 
in an old tenantless house, standing a few rods south of this build- 
ing, which has a history both in relation to its former occupants 
and of scenes of suffering by the family dwelling there during 
the prevalence of the small-pox early in this century, which I have 
no time to relate. 

A few members of the society, living near the old house, felt 
that they had been deeply wronged by the change, and some 
threatened secession, but time and reflection smoothed over the 
difficulty, and with most, I presume, it has long since been forgot- 
ten. In the height of the conflict an action at law was brought to 
the superior court in favor of one or more of the original sub- 
scribers to the building of the old house, against some persons who 
had assisted in taking it down and appropriating the materials to 



164 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the new structure, and the case was tried vide post, on a plea of 
abatement to the suit, for the reason that all the parties in interest 
had not been joined in bringing it before Chief -Justice Hosmer of 
the Supreme Court of the State. It was elaborately argued by- 
Mr. Wheaton for the plaintiff, and I think by Mr. Bacon of Litch- 
field, for the defendants. Mr. Wheaton's strong argument was, 
that, although as a general principle, all the parties in interest 
should be joined in the suit, yet here was a case of absolute refusal 
to join, and a refusal which utterly deprived the plaintiffs of a 
remedy for the wrongs they had suffered, which was a state of 
things which this bar would not tolerate. The chief-justice was 
evidently impressed with the force of ffhe argument, and took the 
case home with him for a full consideration of its merits. His 
opinion, communicated to Mr. Wheaton in writing, was in sub- 
stance that the rule that all parties must join in an action for an 
injury to their joint property was imperative, and that the suit 
must abate. In reply to the argument so forcibly urged by Mr. 
Wheaton, he said, that a court of chancery, on proof that a good 
cause of action existed, could compel the recusant members, under 
a penalty, to join in the action. I have understood that some 
adjustment of the matter was effected. At any rate, there was no 
more litigation in reference to it. 

The meeting-house here was fashioned after one in Sharon, which 
was built two years before. They were on a model somewhat 
prevalent in those days, with the desk between doors at the entrance 
of the audience-room, with the seats rising on an inclined plane in 
front of the pulpit, with the organ-loft behind the officiating clergy- 
man. Many years after, this society changed the interior structure 
of the house to its present form, and we in Sharon very soon fol- 
lowed your example, and I believe the members of both parishes 
feel that the change has been a decided improvement. 

I deem it not out of place here to say, that from my earliest 
recollection there has existed within the hmits of this parish a very 
estimable body of christians of the Methodist Episcopal denomina- 
tion, who, in the periods of the early history of that body, prose- 
cuted religious duties here with great zeal and faithfulness. The 
Rev. Henry Christie, who was one of the first preachers on the 
circuit which then embraced Cornwall, afterwards settled here as a 
local preacher. He was a pure-minded christian man, and faith- 
ful according to his ability. He preached in the Hollow, once in 
two weeks, for many years, and thus furnished an opportunity for 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 165 

worship for such persons as were unable to attend other meetings. 
There was not much point or method to his sermons, but they 
teemed with earnest exhortations. His prayer was very earnest 
and fervent, and, on the whole, his labors in the Hollow are worthy 
of a grateful remembrance. 

One gentleman of that denomination, Mr. Ozias Hurlburt, who 
resided in the Hollow, was a remarkable instance of successful 
seK-culture; who, in that way, had schooled himself to the attain- 
ment of much knowledge and many useful acquirements. But 
theology was his great study, and in that department he could 
maintain his own views of the Divine government of man with 
great ability. I remember to have heard him say that he had 
read President Edwards's Treatise on the Will, and I should think 
from what he said that he found no difficulty in delivering his own 
mind from the stern conclusions of the great theologian. He was 
very superstitious on some subjects, believing in the significance of 
celestial omens, as that the appearance of a comet, which he called 
a "blazing star," was a sure sign of impending war. But with all 
these vagaries, which themselves gave a zest to his conversation, he 
was one of the most interesting men in social interviews with whom 
I held intercourse in my early years. 

I have now presented a very imperfect history of this parish 
down to a period within the memory of others who are much 
better able to give the sequel than I can be. It remains only to 
speak of some individuals who were active in the measures already 
spoken of, for the organization of the society, and for giving sta- 
bility to its parochial existence. But before doing this, I wish to 
say that I know of no rural community — and I do not confine the 
statement to members of one denomination, but taking the territory 
as a whole — I know of no rural community which, in the evidence 
of the industry of its inhabitants, and in the external proof of 
thrift, taste, intellectual culture, and social enjoyment, can bear 
any comparison with this. In fact, the whole parish has been 
rebuilt. Within my recollection, there were but three white 
houses in the whole society. Captain Wadsworth, his son-in-law 
Captain Gold, on Cream Hill, and Lot Hart, at the locality then 
called Hart's Bridge, now West Cornwall, had given their houses 
a coat of white paint, and a few of the more aristocratic families, 
as the Rogerses, Johnsons, and perhaps some others, had painted 
their houses red ; but, with these exceptions, nearly every tenement 
in the parish was a brown, weather-beaten building; some of them 



166 HISTORY OF CORNWALL, 

mere cottages, with few, if any, outward adornments of shade trees 
and shrubbery, and, in many cases, the door-yard fence was a huge 
massive stone wall. These tenements sheltered an honest, indus- 
trious, painstaking, pious people, who in humble life, and in com- 
paratively straitened circumstances, were laying foundations on 
which their children and grandchildren could build beautiful hab- 
itations, and provide all the appliances of intelligent social and 
individual enjoyment. 

Citizens of North Cornwall! you can scarcely comprehend and 
estimate the value of your inheritance in the stern virtues of 
your ancestors. 

I have been furnished with a list of the male members of the 
church, at its formation as an independent church, in 1780-82. 
They numbered ten. The only members whom I knew were, Eli- 
jah Steele and Noah Rogers. Mr. Steele was a deacon of the old 
church of Cornwall, and was one of those who came out in opposi- 
tion to Mr. Gold, the pastor. He was originally from West Hart- 
ford, and in this town lived in the east part of the parish next 
north of the Johnsons. He was of some prominence in the affairs 
of the town, and in 1768 was a member of the Legislature. He 
joined the seceders who formed the independent church, as did his 
colleague. Deacon Waller, but I do not know that he was a deacon 
in that church. He was called Deacon Steele during his life. He 
returned to West Hartford during the latter years of the last cen- 
tury, but in 1805-6 he came back to Cornwall, a full-fledged 
Quaker, in drab drapery and broad-brim. He lived in the Hollow 
till 1810, when, on the death of his wife, with his second wife, who 
was a sister of my grandmother, he went to Albany, and there 
spent the remainder of his life with his son, Eliphalet Steele. I 
knew him only after he joined the Friends. He was a mild, intel- 
ligent, amiable old gentleman, and his wife, whom our family 
affectionately called Aunt Sarah, was one of the most sweet- 
tempered, lovable old ladies I ever knew. Her remains repose in 
the cemetery in the Hollow. 

I well remember Noah Rogers, senr., the other member of the 
church at its original formation, of which I have spoken. He was 
said to be a descendant in the sixth generation from the martyr of 
Smithfield, and I beheve that the tradition of such descent is toler- 
ably well authenticated. I remember him as a very old man, who 
was constant in his attendance at meeting, portly in his physical 
dimensions, and regarded as a patriarch of the parish. He was 



ECCLESIASTICAL HI8T0KY. 167 

probably the most wealthy man in the society, and Ms benefactions, 
and those of his descendants here, have done much to give strength 
and stability to the concerns of the parish. 

The most prominent man in the affairs of the town and society 
for many years, was Oliver Burnham, Esq. His early life was 
eventful. He was born in the parish of Kensington, in Berlin, 
where his grandfather was an eminent clergyman, and at the age 
of fifteen enlisted as a soldier in the army of the Revolution. He 
was in all the battles near New York, and on Long Island, during 
the operations of the British army, which resulted in the capture 
of that city, in 1776. He told me that he stood within five feet of 
the lamented Colonel Knowlton when he was shot dead, at the 
battle of Harlem Plains. He was one of the forlorn hope who 
defended Fort Washington, the last foothold of the Americans 
on York Island, to the last extremity, and was one of the 2,000 
prisoners who there surrendered to the British. He was confined, 
with comrades, in a loathsome prison called the Sugar House, and 
there suffered from the infection of the small-pox, from which his 
recovery was very protracted. He told me that he believed that 
the British officers connived at his escape on account of his ex- 
treme youth. At any rate, he was allowed to depart quietly from 
the city, and when he presented himself to his captain, within the 
American lines, it was with much difficulty that he could persuade 
that officer that he was the identical young Burnham who belonged 
to his company, so great a change had the small-pox made in his 
personal appearance. He came to Cornwall about 1790, and 
gradually acquired an extensive and commanding influence in the 
town and society. He was a member of the legislature at more 
than thirty sessions. He also was for a time a judge of the 
county court, and for some forty years a magistrate of the town. 
It was sometimes said of him that he used his opportunities to 
acquire and retain popularity with great cunning and sagacity, Init 
it can be truly said of him that his influence was always exercised 
in promoting peace, quiet, and good order in the community. His 
influence was so persuasive that he was able to do much in healing 
contentions in families and neighborhoods. I have often said, 
since his decease, while contentions and Ktigations were rife among 
those who were his own neighbors, that I wished Judge Burnham 
could come back for a few weeks in the plenitude of his influence 
to put an effectual quiet upon the storm. He never united with 
the church, but it was said that in difficult matters before it he 



168 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

was often consulted, and his good counsels in such matters were 
duly heeded. Towards the close of his protracted life he con- 
formed to the Episcopal church, received confirmation at the hands 
of its Bishop, and was buried in its rites. 

I have already spoken of Deacon Eliakim Mallory in regard to 
his method of conducting public worship. It is due to his memory 
to say further, that as a citizen of the town and a member of the 
community, he was universally respected and beloved. There was 
a cordiality in his greetings, and a geniality in his social inter- 
course which would attract one at once to his person. In all his 
familiarity with his friends, he never deviated from the line of 
high christian integrity, and at the la'st he died in the calmness of 
christian confidence and in the serenity of christian hope. 

Of his colleague, Deacon Titus Hart, I had not much personal 
knowledge. I never heard him speak except in public prayer, and 
there was a solemnity, and I may say a propriety, in his language 
and manner which betokened a devotion and faith deep-seated in 
the heart of the suppliant. He was much respected as a citizen, 
but did not mingle as much in the community as did his colleague. 
Deacon Mallory. 

Another gentleman of many peculiarities of character, and of 
some prominence in the parish, was Daniel Harrison, who lived in 
the Hollow. The most prominent element in his character was his 
unyielding adherence to a purpose once formed, and his disposi- 
tion to assume prominence and authority in all his intercourse with 
men. He spake as an oracle on matters to which his attention was 
invited, and arguments tending to persuade him to change Ms 
opinion were wasted in the air. He had some difficulty with the 
School District in the Hollow, claiming that a just debt was due 
him, which the district declined to pay. He said he would never 
attend meeting in the house until that debt was paid. At one time 
his minister, Mr. Hawes, appointed to preach an afternoon lecture 
there, and the neighbors interested themselves much in the ques- 
tion whether Uncle Daniel, as we called him, would attend, but he 
was not there, and I heard him say, speaking of the circumstance, 
that he would not have attended if Gabriel had appointed to 
preach there. It is due to his memory to say that the district 
afterwards acknowledged the justice of his claim, and paid it in 
full. From that time he attended the meetings in the school- 
house, and in the absence of a minister, usually conducted tliera. 

Notwithstanding his peculiarities in the respects just mentioned. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 169 

he was a man of expanded and, sometimes, of daring benevo- 
lence. If a neighbor, through sickness or other untoward provi- 
dence, fell behind in the gathering of his crops, or in any other 
discouragement of his affairs, he was among the first and most 
willing with his personal labor and with his team to bring up the 
affairs of his unfortunate neighbor to a good condition. When a 
mortal sickness raged through the town in 1812, and many of our 
citizens were keeping themselves in seclusion for fear of contagion, 
he was abroad ministering to the sick, and enshrouding and bury- 
ing the dead. And when, in 1802, Ebenezer Jackson was attacked 
with the small-pox, of which he died, in the old house which stood 
just south of here, and his neighbors fled from him and abandoned 
him to his fate, Daniel Harrison, ashamed that he should be left to 
die in solitude, with no other protection than a recent vaccination for 
the kine-pox, braved the terrors of the pestilence, and ministered 
to the wants of the dying man. We can pardon many obliquities 
of character in such a man. He was faithful in christian duties, 
giving exhortations and offering prayers in conference meetings, 
and visiting and praying with the sick in his neighborhood, and 
usually, in the absence of Deacon Hart, assisted Deacon Mallory in 
conducting the exercises of public worship. The last struggle 
which he had with an adverse public sentiment was when the 
place of worship was changed by the building of a new meeting- 
house. Although it brought the meetinghouse much nearer to 
him, yet, as a matter of policy, he was decidedly opposed to the 
change, and that opinion, thus formed, he never yielded. His 
argument in society meetings was, that skillful ecclesiastical strategy 
required that the fort, as he called it, should be kept on the fron- 
tier, and that the removal of it into the interior would invite 
invasion from without. He persisted in his opposition, and, I 
believe, never entered the new meeting-house. I believe that at 
one time action on the part of the church was contemplated on 
account of his neglect of public worship and ordinances, but his 
brethren, pardoning much from his great age and his peculiarities of 
character, never proceeded against him, and he was suffered to die 
in peace., 

I had intended to speak of others who were active in building 
up the society and maintaining its permanence and integrity, but I 
find that to do so will encroach upon the time allotted for the other 
exercises of this occasion. I can recall the names of many of 
whom I should like to speak, but they will live in the traditions of 
22 



170 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the parish and in the personal knowledge of many yet surviving, 
and they will not be forgotten, though I am compelled to pass 
them by. 

I cannot close without tendering to those now composing that 
ecclesiastical organization my sincere congratulations on its pres- 
ent condition of stability and prosperity, and during the progress 
of human affairs towards the final consummation of all things, may 
this parish continue to meet the obligations of the times as they 
arise, and fullfil its destiny as one of the instruments of God in 
building up his kingdom and accomplishing his work. 



SKETCH OF CHURCH ERECTION AT NORTH CORNWALL. 

BY NATHAN HART. 

Mr. President and Friends : My paper shall have one merit — that 
of brevity. And if in this sketch I misstate facts or give a differ- 
ent version to tradition than some of you have heard, it will be 
because the tradition is not remembered by the " elders " all alike, 
and I have endeavored to give the most probable. 

The great question for this struggling church, after the separa- 
tion — few in numbers, straitened in means, but strong in faith — 
to consider was, a house wherein to worship God. 

The house was built on the ground now occupied by the school- 
house near the Methodist church at the Center. This was a plain, 
barn-like structure, in which many present remember to have 
worshiped. 

In February, 1824, a new move was made to build a meeting- 
house, and a committee appointed to report a plan, but instead of 
a plan, they reported the movement premature. The report was 
accepted. But at the same meeting a vote was passed to build a 
new meeting-house on the public road, near where the old one 
stands, and a committee appointed to go one step further than any 
former committee had been directed to go, viz., to fix on a site. 
This fixing the site of the new house was the rock on which they 
split, and was the beginning of difficulties that resulted in the with- 
drawal of twenty-one names from the roll of the society, and a 
formidable array of names they were, too. This committee stuck 
the stake about where the house of the late Ithamar Baldwin 
now stands. This vote was subsequently reconsidered, and a new 
committee fixed the site a little east of, and nearer the road, where 
the house of Mr. John R. Harrison stands. An effort was now 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 171 

made to unite the two societies, and the matter of building rested 
a few months, only to be agitated again on the failure of the effort 
at union, and a new plan for fixing the site (I use the words of the 
record) was adopted. The standing committee of the society was 
directed to invite a disinterested committee, consisting of Daniel 
Bacon, Morris Woodruff, and Moses Lyman, to fix on a site for 
the new meeting-house, as soon as the sum of $2,500, was sub- 
scribed. They were directed to provide quarters, and pay their 
expenses, But right here a new issue must be decided. It was a 
bold offer of Capt. Noah Rogers, of the ground and a certain sum 
of money, the amount is not known, "provided the house was 
built on the corner where it now stands." This offer was rejected 
at a special meeting held the 22d day of February, 1825. The 
vote was thirty -five yeas, twenty-eight nays, seven neutral; not 
being a two-thirds vote, it was declared not a vote. And about 
this time those favoring building got their grit up, and we find 
them, on the 14th of March, voting to call on the judge of the 
county court to fix the site for the new meeting-house, and this 
place was selected. It is not recorded when the court examined 
the matter, but it must have been between this and the 11th day 
of the following April, for on that day Mr. Julius Hart, Benj. 
Catlin, Uriah Tanner, Chalker Pratt, "Wm. Stoddard, Daniel Wick- 
wire, and Benjamin Sedgwick were appointed a committee to 
sohcit subscriptions to build a meeting-house on the ground fixed 
by the county court, and subsequently Darius Miner and John C. 
Rogers were added to the committee. 

This must have been a trying time to this band of heroes, for 
from April 9th to the 11th fifteen men withdrew from the society, 
which number was increased to twenty-one in a few weeks. But 
they went forward in the strength of a firm purpose, and in the 
face of every difficulty, and subscribed the necessary $2,500. And 
the record of names and amount subscribed by each is preserved. 
It would seem as if these earnest men were deserving of a respite 
from their perplexities, with the money pledged and the stake 
legally stuck, but not so. But with astonishing forbearance we 
find them meeting again in deference to the opposition, and con- 
senting to remove the site to a place opposite Oliver Burnham's 
house, provided a sum was subscribed, within one week, to exceed 
the sum subscribed to build on the site fixed by the county 
court. At the expiration of that time the subscription lacked 
$800 of the necessary amount. 

And now the dove has found a resting-place for her tired wing, 



172 mSTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

and as we look over the weary way the little flock has come, we 
admire the christian patience and forbearance exercised, and we 
admire and love them more and more as it culminates in the 
closing lines of the last vote, in these words: "We do deeply 
regret any circumstance that militates against the union and har- 
mony of the society, and do most cordially, affectionately, and 
sincerely invite all persons, heretofore belonging to it, to unite 
with us in the enjoyment of the privileges on the site estab- 
lished by the court." 

On the 9th of November, 1825, Benjamin Cathn and Chalker 
Pratt entered into a contract with Hiram Vaill to build. How 
much was paid besides the old meeting-house is not stated, but it 
is supposed that the $2,534 subscribed was the amount. But no 
doubt much material was given outside of the subscription and 
contract, for they had a mind to work. In fact, I am told the 
timber for the frame was all given, and the contract included 
everything else. 

Noah Rogers, Benjamin Catlin, and Chalker Pratt were the 
building committee. 

The work once commenced, there was great enthusiasm in prose- 
cuting it. It is to be regretted that there is no record of dates 
or facts in relation to the progress of the work. But I am told 
that many of the society met, and with much trepidation pro- 
ceeded to break ground for the foundation, and that Anson Rogers 
removed the first shovelful of dirt. But a time of much greater 
trepidation attended the taking down of the old meeting-house. 

With a full knowledge of the bitter opposition on the part of 
some, and the inconvenience warm friends and family connec- 
tions would be subjected to, it was like shutting the door to all 
prospects for a union with the old society for generations to come, 
if not for ever. And it is no wonder they hesitated, as it is 
said they did, and one Asa Emmons did bring a suit which cost 
the society $100 to compromise. One account has it, that the 
society met by private understanding early in the morning, fearing 
an injunction would be served on them, restraining them from 
taking the house down, and that before night it was down and the 
largest part removed to this place.* 

Living authorities do not agree upon the day of the month 
whereon the raising of the frame occurred. The best authenticated 



* A recent letter from one of the opposers says, " How large those matters 
seemed then ; how small now ! " T. S. G. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 173 

account fixes the date the 2'7th, 2Sth, and 29th of June, A. D. 
1826. Others have it that it occurred a few days earlier, and ex- 
tended to nearly or quite a week, with an interval of one day on 
which some of those engaged on the work went to Goshen, where 
was ameeting of Masons, St. John's Day occurring on the 24th of 
June, which was Saturday. Hence it appears that the work of 
getting the timber together commenced before the 24th, and that 
the 27th, 28th, and 29th the work of raising the frame was ac- 
compHshed. It is to be regretted that there is no account left of 
the laying of the corner-stone, and that no living person has been 
found who remembers the ceremonies connected with it, or the 
articles deposited within or under it.* A lesson to the present gen- 
eration, and the one just coming on the stage of action, to be 
more careful and particular in preserving in detail matters of in- 
terest connected with all public as well as private matters. The 
dedication is recorded in these words: "The meeting-house in the 
2d ecclesiastical society in Cornwall was dedicated to Almighty 
God on the 11th day of January, A. D. 1827.— C. Pratt, *S'. (7." ■ 

Rev. Walter Smith preached the sermon, and was assisted in 
the services by the Rev. Timothy Stone. Mr. Smith had just 
recovered from his ill health, and the sermon is said to have been 
exceedingly appropriate, and worthy the occasion, and it was re- 
marked by people from other parishes, " that if sending ministers 
to Hartford would enable them to preach like that, it would be a 
good plan to send more of them." 

It was a proud, glad day to the little band when the offering to 
Almighty God was made, free from debt. It was in architecture 
and finish far in advance of any of the surrounding houses of 
worship, and in their eyes it was a thing of beauty, and no doubt 
will be a joy for ever to many new-born souls that have first learned 
to offer true worship within its sacred walls. 

The slips in the house have been rearranged, and repairs made 
from time to time since. I don't find when stoves were intro- 
duced, but remember well how some of the ladies suffered severely 

* Two verses only remain of a poem written for the occasion by Mr. Vaill, the 

builder : 

Here stands the great and noble frame, 
The Christians Temple be its name, 
Erected by the christians of this land, 
And here judiciously let it stand. 

Next, to the minister I would say : 
" May you go on that heavenly way, 
And teach the people of this place 
To seek for true and saving grace." 



174 HISTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

with the headache, who were greatly chagrined afterwards on 
learning that there had been no fire in them. 

The bell was purchased in 1844, and gave out its clear, musical 
call to worship for a Sunday or two, when one morning the bell- 
ringer, on pulling the rope, could get no sound from its hollow 
throat, which was accounted for some days after, when the tongue 
was found in a mowing-field some distance from the church, and it 
is said "that Wm. Clark remarked that they could not hide it so 
but what he could find it." 

Ambrose S. Rogers had the honor of drawing the first stick of 
timber. It was white oak, and was cut from the woods near 
where the tables are set. It forms one of the corner-posts. A 
pillar that grew upon my father's land was white wood, as straight 
as a candle, and I have often seen the stump from which it was 
cut. There is a silver half-dollar on each side the star on the apex 
of the spire, Noah Rogers and William Clark each giving one 
for that purpose. The workmen employed were boarded for ,$1.00 
per week, and most of them were good feeders, and were amply 
supplied.* 

If I had ability to garnish the facts with fitting words, and ade- 
quate to express the self-sacrificing labors of those heroic men, 
some of you would think I was talking for effect. Those were 
days that tried men's souls, and the virtues displayed were akin 
to those of IV 7 6, and to us they speak in thunder tones, "Keep 
those things which are committed to you, and hand them down to 
future generations intact and untarnished." 

ANNIVERSARY HYMN. 

BY MRS. C. E. BALDWIN. 

Air, ^'America." 

On this glad day of days, 
Father, help us to praise 

Thy name alone. 
Nobler than sacrifice 
Our thankful prayers shall rise 
Like incense thro' the skies, 

E'en to Thy throne. 

* Every forest was laid under contribution. No choice stick was exempt. I 
have seen the stump (white oak), still undecayed, in my east woods, which fur- 
nished the north sill. The original pulpit, very elaborate, and gallery front 
were of butternut, stained, resembling mahogany, as was much of the rest of 
the wood work. T. S. G. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 175 

Man formed with patient toil, 
Thou fiU'dst with beaten oil 

This lamp of grace, 
Then bright its flame did shine 
With radiance all divine, 
A glory caught from Thine, 

Illumed the place. 

By Thy creative power. 

Thy fostering sun and shower 

This palm-tree grew. 
And olive, box, and pine, 
And richly-fruited vine 
Feared not destroying rime, 

Nor woodman knew. 

O lamp of life ! still burn, 

O palm-tree ! heavenward turn. 

Nor ever cease. 
O olive-tree ! endure ; 
Sign of God's presence sure, 
Christ's legacy most pure. 

Emblem of peace. 

Father of lights, above. 
From Thy great heart of love. 

Our own inspire. 
May all, Thy goodness sing. 
Till heaven's wide arch shall ring ; 
Let all their tributes bring. 

And swell the choir. 

OTHER RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

Methodists. — Although the Congregational order was the one 
established here in the early settlement of the town, the Methodists 
were early introduced by the preaching of the Rev. Messrs. Garret- 
son and Wigdon in 1770. A Mr. Bloodgood preached here in 
1788, and about the same date the Rev. Henry Christie. The first 
Methodist meeting-house was built in May, 1808. It was the 
building now owned and occupied by Jacob Sandmeyer as a resi- 
dence (1870), on the old turnpike easterly of William Baldwin's. 
The land was the gift of Capt. Edward Rogers. 

The new Methodist church at the Center was erected in the 
year 1839; also, a few years later, a church 'was built at Cornwall 
Bridge. 

Gurdon Rexford, brother of Samuel Rexford, was a Methodist 
minister, and settled on Cream Hill. 

The Rev. Gurdon Rexford Dayton, a Methodist minister, a 
native of Goshen, preached in Cornwall for two years, about 
1821-22. He resided in East street, opposite the Birdsey place. 
His peculiar amiableness and pleasant manners endeared him to 



176 HISTOET OF COENWALL. 

all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance. He was also inter- 
esting as a preacher. The funeral sermon of old Mr. James 
Wadsworth was delivered by him at the house of the deceased on 
Cream Hill, in which he used the very appropriate quotation: 

" The chamber where the good man meets his fate, 
Is privileged above the common walks of life." 

Those who remember the exemplary piety of Mr. James Wads- 
worth, his fervent prayers and kind, persuasive exhortations, will 
fully appreciate the applicability of these lines on such an occasion. 

The Rev. Gad Smith, a young Methodist minister who used to 
preach in Cornwall some fifty or sixty years since, is deemed 
worthy of particular notice. A native of Sharon, he obtained a 
classical education at the academy of the Rev. Daniel Parker, in 
Ellsworth. He was a good scholar and a most exemplary christian. 
As a preacher, he was solemn, earnest, and effective. He was not 
long permitted to preach the gospel, but he fell an early victim to 
consumption. His grave is in the burial-ground on the Sharon 
road, a little distance beyond the late residence of Mr. Silas Gray. 
His earnest piety and the fragrance of his many virtues embalm 
his memory and hallow the spot of his sepulture. 

Many other pious and worthy ministers of the gospel have 
preached their one and two years in Cornwall since the first intro- 
duction of Methodism into the town. 

Baptists. — In the summer of 1800 Samuel Wadsworth, son of 
Mr. Joseph Wadsworth, then living on Cream Hill, and a grandson 
of Mr. James Douglass, was baptized by a Baptist mmister in the 
Cream Hill lake. This ceremony from its novelty at the time 
attracted a large attendance of people. There may have been 
Baptists here at an earlier day, but no accessible records furnish 
data of their existence in this town previous to the above date. 
Among the early Baptist preachers in Cornwall were the Rev. 
Messrs. Bates, Fuller, and Talmadge. Elder Fuller, the father of 
Mrs. Deacon Nettleton, had not a permanent residence in this 
town, but often preached at the house of Captain Samuel Wads- 
worth on Cream Hill. He was peculiarly solemn and earnest in 
presenting his subject to his hearers, sometimes exciting to tears 
even the children, who would listen to him in breathless silence. 
His residence was in Kent, where some of his descendants yet 
remain. 

Lieutenant Nettleton, who perished in New Orleans during the 
late rebellion, was a grandson of Elder Fuller. He was a worthy 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 177 

descendant of his sainted grandsire. Colonel Charles D. Blinn is 
also a descendant of this noble ancestry. 

Elder Talmadge was a very worthy man, and lived on the farm 
now belonging to Mr. Franklin Reed. 

The first Baptist church was erected about sixty years ago, and 
is now occupied as a dwelling by Mr. Elias Scoville. The Baptist 
church in Cornwall Hollow was built about thirty years since, and 
soon after another on Great Hill. , 

Roman Catholic. — A small Roman Catholic church was erected 
at West Cornwall about 1850. 

These, with the two Congregational churches, and chapel now 
building at West Cornwall, in all eight in number, for a population 
of less than two thousand, afford ample accommodations for re- 
ligious worship. 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 

All Historical Address delivered at the Baptist Church in Cornwall 
Hollow, Oct. 19, 1865. 

BY GEN. CHARLES F. SEDGWICK OF SHARON. 

In looking over the inhabitants now dwelling in this locality, 
which, from the earliest settlement of the town, has been called 
Cornwall Hollow, I find but few persons who can date their birth 
back to within the eighteenth century. This fact indicates a great 
change in the persons resident here within the period of my recol- 
lection. My memory in regard to some facts runs back to the last 
year of the last century, and from that time to this, I have en- 
deavored to keep tolerably well posted in regard to the families and 
persons of my old neighbors. One fact in regard to the families 
in this Hollow is noticeable, and that is, the permanence of family 
names. The Harrisons, Hurlburts, Bradfords, Wilcoxes, Merwins, 
Fords, and Sedgwicks, descendants of old families, still remain 
here, or in the near neighborhood, and if the Pendletons could be 
included in this list, they would still occupy nearly all the territory 
of the Hollow proper. 

I have a very pleasant remembrance of the old inhabitants of 
this Hollow, and it is not confined to the limits of Cornwall 
merely, but embraces those portions of Goshen, Norfolk, and 
Canaan which are adjacent. The old gatherings for social enjoy- 
ment and religious worship come up fresh to my recollection, and 
23 



178 HISTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

although the retrospect calls up some memories of friends and 
some memories of incidents that "mind me of departed joys, 
departed never to return," yet it calls up pleasant memories of 
pleasant scenes enacted, and of pleasant friendships formed and 
enjoyed here during the early years of my life, and I now attempt 
to execute a purpose I have long entertained, of gathering up such 
facts and incidents, embraced in the early history of this portion 
of Cornwall, as are within my knowledge, and laying them before 
the present dwellers in this, to me, most interesting locality. 
These facts and incidents, not important, it is true, in the great 
history of the times in which they occurred, but perhaps in some 
degree interesting to those whose parents or grandparents were 
active in accomplishing them, are fast passing into the hazy obscuri- 
ties of antiquity, and will soon be beyond the memory of living 
men. So far as they are matters of record, they may endure; but 
so far as they depend upon tradition, they are fleeting and fugitive. 
I love to dwell upon these scenes of early childhood and of ripen- 
ing manhood. I love to call up the names and persons of the aged 
men and women upon whose lips I have hung in early life, as they 
have told the story of their experiences in the early days of the 
history of this Hollow. This spot, secluded as it is, has not been 
barren of incidents or of names which have marked it as an 
important locality in Cornwall, and I deeply regiet that I did not 
take more pains, while the facts were accessible, to preserve and 
perpetuate the memory of many persons and incidents which are 
now gone into forgetfulness. Such as are within my knowledge I 
now proceed to lay before you. 

This northwestern portion of Connecticut was settled at a much 
later period than any other part of the colony. It was nearly a 
century after the valley of the Connecticut River had been occu- 
pied by the English pilgrims or their descendants, and long after 
that portion of the colony adjacent to the sea had been brought 
under civilized cultivation, that public attention was turned to the 
Western lands, as they were called. A controversy had arisen 
between the colony and the towns of Hartford and Windsor as to 
the title to these lands embracing all the northwestern part of 
Litchfield County, and this controversy existed for several years, 
and it was not till about the year 1730 that this matter was 
adjusted between these towns and the colony by a division of the 
lands. The most valuable portions of them were surveyed and laid 
out into townships in 1732, but the towns of Norfolk, Colebrook, 
and Barkhamsted were unoccupied for nearly thirty years later. 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 179 

The first inhabitants of this town came in 1738 and 1739, and set- 
tled in the central and western portions of the town, taking up 
their home lots, as they were called, building houses, and other- 
wise establishing a municipal organization. This portion of the 
town, the Hollow, seems not to have attracted the attention of the 
original proprietors of the town, as none of them established their 
home lots here. Up to about 1743 all the lands in this locality- 
were common and undivided, owned by the original proprietors of 
the town, and subject to a division among them as regulated by 
the laws of the colony according to the amount of their interest in 
them. On the twenty-sixth day of April of that year (1743), 
Thomas Orton of Farmington purchased of James Smedley of 
Fairfield, one right in the common land in Cornwall, including all 
the lands which had been laid out on it, except fifty acres on 
Cream Hill, where Peter Mallory Hved. Orton laid out most 
of the land on his right in the Hollow, and he also added to his 
domains by purchase from adjoining proprietors, some of whom 
were in Goshen, so that he finally owned a large share of the land 
embraced in the Sedgwick and Hurlburt farms, being more than 
one thousand acres of land. This Thomas Orton was the first 
white inhabitant of Cornwall Hollow. His house stood on the 
high bank south of the brook on which Mr. Merwin's saw-mill 
stands, about sixty rods west of the old Litchfield turnpike. The 
site was pointed out to me by my father more than sixty years ago, 
but all traces of it are now obliterated. Orton remained in the 
Hollow but two or three years, when he removed to Tyringham, 
Massachusetts, and was a very respectable inhabitant of that town 
for many years. Before leaving, he sold the greater part of his 
real estate here to Benjamin Sedgwick of West Hartfoi'd, who was 
the purchaser of the greater portion of it, and the residue to Dr. 
Jonathan Hurlburt of that part of Farmington which is now the 
town of Southington, and these gentlemen entered upon their 
possessions in 1748. 

The first public highway by which access was had to the Hollow, 
was one leading from Canaan to Goshen. It passed over a slight 
depression, in the sandy hills south of the Wilcox farm, along the 
base of a wooded hill, north of the place where the forge formerly 
stood, thence up a steep hill called — I know not why — Hautboy 
Hill, to the residence of Mr. Benjamin Sedgwick, now the site of 
Philo C. Ledgwick's house, thence up the hill by Dr. Hurlburt's 
residence to the west side of Goshen. Traces of this old highway, 
through its whole length to Goshen line, were very distinct, within 



180 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

my recollection. At the top of the hill, above Hurlburt's, it met 
another highway leading from Goshen East street, by the late Mr. 
Merwin's, and thus communication was opened with both parts of 
Goshen, east and west. Nearly all of Goshen, as it then existed, 
was on those two streets, there being then but a very few people at 
the Center. This was the main thoroughfare through the Hollow 
for nearly twenty years. The settlement of the inhabitants, after- 
wards, on the east and west sides of the Hollow compelled the 
abandonment of this road and the opening of others near where 
they now run. The west road by the school-house and up the 
Hollow Hill, as it was called, to the west side of Goshen, was the 
main avenue of travel until the building of the Litchfield and 
Canaan turnpike, in 1799. 

On the old highway first mentioned, Mr. Sedgwick and Dr. 
Hurlburt erected their habitations, the former at the place now 
owned by his great-grandson, Philo C. Sedgwick, Esq., and the 
latter at the place now owned by his great-grandson, Mr. Marcus 
Hurlburt. As those gentlemen, with their families, were the only 
inhabitants of the Hollow for nearly six years, I shall give as 
minute sketches of them as the material at my command will 
allow. 

The first pilgrim of the name of Sedgwick was Major Robert 
Sedgwick, who settled in Charlestown, Mass. in 1637. He was a 
leading, active member of the colony for nearly twenty years. 
"When Cromwell came into power in England, he invited Major 
Sedgwick back, and placed him in command of a body of troops 
who were to operate against the French possessions in Nova Scotia. 
He returned to England, and was immediately sent out with the 
army which was to reduce the island of Jamaica, under General 
Venables, and in a short time he succeeded Venables in the chief 
command, with the rank of major-general. He died of sickness 
in Jamaica, in May, 1656, leaving three sons, Samuel, Robert, and 
"William. The last-named settled in Hartford, where he married 
Elizabeth, the daughter of the Rev. Samuel Stone, colleague of the 
celebrated Thomas Hooker, the first minister of Hartford. This 
marriage was most unfortunate, and the relation was dissolved m 
a few years by a decree of the Court of Assistants. The only 
fruit of it was a son, Samuel Sedgwick, who was born after the deser- 
tion of his father, whom he never saw, and from this son of 
"William, born under such circumstances, have descended all the 
Sedgwicks whom I ever knew. He inherited some estate from his 
mother, and on arriving at maturity he became the owner of a 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 181 

valuable farm in West Hartford, which is situated about one mile 
south of the church in that town. There he raised a family 
of ten children, and died in 1739. His youngest child was Benja- 
min Sedgwick, who w^s born in 1716, married Anna Thompson of 
Wallingford, and for awhile was a merchant in West Hartford. 
Thomas Orton, whom we have mentioned, married a sister of Mr. 
Sedgwick, and, in 1748, sold to him his lands here, as we have 
before stated. 

Mr. Sedgwick, having erected his house, entered vigorously upon 
the clearing up of his farm, which contained some six or seven 
hundred acres of land in Cornwall, Goshen, Canaan, and Norfolk. 
He erected a saw-mill on the stream which passes through the 
farm, at the place where the forge once stood, at the foot of Haut- 
boy Hill, and encountered the labors, trials, and privations incident 
to the early opening of new countries to civilized occupation. The 
forests in this region were well tenanted by bears, deer, wolves, 
turkeys, and other animals which tempt the skill and adventures of 
early settlers, but I do not know that he ever entered, to any great 
extent, into these sports. One adventure, which was related to me 
by Samuel Wilcox, is undoubtedly authentic, as Wilcox knew him 
well. He was at work in his saw-mill, and heard, for several 
hours, the barking of his dog in the woods north of him, and 
when he had completed his work, at sundown, he took his axe, as 
his only weapon, and sought the place where the dog was sound- 
ing the alarm, and found that he had driven a large bear into his 
den. This den, which was shown to me by Mr. Wilcox, is about 
forty rods north of my late father's residence, and is still in good 
preservation, although somewhat reduced in capacity by the 
removal of a part of the stones which formed one side of it, when 
the house built for my late uncle Benjamin was erected, in 1809. 
When Mr. Sedgwick came to the aid of the dog, the bear rushed 
from the covert upon him, threw him down, and he would soon 
have fallen an easy prey to the violence of the enraged animal, 
but the dog, faithful to his master, seized him with a fearful grip 
behind, which caused the bear to turn upon the dog, and Mr. Sedg- 
wick took the opportunity to bury his axe-blade in the back -bone 
of the bear. Mr. Sedgwick died at the early age of 42, He 
was a man of christian character and profession, and was chosen 
deacon of the church in Cornwall some time before his death, and 
he is called Deacon Sedgwick in the traditions of the Hollow. 
His death was very sudden, on the 7th of February, 1787, from 
apoplexy. It occurred in the night. His wife, awakened by his 



182 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

groans, found him in a dying condition, and before the attendance 
of Dr. Hurlburt could be procured, he had ceased to breathe. 
His epitaph is concise, and very expressive of the manner of his 
death: 

" In an instant he is called 
Eternity to view ; 
No time to regulate his house, 
Or bid his friends adieu." 

Of his family 1 shall speak in the sequel. 

Of Dr. Hurlburt my record must be brief, as I have only some 
scraps of information concerning him. The name of the family is 
ancient in our State, and, a century ago, prevailed extensively in 
Middletown, Berhn, and Farmington. Dr. Hurlburt came from a 
locality called Panthorn, which is within the present town of 
Southington, then a part of Farmington, and emigrated to the 
Hollow with Deacon Sedgwick in 1748, having purchased a part of 
Thomas Orton's farm. His son, Ozias, insisted that his father, the 
doctor, was very badly overreached in the bargain. Whether 
Doctor Hurlburt engaged, to any great extent, in medical practice, 
I am not informed, but the fact that he was sent for when Deacon 
Sedgwick was in his extremity, indicates that some reliance was 
placed upon his medical knowledge. I have seen some entries 
made by him in an old account book, now in possession of his 
grandson, Frederick Hurlburt, describing the constituents of sev- 
eral kinds of medicine, which indicate that he had a considerable 
knowledge of chemistry for those times. He died in 1779, at the 
age of 79. He had three sons, Ozias, Jacob, and Hart, the last of 
whom died, when a young man, of consumption. The tradition 
was, in my early years, that he had a supernatural premonition of 
his approaching fate, and that an audible voice came to him from 
the old grave-yard, that his days on earth were numbered. He 
was always spoken of as a most amiable and lovely young man. 

Those two families, Sedgwick and Hurlburt, were the only fam- 
ilies residing in the Hollow for more than six years. Their nearest 
neighbor in this town was the Rev. Solomon Palmer, the first min- 
ister of Cornwall, who lived where Earl Johnson lately lived. 
The road was opened to the town street from the Hollow at the 
first coming of Orton, except that part of it which crossed the 
mountain range west of the Hollow. It was nearly in the same 
place which it now occupies. The grade over the hill has been 
greatly improved within the last thirty-five years. Samuel Oviatt, 
from Milford, had located himself in Goshen, on the hill above 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 183 

Edwin Merwin's, where the large stone chimney is still standing, 
and even after Fowler Merwin, also from Milford, while yet a sin- 
gle man, commenced clearing up the farm which he occupied till 
his death; but it was not till 1754 that any further permanent set- 
tlement was made in the Hollow. These naturally commenced on 
the west side, that being nearer the center of the town and more 
inviting, from the general appearance of the country. The road 
from Goslien west side was extended through to Canaan in 1760 
on the lay which it now occupies, and that over Haixtboy Hill 
was naturally abandoned. There was no road on the east side of 
the Hollow for many years from Canaan to Goshen, and after it 
was built on that side there was a strong rivalry for the travel 
between the two; but it greatly preponderated in favor of the west 
side till the building of the turnpike, when it turned the other way. 

There is a misty tradition that a man of the name of Abbott 
lived somewhere in the Hollow at a period perhaps somewhat 
earlier than 1754, but I have not been able to locate his residence, 
or to determine when he left the place. 

The earliest permanent settler in the Hollow, after Sedgwick and 
Hurlburt, was Solomon Johnson, whose father, Amos Johnson, the 
patriarch of all the old Johnson family in Cornwall, came from 
Branford at the earliest settlement of tlie town. Amos Johnson 
was a large land-holder, his possessions here including all the old 
Bradford farm, and he gave off about fifty acres to his son Solo- 
mon, who built his house where Mr. Lyman Fox now lives. He 
built a saw-mill near the school-house, in company with my mater- 
nal grandfather, Jesse Buel, and the remains of this saw-mill, and 
of the dam, were remaining within my recollection. Johnson 
remained in the Hollow about twenty years, and left in an extra- 
ordinary manner. He had become involved in a lawsuit with 
Jonah Case, who lived at Goshen west side, and told his family 
that he must go and see his lawyer, who was John Canfield, of 
Sharon. He left under that pretence, and was never seen or heard 
of by them afterwards. 

I will now speak of persons and incidents which are within 
my more accurate traditional or personal knowledge, and in giving 
sketches of the old residents, it is natural to begin with the fami- 
lies of the first settlers, Sedgwick and Hurlburt. 

Deacon Sedgwick died in the very maturity of his powers, at 
the age of 42, leaving six children, three sons, John, my grand- 
father, Theodore, and Benjamin, and three daughters, one of 
whom married the Rev. Hezekiah Gold, the second minister of 



184 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Cornwall, and who died at the age of twenty-eight, leaving four 
sons, Thomas, Thomas Ruggles, who were eminent lawyers, Benja- 
min, the father of Col. Stephen J. Gold, and Hezekiah, the father 
of Dr. Gold. Hezekiah was in his very early infancy when his 
mother died. Another daughter of Deacon Sedgwick married the 
Rev. Job Swift, and became the mother of a very numerous and 
respectable family in Vermont. The other daughter married 
Jacob Parsons, Esq., of Richmond, Massachusetts, who removed 
to Broome county, N. Y., while it was yet new, and to a great 
extent uninhabited. 

The second son of Deacon Sedgwick was Theodore, who was 
educated at Yale College, where he graduated in 1765. I have 
heard my grandfather say, that the burden of his education was 
very heavy upon the family, but he lived to obtain an eminence 
of fame and honor, which satisfied them for all their struggles and 
made them happy in the reflection that they had borne them. He 
was a member of Congress under the old confederation, senator 
and representative from Massachusetts under the present Constitu- 
tion, and for one term was Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
He was a tried and trusted friend of Washington, who relied 
much on his aid and counsel in setting the machinery of govern- 
ment in motion under the new order of things. He retired from 
Congress in 1803, and soon after was appointed a Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts, which office he held till his death 
in February, 1813. He left four sons, all of whom were respecta- 
ble lawyers, and three daughters, the youngest of whom, Catharine, 
still survives.* 

The third son of Deacon Sedgwick was Benjamin, who first 
settled in Goshen, and who built the old house still standing near 
the west side cemetery, and there married a Miss Tuttle. He 
removed in a few years to North Canaan and became a merchant, 
and built the house which is yet standing, and was lately occupied 
by his son-in-law, James Fenn, Jr., about one mile east of the four 
corners. He died at the early age of thirty-six, leaving one son 
and four daughters, and a handsome estate to his heirs. 

The oldest son of Deacon Sedgwick, the late General John 
Sedgwick, spent his life upon the old farm which was his father's, 
and reflecting, I marvel at what he accomplished. He was of the 
age of fourteen years when his father died, and all he inherited 

* Miss Catharine Sedgwick resided at Stockbridge, Mass., and was an authoress 
of wide celebrity. She died in 1869. T. S. G. 



. CORNWALL HOLLOW. 185 

was two-sevenths of his father's estate, which was incumbered 
with the support of a young and expensive family. He had this 
advantage over his brothers and sisters, that by the laws of inher- 
itance as they then existed in this colony, in partial imitation of 
the English laws of primogeniture, he received a portion of the 
estate of twice the value of that of each other child; yet from 
such slender beginning, when he had arrived to the age of fifty 
years, and before he had divided ofE a portion of his estate to his 
children, he was the owner of a territory which extends from the 
highway near the school-house, that being his western boundary, 
full two and a half miles eastward into the towns of Goshen and 
Norfolk, and which would average more than a mile in width, an 
ample portion of which had been brought under cultivation from 
a state of Nature. He was never in affluent circumstances, the 
whole income of his farm being devoted to the support of a large 
household and to extending and improving his possessions. Nor 
did his household consist of his own family merely, but he 
employed large numbers of laborers, who and whose families were 
fed from his ample stores — within my recollection there were, at 
jne time, ten dwellings, all but one built of logs, all inhabited, in 
the locality which we call Meekertown, and from them issued 
swarms of laborers to earn their daily bread by their daily labor, 
and many of these found employment and keeping on the large 
and ample domains of General Sedgwick. The table at which he 
presided reminded one of a good-sized country boarding-house, 
and the barrels of pork and beef, and the immense piles of 
vegetables with which his cellar was stored, resembled the supplies 
of an army commissariat. He was a man of very large physical 
dimensions, and performed an immense amount of personal labor. 
He was first a captain and then a major in the army of the 
Revolution, and after the war, a brigadier-general of militia. He 
started to join his regiment at Ticonderoga in December, 1775, 
and on the first night of his absence his house was consumed by 
fire. My father, his oldest son, then ten years old, told me that 
he was called up in the night and informed that the house was on 
fire, and that he awakened to such a degree of consciousness as 
that he remembered to have seen the flames through a knot-hole, 
but overcome with drowsiness he fell asleep again and had nearly 
perished in the flames before he was rescued. General Sedgwick 
was called back by express, and I have heard it said that within 
24 



186 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

one week the frame of a new house was standing on the site of 
the old one. 

General Sedgwick was a man of strict religious principle and 
possessed of undaunted moral courage, never fearing to express 
his opinion before any audience, however large, and his efforts of 
natural, unpretending eloquence were sometimes very effective. 
He was a member of the Legislature of this State at twenty-eight 
sessions, and took an active part in its deliberations, and was once 
a candidate for Congress. He died in August, 1820, at the age of 
seventy-seven years. He had twelve children, eight of whom lived 
to mature years, but now they are all gone to the resting-place of 
man, and his descendants are scattered in a wide dispersion over 
the face of the earth. One of his grandsons, who bore his honored 
name and who had acquired a national fame as a gallant soldier 
and a skillful military leader, sleeps beneath the tall column which 
rises amid the graves in your beautiful rural cemetery, and not the 
stirring battle roll nor the martial trump, not the clash of arms 
nor the shouts of victory "can awake him to glory again." 

It is in order now to speak of the family of Dr. Hurlburt, as 
they were cotemporary with that of Deacon Sedgwick. I have 
already stated all 1 know of the son. Hart Hurlburt, and that 
was told to me by my mother nearly sixty years ago. Dr. 
Hurlburt had two other sons, half brothers, Ozias and Joab, and 
these lived on the farm which he left them. Ozias took the west 
part of the farm and lived on the west road, opposite the old 
burying ground. In his early years he was threatened with con- 
sumption, and never regained any firm health. In view of the 
advantages afforded him, he had cultivated his mind to a remark- 
able degree, and was a most interesting, companionable man in 
social intercourse. He united very early with the Methodist 
church, and frequently took part in public religious services. He 
was a theologian of no mean acquirements, and having read many 
of the master works of the old divines, was well informed on the 
most abstruse points, and could defend his cherished opinions with 
much skill, and, I may say, learning. I heard him say once, that 
he " should have been a crazy man if he had not got shot of the 
doctrine of election." He was a believer in supernatural omens. 
Signs in the heavens, meteoric phenomena and spots on the sun 
were all full of significance to him. I once heard !iim say, that 
he must give it up that a blazing star, as he called a comet, was a 
certain sign of war. It so happened that a comet came witliin the 
reach of our vision just before the war of 1812, and he remem- 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 187 

bered that just such an event occurred just before the old French 
war and the war of the Revokition, and his faith in their premoni- 
tory significance was thus confirmed. It ought to be said that those 
opinions were by no means singular during my childhood; in fact, 
they were very common. He was well versed in modern history, 
especially in regard to the wars of the Duke of Marlborough, and 
would recount the exploits of dukes, marshals, and generals with 
much interest. He said the battle of Fontenoy was the hottest 
battle ever fought under the cope of heaven. He was also a poet 
of no mean pretensions, as well as a theologian, and towards the 
close of his life he published a sermon and several poems, and both 
sermon and poems show abilities which, if cultivated, would give 
the author a respectable position among the v\a-iters of the day. 
He also constructed a Hudibrastic poem in several cantos, descrip- 
tive of men and events in Cornwall, which excited much interest 
in its day, and which was very ingenious and witty. I have heard 
him repeat page after page of it in my childhood, and deeply 
regret that it has gone out of existence. He described most 
humorously the proceedings of the town which led the way to the 
removal of the meeting-house from the top of the hill near Mr. 
Ford's to the valley below. One measure to help forward that 
result was the construction of a road through the valley by Edmund 
Harrison's, to facilitate communication between the Hollow and 
the new meeting-house. The starting point was the fork of the 
roads near the school-house, and the committee who laid the road 
were represented as deliberating whether to follow the old road 
owned by Thaddeus Ford, or to go straight through the land of 
Hurlburt and Bradford, and their final determination was thus 

expressed : 

" We will not go around by Thad. Ford's, 
But cut across the farm of Bradford, 
And bend around close by Ozias, 
For he professes to be pious." 

He spoke of several influential, ambitious men in the town who 
lived in separate sections and led separate factions, and whose names 
are familiar to elderly people present, as follows: 

" Keep Swift in "Warren, Sedgwick north, 
And Patterson on water broth ; 
Give Ned the power and Noah the land. 
And you'll have peace through all the strand." 

It was said that the wife of a large landholder was overheard 



188 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

praying that they might become the owners of all the land that 
joined them, and cantos represented tier as 

" Petitioning to the higher Powers 
For all the land that joins to ours." 

If this old poem had been preserved, I am sure it would be much 
thought of, and read with great interest by the present generation. 

Mr. Hurlburt had three children, Ulysses, Gilman H., and 
Almira. Ulysses was a physician in West Stockbridge, Mass.; 
Gilman was a well-educated, well-bred, pohshed gentleman, who 
taught our school for several winters, and afterwards became a 
physician in Western New York, and his father and mother went 
to reside with him in 1817, and there spent the remainder of their 
lives. The daughter, Almira, was also a well-educated lady, and 
taught our school for several summers. She afterwards became 
the wife of Mr. Bigelow. 

The other son of Dr. Hurlburt was Joab, who lived on the old 
homestead, where his grandson, Marcus Hurlburt, now resides. 
He lived to the advanced age of eighty-six years, and his wife to 
about the same age. He was a shop-joiner, manufacturing plows, 
rakes, and such other agricultural implements as were then in use 
by farmers. He was a man of few words, seldom speaking but to 
give brief answers to questions, but his work was done in the most 
finished manner. He seldom smiled, and I do not believe that 
any one ever heard him raise a loud, hearty laugh. He had a 
strong propensity to undervalue and underrate everything he had. 
His tools were always in perfect order, and yet he would complain 
that they were dull. He had a field of rye which 3delded at the 
rate of 37^ bushels per acre (probably the largest ever raised in 
the Hollow), and when my uncle Benjamin said to him that it was 
a very large yield, he said, " It would have been tolerably good if 
the infernal geese had not eaten it all up." I said to him once, 
when crossing a field of his where a crop was growing, that it 
looked very promising. " It looks pretty well now," said he, "but 
I guess it will all blast." In his household he appeared to a 
stranger to be stern, sullen, silent, and indifferent. He had, however, 
his good traits. In 1816 his son Frederick was visited with a long 
and dangerous sickness, and I frequently watched with him, and I 
never witnessed a more tender and afiectionate solicitude from a 
parent toward a sick child than he exhibited. He also cultivated 
amicable relations with his neighbors, and nobody could complain 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 189 

of ill-treatment from Uncle Joab, as we used to call him. His 
wife was a pattern of meek,- quiet piety, and they had a large 
family. His sons, Frederick and Rodney, are all of them whom I 
know to be living. 

A man of the name of Wilham Tanner settled in the Hollow as 
early as 1755, on the spot where Mr. Bber Harrison now lives. 
He also owned the Ford place. His father, of the same name, 
was from Rhode Island, and was in the town at its first settle- 
ment, and lived in the south part of it. The younger William 
lived in the Hollow more than twenty years, when he sold to Dan- 
iel Harrison and Thaddeus Ford, and himself removed to the 
locality called Dudleytoion. From his very large person, and to dis- 
tinguish him from others of the same name, he was called Great 
Tanner. I saw him once in his extreme old age, but I had only a 
short interview with him, and knew but a very little about him. 

The Harrisons in the Hollow are the descendants of two 
brothers, Daniel and Noah Harrison, who removed into the town 
from Branford, in 1763. Daniel lived on the hill, where the Net- 
tletons have since lived, and he was the father of Daniel, Jr., Joel, 
and Luther Harrison. He died when I was very young, and his 
was the first burial I ever witnessed. Noah Harrison, the younger 
brother of Daniel, I remember very well. He was the father of He- 
man Harrison, deceased, and of Edmund Harrison, still living at a 
very advanced age.* The old house which Noah Harrison occupied is 
still standing, and it looks as it did sixty years ago.f Mr. Harrison 
and his son Heman occupied the farm on which their descendants 
now reside. The father, Noah, was distinguished for his skill in 
subduing, taming, and breaking to the yoke wild young cattle. 
We were frequently summoned over from our side of the Hollow 
to work on the road in that neighborhood, the highway district 
extending to Pond Brook, and on such occasions we were fur- 
nished with a sumptuous dinner at the Messrs. Harrisons, and I 
well remember how I relished the baked Indian puddings which 
formed part of the dinner. Noah Harrison lived to a good old 
age. His son Heman, whom T have mentioned, was distinguished 
for his quiet, industrious, thrifty habits, and seemed to be a timid, 
bashful man, very seldom speakmg when he was in company, and 
was seldom seen abroad. He died at a comparatively early age. 

Daniel Harrison, the son of Daniel Harrison of whom I have 

* Mr. Edmund Harrison died in 1866, aged 98 years and 4 months. T. S. G. 
t The brown house, still standing but unoccupied, near the residence of Luman 
Harrison. It is the oldest house in town. ■ T. S. G. 



190 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

spoken, was a man of marked and positive character, which would 
make him a leading man in any circle in which he moved. He 
seemed to have been literally horn to command, and his right 
to that precedence was always acknowledged by his neighbors. If 
a building was to be moved, and long strings of teams marshaled 
to do it, universal consent awarded the direction of affairs to him, 
and his stern and assuming demeanor in directing the movements 
partook largely of the character of imperial dictation. He would 
call the men to order by a few smart raps upon the building with 
his ox goad, and woe to the wight who was found recreant in that 
interesting moment. When he ordered the forward movement, 
his eye was upon every part of the performance; and when he 
ordered a stop, forward movements instantly ceased. Even down 
to old age, whenever a building was to be moved, his services were 
always in demand. I have often worked on the roads when he had 
command of the gang, and it was wonderful to see what entire 
deference was paid to his orders. If he said a large rock was to 
be dug around and removed, all went to work to do it without 
cavil or question. This obedience came from deference to what 
was thought his superior judgment. His manner, when thus in 
command, was stern, sullen, dominant. His words were few and 
pointed, and his will was indomitable. He never retreated or 
gave back a hair's breadth from any purpose he had formed. He 
was employed to draw building stone for my grandfather, and I 
was standing by a bar-way near the house, when he attempted to 
pass through with his team and cart, very heavily laden, when the 
hub of his cart-wheel came up, all standing, against a firmly-set 
bar-post. " Pull away that bar-post," said he. "You can't pull it 
away," said my grandfather. " Yes we can too," said he, and 
many stout hands seized it, and away sagged the bar-post, and on 
went the team. He thought this school district had wronged him 
in not acknowledging and paying a small claim he had against it, 
and he declared he would never attend another meeting in the 
school-house till the bill was paid. It was thought that once when 
his own minister, Mr. Hawes, appointed to preach in the school- 
house one afternoon, he would yield his avowed purpose and go to 
hear his minister; but he did not attend, and I heard him say in 
reference to this meeting, that if Gabriel had appointed to preach 
in the school-house he would not have gone to hear him. The 
district finally yielded, and paid the bill, and then all was right 
again. I have frequently heard him testify in court, and have 
admired the positiveness, precision, and conciseness of his answers 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 191 

to questions put to him by counsel. One of the most unpleasant 
positions in which a witness can be placed is to be called upon to 
impeach character, and the qiiestion whether a man is upon a par 
for truth is often evaded, or the answer so modified as to be as 
little offensive as possible; but if you put the question to Daniel 
Harrison he would say ??o, and say no more. He opposed the 
removal of the meeting-house in this congregational parish, 
although it was to be built a mile and a half nearer to him, insist- 
ing that good ecclesiastical strategy required that the fort should 
remain on the frontier. Having thus spoken of Mr. Harrison in 
regard to some traits in his character, it is pleasant to remember 
him in others. He was a man of decided Christian purpose, never 
neglecting public worship when able to a.ttend, and in the absence 
of a clergyman, often assisting good Deacon Mallory in conducting 
the public exercise of worship. He also attended and took part in 
social meetings in the neighborhood, and then his exhortations were 
earnest and his prayers fervent. If any neighbor got behind in 
his work through sickness, loss of team, or other untoward causes, 
he was always ready to lend a helping hand in bringing his neigh- 
bor's matters into a prosperous condition, and to incite others to 
do so. He was remarkably kind to sufferers in times of sickness, 
and would face any danger to relieve them. When Ebenezer Jack- 
son was sick with the small-pox, of which he died in 1799, and 
dismay and terror spread through the town to such an extent as to 
drive all the neighbors away to leave him to his fate, Mr. Harrison 
defied the pestilence, and went to see him and minister to his relief. 
Again, when the spotted fever prevailed to an alarming extent in 
the town in 1812, most people avoided contact or intercourse with 
the sick, but Mr. Harrison was indefatigable in ministering to 
their wants. He was a man of great public spirit, never withhold- 
ing his share of labor or expense to carry forward meritorious 
public objects. He lived to an advanced age, and pleasant memo- 
ries of him survive in the recollection of elderly people in the 
Hollow. 

I now come to speak of the Wilcox family, the patriarch of 
whom was Samuel Wilcox, of whom I have a very distinct per- 
sonal recollection, as he lived down to 1810. He was born in 
Simsbury in 1727, but his father removed to G-oshen as early as 
1748, and lived in Humphrey's Lane, near the East street. The 
name was originally Wilcoxon, and was so written in the Simsbury 
records down to near the commencement of the last century, when 
it was altered by common consent to Wilcox. He purchased in 



192 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

1773 the place where Sylvester Scovill now lives, and lived there 
four years, when he sold that place to Timothy Scovill, and pur- 
chased the farm at the north end of the Hollow, where he spent 
the remainder of his life, and where his descendants now reside. 
He mhabited a log-house as long as he kept house. In the latter 
part of his life, his son, Zadok Wilcox, who had removed to the 
house on the east side of the Hollow, which he occupied till his 
death, took the old gentleman into his family. He was familiarly 
called Uncle Sam, and was a noted hunter and trapper, and the 
latter years of his life were principally occupied in telling stories 
of his adventures among these mountains in pursuit of bears and 
deer, whose haunts and dens and lurking-places were as familiar to 
him as the fields of his own farm. He killed twelve bears during 
the hard winter, as it was called, in 1780, as well as very many 
deer. These kinds of game, as well as wild turkeys, were very 
abundant in all these parts then. He called his favorite musket 
Old Stagpole, and he kept it hung on wooden hooks in his house 
during his life. He made all the ox-yokes and bows that were used 
in these regions, and they were finished specimens of workmanship. 
He was a disbeliever in the Copernican system of astronomy, and 
could not be persuaded that the world revolved. He was well 
read in the scriptures, and a strong believer in the Arminian sys- 
tem of divinity. He was a strong tory in the revolutionary war, 
and I once heard him say, " I did not join in this rebellion against 
good old King George," and then he would sing out in a kind of 
plaintive intonation, " Shame, British hoysy He was in the habit of 
using great extravagance in his comparisons and descriptions. A 
great thing was as big as the ocean, and a tall person as high as 
the clouds. If he wished to speak well of any thing or any per- 
formance, he would say that it was hloody good, or done Moody 
well. I remember hearing him describe a sermon preached by 
parson Bobbins of Norfolk, in Goshen, during the ministry of 
the Rev. Mr. Newell. His text was, " I gave her a space to re- 
pent, and she repented not." Said he of the preacher, "He 
stretched his little arms from Torrington to Canaan almost, and he 
preached bloody well." His company was very much sought by 
the youth and children to listen to the numberless stories he could 
tell of his exploits in hunting game and killing rattlesnakes, some 
hazardous adventures of the latter kind being frequently inter- 
mingled in his relations. He died from mere decay, at the age of 
ninety years, without any apparent distress, and I have a very 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 193 

pleasant remembrance of my intercourse with him during the years 
of my childhood. 

His oldest son was Zadok Wilcox, whose history and character 
ought to be preserved, and who is remembered with much interest 
by the elderly people in the Hollow. He was, upon the whole, a 
remarkable man. His log-house stood, when I first knew him, near 
a great rock just north of where the brook comes close upon the 
highway north of the Pendleton farm ; and there were born to him 
a somewhat numerous family. When the building of the Litchfield 
turnpike turned the course of travel to the east side, his habitation, 
now standing, was there erected, and there he spent the remainder 
of his days. He possessed remarkable conversational powers, and 
was the life and soul of every circle in which he mingled. His 
educational advantages must have been very limited, yet I never 
knew a man in common life who could command more appropriate 
and pertinent language to express his thoughts than he could. 
He possessed a loud, clear voice, which was heard above all others 
whenever he spoke. His statements were frequently illustrated by 
appropriate anecdotes, of which he possessed an exhaustless fund, 
and whenever he visited a family circle, his leave-taking was re- 
gretful to the household, and he was urged to prolong his stay 
to the last possible moment. He was the dentist of the neighbor- 
hood, extracting all the teeth that demanded that operation. He 
used a darning needle to remove the adhesive flesh from the 
doomed tooth, and the instrument with which he extracted it he 
called a hawlc's hill. I remember he performed the operation for 
me when I was quite a child, and almost before I could utter the 
scream which the pain of the pulling forced from me, he pro- 
claimed three times in a loud voice, '■'IVs out, out, outf^ He was also 
the great songster of the neighborhood; some of his songs were of 
a serious, sentimental cast. Dwight's Columbia and Burns's Mar- 
iner's Farewell were favorites with him. He also frequently sang 
Garrick's song, written in admiration of his Peggy. As this song 
has gone out of the books, I will repeat a verse or two as I remem- 
ber it from his hps : 

Once more I'll tune my vocal shell, 

O'er hills and dales my passion tell ; 

A flame which time can never quell, 

Still burns for thee, my Peggy. 

Yet greater bards the theme have hit, 
And say what subject is more flt. 
Than to record the sparkling wit 
And bloom of lovely Peggy. 
25 



194 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

While bees from flower to flower do rove, 
Or linnets warble in the grove, 
Or stately swans the rivers love, 
So long shall I love Peggy. 

I stole a kiss the other day, 
As she to church was on her way ; 
The fragrance of the blooming May 
Is not so sweet as Peggy. 

Some of his songs partook of a coarse kind of wit, and were well 
adapted to excite mirth and hilarity, and were heard with great 
delisrht. One of these commenced with this stanza: 

o 

There was an old woman in our town, 

I have heard some tell, 
Who loved her husband dearly, 

But another man quite as well. 

He adopted the Protestant Episcopal form of church government 
as the true rule, and adhered to it during his life. He made loud 
and clear responses in the public celebration of worship when it 
was conducted in that form, and the ceremony was quite deficient 
of interest when he was absent, which was very seldom; and in 
the choral exercises his voice was prominent and his help indispens- 
able. He was a man of good, placid, even temper, and I have no 
doubt died without an enemy. His decease was very sudden, from 
apoplexy, in 1821. I called on him about three weeks before his 
death, and I never saw him in better humor or in finer spirits. I 
am told that no grave-stone mai'ks his resting-place. This is not 
creditable to his descendants. 

Another son of Samuel "Wilcox was Joseph Wilcox, the father 
of Russell Wilcox, Esq. Joseph Wilcox lived many years in the 
Hollow. He was a blacksmith by trade, and his shop stood for most 
of the time during his residence in the Hollow, nearly opposite my 
father's house. He was a hard-working, honest man, who sup- 
ported his family well by his labor, and brought them up respecta- 
bly. He removed to Canaan about 1807. He was a very obliging, 
accommodating neighbor, and between our families there was al- 
ways a very neighborly feeling, and the fiiendships formed between 
the children of the families have been perpetual. I remember 
that my mother shed tears when she parted with Mrs. Wilcox on 
her removal to Canaan. 

There was another son of Samuel Wilcox who must by no 
means be overlooked. Sylvanus Wilcox was his true name, but 
common usage gave him the name of Dr. Todd. He spent a 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 195 

year in Vermont when he was a young man, with a physician by 
the name of Todd, and after his return people commenced, first in 
sport, to call him Dr. Todd, and it finally came to pass that he 
was known and called by no other name. I knew him when he 
was comparatively a young man. In his latter days he was always 
the owner of a good horse, which received unremitted care and 
attention from him, and of which he was always very proud. He 
was social, agreeable, and pleasant in his intercourse with his 
friends, fond of music and dancing, and other social pleasures. 
His last days were clouded by untoward fortunes, and are re- 
membered with regret, but all who knew him have a kind feel- 
ing for the memory of Dr. Todd. 

Captain Eeuben Wilcox was the only son of Zadock Wilcox. 
His mother was a daughter of Joshua Culver of Litchfield, who 
was noted through the county for his great physical power, and in 
his early life for his desperate adventures in rowd3dsm. After 
this statement, it is due to Mr. Culver to say, that in his latter 
years he was a very devoted and useful christian. I heard him 
once deliver a discourse in Meekertown, but I retain no remem- 
brance of the style or power of the sermon. Captain Wilcox had 
more of the Culver than the Wilcox in his complexion and stature. 
He was of a dark hue, very compactly built, of large frame, and 
of personal strength beyond any other man of his time in the Hol- 
low. He was a man of extraordinary strength of memory, and of 
extraordinary acquirements for a man of his position in life. He 
was possessed of more historical facts regarding the men of this 
locality, than any other person living here. He was fond of the 
society of children, and was much addicted to amusing them by 
his anecdotes. I remember he took me with him one day, when I 
was very young, to Walnut Hill, where he was getting out barrel 
staves, for the mere purpose of having my company, and I was 
amused from morning till night by his interesting conversation, 
adapted to the capacity of a mere child. He was free and fluent 
in his conversation, wrote a very handsome business hand, and had 
a very good common-school education. His mind was of a very 
inquisitive turn, and he never gave up an inquiry till he had pros- 
ecuted it to a complete solution. He has frequently asked me the 
meaning of Latin and Greek sentences which he had seen in mot- 
toes, coats-of-arms, and legal maxims, and pursued the inquiry 
till the whole matter was explained. He was well versed in New 
England history, especially that part of it which related to the 



196 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

French and Indian wars, and when he had obtained knowledge 
upon any point which was new, was very ready to communicate it 
to others. He was a man of laborious, industrious habits, and I 
have spent many hours in his shop, seeing him manufacture bar- 
rels, and at the same time keep up a lively and interesting conver- 
sation. His death, Hke that of his father's, was very sudden, of 
apoplexy. It should have been stated before, that he represented 
the town in the Legislature in 1849. 

The first settler on the Pendleton farm was Major Jesse Buel, 
my maternal grandfather. He was a grandson of Deacon John 
Buel, the patriarch of the Litchfield Buels, and a son of Captain 
Jonathan Buel, who Hved on the line between Goshen and Litch- 
field, a little south of Deacon Brooks's residence. His wife was 
Lydia Beach, daughter of Deacon Edward Beach, and she is cele- 
brated in Mr. Power's history of Goshen as the lady who spun seven 
runs of yarn in one day, and who bore off the palm of victory 
over several competitors. Her father, who was my great-grand- 
father, and Major Buel's mother, who was my great-grandmother, 
lived to within my recollection, and I have seen them both. I 
have also seen my own grandchildren, making six generations in 
one line of descent. Major Buel came to the Hollow about 1770, 
and built the house which stood, till within a few years, near the 
present residence of Mr. Yale. His children were all born there. 
He kept the first tavern in the Hollow, and the large amount of 
travel on this route during the Revolutionary war made this a 
somewhat lucrative business. I have heard my mother speak of 
the passage of a part of Rochamb'eau's French army through the 
Hollow in 1781, on its way from Rhode Island to Virginia, to 
assist in the capture of Cornwallis. The officers of high grade 
obtained quarters in the tavern of her father, while the main body 
encamped in the road and fields adjacent. Major Buel remained 
in the Hollow till 1792, when he sold his farm to Increase Pendle- 
ton of Guilford, and himself removed to the south part of Salis- 
bury, his farm adjoining the town of Sharon. His wife Lydia 
died in 1789, and she is represented to have been a woman of 
superior excellence and amiability of character. Her epitaph is 
tender and sweet to the feehngs of her descendants, who cherish 
her memory with unqualified respect and veneration: 

Composed in mind, submitted to 

Tlie will of God she dies — 
Bids all her earthly friends adieu, 

Assured in joy to rise. 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 197 

Major Buel died in Salisbury in 1818, at the age of seventy. 
He was a most amiable, genial, and good-humored man, who had 
many friends, especially among the young. 

Mr. Increase Pendleton, who succeeded him in the ownership of 
his farm, was well advanced in life when he came here, and at my 
remembrance of him his wife had died, and he was an old man, 
living in the family of his son, William Pendleton. He retained 
the ownership of the farm while he lived, his sons, William and 
Joshua, cultivating allotted portions of it. He was a large, over- 
grown, sluggish man, who would occasionally walk up and down 
the road, with staff in hand, and was very apt to be out when the 
crops were divided between himself and his sons. His daughter 
Julia, afterwards the wife of Uri Merwin, lived with him, and 
appeared to care for him with all proper attention. His sons 
William and Joshua were active, stirring men, who raised large 
famihes. Joshua removed to the West many years ago, but Wil- 
liam remained here during his life. 

Thaddeus Ford, from Guilford, whose wife was a sister of Abra- 
ham and Oliver Hotchkiss, lived at the foot of the hill, a little west 
of the residence of his son, the late Samuel Ford, and within a rod 
of the old school-house. He also erected a small building in the 
gorge of the hills above him, in which he had an apparatus for 
running a spinning-wheel by water-power, and there I have wit- 
nessed the operation of a female drawing off the threads from a 
distaff of flax with both hands, at a very rapid rate. Mr. Ford 
was a man of decided opinions and purposes, and had his own 
peculiar way of expressing them. He had a peculiar kind of ges- 
ture, with closely-clinched fingers and extended thumb, and when- 
ever the neighbors undertook to repeat his assertions, they would 
accompany the recital by an imitation of his gesture. He some- 
times made in the carelessness of his emotions curious blunders in 
the inversion of syllables and the misplacing of words. I remem- 
ber once to have heard him finding fault with the manner in 
which William Pendleton had constructed a box for the deposit of 
the ashes made at the school-house, and intending to say ash-hox, 
he called it ax-bosh, and his thumb was out when he said it. He 
had two sons, Zerah and Samuel, both of whom died in this town, 
and his wife and several daughters died of consumption. 

The last of the old settlers in the Hollow was John Bradford, 
who came here from that part of New London which is now Mont, 
ville, in 1783, at the close of the Revolutionary war. He was a 



198 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

direct lineal descendant of the Pilgrim Governor Bradford of Ply- 
mouth colony. He hved where his grandson, Fowler Bradford, 
now resides, having purchased the farm of Amos Johnson. He 
was a very quiet, retired, affable man, always very neat in his per- 
son and dress, and much given to a dry kind of waggery and 
story-telling, which would call out a jolly laugh from bystanders. 
He was very fond of telling anecdotes, and would entertain any 
social circle by his pleasant humor and salient jokes. He attended 
all the religious meetings of the different denominations who cele- 
brated their worship here, and I never heard a profane or vulgar 
word from his lips. His only son, James F. Bradford, who lived 
where his son-in-law, Lyman Fox, now lives, was a man of quicker 
movements and more personal activity than his father. If he 
called on a neighbor on business, he was always in a hurry to have 
it accompHshed, and he would be off in a twinkling as soon as it 
was done. He was of untiring industry, and very successful in 
acquiring property. 

I might extend these imperfect sketches of individuals to an 
indefinite length, but they would be of persons well known to 
many present, and would protract this talk to an interminable 
prolixity. I have spoken of every man I remember to have been 
a householder here sixty years ago. 

The first school-house in the Hollow stood at the foot of Ford 
Hill, as we used to call it, on the road leading westerly from the 
late residence of Samuel S. Ford. It stood directly in front of 
the house of Thaddeus Ford, and it seems to me within one rod 
of it; so near, at least, that much of the conversation in the family 
could be heard distinctly in the school-house. I now remember 
but two of my old schoolmates who now reside in the Hollow, 
who attended school with me in that school-house, to wit, Eber 
Harrison and Olive Cowles (now Mrs. Reuben Wilcox). The 
Baldwins, Ithamar, Noah, and Wilham, and Stephen How, are 
the only other survivors of those who attended school there that I 
now remember. The school-district then extended to Canaan line, 
north of Deacon Nettleton's, and embraced the families of Joel and 
Luther Harrison and Joseph Cowles. After the school-house had 
been removed to the place which it now occupies, the gentlemen 
just named took measures to be annexed to the Cream Hill district, 
and an earnest controversy was had in the town-meetings on the 
question of their being set off. I well remember the close and earn- 
est canvass which was made, and the drumming up of voters in the 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 199 

Hollow to resist the application, as well as the chagrin and disap- 
pointment which prevailed when the town voted to set off the ap- 
plicants according to their request. My uncle Benjamin was the 
collector of the tax which was levied to build the new school-house, 
and a lawsuit to test the legality of his levy on the property of Joel 
Harrison was tried before the Superior Court at Litchfield. The 
levy was sustained by the judgment of the court. 

The school-house which stood till within a few years on the site 
of the present house, was built, I think, in 1804. I am told that 
the district records, which would fix the date precisely, are lost. 
The first and last clerk of the district whom I knew in that oflBce, 
was James F. Bradford, and the first moderator of a school-meet- 
ing at which I was present, was Ozias Hurlbut. The teachers, 
whose school I remember to have attended in the old school-house 
at the foot of Ford Hill, were Dr. Everest, whose father lived in the 
South Society, my uncle Roderick Sedgwick, Gilman Hurlburt, 
Almira Hurlburt, and Clarissa Steele. The first school in the new 
house was kept by Henry Baldwin. Miss Steele kept the last 
school in the old house, and the first summer school in the new. 
Her subsequent history was eventful. In the summer of 1806 
she was employed to keep the school on Canaan Mountain, and 
there a maniac of the name of Isaac Baldwin attempted to assasi- 
nate her in the school-house, after she had dismissed her school 
for the day. He belonged to Litchfield, was of a highly respecta- 
ble family, and a graduate of Yale CoUege of the class of 1801. 
He seems to have entertained a passionate fondness for Miss Steele, 
which, in his state of mental derangement, she could not recipro- 
cate, and in desperation determined to take her life. He entered 
the school-house at the close of the school, and with a knife in- 
flicted several dangerous wounds upon her face and neck, nearly 
cutting oif the lower part of an ear, but her resolute resistance, 
and the coming in of two or three women whom her cries had 
alarmed, prevented the consummation of his purpose. She lin- 
gered a long while between life and death at the house of Joshua 
Munson, and finally recovered a tolerable degree of health. She 
had been an inmate of my father's family, and went from our 
house to the Mountain school. I went to see her two or three 
days after she was injured, and found her under the care of _Dr. 
Humphrey of Norfolk, a young physician who had just commenced 
practice. Soon after her recovery she became the wife of Dr. 
Humphrey, but she lived but a little more than two years after her 



200 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

marriage with him. I was living in Norfolk at the time, and 
was present at her bedside when she breathed her last. Baldwin 
fled to the mountain north of the school-house, but was arrested 
within twenty-six hours after he had attempted to take the life of 
Miss Steele. I remember to have seen him in a day or two there- 
after on his way to Litchfield on horseback, under the care of 
Sheriff Landon, with his hands pinioned behind him. He was 
tried for the act, but was acquitted on the ground of insanity, but 
was kept in confinement till his father removed to the West and 
took him with him. 

About the year 1780 General Sedgwick erected a forge on the 
stream which runs through the east side of the Hollow just above 
where it enters the meadow lands, and there grew up a small 
business hamlet. Large quantities of iron were manufactured 
from the Salisbury ore, and two dweUing-houses were erected near 
the forge, which afforded accommodations for several families of 
the operators. A shoemaker's shop was also built, where that 
business was carried on 'by Benjamin Palmer, who came to the 
Hollow from Barkhamsted. This last mentioned building was 
occupied one summer for a neighborhood school, which was kept 
by Mrs. Bierce, wife of Joseph Bierce, who was also a shoemaker, 
and lived in one of the houses in the hamlet. This school I at- 
tended, being then probably about seven years of age. Joseph 
Wilcox here erected his first blacksmith's shop and commenced 
working at his trade, which he followed many years, and also oc- 
cupied, with his family, one of the houses I have spoken of. He 
afterwards removed his shop and changed his dweUing-house up 
the hill to the turnpike road, directly opposite my father's, and 
kept it in operation till 1807, when he removed to Huntsville, or 
Ireland, as it was then called. This shop was a great place of re- 
sort for the men of the neighborhood on ' rainy days, and all the 
common topics of the day, public and private, received ample dis- 
cussion and appropriate criticism. After Mr. Wilcox removed to 
Canaan the shop was carried on by Dudley Henderson, afterwards 
of Goshen, and when he gave it up the blacksmith's business in 
the Hollow ceased to be prosecuted. The forge was destroyed by 
fire in 1803, as near as I can remember, and the buildings which 
stood around it gradually disappeared, and not a vestige of any of 
them now remains. 

General Sedgwick also erected a grist-mill on the same stream, 
about sixty rods above the forge, which did a good business ac- 



CORNWALL HOLLOW. 201 

cording to the extent of its accommodations, there being but one 
pair of stones in it. I have heard my grandfather say that it 
yielded him one hundred bushels of grain annually clear of all de- 
ductions. The house built for the miller was the first built on the 
east side of the Hollow, which stood in Cornwall. As early as 
1770 Jeremiah Harris had built a house over the Goshen line 
where Mr. Lawton lately lived, and owned a farm of about one 
hundred and thirty acres. He sold this to General Sedgwick in 
1783. The farm contained all the land which was owned by ray 
uncle Henry, now owned by Erastus Merwin, which lies in Goshen, 
and extends around the saw-mill pond, and up to the hill east of 
it. The first miller was a Mr. Ensign, the next was Theron Beach, 
uncle of the late Theron Beach, Esq., of Litchfield, who, when the 
mill was still for want of custom, used to weave cloth for the 
neighbors, his loom' standing in the upper loft of the mill. The 
miller's house was the one occupied by Joseph Wilcox after he 
removed up the hill, and was much enlarged by him. 

The next house after the miller's, erected on the east side of the 
Hollow, was the one erected by my grandfather for my uncle 
Heni-y, and it is the one now owned by Erastus Merwin, Esq. ; and 
in that house I was born, my father and mother living in the same 
house with his brother while their house was being built. My 
iincle Henry kept a tavern for several years, and in his house all 
the dancing parties were held which I ever knew of in the Hollow, 
and they were not infrequent in my early days. The next house 
on that side was that erected for my father, and next to that the 
house by the saw-mill, which were all on that side till the Wilcox 
family removed their habitations. General Sedgwick apportioned 
to each- of the three sons I have mentioned, John, my father, and 
Henry, more than one himdred acres of land, and built a new 
house and barn for each. The mill of which I have spoken was 
carried off by a freshet in 1805-6. The immediate cause of its 
destruction was the breaking away of the saw-mill dam above it. 
A heavy rain produced such a pressure upon the dam that it 
yielded, and the rush and roar of the waters was terrible. The 
turnpike bridge, a small saw-mill which had been erected by my 
uncle Henry, and the grist-mill, were all borne off like a feather 
upon a gale of wind. The millstones, which weighed more than a 
ton each, were carried more than twenty rods, and deposited in the 
bottom of the stream. In 1816 they were purchased by Captain 
Jonah Lawrence, of North Canaan, and placed for use in a mill 
which he built that year. 
26 



202 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

General Sedgwick also erected a saw-mill on the spot where that 
owned by Mr. Merwin now stands, before the comnaencement of 
the present century. This mill stands in Goshen, within a rod of 
the line, but the house attached to it is in Cornwall. This mill, 
from my earliest memory, was under the care of Jephtha Merrills, 
a man of singular habits, and of a certain kind of drollery, which 
gave him a considerable notoriety. He was the most perfect 
mimic I ever saw. He would imitate to striking perfection the 
voices of men, women, and beasts, and could set off by droll descrip- 
tions anything and everything that fell under his observation. 
He was a soldier of the Eevolution, and was at the battle of Long 
Island, and exposed to all the perils of the retreat to and from 
New York, and I have often been entertained by his graphic 
descriptions of the scenes of those trying days. His manners and 
deportment were in strong contrast with those of his wife, who was 
a mother in Israel — one of the excellent of the earth. 

There was, from my earliest recollection, a small local congrega- 
tion of Episcopalians, who had stated worship after the forms of 
that denomination, either in the Hollow, or in the next neighbor- 
hood above in Canaan. The meetings were generally held at the 
school-house, but during one summer they were held at Joseph 
Wilcox's, and during one winter they were held at Zadock 
Wilcox's. They were conducted by a lay reader called Deacon 
Howe, although I am not aware that he ever held that office. 
Occasionally, the priest from Litchfield would visit them and 
administer the sacrament, and the service was kept up as long as 
Deacon Howe was able to carry it on, and before he gave it up he 
was assisted occasionally by Captain Reuben Wilcox. I became 
so familiar with that form of worship as contained in their ritual, 
by attending those meetings, that I have retained it ever since, 
and when I worship with Episcopalians I can anticipate every 
successive change in the service. I believe the Episcopal worship 
has not been celebrated in the Hollow for many years. 

The Methodist circuit preacher visited this locality at a very 
early period. The only early Methodists in the Hollow were Ozias 
Hurlburtand his wife, Joshua Saunders and his wife, and the wife 
of Joab Hurlburt; but on the hills of Goshen, adjacent, there 
were several families of that order, and the meetings were well 
9,ttended. But the principal supply of preaching at the Methodist 
meetings was by the Rev. Henry Christie, a local preacher, who for 
many years held stated religious services in the Hollow and its 



CORNWALL 1I(»L1>0\V. ' 203 

• 

vicinity. Mr. Christie lived where the late Henry Baldwin lived, 
and was a tailor by trade. He was the son of an officer in the 
British army who came to this country in the time of the old 
French war, and I have heard him say that he was born in Albany, 
where his father was then stationed. Sometimes, and most of the 
, time, the meetings were held at the school-house, sometimes at the 
house of Ozias Hurlburt, and during one summer at the house of 
David Smith, at the Hollow Hill in Goshen. The minister received 
frequent contributions as the reward of his labor, and the rich west- 
side farmers, Lieut. Riley, Philo CoHins, and Thomas Beach, were 
not stinted in their donations. Mr. Christie was a man .of moder- 
ate abilities as a preacher, but was of an excellent spirit. His ser- 
mons were without method or point, but his prayers were free, 
fluent, and fervent, and he is entitled to a grateful remembrance 
by the people of the Hollow^ for honest service and faithful labor. 
He removed to Ohio in 1837. 

The Congregationalists in the Hollow did not number very 
strong in the early years of this century. There was occasionally 
a conference meeting, and the only persons whom I remember as 
taking part in them were, my grandfather, Mr. Daniel Harrison, 
and Mr. Ichabod Howe. Mr. Hawes, Congregational pastor of 
N orth Cornwall, occasionally held service at Mr. Harrison's, but 
the principal meetings of that order were at the center of the 
parish. 

Nearly fifty years ago stated meetings were commenced here by 
the Rev. Mr. Talmadge, a Baptist clergyman, who was a good, 
sound, sensible preacher, and whose labors were well adapted to 
advance the cause of religion and sound morals in the neighbor- 
hood. The enterprise of this worthy denomination was such that 
they erected, many years ago, a beautiful house of worship, and it 
is among tlie most pleasant incidents of my visiting the Hollow 
during these later years, that I can know that so appropriate a 
place has been provided, and that evangelical christian worship is 
constantly maintained. Christian ordinances are the best conser- 
vators of public morals. 

I have now accomphshed, as far as I am able to do it, the pur- 
pose I undertook in gathering up some historical facts and inci- 
dents relating to the neighborhood in which I was born. I am 
well aware that the work has been very imperfectly done. Very 
few of my old acquaintances remain to assist in bringing up to 
memory the scenes of other days, or the men of other times. It is 



204 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

nearly fifty years since I ceased to have a home among jow, and 
you must be well aware that great changes — perhaps more notice- 
able to me than to you who have remained here — have taken place 
here during the currency of that period. The face of nature, it is 
true, is unchanged. The same sun still comes up from behind that 
spur of the Green mountain range that came up fifty years ago, 
and looking at his fair face to day, I do not perceive that he has 
grown dim with age during that period. The same mountains still 
lift their summits to the storms and defy the thunderbolts, and 
the same beautiful streamlets reflect the moonbeams, and fertilize 
the valley; but in other respects the changes and vicissitudes 
which mark the progress of human afEairs toward the final consum- 
mation of all things are going forward here as they are elsewhei-e. 
Be these changes what they may, or how they may, I shall never 
cease to cherish with fond emotions the memory of my early expe- 
rience in this pleasant locality, and to say from the heart : 

O, give me back my native liills, 

Rough, rugged though they be, 
No other clime, no other land 

Is half so dear to me. 
The suu looks bright, the world looks fair, 

And friends surround me here ; 
And memory, brooding o'er the past, 

Gives home its tribute tear. ' , 

Though far from home, the heart may still 

Reflect surrounding light, 
"When stranger smiles enkindle love, 

And stranger hearts delight ; 
Yet, oh, they call the memory back, 

As meteor-like they glide, 
To tell how kind our early friends, 

How dear our old fireside. 

My native hills, still dear to me 

Wherever I may roam, 
With lofty pride and cherished love, 

I'll think of thee, my home. 
For rooted in thy rock-bound sides 

The noblest virtues grow, 
And beauty's choicest flowers are cuU'd 

From out thy highland snow. 

Then give me back my native hills, 

Rough, rugged though they be, 
No other clime, no other land 

Is half so dear to me. 
Affection's ties around my home 

Like ivy tendrils twine, 
My love, my blessings, and my prayers, 

My native hills, are thine. 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 205 



SOLDIERS OP THE REVOLUTION. 

I cannot give even the names of many of our revolutionary 
heroes, but brief reminiscences of a few are here presented. 

Phineas Hart was a pensioner; lived to about eighty years; when 
over seventy, walked a Journey in one week of over three hundred 
miles. He lived and died at a house on the Canaan road, a little 
north of James Reed's. 

Capt. Edward Rogers, 

the father of Col. Anson Rogers, was an officer both in the French 
and Revolutionary wars. He held a captain's commission during 
the latter. He was a man of good judgment, genial manners, and 
kindness of heart. Whilst he lived his house was ever open, and 
made welcome to the old soldiers, some of whom might almost be 
said to have lived there. A copy of his will, now before me, dated 
April 27, 1 757, bequeathing £100 to his five sisters, and the residue 
of his estate to his brother Noah, was made as stated when he " was 
bound on the expedition against the French." With such a docu- 
ment in hand, we realize the dangers of our forefathers. He was a 
country merchant, a farmer, a manufacturer; he had a potashery 
in Cornwall, and made potash in 1775, as the books show in the 
purchase of ashes and the sale of potash, and long engaged in both 
military and civil service. His papers, still in possession of his 
descendants, show his abundant labors, and in lack of a complete 
list of soldiers furnished by Cornwall, we give a mileage list of 
his company, also an alarm list, which is marked as Capt. Rogers's 
company, though the names of other captains are attached to it. 
Some erasures and some additions on the list as here printed, in 
different ink, indicate it as having done duty for some time. This 
contains all the names on it: 

An Abstract of the Milearje of Capt. Edward Rogers' Company in 

late Col. F. Gay's Regiment, returning at the 

end of the campaign. 

men's names. 
Edward Rogers, Capt., 
Natlimiii'l Hamlin, Lieut., 
IIi-'zli. Aiiilrc'ws, Lieut., 
Jorl llininaii, Eusign, 
Joshua Parmele, Sergt., 
Wm. Avery, do., 

Jacob Williams, do., 
Simeon Barns, do., 
Timothy Doughty, Drummer, 
Samuel Darrow, Fifer, 









MILES 






DISCHARGED 


AT 


RETURNING TO 


dist't. 






North Castle, 




Cornwall, 


77 £0 : 


;0 : 


,5 


do., 




Sharon, 


77 


(!: 


5 


do., 




Canaan, 


87 


7: 


3 


do., 




Woodbury, 


55 


4: 


7 


do.. 




Cornwall. 


77 


(i: 


5 


do., 




Sharon, 


77 


(J: 


5 


do.. 




Canaan, 


87 


7: 


3 


do., 




Woodbury, 


55 


4: 


7 


Philipsborough, 


Sharon, 


83 


(!: 


11 


Norwalk, 




Canaan, 


70 


5: 


10 



206 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



men's names. 
Timothy Knapp, Corporal, 
C4ershom Dormon, do., 



Daniel Harris, 
John Denimin, 
Solomon Emmons, 
Francis Brown, 
Timothjr Rowley, 
Joseph Brown, 
Daniel Harrison, 
James Wilson, 
John White, Sen., 
James Sterling, 
Ichabod Brown, 
Benj'n Carrier, 
Roswel Fuller, 
Aaron Brownell, 
Samuel Partridge, 
David Whitney', 
William Fellows, 
Peter Tooley, 
Asa Cole, 
Ebenezer Pardee, 
Nehemiah Smith, 
Asa Smith, 
John Whitney, 
George White, 
David Lawrance, 
Uriah Williams, 
John Curtice, 
Luke Rowland, 
Jonathan Blinn, 
Samuel Franklin, 
Elisha P'orbhs, 
John Cusehoy, 
Lewis Ilurd, 
Solomon Reynolds, 
Simeon Rood, 
Timothy Johnson, 
David Franklin, 
Andrew Coe, 
• David Douglass, 
John White, 2d, 
Samuel I^amson, 
Elnathan Knapp, 
Daniel Co(m, 
Cornelus Hamlin, 
Thomas Hamlin, 
William Robinson, 
Joel Jackson, 
Asa Hamlin, 
Sluman Abels, 
Peter Pratt, 
David Simons, 
Gamaliel Pardee, 
David Hicock, 
Adam Wagner, 
Daniel l^itter, 
Nathan Bristol, 
Ephraim Herrick, 
Justus Johnson, 
Lemuel Gillet, 
James Daley, 
William Jakways, 
Samuel Sirdam, 
Isaac Cool, 
Samuel Williams, 



do. 
do.. 



DISCHARGED AT 

Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do., 
Norwalk, 
Philipsborough, 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
Philipsborough, 
North Castle, 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do., 
Norwalk, 

do., 
Dead. 
Noiwalk, 

do.. 
North Castle, 
do., 
do., 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
Norwalk, 

do.. 
North Castle, 

do.. 
Dead. 
North Castle, 

do., 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
Dead. 

North Castle, 
in Captivity. 
North Castle, 
Dead. 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 

do., 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
I'hilipsborough, 
North Castle," 
Philipsborough, 
Norwalk, 
North Castle, 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do., 
Dead. 

in Captivity, 
Norwalk, 
do., 
do., 
North Castle. 





MILES. 




RETURNING TO 


dist't. 




Cornwall, 


60 


5: 


Sharon, 


77 


6: 5 


Canaan, 


70 


5:10 


Woodbury, 


.55 


4: 7 


Cornwall, 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do., 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


60 


5: 


do.. 


83 


6:11 


do., 


60 


5: 


do., 


77 


6: 5 


Canaan, 


93 


7: 9 


do., 


87 


7: 3 


do., 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do., 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


70 


5 : 10 


do.. 


70 


5:10 


Canaan, 


70 


5 : 10 


do.. 


70 


5:10 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


70 


5:10 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do., 


70 


5:10 


do.. 


70 


5:10 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


do.. 


87 


7: 3 


Woodbury, 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


40 


3: 4 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


Woodbury, 


55 


4: 7 


Sharon, 


77 


6: 5 


Sharon, 


60 


5: 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do., 


60 


5: 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


60 


5: 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


83 


(i:ll 


do.. 


77 


6: 5 


do.. 


83 


6: 11 


do.. 


40 


5: 


Woodbury, 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


65 


4: 7 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


do.. 


55 


4: 7 


Canaan , 


70 


5:10 


do.. 


70 


5:10 


do., 


70 


5 :10 


do., 


87 


7: 3 



A list of the Nuniber and Names of such as are of the Alarm List 

who have their abode withiti the Limits of the fourth Company or 

Trainband in the IJfih Regiment in the Htate of Connecticut : 



Col. Hcman Swift, 
Capt. Thos. P()i-t('r, 



Elijali Hopkins, 
Joiiiitliiui Crockci-, 



James McClary, 
Nc'licniiali Barslry, 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 



207 



Lieut. Ebenczer Dibble, 
Lieut. jMatt. Patterson, 
Eiisi<>u Benoni Peek, 
Abraham Payne, 
James Barse, 
Thos. Dean, 
Ilezekiali Carter, 
David Limlsly, 
Samuel Sawyer, 
John Millard, Jr., 
Peter Rumer, 
John Carter, 
John Sprague, 



Cornwall, 17th March, 1777. 



Elnathan Patterson, 


Silas Clark, 


Sherman Patterson, 


Kitchel Bell, 


Hezekiah Barse, 


Samuel Bassett, 


Josiah Patterson, 


John Dibble, 2d, 


Samuel Sawyer, 


John Dibble, 3d, 


Sele Abbott, 


Timothy CJole, 


Job Sinunons, 


Noah Bull. 


Jesse Ji;rrards, 


38 in number. 


Rufus Payne, 


— 


John Mcilannah, 


33 


Samuel A1 il)ott, 


38 


Jethro Bonnev, 


— 


Al )el Abbott, ' 


74 Capt. Rogers's 




Company 



pr. Joshua Pierce, 

Capfaiii of the Company. 
Capt. Rogers. 



'The subjoined order for teams shows that the pressure of mili- 
tary necessity was felt even among our hills : 

These Lines are to Sertify all whom it may Conserne that I the Sub- 
scriber was sent by Mr. Isaac Bauldwin A. D. Qt. to Edward Rogers with 
a desir for him to Procure ten teames in this Place to tranceport one 
Hundred Barrels of Hower to Litchfield on next Sabooth Day if the 
teams Cannot be procured no other way they must be pressed. 

pr. Jos. Gkeooky. 

Cornwall, April 9, 1779. 

The following Act of tlie General Assembly, found among the 
same papers, shows the pressing necessities upon the country at 
that time, in a clearer light than I can in any other way: 

At a General AssevMy of the Governor and Company of the State of 
Connecticut, holden at Hartford, (by special Order of his Excellency the 
Governor,) on the 7th Bay of April, A. B. 1779. 
An Act for ascertaining the Quantity of Grain, Flour and Meal in this 

State, and thereof to make provision for an immediate Supply of 

Bread for the Army, and the necessitous Inhabitants of the State, and 

for securing other necessary Articles for the Army-. 

Be it enacted by the Governor, Council and Representatives, in General 
Court assembled, and by the Authority of the same. That an exact account 
shall be taken of the number of persons belonging to each family in this 
State, and of the quantity of wheat, meslin, rye and Indian corn ; and of 
all the flour and meal made of such grain, in the possession of every 
person in this State, in manner following, viz. : That the Select-Men in 
each town by themselves, or such persons as they shall appoint, shall, 
by the twenty-ninth day of April instant, give warning in writing or 
otherwise, to all the heads of families and otlier persons in their towns, to 
make and return to them, on or before the sixth day of May next, a true 
account, under oath, (or affirmation if of the people called Quakers,) of 
all the wheat, meslin, rye and Indian corn, and of all the flour and meal 
made of such grain, which they have in their possession, and to whom 



208 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the same belongs, on the twenty-ninth day of April aforesaid ; and also 
an exact account of the number of persons each family consists of, on 
penalty that each jjcrson who refuseth to give a true account of his or 
her grain, ilour and meal, as aforesaid, shall forfeit to and for the use of 
this state, double the value of such grain and meal as any sucli person 
hath, and is found to be possessed of on said twenty-ninth day of April, 
and also the sum of one hundred pounds lawful monej^ to be recovered 
by bill, plaint or information, which oath shall be in the form following, 
viz. : 

"You A. B. do swear, (or affirm) that this return by you made, con- 
tains a just and true account of all the wheat, meslin, rye, Indian corn, 
flour aiid meal, made of either of said kinds of grain, you had on the 
twenty-ninth day of April, 1779, in your possession, being either your 
own, or the property of any other person, and the number of persons of 
Avhich your family consists, according to the best of your knowledge. 
So helj) you God." 

Which oath may be administered by an Assistant or Justice of Peace, 
or any Select-Man, within the town to which he belongs. That the 
Select-Men of each town, by themselves or such person or persons as 
they shall appoint, shall receive said accounts so returned, and enter 
them in a book, or roll, keeping each fiimily and its number of jjcrsons, 
with the kinds and quantities of such grain, flour and meal returned, as 
the stores of each tamily, or on hand, in distinct columns ; and of all 
persons having such grain, flour or meal in possession at the time afore- 
said, with the footing of the sum total of the inhabitants, and of each 
kind of the aforesaid grain, flour and meal in each town, on the twenty- 
ninth day of April instant; and such book or roll so made up, shall be 
lodged with the town clerk in such town, by the tenth day of May next, 
and a true return of the sum total of such inhabitants, and of each kind 
of such grain, flour and meal aforesaid in each town, shall by the Select- 
Men beuiade from the footings of rolls aforesaid, entered hi separate 
columns according to the form hereto annexed, and transmitted to his 
Excellency the Governor, by the fifteenth day of May next. 

That an allowance of one bushel of wheat, or five pecks of meslin, or 
one bushel and a half of rye, or two bushels of Indian corn, or flour or 
meal equivalent, shall be reserved in the hands of the possessors, for 
each person in their families per month respectively, until the twenty- 
ninth day of August next, for their subsistence. And such owners and 
possessors of such grain, flour and meal on hand on said twenty-ninth 
day of April, more than the aforesaid allowance, for their families use for 
the time aforesaid, shall stand accountable to the Select-Men of their 
respective towns for the same, and not dispose thereof, unless to the 
Continental or State Commissaries, or to such persons as by a certificate 
of the town-clerk, or in his absence, of any one of the select-men of 
the town where they dwell, appear to be deficient of the quantity of 
such grain, flour and meal, for support of their respective families, as 
also the quantity that is necessary for that pui-pose, until the first day of 
Auu'ust aforesaid. And whoever shall otherwise dispose of the same, 
or any part tiiereof, or shall refuse to render an account thereof to the 
select-men when required, shall forfeit the value of all such grain, flour 
and meal, refused to be disposed of or accounted for as aforesaid ; one 
half thereof to the town treasurer of the town, where such grain is found, 
and the other half to him who shall sue for, and prosecute the same to 
eff"ect, in any court proper to try the same. 

And in case any owner or possessor of any sucli grain, flour or mesil, 
more than is wanted for his own tamily, by the allowance aforesaid, will 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 209 

not sell to any continental or state commissary, or his agent, at a reason- 
able price, such commissary or agent may immediately apply to an as- 
sistant or justice of peace, who shall grant a warrant directed to any 
proper person, to enter any house or store, and seize and take from such 
refusing owner or possessor, all such grain, flour and meal, in his or her 
hands, "over and above the allowance made by this act, and deliver the 
same to such commissary, taking a true account thereof, to be laid before 
the General Assembly, to be considered and allowed as they shall judge 
just and reasonable ; and such commissary shall thereupon pay for the 
same accordingly. 

And any person who shall be in want of any such grain, flour or meal 
as aforesaid for his families use, may take a certificate from the town- 
clerk, or in his absence from any one of the select-men of said town 
where he belongs, of the quantity in which he is deficient, which shall 
be a sufficient warrant to him to purchase the quantity therein specified, 
on the back of which certificate, shall be endorsed the quantity of grain 
purchased, and of whom, and shall be returned to the town-clerk, and 
such persons receipt left with him, of whom he shall purchase, shall be 
good accounting, by the seller, for such quantity of grain sold as afore- 
said. And whenever any such certificate shall be given by any select- 
man as aforesaid, he shall forthwith lodge a memorandum thereof, in the 
town-clerks oflice ; and the select-men of any town deficient in supplies 
of such grain or meal as aforesaid, may take a certificate from their town- 
clerk of their deficiency, and the same shall be a warrant to them, to 
purchase of such persons and in such town, as have to spare, and cause 
the same to be disposed of to such persons as are deficient therein,_and 
shall have power to transport the same by the most convenient carriage, 
to their own towns, giving bond to the treasurer of the town from 
whence transported, in double the value of the grain, flour and meal by 
them so transported, to be forfeited to and for the use of such town, in 
case the whole of such grain, flour and meal be not disposed of for the 
purpose aforesaid. 

And he it further enacted Iry the Authority aforesaid^ That when any 
purchasing commissary, for the continent or state, shall have occasion for 
rum, molasses, sugar, coft'ee, or other supplies and refi-eshments, necessary 
for the continental or state troops, and cannot purchase the same, at a 
reasonable price, of such person or persons as may have the same on 
hand, such commissary shall make information thereof, as also whose 
hands such articles are in, to any assistant and justice of the peace, or to 
any two justices of the peace, who shall consider thereof, and if they judge 
it reasonable, shall grant a warrant, directed to some proper oflicer, to 
enter any house or store, seize and take such quantity as they shall judge 
sufficient, and deliver the same to such commissary, taking his receipt, 
and a true account thereof, and such warrant shall be returned to the 
authority granting the same by such officer with his doings, and a list 
of the goods taken and defivered by virtue thereof, truely indorsed 
thereon, and an account of such goods, with the expence of seizing and 
delivering the same as aforesaid, shall be laid before the General Assem- 
bly as soon as may be, to be adjusted and allowed as they shall judge 
just and reasonable, and such commissary shall pay for the same ac- 
cordingly. 

And le it further enacted ly the Authority aforesaid^ That it shall be, 
and is hereby enjoined on the commissaries, and all other persons what- 
soever, to stop, take, and seize all such grain, flour or meal, as they shall 
find in the hands of any person or persons, conveying or transporting 
the same, by land or water, out of this state, without a special permit 

27 



210 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

from the General Assembly therefor, or from his Excellency the Governor 
and Council of Safety, and the same being so seized and stopped, shall 
be reported, with the facts and circumstances attending the same, to his 
Excellency the Governor, and Council of Safety, and be liable to such 
orders and directions as they shall give thereon, any law of this state 
notwithstanding. Provided nevertheless. That nothing in this act shall 
be construed to prohibit any licenced tavern-keeper, or victualler, from 
purchasing, or retaining in his or her possession, such supplies as the 
select-men shall judge necessary for the use of his or her tavern. Pro- 
vided also, that masters and owners of vessels, may purchase such neces- 
sary stores for the use of such vessels, having regard to the number of 
men, and the length of the voyage intended, as his Excellency the Gov- 
ernor and his Council of Safety shall allow, and grant them a licence to 
purchase for that purpose. 

And ie it further enacted hy the Autlwrity aforesaid, That if the select- 
men, in any town in this state, or any of them, shall neglect or refuse his 
or their duty, in executing the trust reposed in them by virtue of this 
act, each select-man, so neglecting or refusing, shall forfeit as a penalty, to 
the treasury of this state, the sum of one hundred pounds, lawful money, 
to and for the use of this state ; to be recovered by bill, plaint, or infor- 
mation, in any court proper to try the same. And the select-men and 
town-clerk of each town shall be allowed a meet reward for their services, 
by their respective towns. And this act shall ha and remain in full force 
until the first day of August next, and no longer. 

And all suits that may then be depending for the breach of this act, 
may be pursued thereon to final judgment and execution. And the 
form in which said returns shall be made from the select-men to the 
town-clerk, and from the town clerk to his Excellency the Governor, 
shall be as follows, viz. : 

A true Copy of Record, 
Examin'd, by 

GEORGE WYLLYS, Secretary. 

Gen. John Sedgwick. 

Gen. John Sedgwick was an officer in the War of the Revolu- 
tion. He was superseded by Col. Heman Swift, which offended 
him to such a degree that he resigned his commission and retired 
from the army. He was a brave and good officer. For many 
years he represented the town in the legislature. Although his 
early education was defective, his natural good sense enabled him 
to discharge the various duties of public and private life in which 
he was actively engaged in a very creditable manner. As a magis- 
trate he was remarkable in leading contending parties to an amic- 
able settlement. For many years he discharged the duties of 
School Visitor. To the scholars whom he inspected General Sedg- 
wick was always an object of much interest. His stalwart form, 
shaggy eyebrows, with the frank, familiar, and kind manner with 
which he was accustomed to address them, attracted their atten- 
tion, won their confidence and esteem to the highest degree, and 




GEN. JOHN SEDGWICK. 

Born 1742. Died August 18, 
1820. 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 211 

many a little fellow, for the first time, was induced to commence 
on a course of honorable manhood by his kindly persuasiveness 
and appropriate suggestions which flowed out of his large heart 
and superior mind. General Sedgwick was a man of piety. His 
passions were naturally strong, but, subdued by moral principle, 
and guided by an excellent understanding, made him one of the 
kindest of men in all the social relations of life. 

A true friend, kind and affectionate in manner, a peace-maker, 
and given to hospitality, his memory will be cherished with vene- 
ration by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance. As in stat- 
ure and physical strength he excelled his fellows, in moral quali- 
ties he was equally unrivaled. He died at the age of seventy- 
seven years, and his remains repose with those of the other mem- 
bers of his family in the old Cornwall Hollow Cemetery. 

Anecdotes illustrating his Herculean strength and resolute cour- 
age are abundant. One of his oxen once slipping from the yoke 
left the half -loaded cart in the mire. He took the place of the ox 
at the yoke, sajring, " I will have it go; whip up that other ox," — 
and it went. Hunting bears on the back side of Cream Hill — the 
bear came out of the cleft in the rock where he watched, and 
astride him he rode some ways down the mountain before the bear 
was suMued. 

His energy at the time of Shays's Rebellion, in 1787, saved our 
county from participation in the affair. 

Shays's Rebellion. 

Theo. Sedgwick of Great Barrington, wrote under date of May 
13, 1787, to his brother Col. John Sedgwick of Cornwall, Conn., 
that the followers of Shays were depending on much assistance 
from New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, and especially boasted 
of receiving aid from Sharon and vicinity, and he asks if there is 
no power in Connecticut to stop these scoundrels. 

Thereupon (the same day, May 13th) Col. John Sedgwick issued 
orders to his regiment, the 14th Mihtia, to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to march at a moment's notice to prevent all disturbances; 
that in no case must citizens be allowed to assist the rebels of Mas- 
sachusetts, and orders Parsons and Day to be arrested, who are 
leaders. 

He appears also to have informed Gen. Heman Swift of the 
facts, who investigated the matter so promptly as to be able to 
write to Gov. Huntington, at Hartford, May 15th, to this eifect: That 



212 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Col. Sedgwick had acted as above in order to let the disturbers of 
tbe peace know that their plans are discovered ; that many men, 
particularly in Sharon and Norfolk, had formed connection with 
Shays; that one Mitchell is employed in that service in Sharon; that 
he (Swift) had just sent a "man of sagacity and prudence " to 
Sharon, who had approached Mitchell and made him believe he 
was friendly, and Mitchell disclosed to him his whole plan of ope- 
rations, and said he had enhsted 100 men in Sharon as minute 
men, to support Shays, who were now completely equipped and 
ready to march at the shortest notice, but the whole organization 
was secret; that Drs. Hurlburt and Barns were Mitchell's advisers, 
who were insurgents from Berkshire, and had fled from justice 
there, and were harbored in Sharon ; also, that one Captain Tanner 
from Spencertown, N. Y., had been pubhcly forwarding recruiting 
in Sharon, and that the disaffected people in Berkshire were con- 
stantly passing and repassing to and from Sharon. Swift says he 
had been obliged to act in secret, for the movement was very popu- 
lar, and he was regarded as "a speckled bird" for opposing it. 

The Governor laid this at once before the Assembly, who 
ordered Col. Canfield to come at once, and gave him authority to 
arrest Mitchell, Tanner, Hurlburt, Barns, and such others as should 
be thought necessary, and the governor was authorized to order 
Gen. Swift to call out some or aU the mihtia under his control, if 
necessary, to stop the insurrection and prevent their joining the 
Massachusetts insurgents. 

Canfield acted so promptly and carefully as to be able to get to 
Sharon and make the arrests and put those men in jail before they 
knew any design to that effect was on foot. 

This from State Archives at Hartford, in State Library. 

CoL. Ethan Allen. 

Ethan Allen was the son of Daniel Allen, who resided in Corn- 
wall, and though it does not appear that Col Allen was born here, 
yet most of his boyhood was spent here, and we rightly claim 
some share in the honor which attaches to his name. The resi- 
dence of his father was on the corner south of the North Corn- 
wall Church, a large old house torn down about 1830. Many sto- 
ries are told of his youthful spirit, indicating the man of firm 
resolve and undaunted purpose. 

Colonel Allen held a commission in the army, and by his bold 
daring and laconic demand obtained the surrender of Ticonderoga 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 213 

and Crown Point. He was afterwards taken prisoner and sent to 
England, where he was for some time confined in the Tower of 
London. The British found him such a difficult case to manage 
, on account of the influence he exerted over the masses of the 
English metropolis, by communications which he made and con- 
trived to send out, though kept closely confined in prison, that 
they desired to send him back to America. He wore the same 
Continental uniform through the whole period of his imprisonment 
in England which he had worn in the American service. Of course 
it was in a soiled and dilapidated condition — on which no "busy 
housewife " had " plied her evening care" for many a long month. 
But this circumstance did not break down the spirit of Allen. He 
was sent under the charge of a hard and cruel oflicer, who treated 
him with the greatest severity. He was not allowed to come on 
deck in presence of the British officers. The ship in which he 
sailed had occasion to put into a port in Ireland, and when it became 
noised about that Colonel Ethan Allen was aboard — he who was 
the famous champion of American liberty — the great Irish heart, 
wliich then, as now, beat in unison with his in the cause of freedom, 
and in opposition to British tyranny, rallied around him, much to 
the annoyance of the officers who had him in charge. They pre- 
sented Colonel Allen with a new uniform, many articles for his 
comfort, of nice luxuries, and a purse of fifty guineas. The luxu- 
ries were distributed among the ship's crew by the captain. The 
purse of gold was nobly declined by Colonel Allen. The uniform 
he too plainly needed to decline. 

Gen. Heman Swift. 

Gen. Heman Swift came from Kent, about the year 1764-5, 
and settled on the road from Sharon to Warren and Litchfield, 
about half a mile southeast up the hill from the residence of his 
son, the late Rufus Swift, Esq. His mind was strong, and he pos- 
sessed an uncommonly sound judgment, for which he was much 
more distinguished than for brilliancy of imagination. He was 
also distinguished for firmness and decision of character. He was 
a man of strict integrity. Early in life he was selected by his fel- 
low-citizens for pubhc service, both in a military and civil capacity. 
He was an officer in the old French war, and in the Continental 
army, having received a colonel's commission over Major John 
Sedgwick, which circumstance created a momentary excitement, 
and the major resigned his commission and retired from the army. 



214 HISTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

But this breach of good feeling did not long continue. Colonel 
Heman Swift continued in active service during most of the War 
of the Revolution. He was a personal friend of Washington, by 
whom he was held in high esteem. 

Colonel Swift's early education was very limited. This circum- 
stance prevented the attainment of as high a position as otherwise 
he might have occupied. He was for many years after the close 
of the war a member of the Upper House in the State Legisla- 
ture. He possessed a noble personal appearance, and during the 
later period of his life bore the title of General. He died Novem- 
ber, 1814. 

Colony 

of 

Connecticut. 

THOMAS FITCH, Esq. 

Captain- General and Oovernor-in- Chief in and over His Majesty'' s English 
Colony of CONNECTICUT, in New-England in America. 

To Heman Swift, Gentleman, Greeting : 

By Virtue of the Power & Authority to me given, in & by the Royal 
Charter, to the Governor & Cpmpany of the said Colony, under the Great 
Seal of England, I do by these presents, reposing especial trust & confi- 
dence in your Loyalty & Courage & good Conduct, constitute and 
appoint you the said Heman Swift to be first Lieutenant of the ninth 
Company in a Regiment of Foot, raised within this Colony for invading 
Canada, and carrying the "War into the Heart of the Enemies Posses- 
sions; & to proceed therein under the Supreme Command of His 
Majesty's Commander-in-Chief in North America, of which Regiment 
David Wooster, Esq., is Colonel. You are therefore carefully and dili- 
gently to discharge the Duty of a Lieutenant in leading, ordering, and 
exercising said company in Arms, both inferior Officers & Soldiers, in the 
service aforesaid, to keep them in good Order and Discipline ; hereby com- 
manding them to obey you, as their Lieutenant, and yourself to observe 
& follow such Orders & Instructions, as you shall from Time to Time 
receive from Me, or the Commander-in-Chief of the said Colony, for the 
Time being, or other your superior Officers, according to the Rules & 
Discipline of War, pursuant to the Trust reposed in you. 

Given under my hand & the public of the said Colony at 
Norwalk, the Twenty-seventh day of March, in the Thirty- 
first Year of the Reign of his Majesty King George the 
Second. Annoque Domini, 1758. 
By His Honor's Command, THOS. FITCH. 

George Wyllts, Sect. 

Captain John Jeffers. 

This name in the early records of the town was called Jeffrey. 
Whoever was acquainted with the people of Cornwall fifty or sixty 
years ago will recollect an old Revolutionary soldier by the name 
of Captain John Jeffers. He had served faithfully in the Conti- 



SOLDIERS OF TUE REVOLUTION. 215 

nental army against the British and Indians. The rough pursuits 
of a large share of his life, and the times in which he lived, had 
given him a peculiar style of manner, and made their impress 
indelibly upon his moral sensibilities. He was naturally brave, 
ardent, and of strong passions. After the war had closed he 
retired to private life, and abstained from any business engage- 
ments except as teacher of a district school. He taught in the dis- 
trict north of Cream Hill for at least two winters. As a teacher, 
Captain Jeffers, accustomed as he had been to the arbitrary rules 
of a military life, was severe in the government of his school — dif- 
fering widely from that modern tender-footed class who advocate 
the no-whipping and anti-corporeal punishment system, and believe 
that Solomon was not a very wise man in comparison with many 
in our day. 

The military company which was under Jeffer's command, and 
which he often led to perform feats of valor, received the gentle 
appellation of " Hell Hounds." He was accustomed to spend most 
of his time in visiting the various families about the town, who 
were always happy to entertain an old soldier, give him the 
best seat at the board and the fireside, and to promote his happi- 
ness in every possible way. His genial manners, large stores of 
information, and free conversational powers, made his company 
usually agreeable and interesting. His vices, for he had some, 
"leaned to virtue's side," and were the inseparable accompany- 
ments of the camp and battle-field, where he had passed so many 
years. 

Captain Jeffers was never married. When in 1812 war was 
declared by the United States against England, Jeffers made 
application to a distinguished member of Congress for a Brigadier- 
General's commission in the army; but this request was not 
granted. 

Soon after this he was taken with a fever at the house of Mr. 
Timothy Johnson, and after a few days' illness died. His death 
occurred in the early part of May, 1813. His grave is in the old 
South Cornwall cemetery. 

He was the son of John Jeffrey and Mary Howland. He was 
born 5th of June, 1761, being at the time of his death nearly 52 
years of age. His birthplace, and where his father's family 
resided, was the farm owned and occupied by the late Hawley 
Reed, now that of Barnett Johnson, in Cornwall Hollow. 



216 history of cornwall. 

Hon. Oliver Burnham. 

Few, if any, of the distinguished men who have borne an active 
part in the transactions of Cornwall since its first settlement, would 
rank before the Hon. Oliver Burnham, whose late residence still 
remains, though in a dilapidated condition, about a quarter of a 
mile south of the North Cornwall Church. His father, at the 
time of his death, was a resident of Cream Hill. The son Ohver 
served, while very young, as a soldier in the Army of the Revolu- 
tion, and in consequence of a wound produced at that time he 
received a small annuity from the government. He occupied the 
place of County Surveyor for many years. For twenty or twen- 
ty-five years he represented the town in the General Assembly, 
usually in the House of Representatives, and served one term in 
the Senate. He held the office of magistrate until exempted by 
age, and served a short time as judge of the county court. 

When in middle life he was distinguished by the beauty of his 
personal appearance. His manly form, dark eyes, regular features, 
which were usually enlivened by a smile and a strong intellectual 
expression whenever addressing another, was in no ordinary degree 
interesting and agreeable. A mind naturally vigorous had been 
much improved by his long course of public life, and his varied 
stores of knowledge, thus acquired, enriched his conversational 
powers, which gave a charm to his society possessed by very few 
men of the age in which he lived. 

He was a native of Farmington, and born on November 11, 
1760. When he was fifteen years of age, he enlisted as a soldier 
in the regiment of Col. Wilhs, and went, in December, 1875, to 
join Gen. Washington's army, then near Boston. When the Brit- 
ish evacuated Boston and removed to New York, the army of 
Washington soon followed them. Young Burnham was in the 
desperate and disastrous battle on the west end of Long Island, at 
Flatbush; many were killed, and others taken prisoners. The 
prompt withdrawal of the American army by Washington during 
a dense fog perhaps saved the cause in which he was engaged from 
total failure. 

When in New York, young Burnham was removed from his 
regiment to a battalion of rangers, commanded by Col. Knowl- 
ton, and was near Harlem when the army of Gen. Washington 
left New York. Knowlton was ordered to take one hundred and 
twenty men and reconnoiter a large body of the British on Harlem 



SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION. 217 

Heights, and bring them down to a certain ground, more favor- 
able to the attack of the Americans. They went on until the 
enemy fired upon them, when Knowlton's men fired, and after giv- 
ing the enemy nine rounds, rapidly retreated and concealed them- 
selves behind a stone wall. The British came on, and when within 
about ten rods of the wall Knowlton's men fired upon them. 
Thirty were killed or wounded of the Americans, and many more 
of the British. Knowlton, before he could reach the main army, 
being pursued by the enemy, was mortally wounded. At this 
juncture the American army attacked the enemy in large force, 
and after a severe battle of four or five hours, the enemy were 
driven back, leaving many dead and wounded on the field. Gen. 
Washington gave his thanks to this brave body for their success, 
and they were ordered to the rear for a season of rest. 

After this, the corps to which Burnham belonged, under the 
command of Maj. Coburn, was placed between the two armies — 
a post of danger, but one of honor also — the place of the greatest 
hazard is best suited for the brave. In a skirmish which ensued 
on Harlem Plain, Maj. Coburn was wounded, and in consequence 
resigned his command, and a Capt. Pope took his place. 

On the 16th of the following November, the enemy came out in 
full force and attacked the Americans on every side. The battle 
lasted during most of the day and resulted in young Burnham, 
with many others, being taken prisoners of war. He was taken to 
New York with his associates. They were confined in a barn for 
two or three days, and then in the old Dutch Church. For the 
first four days after Burnham's captivity, he tasted no food nor saw 
any but some sea biscuit, which were devoured before he could 
obtain any. 

These prisoners were nine days in the church with small allow- 
ance of food. Some soup was furnished them by a few good peo- 
ple in the city. 

From the Old Dutch Church they were removed to a prison- 
ship where were confined eight hundred prisoners, making with 
the guard, 1,000 men. The name of this ship was the Dalton. 
Although she was a large-sized East Indiaman, the crowd in the 
hold was so great that there was not room to sleep below without 
lying partly one upon another. In the pestiferous air of this 
crowded ship, with scanty allowance of food, and but little water, 
it seems extraordinary that any should have survived. 

The prisoners died in vast numbers. Every morning boat-loads 
28 



218 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

were conveyed away to a sand -beach, ostensibly for interment, but 
the whitened bones which afterwards appeared were a sufficient 
proof of the barbarity of the enemy. 

Such was the situation of young Burnham among the sick, 
dying, and dead for many days (how long he did not know), until 
he also became sick. Being the youngest of the prisoners, his 
sufferings excited the compassion of the commander, and he and 
a few others were sent to the city. They were put into the INIeth- 
odist church in John street. Burnham remained there for many 
days without any proper care, and was furnished with nothing but 
powders and water -gruel. 

Soon after this a quarrel originated between the doctor who had 
the care of him, and a prisoner by the name of Samuel Lyman, 
who brought some soup for the sick. Lyman applied to the British 
commodore, and obtained orders that he and his associates that were 
sick and were New Englanders might board in the city. The 
town of Farmington sent money, so that they were comfortably 
provided for in provisions. At this time the small-pox was pre- 
vailing in New York. Burnham caught the disease, from which 
he recovered. After a time he was about to obtain leave to go 
home on parol, but just before the arrangement was completed, and 
while at the office upon this business, the news of Washington's 
successful battle at Princeton arrived and crushed all hopes of a 
parol. He remained a prisoner in New York until the 16th of 
February, 1777, when, by the aid of some friends, he took leave 
of his captors without asking their liberty, and returned home. 
He was afterwards in two campaigns until he became lame, and in 
consequence compelled to retire from the army — at which time he 
was but eighteen years of age. 

He married the daughter of Mr. Noah Rogers, a lady of piety, 
and the mother of a numerous and interesting family of children, 
all of whom but two have passed away. 

As a politician, J udge Burnham possessed much shrewdness and 
tact. For many years he probably held a greater influence in the 
affairs of the town than any other individual. His vigorous intel- 
lect remained unimpaired until he attained about fourscore 
years. Although partial to the Episcopal church, he was a regular 
supporter of the Congregational society. He died in the eightieth 
year of his age. 



soldiers of the revolution. 219 

Jacob Scoville. 

Among the residents of Cornwall who took an active part in the 
struggle of the Revolution, and one intimately known to the writer, 
was Jacob Scoville, Often did he afford amusement in my boy- 
hood by relating incidents of the war in which he had for so many 
years been an actor. He was distinguished by a genial and con- 
vivial nature, frank and amiable manners, and generous hospitality. 

He served as a private soldier through most of the war, and in 
his old age received the benefit of a pension. He was a single 
man through his military service, at the close of which he married 
a widow Emmons, whose first husband died in a prison ship in 
New York. 

The farm she occupied was situated on the southern border of 
Cream Hill. The house was remote from the traveled road, in a 
sequestered vale, and beside a little brook whose bright and spark- 
ling waters murmured their sweet though monotonous music, as 
they hui'ried onward in their ceaseless course. It was a small 
brown cottage. Its original dimensions were very limited, consist- 
ing of but one room, to which several small additions had been 
made from time to time, to suit the convenience of the occupants. 
Here wore a few feet appended for a pantry, there an addition for 
a small bedroom, and on another side still, a portion sheltering the 
only entrance. Its secluded and sheltered position precluded 
extensive prospect, and no other house was in view. 

Fruit trees of various kinds, such as the cherry, peach, plum, 
quince, pear, and apple, exhaled the fragrance of their blossoms 
upon the balmy air of spring, and sheltered, beneath their cool, 
embowering shade, this quiet spot from the scorching rays of the 
summer sun, or protected it from the rough blasts of winter. 

In this humble though picturesque spot lived a widow, with her 
three orphan children. Her name was Hamer [Ruhamath] Em- 
mons. She was the daughter of Mr. Jennings. Her eldest 
children were daughters of some six and eight years; the 
youngest, a son of about four. One of the daughters married a 
Mr. Cole of Sharon, father of Benjamin Cole. The other a Mr. 
Hudson; from this last marriage a grandson, who became high 
sheriff of Columbia County, N, Y. Two long years had this 
widowed mother tended her little flock since the companion of her 
happier days — he who shared with her the toils and joys of life — 
had passed away. 



220 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Melancholy were the circumstances of his death to her, for he 
expired amid the pestilential air of a British prison-sliip. He was 
a brave soldier and a kind husband, but his country had called 
him to break away from all the endearments of his happy home, 
and meet his fate where she could not smooth his lonely pillow, or 
administer any relief to his sufferings. 

But Time, the great restorer of human comfort under bereave- 
ment, had done something to tranquilize her perturbed spirit, and 
heal the wounds of her lacerated hpart. 

A placid melancholy had taken the place of deep sorrow, and 
she became pleased when some neighbors dropped in to pay her a 
visit, and particularly when a soldier, returned from the war, would 
spend a leisure hour in relating something which he chanced to 
know of .her dear lost husband. 

Among the number of her visitors, none seemed to afford her 
more pleasure than Jacob Scoville. She had known him from 
childhood. He had suffered with her late husband in the toils and 
privations of the army and noisome prison-ship, and had watched 
over him when the deadly sickness was upon him, and assisted to 
close his eyes in death. 

Jacob Scoville was young, several years younger than widow 
Emmons; but she was still a young widow, and it was not strange 
that the susceptible heart of Jacob, at length, should have become 
affectionately inclined towards Hamer Emmons. Every time he 
could honorably obtain leave of absence from the army, he would 
hasten home, and as often as he came he visited his gentle friend, 
who greeted him with kindness at each successive visit, and as he 
rarely failed to bring some little present for the children, he soon 
became quite a favorite with them. Mrs. Emmons scarcely knew 
why she had become so much interested in these things, or why 
her heart would suddenly leap with a joyous emotion as she con- 
templated his speedy return. 

Now "the wars were over," the "intention of marriage," as the 
law of the time required, was duly proclaimed by the minister on 
the following Sabbath, and the indissoluble bands were shortly 
after imposed. Jacob Scoville was too partial to the little cottage 
by the brook to forego the pleasure of occupying the same, and 
chose it as his residence. Here Jacob and Hamer lived many 
years, until they purchased and occupied the small brown one-story 
house situated on the traveled road, a little west of the present 
house of Jacob and Ralph I. Scoville, where now is the residence 



SOLDIERS OF THE REBELLION. 221 

of Mrs. Wm. Rogers. Here tliey lived together until the death of 
Hamer [Ruhamath], which occurred in the year 1830. 

The writer, during a professional visit in the neighborhood on 
the day of her decease, in passing the house, was accosted by 
Jacob Scoville with a request to call, saying, with deep emotion, 
and tears falling from his cheeks, "Hamer is a-dying." She was 
insensible, and in a dying ^state, and shortly breathed her last. 

On the death of his wife, Jacob went to live with his nephew, 
Jacob Scoville, to whom he gave his property. Here, at the 
advanced age of ninety-two years, he died, and was buried by the 
side of Hamer. 

Their resting place may be seen in the old South cemetery in 
Cornwall. And whoever shall read their brief epitaphs, may drop 
a tear over a soldier's grave, and remember the virtues which were 
many, and forget the vices which were comparatively few, over 
two generous hearts now tranquilly at rest. 

Samuel Scoville, brother of Jacob, was very partial to Gen. Swift. 
Once, when on sentinel duty, it was very wet and muddy, an officer 
came riding along, whom he ordered to dismount. The officer 
replied, "You know me well, and you wouldn't make me -get off in 
this mud ?" "1 know no man when on duty, and you must dis- 
mount." Soon after Gen. Swift rode up, to whom he said, " I 
know you very well, you can pass." 

The following names are from an old record : 

Samuel Emmons died in a prison-ship at New York. 

Heth, or Hesse (colored,) belonged to Capt. Samuel Wadsworth : 
died in Goshen, aged about 90. 

Reuben Dean, Jos. A. Tanner, Elisha Bradford, Wm. Chittester. 

Wm. Bierce, afterwards went to New Connecticut, where his 
sons, Columbus and Lucius, became prominent men. 

Ebenezer Bierce, Edward Allen. 



CORNWALL SOLDIERS IN THE WAR OF THE REBEL- 
LION. 
Of the sons of Cornwall who gave their lives for their country 
three he buried in the HoUow cemetery; one alone has a monu- 
ment with this short epitaph: 

MAJ.-GEK .JOHN SEDGWICK, 

Bom in Cornwall Hollow, 

Sept. 13, 181.3. 

Killed near Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 9, 18(J4. 



222 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Any attempt to do justice to the eminent services of Gen. 
Sedgwick must of course be a failure. My father attempted to 
prepare a sketch of his Hfe, but it remained unfinished among his 
paper^. He says: "Among the distinguished lieroes for the 
maintenance of the Union, none held a more exalted position, or, 
dying, left a purer record on the page of our country's history, 
than Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick." 

In 1832, in a letter to Gen. Cass, recommending young Sedgwick 
for an appointment at West Point, my father wrote: "I believe, 
if permitted to enjoy that privilege, he would do honor to the 
institution and become of some service to his country." Would 
that all our recommendations to public places could be as well 
honored. Graduating with honor in 1837, he was first engaged 
in the Seminole war in Florida; the next year, under Gen. Scott, 
employed in the removal of the Cherokees to their Western reser- 
vation ; next we find him fighting in Mexico, under Taylor, Worth, 
and Scott. Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Puebla, Cherubusco, El 
Molino del Rey, and Mexico herself, witnessed his valor. 

The war of the rebellion opened while he was on the frontiers 
beyond Pike's Peak. Called to the Army of the Potomac, the 
command of which was twice offered to him and twice declined, 
he fought at Fair Oaks, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and the battles 
of the Wilderness, till he met a soldier's death at Spottsylvania. 

Notwithstanding his familiarity with scenes of blood and car- 
nage, he was as tender as a father of his men ; and though so long 
in public life, and removed from the scenes of his boyhood, his love 
for them, for his ancestral acres, — for they had memories of which 
a soldier and a patriot might well be proud, — his love for the 
simple pursuits of husbandry was as strong as if he had never 
wandered from his native vale. 

The strength of a country consists not in bulwarks and ramparts 
of stone, nor yet in an array of well-disciplined troops, bristling 
with bayonets and thunderiog with artillery; not in commerce, 
with her sails whitening every sea, and bringing tribute from 
every clime; not in manufactures, leading captive the powers of 
water and of steam; nor even in agriculture, the parent of all arts, 
with her waving fields of grain, and her flocks and herds upon a 
thousand hills; but in the hearts of her citizens. If they are vir- 
tuous, if they are true, if they are noble, if they are brave, they 
form true ramparts stronger than ribs of oak or mountains of 
rock, alike defenders against external assaults and internal dissen- 
sions. 



SOLDIERS OF THE REBELLION. 223 

What nation has a richer record than our own of true, noble, and 
brave men, who in times of danger have rushed to her rescue — 
have bared their breasts to her enemies — and who have, alas ! 
sealed their sacrifice with their blood. 

But Gen. Sedgwick was known to us as one who never forgot 
his ancestral home. The adornment of his paternal acres was his 
pride, and it was his hope and ambition to retire from public life, 
here to enjoy that quiet which his duties as a soldier prohibited. 
The same qualities which made him a good officer made him a 
good farmer, and his example and influence as a cultivator of the 
soil Vv'ill be no less enduring than as a patriot soldier. 

In 1858 the old Sedgwick residence, which had been so speedily 
rebuilt for his grandfather when it was burned by the Tories in 
Revolutionary times, was consumed by fire. Here Gen. Sedgwick 
built a noble mansion for his own occupancy, but it was a sad day 
to his friends and neighbors gathered there, May 15, 1864, to per- 
form the last offices to the patriot dead. 

In the same cemetery, with unmarked graves, rest Harvey Ford 
and Mr. Read, colored. 

In the North Cornwall cemetery we find the names of 

Lieut. William H. Coggswell, died Sept. 22, 1864, aged 25 
years, 2 months, and 23 days. He enlisted as private in the Fifth 
Regiment, C. V., June 22, 1861, and was promoted in the Second 
Connecticut Artillery for gallant services, Sept. 11, 1862. He was 
in the battles of Peaked Mountain, Winchester, Cedar Mountain, 
Cold Harbor, and Opequan, and died from wounds received in 
last battle. 

A handsome freestone monument, with the above inscription, 
erected by his fellow-townsmen, stands as a tribute to his memory. 
As a valiant, faithful soldier he had no superiors, while in his power 
to endure fatigue, agility, strength, and never-failing spirits, he had 
few equals. The writer remarked to his colonel (Wessells) that 
" William was one of a thousand as a soldier." He replied, " You 
might well say one of ten thousand." 

It is related of him that when on the march many were falling 
out of the ranks from fatigue, he grasped the muskets of three or 
four, carrying them for miles, showing his men what strong and 
willing arms could do. 

Before he went into the army he was a noted runner at all our 
local fairs, surpassing all competitors, so that when it became 
known that he was to run, there would be no race. No gymnasium 



224 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

could surpass these Cornwall hills, as a field to acquire good kings 
and limbs. He was the oldest son of Nathan Coggswell, to whose 
skilled hands Cornwall farmers are indebted for many of their fine 
stone walls, and grandson of Jeremiah Coggswell, a member of 
the Scatikoke tribe. 

Crawford H. Nodine, son of Robert G. and Clara Hart Nodine, 
died of woimds received at the battle of Cedar Mountain, Sept. 3, 
1862, aged 21. 

He was a grandson of Deacon Nathan Hart, and a young man 
of much promise. He was residing at Charleston, West Virginia. 
A rebel bullet struck a building near him. This settled his deter- 
mination to enter the army. He said he would " send it back to 
its owners." 

Capt. Amos T. Allen, Co. C, Eleventh Regiment, C. V., only 
brother of Susan Brewster, died of wounds received at the battle 
of Cold Harbor, July 6, 1864, aged 25 years. He was engaged 
in the following battles: Winchester, May 25, 1862; Cedar Moun- 
tain, Aug. 9, 1862; Fredericksburg, Dec. 12 to 15, 1862; Suffolk, 
April 24, 1863; near Suffolk, May 3, 1863; Swift's Creek, May 9, 
1864; Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 

Capt. Allen enlisted as a private, and was promoted for his gal- 
lant conduct. Political economists, in attempting to account for 
the present hard times, for the stagnation in business, fail to take 
account of one important element,— the immense loss the country 
sustained in so many of her most enterprising, active young men, 
who now, in the prime of hfe, would have been foremost in every 
enterprise. 

Charles McCormick, born Sept. 15, 1836; died Sept. 17, 1865, 
from disease contracted in the service. He was a member of Co. 1, 
Fifth Regiment, C. V., and in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Moun- 
tain, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, and orderly-sergeant of his 
company under General Sherman, in all battles from Chattanooga 
to the surrender of the rebels under Johnson. 

William Green, died March 29, 1874, aged 46; born in Shef- 
field, England. 

Myron Hubbell, died at Alexandria, Va., Nov. 24, 1862, aged 38. 

Mr. Hubbell was a miller by trade; tended the mill at West 
Cornwall, and when he enlisted was at Gold's mill. A few years 
before he married Laura, daughter of Birdseye Baldwin, who 
still survives. 

Two as yet have no monuments. 



SOLDIERS OF THE REBELLION. 225 

Edward Barnum. — He was the son of Micajah Barnura, and 
was a native of Cornwall, though he enlisted elsewhere; died 
in 1875. 

Edgar Elias, eldest son of John Hart, born in Cornwall, 1842; 
enlisted in the Eighth N. Y. Regiment, and served through the 
war. He died in Cornwall in 1875. 

Soldiers Buried in the Cemetery at Cornivall. 

Rev. Jacob Eaton, Chaplain of Seventh Regiment, C. V. I., died 
at Wilmington, N. C, March 20, 1865, aged 32 years; a volunteer 
in the war of 1861. A noble Christian patriot. 

George W. Pendleton, a member of Co. C, First Connecticut 
Artillery; died while in the service of his country at Washington, 
D. C, September 11, 1862, aged 22 years. 

Corporal Henry L. Vail, died at Winchester, Va., November 3, 
1864, by a rebel bullet through the neck and shoulder; aged 23. 

John Hawver, died August 1, 1868, aged 30. 

Philo L. Cole, died January 4, 1863, aged 27. 

William R., son of Rufus and Mary S. Payne, died February 
20, 1865, aged 33. 

William B. North, born June 25, 1835, died March 18, 1866. 
Two other graves there have no monuments. 
Thomas Sherman returned at the close of the war with the 
Second Connecticut Artillery, and died in 1866. 

Zina D. Hotchkiss, a member of Co. G, Second Connecticut 
Artillery, died in 1875. 

The remains of five are buried in the cemetery in the southwest 
part of the town. 

Albert Robinson, sergeant of Co. G, Second Connecticut H. A., 
died at Baltimore, Md., March 26, 1865, aged 33 years. 

George Page, killed at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 
1864, aged 25. A member of Co. G, Second Conn. H. A. 

Lewis Sawyer, died at the City of Washington, August 24, 
1864, aged 24 years. A member of Co. G, Second Conn. H. A. 

Horace Sickman, a member of Co. G, Second Conn. H. A., 
died in Washington, July 19, 1864, aged 29 years. 

Hermon E. Bonney, died at Philadelphia, June 28, 1864, aged 
28 years. A member of Second Conn. H. A. 
29 



226 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

I am indebted to H. P. Milford of Cornwall Bridge for the 
names of Cornwall soldiers in Co. G, Nineteenth Conn. Vol., after- 
wards Second Conn. H. A., with some incidents of their history. 
Mr. Milford went as corporal, entering camp at Litchfield, August 
21, 1862, and was quartermaster-sergeant at the time of his dis- 
charge, July 7, 1865. 

The following-named men were residents of Cornwall at the time 
of their enlistment: Edward F. Gold, captain; John M. Gregory, 
lieutenant, lost an arm at the battle of Cedar Creek. Gad N. Smith 
became captain. Henry S. Dean, wounded at Cold Harbor; Henry 
P. Milford, Joseph Payne, killed at Cold Harbor; Myron Hubbell. 
died of sickness; Albert L. Benedict, Frederick Butler, Franklin 
B. Bierce, Jerome Chipman, Nelson Clark, Philo Cole, died; Josiah 
B. Corban, Patrick Delaney, Edward Hawver, wounded at Cedar 
Creek; Nelson T. Jennings, George L. Jones, David Kimball, Syd- 
ney Lapham, John Lapham, Elijah C. Mallory, Palph J. Miner, 
Henry Peck, killed at Winchester; George W. Page, killed at Cedar 
Creek; Lucian G. Rouse, died; Charles R. Swift, Lewis Sawyer, 
died; Thomas Sherman, Charles H. Smith, Elisha Soule, killed at 
Cedar Creek; Patrick Troy, died from wounds received at Win - 
Chester; Allen Williams, died; Horace Williams, brother to the 
above, Robert Bard. 

The above went with the regiment from Litchfield Hill. 

The following joined the company from Cornwall as recruits; 
Herman E. Bonney, died ; Albert H. Bailey, George W. Baldwin, 
John Hawver, wounded at Cold Harbor; John Christie, Hubert 
D. Huxley, Zina D. Hotchkiss, Dwight A. Hotchkiss, father and 
son, Timothy Leonard, Paschal P. North, died; Nathan Payne, 
Wm. S. Palmer, Frederick J. Pierce, Swift B. Smith, John Tul- 
ley, William White, died; James H. Van Buren — this was a boy 
in the drum corps; he was wounded in the leg at Winchester, had 
the limb amputated twice, and died of the wound. 

The reader is referred to the history of the Nineteenth Conn. Vol., 
afterwards the Second Conn. Vol. H. A., by Lieut. T. F. Vaill, for a 
fuller record of these Cornwall soldiers, yet some personal inci- 
dents related by Mr. Milford will be interesting to those who shared 
the dangers with him. 

On the night before the battle of Cold Harbor, our company was 
on picket near the town of Hanover. We were in a very bad 
place, and very near the rebs; so much so, that we could hear dis- 
tinctly all that was going on in their camp, and we were, in conse- 



SOLDIERS OP THE REBELLION. 227 

quence, very watchful, having strict orders so to be. Each man 
worked faithfully in digging himself a hole that would protect him 
from the enemy's bullets. While so engaged, we could just dis- 
tinguish a body of men marching on our left, and supposing them 
to be the rebs, our men at once opened fire upon them, receiving a 
shower of balls in return. But we soon learned they were friends 
' instead of foes. We were lucky on our side in getting no one hurt, 
but the other party, which proved to be Company L of our regi- 
ment, had two wounded. We left this place about 2 a. m. on the 
morning of the 1st of June, the army being on the march some 
hours before us towards Cold Harbor, and I think all of our com- 
pany will always remember that march until we came up with the 
army, about 10 a. m. 

Battle of Cedar Creek. 

The morning of October 19, 1864, found our company suddenly 
formed in line of battle at Cedar Creek; and rebel balls made sad 
havoc in our ranks. The company numbered thirty-four in the 
morning; at night I called the roll and found seventeen. I was 
stationed on the left of the regiment. Sergeant F. Lucas, our 
sergeant-major, was wounded in the thigh, and I aided him off the 
field, and while doing so our army retreated past us, leaving us 
between the lines, and the balls flew about us thick and fast. We 
expected every moment to be either shot or captured. While in 
this place I had my knapsack strap cut, letting it fall, the ball 
passing under my arm, parting the strap as cut with a knife, with- 
out doing other injury. We succeeded in getting safely within 
our lines again. 

Assistant Adjutant-General Simeon J. Fox has kindly furnished 

me the names of recruits from the Town of Cornwall from and 

after July 1, 1863. Those previously named have been stricken 

from this list. 

First Artillery. 

John Swift, Isaac Doughty. 

Second Artillery. 

Newton W. Coggswell, Lockwood Waldron, 

John H. Taylor, John R. Thompson, 

Orville Slover, George Burton, 

Horace Sickmund, , Henry M. Marshall, 

William A. Slover, Sylvester Graves, 



228 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



Norman Mansfield, Charles C. Bosworth, 

Lorenzo Moseley, Patrick Ryan, 

Frederick Saxe, James Adams. 

First Cavalry. 

Michael R. Gates, William H. Benton, 

James McLane, George B. Clark, 

Edward Suter, William Rogers, 

James Carey, Frederick Beam, 

John Brady, James Kelly, 

John McCabe, John Boyd, 

James Flood, John Kelly, 

Fifth Infantry. 
Charles McCormick, Wm. H. McMurtry, 

Tracy A. Bristol, Adam Coons. 

Seventh Infantry. — Hiram F. Hawver. 

Eighth Infantry. 

Charles Dixon, William Petri, 

John Williams, Hiram Allen, 

Peter Smith, ' William Murphy, 

Henry Root, Nelson Hart, 

Bennett Smith, Charles E. Dibble. 
Henry C. Smith, 

Ninth Infantry. — William C. Wilson. 
Tenth Infantry. 
John Martin, Andrew Hall. 

Eleventh Infantry. 
Thomas Quinlan, James Armit, 

Frederick Krellmer, Joseph Morean, 

Francis Ginnetty, Charles Marien, 

Gustavo Krall, Pierre A. Guy. 

Thirteenth Infantry. 
Eugene Davidson, Ira A. Davidson, 

John McGowan, Charles Richmond, 

George Roraback, Sylvester Titus, 

Henry S. Wright, James H. Roraback. 

Fourteenth Infantry. 
John Buckley, John McCarrick. 



SOLDIERS OF THE REBELLION. 229 

Seventeenth Infantry. 
James Mills, James McDermott. 

Tiventietli Infantry. 
Lewis T. Drummond, Charles J. Brent. 

Tiventy-mnih Infantry. 
John Watson, George H. Green, 

Peter Howard, John Lepyon. 

Henry Johnson, 

Navy. — Charles Dailey. 
Substitute. — John Mahone. 

From other sources I gather the following names, but it by no 
means completes the list. A visit to each family would hardly 
enable one to make a complete record, so soon does the memory of 
events fade away: 

Col. Charles D. Blinn, though born on the west side of the 
HousatoTiic River, and hence in the Town of Sharon, by g©od 
rights belongs to Cornwall. He was a son of Sturges BHnn, and 
on his mother's side a grandson of Dea. Elijah Nettleton, of the 
Baptist church, who resided on Cream Hill. From the location of 
his father's farm, just across the bridge, he was really "brought 
up " in Cornwall, was a member of the North Cornwall church, 
and at the opening of the war was a clerk with Pratt & Foster. 
He, with his uncle, Isaac Fuller Nettleton, then living in Kent, 
desirous to do something for their country, consulted with my 
father, resulting in a letter from him of recommendation to 
Governor Buckingham that they were proper persons to raise a 
company. I went to Hartford with them. We left Cornwall 
early in the morning, and before noon were in the Governor's 
ofiice. He approved the application, the necessary papers were 
made out, and they returned the same afternoon to Cornwall and 
commenced recruiting. Theirs was the first full company to go 
into camp of the Thirteenth Regiment at New Haven. Going out 
as captain, Blinn returned at the close of the war as colonel, — the 
youngest in age in the Connecticut service. Lieutenant Nettleton 
died at New Orleans, much lamented, in the early period of the 
war, leaving an honored name in Cornwall. The same promptness 
that distinguished Captain Blinn and his company in their 
enrolment, followed them in their whole career. No task so diffi- 



230 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



cult or post so dangerous that they hesitated. To detail their services 
belongs to national history. 

Alvin Henry Hart, son of Elias Hart, went as sergeant in Co. 
I, 5th Reg., Conn. Vol., and was promoted to 2d Lieut. Nov. 
1, 1864. 

Horace Nelson Hart, son of John Hart, enlisted in Co. I, 8th 
Reg., Conn. Yol., Sept. 21, 1861, at sixteen years of age. Mustered 
out in 1865. Still lives in Cornwall. 

John Mills, son of Peter Mills, enlisted at the same time and 
died in the service. 

Henry Fieldsend, killed in battle. 

Edwin L. Nickerson, 15th Conn. 

Thomas A. Smith. 

James Wilson. 

Charles Fairchild. 



LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES TO THE GENERAL 
ASSEMBLY FROM THE TOWN OF CORN- 
WALL—FROM THE STATE RECORDS. 

October Session, 1761. 

Joshua Pierce. 

1762. Oct. 
Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

1763. Oct. 
Joshua Pierce, 
Amos Johnson. 

176Jf. Oct. 

Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

1765. 



Thomas Russell, 

May. 
Joshua Pierce, 
Thomas Russell. 

May. 
Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

May. 
Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

May. 
Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

May. 
Noah Rogers, 
Heman Swift. 

May. 
Thomas Russell, 
Heman Swift. 



1766. 



1767. 



Oct. 

Thomas Russell, 
Joshua Pierce. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas RusseU. 

Oct. 
Thomas Russell, 
Heman Swift. 



LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES FROM STATE RECORDS. 



231 



May. 1768. 

Thomas Russell, 
Elijah Steele. 

May. 1769. 

Joshua Pierce, 
Thomas Porter. 

May. 1770. 

Joshua Pierce, 
Thomas Porter. 

May. 1771. 

Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

May. 1772. 

Thomas Russell, 
Heman Swift. 

May. 177S. 

Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

May. 177^. 

Thomas Porter, 
John Pierce. 

May. 1775. 

Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

May. 1776. 

Edward Rogers, 
John Pierce. 

May. 1777. 

Edward Rogers, 
John Pierce. 

May. 1778. 

Edward Rogers, 
Judah Kellogg. 

May. 1779. 

Judah Kellogg only. 

May. 1780. 

Edward Rogers, 
Andrew Young. 



Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Thomas Russell, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Russell. 

Oct. 
Heman Swift, 
Thomas Porter. 

Oct. 
Edward Rogers, 
John Pierce. 

Oct. 
Thomas Porter, 
Judah Kellogg. 

Oct. 
Judah Kellogg only. 

Oct. 
Edward Rogers, 
Abraham Payne. 

Oct. 
Edward Rogers, 
Andrew Young. 

Oct. 
Edward Rogers, 
Andrew Young. 



232 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



May. 


1781. 


Oct. 


No record. 




Mathew Patterson, 
Noah Rogers. 


May. 


1782. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




John Sedgwick, 


No record. 




Mathew Patterson. 


May. 


1783. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




Andrew Young, 


Matthew Patterson. 




Edward Rogers. 


May. 


1781^. 


Od. 


Andrew Young, 




John Sedgwick, 


John Sedgwick. 


• 


Andrew Young. 


May. 


1785. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




Heman Swift, 


Matthew Patterson. 




Matthew Patterson. 


May. 


1786. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




Heman Swift, 


Samuel Wadsworth. 




Matthew Patterson. 


May. 


1787. 


Oct. 


Matthew Patterson, 




Rev. Hezekiah Gold, 


Heman Swift. 




Rev. John Cornwall. 


May. 


1788. 


Oct. 


Eev. John Cornwall, 




Samuel Wadsworth, 


John Pierce. 




■ Ebenezer Jackson. 


May. 


1789. 


Oct. 


Ebenezer Jackson, 




Samuel Wadsworth, 


No choice. 




Ebenezer Jackson. 


May. 


1790. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




John Sedgwick. 


Ebenezer Jackson. 






May. 


1791. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




Timothy Rogers, 


Dr. Timothy Rogers. 




Tryal Tanner. 


May. 


1792. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




John Sedgwick, 


Timothy Rogers. 




Isaac Swift. 


May. 


1793. 


Oct. 


John Sedgwick, 




Samuel Wadsworth, 


Isaac Swift. 




Tryal Tanner. 



LIST OF REPEESENTATIVES FROM STATE RECORDS. 



233 



May. 179Jf. 

Samuel "Wadsworth, 
Isaac Swift. 

May. 1795. 

John Sedgwick, 
Ebenezer Jackson. 

May. 1796. 

John Sedgwick, 
Isaac Swift. 

May. 1797. 

John Sedgwick, 
Isaac Swift. 

May. 1798. 

Elijah Steele, Jr., 
Tryal Tanner. 

May. 1799. 

John Sedgwick, 
Isaac Swift, 

May. 1800. 

Judah Kellogg, 
John Sedgwick. 

May. 1801. 

Judah Kellogg, 
Oliver Burnham. 

May. 1802. 

John Sedgwick, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1803. 

Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

May. 180^. 

Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

May. 1805. 

John Sedgwick, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1806. 

Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 
30 



Oct. 
No record. 

Oct. 
Isaac Swift, 
Samuel Wadsworth. 

Oct. 
John Sedgwick, 
Isaac Swift. 

Oct. 
John Sedgwick, 
Judah Kellogg. 

Oct. 
John Sedgwick, 
Judah Kellogg. 

Oct. 
Samuel Wadsworth, 
Judah Kellogg. 

Oct. 
Judah Kellogg, 
Samuel Wadsworth. 

Oct. 
Judah Kellogg, 
Samuel Wadsworth. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Oliver Burnham, 
Benjamin Gold. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 



234 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



May. 1807. 

Oliver Burnham, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1808. 

Oliver Burnham, 
John Calhoun. 

Maij. 1809. 

Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Mmj. 1810. 

Oliver Burnham, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1811. 

John Sedgwick, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1812. 

Oliver Burnham, 
John Sedgwick. 

May. 1813. 

Oliver Burnham, 
Noah Rogers. 

May. 1814. 

Noah Rogers, 
Benjamin Gold. 

May. 1815. 

Noah Rogers, 
John H. Pierce. 

May. 1816. 

Oliver Burnham, 
John H. Pierce. 

May. 1817. 

Philo Swift, 
Oliver Burnham. 

May. 1818. 

Noah Rogers, 
Philo Swift. 

After this the new Constitution 
resentatives were chosen annually, 



Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
John Calhoun, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
John Sedgwick. 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Oliver Burnham, 
Benjamin Gold. 

Oct. 
Reuben Fox, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Benjamin Gold, 
Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Oliver Burnham, 
John H. Pierce. 

Oct. 
Oliver Burnham, 
Philo Swift. 
Oct. 
' James Ailing, 

Oliver Burnham. 

Oct. 
Philo Swift, 
Noah Rogers. 

began to operate, and the Rep- 
not biennially. 



LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES FROM STATE RECORDS. 



235 



1819 Oliver Burnham, 1839 
John H. Pierce. 1840 

1820 Oliver Burnham, 

Wm. Kellogg. 1841 

1821 William Bennet, 

Samuel Hopkins. 1842 

1822 Oliver Burnham, 

Samuel Hopkins. 1843 

1823 Oliver Burnham, 

Samuel Hopkins. 1844 

1824 Peter Bierce, 

Benjamin Sedgwick. 1845 

1825 Peter Bierce, 

Benjamin Sedgwick. 1846 

1826 Peter Bierce, 

John A. Sedgwick. 1847 

1827 John A. Sedgwick, 

Peter Bierce. 1848 

1828 Seth Pierce, Jr., 

Peter Bierce. 1849 

1829 Peter Bierce, 

John A. Sedgwick. 1850 

1830 George Wheaton, 
Frederick Kellogg. 1851 

1831 George Wheaton, 
Frederick Kellogg. 1852 

1832 Benjamin Catlm, 
Frederick Kellogg. 1853 

1833 Benjamin Catlin, 
Victorianus Clark. 1854 

1834 Victorianus Clark, 

Philo Kellogg. 1855 

1835 Philo Kellogg, 

Anson Rogers. 1856 

1836 Caleb Jones, 

William Clark. 1857 

1837 Caleb Jones, 

Myron Harrison. 1858 

1838 Caleb Jones, 

Benjamin Sedgwick. 1859 

1839 John C. Calhoun, 



Isaac Marsh. 
Isaac Marsh, 
John R. Harrison. 
John R. Harrison, 
Frederick Kellogg. 
William Hindman, 
Edwin White. 
William Hindman, 
Edwin White. 
John Scovill, 
John E. Sedgwick. 
Edward R. White, 
Joseph Essex. 
Carrington Todd, 
William Hindman. 
Chalker Pratt, 
John C. Calhoun. 
John Scovill, 
Myron Harrison. 
Hezekiah C. Gregory, 
Reuben Wilcox. 
Amos M. Johnson, 
Charles Lewis. 
Edward W. Andrews, 
Isaac Marsh. 
Isaac Marsh, 
Charles Lewis. 
John R. Harrison, 
William Hindman. 
Jacob Scovill, 
Henry Swift. 
Sherman Barnes, 
Earl Johnson. 
Jacob Scovill, 
Samuel S. Reed. 
Ralph C. Harrison, 
John W. Beers. 
Russell R. Pratt, 
Edward F. Gold. 
Alvin B. Palmer, 
George H. Swift. 



236 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



1860 


Nathan Hart, Jr., 


1869 


M. A. Nickerson. 




Rossiter B. Hopkins. 


1870 


Wm. H. H. Hewitt, 


1861 


Dwight W. Pierce, 




Geo. C. Harrison. 




Philo C. Sedgwick. 


1871 


Alanson Preston, 


1862 


Stephen Foote, 




Niles Scoville. 




H. C. Gregory. 


1872 


Henry L. Beers, 


1863 


Marcus D. F. Smith, 




Chester Wickwire, 




John McMurtry. 


1873 


Virgil F. McNeil, 


1864 


S. P. Judson, 




Robert N. Cochrane. 




John McMurtry. 


1874 


Luman Harrison, 


1865 


Robert T. Miner, 




Smith Beach. 




E. Burton Hart. 


1875 


Myron I. Millard, 


1866 


Gad W. Smith, 




George H. Crandall. 




Solon B. Johnson. 


1876 


Henry L. Beers, 


18fi7 


Silas C. Beers, 




Ralph I. Scoville. 




H. C. Crandall. 


1877 


WilKam L. Clark, 


1868 


George L. Miner, 




Ingersoll Reed. 




Edward Sanford. 


1878 


Elbert Shepard, 


1869 


William H. Harrison, 




Amos Waterbury. 




Senators from 


the Toivn 


heginninrj in 


1837 


Peter Bierce. 


1847 


Samuel W. Gold. 


1838 


Peter Bierce. 


1855 


George A. Wheaton, 


1844 


Philo Kellogg. 


1859 


Samuel W. Gold. 


1845 


Philo Kellogg. 


1870 


Victory C. Beers. 



MANUFACTURERS AND MECHANICS. 

A detailed history of the various manufacturing establishments 
which have sprung up in Cornwall would occupy too much space. 
Gen. Sedgwick has given a sketch of early enterprises in the 
Hollow. 

Capt. Edward Rogers had a potashery near North Cornwall in 
the time of the Revolution, and there was one owned by a company 
on the Agur Judson farm. There was an old forge near Chaun- 
cey Baldwin's, at West Cornwall, which stopped work in 1828. 
Gardner Dodge, Eliakim Mallory, and Eli Stone are names men- 
tioned as connected with it. The ore was brought principally from 
Salisbury, yet some was dug in Cornwall. 

Adonijah Pratt, in the last century, had a carding machine and 
fulling mill near where Gold's mill now stands. He was sue- 



MANUFACTURERS AND MECHANICS. 237 

ceeded by William Stoddard, wlio built lower down on the stream, 
and afterwards made satinet, followed by Gledhill and others. 
Another factory of the same kind (Avery's) was in the south end 
of the town. 

About 1837, John Rogers and Almon B. Pratt set up a tannery 
near Stoddard's, to dress deer and sheep-skins. These were made 
into mittens and gloves about the town. WilKam Smith, and M. 
Beers & Sons afterwards extended the business; and after the 
burning of the paper mill, built a tannery on that spot. This was 
also burned and rebuilt, and then converted into a grist mill by 
S. W. & T. S. Gold, in 1860. The paper mill had been burned in 
1846, just after its completion. It was owned by Pratt & Poster, 
Noah Hart, and M. D. P. Smith. 

The Cornwall Bridge Iron Co. was formed in 1833, and about 
the same date the West Cornwall Iron Co. These were blast 
furnaces, making pig iron from Salisbury ore. The one at West 
Cornwall stopped in 1850; that at Cornwall Bridge is still in good 
working order, with a full stock of coal. 

About 1845, Mr. Allen had a cupola-furnace at West Cornwall, 
for casting stoves, etc. Still earlier, S. J. Gold, followed by Mr. 
Essex, had a casting shop at South Cornwall. 

Por twenty-five years the manufacture of shears has been carried 
on at West Cornwall, by various parties, now by firms of Volmiller 
& Beck and Wood & Mallinson. 

C. & M. Beers had a successful tannery in South Cornwall, sixty 
years ago. Capt. Clark, father of Pierce and Victory, had another 
on the hill south of Truman Dibbles; and still later, Leighton W. 
Bradley had a tannery in the Hollow near the Baptist Meeting 
House, and carried on quite an extensive trade. 

Joel and Benjamin Catlin, sons of Bradley Cathn, were hatters, 
and had a shop near the North Cornwall Church, where they made 
hats till about 1835. They were active men and quite prominent 
in town affairs. They married sisters of Lee Blinn. 

Blacksmiths and shoemakers were more numerous formerly than 
at present; machine and factory work now taking the place of the 
slower hand processes. Almon Benedict had a shop near E. D. 
Pratt's in 1825, and Chester Markham at Cornwall Center; later, 
Zerah Dean had a shop near Gold's mill. 

Sixty years ago, tailor (Josiah P. Dean) Dean's wife did most of 

the tailoring for North Cornwall, succeeded by Reuben Hitchcock. 

John Dean, sixty year ago, told stories over his lapstone, in the 

old house now torn down, north of the Hitchcock place. Alvy 



238 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

Norton,* familiai'ly known as "Waxey," succeeded by Samuel 
Wheeler, made shoes on Cream Hill, while Milo Dickinson, Mica- 
jah Barnum, Theodore Ives, Curtiss and Menzies Beers followed the 
same calling. 

Jeremiah Coggswell, father of Nathan, James Ford, and Car- 
rington Todd made barrels. 

Soon after the railroad was completed, Henry and Edwin Ives 
of Goshen, with their brother-in-law, Mr. Baker, built a sash and 
blind factory at West Cornwall. The Iveses moved West, and 
Baker to New Hartford, and the building was used as a carriage 
shop by David Vail, succeeded by Orville L. Fitch, who came from 
Salisbury, Thomas Bosworth from Duchess County, and now by 
Geo. W. Silvernale. 

James M. Gardner built a larger sash and blind shop, now 
Volmiller's Bee Hive, but the business failed. 

Two grist-mills were early erected, special privileges being be- 
stowed for the control of the water — the one where Gold's mill 
now stands having the right to dam the lake for a water supply, 
and the other, below the pines at South Cornwall, having similar 
rights. A story is told of this mill, which had wooden gudgeons, 
and sometimes was run with a lack of oil. The inhabitants on 
the mountains south were aroused one night by certain unearthly 
sounds, like "Oh, father!" "Oh, mother!" "Oh, dear !" and 
mustered courage to trace them to their origin. They found old 
Mr. Kipp, the miller, was grinding his grist, and hence these lam- 
entations. The grist-mills at West Cornwall and Cornwall Bridge 
were built about 1830. 

Messrs. Wood & Mallinson, in 1873, erected a cupola-furnace at 
West Cornwall for the manufacture of Gold's Sanitary Heaters, 
and general castings. This was burnt in 1875, and rebuilt. Saw- 
mills have been numerous upon all our streams of sufficient water 
supply, and in some cases the builders have been disappointed in 
this respect. Tradesmen in the different arts have been enabled to 
make a fair living, and tolerable success has been awarded to our 
manufacturers; but agriculture, with all its difficulties, has ever 
been the main support of the inhabitants. 

* He was one of the last of those who went about from house to house making 
a stock of shoe.s for the family, an occupation known as " whipping the cat." A 
practical assertion of "women's rights" over him, to correct a little irregularity 
in his domestic relations, made him famous in the annals of the neighborhood. 
The women, though not allowed to rote, claimed and exercised the right to 
administer justice. 



CRIMES AND CASUALTIES. 239 

CRIMES AND CASUALTIES. 

There are few gross crimes to record. Rev. William Green, 
who was sentenced to state's prison for life for the murder of his 
wife, by poison, at West Cornwall, about 1867, was only a tem- 
porary resident. We are happy to say also that the "Perkins " of 
unhappy notoriety did not belong here. 

Early in the present century Edmund, son of Oliver Ford, and 
brother of James Ford, and Samuel, son of Bradley Catlin, were 
drowned in the pond on Cream Hill, on a Sabbath evening. 
John Ford, a son of James Ford, was drowned in the Housatonic 
about 1842; also, a son of Jacob Garrison was drowned at West 
Cornwall about 1845. 

Eber Johnson was killed by a bull in the Hollow about 1846. 

Mrs. Hiram Garner was thrown from a wagon and killed, near 
West Cornwall, about 1850. 

The house of Dea. Andrew Holmes of the Baptist church, was 
burnt in the night, about 1845, and his wife and two children 
perished in the flames. It stood in the Housatonic Valley, north 
of West Cornwall, 

Charles Baldwin was thrown from a wagon and killed, on the 
turnpike west of Cornwall Center, about 1852. 

James Oats was killed by the cars at West Cornwall about 1846, 
and Wm. White at Cornwall Bridge, about 1868. 

A son of Wallstein Wadhams was killed by the kick of a horse, 
at Cornwall Bridge, about 1872. 

Martin Cook was killed by the fall of a building in North Corn- 
wall in 1874. 

A little son of Martin Besancon went to meet his father, who 
was chopping in the woods, got lost, and was frozen to death in 
1874. 

Story of the Convict Dana. 

On or near the same ground on which now stands the house of 
Capt. Edward Gold, stood an old house occupied by several fam- 
ilies at different times, one of which was that of Joseph Judson. 
In this house he had a store. One night his store was broken open 
and robbed. London Dana was arrested upon suspicion, and in a 
singular manner convicted of the crime and sentenced to Newgate 
prison at Simsbury. Dana opened the store through the window, 
from which he removed a pane of glass by cutting out the putty 
with a knife. Having removed the pane of glass, he, with his 



240 HISTOEY OF COENWALL. 

hand, unloosed the shutter on the inside, and thus effected an 
entrance. At a place in the casement where the putty was dug 
out, was found the point of a knife-blade. This was preserved, 
and, being presented, was compared with the blade of a knife 
which Dana had in his possession. The fracture of the blade of 
his knife agreed perfectly with the point found in the casement. 
On this single proof the villain was convicted. He was an extra- 
ordinary character, and the following story was taken from the 
mouth of Col. Humphrey, the commandant of the prison at Sims- 
bury. Of Dana, he said that he was the most intractable and most 
difficult to manage of all the convicts, and of the most determined 
resolution, giving the overseers of the prison almost constant vexa- 
tion. After being there for a season, Dana, while making nails, 
laid his right hand on the anvil, and taking the hammer in his left, 
he smashed the other hand and fingers, declaring with an oath that 
he would make no more nails. His master was not to be conquered 
in this way, and therefore ordered a frame and hopper to be made 
and sand brought, and directed Dana to pour the sand through the 
hopper with a ladle, unremittingly, while the other convicts were at 
work. This employment Dana pursued week after week. Finding 
that it availed nothing in subduing his indomitable temper, 
Humphrey adopted an expedient that effectually reduced him. In 
the numerous caverns of the prison was a dungeon, where the light 
of day could not enter, and from its rocky walls water was drip- 
ping constantly. Here Dana was confined, chained to a staple in 
the rock. The furniture of his solitary cell consisted simply of a 
bed of straw. At stated times one of the guards was sent to his 
cavern to carry him his bread, with an express order not to speak 
to him a word. For a long time Dana bore his dismal solitude 
with invincible patience. But at length his spirit was broken. He 
implored to be allowed again to see the light of day. Still the 
guard kept silence. Finally the colonel went down, and Dana was 
ready to yield with the most abject submission, asked his forgive- 
ness, and went to making nails with his mutilated hand, and con- 
tinued to the end of his term perfectly obedient. 

Note. — I have visited this old prison at Sirasbury and have seen 
this cell, with the staple in the rock, where the most incorrigible 
were confined. An old copper mine, wrought before the Revolu- 
tion, was used to confine the prisoners. Tories as well as common 
malefactors were here confined. t. s. g. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 241 

RECORDS OF EARL^ AND PRESENT RESIDENTS IN 
CORNWALL. 
Of some of these we have no record. Others have passed away, 
and their names are no longer found here; tradition still survives, 
and we gather up the fragments. Some are so fully sketched in 
the historical discourses as to need little farther notice. The 
record of the living is still incomplete, and they are passed with 
brief mention. I have solicited full records from all. It is 
unfortunate that so many have failed to respond, as I have labored 
to make this volume full in everything pertaining to Cornwall. 




The Douglas Family. 

One of the most active pioneers in the settlement of this town 
was James Douglas. He came here, in 1739, from Plainfield. 
Cream Hill was his lot; it received this name from the superiority 
of the soil and the beauty of its scenery. This name was given to 
it, as Town Records show, before Mr. Douglas purchased. He 
bought two rights of Timothy Pierce of Canterbury, an original 
proprietor, in 1738, for £400; also, he bought fifty acres on Cream 
Hill, on which his first house was built. The fifty acre lot was 
purchased of Jonah Bierce of New Fairfield, who had bought it of 
Nathan Lyon of Fairfield, an original proprietor. James Douglas 
was brother of Benajah, an original proprietor in Cornwall, but 
who settled in North Canaan, being the ancestor of the Douglas 
family in that town, and great-grandfather of the distinguished 
senator, Stephen Arnold Douglas. 

James Douglas and his wife, whose family name was Marsh, 
taught the first school in Cornwall, he teaching in the winter and 
his wife in summer. Cream Hill, before the woodman's ax was 
heard there, was covered with lofty trees of various kinds, the sur- 
face not being entangled with underbrush, as much of the forest in 
town was. Mr. Douglas was an energetic and public-spirited man. 
31 



242 HISTOEY OF CORNWALL. 

He expended much labor in opening a mine one hundred and 
twenty feet in depth, for gold. Specimens of the ore were sent to 
Boston for analysis, from which small sums in gold were returned. 
But the expense of obtaining it was too great to make it a paying 
business. Another mine was wrought for silver, sixty feet, with 
like results. 

He is said to have wintered the first stock in town, — a horse and 
yoke of oxen. Heavy snows caught him unprepared. Deer were 
abundant; the boiled flesh made a nutritious soup for the cattle, 
which, with browse from the trees felled for the purpose, was their 
support. The horse refused both, but ate hair from the skins, and 
moss from the trees gathered in blankets. 

Mr. Douglas, about 1748, erected a large two-story house, which, 
about two years after its completion, was unfortunately burned 
down, and he built the house now standing on the same ground, 
which he occupied till his death. This is supposed to be the oldest 
occupied house in town. Capt. Hezekiah Gold, son of Kev. 
Hezekiah Gold, who married Rachel Wadsworth, granddaughter 
of Mr. James Douglas, purchased this property about 1790, of Mr. 
Joseph Wadsworth, a son-in-law of Mr. Douglas. This house and 
farm is at present (1877) owned by T. S. Gold. 

Farmers were then their own mechanics. The old tan vat, 
where James Douglas tanned his own leather, was but recently 
filled up, — on the bank of the small stream now called the 
'• Gutter," near his house. 

Mr. Douglas had three sons and four daughters. The eldest 
of the daughters, Sarah, married Capt. Samuel Wadsworth; the 
youngest, Eunice, married Mr. Joseph Wadsworth ; another, Olive, 
married for her first husband, a Mr. Johnson, and after his death, 
Dea. Ehakim Mallory. The other daughter, Mary (or Rachel), 
married a Mr. Taylor, of New Marlboro, Mass. Two sons, William 
and James Marsh, having sold their property on Cream Hill, 
removed to Vermont, where some of their descendants at present 
reside. James Marsh married Rhoda, sister of Judge Burnham, 
of Cornwall. The other son, John, died in 1763, aged fourteen. 

In the old cemetery at South Cornwall, we find the tombstones 
of James Douglas and his wife thus inscribed: 

James Douglas, Died Aug. 18, 1785, «. 74. 

Mortals Awake 
Your time review, think on 
Death, Eternity is near. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 243 

Rachel, wife of James Douglas, died April 23, 1790, fe. 78. 
Life how short. 
Eternity how long. 

I am indebted to Charles H. James Douglas, of Providence, R. I., 
author of the "Douglas Genealogy," for the ancestral record of 
James Douglas. 

Dea. William' Douglas, b. 1610; m. Ann, d. of Thomas Marble, 
of Kingstead, Northamptonshire; landed at Cape Ann 1639-40; 
removed to New London 1660; d. July 25, 1682. Had five chil- 
dren. 

Dea. William^ Douglas, fifth child of Dea. William', b. April 1, 
1645; m. Dec. 18, 1667, Abiah, d. of William Hough, of New 
London, and had eight children. 

Dea. William^ Douglas, third child of Dea. William-, b. Feb. 19, 
1672-3; m. Sarah Proctor, about 1695, and in 1699 removed to 
Plainfield. He was one of a little company who, in 1705, cove- 
nanted together and formed a little church at Plainfield, of which 
he was chosen first deacon. He had twelve children, of which 
Thomas, the eleventh, was also deacon, and settled in Voluntown 
(now Sterling). 

James Douglas, tenth child of Dea. William^ b. May 20, 1711; 
d. Aug. 18, 1785, aged seventy-four. 

The Wadsworth Family. 

Piev. Samuel Wadsworth was a minister in Killingly. He had 
three sons, who came to Cornwall about 1740, — Samuel, Joseph, 
and James. 

Samuel Wadsworth married Sarah, daughter of James Douglas, 
and had only one child, Rachel, who married Hezekiah Gold. By 
her he received, her father's farm on Cream Hill, which has passed 
by descent to the present owner, T. S. Gold. Samuel Wadsworth 
died Jan. 2, 1813, aged sixty-six. Sarah, his wife, died April 16, 
1820, aged seventy-seven.* 

Joseph Wadsworth married another daughter of James Douglas, 
— Eunice, and had three sons, Warren, Samuel, and Douglas. 
About 1800 he sold his farm on Cream Hill to Hezekiah Gold, and 
removed to Goshen, Orange Co., N. Y. 

James Wadsworth married Irene Palmer, and had a son, Dea. 
James Wadsworth, one daughter, who married an Ingersoll from 



* Strange as it may seem, I remember her, though but two years old at the 
time of her death. (T. S. G.j 



244 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Bethlehem, and a second daughter, who married Hawley Reed, of 
Cornwall. 

Dea. James Wadsworth had sons — John Palmer, a farmer living 
in New Marlborough, Mass. ; Stiles, Franklin, Henry, a Congrega- 
tional minister in New Jersey; and one daughter, who married 
Darius Miner, and lives in Torrington. His children had all left 
town previous to the death of Dea. James Wadsworth, and the 
dwelling, with a portion of the farm, was purchased by T. S. Gold. 

Industry, frugality, and simple Christian consecration were 
characteristics of Dea, Wadsworth and his wife, and though their 
descendants have all removed, yet will their memories long be 
cherished by their friends and neighbors. 

Joshua Pierce, the father of Joshua, John, and Seth Pierce, 
and of several daughters, belonged to Pembroke, of Plymouth 
County, Mass. He bought the place now occupied by Maj. Seth 
Pierce, May 17, 1748, consisting of three hundred and three acres, 
of Joshua Jewel. Joshua Pierce was the venerable ancestor of 
the Pierce family. lie was a poor boy, put out to a hard master, 
who treated him with much unkindness and severity. But when 
he became of age, the severe training which he had received made 
him an industrious, economical, and respectable citizen. He gave 
half his wages of one year's hire, when living at Pembroke, for 
the building of a house for the worship of God. He was remark- 
ably prosperous in acquiring property. He gave £3,000 for his 
farm, which he bought of Jewel. He here increased in wealth, 
and was very liberal towards all benevolent objects and ever 
remembered the poor; and such was his reputation and standing 
that he was one of the first chosen to represent the town in the 
legislature, to which place he was re-elected for ten different 
sessions. He was a good ministerial man for the sake of their 
sacred office. He showed himself a genuine descendant of the 
Puritans in principle and feeling. Generally the descendants of 
this venerable Joshua Pierce have been prosperous and respectable, 
having a blessing resting upon them. He died at the age of 
eighty years, on March 13, 1794. He had five daughters. Eliza- 
beth and Eleanor married two brothers, Amos and Solomon John- 
son. Sarah, the second daughter, married Jonathan Chandler. 
The younger, Priscilla, and Anna, married Perez and Titus Bonney, 
two brothers. Mr. Pierce married, for his second wife, a widow 
Starr, from Danbury. 



RECORDS OP EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 245 

Joshua, second, his oldest son, had children, — Joshua, Samuel, 
Captain John, and Lorain, who married Captain Nehemiah Clark. 

Joshua, third, married Betsey Paine, and had children, — JMills, 
a farmer in Cornwall; Fayette, who went to New York; Colonel 
Dwight, who remained in Cornwall; and a daughter, who married 
Dr. B. B. North. 

Captain John, the youngest son of Joshua, second, had daughters 
who married Menzies Beers and. Rexford Baldwin, and remained in 
Cornwall; and two sons, who removed to Plymouth. His second 
wife, Sally Russel, still survives, living with her daughters at 
Cornwall. 

John, second son of the elder Joshua, lived where William 
Harrison now lives. He had one daughter, who married in 
Washington. He went to live with her, and died there, aged 
about ninety. 

Captain Seth Pierce, the youngest son, inherited the homestead. 
He was a very liberal man. When the old meeting-house was 
moved down to the plain, he put on one bent at his own expense. 
He was a large and thrifty farmer, breeding horses and cattle in 
large numbers, having at one time eighteen horses. At this time 
Captain Pierce and Noah Rogers were the largest landholders in 
town, each listing over one thousand acres. 

He had sons, Major Seth and John H. ; and daughters, who 
married Franklin Gold, Oliver Chapin, and Ezekiel Birdseye. 
Major Seth inherited the homestead, which he still holds at the 
age of ninety- two. He graduated at Yale in the class of 1806, 
and, having been born May 16, 1785, is the oldest living graduate 
of the college. A bachelor, his life has been that of a quiet 
farmer, and he still enjoys good health in his green old age, and 
is much respected by his fellow-citizens. John H., second son, 
was a farmer; -built the corner house, so called, which he occupied; 
and was killed about 1825, having been crushed by a cart. 

Doctor Jonathan Hurlburt came from that part of Farmington 
now called Southington, having bought of Timothy Orton 120 
acres, in 1746. He is thought to have been the first that practiced 
medicine in the township. It seems that his medical profession 
was not his only employment. He was also a mechanic, and made 
plows. His son Ozias lived and died on the same place where 
his father did, a Ifttle south of the Sedgwicks. He had a natural 
taste for poetry, and published a poem on the great hail storm 
which occurred in the summer of 1799. He lived to a good old age. 



246 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

His brother, Joab, lived near him, and died some years before him. 
Both are buried in the old Cornwall Hollow cemetery. 

Mathew Millard, from East Haddam, was one of the early 
permanent citizens in Cornwall. He located and built on the west 
side of the street opposite to the house of the late Judge Burnham. 
He was one of the largest land-holders in Cornwall; was a very 
respectable citizen, and was authorized to obtain a minister at the 
first town meeting. Mr. Millard had but one child that lived to ma- 
ture age — a daughter, Achsah. She married Elisha Steele of West 
Hartford, called Deacon Steele, who, after the death of his father- 
in-law, occupied his house and homestead. The house was sold to 
Wm. Tanner (called Great Tanner on account of his extraordinary 
size), a native of Rhode Island. John Jones bought the house 
and place of Tanner, and afterwards it was purchased by Judge 
Burnham, and occupied by him till he bought the habitation of 
the Rev. Mr. Palmer. 

Samuel Messenger of Harwinton, was one of the first settlers, 
a surveyor, a very active and useful inhabitant. His residence was 
on the spot where the Rev. Hezekiah Gold built and lived, at the 
Center. Mr. Messenger was here in the summer of 1739. He 
bought a whole right of Ephraim Smedley of Woodbury, soon after 
the sale of the town in 1738. 

According to town records, Mr. Messenger's son Daniel, who 
was born March 18th (old style), 1740, was the first birth of the 
early settlers of the town. Mr. Messenger, in four or five years, 
sold his place to his brother Nehemiah Messenger, and he, in 1757, 
sold to one Joseph Mather. The Rev. Hezekiah Gold then was 
settled here as minister, and bought the place of Mr. Mather, and 
erected the house which he occupied until his decease, in 1790. 
His youngest son, Wakeman, owned the house and homestead, 
and he having sold to Captain Peck, removed to Pompey, N. Y. 
Captain Peck sold to Theodore Norton, from Goshen. The next 
owner was Mr. Darius Miner, followed by his son-in-law, Mr. 
Johnson, who erected a new house in place of the old one. His 
widow and family still reside there. 

George Hollow ay, from Pembroke in Massachusetts, came with 
his brother John to this town from New Fairfield, in the spring, 
1740. He was the most prominent among tl^e first settlers in 
office, character, and influence. He was directed by the Assembly 
to call the first town meeting; was a justice of the peace, first town 
clerk, captain of the militia, and bore the title of Doctor Holloway. 



EECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 247 

His handwriting in the first Town Records is quite ordinary, and 
his orthography more imperfect. He had a wife, but no children. 
His brother John, who for some years survived him, never 
married. 

At the public worship which our forefathers regarded with the 
strictest pertinacity at the very first of tlieir settlement, and when 
they had no public teacher, and when Daniel Rugg was by 
town rule to pitch the tune for the choir, it was the allotted duty 
of Doctor Holloway to select and read the Psalm. He was consid- 
ered to be one of the most wealthy men in town. He settled on 
the hill near the first meeting-house, and erected the house which 
Ithamer Baldwin occupied many years, and which was on the same 
ground on which his widow resides. Mr. George Holloway died in 
middle life, and having been too much engaged in public life he 
had necessarily neglected his private affairs, and left his estate 
insolvent. 

Woodruff Emmons became the owner of the Holloway house, 
and kept a tavern there during the Revolutionary War. 

The Emmons Tavern. 

One hundred years ago, in the center of the town there was a 
tavern of some notoriety in its day, which stood near the summit 
of a high hill, overlooking in a southern direction a wide extent of 
country, embracing a beautiful valley. 

The building was distinguished by the peculiar architecture not, 
altogether uncommon at that period in the construction of the 
better class of dwellings. Large massive scrolls and roses of 
carved work ornamented the tops and sides of the doorways, while 
the windows, of six by eight glass, were surmounted by heavy 
angular projecting caps. The doors were wrought with curvili- 
near styles and panels, surmounted also like the windows with the 
angular projecting caps. The body of the house was painted a 
light red, the windows and doors being trimmed with white. The 
large square chimney -top exhibited, neatly cut in a stone on its 
front side, the figures 1758, being the year in which the house was 
built. Few dwellings at the present day exhibit so elaborate a 
finish as appeared in its exterior. The interior was more plain. 
The best rooms, however, were finished with a dark, heavy wain- 
scot, nearly half way to the ceiling above, on three sides, while on 
the fourth the wood-work covered the whole. A plaster of lime 
mortar covered the remaining portions of the walls. On the 



248 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

chimney side of each of the front rooms there was a huge fire- 
place, with a wooden manteltree, in the wainscoting above which 
there was inserted an immense panel, some four or five feet in 
breadth. The remaining parts of the house were done with plain 
wooden ceilings, leaving the joists, which were neatly planed, 
naked overhead. The wood- work was painted either red or blue; 
the latter being considered the most genteel color, was applied to 
the two front rooms of the first story — the one being used for the 
best room or parlor, and the other as the bar-room. In one 
corner of the latter was a space six feet square, parted off by a 
ceiling four and a haK feet high. This inclosure was called the Bar. 
Around the two posterior sides of the bar were placed several 
shelves containing various articles, of which the most conspicuous 
were several square bottles filled with different kinds of liquors. 
One was labeled Old Holland Gin, another French Brandy, and a 
third Orange-peel Bitters. By the side of these stood drinking 
vessels of various kinds, some of glass and others of pewter. A 
large conical loaf of white sugar, enclosed in a thick dark purple 
paper, was also conspicuous, while beside it stood a large, round, 
covered wooden box, containing many broken pieces of the same, 
ready for use. The furniture of the bar-room consisted of a large 
heavy oaken table, composed of a single leaf, one or two forms or 
benches, and some half dozen splint-bottomed chairs. 

The house here described stood upon a terrace some three or four 
feet high, sustained on two sides by a wall of unhewn stones, the 
entrance being up a flight of large stone steps; the side-hill posi- 
tion of the building rendering this arrangement quite convenient. 
Just exterior to this terrace, and about thirty feet from the build- 
ing, stood the sign-post, from the rectangular bar of which was 
suspended the sign. 

In front of this tavern was an open space or common, sixteen 
rods in width and forty in length, called the green; it was nearly 
destitute of trees, and furnished the ordinary parade ground for 
the militia, and place for town gatherings on gala days or other 
public occasions.* On the opposite side of the green from the tav- 

*From the papers of Capt. Edward Rogers, we select a bill from this tavern 
showing the depreciated state of the currency : 

The Comassary General of Forrage, 

to Samuel Bassitt, Dr. 

To keeping Colo" Sprought's 2 horses 6 days on hay that was good in Stable, 
£6 14s. 4c?. Sam'l Bassitt. 

January 1780. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 249 

ern, and near the northwest corner, stood the meeting-house, a large 
and respectable looking edifice, where all the inhabitants of the 
town usually met on the Sabbath. Fronting the extreme southern 
part of the common or green, stood the parsonage of the Rev. 
Hezekiah Gold; about half a dozen other dwellings completed the 
center village. 

Whipping-Post and Stocks. 

About six rods from the tavern, and directly in front of it, near 
the traveled path, stood a wooden post about ten inches square, and 
seven feet in height placed firmly and perpendicularly in the earth. 
Near the ground a large mortice was made through the post, in 
which were placed the ends of two stout pieces of plank, five feet in 
length, lying edgewise, one to the other. The under one was made 
immovable in the post, wliile the upper plank was movable up and 
down by a hinge-like motion. Between the edges of these planks 
were four round holes, one-half of each hole being cut from each 
plank; the two half circles when joined made an opening of the right 
size to embrace a person's ankles. On the outer ends of these hori- 
zontal planks were appended a stout iron hasp and staples, designed 
when in use to be secured in place with a heavy padlock. The 
fixture here described answered the double purpose of posting- 
warnings for town meetings or other public notices, as well as for a 
whipping-post and stocks. 

A spot like the Center Village, connected so intimately with 
many revolutionary incidents, is deemed worthy of the particular 
notice here given. Time has wrought many changes in the place 
since that memorable era. The broad common has, by the cupidity 
of adjoining proprietors, been reduced to the width of an ordinary 
highway. The venerable church has long since been removed, 
and given place to one of quite a different construction; and the 
famous old tavern has relinquished its commanding seat upon the 

The Comassary General of Forrage, 

to Asa Emmons, Dr. 
To keeping Colo'^ Sprought's 2 horses 1 week in Stable'* at good hay, £9 0. 

Asa Emmons. 
February 1780. 

The Comassary General of Forrage, 

to Salmon Emmons, Dr. 
To keeping Col' Sprought's 2 horses 4 weeks & 1 day, Stabled on good hay 
at 15 dolars p' head p' weak, £37 : 6s : 6c?. 

Salmon Emons. 
December 1779 «&. January 1780. 

32 



250 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

hill-side, which is now occupied by a handsome residence of more 
modern style. The stocks and whipping-post have disappeared, 
and are to be found nowhere within the limits of the State; a 
change caused by the onward march of a more enlightened and 
refined civilization. 

The old parsonage occupied by the Rev. Mr. Gold has recently 
been removed, and the spot is now occupied by a handsome mod- 
ern edifice owned and occupied by the family of Mr. Palmer John- 
son. About 1820, Erastus Gaylord kept a store on the corner of 
this green, south of the old tavern. He removed to Madison, 
N. y., in 1827, but the store was continued by others for more than 
thirty years. Here was the post-office of Cornwall, till it was 
removed to the Plain about 1850. For many years this was the 
only office in town, which now boasts of six offices. 

When we consider the events which here transpired during the 
stormy period of the Revolution ; when we contemplate that this 
now quiet hill was then alive and resounding with the bustle of 
those who came, leaving the plow in the furrow, and the grain 
ungathered in the field, to peril fortune and life for their country 
in its awful extremity; that here, as upon one of Nature's great 
altars, many a heart was devoted to the sacred cause of freedom, 
and that here were often gathered bands of stalwart men whose 
minds glowed with patriotic fire; that here, on this very spot, they 
pledged themselves on the issue of the great cause in which they 
engaged for victory or death. Who can fail, as the mind's eye 
dwells upon this consecrated spot, to venerate those once throbbing 
•hearts, glowing minds, and stalwart forms which have long since 
passed away. 

But the hill-side, with all its rural beauties, still remains, and 
who can contemplate its bold and picturesque scenery and not feel 
his heart glow with something of that same old fire of seventy-six, 
and entertain a purer and holier devotion for the welfare of our 
common country ? 

John Clothier, who was one of the first permanent settlers, 
resided for some time on Cream Hill, and finally settled on the 
Cotter place, near the Housatonic river. This farm of 160 acres 
was made a present to him by Thomas Ballard, who had no chil- 
dren. Mr. Ballard was from Plainfield. He first settled almost 
opposite the house of Noah Rogers, from whence he removed to 
the Cotter farm. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 251 

Samuel Abbott was one of the early settlers from Danbury. 
He located in the FJast Street. He first erected a log-house, and 
afterwards a large and commodious residence a few rods southwest 
of the house of the late Ebenezer Birdsey. This house was 
burned in the middle of the day by the accidental ignition of dry 
flax, supposed by means of a cat. This was before the existence 
of insurance on buildings or their contents — all the furniture and 
clothing of the family being in the house, were, with it, totally con- 
sumed, which calamity at once reduced Mr. Abbott from a state 
of affluence to poverty. 

Mr. Abbott was a very worthy citizen, and for several years a 
deacon of the Congregational Church. His children were Samuel, 
Abel, Nathan, Seeley, and Daniel, and a daughter who married 
Jesse Jerrods, from Long Island. Samuel Abbott, Jr., is said to 
have been regardless of religion until he was more than eighty 
years old. He did not attend public worship, but in 1811 he was 
in a surprising manner changed in his views of religion. At the 
time of a revival, he became under deep conviction, which he 
struggled desperately to suppress. After a time his heart yielded 
to the power of Divine Truth, and he became a humble and earnest 
Christian, and united with the Congregational Church in South 
Cornwall. He lived to be eighty-six years old, and died in the 
full hope of a glorious immortality. 

Thomas Tanner, one of the original settlers, came from Litch- 
field, with his son William, being of age. Thomas settled on the 
old road east of the Burnham place, and died there; house since 
occupied by John Kellogg. Wilham had sons, — Consider, who 
removed to Ellsworth; Ephraim, to Warren, and kept tavern 
opposite the meeting-house; Tryal built the gambrel-roofed house 
since owned by Tyler Miner, and early in this century went to 
Ohio, Joseph to Green River, N. Y. Dea. Ebenezer Tanner was 
also a son of William. 

Jethro Bonney, and his brother Perez, came from Pembroke, 
Mass., about 1760. Jethro owned the Beardsley place, and after- 
wards the Judson place. Perez settled on Clark Hill, and had 
sons, — Perez, Titus, Asa, and Jairus. Perez and Titus married 
Priscilla and Anne, sisters of J. Beirce. Stephen, son of Perez, 
occupied the same place as his father. Titus lived on Clark Hill 
till 1813, when, with his oldest son, John, and his son-in-law, 
Joshua Bradford Sherwood, he went to Nelson, O. Jairus was a 
soldier, deserted, and went to the District of Maine. 



252 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

The Burnham place was sold in 1757, by Rev. Solomon Palmer 
(eighty-five and one-half acres, house, barn, and orchard), to Noah 
Bull, of Farmington. That house is still standing, being the back 
part of the Burnham homestead. In 1759 Noah Bull sold to Joel 
Gillett, of Great Nine Partners, N. Y. Judge Burnham bought 
the place in 1792, of Jerrett Kettletop, of New York city. 

Record of the Burnham Family. 
Oliver Burnham m. Sarah, dau. of Noah Rogers, third, and had 
children, — Oliver Rogers; Franklin; William; Rhoda, m. Victori- 
anus Clark; Mary A., m. Rev. A. Judson; Clarissa, m. Alvin 
North; Emily F., m. Rev. John Clark Hart; Harriet, m. Rev. 
Grove Brownell. 

Dr. Russell came from Guilford. Sold the Holloway House, in 
April, 1777, to Salmon, son of Woodruff Emmons. Dr. Russell, 
with his father-in-law, John Pattison, removed to Piermont, N. H. 
This was the Emmons tavern (elsewhere described), torn down 
about 1846 by Ithamar Baldwin, who built upon the site. 

Ebenezer Sherwood, son of John Sherwood, of Fairfield, a 
Baptist minister, and one of the early proprietors, in 1770 settled 
on the farm afterwards owned by Parson Stone, now (1877) the 
estate of John C. Calhoun. He died in 1785. His daughter 
married Joel Millard, son of Nathan Millard, and lived on Cream 
Hill. 

Timothy Cole, from New Milford, married Rebekah, daughter 
of old Sergeant John Dibble, lived south of Truman Dibble, and 
died in 1783. He was uncle of John and David Cole, who came 
from same town. His son Ezra built the house formerly occupied 
by Timothy Bronson, and in 1845 by W. Barber. Seth sold his 
place in 1800 to Asa Emmons. Thaddeus, having lived at Rogers' 
mill, went to Tioga, N. Y. John Cole bought of Orlo Allen; had 
three sons, — Edmund, Irad, and Martin, who had the mill where 
now stands Gold's grist-mill; the saw-mill on the turnpike near 
West Cornwall, now Henry Cole's; and built the grist-mill at 
West Cornwall, now owned by Wood and Mallinson. David Cole 
was a Revolutionary soldier, but his health failed, and he came to 
Cornwall in 1773. Had one daughter, Rachel, who married Wil- 
liam Allen. He lived at Cole's mill, a few rods west of his brother 
John. 

Jonathan Squires, an original purchaser of two rights, was 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND TRESENT RESIDENTS. 253 

another enterprising pioneer from Plainfield. In 1739 he settled 
on Cream Hill, southwest from Mr. Douglas's place, on the road 
(long since discontinued) leading from Rexford's to the grist-mill. 
His son Reuben, who came with him, established himself on the 
place where Captain Joel Wright resided, which property now 
belongs to his only son, John Wright. (Thomas Wilson, 1877.) 

Jonathan Squires was a man of activity, and was frequently 
employed in the public business of the town. But few of the first 
settlers were more wealthy than he. A daughter of his married 
Mr. Samuel Scovill, grandfather of Jacob Scovill, Esq. Mr. 
Squires died in this place at an advanced age. 

The Rugg Family. 
Thomas Rugg, in 1739. came from Woodbury and built a house 
on Rugg Hill, near the Housatonic River. As the "hard winter" 
set in, he left his wife and three small children, and went to 
Woodbury to obtain supplies, expecting to be absent but a few 
days. Before he could return, there came on a terrific snow-storm 
which lasted many days. The scanty supply of food in the house 
was exhausted, and one of the children died from starvation, and 
they might all have perished from the same cause had not Mr. 
Douglass, living on Cream Hill, went on his snow-shoes to inquire 
after them. Finding them in this suffering condition, he brought 
them all on his ox-sled to his house, and kindly cared for their 
necessities until Mr. Rugg's return. This family, disheartened by 
their afflictions, returned in the spring to Woodbury. 

The Johnson Family. 
Amos Johnson removed from Branford to Cornwall in 1742. 
He was accompanied by his wife and two sons. His wife was 
Amy Palmer, a sister of Solomon Palmer, the first settled minister 
in Cornwall. Mr. Johnson settled where the late Amos Johnson 
lived, now (1877) Mr. Fairchild's, and the farm was retained in 
the family over one hundred years. The two sons were respec- 
tively named Amos and Solomon." The former was born in 1733, 
and the latter in 1735. 

Descendants of Amos. 
Amos Johnson, second, was a captain in the Revolutionary War. 
He married Ehzabeth Pierce, a daughter of Joshua Pierce. They 
had twelve children, of whom nine survived childhood, viz., Amos, 
Elizabeth, Timothy, Anna, Lucy, Samuel Pierce, Buckley, Urena, 
and Palmer. 



254 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Amos, third, married Anna Patterson, daughter of Elnathan 
Patterson, and had four children, viz., David, Benjamin, Sylvester, 
and Elizabeth. 

Timothy married Sarah Mallory, daughter of Deacon Ehakim 
Mallory, They had children as follows, to wit, Elizabeth, Amanda, 
Earl, Amos, Lucy, Sarah Ann. Elizabeth m. Luther Emmons; 
Amanda m. Milo Dickinson; Earl m. Lucia Ann Wadhams ; 
Amos m. Sarah Ives; Sarah Ann m. Joel Hall. 

Samuel Pierce married Miriam Gilbert. Their children were, — 
Mariett, m. Frederick M. Peck; Martha Louisa, m. Joseph L. 
Cowdin; Myra Carohne, m. Lemuel Peck; Jesse Gilbert; Eber 
Ives; Samuel Joseph Burnet, m. Desire Hewitt; Thomas Stanford 
Hopkins, m. Sarah Hopkins. 

Buckley married Elthene Britton, adopted daughter of Jared 
Jones. Their children were, — John Lyman, m. Persis Dean; 
Benjamin P., m. Mary Miner; Urena Maria, m. Philander Vaill; 
David Frankhn; Wakeman Pierce, m. Harriet Avery; Timothy C., 
m. Betsey S. Barber; Charlotte Ann, m. Jay Gaylord; Harriet, 
m. Allen T. Bunnell, and secondly, Mortimer D. Holcomb; Laura, 
m. Luther Ives; Lucy Maria. 

Urena married' Isaac Sterling. Their children were, — Isaac; 
Urena, m. Ephraim Gibbs; Heman B.; Amos; Ansel. 

Palmer married Celia Bonney, daughter of Asa Bonney. They 
had children, — Dorothy Woods, Sophronia, Seymour, and Lewis 
Palmer. Sophronia m. Rev. N. M. Urmston; Seymour m. Julia 
Ann Sanford, and had children, — J. Sanford, Solon B., and 
ColHs S. ; Lewis Palmer m. Rebecca Barber, and had children, — 
Wilbur A., and Walter B.; J. Sanford m. Martha S. Foster; 
Walter B. m. Mary J. Harrison. 

Descendants of Solomon. 
Solomon married Eleanor Pierce, daughter of Joshua Pierce. 
Their children were, — Solomon, Eleanor, Abigail, Stephen, Seth, 
Lucy, and David. The two last named died in childhood. Of Ihe 
remainder, a number went West, and Eleanor married Col. Benja- 
min F. Gold. They had several children, whose names appear in 
another part of this history. 

Story of the Carter Family. 
Nathaniel Carter came from Killingworth and bought the Jones 
homestead of Barzillai Dudley, in Dudley Town. In March, 1763, 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 255 

he sold his place and removed to the Forks of the Delaware, now 
Binghamton. 

The following narrative of their sufferings from the Indians 
was from the lips of Mrs. Elizabeth Oviatt of Goshen, one of his 
daughters, an eye-witness of the scenes described at the age of 
nine years, given a few weeks before her death — past eighty years — 
at Goshen, in 1832. 

Her parents. Mr. and Mrs. Carter, in company with two other 
families, removed in the spring of the year 1763 from Cornwall 
to a place then called the Forks of the Delaware, now Binghamton, 
N. Y. They advanced about twenty miles beyond any other white 
settlement, cleared a small spot near the bank of the river, and 
erected a building of logs, in which the three families resided. Mr. 
and Mrs. Carter had four children — Sarah, the eldest, was eleven, 
Ehzabeth, the second daughter, was nine, a son of seven years, and 
an infant. There were also several children belonging to the other 
families. Here those parents, with their childi-en, passed a few 
months in apparent security. They were engaged in various 
employments to improve the safety and comfort of their new resi- 
dence. 

The heavy, tall trees immediately in front of their dwelKng they 
had in part cleared away, and some corn and other articles required 
for their families were cultivated. While some were laboring, 
others carried the muskets and ammunition, acting as sentinels, 
that they might seasonably be apprised of any approaching danger. 
Every day seemed more promising of future happiness and security, 
and added something to their little stock of comforts. The wild 
scenery had begun to grow familiar to their view, and an agreeable 
interest had associated itself with the principal objects which were 
embraced by the little horizon formed by the tall and unbroken 
forest, which stretched away to an almost interminable distance 
around them. 

One day in October, when the inmates of this little settlement 
were occupied in their usual pursuits, two of the men having gone 
a short distance into the woods to labor, and the other, whose busi- 
ness it was to act as sentinel, had also gone a f-ew rods out of sight 
from the house to examine some traps; the Indians, who had been 
secretly watching their prey, uttered their savage shout, and rushed 
upon these defenseless women and children. At this moment Ehz- 
abeth was a few yards from the door in company with her mother; 
in an instant she saw her mother weltering in blood upon the ground 



256 ^ HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

beside her, a savage having nearly divided her head with a toma- 
hawk. The Indians, twelve in number, then rushed into the 
house, whei-e were the elder females, one of whom was confined to 
her bed with illness ; a daughter of the same woman, aged sixteen, 
who was ill, an infant child of Mrs. Carter, and five other children. 
One of the Indians seized the infant and threw it with such vio- 
lence against the logs of the house that it was instantly killed. 
The two sick females were also put to death with the tomahawk. 
The man who had gone to examine the traps, hearing the shrieks 
of the sufferers, hastened to their defense, but had only time to 
discharge his gun once, before he received a death-blow froin the 
hands of the assailants. 

The Indians, having selected such of their captives as they sup- 
posed could best endure the hardships of savage life, taken the 
scalps from those they had killed, and also having collected the 
clothing and utensils which they thought would best serve their 
convenience, set fire to the house, and then hurried off to their 
encampment, a short distance from thence on the river. 

The captives were the three surviving children of Mr. Carter, 
Mrs. Duncan, and two children belonging to the other family. At 
the encampment they found about two hundred Indians, principally 
warriors. Several large fires were burning, around which the 
Indians began to regale themselves with roasted corn and other 
refreshments which had been brought from the white settlement. 
After having indulged themselves in exultations at their recent 
success, and night approached, they secured their captives with 
cords, and stretched themselves on the ground around the fires. 
Sarah, the eldest daughter of Mr. Carter, appeared perfectly dis- 
tracted by the circumstances of her situation. She continued 
crying and calling for her father to come and rescue her. 

The Indians appeared several times almost determined to silence 
her screams with the tomahawk. At length, when they had be- 
come buried in sleep, Sarah obtained a small brand and burned 
the cord in two with which she was bound, and being thus at 
liberty, made her way back to the smoking ruins of her recent 
home, where she gave way to the most violent lamentations. 
Though her cries were distinctly heard in the encampment, she 
was not pursued until morning, when she was retaken. 

The next day the Indians commenced their journey through the 
woods, carrying on horseback their captives. After pursuing 
their route three days in a weste]"ly direction, they halted and sent 



EECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 257 

back a war party of twenty Indians. After five or six dftys the 
party returned with several scalps; those of Mr. Carter and his 
companion, Mr. Duncan, were of the number. 

These unfortunate men, after seeing the desolation which the 
Indians had made, hastened to the nearest white settlement to ob- 
tain some assistance from thence, and they returned precisely in 
time to fall a prey to the aforementioned party; five of the twelve 
only being able to escape. The Indians then recommenced their 
march through the woods to the residence of their nation. As 
nearly as Elizabeth could recollect, they traveled several days 
diligently in a northwesterly direction, and at length arrived in 
their nation. Here, in dark and filthy huts, hung round with the 
scalps of their parents and friends, separated from each other, did 
these captives spend the long and tedious months of winter, in a 
state of almost perfect starvation. The Indians would never go 
abroad to obtain new supplies of food so long as one morsel re- 
mained; and then sometimes return with little success. Being 
extremely indolent in their habits, they would only yield to the 
lal)or of hunting from the most imperious necessity. 

When spring returned they deserted their winter quarters and 
journeyed toward the Lakes, and after s(>veial weeks they arrived 
in the vicinity of Fort Niagara; and here, to the great joy of Eliza- 
beth, she and her sister Sarah were ransomed. Being conducted 
under the escort of English troops, they at length reached their 
friends in Cornwall in safety. Most of the other captives were 
ransomed at a subsequent period. But young Carter, the brother 
of Elizabeth, never returned. Having imbibed the habits of the 
Indians, he married one of their daughters, by whom he had sev- 
eral children, and finally died in the Cherokee nation, at the age of 
about seventy. 

One of the sons of this Carter by the Indian marriage attended 
for a time the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall, during which 
period he visited the Oviatt family, then in Goshen. Although 
Sarah lived to old age, her mind never recovered from the shock 
it had received. She became incapable of providing for her own 
wants. She was never married. But Elizabeth's mind received 
no permanent injury. Possessing naturally a high degree of equa- 
nimity of temper, and being early made acquainted with the con- 
soling and purifying truths of the Gospel, she passed the remainder 
of her life in much prosperity and happiness. She married Mr. 
Benjamin Oviatt, of Goshen, Conn., from which union proceeded 
33 



258 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

numeroi^s and highly respectable descendants. After reaching the 
seventy-ninth year of her age, she closed her long life — which was 
in childhood so darkly overshadowed — peaceful, resigned, and 
happy, leaving behind her not only the memory of her early suf- 
ferings, but the rich legacy of her exemplary virtues and Christian 
character. 

The Dibble Family. 

John and Benjamin Dibble were brothers, and among the first 
inhabitants of the town. They came from Norwalk. Benjamin, 
who was called Doctor Dibble, though he had no medical educa- 
tion—was a sort of a root or Indian doctor. He lived thirty or 
forty rods down the hill from the house of the late Seth Dibble, 
his grandson ; the cellar of the old house remains, and is seen a 
few rods north of the road in the meadow. He died at an ad- 
vanced age. He had two sons and several daughters. The sons 
were Israel and George. Israel was severely wounded during the 
Revolutionary war, at White Plains, from which wound he never 
recovered fully, rendering him decrepit for life. He had nine 
children, sons and daughters. His youngest son, Seth, lived at 
his father's house, and was an active business man. His father 
died when quite aged. The son Seth Dibble died suddenly, after 
a brief illness, in the midst of an active life, leaving sons and 
daughters. 

George, the other son of Benjamin Dibble, lived to the age of 
eighty-four. He left one son, Truman Dibble, and a daughter. 

John Dibble was designated by the title of Sergeant Dibble; such 
titles were common less than one hundred years since. This man 
was active, and is often referred to in the early records. He built 
a house some sixty rods east of the present residence of William 
Harrison, at the southwest corner of the Dibble meadow, so called; 
vestiges of the old cellar still remain. Mr. Dibble had three sons, 
Clement, John, and Silas, and two daughters, Lydia and Re- 
bekah. (Jlement was an inefficient and useless man, and became 
poor. Silas was intemperate. Sergeant Dibble died in 1782, be- 
ing eighty two years old. 

The Sooville Family. 

Among the early settlers, thougli not original proprietors, wei'e 
three brothers, — Samuel, Stephen, and Timothy Scoville, — spelt in 
the early records, Scovel, from Saybrook. 

Samuel settled where Henry Rogers now lives, building a house, 
probably of logs, just east of the present dwelling. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 259 

Stephen settled where Sylvester Scoville now lives. 

Timothy settled just above the Mills place, north of l<>ank Reed's. 
These three lived and died where they settled, and are buried in 
South Cornwall cemetery. 

From Stephen descended Levi, who was deaf and dumb; and 
Sylvester, his son, who still occupies the old homestead. Levi was 
a good farmer, a man of remarkable intelhgence for a deaf and 
dumb, before they had any of the modern advantages of education. 
He had no difficulty in communicating with his neighbors by nat- 
ural signs so apt that all could u:nderstand. He was a regular 
attendant at church, and, it was said, well knew what the minister 
had to say. 

Timothy's children — Ira and Ithamar — moved West. 

Samuel had a large family, — two sons by his first wife, Samuel 
and Jacob, familiarly known as '> Uncle Jake." Both were Revo 
lutionary soldiers, and were taken prisoners at the battle of Long 
Island, and confined in the terrible prison-ships, and eventually 
dismissed on parole. When they came home, their clothes were so 
infested with vermin that, they had to bury them. 

Samuel settled on the Cobble, and it is said that when engaged 
in piling up the stone walls which still stand there, talking to his 
four yoke of oxen, he could be heard at Cornwall Center and down 
on Cornwall Plain. 

A sketch of "Uncle Jake" is given among the Heroes of the 
Revolution. Many stories of him are still extant. One time, 
while watching a redoubt, a British soldier, being in the habit of 
coming out and slapping a portion of his person in contempt, he 
was appointed, as the best shot in the company, to put a stop to the 
performance. He watched his opportunity, and had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing the soldier keel off the parapet before the slapping 
process was half accomplished. 

At one time he bet a gallon of rum that he could outjump the 
company (the Connecticut), and won it by clearing thirty- 
six feet at two hops and a jump. 

By his second wife Samuel S., Sen., had sons, Joseph, Daniel, 
Jonah, Ezra, Stephen, and Jonathan. 

Joseph first settled and built the house where Frank Reed now 
lives ; afterwards moved to G-reene, Chenango County, N. Y. ; was 
run over by his team of horses and killed. His son Jesse built the 
house lately occupied by Deacon Nettleton, and moved with his 
father to Greene, and built the first permanent bridge across the 
Chenango river at that place. 



260 HISTORY OF COBNWALL. 

Daniel and Ezra moved to Vermont. Jonah went to New Con- 
necticut, O. Stephen lived in Cornwall, and died from the bite of 
a mad cat. Jonathan remained on the old homestead and took 
care of the old folks. 

Daughters of Samuel S., Sen., were Lois, married Dilly Howe, 
brother to Ichabod, and lived on Sharon Mountain; Eunice, mar- 
ried Richard Wickwire, brother of Daniel W., and father of Mrs. 
James Reed; Ruth, married Mr. Dibble, and moved West; Sallie, 
married Mr. Brown, and moved West; Samuel was a bachelor, and 
died in 1877; John, married Eleanor Fletcher. Is now a success- 
ful practitioner of medicine at Ashley Falls, Mass. 

Jonathan had children, Jacob and Samuel, twins; John, Ethan, 
and Daniel, Sarah, and Mary Ann. 

Jacob married Martha Ingersoll of Bethlehem, and settled near, 
and occupied a part of, the old homestead, now owned by his son, 
Ralph I. Scoville. He died in 1876. Jacob and his son Ralph 
have represented the town in the Legislature. Samuel, second son, 
graduated at Yale, 1857. Is a Congregational minister at Nor- 
wich, N. Y,; married Hattie, daughter of Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher, and • has four children. Eliza, only daughter, married 
William Rogers of Cornwall; moved to Kentucky, where he died. 
Mrs. R. returned to Cornwall, and lives on the old property of 
" Uncle Jacob." Her eldest daughter. Belle, married Eugene 
Wickwire, and lives in Cornwall. 

Ethan died in New Haven, unmarried. Daniel married Betsey 
Gray. Only one son, Eugene, survives. A daughter, Belle, mar- 
ried David 0. Cain of Sharon. Sarah married Riley M. Rexford 
Another Scoville, — Elias, a blacksmith, — came from Middlebury, 
having resided in Goshen for a time, about 1838, and had a shop 
near North Cornwall church, where, in connection with Mr. Studley 
of Sharon, they made wagons, and also did general blacksmithing. 
His shop was afterwards removed to the neighboi'hood of Gold's 
mill, where he bought the house of Wm. Smith, formerly the old 
Baptist church, where he now resides. He is a genial man and a 
good mechanic; but had rather tell a story than shoe a horse, even 
when the joke rests on himself. As the owner of a Bolles' rock- 
puller, with improvements of his own, he has helped to make the 
rough places of Cornwall smooth. His oldest son, Niles, follows 
his trade at the same place, and represented the town in the Legis- 
lature in 1871. 



recobds of early and present residents. 261 

The Wickwire Family. 

Oliver Wickwire came from New London county before the 
time of the Revohition. He settled on the old road, long since 
discontinued, running northeast from near Chester Wickwire's. 
His nearest neighbor on the south was James Douglas. 

He had children, Joshua, who went to Eaton, Mad. county, N. Y.\ 
Lois, married James Robb, and lived in Salisbury, near Falls Vil- 
lage; Richard, who lived where his daughter, Mrs. James Reed, 
now lives, and went to North Canaan in 1842. Daniel married 
Mara Scoville. He lived, and died at an advanced age, where his 
son C'hester now lives, on Cream Hill, and Lucretia married Calvin 
Butler, and had a numerous family. Another daughter married 
Paul Price. 

Chester Wickwire is a farmer, one of the largest landholders in 
town; was member of the General Assembly in 1872, and has held 
ether town offices; married Mary Harrison, and has children; 
Daniel removed to Illinois; Jane married Mr. Smith, Homer, 
N. Y. ; Eugene married Belle Rogers, and Luman, Julia, and Ger- 
trude. 

The Wheaton Family. 

George Wheaton, Esq., came from East Haven, where he was 
born, in 1790. He died Nov. 24, 1865, aged 75. He studied law 
with Judge Church of Salisbury, was admitted to the bar in 1813, 
and settled as a lawyer in Cornwall. Mr. Wheaton was a well- 
read, exact lawyer, a prudent business man, and a close reasoner. 
He was a valuable man in town affairs, and enjoyed the respect 
and confidence of his fellow -citizens. He was a member of the 
Congregational church, and was well known as a consistent Chris- 
tian. Married, first wife, Lewey Ailing, Nov. 10, 1815, and had 
children, George A., married Artemisia Baldwin; Lewey, married 
William Baldwin. Cynthia married Elbert Shepard. Second wife, 
Eliza Cotter, and had Lucretia, married Dr. P. C. Cummings of 
Canaan. 

The Rogers Family. 

The pedigree of this family is traced back by records in the 
British Museum to Thomas Rogers of Bradford, County of Wilts, 
sergeant-at-law, who died in 1485. He was great-grandfather of 
John Rogers, the martyr. 

John Rogers, the martyr, born about 1500, married Adigan 
Pratt of Brabant, and had eleven children, — named, Daniel, John, 



262 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Ambrose, Samuel, Philip, Bernard, Augustine, Barnaby, Susan, 
Elizabeth, and Hester. 

The son, John Rogers, married Mary, daughter of WilHam Leete 
of Bverden, County of Cambridge. Thomas, a grandson of the 
martyr, came over in the Mayflower, and was the ancestor of the 
Rogers family in Cornwall, who have now reached ten generations 
from him. The early records note other arrivals of this name. 

It is probable, from the records, that this Thomas was the father 
of William, who was the father of Noah, 1st. 

Noah Rogers, 1st, married EKzabeth, daughter of Michael 
Tamtor, and had seven children, as mentioned in his will: Mary, 
born April 14, 1675; John, born Nov. 8, 1677; Josiah, born Jan. 
31, 1680; Hezekiah, Noah, Elizabeth, Ann. 

Noah Rogers, 2d, married Elizabeth Wheeler, 1722, and had 
children, Abigail, born Oct. 8, 1723; Temperance, born Sept. 6, 
1725; Elizabeth, born Nov. 9, 1727; Rebecca, born June 20, 1730; 
Noah, born May 8, 1732; Edward, born April 14, 1735; Harriet, 
born May 8, 1737. 

Noah Rogers, 1st and 2d, were large landholders in Branford, 
and held many positions of public trust. 

Noah Rogers, 3d, with his brother Edward, moved to Cornwall 
from Branford in 1760. Noah, 4th, born 1766; Noah, 5th, 1803; 
Noah, 6th, 1844; Noah, 7th, 1871. 

Noah Rogers, 3d, though relieved from mihtary duty by defect 
in one of his eyes, was a volunteer at the time of the surrender of 
Burgoyne, and brought home a British musket as a trophy. 

Noah Rogers, third, b. in Branford, 1732, m. Rhoda, dau. of Dea. 
Daniel Leete, of Guilford, a descendant of Gov. Leete ; his chil- 
dren were Sarah, m. Oliver Burnham; Irene, m. Prentiss WiUiams 
of Stockbridge, Mass.; Rhoda, m. Andrew Cotter; Noah, Abigail, 
m. Asahel Bradley of Stockbridge, Mass. ; and Amanda, m. Theo- 
dore Ives. 

Noah Rogers, fourth, b. 1766; m. Lydia, dau. of Rev. John Corn- 
wall; his children by first wife were Daniel L,, b. 1790, m. Harriett, 
dau. of Miner Pratt; Abigail, b. 1793, d. 1791; Lydia, b. 1795, m. 
Chalker Pratt; Rhoda, b. 1798, m. Julius Hart; John, b. 1801, m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Dea. B. Hamlin, of Sharon; Noah, b. 1803, m. 
Catharine, dau. of Wm. Clark; Abigail, b. 1805, m. E. M. Pratt. 
Children by his second wife, Elizabeth of Amenia, N. Y., dau. of 
Hon. John Wilson of Perth, Scotland; Eliza, b. 1812, m. Rev. 
Auo-ustus T. Norton; Ambrose S., b. 1815, m. first wife, Corneha 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 263 

Hamlin, of Sharon, dan. of Dea. B. Hamlin; Amanda, b. 1817, m. 
Rev. A. B. Pratt. His third wife was Mrs. Abigail Whedon of 
Winchester. 

Daniel Leete Rogers and Harriet had nine children, — Henry L., 
m. Nancy, dau. of Wm. Clark; Daniel M., m. Philena Knapp of 
Greenwich; Mary E., m. Theodore R. Ives; Dwight, m. Lucy, dau. 
of Dea. Edward Leete of Guilford; Hattie, m. Edward W., son 
of Dea. E. Leete of Guilford; Miner, Egbert M., and Abby died 
unmarried. 

Henry L. and Nancy had one son, William, who m. Julia Cor- 
bin, and they have two children. 

Daniel M. and Philena live in New Britain, and have had five 
children. Their second son, Daniel 0., m. Emma. dau. of David 
N. Camp of New Britain. 

Theodore Ives and Mary E. have had four children, three sons 
and one daughter; Frederic died in early manhood, a youth of 
much promise. 

Dwight and Lucy have five children, — Dwight, Nellie, Lucretia, 
Hattie Fowler, Miner Pratt, and an infant. 

Edward W. Leete and Hattie reside in Guilford, and have two 
sons and two daughters. 

Ambrose S. Rogers m. second wife, Ellen T., dau. of Hon. N. F. 
Thompson of New Haven, and have children, Clarence T., b. 1870; 
Juliet W., b. 1874. Mr. Rogers resides in New Milford, and is 
elsewhere referred to as the Principal of the successful school, 
"the Adelphic Institute." 

Caj)t. Edward Rogers m. Hannah Jackson, July 18, 1773, and 
had children, Elizabeth W., b. June 23, 1777, m. Rev. Henry 
Christie; Hannah, b. May 29, 1776, m. Henry Sedgwick; Cinthia, 
b. Dec. 8, 1782, m, Ehas "White; Lucretia, b. March 17, 1785, m. 
John Ward; Edward, b. May 30, 1787. m. Sally M. Gold; Anson, 
b. April 2, 1792, m. Philomela Hart, dau. of Capt. Elias Hart, Oct, 
14, 1814. 

Capt. Edward Rogers was a lieutenant in the old French War, 
having received two commissions from George III., and an officer 
in the army of the Revolution; more particular mention of him 
is made in that record. 

Descendants of Capt. Edward Rogers. 
Elizabeth . m. Rev. Henry Christie, removed to Philadelphia. 
Had six children, — Henry practised medicine in New Jersey; 



264 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Asbury and John died young. Edward received a liberal educa- 
tion, and lived in Columbus, Ohio. Elizabeth m. Rev. Milton 
Buttolph. Margaret m. Mr. Wright of New York. 

Hannah m. Henry Sedgwick, son of Gen. John Sedgwick of 
Cornwall Hollow. They had four children, — Anna m. Mr. Barnes 
and removed to Ohio; Fallah m. Mr. Landon and settled in 
Canaan; L.ucretia m. Mr. Yale and settled in Canaan; John 
Edward, the youngest son, held important offices in this town and 
Litchfield, and now resides in Sandisfield, Mass. 

Cynthia m. Elias White; had four sons, — Comfort, a farmer in 
Canton; Edward R. and Edwin, farmers in Cornwall. They have 
both been members of the General Assembly, and are honorable 
members of society; a son of Edwin is at present a member of 
Wesleyan University. Elias is highly esteemed as ticket agent at 
Poughkeepsie, on the H. R. R. R. 

Lucretia rn. John Ward. He built the house on Cream Hill 
where Chester Wickwire now resides, but after a few years removed 
to Sheffield, Mass. They had twelve children, — Artemisia m. Hor- 
ace Hollister of Sahsbury; Hannah m. a Mr. Cook, and Nancy a 
Mr. Lewis, both of Little Falls, N. Y.; Clarissa m. David Nor- 
throp of Sherman, Conn., removed to Middletown, where his son 
Ward Northrop is Judge of Probate; Sarah m. Dr. Turner of 
Tyringham, Mass., who practiced medicine in New York City; 
Elizabeth m. Dr. Bid well of Tyringham; Cynthia m. Joseph Green- 
wood, a prominent lawyer in Brooklyn, N. Y. ; a talented daugh- 
ter. Miss Libbie Greenwood, is devoted to social reform; John Rog- 
ers, the only son who lived to maturity, settled near Palls Village, 
in Salisbury, as a farmer, and is well known as a prominent man 
in the town, and in the Methodist Church, of which he is a 
member. 

Hon. Edward Royers, oldest son of Capt. Edward, was a gradu- 
ate of Williams College, studied law at the celebrated Law School 
of Gould & Reeves of Litchfield; m. Sally Maria Gold, daughter 
of Hezekiah Gold;* settled in the practice of his profession in 
Madison, Mad. Co., N. Y. He was a member of the New York 
State Convention for framing the Constitution for that State. 
Was presiding Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, in Madison 
County, for many years. Judge Rogers represented the district in 
which he lived in the Congress of the United States. On his 
monument, in the cemetery of Madison, is this inscription : 

*For children, see Gold family. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 265 

HON. EDWARD ROGERS, 

Born May .SOth, 1787— Died May 29th, 1857, 

A Scholar, a sound Lawyer, 

An Impartial Judge, 

An incorruptible representative of the people.* 

A7ison m. Philomela, daughter of Capt. Elias Hart of Cornwall, 
and had four children, — Cynthia A. m. D. L. Cartwright of Sharon; 
Lucretia H. m. Austin Brush, and now resides in the old home- 
stead; Edward H., North Cornwall, unmarried; Maria E. M. m. 
Niles Scoville of North Cornwall. 

Col. Anson Rogers was widely known as largely occupied with 
public affairs, having held almost every important office in the gift 
of his townsmen. He was drafted in the War of 1812, and served 
the town as constable and collector for fourteen years in succes- 
sion. It was said of him that "he never served a writ without 
making a friend." He was a zealous worker to secure the location 
of the church at North Cornwall. 

Noah and Edward Rogers appear on the town records as pur- 
chasers of land in December, 1761. The principal pieces were 
bought of William Gould; those near the church in North Cornwall 
now owned by Noah Rogers, and the estate of Anson Rogers, and 
a farm of six hundred acres lying in and on both sides of the 
Great Hollow, price £1,200. The family has always been one of 
the most substantial in town, always reliable in every good word 
and work. 

Several members have received a liberal education, and are 
noted elsewhere, as Rev. J. A. R. Rogers and Ambrose Rogers, 
and in the other branch Hon. Edward and Hezekiah Gold Rogers. 

A family gathering was held September 28, IS 64, on the farm 
of Noah Rogers 6th. One hundred and twenty-five members of 
the family were present. After dinner, in which all heartily 
engaged, an historical address was given by Ambrose S. Rogers of 
New Milford, to whom we are indebted for many of these facts. 

* Extract from a letter of Edward Kogers to his brother Anson, dated Madi- 
son, June 17, 1816. This advice commends itself to our regard, and .shows the 
cast of the man : 

" Punctuality in payment is all important, more especially to a young man. 
It is a maxim I have endeavored rigidly to adhere to. It is the life of credit, 
and a safe and secure course to pursue. ' I owe no man anything,' is a kind of 
guard against insult, and the crowing of a vain and miserly disposition which 
too often abounds in the world. It besides keeps a man above the cringing 
dependence so annoying to a man of delicate feelings." 

34 



266 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Then followed short speeches, anecdotes, etc. One incident related 
by 0. Rogers Burnham is worthy of preservation : 

" The Rev. Nathaniel Hawes, minister of the parish, became 
embarrassed and was intending to sell his little house, when it was 
proposed to raise the $750 he needed by subscription in shares of 
fifteen dollars each. The citizens generally subscribed one share 
each, but two young girls in the bloom and beauty of maidenhood, 
daughters of Noah Rogers, had put down their names for two 
shares each; and how," he asked, "did they obtain the money? by 
keeping school at one dollar a week ! and thirty dollars then was 
more than ten times thirty now." 

Anson Rogers said that his father Edward Rogers was a captain 
in the Revolution, and as the government scrip was valueless, he 
advanced $2,000 in gold to pay his men, which sum the govern- 
ment had never restored. Revolutionary relics of Capt. Rogers were 
presented, specimens of the handiwork of the mothers; but more 
interesting was a Bible printed in 1575, brought over in the May- 
flower. It had appended a " Book of Psalmes collected into 
English meter by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins." 

Daniel Leete Rogers was an older brother of Noah 5th, and 
Ambrose S. was a younger brother. As stated elsewhere, this 
family have always been ready to bear a full share in all public 
burdens, and when Mr. Maynard left they bought his property 
for a parsonage, but it was not wanted for that purpose, and 
remained on their hands. 

Henry Rogers, with his son William, and Dwight Rogers, sons 
of Daniel L., are farmers in North Cornwall. Noah the 6th stijl 
holds a portion* of his paternal acres though residing in Bridge- 
port. The descendants of Capt. Edward also hold their lands by 
direct descent from him. These are important facts, in these days 
of change, for no single cause has done more for North Cornwall 
than this attachment to their paternal acres, for very many names 
cultivate the lands cleared from the forest by their ancestors. 

The genealogist will notice with curiosity the occurrence of the 
names of Pratt and Leete as intermarrying with the Rogers' in Old 
England, — a custom so oft repeated in modern times, that the name 
of one family is suggestive of the others, — the last act being the 
marriage of Edward W. Leete of Guilford, with Hattie Rogers of 
Cornwall, for which reprisal was made by his brother Dwight in 
marrying Lucy, sister of Edward. Neither Guilford nor Corn- 
wall can complain of the trade: their children rise up and call 
them blessed. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 267 

By intermarriage in North Cornwall the Rogers blood is mingled 
in most of the leading families that now reside there — as the 
Harrisons, Pratts, Harts, etc. — and frequent mention of them 
occurs in all parts of this History. 

The Pratt Family. 

In 1636, the Rev. Thomas Hooker, with a company of about one 
hundred men and women, the most of whom were membei's of his 
church, left what is now Cambridge, Mass., for the purpose of 
finding a new home somewhere along the valley of the Connecti- 
cut river. The most of the company traveled, on foot, driving 
their cattle before them. After a few days they came to where 
the city of Hartford now stands. The fertihty of the soil, the 
bountiful supply of game in the forests, and of fish in the river, all 
joined, to recommend this as a desirable location, and there they 
pitched their tents and took up their abode. 

Among those composing this company was Lieut. William Pratt, 
who came from Stevenage, in the County of Hertfordshire, Eng- 
land, about 1632. From that place his lineage is traced back 
direct to Thomas Pratt of Baldock, in Hertfordshire, who died in 
February, 1539. From this point the genealogical line backwards 
is not entirely perfect at one or two points, still it seems to run 
with a good degree of certainty back to Sir William Pratt, who 
in 1191 was a favorite officer under and accompanied Richard 
Coeur-de-Lion to the Holy Land in the Crusade wars. 

In the division of lands in Hartford, the aforesaid William 
Pratt of Hooker's company drew lots on what is now North Main 
street in that city. 

In 1637 he was one of a band who went from Hartford on an 
expedition against the Pequot Indians, the result of which was the 
annihilation of their power as a tribe. For his services on that 
occasion the General Court voted him one hundred acres of land. 
In 1645 he sold his possessions in Hartford, and removed to Say- 
brook in this State, where he became a large landholder. He rep- 
resented that town in the General Assembly thirteen years, from 
1665 to 1678. He had eight children. 

Following down in the line of the said William Pratt's descend- 
ants to the fifth generation, we find one David Pratt, born about 
1725. He married Jerusha Chalker in 1748, and had by her 
six sons and three daughters. This family moved to Cornwall 
about 1780. Among the sons was Jasper, the third child, born in 



268 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

1756, and Miner, the youngest, born in 1768. These two sons 
were the only ones of the family who became permanent residents 
in this town. 

Before the removal from Saybrook, Jasper Pratt had enlisted 
from that town at the commencement of the Revolutionary war, 
into the Third Connecticut Regiment, and served in the army 
seven years and three months, or until the close of the war. For 
most of the time he was stationed in New Jersey, guarding the 
coast from foraging parties from New York, who were called 
" Cow Boys." In one of these raids he was taken prisoner and 
confined three months in the city, when an exchange of prisoners 
released him. 

One winter the regiment was ordered to the banks of the Hudson 
river. The weather was cold, he with others was scantily clothed, 
their shoes were miserably poor, and blood from their feet was 
often left in their tracks. They suffered severely in that trip, 
but they endured patiently to the end that their country might be 
free. 

In those days there lived on the premises now owned by Har- 
vey Baldwin, a man by the name of Samuel Butler. He came 
from "Windsor, in this State, about 1775, with a family of several 
daughters and one son. Mr. Butler was in infirm health, and did 
not live long after coming to Cornwall. It was not long after 
Mr. Butler died, before his wife was taken with the small-pox. 
She died, and her remains rest under one of the old tombstones 
now standing in the meadow a short distance west of the North 
Congregational meeting-house. Three or four other persons, who 
died of the same disease about the same time, were also buried 
there. 

Of the daughters, one was married to Ozias Hurlburt, one to 
Simeon Emmons, one to Samuel Demming; and it so came aboiit 
that the care of the farm devolved upon Abigail and Thankful, the 
two youngest of the daughters, and they were efficient in working 
it. They sheared their own sheep, spun the wool, and wove it 
into cloth. They also themselves sowed the flax and put it through 
all the necessary processes to get it into cloth. They disposed of 
considerable of their cloth for the benefit of the soldiers in the 
army, and took their pay in Continental money. They afterwards 
gave one hundred dollars of it for a sieve. Some of the linen cloth 
made by Abigail in those days, was, more than thirty years after- 
wards, worn by one of her grandchildren, and was in good condi- 



BECORDS OF EABLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 269 

tion. Thankful Butler married a Mr. Fellows, by whom she had 
one son, Ephraim, who now lives in Wolcottville, Conn. Calvin 
Butler, who had a large family, and who owned a large farm in 
the northwest corner of this town, and who died about 1860, was 
a grandson of the aforesaid Samuel Butler. Soon after the war 
closed, Jasper Butler came to his Cornwall home, which was then 
on the south side of the road, opposite to where the foundation of 
Elias Scovill's former blacksmith shop now stands, and near the 
Butler place. The Butler giris had a hog to kill. They did not 
understand dressing pork as well as they did flax, and they em- 
ployed Jasper Pratt, then just home from the war, to help do it. 
On that occasion an intimacy between him and Abigail Butler had 
its starting point, which resulted in their marriage in 1785. " Tall 
oaks from little acorns grow." The Butler property was sold, and 
they purchased from Noah Rogers a farm on Cream Hill, to which 
they removed. He died February 24, 1833, aged seventy-seven 
years. 

Mrs. Abigail Pratt was an active, energetic woman, with a well- 
ordered, intelligent mind, a retentive memory, and a will that 
often conquered difficulties which to others seemed insurmountable. 
She was a diHgent Bible reader, and one of her grandchildren 
says, that in his childhood, when he had done something worthy 
of approval, she often commended him by some quotation from 
Solomon's proverbs; and when he was naughty, she would reprove 
by something drawn from the same source. She died March 1 ] , 
1845, aged ninety-five years, and her faculties were well retained 
to the last. 

The children of Jasper and Abigail Pratt were: Hannah, born 
in 1789; Chalker, born in 1792; Abigail, born in 1795, married 
George Brewster, July 28, 1814. 

Chalker married Lydia, daughter of Deacon Noah Rogers, and 
had two children, Russell R., born October 15, 1816; Helen A., 
born August 24, 1818, married Stephen Foster, of Morristown, 
N. J., who died March 10, 1863— she died in 1875. 

Chalker Pratt was a man of influence in the community, ever 
ready to lend his aid to every good work, and an active member 
in the church of Christ. He was the agent for the Cornwall Iron 
Company for a number of years, until about 1840, when, as the 
Housatonic railroad drew near completion, he sold his farm on 
Cream Hill and removed to West Cornwall, where he had pur- 
chased land and erected buildings thereon, with reference to going 



270 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

into the mercantile business. He died August 26, 1851, aged 
fifty-nine. 

Eussell R. Pratt married Mary E., daughter of John Cotter. 
She died May 1, 1849, leaving one child, Harriet C, who married 
Col. C. D. Blinn, of West Cornwall, a merchant now residing in 
New Milford. Incidents in regard to Col. Blinn will be found in 
another part of this work. The second wife of Russell R. Pratt 
was Mary W. Bonney, of Danbury, Conn., a daughter of Rev. 
"William Bonney, of New Canaan, Conn. He was a native of this 
town, and during his early years lived on the premises now owned 
and occupied by Edwin White, on Clark Hill. Russell R. Pratt and 
Stephen Foster, under the firm name of " Pratt & Foster," estab- 
lished a successful mercantile business at West Cornwall in 1841. 
Upon the death of Mr. Foster in 1863, the business was continued 
by his heirs, and now Mr. R. R. Pratt and R. P. Foster constitute 
the firm. Mr. Foster was a man of pleasing manners, great indus- 
try, indefatigable energy, and shrewd in his business plans. As a 
railroad contractor he was the first one in the construction of the 
Housatonic railroad to break ground north of New Milford, which 
was done at the Deep Rock cut near West Cornwall. The material 
interests of the church had his especial regard. His death, in the 
full vigor of life, was a serious loss to the church and community. 
Mr. R. R. Pratt, as an energetic business man, as selectman for 
seven years from 1856, as representative in 1858, as deacon of the 
church from 1854 to 1871, as superintendent of the Sabbath-school 
at West Cornwall since 1860, has filled and still holds a prominent 
position in the secular and religious interests of the town. 

Stephen Foster and Helen A. Pratt had children, — Russel P.; 
Charles C, d. 1875 ; Lillie M., m. L. A. Bates, of Sharon, 
June 21, 1876. 

Russel P. Foster m. Mary E. Beard sley, of Waterville, N. Y., 
and has children, — Frederic B., b. April 18, 1870; Brace, b. 
Aug. 25, 1873. 

Miner Pratt, son of David and Jerusha, as before mentioned, m. 
Mary Ann, d. of Dea. Eliakim Mallory, December, 1795, and had 
children, — Harriet, b. Oct. 3, 1796, m. Daniel L. Rogers, son of 
Dea. Noah; Eliakim Mallory, b. Oct. 12, 1802, m. Abigail Rogers, 
d. of Dea. Noah, d. 1852; Ezra Dwight, b. Nov. 26, 1810, m. 
Anna Aurelia, d. of Dea. Ebenezer Rood, of Torringford; Almon 
Bradley, b. June 3, 1812, m. Amanda Rogers, d. of Dea. Noah. 
We remember Mr. Pratt as a man of untiring industry, sterling 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 271 

integrity, and interested in all matters pertaining to the public 
good. 

Eliakim Mallory Pratt and Abigail Rogers had five children, — 
Hubert, b. March 25, 1832; Noah Miner, b. March 24, 1836; 
Mary M., b. Sept. 15, 1834, d. Sept. 17, 1834; Frances Delphine, 
b. Jan. 6, 1838; Harriette A., b. Oct. 15, 1842, d. Aug. 10, 1843. 

Mr. Pratt first settled at Mt. Morris, N. Y., removed to Avon, 
N. Y., and thence to Flint, Mich., where he died in 1852. Asa 
pillar in the church, he was a beautiful pattern; as a citizen, he 
was the noblest work of God — an honest man. Uniting with his 
religion sound judgment, business tact, and a pure taste, he became 
at once an individual in whose principles and character a general 
and unlimited confidence centered. Hubert R., his oldest son, m. 
Laura Mills, of Flint, Mich., and with his mother and sister, 
resides at Lansing, where he occupies a position of trust as first 
clerk in the office of the auditor-general of the State. 

Noah Miner, second son, was born in Cornwall, resided in 
Detroit, Mich., where he enlisted as a private in the Eighth Regi- 
ment, and, as a lieutenant, was killed in battle at Wilmington 
Island, April 16, 1862. No words can describe the loss the 
country suffers in the death of such defenders. His colonel 
(Fenton) says: "No terms of endearment can be lavished on the 
memory of this heroic soldier, who gallantly stood on the battle- 
field facing danger and death, putting his trust in God." 

Ezra Dwight Pratt and Mary Ann had children, — Mary Aurelia, 
died in infancy; Dwight Mallory, Harriette J., Hubert Miner. 
Mr. Pratt is a farmer on Cream Hill, and is still with us. We 
can only say that, as a deacon in the church, he has long honored 
the office, and as a citizen and a neighbor, honors his Christian 
profession. His son, Dwight M., graduated at Amherst, 1876, and 
is now in the theological seminary at Hartford, 

Almon Bradley Pratt and Amanda had children, — Harriette A., 
m. Rev. Charles C. Starbuck; Amanda Isabel, m. Arthur Fairchild, 
son of President Fairchild, of Berea College; Noah Rogers, m. in 
Berea, and lives in Hastings, Neb. Rev. Almon B. Pratt was 
licensed and ordained by North Consociation of Litchfield County, 
and went to Michigan under commission of the American Home 
Missionary Society; ministered to a Congregational church in 
Genesee, Genesee County ; thence removed to Berea, Ky., as 
treasurer and steward of the college; thence to Nebraska, where 
he had charge of a church at Camp Creek at the time of his death, 
in 1875. 



272 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Personal acquaintance enables us to speak freely of the purity, 

the honesty, the noble Christian character of our former classmate 

and friend. 

The Brewster Family. 

Widow Brewster came to Cornwall from Stratford in 1797, with 
two children, — George, eight years old, and his younger brother 
Nelson. Her husband had been lost at sea with his vessel, of 
which he was owner and captain, three years before. 

George Hved with Agur Judson till he went to learn his trade 
of carpenter and cabinet-maker, of Captain Williams. He Hved 
where James 0. Ford now lives at Cornwall Center, and followed 
his trade. He married Abigail Pratt, who still survives, and had 
children, — George S., m. Adehne Stone; Sarah, m. Josiah John- 
son, lives in California; Jasper, m. Susan Allen; Abigail B., m. 
James Armstrong, Ogdensburg, N. Y. ; Maria, m. James Cotter, 
Ansonia; Lucius, m. Juha King wood, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Georgiana, 
lives in California. 

Jasper alone, of the children, remained in Cornwall. Bought 
the farm of his uncle, Chalker Pratt, on Cream Hill, where he 
died Nov. 9, 1874. His sons, William and George, occupy the 
farm with their mother. Edward is a member of the Sheffield 
Scientific School at New Haven. Lydia, the only daughter, 
married RoUin M. Hubbard, and lives in Toledo, 0. Jasper was 
a good farmer, a man of much energy, and quite prominent in 
town affairs. 

Nelson Brewster studied law; resided in Goshen, where he 
married Lucretia Root, and had children, — William and Ephraim. 
William was a colonel in the War of the RebelUon, and was highly 
commended for his gallant conduct. 

The Jones Family. 

Caleb Jones died in Cornwall Dec. 9, 1786, aged seventy-four 
years. 

Zachariah Howe Jones, son of Caleb Jones, died July 31, 1817, 
aged seventy-two years. 

Caleb Jones, son of Zachariah Howe Jones, died Aug. 3, 1854, 
aged seventy -two years. Jane Ann, only child of the above Caleb, 
was born May 17, 1814, and was married to John T. Andrew, 
Sept. 9, 1839, and resides in the village of Cornwall. 

Zachariah Howe Jones removed from Wallingford, Conn., to 
Cream Hill in Cornwall, and owned the farm since occupied by the 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 273 

late Deacon James Wadsworth. He afterwards reraoved to the 
south part of the town, called Dudleytown. He was one of a large 
family of brothers and sisters. He left two children, — Abby, m. 
David Patterson; and Caleb. 

On the 28th of February, 1811, Caleb was married to Harriet 
Swift, daughter of Rufus Swift, and granddaughter of General 
Heman Swift, of the Revolutionary army, the friend and at one 
time the host of Washington.* 

He lived generally respected by his fellow-citizens, and although 
of a retiring disposition, was twice elected member of the State 
legislature. He devoted the best years of his life to the cause of 
education, having himself taught parts of thirty-one years in the 
common schools of this town. 

The Beirce Family. 
James Beirce, father of Joseph and James, came from eastern 
Massachusetts, probably Pembroke, about 1739, and settled on the 
old road east of the Burnham place. He afterwards removed to 
Cornwall Bridge. From him the late Peter Beirce, a prominent 
business man and politician, and James Beirce, of Cornwall Bridge, 
are descended. 

The Clark Family. 

Ephraim Clark came from England early in the seventeenth 
century; his wife came from France in 1740, and they settled in 
Stratford. He came to Cornwall and bought most of the hill 
called after him, " Clark Hill." He was taken sick with the 
measles, returned to Stratford, and died there. His four sons, 
David, Hezekiah, Silas, and Uri, settled on his lands. David had 
a son, William, who lived on the place now occupied by his son, 
William L. Clark. William was a man highly respected by his 
townsmen; had a family of six sons and six daughters, who grew 
to maturity. They are now widely scattered, one, William Leavitt, 
remaining on the old homestead ; has one son and three daughters. 

Deacon Victorianus Clark was the son of Captain Nehemiah 
•Clark, and brother of Pierce Clark. They had no relationship 
with the other family of Clarks. 

Mr. Clark was afflicted with an inflammation of his eyes, gave 
up farming, and made weekly trips to Hartford with the mail and 
passengers, to which he added the errand business, now dignified 
by the name of "express." He had a covered wagon and two 

* Tradition reports that "Washington once passed through Cornwall and 
stopped with Gen. Swift. 
35 



274 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

horses. He left Coi'nwall early Monday morning, arriving in 
Hartford the same day. Eeturning, left Hartford a])out noon, 
and arrived in Cornwall Wednesday noon. He was entrusted 
with errands of all sorts, of which he took no memorandum, 
trusting alone to his memory, which never failed him. He was a 
man of much intelligence, and lie managed to entertain his passen- 
gers so that the distance seemed short and the hills less tedious. 
About 1 840 he removed to Woh^ottvile and from there made semi- 
weekly trips to Hartford, and lived there till his death. 

Cornwall can boast of few authors, and her history would not 
be complete without mention of one who in 1814 published a 
geography in rhyme. It was a volume of some one hundred and 
fifty pages, and was confined to the United States, called by the 
poet, " Fredonia." 

Under the head of CUiaracter and Manners, Mr. Clark says of 
New England: 

By talents and by worth alone 

Are candidates for ofRce known ; 

And lie who asks to be elected, 

Is very sure to be rejected. 

The men are tall, stout-built, and hardy ; 
. Their manners, like their persons, manly, 

Unafiected, plain, and simple, 

(Jenerous, brave, and hospitable. 

Oft on tlie female cheek the rose, 

Softened by the lily, glows; 

While just-proportioned forms impart 

New graces to the sculptor's art. 

The fair, the' ranking high by birtJi, 

By fortune, talents, and by worth, 

Like her,* the boast of Italy, 

Despisin;.' ease, use dexterously 

The pencil, the embroidei-ing steel, 

Or ply the useful spinning-wheel. 

His patriotism is aroused by the "Militia of Tennessee": 

Let no rasli foe presumptuously 

Rouse up the sons of Tennessee ! 

For brave are they, inured to wars, 

All ornamented with the scars 

Received in rescuing their land 

P^'roin murderous and savage liands. 

When late the British lion led 

His legions o'er the ocean's bed 

To try the towering eagle's might 

On Orleans' plains, in (loul)tful tight, 

She becked this hardy yeomanry, 

Who diarged her legions merrily. 

With l)lood and carnage s])reiid tlie plain, 

And chas'd him homeward throngli the main. 

* Lucretia. 



kecords of early and present residents. 275 

The Cotter Family. 

Andrew Cotter was a blacksmith by ti-ade, and emigrated to 
Cornwall from Haddam. and set up his shop and dwelling where 
Harvey Baldwin now resides, in North Cornwall. 

He was much respected as a man and citizen, and married 
Rhoda Rogers, daughter of Dea. Noah Rogers. At his marriage, 
Dea. Rogers gave him the largest part of what is known as the 
" Cotter Farm," situated on the Housatonic River. They were the 
parents of six children, two of whom died in infancy; names of 
survivors were John, Ambrose, Eber, Eliza. 

John married Sabra Smith of Kent, and their children were 
Elizabeth and Harriet. 

Ambrose married Mary Ann Pratt of Guilford, by whom he 
had six childi-en; their names were Samuel, James, Charles, Henry, 
Elizabeth, and Emma. He afterwards married Mary Talcott of 
Vernon, Conn. ; they had no children. 

Ehei: married Bathsheba Talcott of Vernon; they had three 
children, but one of whom, Rhoda, lived to grow up. His second 
wife was Mrs. Ralph Talcott (Susan Bull); they had no children. 

Eliza married George Wheaton of Cornwall; they had one 

child, Lucetta. The Cotter family was highly respected in all its 

branches. 

The Baldwin I^'amily. 

Henry Baldwin was a Revolutionary soldier from Saybrook, 
Conn. He served as a private during the war, and returned home 
at its close, with $150 of "Continental money " in his pocket. 
This soon depreciated in value to such an extent, that he offered 
the whole sum in exchange for a bushel of wheat, and was refused. 

Not discouraged by adversity, he soon after married Jane Ship- 
man, a native of the same town, and emigrated to Cornwall, where 
he became the tenant of Dea. Noah Rogers, on the farm now 
owned by T. S. Gold, in Cornwall Hollow. 

Here were born to him twelve children, ten of whom outlived 
their parents. Their names were Ithamar, Henry, Jane, Ann, 
Hannah, Polly, Noah, Jabez, William, and Abby. 

ItJuimar m. Electa Millard of Cornwall; had children, Charles, 
Lucretia, and Marcia. 

Henry m. Mitylene Millai'd of Cornwall; two of their three chil- 
dren lived to grow up. William and Artemisia. 

Jane m. Joel Trowbridge of Goshen; had four children, Lucy, 
Caroline, Mary, and Anson. 



276 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Ann did not marry. 

Hannah m. James Ford of Cornwall; had children who lived to 
maturity, John, Chester, Chauncey, James, Ellen. Mary, Sarah, 
and Lydia. 

Polly m. Chester Markham of Wrentham, Mass. ; had children, 
Martha, Phebe, and William. 

N'oah m. Sabra Smith Cotter, widow of John Cotter of Corn- 
wall; his children were Andrew and Chauncey. 

W-illiam m. Julia Trafford of Cornwall, and had children, 
Henry, Horace, James, Russell, Prank, Edward, Electa, and Eliza- 
beth, besides one boy who died in childhood. 

Abhy m. Rogers White of Cornwall; had children, Edward and 
Cynthia. 

Mrs. Henry Baldwin was a notable housewife, and it was a com- 
mon remark, that " Miss Baldin's Johnny-cake was ahead of some 
peoples' loaf-cake stuffed full of raisins." 

Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin brought up their family in habits of 
industry, integrity, and sobriety; and it is believed that no mem- 
ber of the family, or its descendants thus far, has brought disgrace 
upon the name. 

Capt. Phineas Baldwin and Harry Baldwin, brothers, came from 
Milford. 

Phineas m. Nancy Rexford, and had children, Rexford, Riley, 
and Robert, and a daughter, wife of R. T. Miner. 

He was a carpenter and joiner, and lived at South Cornwall. 
His sons were farmers and lived in the same vicinity. 

Harvey Baldwin is a farmer; bought the Joel Catlin place at 
North Cornwall, where he now resides. He has no children. 

Birdsey Baldwin was of still another family, and came from 
Goshen in 1841. He was a lawyer, and lived at West Cornwall; 
one son, Daniel, lives at West Cornwall, as also a daughter, Laura, 
widow of Myron Hubbell; another son, Abrain E., graduated at 
Yale, 1854, studied theology, and is now a successful clergyman 
at Bomid Brook, N. J. 

The Calhoun Family. 

Dr. John Calhoun, son of Dr. John Calhoun of Washington, 
came to (Jornwall in 1792, and in 1804 was followed by his brother 
Dea. Jedediah Calhoun, who located as a farmer in the southwest 
part of the town. Dr. Calhoun was a successful practitioner for 
forty-six years, and had a numerous family. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 277 

Mary m. Rufus Payne; Sarah F. m. Stephen J. (xold; Ruth m. 
Frederic Kellogg; Charlotte m. Myron Harrison; Harriett m. Wm. 
L. Clark; Joseph Fay, residing- in Wolcottville; John Benjamin, 
residing near Chicago. 

The children of Dea. Calhoun were: John Clark, m. Sarah War- 
ner of Plymouth, June, 1840; Frederic J.; David P., who lived 
at West Haven; Mary, m. Chas. L. Ford of Washington; Abby J. 

John C. Calhoun went as a clerk to Plymouth in 1832, and after- 
wards engaged there in mercantile business. In 1846 he went to 
New York, establishing the firm of Calhoun & Vanderburg. The 
firm was afterwards changed to Robbins, Calhoun & Co. As a busi- 
ness man he was eminently successful, rapidly accumulating a hand- 
some fortune; but he was better known to us as a liberal-hearted 
Christian gentleman. His love for the quiet scenery of his native 
town induced him to purchase for a summer residence the old 
homestead of Parson Stone, in the village of Cornwall, about 1866. 
The enthusiasm with which he entered upon its improvement was 
only surpassed by his public spirit and liberality. The adornment 
of the cemetery at South Cornwall, upon which he expended 
.^1,000, and for the permanent care of which he gave .$1,000, se- 
curely invested, and the establishment of a town library, with a 
trust fund of $2,000 for its annual enlargement, are examples of 
his judicious use of the property committed to his stewardship. 
He died in New York, November 26, 1874. We mourn his death 
as a great public misfortune. He left two promising sons. 

The Birdseye Family. 
Ebenezer Birdseye, residing in the south part of the town, had a 
son. Victory, who received a liberal education and became a prom- 
inent lawyer, residing at Pompey, N. Y. He represented his dis- 
trict in the Congress of the United States, and was appointed an 
especial attorney to prosecute the abductors of Morgan. His son, 
Judge Lucius Birdseye, of New York, was a graduate of Yale, 
1841. There are none of the name now residing in Cornwall. 
Ezekiel B., brother of Victory, went West. 

The Andrews Family'. 

Rev. WilHam Andrews was installed pastor of the church at 

South Cornwall, July 25, 1827, where he remained till his death, 

January 1, 1838. For his record the reader is referred to Mr. 

Stone's Ecclesiastical History. He had a numerous family, whose 



278 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

youth was spent in Cornwall, and are remembered here with high 
esteem, and Cornwall claims an interest in their honorable record. 

William Watson, born at Windham, Conn., in 1810, was grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1831. He was pastor of the Congre- 
gational church at Kent, Conn., for fifteen years. Has resided at 
AVethersfield for some years. 

Edward Warren, l)orn at Windham in 1811, studied law, and 
was partner of Hon. Truman Smith, at Litchfield; afterwards 
studied theology, and was settled at West Hartford, New York 
City, and Troy, N. Y. He established the Alger Institute at 
Cornwall, and subsequently resumed the practice of law. He was 
an officer in the army during the war. 

Sarah Parkhill, married Mr. A. W. Hyde, of Castleton, Vt., 
and died in 1840. 

Israel Ward, D.D., LL.D., born at Danbury, Conn., January 3, 
1815, was graduated at Williams College in 1837. He taught the 
Academy at Lee, Mass., for fifteen months; was appointed Tutor 
at Marietta College in 1838, Prof essor of Mathematics in 1839, and 
President in 1855, which office he still holds. 

Samuel James, born at Danl^ury, 1817, was graduated at Wil- 
liams College in 1839. After practicing law for a short time, he 
entered the ministry, and was settled at East Windsor. He has 
resided for many years at Hartford. 

Timothy Langdon was born at Danbury in 1819, studied medi- 
cine at Castleton, \^t., practiced at New Orleans, was an editor in 
California and then in Ohio, and is now engaged in his profession 
at Creston, Iowa. 

Ebenezer Baldwin was born in Danbury in 1821, was gradu- 
ated at Marietta College in 1842, became pastor of the North Con- 
gregational church at New Britain, Conn., and was appointed pro- 
fessor of Geology, etc., at Marietta College in 1851. ]n 1870 he 
was appointed Assistant Geologist for (jhio, and now resides at 
Lancaster, O. He was two years in the army, Colonel of the 36l1i 
0. V. i. The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Marietta 
College in 1870. 

The Ives Family. 

Theodore Ives, brother of Cephas Ives of Goshen, abimt 1800 
came from that town, married a daughter of Noah Rogers, 4th, 
and set up his trade at North Cornwall. He had but one son, 



RECORDS OF EARLY AXD PRESENT RESIDENTS. 279 

Theodore, who now occupies his farm. Theodore married Mary, 
daughter of Leete Rogers, and has thi'ee children. 

Rev. Mark Ives, son of Cephas, received a liberal education, and 
went as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands in 1 836, and remained 
there fourteen yeai-s, when, on account of the failure of his health, 
he returned to this country with his family, and settled as a farmer 
in Cornwall. Those who enjoy the privilege of a personal ac- 
quaintance with Mr. and Mrs. Ives, can testify to their rich 
Christian experience, the true missionary spirit, not exhausted by 
their residence in heathen lands, but developed and enlarged. 

In answer to my inquiries, Mr. Ives has furnished some interest- 
ing facts connected with his residence in the Sandwich Islands: 

'•I graduated at Union College in the summer of 1833; studied 
divinity two years at Andover, and nearly a year at East Windsor. 
My wife's name was Mary Anna Brainerd, of North Guilford. 
We sailed from Boston December 14, 1836. I remained at the 
Sandwich Islands fourteen years. J was absent from the United 
States fourteen and a half years. My wife was absent seventeen 
and a half years. We were stationed at Hana, on the eastern ex- 
tremity of Mani, a place much exposed to the trade- winds. We 
commenced life in a house made by planting posts in the ground 
and sticks tied across tliem; the whole covered with grass. On 
March "21, 1838, during my absence, our house took fire and burned 
to the ground. This left us very much exposed; my wife took a 
severe cold, and was threatened with consumption. We were con- 
sequently removed to Kealakekua, on the east side of Hawaii 
((Jwyhee). Here we lived nine years, or until my health failed. 
With the advice of the physicians, and being commended by the 
mission to our secretary in Boston, I left the Sandwich Islands 
December 9. 18.50. My health not being restored as was expected, 
my family left there December 1, 1853. 

"We have four children. Our eldest son, Joseph Brainerd, is 
laboring as a home missionary in Douglas, Butler County, Kansas. 
Our second son, Harlan Page, is living near us, in Cornwall. He 
has seven children. Our third child, Mary Parnelhe, is with us, 
at home. Our youngest daughter, Hattie Elizabeth, is teaching 
school in the vicinity of Waterbury. 

Kealakekua, where we were last stationed, is about a mile from 
Haawaloa, where Mr. Ely lived, and where C!apt. Cook lost his Kfe. 
The trees around bore marks of cannon-balls, fired among the 
natives to revenge*, his death. 



280 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Kealakekua is where Opukaia (Obookiah) lived. Here was for- 
merly a small pen, enclosed by a rude stone wall, where he wor- 
shiped. In this was a cocoanut-tree planted by his own hands, the 
fruit of which was given to none but to us missionaries. 

Contiguous to this was the temple where Capt. Cook allowed 
himself to be worshiped as God. The stones of that temple con- 
tributed towards building a large house of worship to Jehovah. 

We arrived at the Sandwich Islands just before the great 
revival that swept over the islands and lasted two years. There 
was no diificulty in getting crowded houses and attentive listeners. 
There seemed to be an almost universal desire to enter the church. 

A church was organized at Kealakekua, under the care of Mr. 
Forbes, of 3,000 members, and another at Kealia, twelve miles 
beyond, of nearly as many, which was under my care. 

The children of a suitable age were without exception gathered 
into schools. Our thirty-three schools numbered over 1,000 chil- 
dren, 996 of whom were present in the schools when I last exam- 
ined them. 

His second son, Harlan, married a daughter of William Vail, by 
whom he has a numerous family. 

The Dean Family. 

John Dean, the shoemaker, had children, Zerah, Jerijah, Jere- 
siah, William, and Ethel. Zerah had children, Theodore, living 
in Sharon; one daughter married William Smith, and another, 
Alvin Palmer. Jerijah, father of William Dean, now living at 
West Cornwall. Jeresiah had daughters, Mary, married Barbarina 
Eggleston; Morilla, married Daniel Bronson; William, married 

Richardson, and went to Sharon. His descendants now 

live in Winsted. 

Ensign Nathan Millard, 
father of Joel Millard, settled on Cream Hill. Joel married 
Azubah Sherwood, and had children, Ebenezer Sherwood; Sub- 
mit, married Henry Baldwin, lived in Cornwall; Electa, married 

Ithamar Baldwin, lived in Cornwall; Amanda, married 

Kilborn, a hatter, and lived in Litchfield; Melissa; John Walker, 
went to New Marlboro, and thence to Illinois; Azubah, married 
Rood of Sheffield. 

His second wife was Mrs. Theodore Norton, and had children, 
Clarissa and Fcanklin. Mr. Millard removed with his son AValker 
to New Marlboro, about 1835, having sold his farm to E. D. Pratt. 



RECORDS OP EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 281 

Mr. Millard was proverbially a slow man, yet the abundant 
young life in his family must have made lively times. 

The Rexpord Family. 

Rev. Grurdon Rexford, a Methodist minister, and his brother 
Samuel Rexford, settled on Cream Hill, towards the close of the 
last century. 

Samuel had one son, Riley, who succeeded to the ownership of 
his farm, and a daughter, Nancy, who married Capt. Phineas 
Baldwin and resided at South Cornwall. 

Riley married Sarah Scoville and had two daughters. Harriet 
married Aaron Chase of Saratoga County, N. Y., and Hves in 
Sheffield, Mass. ; and Jane married Thomas Bosworth of Duchess 
County, and hves at West Cornwall. 

Mr, Rexford was a farmer, endeared to his neighbors by his 
kind, neighborly ways, to whom his genial presence was always 
gratifying. 

The Prindle Family. 

Abiel Prindle, who lived near Cream Hill lake, was the father of 
"Warren and Joseph Prindle; he also had two daughters, Alice, 
married Mr. Barnes; and Anna. Warren had sons, Samuel and 
Harmanus, who still survive and have families. Joseph and Anna 
lived to a good old age, but remained unmarried. Joseph was 
quite a character in his day. He was an indulged boy, who played 
truant, and grew up a slave to a hard master, even his own ungov- 
erned passions. In his youth he had some ambition, and aspired to 
the study of Latin, and to making poetry. One stanza will suffice: 

" Dr. Frank, 
He felt so crank, 
He danced like a dandy, O ; 
He jumped so high 
He hit the sky, 
And thought he'd got Miss Pangman, O." 

The Judson Family. 
Samuel Agur Judson came to Cornwall in 1794, with his sister, 
Sarah A., from Old Mill, Bridgeport, and bought the farm from 
Mr. Thorp, where Harlan Ives now resides. He had one son, 
Samuel Wesley, and several daughters. A few years since he went 
to New York to live with his son, and died there in his 89th year. 
Samuel Wesley was a graduate of Union College; taught the 
academy in Goshen for several terms, about 1830; studied law, 
and estabhshed himself in New York. As a lawyer, he is more 
36 



282 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

distinguislied for his learning, integrity, and honesty, than for his 
briUiancy as a pleader. If lawyers were more generally of his 
style, we should have fewer lawsuits and more justice. 

The Reed Family. 

Eli Reed was a native of Fairfield County. He was a goldsmith 
in the time of the Revolution, and resided in Poughkeepsie. He 
went to New York, designing to remove his family there, but died, 
leaving a widow and six children. Her name was Weed, and she 
went back to her friends in Fairfield County, afterwards removing 
with one of her brothers to Greenfield, Saratoga County, N. Y. 
Two of her sons came to Cornwall. Hawley Reed married 
a daughter of James Wadsworth; died, at the age of eighty years, 
in 1841, Had children, James, who married Rhoda, daughter of 
Richard Wickwire, and bought the farm of his father-in-law on 
Cream Hill, and reared a numerous family, who are still with us ; 
Hawley, John, Henry, Samuel — who lives in the south part of the 
town, and has a family; also several daughters — one married 
Hiram Garner. 

Henry, ten years younger than Hawley, came to Cornwall in 
his boyhood, and lived with Capt. Pierce and-Capt. Edward 
Rogers. In 1799 married Sarah Abiah Judson, who was born at 
Old Mill, Bridgeport, in 1770, and came to Cornwall in 1794, with 
her brother, Samuel Agur Judson. 

Mr. Reed bought the farm in the Hollow at the foot of Bunker 

Hill, now Solon Johnson's, and resided there till his death, in 1842, 

aged 68. He had two daughters, one of whom, Alicia, lives in 

Goshen. 

The Marsh Family. 

Dr. Isaac Marsh was born in 1777, in-Litchfield, where his ances- 
tors had lived. His father and grandfather were also named Isaac. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Woodward of Torringford, but 
being of rather a nervous temperament, shrank from the practice 
of the profession. He was occupied for a time as druggist, but 
temporarily took up the business of farming, and followed it for 
life. He married in 1803, and in 1820 bought a farm in Cornwall 
of Rev. Asa Talmage, located near the Housatonic River, north of 
the intersection of the Waller Hill road with the Warren turnpike. 
This was two miles north of Hart's Bridge, now West Cornwall. 
At that time there was but one house at the bridge, called the 
"Hart House," where now stands the residence of Isaac Marsh. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 283 

Dr. Marsh died in 1829, set. fifty-two. His oldest son Isaac, now 
residing at West Cornwall, at the age of seventy-four years, is the 
only survivor of seven children. Has held the ofBce of town clerk, 
and other offices of trust. The second son died at Racine, Wis., 
in 1873, set. sixty -four. Five daughters died young — betM^een 
1828-38, aged from seventeen to twenty -five years. 

The Stoddard Family. 

William Stoddard came from Woodbury, m. Mary Willis of 
Cornwall, May 27, 1809, and settled as a manufacturer and farmer 
on the Pond brook, one and a half miles from West Cornwall. 
His farm is now owned by S. P. Fritz ; the mill-privilege by T. S. 
Gold. His old satinet factory, gone to decay, is owned by S. M. 
Gledhill. Mr. Stoddard had a family of twelve children, none of 
whom reside in Cornwall. 

His wife Mary died in 1837, aged forty-four, and he died in 
1875, aged eighty-six; children, Hammond, b. Oct. 30, 1810, m 
Sally A. Wheeler of Salisbury; Sarah M., b. June 31, 1812, m 
Henry L. Safford, Buffalo, N. Y.; Harriet, b. March 17, 1814, d 
March 20, 1836; Seth, b. Ma^rch 22, 1816, d. Jan. 1, 1859 
m. Mary Ann Brush, and lived in New Haven; Jane, b. March 17 
1818, d. Feb. 24, 1832; Minerva A., b. March 27, 1820, m. Hor 
ace H. Sexton, Hartford; Elizabeth S., b. Nov. 9, 1823, m. Hon 
C. P. Huntington, New York. 

In the account of the Chapel at West Cornwall, notice is given 
of the liberal gift of Mr. and Mrs. Huntington to that enterprise. 

Clara, b. July 21, 1824, m. Edward Prentice of Canaan, resides 
in Colorado; Hannah, b. Aug. 15, 1826, m. Daniel Hammond of 
Oneonta, N. Y., resides in California; William M., b. Nov. 12, 
1828, m. Jennie Wilson, California; Mary J., b. Aug. 12, 1831, m. 
Delos Emmons, Oneonta, N. Y., resides in Huntington, West Vir- 
ginia; Julia M., b. Feb. 16, 1834, m. Asa N. Hawley of Newtown. 

This family are widely scattered, and their history would fill a 
volume. Few families in New England can boast of more varied 
experience and greater influence. 

The Mallory Family. 

Dea. Eliakim Mallory came from Hamden, near the close of the 
last century, and settled where Julius Hart now lives. Frequent 
mention of his name appears in the Church History. 

His first wife was Sarah Bradley of Stockbridge, Mass., by 



284 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

whom lie had five children, Ezra, Eliakim, Philomela, Sarah, and 
Mary Ann, who married Miner Pratt of Cream Hill. His second 
wife was widow Johnson (Olive Donglas), by whom he had two 
children, — Bradley, m. widow Wadsworth (Tabitha Clark); Olive, 
m. Mr. Kellogg, and went to Green River, Columbia Co., N. Y. 
Bradley had six children, — Almon, Davis C, Ambrose, Harri- 
ette, Jane, and Mary; Almon m. daughter of Rev. Asa Talmage, 
is a Baptist minister, and lives at Benton Center, N. Y. 

The Smith Family. 

The Smiths have never been very numerous in Cornwall. Rev. 
Walter Smith came from Kent in 1819, and in 1838 went to Ohio. 
He had sons, — Matthew LaRue Perrine, and twins, Walter and 
Harvey. Perrine lives at the West. Walter settled as a lawyer in 
Mt. Vernon, Ohio, and is now in government employ at Washing- 
ton. Harvey was a physician in New York, and died at Mt. 
Vernon, Ohio. 

David Smith, who for a time lived in the Hollow, came from 
the Sharon side of the Housatonic, and returned to the same 
neighborhood after a few years. " 

William and Frank Smith were brothers, and lived near Gold's 
mill in 1850-60. William m. Nancy Dean, and had one daughter, 
Honora. He removed to Newark, N. J. 

Frank Smith had a numerous family of promising boys. He 
removed to Brookfield, Conn., where he now resides. One son, 
Thomas, left a leg on a battlefield of Virginia. 

The Gold Family. 

This family was connected with the earliest settlement of the 
State. By these first settlers for three generations the name was 
spelled Gold, yet for some reason, portions of the family have 
changed to Gould, yet most of those holding that name have no 
connection with the Golds. In this record we give the name as 
spelled by the owners, descendants of Major Nathan Gold. 

Major Nathan Gold married Martha, widow of Edward Harvey. 
They had only one son, Nathan, and daughters, Sarah, who married 
John Thompson ; Deborah, who married George Clark ; Abigail, 
who married Jonathan Sellick. 

Major Nathan Gold removed from St. Edmondsbury, in South 
Britain, to Fairfield, Conn., in the reign of Charles II., and was 
one of the first settlers of that town. He was a wealthy and edu- 



RECOKDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 285 

cated gentleman, and is often mentioned in Smith's History of New- 
York. 

In the first volume of the town records of Fairfield, we find him 
a landholder in 1649, and in 1653, a purchaser of fifteen separate 
pieces of land, some of which remains in the possession of his 
descendants of the sixth generation. 

He was one of the petitioners (nineteen in number) named in 
the charter of Connecticut, dated April 12th, in the fourteenth 
year of the reign of Charles II, which petition " was signed by no 
gentleman unless he had sustained a high reputation in England 
before he came to New England." 

He was an assistant or member of the Council from 1657 to 
1694, and " departed this life into the Mantions of Rest upon the 
day of Rest, on Saboth, it being the 4th day of March, 1693-4." 

Inventory of his estate, £400 3s. 6d. 

There is a gun in the possession of T. S. Gold, which tradition 
says was brought by him from England. 

Nathan Gold, Jr., 
married Hannah, born in Hartford, Dec. 8, 1663, daughter of 
Lieut. -Col. John Talcott and Helena Wakeman. He died Oct. 3, 
1723. Hannah died March 28, 1696. His second wife, Sarah, 
died Oct. 17, 1711. 

Had children : Abigail, born Feb., 1687, married Rev. Thomas 
Hawley of Ridgefield; John, born April 25, 1688, married Hannah 
Slawson, died Sept. 23, 1766 ; Nathan, born April 6, 1690; Samuel, 

born Dec. 27, 1692. had six children; Joseph, born , died 

Oct. 11, 1769, dd. 77; Rev. Hezekiah, born , 1694, had 13 chil- 
dren; Onesiraus, married and had a family; David; Martha, mar- 
ried Samuel Sherman, April 4, 1728. 

Nathan Gold, Jr., was long engaged in public service; was Re- 
corder of the town of Fairfield for many years, was an Assistant from 
1694 to 1723, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1712, and 
Lieut.-Gov. from 1708 to 1723, a period of fifteen years. 

We can find no trace of any living descendants from his sons, 
except from Samuel and Hezekiah. A copy of his will, as recorded 
in Hartford, is here given. 

Inventory of his estate, £2,953 6s. Sd. 

Will of Nathan Gold. 

Superior Court Records of the Colony of Connecticut, in New England, 
Vol. ni, p. 545 : 



286 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

John Gold of Fairfield, &c., Executors to the Last Will and Testament 
of the Honl. Nathan Gold, Esq., late of s'^ Fairfield, deceased, appealed 
to this Court from the Determination of the Court of Probate, held at 
Fairfield, November 27th, 1723, not approving the s'^ Last Will and 
Testament, the s* Appellants appeared at this Court to set up the s** Will, 
and no person appearing to oppose them, or to object against the 
approving thereof, the s* Will being proved in the s'^ Court of Probate, 
the same is bj' this Court approved of, and ordered to be recorded. 

In the name of God, Amen. 

I, Nathan Gold, Sen., of Fairfield, in the County of Fairfield, in the 
Colony of Connecticut, in New England, being very sick in body, yet of 
good understanding, and sound memory, knowing that I must shortly 
put ofi' this Earthly Tabernacle, and accounting it my Duty to set my house 
in Order, do make this my last Will and Testament, in manner and form 
following, hereby revoking and annulling every and all other Will and 
Wills, Testament and Testaments heretofore made by me, declaring this 
to be my last Will and Testament. 

Lnprimis. I give and bequeath my precious and immortal Soul to God 
through Jesus Christ, my Glorious Redeemer, hoping for acceptance 
through Him. 

My Body I commit to the Earth, to be decently Interred according to 
the Discretion of my Executor or Executors hereafter named hoping for 
a Blessed Ressurrection to Eternal life in the last day. And as to the 
temporal Estate which it hath pleased God to bestow upon me, I dispose 
of it as followeth : 

And now my Will is that all my Just Debts & Funeral Charges be first 
paid and then Imprimis I give and bequeath a double portion of my 
whole Estate, to my Eldest Son John Gold, reckoning what he hath 
already had of me. 

Item. I give to my Son Nathan Gold one full single share of my whole 
Estate, and One hundred pounds over and above the s* share. 

Item. I give to my Son Samuel Gold, Oue single share of my whole 
Estate, reckoning in what he hath already had of me. 

Item. I give to my Son Hezekiah Gold fifty pounds over and above 
what I have expendecl upon liim for his learning, this to be the whole 
of his portion. 

Item. I give to my Son in Law Thomas Hawley of Ridgefield The 
sum of One hundred pounds, besides what he hath already had with my 
Daughter Abigail, this to be the whole of her portion. 

Item. I give and bequeath to my Daughter Martha Gold, the sum of 
two hundred pounds, this to be the whole of her portion. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto my Sons Onesimus Gold, David 
Gold, and Joseph Gold, tliat is to each of them one single share of my 
whole Estate, And I do hereby constitute and appoint my loving Sons 
John Gold, Nathan Gold, and Samuel Gold to be Executors of this my 
last Will & Testament. And this to be my last Will and Testament, I 
declare by setting to my hand and Seal in Fairfield this twentieth day 
of September Anno Domini 1723 Annoq" R. R". Georgii, Magna Brittauia 
»&c. Decimo. 

Signed, Sealed, pronounced & 
declared to be his last will and NATPIAN GOLD, [seal.] 

Testament In presence of 

Jos. Wakeman ) Memorandum ; I give to Sarah Clarke 

Thomas Hanpord [- the sum of five pds. 

Ephraim Burr 



RECORDS OF EARLY AKD PRESENT RESIDENTS. 287 

Capt. Joseph "Wakeiiian, Tliomas Hanford & Ephraim Burr named as 
witnesses to the above Will, apjiroved in the Court of Probate held in 
Fairtield November 27th 1723 and each of them acknowledged their 
names above wi'itten to be their Character and that they set their 
names as witnesses to the s"^ Will and did testify and declare upon their 
Oaths that they saw the Testator, the Hon' Nathan Gold Sign and Seal 
the Instrument written above and on the other side of this jiaper and 
lieard him declare it to be his last Will and Testament, and they each 
for himself did further declare, tliat they did Judge tiie s"* Testator then 
to be of sound mind and in a disposing frame, and the s'' Wakeman also 
said that he heard the s' Will, audibly read in the presence and hearing 
of s'' Nathan Gold, Ijefore he signed and sealed it, but said Hanford and 
Burr declared that they did not hear said Will read, neither did see the 
s'' Nathan Gold seem to read it to himself. 

JOHN GOLD Clerk. 

Kecorded fii-om the Original August 19, 1724. 

H. CHRISTOPHER Clerk. 

Aaron Gold, son of Onesimus Gold, married Rebecca, daugliter 
of Peter Scudder of Long Island, January 27, 1761. Scudder, 
their son, was born March 27, 1762. Can find no further trace of 
this branch. 

Samuel Gold, (d. 1766,) m. Esther Bradley, Dec. 7, 1716, had 
children: David Gold, b. July 11, 1717; Esther, b. Oct. 13, 1719; 
Abigail, b. April 27, 1724; Abell, b. Sept. 14, 1727, d. Nov. 11, 
1769; Abraham, b. Oct. 12, 1730, d. 6 w. and 3 d.; Col Abraham, 
b. May 10, 1732, d. 1777. 

Abell Gold, son of Samuel and Esther, married Ellen, daugh- 
ter of (Japtain Samuel Burr, December 19, 1754; had children: 
John, b. Oct. 2, 1755, d. Dec. 15, 1755; Abell, b. Oct. 18, 1756. 

Colonel Abraham Gold, son of Samuel Gold, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Capt. John Burr, Jan. 1, 1754, (she d. 1815, se. 84,) and 
had children: Abigail, b. Nov. 15, 1754, m. Isaac Jennings, 1770; 
Hezekiah, b. Dec. 9, 1756, drowned 1789;* Anna, (Mrs. Silliman,) 
Abraham b. 1766; Jason, b. 1771 ; John Burr, died at sea, 1781; 

Daniel, died at sea, coast of France, 1796; Elizabeth, m. 

Curtiss of Newtown; Sarah; Deborah, m. Osborne, d. 1785. 

Colonel Abraham Gold was killed on his horse by the British, 
at Ridgefield, in 1777. 

The sword used by Colonel Abraham Gold is in the possession 
of Abraham Gold Jennings, his great grandson, who resides in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and his sash and coat were deposited in the 
Trumbull Gallery at New Haven, The sword is straight, silver- 

* He was walking on a plank from the wharf to the vessel, in New York; the 
end of the plank dropping off from the vessel he struck his breast, and was 
drowned. 



288 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

mounted, three-cornered, and at his death was found stained with 
the enemy's blood. His body was carried on horseback to Fair- 
field for burial. 

His son Jason changed his name to Gould, still retained by his 
descendants.* Jason had a son John born in 1801, who lived in 
Fairfield on his ancestral acres, and died aged 70. Hon. John 
Gould held many positions of public trust; was member of the 
House of Representatives from Fairfield for several sessions, and 
member of the State Senate from the Tenth district in 1847; rail- 
road commissioner from 1854 to 1861; in 18 64 appointed United 
States marshal for Connecticut by President Lincoln, and held the 
office for four years. His widow and daughters still live on the 
homestead in Fairfield. He had children: William Jason, died 
September 6, 1877; Elizabeth, married Captain Wm. Peck; Mary 
Catherine; John, died 1850, aged 18; Julia; James, died in 
infancy. 

Isaac Jennings, died June 6, 1819, and Abigail Gold, his wife, died 

Nov. 2, 1795, aged 41, had children: Elizabeth, m. Mason; 

Abigail; Phoebe, m. Sherwood; Abraham Gold, m. Anna 

Burr, 1807; Anna, m. Burr; Isaac, m. Beach; Seth; 

Polly. 

In 1786 several of the descendants of Nathan Gold removed 
from Fairfield to Delaware county, N. Y., some retaining the name 
of Gold, others changing it to Gould. Their names were Abra- 
ham and his sister Anna, and their cousins Isaac and Talcott, 
brothers. A large colony cut their way through the forests to the 
sources of the Delaware, over the Catskill mountains. 

Abraham Gold was a prominent man in the town affairs of Rox- 
bury, N. Y. His oldest son, John Burr, was also a prominent man, 
and quite a hero in the anti-rent war of 1846. The Fairfield colony 
settled on leased land, rent 12|^c. per acre; the anti-renters for- 
bade any persons blowing any dinner-horns; but John B. had quite 
an arsenal in his house, and he defied them. They came often to 
carry him off and make him prisoner, but he stood his ground. 
Abraham Gold died in 1823, agfed 57. In his family record kept 

* This stone in the okl cemetery at Fairfield is the oldest record we find where 
the name is spelled Gould : 

A. G. 

This stone is erected by 

Jason Gould, 

in memory of his honored Father 

Col. Abraham Gould 

Who fell in defence of his Country 

at Ridgefield 

April 27th, 1777, aged 44 years. 



RECORDS OF KARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 289 

by himself he spelled the name Gold. His oldest son, John P>urr, 
the first male child horn in Roxbury. Delhi Co., N. Y., continuing 
the record wrote (louh]. 

Abraham Gold had six sons and fonr daughters. John iJurr 
Gould, his oldest son, died in his 74th year, leaving sons, Jay 
Gould, the banker, in New York, and Abram, who is in business 
in Salt Lake City ; and daughters, Anna, m. Rev. A. M.. Hough of 
the southern Cal. Con., i'(isiding in Los Angeles ; Mrs. Dr. G. K. 
Palen of Philadelphia, and Mrs. S. B. Nortlirop of Hackettstown. 
X. J. 

Jason, another son of Aljraham Gold, settled at Smith's Falls, 
U. C, and died there, aged 61. 

Another son of Abraham, Daniel Gold, studied law in Delhi, 
was clerk of the New York Legislature, and afterwards appointed 
chief clei'k of the House of Representatives at Washington, D. C, 
where he married a daughter of Amos Kendall; he died at the age 
of 41, leaving two sons, William Jay, an Episcopal clergyman, 
professor in college at Racine, Wis. The other. Sydney Kendall, 
is in the flouring business in Faribault, Minn. 

Rev. Hezekiah Gold of Stratford, third son uf Hon. Nathan 
Gold, married Mary, daughter of Rev. Mr. Ruggles, of Guilford, 
May 23, 1723. He died April 22, 1761, aged 67. Mary, his wife, 
died July 2, 1750, aged 48 years. Tiiey had children: Mary, 
b. Feb. 29, 1724, m. Dr. Agur Tomlinson, 1745, shed. June 
23, 1802. a). 78; Catee. b. Aug. 31, 1725, d. Sept. 31, 1742, te. 18; 
Jerusha, b. March G, 172G, d. Dec. 24, 1748, se. 20 y. 8 mo.; Sarah, 
b. May 8, 1729; Hezekiah, b. Jan. 18, 1731, d. May 30, 1790, se. 60; 
Thomas, b. Jan. 8, 1733; Anna, b. Dec. 15, 1734, d. April 9, 1739, 
se. 4 y. and 4 mo.; Rebekah, b. Sept. 24, 1736, m. Abraham 
Tomlinson, a lawyer, Dec. 24, 1754, she d. Nov. 1, 1774, se. 38 ; 
Huldah, b. April 15, 1738, m. Samuel Cuitiss, Jr., Dec. 20, 1759; 
had four children: Anna, b. May 14. 1740, 2d of the name, m. 
Levi Hubbard of New Haven, had one son, William Gold, she d. 
se. about 80; Catharine, Oct. 16, 1742, d. (Jct. 23, ".743, a;. 1 y. 7 d. : 
Abigail, b. Nov. 4. 1744. m. Samuel Uft'ord, Nov. 28, 17()9, 
had seven children, she d. Dec. 3, 1817, le. 73; Elizabeth, b. Aug. 
15, 1747, died young at Guilford. 

Dr. Agur Tomlinson, son of Zachariaii (of Stratford) and Mar\ 

Gold, had eleven children. Two sons lived to marry — Hezekiah 

and William Agur. They married sisters by the name of Lewis. 

Abraham Tomlinson, youngest brother of Agur, and Rebecca 

37 



290 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

(xold, had eight children. One son, David, lived at Utica, N. Y.. 
another was Dr. Charles of Stratford. 

The tombstone of Rebecca bears this inscription: 

•' I liave been what thou art now, 
And am wliat thou shah, shortly l>e. 
How loved, how valued once avail me not. 
To whom related or by whom begot, 
A heap of dust alone remains of me : 
'Tis ab I am and all that you must be." 

Catee, second daughter of Rev. Hezekiah, is reported to have 
possessed remarkable beauty. Her golden hair and large soft eyes 
added grace to her form, which was of rare elegance; a pi;re and 
elevated character and cultivated mind harmonized with and 
added to her loveliness. Tradition is, that she was engaged in 
marriage to a young clergyman, and that on her deathbed, at the 
early age of eighteen, she took off her gold beads from her neck, 
and gave them to him as a keepsake. He afterwards married and 
lived to a good old age, but at his death that string of beads were 
found on his neck, where he had always worn them, 

Thomas married Anna, daughter of Samuel Smith, Feb. 
13, 1755. It is reported that he was a stone-cutter, lived in 
Woodbury. Died on Long Island m Revolutionary army. 

Rev. Hezekiah Gold of Stratford graduated at Harvard* 1719; 
was ordained over the church in Stratford in June, 1722. His 
ministry was blessed with large additions to the church. President 
Edwards, in his account of the " Great Awakening," makes honor- 
able mention of Mr. Gold and his ministry. Oct. 7, 1740, Mr. 
Whitefield preached for Mr. Gold. His sermon was blessed to the 
conversion of several souls. The tombstone of Mr. Gold in the 
old cemetery at Stratford has this inscription : 

" He was the fourth settled minister in the first society of Stratford of 
the Presbyterian and Congregational denominations, and executed the 
ministerial office in said place for more than thirty years which he 
performed with diligence and an honest heart to the end of his ministry." 

Many volumes of his library, some with his name written by his 
own hand, are in the possession of T. S. Gold. 

Rev. Hezekiah Gold of Cornwall, fourth generation, eldest son 
of Rev. Hezekiah Gold of Stratford, married Sarah Sedgwick 
Nov. 23, 1758. They had children: Thomas, b. Nov. 23, 1759, d. 



* It was customary at that time to arrange the names in the college catalogue 
according to the dignity of the parents. His name stood third. 



EECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 291 

Feb. 13, 1827, as. 68; Hezeldah, b. May 7, 1761, d. April 6, 1766, as. 
4 yrs. 11 mo. and 2 d.; Benjamin, b. June 25, 1762, d. 1846, ae. 
84; Thomas Ruggles, b. Nov. 4, 1764, d. Oct. 25, 1827, Je. 63: 
Hezekiah, 2d of the name, b. Aug. 1, 1766, d. Feb. 22, 1847, se. 
81 y. 6 mos. 21 d. ; Sarah, wife of Rev. Hezekiah, d. Aug. 28, 
1766, Ee. 27; Rev. Hezekiah m. 2d wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Joseph Wakeman of Fairfield, Oct. 11, 1768; had children: Joseph 
Wakeman, b. Sept. 4, 1769; Sarah, b. Aug. 15, 1771, d. Nov. 1, 
1776, 36. 5 years; Mary, b. July 2, 1775, d. Nov. 12, 1776, se. 1 y. 
Elizabeth, 2d wife, d. Feb. 11, 1778, in the 33d year of her age. 
Rev. Hezekiah m. 3d wife, Abigail Sherwood of Fairfield, Sept. 
24, 1778. He died May 30, 1790, se. 60 years. Mr. Gold gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1751, settled over the Congregational Church in 
Cornwall in 1755, and continued his ministry till 1787, a period 
of thirty-two years. His tombstone in the old cemetery at Corn- 
wall bears this testimonial: 

" lu whom a soimd knowledge of the Scriptures, extensive charity 
to the poor, unshaken fortitude in adversity, were united with imcommon 
discerniiio- of the human lieart, and shone conspicuously through an 
active and useful life." 

In addition to his labors as a minister, Mr. Gold was a farmer, 
and by the labor of his hands added to his means of living in 
those disastro^^s times, and also was enabled to give a liberal 
education to two of his sons. Many anecdotes are extant showing 
that in physical ability as well as in skill as a farmer he was not 
surpassed by any of his parishioners. Laying rail-fence in those 
days was a common exercise, and tried the backbone of the settler. 
It is reported " that he could lay more green rail-fence in a day 
than any of his parishioners." 

Thomas Gold, oldest son of Rev. Hezekiah, graduated at Yale, 
1778, settled in the practice of the law at Fittsfield, Mass., acquired 
wealth, and held an honorable position in his profession. His res- 
idence on East Street, now owned by the heirs of Hon. Thomas F. 
Plunkett, is the finest location in the village of Fittsfield. Here 
stood tlie '^ Old Clock on the Stairs,'" the subject of a poem by Henry 
W. Longfellow, who married a granddaughter of Mr. Gold. 

" Somewhat back from the village street, 
Stands the old-fashioned country-seat, 
Across this antique portico, 
Tall poplar trees their shadows throw. 



292 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

" In that mansion used to bo 
Free-hearted hospitality : 
His great fires up the chimneys roared, 
The strangers feasted at his board." 

Mr. Gold niavried a daughter of Dr. Marsh of Dalton, and liail 
seven children. Thomas Angustus, the oldest sou, was also a prom- 
inent lawyer in I'ittsfield. Pie married, and had a family; also 
William, who resided in Pittsfield. 

One daughter married the Hon. Nathan .\ppleton of Boston, and 
was the mother of Mrs. Longfellow. 

A second married Dr. Worfchington Wright: a third, the lion, 
Mr. Gardner; while Martha, tlie fourth, remained unmarried. 

Benjamin Gold, son of Rev. Hezekiah, married, N"ov. 27, 1784, 
Eleanor, daughter of Solomon Johnson, b. Oct. 21, 1761, and liad 
children: Sarah Ann, b. March 21, 1786. d. March 25, 1786; 
Thomas Ruggles, b. March 25, 1787 (Yale 1806), d. Dec. 30, 1829; 
Sarah Ann 2d, b. Dec. 29, 1788, dead; Eleanor Pierce, b. July 4, 
1790, d. Feb. 27, 1809; Benjamin Franklin, b. May 29, 1792, d. 
Dec. 5, 1873; Mary Wakeman, b. March 8. 1 794; Hezekiah, b. July 
8, 1796, d. Sept. 1800; Abby, b. Jan. 28, 1798; Flora,, b. Sept. 25, 
1799; Stephen Johnson, b. Aug. 3. 1801; Catherine Melissa, b. 
June 4, 1803; Harriet Ruggles, b. Jime 10, 180.5, d. Aug. 15, 1836; 
Hezekiah Sedgwick, b. June 6, 1807; Job Swift, b. Nov. 27, 1810. 
(Yale 1834), d. June 18, 1844. 

Dea. Benjamin Gold was a farmer, to which Ijusiness he added 
'that of a country merchant. He built and occupied the house now 
owned by Robert Baldwin. He was a deacon in the S. Cornwall 
Church for many years, was highly esteemed by his fellow citizens, 
being called to occupy many positions of public trust. He lived 
to a good old age, and under every trial which he encountered, he 
exhibited the character of a true Christian. His old age was 
peculiarly happy, and none who knew him during that period will 
fail to remember his cheerful smile, and the genial spirit he mani- 
fested to the end of his life. 

He died in 1846, at the age of eighty-four, wliile his wife sur- 
vived till 1858, 88. ninety-two, when her descendants numbered 
over 100. Truly, "her children arise up and call her blessed." 

SarahA. (ioldm. Samuel Hopkins (lied. Sept. 15, 1834), Sept. 24. 
1805, and had children: Ann Pierce, b. July 2, 1806, dead; Elea- 
nor Johnson, b. March 5, 1808, d. Feb. 24, 1830; Benjamin (jold, 
b. March 4, 1811 ; Sarah Ann, b. March 16, 1824, d. Fob. 6, 1861. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AST) PRESENT RESIDENTS. 293 

Mary W. Gold m. Daniel B. Brinsmade of Washington, Jan. 12, 
1814, and had children: Thomas Franklin, b. April 11, 1815; Wil 
liam r^artlett (Yale 1840), b. May 10, 1819; Abby Irene, b. July 
18, IS'iO; Mary Maria, b. Nov. 4, 1827. 

Abby Gold m. Rev. Cornelius B. Everest (Williams 1811), Oct 
9, 1817, and had children, hedied about I8(i9; Harriet Gold, b. April 
18, 1819, d. April 22, 1819: Cornehus, b. March 3, 1821; Mary, 
b. June 2, 1823; William Cleveland, b. July, 1831, dead; Henry 
Gold, h. 1833: Martha Sherman, b. 1837. 

Benjamin Frankhn Gold m. Maria Pierce, Jan. 19, 1818, and had 
children: Cornelius Chapin, b. Oct. 2, 1819; Edward Frankhn, b. 
Sept. 29, 1823. 

Married second wife, Elizabeth H. Doane, March 24, 1834, and 
had son, Willis Doane, b. July 1, 1837. 

Flora Gold m. Rev. Herman L. Vaill (h. A. M. Yale, 1842), 
Jan. 22, 1823 (he d. 1871), and had children: Catherine Harriet 
Gold, b. Dec. 3, 1824, d. Aug. 17, 1828; Charles Benjamin, b. Sept. 
■ n. 1 820 : Elizal;)eth Sedgwick, b. Jan. 4, 1828 ; Abby Everest, b. Sept. 
14, 1829; George Lyman, b. Jan. 19. 1831, d. Sept. 23, 1833; The- 
odore Frelinghuysen, b. March 27. 1832, dead; Sarah Hopkins, b. 
Oct. 21, 1834, dead; Clarissa Champliu, l». Jan. 28, 1836; Joseph 
Herman, b. Oct. 15, 1837; Julia Maria, b. Feb. 28, 1839; Mary 
Woolsey, b. July 15, 1842, dead. 

Catherine M. Gold m. John B. Lovell (he d. Oct. 1851), Dec. 25, 
1825, had children: Almira, b. Oct. 4, 1826; Sarah Hopkins, b. 
Nov. 19, 1S28, dead; Clarissa Maria, b. March 19, 1830; Henry' 
Row, b. May 30, 1831; Lucy Eleanor, b. Sept. 15, 1832; Mary 
Wakeman, b. May 22, 1834, dead; Frances Gold, b. March 4, 1836; 
Helen Catherine, b. May 23, 1839; Laura Gurnon, b. Sept. 2, 1841. 
Harriet B. Gold m. Elias Boudinott (he d. June 21, 1839), March 
28, 1826, and had children: Eleanor Susan, b. May 4, 1827, dead; 
Mary Harriet, b. Oct. 5, 1828; WilHam Penn, b. Feb. 4, 1830; 
Sarah Parkhill, I). Feb. 24, 1832, d. Aug. 29, 1845; Elias Cor- 
nelius, b. Aug. 1. 1834; Frank F>rinsmade, b. May 15, 1836, dead. 
Stephen J. Gold m. Sarah F. Calhoun, Nov. 13, 1826, and had 
children: John Robinson, b. Aug. 20, 1827, d. Jan. 28, 1847; 
(ieorge Ruggles, b. Oct. 9, 1830; Stephen Benjamin, b. Sept. 15, 
1834, d. March 20, 1836; Martha Ramsay, b. June 16, 1837; Sam- 
uel Fay, b. March 20, 1840. Married second wife, Mrs. Brown, 
1876. 

Hezekiah Sedgwick Gold m. Chloe A. Peet, Sept. 6, 1836, and 



294 HISTOEY OP CORNWALL. 

had children: Henry Martin, b. July 25, 1837, dead; Myron Swift, 
b. Dec. 1, 1842; Ethel Edward, b. Feb. 9, 1847. 

Job Swift Gold m. Catherine B. Smith, Oct. 28, 1835, and had 
children: Lincoln Swift, b. Oct. 1, 1837, dead; Cornelius Boudi- 
nott, b. June 27, 1839; Walter, b. Feb. 22, 1842, d. Feb. 22, 1853; 
Henry Smith, b. March 31, 1844, dead. 

Our limits forbid that we should follow with the succeeding 
generations, for the family has increased like good seed in a fertile 
soil. I am indebted for these records to Mrs. Abby I. (Brinsmade) 
Gunn and Miss Elizabeth Vaill. Rev. Herman L. Vaill had prepared 
a record with great care to 1854, when the number of descendants 
exceeded one hundred. 

Dea. Benjamin Gold was well represented in the late war, as 
follows : 

Edward F. Gold, of Cornwall, son of Benjamin F., Capt. Co. 
G, 2d Conn. Heavy Artillery. 

Henry Martyn Gold, son of'H. Sedgwick, was killed early in the 
war. 

Frank Boudinott, son of Harriet Gold, Capt. N. Y. Mounted 
Rifles, died in consequence of a hurt received by his horse falling 
on him ; a bold, dashing officer, much beloved by his men. 

Capt. Putnam, supposed to be of Gen. Putnam stock, married 
Helen Lovell, daughter of Catharine. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen Vaill, Adj. 2d Conn. H. Art., wounded 
near the close of the war; died recently of typhoid fever; author 
of the History of the Regiment and editor of the Winsted Herald. 

Joseph H. Vaill, his brother, present editor of the Herald, was 
in the 8th Conn. 

Thomas R. Gold* son of Rev. Hezekiah of Cornwall, m. Sarah 
Sill, daughter of Dr. Ehsha Sill, she died Jiily 13, 1852. 

Children: Hezekiah, b. Sept. 17, 1788, drowned June, 1792; Har- 
riett L., b. July 30, 1790, m. Rev. John Frost, d. Aug. 5, 1873; 
Mary S., b. June 9, 1794, m. John Peck, d. April 4, 1877; Theodore 
S., b. July 23, 1796, died at Utica; Sarah P., b. March 10, 1801, m. 
William B. Walton, d. 1866: Charlotte Ruggles, b. July 7, 1806, 
d. Oct. 18, 1808; Thomas, Jr., b. March 11, 1809, d. Oct. 8, 1846, 
33. thirty-seven. 

Hon. Thomas R. Gold graduated at Yale College in the class of 
1786. When the Whitestown country was first being settled Mr. 

*The promise (never fulfilled) of a library from Thomas Ruggles for his name 

was the reason for two brothers of the name of Thomas. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 295 

Gold established himself there, about 1792, in the profession of 
the law. He soon acquired a high position, and for a time stood 
at the head of the bar in Central New York. In 1798 he was 
elected to the Senate of his adopted State. For about twenty- 
years he represented New York in the Congress of the United 
States. Although important public business engrossed a large 
share of his time, yet Mr. Gold contributed largely to the " North 
American Review " and other leading literary publications of the 
day. In the later years of his life he became a humble and earnest 
Christian, and died in the faith of Jesus,* at the age of sixty-three 
years. 

The record of this branch reads thus: 

Hon. Thomas R. Gold, " Under the smiles' of Providence, was 
greatly blessed." 

Of his wife, Sarah Sill. " Blessed are the dead who die in the 
Lord." 

Harriet L., " Widow of Rev. John Frost, died at the age of 
eighty-three years, after a long pilgrimage, refined' and matured 
for heaven, loved and revered by kindred and friends, two sur- 
viving children, and grandchildren to the third generation." 

Theodore S. left one daughter, Mrs. Andrew Dexter of New 
York. 

Thomas, Jr., had one son, Thomas Raymond Gold of Chicago. 

Hezekiah Gold, of Cornwall, fourth son of Rev. Hezekiah, and 
of the fifth generation, m. Rachel Wadsworth, daughter of Samuel 
Wadsworth. Oct. 24, 1788. 

Children: Sally Maria, b. Oct. 19, 1789, m. Edward Rogers, 
March 4, 1810; Samuel Wadsworth, b. Sept. 27, 1794, m. Phebe 
Cleveland, daughter of Erastus and Rebecca (Berry) Cleveland, 
Madison, N. Y., April 17, 1817; Julia R., b. May 31. 1800, 
m. Daniel Cleveland, Nov. 13, 1821; Lorain Sedgwick, b. May 
26, 1804, m. Wm. S. Stevens, Jan. 1, 1828. 

Capt. Hezekiah Gold ^^as a farmer on Cream Hill; a part of 
his farm he inherited by his wife, the remainder he purchased of 
Joseph Wadsworth. He was an active, energetic, public- spirited 
man, never backward in any good work. He was a good farmer 
for his day, and if we can farm as well for the times as he did we 
shall be satisfied. 

Hon. Edward Rogers and Sally Maria, oldest daughter of Hez- 
ekiah Gold, had children: Hezekiah Gold, b. Feb; 22, 1811; Sarah 
Maria, b. July 30, 1820; Edward, b. July 20, 1826, d. Dec. 26, 1846. 



296 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Hon. Edward Rogers died May 29, 1857 ; his wife, Sally Maria, 
died Jan. 28, 1847. (For further account, see Rogers family.) 

Hezekiah Gold Rogers graduated at Yale in 1831 ; practiced law 
at Pittsburgh, Pa., was charge de affaires to the Kingdom of Sardinia, 
and held various positions of public trust. Is still living as a law- 
yer in Pennsylvania. 

Samuel Wadsworth Gold, son of Hezekiah of the sixth genera- 
tion, and Phebe Cleveland, had children: Theodore Sedg-wick, b. 
March 2, 1818; Mary Elizabeth, b. Nov. 21, 1820, d. .\pril 6. 1821; 
Julia Lorain, b. June 24, 1824, d. Aug. 12, 1875. 

Dr. Samuel W. Gold graduated at Williams College in 1814: 
studied medicine at Pittsfield and at Yale, where in 1834 he re- 
ceived the honorary degree of M. D. He was licensed to practice 
medicine in 1817, and began his professional life at Madison, N. Y. 
Prom there he returned to Cornwall for five years, then went to 
Goshen to fill out twenty-five years of medical practice. He re- 
turned to Cornwall in 1842, and in 1845, with his son, T. S. Gold, 
established the Cream Hill Agricultural School, which was contin- 
ued successfully for twenty-four years. He was State .senator in 
1847 and 1859, and presidential elector in 1857. 

Dr. Gold was a thorough student of medicine, and a successful 
practitioner. He was a frequent contributor tu the medical jour- 
nals and other publications of the day. As an educator he applied 
to good advantage his professional knowledge and ripe experience ; 
while as a farmer he early realized the necessity of clearing oui' 
fields of rocks for successful agriculture, and was the first to at- 
tack the great boulders, in 1823, that infested our farms. The 
horse-rake and the mowing-machine were first used in town on 
his Cream Hill farm, an impossibility in the original condition of 
the fields.* He was persistent in his efforts to promote the social, 
moral, and educational interests of the community, and lived to 
see many of -his favorite projects brought to maturity. 

Dr. Samuel W. Gold died Sept. 10, 1869, aged 74 yeai's, 11 
months. His wife. Phebe C, died Nov. 29, 1869, aged 73. 

Tlieodore Sedgwick Gold, seventh generation, son of Samuel W., 
married Caroline E. Lockwood, daughter of Charles and Eunice 
Lockwood, Sept. 13, 1843. Children — Eleanor Douglas, b. Sept. 
11, 1844, m. Chas. H. Hubbard of Sandusky, ()., Sept. 30, 1868; 



*We bought a revolving horse-rske from Amenia, Dutchess Co., in 1842, 
and au Allen luowiugmachine iu 1857. We had tried a Ketchuin uusuccess- 
f iiUy the previous year. 



RECORDS OP EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 297 

Mary Elizabeth, b. Feb. 2, 1847, d, July 11, 1857, aged 10 years, 
5mo., 9d; Emily Sedgwick, b. Jan. 31, 1849, d. April 2. 1858, 
aged 9 years 2m ; Rebecca Cleveland, b. July 29, 1851, m. Sam- 
uel M. Cornell of Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1876; Caroline Simons, 
b. Oct. 3, 1855. 

Mrs. Caroline E. Gold, wife of T. S. Gold, died April 25, 1857, 
aged 32. Theodore vS. Gold married second wife, Mrs. Emma 
(Tracy) Baldwin, daughter of A. W. Tracy of Rockville, Ct., April 
4, 1859. Children— Alice Tracy, b. Jan. 14, 1860; Martha Wads- 
worth, b. July 20, 1861; Charles Lockwood, b. April 14, 1863; 
James Douglas, b. Nov. 5, 1866. 

T. S. Gold graduated at Yale, 1838, studied at Yale one year 
after graduation; taught in Goshen and Waterbury academies three 
winters; came to Cornwall in 1842, as a farmer; established agri- 
cultural school with his father, in 1845, and taught for twenty-four 
years; was chosen Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture at 
its organization in 1866, which office he still holds. 

Charles H. Hubbard and Eleanor D., eighth generation, daugh- 
ter of T. S. Gold, had children (being the ninth generation) — RoUin 
Barnard, b. July 22, 1869; Caroline Lockwood, b. Oct. 14, 1871; 
Eleanor Gold, b. Sept. 20, 1873, d. Aug. 11, 1874; Charles Mills, 
b. Oct. 24, 1875. 

Frederic Lyman married Julia L., daughter of Samuel W. Gold, 
and had children — Samuel; Anna E., b. Sept. 13, 1848; Frederic 
Gold, b. Aug. 27, 1850; Sarah Mead, b. Oct. 21, 1852; Theodore, 
Edward C. Samuel, Theodore, and Edward died in early infancy. 

Daniel Cleveland and Julia R., second daughter of Hezekiah 
Gold, had children — James Douglas, b. 1822, m. Charlotte Bing- 
ham; Julia Antoinette, b. Jan. 25, 1830, m., Oct. 1, 1851, Charles 
G. Aiken; Mary S., b. 1832, d. May 6, 1877; Thomas Gold, b. 
May, 1838, m, Harriet Wiley, and d. in 1871. JuHa R. Cleve- 
land d. Feb. 13, 1852, and her husband, Daniel Cleveland, a few 
years after. 

James Douglas Cleveland and Charlotte Bingham had children — 
Emma Douglas, b. Oct. 8, 1852; Walter Gold, b. Oct. 1, 1857; 
William Bingham, b. May 20, 1863. James Douglas Cleveland, a 
lawyer in Cleveland, 0. Has held, and now holds, many public 
and private trusts, as an honest lawyer, able and willing to defend 
the right. 

Thomas Gold Cleveland and Harriet W. had children — Grace, 
b. Nov. 26, 1855, d. Feb. 13, 1856; Katharine, b. April 28, 1857, 
38 



298 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

d. Oct. 11, 1857; Douglas, b. Jan. 11, 1859; Julia Gold, b. Dec. 
22, 1860; Hattie, b. June 12, 1863; Alfred, b. May 20, 1866; 
George Wiley, b. Dec. 24, 1864; Alice, b. Oct. 27, 1868; Darwin 
Burton, April 25, 1870. Dr. Thomas G. Cleveland was a physician 
in Cleveland, 0. He did good service as a surgeon in the war of the 
rebellion, and died in 1871, of exposure and fatigue in army ser- 
vice. 

Charles G. Aiken and Julia Antoinette Cleveland had children — 
Julia Cleveland, b. Oct. 22, 1852, d. Sept. 12, 1854; Florence Car- 
nahan, b. Aug. 8, 1855; Henrietta, b. July 26, 1857, d. Aug. 24, 
1858; Wilhe Cleveland, b. June 11, 1859, Charles S., b. Feb. 6, 
1863. 

William S. Stevens and Laura Sedgwick, third daughter of 
Hezekiah Gold, had children— George G., b. Feb. 16, 1829, d. 
about 22 years old; Emeline Cordelia, b. Aug. 20, 1832; Mary 
Lorain, b. Nov. 11, 1834, m. Rev. Kinney, and has chil- 
dren — Edward, d. about 20 years old, he was a good soldier in the 
war against the rebellion, and died in Saratoga from disease con- 
tracted in the service. William S. Stevens d. Nov. 30, 1876. His 
wife Laura d. Nov. 12, 1867. 

Joseph Wakeman, youngest son of Rev. Hezekiah Gold, settled 
as a farmer at Pompey, N. Y., accumulated a handsome property, 
and died in early life. He had a daughter, who married Andrew 
Dickson, a merchant in New York. His son Andrew is a mer- 
chant in Chicago. 

The Everest Family. 
Rev. Cornelius B. Everest was a son of Daniel Everest, who 
lived south of the village of Cornwall. He was a graduate of 
Williams College, a faithful and acceptable preacher. He married 
Abigail, daughter of Deacon Benjamin Gold, and had several chil- 
dren. He was settled over a Congregational church in Hartford 
county; also at Norwich, Conn. 

The Harrison Family. 

The name of Harrison has been associated with Cornwall from 
the earliest period of its history. Each generation has well sus- 
tained its part in the history of the town, and they have spread 
laterally into many families, conspicuous among the present inhab- 
itants, while their descendants are found in many of the States — 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 299 

even to the shores of the Pacific. Those bearing the name have 
been, with scarcely an exception, freeholders and heads of families, 
thus becoming closely identified with the prosperity of the com- 
munity where they have resided, building up happy homes, the 
secure foundation of the nation. They have been law-abiding citi- 
zens, and such has been their regard for law and the rights of 
others, that it is doubted if there has ever been one of the name in 
this town, or their descendants, indicted for crime. All of those 
now residing in Cornwall of the name (except Myron Harrison, in 
the Hollow, who is grandson of Daniel, 2d,) are descended from 
Noah Harrison, who came to Cornwall from Branford in 1762, in 
company with Noah and Edward Rogers. His first purchase of 
land was a fifty-acre lot, upon which he built the house now stand- 
ing near the present residence of Luman Harrison, where he lived 
and died in 1823, aged 86. He was a man of great resolution, 
and a great teamster with oxen. It is said that "the crack of his 
whip could be heard at a mile's distance." During the Revolution 
a troop of dragoon horses were wintered on his farm, and from the 
man in charge Mr. Harrison and others learned to braid those 
whip-lashes for which the neighborhood was so famous. 

Noah Harrison married Hannah, sister of Noah and Edward 
Rogers, and had children— Edmund, b. May 1, 1868; Heman and 
Luman; and by a second marriage, Hannah m. Blias Hart, and 
Amanda m. Oliver Burnham Hart. 

Edmund Harrison, as a pupil of Oliver Burnham, developed a 
taste for mathematical studies, and became a farmer of more than 
ordinary intelhgence. He ruled his family well, both by precept 
and example; was temperate in all things; a strict observer of the 
Sabbath, and of unblemished moral character, and in public and 
private hfe bore the title of an honest man. One of his maxims 
was, " What is worthy of thy remark, remember, and forget the 
rest." His grandson, Geo. C. Harrison, enjoyed much of the 
society of his grandfather in his later years, and gives many rem- 
iniscences of him. In his 87th year he received injuries from a 
fall which rendered him comparatively helpless for the remaining 
eleven years; yet he was always cheerful, and by reading and con- 
versation kept well informed in the knowledge of passing events, 
even to the close of life, Jan. 4, 1867, aged 98 years, 8 months, 
and 4 days. His memory held out to the last, and his apt quota- 
tions of poetry, from book, and of local origin, enlivened his con- 
versation. Addressing thus a young pedagogue, he quoted: 



300 HISTORY OF UOENWALL. 

" The schoolmaster rages 
For want of more wages, 

And hurries his scholars along. 
He teaches them morals, 
And whips all that quarrel. 

And silence all day is his soug." 

Edmund Harrison married Kuth Hopkins of Warren, and had 
children — Rufus, Noah, Myron, Chandler, Lucretia, John R., Han- 
nah, and WiUiam H. Of his sons, Rufus went to Genesee 
County, Mich., where by industry he secured for himself a home, 
with his own hands clearing away the primeval forest. He was a 
man of powerful frame, tall and lithe as his Indian neighbors, of 
bold and fearless character, and though of a kind and generous 
disposition, yet when aroused to vindicate his rights, according to 
the then law of that land, woe to the white man or Indian that 
came within reach of his arm. 

Noah went to Columbia County, N. Y. Was a man of decided 
character and influence; had a large and prosperous family, one 
son, John J., being a graduate of Wesleyan University and of 
the Albany Law School, and is now an Episcopal clergyman on 
Long Island. 

Myron Harrison, third son of Edmund, was born Sept. 25, 1800; 
he was apprenticed as a clerk to Mr. Allen, then a merchant at Corn- 
wall Center, where he remained some two or three years, until 
Allen failed; spent some two or three years in Goshen; then 
entered the mercantile business at Cornwall Bridge in 1826, in 
partnership with Peter Bierce. He married Charlotte E. Calhoun, 
daughter of Doct. John Calhoun, June 2, 1830. He died Sept. 
19, 1872. He left a family of three children: Ralph C, b. Oct. 
22, 1831; George L., b. May 5, 1835; Sarah C, b. Oct. 31, 1840; 
Ralph, m. Juliet Waite of Chicago, is a graduate of Wesleyan 
University, and of the Albany Law School, and is a lawyer in San 
Francisco, Cal. (he has two or three sons); Geo. L. is married, is 
General Pass. Agent of Chicago & Northwestern R. R. at Boston, 
Mass. ; Sarah C. m. V. C. Beers of Cornwall. Myron Harrison 
was selectman of the town seven years; twice a member of the 
Legislature; United States Assistant Assessor eight years; during 
his life he was engaged in the settlement of eighty-six estates. 

Chandler, who was considered the flower of the family, died at 
the early age of twenty-six, from consumption contracted in travel 
at the South; Lucretia m. John Bradford. 

John R. Harrison m. Eleanor Bradford iu 1833, and had cliil- 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 301 

dren: George C, .b. May 19, 1840; Catharine, b. Aug. 1, 1843; 
Wilbur Fitch, b. Aug. 22, 1845, and John B., Nov. 4, 1848.' 

In 1833, with John Bradford as partner, Mr. Harrison engaged 
in mercantile business at the Center, and was postmaster there till 
the removal of the office to Cornwall Plain, about 1849. In 1833, 
there were only two other offices in town, one at Cornwall Bridge, 
and one in the Hollow, kept by John E. Sedgwick, in the house 
lately owned by Erastus Merwin. His business qualifications and 
true worth were soon, brought into use in offices of trust and 
responsibility, and his life became closely identified with the record 
a^ the town; with such faithfulness were these duties perforaied, 
that almost continuously, from 1835 to 1877, a period of forty-two 
years, his townsmen called him to public duty. His record is 
three years in General Assembly, about thirty years Justice of the 
Peace; Selectman for seventeen years; Treasurer of Town Deposit 
and School Society's Funds, fifteen years; Judge of Probate, six 
years. Of dignified, unassuming manners, a safe counselor, and 
true friend, an example of temperance and sobriety, of an earnest 
Christian spirit, ready to aid with his name and influence those in 
straitened circumstances, Mr. Harrison still remains with us, though 
having passed the allotted "three-score years and ten;" and of such 
we say, Sero redeas in Coelum. 

Of his children, George C. m. Mrs. Rebecca (Todd) White, 
Feb. 21, 1862, and has children: Cynthia R., Eleanor H., George 
E., Charlotte A., Katie J., Ruth, Gertrude, Anna, and Mary M. 

George C. Harrison, as Town Clerk and Treasurer, and as Judge 
of Probate, with his young family, promises to rival his ancestors 
as a citizen worthy of the trust and confidence of his fellows. 

Catharine, daughter of John R. Harrison, m. Wm. H. H. Hew- 
itt, and resides in New Haven; has children, Mary Cornwall, and 
Harrison. 

Wilbur P., second son, m. Harriet, d. of Luther Miner; is a 
farmer residing in South Cornwall. John B. removed to Ohio, 
married there, and has one daughter. 

Hannah Harrison, second daughter of Edmund, remained unmar- 
ried, and still occupies the homestead of her father in the Hollow. 

Wilham H. Harrison, youngest son, m. Mary, d. of Benjamin 
Catlin, and has children: Edward R., b. Feb., 1841, living in Chi- 
cago; Nancy; Martha, m. Frederic Harrison, son of Heman, and 
gone to Iowa ; Mary; Charles, a farmer at home; Cornelia and 
Susan. Wni. H. Harrison is a thrifty farmer, owning a good farm 



302 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

near the village of Cornwall, has held many offices of trust, and 
enjoys the respect of his townsmen, and the well-earned rewards 
of his industry. 

Heman, second son of Noah Harrison, remained on the old home- 
stead, and had sons, Heman and Luman, who are farmers, reside 
in the Hollow, and have promising young famihes; and daughters, 
Lucy, m. Coddington Crandall, and Mary, m. Chester Wickwire. 

Lnman, third son, removed to Genesee Co., N. Y., ^d has left 
numerous descendants in that vicinity. 

Daniel Harrison, brother of Noah, was born about the year 
1730, and came to Cornwall from Branford, Conn.; was son oi 
Daniel Harrison of that place, m. Miss Hannah Barker, lived on 
the hill west of Cornwall Hollow, and died at an advanced age, — 
eighty-four years. This family consisted of four sons and two 
daughters: Dainiel2d, Joel, Joseph, Luther, Abigail, and Thankful. 

Daniel 2d, m. Miss Hannah Page for his first wife, and Sarah 
Parker for his second; his children were: Eber, Sylvester, Han- 
nah, Reuben, and Joseph. 

Joel, second son, m. Hannah Beardsley, sister to Stiles, and aunt 
to Julius Beardsley; removed to Amenia, Dutchess Co., N. Y., 
where he died, leaving one son and one daughter, who removed to 
Ohio. 

Joseph, third son, enlisted in the Revolutionary Army, was taken 
prisoner to New York, finally exchanged, but from sufferings and 
fatigue of imprisonment, died before he reached home. 

Luther, fourth son, m. Rachel Johnson, whose grandfather, 
Douglas, was one of the original proprietors; his family were: 
Douglas, Barker, Albert, Wm. E., Abby, and some who died 
young. Abigail, daughter of Daniel 1st, m. Yv^m. Cranmer, and 
removed to the West. 

Thankful, daughter of Daniel 1st, m. John Cornwall, a minis- 
ter of the Presbyterian denomination. 

Douglas, son of Luther, died young. 

Barker, second son, m. Mary Scoville of Cornwall, removed to 
Michigan. 

Albert and Abby removed unmarried to the West. 

Wm. B., fourth son, remained in Cornwall, m. Fanny Winans, 
who died 1861; he remarried and removed West. 
Children, of Daniel Harrison, 2d. 

Eber m. Laura Hart, sister of Elias and 0. B. Hart— lived to an 
advanced age— he had two sons. Hart and Myron 2d, who is still 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RECORDS. 303 

living, 1877, on tlie homestead of his father; he leaves no children. 

Sylvester died young; Hannah m. Mr. Hitchcock, and removed to 

New York; Reuben m. and removed to Amenia, N. Y., where he 

died; Joseph m. Eleanor Bradford, sister of James Bradford — 

removed to the West. His son, Bradford Harrison, is now living 

at Cuyahoga Falls, and a grandson at Freedom, Ohio, with a son 

and daughter (Nellie) at home, and one son, Daniel, who is said 

to be a true type of Daniel 2d, living in New York State. He 

enlisted in the War of 1812, and died shortly after returning 

home. 

The Bradford Family. 

John Bradford came to Cornwall from Montville, New London 
County, about 1772; he bought and settled on the farm now occu- 
pied by Fowler Bradford, died in 1817, about eighty years of age; 
married Mary Fitch of Norwich, Conn. ; his children were, James 
Fitch, Rachel, Mary, Abigail, Rebecca, and Eleanor. 

James F. Bradford was born May 1, 1767; was appren- 
ticed at the age of fourteen to a tanner and shoe-maker in 
Montville, Conn,, and served seven years and came to Cornwall 
soon after the expiration of his apprenticeship. He married 
Mary Merwin of Goshen; built the house where Mrs. Fox now 
lives in Cornwall Hollow, and lived there the first part of his 
married life. After the death of his parents he owned and 
occupied where Fowler Bradford now Kves until about 1825, 
when he gave to his sons John and Fowler that place, and 
spent the remainder of his days where Mrs. Fox lives. He was 
very handy with all mechanical tools, in erection of buildings, 
making tubs, pails, etc. His children were: Laura, m. 
Lyman Fox of Cornwall, now living; Mary, m. Sherwood Millard 
of Canaan, now living; Emeline, m. Wm. Marsh, M. D., one of 
whose sons, C. W. Marsh, is now living at Cornwall Plain, another 
son Wilham in Memphis, Miss.; John, m. Lucretia Harrison, 
first wife, second, Maria Blinn of Sharon, third, Cornelia Beebe of 
Canaan; his widow and daughter are now living at Cornwall; 
Fowler, m. Charlotte Belden of Canaan; has three sons and one 
daughter living; two sons, John and James, are at home; Henry is 
in Plymouth, the daughter is married and Kves in Canaan ; James 
Fitch, Jr., m. Catherine Catlin of Bethlehem ; Charlotte and Sarah 
m. William Regg of New Marlboro, Mass.; Eleanor m, John R. 
Harrison of Cornwall; Uri m. Charlotte Hurlbut, d. in Egremont, 
Mass., where his family remain; Benjamin m. Rebecca Jackson. 



304 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Rachel, dau. of John Bradford, m. Shubael Lowry of Canaan. 
(She was mother of Mr^ David Smith of Sharon.) 

Abigail m. David Smith of Goshen, commonly called "Quaker 
Smith," whose son, David F. Smith, now resides in Sharon; Mary 
m. Daniel Sterhng of Cornwall; they settled in Jefferson County, 
N. Y. ; Eebecca m. Heman Harrison of Cornwall, whose sons, Heman 
and Luman, now reside in the Hollow. His daughter Lucy m. C. 
B. Crandall, and Mary m. Chester "Wickwire. Eleanor m. Joseph 
Harrison, son of Daniel 2d, and settled in Madison County, N. Y. 

The Crandall Family. 
Coddington B. Crandall came from Goshen about 1826, and mar- 
ried Lucy Harrison. Had four sons, three of whom lived to man- 
hood, — John, Henry, and George. The two last have represented 
the town in the legislature, and held other ofBces. George is a 
farmer, residing near West Cornwall on the farm formerly owned 
by Amos Johnson. The citizens of Cornwall have to thank Mr. 
Crandall for much good work upon our roads. 

The Chandler Family. 

Joseph Chandler came from Danbury, Mass., in 1748, and settled 
where Agur Judson lived in 1845. He lived to about ninety years. 
He had sons: Benjamin, who was a blacksmith, went to Fairmouth, 
Vt., and was killed at the battle of Bennington. Abner in 1774 
sold his place to Jethro Bonney and went to Piermont, N. H. 
Jonathan lived where Jabez Baldwin lived, and went to Piermont, 
N. H. Simeon, after 1754, lived at New Milford; a daughter 
married Ephraim Patterson, brother of Matthew. 

The Kellogg Family. 
Judah Kellogg from Colchester graduated at Yale 1763, taught 
school in Stratford, where he married Mary Tomlinson, an aunt of 
the late Governor Tomlinson, came to Cornwall in 1774, and 
bought 160 acres of land with a small house, of Stephen Royce, 
Here he lived till his death, in 1820, aged eighty. He represented 
the town in the General Assembly the first four years of his resi- 
dence here, and was Justice of the Peace for a long period. As 
deacon of the church he is referred to elsewhere. He was chosen 
clerk in 1776, and continued to hold the ofiBce till 1810, a period 
of thirty-six years. His skill and accuracy in penmanship was 
complete, while in accuracy in punctuation he was surpassed by 
none. "WilUam, his oldest son, succeeded him as clerk, and at his 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 305 

death Frederick, the fourth son of William, was chosen to the 
office, which he held till 1845. the clerkship having been in the 
family sixty -nine years. 

William Kellogg had four sons, two of whom died young. 
Philo, the eldest son, was a farmer, and owned and occupied the 
site of his grandfather Judah. He was a partner in the firm of 
P. & F. Kellogg for twenty years. He represented the Seventeenth 
District in the Senate of Connecticut two terms, and was a represent- 
ative from Cornwall two years. He was appointed Judge of Probate 
at the organization of the district, and held the office two years. 
He died in 1862, aged sixty -eight. 

Frederick Kellogg, the youngest son of William, was a mer- 
chant; in 1829 he succeeded his father as Town Clerk, which office 
he held uninterruptedly for sixteen years, and was four times 
elected to the same office at various times afterwards; in 1852 he 
was appointed Judge of Probate for the District of Cornwall, which 
office he held, with the exception of two years, till constitutionally 
disquahfied. In 1841 he was appointed County Commissioner, 
which office he held for three years. From 1830 to 1841 he 
represented the town of Cornwall in the Legislature four years. 
Is still living, enjoying his faculties of both mind and body, and 
the fruits of his industry and frugality. 

John Kellogg, the second son ©f Judah, resided in Cornwall, and 
died at the age of seventy-seven. He raised a family of ten 
children, seven sons and three daughters; the entire family 
emigrated to the Western States, viz., Wisconsin, Minnesota, and 
Kansas, and have become prosperous citizens. 

Lucius, the third son of Judah, settled at Oyster Bay, Long 
Island, where he became an eminent physician. 

The Hart Family. 

The name of Hart seems to be common to several nationahties. 
England, Scotland, and Ireland have their Harts. The origin of the 
name is not made known. Perhaps from David's beautiful ani- 
mal that panted for the water-brooks. The variety in speUing is 
not great. The prevailing is simply Hart — occasionally Hartt, 
Harte, Heart, Hearte. Tradition has it that three brothers came 
to this country early in its settlement, and the name is prominently 
connected with the settlement of various places. 

" Honest John Hart," as he was called, was a son of one of the 
39 



306 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

brothers, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, being 
a member of the General Congress from New Jersey. 

The patriotism of the family is proved by the great number 
found in the ranks of the armies of 1775, 1812, and 1861, either 
as officers or privates. There is a record of nearly three hundred 
names of Harts as soldiers, and the list is far from complete. 

The mother of the Hon. Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, was a 
Hart, and the veteran Senator, in a conversation with the Hon. A. 
N. Hart of Michigan, said he was related to this family of Harts. 

Deacon Stephen Hart, the principal founder of the Hart family 
in this country, was born in Braintree, Essex County, England, 
about 1605, came to Cambridge, Mass., in 1632, and to Hartford, 
Conn., with Mr. Hooker's company in 1635, where he was one of 
the original proprietors. His home lot was on the west side of 
what is now called Front street, near Morgan street, and there is a 
tradition that the town was called from the ford he discovered and 
used in crossing the Connecticut ri^er at a low stage of the water, 
and so from Hart's ford it soon became Hartford. He took the 
lead about 1645 in setthng among the Indians in Farmington, pur- 
chasing extensive tracts of land. His village lot on Main street, 
opposite the meeting-house, was five times as large as any other, 
and contained fifteen acres. He was one of the first representatives 
in 1647, and for the succeeding fifteen years. He was deacon of 
Rev. Thomas Hooker's church in Cambridge and Hartford, also 
first deacon of church in Farmington, organized in 1652, under 
Rev. Roger Newton, where he died in 1683, aged seventy-seven, 
leaving three sons — John, Stephen, and Thomas, of the second gen- 
eration. 

John Hart, eldest son of Dea. Stephen, resided in Farmington, 
where he was made a freeman in 1654, and admitted to the church 
the same year. He was one of the first settlers of Tunxis, called 
after the Indian tribe of that name, from which he bought his 
house-lot. His sad and untimely death occurred on this wise, viz.: 
His house, located near the center of the village, was fired in the 
night by the Indians, and he and all his family, except his eldest 
son, John, who was absent, perished in the flames. All the town 
records were likewise burned. This fire occurred in 1666, when 
he was about thirty-five years of age. 

Captain John Hart, eldest son of John Hart, born in Farmington 
in 1665, was caring for stock on his father's farm in Avon when 
the fire occurred, and thus providentially saved to be the progenitor 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 307 

of a numerous posterity. Many offices and honors were con- 
ferred on him, and he was a useful man in Church and State. He 
died in Farmington in 1714, aged sixty years, being of the third 
generation. 

Dea. John Hart, son of Captain John, was deacon in Farmington 
and Kensington, was town clerk many years, and twenty-three 
times elected to the General Court. He died in 1753, aged sixty- 
nine, being of the fourth generation, leaving three sons — Judah, 
John, and Solomon, of the fifth generation. 

John Hart, second son of Deacon John, born October, 1714, at 
Kensington, moved to Canaan, Connecticut, in 1740, and to Corn- 
wall in 1763, where he became a large land-holder. He died Dec. 
18, 1773, aged fifty-nine years. By his second wife, Hannah Gould, 
he had five children ; none of his descendants bearing the name of 
Hart remain in Cornwall. Amy, their second child, born in 
1753, m. Capt. Seth Pierce of Cornwall, and their son Major Seth 
Pierce still resides here. 

Deacon Solomon, third son, b. Oct. 1, 1724, moved to Cornwall 
in 1764, making many purchases of land on the river from Corn- 
wall Bridge to Canaan line, also largely in the present Hart school 
district. He built the large white house which stood near pres- 
ent site of Mr. Isaac Marsh's residence, which was called Hart's 
Tavern, and the locality now West Cornwall was then known as 
Hart's Bridge. He married, Mar. 3, 1750, Experience Cole of 
Southington, and died May 15, 1805, aged eighty years, leaving 
children, Ruth, Esther, Titus, Lot, Phineas, Elias, Jemima, Expe- 
rience, and Solomon, of the sixth generation. 

Phineas Hart, of the sixth generation, third son of Deacon Solo- 
mon, born in 1V58, did valiant service for his country in the Rev- 
olution. He was a pensioner of the general government. He 
married and lived in Cornwall, where he had children: Lot, Solo- 
mon, Mary, Experience, and Jane. He removed West, where his 
children remained. He died in Cornwall in 1728, aged 70 years. 

Captain Elias Hart, fourth son of Deacon Solomon, was born 
May 11, 1759. He was a brave youth,- and when the war for 
independence came, although scarcely sixteen years of age, he 
gave his services heartily to his country, and through seven cam- 
paigns unflinchingly faced the foe and met the privations of war. 
One inclement winter, when the small-pox was raging with fatal 
effect in camp, he inoculated himself, and thus came through this 
fearful scourge in safety. The inkstand he used after the war 



308 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

was a small metal flask taken from the enemy at Danbury. He 
married, June 14, 1781, Philomela Burnham, sister of Oliver 
Burnham, Esq., of Cornwall. Both were consistent members of 
the Second Congregational chiirch. He moved in 1784 from 
Hart's Bridge to the farm deeded him by his father that year, the 
house then standing on the large meadow now owned by E. Burton 
Hart. He served the town many years in positions of trust and 
honor, and received a pension till his decease, at the age of 75, in 
1834; their children being seventh generation : 

Enos d. in childhood; Elias, b. 1784, m. 1807, Hannah Harri- 
son of Cornwall, d. Mar. 5, 1865, se. 80; Oliver Burnham, b. 1787, 
m. 1807, Amanda Harrison, d. Aug., 1844, se. 57; Laura, b. 1790, 
m. 1819, Eber Harrison, d. Mar., 1875, se. 85; Philomela, b. 1793, 
m. 1814, Col. Anson Rogers; Julius, b. 1796, m. Jan. 7, 1819, 
Rhoda, dau. of Dea. Noah Rogers; Harriet, b. 1798, m. Gideon P. 
Pangman, d. 1853, se. 55; Jerusha, b. 1801, m. Palmer Brown; 
Alvin Nelson, b. 1804, m. 1829, Charlotte F.Bali of Mass., d. 1874, 
8B. 70. 

Titus, oldest son of Solomon Hart, was born in Farmington, June 
4, 1754; came to Cornwall with his father at the age of ten years. 
Pie married Esther Hand, and lived in a house where Mrs. H. M. 
Hart's barn now stands. He was deacon of the church in North 
Cornwall, eminently a man of prayer; he was never known to omit 
his morning and evening devotions, after which he retired for his 
private or closet duties. He died October 31, 1831, aged 77. His 
children, being the seventh generation, were: Nathan, b. June 12, 
1774, d. 1861, £8. 86; John, b. 1779, d. 1801, as. 22; Nathan, m. 
Sylvia Clark. He succeeded his father Titus as deacon, and was 
superintendent of the Sunday-school for many years. 

Deacon Hart was largely identified with the religious interests of 
the town, and Litchfield North Consociation; a man of strong 
mind and good sense. His children, being of the eighth genera- 
tion, were: John Clark, Titus Leavitt, Abigail Amelia, Hezekiah 
Milton, Solomon, Esther Maria, Sylvia Ann, Mary Eliza, Clarissa, 
Nathan, Delia, Uri William. Of these, Titus Leavitt, H. Milton, and 
Nathan settled in Cornwall, farmers by occupation. They are iden- 
tified with the improvement of the agricultural industries of the 
town and State. H. Milton was judge of probate, justice of the 
peace, surveyor, and in the winter months taught music in various 
places in the State. Nathan represented the town in the Legislature 
in 1860, and held many positions of trust in the civil and business 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 309 

affairs of the town; was also member of the State Board of Agri- 
culture from Litchfield county, and its treasurer for several years. 
John Clark, son of Deacon Nathan Hart, graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1831, and after a course in theology at Andover, entered 
the ministry, and was a devout and successful minister. He mar- 
ried, first, Emily Irene, daughter of Oliver Burnham, and, second, 
Mrs. R. K. Moore; he died at Ravenna, Ohio, Sept., 1871, fe. 67. 
At this time (October 1, 1877), of this family of twelve children, 
six are living: Titus Leavitt, Sharon, Conn.; Sylvia Ann Whittle- 
sey, New Preston ; Mary Eliza — Nodine, Vt. ; Clarissa — Nodine, 
matron Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Rochester, N; Y. ; Nathan, West 
Cornwall; Uri William, North Haven, Conn. 

Children of H. Milton, being of the ninth generation: Sylvia 
Rosalia, Mary Jane, John Milton, Albert Judson, W^ilham Clarence. 
Children of Nathan, being the ninth generation: Ellen Clarissa, 
m. John Cotton Sherwood; Charles Whittlesey, Gould Whittlesey. 
Titus L. Hart has no children, but adopted a nephew of his wife, 
Horace Hart, who succeeds in the occupancy of his farm. 

The children of Ehas Hart and Hannah Harrison, being the eighth 
generation, were: Albert B., b. 1806; Flora Ann, b. 1811; Elias 
Nelson, b. 1813; Harriet E., b. 1815; John Elias, b. 1817; Caro- 
line A., b. 1819; Hannah M., b. 1821; Juliette, b. 1823; Edmund 
H., b. 1826; Alvin Henry, b. 1828; JerushaR., b. 1830. 

Of these but one son, Albert B., lives at present in the town, and 
two daughters, Mrs. Harriet Wetherby and Mrs. Juliette (Horace) 
Hitchcock. 

Hon. Alvin Nelson Hart, youngest child of Captain Ehas, edu- 
cated at Amherst College, was the first settler of Lapeer, Mich., in 
1831. He held the oflBces of sheriff, supervisor, representative, 
State senator, and judge of Lafayette county. Removed to Lan- 
sing in 1860, where he died. He was engaged in real estate and' 
merchandise, and was an efficient promoter of railroads and other 
enterprises for the development of the State. Oliver Burnham 
Hart, third son, soon followed his brother to Lapeer, where he died 
much lamented. They have many prominent descendants in the 
State of Michigan and elsewhere. 

JuHus Hart, fourth son, has led an active life cultivating the soil 
on part of the acres of his ancestors, and has enjoyed the society of 
six generations. He worshiped many years in the old church at 
the Center, contributed liberally to the construction of the church 
in North Cornwall, and to its subsequent support, and now, in his 
eighty-second year, rejoices in the erection of the chapel in West 



310 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Cornwall ; which experience is not shared by any other male member 
of the Second Congregational church. He has served the town well 
m various offices, also enlisted heartily in the Washingtonian temper- 
ance movement of 1840. He was for years president of the local 
society, and kept open house for worthy temperance laborers. He 
made it a rule to supply from his own purse any deficiency in the 
public contributions for the adequate compensation of deserving 
speakers. The good resulting to this community was positive and 
enduring. 

Their children, born in Cornwall, being the eighth generation. 
Julius Rogers, b. Dec. 15, 1819, d. Jan. 31, 1821; Noah Rogers, b 
Sept. 12, 1821; Julius Leavitt and Lydia Julia, b. Aug. 9, 1826, 
the latter d. June 10, 1827 ; Elizabeth Wilson, b. Jan. 22, 1829, d. 
Sept. 28, 1835; Ehas Burton, b. Feb. 9, 1834; George Spencer, b. 
Feb. 11, 1837. 

Noah R., second son of Julius Hart, was early a clerk, later a 
manufacturer. In 1853 he opened a boarding school for boys, m 
which he continued until 1857, when he engaged in mercantile 
business in West Goshen, thirteen years. He was superintendent 
of the Goshen Sabbath-school ten years, and one of the founders of 
the Young Men's Christian Association there; is now engaged in 
manufacture of printers' ink in Brooklyn, N. Y. Nov. 22, 1843, 
married Lucretia M. Barnum of Cornwall. Their children, ninth 
generation: Frederick Augustus, b. July 25, 1849, at Cornwall; 
Arthur Benton, b. June 26, 1855, at Cornwall; Mary Elizabeth, b. 
Feb. 8, 1859, at Goshen; Emma Lucretia, b. Mar. 16, 1865, at 
Goshen. 

Julius D., third son, from an early age was clerk, till, in 1857, in 
partnership with his oldest brother, he succeeded the firm of A. 
Miles & Son in West Goshen. He is now in Watertown, Wis., 
' engaged in the purchase of Western produce. He married, Aug. 1, 
1863, Mrs. Harriet C. Watson, youngest daughter of Capt. John 
Smith, formerly of Kent, Ct. Their children are: Minnie Luella, 
b. Nov. 28, 1864, at Goshen; George Edward, b. May 11, 1867, at 
Goshen. 

E. Burton Hart, fourth son, was born on the homestead he now 
owns and occupies. He labored on the farm from the age of seven, 
being allowed only one short term yearly at the common school 
from that time. He taught district school at Cornwall Center the 
winter of 1852-3; then for four years both studied and taught in 
connection with the private school known as the West Cornwall 
Institute, of which he soon became principal and proprietor. In 



RECORDS OP EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 311 

1857 he received the honorary degree of Bachelor of Arts from 
the Norwich University of Vermont, and that of Master of Arts in 
1860; was a member of the Legislature in 1865; is now one of the 
board of selectmen. He was married, October 7, 1857, to Harriet, 
daughter of Lee Canfield, Esq., of Salisbury, Conn. 

Their children, being ninth generation : Lee Canfield, b. Nov. 15, 
1862; Elias Burton, b. Feb. 1, 1865; Charles Julius, b. June 29, 
1867. 

George S. Hart, youngest son, was brought up on the farm, 
where he performed all the duties that fell to those who are born 
on a farm, and did them faithfully. He was not a strong youth, 
however, and the mnter of 1859 and '60 finds him in the South, 
whither he was sent by his parents for the benefit of his health. 

It was during this Southern trip that he first conceived the idea 
of entering the trade in which he has since won so much reputation. 
Two years later, in 1862, he determined, although still in feeble 
health, to go to New York and enter the great whirlpool of com- 
merce. His object was to acquire a proficiency in the produce 
business, and more especially the receiving and selling of dairy 
products. It was no easy task for him, however, to secure the 
employment he desired. He offered his services without remuner- 
ation to many houses in the trade, but this Connecticut youth did 
not apparently possess the quahties that old merchants desired, 
and he went — as Lafitte, the French banker, went — from store to 
store, in search of employment. As the French boy came from 
the provinces, and applied to the leading financiers of Paris, so did 
George S. Hart come from the hills of Connecticut, and, just as 
Lafitte worked and triumphed, so did he. If others would not 
employ him, he would try his own chances, and so hired a very 
limited office privilege in Washington street. Here so well did he 
do, that in a few weeks he decided to locate on the east side of the 
city, near the Produce Exchange, and with a limited capital, 
furnished by his brother E. Burton, he hired a small office at 39 
Pearl street, with a contracted space in front, on the first floor, for 
the reception of goods. Before the year was out the young mer- 
chant's business had increased to such an extent that he required 
and had secured the entire building. Business prospered under 
his management, and after remaining at 39 Pearl street for several 
years, a move was made to the present commodious quarters of 
the firm, 33 and 35 Pearl and 22 and 24 Bridge streets. From 
the commencement of his business in the city he has met with con- 
tinued success: no failures nor embarrassments have marked his 



312 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

course, and he is now, and long has been, regarded as one of the 
authorities in the trade. The business of his firm is of unusual 
magnitude, and there are daily receipts of dairy produce from 
nearly every point of production in the Union, the annual sales 
amounting to over two million dollars. In addition to Mr. Hart's 
immense produce business, he is a director in the New York Pro- 
duce Exchange Insurance Co., as well as director and executive 
ofiicer of some of the leading railroad companies of the city. In 
1856 he became a member of the Congregational church at North 
Cornwall; and the good teachings imparted to him in youth he has 
endeavored to carry out amid the turmoil of commerce and the 
excitement of trade. On February 23, 1871, he married Anna, 
daughter of Charles H. and Anna Eliza Dudley of New York city. 
Their children: Anna Dudley, b. Dec. 25, 1871, d. Sept. 13, 
1872; a daughter b. May 27, 1877, d. in infancy. 

The Adams Family. 

Deacon Samuel Adams of the Baptist church, came to Cornwall 
from New Bedford in 1800. He first lived as a tenant in the Hol- 
low; afterwards on Cream Hill, and finally bought a farm of 
Nathan Wickwire on Waller Hill. He enjoyed little opportunity 
of education, but was a man of decided opinions, and well informed 
upon all public matters. He served an apprenticeship as a wheel- 
wright at Westerly, K. I. His father was a captain of a privateer 
in the time of the Revolution, and perished while in action, his 
vessel being blown up by the explosion of the magazine. 

Deacon Adams, born June 24, 1776, married first wife, Hope- 
still Williams of Stonington, in 1795, and had one daughter, Hope, 
who married Augustus Squires, and now lives at New Hartford, 
N. Y. In 1835 married second wife, Lorilla Hurlbut, and had 
children: 

Samuel Judson, b. Aug. 23, 1836, m. Louisa A. Dibble, and has 
four children. He is a farmer, hving on the old homestead; and 
John Quincy, b. Nov. 2, 1837; m. Sophronia A. Owen of Sharon; 
has one son, Eugene. John Quincy Adams is a lawyer at Ne- 
gaunee, Mich., and is reported as successful in his profession, and to 
have acquired wealth. 

At the time of his first marriage, Deacon Adams was 25, and the 
blooming bride 48. To balance things, at his second marriage, at 
the age of 59, he took a partner aged 25. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 313 

The Beers Family. 

England is credited with being the fatherland of the Beers, and 
the genealogical records of the family trace back to the feudal age, 
under the name of Beare, which was afterwards written Bears, 
with a coat-of-arms to correspond.* The family were represented 
in the English army during the reign of Charles I., and received 
a grant of land in the north of Ireland for services rendered, and 
a branch of the family permanently settled in that country in 1646. 
John Beers, the founder of the family in this country, was accepted 
an inhabitant of the town of Stratford, in Fairfield county, Novem- 
ber 25, 1678. The records are not definite upon the subject, but it 
is supposed he was accompanied by his wife and four sons, as we 
find that Samuel Beers, son of John and Mary Beers, was born 
November 9, 1679, and the records then show that Barnabas Beers 
m. Elizabeth Wilcoxsou, April 4, 1688; Samuel Beers m. Sarah 
Sherman, Jan. 16, 1706; Josiah Beers m. Elizabeth Ufford, May 
10, 1717; Joseph Beers m. Sarah Clark, March G, 1720; Abiel 
Beers m. Elizabeth Cammel, Jan. 16, 1722. 

Barnabas Beers left a family: Mary, b. Dec. 27, 1689; Nathan, 
b. Dec. 1, 1691 ; Josiah, b. Aug. 8, 1693. 

Samuel Beers, it is believed, died without issue. 

Josiah Beers left a family: Elizabeth, b. Oct. 16, 1721; Josiah, 
b. Dec. 14, 1724; Ebenezer, b. Mar. 18, 1726. 

Joseph Beers left a family: Ephraim, b. June 25, 1722; Mary, 
b. Nov. 20, 1723; Joseph and John, b. Oct. 13, 1727; Andrew, b. 
Feb. 3, 1729; Abel, b. Sept. 27, 1732; Sarah, b. Feb. 18, 1734; 
Matthew, b. Dec. 19, 1736. 

Abiel Beers left a family: Ebenezer, b. March 18, 1726; Eunice, 
b. July 14, 1729; Abiel, b. Sept. 5, 1732. 

Matthew Beers, youngest son of Joseph Beers, m. Sarah Curtis 
of Stratford, and left a family: Curtis, Silas, Menzis, Otis, Lewis, 
Lucinda. 

Curtis, eldest son of Matthew Beers, was born in Stratford, March 
25, 1789. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to the shoe- 
maker's trade, and three years after purchased his time, as was 
customary then, and engaged to Enoch Curtis to work at his trade 
in Darien, Georgia, where at the expiration of two years he opened 

* The coat ofarms are described as follows : Arms argent (silver) ; a bear 
rampant, " sable" (black) ; Cantan Gulez (red) ; Crest on a garb lying fipwise 
( ) "or" (gold); a raven " sable" (black). Motto: Bear and forbear. 

40 



314 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

a boot and shoe store. In the summer of 1812, the store was con- 
sumed by fire, leaving him penniless, and in October, 1812, became 
to Cornwall, and engaged with Captain Nehemiah Clark in the 
curing of leather and the making of boots and shoes. Married 
Alice Curtis of Stratford, September 22, 1817, and in November of 
same year purchased, in connection with his brother Menzis, the 
house now occupied by Menzis Beers at Cornwall. For several 
years they manufactured boots and shoes for the Southern market, 
a brother, Lewis Beers, taking charge of the business in Athens, 
Georgia. In 1822 he purchased a farm of Luman Hopkins, near 
Cornwall Bridge, and removed therein 1826, and engaged in farm- 
ing, which occupation he followed until his decease, March 10, 1848. 
He left a family: Job W. C, b. July 9, 1818; Henry L., b. May 9, 
1823; Sarah e"!, b. Oct. 25, 1825; Victory C, b. Sept. 25, 1832. 

Henry L. Beers represented the town in the General Assembly 
in 1872 and 1876; was selectman for some years, and held many 
offices of trust. 

Sarah E. m. Hiram Pierce of Thomaston, May 31, 1849; her 
only daughter m. Dr. Edward Bradstreet, and is settled in Meriden. 
Victory C. Beers m. Sarah C. Harrison, daughter of Myron Har- 
rison, June 2, 1862, and has one son, George H., b. July 
15, 1866. He was for several years a member of the Dem- 
ocratic State Central Committee; represented the Seventeenth 
Senatorial District in the Senate of 1870; was selected as chairman 
of the Board of Selectmen in 1876, which position he now holds. 

Menzis Beers, third son of Matthew, was born in Stratford, July 
23, 1795; he permanently settled in Cornwall in 1817, and engaged 
with his brothers Curtis and Lewis in the curing of leather and the 
manufacturing of boots and shoes for the Southern market. They 
opened a store in Athens, Georgia, under the name and firm of C. 
& M. Beers & Co, Married Laura, daughter of Captain John 
Pierce, Jan. 1, 1820, and has two sons: John W., b. Jan. 15, 1822; 
Silas C, b. Mar. 13, 1827. 

In 1840, Menzis Beers engaged in the mercantile business with 
F. Kellogg, at Cornwall, under the firm name of F. Kellogg & Co., 
which continued two years; but in 1842 the firm of J. W. & S. C. 
Beers opened a store at North Cornwall for general merchandising 
and the manufacturing of gloves and mittens, which continued 
with several partners till 1860, when the business was removed to 
South Cornwall, under the firm name of M. Beers & Sons. 

John W. Beers represented the town in the General Assembly of 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 315 

1857, and Silas C. was chosen town clerk and treasurer in 1852, 

which office he held continuously for fourteen years, and in 1867 

he represented the town in the General Assembly. "Was chosen 

deacon of the First Congregational church in 1868, which position 

he now holds. 

The Sedgwick Family. 

Members of this family have often appeared in this record, yet 
some continuous account is requisite. 

Gen. Robert Sedgwick, one of the first settlers of Charlestown, 
Mass., was the progenitor of that family in this country. He was 
one of the most distinguished men of his time, and, according to 
the record, " was stout and active in all feats of war." This was 
in Cromwell's time, and the account of his services against the 
French and in other public positions is very complete. He died 
at Jamaica, W. I., May 24, 1656. He had five children, one of 
whom, William, m. Elizabeth Stone, dau. of Rev. Samuel Stone of 
Hartford, and had one child, Samuel, b. 1667, cl. March 24, 1735, 
in his sixty-ninth year. 

Capt. Samuel Sedgwick, of the third generation, m. Mary, dau. 
of Stephen Hopkins, 1689, and had twelve children. 

Dea. Benjamin Sedgwick, the youngest son of Samuel, and of 
the fourth generation, b. Nov. 7, 1716, m. Anna, dau. of John 
Thompson of Wallingford, and had children, Sarah, m. Rev. 
Hezekiah Gold of Cornwall, and d. Aug. 18, 1766; had five 
children. 

John, bap. March 7, 1742, of the fifth generation, m. Abigail, 
dau. of Capt. Stephen Andrews of Wallingford, about 1763, 
and had children, John Andrews, b. March 8, 1764; Sarah, b. Dec. 
27, 1765, d. unmarried; Henry, b. Sept. 13, 1767; Roderick, b. 
March 8, 1770, d. 3b. 13; Parnel, b. Oct. 4, 1771; Anne, b. April 
6, 1775, d. unmarried; Elizabeth, b. Oct. 9, 1777, d. Jan. 4, 1778; 
Pamela, b. Dec. 21, 1778; Benjamin, b. Jan. 25, 1781; Stephen 
and Elizabeth, twins, b. March 1, 1783, EHzabeth d. unmarried; 
Roderick, b. Jan. 26, 1785. Gen. John Sedgwick* m. second wife, 

*I am informed by Gen. Charles F. Sedgwick of Sharon, that the statement 
that Gen. Swift was appointed Colonel over the head of Gen. Sedgwick, and 
that the latter resigned in consequence, is a great mistake. Gen. C. F. Sedg- 
wick says : " From a statement made by Gen. S., now before me, I learn that 
he was appointed a Captain in Col. Hinman's regiment in the spring of 1775. 
Swift's regiment was raised in 1776, but Gen. Sedgwick had no connection with 
it until as stated below. Gen. Swift was the first Colonel, and he had been an 



316 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Mrs. Sarah Lewis of Parmington, but had no children by this 
marriage. He d. Aug. 28, 1820. 

The other children of Dea. Benjamin were: Benjamin, bap. 
March 11, 1744; Theodore, bap. May, 1746 (Yale, 1765). History 
says of him: "Hon. Theodore Sedgwick, LL. D., was one of the 
great and good men of his time." He resided at Stockbridge, 
Mass. His sons Theodore, Henry, Robert, and Charles were also 
eminent lawyers. His daughters were, Ehza, m. Dr. Pomeroy of 
Northampton, Mass.; Pameha, m. Elkanah Watson of Albany, 
N, Y.; Frances P., m. Ebenezer Watson of New York; and 
Catharine M., widely known as a writer of ability. 

John A. Sedgwick, of the sixth generation, m. and had children: 
Charles F., a lawyer, living in Sharon; Albert, living in Bantam 
Falls. Mary Ann m. Mr. Noyes; Amanda m. Mr. Bridgman. 

Henry m. Hannah, dau. of Capt. Edward Rogers, and noticed in 
Rogers Family; Pamelia m. Jonathan Bates and had one daughter, 
Pamelia, who m. Charles Hunt of Canaan. 

Benjamin m. Olive, dau. of Philo Collins of Goshen, and had 
children: Philo Collins, b. July 18, 1810; John,*b. Sept. 13, 1813; 
Ohve Collins, b. Jan. 15, 1817, m. Ashbel Fuller of Kent, d. with- 
out children, Jan. 15, 1856; Emily, b. Nov. 6, 1819, m. Dr. Wm. 
Welsh of Norfolk, 1869; Eliza, b. Nov. 7, 1824, d. Feb. 15, 1831. 

Benjamin Sedgwick was a farmer in Cornwall Hollow. His 
character and position are well given elsewhere in this volume. 
He died March 15, 1857. Olive C, his wife, d. July 12, 1859. 

Gen. Charles F. Sedgwick, of the seventh generation, m. Betsey, 
dau. of Cyrus Swan, Esq., of Sharon, and had children: Betsey 

officer in the French war, and was very properly selected as its commanding 
officer. I copy from my grandfather's statement as follows : 

"'In the winter of 1776, I was appointed a Major in the regiment commanded 
by Col. Charles Burral, to succor our army after the defeat of Gen. Montgom- 
ery, and crossed the lakes on the ice.' ' In the arrangement of the 

army in 1777, I was transferred into a regiment commanded by Heman Swift, 
Esq., and served with the main army under General Washington, and hotted 
at Valley Forge.'" 

This statement is consistent with the fact that Gen. Swift had been Colonel of 
the regiment for a year and a half before Gen. Sedgwick joined it. He served 
under Gen. Swift through all the campaign of 1777 ; was in the battle of Ger- 
mantown, and remained with the army till encamped at Valley Forge. 

The appointment which gave him offense, and led to his resignation, was that 
of two young Captains from the eastern part of the State to the office of Colonel. 
One of them was Eleazer Huntington, afterwards Adjutant-General of the State 
militia. T. S. G. 

* For the record of Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, see Soldiers of the Rebellion. 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 317 

Swan, John, Harriett Maria, Emma Denison, Charles Henry, 
Caroline Swan, Mary Gould, Robert Adam, Cyrus Swan, and 
Annie Rachel. 

Gen. Sedgwick (AVilliams, 1813) is well known as well versed in 
the pedigree of all this part of New England. My thanks are due 
to him for his historical addresses and other contributions which 
add so much to the value of this volume. His history of Sharon 
is very comprehensive, and gives many facts in a small space. 

Hon. Albert Sedgwick, of the seventh generation, m. Mary Hunt 
of Canaan. October, 1822, and had children: John R., Mary H., 
E. Buel, Catharine, Albert, Theodore, Dwight, Charles F., and 
Elizabeth, all now living except Theodore and Dwight. Albert 
Sedgwick obtained the establishment of a post-office in the Hollow 
in 1824, and received a commission as postmaster from Amos 
Kendall, P, M., during the presidency of Andrew Jackson; was 
sheriff of the county for seventeen years, till he resigned in 1854, 
and was appointed Commissioner of the School Fund, May session, 
1854, which office he held for twelve years. 

Philo Sedgwick, son of Benjamin, of the seventh generation, 
married Eliza, daughter of William Adams of Canaan, Oct. 2, 
1833, and had children : William, b. Nov. 7, 1834, d. March 12, 
1835; AdaLouise, b. March 16, 1836, d. Dec. 2, 1866; John Benja- 
min, b. Jan. 25, 1840, d. Oct. 18, 1867; Emily, b. April, 1842; 
Harry, b. May 6, 1848. 

Philo Sedgwick was a lawyer, and resided for many years at 
Harrisburg, Pa., but afterwards returned to Cornwall. He died 
Nov. 20, 1868. Of his children, John B. m. Catherine, dau. of 
Noah Rogers, and had two children: Emily m. Harlan Page 
Tracy of Elmwood, 111., June 16, 1869, and have one son, John 
Sedgwick, b. Sept. 19, 1872; Harry m. Katharine M., dau. of 
Newton Reed of Amenia, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1869, and have children: 
Emily Irene, b. Nov. 13, 1870, d. Dec. 23, 1870; Benjamin,* b. 
July 3, 1872; Clara Benton, b. Jan. 25, 1874, and John, b. March 
17, 1876. 

Major-General John Sedgwick was killed at Spottsylvania Court 
House, Va., May 9, 1864. His record is given elsewhere. The 
following extract from a letter written when he was a lieutenant, to 
Dr. S. W. Gold, is here given as part of his history: 

* At the semi-centennial at North Cornwall, July 19, 1876, James Douglas 
Gold, Benjamin Sedgwick, and Dwight Rogers were appointed a committee of 
arrangements for the next semi-centennial, 1926. 



318 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

City of Mexico, November 28, 1847. 
My Dear Doctor : 

My last lettei- from home was elated July 8th, and but one opportunity 
has occurred of sending letters from here since, with any certainty of 
their reaching their destination. Tliis necessary grievance has now been 
remedied by the occupation of the dangerous passes with our troops, and 
we now anticipate the pleasure of hearing from home at least once a 
month. The important political events that transpire in the States, are 
brought here either by the English courier or Mexican mails ; the Mexi- 
can government being much better and sooner informed of the numbers 
and destinations of all reinforcements that General Scott receives than he 
is himself — the first, and very often the only, information that he 
receives of the arrival of troops is tlirough the Mexican government. 
You have no doubt seen more fully the details of the battles fought here 

in the Valley, than 1 could give you in a short letter Allow me 

to relate a little incident, which, I think, reflects much credit on my regi- 
ment. During the severe battle of Cherubusco, an aide-de-camp of our 
brigade went to General Worth to report the progress ; but before he 
could speak, General Worth says : " How is this, sir ; I hear that your 
brigade has given back ? " The aide said : " No, sir, I have just left the 
advance, where the Second Artillery are warmly engaged with the enemy ; 
not a man has fallen back, and what is more, they will drive the enemy 
from their position in fifteen minutes." This was done, altliough not in 
the time he mentioned. This was told me by Lieut. Thorne, the aide, 
who is the son of Colonel Thorne that has resided many years in Paris, 
and of whom you have no doubt heard. In the action above mentioned, 
the color-bearer was shot down, and the colors taken by a sergeant of 
my company. Just before we reached the breast-work of the enemy, 
aiid when the balls were flying the thickest, the sergeant said to me : 
" Lieutenant, shall I shake out the colors, to let the Mexicans know who 
are after them ? " so confident was every soldier in the result. This same 
sergeant, in tlie battle of the 13th — the day we entered the city — was 
strtcken down by a grape-shot, by my side. In falling, he said: "Push 
on. Lieutenant, and get out of this fire ; they have got me at last ;"' 
but what was my surprise, in two hours, to see the sergeant join the com- 
pany, cheering the men on, as if nothing had happened. The ball had 
struck his shoulder, depriving him for a time of his breath, but not 
proving a serious wound. This was the most serious place I was ever in. 
Seven men nearest me were struck with this discharge. You can imagine 
something how serious ; we were advancing down tlie street, witli houses 
on one side and an aquediifct on the other, and across this street was 
placed three twelve-pounders, jiouring a terrible fire of grape-shot. But 
we had the satisfaction of taking those guns, and sleeping that night, for 
the first time, in the great city of the Aztecs. For this night, and the 
two previous ones, I had slept out, without a blanket to cover me, or 
anything but a crust of hard bread to eat. You may imagine I was very 
much exhausted, but add to this, that when we lay down, there was 
every prospect that the battle would be renewed the next morning. 
Although we knew we were inside the gates of the city, and that 
nothing could prevent our taking it, yet we did not believe that they 
would give it up without one more eff"ort. Such, however, was the case. 
About midnight a deputation arrived from the city, saying that the 
troops were leaving, and wanted to make some terms of surrender. Gen- 
eral Scott told them it was inmiaterial to him whether the troops left or 
not; that at 10 o'clock in the morning he would be in the Palace, and 
there he would dictate terms to them. Early the next morning (day- 
light) the troops were all under Jarms, General Worth's division in 



RECORDS OP EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 319 

advance, when a shout came from tlie rear that could be heard for miles, 
each regiment taking it up, and presently General Scott rode up, in full 
uniform, with his staff, speaking a few^ words as he passed the different 
regiments. Here General Quitman's division passed ours, and marched 
to the main Plaza, and had the honor to first plant their colors in the 
Halls of the Montezumas. There was, however, a good deal of firing 
from the houses all day, but with little execution. Thus has ended the 
second fall of the City of Mexico, and if so many gallant achievements 
have not been performed as were by the cavaliers under Cortez, the result 
is the same. Our loss has been terrible since we first entered the Valley. 
All that left Puebla were capable of undergoing almost any fatigue. Of 
fifty-two men that I brought from Puebla, twenty-six have been killed 
or wounded. Thank God, I have yet been spared, and I trust that He 
will still keep me to visit again all my friends. I have enjoyed most 
excellent health since I entered the Valley ; the weather is as mild as 
May with you, but at all seasons can you look in all directions and see 
the snow-capped mountains. The most famous of them is Popocatapetl ; 
from this the smoke is frequently seen, and lava and ashes running down 
its side. There are others, the most perfect craters you can imagine — 
some where the second eruption has taken place, making a perfect cone 

on the shoulders of the first 

Sincerely yours, J. S. 

The Shepard Family. 

Allen Shepard came to Cornwall from Newtown, with his 
family, in 1798. His son Eliphalet H. Shepard was born in New- 
town, 1789; m. July 7, 1813, Mary, dan. of Judah Kellogg, d. Aug. 
12, 1865, leaving four children: George H., Charles N., who 
resided in Brooklyn, N. Y., and died unmarried at West Cornwall, 
July 23, 1876, Elbert, and Harriett. 

Elbert, b. May 2, 1824, m. May 31, 1846, Cynthia L., dau. 
of George Wheaton, and has one son, George W., b, December 
25, 1854. 

Mr. Shepard is a farmer, residing at West Cornwall at this time, 
1878, represents the town in the General Assembly, and has held 
many offices of trust. He is a Methodist, and a prominent sup- 
porter of that denomination, but his generous donation to the 
chapel at West Cornwall, and especially the gift from himself and 
his family of the location, will ever remain as a testimonial of their 
liberal Christian spirit. 

Eliphalet Shepard was a Methodist, an earnest worker in that 
denomination ; a man pure and peaceable, and much respected by 
his fellow-citizens. 

George H. Shepard resides in Brooklyn, N . Y., and married first 
wife, Hannah Woolsey, June 3, 1840, by which marriage he had 
one daughter, Phebe. Hannah d. June 20, 1844, and he m. second 
wife, Oct. 7, 1847, and had children: Charles Edward, Jessie Wool- 
sey, Elizabeth Siliiman, Mary Cynthia, and George Augustus. ♦ 



320 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Harriett married Morris Tuttle, Oct. 14, 1867; resides in Goshen, 
and has no children. 

The North Family. 

Dr. Joseph North resided north of the Carrington Todd place, 
and practiced medicine for many years. He died September 22, 
1848, aged 76. He had children: Ethel, who went West, had a 
family, and died there ; Dr. Burritt B. (d. July 18, 1876, 8b. 72), m. 
Maria L. Pierce, and had children, George, William, Paschal, 
Alice, Roland; Dr. Loomis went to Bethlem, m. Miss Bird, 
removed to New Britain, where he died ; had one son Edward, and 
one daughter Jennie; Joseph (d. 1877) ra. Mary Miner, and had 
children; Dr. Hammond of Goshen, Mary, George, William, Min- 
nie, and Ella ; Mary m. Chester Birge, and lived in New Britain. 

The Webb Family. 
Darius Webb came from Warren in 1832, as agent of the Corn- 
wall Bridge Furnace, where he remained about twenty years. He 
then went to Wyandotte, Mich., where he established a successful 
furnace. His son, J. J. Webb, in 1835 went to Rahway, N. J., 
and in 1844 engaged as a tx'ader to Santa Fe. At that time, Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, was the starting-point for transporting goods 
across the plains to Mexico. The teams employed were mostly 
oxen, sometimes mules; load about three tons, twenty-five teams 
of six yoke each, and about fifty men in each train. His first pas- 
sage required seventy days ; the second, eighty-three. He followed 
this business for fourteen years, when, returning to Connecticut, 
Mr. Webb purchased a farm in Hamden. His success as a farmer 
is well known, and his testimony that "Connecticut is a good place 
for a farmer," is the more valuable from his wide experience and 
familiarity with the broad fields of the West. 

John T. Andrew, 
a native of the county of New Haven, was born July 19, 1811, 
graduated at Yale, 1839; studied theology in the Yale Theological 
Seminary, and graduated in 1842 with the highest honors of his 
class. Prevented from entering upon his chosen profession by 
bronchial disease, after waiting two years, spent partly in teaching 
a select school in Cornwall, and finding little improvement of his 
voice, he turned his attention to agriculture, and, in 1847, pur- 
chased a farm near West Cornwall, and engaged in his new calling 
with great enthusiasm and success. He has written occasional 
articles for the press on subjects chiefly agricultural; has been an 
active member of various local, and vice-president of the National 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 321 

Agricultural Society. In 1861 he retired to the village of Corn- 
wall, where he has since resided. His fellow-citizens have 
employed his leisure time in various services reqiiiring intelligence, 
learning, and taste. He has been deeply interested in the cause of 
education, long a member, and during several years chairman of 
the Board of School Visitors. He has been among the most active 
in all village improvements, and has contributed liberally to works 
of benevolence and philanthropy. He became in early youth a 
member of the Christian church, and spent the best years of his life 
in preparation for its ministry. That early hope he has long since 
relinquished, but has never forgotten his early consecration to the 
elevation of man through the general prevalence of learning and 
good morals, based on a pure Christianity. 

The marriage of Mr. Andrew was on the 9th of September, 1839, 
to Jane Ann, the daughter of Caleb Jones of Cornwall, mentioned 
elsewhere in this record. They have had no children. 

The family of Mr. Andrew is found among the earliest which 
came to this country. William and Mary, the tirst family now 
known in this genealogy, cotemporaneous with Shakspeare, came 
to this country and died at Cambridge, Mass., A. D. 1639. 

Samuel, their son, b. 1621, m. Elizabeth White, dau. of John 
White, England, 1652, and d. in Cambridge, Mass., 1701. 

Samuel, second son of Samuel and Elizabeth, was born in Cam- 
bridge in 1655; graduated at Harvard in 1675; settled as pastor 
in Milford, Conn., 1685, and died there in 1738. 

Jonathan, son of Samuel, 2d, b. at Milford, 1701, m. 1723, and 
left among other children, Jonathan, 2d, b. 1730. 

Jonathan, 2d, had children, the eldest of which, John, left two 
sons, Jonathan and Munson, the former of whom was father to 
John T., the subject of this sketch. Of the generations of the 
family now known, he is the eighth, thus: 

1. William, b. 15-, d. 1639. 

2. Samuel, b. 1621, d. 1701. 

3. Samuel, 2d, b. 1655, d. 1737. 

4. Jonathan, b. 1701, d. 1740. 

5. Jonathan, 2d, b. 1730. 

6. John. 

7. Jonathan. 

8. John T., b. 1811. 

Among the names in this line more or less distinguished, was 
41 



322 HISTORY OP CORNWALL. 

that of Samuel in the second generation, living from 1621 to 1701. 
The inscription on his monument in the old burial ground in Cam- 
bridge, as quoted in Harris' Book of Epitaphs, is as follows: " Here 
lies buried ye body of Samuel Andrew, aged about 80 years — died 
June 21, 1701, son of Mr. William Andrew, deceased, and his wife 
Mary, who died Jan. 19th, 1639, 0. S. He was a member of the 
church, and married Elizabeth White (whose father, John 
White, had lived in England), Sept. 22, 1652. Town Clerk and 
Treasurer, 1691, 1694, 1696, and Selectman from 1681 to 1693, 
inclusive." 

Governor John A. Andrew of Massachusetts, was of the Salem 
branch of the family. His brilliant career as the war Governor of 
Massachusetts during the late war is within the memory of the 
present generation, and needs no record here. 

The man who has done most to honor the name of Andrew, 
was Samuel, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth, and grandson of 
Williaiii and Mary of Cambridge. His talents, thorough culture, 
and usefulness, especially in his relation to Yale College, have 
raised his name above those of his kindred, and placed it among 
those of the great benefactors of mankind. 

He was b. at Cambridge 1655, graduated at Harvard 1675, 
studied at the College as resident graduate four years, and in 
1679 was chosen Fellow, and was engaged during the six succeed- 
ing years as an associate of the Faculty in both the instruction 
and government of the College. The whole period of his con- 
nection with the College was as student and instructor fourteen 
years. He thus acquired that thorough scholarship and educa- 
tional skill which so eminently qualified him for the founding and 
superintending a new institution destined to become the glory of 
the State. As a student he had been faithful and thorough ; as a 
member of the Faculty his ability and efficiency were recognized 
by the Corporation by repeated votes of praise, and frequent 
additions to his salary. In 1681 he was honored by admission to 
the freedom of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. In the year 
1685 he was called from Harvard to become pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in Milford, Conn. At the time of his 
settlement he was perhaps the most thoroughly educated and one 
of the most learned and able men in the Colony. His attention 
was soon directed to the fact that there was nothing like a college 
in the State. Having associated with himself the Rev. Mr. Pier- 
pont of New Haven, and the Rev. Mr. Russell of Branford, 



RECORDS OF EARLY AND PRESENT RESIDENTS. 323 

these three, says President Clap in his Annals, became the "most 
forward and active " in founding a new college. So forward and 
active were they, that friends gathered about and encouraged 
them, and the work went on so rapidly, that fifteen years after his 
settlement, viz., 1700, the college was founded, and the next year 
received the Charter of the State. Prof. Kingsley says: "Mr. 
Andrew was considered one of the best scholars of his time, was 
one of the principal founders of the college, and deserves to be 
considered one of its greatest as well as earliest benefactors. He 
was twice chosen rector pro tern, of the college, presided at com- 
mencements and conferred the degrees in 1724, 1725, and 1726." 
The historian Lambert says: "Mr. Andrew was a hard student, 
very retiring in his habits, a patron of education, one of the first 
projectors of Yale College, and was more forward and active for 
its establishment than any other person." The same historian adds : 
" After the death of Rector Pierson, Mr. Andrew was chosen rector 
pro tern., and for a number of years had the Senior Class under 
his instruction at Milford." With the exception of the brief rec- 
torships of Pierson and Dr. Cutler, the son-in-law of Mr. Andrew, 
that of the former terminated by death, and that of the latter by 
his defection from the faith, Mr. Andrew performed the duties of 
President, was chief in the board of instruction consisting at that 
time of himself and two assistant tutors, and had the chief care 
of the college during the first quarter of a century of its existence, 
that is, from 1700 to the election of Rector Williams, 1726. He 
continued an active member of the Corporation until the time of 
his death. 

In other relations of life Mr. Andrew was no less happy than in 
his connection with the College. 

His pastorate at Milford of more than half a century in dura- 
tion, was peaceful and beneficent. By his brethren in the ministry 
he was held in the highest honor for learning, piety, and ability. 
He was elected a delegate to the famous council at Saybrook, 
1708, which adopted the well-known and long-revered "Confes- 
sion of Faith, Heads of Agreement, and Rules of Discipline," 
called the Saybrook Platform. 

In his domestic relations he was equally blessed. He had several 
children, seven of whom are still known. His eldest son Samuel 
graduated at Yale, and took his degree A. B. in 1711, and in 1714 
A. M., at both Yale and Harvard. His grandson Samuel also 
graduated at Yale in 1739. The epitaph of this grandson in the 



324 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

old burying-ground at Milford, translated from the Latin, is as 
follows : 

"Samuel Andrew, A. M.. well skilled in law, upright in hfe, 
pure from offense, died October 15, 1760, 38 years of age." The 
family relations of Rector Andrew gave him the highest social 
position and extensive influence in the affairs of the State. 

His wife was daughter of Gov. Treat. His eldest daughter was 
the wife of Gov. Law. His daughter EUzabeth was the wife of 
President Cutler of Yale College. The widow of his son was the 
fifth wife of Gov. Law. 

Gov. Treat, the father of Rector Andrew's wife, was a member 
of Mr. Andrew's church, and through the influence of the pastor, 
with the Governor and other leading men in the State, frequent 
and valuable aid came to the infant college. 

It is not often that Providence assigns to one man the oppor- 
tunity of doing so much for his race as was done by Samuel 
Andrew, the chief among the founders of Yale CoUege. 

Among the ancient relics of Rector Andrew which have been 
preserved, are several manuscripts, chiefly notes taken while he 
was associated with Presidents Rogers and Increase Mather, in 
the Faculty of Harvard College, which are now almost two hund- 
red years old. There is also an old and very curious article of 
furniture, side-board or bureau, of material and fashion unknown 
in this country. The wood of which it is made is entirely of 
solid English oak. It has not a particle of either the soft or 
ornamental wood of America in its composition. It is presumed 
that it was brought over to this country and descended to him 
from his ancestors. It was brought by him from Cambridge, 
Mass., to Milford, Conn., in 1685. It is probably not less, and 
may be much more, than three hundred years old. So far as is 
known, this is the oldest article of furniture in this country. 
These articles have come down to the present time, and are in the 
possession of John T. Andrew of Cornwall. The following beau- 
tiful tribute to the memory of Rector Andrew is from his mon- 
ument in Milford cemetery: 

"Here lies ye body of ye Reverend and Learned Mr. Samuel 
Andrew, Pastor of ye church of Christ in this place for above 
50 years. Formerly a Fellow of Harvard College and more 
lately Rector of Yale College — a singular ornament and blessing 
in every capacity & relation, — of unwearied labors, modest, cour- 
teous, & beneficent, never fond of this world, earnestly pursuing 



RECOLLECTIONS OF REV. WM. B. CLARKE. 325 

and recommending a letter, greatly esteemed in life, and lamented 
at death, which was Jan. 24, 1737-8 lacking five days to complete 
82 years of life." 



Letter from Rev. Wm. B. Clarke, former pastor of the church at 

North Cornwall: 

Griswold, Conn., October 24, 1877. 
Hon. T. S. Gold : 

My dear Friend, — The suggestion that I should give you some recol- 
Ifctions of North Cornwall in the days when it was so important and so 
dear to me, has awakened many a pleasant memory. I came as a young 
man to this, which was my earliest, pastorate. My first acquaintance 
was with the family of Mr. D. L. Rogers (Uncle Leete, as I became 
accustomed to hear him called), where I stayed during casual visits that 
preceded my settlement. Later, my liome was with his brother, Mr. 
Noah Rogers. Highly as I valued these men at that time, my experience 
since has even enhanced my estimate of their worth. They were very free 
from small prejudices, and could be relied on to do their part liberally 
when any good cause required. I remember one instance which will 
serve to show how well they had maintained a generous spirit amid the 
enforced frugality of a farmer's life. A Mr. Smith, a man of small means, 
had a factory for tanning skins, whicli Mr. John Beers, now of South 
Cornwall, worked up into gloves and mittens. The tannery took fire one 
night, and burned to the ground. A company of us rode down the next 
morning to the scene of the disaster. After a few expressions of con- 
dolence, Mr. Beers drew up a subscription paper, and headed it witli his 
own name for $100. This was quite proper, as Mr. Beers' own business 
was largely dependent on the factory. He turned then to " Uncle Leete," 
with the question : " Wliat will you do ? " The answer came in his 
deliberate, solid Avay : " You may cojiy those figures for me." Mr. Noah 
Rogers also subscribed $50. A few moments secured the success of the 
movement, and Mr. Smith was comforted. 

I have often wondered whether three such old men could be found 
anywhere else as were members of the church in North Cornwall when I 
came there. The story of Father Howe, you will doubtless have told ; 
it is part of the history of the town. He was still living in extreme old 
age. Though infirm and very deaf, he had still his faculties in fair 
preservation. I might have thought him a true-hearted, but simple and 
rather illiterate old man ; but before we left, upon my first visit, we 
invited him to lead us in prayer, and tlius we saw him as he was when 
most at home, and most himself. Such a prayer! I have never heard its 
equal for simple, child-like pleading with God. '■'■Do, dear Father, 
grant us this blessing; do give us tliis thing we need." Even more 
remarkable were the alternating higher strains of jiraise. He spoke of 
patriarclis, prophets, kings, the glorious preparation for God's more glori- 
ous gift of His Sou — the impression was that of strains from some grand 
old liturgy ; and I think nothing ever gave me such a sense of the power 
of religion to ennoble the common mind. 

The second of my old men worthy, and beloved, was Deacon Hart. 
For sixty years a member of the church in North Cornwall, and for nearly 
forty an officer in that church, he had represented it upon scores of coun- 
cils, and it had become a part of his very being. Sweet-souled he must 
have been to have won the love of a young man. How many a time he 



326 HISTOBY OF CORNWALL. 

has called for me with his old horse (or I for him with my young one), 
and we have spent the day making parish calls together. I remember 
his saying to me, very gravely, upon one of those rides, " I understand, 
Mr. Clarke, that you got the twys and girls into a great frolic the other 
evening, sliding 'down hill ? " " Yes, sir." " And it was on your way 
home from the young folks' meeting?" "Yes, sir." ''I have heard 
that some of the good people were quite disturbed about it." " I believe 
they were." " Well," turning to me with a pleasant smile, " I am glad 
you did ; I hope you will do it again." I love to think of this dear old 
man as I saw him last, some years later, seated, but vnth his staif in 
hand, as though ready at a nwment's notice to start on the last long 
journey. . . 

The remaining one of the three was Squire Sedgwick, and I wisli 
there were moresuch men. His noble frame seemed the fitting accompa- 
niment of so broad a mind, so large and true a heart. I think of him as 
seated in his great arm-chair— for he was already blind when T knew 
him — his children and his children's children gathered, as it were, under 
his wings. No one of the dead in the great war of the Rebellion is more 
honored, and iustly, by this nation than the son of this old man, Major- 
General John" Sedgwick ; but the father stands, and will always stand 
with me, as the type of the very noblest manhood. 

Your own father, a man of stately presence, and somewhat of the old 
school in manners, was at this time approaching old age ; but '' Ms eye 
as yet was not dimmed, nor his natural strength abated." Tiiis is not 
the' place for the many memories connected with that house ; they have 
their place, and will have to the end, with other so dear recollections of 
those early days. 

The active officers of the church at this time were Deacon Dwight 
Pratt, whose children I baptized, now grown, or rapidly growing, to 
man's and woman's estate, and honoring their Christian parentage ; and 
Deacon Russell Pratt. The church and society could ill have spared 
the liberal expenditure of energy and means on the part both of Deacon 
Russell Pratt and of his partner, Mr. Foster It was matter of thankful- 
ness to me, that the sad death of the latter, in the midst of his years, came 
not till after my day. Time forl>ids my speaking of others, many others, 
in mid-life, whose jpresence at that time gave strength and character to 
the church. 

And now what shall I say of the young life that gave brightness and 
animation to this whole scene ? How it overflowed in the houses where 
I was so kindly made at home. I remember the sleighing parties, and 
the more distant blackberry expeditions. I remember, and Chauncey, I 
am sure, will not have forgotten, the literary society, the social gather- 
ings, the evening meetings". When my boy came from college.* what a 
glad day it was for me ! Oh ! the happy days in the woods ! the glori- 
ous picnics, the joyous laughter, the bounding pulse of youth, and joy of 
life! Unbroken substantially remained that happy circle during the four 
years I was there, and the thought of it fills my heart to tears, as I look 
back to-day. Where shall we seek them now ? Scattered wide over our 
land, and in the blue heavens. I thank God most of all, as I look back, 
for the moral and spiritual earnestness that animated that circle of young 
friends. I have found no other place, I expect to find none, where so 
large a proportion while still in youth gave their hearts to God, and their 
lives to His service. I rejoice to learn that it is still so. May the old 
church abide through all changes, and light the future as it has the past. 
Yours, dear friend, faithfully, 

Wm. B. Clarke. 



* Samuel Scoville. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 327 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



I am indebted to M. S. Nickerson, school visitor, for an account 
of the condition of schools in the town: 

The town of Cornwall still retains the old district system in the 
management of its public schools. It is divided into seventeen 
school districts. Each district annually elects a district com- 
mittee, clerk and treasurer, and collector. The employment of 
teachers is left to the district committees, subject to the approval 
of the district. The town board of school visitors is composed of 
six membei's, who are elected for terms of three years, and whose 
duty it is to examine and decide upon the qualifications of teachers, 
and exercise a general supervision over the public schools of the 
town. These in 1878 are Arthur D. Warner, Rev. Charles N. 
Fitch, Wilbur F. Harrison, M. S. Nickerson, Frederic Kellogg, 
and Theodore S. Gold. 

Cornwall may be classed among the declining towns, as the enu- 
meration of scholars has been slowly diminishing, and two districts 
have been practically discontinued for lack of scholars, so that 
school is maintained at present in only fifteen districts. It may 
also be classed as among the poorer towns in the county, in point 
of wealth, yet its citizens enjoy an enviable reputation for giving 
liberally according to their means, for the support of schools, and 
in this respect the town stands in the front rank among the towns 
of the county. 

Consolidation of districts with a view to establishing a high 
school has been recommended by the school visitors, and the 
subject has been agitated more or less at different times, but as 
yet no decisive action has been taken in the matter, and at the 
present time the town does not support a high school, yet in the 
more advanced schools, some of the higher branches are taught. 



328 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



Table of Statistics in regard to Schools for the year 
ENDING August 31, 1877. 



NAME OF DISTRICT. 


Number 

of 
district. 


Enume- 
rated 
Jan. 1, 

1877. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Wliole 
No. 
regis- 
tered. 


Ayerage 

attend. 

for the 

year. 


Length 

of 

school 

in days. 


Whole 
expense 
of school. 


Puffingham, - - - - 


I 


39 


$225.00 


30 


16.25 


190 


$318.18 


Cornwall Plain, - - - 


2 


32 


250.00 


28 


20.00 


160 


249.04 


Cornwall Center, - - 


3 


26 


225.00 


24 


13.75 


180 


219.25 


Johnson Hollow, - - 


4 


19 


190.00 


18 


9.50 


180 


190.00 


Cream Hill, - - - - 


5 


31 


255.00 


28 


20.00 


175 


285.00 


Cornwall Hollow, - - 


6 


34 


250.00 


40 


21.00 


150 


310.00 


West District, - - - 


7 


28 


225.00 


29 


17. .50 


160 


236.75 


Cornwall Bridge, - - 


8 


68 


300.00 


48 


34.00 


170 


332.00 


Bennett District, - - 


10 


9 


100.00 


9 


6.75 


80 


100.00 


North Cornwall, - - 


12 


8 


175.00 


11 


7.00 


140 


175.00 


Swift District, - - - 


13 


21 


150.00 


14 


9.00 


95 


167.00 


East Street, - - - - 


14 


18 


175.00 


19 


10.78 


165 


175.00 


West Cornwall,- - - 


1.5 


57 


300.00 


38 


25.58 


190 


354.00 


Beach District, - - - 


16 


13 


190.00 


15 


8.60 


180 


190.00 


College Street, - - - 


17 


21 


200.00 


25 


15.25 


210 


299.50 


Total, - - - - 




424 


$3,210.00 


377 






$3,600.72 



In tliose districts where the whole expense of school exceeds 
the appropriation, the balance was given by the district as a volun- 
tary contribution for fuel, teachers' board, etc. 

Table comparing the last School Year with the three 
preceding it. 



school year 


Enume- 
ration 
Jan. Ist. 


Total 
appropria- 
tion. 


Whole 

expense of 

school. 


Average 

length of 

school 

in days. 


PER CENT. ATTEND- 
ANCE. 




Winter. 


Summer. 


Ending Aug. 31, 1874, - 
Ending Aug. 31, 1875, - 
Ending Aug. 31, 1876, - 
Ending Aug. 31, 1877,- 
Ending Aug. 31, 1878, - 


458 
463 
427 
424 


$3,625.00 
3,540.00 
3,450.00 
3,210.00 
2,895.00 


$4,038.25 
3,811.59 
3,537.33 
3,600.72 


154.38 
161.42 
163.40 
166.66 


71.60 
69.80 
76.70 
78.90 


64.00 
66.00 
73.00 



In giving the whole cost of schools, the amount expended on 
repairs is not included, only teachers' wages, fuel, and incidentals. 



THE CHAPEL AT WEST CORNWALL. 329 

THE CHAPEL AT WEST CORNWALL. 
As the great event of the year in Cornwall, we give an account 
of the chapel at West Cornwall. Dea. R. R. Pratt has detailed 
the prehminaries in his church history, p. 115. The corner-stone 
was laid Aug. 9, 1877, with appropriate ceremonies, as follows: 

Music by the band. 
Singiug by the choir. 
Reading of the Scriptures— I. Peter, Chap. 2, by the pastor, Rev. C. N. 

Fitch. 

Historical sketch by Dea. R. R. Pratt. 

Dea. T. S. Gold then deposited documents iu a box iu the corner-stone. 

List of Documents. 
Missionaiy Herald, Home Missionary, New York Observer, New York 
Independent, Republican Standard, Bridgeport Farmer, Litclifleld 
Enquirer, Wolcottville Register, Wiusted Herald, Connecticut West- 
ern News, Religious Herald, Christian Advocate, Southern Workman, 
Daily Couraut, Pro lamme of Exercises, Passages of Scripture, 
Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, Church Manual, with History of 
Second Ecclesiastical Church to the present time. Annual Report of 
the Church for 1876, Pro^^ramme of the Semi-Centennial, 1876, Con- 
stitution of the West Cornwall S. S. Association, Report of Secretary 
of the West Cornwall S. S. Association, Card of the West Cornwall 
Sunday School, History of the Chapel Building, by R. R. Pratt, 
Copy of Subscription for Erection of Chapel, Contract for Mason 
Work, J. Odell; Contract with Builder, E. J. Beardsley; Contract 
between Society's Committee and R. R. Pratt and N. Hart ; Specifi- 
cations for the work ; Poem, written for the occasion by D. M. Pratt ; 
A silver half-dollar, 1876, contributed by Nathan Hart. 
The corner-stone was then laid by the Pastor, assisted by Dea. T. S. Gold. 
Music by the baud. 
Singing by the choir. 
Address by Dr. White of the First Congregational Church. 
Poem by Dwight M. Pratt. 
In prophetic days of old time. 
Ere the advent of Messiah, 
Muse, Urania, child of Heaven, 
Gave her breath of inspiration 
Unto poets, bards, and prophets. 
David drank the poet's spirit. 
Sang the coming to the nations. 
Of the corner-stone most precious, 
Sang in words majestic, noble, 
Sang Isaiah, and his singing 
Has, with matchless music ringing, 
Gladdened all succeeding ages 
With these words, this sacred poem, 
" Thus the Lord God saith. Behold ! I 
Lay in Zion for foundation, 
A tried stone ; a sure foundation ; 
A tried stone, a precious comer." 
We a corner-stone are singing, 
But it is of earth most earthy. 
Muse of Heaven, give then thy spirit; 
42 



330 HISTOBY OF CORNWALL. 

Lift our thoughts from stone of granite, 

To the stone it symbolizes, 

Corner-stone, elect, most precious. 

Builders led by intuitions, 

Of the future filled with wisdom ; 

Seek alone, what will be lasting; 

Seek the permanent abiding. 

Be they architects of matter. 

Or of mind, and soul, and spirit. 

If they build of things material, 

Select such as time corroding 

Cannot weaken ; if of spirit. 

Choose foundation-stone eternal ; 

Fashion character undying 

In its goodness and its beauty. 

In erecting here a cliapel. 

We are building for the future. 

If for time alone, our object 

Is unworthy our ambition. 

If for never-dying ages. 

Guard the workmanship, and watch it. 

If the deep foundation solely. 

Be of granite or of marble, 

'Twill not outlive storm and tempest. 

Build on Christ, though your foundation 

Be of stone, and earthly substance; 

Build on him whose name is written 

In your foreheads : Though material 

Be terrene, be this your object; 

That the altar here erected. 

Be to all who join its worship. 

Portal to a " house eternal 

In the heavens, and made without hands." 

Here the heart of liearts will mingle, 

Human hearts in happy union. 

And no discoi'd, inharmonious. 

Will their fellowship dissever. 

Then this age and its descendants 

Will go singing, and this valley, 

With its echoes will be ringing, 

Praises to the glorious Author 

Of all good, who, by His spirit 

Shows man's need and God's great mercy. 

Sabbaths ! all these woodland mountains. 

To the church-bell. unaccustomed. 

Will repeat in joyous echoes. 

All the music of its ringing, 

All the music of its singing, 

As it calls to praise and worship. 

Dwellers by the peaceful river. 

And the sunlight of the azure. 

In its waters clear reflected. 

Will reshine in lives and faces 

Of the people. Such the mystic 

Power and influence radiated. 

From a temple dedicated 

To the Lord. 



NATURAL CURIOSITY. 33 I 

Rev. Samuel Scoville, a native of Cornwall, pastor of church at 
Norwich, N. Y., followed with a hap2)y address, and the exercises were 
closed with the benediction by the pastor. 

The chapel was dedicated Jan. 3, 1878. 

Order of Exercises. 
Part First — Afternoon. 

Doxology. 

Scriptural Reading — I. Kings, 8 Cha]). Rev. F. S. Fitch. 

Music by choir — " Brightest and Best." 

Business Report. R. R. Pratt. 

Presentation of the chapel to the church from the donors. Dea. T. S. 

Gold. 

Reception Address. Rev. C. N. Fitch, Pastor. 

Music — " Rock of Ages." 

Dedicatory Prayer. S. J. White, D. D., Minister of First Church. 

Music — " I love Thy Kingdom, Lord." 

Part Second. 

"Giving as related to worship." Rev. W. H. McAllister, Litchfield, and 

Dr. H. M. Knight, Lakeville. 

Music — " Turn then unto us." 

"Work as related to worship." Revs. J. O. Stevenson and S. H. Reid. 

" Respect unto the recompense of the reward." Rev. C. L. Kitchell. 

Music — " Coronation." 

COLLATION AT VILLAGE HALL. 

6.30 — Evening. 

Sermon by Rev. Frank S. Fitch of Stratford. Text, Psalm xix, 14. 

The whole cost of the building and furnishing was reported as 
amounting to $4,000. Builders contract $2,600; value of the 
site, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Elbert Shepard and son; the bell 
from David Ocain; lamps from Geo. S. Hart of New York; pulpit 
chair from S. W. Gledhiil of Chester; Bible and hymn book from 
Mrs. Noah Baldwin; other gifts from individuals; cushions, car- 
pets, etc., from the ladies; grading, foundation, and heaters, make 
up the foregoing estimate. Erected in the spirit of Christian unity, 
may the work prove a blessing to the community. 



NATURAL CURIOSITY. 
I have to thank Mr. Harry Sedgwick for information of a 
remarkable rock in the Hollow, in a northeasterly direction from 
the residence of Miss Hannah Harrison. Mr. Sedgwick says, and 
I agree with him, "that this rock would attract notice even in 
Monument Park or any other of the famed rock localities of 
Colorado." 



332 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

This rock, as well as the other bowlders in the vicinity, and the 
"bed-rock, are a peculiar kind of gneiss, full of small nodules of 
quartz, which give an ancient and roughened aspect to the surface, 
from the wearing away of the softer materials, cemented together 
and rendered heavy, tough, and dark by hornblende and iron. The 
especial rock of interest is a bowlder of irregular shape, about 
twenty feet long and ten feet in diameter, perched on top of two 
other bowlders of the same kind, some four feet apart, and with 
space high enough for a boy to pass under upright. This big 
boulder thus poised has a rift, where the two pieces have slid a 
little from their original union, and at first thought we are afraid 
to chmb it, for fear of its instability, but when we remember 
that it weighs perhaps two hundred tons, our weights as we climb 
its Jagged surface will do little to disturb its equilibrium. 



PHYSICIANS. 

Most of those who have practiced medicine in Cornwall have been 
referred to elsewhere. Dr. Hollister from Salisbury, resided at the 
Center for several years, about 1830. Dr. John Scoville, after 
practicing at North Cornwall for fifteen years, about 1845 removed 
to Ashley Falls, Mass., where he now resides. Dr. Smith from 
Kent, practiced at West Cornwall about 1843, and went West. 
Dr. Edward Sanford from Goshen, resided at West Cornwall for 
nearly thirty years, till 1876, when he bought the residence of the 
late Dr. B. B. North, at South Cornwall, and continues his practice 
there. Dr. Elias B. Heady is now practicing at Cornwall Bridge. 
Sufficient to say of them that they have been faithful and generally 
successful in affording such relief to suffering humanity as comes 
within the power of the physician to bestow. 

In January, 1878, Franklin W. Hall, M.D., from New Haven, 
takes up his residence at West Cornwall as a physician. 



List of soldiers killed in battle, or who died of wounds or disease 
in the tvar of 1862-1865. 

The following list kept by me at the time was mislaid, and but 
recently came to light — it contains some names that did not en- 
list from Cornwall. It has been recently examined by others, and 
pronounced substantially correct: 





RECENT 


CITIZENS. 


Maj-Gen. John Sedgwick. 


Henry Green (col.) 


Capt. 


Amos T. Allen. 


Wilham White. 


Lieut. 


William Cogswell. 


John Mills. 


Sergt. 


Crawford H. Nodine. 


Harvey Ford. 




Henry Fieldsend. 


Myron Hubbell. 




Henry Peck. 


Charles McCormick. 




Patrick Troy. 


James H. Roraback. 




E. L. Nickerson. 


Charles Hotchkiss. 




Joseph Payne. 


John McGown. 


Corp. 


Henry L. Vaill. 


Thomas Sherman. 


Lieut. 


A. B. Swift. 


Philo Cole. 


Sergt. 


George Page. 


George C. Pendleton. 




Elisha Sole. 


Charles Western (col.) 


Lieut. 


William R. Payne. 


Albert Robinson. 




John Hawver. 


Charles Read. 




Henry Morse. 


Edward P. Barnum. 




William Slover. 


Henry Freeman. 


Rev. 


Jacob Eaton. 


Norman Mansfield. 


Surg. 


William North. 


Lieut. Fuller Nettleton. 




Paschal North. 


William Ford. 




Lucien Rouse. 


John Ford. 




Horace Sickman. 


Martin Scovill. 




Allen G. Williams. 


James Sterling. 




Lewis Sawyer. 


Peter Howard. 




Henry Wright. 


James Van Buren. 




Herman Bonney. 


Orlando Pritchard. 




Andrew Green (col.) 





333 



RECENT CITIZENS. 

Among the more recent comers to Cornwall are James Cochrane 
from Goshen, in 1845; originally came from the north part of 
Ireland. Has a large family, mostly married and settled in West 
Cornwall, some of whom have held important offices of trust in 
town affairs. Respectability and a handsome property are the 
results of industry. 

John Thompson came from the north of Ireland in 1858. Has 
lived mostly on Cream Hill, and has recently purchased a part of 
the farms lately owned by Albert Hart and Elijah Nettleton. 
He has a large family of promising children. 



334 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

John Peter Fritz came from Germany in 1858. Is a profes- 
sional miller, and now runs the grist mill at the old stand, owned 
by T. S. Gold. He has purchased the homestead of the late Wm. 
Stoddard, where he now resides. 

George Vollmiller from Germany makes shears at West Corn- 
wall; firm of Vollmiller & Beck, owning the so-called Gardiner 
property. 

John Wood from near New York, connected with J. MaUinson, 
who owns the Housatonic dam at West Cornwall, the grist-mill, 
foundry, and shear-shop. 

William Stratman from Germany, owns and occupies the farm 
in East street, formerly owned by Rogers White; the old Birds- 
eye place. 

Joseph Whitney came from Salisbury, and lives at South Corn- 
wall. His son Ernest is seeking a liberal education. 

Archelaus and Smith Nickerson, brothers, came from Sharon 
about 1842. They brought with them as their riches bright and 
promising famihes of children. 

Hermon Fairchild came from Sharon in 1877, bought the farm 
in North Cornwall formerly owned by Earl Johnson. 

W. H. Porter, from Lee, Mass., druggist at West Cornwall, and 
deputy postmaster. 

These all have promising families, and it requires but small gift 
of prophecy to see their children, and the children of others like 
them, largely the landholders and the business men of the town- 
ship. These names must be taken as a sample, not as a full list, 
of those who will be likely to appear as the families most prom- 
inent in town when the historian of 1977 shall make his record. 



CEMETERIES. 

The oldest burial ground used in Cornwall was on the hill west 
of the present residence of Ozias Palmer. Few marked graves 
remain, as some bodies have been removed, and time has effaced 
the testimonials from others. Its neglected condition is dis- 
creditable. 

The cemetery near South Cornwall has been occupied nearly 
120 years, as we find tombstones marked 1763, and some may be 
earlier. By the liberality of Mr. J. C. Calhoun, assisted by others, 
not only has this ground been enlarged and handsomely laid out, 
but provision has been made for its care in the future. Mr. Cal- 
houn left $1,000 as a fund, the interest to be annually expended 



CONCLUSION. 335 

in the care of the cemetery. The spirit manifested by the citizens 
in the neighborhood in beautifying these grounds is in striking 
contrast with the neglect of the first-mentioned burial-place. 

Cornwall Hollow has the old cemetery on the hill, on the road 
leading to Goshen west side, and the new one, opened early in the 
present century, near the Baptist Church. 

About fifty years since, a small burying-ground was set apart 
near North Cornwall. This has since been enlarged. There is 
another in the southwest part of the town, near Cornwall Bridge, 
and still another in the southeast part, on the old Warren turn- 
pike. A few stones still standing near the North Cornwall church 
mark the graves of some who died of small-pox. Others who 
died of the same disease are buried on the old Wright farm, on 
the old Sharon and Goshen turnpike, where a marble monument 
marks the burial-place of Capt. Joel Wright and family. 



CONCLUSION. 



My thanks are due to the many friends who have contributed to these 
records. It is not my fault that any families are omitted. A notice of 
my intention to publish a Histoiy of Cornwall was issued in September, 
1874. I have devoted all the leisure at my command since that time to 
the work, and in addition to the general published request, I have made 
personal solicitations of many individuals who have failed to respond 
by furnishing me with family records, which they alone possess, and I 
cannot in justice to those who have been prompt, longer delay the pub- 
lication. While no one can be better aware than myself of its imper- 
fections, and for which I beg the indulgence of the reader, it is not 
without some pride that I offer this volume to the citizens of Cornwall, 
and those who have gone out from us — pride for having gathered so 
much that would otherwise have been lost, and placed it in a perma- 
nent form ; in happily blending the grave and the gay, the substantial 
facts of town history with the lighter effervescence of the times, thus 
securing a general reading of the volume, and in connection with the 
" Sun pictures " making it a household book for Cornwall ; but above all, 
is my pride that as a resident in Cornwall, I may claim some share of 
the honor, which so many noble and good men and women have con- 
ferred upon it, and expressing the hope that the memory of their virtues 
may not be buried with them, but that as our children learn of their 
toil, sacrifice, and victory, they may emulate their example. 



Part II. 



The Foreign Mission School. 

By Rev. E. C. Starr, 
Pastor of First Congregational Church, Cornwall. 



Between the years 1806 and 18 16 several boys had drifted 
away from the Sandwich Islands as seamen and became tempo- 
rarily residents of New England ; some of them had begun to ac- 
quire an education by private assistance and a few, in 18 16, were 
gathered into a flourishing school at Morris, Conn. Henry 
Obookiah, one of the most influential, had joined the church in 
Torringford the previous 3'ear, and was preparing to be a mission- 
ary to his native land under the direction of the Litchfield North 
Consociation. 

In 1 8 16 the American Board determined to establish a separate 
school for these heathen youth, in the hope of making missionaries 
of them. Litchfield county was much interested, for most of them 
were within its bounds, and a committee of the board, looking 
about the county in search of a location, came to Cornwall. Here 
a school building, recently erected, largely the gift of Capt. Pierce, 
was offered free, and the Board purchased the large house west of 
the village for commons and a house partly completed, on the 
south side of the green, for the principal. 

The school building was 40 by 20, two stories, the upper to be 
used as a dormitory; 80 acres of woodland and 75 of arable land 
was also purchased. The boys in vacation prepared the winter's 
fuel ; and at all times were taught practical agriculture, both for 
education and means of support. 

The school was a success in its time, as results show; but, as 
the years passed, two young Cherokees of marked ability and char- 
acter married white wives from Cornwall families, which acts made 
so much commotion as to impair the standing of the school, and to 
lead the Indians not to send their boys thither any longer. More- 
over, the climate proved trying to the natives of warm countries. 
Patoo, Kirkpatrick, Obookiah, and several other Sandwich Island- 



342 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

ers had died, and it was now deemed better that they should be 
educated b\' missionaries at home. 

The establishment of missions among the Cherokees, Choctaws, 
and Hawaiians, from whom most of the pupils came, had made that 
now both possible and cheaper. There were in all nearly one 
hundred pupils gathered here, ranging from boys hardly in their 
teens to well-developed young men. A few were Christians be- 
fore they came ; twenty-two joined the church here and several 
arfter leaving, while a number never professed Christianity, and a 
few of those who did subsequently relapsed. They came from 
everywhere, and talked all sorts of languages. One school exhi- 
bition contained on its program addresses in English, French, 
Cherokee, Hawaiian, Tahitian, and Malay. There were among 
the boys Chinese, Mexican, Greek, Jew, and Mohammedan. 
They came from the Cherokee, Choctaw, Delaware, Osage, Tusca- 
rora, Mohegan, Narragansett, Seneca, Oneida, St. Francis, Chip- 
peway, Chaughnawaga, Iroquois, and Stockbridge Indian tribes. 
Some were born in the Marquesas, Society, and Sandwich Islands ; 
some came from Zante, New Zealand, Sicily, Sumatra, Timor, 
and the Azores; they spoke French, Italian, Maltese, Hebrew, 
Portuguese, Arabic, and perhaps Hindostanee and Bengalese — 
about twenty-five languages in all. 

Their support came from as diverse sources as themselves ; a 
traveling agent in Massachusetts, aided by Obookiah, raised money 
for the establishment of the school, and a Prussian nobleman vol- 
unteered a considerable gift. At Farmington a collection was 
taken at a wedding, and in Charleston, S. C, about $400 was 
raised after addresses by certain Indian youths on their way home. 
The United States government paid the schooling of four boys for 
four years, while Wm. Kirkpatrick of Pennsylvania and Deacon 
Thomas Bassel of New York, and others, named boAS after them- 
selves and supported them. Mr. Parker of Liverpool, and John 
Jay, our first Chief Justice, were contributors. President Day of 
Yale, the students of Middlebury College, the boys of Lawrence- 
ville, and the girls of Miss Pierce's famous school at Litchfield 
shared in the work. 

Innumerable societies sprang up for its assistance, with names 
diverse but single purpose, each one standing for many interested 
souls. For example, at Saybrook a Female Owyhean Society; at 



THE FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 343 

Salisbury a Female Fragment Society; at South Haven, L. I., a 
Female Benevolent Association ; Lee, Mass., Young People's Read- 
ing Society; Killingworth, a Corban Society; Oakham, Mass., 
Young Gentlemen's Benevolent Society; Columbia, Pa., Juvenile 
Mite Society; Plainfield, Conn., Young Ladies' Dorcas Society; 
Utica, N. Y., Female Cent Society of People of Color. Mrs. 
Sigourney, the Hartford poet, sent the boys two dozen suggestive 
quills. The people of Cornwall gave the use of some eight or ten 
acres of land and sent fourteen yoke of oxen to plow it, Mr. 
Stone asking the divine blessing on the field as they were about to 
begin their furrows. A blind old lady of 90 knit some stockings 
for the pupils, and a child, at Winchester, sent sixty-four cents, a 
premium received in school. Mr. Stone published quarterly lists 
of donations, which ranged from a plow to Torrington's twenty- 
seven pairs of new pants; from a Cornwall load of hay to a gold 
ring; from a prize ticket and a bill on a broken bank to thirty- 
four volumes of poems ; from a sword and gold epaulettes to a peck 
of turnips. There were all imaginable things — heifer, hoes, hog, 
handerchiefs, hats, help, hams. 

Among the largest benefactors were Elias Boudinot, LL.D., 
member of Congress from New Jersey, who besides his gifts while 
living made by will a bequest of $500, and the Baron de Campagne 
of Pleffcon, Switzerland, who gave nearly $1,000 to the school and 
more to some individual graduates. The Swiss ministers who 
forwarded his gift wrote of the school " on which the praying 
hearts of thousands in Switzerland are fixed." Dr. Solomon 
Everest of Canton, a near kinsman of the Cornwall Everests, be- 
queathed to the school a fund of $2,000 ; Rev. Philander Parmelee 
of Bolton left it his library, valued at $300, and one-third of his 
$1,700 estate; Daniel C. Collins of Guilford, $700; Col. Joseph 
Williams of Greenwich, Mass., $250; Mrs. Huntington, $500; 
John Williams, $200; and J. Kilbourne, Sandisfield, Mass., $150. 
As to results: 

From the managers of the school came the first proposition to 
investigate the Sandwich Islands, as preparatory to sending a mis- 
sionary thither, presented to the American Board in September, 
1818. Besides its great influence in awakening interest among 
Christian people the school wrought a great work for heathen 
lands. It was like a heart receiving from all parts of the body 
and returning to all parts again a purified life. 



344 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Among the boys in the school were some Americans. Of these 
Erastus Cole became a home missionarj^ in the Western Reserve ; 
Hubbell and Roberts became preachers; Ely, Loomis, and Ruggles 
were for many years missionaries in the Sandwich Islands, one 
being the first translator into their language of a part of the Bible 
and one its printer, the third the first white, as his companion 
Hopoo was the first native, missionary to land there. Hopoo was 
the first from the boys of the school to join the church here, and 
years after it was written of him by the missionary Ely, " His in- 
defatigable and assiduous labors, in season and out of season, by 
night and by day, entitle him to the remembrance and esteem of 
the Church." His was the first Christian marriage in the king- 
dom of Hawaii. With him sailed John Honoree, for many years 
a useful helper, Wm. Tennooe, and Geo. (Prince) Tamoree, who 
never became a professor of religion, yet as a friend of the mis- 
sionaries rendered efficient service. Through his influence they 
gained leave to establish the mission, resulting in the conversion of 
his father, the ruler over two of the islands, and in the rescue of 
several missionaries when their lives were endangered. 

Later Geo. Sandwich, Henry Taheiti, Wm. Kamahoula, Geo. 
Tyler, John Eliot Phelps, Richard Kariouloo, and Cooperee joined 
the mission to their native islands, and Stephen Popanee from the 
Society Islands, became a popular pastor and teacher there. The 
mission school was not only a means of establishing the mission, 
but furnished a good part of the force which carried on its work 
so successfully that the 60,000 people of the Hawaiian Islands are 
as thoroughly Christianized as New England — one-third of the 
population church members. 

The American Board began its missions to the Indians just at 
the time of the institution of the mission school, and soon Indian 
boys began to be sent here by the missionaries for their education. 
Among these was David Brown, who persuaded the Western 
Cherokees to organize a civil government with two legislative 
bodies, and served as clerk of both, their councils, and who was 
also a joint author of a Cherokee grammar, and wrote a transla- 
tion of the New Testament from the original Greek into his native 
tongue, and held religious services with great acceptance. Elias 
Boudinot was a useful helper, though he gave up preaching to es- 
tablish as editor the Cherokee Phoenix. His murder for political 



THE FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 345 

reasons ended a very promising career. John Ridge, murdered 
later, about the time of Boudinot, became very influential in his 
nation; he was wealthy, served as an interpreter, and was sec- 
retary to the Cherokee delegation to Congress in 1828 and of the 
Creek delegation the next year. John Vann also became a helper 
among the Cherokees, so that the Cornwall school had a share in 
Christianizing that people, who in i860, numbered about 20,000 
and were as civilized as any part of our population, where the Bible 
was by law required to be read in all schools and a man could 
hold no civil office who did not believe in a God and a future state. 
David C. Carter, Judge of their Supreme Court, was from this 
school. 

Among the Choctaws we find a like Christian people of about 
20,000. To the work of civilizing and Christianizing them the 
mission school sent Adin C. Gibbs, a Delaware by birth, who proved 
an unusually good assistant as a mission school teacher. McKee 
Folsom was also a helper among them — the first convert from his 
nation, as Mr. Stone records, when received into the Church. J. J. 
Loy, a Portuguese, was given a letter from the Church to Montreal. 
Wm. Botelho (A-See) prepared to preach in China. Photius 
Kavasales took the name of Fiske ; became a clergyman ; an ardent 
antislavery man ; chaplain in U. S. navy for nearly thirty years, dur- 
ing which time he drew up a bill, and engineered it through Congress 
in spite of much opposition, that abolished the brutal punishment 
of flogging on vessels that bore the stars and stripes. He died 
about 1888. 

But of all the pupils at our mission school Henry Obookiah 
was the most widely known, and perhaps accomplished the most. 
It was this lovable, witty, gentlemanly, earnest Christian who 
chiefly led to the founding of the school. He had a prominent part 
in raising funds for it; he was personally a great influence among 
the other pupils ; his commanding figure and pleasant ways won 
attention everywhere, and when he died, disappointed that he 
could not himself preach the gospel to Hawaii, his influence had 
helped to make Hopoo a worthy substitute, and his biography be- 
came a power for good in his native land ; the regent declaring it 
" his ambition to be like Obookiah," while we find it presented to a 
Russian prince, Galitzin, ordered by Captain Folsom, a Choctaw 
chief, circulated through every Sunday-school library, leading a 



346 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Swiss nobleman to send over $i,ooo for the work, sold in Massa- 
chusetts in aid of the school, and sent to the governor of Kams- 
katlca as a special treasure.* 

God's ways of advancing his cause change, but his work goes on. 
Who knows who of us may serve him best, or how we may do it? 
Obookiah and Patoo lie under their stones in the Cornwall ceme- 
tery, and others in their immarked graves. They were laid to rest 
when there were no Christians in their native countries. Let these 
green mounds be landmarks from which to measure the advances 
of the kingdom of our God: " Obookiah, 1818; the Sandwich Is- 
lands, Christianized 1840: Kirkpatrick, 1823; the Cherokees and 
Choctaws, Christianized 1850." A-See was the beginning of 
China's now 60,000 converts ; there was none then to herald 
Japan's 40,000, and but one from India was there, the land now of 
half a million Christians. 

" Go teach all nations! " 

LIST OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS OF FOREIGN MIS- 
SION SCHOOL — OPENED IN 1817, CLOSED 1827. 

By Rev. E. C. Starr. 

Principals — (Rev. Edwin W. Dwight), Rev. Herman Daggett, Rev. 
Amos Bassett, D.D. 

Assistants — Rev. John H. Prentice, Rev. Herman L. Vaill, Horatio 
N. Hubbell, Bennett Roberts. 

Stewards — John P. Northrop, Dea. Lorrain Loomis. 

Farm Superintendent — Dea. Henry Hart. 

Superintendent of Donations, Rev. Timothy Stone. 

FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL — ROLL OF PUPILS. 

By Rev. E. C. Starr. 

Abrahams, Judah (or Jonas) Isaac, German Jew. 
Alan, Henry Martyn, Chinese A'-lan, deserted. 
Alum, William, Chinese A-lum, dismissed. 
Annance, Simon W., Abenaquis An-nance. 
Arohekaah, Chas. M., Hawaiian A-ro-he-ka'-ali. 
Arce, Wong, Chinese, dismissed. 
Augustine, Peter, Cherokee-Oneida, see Hooker. 
Backus, Charles, Hawaiian Na-muk-ka-ha'-loo. 



* The first memoir of Obookiah, by Dwight, was published by the 
agents of the school anonymously. This was revised and issued about 
twenty years later by the Tract Society, with the author's name. The 
S. S. U. also published an edition, now out of print. 



THE FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 347 

Bassel, Thomas. Cherokee To-tsu-wha, '■ Red-bird." 

Botelho, William. Chinese Lieaou A'-see, see Treadivell. 

Boudinot, Elias, Cherokee Kul-la-gee-nuh, "Buck." 

Brainerd, David, Hawaiian Mak-oo-wi-he-na. 

Brown, David, Cherokee A-wih', to Andover. 

Botang, see Snow, :\Ialay Sar'-duk, a slave. 

Campbell, Archibald, Scotch, wrote " Campbell's Voyages." 

Capoo, Samuel Ruggles, Hawaiian Kapoo, dismissed. 

Chamberlain, Dexter H., Anglo-American. 

Chamberlain, Nathan B., Anglo-American. 

(Cooperee, Hawaiian, probably not in school.) 

Carter, David C, half Cherokee, Ta-wah, dismissed. 

Chew, Guy, Tuscarora. a fine speaker. 

Chicks, John N., Stockbridge, Pau-poon'-haut. 

Cole, Erastus, Anglo-American, Rev. 

Cornelius, Abraham, Oneida, see Stevens. 

Crane, James, Ojibwa Nagaunagezhik. 

Doxtader, Wheelock. Stockbridge, see Wheclock. 

Ely, James, Rev., missionarv, m. Louisa Everest. 

Ehn, Peter, Oneida Te-les, called Peters. 

Fields, James, Cherokee, of wealth. 

Fisk, Isaac, Choctaw Pissahchubbee. 

Fiske, Photius, see Kavasales, navy chaplain. 

Folsom, Israel, Choctaw half-breed, Rev., brother of. 
Folsom, McKee, brother of chief. Col. David F. 

Fox, George Atokoh, Seneca, nephew of Chief Pollard. 

Francisco, Joseph, Mexican-Indian, dismissed. 

Gibbs, Adin C, Delaware, teacher. 

Gray, David, white-Iroquois of Caughnewaga. 

Gray, Peter, Iroquois of Caughnewaga. dismissed. 

Gray, William Lewis, brother of David. 

Hawaii, Robert, Hawaiian, miscalled JVhyhee. 

Hicks, Leonard, white-Cherokee, clerk of nation. 

Holman, Thomas, M.D., missionary, excom. 

Honolii, John, Hawaiian Honolii. helper. 

Hooker, Noadiah Peter Augustine, see Augustine. 

Hopu, Thomas, Hawaiian Hopu (or Hopoo), teacher 

Hubbell, Horatio N., Rev., Ohio D. and D. Institution. 

Irepoah, John Cleaveland, Hawaiian I-re-po'-ah. 

Johnson, Aaron, Tuscarora Thau-re-weeths. 

Johnson. John, Jew-Hindoo- English. Mohammedan. 

Kanui, William, called Tennooe, lived romance. 

Karaiulu, Richard, Hawaiian Kalaiculu, etc. 

Kapoo, see Capoo, became demented. 

Kapooly, Hawaiian, servant of a Cherokee. 

Karavelles, Anastasius, Greek, Amherst College. 

Kavasales, Photius, Greek, Rev., see Fiske. 

Keah, Lewis, Marquesan Ke-ah, died here. 

Kirkpatrick, William, Cherokee, bright, died here. 

Krygsman, Arnold, Dutch-Malay, dismissed. 

Komo, John I., Hawaiian Ko-mo. died here. 

Kaumualii, George P., miscalled Tamoree. in navy. 

Lewis, James, Narragansett, from Rhode Island. 

Loomis, Elisha, Anglo-American, teacher, etc. 

Little, Jonathan, here May-June, 1826. 

Loy, John Joseph. Portuguese, Azores, died 1897, Canadian doctor 

Moses, Abraham. Who? Here September, 1825-June, 1826 

Mackey, Miles, Choctaw, dismissed. 

Mills, Samuel John, Hawaiian, see Palu. 



548 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Monroe, Robert, Osage Holbohchinto. 

Mongrin, Charles, perhaps was Newton. Who? 

Morgan, Harvey, Anglo-American from Vermont. 

Meyers, Nahum", German Jew, voted in, but did he come? 

Newcom, John, Stockbridge Wau-ne-inauk'-theet. 

Novaheva, Benjamin. Marquesan, see Toke, died here. 

Newton, Charles, probably took name Mongrin. 

Obookiah, Henry, Hawaiian Opukahaia, died here. 

Palu, John (or Pa'roo) took name Mills. 

Papayou, Charles, Tahitian Papa-yoo, dismissed. 

Patoo, Thomas Hammatah, INIarquesan Ham-me-pa-too, d. here. 

Peters, William, later called Elm, dismissed. 

Phelps, John Eliot, Hawaiian Kal-la-ah-ou-lun'nah. 

Popohe, Stephen. Tahitian Pu-pu-hi, teacher. 

Prentice, John Homer, Anglo-American, Rev. 

Ridge, John, white-Cherokee, married Sarah B. Northrop. 

Roberts, Bennett, Anglo-American, Rev. 

Rodgers, Lewis. Who? Here May-June, 1826. 

Ruggles, Samuel, Anglo-American, Rev., missionary. 

Sabattis, Solomon, Mohegan Sol-lo-loh. 

Sandwich, George, Hawaiian Nahlemah-hownah. 

Saunders, John, white-Cherokee, killed in Civil War. 

Seth, Jacob, Stockbridge Ban-hi-you'-tuth. 

Snow, Joseph Botang, see Botaiig. 

Stevens, Abraham, or A. St. Leo, see Cornelius. 

Steiner. David, dropped Tazvcheechy, which see. 

Taheiti, Henry, Hawaiian Ta-hee-te, or Tahiti, etc. 

Taintor, John, Anglo-American, dismissed. 

Tamoree, George P. ("Prince"), Hawaiian, see Kaumualn. 

Tarbel, Jacob Peter, Iroquois Tauhangsaah. 

Tawcheechy, David Steiner, Cherokee, see Sterner. 

Tennooe, Hawaiian Kanui, became teacher. 

Terrell, James, Choctaw, dismissed. 

Timor, George, from Timor and Java, dismissed. 

Treadwell, John, possibly is Botelho, above. 

Tyler, George, Hawaiian Ki'-e-la-ah, shoemaker. 

Toke, Benjamin, To'-ke, same as Novaheva. 

Vann, John, white-Cherokee, joined Moravians. 

Van Rensselaer, Stephen, Osage Wah-che-oh-heh, helper. 

Washington, George, Seneca Tauwangi. 

Weed, George Ludington, M.D., missionary. 

Wheelock, Eleazer, took name Doxtader. 

Whitefield. George, Ojibwa Catitugegwonnah. 

Whyhee, Robert, Hawaii properly, or Haia, etc. 

Windall, John, Bengalese, dismissed. 

Zealand, Thomas, New Zealander Ka-la -la. 

Most of the foreign pupils returned to their own lands, and many of 
the ^mericans (some of whom were student-teachers) became mission- 
aries Many pupils were retained but a short time, and dismissed for 
incapacity or misconduct. In Hawaii Hopu, Popohe, Hawaii, Sandwich, 
and Honolii (who found "Blind Bartimeus," the hrst convert and great 
orator in the islands) were most useful, along with Rev. Messrs. Rug- 
<rles and Ely, American missionaries, and Loomis, the printer, who atter- 
tvard taught among the Indians, as did Annance, Gibbs and Van Rens- 
selaer Dr Weed was a medical missionary to the Indians. Kev. i. 
Folsom helped reduce Choctaw to writing and preached thirty years. 
Brown was preparing for the ministry, after translating the New lest- 
ment into Cherokee, when he died. Carter was judge of the Supreme 



THE FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 349 

Court of his nation ; he and Boudinot were editors. Ridge, Boudinot, 
Brown, I. Folsom, Hicks, Hooker, Karavelles (who also was a teacher) 
held official stations in their native lands. Fiske* was private secretary 
of the Greek President, pastor in America, reformer, and agnostic at 
last. Kaumoualii headed an insurrection that failed, in his father's be- 
half, a chief captured by Kamehameha I. Patoo died in Cornwall and 
Plarlan Page published his biography. Obookiah died in the school and 
Rev. E. W. Dwight published his memoirs. Keah, Kirkpatrick, Komo, 
and Toke died in Cornwall, and Backus either here or soon after leav- 
ing the school, but none of the mounds near the tombstones of Obookiah 
and Patoo are marked by any memorial. Of the rest who lived some 
became good and useful men, some proved worthless, of many little 
record remains. Dr. Loy, probably the last survivor of the pupils, was 
a highly esteemed physician at Valleyfield, Canada, where a son has 
been recently mayor. Carter, I. Folsom, Ridge, and Boudinot have also 
left noteworthv descendants. 

E. C. S. 

NOTES ON FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 

This David C. Carter, Judge of Cherokee Supreme Court, was 
the son of the seven-years-old boy captured by the Indians ; see 
Carter family, p. 54 ist Part. Theodore G. is kinsman of David 
C. Carter. A letter from him commending the first edition of 
Cornwall History is dated Deadwood, S. D., Jan. 20, 1898, Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railway Co., Land Department, Right of 
Way Agent. He saj^s he was named after Theodore Sedgwick. 

Dr. John Joseph Loy demands more than a passing notice. 
Born Island of St. Michael, Azores, May 18, 1803. At age of 
fourteen sailed for Brazil, and was present at impressive ceremony 
which created Dom Pedro Emperor of Brazil. In 1820 came to 
Boston, and being desirous to learn English was recommended to 
the Cornwall Mission School by Dr. Lyman Beecher. Thus be- 
gan acquaintance with Mrs. Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher. 
He remained in Cornwall four years, and in 1824 entered Dart- 
mouth, graduating in 1828. He practiced medicine in various 
places in Canada before he took up residence in Valleyfield in 
1859. In all these places he had a large and successful practice. 
" He spoke English, French, and Portuguese. He was well posted 
in sacred scripture, and was a devout and earnest Christian, very 
conscientious in his dealings with men and lenient with his patients. 
He would ask little or nothing of those who could ill afford to pay 
for the attendance of a physician. He was a total abstainer, and 
attended the first public temperance meeting held in Montreal." 

* Note — Biography by Lyman F. Hodge, Boston, 1891. 



350 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Mar. in 1835 Ann Jane Pease. Two girls, who d. in childhood. 
Son George, mayor of Valleyfield. Dr. Loy d. March 18, 1897, 
the last survivor of the pupils of the Foreign Mission School. 

Letter from John Ridge to my Father, Dr. S. W. Gold. 

He was a student at the Foreign Mission School, and my 

father as physician for the school attended him for disease of hip, 

to which he refers: 

Washington City, January 2, 1831. 
Doctor Sam'l W. Gold. 

My Friend: 

Yours of the 28th ult. reached me last night and has afforded me 
great pleasure. The kind condolence of acquaintances and friends of 
Indians throughout the U. S. comes upon the ear like soft music of other 
days, when the administration of the general governmelit observed a 
sacred regard for subsisting treaties with our Nation and maintained 
the faith and honor of united America, as handed down to them from 
their great revolutionary ancestors. To the Supreme Court our Nation 
has appealed, in their adversity, for relief, and we are now convmced 
that the Chief Justice views the appellate jurisdiction of the court ex- 
tended so far as to embrace the controversy of Georgia and the Cherokee 
Nation, by issuing a writ of injunction to stay the execution of a Chero- 
kee who has been sentenced to be hung by the authorities of Georgia. 
Tt is immaterial whether the governor of Georgia respects this mj unc- 
tion or not. The mighty influence of the friends of the union of these 
states, the advocates and friends of the power of the Supreme Court 
as construed by Webster and Madison, must now rally around the 
standard of the Cherokees to support their own principles against the 
friends of the doctrine of nullification of the South, who have attempted 
to tread under foot, to subserve selfish views, the treaties established 
on the Constitution of the U. S. 

It is with a good deal of pleasure to me to advise you of my con- 
viction of the friendship of Henry Clay to the rights of the Cherokees 
as guaranteed to them in treaty, which I have derived from some of the 
hon. members of Congress from Kentucky. It is to a change^ of this 
administration that we must now wait for relief. "Stand aid," as you 
have recommended, until we can be righted by the mighty voice of the 
people of this great republic, by elevating to office men who will enforce 
the treaties and the laws of the Union provided for the protection of 

Several years have passed since I had the pleasure of seeing you, and 
since you have mentioned my friends in respectful remembrance, which 
I assure you is reciprocated, it may not be amiss to inform you a little 
about myself. My Nation have recently signified its confidence m me by 
electing me as President of their Committee, which is in some degree 
like your Senate, and have sent me also as one of their deputation to 
this city. My health has improved, but I am not altogether well. 1 
limp a little in my gait in walking, occasioned, as you know, by the 
disease of my hip. My wife Sarah is the happy mother of three Indian 
children, two girls, and one boy named John Rollin. They are all well 
I have eighteen servants, stock of horses and cattle, etc., and a delightful 
place six miles from father's, which I calculate to improve. I built a 
fine house for my parents, which would look well even m New England, 
before I left them. I have made my property by my own means. 

My father has a plenty, fine plantation, orchards, etc. He has the 



THE FOREIGN MISSION SCHOOL. 351 

same firm step, warlike appearance, and is in fine health. He speaks 
of your hospitalit}- often and would be happy to see you. He possesses 
a high influence in his country. It is needless for me to say how glad 
I should be to see you at my home. My wife is very good to me and 
I love her dearly. She is a good wife. She has a great desire, as well 
as myself, to visit her friends in New England, which I hope to gratify 
in the course of a year, or when some degree of tranquillity is restored 
to my Nation. You may rest assured that our people will not yield to 
the policy of Jackson to gratify the cupidity of Georgia. Present my 
best wishes to your lady. 

Yours with great regard, 

JOHN RIDGE. 

No memorv of my boyhood is clearer than that of a visit to my 
home in my sixth year of this same John Ridge and his father, 
Major Ridge, the Cherokee chief. The latter wore the uniform 
of a U. S. officer, and I was deeply impressed with his " firm and 
warlike step." I called him " the nice, big gentleman." My 
father exchanged presents with him, giving him a small telescope 
and receiving in turn from him an Indian pipe carved in black 
stone, with the assurance that it had often been smoked in Indian 
councils. 

I am reminded by an incident in my boyhood that these pupils 
were not all " good Indians." They were very much like some 
white and colored boys living at the same date. I lived in Goshen, 
and, when I was about eight years old, Rev. Joseph Harvey, sec- 
retary of the Board of Agents, was our next-door neighbor, and 
had a youth from some Pacific island, a member of the mission 
school, spending a vacation with him. This Indian worked in 
Mr. Harvey's garden, and a hostile feeling grew up between him 
and a colored boy in his teens employed by my father. It was a 
favorite amusement for this young heathen to throw stones from 
a sling over the barn to fall where the colored youth was sup- 
posed to be, and these were returned by the latter in the direction 
from which they came. I know that this was not a story of the 
colored boy, for some fell in dangerous proximity to myself. Yet 
such was the excitement from sense of danger, and that somehow 
I was myself " particeps criminis," I never reported to my parents 
at the time, or to the good Dr. Harvey, the practice of his protegee. 
In proof of the uncertainties of historj^ I am not quite sure that 
the colored boy was not the aggressor, and it is not quite certain 
but that the testimony of an Indian, a negro, and a white boy, 
seeing things from different sides of the barn, would show some 
discrepancies. 



352 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



History of the First Church 

from where Dr. White's Centennial 

Sermon left it. 

By Rev. E. C. Starr, Pastor. 



Dr. White's ministry was a happj'- one, and his memory is 
cherished in Cornwall. With the advancing infirmities of age, 
bereft of his wife, and his daughters married and gone, he resigned 
in 1884, and went to live with a son at Downesville, N. Y. He 
had received into the church thirty-four new members during his 
ministry of about nine years. 

Rev. Henry B. Mead followed Dr. White, preaching for one 
year (December, 1884-December, 1885), but he did not move his 
family from Falls Village, and declined a settlement as pastor. 

Rev. Oscar G. Mclntire was ordained pastor March 31, 1886. 
Dismissed, October 10, 1887, he took with him a daughter of 
Cornwall as his wife and efficient helper, Mary J., daughter of S. 
J. B. Johnson. He received nine into the membership of the 
church. 

The first Sunday of February, 1888, Rev. Edward C. Starr be- 
gan to preach in the pulpit he has occupied to the present time. 

Between the pastorates mentioned in this history there were 
some long and dreary periods of " candidating," but there were 
also " stated supplies " of some duration. Besides those already 
mentioned, Rev. Lewis Jessup preached for many months about 
1850, and carried to his parish in Northfield a Cornwall bride, 
Caroline L. Bonney. Abo\it seven years later Rev. William H. 
Moore also spent half a year or more in the parish. 

The Sunday-school of the First Church is one of the oldest in 
the state, and in the report of the S. S. Union of Connecticut for 
1826 its date of organization is given as 1807, the earliest as- 
cribed, to any school — but many were without date. The first 



HISTORY OF THE SECOND CHURCH. 353 

known superintendent was Dea. Jedediah Calhoun, in 1830, who 
was followed by Rev. E. W. Andrews the next year, Dea. Vic- 
torianus Clark succeeding him. The next name preserved is Capt. 
Darius Webb. About 1850 Dea. Robert T. Miner was elected, 
and later Dea. M. D. F. Smith took the place for a year, followed 
by Dea. Silas Patterson Judson. In the fifties George L. Miner 
began to serve off and on, for a large part of the next thirty years. 
In the sixties Dea. Silas C. Beers, Rev. Mark Ives, Horace Hitch- 
cock, Harlan P. Ives, and Rev. Joseph B. Ives held the position for 
short periods. Dea. Edwin D. Benedict succeeded in 1884, Dea. 
Charles C. Marsh in 1889, the present pastor in 1891. 

I have now, 1903, been here fifteen years. I have received 
seventy-one into the church, fifty-one by profession and tw^enty by 
letter. 

The deacons at present are Edwin Dwight Benedict, Frank 
Stone Baldwin, Charles Cyrus Marsh, Royal Keith Southwick. 

SERMON PREACHED AT NORTH CORNWALL AU- 
GUST 18, 1895, BY THE PASTOR, REV. 
JOHN PIERPONT. 

Deut., 4: 32. " For ask now of the days that are past." 
In Ecclesiastcs we are told that God seeketh again that which 
is passed away. He must find it in the present, which should 
show the effect of all the influences of the past. 

A man or a church having a good record is expected to live up 
to it, and ought to do so. Hence the necessity of an occasional 
backward look, that we may understand the demands our record 
makes upon us. 

The Rev. Chas. N. Fitch, then pastor of this church, preached 
a memorial sermon in this house on the ninth day of July, 1876, 
reviewing the history of the church up to that date. Making that 
date our starting point I would ask you to look with me through 
the past nineteen years, that we may derive what help we can for 
the proper performance of our part in the living present. As we 
all know the church is the Lord's Body, but it is made up of men 
and women who are controlled by the spirit of our Lord. The 
history of a church must be for the most part a history of the in- 
dividuals in it, and it involves an estimate of their characters as well 
2 



354 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

as the story of the results produced in the world by their lives. 
At this point I would acknowledge my indebtedness to the late 
Russell Rogers Pratt, a former deacon of this church, and for 
many 3'ears superintendent of the Sunday-school in West Corn- 
wall, who has prepared a record of the church and Sunday-school 
down to April i, 1893, which will prove a mine of information to 
all future historians of the church. Deacon Pratt delighted in 
historical research, and during the last years of his life his time and 
thought were absorbed in preserving for future use a record of 
those events in which he had been so greatly interested. We look 
back today at the church as it was in the midst of the pastorate of 
Mr. Fitch. If you will permit a few words as to this pastor 
and his talented wife, I imagine that some of the people felt almost 
as if a pair of butterflies had come to settle among them when 
this 5'oung couple came here to do the Lord's work. The pastor 
was an elegant gentleman of some means, very nice in all matters 
relating to his personal appearance, his hands unused to toil, and yet 
he proved to be just the man to be summoned from the parsonage 
at midnight to aid in quieting a drunkard's ravings, or to vigorously 
pursue a thief who had made off with some of his property under 
cover of the darkness, and get the stolen goods. Of Mrs. Fitch 
I have been told that when she entered Oberlin one of the gravest 
arnong the seniors was assigned as her room-mate, lest her gayety 
and liveliness should prove too much for that sober institution. No 
birds ever enjoj^ed building a nest more than' these young people 
enjoyed fitting up a home upon this hilltop. At the time Mr. 
Fitch preached his memorial sermon the church had just passed 
through a most gracious revival, and though he had been here 
less than three years the additions to the church by letter and con- 
fession already numbered sixtj^-nine, which number was increased 
to one hundred and five before he went away in October, 1881. 
Mr. Fitch was a man whom no amount of labor could discourage 
if he thought that the performance of it would aid in the Master's 
work. Hence, with the approval of the church, he began in 
April, 1879, to preach twice a month in Cornwall Hollow, and 
kept it up a little more than a year, when he found that the tax 
on his strength was too great. So vigorous was the spiritual life 
of this church during this pastorate that other churches were 
quickened by it. In January, 1877, during the week of praj'er, 



HISTORY OF THE SECOND CHURCH. 355 

union services were held with the First Church of Cornwall, and 
as a result of those meetings some fifteen united with that church. 
There is recorded in our church records a vote of thanks passed by 
the First Church for the manifestation of Christian love on the 
part of this church and her pastor, all of which goes to show that 
the utmost cordiality existed between the churches, and that the 
pastor of this church could work well with others. 

Doubtless the greatest work of Mr. Fitch while here was 
aiding in the preparation of so many living temples for the in- 
dwelling of the Spirit of God, but from a more materialistic point 
of view, the chapel in West Cornwall may be regarded as his best 
monument here. 

The corner-stone was laid August 9, 1877, and it was dedi- 
cated free from debt January 3, 1878. From that time on the 
religious work of the village has had a home, and yet, so far as I 
can judge, the tvro parts of the parish have not been widely sun- 
dered in sympathy by this division of forces. Any tendency in this 
direction must ever be resisted. 

When Mr, Fitch went away in October, 1881, to begin pas- 
toral work in Norwalk, Ohio, he took with him the affectionate 
regard of this people, and their loving interest has followed him 
to every field in which he has since been engaged, and the work 
of the Congregational S. S. and Pub. Society appeals more strongly 
to this church because at date, 1893, he is missionary under that 
society in Colorado."* 

The present pastor, John Pierpont, preached to this people for 
the first time June 10, 1888, was ordained July 26th, and has 
had the pleasure of welcoming to the church thirty-five in all, 
though the church has had no general revival. In his history Mr. 
Fitch remarks upon the revival habit of the church. There are 
at present many indications that a harvest is about to be gathered, 
and the voices of the past urge us all to be faithful in seeing to it 
that none of the precious sheaves be lost. 



* Mr. Pierpont here gave in detail statistics of the church from the 
retirement of Mr. Fitch, October, i88r, with account of stated supplies, 
including the short pastorate of Rev. Wm. H. McDougal, from Septem- 
ber II, 1884, for less than two years. The most important work of Mr. 
McDougal was the formation, January 20, 1886, of a Society of Christian 
Endeavor, the first to be founded in this part of the state. — Ed. 



356 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

The benevolences of the church for the eighteen years during 
which the record is given amount to some $5,300, an average of 
almost $300 per year, while during that time a $4,000 chapel has 
been built and paid for with the help of Mr, C. P. Huntington 
and other friends, and in addition more than $2,000 has been 
spent on repairs. The church has ever maintained a lively interest 
in matters of social and political reform, an interest which I be- 
lieve does not grow less with passing years. 

On Fast Day, in 1879, Mr. Fitch preached on bribery at 
elections from the text, " Ye have sold yourselves for naught." 
Doubtless it was partly owing to that sermon that the fall elec- 
tion was one of the cleanest known for years. In the matter of 
plain speaking on the temperance question this pulpit has a record 
and seeks to live up to it. All the time this church has been 
eminently conservative in loving what was old and seeking to 
preserve it, while at the same time it was willing to try anything 
new that had proved its value. In j\Iay, 1878, the question came 
up as to the value of that form of union among our churches which 
was called a consociation, it being held by many that it had out- 
lived its usefulness. This consociation was a kind of standing 
council for the ordination or dismission of ministers, except that 
it had more authority over the churches than our councils. This 
church is on record as having voted with the minority for its re- 
tention. 

To most people a church means those connected with it, or 
those who have been connected with it. Those still with us speak 
to us by living examples of consistent Christian living, and those 
who have passed on speak to us through what they accomplished 
and by what they were. Some of them I never knew, but feel 
sure I can detect the influence of their lives upon us for good today. 

Among those who have passed away sinc^ I came to this church 
as pastor the figure of Deacon Ezra Dwight Pratt is perhaps most 
prominent. Deacon of this church for some thirty-five years he 
had magnified his office. A man of deep spirituality, his visit 
to a home left a benediction there. His prayers were such as to 
draw all who heard them nearer to their God. He was a link 
connecting us with the type of piety the fathers exemplified, yet 
he was in full sympathy with the church life of today that makes 
so much of the young. Personally I feel greatly indebted to this 



HISTORY OF THE SECOND CHURCH. 357 

man, crowned with silvered hair, who so sustained by his counsel 
and his prayers the j^oung and inexperienced pastor. Mrs. D wight 
Pratt, called home about a year before her husband, w^as one who 
in the days of her strength gladly welcomed to her home any 
ministers who chanced to visit the parish, that they might enjoy her 
hospitality. Born in the same town as John Brown (Torrington), 
and under the same influences, her native strength of character and 
education gave her great power in the family and the church. 

Another veteran in the Master's service was Mrs. Sabra 
Smith Baldwin, who at the time of her death had been a member 
of this church for sixty-eight years. A sister of Rev. Walter 
Smith, so long pastor of this church, she occupied a unique position, 
and identified herself with every form of good work open to her. 
Chastened by sorrow, her character ripened and mellowed by pass- 
ing years, she seemed like one who, called to be a saint, had responded 
to the call. Such lives are the best support of any church. The 
names of Mrs. Anson Rogers, Mrs. Noah Rogers, Mrs. Harvey 
Baldwin, Mrs. Horace Hart, Mrs. Wm. C. Hart, Mrs. Isaac 
Marsh, Mrs. Chas. W. Hall, Mrs. John Wood, Mrs. Dwight 
Rogers, Mrs. D. F. Smith, and Mrs. John Hall occur to me as 
belonging to those whose faces we no longer see. You called them 
by the more endearing titles of mother, wife, daughter, friend, and 
I need not assure you that they are more than names to me. One 
embodied for me a living interest in the life and work of the 
church; another stands in my thought for devotion to the family; 
a third represents sympathy for the needy and practical helpfulness. 
Each that I have known stands for some grace of the Christian 
character. We miss them on an occasion like this, and vainly 
ask ourselves. Who will take their places? We console ourselves 
with the thought that our Heavenly Father has but one family 
on earth and in heaven. 

As it is the custom of this church to record the names of any 
of her sons or daughters who have given themselves to religious 
work, I would note the fact that Dwight Leete Rogers, after a 
two-years course at the Training School for Christian Workers at 
Springfield, Mass., is successfully performing the duties of a Y. M. 
C. A. secretary at Northampton, Mass. Surely this brief review 
gives us abundant occasion to thank God for His past goodness, and 
leads us to hope that since He has so blessed us in the past, as a 



358 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

church, He still has favors to bestow, so that we need not doubt 
concerning that future yet to be. 

LETTER FROM REV. CHAS. N. FITCH. 

So. Kaukauna, Wis., 2-3-02. 
Theo. S. Gold, Esq. 

My dear Mr. Gold: 

I was very glad to get your letter, and to hear from your family, 
and that you are to bring records of Cornwall to date, and that it pleases 
you to regard me and Mrs. Fitch as a part of Cornwall's history. 1 
have served churches as follows : North and West Cornwall, eight 
years; Norwalk, O., one year; Wauseon, O., two years; Spencerport, 
N. Y., five years, nearly;' superintendent of Sunday-school work for 
Cong. S. S. and Pub. Soc, eight years; pastor of Milbank Church, S. 
D., four years ; and now pastor South Kaukauna, Wis., with no mterval 
between but one of two months in twenty-eight years. 

Mrs. Fitch has been president of Woman's Foreign Branch in Col- 
orado and South Dakota, and had to retire to rest at Oberlin, to regain 
her health. She is doing well, and with very fair prospect of agam 
soon returning to the church work and helping me. 

Newton is a civil engineer, building new roads in Texas and Mis- 
souri on a good salary. James Monroe is in Washington, D. C, pro- 
moted from one position to another until his salary is $100 per month, 
and spends part of the day in editorial work in the beautiful Congres- 
sional Library. He studies some law in the evenings at law school. 
His appointment came through friends, but promotion by hard work. 

Very truly yours, 

CHAS. N. FITCH. 

LETTER FROM REV. JOHN PIERPONT. 

Wu-LiAMSEURG, INIass., Jan. 28, 1902. 
My dear Mr. Gold: 

Your letter came this morning, and I thank you for permitting 
me to furnish a few items for your forthcoming book. I was sorry to 
hear of the Howe's misfortune. I remember taking the family to ride 
once along the road where they lived, and we ate our lunch near their 
house, getting water from a spring. Rev. Sam. Scoville used to call on 
them occasionally, when he came to Cornwall. I am glad the tie of 
neighborliness can be stretched over hills and on to remote places in 
Cornwall.* 

Coming to Cornwall as a candidate for the pastorate of the Second 
Church in June, 1888, I was ordained and installed July 26th of that 
year, and during the summer and early fall I lived at North Cornwall, 
boarding with Henry 'Rogers. Nov. 8th I was married to Mary L. Bas- 
sett of New Haven, and we boarded at two or three places in West 
Cornwall till the summer of '8g, when we began housekeeping. John 
Edwards Pierpont was born there xA.ug. 21, 1889, and Mildred Pierpont 
Oct. 2, 1892, and there we continued to live till June, 1897, when wc 
removed to ]\Iassachusetts, that I might assume the pastorate of the 
Congregational Church of Williamsburg. Here, July 18, 1897, Sarah 
Pierppnt was born. 

During my stay of nine years in Cornwall it became my sad duty 
to have a part in the funerals of majiy "ic" ^'"d women prominent in 
the work of the church or in the affairs of the town. While ihe in- 

* The sad accidents in this family have appealed Id friends and neigh- 
bors, whose hearts and hands have ministered to their necessities. 



HISTORY OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 359 

fluence of manj' of these lives on in the church, the present pastor must 
greatly miss the help and inspiration of their living presence. 
Very sincerely and gratefully yours, 

JOHN PIERPONT. 

Mr. Pierpont was dismissed at his own request, to take charge 
of church at WiHiamsburg, Mass., June 28, 1897. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Will Chester Ferris of Waupuh, Wis. ; ord. May 
ig, 1898; dismissed at his own request to church at Great Falls, 
Montana^ Sept. 3, 1901. 

All of these pastors were much esteemed and beloved, and their 
labors and memory will always be cherished in this parish. 

Rev. Carl Stackman of Amherst, Mass., ord. July 24, ig02. 
According to terms of settlement a parsonage was to be provided, 
and one was purchased near the chapel in West Cornwall to suit 
the convenience of the pastor. 

During the fall and winter of '91-2 the church at North Corn- 
wall was reshingled and repaired, and a wood furnace took the 
place of the wood stoves, much to the comfort of the audience. 

EAST CORNWALL (COLLEGE ST.) BAPTIST 
CHURCH. 

Condensed from historical address at memorial service of the Col- 
lege St. Church, E. Cormvall, by Jf^m. G. Fennell, D.D. 

This church was constituted in the town of Warren Nov. 15, 
1787, under the name of the Warren Baptist Church. There were 
many Baptists among the early settlers of Warren, and, hitherto 
worshiping with the Congregationalists, they desired to form a 
church of their own denomination, and on the 2Qth of October, 
1787, they sent a request to the convention met at Miry Brook, 
Danbury, to be constituted as a church. Accordingly they ap- 
pointed Nov. 15, 1787, for that purpose. Elder Waldo preached 
a sermon suitable to the occasion from Proverbs xxiv, 3-4: 
" Through wisdom is an house builded, and by understanding it is 
established, and by knowledge shall the chambers be filled with 
all precious and pleasant riches." 

A church was there formed of twenty-tv\-o members. For wor- 
ship they met at private houses. Truman Beeman was appointed 
clerk and Asahel Wedge deacon. 

In 1788 they called Isaac Root, a licentiate, from Danbury, and 
he was ordained September 25th. 



360 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

In 1790 this church reported eighty members, scattered in the 
towns of Warren, Cornwall, Washington, Goshen, Kent, and 
Sharon. 

Salary of Elder Root, twenty pounds. 

Later there was dissatisfaction with the minister, and Jan. 28, 
1793, by vote, members living in Sharon were constituted a church 
by themselves, and all who wished of the members outside were a^ 
liberty to join that church. Eighteen members, including Elder 
Root, the pastor, were dismissed for that purpose. 

As the Warren church was now destitute of a pastor, for 
twenty-four 3'ears meetings were irregular, and little record was 
kept. 

Ananias Diettrick became pastor in 181 7 — 'till his death in 
1828. 

The place of meeting was changed from Warren to E. Corn- 
wall ; service in schoolhouse. 

Other pastors recorded : Silas Ambler, Daniel Baldwin, Thomas 
Benedict. 

From 1847-50 the church almost ceased work. Then the 
name was changed to the College St. Baptist Church of Cornwall, 
and in 1850 successful efforts were made to build a church at 
E. Cornwall — dedicated June 19, 1851 — and Luther B. Hart 
was ordained pastor, Andrew B. Holmes and Beecher Perkins 
deacons, Hiram G. Dean clerk, which office he held for twenty- 
nine years. Mr. Hart resigned in 1853. 

The following served as pastors to present time: Revs. E. F. 
Jones, Richard Thompson, Jackson Ganun, Thomas Benedict, C. 
W. Potter, J. Fairmore, D. F. Chapman, Edwin D. Bowers, H. 
G. Smith, Walter B. Vassar, E. B. Elmer, '84-'95, S. J. Smith, C. 
M alley. 

The present officers are Richard F. Thompson and Frank A. 
Whitcomb, deacons, and Ralph Tibbals, clerk. 

This church has had to struggle with those difficult material 
conditions which now afHict so many of our rural churches: a 
scattered population in a large territory away from business 
centers; but Mr. Fennell's record shows the power of faith and 
righteousness to sustain a people even in such discouraging cir- 
cumstances. 



INDIANS. 361 



Indians. 

I remember two families of Indians in Cornwall. They were 
of the Scatacook tribe. 

Jerry Coxell, or Cogswell, was a cooper. Had several 
children, among them Nathan, who has left a more permanent 
mark of his skill upon the farms of Cornwall than any other man. 
His stone walls attest his exact eye and honest work. Wm. H. 
Cogswell was a son of Nathan: a noble soldier; a true hero. En- 
listed as private, Co. I, 5th Reg., June 22, '61 ; 2d Lieut., Co. B, 
Heavy Artiller}^ Died of wounds Oct. 7, '64. Col. Wessells 
said: " He was one of ten thousand as a soldier." Rufus Bunker 
w^as another, and Bunker Hill on the Goshen turnpike was named 
after him, for there he had a comfortable house and farm of fifty 
acres in good cultivation. As laboring men, they were always 
in demand. The children of these families had the same ad- 
vantages of education in the common schools as other children. 
They were highly respected, temperate, and honest, and some were 
church members. 

Once when caught in a storm as a boy I did not hesitate to 
borrow an overcoat of a young Bunker, and the mother, Roxa, al- 
ways remembered me kindly for doing so ; and this feeling was 
reciprocated. She never brought her baskets for sale but that I 
Avas a liberal purchaser. 

Other Scatacooks from Kent have been in my employ, and I 
have never found more trusty and reliable workers. They were 
pleasant companions, and I learned much from them about farm 
work and common things. 

I offer no apology for giving here this valuable paper of Dr. 
Andrews, for every bit of Indian history should be studied and 
treasured. 

EXTRACTS FROM DR. WM. G. ANDREWS' PAPER, " THE MORA\aANS 
AT SCATACOOK." 

In 1740 Moravian missionaries made their appearance at an 
Indian village in Dutchess Co. about twenty miles from Kent, and 



362 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

soon won the hearts and began to transform the lives of the inhabi- 
tants, who were vicious and degraded. In January, I743, they 
came to Scatacook to establish a mission by invitation of the Sachem 
IMauwehu. 

Scatacook was not then a part of Kent, which was originally 
bounded on the west by the Housatonic. First missionary was 
John Martin JVIack, a German ; he was soon joined by Joseph 
Shaw, an English schoolmaster. February 13th Mauwehu was 
baptized by the name of Gideon, and with him his son Job, who 
was given the name of Joshua. There were also five or six others. 
These had been for some time under Moravian influence through 
their visits to Dutchess Co. 

The secret of the Moravians lay in their making the brother- 
hood of man so intensely real by their ow^n conduct, that the greater 
reality on which that rests, the Fatherhood of God, was learned 
easily ; they ate and slept in Indian wigwams, they wore, and IVIack 
himself, probably, the Indian blanket, leggins, and moccasins. 
Their teaching was of the simplest sort, for it was love, the divine 
love shown when God became Man and died for men. ' 

The missionaries unfortunately and unconsciously appeared here 
as intruders, as the Connecticut Assembly had the year before 
placed the Indians of the Housatonic Valley under the care of the 
neighboring ministers and had emploj ed teachers for their children. 
The minister in charge of the Scatacooks was Rev. Daniel Board- 
man of New Milford, an excellent man but unable to enter into 
their life, as Mack did. The Scatacooks were not satisfied with 
the school and gave their new friend an inaccurate account of the 
situation. 

The Indians had also been visited by the zealous and self- 
sacrificing evangelist David Brainerd, v,lio preached at Scatacook 
in 1742, and again when on his way to a mission of his own 
farther north in April, 1743. His preaching dealt more with 
God's wrath than with His love, and the Indians clung only the 
more closely to their gentle Moravian teachers. But, while the 
latter could not fully approve of Brainerd, they honored him and 
ascribed the first religious impressions of most of their converts to 
his teaching. Some indiscretion on the part of the revivalists led 
to harsh legislation in 1742, which was used against the mission- 
aries. The Moravians were believed by both promoters and op- 



MORAVIANS. 363 

posers of the revival to hold " false and dangerous doctrines " ; 
the}' were also suspected of being in the pay of the French (then 
on the verge of war with England), and of visiting the Indians 
with the purpose of teaching them to tomahawk the whites. 

In May, 1743, the missionaries were forcibly expelled, and 
their work for the time was at an end. This was owing to an 
act passed against the Moravians and another act annexing the 
territory west of the river to Kent, thus bringing the mission and 
school within the operation of the laws already passed against the 
revivalists. The Moravian headquarters were at Bethlehem, Pa. ; 
the Indians maintained some intercourse with them, and a portion 
of the latter removed to Bethlehem for a time. A blind woman 
eighty years old, after a year's importunity, persuaded her relations 
to drag her there in a hand-cart (the journey took three weeks) 
that she might " be baptized and go to God "; she obtained all she 
desired, for she died a few hours after the baptism. 

It must have been clear to the people of Kent that the Indians 
had been injured morally and religiously by the banishment of 
the missionaries, but they still distrusted the soundness of their 
faith. 

The war with France ended in 1748, and in 1749, largely 
through the efforts of Count Zinzendorf, the British Parliament 
passed an act which secured the Moravian brethren and their 
missions from further molestation by the authorities. In 1749 a 
n\issionary, Abraham Buehninger, was sent to Scatacook, or, as the 
Moravians called it, Pachgatgoch, and for twenty-one years there 
was a missionary there. Bishop Spangenberg, then at the head of 
the Moravian church in America, visited Scatacook in 1752. He 
was a faithful and wise man, and looked into their temporal affairs 
and advised them to buy better horses. He also gave a great im- 
pulse to their religious life, and a chapel with clapboards instead of 
bark was soon built. Another missionary was David Zeisberger, 
worthy to be remembered with Eliot and Brainerd as an " Apostle 
to the Indians." He labored among them for sixty-two years, and 
founded thirteen Christian villages. I ought also to mention 
Christian Frederick Post, who married a Scatacook girl. 

Probably suspicion and dislike lingered in the breasts of the 
white people of Kent for a few years after the missicjn was re- 
estabh'shed, but the thoroughly Christian work of the brethren 



364 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

gradually overcame ever}' feeling of that sort. Whatever may 
have been thought of Moravian doctrines elsewhere, the Christians 
of Kent evidently found no heresy in them. John Martin Mack 
returned to Kent in 1760, and spent there what he describes as 
" twenty very happy and blessed months." The commonwealth 
tried to do what was best for its wards by external authority ; the 
Moravians supplied the inward impulse, which disposed the Indians 
to accept the position in which they were placed and to co-operate 
with the colony in its endeavor to elevate them. 

The prosperous period of the mission closed 1763; when an 
extensive Indian outbreak revived suspicion and ill will. There 
is no evidence of special hostility to the mission at Scatacook, but it 
lost heavily in numbers, and the last missionary, Edward Thorpe, 
was withdrawn in 1770. It is supposed that some of the Scata- 
cook converts joined the Indian congregation which was moving 
westward to Ohio. 

I believe that the richest earthly harvest which sprang from 
seed sown here was gathered at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio, on the_ night 
of March 8, 1782, when nearly one hundred Moravian Indians 
spent the night confessing their sins one to another, in praying to 
their Father, and praising their Saviour. They were now watch- 
ing with him in their Gethsemane, and Judas Iscariot was at hand 
too. Men who had given them assurances of friendship as false 
as the traitor's kiss, proceeded, as soon as day came, to seize and 
butcher them. Of the victims of this massacre only one is cer- 
tainly known to have been from Kent: Christian, daughter of 
Gideon Mauwehu ; but nineteen others bore the names of baptized 
Scatacooks, of whom no other trace is' found. 

The Kingdom of Heaven was strengthened and beautified by 
their faithfulness unto death. 

THE INDIAN TRAIL FROM LITCHFIELD TO WEA- 
TOGUE (SALISBURY). 

By Geo. C. Harrison. 

The points absolutely established about the old Indian trail 
from Litchfield to Weatogue are: First, the one near the top of the 
hill easterly from the residence of Theodore R. Ives. This point, 
a bounds — the N. W. C. of the 2d L. ist D. in Cornwall, sur- 



COLLEGE LAND. 3O5 

\eyecl in 1738, " which is on a le(.ly;c a little south of the path that 
leads from Litchfield to Weatogue." I infer that the path ran 
from there northwesterly about in the direction of the North 
Cornwall Church. From the bounds above named I think it fol- 
lowed ver_v nearly the lay of the old highway from that point to 
Goshen, since tradition sa_vs there was a wigwam which was 
burned, with two children, which stood under the shelter of the 
hills west of the house where my grandfather Edward lived, and 
as that was a warm and sheltered place, and a natural resort for 
game, with fine springs, it must have been a camping ground. I 
have numerous arrowheads, of various patterns and of different 
kinds of stone, war points, etc. We thought it nothing un- 
common to find them in almost every lot we plowed. 

Another point absolutely defined is the S. E. C. of the 33d L. 
3d D., laid to Joseph, father of Ethan Allen, which reads: "to 
bounds near the old path called Weatogue Road "; this point is 
about half way from the old Washington turnpike to the house 
now occupied by Abel Beauty and in or near the present highw\ay. 

Another point of said trail definitely fixed is in a lay of land 
to John Jeffery in 8th Div., which point is very near the present 
highway leading around the north side of Red Mountain. There 
may be other points in some of the surveys that refer to it, but 
this establishes the general course of the trail. 

From the first-mentioned bounds the trail probably took a 
northwesterly course to the Housatonic River, passing through the 
present farm of Sani'l Judson Adams. The abundance of arrow- 
heads marks it as a frequent resort of the Indians. 



COLLEGE LAND. 

At a General Assembly holden at New Haven (on Thurs- 
day, the 1 2th day of October) in His Majesty's English Colony of 
Connecticut, in New England, in America, Anno Regni Regis 
Georgii, Magnae Brittanicae, etc., Annoque Doni. 1732, upon the 
memorial of Rev. Samuel Andrew, Eliphalet Addams, Elisha 
Williams, etc., trustees of Yale College: 

" This Assembly do grant and order that in each of the five 
townships laid out on the east of Ousatonuck River there shall 
be laid out in one entire piece three hundred acres of land, to be 



366 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

laid out at a distance from the several town plotts, which tracts 
of land containing in the whole fifteen hundred acres shall, when 
laid out, be, by a Patent under the seal of this Colony, granted 
and confirmed to the trustees of said College, to have and to hold 
to them and their successors, Trustees of the said College, for the 
only and sole use, benefit, and behoof of said school forever, and 
to no other use." 

On the 6th and 7th da3's of January, A. D. 1737-8, John Han- 
cock, according to the above-written grant, laid out in the middle 
township three hundred acres of land near the southeast corner of 
said township for the trustees of Yale College, which three hun- 
dred acres is in length three hundred rods and in breadth one hun- 
dred and sixty rods. 



PESTHOUSE. 

This was an old house belonging to A. Parmalee. It stood 
not far from the road leading from North Cornwall to the hollow 
east of the Burnham House. It was used in 1777, and Parmalee 
built a new house. Inoculation was practiced at that time, pro- 
ducing a mild form of smallpox, giving the same immunity as 
having the disease in the natural way. The patients remained at 
the pesthouse till recovery and thorough disinfection.* 

The discovery of vaccination by Dr. Edward Jenner in 1796, 
by which the same immunity was secured with comparatively little 
inconvenience, has removed the necessity of a pesthouse. 



* From a slip of paper inclosed in A Body of Divinity, by Samuel 
VViilard, folio 1726. 

" Dr. Ward from Middletown inoculated 26 the first class (or day) 
and 70 the second class. Lieut. Parmalee and all his family had the 
disease." 

Malignant fever. — From a blank leaf of Richard Baxter's Catholic 
Theology, folio, London, 1675 — 

Cornwall, Conn., 1813. 

" In the year 1S12 there was a strange and very malignant fever broke 
out in New Milford, and continued to rage there for many months. 
The next year it reached this town, where in less than three months 
forty fell victims tn it, and spread itself over the greater part of the N. 
E. states. Many thousands were carried off by it and many families 
were broken up." 



SLAVES. 367 

SLAVES. 

FROM TOWN RECORDS. 

Edward, or Ned, son of James and Patience, negroes born at 
New Milford March g, 1789, all said negroes being then the prop- 
erty of Mr. Benjamin Buckingham, now the property of Heman 
Swift, Esq., of Cornw^all; Peony, daughter of the same persons, 
born Oct. 6, 1791, the property of Heman Swift, Esq. 

Gen. Heman Swift was Judge of Court of Common Pleas for 
Litchfield county. Served in the French and Indian wars and in 
the Revolutionary war, and was a personal friend of Washington ; 
died in 1 8 14. 

" On the 27th of January, in the year 1797, my wife took from 
my sister in Bennington, state of Vermont, a black girl three years 
old the April ensuing, named Omia ; she is adopted as my child and 
entitled to the same freedom at "he same age as my children are." 

JOHN SEDGWICK. 

JuDAH Kellogg, Esq., Toivn Clerk. 

Received and recorded Oct. 5, A. D. 1801, by Judah Kellogg, 
town clerk. 

The foregoing is a true copy of the record executed by Wil- 
liam Kellogg, town clerk. 

Rev. Hezekiah Gold had two slaves, that were trusted and 
cared for as important members of the family. Traditions of the 
pleasant relations that existed between master and servant still 
survive. 

I remember several old slaves in Goshen, where Old Chloe 
died in the poorhouse in 1831 at reputed age of iio years, but ac- 
cording to more credible testimony, nearer 120 years. As children 
v/e often visited her, bearing some little present. Old Bill and 
old Phil attained advanced age, about 90 years. 

Prince was a successful farmer. He began to feel social 
ostracism, and was disciplined by the church of which he was a 
member, because he would not attend church and sit in the negro 
pews, which both in the gallery and main floor were apart from 
the rest. 

The oldest son of old Ben Powers went to Liberia, and be- 
came a successful merchant there. He revisited Goshen in modern 
times. 



368 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Old Sol, oldest son of old Phil Rcnvc, with whom I played in 
my boyhood, went to Litchfield, and enjoyed respect in that aristo- 
cratic town for his personal character and dignified appearance. 
Another descendant of Phil became a useful minister in the South. 
Old Phil amused the boys in reciting stories of suffering in slavery; 
but generally they received kind treatment and in return rendered 
faithful service. 



CEMETERIES. 

The old cemetery near the road leading from Cornwall Centre 
to West Cornwall still remains neglected, though the selectmen 
have been directed by a vote of the town to enclose and protect it. 
Most of the bodies interred there have been removed. 

The one near the village of Cornwall is well cared for by the 
fund of $1,000 left by the late J. C. Calhoun to the Cornwall 
Cemetery Association. 

Mrs. Emily Sedgwick Welch has left a fund of $600 to the 
town to provide care for the Hollow cemeteries. 

At the Cornwall reunion held at the lake Aug. 19, 1899, a 
temporary organization was formed to arrange for the permanent 
care of the cemeteries. Membership, $1.00 annually; T. S. Gold, 
president; Victory C. Beers, vice-president; Benjamin Sedgwick, 
secretary and treasurer. A call was issued for a meeting to make 
permanent organization, but there was no attendance. 

In response to invitations sent out the president has received 
$18, which has been expended on the North Cornwall cemetery, 
and more is needed. The secretary has collected about the same 
amount, which still remains on hand. The cemetery south of 
Cornwall Bridge and the one south of Cornwall remain neglected. 
Nothing has been received from those sections of the town. 



VILLAGE IMPROVEMENT. 

The Cornwall Village Improvement Society was founded in 
1899 through the active adoption of a suggestion of the pastor of 
the First Church by Hon. John Sedgwick, Chief Justice of the 
Superior Court in New York city. Mr. Sedgwick had recently 
bought and improved the Gold liouse on the north side of the 



LIBRARY. 369 

Green; and he drew up its constitution, but declined its presi- 
dency. 

The Green had just been graded anew by subscription, in which 
O. G. Walbridge of Brooklyn, N. Y., Judge Sedgwick, Mr. J. E. 
Calhoun, and the Beers brothers were chief movers. The society 
proceeded to erect and maintain street lamps, grade walks, mow the 
lawns all over the village of Cornwall, and sometimes graded or 
repaired roads, cared for trees, etc., etc. It has a fund of five hun- 
dred dollars, the bequest of Deacon Silas C. Beers, and is sus- 
tained by a membership fee of one dollar yearly, and by private 
subscriptions, or the profit on entertainments given. Deacon 
Beers was its first president, and was succeeded, after his death, 
by Rev. E. C. Starr; Whiting J. Wilcox secretary and John E, 
Calhoun treasurer from its organization. 

The West Cornwall Village Improvement Society, organized 
in 1903. William Oliver, president; D. L. Smith, secretary and 
treasurer. 



LIBRARY. 

The Cornwall Library Association was organized in the study 
of Rev. E. B. Sanford (historian of Connecticut), Oct. 2, 1869. 
It had already had a short informal existence. Its origin was 
chiefly due to Mrs. Harriet (Clark) Monson, who for twenty 
years served as librarian — until her death. 

The late John C. Calhoun subscribed fifty dollars at its found- 
ing, and at his death in 1874 bequeathed to it a fund of two 
thousand dollars. 

It had its location in various places in its early days, especially 
in the house of Samuel J. Gold, but soon became indebted to the 
late Frederick Kellogg, Esq., for quarters in his office, to which 
he built an addition for its accommodation. 

The late Deacon Silas C. Beers bequeathed to its fund an 
additional five hundred dollars, subject to a life use. 

A membership fee of three dollars entitles one to vote in its 
meetings, a yearly payment of one dollar opens the library to his 
use, and there are other arrangements for the young people and 
occasional patrons. The regular taxpayers number fifty or sixty. 
In this, less than a quarter of a century, a library of above three 
3 



370 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

thousand volumes has been gathered, and about four hundred 
pamphlets: some four hundred devoted to history or biography, 
three hundred to works of reference and reports, nearly nine hundred 
to fiction, one hundred and fifty to travel, and the remaining four or 
five hundred to poetry, science, bound magazines, and miscellany. 
A comparison with the experience of other libraries shows that the 
reading of the Cornwall people is much less in the department of 
fiction than is usual as compared with other classes of books. 

Within the last three or four years an attempt has been made, 
with unexpected success, to gather a historical collection, particu- 
larly of books and other writings by those who have been con- 
nected with Cornwall. Already very many are represented by 
complete sets of their productions, and others by some specimen, 
but there are not a few who have only promised, or of whose works 
nothing can yet be procured. Among this collection are, for ex- 
ample, books, pamphlets, or manuscripts by or about such natives 
of Cornwall as Prof. Ebenezer Porter, D.D., of Andover, Mass., 
Rev. Dr. William Jackson of Dorset, Vt., Major-General John 
Sedgwick, U. S. A., Rev. Messrs. John C. Hart, Dwight M. 
Pratt, Samuel Scoville, W. G. Fennell, and others, and Miss 
Celia A. Gardner, and Ernest Whitney. Residents of the 
place include General Swift, Deacon Clark, with his rhyming 
geography, Rev. Herman Daggett, with his American Reader, and 
a long list of others, besides various pastors with their printed 
sermons or more pretentious volumes. Many who spent part of 
their lives here, especially their youth, have contributed largely 
to this department of the library: General Ethan Allen, Rev. 
N. J. Burton, D.D., and pre-eminently the Andrews brothers, of 
whom President J. W. Andrews, D.D., LL.D., of Marietta, is 
represented by thirty numbers, and the other five taken together 
require yet more space. President T. D. Woolsey, D.D., LL.D., 
of Yale, has deserved his place in the collection by a residence of 
twenty summers; Rev. J. M. Ludlow, D.D., L.H.D., by writing 
his " King of Tyre " here; artist W. H. Moser by his more recent 
establishment in a home among us, and Rev. Lyman Beecher's 
sermon at the funeral of Obookiah must not be omitted. 

The Cornwall Mission School is represented by addresses, 
letters, reports, biographies, and the like, by over twenty-five 
members or officers of the school, and relating to three or four 



THE BEERS BEQUEST. 371 

times as many of them. Photographs and newspaper clippings, 
and many other memorials, not only of the school but of note- 
worthy persons and places, and of all the dwellings in the village 
of "South" Cornwall, are included in the collection; and yet 
there is doubtless much material lying in dusty attics or on un- 
used bookshelves that would be prized among these treasures gath- 
ered for those who follow us. 

The Rev. E. C. Starr adds to the foregoing a request that I 
would " alter to suit myself." This will only be to commend 
the useful and successful work of Mr. Starr in improving this 
library by collecting from various sources much literary work of 
Cornwall that otherwise might be lost. 

Miss Mary Whitney is the librarian. 

Mr. Starr has commenced a collection of specimens illustrating 
the geology of Cornwall and vicinity, and desires to include other 
departments of natural history. 

When the eyes of the people are opened to all the glories of 
creation in the mineral, vegetable, and animal world, country life 
will no longer be called dull and uninteresting, and education in 
common things in the district schools will take the place of ab- 
stract truths that are beyond the comprehension of childhood. 
The wonders of creation are as interesting to children as Aladdin's 
Lamp, and vastly more useful as a foundation for habits of ob- 
servation, a never-failing source of joy and benefit. 

THE BEERS BEQUEST. 

Menzies Beers, who came to Cornwall from Stratford in 
1817, soon after attaining his majority, joined the First Church 
in January, 182 1, among a score of others, of whom one was the 
Cherokee Steiner, another the future wife of the Cherokee Bou- 
dinot, a third the mother of two missionary teachers among the 
Cherokees. This was in the days of the Foreign Mission School, 
when Indian boys from Georgia were being schooled in it, and 
when the shoes made by the Beers brothers had been marketed in 
that state for a decade. From that date, probably, is to be reck- 
oned the family interest in missions. It was especially in defer- 
ence to the wish of their father that his sons purposed to give the 
property of the family to that object, and that the purpose was 
carried out by the will of their last survivor. Menzies Beers 



372 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

married Laura, daughter of Captain John Pierce, who had all 
the frugalitj^ of that family, which was well known for the two 
seemingly inconsistent traits of careful saving and liberal giving. 
There were but two children, John Welles and Silas Curtis, neither 
of whom married. John W. was a manufacturer and merchant, 
representative, selectman, and for many years chorister, ever 
promptly at his post to lead the singing with a sweet tenor voice. 
Silas was farmer and merchant, deacon, judge of probate, town 
clerk, and treasurer. Menzies Beers died in March, 1888, John 
in December, 1889, Mrs. Beers in November, 1890, and Silas C. 
March 31, 1892. By his will, which was drawn up as had been 
agreed between him and his brother, besides personal legacies, five 
hundred dollars was given to the Cornwall Library Association, an 
equal amount to the Cornwall Village Improvement Society; five 
thousand dollars to the First Ecclesiastical Society, fifteen thousand 
dollars, the buildings now occupied by the Cornwall school, and 
the land now used as their ball-ground, to trustees for the main- 
tenance of a school, and the rest of the estate to the American 
Board of Missions, American Missionary Association, and Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society. These shared equally in the 
$126,405.79 which was left when a contest over the will was 
settled in 1895. Deacon Beers said in his last days that he did 
not bequeath money for a town hall because he intended to build 
it himself, a good purpose left unfulfilled by his somewhat sudden 
death. This large estate was the slow acquisition of a family of 
four in a small country village by careful saving for about seventy- 
five years. It was not unaccompanied by giving from first to last ; 
for many years a load of hay is said always to have been sent to 
the pastor; and he sometimes asked, in response to an appeal, 
" How much shall I give?" But above all, the secret of success 
with the family of " M. Beers & Sons " was care not to spend or 
waste, such a care as would enable many another family to give 
bountifully year by year, or " at the end of days." 

WEST CORNWALL LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

Established, 1900; membership, $1.00 annually; number of 
volumes, 500. 

This is a choice selection of books suited to the demands of the 
community, and is worthy of general patronage. 



LIBRARY OF REV. HEZEKIAH GOLD. 373 

LIBRARY OF REV. HEZEKIAH GOLD. 

Catalogue of that part of the library of the Rev. Hezekiah 
Gold of Cornwall, and of his father, Rev. Hezekiah Gold of 
Stratford, which is now in possession of T. S. Gold : 

The arrangement of list is according to the size of the volumes. 
Some are in good preservation, others have seen hard usage and 
have lost some leaves. 

Manton, Dr. Thomas. Died Oct. i8, 1677. Sermons upon 
the 119th Psalm. Folio, 1107 pages, with an index of 20 pages. 
Printed for Brabazon Aylmer at the Three Pigeons against the 
Royal Exchange in Cornhil. 

Manton, Dr. Thomas. 4th vol. of sermons. Preface signed 
Vin. Alsop, 1694. Folio, 1238 pages, followed by an alphabetical 
list of 12 pages. 

Willard, Samuel, the reverend and learned late pastor of 
the South Church in Boston and vice-president of Harvard Col- 
lege in Cambridge in New England. A complete Body of Di- 
vinity in two hundred and fifty expository lectures on the As- 
sembly's Shorter Catechism. Folio, 915 pages. Boston in New 
England. Printed by B. Green and S. Kneeland for B. Eliot and 
D. Henchman and sold at their shops, 1726. 

Phillips, Edward, Gent., Compiler. The new World of 
Words, or Universal English Dictionary, 6th Edition, by J. V. 
Philobibl, Folio (not paged, about 1,000 pages). London. 
Printed for J. Phillips at the King's Arms in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, H. Rhodes at the Star, the corner of Bride-Lane, in Fleet- 
Street, and J. Taylor at the Ship in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
1706. 

Baxter, Richard. Catholic Theologie ; Plain, Pure, Peaceable ; 
for Pacification of the Dogmatical Word Warriours. Folio, 
637 p. London. Printed by Robert White for Nevill Simmons at 
the Prince's Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1675. 

The books of the New Testament, according to the account 
of the Catholic Church. Title page and others of the first and 
last pages missing. Folio, 752 pages. Spelling would place it 
in early part of 17th century. 

Pemble^ William. Vindicae gratia?, A Plea for Grace. 
Folio, 590 pages. Bound in same volume, "A Brief Introduction 
to Geography," "An Essay de Sensibus Internis," in Latin, 48 



374 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

pages; "A Summe of Moral Philosophy," 49 pages. Oxford. 
Printed by William Hall for Joh: Adams, Edw: Forrest, and 
Joh: Forrest, 1658. 

Neal, Daniel. History of the Puritans, vol. 2d, 900 pages. 
Title page wanting. This book belonged to John Cornwall, 1786. 

Barclay, Robert. An Apology for the True Christian Di- 
vinity, being an Explanation and Vindication of the Principles and 
Doctrines of the people called Quakers. The 7th edition in 
English. London. Dedicated to King Charles H. Printed by 
W. Richardson and S. Clark and sold by the booksellers of Lon- 
don and Westminster, 1765. 574 pages, 8vo. 

Berry Street Sermons. Faith and Practice represented in 54 
sermons on the Principal Heads of the Christian Religion, Preached 
at Berry Street, London, by L Watts, D.D., D. Neal, M.A., J. 
Guyse, D.D., S. Price, D. Jennings, D.D., J. Hubbard. London, 
1757. 2 vols., 8vo. 

Davies' Sermons, Rev. Samuel, A.M., late president of the 
college at Princeton, N. J. London, 2d ed., 1772. 2 vols., 8vo. 

Goodwin, Thomas. A Childe of Light walking in Darkness. 
128 pages, 8vo. No date, but very old. 

Confession of Faith. Dedication to the Right Honorable the 
Lord and Commons Assembled in Parliament. The Humble Ad- 
vice of the Assembly of Divines, now by authority of Parliament 
sitting at Westminster. Concerning a Confession of Faith. 8vo, 
278 pages. Lacks title and preface; old. 

Sermons by various persons, and letters of Mrs. Gerrish. 

Boston, 1736. 

THE CORNWALL SCHOOL. 

In 1848 the building known then as the Alger Institute was 
completed and occupied as a school. Its projector and principal 
was Rev. Edward Warren Andrews, who had been pastor of the 
" Broadway Tabernacle " church in New York. It was named 
after Charles Alger, a subscriber for the building. After a few 
years of marked success it was sold to Dr. Wait R. Griswold, who, 
not prospering, sold to Rev. Ira Pettibone. The latter carried 
on a successful school for several years, and then sold to Rev. 
LaFayette Dudley, who soon changed it into a summer board- 
ing house. 



POPULATION. 375 

Later it was purchased by Mr. Beers and sons, who built a 
separate schoolhouse and rented the property to Rev. S. L. Frost. 
He conducted the school for some years under the title of the 
Housatonic Valley Institute. Mrs. C. H. Guiou followed, chang- 
ing the hitherto boys' school to a young ladies' seminary. 

Deacon Beers left the property to trustees (at his death in 
1892) for school purposes.* At that time it was under the 
management of Mrs. Storer. Miss May L. Phillips was em- 
ployed by the trustees during a contest of the Beers will, after 
which Messrs. McFarland and Arnold, and later Messrs. McGaw 
and Bragdon, carried it on as a boys' school again. 

Recently extensive changes have been made, steam heat intro- 
duced, a large gymnasium constructed, and Rev. Allyn K. Foster, 
Th.M., A.M., with excellent assistants, has taken the property, 
filled all available space with pupils, and is giving a high standing 
to " The Cornwall School," for which an additional building 
has been erected. 

POPULATION. 

By the census of 1756 Cornwall had a population of 500. 
This rapidly increased each succeeding census until 1850, when 
it reached its maximum of 2,041. A regular decline since shows 
the number in 1900 to be 1,175. How is this to be accounted 
for? Up to the date of the highest population Cornwall lived on 
its own resources. It fed and clothed its own people, warmed 
and housed them, and had a surplus of products for market that 
supplied all outside necessities. These were salt and a few other 
groceries, and some silks and other dry goods, and expenses for 
education. We raised our own corn, wheat, oats, and rye, and 
made our own meal and flour, our own cloth, woolen and linen, 
our own leather, made our own boots and shoes, hats and gar- 
ments; our own shingles and lumber was sawed in our own 
sawmills; our own cabinet-makers made our furniture, coopers our 
barrels and tubs, our forges made our own iron, and our black- 
smiths made all horseshoes and nails, door trimmings for houses and 

* Land and buildings and fifteen thousand dollars. Trustees, John E. 
Calhoun, George C. Harrison, and David L. Smith ; to appoint their own 

successors. 



376 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. , 

barns ; plows, carts, and wagons were all of local production, roads 
and bridges were homemade, books, glass, and salt the only outside 
necessities. Ministers, doctors, and lawyers added to their meager 
professional receipts by the culture of their gardens and fields. 
All the members of every family, young and old, pursued some 
useful employment. There were no idlers. There was work for 
all, and hands to do it. 

The farmer paid the mechanic from his farm products, though 
every mechanic and professional man was a half-farmer, and as- 
sisted in the labors of the harvest. The farmers' teams found 
employment in transporting produce to market — Po'keepsie, New 
Haven, or Hartford — with needed goods in return. 

Railroad transportation and improved machinery on the farm 
and in the shops have been the chief influences in changed con- 
dition. A variety of other causes have operated either singly or 
together against the increase of population in the rural districts. 
Early marriage, thrifty habits, and strong home attachments 
favored rapid increase of population ; while on the other hand 
emigration to the broad fields of the West, where one man by 
machinery could do the work of ten hand laborers, machinery 
in large factories improving and cheapening the product, so that 
the local watervvheels so dependent upon the divine blessing, are 
neglected and steam power — dependent, as this winter of 1902-3 
shows, upon a more precarious basis, the will of one or more 
men — has been doing their work. Even the timber growing on 
our hills has not been left to furnish employment to the citizens of 
towns, but the steam sawmill has come in its wasteful way to 
consume our timber, wear out our roads and bridges, all with 
outside labor and without paying a cent in taxes. Whether these 
changed conditions are benefits or losses depends much on cir- 
cumstances. We have improved our style of living. We do not 
want to go back to the tallow candle and the tow cloth of the 
past. We enjoy the comforts and privileges of the 20th century, 
upon which we have entered. All necessities as well as luxuries 
of life are cheaper and better than they were at the beginning of 
the last century. Our desires seem to keep up fully with our op- 
portunities, if haply they are not in excess. That this is not all in 
recollections of an old man we have reliable statistics. 

In 1845, by the direction of the General Assembly, the Hon. 



WEEDS AND BUSHES. 377 

Daniel P. Tyler, secretary of state, collected and published sta- 
tistics of the condition and products of certain branches of in- 
dustry in Connecticut for the year ending Oct. i, 1845. This 
makes an octavo of 242 pages. 

COPY OF REPORT FOR CORNWALL. 

Woolen mills, 2 ; machinery, 2 sets ; wool consumed, 5,000 lbs. ; satin- 
ette manf., 5,500 yds.; V.. $4,200; Cap., $6,000; M. E., 8; F. E., 5. 

Pig-iron furnaces, 2 ; iron manf.. 2,500 tons ; V., $82,000 ; Cap., $60,- 
000; E., 30. 

Saddle, harness and trunk factory, i ; V. of M's, $800 ; Cap., $500 ; 
E., I. 

Coach, wagon and sleigh factory, i ; V. of M's, $1,020; Cap., $500; 
E., 2. 

' Tin factory, i ; V. of M's, $6,845 ; Cap., $3.000 ; E., 2. 

Flouring mills, 2 ; flour m'd, V., $5,000 ; Cap., $5,000 ; E., 2. 

Tanneries, i; hides tanned, 750; leather m'd, V., $1,650; Cap., $2,- 
000; E., 2. 

Boots m'd, 750 pairs; shoes, 1,275 pairs; V., $4,137; M. E., 13; F. 
E., 2. 

Firewood prepared for market, 800 cords; V., $1,600; E., 2. 

Saxony sheep, 662 ; merino, 938 ; all other sorts, 960 ; V., $3,200. 

Saxony wool produced, 1,655 lbs.; merino, 2,814; all others, 2,880 lbs.; 
v., $2,205. 

Horses, 278; V., $9,500. 

Neat cattle, 2,221 ; V., $27,411. 

Swine, 839; V., $5,163. 

Indian corn, 6,127 bu. ; V., $4,902. 

Wheat, 321 bu. ; V., $400. 

Rye, 2,988 bu. ; V., $2,241. 

Oats, 7,086 bu. ; V., $2,834. 

Potatoes, 13,176 bu. ; V., $3,294. 

Other esculents, 5,665 bu. ; V., $708. 

Hay, 3,395 tons ; V., $33,950. 

Flax, 96 lbs.; V., $12. 

Fruit. 1,513 bu. : V., $504. 

Butter, .39,710 lbs.; V., $5,956. 

Cheese, 176,875 lbs. ; V.. $10,612. 

Buckskin tannery, i; leather m'd, V., $1,000; Cap., $1,000; M. E., 2; 
F. E., 3 ; mittens m'd. 160 doz. ; V., $500. 

Charcoal m'd, 500,000 bu. ; V., $27,500; E., 65. 

Sash, door and blind factory, i; V. of M's, $1,800; Cap., $2,000; 
E., 3- 



WEEDS AND BUSHES. 

In connection with 'changes in agriculture one of the most 
notable is the incoming of foreign weeds, as well as the increase of 
some natives. 

With the decay of sheep husbandry the farmer has lost a most 
efficient helper in keeping in check many annual and perennial 
herbs, as well as shrubs. The sheep not only eats a greater variety 



378 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

of plants than other domestic animals but digests the seeds more 
perfectly. The common daisy, ragweed, milkweed, dandelion, and 
wild carrot are examples where we need their help. The only 
troublesome weeds that they refuse are thistle, mullein, and snap- 
dragon. 

On the other hand, some of the old weeds that lined our high- 
ways, flaunting their banners in defiance, have yielded to our im- 
proved laws and customs. All neat stock, horses, swine, and 
geese were allowed free range on the highways and unenclosed 
land. The swine kept the borders of the highways under a system 
of intensive culture, resulting in crops of mayweed, tall verbena, 
mullein, and big thistles. High fertility, induced by the dairy 
waste fed to swine, and wasted by them on the wayside, maintained 
the growth of this useless vegetation, that had not even beauty to 
recommend it to the traveler. The maintenance of clean road- 
sides is not a luxury, but now has become self-supporting, as 
every land owner is protected by law in growing trees, grass, or 
other crops on the roadside not interfering with travel or road- 
making. 

Cornwall is a fair representative of many of the rural towns. 
The railroad opened a market for milk in New York, thus 
relieving the household from the labors of butter and cheese- 
making. The toil of spinning and weaving was released by the 
factories, that made cheaper and sometimes better goods. Marriage 
is too often delayed till that peculiar critical period in life is past — 
call it pivotal, or keystone, or corner stone — when the responsi- 
bilities of manhood and womanhood properly begin, both in out- 
door and indoor life, and the large families of children are found 
only in the records of the past. 

Emigration and immigration have come in with their counter 
influences. Large numbers of natives have left the town, till the 
tide has reached the Pacific coast and the islands of the sea. Im- 
migration has come from the old world and Canada, but has 
afiected the rural towns less than the young cities that have sprung 
up all over the state, so that most of the farms are still in posses- 
sion of descendants of original settlers or early purchasers. 

Now, how have these people fared who have gone out and 
have come in? Some of those who have gone have prospered 
to a degree that Cornwall furnished no opportunities; but if this 



ROADS. 379 

population, with its industry and thrift, had remained at home on 
their native soil, the fields cleared of rocks would have not re- 
mained an exception, but every hillside would have been terraced 
and reclaimed, so that our fertile soil would have yielded an 
abundance for its teeming population, which by its patriotism, 
education, integrity, would have secured for us the name of the 
" Garden town," and " The Foreign Mission School " would 
not have the greatest claim for our part in the world's work of 
education and civilization. We could have spared some to have 
served the country as soldiers or statesmen, and some as philan- 
thropists and missionaries to the outside world. Our advantages 
for sanitariums and rural homes would have so developed the 
resources of the town that a multiplied population with all the 
advantages of education and comforts of life would have been the 
natural heritage of the people. 

The movement of people, too close here and too scattered there, 
reminds one of the two old sayings, as true now as ever, though 
in direct contradiction, " The rolling stone gathers no moss," 
" The sitting hen never gets fat." 

Cornwall still enjoys its ancient reputation for hospitality; 
no skyscrapers can shut of^ free sunlight and air; nature con- 
tinually restores the forest that mantles our hills and shrouds our 
valleys, so that a reflex wave of population may more than realize 
these fancy flights. 



ROADS. 

The highways in Cornwall were originally laid out regardless 
of the face of the country, but in construction the hills had the 
preference, as better adapted to the most common mode of travel, 
on horseback. Later, turnpikes were incorporated, that were 
somewhat improved in layout and construction. 

The Sharon and Goshen crossed the river at West Cornwall, 
where there was a toll-gate at the bridge, and another in Goshen 
near Tyler Pond. It led through Cornwall Centre and climbed 
Bunker Hill. 

The Canaan and Washington turnpike lay through the Great 
Hollow, in the eastern part of the town. 

The Litchfield and Canaan passed through the N. E. corner of 



380 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the town, and the first P. O. with daily mail was in Cornwall 
Hollow. 

These turnpikes were all given up by the middle of the last 
century, and their care devolved upon the town. 

The people generally worked out their road tax, the town 
being divided into districts, each in charge of a pathmaster, who 
called out the taxpayers at his discretion to repair the roads, due 
allowance being made to each one for work, men and teams. The 
success of this plan depended upon the skill and energy of the path- 
master in directing the labor and the public spirit of the district, 
not always restricted to amount of tax. 

About 1850 the district system was abolished, and the select- 
men have had charge of the roads, either by contract or other- 
wise. 

A general interest in road improvement has resulted in the 
change of location of portions of roads, and the acceptance of 
the state bounty for three terms. Two only used as yet, have 
enabled the authorities to do much in improving the grade of the 
main thoroughfares and rendering travel more safe and comfort- 
able. It is not yet such as to invite the automobile — to supplant 
the horse, that faithful servant of man in war and peace — and 
we hope that event will never come, for iron and steel can never 
replace the companionship of the horse — his master has shared his 
tent and has divided his last crust with him in the desert, and he 
lives in history and song alike the joy of childhood and the com- 
fort of old age. 

COUNTRY STORES, POST-OFFICES, AND INDUS- 
TRIES. 

About 1820 there was but one or two post-offices in town. 
One was at Cornwall Centre, on the now vacant corner facing 
south and west. The store was kept by Erastus Gaylord. Soon 
after the meeting-house was removed to North Cornwall in 
1825 Mr. Gaylord moved to Madison, N. Y., and Wm. S. Stevens 
built a store at North Cornwall. This store was later maintained 
by John Sedgwick and John Rogers, succeeded by Beers & Sons. 
The mail was carried from this office at Cornwall Centre to 
Hartford by Victory Clark in a two-horse covered wagon for 



COUNTRY STORES, POST-OFFICES, AND INDUSTRIES. 38 1 

passengers and packages. He left Cornwall Monday morning 
and got back Wednesday noon. The mail was then taken in a 
one-horse wagon to Sharon and return. Not far from this time 
a stage route was established from Litchfield to Poughkeepsie, 
crossing the river at Cornwall bridge, and a post-oflRce established 
there. This line made three trips weekly. About that date a 
stage line from New Haven to Litchfield was continued on to 
Albany, passing through Cornwall Hollow. Through the efforts 
of Hon. Albert Sedgwick, afterwards School Fund Commissioner, 
a post-office was located in the Hollow, and he was mail con- 
tractor on this route. I remember, as a boy, seeing him, with 
only one man to help, drawing the mail through Goshen Street 
on a hand-sled over the snow drifts. These delights of boyhood 
were not so pleasant for mail-carriers. 

The post-office at Cornwall Centre followed the store to North 
Cornwall, and after this closed, in the course of events, it was 
transferred to South Cornwall, and given the name of Corn- 
wall, 

There was no post-office at West Cornwall till the Housatonic 
Railroad was opened, in 1841. Now, with two daily mails each 
way on the railroad, and free mail delivery over half the town, and 
some local mail routes, two telegraph stations, one with night 
operator, and telephones all over the town, with day and night 
communication with the whole round world, why should a rural 
community pine for the excitement of the city? It is enough to 
hear of daily crimes and casualties without witnessing them. En- 
joy peace of mind and be thankful. Take knowledge from first 
hands — from the Almighty Father, in all his works of creation, 
striving to do His will, in making the world more beautiful and 
all creatures more happy. As good stewards let each one of 
us prize and honor our heritage, and we shall have less of crowded 
slums and deserted farms, both destructive of the highest civiliza- 
tion and finest moral development. 

Frederic Kellogg kept a store in Pine Street, now Cornwall, 
in the early part of the last century, succeeded later by Menzies 
Beers & Sons, and in 1882 by Wilcox. The town safe, containing 
all the town records, is placed in this store, which is also the post- 
office. Beers also succeeded Rogers at North Cornwall. 

About 1880 Henry Sanford opened another country store in 



382 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Cornwall, selling out to John Richter in 1894, who still con- 
tinues the business. 

Lyman & Porter, of Goshen, established a store at West Corn- 
wall in 1 84 1, when the Housatonic Railroad was opened to 
Canaan, In a few years they sold out to James Kellogg, who re- 
moved to Cornwall Bridge, selling out to Pratt & Foster. They 
enlarged the business, receiving farmers' produce of all kinds, 
selling dry goods and groceries, lumber, grain, and feed in this 
and adjoining towns. Smith & Sons took charge of the business 
in 1875, and united with it the store in West Goshen, where the 
Hart Bros, had succeeded A. Miles & Son. 

In connection with the feed business Pratt & Foster had a mill, 
run by water, in West Cornwall, for grinding feed ; later a steam 
engine was used to make up for lack of water. The boiler ex- 
ploded, in 1899, and it was thrown through the roof high in the 
air, and landed some rods away without injury to any person. 

About 1880 the drug store at West Cornwall was established 
by Dr. Brower, and passed through several hands — George H. 
Wheaton, W. H. Porter, and Charles N. Hall. Mr. Hall added 
millinery and a large stock of fancy goods. 

Ransom F. Smith retired from firm of Smith & Sons in 1895, 
and bought out Hall, who removed to New Haven. Mr. Smith 
added a general assortment of goods. 

In connection with the two furnaces there were two furnace 
stores that had a large trade, as they furnished all kinds of goods 
to their employees as long as their credit was good ; and practically 
these embraced most of the laboring population of the township — 
the farmers who raised the wood for charcoal, the woodchoppers 
and colliers, and teamsters for coal, ore, and iron, for this latter 
had to be transported to Poughkeepsie or other markets. The 
store at Cornwall Bridge was maintained by Russell Beirce at the 
old stand till sold out to George and David Smith, who continue 
the business, March, 1903. 

The store at West Cornwall was closed at the same time as the 
furnace, in 1875. 

The Cochrane brothers, Houston, Robert N., and James A., in- 
dividually or collectively began trade at West Cornwall about 
1870. They traded in cattle and meat, bought the tin shop of 
Henry Faulois, who moved to Washington, Conn., and established 



COUNTRY STORES, POST-OFFICES, AND INDUSTRIES. 383 

a country store with feed mill attached. The father, James, 
bought land, and the sons have followed his example. Houston 
has retired from business, and bought the Blinn farm on the Sharon 
side of the river. Robert sold his house to Dr. Ives, and has 
removed to Bantam, and the firm of James A. Cochrane & Son 
now carry on the general store and meat market and farming. 

Theodore Sturgis bought out the tin business and erected a 
large shop on adjoining location in 1899. 

Mr. Allen built a casting shop opposite the hotel about 1850, 
afterwards used as shear shop by Vol miller and Beck, and others, 
and burned in 1900. Location now occupied by Masonic Hall, 
erected in 1902. 

About 1875 the Gold Sanitary Heater Co. v/as formed at 
West Cornwall, for manufacture and sale of heaters. A casting 
shop was erected near the gristmill. The heaters were all right, 
but the casting shop was burned, with patterns, and other mis- 
fortunes beset the firm, with loss of capital. The casting shop was 
rebuilt by James Wood. 

THE J. MALLINSON SHEAR CO. 

J. Mallinson came to Cornwall about fifty years ago and began 
manufacture of shears in small shop near Stoddard's satinet fac- 
tory; a few years later, with John Wood, bought out the mill 
and water privilege at West Cornwall, and had a larger factory 
under the name of J. Mallinson & Co. Mr. Wood has retired from 
the business and left town, and Mr. Mallinson has other partners 
under the same firm name. They make all kinds of shears, some 
of the finest quality. 

William Oliver, an Englishman, has returned from his visit 
to the old country and reopened his blacksmith shop, and bought 
the Howard farm of Cochrane, now in charge of Charles Bate, 
who came with his family on Mr. Oliver's return from England. 

The Kaolin Co., owning and working a clay bed in Sharon, 
about three miles from West Cornwall, to facilitate their business 
have erected a steel bridge across the Housatonic, about one-half 
mile above West Cornwall, and a large storehouse for clay by 
a side track on the railroad. The clay is of superior quality, and 
a large deposit. 



384 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL, 



FELDSPAR MINE. 

A mine has just been opened on the east side of the railroad, 
one-half mile south of West Cornwall, for feldspar. The de- 
posit appears to be abundant, and of good quality. Quartz and 
mica are abundant, but no other minerals are found to injure the 
quality of the product ; these are easily rejected. The railroad has 
put in a side track for loading cars, and a tramway from the mine 
delivers the feldspar. Only surface work is required, as the vein 
is traced a long ways up the mountain side. 

The same company, Mr. Boyce foreman, " Eureka Mining and 
Operating Co., Trenton, N. J.," are working at other places on 
the line of the Housatonic Railroad, but location gives this an 
advantage, and the mine promises to be a success. 

Recently, as they were thawing out dynamite in their magazine, 
500 pounds exploded, destroying the building and scattering things 
generally, but no injury to persons. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



1879 Daniel W. Manvel. 1889-90 
James A. Cochrane. 

1880 Sebra Wells. 1891-2 
James F. Reed. 

1881 Horace C. Hart. 1893-4 
Russell Bierce. 

1882 Charles H. Harrison. 1895-6 
Luman C. Wickwire. 

1883 Orlando Perkins. 1897-8 
Leonard J. Nickerson. 

1884 Geo. W. Shepard. 1899-1900 
Seymour Johnson. 

1885 Victory C. Beers. 1901-2 
George H. Oldfield. 

1886 George Hughes. 1903-4 
Philo M. Kellogg. 

1887-8 Smith W. Merrifield. 

Ransom F. Smith. 



Joseph Mallinson. 
George H. Beers. 
Arthur B. Reed. 
Francis F. Skiff. 
Frank B. Wood. 
Arthur B. Reed. 
Frederic W. Yutzler. 
Andrew M. Clark. 
Charles W. Everett. 
Robert N. Cochrane. 
Patrick O'Donnell. 
William M. Curtiss. 
George R. Smith. 
Arthur M. Pratt. 
Nathan L. Dunbar. 
George W. Cochrane. 



SENATORS. 



1 790- 1802 Gen. Heman Swift. 1855 

1837-8 Peter Bierce. 1859 

1844-5 Philo Kellogg. 1899 

1848 S. W. Gold. 



Geo. A. Wheaton. 
S. W. Gold. 
David L. Smith. 



MINISTERS. 



385 



This list of ministers who have had some connection with 
Cornwall, birth or residence, kindly furnished by Rev. E. C. Starr, 
as also of physicians and lawyers. 



MINISTERS. 



Aldridge, Frediis, M. E. 

Ailing, Harvey. 

Ambler, Silas. 

Andrews, Ebenezer Baldwin, 

LL.D., Col. Prof. 
Andrews, Edward Warren, Lt.-Col. 
Andrews, Israel Ward, D.D., 

Pres't. 
Andrews, Samuel James, D.D., 

Cath. Apos. 
Andrews, William, First Church 

Pastor, d. 
Andrews, William Given, D.D., 

Epis. 
Andrews, William Watson. 
Andrus, Leman, M. E. 
Avery, David, b. 
Bachelor, Elijah, M. E. 
Baldwin, Abram E. 
Bassett, Amos, D.D., F. M. Sch. 

Prin. 

Bates, . 

Beach, Benjamin. 
Benedict, Thomas B. 
Benton, J. D., M. E. 
Bird, Samuel. 
Bishop, Freeman, M. E. 

Bloodgood, . 

Blydenburg, Mons, M. E. 

Bonney, William, b. 

Bowers, Edwin D. 

Brown, William, M. E. 

Brownell, Grove L., Second Ch. 

Brush, Jesse, Second Ch. 

Burnett, Eli, M. E. 

Burton, Henry, M. E. 

Burton, Nathaniel Judson, D.D., 

res. in youth. 
Bushnell, A., M. E. 
Campbell, James, M. E. 
Canfield, Ezekiel, M.E. 
Chapman, F. D. 
Christie, Henry, M. E. 
Clark, George (exhorter, M. E.) 
Clark, Laban, M. E. 
Clarke, William B., Second Ch. P. 
Cochrane, Samuel, M. E. 
Cole, Erastus, studied and taught, 

F. M. S. 
Coleman, James, M. E. 
Cook, Phineas, M. E. 



Cornwall, John, Second Ch. 

Cowell, James. 

Crane, J. L., M. E. 

Crowell, Seth, M. E. 

Culon, Cyrus, M. E. 

Curtis, W. W., M. E. 

Daggett, Herman, taught F. M. 

S., and res., d. 
Day, Henry, First Ch. P. 
Dayton, Gurdon Rexford. 
Dayton, Smith, M. E. 
Dennis, Daniel, M. E. 
Dennis, James S., D.D., ed. 
Derthick, Ananias, d. 
Dikeman, C. L., M. E. 
Dixon, Charles, M. E. 
Dwight, Edwin W.. taught F. M. 

S. 
Eames, Harry, M. E. 
Eaton, Jacob, m. 

Ellinwood, Frank F., D.D., sum- 
mer home. 
Elmer, E. B., Bapt. P. 
Ely, James (miss, to Hawaii), 

ed. and m. 
Emery, Nathan, M. E. 
Everest, Cornelius Bradford, b. 

and m. 
Fairman, J. 

Fenn, Stephen, First Ch. P. 
Fennell. William G., b. (D.D.) Bap. 
Ferguson, Samuel D., M. E. 
Ferris, Will Chester, Sec. Ch. P. 
Field, Julius, M. E. 
Fitch, Charles Newton, Second 

Ch. P. 
Folsom, Israel (Choctaw Ind.) ed. 
Foster, Allyn Kent, teacher, Bapt. 

Fuller, . 

Ga Nun, Jackson, Bapt. 
Garretson, Freeborn, M. E. 
Gold, Hezekiah, First Ch. P., d. 
Gold, Thomas Ruggles, never ord. 
Griffin, Benjamin, M. E. 
Guernsey, William H., ed. 
Hallock, F. M., M. E. 
Flarris, Reuben, M. E. 
Harrison, Jared, first minister 

here, supply First Ch. 
Flart, John. 
Hart, John Milton, b. 



386 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



Hart, John Clark, b. 

Hart. Luther B. 

Hatfield, Henry, M. E. 

Haines, Josiah, Second Ch. P. 

Hill, Aaron S., M. E., m. 

Hill, Rowland, M. E. 

Holley, Israel, Second Ch. 

Hotchkiss, Beriah. 

Hotchkiss, James H., b., Presb. 

Hughes, George W., M. E. 

Hunt, Aaron, M. E. 

Ives, Joseph Brainerd, res. 

Ives, Mark, res., miss. Sandwich 

Islands. 
"'Jackson, William, D.D., b. 
Jencks, E. N. 

Jessup, Lewis, m., First Ch. supply 
Johnson, S. F., M. E. 
Jones, J. F., Bapt. 
Joscelin, Augustus, M. E. 
Kirby, R. D., M. E. 
Lovejoy, John, M. E. 
Lyon, Jonathan, M. E. 
Lyon, Zalmon, M. E. 
McAllister, William, M. E. 
McDougal, William Hammond, 

Second Ch. P. 
Alclntyre, Oscar Garland, First 

Ch. P. 
Malley, Cornelius E., Bapt. P. 
Mallory, Almon. 



]\Iartindale, S. 

Mason, Philip H., Second Ch. 

Maynard, Joshua L., Sec. Ch. P. 

Mead, Arthur, M. E. 

Mead, Henry Burnham, First Ch. 

supply. 
Mead, Rev. Merwin. 
Mitchell, John, M. E. 
Moriarty, Peter, M. E. 
(Moore, William H., First Ch. 

supply.) 
Morris, Caleb, M. E. 
Nash, David, M. E. 
Nash, John, M. E. 
Nelson, Julius, M. E. 
Norton, Augustus T., m. 
Osborn, Daniel, M. E. 
Osborn, Elbert, M. E., res., m. 
Ostrander, David, M. E. 
Owens, Charles, Bapt. P. 
t Palmer, Solomon, First Ch. P. 

Prot. Ep. 
Pendleton, Henry Gidfon. 
Pettibone, Ira, First Ch. supply, 

res. and taught. 
Pierpont, John, Second Ch. P. 
Platts, Smith H., M. E. 
:i;Porter, Ebenezer, b. Oct. =;, 1772 

D.D., Pres. And. Theol. Sem. 
Potter, C. W. 
Potter, John D., evangelist. 



* Rev. Dr. William Jackson was born in Cornwall, went to Vermont; 
father-in-law of Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, who tells of him in a book about 
Mrs. Hamlin, " Light on the Dark River." Cornwall Library has one 
of his manuscript sermons. 

t From Cornwall town records : Rev. Solomon Palmer and Abigail, 
his wife. 

Children: 

" Solomon, born Nov., 1740. 
Abigail, born Nov., 1742. 

Chileab, born Nov., 1744, and died April, 1745. 
Anna, born March i, 1746. 
Sarah, born May 15, 1748. 
Amy, born May 18, 1750. 
Tamar, born Sept. 23, 1752." . 
From Kilbourn's "Litchfield," page 179: "Rev. Solomon Palmer 
died Nov. i, 1771, aged 62 yrs." 

$ Dea. Thomas Porter of Cornwall Church moved to Vermont and 
died in New York within a few months of a hundred ; was Judge of 
Supreme Court and Lieutenant-Governor, etc., of Vermont. His son. 
Rev. Ebenezer Porter, D.D., president of Andover and founder of Am. 
Ed. Society, was born in Cornwall. 



LAWYERS. 



387 



Powell, Charles W., M. E. 

Pratt, Almon Bradley, b. 

Pratt. Dwight Mallory, D.D., b. 

Pratt, J. Edward, b., Prot. Ep. 

Prentice, John Homer, taught and 
studied F. M. S. 

Prince, Newell Anderson, First 
Ch. P . 

Prindle, Andrew, M. E. 

Reynolds, J., M. E. 

Reynolds, R. R., M. E. 

Rexford, Gurdon, M. E. 

Robbins, Francis L. 

Roberts, Bennett, studied F. M. S. 

Robinson, James, M. E. 

Rogers, John Almanza Rowley. 

Rogers, Medad. 

Root, Isaac. 

Rouse, Lucius C, res. in youth, m. 

Rudd, Wesley, M. E. 

Rugg:les, Samuel (miss, to Ha- 
waii), studied F. M. S. 

Salter, John Williams, First Ch. 
suppl3^ 

Sanford, Elias Benjamin, D.D., 
First Ch. P. 

Sanford, Isaac, M. E. 

Sanford, L. A., M. E. 

Schofield, Aaron, M. E. 

Scoville, Samuel, b. 

Smalley. John, D.D. 

Smith, C. J. 

Smith, Eben, M. E. 

Smith, Gad, M. E. 

Smith, Gad N., M. E. 

Smith, H. G., Bapt. 

Smith, Sylvester, M. E., at Bridge. 

Smith, Lemuel, M. E. 

Smith, Ralph, First Ch. P. 

Smith. S. J., Bapt. 

Smith, Walter, Second Ch. P. 

Somers, Alvin. 

Spaulding, Wayland, Second Ch. 
supply. 



Stackman, Carl, Second Ch. P. 
Starr, Edward Comfort. First 

Ch. P. 
Stebbins, William H., M. E. 
Stembridge, Alfred E., M. E. 
Stephens, Ebenezer, M. E. 
Stevens, D. S., M. E. 
Stillman, Stephen S., M. E. 
St. John, Oliver Starr, taught. 
Stock, A. H., Bapt. 
Stone, Timothy, First Ch. P., d. 
Stone, Timothy Dwight Porter, 

Prof., etc., b. 
Stoneman, Jesse, M. E. 
Sturdivant, Samuel. 
Swain, Matthias, M. E. 
Swayze, William, M. E. 
Sweet, John, M. E. 
Talmage, Asa, b. 
Taylor, James, M. E. 
Thatcher, William, M. E. 
Thompson, Richard. 
Tracy, S. J., Second Ch. 
Trumbull, Henry Clay, summered. 
Urmston, Nathaniel Massey, First 

Church P., m. 
Vail, Herman Landon, taught and m. 
Van Schoonoven, James, ed. 
Wadsworth, Henry F., b. 
Wager, Philip, M. E. 
Washburn, Ebenezer, M. E. 
Weeks, Samuel, M. E. 
Weston, Hercules, First Ch. P. 
Wetherby, Charles, Sec. Ch. P. 
Whedon, Harvey. 
White, Samuel Jessup, D.D., First 

Ch. supply. 
Wigton, Samuel, jNL E. 
(Woolsey, Theodore Dwight, D.D., 

Pres't Yale, summered. ) 
Youngs, Timothy C, M. E. 



LAWYERS. 

Adams, John Quincy, b. Cornwall. Andrews, Rev. Edward Warren, 
Allen, Elijah, b. (?) and lived taught and lived Cornwall. 

Cornwall. Andrevys, Rev. Samuel J., in youth 
^Andrews, Maj. Andre, b. lived Cornwall. 

* From Cornwall town records : " Major Andre Andrews, son of 
Andrew Andrews and Mary, his wife, born July 8, 1792." 

From Field's " Middletown Centennial" (1853), page 207: "Major 
Andre Andrews, native of Cornwall, studied law, for a time at least, 



388 



HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 



Baldwin, Birdsey. 

Birdsey, Victory, M. C, b. Corn- 
wall. 

Bierce, Wm. W., b. 

Bosler, Wm. D. 

Brewster, Nelson, b. Cornwall. 

Calhoun, Henry Warner, Corn- 
wall. 

Everest, Daniel, b. Cornwall. 

Everest, Sherman, b. Cornwall. 

Gold, Thomas, b. Cornwall. 

Gold. Thomas Ruggles, b. Corn- 
wall. 

Harrison, Ralph C, b. Cornwall. 

Johnson, Solon B., b. and lived 
Cornwall. 

Judson, Samuel Wesley, b. Corn- 
wall. 

Kellogg, Theodore, b. and lived 
Cornwall. 



Lewis, Henry Gould, Yale Law 
School, 1844, b. here. 

Nickerson. Leonard J., b. and 
lived Cornwall. 

Rogers, Edward, M. C, b. Corn- 
wall. 

Sedgwick. Charles F., b. Cornwall. 

Sedgwick, John (Judge), sum- 
mers, lived Cornwall. 

Sedgwick. Philo C. b. Cornwall. 

Sedgwick, Stephen. 

Sedgwick, Theodore, LL.D., M. C, 
U. S. Sen., in youth lived Corn- 
wall. 

Smith, Walter, b., Sol. U. S. Treas. 

Warner, Arthur D. 

Wheaton, George, b. and lived 
Cornwall. 

Wilson. James A., b. here. 

Woodbury, Chas. P., Yale, '78, 
resided two years. 



PHYSICIANS. 



Andrews, Timothy Langdon, res. 
in youth. 

Benedict, Abel Carter, b. here, in 
army, Lt.-Col. 

Bolton, H. C, M.D., res. here. 

Bolton, Jackson, resided here. 

Brower, C. S. 

Calhoun, John, practiced here, m. 

Curtiss, Wm. M., m. 

Gold, James Douglas, b. 

Gold. Samuel Wadsworth, b. here. 

Hale, Edward. 

Hall, Franklin W. 

Hamant, Irving L., practiced. 

Heady. Elias B., practiced, m. 

Hodge, Thomas S., practiced. 

Hollister, , at Center, prac- 
ticed. 

Holloway, Geo., at Center, prac- 
ticed, d. 

Hubbard, Solon, pr., m. 

Hurlburt, Jonathan. 

Hurlburt, Gilman FL 

Hurlburt, Ulysses. 

Ives, John Wagner, pr., m. 

Livingstone, Joseph A., pr. 



Marsh, Isaac. 
North, Burritt B.. pr. 
North, Hammond. 
North, Joseph, pr. 
North, J. Howard, res. in youth. 
North, Loomis. 
Pratt, Arthur M., pr., m. 
Pratt, Joseph M., m. 
Robinson, Joseph, pr. and m. 
Rogers, Timothy. 
Russell, Thomas, practiced, m. 
Ryder, Chas. A., C. Bridge. 
Sanford, Isaac, practiced. 
Sanford, Chas. Alson. 
Sanford, Edward, pr. 
Scoville, John, b., pr. 
Sill, Richard Lord. 
Skiff, Francis S., pr. 
Swift, Isaac, pr., in Rev. Army. 
Smith, Ralph (Rev.), resided. 
Smith, Harvey, b. 
Smith, J. Edward, pr. 
Spencer, Cyrenius D., pr. 
Turner, Uriah, at Center, p. 
Welch, (H) John, resided and pr., 
m. 



with his brother Benajah Andrews, in Wallingford; began practice in 
Middletown as early as 1815 ; was appointed state's attorney September, 
1818; moved to Buffalo, 1819, where he died during the second preva- 
lence of the cholera in that place, August 17, 1834, aged 42." 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 389 

COLLEGE GRADUATES FROM CORNWALL IN 
RECENT YEARS. 

Beers, Ralph Silas, B.S., Worcester Polytechnic, 1900. 

Bolton, Henry Carrington, Columbia University, 1862; later Got- 
tingen, Ph.D. ; Fellow of A. A. A. S., and sec. and vice-pres. ; member 
of numerous secret societies ; professor in Trinity ; author of many 
books and miscellaneous papers on chemistry, folk-lore, bibliography, 
travel, and literature; died at Washington, Nov. 19, 1903. 

Whitney, Joseph Ernest, Yale, B:A., '82, M.A., '90; instructor ni 
English; died 1893. 

Baldwin, Edward Chauncey, Yale, B.A., '95, Ph.D., 98; professor 
of Literature, Illinois University, Urbana, 111. 

Calhoun, John Edward, Yale, B.P., '83. 

Calhoun, Henry Warner, Yale, B.A., '83; Columbia. LL.B,, '85. 

Gold. Charles Lockwood, Yale, B.P., '83. 

Gold, James Douglas, Yale, B.P., '88; M.D., Columbia, '91. 

Hubbard, William Brewster, Yale, B.P., 1901. 

Hughes. Frederic George, Yale. B.P., 1900. 

Starr. Charles Comfort, B.P., Yale, 1900; A.M., Col., 1902. 

Tibbals, Ralph, Hamilton, B.A., 1902. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 

THE ANDREWS FAMILY. 

The connection of this family with Cornwall began in 1827, 
when Rev. William Andrews was settled at South Cornwall, and 
lasted rather more than a quarter of a century. Mrs. Andrews 
removed in 1850, but her son, Edward Warren, had become a 
resident, and his family remained until about 1853. 

William Andrews, fifth son of Samuel and Esther (Cone) 
Andrews, was born in Ellington, Conn., Sept. 28, 1782; m., at 
Benson, Vt., May 18, 1809, Sarah, second daughter of James 
and Sarah (Baker) Parkhill (who d. Marietta, O., Feb. 20, 1857) ; 
d. South Cornwall, Jan. i, 1838; seven children. Descendant of 
Lieut. William Andrews of New Haven, one of twelve chosen for 
the " foundation work " of the church, and builder of the first 
meeting house. Descent through Samuel, who m. Elizabeth Peck; 
Samuel, m. Anna Hall; Thomas, m. Felix Lewis; Benjamin, m. 
Susanna Morgan, and Samuel, m. Esther Cone. Other ancestors 
of the first generation : Dea. William Peck and Capt. Nathaniel 
Merriman, paternal ; Daniel Cone, Mrs. Jared Spencer, and Capt. 
Robert Chapman, maternal. 

Middlebury, 1806; studied theology with Dr. Burton of Thet- 
ford, Vt., and President Dwight; ordained Windham, Conn., 



39© HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Aug. lo, 1808; installed Danbury, Conn., June 30, 1813, South 
Cornwall, July 24, 1827. An account of his pastorate will be 
found elsewhere. He published a sermon, preached Danbury, 
Nov. 13, 1 81 7, at the execution of a colored man for rape, and 
various articles in the Evangelical Magazine and the Christian 
Spectator. 

Mr. Andrews had a vigorous, well-furnished, and well-disci- 
plined mind, and was a good preacher. In 181 7, when a compara- 
tively young man, he preached by appointment before the General 
Association of Connecticut. In his later years his fellow minis- 
ters of Litchfield county seem to have recognized him as a leader. 
Lawyers were fond of listening to his sermons, on account of their 
logical character, and he in his turn took great pleasure in follow- 
ing legal argument, as he had opportunity in the county towns of 
Windham and Danbury. He was recommended to the latter parish 
by Chief Justice Reeve, who had been among his hearers in the 
former during official journeys. His theological opinions were 
essentially those of his teacher. Dr. Dwight, themselves an inno- 
vation on earlier opinions. Rut he had a very conservative tem- 
perament (inherited by his sons), which led him stoutly to resist 
farther innovations. 

" Foremost among the moral qualities of Mr. Andrews was an 
inflexible devotion to duty, in the performance of which, as he saw 
it, he was absolutely fearless. He gave up his first parish in the 
face of angry protest, and perhaps unwisely, because his people 
were slow to accept his view of their duty under the Fourth 
Commandment. He sacrificed his second parish by insisting on 
strict discipline when, though the church stood by him, not only 
the society but two ecclesiastical councils were against him. He 
may even be said to have lost his third parish, with his life, as the 
result of the exhausting labors which his conscience imposed upon 
him in behalf of the Theological Institute of Connecticut, estab- 
lished at East Windsor Hill in 1834, ^o counteract the influence of 
the New Haven divines, led by Dr. Taylor. 

But, unyielding as Mr. Andrews was in what was to him the 
cause of righteousness and truth, he was a very lovable man. 
As a husband and father, as a pastor, as a friend, his affectionate 
and sympathetic nature inspired the most ardent attachments, 
while his easy and engaging manners made his society attractive to 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 39 1 

nearly every one. Half a century after he left Windham one of 
his grandsons was almost rapturously welcomed there by an old 
man past ninety, who clung to his hand throughout their inter- 
view. His Cornwall parishioners showed their attachment by 
their tender considerateness during his long illness and their cheer- 
ful endurance of unavoidable failures in service. His death, in 
his fifty-sixth year, was universally mourned, but was mournful 
to him only for the sorrow which it must bring. If he could not 
work he had no wish to live, and he smiled his farewells to his 
friends as they left his bedside. He died " having the testimony 
of a good conscience," and with it the humility, as inseparable from 
true virtue as from true piety, which claims nothing from man but 
kind memories and nothing from God but mercy. 

My memory of Mr. Andrews is very pleasant. He was often 
at my father's house in Goshen, about 1830, when they were dis- 
cussing the plan of establishing in Litchfield county a manual labor 
school like that at Oneida, which was then in successful operation. 
I had recently visited that institution with my father, and I 
looked forward with pleasure to a school where gardening and 
farming would in part supplant the confinement of the school- 
room, then about six and one-half hours per day, with only half 
holiday on Saturday. Many good men were much interested in 
the project, but funds were lacking to buy a farm and buildings, 
and it was abandoned. The school at Oneida got in bad odor 
from the erratic opinions of those in charge, but the plan was a 
good one. 

From my youth I have known this family, and have noted 
with interest their lives, so successfully devoted to promote pure 
Christianity. Though not born in Cornwall this was their boy- 
hood home, for which they always retained the most loving 
affection. Litchfield county claims them as the natural product 
of the social and moral influences of that day. 

DESCENDANTS OF REV. WILLIAM ANDREWS FIRST GENERATION. 

I. William Watson; b. Windham, Conn., Feb. 26, 1810; 
m. (ist), Fishkill, N. Y., July 24, '33, Mary Anne, 2d dau. of 
James and Susan (Van Wyck) Given, who d. Kent, Oct. 23, '48; 
m. (2d), Wethersfield, Conn., July 21, '58, Elizabeth Byrne, 



392 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

4th dau. of John and (2d w.) Mary (Dyer) Williams; d. 
Wethersfield, Oct. 17, '97; six children. 

Grad. Yale, '31; ord. and inst. Cong. Church, Kent, Conn., 
'34; took charge of Catholic Apostolic Church, Potsdam, N. Y., 
'49; consecrat. to Episcopate (Cath. Apos.) '54; made evangelist 
'58; resided at Wethersfield '58-'97. 

Published: The Miscellanies of Hon. John Cotton Smith, 
LL.D., with an Eulogy, etc., New York, '47. 

The True Constitution of the Church and its Restoration, 
New York, '54. 

Edward Irving; A Review. Glasgow, 1864 and 1 900 (origi- 
nally published in the Neiu Englander, '63 ) . 

Also articles on the Cath. Apos. Church in Schaff's Creeds 
of Christendom, '77, and in McClintock and Strong's Cy. of Bib., 
Theo., and Eccle. Lit., '80; paper on his classmate, Noah Porter, 
as "A Student at Yale," in Life of President Porter, '93 ; thirty 
or forty pamphlets (sermons, addresses, etc.), and articles in the 
Christ. Spec, Neiv Englander, Bib. Sac, Cong. Rev., Am. Church 
Rev.; innumerable newspaper articles; during a period of more 
than sixty years. Several of the foregoing reprinted (or first 
printed) in Great Britain; one translated into Swedish. Left 
in manuscript an unfinished volume on " Worship " ; some extracts 
from unpublished writings in a biography prepared by Rev. Dr. 
S. J. Andrews of Hartford. 

The earlier part of Mr. Andrews' career gave promise of dis- 
tinction. He was among the foremost in the college class of 
which Pres. Porter, Prof. Atwater of Princeton, Bishop Clark, 
Bishop Kip and other prominent men were members. During 
his pastorate in Kent he was several times called on to take part 
in the commencement exercises at Yale ; he was the choice of 
Dr. Horace Bushnell, when the latter was considering an invi- 
tation to the presidency of Middlebury, for his own pulpit at 
Hartford. But Mr. Andrews had already turned towards a path 
which led away from honors and preferments. After prolonged 
examination he had become convinced of the divine origin of a 
movement in Great Britain which began with the restoration, as 
was believed, of the supernatural gifts described in the New 
Testament, and after a while included the presumed restoration of 
the primitive ministries, especially of the apostleship and of the 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 393 

prophetic office. All this was looked upon, moreover, as meant 
to prepare the church for the second coming of Christ. The new 
organization styled itself the " Catholic Apostolic Church," not 
because this name was thought to belong to it exclusively, but 
because it was unwilling to adopt any sectarian name. But as 
long as the church exists in fragments, which must somehow be 
distinguished from each other, sectarian names are inevitable. In 
this case the name " Irvingite " came into common use among other 
Christians, in consequence of the early adhesion to the movement of 
the famous Edward Irving. He was, however, in no sense its 
originator, and his name was most incorrectly applied to this body 
of Christians, whose freedom from the sectarian temper, and 
right at least to describe themselves as " Catholic," are well 
illustrated by the experience of Mr. Andrews. For years after 
he acknowledged the authority of the modern apostles they per- 
mitted him to remain a Congregational pastor, because in that 
capacity he was acting as a minister of Christ, and serving within 
the church universal, to the whole of which they believed that they 
themselves were sent. He was admirably qualified for pastoral 
work, and the love of his people in Kent was strong after almost 
half a century of separation. When he left Kent in 1849, after 
the death of his first wife, he did not leave the Congregational 
ministr}', and he remained for some time longer a member of the 
Association of Litchfield, North. But he now took charge of a 
small congregation in Potsdam, N. Y., composed of adherents of 
the new movement. In 1858 he was given the office of evangelist, 
and for many years he had the oversight in America of the work 
of making known to other Christians the principles by which the 
movement was governed. His duties required frequent journeys 
in the United States antl Canada, and he made several visits to 
England. 

His old age was singularly tranquil and beautiful. His health 
was good, and his mental vigor scarcely diminished, nor had his 
life been a failure, though his message seemed to have been re- 
ceived by few. Very many had welcomed much that he taught 
about God's purpose in and for the church, and many more had 
been made better and happier by the influence of his sanctity. And 
he had come to be recognized by conservative Christians (among 
whom he himself is to be classed) as one of the ablest defenders of 



394 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

the common faith of Christendom. He had not won the dis- 
tinguished place among men to which his gifts might have en- 
titled him, but he had won from those who knew him a love and 
reverence seldom equaled. And when his own ministerial asso- 
ciates shared the last offices with Congregational and Episcopalian 
ministers, all bore witness together that he had lived and died " in 
the communion of the Catholic Church."*. 

2. Edward Warren; b. Windham, Conn., July 15, 1811; 
m., Fair Haven, Vt., Oct. 9, '34, Mary Le Baron, 3d dau. of 
Maj. Tilley and Martha (Le Baron) Gilbert, who d. Detroit, 
Mich., Feb. 26, '95 ; he d. Norwood Park, Chicago, 111., Sept. 
2, '95 ; eleven children. 

Studied two years at Union; studied law in New Haven and 
Litchfield ; admitted to the bar in Connecticut July 23, '34 ; 
licensed by Litchfield North Association May 23, '37; ord. and 
inst. (as colleague to Rev. Nathan Perkins, D.D.) West Hart- 
ford, Conn., Nov., '37; inst. Broadway Tabernacle, New York, 
Jan. 31, '41 ; inst. Second Street Presbyterian Church, Troy, N. Y., 
Dec, '44; opened Alger Institute, South Cornwall, '48; declined 
commissionership to China, '49; member of Conn, legislature, '51 ; 
member from Conn, of Board of Visitors at West Point, '53; 
lawyer in New York, '53-'63 ; served in Civil War as captain 
of artillery, chief of staff, and assistant adjutant-general; lawyer 
in W. Va. (where he was counsel to B. & O. R. R., editor, and 
candidate for Congress), '65-'69; more and more employed as 
pastor and evangelist, especially in Boston, Washington, Virginia, 
and West Virginia, though obliged to rely for support chiefly on 
legal practice and political speaking, '70-'88; later, with failing 
strength, still speaking, preaching, and writing, while resident 
with or near his brothers and children. 

Published various pamphlets, including sermons, legal argu- 
ments, etc., a contribution to Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, 
by Distinguished Men of His Time, '86; editorial articles; many 
reports of his sermons, speeches, etc., printed in newspapers. Left 
a mansuscript volume, autobiographical, with accounts of promi- 
nent contemporaries. 

* 1 was present at this funeral, held in the Congregational Church 
at Wethersfield, and marked the reverent love of all Christian denomi- 
nations, manifested by their sorrow at the loss of a loving and beloved 
friend, in their presence and assistance in the exercises. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 39S 

Mr. Andrews (he once declined a doctor's degree, and was 
often known after the war as Colonel Andrews) was distinguished 
almost from his boyhood for his oratorical gifts, and he had not 
wholly lost them when he reached fourscore. They doubtless 
brought the invitation to the Broadway Tabernacle, given when 
he was under thirty, and accepted partly because men like Drs. 
Porter, Hawes, and Bushnell believed that he could make Con- 
gregationalism grow in New York, where it was then called an 
" exotic." He fully justified the belief, for he soon became one 
of the most popular preachers in the city, often crowding the great 
building to the doors, and during his pastorate of less than four 
years he saw the number of commvmicants increase more than 
fivefold (see Tabernacle Manual, i8b6) ; but, v/hat was much 
more important, his " fruit remained ; " he had won it not for him- 
self but for his cause. Though " many members of the church 
were tenderly attached to Mr. Andrews . . . few left " when 
he withdrew, and " the church remained united." {History of 
the Broadivay Tabernacle, Susan Hayes Ward, 1901, p. 72.) 
One of the converts of this period was Jeremiah C. Lanphier, 
founder of the " Fulton Street Prayer Meeting," through whose 
influence it is believed that thousands began a Christian life. Mr. 
Andrews could not have done what was done by his diligent, ac- 
complished, and far more widely known successor. Dr. Joseph P. 
Thompson. But he did his own work pre-eminently well, and 
left the Congregational exotic growing vigorously, striking its 
roots deep as well as bearing rich fruit. His second parish, at 
Troy, gave him up very unwillingly, and during the continuance 
of the school which he established and conducted with great 
efficiency at Cornwall, and to which many members of his last 
two congregations sent their sons, he was much sought after as a 
preacher. . . . And when, late in life, he sought to renew 
the consecration of his powers to their highest uses, he easily 
proved that they were still great. His work as an evangelist, par- 
ticularly in West Virginia, produced extraordinary results, and 
congregations which he served temporarily as pastor often listened 
to him with delight. But the same congregations might frankly 
refuse him a "call " because he was too old. 

No one regretted more deeply than he the extent to which his 
life had so long been secularized ; he was in fact a loser thereby, 



396 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

even as respected worldly advancement. But he never lost his 
interest in great religious questions, and in his later years that 
interest became absorbing. He was intensely conservative in 
theology, though he acted at different times in several different 
denominations. 

He early became a believer in the nearness of the Second Ad- 
vent, and towards the last the other beliefs of his eldest brother 
attracted him powerfully. In his youth, and in his old age, this 
brother, though less than two years his senior, was his guide and 
teacher, to whom he looked up with something like veneration. 

It was his last strong earthly desire (not gratified) to return to 
South Cornwall, that he might close his eyes in its quiet valley, and 
be laid to rest beside his father. 

3. Sarah Parkhill; b. Windham, Jan. 22, '13; m. Corn- 
wall, Feb. 15, '35, Araunah Waterman, s. of Pitt William and 
Mary (Kilbourne) Hyde, proprietor of marble and slate quarries 
near Castleton, Vt., who d. Hydeville, Vt., Sept. 25, '74; she d. 
Castleton, Jan, 12, '40; three children. 

4. Israel Ward; b. Danbury, Conn., Jan. 23, '15; m. Dan- 
bury, Aug. 8, '39, Sarah Hayes, eld. dau. of Curtis and Rebecca 
(Mygatt) Clark, who d. Marietta, O., Dec. 17, '40; m. (2d) 
Danbury, Aug. 24, '42, Marianne Stuart, 2d dau. of foregoing, 
who d. Marietta, March 31, 1900; he d. Hartford, Conn., April 
18, 1888; four children. 

Williams, 1837; D-Dv Williams, '56; LL.D., Iowa, '74, 
and Wabash, '76; tutor. Marietta College, Ohio, '38; prof, of 
math, and nat. phil. '39; pres. and Putnam prof, of intellectual 
and moral philosophy, '55 ; resigned presidency '85, but prof, of 
political science till his death; licensed to preach, '50; ord. as 
evangelist, '62 ; corporate member of Am. Board of Com. for For. 
Mis., '67 (preaching annual sermon, '75), and member of co/n- 
mittee of national council (Cong.) to prepare statement of doc- 
trine, '80-3. Also a leader in the cause of popular education in 
Ohio, and member of National Council of Education; member of 
various societies, educational and historical, including the Am. 
Historical Asso. ; chief promoter of the celebration of one hun- 
dreth anniversary of the permanent settlement of the North- 
west Territory, held at Marietta, April 17, '88, while he was on 
his deathbed at Hartford. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 397 

Published: Manual of the Constitution of the U. S._, '74; 
revis., '78; second revis., '88; widely used as textbook. 

Also more than twentj' pamphlets and magazine articles; with 
contributions to periodicals, editorial and otherwise, not identified. 
Last paper, on "The Marietta Colony oi 1788," read before the 
N. E. His. and Gen. Soc. March 8, '88, and published after his 
death, which occurred, on the return journey from Boston, at his 
brother's house in Hartford. 

Of the six sons of the South Cornwall minister President 
Andrews was thought most nearly to resemble their father. He 
had eminently the profound sense of duty, taking form in the 
instinct of religious obedience, which made Puritanism. He was 
conservative with regard to principles, because he knew them to 
be eternal, and jealous for the institutions in which he believed 
them to be embodied, while ready for reform and progress. Bur- 
dened throughout life by delicate health, and suffering hard trials, 
among them the death of all his children, he toiled for fifty years 
in the one great task of his life, yet lending his aid to every good 
cause which could fairly claim his services. Few men have been 
more useful, and the college probably owed more to him, in various 
ways, than to any other one man. He was an admirable instructor, 
a wise administrator, and an excellent man of business. As kind- 
hearted as he was true-hearted he was loved as well as honored. 
He had the sober piety, characteristic of men of his calm tempera- 
ment, which shows itself most plainly in cheerful obedience and 
quiet submission. 

5. Samuel James; b. Danbury, July 31, '17; m. Hartford, 
Conn., April 15, '50, Catherine Augusta, 3d dau. of Hon. Thomas 
and Sarah (Coit) Day, who d. Hartford, Dec. 16, '02; five 
children. 

Williams, '39; D.D., Union, '79; admitted to bar in Conn., 
'42, in New York and Ohio, '43 ; licensed by Litchfield North 
Association, '46; ord. and inst., East Windsor (Scantic), Conn., 
as colleague to Rev. Shubael Bartlett, '48 ; resigned on account of 
ill health, May i, '55; ord. in Cath. Apostolic Church, '64; in 
charge of congregations in Hartford, Waterbur>^, and Enfield until 
1901 ; instructor in metaphysics and logic in Trinity College, 
Hartford, during most of the period between '65 and '90, or later; 
resides (1903) in Hartford. 



398 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Published: The Life of Our Lord upon the Earth, '63 (rev. 
ed., '91) ; God's Revelations of Himself to Men, '86; Christianity 
and Anti-Christianity in their Final Conflict, '98; The Church 
and its Orj^anic Ministrie, '99 (Glasgow; reprinted with addi- 
tions from a pamphlet printed for private circulation in '88) ; 
IVilliam fVatson Andreivs, a Religious Biography, 1900. 

Also magazine articles and pamphlets, and many contributions 
to newspapers in prose and verse. 

His "Life of Our Lord" (dedicated to his eldest brother), 
has long been a standard work, has been recommended to students 
by Roman Catholic instructors, and has been reprinted in England 
('63), and translated into Dutch ('69). It has undoubtedly made 
its author better known than any of his brothers among scholars 
and students. 

6. Timothy Langdon ; b. Danbury, May 9, '19; m. (ist) 
Niagara Falls, N. Y., May 21, '56, Laura Amsden, eld. dau. of 
William H. and Laura (Amsden) Childs, who d. Orient, Iowa, 
Jan. 22, '74; m. (2d) Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, Mrs. Sarah Emeline 
(Taylor) White, dau. of William Henry and Susan (Hathaway) 
Taylor; eight children. 

M.D., Castleton (Vt. ) Med. Coll., '45; teacher in Tennessee 
and Louisiana, '46-7; physician in New Orleans, '48; surgeon on 
ship carrying freed slaves to Liberia, '49 ; ship sailing thence to 
Brazil he finally embarked on another from Rio for California 
by Cape Horn; teacher in Monterey, Cal., '50; in Monterey 
custom house, '51-2; assistant editor of The Pacific, San Francisco, 
'52-4; while in California visited Hawaiian and Samoan islands; 
editor of The hitelligencer. Marietta, la., '56-62 ; later, ph\sician 
in Creston, Iowa, and Wichita, Kansas; res. (1903), Mt. Pleas- 
ant, la. 

Dr. Andrews is the only one of the six brothers who has never 
been a minister. But as a teacher and a physician he has had much 
occasion for study, and in earlier life he was an enthusiastic bot- 
anist. " Collinsia Andrewsiana " was named after him by Dr. Tor- 
rey. He has lately ( 1902) given his botanical collections, contain- 
ing several thousand specimens, to the Iowa Agricultural College. 
He has been a diligent student of the Bible, and has even been 
urged to prepare a work on Biblical theology. He has published 
much in the newspapers, editorially and otherwise. His religious 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL HISTORY. 399 

writings reflect the conservatism of the family as regards funda- 
mental Christian doctrines, none the less that, like at least two of 
his brothers, he has become an ardent believer in the restoration 
of the apostolic office. Living at a distance from any congrega- 
tion which accepts this view he attends St. Michael's Church, Mt. 
Pleasant ( Prot. Episc). In spite of delicate health his life has 
been a busy one.* 

7. Ebenezer Baldwin; b. Danbury, April 29, 1821 ; m. 
Housatonic, Mass., Dec. 25, '50, Catharine Frances, 2d dau. of 
Wells and Sophronia (Perry) Laflin ; d. Lancaster, O., Aug. 14, 
1880; four children. 

Marietta, '42; LL.D., Mar., '74; studied Princeton Theol. 
Sem., '44-5; ord. and inst. Housatonic, Mass., '46; inst. South 
(Cong.) Church, New Britain, Conn., '50; prof, of natural 
sciences. Marietta, '51-70; Major 36th Ohio Vol., '61; Colonel, 
'62; in battles of Lewisburg, South Mountain, and Antietam ; 
resigned, '63 ; on Ohio State Geo. Survey, '69-73 ; later engaged in 
geological and archaeological research ; appointed member of An- 
nual Assay Committee for Philadelphia Mint, '80. 

Published : An Elementary Geology, designed especially for the 
Interior States, '78. 

Also many pamphlets, magazine articles, reports, etc., largely 
scientific. No complete list seems to be now obtainable. 

Professor Andrews was enthusiastic and fearless in his search 
for truth, and was a stimulating teacher both of science and re- 
ligion. He was well fitted to shine in the pulpit, and was always 
in request as a preacher. In his boyhood he had longed to be a 
soldier, but he entered the army as a volunteer, like so many others, 
from an overmastering sense of duty. That he was " faithful 
and true in the discharge of every duty " as an officer was long 
afterwards said of him by the trained soldier General George 
Crook, whom by urgent and prolonged appeals to the authorities 
at Washington he had secured as the first colonel of his regiment. 

In private life Professor Andrews was the most charming of 
companions. " He was at his best " in talking of " those great 
questions which belong to the philosophy of religion." 



*My late classmate, James Nooney, Prof. Math., U. S. Navy, re- 
ports among the pleasures of his life meeting Dr. Andrews in the islands 
of the Pacific, enjoying social intercourse and establishing life-long 
friendship. 



400 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

The youngest of the brothers died first, and he had entered his 
sixtieth year ; the other five all passed the limit of threescore and 
ten, and four, of whom two are living (i903)> reached the age 
of eighty. 

Our limit of space forbids following this family in full in 
another generation, but we close with notice of two sons of Wm. 
Watson Andrews: 

First marriage, William Given; b. Oct. 8, '35; m. Caroline 
Caldwell, dau. of Rear Admiral Jenkins, U. S. N., Marietta, 
'55; D.D., Mar., '85. Two years Princeton Theo. Sem. ; several 
3'ears teacher; ord. deacon, '62, and priest, '64, Prot. Epis. ; 
officiated at and near Princeton, '62-66: rector of Church of 
Ascension, New Haven, '68-79; rector of Christ Church, Guil- 
ford, since '81 ; member of standing committee of diocese of Conn., 
exam. ; chaplain ; member N. H. Col. Hist. Soc, Am. Hist. 
Ass'n, and Soc. Col. Wars; pres. of trustees of Henry Whitfield 
House (State Hist. Mus.) ; particularly interested in Am. church 
history; pub. many historical pamphlets and magazine articles, etc. 
Second marriage, Charles McLean: b. Feb. 22, 1863; m. 
Evangeline Holcombe, dau. of John Crawford Walker, M.D. ; 
two children. 

Grad. Trinity, '84; Johns Hopkins, Ph.D., '89; associate, his- 
tory, Bryn Mawr, '89 ; assoc. professor, '95 ; professor, '98 ; memb. 
Am. His. Assoc; corresp. memb. Conn. Hist. Soc. 

Published: The River Toivns of Connecticut, '89; The Old 
English Manor. '92 ; three articles in Palgrave's " Dictionary of 
Political Economy," '96; The Political Development of Modern 
Europe, Part I, '96, Part H, '98; Introduction to " Ideal Empires 
and Republics," Universal Classics Library, 1901 ; Contemporary 
Europe, Asia and Africa, 1871-1901, Vol. XX of " History of All 
Nations," 1902; History of England, for Schools, 1903. Also, 
unfinished, Self-Governed Colonization, 1652-89, Vol. V of 
"American History, from Original Sources," to appear in 1904. 
Also a dozen pamphlets, and many book reviews. 

Mrs. Andrews has greatly assisted her husband in his most 
important work, especially by her criticisms, while she has ren- 
dered other valuable services of the most varied character, for ex- 
ample, at the Bryn Mawr Elizabethan May Day Festival, and in 
the duties of the college bursarship. 



THE CALHOUN FAMILY. 4°* 

I am indebted to the patient work of Rev. Wm. Given 
Andrews for this record of the family, prepared at my request, 
perhaps not improved by my editorial pencil. The services of 
this remarkable family in the cause of education and religion are 
worthy of our study and remembrance. I have been favored 
with a personal acquaintance of most of the three generations. 
The highest hope of the future for our country rests in a " re- 
membrance of our fathers." 

THE CALHOUN FAMH^Y. 

Tradition affirms that to escape persecution in their native 
Scotland a part of the Calhoun family removed to the north of 
Ireland, and settled near Londonderrj^ Thence the brothers. 
David, James, and John, came to America, landing at New York 
in 1 7 14. There separating, John went to South Carolina. James 
to Maryland, and David to Connecticut. 

I. David Calhoun was born in Scotland about 1670. He 
settled at Stratford, Conn., but afterward moved to that part of 
"Ancient Woodbury" which is now Washington, about 1732. 
He m. Mrs. Catherine (Cox) Fairchild, by whom he had two 
daughters, who m. respectively a Hanna and a Clark, and six 
sons, who all married and lived on " Calhoun Street " in Washing- 
ton. These were 

Joseph, b. 1728. 
David, b. 1736. 
Ebenezer. 
James, b. 1730. 
John, b. 1738. 
George. 

David Calhoun lived to extreme old age, being almost a 
centenarian when he died, about 1769- 

H. Dr. John Calhoun, the fifth son of David, m. Dec. 

28, 1768; Tabitha, dau. of Ebenezer and Abigail (Whitmore) 

Clark, b. June 18, 1740, and d. Nov. 23, 1796. He d. in 1788, 

leaving six sons and a daughter, viz. : 

John, b. 30 Sept., 1769. d. 15 Atay, 1838. 
Daniel, b. 20 April, 1771, d. 28 Feb., 1852. 

Calvin, b. 14 Aug., 1773, d. . 

Philo, b. 25 March, 1776, d. 25 June, 1850. 

Joseph Clark, b. 23 April, 1778, d. 2^, May, 1804, at Cornwall. 

Sarah Ann, b. 28 Jan., 1781, d. 14 March, 1840. 

Jedediah, b. 27 April, 1783, d. 5 Jan., 1862. 

5 



40 2 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

III. ( I.) Dr. John Calhoun, eldest son of the preceding, 
was b. about the time of his grandfather's death, at Washington, 
but removed to Cornwall, where he was a prominent citizen 
and successful physician for nearly half a century. He m., first, 
in 1792, Polly, dau. of Gen. Heman Swift of Cornwall, who d. 
in 1 801 at the age of twenty-nine. By this marriage he had four 
children, viz. : 

John, b. and d. 1793- 
Charlotte, b. i795. d. 1796- 

, b. 1796-7, d. 1799. 

Mary Swift, b. 1801, d. n Nov., 1888. 

He took for a second wife Sarah Fay of Bennington, Vt., 

who d. Nov. 7, 1840. The six children by this marriage were: 

Sarah Fay, b. 17 Feb., 1804, d. 22 May, 1874. 
Ruth Robinson, b. 25 Oct., 1805, d. 11 Dec, 1869. 
Charlotte Elizabeth, b. 12 Oct., 1808, d. 25 July, 1875. 
Harriet Jane, b. 4 Dec, 1814, d. 16 Sept., 1901. 
Joseph Fay, b. 22, Aug., 1819, d. 16 April, 1884. 
John Benjamin, b. 8 Sept., 1822, d. 30 Aug., 1879. 

HI. (2.) Sarah Ann Calhoun, youngest sister of the 
above, m. William Lewis of Cornwall, and later of Meriden 
and New Haven, and among their children were Mayor Henry 
G. Lewis (see Lewis family), originator of the sewer system of 
New Haven, and John Calhoun Lewis, Speaker of the House of 
Representatives of the state. 

HL (3.) Dea. Jededl^h Calhoun, youngest brother of 
the above, also forsook his native town for Cornwall, and kept an 
inn at " Calhoun Corner," opposite the cemetery below Cornwall 
Bridge. He was deacon of the First Church over forty years — 
December, 1819, to death, Jan. 5, 1862 — and was superintendent 
of the Sunday-school before 1831. He m. Jane, dau. of David B. 
and Abby (Jones) Patterson of Cornwall, b. Jan. 21, 1788, and d. 
Jan. 13, 1862. This wedding, Feb. 24, 1808, is recorded in the 
family Bible, and seven other entries follow: 

David Patterson, b. 27 Dec, 1808, d. 3 April, 1809. 
Abby Jones, b. 17 Dec, 181 1, d. 19 Sept., 1881. 
John Clark, b. 18 Mav, 1814, d. 26 Nov., 1874. 
Mary Laura, 1). 23 Dec, 1816, d. 7 May, 1867. 

Frederick Jedediah, b. 27 June, 1820, d. , 1884. 

David Patterson, 1). 30 Sept., 1827, d. 3 Vch., 1875. 



THE CALHOUN FAMILY. 403 

IV. (i.) Mary Swift Calhoun, dau. of Dr. John, b. in 
1801, m. Rufus Payne of Cornwall, and amon<]; their children 
were Lieut. Wm. and Sergt. Joseph Payne, both of whom died in 
their country's service. 

IV. (2.) Sarah Fay Calhoun, half-sister of the above, 
b. in 1803, and m. Stephen J. Gold of Cornwall, the inventor of 
" Gold's Patent " steam heater, etc., etc. They had five children, 
all of whom removed from the town. 

IV. (3.) Ruth Robinson Calhoun, sister of the above, 
b. Oct. 25, 1805, m. Frederick Kellogg, Esq., Sept. 16, 1849, and 
d. Dec. II, 1869. Two sons removed to the West, but two 
daughters remain in Cornwall. 

IV. (4.) Charlotte Elizabeth Calhoun, b. Oct. 12, 
1808, m. Myron Harrison, a merchant at Cornwall Bridge. Of 
two sons who went westward one became a prominent lawyer 
on the Pacific coast; the only daughter is the wife of Hon. V. C. 
Beers. 

IV. (5.) Harriet Jane Calhoun, b. in 1815, m. Wil- 
liam Leavitt Clark of Cornwall Oct. 12, 1836, and d. Sept. 16, 
1 901, leaving three daughters. 

IV. (5.) Joseph Fay Calhoun, brother of the four pre- 
ceding, was b. in 1819; removed to Torrington, where he d. in 
1884. He had a son and two daughters. 

IV. (7.) John Benjamin Calhoun, brother of the 
above, b. in 1821 ; he m. and had two daughters and three sons. 
He removed from Cornwall, and died in 1879. 

IV. (8.) John Clark Calhoun, cousin of the above 
children of Dr. Calhoun, was son of Dea. Calhoun, and b. May 
18, 18 14, d. Nov. 26, 1874. He m. June 18, 1840, Sarah M., 
dau. of ApoUos and Chloe (Wilcox) Warner of Plymouth, b. 
Nov. 19, 1820, and d. Nov. 26, 1874. Mr. Calhoun was for a 
time a clerk in Plymouth, and then moved to New York, where he 
acquired a large property as head of the firm of Calhoun, Robbins 
& Co. He was public spirited, and among his many benefactions 
not a few came to his native tov\n, where he was preparing to 
build a home when he died. Two sons were given them: 

John Edward, b. 5 Dec, 1859. 
Henry Warner, b. 4 April, 1862. 



404 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

IV. (g. ) Mary Laura Calhoux, sister of the above, 
b. in 1 8 16, m. June 18, 1845, Charles L. Ford of Washington, 
Conn. Thej' had two sons, there resident. 

JV. (10.) Frederick Jedediah Calhoun, brother of the 
preceding, b. in 1820, m. Sept. 11, 1844, Mary Ann Marsh. He 
removed from Cornwall, and d. 1884. 

IV. (11.) David Patterson Calhoun, brother of the 
above, b. in 1827, m. April 22, 1858, Fanny O. Sanford, d. Feb. 

3, 1875- 

V. John Edward Calhoun, son of John Clark Calhoun, 
b. in New York Dec. 5, 1859. After his education at Columbia 
and Yale Universities, and a tour abroad, he settled in Cornwall, 
and m. April 28, 1896, Marjorie Rowena, dau. of Rev. Dr. Frank 
Field and Laura (Hurd) Ellinwood of New York. They have 
children : 

Jean Ellinwood, b. 12 April, 1897. 
John Clark, b. 21 Jan., 1901. 

Mr. Calhoun is a prominent man in town affairs. He has 
held worthily many town oflices — treasurer, and at present first 
selectman. His best efforts are exerted in promotion of educa- 
tion, religion, and material prosperity. 

John Calvin Calhoun, son of Calvin, removed to Corn- 
wall Bridge, where he had a factory for making cloth. His wife 
Betsey d. Sept. 18, 1841, and he m. a second, whose name was 
Laura. He removed to Cleveland, O., about 1855. 



GOLD. 

Little is known of the physical characteristics of the family in 
early times. They were active, patriotic men. God-fearing and 
law-abiding, but not so peaceable as to shirk thity at the call of 
their country. At the time of the British raid at Danburj', 1777, 
besides Lieut. -Col. Abraham Gold, who was killed at Ridgefield, 
we find eight names of Gold in a military company at Fairfield 
of about one hundred. 

Major Nathan GoUl rendered much mih'tary as well as diplo- 
matic service in settling boundary claims with the Dutch and with 
the Indians. His life was one of continual activity, and he enjoyed 



GOLD. 4°5 

general confidence and esteem, proved by his life long tenure of 
office. 

The late Prof. Benjamin Apthorp Gould, Ph.D., LL.D., of 
Cambridge, Mass., made an elaborate search for all of the first 
four generations of persons in this country by the names of Gold, 
Gould, and Goold : twenty different families. In letter to me 
dated April 30, 1895, he says: " Your ancestral line seems to have 
been the most conspicuous for public position and influence of 
any one of the twenty families which I have discussed, but I do 
not know of the date of Nathan Gold's coming to America. If 
you can refer me to any documentary authority for it I shall be 
glad." This evidence is still wanted. 

I print this list with such additional notes as I "have collected : 

NATHAN GOLD, OF FAIRFIELD, CONN. 

He came from Bury St. Edmunds, about 25 miles E. of Cam- 
bridge, England, and was landholder in Milford, Conn., 1647, 
and in Fairfield, 1649. Called " Captain " in 1670, afterwards 
Major. Died 1693-94, March 4th. 

In 1657 he m. Martha, wid. of Edmund Harvey (d. 1648) ; 
she died before him. 

Children : 

Nathan", b. 1663, Dec. 8; m. (i) Hannah Talcott ; (2) Sarah 
: d. 1723. 

Sarah", b. ab. 1660; m. 1684, April 25, John Thompson of Fair- 
held ; d. 1747, June 4. 

Deborah", m. George Clark of Milford. 

Abigail", m. 1685, Jan. 5, Jonathan Selleck, Jr., of Stamford (b. 
1664, July 11). 

Martha", m. (i) John Selleck ( d. bef. 1694, Harv. Coll., 1690), bro. 
of Jonathan; (2) 1695, April t6. Rev. John Davenport of Stam- 
ford; d. 1712, Dec. I. 

Nathan- Gold, b. 1663; son of Nathan' and Martha; d. 
1723, Oct. 3; was of Council in 1702, Deputy Governor in 1707, 
and Chief Justice of Supreme Court in 17 12. He m. ( i ) Hannah 
(b. at Hartford 1663, Dec. 8; d. 1696, March 28), dau. of Lt.- 

Col. John and Helena (Wakeman) Talcott; (2) Sarah 

(d. 1 7 II, Oct. 17). 

Children: 

AbigaiP, b. 1687, Feb. 14; m. Rev. Thomas Hawley (d. 1738, 
Nov. 8) of Ridgefield. 



4o6 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Johir. h. 1688, April 25; m. Hannah Slawson ; d. 1766, Sept. 23. 

Nathan^ b. 1690, April 6; m. . 

Samuel\ b. 1692, Dec. 27: m. 1716, Esther Bradley; d. 1769. 

Hezekiah'. b. 1694; m. (i) 1723, Mary Ruggles ; (2) wid. of John 
Prynn ; d. 1761. 

SaralV. bapt. 1696, July 23. 

Sarah^ bapt. 1699-1700, March 3. 

Onesimu.s', bapt. T701, Oct. 19; m. Eunice, dau. of Samuel Hub- 
bell. Jr. 

David', bapt. 1704, Dec. 3. 

Martha', bapt. 1707-8, Feb. 8; m. 1728, Aprd 4, Samuel Sherman. 

Jo.seph\ bapt. 1711, Oct. 21: m. Abigail . 

John-' Gold, b. 1688; son of Nathan- and Hannah; m. Han- 
nah (d. 1752, Nov. 25), dau. of Geor^je Slawson; d. 1766, 
Sept. 23. 

Children: 

Hannah, b. 1716, Sept. 20; d. 1752. Nov. 25; unmarried. 

Sarah, bapt. 1718, June i. 

John, bapt. 1720, May 29. 

Nathan, bapt. 1723-4, Feb. 2. 

Elizabeth, bapt. 1726, April 24. 

Talcott. bapt. 1728, Sept. i. 

Mary, bapt. 1731, June 6. 

Jemima, bapt. 1738, June 18. 

Nathan'' Gold, b. i6go; son of Nathan- and Hannah (Tal- 
cott) ; m. . 

Children: 

"Catee," bapt. 1726, Sept. 25; m. 1742, Oct. 18, Jacob Leavilt. 

Ann, bapt. 1727-8, Feb. 4. 

Nathan. 

Martha, bapt. 1730, May 24; m. 1753, Feb. 5, David Hubbell. 

Samuel-' Gold, b. 1692; son of Nathan- and Hannah; m. 
1716, Dec. 7, Esther Bradley; d. 1769, Oct. 11. 

Children: 

David, b. 1717, July ti. 

Esther, b. 1719, Oct. 13. 

Abigail, b. 1724, April 27. 

Abel, b. 1727, Sept. 14; d. 1769, Nov. ir ; m. i754, Dec. 19, Amelia 
(b. 1736; d. 1794). dan. of Ebenezer Silliman and widow of 
Ebenezer Burr. 

Abraham, b. 1730, Oct. 12; d. aged blA weeks. 

Abraham, b. 1732, May 10; m. 1754, Jan. i, Elizabeth (b. 17.31; 
d. 1815), dau. of John Burr. He was colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary Army, and killed in action at Ridgefield 1777, April 27. 
On the gravestone at Fairfield, erected by his son Jason, his 
name is spelled Gould; and this form has been adopted by 
many of his descendants. Jay Gould of New York (b. 1836, 
May 27) was his great-grandson. 




KKMCS Ol 



LIBRARY OF REV. IIKZEKIAH GOLD OF STRATFORD AND 

KKV. 11EZEKL\H GOLD OF C01-: N WALL. 



GOLD. 407 

fHEZEKiAH'' Gold, b. 1694; son of Nathan- and Hannah 
(Talcott) ; graduated Harv. College, 1719; was minister of 
Stratford, Conn.; d. 1761, Apr. 22. He m. ist, 1723, May 23, 
Man,' (b. 1702; d. 1750, July 2), dau. of Rev. Thomas Ruggles 
of Guilford; 2d, , wid. of John Prynn. 

Children : 

* Molly, b. 1723-4. Feb. 29; m., 1745, Dr. Agur Tomlinson (1). 1720; 
d. 1774), son of Zacbariah and Hannab [Reach] ; d. 1802, June 
2^. Yale Coll., 1744. 

Catee. b. 1725, Aug. 31 ; d. 1742. Sept. 30. 

Jerusha, b. 1726-7, ]\'larcb 6; d. 1747, Sept. 24. 

Sarah, b. 1729, May 8; m. Stocking. 

Hezekiah. b. 1731, Jan. 18; Yale. 1751 ; m. (i) 1758. Nov. 2^,, 
Sarah Sedgwick (b. 1739: d. 1766. Aug. 28) ; (2) 1768, Oct. 11, 
Elizabeth ( b. 1746: d. 1778, Feb. 11), dau. of Joseph Wake- 
man; (3) 1778, Sept. 24. Abigail Sherwood; d. 1790, May 30. 

Thomas, b. 1733, Jan. 8; m. 1755. Feb. 13, Anna, dau. of Samuel 
Smith ; d. in Rev. Army. 

Anna, b. 1734. Dec. 15; d. 1739, April 9. 

Rebecca, b. 1736, Sept.; m. 1754, Dec. 24, Abraham Tomlinson (b. 
1733; d. 1821), bro. of Dr. Agur; Yale, 1785. 

Huldah, b. 1738, April 15; m. 1759, Dec. 20, Samuel Curtis, Jr. 

t Anna, b. 1740, May 14; m. Levi Hubbard of New Haven; d. 
about 80. 

Catherine, b. 1742, Oct. 15; d. 1743. Oct. 2^. 

Abigail, b. 1744, Nov. 4: m. 1769, Nov. 28, Samuel Ufford ; d. 
1817, Dec. 3. 

Betsey, b. 1747, Aug. 15; d. young. 

Onesimus"' Gold, bapt. 1701; son of Nathan" and Sarah 
; lived at Greenfield. He m. Eunice , dau. of 



Samuel Hubbell, Jr., and his wife Elisabeth. 



* Molly'' or Mary, d. of Rev. Hezekiah^ m. (Dr.) Agur Tomlinson. 
son of Zechariah, and bad two sons, Hezekiah and Wm. Agur, who m. 
sisters Lewis. Rebecca*, dau. of Rev. Hezekiah, m. Abraham Tomlin- 
son, youngest son of Zechariah; sons, David and Dr. Charles Tomlinson. 

■ fAnna*, daughter of Rev. Hez. Gold^ of Stratford, m. Levi Hubbard. 

William Gold Hubbard, Yale, 1785, son of Levi Hubbard and Anna 

Gold, m. Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin Douglas of New Haven. 

Levi lived to be over 90 years old and his wife to about 80 years. Wm. 

G. H., d. 1846, had 

Children: 

Douglas Hubbard, d. at 19. 
Henry Hubbard, d. at 19. 
Ann Hubbard, d. at 27. 

Eliza Hubbard, m. Russell Hotchkiss of New Haven. 
X For sketch see p. 289. 



4o8 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Children: 

Rebecca, bapt. 1724, Oct. 4. 
Nathan, bapt. 1726, Sept. 17. 
David, bapt. 1728, Oct. 22. 
Luther, bapt. 1731, Oct. 10. 
Eunice, bapt. 1733, Aug. 
Stephen, bapt. 1736, May. 
Sarah, bapt. 1737, Aug. 21. 

Aaron, bapt. 1740, Jan. 25; m., 1761, Jan. 27, Rebecca, dan. of 
Peter Scudder of Long Island. 

Joseph-^ Gold, b. 1711; son of Nathan- and Sarah; m. 
Abigail . 

Children : 

Hannah, bapt. 1740, June 22. 
John, bapt. 1755, Aug. 21. 

Madam AbisaiP Haivley, wife of Rev. Thomas Hawley of 
Ridgefield, dau. of Dep.-Gov. Nathan- Gold, d. Apr. 17, 1749; 
aged 64 3'ears. Her dau. Dorothy Hawley and Rev. Nathan 
Birdsey m. Apr. 17, 1739, and had twelve children, most of whom 
lived to an extreme old age. Rev. Nathan Birdsey d. Jan. 28, 
1817, aged 103 years, 5 months, and 9 days, leaving numerous 
descendants, of names of Birdsey, Brooks, Curtiss, Peck, Willis- 
ton, and others. 

Deborah Gold-. From N. E. Hist. Reg., Oct., 1900. 

Ensign George Clark of Milford m. Deborah, dau. of Hon. 
Nathan Gold. 

Children : 

1. EUzabetli, m. Ebenezer Curtiss. 

2. George, b. April 3. 1682, d. Aug., 1762. 

3. Abigail, m. Col. Joseph Talcott, 1698, and d. March 24, 1724: 

he d. Oct. II, 1741. 

4. Nathan, d. Sept., 1729. 

5. Sarah, m. Joseph Beard, Jan. 27, 1706. 

6. Deborah, m. Joseph Judson. 

7. Jane, m. Clark. 

8. Jerusha, m. Thomas Baldwin, Jan, 17, 1711-12. 

9. Martha, m. James Booth. 

10. Silence, m. Samuel Buckingham, May 20, 1714. 

Sarah Gold, dau. of John'', m. David Allen, son of Lieut. 
Gideon Allen of Fairfield, Oct. 11, I7.^9- 

Col. David D'unon m. Ann Allen, dau. of David Allen, Nov. 
15, 1762. 

Son Ehenezer Dirnon m. Mary Sherwood Hinman. 



GOLD. 409 

Thomas Burr Osborne m. Elizabeth Huntington Dimon. 

Arthur Dimon OsbornCj only son, m. Frances Louisa Blake. 

Daughter Mary Elizabeth Osborne m. Gov. Henry B. Har- 
rison. 

Thomas Burr Osborne, son of Arthur D. Osborne, m. Eliza- 
beth Anna Johnson, only child of Prof. Samuel W. Johnson. One 
son, Arthur Dimon Osborne 2d. 

Arthur Sherwood Osborne, brother of T. B. Osborne. 

JAY GOULD. 

The change in the spelling of the name in some members of 
the family, but especially the life work of one man in develop- 
ing the material resources of the country, entitling him to be called 
one of the " Captains of Industry," induces me to trace the line of 
Mr. Gould from the beginning: Maj. Nathan Gold, Nathan-, 
Samuel"', Col. Abraham^, Abraham'', John Burr'', Jay"; some other 
lines have also changed the spelling, but in this I have the best au- 
thority that it was changed by John Burr. 

Jay Gould, b. May 27, '36; d. Dec. 2, '92; m. Jan. 22, '6j, 
Helen Day, dau. of Daniel S. Miller and Ann Kip Bailey, b. 
Sept. 20, '38; d. Jan. 13, '89. 

Children: 

George Jay, b. Feb. 6, '64. 
Edwin, b. Feb. 25, '66. 
Helen Miller, b. June 20, "68. 
Howard, b. June 8, '71. 
Anna, b. June 5, '75. 
Frank Jay, b. Dec. 4, '77. 

With no personal acquaintance with Mr. Gould I have en- 
joyed many special opportunities of learning about his private life. 

He not only gathered a fortune for himself, but this country — 
people of all classes have shared in this prosperity — and it is in 
carrying out his plans of public benevolence that Miss Helen 
Gould has so fitted herself by a business education that as an 
almoner of his bounty not only she endears herself to thousands 
by her well administered charities, but honors the name that has 
placed in her care such ample means to bless the world. 

Reference is made to sketch of life of Jay Gould in the " Burr 
Genealogy," by Chas. Burr Todd. 

Rev. Wm. J. Gold, D.D. (Samuel'', Abraham*, Abraham^, 



4IO HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Daniel", William J.'), b. in Washington, D. C, June 17, 1845; 
Harvard, 1865; d. Jan., 1903. 

Prof, of Exegesis in Seabury Hall Div. School, inst. in class, 
languages in Racine College, Wis., and Prof, of Greek and 
warden, etc., in West. Theo. Sem. at Chicago since 1897. Author 
of many theological works, etc. 

In a letter from him dated Chicago, April 8, 1902, he says: 
" The famil>' story is that at the close of the Rev. War my grand- 
father Abraham, son of Col. Abraham, like two or three of his 
brothers, followed the sea, but that ultimately the ship in which 
he had invested most of his means was wrecked, and that he had 
a narrow escape with his life, floating for some time in an open 
boat before he was picked up. Upon this his wife set her foot 
down, and would not allow any more voyaging. Accordingly, 
they made their way, in 1789-go, to Delaware Co., N. Y. Jay 
Gould, in his history of Del. Co., says that 'Abraham was one of a 
company of emigrants from Fairfield Co., Conn., consisting of 
twenty heads of families and a single man. Among them were 
three Goulds besides Abraham, viz., Talcott, Isaac, and David. 
Abraham had three sons: John Burr, father of Jay, the eldest; 
Jason, who became wealthy in the marble business at Smith's 
Falls, Canada, and Daniel, my father, b. 1807, d. Jan. 3, 1849. 
He left two sons: myself, the eldest, Wm. Jason Gold, b. June 17, 
1845, and Sydney Kendall, b. Oct. 15, 1847. . . . My father 
found rhat the original spelling of the family name had been Gold 
before they left Connecticut, and adopted it in his own case from 
an early period in life. . Your account of his career, p. 209, is cor- 
rect. His marriage to Miss Mary Ann Kendall, davu of Amos 
Kendall, Postmaster-General under Jackson and Van Buren, took 
place in 1840. My mother was born in Kentucky, and on her 
mother's side was descended from the Fairfaxes of Virginia ; she d. 
in 1875.' " 

Col. Abraham had a son Jason, who had a son John, b. 1801, 
who lived in Fairfield and built a house on the same location as the 
original dwelling of Maj. Nathan Gold. He d. in 1871, leaving 
three daughters in possession of the old homestead : Mary Cather- 
ine, d. Sept. 25, '99, and two who still survive, Elizabeth Burr 
and Julia Burr. 

Fairfield was considered a sleepy old town in my bovhood ; 
but that section, from its natural advantages and easy communica- 



GOLD. 411 

tiun with New York and other cities by water, rail, and trolley, 
has become the garden of Connecticut, and a favorite for resi- 
dence, so that we cannot blame our ancestry for their choice. 
We find among the leading families of Fairfield Co. many 
that trace back their lines to Maj. Nathan Gold. 

DESCEXDAXTS OF REV. HEZEKIAH GOLD"'* OF CORXWALL. 

Thomas Gold"' of Pittsfield had four sons and six daughters: 

Thomas Augustus^ m. Doroth}- Gardiner; lived in Pittsfield : 
had 3 children, Gardiner, William, and Maria; Wm. m. a Miss 
Mott of Baltimore. 

Charles A. Ru ogles'' m. (a widow of New Haven) Mrs. At- 
water, and lived in Buffalo. 

Theodore Egberf', unmarried, d. of yellow fever at Vicks- 
burg, fe. 30. 

William Erskirie'\ m., lived in Pittsfield. 

Children: 

Frances Theresa", m. David !•'. Worcester (deceased), Stamford, 
Conn. 

Children: 

Caroline Mandy. m. John F. Perkins, vice-president Astor 

Place Bank, N. Y. 
Rev. Flwood Worcester. Rector of St. Stephen's Chnrch. 

Philadelphia. 
Elizabeth Gold, unmarried. 
Caroline Erskine' MacDonald. New York, widow of 

Henry J. MacDonald, an Englishman, d. 1891. 

Caroline IVolcotf' m. Wm. Gardiner; lived in New Orleans 
and San Antonio, Te.x. 

Children: 

Sarah, m. Mr. Thayer of New Orleans one son living in San 
Antonio. 

Sarah'' m. Wm. Darling of Hudson, N. Y. 
Maria Theresa'^ m. Nathan Appleton of Boston. 

Children: 

Thomas Gold. 

Mary, m. James Macintosh, si;)n of Sir Francis of Scotland. 

Fanny, m. Henry W. Longfellow. - 

Elizabeth Sedgiviek^ m. Chas. YI. Lee of Rochester; left one 
son, Charles. 

Martha Washington^, unmarried. 

* For sketch see p. 290. 



412 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

Frances: Jennette'' m. Dec. 24, 1818, Dr. Oren Wright of 
Pittsfield. 

Children: 

Charles Gold. 

Frances, m. George F. Daiiforth, judge of Court of Appeals, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Children : 

Henry Wright. 

Fanny, w. of Henry Huntington. 
Jessie, m. Chas. A. Miller, lawyer in New York. 
Mrs. Wright d. Dec. 9, 1826, and he m. 2d, Jan. i. 1833, 
Mrs. Frances Pease of Washington, D. C. ; son George 
Worthington, b. Oct. 15, 1833. 

Benjamin Gold^ Mary W., dau. of Benjamin Gold'', and 
Daniel B. Brinsmade of Washington, Conn., m. Jan. 12, 1814. 

Children: 

Thos. Franklin Brinsmade, d. April 18, 1878; m. ist, Silence 
Leavitt, May 30, 1838; she d. June 2, 1843; m. 2d, Elisabeth E. 
Leavitt, July 22, 1844; she d. Oct. 22, 1850. 
CJiildren: 

Isabella, b. F'eb. 14, 1839; d. June 3, 1901. 
Silence Leavitt, b. May 19, 1843. 
Samuel Leavitt, b. March 6, 1848; d. Jan. 21, 1895. 
Esther Hazen, d. Feb. jo, ae. 10 m. 

William Bartlett Brinsmade, b. 1840; d. May 16, '80; m. Charlotte 
Blake Chapin (d. Oct. 5, 1900) Jan. 11, '48. 

Children : 

John Chapin, b. April 24, 1852. 
Anna Louise, b. Dec. 26, 1854. 
William Gold, Jan. 21, 1858. 

Abigail Irene, m. Frederick William Ciunn (Yale, 1837) April 
16, 1848. He died Aug. 16, 1881. 
Children: 

Daniel Brinsmade, b. July 9, 1849, d. April 2, 1865. 
Mary Gold, b. Jan. 20, 1853. 

Mary M., d. April 17, '77; m. George L. Bnnvne Aug. 3, "64; he 
d. May i, '91. 

Next generation : 

Samuel Leavitt B. m. Fanny E. Bradley. 

Children: 

Daniel, b. Nov. 7, 1873. 
Amelia, b. Sept. 13, 1877. 

Isahellc B. m. Wm. J. Ford Oct. 6, '75. 



GOLD. 413 

Silence Leavitt B. m. Nov. 18, '69, Alpheus G. Blake; he d. 
Apr. 25, 1901. 

Children: 

Elisabeth B., b. March 2, 1873. 
George Franklin, b. Sept. 8, 1875. 
Julia Leavitt, b. Oct. 15, 1879. 

John Chapin Brinsmade (Harvard, '74) m. Mary Gold Gunn 
Oct. 4, '76. 

Children: 

Frederick Gunn, b. March i, 1882. 

William Bartlett, b. Jan. 4, 1884, d. Aug. i, 1894. 

Chapin, b. March 8, 1885. 

Fleanor, b. Nov. 15, 1886. 

Mary, b. Nov. 18, 1888. 

John Chapin, Jr., b. Sept. 28, 1891. 

Charlotte Blake, b. Sept. 20, 1893. 

Abigail Irene, b. May 29, 1896. 

Wm. Gold Brinsmade (Harvard, '81) m. Ida Gibson Colton 
Dec. 23, '85. 

Children: 

October, 1885, dau. b. and d. same day. 

Dorothy, b. Nov. 15, 1892. 

John Chapin Brinsmade succeeded Mr. Gunn in charge of the 
famous Gunnery and Wm. Gold Brinsmade established the suc- 
cessful Ridge school in the same village. 

Col. Stephen J. Gold^, son of Benjamin Gold"^, m. Sarah 
F. Calhoun Nov. 13, 1826; he d. May 17, '80, ae. 79 years. 

Children: 

Geo. Ruggles', b. Oct. 9, 1830, m. Mary Jane Murdock of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., in '56. He died June i, 1902, at Flint, Mich. 
Children: 

Sarah^ m. Rev. Frederick Smith Hayden, Jacksonville, 
111., and has children, Charlotte Calhoun", Martha Gold", 
and Thomas Gold". 
Mary Eliza^ and Lilian** at home with their mothers. 
Martha Ramsay' m. Lincoln Swift Gold. He died early. 
Samuel Fay' m., t866, Harriet Habberton of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Children: 

Egbert H.", '68; Esther F.', '70: Winthrop R.', '72. 

Stephen J. Gold was an inventor, especially in heating and 
lighting appliances. His brother, Job Swift, d. 1844, was early 
associated with him. Stoves, lamps, heaters, hot air, and steam 



414 HISTORY OF CORNWALL. 

were all made more serviceable by their inventions. Stephen J., 
in 1854, was the acknowledged inventor of steam-heating ap- 
paratus as applied to dwellings, the principle of which was its 
automatic regulating feature, whereby steam was rendered safe 
and economical. His son Samuel F. Gold of Englewood followed 
with a number of useful heating appliances, while his nephew 
Edward E. Gold, son of Sedgwick Gold, is the inventor and con- 
trols the manufacture and sale of many patented appliances for 
warming railroad cars in this country and in Europe, being the 
president of the Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co. of New- 
York city and Chicago. 

Another member of the family who is a successful inventor 
is Willis Doane, son of Benjamin Franklin Gold. He has been in 
the U. S. naval service, but is now disabled. His inventions apply 
to controlling and stopping anchor chains, and have been tested 
with success in the U. S. navy. 

Judge Geo. R. Gold, above mentioned, was a lawyer in Flint, 
Mich., highly esteemed for his ability and integrity. 

Samuel Fay, youngest son of Stephen, after serving in the 
heating business for a time, went to the war, 1862-3 — orderly 
sergeant of Co. K, 13th Reg., Brooklyn, N. Y. In '66 returned 
to Cornwall, and built a wood-turning mill at the old " Essex 
place." Went to Englewood, N. J., in 1871, and engaged again 
in heating business in New York. He became thoroughly identi- 
fied with all the public institutions of Englewood, supt. and di- 
rector of the Bergen Co. Gas Light Co., the Englewood Elec. 
Light Co., and the Englewood Sewerage Co. ; supt. of the water 
company ; pres. of the board of education ; pres. of Englewood 
Fire Ass'n ; treas. of Tuscan Lodge, No. 115, F. & A. M. ; member 
of Lafayette Post, No. 140, of New York city, and member of 
N. E. Soc. in New York; director in the Gold Car Heating Co. 
of New York. 

Joseph H. Vaill, grandson of Benjamin Gold, is secretary of 
Connecticut Commission World's Fair at St. Louis. 

Miss Elizabeth Sedgwick Vaill, his sister, lives in Demarest, 
N. J., and her sister Julia, who has summer residence on Block 
Island, is wintering with her. 

The 2d wife of E. C. Boudinot was Miss Delight Sargent 
of Manchester, Vt., sister of Judge Sargent. 



GOLD. 415 

CAPTAIN EDWARD F. GOLD, SON OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN GOLD. 

Captain Gold, althoug:h not possessing soldierly characteristics, 
excepting as to intense patriotism and great personal bravery, was 
one of Cornwall's best-known representatives in the War of the 
Rebellion. He was such a general favorite, however, among the 
young men of the town, that when the Nineteenth Connecticut 
Regiment was formed in 1862, in which he had enlisted (later 
known as the Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery), he was captain 
of the company that was mainly recruited from the towns of Corn- 
wall and Sharon. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Captain Gold did not readily 
master the intricate evolutions of army tactics as laid down by 
Hardee and Upton, he continued to hold to a marked degree the 
esteem of the members of his company by reason of his unques- 
tioned bravery, and especially on account of his solicitude for the 
welfare and personal comfort of the men of his command. It is 
related of him that during the winter campaign of 1864-65 he 
was known to lend his only blanket to a soldier who had returned 
from hospital without one, while he himself spent the night doz- 
ing by the side of a camp fire seated upon an empty " hardtack " 
box. His term of service was from July 20, 1862, to Feb. 24, 
1865. 

Inheriting a liberal patrimony Capt. Gold received a good 
education in the common and academic schools; fond of the best 
literature and a thorough student of American history. 

Returning from the war in broken health and fortune, reject- 
ing the ofi'ers of friends, he supported himself by manual labor, 
seeming to derive more pleasure in building a good stone wall than 
from the pay to meet his wants. He lost the esteem of some by 
his irregular associates and habits, yet he never failed to assert 
his right to be treated with respect when impos