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Full text of "The historical right of the Hungarian nation to its territorial integrity"

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Karacsonyi, Janos 

The historical right of the 
Hungarian nation 



EAST-EUROPEAN PROBLEMS 



N10. 



The 

Historical Right of the Hungarian Nation 
to its Territorial Integrity 



BY 

DR(JOHN)KARACSONYI 

Member of the Hungarian Academy of Science. 




23 1924 



LONDON 1920 NEW-YORK 

LOW, W. DAWSON & SONS STEIGER & COM P. 

BUDAPEST 

FERDINAND PFEIFER (ZEIDLER BROTHERS) 



The Historical Right of the Hungarian 
nation to its Territorial Integrity. 

The united attacks of' the Bulgars and Pet- 
chenechs compelled the Magyars in 896 a. D. to 
emigrate from the lower Danube, the present terri- 
tory of Roumania, to Hungary, where along the 
shores of the rivers Duna and Tisza the state of 
Hungary was founded more than a thousand years 
ago. No rights of other nations have been violated 
by this occupancy for at that time no other organised- 
states existed in this territory, it was an un'm-^ 
habited bare land as proved by the king of England. 
Alfred the Great. 

Ten years later the Hungarians conquered the 
so-called Moravian and Pannonian Slavs extending 
thereby the borders of their land up to the rivers Morva 
and Lajta. However the Hungarians did not exter- 
minate these Moravian and Pannonian Slavs, on the 
contrary they became their fellow citizens, their 
brothers, who were on the other hand eagerly 
seeking their friendship and their assistance against 
the Germans. Thus in the X XII. ' centuries the 
Pannonian Slavs "became leaders, members of the 
Hungarian nobility, soldiers. In time these Slavs 
have been entirely absorbed by the Magyars through 
this close connection and the Hungarian language 
has taken over many Slav words. 



10. sz. 



John Kardcsonyi 



These ancient Moravian and Pannonian Slavs 
have nothing to. do with the present Czechs, 
Slovaks and Upper-Moravians. Xhe old Slav words 
incorporated into the Hungarian language clearly 
prove that these Moravian and Pannonian Slavs 
spoke an entirely different language from that of 
the Czechs or Slovaks. They did not even live on 
the same territor}' where Upper-Moravians and the 
Slovaks of to day reside, for their realm was situated 
on the plains bordered by the present Lower-Austria 
and by the rivers Morva and Garam. Either Deveny 
or Pozsony was their capital. . 

During the reign of St. Stephen the Hungarian 
nation was drawn into the sphere of Western culture. 
lie introduced the Christian Catholic religion and 
'transplanted Western administration , and justice. 
f\Ca-cx>xHungary became a centrally organised kingdom, 
acknowledged by the great Western Christian states,- 
not only by Germany, but by France and England too. 
ical and commercial treaties were concluded 
ith Hungary and family ties were formed with 
the family of the Hungarian king. 

The powerful Hungarian state, erected on Wes- 
tern culture, then started to colonise those parts 
of Hungary left uninhabited by the migration of 
the nations. 

The north western mountainous parts of Hun- 
gary were in the IX XI. centuries the dividing, 
territory between Hungary and Poland and begin- 
ning with 1009 between Hungary and the Moravian 
and Polish dukedoms. The Czechs have never had 
any right to this territory for as far back as 996 
the Czech dukedom reached only as far as Koniggratz 
and Pardubitz and the new Moravian dukedom 
created in the years 100309 belonged to the king 
of Poland. Even the demands (not just claims) 
filed by the then crowned king Vratiszlav in 1086 
pertained to the valleys of Upper-Odera and Upper- 



The Historical Right of the Hungarian Nation :\ 

Morva only. The fact that in the XV. century the 
Czech Hussites invaded our territory for the pure 
love of plundering and later on the mercenary Giskra 
ordered by the Habsburg dynasty, do not consti- 
tute any just claim to the land. 

In the time of St. Ladislaus when the Moravian 
and Polish dukes were bound by family ties to the 
king of Hungary there was no further reason for 
the existence of a bare territory dividing the two 
realms and so colonisation started. First the members 
of the royal household were moving from Nyitra to 
Trencsen, from Bars to Zolyom, from Hont to Lip to 
and Gomor counties, but as these were only few in 
numbers and the clearing of forests not to their 
liking, Germans were settled there and later on the 
ancestors of the Slovaks of to-day were permitted 
to emigrate from the upper valleys of the Morva- 
Odera and Visztula. These ancestors of the Slovaks 
while living in the northern part of the Carpathians 
were called in the X XL centuries the White- 
Croatiaris. This goes to show that even then they 
differed and as to their tongue differ even now to 
a very great extent from the Czechs and Poles. 

Documents are still existing showing that this 
territory has been colonised mostly by the so-called 
"soltesz", a sort of contractor who brought people 
from foreign lands in order to clear the forests. 

Besides these documents all names of cities or 
townships ending with l 'Hau" or "vagas" (cut) 
prove that this territory was colonised at a later 
date and from authentic documents it can be shown 
that all colonisation has been started by the Hunga- 
rian kings, noblemen or the clergy. Especially the 
clergy of Esztergom and the one of Nyitra (founded 
around 1 1 16) has taken care of the imigrant Slovaks, 
built churches and schools for them. Peter Pazmany 
provided them even with priests speaking their 
own language and since 1 790 they have an extented 



John Karacsonyi 



literature of their own, by means of which they were 
able to hold on to their nationality to such an extent 
that even the famous Czech ethnographer Konla 
had to admit that not only their language but also 
their dress, their architecture a. s. o. is entirely 
different from that of the Czechs and the other 
Slovaks. Schools and .offices were always open to 
them and many of those who did not attempt the 
destruction of Hungary attained without opposition 
the foremost positions. 

In the north-eastern part of our country the 
Carpathian Mountains and valleys were also unin- 
habited in the X XIILcenturies for these parts served 
as a division between Hungary and Red-Russia. Docu- 
ments of 1243, 1263, 1270, 1272, 1278 and 1284 
bear witness to the fact how far the hunting grounds 
(loco venation-is regum) reached, which were abundant 
in game but scarce in population. 

Red-Russia came in 1349 under the rule of 
Kazmer, king of Poland, an uncle of the king of 
Hungary and later on in 1370 under the rule of the 
king of Hungary himself. In these' times there came 
Ruthenians from Red-Russia, to pasture their cattle 
in this uninhabited territory, first according to a 
law enacted in 1426 only temporarily, but as it 
soon became known that the forests yielded much 
larger revenues ^when inhabited, the king and 
some other nobleaen settled many Ruthenians in 
this territory, in which especially the two contractors 
Soltesz and Kenez assisted him. In the northern 
part of the county of Zemplen no less than 136 
such "Soltesz" settlements were in existence, show- 
ing that the colonisation there has started not so 
very long ago. 

The Ruthenians have been exempted by the 
Hungarians from paying tithes. They were permitted 
around 1410 to have an ecclesiastical head in 
the person of the Bishop of Munkacs, who was 



The Historical Right of tin- Hungarian Nation 



compelled by Gabriel Bethlen in 1627 to found a 
Gymnasium (highschool). After 1647 many a Ruthe- 
nian youth has been educated in Hungarian schools 
and the Ruthenian literature started in Hungary ' 
as early as 1698. 

At the time of the Hungarian immigration the 
greatest territory left uninhabited was in the south- 
eastern part of the country. This territory being 
situated beyond great forests has been called Tran- 
sylvania or Erclely. It was left uninhabited in 896 
for the only reason that next to this territory in 
Roumania of to-day their most cruel but also the 
strongest enemies of the Hungarians, the Beskides 
(Bessenyok) lived. This has 'been attested to by 
the Greek emperor Constantinus Porphyrogenitus 
in 950. 

The allegation therefore that the Olahs or 
Roumanians of to-day have inhabited this territory 
continuously since the colonisation inaugurated by 
emperor Trajan is false. We have the statements 
of three authors Flavius Vopiscus, Eutropius and 
Rofus Lextus that the Roman emperors removed 
all the inhabitans from Dacia to the left shore of 
the Danube. There did not remain a single Roman, 
hence no Roumanian or Olah could descend from 
him. 

The falsehood that the Olahs or Roumanians 
originate from Dacia is proved by their own 
language too. Philology has shown without doubt 
that the Olah or Roumanian language originated 
in the VII X. centuries only. It originated from 
the language of those herdsmen who were trans- 
planted from southern Italy to Albania and Thessalia. 
On the other hand it is also proved without" doubt 
that Transylvania and Roumania of to-day was 
occupied by the Western Goths from 260376, 
by the Eastern Goths from 376 452 (under the 
rule of the Kuns) by the Gepids from 452 568, 



later on by the Slavs under the rule of the Avares. 
In the VII. century this territory was called 
Slavonia by the Greek. After the downfall of the 
Avares and the retreat oT the Slavs, Transylvania 
and the mountainous counties Krasso-Szoreny have 
been left uninhabited and only Roumania with her 
fertile pastures has been occupied by the Bulgars, 
Magyars and Bessenyos. 

During the reign of St. Stephen vigorous Hun- 
gary started gradually to occupy and to colonise 
Transylvania. He occupied in 1010 the valley 
of the river Szamos situated in northwestern 
Transsylvania, built cities and townships and popu- 
lated them with Magyars. In 1092 St. Ladislaus 
linked the valleys of the Maros and the Kiskukullo 
to Hungary and populated them with Magyars 
and Szekelys. King Geza II. permitted the Wallon- 
Italians and Saxons emigrating from Burich and 
Tachen to settle in the territory of Segesvar and 
kagyszeben.v Finally in 1211 the German Order 
of Knights started the colonisation of the territory 
of Brasso with the permission of King Andrew II. 

In 1245 the number of the Magyars, Szekelys 
and Saxons was diminished by the murderous 
attacks of the Tartars to such extent that their 
expansion ceased though-, the higher located moun- 
tainous parts of this territory were still bare. For 
this reason the kings of Hungary permitted shepherds 
of Roumania and Bulgaria to settle there. They 
were used partly as frontier-guard partly as soldiers 
and stood under the jurisdiction of special authori- 
ties, the so called "Vajdak". The rest was colo- 
nised by contractors so called "Kenez" who acted 
for a long time as their judges also. 

Not counting therefore that little fraction trans- 
planted by King Bela III in 1183 from the territory 
of Sofia Nish to Kercz- (in order to act as bor- 
derguard) the Olahs (Roumanians) immigrated into 



The Historical Right of the Hungarian Nation 



our country only after 1245. In 1293 their number 
was still so small that there would have been 
plenty of room for all of them in the valley of 
Szekos, east of Gyulafehervar, an area of no 
more than 25 square miles. Their number increased 
however to a large extent in the XIV. century 
when extended settlements were in progress. Most 
of the settlers came into the mountainous counties 
of Krasso-Szoreny, Hunyad Alsofehervar, Zarand, 
Bihar, Szatmar and Maramaros. From these the 
large landowners derived some income too as most 
of the settlers raised hogs and cattle. In order to 
give an asylum to the aforementioned "Vajda's" 
from Roumania, the Hungarian kings ceded the 
forts of Fogaras and Omlas to them, Vajda Vlajko 
settled these new Roumanians in the county of 
Fogaras, which territory has everi in 1372 still been 
called "nova plantatio", new settlement. From at 
least 229 Olah or Roumanian townships we can 
prove with authentic documents that they were 
founded after 1 241 and for about more than 500 town- 
ships and cities we have proofs that the Olahs settled 
there only after 1526 in place of the extinct Hun- 
garians. During the five years from 1641 1646 
no less than 10,000 Olah families, that is 50,000 
people immigrated into Hungary from Roumania, 
as can be proved by contemporary writers. 

As at the time of their immigration the Olahs 
(Roumanians) were under the leadership of Bulgar- 
Slav Kenez and Bulgar-Slav -priests, the language 
of their public worship was for centuries old- 
Slav. Especially here in Hungary the Protestant 
sovereigns of Transylvania and some Transylvanian 
Protestant ministers were eager to introduce to the 
new settlers Western culture and persuaded their 
priests to abandon the old-Slavic language. The 
Holy Scriptures were translated into Olah (Rou- 
manian) and the priests compelled to preach in 






Roumanian. After a good many of them changed 
faith and became Catholics, the Hungarian Catholic 
clergy sent many Roumanian young men to Rome 
and Vienna by whom the Roumanian, national 
literature was started. Furthermore many Hungarian 
scientists, educators and tradesmen went over to 
Roumania. 

It was therefore the Hungarian nation - - as 
we see which introduced culture into Transyl- 
vania. The Hungarian created such a feeling of 
public safety that the Olahs trustfully settled down 
and acquired the first rudiments of justice and 
administration. 

It would be a terrible injustice therefore to 
tear away Transylvania from the Hungarians 
who after the horrors of the immigration of the 
nations were first to plough this soil, who received 
the Saxons and Olahs with friendship. It would be 
a terrible injustice also to cede Transylvania to a 
nation which immigrated three centuries later to 
the then already safe territory. 

Into the southern part of our country immigrated 
but only after 1389 that tribe of the Serb people 
which was called Racz. Up to that time only Hun- 
garians lived in this territory and French travellers 
of the XIII XV. centuries bear witness to it that 
this part of the land always belonged. immediately 
to the Hungarian kingdom. This Racz people never 
claimed for themselves special rights or special terri- 
tory, only those Serbs who fled from Old Servia at the 
end of 1690 did so. This claim was unjust for empe- 
ror-king Leopold I and also his generals as can 
be proved by their letters -- promised special terri- 
tory and special government only in case they 
should be brought back to their old country, to 
Servia. This is acknowledged by the most famous 
historian of the Serbs, by Hilarian Buvaracz and 
by their foremost leader Szava Tokoly. Besides this 



The Historical Right of ihe Hun^u-jan Nation 



in 1792 even this unjust claim to special territory 
and special rights was renounced by all the Serbs 
inhabiting Hungary, in consideration of which they 
received a form of ^selfgovernment and such special 
rights in regard to schools and churches that, shortly 
after their literature was started and schools were 
built, the students of which became the first wor- 
kers for the national culture in Servia after it was 
freed from the oppression of the Turks in 1864. 

Would it not be peculiar if the Hungarians 
would loose their own home procured and defended 
with their own lifeblood just because they gave 
shelter to the poor immigrating Serbs ! 

The parts beyond the Drava were not the 
dwellingplaces of some one unified nation but 
can be divided into three sections according to 
history, geography and ethnography. 

The eastern part of the Bulgarian territory 
located between the Drava and Szava has been 
occupied by the Hungarians in 897- The Bulgars 
had neither geographical nor historical rights to 
this territory. Porphyrogeneta Constantiri is witness 
to it that this part has been in possession of Hunga- 
rians as early as 950 wherefore the Hungarian kings 
St. vStephen and St. Ladislaus subordinated its po- 
pulation to the Bishop of Pecs and Kalocsa. Then 
entirely Hungarian counties with Hungarian juris- 
diction have been organised. 

After the bloody battle of .Rigomezo in 1389 
the Serbs joined the Turks till 1406 and together 
devastated this territory. The Turks continued 
this, from 1458 1526. By and by this territory 
became depopulated. Later on, but especially after 
1526, so called Racz (Serbs) settled down in 
great numbers so that in the XVII. and at 
the beginning of the XVIII. century this territory 
was called Little-Raczia. In 1 746 it has been linked 
partly with the military borderguard territory 



10 ^ John Kardcsonyi 

partly^ it became subordinated to the Banus of 
Croatia and Slavonia under the name of Lower- 
Slavonia, but as to taxes and representation they 
still were subordinated directly to the Hungarian 
government. Since 1848 viz. since 1871 it is 
entirely a part of the Banate of Croatia-Slavonia. 

The population .of the western part of the 
territory located between the Drava and Szava is 
not Croatian but Slavonian and has a special 
(Kojkavci) dialect. Only in 1443 and after 1528 
did real Croatians settle there. 

This territory belonged from 8431083 to 
the German Empire. In 896 it was governed by 
the duke of Braszlav. In 901 it came to Bavaria, 
in 976 to .Carinthia. St. Ladislaus making war 
upon the Germans in 1082 83 in order to compel 
the German emperor Henry IV. to abandon the 
storming of Rome, ( occupied this territory and 
connected it with Hungary to which the German 
emperor agreed, according to the peace treaty 
of 1092. 

The Croatian kings themselves never laid any 
claims to this territory and never possessed it. 
They did not build a single fort^ a single church. 
It is a mistake to assert that one of the Bishops, 
territory - - mentioned in the proceedings of the 
Council of Spalato in 926 was located here 
for the territorry between the Drava and Szava 
always belonged to Pannonia. This archbishop of 
Dalmatia and the bishops subordinated to him 
could therefore have no jurisdiction. On the con- 
trary, the memories of the German rule were still 
noticable even in the XIII - XV. c'enturies partly 
in the taxes similar to those in Carinthia, partly 
in the names* of official boards. 

St. Ladislaus in order to elevate the neglected 
Slavon people in the territory situated between the 
Drava and Szava established a bishopric seat in 



The Historical Right of the Hnn^inun' Nation It 

Zagreb and by dividing this territory into three 
counties, introduced Hungarian jurisdiction. Only 
in 1190 did king Adalbert III. join the three coun- 
ties Koros, Zagreb and Varasd to the dukedom 
of Croatia of which his son was the ruler. And 
as the Croatian dukedom was also called the Slav 
dukedom, the name of Slavonia was applied to 
these three counties too, and from 1241 to 1746 
this territory has been constantly called Slavonia. 

It is clear therefore that also the western part 
of the territory situated between the Drava and 
Szava has been civilised by the Hungarians. The 
Hungarians defended it against the spreading of 
the Turks, but they never suppressed the mother- 
tongue of its population and always helped to 
develop their selfgovernment. The population 
appreciating this clung to the Hungarians faithfully 
up to the XVII. century. Under Hungarian influence 
its Catholic literature (the Protestant literature stood 
under the influence of the German and Slovenian 
clergy) was started, their jurisdiction especially pri- 
vate law was the same as in Hungary, so that 
the famous Tripartitum of Verboczy has been 
translated and published by Pergosid in the Slavon 
language in 1574. 

Old Croatia was located south of the river 
Kulpa and the mountain Gozd in the valleys of 
the Urna, Koka and Cetina. It was from 8001059 
a separate dukedom. In 10591090 a separate 
kingdom. Around 1063 Geza I. king of Hungary 
married the sister of Peter Krekimir, king of 
Croatia. In 1090 the male line of the Croatian 
king being extinct, Croatia by right of female 
lineage became transferred to the sons of Geza I. 
king of Hungary. For this reason Almos, the 
second son of Geza I. and with the bein of his 
uncle St. Ladislaus has been made king of Croatia 
in 1091. 



12 John Kardcsony 



In 1095, however, Almos resigned from the 
Kingdom of Croatia in order to secure for himself 
the Hungarian dukedom of the territory located 
beyond the Tisza and transferred the Croatian 
Kingdom to his brother Coloman, king of Hun- 
gary. Coloman after suppressing Croatian insurrec- 
tions in 1096 united Croatia with Hungary as his 
inheritance from his mother's side. Later on in 
1104 Coloman made an agreement with the em- 
peror of Greece; the then ruler of the cities of 
Dalmatia and linked these cities to Hungary also. 
To the Croatians and Italians living in these 
Dalmatian cities selfgovernment was granted. The 
Croatians were able to go to war under the ruler- 
ship of "their Bans, special judges passed senten- 
ces on them and they could even maintain their 
old letters. The citizens of Dalmatia too elected 
their own officials and kept strictly to their habi- 
tual rights. 

Thus the Hungarian nation did not become an 
oppressor of the Croatians but on the contrary its 
saviour. If the Croatians would not have come 
into such a close contact with the Hungarians, the 
pressing Serbs would have assimilated them enti- 
w*vu * rely in the XIII. century, depriving them of their 
~~" language and culture. Besides this in 1493 and 

, 15012 the Hungarians defended them against the 
Turks, as far as this could be done, and when 
^j, the Croatians had to flee from their old country 
u-7 Sx/i4-o in 1528, the Hungarians received them cordially, 
granting them special rights. 

Anything published by Croatian historians con- 
trary to these facts is based either on error or 
untruth. 

It is untrue that the Croatians submitted them- 
selves to the king of Hungary by an international 
agreement in 1 102. A canon of Spalato has written 
something to this effect in 1330 but his report 



The Historical Right of the Hungarian Nation \_3 

shows such great ignorance that in the face or 
authentic data the assertions of so illiterate a person 
can be accepted by ignorant or prejudiced people 
on ly. 

It is untrue furthermore that Coloman has been 
crowned Croatian king in Tenger-Belgrad in 1102. 
The charter of Zara referring to this is a fraud 
committed by the solicitor of the nuns of Zara 90 
years later. But this so^citor made so many diplo- 
matic errors in preparing this forgery that only 
those can be misled by it, who want to be misled. 
However, even he did ndt dare to report that king 
Coloman has been crowned "regem Croatiae", so 
that just the decisive proof jis missing. Granting 
even that the crowning has taken place in Tenger- 
Belgrad this could have been only the usual intro- 
ductory crowning. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina also fell as an inheri- 
tance to the royal Hungarian family. King Adalbert 
II. married the daughter of the first duke of Bosnia, 
whose dowry Bosnia or otherwise called Rama he 
Bestowed upon his son Ladislaus in 1138. It is 
true that this Bosnia became an independent king- 
dom but true is also that this independent kingdom 
had been utterly destroyed by the Turks in 1463. 
One year later king Mathevvs I. reconquered the 
northertly part of Bosnia- from the Turks and from 
the Bosniaks, renewing the rights of the Hunga- 
rian kings. The dukes of Herzegovina on the other 
hand have themselves taken refuge with the kings 
of Hungary when in 1'482 Herzegovina was occu- 
pied by the Turks. 

Bosnia as well as Herzegovina remained under 
the jurisdiction of their own bans and dukes and 
adhered to their customes because Hungary never 
.annihilated any other nationality and never tried 
to abolish customs not in contradiction with the 
public safety. Both countries were flourishing 



If you want to- keep abreast of events in 

East Europe 
read the following publications: 

East European Problems 

No. 1 . The Peace-Treaty Proposed to Hun- 

gary. By Count Albert Apponyi. 
No. 2. Establishment of Three States in 

the Place of One. By A Kovdcs. 
No. 3. The Solution of the Fiume Question. 

By > Ddrdqy. 
No. 4. The Gfeogfaphica4 Impossibility of 

the^zeckState; ^ By Dr. Francis Fodor. 
No. 5. Can Roumanian Rufre in East-Hun- 

gary Last? By A. Kovdcs. 
No. 6. West-Hungary. By Gustav Thirring. 
No. 7. The Martyrdom of Croatia. 

By C Battorich. 
No. 8 The Hungarians of Moldavia. By 

John TatrosL 
No. 9. The Hungarian-Polish Frontier 

Question. 

No 10. The Historical Right of the Hungarian 
, ; ^a|ipin to its Territorial Integrity. 

By John Kafdcsotiyi. 



For specimen copy please apply to 

Low, W. Dawsons & Sons, London E. C. 

St. Dunstan's House, Fleet Street. 
Steiger & Comp. New-York E. 49 Murray Street. 
Ferd. Pfeifer (Zeidler Brothers), Budapest IV. 

7 Kossuth Lajos Street. 



D Karacsonyi, Janos 

651 The historical right of 

H7K37 the Hungarian nation 



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