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Historical Sketches 



Hath this beeu iu your days, or oveu in the days of 
your fathers i Tell your children of it, and let your 
children tell their children, and their children another 

generation, — -Bible. 

Makunton, W. Va. 
Priok Bbothbbs, Fublibhers 



Coi-YRIOHT, 1901, BY 

Peice Bbothers 





This volume seems to be the spontatieous outcome 
of c ire am stances, or in a sense lias simply j^rowii up 
"without observation,"' Most of the contents came 
the compiler's way without ever suspecting their fu- 
tnre appearance in book form, by casually noting down 
what he saw and heard while moving around among 
the homes of our people, recording interviews with the 
older venerated persons, or recalling what was sug- 
gested during the thirty or forty youthful years of tlie 
almost forgotten past, and were published from time 
to time in the Pocahontas Times. 

Referring to the Biographic Notes, we quote from 
the Bath Hews an article by Joseph T, McAllister, 
himself a historical student of more than ordinary 
ability : ''These sketches are from notes made as oc- 
casion offered, and they can not be prized too highly. 
It is very hard for one man unaided to gather" these 
facts, and it requires no little time to edit them. We 
sometimes think very lightly of such things, and are 
too much inclined to let the dead past bury its dead, 
and live alone in this work-a-day present. But we 


ithonlJ i-eiueiiiber that iilong this westuru Virginia tlio 
Scotch-Irieh worked out a vast probUfm and wrought a 
vast change in the then existing form of government; 
that they made history and played no small or mean 
part in life's great stage; that the simple life they led 
nurtured men to whom we are indebted for countless 
blessings, and that no incident of their lives is too 
small or insignificant to be recorded. Only by access 
to such sketches as those published by Mr Price can 
the coming historian gather truthfully the materials 
from which to write. When Green, the great English 
historian, wrote his immortal work — it was not to set 
forth the deeds of the kings, or the deeds of the mem- 
bers of tho royal household. He wrote what he fond- 
ly calls a 'History of the English People,' " 

The writer est.eems it a privilege granted by the Su- 
preme Being,— in whom we live, move, and have our 
being,— to Jiave been enabled to collect and put in per- 
manent form the matter contained in these sketches, 
much of which would soon have faded from the minds 
of men and lost to present and future generations. 

Sincere thanks are due the advance subscribers, 
without whose assurance of support and co-operation 
rhe work would not have been attempted at this time, 
William T. Ppice. 

Marlinton, West Virginia, 
July 19, 1901. 


Content ??. 

Preliminary ...... 1-23 

Geological, Gbo^kaphical, Climato logical 24— 4!t 

Pioneer Methom and Social Cl"8Toms , 50-^4 

Notes on Formation ok the County . 85-104 

BioGRAFHic ..... 105- 557 

Afpendix ...... 558-622 





A Hebrew Prophet utters this imjtreBsive adnioDi- 
tion: "Hear this ye old men and give ear all ye in- 
habitants of the land, hath this bec^n in yonr days, it 
even in the days of your fathers? Tell yo your cliildron 
of it, and lot yonr children tell their children, and 
their children another generation. " — Joel 1, 2-3. 

The duty inculcated by these earnest wonls wo, — ■ 
the Editor; the venerated, aged persons whose memo- 
ries have with so much fidelity preserved the traditions 
and the oral unwritten history that have been transmit- 
ted from their pioneer ancestry to their children and 
children's children; the advance subscribers; and the 
printer publishers, — hereby endeavor to pei'forin. 

These sketches are designed to illustrate, in some 
measure, the history of Pocahontas County, located an 
it is in one of the most remarkable ragions of the whole 
habitable earth. The territory referred to extends 
from the Ohio Valley to the Blue Ridge, and from the 
Potomac to the sources of New River, There may be 
other regions of like limits efpially favored with tlie 
bonnties of nature, but none to surpass it, when all 



things arc dul; considered. The Bpontaneous resnupces 
for sustaining hnniaii and animal existence exceed all 
ordinary means of estimating. The streams were alive 
with fish and aquatic birds; the forests teemed With un- 
counted herds of bison, elk, and deer, bears, wolves, 
panthers, wild cats, foxes aud smaller animals of great 
variety roamed at will. Flocks of turkeys, grouse, 
quail, aud the wild pigeons abounded in fabulous pro- 
fusion. The branches of as noble trees as ever gi'ew, 
— trees that Mvould be the pride of royal parks, — were 
*>ccupied by throngs of birds of bright and varied plu- 
mage and sweet notes, thus making the solitary forost 
scenes beautiful and more than sweetly vcxial. 

When the pioneers came they found this wildoniesH 
paradise just as God the Creator fashioned it, already 
peopled by a branch of the liuman race, men, women, 
and children, that had been here for ccnturiefl. There 
were indications that these had boon preceded by a still 
older class of occupants. 

As to tlie American Indians found by the pioneers, 
the question of their origin, who they were and whence 
came they has been a much discussed ethnological 
problem for the past four hundred years by Spanish, 
English, French, and American scholars. Egypt, 
China, and Korteastern Asia, as well as Northwesteru 
Europe, have passed under searchingly profound con- 
sideration as sources whence the aboriginal people of 
North and South America have migi'ated at prehistoric 
periods. The language, religious traditions, manners, 
and usages of the Indians that occupied the region 
whereof om- county forms a part seem to some writers 



snggestive of Hebrew origin, and might be a remnant 
iif tlie 80 termed Lost Tribes of Israel, On this theory 
the Book of Mormon was written, and our intelligent 
readers know something of what has reautted wlienever 
the Mormon question is broached. 

But ae the question now stands, that of origin as to 
what nation or nations of tlie old world whence the 
American Indians have come, the state of the problem 
is so perplexing that positive tnith is not conceded to 
any one theory. Plausible conjecture is the most that 
is conceded for the best considered tlieory of origin. 

Hn Maxwell, who has investigated such historical 
themes with conspicuous ability, says: 

"In Mexico to-day tho Indians, Mayas, and Aztecs 
live side by side, and tlieir features and general char- 
acteristics show tliem to be radically tiie same people, 
not different races. They are at least as much alike as 
are Germans and Spanish, the tJreeks and the French, 
and the common origin of these nations is notdifficiilt 
to trace. It is neither proper nor profitable to enter 
at length upon the consideration of the origin of the 
Indians. It is a question which history has not an- 
swered, and perhaps never will answer. If the origin 
of the Indians were known, the origin of the people 
wliL built t!ie mounds would be near at hand. But tho 
whole matter is one of speculation and opinion. The 
favorite conclusion of most authors is that Antcrica 
was peopled from Asia by Vay of Behring Strait. It 
could have been done. But the hypothesis is as reas- 
onable that Asia was peopled by emigrants from Amer- 
ica who crossed the Behring Strait. It is the same dis- 



taiice KcrosH, going west or coining cast, aiid there is 
no historical evidence that America was not peopled 
iii'tit, or that both the old world aud the new world 
were not peopled at the same time; or that each was 
not peopled independently of the other. Since the 
dawn of history, and as far back into prehistoric times 
as the analysis of languages can throw any light, all 
great migrations have been westward. No westward 
migration would have given America its inhabitants 
from Asia, but a migration from from the west would 
have peopled Asia from America, As a matter of fact 
Beliriug Strait is so narrow that the tribes on either 
side can cross to the other at pleasure, and with less 
tUfficulty than the Auiazon River can be crossed near 
its mouth,'' 

In our sltotchea wa will not spctiid much time on 
theories of origin, but give eai'nest attention to facts, 
and the fact now before us is this, tlie ]>ioneers found 
the land they had come from beyond the ocean seas to 
possess, already occupied by their fellow men, claim- 
ing the land as theirs from. ])rehistoric times. The 
tribe of Indians that laid special claim upon our region 
by actual possession was the Shawnee; and as the 
Shawneo had been nurtured and reared in such a sur- 
prising goodly land, he ranked among the superior 
members of the Koith American aborigines. 

Tlie Shawnee Indians preceded the pioneers in ac- 
tual possession and long nse of hunting grounds well- 
Tiigli coextensive with the limits already indicated. 
These Indians had tlie Ohio Valley as tlieir home place 
so to speak. Nearly all of the aborigines that waged 



border warfare lived in Oiiio adjacont to tiie present 
limits of West Virginia, whoiico tlicy would come to 
make good their claiiHH to tlieir hunting grounds, and 
for more than twenty-fivo years waged cruel IioHtiUtios 
against the pioneers. 

The French Jesuit fathers, as early as 1G4(I, had 
taken and published a missionary census of the total 
number of Indians in the territory cast of the Mississ- 
ippi, north of the Gulf of Mexico, and south of the St. 
Lawience River and the Lakes, The territory referred 
to in that missionary census includes what now claims 
our consideration. Accordiug to this census the Ind- 
ians numbered about one hundred and eighty thoHsand, 

It thus appears that the Jesuit Fathers took inuch 
pains to inform themselves about this region, and had 
secured the confidence and attachment of tiieShawnees. 
These alert, tireless, shrewd missionaries always knew 
a good thing when they saw it, and they seemed to 
liave felt that no brighter gem was in their reach, with 
which to adorn the tiara of the Holy Father at Rome, 
than the natural Paradise reported by the Shawnee 
braves and Huron liunters as their own hunting grounds. 
No doubt rested in the souls of these devoted nnssion- 
aries that their paramount duty was to seciu'o and make 
good for the use of the Holy Father this goodly lieri- 
tage of the heathen, for it was his as the vicegerent of 
■Christ, to whom God had proituscd the earth and the 
fullness thereof. They were ready to sacrifice all the 
delights of sense, all the luxury of personal ease, and 
even life itself, to make good a claim so divine. 

Nothing in the anunls of niissi()narv endeavor is 



more patliotically iiitorosting tliaii what tlioso devoted 
Jusuit fatliera voluntarily endured, in tlioir efforts to 
propagate tLo faitli, as they express it. First came the 
inisaionarletj, followed in due time by the Froucli eugi- 
neers, aud the goodly land was explored. The mis- 
sionaries were quickened in their zeal and confirmfd 
in their faith when they discovered so much that wa« " 
suggeative of Palestine in so many features. What 
Moses said and what they had read in the 8th of Deu- 
teronomy about the Holy Land being a laud of brooks 
of water, of fonntaina and depths that spring out of 
valleys aud hills; a land whose stones are iron and out 
of whose hills brass might be dug, the Fathers found 
all duplicated here, and thoy were not slow to perceive 
its possibilities could make it materialize into a "land 
of wheat and barley and viues an<l fig trees and pome- 
granates; aland wherein bread would be eaten without 
scarceness,^' and nothing really good be lacking, and 
be moreover a land of oil, olive, and honey. 

Since apostolic times no class of men have on record 
or have displayed more eelfdenying energy than the 
French Father missionaries at the time referred to. 
Some of these previous t« 1640, and at various periods 
since down to 1774, explored every nook and corner of 
our region worth looking after, guided by their Shaw- 
nee adherents. It is believed that the remains of one 
of tliese fathei-s, or engineers, were plowed up in tin- 
Indian Draft, some years ago, near where the Edray 
branch joins the main stream. 

To have a proper appreciation of what it all cost the 
pioneers in their efforts to liave and to hold wha'. is 



now tlie place of our homes, it would be well to learn 
sometliing of Shawnee character, as men and warriors. 

The leaders that gave our pioneers the most trouble 
were Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas; Cornstalk, Kill- 
buck, and Crane, Killbuck annoyed the settleuientw 
for a long series of years, and when hostilities ceased 
went to his home in Ohio, and thereafter paid occa- 
sional visits to Wheeling. He became blind, and liv- 
ed to be more than a hundred years old, 

Killbuck had for a comrade, whose efficiency as a 
warrior made liiin nearly as dangerous, named Crane, 
because of his unusually long neck and legs. Crane 
was an ugly thorn in the flesh, especially to those of 
the settlers that located on the South Branch, and made 
himself a conspicuous nuisance never to be forgotten. 
But little record is to be found of his exploits, but 
enough is known to give him tlio distinction of being 
considered nearly as dangerous as Killbuck. 

Tlie Shawnees, the aboriginal people, were here to 
repel the pioneers for the reason they regarded the 
land as theirs by inheritance fnjm their fathers, at 
whose burial mounds they observed solemn riglits of 
worship, and whose exploits they so fervently chanted 
in war songs and fuueral dirges. 

Indian troubles continued about thirty years with 
brief intervals of precarious peace. It is believed on 
very reliable tradition that for ten years before his 
death at the battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 
1774, Colonel Charles Lewis was never at home more 
than a month at a time. 

The pioneer Scottish Virginians, ancestors of so 



lai-ge proportion of our Pocahontas people, woi-e re- 
mote from the seat of the colonial government, poorly 
provided with means of defense, and were exposed to 
all the troubles arising from the long and bitter strug- 
gle between the French and English for supremacy in 
the Mississippi Valley. History makes no formal men- 
tion of expeditions numbering hundreds of men going 
out as armed rangers upon the frontier. Nothing but 
a few unnoticed Acts of Virginia Assembly, acknowl- 
edging and commending such services, are available to 
show that companies of "Rangers," "Independents,'" 
or "Volunteers," led by a Lewis, a McClenachan, a 
Cunningham, a Preston, a Dickinson, a Duiilap, a 
Moffett, an Alexander, or some one else, armed and 
equipped at their own charges, penetrated the forests 
to punish or disperse hostile parties of Indians. 

For in times of avowed peace the Indians would al- 
lege nominal or supposed wrongs, and thereupon mur- 
der defenceless families, then disappear stealthily as 
panthers, hastening away to thoir well-nigh inaccessi- 
ble strongholds beyond the mountains. The Indian 
leaders, moreover, were foemen worthy of any antago- 
nistic steel. The Emperor Pontiac appears to be the 
iirst to wage war against the Scottish Virginians. Ho 
was a war chief of the Ottowas, the most influential of 
the northern tribes, and was conspicuous among tho 
native heroes whose devotion to the interests, of their 
people, wisdom and eloquence in council, skill in strat- 
egy, bravery in battle, have made for them a fame 
that the proudest wai-riors of all time might well envy. 

One writer speaks of Pontiac as a person of remark- 



able appearauce and comniaiidiiig stature. Aiiollier 
sajp that in point of native talent, course, magnanim- 
ity, and integrity lie will compare without prejudice 
with the most renownod of civilized riilei-s and conque- 
rors. It was Pontiac's war in 1763 that required tlie 
utmost strength of the Coloniea and the strongest sup- 
port of the British (Jovernmeut to withstand and over- 
come. It was in obedience to Pontiac's orders and 
plans tliat raiding parties pressed far into panic stricken 
settlements, and among the massacres were tlie Big 
Levels and Muddy Creek in Virginia, and the merciless 
slaughter in the Valley of Wj'oming. 

Ten or eleven years later another terrific Indian war 
blazed forth. This was conducted by the Shawnee 
chief C-ornstalk, who when a young warrior was under 
Pontiac. The Sbawnees held all other men in con- 
tempt as warriors. Mr Stuart speaks of Cornstalk as 
distinguished for beauty of pera<in, for agility and 
strength of frame, in manners graceful and easy, ami 
in movements majestic and princely. He commanded 
the Indian forces at Point Pleasant, During that very 
memorable action he was frequently seen moving rap- 
idly along the lines of picked braves, and liis marvel- 
ous voice was board above the din of contlict cheering 
on with his battle cry "Be Strong! Be Strong!" 

Colonel Wilson, a British officer, says: "I have 
heard the famous orators of Virginia— Patrick Henry 
and Richai-d Lee — but never have I heard one whose 
powers of delivery surpassed those of Cornstalk."' 

As seen and regarded by us as we write, had (,'orii- 
stalk been successful at the battle of Point Pleasant, 



the war for Indepeiideiice could uot have occurrod 
when it did, and very probably never taken place. For 
English cavaliers, the French and Spaniuli missionaries 
with their Shawnee and other Indian adherents would 
have made it too uncomfortable for the Scotch-Irish 
and the Iliigenots to remain, and there would not have 
been & I'ocalioutas County to write histoi-y about, as 
we know it, and are now preparing. The tide of that 
very eventful and pivotal battle was turned against 
Cornstalk and his chosen brnves by the mauagemeiit 
of Jacob Warwick, a pioneer of Pocahontas County, 
who now sleeps in his lowly grave six miles west of the 
Warm Springs, Virginia. 

The close of Cornstalk's eventful career in life is 
one of the most touching events of the kind on histori- 
cal record since the death of Socrates. Impelled by a 
magnanimous sense of duty unsurpassed in all barbaric 
history, in order to be faithful and true to the treaty of 
peace he had made with the pioneers. Cornstalk came 
to the fort at Point Pleasant, the scene of his humiliat- 
ing defeat, to inform the garrison of efforts made by 
British emissaries to incite the Indians to war against 
the Virginians during the Revolution. He and his son 
Ellinipsico wore detained as hostages. 

In the meanwhile some of the garrison, infuriated 
by the treacherous death of a comrade by an Indian 
tramp, resolved to be avenged upon the host^es. 
Soon as Cornstalk divined tlieir purpose, he turned to 
his son and said: "My son, the Great Spirit has seen 
fit that we die together, and has sent you here to tliat 
end. It is His will — let us submit. It is all for the 



Wst." Ho tiieii faced the pereoiiB inakiiif; I'endy t" 
alaj liiin, barod his bosom, roceivod eovcn sliots frojii 
ileadlj mountain riflt^e, and fell lifeless. With him de- 
parted the spirit and prestige of the Indian power on 
the frontier. In thinking of this woiiderfid porhon, 
how very aptl^' the words apply: 

"The Lord of all 
The forest !K.'r()es, trained in wars, 
Quivered and plumed and Htlie and tall 
And seamed with glorious scars." 

Such historical allusums souin nocdful to aid us now 
living in forming somo adequate coneoption of what 
our worthy ancestors had to encounter and overcome 
iu their endeavors to Wild up their Iiomcs, for them- 
selves, and for their sons and daughters, their children 
and ehildrens" children. So comparatively silent is 
geiioral history concerning border warfare that none 
hut special students of pioneer times have anything 
like a correct apprehension how dangerous and skilful 
were Indian warriors fighting for hunting grinmde, fish- 
ing streams, and ancestral graves. While it may be 
that little, relatively speaking, luts boon rocoi'ded of 
the events that make up pioneor history, yet it is im- 
possible for thoao of us who revere our ancestral wor- 
thies not to revert often in thought to those sad twenty- 
five or thirty years iu which the weapons must have 
been fashioned and the characters foruiod and matured 
for tlie stupendous war that was to bo fouglit before 
tho 'Rose of yharon planted by Scottish-Virginia hands 
should bloom and adorn this goodly land and diffuse 



all around its libei-ty inspiring and soul saving frag- 
rance. With so much at iseutj in a conflict to be itid 
by savage and civilized leaders of the highest cn<low' 
nieuts, tliere is aoniethiiig so sublimely portentous in 
its significance as to prompt every pious patriot to ox- 
claim in all fervoncy of spirit: 

"Sound, thou trumpet of God, come forth Gi'eat 
(^aueo, to array us. 
King and Leafier appear! Thy soldiers sori'Owing 
seek tliee." 

Having thus considered the character of the Ottowa 
and Shawnee leaders opposing the early settlers, wc 
will give some attention to the characteristics of onr 
pioneer ancestors, so ae to eomproheud in a measure 
how they became qualifled to meet and ovorconie the 
opposition confronting them, and by their marvellous 
success opened this "goodly land" for our use and 
daily comfort, and known and loved by us as "home, 
Bweet homo," amid the West Virginia hills. 

Of the persons most prominent in the early history 
of our pioneer ancestry, special mention should b*.- 
made of Dr Ji>hn Craig, for the reas<jn that he exeited 
so much telling influence npun the immediate lives of 
those persons who pioneered the couutioB of Pocahon- 
tas, Greenbrier, Monroe, and Kanawha. He is more- 
over a type of the psrsous whoso nanies were embalm- 
ed by so many of our ancestors witli all tlieir lieai'ts 
could give, "their praises and their tears." 

Ur Craig was Master of Arts by graduation from 
the University of Edinburg, Scotland. For twenty- 



five years lie niiniBtered to the Old Stone Church, in 
Augusta County, walking five miles to preaching Sab- 
bath morning, and when Indians wore truuLloBome 
would carry his own trusty riile aloug with Bible and 
Psalm Book. Services would open at 10 a. m., recess 
of one hour for luncli at noon, then preaching until 
sundown. Sometimes, on Sacramental occasions, a 
candle was needed to read the closing liymns. Then 
some of the congregation would ride ten or twelve 
miles to their homes, and after doing up the household 
chores, would go to bed at midnight. One of his ser- 
mons still extant is laid off in fifty-five divisions. 

Wlien Braddock was <lefeated, mainly by the skill- 
ful management of I'ontiac in 175i, thus leaving all 
west of the Blue Mountains exposed to Indian Incnr- 
sioDS, the inhabitants in utter consteniation wore talk- 
ing about safety in flight somewhere back to Pennsyl- 
vania or over the mountains towai-ds Williamsburg, so 
as to be near the seat of government, and the safety it 
implied, tlio undaunted preacher was opposed to all 
such schemes. In his journal he thus writes: 

"I opposed that scheme as a scandal to our nation, 
falling below our brave ancestors, (in Scotland) making 
ourselves a reproach among Virginians, a dishonor to 
our friends at home, an evidence of cowardice, want 
of faith and noblo Cliristiau dependancc on God as 
able to save and deliver fi-oni the heathen; and withal 
a lasting blot forever on all our posterity." 

This valiant soldier of two banners, — the banner of 
the Cross, and the banner of civil and religious free- 
dom, — advised the erection of forts. In his journal he 



writes: "My own flock required me to go before tlie;ii 
ill tlie work, which I did cheerfully, though it cost me 
one-third o! my estate; but tlie pef>]»le followed me and 
my congregation in Icmb than two numtha was well for- 

There are numbers of peojile living in Pocahontan 
today whose ancestors aasieted in the erection of the 
forts referred to. With such an example, his psople 
maintained their honicw most bravely tlirougli all tlie 
tiery trials of that pDrioJ so eventfal in results, as fiir 
rsacliing as the civilized world and even to the regionw 
beyond. Wliat remains of this brave patriots rceordeil 
\iews indicates that liis was a mind cliaracteri/.ed by 
keen, practical sagacity, gonerous sentiments, and jn- 
dicions magnificence of reasoning powers, Ilence it 
was he correctly appreciated the actual needs, advan- 
tages, perils, and prospects of his surroniidings. 

Obtuse indeed must one be who fails to pwceive 
something splendid, wonderful in sncii a man, guided 
as he had been by a dream in Ireland to liis place of 
service in the wilds vf the Virginia Valley. Before 
leaving Ireland, and while frequently praying for IJi- 
vine guidance where to go, he had a dream that pro- 
foundly impressed him, and it was ever vivid to hiw 
memory. After coming to America lie followed tlic 
stream of immigration up the Valley of Virginia until 
lie came to Fort Defiance, a locality that corresponded 
with his dream. He nt once selected it as a place for 
his home, where ho dwelt, labored, died, and was bur- 
ied. Honoured for all time be his nijmory. May his 
example of life and faith like all 



"the actions of the juat. 
Smell sweet and blossom in the dust." 

Tlie people upon whom soch influencos of living and 
practicing were exerted, and fnini whose habitationfi 
invincible defenders went to vanquish foonien like 
Pontiac, Logan, and Cornstalk, and famous genorats 
from Europe, were mainly of Scotch Irish extraction. 
The best of such blood is very good, but candor de- 
mands the admission that the worst is about as bad as 
his Majesty the Prince of the Power of the air would 
liave it. These warlike, clannish, ii-on-handed people 
did not seek Pennsylvania or the Virginia wildernes-i 
to avoid debt or retrieve broken fortunes, as is said of 
the Cavalier English, neither were they in quest of a 
refuge where they might praise God as tln^y pleased, 
yet compel others to do like them, as is often insinuat- 
ed of the Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock. The Scottish- 
Virginians came for the most part because there was a 
fascination in the roominess and liberty that a new 
realm promises. Moreover there was stinicthing at- 
tractive for such inquisitive, daring people in the ad- 
ventures and dangers that abounded. 

And they remained the same unyielding characters, 
whether contending for Christ and His covenant in the 
old worM among the Grampian Kills, or reclaiming 
the Alleglmnies of the New from Indians, feniciou-i 
beasts, and venomous reptiles. I'nrestrainoil by re- 
deeming grace, tliese people were of fiery temperament 
free-and-easy, sport loving, gallant, fighting at the 
drop of a hat, racing horses, playing at cards, pitting 
game chickens, indulging in whiskey freely as water, 
swearing with an emphasis and rhetorical jingle truly 



surprising. With thyir faults, iiwyeitlioless, they wcri; 
endowed with resplendent virtues of personal charactei- 
aiid when individuals became pious it was not lialf-way 
doings with tlicin. 

Ill their religion tlie Pauline phase had precedence, 
and so they believed and wore sure that God ubliois 
sin witli uo degree of allowance and deals sternly and 
righteously witli unrepentant sinners. Their belief in 
tlie Divine sovereignty was such as to imbue them with 
tliat unrelenting persistence under difficulties ttiat so 
eminently prepared them for the part they were led by 
Providential guidance to perform, in subduing tb<j 
pathless wilderness and forming new states. 

In regard to the Scottish Virginia women, be it ever 
remembered in their praise that they were more than 
equal to their ai-duous dnties in tiiose eventful times. 
Society was enriched and adorned by the presence of 
wives, motliers, and sisters whose characters were re- 
tined by the sweet uses of adversity, and wliose piety 
was developed and invigorated by most searching tests. 
Tlie mothers were keepers at home, teaching the child-- 
ren and servants the catechism, and attending church 
once a month, more or less as opportunities presented. 
These robust, liome. loving, sweet-souled ladies wrote 
no books, recited uo poems nor reail essays, yet were 
none the less fitted to do their all-hiiportant part in 
placing deep and firmly the foundations of tlie institu- 
tions civil and religious tliiit are tlie precious heirlooms 
of their descendants. 

One of tlie last ladies left of the pioneer days in Au- 
gusta County, was Mrs Margaret Humphreys, near 



Greenville. Until qnite recently, there were living 
persons who had listened to her graphic descriptions 
that conveyed the liveliest impression of the times 
when the Valley of Virginia was a frontier settlement. 
Where now may be seen the beautiful farms and anb- 
stantial houses, her active memory recalled the log 
cabins, the linsey-wolsey, the short gowns, the hunting 
shirts, the moccasins, the pack horses, the simple liv- 
ing, the shoes and stockings for winter and uncommon 
occasions, the deer and the rifle, the fields of flax and 
the 'spinning wheel, the wool and the looms; and with 
them the strict attention to religions eoncerns, the cate- 
chising of children, tlie regular going to church, the 
reading of the Bible, and keeping Sabbath from the 
beginning to the end of the day; the singing of hymns 
and sacred songs, all blended, presented a beautiful 
picture of enterprise; economy, and religion in laying 
the foundations of society. 

The compiler of tliese Pocahontas Sketches well re- 
member seeing and hearing of parties in his younger 
days, of Scotch-Irish lineage and members of clmrches 
reared by their pioneer ancestors, who brought their 
love affairs to a happy understanding by the means of 
the hymn book or the Bible. One morning before ser- 
vices began in one of the oldest of the Valley churches 
a youthful, enamored member politely handed his 
hymn book to a lady friend in the pew just before him, 
with a pin stuck in the stanza he wished her to read. 
Whereupon she read these significant wm-ds: 

"Let the sweet hope that thon art mine 



My life and d(!ath attend. 
Thy pi-eBouee through my jouriioy sliiiic 
And crown my journey's end." 

The young lady in place of bluBhiug and whispering 
"Oh this is 80 sudden," took another plan, for she 
seemed to know at once of » hyinn that would nteet 
tlie emergency in kind and enable her to give as good 
as he had sent. Returning the book with the selfsame 
pin for a pointer, he read therein as follows: 

"All that I am and all I have 
Shall be forever thine. 
Whate'er my duty bids me give 
My willing hands resign." 

Tlie reader is left to figure out what it all came to in 
the lives of these young people. 

Another party, of similar lineage and training, sot- 
tied matters one afternoon after returning from public 
worship in another ancient church. They were left in 
the "company room" all alone, and thereupon the 
young man disclosed the paramount desii-e of his lieart. 
This made the young lady look and feel somewhat em- 
barrassed. But she arose and approached the centrtt 
table on which was placed the "Big Ha' Bible" in itw 
place of honor. She looked up the 37th Fsalm, and 
turning to her lover friend invited him to read the 
verses as she pointed them out. He was quickly at 
her side, and as her hand passed slowly from verse to 
verse he road what to them both ever after were mem- 
orable verses; 



"Trnst in the Lord and do good; so slialt tliou dwell 
in the land and verily thou shalt bo fed. Uelight thy- 
self also in the Lord, and lie shall give thee the desire 
of thine heart. Commit thy way unto the Lord, trust 
also in liim and he shall bring it to pass." 

From all that i-cmaius of the former presence of the 
Indians in our region, they never occnpied it as a place 
for fixed permanent habitation,- but for temporary re- 
sort in late Spring, Summer, and early Autumn. The 
existing traces of Indian occupancy all indicate such to 
have been the fact. At Clover Lick, Marlinton, and 
on the Old Field Fork of Elk are found the most that 
now remains indicating Indian temporary occupancy. 

The most interesting trace of the kind in question is 
found in a meadow near (Jibson's on the Old Field 
Fork of Elk River, twelve miles from Marlinton. This 
meadow was cleared about forty j'ears ago by William 
Gibson, and takes the place of one of the thickest 
patches of laurel and alder brush that the late William 
Gibson says he ever worked at in all liis life. Aftei' 
it was cleared and put iti meadow, a circle appeared 
about 132 feet in diameter, formed of a strange grass 
that grows, or has not been seen, anywhere else. Mr 
Gibson saw similar grass in Indiana. 

This circle is formed of two figures representing rat- 
tlesnakes in the act of nmtually swallowing each other. 
One figure — the yellow rattler — symbolizes light, the 
black rattler typifies darkness; both combined reiiresent 
the succession night and day, and illustrates the Indian 



idea of Time, tlmt inyBterioiiH soiiietbiug that gives and 
takea life, having tlie power of life and death. 

Here the hunters would aHsemble to invoke the favor 
of this mighty, iiiyBterious deity, upon whom the con- 
templated pursuit of game, so essential to their sub- 
sistence and of their squaws and papooses, depended, 
(^r if about to go on the war path, the braves would 
rally here as a i-ciidozvous, and with their dark and 
bloody rites and ceremonial dances pei-fornied within 
or around this circle would seek to placate the same 
mysterious power for euccesa over their enemies in the 
pending battles. 

The contrast of the aims and purposes of the Indians 
and the pioneers is instructive and deserves more thiin 
a passing notice. With Ottowas and more particularly 
the Shawnees, more subsistence in the easiest way was 
the paramount question at issue, and for such a pui'})08e 
no region surpassed this for their uses. 

With the pioneers, homes were wliat they wanted, 
where fathers and sons could be settled in" communi- 
ties. Along with subsistence they desired social com- 
forts, and advantages of intelligent christian worship. 
and securing those their hopes and aspirations seemed 
realized. For their cherished hopes and aims our re- 
gion was equal to most and surpassed by none under 
the sun. At the present day among their descendants 
the making of money and the enjoyment of al) that 
money secures is the paramount issue. Mere commer- 
cialism, in a more or less modified sense, is the spirit 
of the new order of affairs with the posterity, the child- 
ren's children of the pioneers. And for this new 



phase of human endeavor our region is equal to most 
and surpaesed by none for all tlie elements of commer- 
cial wealth' in the forests and mines, in the Btrvams and 
oil wells. 

Before concluding the first section of the Sketches 
of Pocahontas County; I would like to have the atten- 
tion of our younger people and secure tlicir sympathet- 
ic interest. It is my fervent desire and pleasing hope 
they will give these sketches of their native county 
close and studious attention, as it was and is for theii- 
special benefit these pages are sincerely intended and 
in a sense dedicated. In the good Providence of God, 
as I firmly believe, my beloved readers, I have been 
permitted to occupy sweetly responsible relation to you. 
I deem it one of the highest honors ever conferred up- 
on me to have tlie privilege of serving you with my 
own best thoughts, and the thoughts of others consent- 
ing to lend the aid I so much need to make these pages 
all that I would have them be. 

While for good and snfHcient reasons my own con- 
tributions may not be marked by their depth of thought 
or logical or rhetorical power, still I know what con- 
dncGs to earnest and useful thought when I I'cad and 
study the writings of the foremost thinkers of the 
times, wherein great all important matters are consid- 
ered, and I intend for my roadei-s the best results ob- 
tainable from such soui-ces. I do this believing tliat 
those young West Virginians who may honor these 
sketches with their attention arc equal to anything I 
have been capable of apprehending, and that even 
children so termed are worthy of something better than 



mere child's play in tlioir reading. 

The way to improve is to fix the mind oii st>iiiG pro- 
l)er model or example and try to be conformed U^ it, 
and not conform the model to the actual state of tlie 
mind. To write and talk in a cliildisli way, it seems 
to me, amounts to nothing more than making oneself 
cliildish, and leaving those to bo instructed about 
where they were at first. 

So far as my influence is permitted to reaeli the read- 
ers of tliese pages, I am going to write and have been 
writing indeed as if I were writing for devoted, sincere 
christians, deej* and earnest thinkers and highly cnlti- 
vated persons, for these are just the persons I wish all 
reading young people to be, and which tliey must be 
in fact to stand worthily in the solemn position to 
which they arc likely to be called. There is no doubt 
in my mind, and it is a conviction that I have permit- 
ted myself with much hesitancy indeed, that our young 
people will be called to meet and decide the most mo- 
mentous questions that have claimed the attention of 
men since tlie Keformatiou. 

I am informed from highly trustworthy sources that 
no people more successfclly withstood the upas-liki< 
overshadowing of the Moslem power than the Hellen- 
ists, The i-eason given is that the highest and the 
lowest, the youngest and the oldest, vie in the venera- 
tion they show for ancestral examples. Their histories, 
their romances, their traditions, their legends, and 
their poems keep the glorious exploits of their ancestry 
ever fresh in their memories, and every Greek wishes 
to live and die worthy of such illustrious fathers. Wu 



Iiave something better to omulato tlian tliey. The 
voung Greek cherbhee the memory of Solon, Pericles, 
Tlioiiiietoclea, Demosthenes, Boeratee, Plato, and other 
iiameR of surpassing luHtre, but for real merit and 
g<HHlneas what are such names in comparison with 
those whom every young West Virginian may revere 
and emulate; — Washington, Henry, John Craig, and 
Charles Lewis. 

The future of oui' gi'eat country will soon pass into 
the keeping of these very young people, for whose ben- 
efit these sketches are sincerely intended. Hence it is 
the genuine wish of all right feeling people that our 
tfons and daughters may be such as one of God's holi- 
est men of old prayed for: 

"Rid me and free me from the hand of aliens whose 
mouth speak fraud, and whoso right hand is a right 
liand of falsehood. So that our sons may be plants 
grown large in their youth; our daughters as cornei' 
stones, polished for the building of the temple." 



Our courteons rcadera are eaiueatly entreatt'd to keep 
in mind a clear perception of thia fact, that the world- 
renowned region whose history we are endeavoring to 
illustrate in some measure, reaches from the Ohio Val- 
ley to the Blue Ridge; from the Potomac to' the head 
sti-eains of New River and the Kentucky border. 

Intellectual or scientiiic culture has been so highly 
developed in our times that for a writer to be up to 
date in writing up a region like ours, some facts per- 
taining to its geograpliT, climate, soil, and geology are 
expected. Geography is a description of the surface 
as it appears at the present time, while geology takes 
into account not merely the present surface features 
but clianges that may have affected the surface in tlie 
past, with whatever ae far as may be known or under- 
stood lies beneath the surface. 

Like geography, the climate deals mainly with pres- 
ent conditions, but geology opens up glimpeetiof clim- 
ate that prevailed ages since. As K) soil, when prop- 
erly studied it will be found needful to know and ap- 



ply the teachings of geography, gctilogy, and cHitiatol- 
"gy. Geology tirst claims attention, being older than 
present geography or climate. 

Geology deals with the opinion, for which i-easonw 
may be deduced, or given from known phenomena that 
there was a time the heat of the earth wax so intense 
that all substances beneath or upon its sui-face were in 
a molten state of fluidity, and whirled through illimit- 
able space an incandescent, white-hot globe, composed 
of all the minerals. Its component elements, — iron, 
gold, silver, rock, all else whatsoever, — were molten, 
and consequently the earth was larger than now, and 
the nights and days were of greater length. After the 
passage of measureless cycles, the sni-face cooled form- 
iug a crust on the still hot globe that had been spark- 
ling and scintillating, and then was the first appear- 
ance of "rock," as the word is now understood. 

At this first cooling the sui-faee may have be<Mi 
rough, but there wert* no mountains of any marked al- 
titude, for the crust was not strong enough to hold up 
uuy mountains such as now exist. All underneath still 
remained melted, and probably for unnuinberiHl years 
after the crust began to form there was no rain, though 
the air was fuller of moistura than now. The rocky 
crust continued so hot that a drop of rain would be in- 
wtantly changed to steam. But in the course of time 
the crust became cooler anti showers began to form and 
fall. In respect to this period of our earth's liistory 
we have no guide but inferences from the teachings of 
astronomy, assisted in part by well known chemical 
facts. All attempts to describe our world at that pe- 



riod must be pliiliosophically conjectural or specula- 
tive, and all descriptions would be about as applicable 
to one part of the eai'tli as another. So far as known 
to us, no eye but God's ever saw and recognized as 
such one square mile of the original crust of the in- 
candeBcent globe in the form it congealed from the 
melted condition. As tlie ages rolled away some parts 
of the cooling earth were broken up by tire, rains, 
winds, and frosts, and bnried other parts with the aedi- 
nieutary sand thus formed. 

There is coiivineing evidence to the eifect that even 
now the cooling process has not proceeded very far; 
the sui-face lias ouly attained a partial degree of cool- 
ness, while the interior mass is hotter than the most in- 
tense furnace heat. Large areas of the earth's surface 
have been tfaected by stupendous upheavals and de- 
pressions, and these are believed to be owing to the 
settling down of tlie solid rock crust in one place and 
the corresponding uplift in another. There is ample 
reason for thinking that at a distance of twenty miles 
or less beneath the surface the temperature would be 
that of molten iron. There is equally good reason for 
believing that twenty or thirty miles from the surface 
of the earth into space, on a line from the earth's cen- 
tre, a temperature would be reached that the warmest 
day in those altitudes the thermometer would register 
a hundred or more degrees below zero. 

This should impress us to notice how narrow are the 
limitations of all human life. Above us in what ap- 
pears suimy regions, the measureless cold of space; be- 
neath is the fire that feeds on solid rock. 



Tliere is gwjiogical in fori nation to tliu oflfcct tliat in 
a well near Wliecling, West Virginia, tlie temperature 
Ht 4462 feet was 110 dogrowa; and a deact'iit of lens 
tlian a mile rained tlio temperature sixty degrees. In 
llie vicinity of Pittsburg ft well five tliousand feet in 
deptli liad a temperature of 120 degrees. In Germany 
there is a well 5740 feet deep, which gives a tempera- 
ture of 135 degrees. From all this it appears that only 
the outer crust of the earth is cool, and the interior 
characterized by intense heat. • 

Upon the cmut of the oartli becoming sufficiently 
cool, rains would wash down tlie higher portions, the 
sand and sediment thus gathert^td would be spread over 
tlie lower places. This sedimftnt becoming hardeneil 
composed the first layers or strata of rock. Some of 
the oldest layers were very tliick at the sea bottoms, 
and when heated from internal warmth were melted, 
tlie stratified feature disappeared, and then they were 
called ''amorphic" or formless rooks. By some gran- 
ite is regarded as a rock of this kind. 

The eaith in the process of cooling, shrank in pro- 
portion, and the sm-face became shriveled and wrinklwl 
ill folds, large and small. The largest of snch folds 
were mountains, with the seas occupying the de))res8ed 
places. About that period the first springs, streamlets 
and rivers appeared, feelipg and threading tlieir way 
wherever the host channel could be found. In the 
meantime it would still rain and be fmsty too, and the 
rain and fi-ost would attack the higher ridges, and tlic 
rocky slopes almost destitute of soil, and the washings 
would he borne to the seas, forming other layers of 



rock ou the bottoms, and so tlic accuuiulntiuii kept on, 
with some diversity of rate at times, fi-orii that era to 
tlie present time 1901. 

It comes so near being all, that we say tliat ait rocks 
ill this region were formed in the depths of the ocean; 
formed of Band, mud, and gravel, or of shells, or of a 
niixtnte of all, tlie ingredients of which were glued to- 
getlier with silica, iron, lijne, or other mineral sub- 
stances held in solution. These rocks' when raised by 
apheaval from the water formed the dry land, and 
have been faeliioued into valleys, ridges, gorges, and 
the various indentations of surface seen almost every- 
where within the limits of West Virginia. 

Those primeval rocks are occasionally viniblo as 
"bed rock" in streams, and alluvial bottoms, and 
sonictunes forming cliffs and tops of peaks and barren 
mountains, "bald knobs," and the like. But in our 
region the underlying i-ocka for the most part are hid- 
den by soil. At the deepest, however, this soil is only 
a few feet thick, and were it all cleared away there 
would be visible everywhere a system of ledges and 
bowlders, conformable to every height and depression 
now making up the salient features of the surface; the 
thickness of theae rocks in the aggregate about four 
miles. T<i the scientific mind this fact satisfies him, 
and he feels sure, until tliere is positive evidence to 
the contrary, that sand and shells four miles deep, in 
the past were spread out over the bottom of the sea, 
and these deposits after being hardened into rock by 
interior heat, were upheaved, and then arranged and 
cut into the valleys and nigged inequalities so apparent 



to U8 all in this our day and generation. 

Let it be reiiieinbered too that this stupendous w.ek 
liuildiug W88 not alt done at one time, for this region, 
or mncti of it, has been several times under and above 
llio sea, especially wlicre tlic coal inoasiires are found. 
Across it time after time has the coast line moved back 
and forth, this being shown by the rocks tliemselves. 

The expert geologist is able to decide from the fossil 
sliells and plants in a stratum the period of the earth's 
geological history when that layer was foi-med, and lie 
can, moreover, determine, the oldest and the newest in 
a scries of strata. And yet the fossil shells and plants 
may not be all at his command, for the position of the 
layers to one anotlicr is often a sure indication of the 
oldest and the newest, for tlie sedimentary sands Jiav- 
ing been deposited in layers one above another, it may 
hi- inferred those on top are not so old as the lower, 
unless it be in instances not usual or common in our 
rugiou, where strata have been folded so much as to 
liave been broken and turned over. In such an event, 
the older rocks may be found above the newer. 

Unmeasured though the creative ages be, as i-wcord- 
cd by the mountains and cliffs of our goodly land, still 
llie most ancient of our visible ledges are young com- 
pai-ed with the ledges of other localities in the world 
at large, or even ilf contiguous provinces. The Laur- 
C'litian Rocks of Canada, more than five miles in thick- 
ness, formed like ours by the slow accumulation of 
fandy deposit, yet that series of rock formations was 
finished up, and possibly partly worn away, ere the first 
handful of sand, or the first shell of wliich anything is 



now known to lis by our rocks, liati bo«n placed at tliL- 
bottom of tlie Cainbriau Sea, under wliicli West Vir- 
giuia was submerged. 

Here thoughts arise that stagger our powers of 
loftiest iinaginatiou. Because of tlie inconceivable 
ages required for depositing shell and sand four milew 
deep astounds the mind, what is to be thought of that 
vaster lapse of ages, pointing b^ick to the ejeles of the 
young world, all of which was passed, and left their 
impiOBS in stone, before the corner stones of our Vir- 
ginia mountains were placed by the arcliitect of the 
universe. And what is more, this does not certainly 
bring us to tlie beginning as yet, for no expert geolo- 
gist knows it for a fact that the Lourentian rocks are 
oldest of the layers, and if they should be, still back 
of them opens that nebulous era, penetrated only by 
astronomical light, during whicii the unstratified rocks 
were in process of formation, from whose pulverized 
and disintegratotl material all subsequent formations 
have been built up. 

The geological eras of special use for oui- present 
purpose are the Laiirentian, Cambrian, Silurian, JJe- 
vonian, and CarbouifcrouB, 

But meagre traces of the Laureutian period ai-e visi- 
ble in our State, So with us the Cambrian era is vir- 
tually the oldest, and our local intei-est in geological 
studies begin with it. 

In the Cambrian era, there was a mass of land to the 
west of us, including what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois and beyond. On the east of us was another vast 
. continent of land, reaching from Maine to South Caro- 



lina, comprising what is now tlic Atlftntic coastal plain, 
and extoiiJed eastwai'd an indfinito dietauce, miicli of 
it being what is now the basin of the Atlantic Ocean. 
Between those two bodios of land in the Cambrian era 
there was a narrow soa fi'oni the Gulf of St. Lawroncti 
t3 Alabama. The trend or line of the eastern coast of 
liiat Cambrian sea is believed to have been wliat i« now 
tbe general direction of the Blue Eidge range, and si' 
West Virginia was at the bottom of that sea. This 
sea of onrs seems to have snrvivcd the Cambrian age, 
the Silurian, the Devonian, and the Carboniferous. 

During the Cambrian age, sand washed from the 
laud forming the eastern coast, spread over the bottom 
of the sea and formed the lowest or oldest layer <if rock 
found anywhere in West Virginia in anything like 
abondance. On this rock the West Virginia hills aw- 
built or founded. This Cambrian sandstone is so deep- 
ly covered as U} be soon only in places where it is ex- 
posed by the folding of strata. Or whei-o rivers have 
ei'odod very deeply. For the most part the Cambrian 
rock is buried thousands of feet under subsequent foi'- 
iriations. During the Silurian era the Cambrian sea 
seems to have commenced receding, and the washiiigH 
of the uplands, it is probable, began to accumulate on 
the low plains and widening valleys as a deep fertile 
soil. In the meanwhile too, over a large part of West 
Virginia that was still under the sea, thick beds of 
limestone were formed of shells, mixed more or lews 
witli sediment. 

Shell fish lived and died in the waters of the ('am- 
brian sea during the Silurian period, and when deml 



HHiik to tlie bottom. A couei deration of this faci ex- 
[)hiiiiB tliediverBG origin of eaTidstouo and limestone. 
Limestone is the product of the sea, wliile sandstone is 
of material washed from flie land into the sea, by raiiifl 
and swollen streams. Unring the period denoted by 
the close of the Cambrian and the beginning of the Si- 
lurian eras, the limestone deposits formed beds from 
three to four thousand feet in thickness. 

Afterwards when that part of tlie Cambrian sea was 
separated from the Gulf of St Lawrence by an uplieav- 
al in what is now tlie state of New York the Devonian 
age was ushered in,"w]iich was a wonderful rock build- 
er in the north. In Pennsylvania the Devonian rocks 
were nine thousand feet thick; in parts of West Vir- 
ginia seven thousand feet; in southern Tennessee twen- 
ty-live feet; and the Devonian rocks disappeared in 

The sediments forming the Devonian rocks were fine 
grained, and formed shales, medium sandstones, and 
some limestone occasionally. When the tedious, wear- 
isome Devonian era came to a close, it was succeeded 
by the Carboniferous geological age. 

It was during the Carbonifei-ous peiiod occured the 
longest summer that has ever been, when over the 
northern hemisphere there was no winter, and there 
was a season of vegetation and plant gi'owth such as 
had never occuri-ed on earth previously, or would evej- 
occur again, in all pi-obability. It was during this 
phenomenal summer that our coal fields were formed. 
In the Carboniferous era the deposits ranged from two 
thousand to eight thousand feet in thickness in different 



parts of the state of Wtsst Virginia. Miirenver tliei-e is 
evidence that there was during tliis period a breaking 
lip and rediatribiition of a vast gravel bar tliat had been 
somewhere out of the reach of the waves far since the 
earlier ages. This aggregation was composed of quartz 
pebbles, in sizes varying fi-om a grain of sand to that 
of a cocoanut, all worn and polished as if rolled and 
fretted in turbulent mountain streams or by the waves 
on the beach for centuries. By sonic means or other 
these pebbles were spread in layera in the depth of the 
sea, thousands feet thick, and were cemented together 
forming coarse, hard rocks, and known as "conglom- 
erate, ' ' "pudding-stone, " ' 'bean- rock, ' ' and ' 'mill- 
stone grit." 

A heavy stratum of those stones forms the floor of 
the coal formations. It is the opinion of some geolo- 
gists that the pebbles represent the most indestructible 
i-emnants of mountains once abounding in quartz veins, 
but were washed away before the middle or the carbon- 
iferous era. 

The hard quartz resisted the grinding process that 
pulverized the other rocks and remained as pebbles in 
beds or bars until some great upheaval or depression 
swept them into the sea and spread them out in layers. 
Their quantity was simply wonderful, for rocks com- 
posed of them cover to a considerable depth thousands 
of square miles. 

The distinguishing product of the Carboniferous age 
were the coal formations that were placed while the 
Cambrian Sea was undergoing the convulsions and up- 
hevals that permitted West Virginia to emerge from 



the depths of «oa and become the "goodly land" it iiow 
appears. It was a feai-fiil colliaiou of the elements. 
The basin of the sea was raise)! up, became diy land 
tlien was again submerged in the deep and gloomy 
reeeBsee of the Cambrian Sea. 

A mighty offort was apparently made by the land to 
repel the waters that had so long maiutaiued the eu- 
prenmey. The contest was of vast proj)ortions and 
long continued, during which first the land then the 
waves bad the advantage. 

Backward and forward for hundreds of miles would 
the Cambrian Sea alternately rise and recede. The 
struggle was pi-olonged for myriads of years hut finally 
tlie land prevailed and the Cambrian billowy contest- 
ant in the strife retreated to the west and south as far 
as the Mexican Gulf. 

Victorious West Virginia became dry land and has 
thus remained to this hour, so well has she maintained 
her position. 

While these changes from sea to land and from land 
to sea were going on during a part of the Carboniferous 
age the coal fields were being formed, Unlike the 
rock formations, coal beds are made above the water 
or at its immediate sui-faco. These deposites are 
formed of the trees and plants of varied kinds which 
grew BO excessively luxuriantly during that longest 
summer time of the ages mentioned elsewhere as pre- 
vailing over the northern half of our planet in tho 
Devonian period. 

Every coal mine represents some movass, large or 
small, wherein plants and trees of fabulous size grew, 



fell and were buried for ages. The areas in which the 
coals were in process of formation were probably de- 
pressed and occasionally submorged for some thousands 
of years, and during the aubniergency sand and nuid 
tattled over it and hardened into etone. And when 
the hardened deposit would be uplifted materials for 
another coal deposit would accumulate. 

This alternation of coal and rocks moans an alternate 
upheaval and submergence of the land, the coal being 
formed on land, the rocks in the wattT. This alter- 
nation occurred during the p;iriod when the Cambrian 
Sea, successively advanced or receded aci'iiss West 
Virginia while the Carboniferous era was slowly near- 
ing its eventful termination. 

Tiiere were other geologic periods after the (.Carbon- 
iferous, but they need not be specially noticed in a book 
like tliis, because very limited traces remain <)f their 
existence in our region. The reason why this should 
he the ease seems to be that after the Cai'boniferous 
period West Virginia land was above the sea and there- 
fore no sediment could be deposited to form rocks, and 
NO there would be comparatively little for a lasting rec- 
ord to be impressed. 

From the (.'ambrian age to the Carboniferous, the 
j-trata underneath West Virginia becomes thicker and 

From the Carboniferous era to the present era, from 
the recession of the Cambrian waters, the layers <*f rock 
have been modified by the wearing and tearing of the 
elemental collisions and so the aggregate kept becom- 
ing thinner and thinner. And so the strata have been 



folded, upraised hy subtcrrauean explosions and worn 
away by the erosive influences of flowing streaniB, 
There are places where the Carboniferous have nor 
been worn away; while there are other places where 
river gorges have reaclieil the lower of the IJovonian 
rocks. lu some other localities the vast silurian layers 
have been penetrated, and in some places the penetra- 
tion has deeply reached the Cambrian rocks. 

As to the glacial age, which was the countei-part of 
the euuinier age, during which our coals were formed, 
but little remains in West Virginia to show that this 
empire of steadfast, inconceivable cold once swayed its 
ice sceptre in our region. There is but Httlo reason to 
doubt, however, that dui-ing the glacial era the cold in 
West Virginia was intense, and there may have been 
glaciers among the highlands, hut all traces wellnigh 

Hu Maxwell, a distingmshed West Virginia student 
and writer, seems to have a passion for geological 
themes, and thus expresses himself: 

"When we look out upon our great valleys, the 
Kanawha, the Potomac, the Monongahela, or contem- 
plate our mountains, rugged and near, or robed in dis- 
tant blue, rising and rolling, range beyond i-ange. 
l>eak above peak; cliffs overhanging gorges and ra- 
vines; meadows and uplands; glades beyond, with 
brooks and rivers; the landscape fringed with flowers 
and clothed with forests; we are too apt to pause be- 
fore fancy has time to call up that strange and wonder- 
ful panorama of distant ages when the waves of a vast 
sea swept over all, or when only broken and angular 



rocks thrust their alioulders through the foam nf the 
ocean ss it broke against the nearly submerged ledges 
where since have risen the highest peaks of the Alle- 
ghaiiies and the Blue Ridge. 

"Here where we now live have boon strange scenes. 
Here have been beauty, awfulness, and sublimity, and 
also destruction. There was a long age witK no win- 
ter. Gigantic ferns and rare palms, enormtms in size 
and delicate leaves and tendrils, flourished over wide 
areas and vanished. And there was a time when for 
ages there was no summer. But we know of this from 
records elsewhere, for its record in West Virginia has 
been blotted out. Landscapes have disappaarod. Fer- 
tile valleys and undulating hills with soil deep and 
fruitful have been washed away, leaving only a rocky 
skeleton ; and in many places even this has been ground 
to powder and carried away, or buried under sands and 
drift from other regions." 

This is about the most about geological themes we 
liave room for in these pages. 

Let it be noticed however, before the subject is dis- 
missed, that what has been written about the geological 
history of our home region may grate somewhat strange- 
ly and even harshly on the minds of some of our more 
devout, Bible loving readers. Uidess these readers be 
superior in mental balance to a great many eminent 
writers of the remote as well as the recent past, of Bib- 
lical interpretation, these readers will feel that such 
fjeological views jeopardize the integrity and even the 
truth of Bible teachings, in the estimation of all per- 
sons who may incline to believe geological history of 
the creation as the writer does. 



TliB expression "lu the beginning God created," is 
capable of two interpretations. One might mean "be- 
ginning" in the absolute sense, bofoi-e all worldw what- 
soever,— the "nnbegiiining beginning," as Angustinf 
termed it. This is the "beginning" of which Wisdom 
- seems to be speaking in Proverbs {7, 22—31), as if 
that beginning was everlasting. . 

Then there is another explanation which gives to the 
phrase "in the beginning" a relative significance. In 
this sense it would mean the beginning of time, when 
the creation of matter began, when the heavens and 
the earth were brought into existence in their first 
form, and tlius it marks the initial time period of his- 
tory. But the "imbeginuing beginning" refers to that 
mysterious beginning mentioned in tlie first verse of 
John's gospel, when the "word was toward (rod, ami 
the word was God." The "beginning beginng" marks 
a period when God made a beginning in his govern- 
mental relations with the universe, and it is the "be- 
ginning" referred to in Genesis; first" chapter and first 

It sliould soothe all anxious fears about Bible truth 
being dimmed by geological facts to remember that t!io 
Historic Bible only dates its events from the "genesis" 
of all things, and its reconstruction from confusion and 
emptiness when the Spirit of God brooded upon tlie 
waters. Bible history passes from creation in the "be- 
ginning beginning" clear across inconceivably vast cy- 
cles of changes to the period of reconstruction anci 
completion by one single leap. Bible history simply 
states that in the beginning God created the heavens 



and tliu taitli. Tlion the whole of tlie creative ages,' 
the geologic periods interYeniog down to the creation 
of man, are paused over in silence. When the time 
arrived for man to appear, then it was God made kos- 
iiiic order out of chaotic confuHion. And liere begins 
inspired history, written by Moses "the man of God," 
the higher professional critics to the contrary, notwith- 

Our worthy readers will please fix this idea in their 
memories, that there are three initial points to be ob- 
servefl; first the "nnbeginuing beginning" of John's 
Gospel, 1st verse; second, the beginning made by God 
in the ci-eation of the matter of the universe, the heav- 
ens and the earth; third, the beginning of the present 
order of things, with man at the head, as made known 
to H8 by Mosea. Then moreover the reader will please 
obsei'vG that we not only have history in llie Bible but 
prophecy also. 

The historic Bible reveals what we ought to know of 
the world before the creation of man, while the proph- 
etic Bible reveals what is best for us to know of tlie 
hidden future of this present creation, and what is to 
come after the present creation shall have fulfilled its 
purpose and shall have passed away. Consequently 
this truly wonderful Book of all books tells of a palin- 
genesis — a regenesis — of the heavens and the earth — a 
new heaven and a new eailli, wherein dwelletli right- 

In Mathew (19, 29) our Dird speaks of the palin- 
genesis, or new order of things to be set in motion and 
established in the universe. 



Peter foretells the heat and fire out of which the 
oarth will emerge in "the day of (jo<1.'" — -(2 Peter, 3c). 

John with his eagle vision beheld the future and tells 
of the unbounded and endless life, peace, and Impiuess 
of the age yet to come. (Rev. 21, 1-S.) 

One of the Wesleys speaks of tlie Bible in this man- 
ner: "The Bible is here as a fact. Only three ways 
to get here, written by bad men or good men, or by 
the inspiration tif God. Bad men would not write it; 
good men would not palm off a fraud; and so it must 
have been written by holy men as they were moved by 
the Holy Ghost." 

Unless the reader be superior in mental balance to a 
large number of eminent writers ou Biblical interpreta- 
tion, in the more remote as well as the quite recent 
past, these readers will feel that such geological views 
jeopardize the influences of Bible teachings on the 
minds of all who may be inclined to adopt them as 
true. Now let it be remembered that the phrase "in 
the beginning God created the heavens and the earth" 
is susceptible of two interpretations, wliich have been 
mentioned elsewhere. Tlius viewed, tlie historic Bible 
with its "genesis" of the heavens and the earth, leads 
us to the period when God pronounced the results of 
His creative ages to bo very good. 

At this juncture; strangely and mysteriously a som'j- 
thing occurred of which Milton speaks: 

"Earth felt the wound. 
And sighing throughout her mighty fi-anie 
Gave signs of woe, that all was lost." 


Heiicefortli the propliotic Biblo doalu mainly with 
God's redemptive ages and dealings with iiiaii. "TIiu 
heavens, even the heavens are the Lord's, but the 
earth hath he given to the children of men." 

The Prophetic Bible opens with these woiflw: "And 
the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because tlum hast 
done this tlunj art CHrsed above all cattle, and above 
every beast of tlie tield; upon thy belly shall thou go, 
and dust shall thou eat all the days of thy life. And 
I win put enmity between tliee and the woman, and be- 
tween thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head 
and thou shalt bruise his heel." 

Now with its palingenesis and redemptive ages, the 
prophetic Bible leads us to and leaves us at the ])lace 
where the "seed of the woman," wlmse testimony is 
the spirit of prophecy, proclaims: "Surely I come 
quickly. Amen." To this the loved disciple responds 
"Even 90 come. Lord Jesus." As the seal is stamped 
and the prophetic Bible closus up, the unending emling 
is ushered in. 

The devout Bible reader roalisies that though eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered 
into the intellect of man to conceive of the things (iod 
hath prepared for those who love him,, yet the spirit of 
the Loi-d in the prophetic Bible has afforded such 
glimpses and prem<mitions that the now unseeable, un- 
hearable, and unthinkable prepared things are virtually 
rovealed. To those receiving what Is written with im- 
plicit trust, the Bible imparts a hopeful assurance that 
is unspeakable and full of glory, as well as a peace 
that passes all understanding. Beloved reader, may it 



he vom-H aH well as iiiine to taste and net! that tlie pm- 
plietic Bible i» good, us well as the hUtorie Bible. 

Let every kiiidred, eveiy tribe 

On this terrestrial ball, 
TiJ Him all majesty ascribe 

And crown Him I^rd of all. 

Oh that with youder sacred tliroug 

Wo at His f««t iiiftv fall; 
We'll join the everlasting throng 

And crown Him Lord of All I 

By Him all things consist, and without Him was not 
anything made that was made. 

Passing on from this brief consideration of tlic geo- 
logical hiatoi-y of our region, something will now hi; 
said of the geographical features for which West Vir- 
ginia is so widely and justly celebrated. 

In forming and modifying the surface ft'aturoa <A 
(uir state two movements have been at work, one ver- 
tical, the other horizontal. The vertical movement 
elevated extensive areas and formed plateaus not 
mountains; the horizontal movement folded and dou- 
bled np the strata of rocks, and these foldings, when 
sufficiently large, are the mountain ranges, and in our 
region both of these movements have acted in tli« 
same area. 

By a sweep of the imagination let us think of tlie 
West Virginia mountains as being so leveled as tn 
form a plain surface. Such a surface when examined 
wonld show that West Virginia has a dome-like sur- 
face gradually jising froui thi-ee or more directions. 



T!uB iuiagiiic'd aurfjicc fnnn, withmit the mouiitams. is 
what liaa bi'fii iinpartoil by v<Ttical iiplieavaU, tliat 
liavo oecurriHl aiiicu tlie ('ai-biniiforoiia agti, miinoiiifi«il 
bv t!io burizontal inovciiioiit. This doiiie-shaped form 
sliowa a great Hwolliiig of the surfaco, coming to an 
apex at the hit erb loud ing sniu'ccsnf tlio Potomac, East 
Monongaheta, ('beat. Elk, Jaino;^, and (Jreunbiier viv- 
(.■[•s, for the highest point of tlie sin-face must needs be 
indicated by the varied courses of the rivers, tlins show- 
ing that the surface tlirough which they (low shipes in 
various directions. 

Now from this imagined surface, with the mountains 
all brought low, it appears manifestly that even with- 
out mountain ranges, parts of West Virginia would be 
still high, and this being the fact, it l)ecomcH intL-rost- 
ing to iu({nire how om- mountain ranges were formed. 
and why nearly all the highest sunnnits can be group- 
ed in a few c<iunties. 

The layers of rock were pushed horizontally by two 
forces, one from the northwest, the other frnm the 
southeast. Rains and streams have been disintegrat- 
ing, carving these mountains so formed by th;'SL' push- 
ings and foldings, somewhat modifying tlieir original 
aspects, but leaving their main characteristics. The 
flrst upheaval was vortical, and from it the surface of 
West Virginia assumed the dome-like contour, as has 
been imagined by us a little while ago. The next up- 
heaval caused by a horizontal pressure fidded the lay- 
ers of rock that formed tlie doiue-liko surface, aiul thu:' 
made n ion n tain ranges. 

Now if we keep in mind that tli_'SL' niniint:iin range; 



ill crossing the original eurfacu aftw the first verticiil 
uplteiival, ran up one ali^pc, across the Kiiniiiiit aiit) 
then down the opposite slope, it is readily understood 
why there should be bo many of the higlic«t poiotK 
f^roiiped in an area so limited. Measm-ed from the 
general level of the conntry where they stand, the 
WoBt Virginia mountains ai-e from one thousand to two 
thousand feet in altitude. 

The general level itself, however, at the highest 
part is about three thousand feet above sea level and 
thus it is a nicimtain one thousand feet high where it 
stands on a base three times as high will tower four 
thousand feet above the sea, and so it follows tliat the 
highest iMsftks in our state are found where the ranges 
cross tlie most elevated parts of tJie plateau or general 
level. Hence we perceive the reason why the high- 
est peaks cluster about the head springs of tlie Green- 
brier, Monongahela and Potomac Rivers. 

The most elevated point in our State is Spruce moun- 
tain in I'ondleton County, which stands 4,S60 feet 
■above the sea. 

The lowest point is found in tlie Potomac Channel at 
Harper's Ferry, 2(}0 feet above sea level. The differ- 
ence between Spiuce Mountain and Harpers Ferry is 
4,600 feet, which difference indicates the vertical range. 
■ The general level of Pocahontas County is about 
30U0 feet above the sea. Where it enters Pocahontas 
the bed of the Creeubrier is 3300 feet above the sea, 
which is 300 feet lower than the point where Shavers 
Fork of (,'heat Kivei" leaves Pocahontas. 

Among the peaks grouped about the river sources of 



<uir State, tlic following art! in our own county: Bald 
Knob, 4800; Mace Knob, 4760; Spruce Knob. 4700; 
Bear Mouutain, 4600; Ellcbor Ridgf, 4600; Watering 
I'oiid Knob, 4600. 

Scientists ai-o not fiiH^y assuretl wlietlier tlio vertical 
upheaval that raised the West Virgiiiiii platoiui, or th(' 
liorizontal coinpreasioii that clevatod tlip Hiountaina lias 
vut ceased, or not. On one point, however they seem 
agreed, and that is tlie work of tearing down is not at 
rest. To personB versed in seientiiic researches and 
obaervations it aoenis very certain that nimmtains, liilis. 
cliffs, uplands, oven the valloys and the whole system 
of underlying rock must ultiinatcly pass away an<l theii' 
maierials be spread over the basin of some sea. Rains 
and frosts, stoi'niy winds, and unforseen chemical pro- 
cesses will eomplcte tlie work of diaiiitegration. Wlint 
Hcems to the eye everlasting rock will become sand, 
which will go out with the currents and channels of our 
rivers unlit the streams themselves no lunger have cur- 
cents, lost in some all prevailing sea. 

As to the climatology of our region, observations 
and tabulated comparisons show a greater diversity in 
West Virginia than in almost any other section of the 
I'nited States of like limits. 

West of the Alleghanies the climate differs material- 
ly from that east of the range, while iu tlie elevattnl re- 
gion between east and west the jihases of clinuite are 
different from either. The dome-like to])ograi>hic fe;i- 
ture characteristic of the State's surface is largely re-, 
sponsible for this climatic diversity in an ai-ea so very 
limited. As a result the vertical range is over four 



thousand feet wliidi places a poi-tiou af the laiKl to iii- 
tercopt the westerly curi'CntH of air, and another pi:r- 
tiou to catch the eastern winds, while still other part? 
are bo aitiiatod as to be expose*.! to every wind that 
blows. As a rule the sections east of the Alleghaniew 
have a warmer and dryer climate. In the nioiiiitain lo- 
calities the smmnorti are rarely very hot if ever, while 
the winters are usually very cold. Near the highest 
AUegliaiiieB the thonnonietor some times- falls 30 de- 
grees below zei-o, while the highest temperature in sum- 
mer is seldom above 90 degrees. 

There are traditional reports of a bujw in 1780 in 
the northwest part of the State that wasmorethan three 
feet on the level. In 1S31 at an elevation of lOOO 
feet there was a three foot snow between the mountainii 
and the Ohio River. In 1850 at an elevation of 1500 
-feet there was a forty-two inch snow along the mount- 
ains and valleys west of the Alleghanies. Indications 
of suowe six or eight feet deep have been seen near tlie 
sununits of high mountains, where stumps of trees 
have been seen eight or more feet high, cut for browse 
or fuel while the snow was encrusted. In the same re- 
gion west of the mountains on May 5, 1854, a four 
inch snow fell. In 1854 the summer west of the 
mountains was almost rainless. 

The dryest summer spoken of in Pocahontas was iu 
1838. Swamp deposits became so dry as to burn like 
punk, and when ignited would smonlder luid smoke 
like charcoal pits. June 5, 1859 frost killed almost 
every green thing in the interior and noi-theru parts of 
the state. In the Little Levels com with four or more 



Wiidca was frost bitten at tlmt tiino, Homu of it was 
aaved by pt'i-Boiia clipping tlio fiOHtod blatlt's with 

As to rainfall the annual average for tliu wliolc State- 
including melted snow ia about 47 inches. West of tbe 
jiiountainH the precipitation is greater than it is in tlie 
east, but on the western eido of these iiioiiiitiiiiis near 
the crests is the greater precipitation. 

There are two directions whence the rains and tinows 
of this region usually come — the east or the west-sontli 
west, while partial or local storms may arrive from any 
[Hiint of the compass. In the main, eastei-n stoi-rns are 
limited to the region east of the AUeghanies since the 
clouds that bring the rains come from the Atlantic 
Ocean. The two systems of rains tliat characterize 
West Virginia climatology have for their dividing line 
the Qplands following tbe smnniits of the Appalachian 
Range from Canada well nigh to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The clouds from the Atlantic move up and over the 
gentle slope from the coast line of the Atlantic to the 
uiountains, precipitating rain or snow as tliey float 
along the air eorrents, I'pon reaching the abrupt east- 
ern face of the Alleghanics, exhausting their force of 
])ri)pnl8ion, and giving out what re:riiin3 of tlieir moist- 
ure, rarely ever cross to the west side. ' From this it 
appears that the Blue Ridge is not suiticient to repel or 
seriously interfere with the transition of the clouds over 
their serrated smmnits, while the AUoghanies are bar- 
riers against eastern storms especially. Sonietimes 
there are territtic rainstorms about midway to the sum- 
mits as the clouds strike and break upon the rugged 



ukk'H, wliilti at tlio Huiumtt little or nu rain falb. It was 
iipuii sucli au occasion that persons now living in our 
county looked down upon from Paddy's Knob, one of 
notable Allegliaiiy peaks on the northoast border of 
Pocaliontas c<umty. During this tcrrffic tempest they 
SHW liglitning Hash and play, licard tlie thmiders craeli 
and reverberate beneath them. It has been observed 
too that clouds crossing high mountains rarely precipi- 
tate much rain on the leeward side of the propelling 
currents of air. 

Let this study of cli;natology ba closed by an inquiry 
wlieve originate the rains and whence do they come to 
western p.irt of our State. The^c rains do not come 
fi-om tlie Atlantic for the Alleghauies are in the way of 
the clouds, and and winds that bring rain to the wes- 
tern section blow towards, not from tlie Atlantic and 
repeU the clouds from that source of rain supply. It is 
moreover a well ascertained fact that scarcely an appre- 
ciable portion of the rainfall over the world at large is 
ever taken up fiom the land. Though it may bo true 
that it matters not where rain or snow is known to fall 
it is from vapor drawn up by the sun chiefly from lakes 
seas and oceans. In settling the question as to the 
rain and snow supplyfor the western slope ofourmouii- 
tain State, which irrigates the lands to the Ohio and 
indefinitely the regions beyond, the most available 
method in reach is to take the bearings of the currents 
of air on which the clouds are wafted, and trace thorn 
to their place of starting. The bearing of these rain 
bringing currents of air is something west of soutli- 
west. In ti-acing this bearing our readers are led to 



tht! Pacific ocean on tlie Mexican coast, wlieiice the 
Equator would be reached in the coiirso of two or three 
thousand miles. Upon touching the Equator turn at 
right angles and a thousand milot) farther in tliis south- 
easterly conrso, that part of tlio Pacific would he reach- 
ed which extends from South America to Australia and 
most probably that here our readers would find them- 
salves at or very near the starting point whence the 
winds start on their mission of carrying the rains and 
tlie snows that we receive on the western slopes of our 
state. It would require more time and space to elabo- 
rate the oridonca that favors this opinion than can be 
spared in thosa sketches, so accurate and complicated 
it is in the scientific obsci-vationa and inductions re- 
quired. So let it suffice or satisfy us to know surely 
that the vast atmospheric systems of currents and coun- 
ter currents have been traced and recorded on charts 
nutil they are nearly as well known at are the courses 
of the rivers on the continents of our eartli. 

Reflecting minds are very profoundly impressed 
when they observe the rains pouring down in summer 
showers, or the snowtlakes gyrating in the wintry 
storms, by thinking of the distance passed over by the 
clouds overhead, and the burden carried, that is repro-, 
Kcnted by a sheet of water nearly four feet deep and 
spread over a snrfaeo of twenty thousand square miles. 
All this too lifted from the South Pacific ocean by the 
Bimbeams and every year borne thi'ough the air ten 
thousand miles and poured in blessed profusionon hill, 
mountain, vales, meadows, and gardens making them 
pleasing fruitful and "filling our mouths with good 
things. ' ' 





From now on wc will devote ourselves strictly to tho 
limits of Pocahontas Connty, West Virginia, Prelim- 
inary worda on tlie outlines of general history, and 
what was written concerning geological, geographical, 
and elimatolbgical features characteristic of the region 
wherein Pocahontaa forms a couspicnons featore, were 
all intended to impress ourselves and readers with 
some idea how wonderfully the linos of habitation had 
fallen to our p ionecr ancestors in such a remarkablo 
region, and what a goodly heritage is ours could we 
but justly appreciate it all. 

By an act of the Virginia Legislature at Richmond, 
assembled in 1821, Pocahontas County was formed of 
"territory detached from the counties of Bath, Pendleton 
and Randolph aggregating 820 square miles. Colonel 
John Baxter of Stony Creek was very active in bring- 
ing about the organization of the new county. Two 
counties were provided for, one to be named Allegha- 
ny, the other Pocahontas, The intention was to name 
the county embracing the crown of the Alleghanie-i, 
"Alleghany," the other lower down "Pocahontas,"' 



but owing to a clerical oversight tlie inteiuled naiiien 
were iutercliaiiged. 

Tlio geographical position of our county, is defined 
from 37 degroes +0 minutes to 3S dogroes rt5 minutes 
North Latitude; from 79 degrees, 35 minutes to 80 de- 
grees 24 minutes West Longitude. Approximately, 
Marlinton's geographical position is indicated by the 
intersection of N. L, 38 degrees 13 minutes and W, L. 
80 degrees 8 minutes. The truo meridian Btati<Mi mark 
of sandstone is located in the courthouse groimds 11,5) 
feet north-east of courthouse steps. The distant mark, 
north of station mark 957.5 feet on south side of Mar- 
lin's Mountain. August 16, 1S98, the magnetic de- 
clination was 3 degrees, 31 minutes W. Mean annual 
cliange 3 seconds approximately. 

Pocahontas is an eastern border county' Alleghany 
top being the line between I'ocahontas and Virginia. 
From the centre of West Virginia Pocahontas county 
is located to the south-east. Among the distinctive 
features of the north portion of this county is tho fact 
of its being a part of the high region where nearly 
every river system of the Virginias find their head 
springs. The entire county lias a great ek'\ation, 
some of the highest peaks in tlie State being within its 
limits. Greenbrier River rises in the north highlands 
and flows for the entire length of the county thnjugli 
tiie central portions. Williams River is in the we-.tein 
part of the county, and joins the Gauley in Webster 
County. lu the eastern limits of the county is Knapps 
Creek, rising in the Alleghany in the vicinity of Frost, 
aud joins the Greenbrier at Marlinton. This junction 



of Streams, whoi-o tlie briglit waters raeot, forms tlie 
rieli alluvia) dolta wliore tlic first corn ripened in Po- 
caliontas, and on wliicli Marlinton is building up. 

Deer Crook and Sitlingtons Creek from tlie east; 
Loatlici'bark, Warwicks Run, and (Clover Creek from 
tiie west are impoi-tant tributaries to the Greenbrier, in 
north Pocahontas. In central Pocaliontae. Thorny 
Creek and Knapps Creek, witli its branches Douthards 
and Cochran's creeks, Cumming's aud Brown's creeks, 
from the east; Stony Creek and Bwago Creek from the 
west are the main tributarias of the tiresflbriei'. In 
south Pocahontas, Stamping Creek and Locust Creek, 
and Trough Run from the west, and Beaver Creek, 
Lam-el Run, and Spice Run fioni the east are the trib- 
utaries of Greenbrier River, 

The Elk region in the northwest is drained by tlie 
Old Field Fork, Slaty Fork, and Big Spring Branch of 
Elk River. 

Concerning Knapps Creek, tliero is an interesting 
tradition to tlie effect that it derives its name froin 
Xnapp Gregory, believed to bo the person of solitary, 
eccentric habits, who reported tv parties in the lower 
Valley of Virginia that he had seen water flowing to- 
wards the west, which report led to Marlin and Sew- 
all's exploration of this region and tlioir locating at 
MarUn's Bottom, 1749. 

The site of Knapp Gregory's cabin is near the pub- 
lic road about opposite Mr Peter L. Cleek's residencu, 
two miles from Driseol. Traces of the fireplace and 
tlie dimensions of the cabin yet visible. Early in 
spring the grass appears here more luxuriantly than 



elsewlicrc and earlior, for the spot euems to be eypeci- 
ally fertile, an often observod eliaiacteristic of places 
where buildiDge have disappeared by gradual decay. 

Knapp Gregoi-y is reported to Imve disappeared from 
the Creek suddenly and mysteriously. When suen last 
lie was in pursuit of a deer near the Lockridge fording. 
It was supposed by some that lie might have been 
drowned, while others suspect that he may have been 
killed and robbed by some suspicious looking charac- 
ters that liad been seen about the same time, by scouts 
from Augusta County, 

East Pocahontas is mountainous and in former ycai-s 
heavily timbered with wliito pine and much other valu- 
able timber, and abounds in iron ores, (.'entral Poca- 
hontas consists largely of limestone lands, much of it 
is nicely cleared, and cultivated in grains and grasses. 
West Pocahontas has moi-e mountains, vast forests of 
timber of varied valuable kinds, and the indications 
are to the effect that much coal of great commercial 
value is ready for development. Heretofore this region 
was called the Wilderness, or Wilds of Pocahontas, 
having been, comparatively speaking, an unbroken and 
wellnigh an impenetrable region. 

Throughout Pocahontas County there is such an 
abundance of purest, freshest waters as beggars all 
ordinary powers of description. Literally it is a land 
of "springs and fountains,"' beyond the dreams of 
poetic diction to portray realistically. Some of these 
springs gushing from the earth, even in midsummer 
show undiminished vohmie, and with a temperature 
but little above that of iced water. Tli« entire county 



is Beemiiigly midurlaid witlivaet reservoirs, whose di- 
iiienBionu puzzlo the inmgiuation, for from tlie lovel 
land as well as from the moiintaiit sides pour forth 
groat springs, mauy of them with volume siiflicieiit to 
propel water mills. Larger atreanis thus starting from 
a hill-side sometimes disappear, only to appear else- 
where from some unexpected opening in the earth. Of 
this it is believed that Locust Creek furnishes a notable- 
example in its relation to Hills Creek. 

Among the mineral springs for which this county 
may soon become famous, mention may be made of the 
Lockridge Spring, near Driseol; the Curry Meadow 
Springs, at Huntsrsville. James E. A. Gibba, the 
sewing maeliine lock-atitch inventor, when a young man 
in delicate liealtli, was employed to biiitd a barn for 
William Fertig, forty or fifty years ago, a short dis- 
tance below the Curry Spring. While at w<3rk he used 
the water because it was eonveiiient to get at. To his 
grateful surprise his health improved and he became a 
vigorous person, and yet lives to pay a tribute for what 
this water was the means of doing for the benefit of 
his health. 

The Peter McCarty group or springs at tlie head of 
Brown's Crook, four miles fi-om Huntersville; the 
Pritcliai-d and Price Springs at Dunmoro, tlii-oe miles 
from Forrest Stati<m on tho Greenbrier Railroad : the 
Spring-House spring near the head of Clover tlreek. 
All these Springs have a local reputation for remarka- 
ble cures and they seem to be analogous in their prop- 
erties to the Capon Spring in Hampshire County. 

Di- J. B. Lockridge had Prof Mallett, of the Vir- 



giDia University, to make a qualitative aualywie of the 
Driscol Spring. Like tlie Capon Springs, the Driucol 
Spring has been found to contain silicic acid, soda, 
magnesia, bromine, iodine, and carbonic acid, and 
therefore good for bathing and drinking, promising 
relief for rheumatism, gout, dyspepsia, dropsical affec- 
tion, calculus, and renal troubles. Within the radius of 
a mile of Dunmorc are the Moore Blue Sulphur spring, 
tlie Kerr magnesia, and chalybeate water. 

Near Edray several mineral springs are known and 
for more than fifty years have been used with benefici- 
al i-esults, such as the Warwick sulphur, UutKeld 
chalybeate, Duncan's ciialybaate, and Smith's magne- 
sia, ou the west branch of the Indian Draft; Clover 
Lick Salt Spring, Moore's magnesia Spring, near Mar- 
linton; Moore's alum spring, or as some call it, natur- 
al lemonade spring on Brown's Creek. On Laurel 
Run, four or five miles, oast of Ilillsboro, is a remark- 
able group of springs, consisting of a fresh water 
spring and a purple sulphur spring welling up from 
the same rock within a radius of a yard or so. The ef- 
fects of these springs used to be the wonder of the gos- 
sips and wet nurses fifty years ago. 

In the matter of natural scenery Pocahontas County 
can display some charming mountain views from points 
like Droop Mountain Summit, where the Lewisburg 
Pike reaches it and overlooks Ilillsboro and vicinity; 
-Gibson's Knob, overlooking Clover Lick, a point from 
which, under favorable conditions of weather and sky. 
House Mountain in Rockbridge iind the Peaks of Otter 



may b« discorncd. ScYcral years ago, about the time 
a new tin roof was placed on Liixingtou (^onrt - House- 
tlio lato William Gibson saw saw tlio scintillations of 
reflected suuHght, Tho distance to' Lexington is about 
oigbty iiiik'B; Peaks of Otter, one hundred and tun. 
Grassy Knob, near Greeubank; Paddy'e Knob, oast of 
Frost; Koe Rocks, and Buck Knob, overlooking Mar- 
linton, and the High Rocks, overlooking Millpoint 
and vicinity; the "Bend," overlooking Edray; Mount 
Seeall, overlooking tlie Hills and Knapp's Ci-oek Val- 
leys; Briery Knob, that looms up so visably in lower 
Pocahontas, all afford prospects to be appreciated must 
bo seen and enjoyed. The sunrise prospects challenge 
description worthy of the best endeavors of Ruskin or 
a Maurice Thompson to put in words, 

Some four or five years since two ininiators had oc- 
casion to travel over tho Drooping Mountain at an 
early hour. Tliis mountain overlooks much of south- 
em Pt>cahoutas and noithoni Greenbrier, commanding 
an entrancing view of Hillsboro and its charming rural 
surroundings of Groves, fields and orchards. It was 
very misty on tho morning rofcrrcd to, and as the min- 
isterial equestrians passed from Hillsboro their view 
was shut off on every side by the dense va- 
pory barriers. Tliey slowly ascendetl tlic broad but 
devious road up the mountain side towards the sunmiit. 
Upon reaching the crest of the mountain the sun was 
seen some liours high in all its glorious power and 
light. It the Psalmist had boon there he would have 
spoken of tho sun as a bridegroom coming out of hiw 
chamber and rejoicing as a strong man ready to roll 



away tlio mists tliat were ovor tlif liills, tlic vales an<I 
streainii, keeping them from view. We paused at tlie 
point most favoi-oble for our outlook, and time was 
spent contemplating tlie scene, feeling tliat we knew of 
no words tliat would at that moment fitly express <iuf 
emotions. In the meantime a radiant p<iwer more thiiii 
iiiuety million miles away had come and was working 
miracles all about us. The vast surface of tlie lake-like 
(.■loud beneath our feet began to rise and roll like the 
waves of a miniature ocean, and the sunbeams beauti- 
fied all these white waves. They seemed to gather 
themselves into Delectable Hills, and from their radi- 
ant tops spires of vapfirs enchanting with nameless 
beauties reached upward towards the sun. "An<t as ime 
would tower above others near, it seemed to draw them 
along with itself till all had vanished in upward view- 
leas flight. Drops of dissolving mist were on the 
leaves. Like pearls they bung the bushes with brilli- 
ants, and shone like diamonds cm the grass, — Had that 
morning been without cloudy mists, the morning scene 
would have been divested of more tlnin half of its un- 
speakable beauties and suggestive lessims. Sueli a 
scene as was witnessed by tlmse ministerial friends on 
Drooping Mountain was well fitted to remind tliem, 
and all others who pause, and think upon like morn- 
ing scenes amid our mountains, of the fact that it was; 
when alone upon a niountiiin that Klijali saw the glory 
of the Lord. It was when alone upon the nmuntain 
"the Lord spoke mito Moses as a num speaketh unto 
his friend. Tlien and there Moses received the pro:ii- 
ha of final rest. A piuuslv intelligent per.son while 


V biting aloiK", tlie inountaiiiH <jf SwitxiTlaiitl, wrote in 
lliiB inaiiiifr to frionds at lioinc, "It is g< od to be 
utnongthe iiioiiiitaine aloiit — good for U:tU the miii<I 
aitd lieart." It noemn to be almost iiniveiwdly conced- 
ed that iiioiiiitaiii HolitndcB are vury tuiidiicive toward« 
developing elevated tjpoa of j hiy lig'itly inip:-<)ved. 
liy tliiH, however, is uot meant that ehristiaiiB or thos ^ 
desiring to be chriHtiaiis are nearer to heaven, in place, 
upon mountain tops than in their honieB in the valleyw 
and chambers foi" secret prayer, though on tlit; mount- 
ain tops they be neeiiiingly and irnpreasiveiy nearer the 
blue sky niid its t^tarry gems. When the mind itj in a 
devotional itic;'ptivc mood tlicre is smiietliinji; very eon- 
g inial between the mountain tops and prayer and spir- 
itual glory. 

Where every thing seems to be more or leas uuiqui\ 
as in l'oe;t!iont:is, natural curiositio.^ individnally do 
not cut nincii figure, yet special mention may be made 
of the cliffs at the eiiJ of Drcit)p M >uut;iiu, which hive 
but recently become famous, and will be one of the 
features of tourists entering our county by vai! up the 
Greenbrier; tiie "Ice Cave" of Droop Mountain, the 
'■Cranberry Meadows" west of Ilillsboro; the Falls of 
Hills Creek; the Turkey Buzzard Cave, near Mt Ver- 
non, the Black Hole near Linwood, the Saltpetre Cave 
at the head of Swago Creek; the Overlioit Blowing 
Cave, purpassing the historic Windy Cove of Old 
Millboro in Bath, near McClintic's Mill, fonr mites 
from Marlinton; the stone footlog and rock parlor ta- 
ble at the head of tlie Dry Branch of Swago; the 
Butteniiilk Spring on Gaulcy, about opjiosite (jibaou's 



aoroas tlie luoiiiitaina; anil "'.tiiii Boat: Ruck," iici-.r 
Split Rock, 

Killing froats early and lato made tlia working of 
land a precarious source of subsistence! until a compar- 
atively recent period in the liiatory of onr connty. As 
late as 1810, the fact that corn would ripen at MarJin's 
Bottom enoiigli to bo fit for meal was nearly a year's 
wonder. Gardens for onions, parsnips, cucumbers, 
pumpkins, and turnips; patches for buckwheat, corn, 
beans, and potatoes, for many years comprised the 
most of pioneer farming enterprise in the way of sup- 
plementing their supplies of game and fish. The im- 
plements used for clearing; and cultivating these gar- 
dens and truck patches were of home manufacture, and 
for the most pai-t rather rudely constructed, as mere 
inakesliifts are apt to be. 

The people wore very frequently molested when at 
work, by the Indians. And on tliis account the men 
would carry their guns with them and have tliem al- 
ways in ready reach, and while at work they would be 
<in the look out lest cunniuf* scouts in ambush would 
shoot thorn down wliilc at their endeavors tis win their 
liviug in tlio sweat <)f their faces. 

It being scarcely possible to keep a wiirk horse bt^- 
cause of the raiding Indians, most of the labor of 
farming had to be done with hoes. In course of time 
when horses and oxen conld be kept and used, plows 
were in demand. The liret plows were nutde entirely 
of seasi^ued hardwood. An improvement was luaiie by 
attaching an iron plate to the plowing beam, nn<l the 
"shovel plow" was evolved. 



To smootli and pulverize the earth for planting, the 
place of tlie harrow wrb uupplieJ by a crabapple tree 
iir a blackthorn bn»b, prease<I down by heavy piecoH 
(if wood fatitened on by hickory withes or strips of 
leiithei'bark, and BOme nice work was d(ine by tlioHo 
exteiuporized harrows. The first harrows that BU)iei- 
Kuded the crab and blackthorn, had wooden frames 
shaped like a big A, and the teeth being made of sen- 
Moned hickory or wliite nak. 

Thi first scythes th;it were usjd to cnt the iiieudows 
were hand-made by tlio neighborhood blacksmith, and 
were hainmured out instead of whetted to put them in 
cutting order. The sneatlies were straight stickw, and 
in mowing the mowers were bent into horizontal, semi- 
lunar fardel shapes, as if they were looking fur holes 
in the ground, or snakes in the grassy weeds. 

For liandting liay or grain, forks were mado of bi- 
furcated fiaplings of maple or dogwood, carefully peel- 
ed and well soBBOJied. The writer remembens with 
pleasure a dogwood fork presented to him by liis fatli- 
er, and this fork compared with tlic hickory rod ke|>t 
in pickle for lazy, abwent-minded boys, was a thing of 
beauty and the joy of many a summer day in the niead- 
uwe. It became smooth as ivory, and was tlio last of 
woodon forks 1 have ever seen used, and the last 
shocks J built with it were in the meadow just above 
the Island, more than fifty years ago. 

When the pioneers came to need more land than 
mere patches, they would chop three or four acres 
"smack smooth" and a log rolling was in order. By 
invitation the neiglibors for miles would meet with 



tlieir teaiiiB of Imrsos or oxea, to assist in putting up 
loglicaxis for buniiiig. This being done a feast was 
enjoyed, and all returned liontewards. 

The next thing was to burn the heaps. Outside the 
clearing a wide belt was raked inwardly to prevent the 
tire from "gjetting away." The preferred time for 
using firo was usnally some night when ail would be 
Mtill and calm. Tbe first thing was to burn the clear- 
ing over, thus making way with smaller brush, under- 
growth, and other "trash." It was an impressive 
sight to witness as the smoke and flames of the burning 
heaps arose like pillars of fire by night, while the men, 
sweaty and sooty, passed among them keeping op the 

Another interesting pioneer social gathering was the 
"raising" of the dwelling or a bam. Notliing p'.^cuni- 
ary was expected, simply a return of like service when 
notified. "Hnskinga" were popular at a certain peri- 
od. In some communities they would come otf in the 
day as a matter of business, not recreation or frolic. 
But the typical "husking" was prepared for with some 
elaborate preparation, The ears would be pulled from 
the stalks, huwks and all, and placed in ricks. This 
"husking" usually came off iin some moon lighted 
night, A managing "boss" was chosen who arranged 
the men on opposite sides of the rick, and the contest 
was who would be the first to bi-eak over the crest line. 
Finding a red ear was considered good luck and no ev- 
ery car would be noticed as it was broken olf. Who- 
ever scored the most red ears was the cimnipion of the 
"husking bee." While the fathers and sons were thu; 



hiburcnslv but joj-ovhIv disporting tliciiisdvcs itt the 
foni ric'ko, tlio motlier» and danghtors were gatlierwl 
lit tliL' Jmiim;, some cowkiiig, otliern busy at tliu "quilt- 
ing." About 10 or 11 o'clock the '-Iiuskiiig" and the 
'■quilting" were suspended, supper served aiid then 
Citiiie the "hoe down," wherein heavy stumbling toe.i 
wonid be tripped to the noteH of a screeching unrnly 
violhi, such fiddling was called "cltoking the goose," 
i;r when tliere was no Uddle in evidence Home one only 
"patted Juba" about as distinctly as the trotting of a 
horse over a bridge. 

As a rule i)ioneer festivitlos were orderly, yet once 
in a while there would be a few persons at the husk- 
ings who prided theinaulves in being and doing ugly. 
Somewhere about the prttmisos there was some body or 
some tiling that they would B])cakof as "Black Betty," 
After a few clandestine visits to where "Black Betty" 
was, the consequences would be that colored Elizabeth 
with bur songs, yellings and a few iights would get in 
her work, and fbereupon a iistcutf or two would impart 
interest to the gathering, and make the occasion the 
talk of thonoighborliood until some other exciting mat- 
ter came around. 

In the early times now under consideration it. was 
an essential matter that about every thing needed for 
conifoitable use about the home should be home made 
or at least somewhere in the immediate neighborhood. 
Thus it came that ])ioneer wives and daughters were 
not only ornamental but exceedingly useful in promot- 
ing the comforts and attractions of their homes by the 
skill of tl.eir willing haude. Every household of any 



pretentions to iudepeiidonco or tlirift had a loom, spin- 
iiing wheels, little and big, a flax brcakt-i-, sln-'op shoai'rt 
wont cards, and whattiver else nuodfiil for changing 
wool and flax into clothing and blankets. 

Sheop were raised on the fanns and were nsnully 
sheared by tho girls and boys. The wives and dangh- 
ters wonld thereupon scour, card, spin, wcavti and knit 
the fleeces into clothing: 

The flax was grown in tho "flax patcli;"' usually a 
choice bit of groiiud. When ripe tho flax was pulled 
by hand, spread in layers until dry npon the ground 
where it had been pulled, then bound in bundles, car- 
ried away and spread very neatly o\-orthe cleanest and 
nicest sod to bo found, most commonly tho af turmath 
of the meadow. Here it remained with an occasional 
overturning until it was "weathered," or watered. Af- 
ter an exposure of three or four weeks, or when weath- 
ered completely, the flax was g.ithared, b )uii J in bun- 
dles, stored away, in shelter until cool frosty days in 
late fall, winter or early spring wonld cmne, when it 
would bo broken by tho flax breaker, then scutcliod by 
the scutching knife over an upright board fastened to a 
block. Then what was left of the woody part by the 
breaker and scutching knife would be co iibed out by 
the hackle, and was now ready for spinning and weav- 
ing as flax or tow. The tow could be held in the hand 
and spun for coarse cloth, "tow linen." The fl:ix, 
being the straight and finer fibre, would be wrapp nl to 
the "rock," attached to the little wheel and spun f»n- 
tlic finer fabrics. The rock was a contrivance ni wle by 
bending three or four bi-anches of a bush ttigetlier and 



tyiitfT tliciii into a kind of fi-amo-work at iippor «ml. 
Flax was iin)st comiiioiil.y put tlirougli thv entire pro- 
cess fi-oui planting to wearing witliont loitving tlie farm 
oil which it was gi-own. 

The git>wiug t)£ wheat in Poualiontaa in ijuantitios 
Hufficicnt for Ht'lf-siipport was not thongiit of in early 
timeM. Plonghed in witli the the hull tongno or shovel 
plow, hrnshed over by a crab )h-iih!i or thorn sappling, 
ami in many instances simply lahorionsly dug in with 
a hoe, it was a precarious crop, owing to freezing out, 
blight or nitit. The harvests were gathered with the 
sickle. The reaper clutching a liandfu] of grain in hiw 
left hand w<nihl sever it with his right. The hamlfuls 
wore bound into Bheaves and then stacked into dozens. 
Ten sheaves upright with lieads preascd together and 
all sheltered and ke]>t in place by the othei' two sheaves 
being broken at the band and spread out like fans and 
laid over the top. These dozens having dried out were 
carried by wagon or sled and stacked. Wlien on steep 
ground the dozens would be brought off on stretcher 
shaped conlri%'ancos attached to a man's shouldors. At 
Hi'st the threshing was done by flail, and fifteen busliels 
was a good day's work. In value one bnsliol of wheat 
was equuivalunt to two bushels i>f corn, and exchanges 
wore made on tliat ratio. Where crops were compara- 
tively larg'J flailing was superseded by "tramping out" 
by iiorsea freshly shod. In this innovation the half 
grown boy was much in demand as he could ride one 
horso and lead a second. Two or three pair of horses 
would hull out forty or fifty bushels p<!r day. After 
tramping awhile the horses would leave the floor and 



rest while the straw would be ehakeii up and turned 
ovur, and then the tramping would be i-esnined until 
(Ijc grain was all out. lu separating the wheat from 
the cliafl the first method was to throw fihovelfnls up 
when the wind was high to blow the ehaff away, and 
then the wheat was cleaned b_v a coarse seive, which 
was shaken hj hand, and Uie chaff would come to the 
top and raked off in handfnis. Thin was improved on 
the "winnowing sheet," usually worked by two men, 
while a third would shake the wheat from a shallow 
basket. Finally the "winnowing sheet" gave way to 
the windmill or wheat fan, when the farmers became 
80 advanced in circumstances ae to feel themselves able 
to pay thirty or forty dollars for one. 

After "horse tramping out," came the threshing 
machine, and the sensation produced by its advent sur- 
passed anything that has ever occurred in our county, 
unless it was the cimiing of the ears, the 26th of (Oc- 
tober, 1900. This machine, known as the "chaff- 
piler," was introducwl abont the year 183!!, by Wil- 
liam Gibson, of Huntei'Mviile, W. Va. It was operat- 
ed by Jesse Whitmer and John Galford, late of Mill 
Point, It was a small affair, simply a throHhing cylin- 
der in a box, propelled by four horses, and when in 
operation the wheat wonid Hy high and low as if it 
was all in fun. An immense sheet was spread on the 
ground, and this was enclosed by a wall of strong tent 
cloth about eight feet high, on three si<les. A pei's<^in 
with a rake removed the straw as it came ont. He 
would have his face protected with heavy cloth, for the 
wheat grains wouhi sting. After the "chatf-piler" 



came rlio scparHtor, at lirt4t propelled by liorsos. and 
thou more recently l>y »tteatn. At the preHeiit time 
most of the ci-ops are Heparat«<l hy tlio "steaniera." 

When it came to be possible to raise corn fit to eat 
in the limits of our county, its preparation for tlie ta- 
ble was a matter of prime importance. One of the 
earliest contrivances was the "liominy block.'' This 
was made from a large block of some hard wood, most 
commonly white oak, eighteen or twenty inches in di- 
ameter, liollowed out at one end by burning and then 
trimmiHl into the shape of a druggist's mortar of huge 
proportions. For burning out the cavity a hoie watt 
bored by a two inch auger, then a red-hot bolt of iron 
was inserted. This iron bolt was frequently a coup- 
ling pin of a wagon. When this could be used n<i 
longer to advantage, then hard dry wood — elm wan 
preferred — was obtained, and a fire was kindled in the 
hole ami kept burning until the cavity was of the tie- 
sired size. The top was large, but it narrowed down 
until it assumed a funnel shape, and lield a peck or 
more of grain. The grain had been slightly softened 
hy soaking in tepid watt^r, and was reduced by the use 
of a wooden pestle, u.sually made of tough material 
thick as a man's wrist, an iron wedge inserted at one 
end, made fast by an iron band. 

Pounding corn for a family of eiglit or ten pcu-soiis 
was an all day business, and part of the night on Sat- 
urdays. When pounded the grain would be in a more 
or less fine condition, and by using a seive made of 
deer's skin stretched over a hoop and perforated with 
boles, before the wire sifters were known, the coarse 



and fiii<; could be separatiMj. The fine tnexl wuiiM do 
for -'jolmiiv cake," wliicli is (lerived from "joiiriiov- 
cakc, " bakod on a board, ami for bread, wliilc tlio 
c'oiirno could bo eitber rcpoiiiKkHl, or (MM!ko<l an it was 
fi>r boiiiinj. 

After a time thin woarisoine poumliii^ wan ulleviateil 
by a sweep pole; aupei-cwliiig tbe boiiiiiiv mortar ami 
Mweep pole was the bami-riiill, formed of two circiibir 
liaiul- stones. Tlie tower wa** tlie bed-Htoiie, the upper 
was the runner, and botli wei'e cbtsely fitted by a woo<l- 
cn boop, in wbk-li tbere wan an opening f<)r tbe dis- 
charge of tbe meal. In tbe niniier tliere was a centra! 
opening into wliieli tlie grain wan fed. Anotlier ojten- 
iiig was drilled near tlie edge of the runner, into wliicli 
(iiie end of a pole wan fitted, while the other end was 
put throngh a bole in a board fastened to the joists 
above. With one hand grasping the npriglit pole, the 
iiiiHer tnrned the runner, and with tbe otlier finl the 
Rrain into the central opening. T!i(^ grinding of one 
basbel was counted a day's work. 

Hand mills served their purpose, and tub-milU the 
tirHt water mills —came into use. In the Inh-mills, the 
ui)per ("tone was stationary while the lower one turning 
i^ainst it reduced the gitiin to tneal. The plan of 
coTiHtnietion was tins: A perpendicular shaft was fix- 
ed in tbe lower stone or runner, and on the other or 
lower end of tbe shaft was a water wheel four or five 
feet in diameter. This wheel being sank in a stream 
of water, its force canse<l the wheel to revolve and 
thus turned tbe stone fixed to the upper end of the shaft. 

Afti-r the tub-mills came the "grist mills," with the 



horizontal shafts, tlie lower stones stationary and the 
upper ones the runners. 

In thinking over what has been written concerning 
pioneer farming experiences, the writer feels safe in 
saying that if the successors of these early settlers 
could see and handle the rude and clumsy, hand made 
appliances devieed and used by the pioneer busy hands 
in their toilsome, dangerous endeavors for a livelihood 
they would be greatly surprised, and would be prone 
to regard them as implements of sorely tedious torture, 
were they <!oinpelled to make lise of the same in their 
bread-winning pursuits in 1901. 

It would be a serious mistake however to think in 
that way of our worthy forbears, because they passed 
many hours of genuine enjoyment. Their fewer wants 
easily satisfied, rendered theni as well contente<l, if not 
better as a rule, than tlieir dosceiidaiits now living 
their strenuous lives in pursuit of luxuries of dress, 
housing, and food that would have been the envy of 
princes and kings in pioneer days. 

So far as tested, all the cereals now piWuce large 
yields in Pocahontas County. Wheat, corn, rye, oats, 
millet, and buckwheat may be produced in an) pie 
abundance. Though there bo quite a number of good 
mills, yet they are so located that there are communi- 
ticB who think it to their interest and convenience to 
carry their wheat to the Warm Springs or Monterey to 
be gi-ound, and considei-able is imported, owing to its 
being cheaper than the liome product. 

The climate of this county has passed through a 
great change the prist eighty or ninety years. About 



that long Since it was a rare thing for corn to ripen 
anywhere in the region now forming tlie HmitB of Po- 
cahontas. While it may be true that considerable com 
was planted, yet the intention was to have merely soft 
com, to fatten a beef or pork in case tlie mast failed, 
or be scarce. 

About 1810, Major William Poag«, then living at 
Marlio'e Bottom, (now Marlinton), had a field of corn 
near the month of the Cieek that was looking very 
promising. He was asked by a neighbor how mnch 
corn fit for bread did he think lie might have from that 
Nplendid looking field. Major Foage, after HOnie 
thoughtful hesitation, replied very cautiously that he 
ventured to think there was a probability of there be- 
ing eight or ten bushels. This was spoken of as the 
inarvol of the season, that out of three or four hundred 
bushels of corn raised at Marlin's Bottom, there might 
be eight or ten fit for bread, johnnycake, pone, and 
lioecake, and the happy people thought things now 
looked like living. 

It is within the memory of living persons when rijie 
corn was the seldom exception, not the regular rule, 
on Elk, where fine crops are tlic rule of everything that 
is eatable, and that too in notable abundance and of 
prime quality. 

As the climate and soil now are in Pocahontas, they 
are found to be adapted to the production of tobacco of 
a very good quality, and for nmst of the sta)>le fruits, 
specially the peach and apple. 

In the limestone belts bluograss grows spontaneonsly 
and there are places whore the bluegniss sod rivals the 



fanioua Kcntiickj- bliiegrasi*. To neo the language of 
an unknown writer, "Timotliy, clover, and luimeroun 
otlier clioiee varieties contest the liglit of tlie bluegiasH 
tu the field: wo we find them gi-owiug togetlier, each 
trying to choke ont the others and to cliinb high enough 
to choke out all the rest." So far as is observe^!, this 
bluegraes producing sod is common over the greater 
|mrt of the county, and there ia but a small percentage 
of its territory where grasses may not floiirisli. As a 
result a great deal of livestock has been and is produc- 
ed. The cattle, fur Jiiarketing qualities, equal any in 
the State. Pocahontas mutton has a reputation pecu- 
liarly its own, and the genuine commands the best 
market figures. There have been times, and to some 
extent such is the case now, where buyers from other 
States have come and canvassed Pocahontas County 
for live stock, seemingly not willing to wait until the 
cattle or slieep could be taken to them at their homes. 
Blooded horses equal to the best for quality and ser- 
vice, have been raised in this county. 

It is believed that when the lumber enterprises shall 
have finished their operations and the lands jk) longer 
wanted for the merchantable timber, there will be still 
grander opportunities opened np for fai'iiiing, fruit 
producing, and stock raising, and then P<icah()ntas may 
rank among the host in any of the States in that line 
of home making and industrial endeavor. 

Very much of Pocahontas was heavily timbei-ed ami 
as the variety an<l quality was equal to most an<l sui-pass- 
ed by no other county in the State, before the vast in- 
roads were made on these timber resnrces in the last 



fiftscii or twenty years. Still there in an enormous 
t<upply yet remaining after all Iiah buL-n dune by i-aftf, 
(Irivee and loaded fraiglit ears. For twenty years i>r 
more an intjresting feature were tlie lumber campt4 
here and there in the woods wliere hundreds of men 
were comfortably housed and fed on the fat of the 
land in various parts of the couuty, mainly eatit of the 
(jreenbrier. On the higher elevations west of the 
Greenbrier and in the western and north -western part 
of the county are vast reaches of black spruce forests, 
now in such dentand for wood pulp of which the paper 
is made for post cards, books and newspapeitt. There 
remains nnicli oak, cherry, poplar, chestnut and the 
more common forest ti-eew in marked profusion. The 
value of timber standing not long since was estimated 
at over two million dollars. 

During the construction of tJie Greenbrier Itailway 
the past two years (1899-1901)) several quarries nf 
sandsttme were opened along tlie line or nearby, and 
the luatei-Ial pronouneo<l equal to the best for construc- 
tion purposes. 

For burning and fluxing purposes limestone iw very 
abundant, and nmch of it lies very near vast imn ore 

Near the Ijittle Levels in south Pocahontiis very 
pretty marble has been found, an<I the mountains on 
the west of the Levels contain vast amounts of black 
and white marbles. The specimens of which are very 
beautiful and promise great connncrcial value. Tliesc 
formations may be of ready access to the main stem of 
the (ireeiibrier Railway by whort tramways from See- 



l)Crt and Locust, and possibly points iurervoniiig, 

Tlie en tire county from end to end east of the (Ireeii- 
l)nei' abounds in iron ore indications, principally tbt- 
brown liemetite and the reddish fossil if erouH. The fos- 
Hilifei-ous is not in thick veins or v«ry widely distrib- 
uted, but of tlie brown liemnietite the supply is regard- 
ed as virtually inexhaustible. The veius of ore are 
large, of excellent quality and distributed ovei* a vast 
area. In character the oi-es are pronounced tlie same 
as the ores of Mom-oe and (Treenbrier counties. Tho 
ore veins of those counties are regai-ded as extensions 
of tlie veins found in Pocahontas, 

As to coal resources but little, coniparattvoly, has nn 
yet been asceitainctt by actual development. While 
some investigations have been made, but very little 
coal has been mined for home use and none for expor- 
tation. In west Focaliontas in the Ganley and Wil- 
liams Kiver region, there is a large area underlaid by 
the New Kiver coking coal veins ranging from two 
feet thick to eighteen feet, and as far as tested this 
west Pocahontas coal pi-oves equal to the New 
Kiver coaking coal. This is the coal that has made the 
New River region in Fayette County anil the Mercer or 
McDowell coal districts farther south so renowned as 
coke producing localities. This West Pocahontas coun- 
ty coal is about, as to mileage, the nearest coking coal 
to the iron producing centres of the two Virginias. 
Railway transportation and mine development seem to 
he all that is wanted to bring about a li\'ely d juiau.l 
for this coal. Transportation and development appear 
now from current entcrprizes to be questions of only a 
short time. 


mg-i-oBV OK ivirAiioNiAs roi ^Tv l^i 

Am to tlie nieaiiH of trard iiiid coiniiiuiiieatiou in ]>!- 
niieer tlmoH, it acojiis tlitit for ^oartt tlu- pasa wavn to 
ami from places in our conntv and (sUcwlw^rc bcvoiid . 
wore tlio tniila made by hiitfalocs and liuliaiis. At first 
tlio briinlt was trimniod away and widened for piick- 
liorses, tlit'ii for sleds, tlien for wajroiiM, as j)roji;rc'SM re- 
quired, Tlif pionotTs seem to Inive iiotieed tbat it 
would be advisabk' to avoid tlic trails along the streants 
and valleys, and follow tlie crests of leading ridges, 
Hud so new patlis were iilazed accordingly and came to 
be used, hence tlie steepness of tlie idd i-oads may be 
accounted for in great measnre. It was nmcli more 
practicable to escape an ambuscade on a crest or sum- 
mit, tban when lieiiuued in by a valley bill sides. Witli 
a tenacity wortliy of a better purpose tbe pioneiTs 
clung to tlie old patliB witli market] conservatism. 
The Bons prided themselves with the idea that what 
was good enoHgb f<ir their fathers was good enough for 
tli«m. About l)S3ti, however, there seems to biive 
l)tH!n an awakening on the matter of better roads to 
and from tlie county, Tbe Warm Springs & Hiinters- 
villc Turnpike was projected, and c<implet<'d about 
1838, with Henry Harper and Win, (ilbson. a lliint- 
er.-fvillc mercliant, contractors. It was a grand hiih 
way for that period, and awoke a sensation much liki- 
onr people felt at seeing cars coming to Marlintim. 
Kvery stream was bridged frotn lluntersville to the 
Warm Springs, and the means of cominiiiiieati'>Ti at 
the time between those places seemed to he all tbat 
was desii\^(l or conbl be reasonably expected. Cajit. 
William Ciicklev was iti the Legislature that anthorized 



«jmI clmrtiTcil tlw I'Oiul, ami, to use liis own t"i>o laii- 
j^ruagc, lie had a "time of it log-mlliug )iii4 bill 
tlirniigli;'" tilt* exptetivcH aio liiTC roHpwtf 111 !_v oniittcd. 

TIk" St#Mlltoii ami I*ai-kfisburg Fikc was msulv two 
iJi- tilled yeftrs latci'. It was located bv tlii^ ct-ktbrHtod 
Ci-oKi't, oiK' of tlic great Napok«juV loyal engineer!', 
wlio refiigeod to tlie Vnited States after Waterkio liad 
made it ratlier iiiiconifortabki for liim in tbe oki eoiiii- 

About 185+ tlie HiittonHvilie and Marlinton Turn- 
pike was k>cnted by Kiigineer Haymond. In tliesame 
year lie engineered tlie Lowisburg and Marliiiton Turn- 
pike, and tile (jreenbrier Bridge at Marlinton. ('uloiiel 
William Hamilton, of Handolpb County, ccmtracted 
for tirj road work Hutt'nisvjlle to Mirlin's Bot- 
tom, Lemuel Chenowetli, from Beverly, built tbe 
bridge ill 18o4,-o(>. Captain William Coebrau super- 
intended tlie Lewisburg Road, and all of these enter- 
Ijrizes were completed by 185fi, During tlie war be> 
twet^ii tlie States these higliways, like so many other 
tilings, were virtually laid waste. Tlie efforts to re- 
pair an<I keep them in proi>er condition have been 
many and varied, and much unfriendly eriticiHin evoked 
as to the policy and niaiiagenient of the county author- 
ities. Ah to road atfairs, times change and people with 
them, and it seems citizens nitnl time for living and 
learning. No doubt the time will come sooner or later 
when the interests of the public highways will be com- 
mitted to the management of perwina apecially qualified 
for the business, like law, medicine, or politics. 

As mountains and grasses are so characteristic of 


HI8T(IKY OF I'lll'AHONTAii COl .NTV l.l 

oiir county, sdiiio ivfli^ctiinis ils to tlif part tlicv pcr- 
foriii ill tlicir CioatinV plans may ln' in placo. Tin- 
iulla and inonutaiii, of PocalioiitjiK, . wlicii cdiilriistcd 
witli people wlio own tlicm an piii]iort_v ami live in 
lioMiea ovfpHlia<lowc(l bv tliem, sccin aw to i'\iwtfncc 
'•everlasting liills,'" Vct'tlic tnitli in tlicse mountains 
tire just »H perifliing as we are, Tlicir veins of tlowiiig 
fountains wearv tli(.> mountain hearts as tlie erini^ion 
pulses do ourn. Tlie natural funiis of tl.e iron or stony 
crags are aWted in tlieir appointed time, like tlie 
fitrengtli of the muBck'H and sinews ami bones in a hn- 
iiian old age. It is but thf lapse of the longer periods 
of decay, wiiicli in tlic sight of their Creator distin- 
^uiKhcij tlie durati<in of the inountiiin from that of the 
moth or wcirm. 

By our bountiful Katlier of Mercies mountain ranges 
lire appointed t<i fnlfil their offices with a view to pre- 
serving licaltli and thus increase the happiness of the 
liiinian race in general. The tirst of these uses is t<i 
give motion to water. Every f()untain and river, from 
the shallow streamlet that crosses the road in trendiling 
clearness, to the calm and silent movings of tlie Poto- 
mac, the James, or tin? Ohio, all owe their motion, 
purity, and resistlcHS sweeping jiowei's to the eleviiti<nis 
()f the earth ordaimnl for that purpose. Oentle or steep, 
extended or abrupt, some determined slope of the sur- 
face is essential before the waters of anv stream ctudd 
overtake and refresh a single plant or tree aftt-r the 
long pilgrimage by clomls from the Southern Pacific 

We are living among the liighlumls, a veritable good- 



ly land of the sky, wliere we may walk aud iiieditute 
beside the grassy or flowery margins of our iiioiiiitain 
rttieainw, what opportunities we have to etmBider how 
bL^aotiful and very wonderful is that arrangement, in 
virtue of which the dews and rains falling to the ground 
»hoii!d find no resting place to loiter after coming so 
far away, but should find instead, prepared and fixed 
channels traced for them, from the ravines of the cen- 
tral crests, down wliieh they rush and roar iu turbulent 
ranks of foam, towai-ds tlie dark hollows beneath the 
banks of lowland meadows, pastures, and planted 
fields, round which they must circle among the steins 
and bonoatli the leaves of the growing plants, so essen- 
tial to human comfort and enjoyable existence. 

These pathways for the dews and rains and melted 
SHOWS are si> arranged that by some definite rate of 
moviimeiit tlio waters must evermore descend, some- 
times siow, BOjnetimes swift, but never pausing. Tlie 
daily exietauces they must glide over being marked out 
for them at each successive rising of the sun, or dawn- 
ing of the morning, the place that knew them yester- 
day to know them no more, and the gateways of guard- 
ing mountains opened for them in cleft, or chasm, or 
duly tunnelled. Thus nothing is to hinder them in 
their mission to the growing, life-sustaining fruits, 
grasses, and grains, while from afar the great heart of 
the parent ocean seems to be ever calling these bless- 
ing -iftipaiting waters back to herself, as if "deep were 
calling unto deep." 

It is well to remember, too, that this office of im- 
parting motion to water is not exhausted on the sur- 



facu, for a no loss impoj-taut otBco of tlie liillH is to di- 
rect the flow of springa aii«i fonntaiUB fi'om snbtcrraD- 
eous reservoirs. Wliile it may seem inarvckum to mv 
tiie waters coming ii|) out of tlie ground beneath our 
feet, yet this is no miraculous happening, fur every 
fountain and well aro supplied from a reservoir some- 
where in the liiddeu chambers uf the hills, ho located 
88 to involve some degree tjf fall, assuring pressure 
sufficient to secure the constant outflowing of the 

The second use of mountains is t<^ keep uj* a constant 
change In the nature ami currents of the air. A diffei- 
ence in soils ami vegetation would have in a measure 
caused changes in the air, even if tlie earth had been 
level. This change would have been far loss than what 
is caused now hy the chains of hills, which divide tlie 
earth not only into districts hut into climates, and 
cause perpetual currents of air to tra\ei'Me their passes 
in a thousand different states, by moistening witii the 
spray of waterfalls, beating the air hither and thither 
iu the pools of rushing torrents, closing the air within 
clefts and caves where the sunbeams are ne\er seen, 
and all becomes cold as autumn mists. By means of 
the hills this coded air is scut forth again tn broatlie 
lightly across the velvet fields of grass upon the slopes, 
or be scorched among sunburned shales and grasstess 
crags, and then when pierced by stiango electric darts 
flashes of mountain fire, the air is suffered to depart at 
last, chastened and pure, to refresh the far away ai-id 

The tliird iuip<:rtant ofKee of the mountains is to 



bring alxiut pfi-jH-tiial cliaiigc in tlic huiIh. Wt-re it nnr 
for thiw ottiw^ cultivBteil grniiiKl would in ii scriiiH of 
yi:art> be cxlinimtiHl and wuii!<l it'quirc to bo iiptui'iicd 
iriost liil»»roiinly by ImniaD appliances. Ekivatioiis pro- 
vide fur tliis a oonstaiit i-onovation. Tlio liigiior momi- 
tiiinw wutfc'i' their anniniitB to \w broken into fraginentw 
and to 1)0 oast down in sliootw of mossy rock, reploto 
with fvory ingrodiont nowtfid for tbo niitriniciit of 
plant Hfi'. TlioiJo fallon fraginonrs broken by frosts 
and disontogratotl by toi-i-orits into vari^ius conditions 
of sand and clay — materials which are distributed pei- 
petnally by the streams farther and farther fnJm tlii" 
niuiiiitain base. The turbid foaming of angry looking 
waters in time of flo<id, tearing down banks and rocks 
are liof disturbances of the benolicent course of nature. 
but are operations of laws necessary to the existence of 
man and to make the earth heautifnl. This process 
may bo cai-ried on more g<fntly, but not loss otfectivoly, 
over the entire surface of tlte lower undnlating dis- 
tricts. Each filtering tln-ead of suinmor rain trickling 
tbrough tlio sliort turf of the uplands is bearing its 
own appointed burden of eaitb to bo tlirnwii on BoniO 
new natural garden for some one to work iind enjoy 
long yours in the future. 

Of all the good and perfect gifts lavished upon a bit 
<if goodly land, it would bo dittioult to find anything 
more suggestive of edifying thought tlian the grass of 
the fiohl. It is something mysterious to examine not 
only wlion geuuned with the dew dmps of morning, or 
(|uivering in the mirage of noon, but with the spark- 
ling threads of aborescence, "each a little belfry oC 


grain bdU all achiiiio," Wlicii a oiiigli' hlmit- of jtrasn 
is plucked, out' of ctmntlcMs itiillioiis, mid one cxaniiiifM 
intciitlj' for a time itw narrow sworil Hliapinl strip of 
fluted gieon. niitliing is perceived of notable goodneHs 
or entrancing beaiitv. In tbat blade of grass may be 
noticed very little tliat is strong and u very little tall- 
tH'Hi* and a few delicate llnOM meeting in h dnll niitin- 
iwlKid p(>int. So tbe blade of graws by no means ii]>- 
peara to be a crcnlitable or niucli eared for sample of 
tlie Creator's workmaiislilp, made to be trodden npon 
by men or iMaining beast, a little pale Imllow stalk fe- 
ble and tiaoctd leading down to tlie dull brown fibres 
of roots. And yet wlien we carefully piinder over its 
uses and tbe place grass occupies in pi-nnioting inan'n 
physical good, we are inclined to tbe opinion an<l so 
express ourselves lliat of all the gorgeons tlowers tliat 
bloom in onr moiintuin air and slied tlieir balmy fra- 
grance upon the summer bree/.es, and of all tbe strong 
and go(Klly trees, pleasant to tbe eyes or good for f< od, 
like stately palms and towering pines, strong oaks and 
ash tretrs, scented orcbai-ds, or gracefully biirilened 
vines, tliere is not one so universally l"ve<l and songbr 
after by mankind of every ctitiKi and nation, or by tlie 
Creator so lilglily graced as tliat innrow point of feelib- 
green^a blaile of grass. 

For H oral scenery our Pocalioutas forests, in the sea- 
s(Hi of wild flowers, are us enchanting iis fairy dreams. 
Tlic dogwood and the service blo<im.— Indian sign for 
planting corn, the Shawnee Flower, rivaling the mag- 
mdia of the far S..uth;tiie notable variety of honey- 


*"> HIsniKV OK I'tlCAllONrAS ((H NTV 

suckle bldiiiiiH, hu warmly rccomiiieiultsd bv anient ad- 
iiiircrH as most Kiiitablv for tlio Wost Virginia Ktato t'ni- 
lilviiiutiv flower; rliodadendniii and ivy, aluiig wltii so 
many euriouH flowering plants, open np vistas of miv- 
l>asKing lovolinuHH. 

Exdtic flowoti have been cnltivatcd with notable sue- 
ecus. TliiJ fii-st roHe gt^raiiiuni ever potted in our coun- 
ty was brought to Huntersville by Mins Margaret Ann 
t'raig, from Waynesboro, Va,, about the year 18+:-!. 
It rtoiirislie*! nieely, and she wan wry genemiis in giv- 
ing away the slips. She carried it on horseback, in 
lu'r hand, a tiny slip, clipped off with sciswoi-s, slit at 
the end and kept open by insei-tiug an out grain, wrap- 
ped in moistened j)aper. This wrapping was iiUJisto»e<I 
every few hours at some s]>riiig or bi-ook by the wny- 
rtide. during that journey of nearly a hundred inilee. 

Klowers are seemingly intended for the solace of hu- 
manity, of all age., classes, and cunditlons. Little 
children and quietly contented people love flowers as 
rhey hinom jji forestn, lawns, or gardens. Luxurious 
iiiul pleasure loving persons rejoice in Howers when 
gathered for some festive occasion. The flowers are 
the home-loviug rural cottagers treasure, while iu towns 
and villages a few flowers adorn as with scraps of rain- 
bow tbe windows of the toiling iiunates, in whose souls 
linger a longing for the covenanted place of Divine 
care, of which the lily and the rose are the emblems. 

Notwithstanding this general admiration for Howefs, 
the writer feels inclined to make this criticism at a 
venture, that were this apparent love of H<iwers 
thoroughly probed there are bnt few peojde, coniparu- 



tirely care abont flowers as flowers. Many iiiJeed arc 
fond of iindiDg a new sliape of blossom, thim caring 
for tbc aliape as tho little boys care for the kaleido- 
scope. Many may like a pi-etty display of flowers on 
the benches or in the pit, as tliey admire a fine service 
of silver or gold plate on the table. Many arc scien- 
tifically interested in flowers, though the interest of 
these scientists may bo in the nomeuclatnre rathen than 
the flowers themselves, and some enjoy tlicni as they 
grow in their gardens like radishes and peas. 

Being persuaded as I am that 1 shall have among 
uiy ruaders some young people who arc thoughtful, 
observing and inquiring in their character, 1 would 
write soinething about the stones that are so very plen- 
tiful in our county for their special consideration. 
t>hakcspcare, the foremost of all names in English lit- 
erature, speaks of a cast of intelligence or intellectual 
culture that enables one so cultivated to sec [lormons 
in stones and good in everything. There are but few, 
if any natural, objects from which more can be learned 
than from stones, as they seeui so well fitted to reward 
all patient, intelligent observers. As to other objects 
in creation nearly all can be seen to s(mie gratifying 
degree by the hasty impatient observer whose glances 
innst be transient, on the spur of the passing mo- 
ment or not at all. They have no patience with the 
objects unless they are pleasant in being hastily seen. 
Trees, clouds, cliffs and rivers are highly enjoyable 
even by careless observers in being, but the stones over 
which they walk have for the careless nothing in them 



but stuinbling^ and olijocts of offonac. No plcasuic i« 
]aiigiii<lly t<i be derived of the stones as from cliisterH 
on the viiiett or fniitH on tlie oversliadowiug boughs, 
iinpfttiont observers find nothing delicious to th^ir 
tastes or good of any kind in stonett. Even to the pa- 
tiently stitdiouB at first sight all that the stones seem 
good for is to symbolize the hard heart and unfather- 
ly gift referred to in our Turd's question. "Will a fath- 
er give his fanilshing son a stone in place of bread?" 

Bnt yet when somt' of my younger renders will do 
na T confidently anticipate they will, and give the 
stones their thoughtful reverent consideration they will 
to their pleasure find in stones more bread or food foi- 
thought than in any other lowly feature of all our in- 
reresting Pocahontas landscape. For a stone when du- 
ly examined will be found to be a mountain in minia- 
ture, as a sparkling drop of dew may be regarde<l as a 
miniature sun. The fineness of the Creator's work 
is 80 exquisite that in a single stone a foot or more in 
diameter nifty bo compressd as many changes 
of form and stnicture on a small scale as have been 
needed for mountains on a largojHcale. When moss is 
taken foi- forests, grains of chrstal for crags, the sur- 
face of a stone, in by far the most instances, is niori- 
pleasingly interesting than the surface of- an ordi- 
nary mountain by reason of inoj'O fantastic foi'ins and 
I'iclier colors. The moss does not conceal the form of 
the rock but gathers over it in little brown bundles like 
pin cusbions made by mixed threads of dark ruby silk 
and gold, rounded over more snbdued filniK of whitL'^ 
and gray, with lightly crisped and curled edges, liko 



niitiiiiin frost on fallen leaves, and minute cluHters of 
itpriglit orange stalks with pointed cape; and fibree (>f 
deep green, gold and faint purple passing into black, 
and following with unimaginable finent-as of gentle 
giowth the uudnlationH of the stone until the Htone itt 
so fidly charged with color it can receive no inoi'u. 
Then in place of looking rngged or cold or uterii or 
anything a rock is held to be at heart, the moss makes 
it appear clothed with a soft dark i-obe, embroidered 
with ai-abesqne of purple and silver. Though the moss 
be so meek in character, vet it was the lirst of Heav- 
ens mercies visible to onr earth, at the opening of the 
redemptive ages referred to elsewhere, veiling, as ' it 
did, with silent softness, the firat dintless rock. Moss 
is the most sigiiitic^nt emblem of pity for the ruined, 
covering as it did witli strange and tender honor the 
scarred disgrace of rnin, and laying quiet finger on the 
heaving, trembling stones to teach them rest, in which 
they now repose. Words have not been coined to ex- 
press really what the mosses are. No known wordw 
are delicate enough, perfect enough, or rich enough in 
tiieir diction and significance to express what should 
be totd of the rounded mosses of furred and radiant 
green, the starred divisions of rubied bloom, fine film- 
ed as is the spirit could spin porphyry, as glass is spun 
with seemingly magic skill. Where can the phrases 
bo found in oratory or poetry to describe propei-ly the 
traceries of intricate silver and fringes of amber, lus- 
trous, arborescent, bundshed through every fibre into 
fitful brightness and glory, traverses of silken change, 
yet all snbdin^il pensive, and framed for simplest offices 



i.f j<raci'f 111 duty. Tlic ihomhcs will not ],v ftiitlu-rcd. 
like tlie liowers. f»ir Mn_y Quihmi crowns, in- tokens of 
incipient love as tlio buds are, Imt of tlic riioMsoN tlit- 
wild birdH make tlieir iieHts, and wearied cliildreii 
tlieir pillow. Ah tlic oarth'w first mei-uy, s<) tlie inosnes 
lire tlie uai'tli's last gift to lier departed eliildren. 
When all other service is hopeless and vain from plant 
and tree, the soft moss and gray lichen take up their 
watch by the tcunbstoiie and the burial nu>nn<]. The 
woods, the flowers, the gift bearing grapes and cereals 
did tlioir offices for a time, but tln^ lichen itnd the moss 
.lo service f..rever. Trees for the builder's use. flowers 
for the bridal altar, cereals for tlie table, niossesfor the 



Wliat was writti)ii8 ill sectionn 1st, 2(1 and 3d witw i\v- 
Kigiifd t« iiiipreBB upon our minds soiiic'lliing like & Jawt 
conception uh to liow inturasting nnd instructive is tlic 
Ktory of th« l)ivin« providential leadings of our ancuf- 
trai people, that gnided tlivni to lioines in tli« primeval 
foi-ests. Moreover we endeavorwl to realize how im- 
pressively beautiful was and is the heavenly handiwork 
manifested in fashioning, locating, and adorning the 
"goodly land," wherein God htm perniittwl our lines 
to fall, and suffers us to hold as our pleasant heritage. 
What was written about the origin of our wonderful 
region was to illustrate what appeai-s to have been 
(iod's nietlHid of working in His nivsteiioiis way Hl^ 
Creative wonders to pei-form. In virtue of whicli He 
moves and works upon the scheme of a continuous pro- 
gressive change, according to certain laws and hv 
means of resident forces, and it is our matured. Btea<l- 
faHt opinion t.liat our Lord Jesus Christ, through the 
Eternal Spirit, is the Resident Force of the creative 
ages, ami of Christianity pure and simple the great 
fact characteristic of the redemjitive ages now in jiro- 



ct^ss of 111) folding. 

Oiit; of the wisest of rctiwiitly living tliiukcrs wvv 
liappilj reiimrks: "To live in the presence of great 
truths and eternal lovee, to Iw leil by permanent ideals, 
that is what keeps a iimn patient when the world ig- 
nores him, and calm and nnspoiled when the world 
praises him," 

One of tli« fort'niost statesmeii of the I'nitod States 
in onr day tiius defines American civilization to be 
that gradual amelioration of manners, and that ini- 
)irov«ment of the human race in character which in- 
creases the comforts and happiness of mankind. 

If we know onr own minds, it ever has been and 
still is our heart's desire and fervent prayer to give 
due heed to these Apostolic woi-ds: "Finally, brethren 
whatsoever things are true, lionest, just, pure, lovely, 
of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be 
any praise, think on these things." 

We would enjoy ourselves, and have all othors to 
participate with us in that mental culture and soul ele- 
vation imparted by the teachings of ancestral history, 
purity of morals, and material civilization in the best 
seuBe and highest practical benefits. 

Now in this fourth section and what may ftdlow, the 
paramount aim will be to urge ourselves to the dnty of 
remembering every day and every hour that w«?re it 
not for people, — men, women, and children, — there 
would not have been any materials for these sketches; 
and were it u)>t for people there would be none to read 
our story; none to occupy and appreciate whatever is 
good and charming in onr Pocahontas environment. 



Wliat tlie Honl is to the body, so art' tlio people to riiv 
country, and as the body without a pure soul becomes 
worse tliau umoIoss, an otfenMlve niiiHiinve, so doux h 
country wjthont people of the proper tone and eliarac- 
ter. Hence it is that after all the people ai-e the really 
important subject, whoso hiatory iw intriuMieally valuable 
for the purpose now iu hand. The kind of people that 
are wanted and for which so many of om- best citizens 
are so anxious to tind and choose for leaders, are de- 
scribed in these pathetically earnest lines: 

"God, give us men — a time like this dejuaniln 
Higli minds, great hearts, trne faith and ready hands; 
Men whom the lust of office does not fill; 
Men who possess opinions and a will; 
Men who have honor; nien who will not lie." 

"For as the body witliout the spirit is dead," so a 
county without a live people is dead als<i. The poet 
Dante centuries since uttered hi> aphorism that had it 
been duly heeded would have increased the happiness 
of our race immensely. It was to this purport, 
"Knowledge and wisdom thrive on well remembered 
facts."' In too many instances it is to be regretted 
that writers of history as well as interpreters of histor- 
ical writing have virtually assumed ^I'emiseu to deducts 
facts when in their avowed honesty of purpose hh truth 
seekers and teachers of men they should have first 
searched out the real facts and from ti'nthful facts form- 
ed their premises for the arguments setting forth their 
viows and teachings. Our aim was and we feel sure 
that we have succeeded in learning and dnly recoMing 



in sections previous siicli facts tliat if weli reniemboi- 
ed by oui- readers, tliey will be favored by tliriving on 
such knowledge and wixdoin as will be profitable to 
tbem all not only in tliia life, but in tbe life to come. 
In the light of the knowledge and wisdom eouglit to 
be impai-ted by those sketches, it is fondly hoped that 
our readers will be helped in whatever efforts tliey may 
be making to live clear of the sordid souless commer- 
cialism or selfishness that threatens to prevail over the 
earth like waters on the face of the great deep, and 
which is so rapidly becoming the spirit of the age, and 
according to inspiration has ever shown itself as the 
procuring cause of wars and rumors of wars. 

And here we would pause and take special notice of 
the boys of Pocahontas County and present some 
thoughts to this effect; It is believed that there are a 
good many who would make fine men, were they to go 
about it in the proper manner. Most of them have bad 
their muscles well developed by the tabors of the farm; 
many of them have been improved by attending school 
and pursuing their studies under more than ordinary 
diflBculties, and thus developed practical connuon 
sense. May it not he hoped, therefore, that all our 
youtlis will aim to make the best of their opportunities 
and become first class in whatever calling they may 
make their life's work. Diligence in business, ferven- 
cy in spirit, serving the Lord, will attain the highest 
success to be attained in the present state of existence 
and endeavor. Due respect for holy things is the be- 
ginning of highest wisdom, and good success have all 
they that cany out tbe directions given us by the Cre- 



ator. He knows wliat \» best for 119 to follow as a nilc 
of conduct, and in tlie end it will appear that tliottc aiv 
best off for tlie present and future life wIki do liiseoin- 

To help ourselves towards attaininji!; satisfactory view 
points, the following studies in applied history, ilhia- 
frating principles pertinent to our ancestral history, are 
submitted to the studious consideration of all pei-sons 
interested in our local history, The writer feels sure 
tJiat all readers who may give siich consideration to 
these studies will find their minds duly broadened and 
will he qualified to realize more correctly the impoi-t 
and significance of the "short and simple annals" of 
our pioneer aiieest^irs by perceiiing the ruling and 
guarding bund of God in the varied events of their lives. 
Though their minds influenced by their prnvidental sur- 
roundings may have devised and planned their wayw, 
yet it was the Lord that directed their steps and estab- 
lished their undertakings, and so, after all, the noblest 
study of living Pocahontas people is the study of the 
Pocahontas pioneer people who were used by the Di- 
vine Disposer of Events in shaping up affairs as we now 
happily or otherwise find them to be in our day and 
generation. And, nioveover, it will be a salutary les- 
son in morals to be reminded that as we are so depend- 
ant upon those gone before, even so those who may 
succeed us will either he grateful for our having lived, 
or may have nicniories bitter as the worm-wood and 
the gall, None can possibly live unto themselves, and 
while it may be a solemn thing to remember this and 
try to live rightly, "walk humbly, love mercy and act 



jiistiv," it iw II fiir iiioMf hoIviiiii tiling not to reinumbor 
tliiK aiid tlinrt l«nr(! iiRiii<!ti to Ik; ii'incnibored witii 
Kliainu and tuai-H. 

Tlie UB«« of ]iiHtorti;u) stiitly iimv bo vt?rv benefioial 
if judiciouHl)' }>ni-«iK-d. Its leading pui-pouL' Bliould bt^ 
to vnabli! t'a«h gcnoratiuii to bwnofit from the experience 
of tliOHe who have lived before tlieir times and thus ad- 
vance to higher lines of action, and have in view nobler 
aims, and thus he not tibliged to wtart afreah from 
puintH occupit'd by predeceasoin when th<\y eiitured on 
the duties iif their day and generation. To make real 
progresH it is better, if ptiHsihle, to begin wlutre thoBt; 
preceding iin have left otf, taking up the battle of lift; 
on the ground where they have fallen, and carry iin 
the struggle towards final vict^iry. 

Persons knowing but little of those gone before are 
very likely to care bnt little of those coming after them. 
To Hiicli, who are careless about liistorical research, 
life seems a mere chain of sand, while life ouglit to be 
a kind of electric chain, making our hearts throb and 
vibrate with the most ancient thoughts of tlu! past, as 
well as the most distant hopes of the futnre. The con- 
tinuity of history is something marvellous indeed. In 
virtue of this continuity it may be shown that there are 
many things that we owe to Babylon, Niuevah, Persia, 
hlgypt, and Phceniuia, 

Those who carry watches derive fi-om the Babylon- 
ians the division of the hour into sixty minutes. This 
arrangement may have its faults, yet such as it may be 
it comes down to modern citizens from the Greeks and 
the Romans, an<l they derived it from Babylon, The 



s(^xaget<Ima) diviaii)ii it MtrieHy UalnluiiiHii, About 
1511 B. C. HipparchuH k-aniod it in Babvloii, aiul 
about 150, A. D., Ftiilciny gavti tlii' wxagemiiml di- 
vision widnc eurrviicv. Tbeti in Huccoodiiig coiiturit'H 
tlie French, when applying tlu- ili'ciiiial Hyftcni to al- 
most everytliiiig else, n-spcctod tljo <lial platcw i>f our 
el(ick« and watdies and li't tluMii ictain tlicir i^ixty Bab- 
ylonian niinntc-H. 

Every person wlio buu ever written a letter is in- 
debted to tlie Romans and Greeks fof tlie alphabet. 
The Greeks reeeived tboir alpliabet from the I'lueni- 
ciana, and the Pl^fnicians leaiiieil theirs in Egypt. 
Students in Plioiietics all assert tliat onre is a very im- 
jKTfect alphabet, yet micli aw it lias been and may be 
now, we owe it to the old I*hieniciann and KgyptiuiM. 
In every letter wo trace with pi-n, pencil, or typewriter 
there lies iml>eilded an ancient Egyptian hieroglphie. 
Tiie letter A has the face of the sacred ox, which the 
Egyptians were ready to venenUe with Imitors 
altnoBt divine. 

As to what we may owe the Persianw; it may seem 
that it cotild not be very niiicli, as the I*ernians were 
not a very inventive people, anil the most of their 
vaunted wisdom they chiefly learned from their neigh- 
bors the Assyrians and Babylonians. Nevertheless we 
owe them sonictliing in a way tliey never intended. 
We ought to thank the INu-sianu from onr inmoMt hearts 
for allowing themselves to he defeated so disastronsly 
at the battle of Marathon, [t is enough to make one 
Mhiidder to consider what the world w<iuhl have come 
to had the Persians conquered the (ireeks and destroy- 



Oil tlmt wtiiidci'fHl piMjple. Bo far an we can soe from 
(■111- point of view, had tlie I'tTHiaiiw been vittorious at 
Marntlioii, Givt'ka. Koiiiaiif, Baxon^, Aii^lo-Saxoiiis, 
1111(1 Aiiici-icuii peo])lt' would Iia\'e been ParseoH; or Fire 

Aiiotlifr thing to he reiiieinhercil that we owe to the 
I'ersianH is the relation or ratio of silver to gold in our 
hiinetallie eiirreney. Tliis relation was, no doubt, first 
arranged in Bahvhniia, as the talent was divided into 
xixty niina, and the niina into aixty ^hekelR, tlie »cxa- 
gesimal Hycteni being applied to money as well as time. 
This system may owe its popularity to the fact that 
sixty has nn>re divisors than most other numbers. This 
bimetallic arrangement of IS to 1 assumed its practical 
and historical importance in Persian financial affairs, 
and spread from tlieiu to the Greek colonies in Asia, 
aii<l from there to America, where it lias maintained 
itself with slight variations down to the recent past. 

We liavu seen how closely the world is held together 
by tlie continuity of history, and how, for good or foi' 
evil, we are what we are — not so much by ourselves — 
as by the toil, the sufferings, the conflicts, the charac- 
ter, anil the achievements of those who came before us. 
I >ur true intellectual ancestors, whatever the blood may 
have been composeii of that coursed their veins, tr the 
bones that formed their skulls. Philosophers assure 
us that tlie law of gravitation that onlers and governs 
the course of the planetary worlds in their vast and 
tireless journeys through the illimitable realms of space, 
likewise govi^rns the destiny of the smallest grain of 
p;and on the seashore as effectively as if it were tlit.-. 


iinlj one. Si), in a wime. tlio cuiitiiiiiity of liisKirv 
ivaclies t!i(! destiny of eitipiros, hut Iluh itw iiirtiicncf on 
tiK! individual as w«Il. Hwiw It slu.idd U- the desiiv 
of every one to know wnnetliing of tlic past, iiiid by 
the knowledge thus gained, cunfttriR" tlie duties nf the 
present and act fur the well lacing of the fiitiKe, 

In reference to our ancestorH, it may ln' inqiiirttd why 
did they come heit<J What were the impelling motives 
explaining their leaving the old world and seeking 
homes in the ))athleKS regions of the western or new 
world; Their lot for contnries was assigiieil to tlmse 
sections of the earth in northern Europe, and Hiibsc- 
ipiently northern America, whose climates are of siieh 
a character that the seasons sncct^HKl each other in a 
manner as requires constant effort for existence. In 
such latitudes life is and always must he a struggle 
more or less arduous. There seems to he something iu 
the air that makes the peojde who hi-eatlic it feel there 
is no time for rest. There must hv always a toiling and 
a bnilding up of ones own happiness out of the mate- 
rials possessed by their neighl)ors, for their own pei- 
sonat self interest. Even when homes aiv as couifert- 
able as can be made, with all the available applianees 
of civilization, it is a question whether such persons 
have more real enjoyment in life tlmn the sons of llii' 
forest had in their wigwams or tepees on the vales of 

Owing to climatic influences, life with our ancestors 
was a hard, continuous struggle for mere existence, 
and hence the accumulation of wealth became a neccsi- 
ty, to provide for the uneertainties of old age, or the 


ri-(iiiiiviin-iitM jjfciiliar to tlioir i':orn}>l(;x Hueial relatioiiH. 
Tilt! Eiin)}H!aii cliinat*! witli ita long, cold, and dreary 
wiiiture in many loealitii^M, tlie <lifficidti<-s uf ciiltivatiiig 
tht' laiitl, tlio cnnrtietjng intort'ntB between rival com- 
nuinitioH, (ifvclopcd ttif instiuut uf self preservation to 
Kiicli an t'xtout that most ot llie virtuow and nmnv of 
vici'H uf European people can be traced back to clinin- 
tic caiiseH, Tbe character we inherit was formed under 
tlie influences mentioned, and si) by inheritance, by ed- 
ucation, and by ueceMsity we lu-e wliat we an\ in largo 

The life of our aucestorn in Eiinipc and America was 
a fighting life; hence our higliest ideal of life is a Hfo 
of jiction and endeavor. Hence our people work until 
they can work no longer, and ai-e proud to die with 
the axe or plow handles lu their hands, thus choosing 
i-atliei' to weai' out than rust out. 

Nothing interests what we term the bettor and more 
respoctablo and pnisperons element of our popnlatinn 
than tho history of what they or their ancostorii have 
accomplished by diligence iu business in roanng homes 
starting business enterprises, or in improving our com- 
utonwealth. As the result of this i-ostless character- 
istic, unaatisfying accumulation of earthly poasessioiiN, 
conveniences, and accomplislmients, it comes almost 
naturally to imagine that human life is made pei-feot 
thoi-eby, and in many instances so attractive that per- 
sons have twen known to be sorry to leave what has 
been gatln;red together by their energy and self saeii- 

Then, by way of contrast, let the subject in hand bo 


HISTtlKY ItF l'l>CAH<INIAi' cm'NTV 1».) 

coiisiden^ from aiiutlitir puiiit of vii-w. A hraiicli »( 
tlio Teutonic race found lioiiies in a far different clitna- 
tie latitude, and as life conies eaBV it goeM easy. I'n- 
der such influonceH the people ai-e never tirwl of Mpeak- 
ing of life afl a joiiriiev from one village to another, 
not as a home or i-esting place pernianenfly. Hence 
we find tlieni morali/iug in thin vein: "As a man jour- 
neying to another village may enjoy a night's i-est in 
the open air, but after leaving snch a it'stiiig phtce forii 
night proceeds on his journey the next day; tliui* father 
and mother, wife and wealtli are all but a night's rest 
to lis; so wise people do not cling to them forever." 

In one part of tlie world whence our ancestors came 
climate impresses the idea that manly vigor, silent en- 
durance, public spirit and d<mjewtic virtues ill nstrate iin 
important feature of the destiny or mission hunianity 
has to fulfil on earth. In another part of the world 
whence many Americans trace their ancestry, the geni- 
al skies, balmy breezes and flowery vales illustrate or 
impress the idea that another phase of hmiiiin nature, 
the passive, the meditative and retlectively seiitiinentat 
that prompts people to look upward and ontward to 
something not themselves. Thus time is had to iii<]uiri! 
whether something conld be understood of true signifi- 
cance of the mystery we speak of as life on earth. 

The lines have fallen to ns in places highly conduc- 
ive to the development of Ixith phases of human char- 
acter, and if this article would so impivss the readers 
they would greatly conduce to the c<inteiititient and 
stimulate to making th' best of available opportu- 
iiities to acquire active, energetic, resolute and actpiisi- 



tivc ImbitH <if living, along witli due nttfiition to wliat- 
(n(j|- pi-oinotew meditative patient, «eri«uHly thouglitfii! 
viewH of matters pertaining to tlio higher needs of in- 
tellect and spirit. This piacen within our reach the 
poHwibility of presenting to the world noble examples of . 
all aroand humanity witli sound bodies and sound 

in reference to tlie ancestry of our people it may be 
inferred that our citizeuBliip is of a composite charac- 
ter, (jerman, English, Irish, Scotch, and French, 

Sach names as these, Liglitncr, Harper, Veager, Ar- 
hogast, Ilerold, Ilalterman, Burr, Slple, Sheets, Caso- 
liolt, Shrader, Burner, Sydeustricker, Varnor, Heven- 
er, Caekley, Uuiriin, Ovorholt, indicate (iernian de- 

Moore, Gillispie, McOarty, McLaughlin, ('ochrau, 
Waugh, Hogsett, McNeel, Kerr, Lockrldge, Dren- 
nan, Gay, McCollani, McCoy, Beard, Baxter, Slaven, 
Hannah, Hill, Kincaid, Irvine, McElwee, Wallace, 
t)urry, Hamilton, Sharp, Friel, MeCuteheon, imply 
Scotch-lrish or English-Irish ancestry, 

Warwick, Matthews, lienick, Clark, Gibson, John- 
sou, Galford, Buckley, Keimison, Adkison, Barlow, 
Gatewood, Jackson, Brown, Wooddell, Hull, (!ooper, 
IJuffield, Auldridge, Duncan, Bealo, Sutton, Callison, 
indicate English anteuedants. 

Maupin, Ligon, Dover, Tacoy, l^illey, Bussard, 
and Large are of French extraction. 

I'oage, Pvitchard, Price, Ruckmnn denote Welch 

Kee, Doyle, Kelley, Loury, ('loonan. Scales, Korke, 



leave iis in no doubt that tlie Emerald Isle is their 

These representatives of nationalties have blended 
and affiliated so that the characteristics of each fused, 
and the outcome is a composite citizenship, versatile in 
their tastes and aptitudes, fitted for a destiny in har- 
mony with the progressive tendencies of that eventful 
period, the wonderful 19th century. 

It is noticeable that the predominating element, as to 
numbers, trace their ancestry to tlie nortli of Ireland, 
and are either Scotch Irish or English Irish, This is 
eKplained in this manner. 

About 1611 there was a district in Ireland that was 
largely depopulated by forfeiture of lands when O'Neil 
of Tyroune was defeated. Puritans from England and 
Reformers from Scotland were induced to occupy the 
abandoned property. These persons in turn liad to 
seek elsewheie a refuge from oppression when then? 
came a change in Irish affairs. Having been Scotch 
or English people living for a time in Ireland, they /V*-y'-; iS f- 
were called Scotch-Irish. In common usage the term 
is applied to both English and Scotch, as the Scotch 
seem to have largely predominated. 

About the time when on the lookout for a refuge, tlie 
Virginians wanted a living wall for protection against 
Indian raids from bej'ond the Blue Ridge. Now when 
it became known that Germans, Scotch-Irish, and 
French Hugenots were willing to settle on the frontier: 
liberal concessions were made by the Virginia colonial 
authorities, and it was not many years — ^1732 to 175(i 
— a line of settlements were formed, and the desired 



living fortifications provided for. Therefore in tli« 
eouree of fifteen or twenty years subwequently to 17i(», 
tlie more inviting sections of the counties of Monroe, 
Greenbrier, and Pocaljontas were wettled by a goodly 
number of enterprising families of the same type of 
people, inured to hardships and familiar with priva- 
tions. These people had au experience of life along 
tlie frontier with its perilous emergencies for a period 
of thirty or more yeara of dangei- that developed strong 
elements of ctiaracter along with a goodly (legiee of 
intellectual vigor. These people placed the highest 
value on education, and tliough their advantages were 
limited, they made the very best of their opportunities. 

The Scotcli-Irish trend of religions belief gives a 
high tone to the human intellect and awakens the 
highest aspirations of man's spirit nature; thus these 
early settlers had by inheritance the highest religious 
standard and the highest civilization of their times. 

All history teaches, more or less plainly, that God 
has established His worship and the ordinances of tho 
kingdom that is coming, to sustain and nourish the re- 
ligious and intellectual life of His people. Now when- 
ever these are wanting or neglected, the religious or 
higher life becomes feeble. While, therefore, the pi- 
oneers of this region came from such an ancesti'y as 
has been described, with such inherited proclivities, it 
should not be considered strange the temptations of 
frontier life and the comparative destitution or neglect 
of religious ordinances resulted in much irreligion, anti 
consequent immorality. For all experience and ob- 
servation go to show that when people of gooi\ parent- 



age and of favorable opportunities do fall, they fall 
heavy and far. When people go back on their God, 
there is nothing botwoun them and the iiorrible pit and 
rnirey clay of sanaiiality, and of every hateful and hurt- 
ful propensity. 

Nevertheless be it remembered to their never to be 
forgotten praise thei-o were persons among om- ancest- 
ors whose piety was as pure gold refined, and many 
homes were reared whore genuine godliness was main- 
tained. Many of these settlers endeavored to eherisli 
the traditions of their covenanting ancestors, and of 
the martyrs whose blood stained many a beautiful vah^ 
iu Scotland, and thus tried to live as worthy sons and 
daughters of an ancestry so woi-thy. 

Now putting all that has appeared in these articles 
on applied history in review, we may learn something 
of the motives that impelled our ancestors to select 
their homes iu this region. 

They possessed an energetic spirit that prompted 
them to desire a place where they could acquire a com- 
petency of earthly goods, so needful in times of disabil- 
ity, and for the decrepitude of advancing yoai-s. These 
people came among the mountains seeking refuge from 
civil and religious wrongs, and have a sanctuary where 
God could be worsldpped, none daring to molest or 
make them afraid. They feit it a duty to provide for 
their households, and hvn'. land was to be hud in good- 
ly portions and ^uiticient to locate sons and danghters 
near the parental Iwme, so ardent were their family 

These reflections on applied history are now submit- 

17''00 ' M,..„.,.Googlc 


rt^d to our reatlera for tlioir consideration, to bediscues- 
od in any way most in harmony witli their opinions. 
Tlie writer's ambition is that hU people aliould have ii 
history, and a fnture likewise, that may be worthy of 
praise and emulation. 

"Hliould critics say my work is bati, 
I won't indulge in wai! or woe. 
I'll simply smile and go my way 
And say the eritiea do not know. 

"But shonld they pat me on tlie back. 

And say they think my work immense 
I'll take a msier view of life 

To think they show such rare good sense," 

Affairs having so far progressed, the formation of a 
new county was mooted and due arrangeiaents made. 
A resolution to that effect was passed by the Virginia 
Legislature, March, 1821, Thomas Mann Randolph 
was the Governor who signed the bill, and being a de- 
scendant of Pocahontas, "the virgin qneen of a virgin 
world," as General Skeene used to spt^ak of her, thin 
may have had something to do with the name selected 
for the county. 

One of the most memorable days in the social and 
civil history of Pocahontas County was the 5th day of 
March, 1822, when the first court was held at the resi- 
dence of John Bradshaw. at Huntersville, a log tene- 
ment that stood where the Lightner House now stands. 

John Jordan, William Poage, James Tallmau, Rob- 
ert Gay, John Baxter, George Burner, and Benjaniin 
Tallman were present and handed in their conniiissionH 



iiM Justices of tlie Peace, signed by Goverimr Rmitlolph. 

Colonel John Baxter ad ni mistered the oatfi of oflSce. 
each member qualifying four times, in virtue of which 
multiplied qualiiicatiou the membei'S of the new court 
were aolemuly obligated to the faithful pisrforniance of 
official duties; fidelity to the <"omniOD wealth of Virgin- 
ia; support the national Coustitution; and oppose duel- 
ing. William Poage, Jr., then administered the four 
prescribed oaths to Colonel John Baxter, and the pn>- 
clamation was made that the court was duly open- for 

John Jordan was sworn in as High SheritT, giving 
bond for ¥30,000, with Abram and Isaac McNeel an 
ttureties or bondsmen. Josiah Beard was appointed 
Clerk, with Thomas Board, Geoigc Poage and James 
Tallman bondsmen, on a bond for $3,000. Johnson 
Reynolds, of Lewisburg, qualitied as Attorney for the 
Commonwealth. Sampson L. Mathews was recom- 
mended for appointment as Surveyor of Lands. Wil- 
liam Hughes was appointed Constable for the Levels 
District, with William McKeel and Robert McClintoek 
lis sureties in a Iwind of $500. James Cooper was aj)- 
pointed Constable for the Head of Greenbrier, with 
William Slaven and Samuel Hogsett as bondsmen. 

These pi-oceedings occupied the first day, and court 
ndjourned until 10 a. in. the following morning. 

When (Jourt convened March ff, 18^^, nil wen- 
present except Robert (Jay. John Jordan, thi^ High 
Sheriff, moved the Court that his son Joiiuthun Jordan 
he appointed Deputy Sheriff. The motion prevHiled, 
granting the rnpiest, whereii)Kin the four oiiths, as al- 



ready deHCnbed, were duly adiiiiiiiRtored by tlie Clerk. 

James Oallisoii, William Edniliison, Jobn Hill, 
John Cochran, Alexander Waddell, Joliii McNeill 
("Little John"), Robert Moore, Martin Dilley, Benja- 
min Arbogast, William Sharp, William Hartman, and 
Joseph Wolfenberger were appointed overseers of 
various roads, completed and prospective, in the county, 

Robert Gay — still out of court — was appointed Com- 
inissiouer of the Revenue. When informed of this ap- 
pointment he appeared in court and gave bond in ¥100(t 
with William Caekloy and John Baxter siireties, where- 
upon he was duly qualified. 

Attorneys Cyrus Curry from Lexington, Rockbridge 
('ounty, and Johnston Reynolds, from Lewisburg, 
<Treenbricr County, were licensed to practice law as 
the first two members of the Pocahontas Bar. 

The next husinesa transacted at this historic term of 
the court appears to have been tlie organization of the 
127tb Regiment of the State militia as a part of Vir- 
ginia military establishment. The folowiug citizeiiK 
were nominated as "lit and proper" to fill the requisite 
oiJices, and the (roveriior and (vouiicil were requested 
to issue commissions to tliem: John Baxter, Colonel; 
Benjamin Tallman, Lieutenant-Colonel; William Blair, 
Major; Boone Tallman, William Arbogast, Henry 
Ilerold, Isaac Moore, and Milburn Hugea, Captains: 
Andrew 0. Mathews, Robert Warwick, William Mor- 
gan, William Young, and James Rhea, Lieutenants; 
Jacob Slaven, James Wanless, Samuel Young, James 
Callison, Ensigns. 

Mr Abrani McNeel was recomniendtil to the (iov- 



crnor for Coroner. 

Travis W. Perkius waa granted liceiiHO to upon u 

Tlius organized, rocaliontas took lior place among 
the counties of Virginia, and Hiintorsville was desig- 
uatcd for the County Seat. A location near (ieorge 
Baxter's present residence, in the vicinity of what ir' 
now Edray, had been selected by a committee on loca- 
tion and reported on favorably as the place for the per- 
manent location of the ('ouuty Seat. Inducements by 
John Bradshaw were so enticing and favorable, and 
the people at the head of Greenbrier so anxious on the 
subject, that Hnntersville prevailed, and the report of 
the committee on location was overruled. 

In 1800 the population of the region coterminous 
with the present limits of I'ocahoiitas (!ounty lunonnt- 
ed to about one hundred and fifty-three pers<inH, and 
were for the most part members of the iirst families 
that had permanent Ii<;itiesteads, whose lieads wei-e 
John McNeel, Thomas McNeill, Moses Moore, Peter 
Liglitner, Henry Harper, John Moore, Felix (Jrimes. 
Samuel Waugh, James Waiigh, Aaron Moore, liobert 
Moore, Timothy McCarty, Robert Guy, Jeremiah 
Friel, Jacob Warwick, John Slaven, John Warwick. 
Sampson Mathews, Josiah Brown, John Sharp, Wil- 
liam Sharp, William Poage, John Baxter, Levi Mooiti. 
and John Bradshaw, 

From the census returns it appears that in iH'M) the 
jwpulation of the county was 2,54^; in 18+", 2,i*'22: 
in 1850, 3,5yS: in liS6U, 3,!)5S; in 18T0, 4.0IHI; in 
1880, 5,581; in 1890, (>,818. in lili.Ki, 8,57:i. 



According to these official returns, the [lopulation of 
tlie county has increased fmm2542 in 1830, to 8572 in 
lyoo. The percentage of grawth about 70. 

From 1830 to 1860, the period before the war be- 
tween the States, the percentage of gain was about 35. 
From 1800 to 1900 the percentage of gain was about 
fiS. From 1890 to 1900, the gain was 20 per cent, 
and was larger than any previous decade, and readily 
jiccounted for. 

The smallest rate of gain was between 1800 and 
iS70, about 2 per cent. In tliie decade the war oc- 
curred. The next less rate of gain was betwetin 1850 
and 1860 — aboiit H per cent. This indicates that just 
previoHB- to the war the county was about ready to pro- 
gress backwards, such was the disposition of people to 
look for homes in the far West, and the western coun- 
ties of the State. 



The first persons of Englioli or Scotfh-Iriwli aiitccfd- 
onts to spend a winter in what it* now Focaltontatt 
(,'ounty, were Mai-liu and Sewall. Tliin was the winter 
of 1750-51. Tlieir camp was in tlie delta forini-d bv 
Martin Run and a siouj<h or drain near tlie east Imnk 
of Knapp's Creek, 

III the course of time — having agreed to disugi-ee — 
tliey separated and wore found living apart, hjCohmel 
Andrew Lewis, Marlin in the cabin and Sewall in a 
iiollow tree, I'pon expressing hiM surprise at this way 
of living apart, distant from the habitation of <itlier liu- 
nian bolngB, Sewall told him thoy differed inMentimentx 
and since the separation there was more trani|uility, or 
a better nndcrstandiiig, for now they were ujmn sjieak- 
ing terms, and upini oacli morning "it was good morn- 
ing, Mr Marlin, and '(iood morning, Mr Sewall!' "' 

Under the new arrangement, Sewall crossed the 
nlough, and instead of building another cabin, went 
into a hollow sycamore tree on the west margin of the 
slough, quite near where the hoanl walk now crosses, 
and- about in line with a walnut tree now standing <>n 



thf uast bank <jf tlie drain aiid tliu court house. 

The lower part of tliia tree bore a Htrikiug reseiii- 
blance to a teaiiing Indian tepw. The cavity' could 
rtholter five or six persona, and the writer has been 
often in it for sliade or for shelter from i-ain i>r heat. 

At tlie top of the cone, some eight or ten feet from 
tlio gromtd, the tree was not more than twenty inches 
in diameter, and at that height waH chopped off about 
the year 1839, to avoid shading the crops. Thus the, 
stump wa» left, a great convenience for shade or shel- 
ter, until it disappeared during the War, being proba- 
bly iiBe<l for a camp fir«. 

These persons differed, Sewall told Colonel Lewis, 
about their "relagian." Theirs is a traditional hinf 
that "immersion" was the theme of contention. But 
it is more than probable that one was a coufoniiist and 
the other a non-conformist to the thirty-nine ai'ticles of 
the English rubric. This is known to have been a very 
live question of those times, both before and after. 

This new arrangement did not last long, and Sewall 
in search of less molestation about his religion, with- 
drew about eight miles to a cave at the liead of Sewell 
Run, near Marvin. Thence he went forty niiiea farthei- 
on to Sewell Creek, west Greenbrier, and was found 
and slain by Indians. How impressively this illustrates 
the evils of religious controversy, s<i called. 

"Against her foes i-eligion well defends. 
Her aacre'l truths, but often fears her friends. 
If learned, their pride: if weak their zeal she di-eads 
And their heart's weakness who have soundest 



But most slio fcai-w tlio contn^vtu'wial pen, 
Tlie holy strifo of disputatious men, 
Who tlie bleat Gospel's peaeofiil pago Rxplorf, 
Only to fight against its precepts more." 

It is moreover iuttsresting in this coitiieetion to re- 
call the fact that on the banks of Marlin'a Kiin is the 
imrial pTacc of a little ehitd that was dasliecl to death 
hy an Indian warrior in 17(J5, when overtaken by a 
party of Bath and Rookbridgo men, seeking to rescue 
Mrs Mayse, Iier son Jqseph, an niimariied woman with 
an infant in her arms, a Mr Mct'lenaehaii, and some 
other captives. This burial place is a few rods diagon- 
ally from the east angle of Vriah Bird's harn on the 
margin of the rivulet. The Infant corpse was buried 
at the foot of the tree wlnTe it had been foun<l a few 
minutes after its death. The burial took place just a 
few hoars later, before the pursuers set out on their iv- 
turn. The grave was dug with liunting knives, hatch- 
ets, and naked fingers. The little body laid in its 
place very tenderly, and the grave partly filled with 
earth. The covering of the grave was completed with 
rather heavy stones, to prevent foxes or other animals 
from getting at the remains. 

Tbne died and was buried the first white child known 
to history west of the Alleghany Mountains. 

Joseph Mayse, lit yeai's old, was ri'Sciietl at that 
same time, somewhere between tlie Island and tlie 
mouth of Indian Draft. In 1774 lie fought in tlie bat- 
tle of Point Pleasant, where he was wounded, itnd 
after suffering from the injury fur forty-six yeai's, his 


k'ff was aiiipLitaU^d, He recovered, anil livnd a duiil- 
lierof years tlieroftf til r, a busy man of atfaiPH. He iJumI 
"stireiiu and calm," April. 1841), in tlie KKtli year of 
his age. 

[n tlie Kicbmond Dispatcli, April 14, IWOl, It is 
stated tlmt the kBt mirvivctr of the I'uiiit PleaHant vet- 
erans was Ellifi Huglies, wlio passed away atUtica, (>. , 
in 1840, (iver ninety years of age. In early inanho(Hl 
lie may have live<l in the Lower Levels of our county. 
Now if it was known what month Hiiges died in, it 
could be decided wh<i was the last one of the veterans 
to bivouac in those "silent tents'" that (Hory "guanls 
with solemn round."" 


Moses Moore, the progenit()r of the largest I'eiation- 
ship of the name in the county, came from what is now 
Timber Ridge, Kockbridgc County, Virginia. About 
n*H) he was married to a Mistt Elliot, a member of an- 
other Timber Ridge family. Their children were John 
horn January 211, 17e2; James, born October ij, I7fi3: 
Margaret, born March 29, 17t>5; Moses, Jr., born Feb- 
ruary (S. 176Et; Hannah, born June tJ, 1771; Robert, 
born May 27. 1772: Phebe, born P'ebruary IS, 1774; 
William, Ixirn September 18, 1784, 

At the time of tlie Orennan raid, when Jairies Bakei- 
iin<l the Bridg^'r boys wei-e killed, Mosos Moore was 
living on Swago. in sight of what is now the McClintic 
homestead. Phebe, his youngest daughter, remember- 
ed Ik.w the family refugeed to the foil at Mill Point. 
and while the l>renanns and Moores and >ithers were 



passing aioiind tlif end of tlu^ tiiountaiii tlioy hoard tlic 
firing at tlio Bridger Notch, wliyn tlio boys were killod. 
This would niakt? it 17S6 wlien .laincs Kakcr. the- first 
Nchool toachor in Pocahontas, was kitlod. 

During the first yoars of his pioiioor life in our re- 
gion, he spent mucli of his time liunting and trapping 
along Back Allegliany, upper (ireenbrier Kiver, and 
Clover Ijick vicinity. He was a close ohserver <.f In- 
dian movi;nients, and would make a careful search for 
Indian signs before resuming operations as the hunting 
seasons returned. The usual place for the In<lianM to 
cross the G reenhrier, in the hunting gmumls mention- 
ed, was at a passage narrow enough for them tn vault 
<iver with a long pole. lie woidd take notice accord- 
ingly which side of the river the v»ulting-]iole would 
he on, and' act acconlingly. Finnally the Indian^ 
seemed to have found out his strategy, and thereupim 
vaulted the narrow passage and cnnningly threw the 
jiole back to the other side. 

This threw the hunter off his guard. It whs Satnr- 
urday; he set his traps, lo<iked after the deer signs, and 
arranged his camp. The venerable William Collins, 
yet living (1901), is sure that the eanqilng sjxit was i>n 
what is now tlio Charley Collins place, »ni the (Jreen- 
hrier above the Cassell fonling, at a iilace near Tub 
Mill where ho was captnrt^d by the wily Indians. 

It was the hunter's purpose to pass the Sabbath at 
his eamp in quiot repose and devotiimal reading of the 
Hible he carried alKiiit witli hiin for conijiany. He ha<l 
put a fat turkey to roast about daylight, and was re- 
<:lining on a boar skin reading a lesson from the Word. 


Ill) IIISTOKV ilK rwAHllNTAS (;ol'NTV 

[jri'iiaiatory to a hijhboh of iiu-ditatioii and prayer be- 
foi'G brcakfaHt, a liabit mo cliaratitci-istic of the Hcotch- 
Irisli at tbat ptjriod. H« wiic iiitcriuptLHl by the break- 
ing of a stick, and upon looking iutfiitly and steadily 
in the direction whence the Moiind seemed to liavccome 
he saw tive or six warriors aiming tlieir guns and mov- 
ing cautiously upon him. 

Seeing there was no chance to escape, heniniod in 
lis he was, he threw up his handu and made _ eigns for 
them to come to hiin. He ()ut tlie turkey before them 
and made Kigns for thein t*) eat. By gestures and gut- 
teral gruntings tliey gave him to understand that they 
would not toucli it unless lie would eat some first. He 
did 90, and thereupon they devoured it ravenously, and 
it waH no time that scarcely a fragment remained, even 
. of tlie boneH. 

Bi.ion as bi-eakfast was ovci-, tln'y started fitr their 
home in Ohio. Having passed but a few miles, they 
halted at what the picmei-rs afterwards called the Mos- 
ey Spring. Tlie spring — tme of the inimt copious and 
beautiful of its kiml — is near the residence of the late 
David McJ^anghiin, four or five miles up the Back Al- 
leghany road from Driftwcjod. The jirisoner was se- 
curely bound with buffalo tliniigw and pinioned to the 
ground. A detachment went off in the direction of 
Driftwood, and were abnent two or three hours. When 
the party returned they were loaded down with ore. 
This was carried to a place, wliefe another halt was 
made and the ore was smelted and retluced in weight, 
so that one could carry what had re(|uire(i two to bring 
in afi raw jnaterial. 



The prisoiKT was taken as far as Cliilacutlii' and tlic 
Indiaoa st'einccl to havtt hvvu greatly clatwl over tlicir 
capture. So much bo that an a «]H'cia! coiiipliniont to 
tlieir lady friends it was decided in siileinn ciinncil of 
inquiry what to do with the prisoner, tliat the captive 
should run the gauntlet. Tlie Indians seem to have 
knywu of nothing so intensely aniUNing than rnuiiing 
the gauntlet, and of uo compliment more flattering to 
their favorite lady friendR than Imvo fhom to form the 
gauntlet lines, and leavt^ it to them to torment the 
captive. Accordingly two lines of sfjuaws were drawn 
up about six or eight feot apart. One captive had pre- 
ceded Moore, who was stabbed, bruised and backed to 
pieces. This made him think it was only death any 
way. He entered the line and passed Home distance, 
finally a squaw with a long handled frying pan cturck 
biiii. He wrenched the pan from her and knocked 
her down witli his fist and then striking left and right 
with the handle of the frying pan, he proceeded along 
the linos, and many of tlic <,tlier squaws ran away. 
When Moore liad scattered them, the warriors cr<iwded 
around him, patted and praised biin, "good soldier," 
"good soldier,"' and decided that he sliould he allowed 
to live. By degrees be secured the eonlidcnee of his 
captors. In hunting be was very successful and the \n- 
<lian who was his keei)er would give him airnnuiiition, a 
part of which he would secret. The supply of amiuu- 
nition was gradually increased, and the time given him 
t<) be absent was extended two or three days. With 
tliis increase of rations of powder and bullets ami ex- 
tension of ti'ri!', he ventured to make escui>e, and got a 



start so far uhimd that tlie Imiiiuis could wn-- no hope- 
ful eiiiiiict! o£ recapturing li'mi. 

It in nothing but just to rciuavk Mohcs Moore in one 
of th(! pionetirs of thin county who will be among thosf 
longest rwinembeiod in the future hy those interested in 
our pioneer literiiture. Moses Moore's deseendantM 
have probably cleared more lauil tl»an any one fami- 
ly connexion; some of them have been and are promi- 
nent in public affairs. Tlie following particulnra were 
mainly furnished by the venerable Andrew Washington 
Moore, one of his grandsons, now (11)01) in the SSni 
year of his age, residing on Knapps ('["eek and occupy- 
ing a part of the old ancestral homestead, 

Alxjiit 177(1 Moses Moore settled on Knapps Creek, 
known at that period as Ewing's Creek, and so named 
in some of the old land pai>ers. Traces of the original 
cabin reniaine<l for years in the meadow iieai- the old 
orchard contiguous to Washington Moore's preseiitres- 
idence. The tract of land piircliased by Moses Moore 
from one Mr Ewing, for tlie consideration of two steel- 
traps and two pounds of English sterling, extended 
from Andrew Ilorold's to Dennis Dever's gate by the 
roadside below the Francis Dever lioniestead. BesidcM 
other iniprovenients, Mr Moore built a mill on Mill 
Run, ipiarter of a luile from Isaac Brown Moore'a. 

The !>aiighters of Moses Moore. 

Margaret Moore, remeiubered as a \ei'y estimable 
person, married John Moore, a native of Pennsylvania, 
im<l they lived where David Moore iiow resides. Her 
daughter Ilanuah was married to Martin Dilley, Ks<|,, 



and lived where Mrs Martha IMlIey, relict of the late 
Andrew Dilley, now lives. 

Her eon, William Moore, married Miss Calahan, of 
Bath County, and settled where Jefferson Miwre, her 
grandson, now lives, whose wife was a Miss Grimes, 

Margaret Moore's son, James 0. Moore, married 
Miss Nottingham, and lived on land occupied by his 
widow and son 'William. This excellent man was a 
Confederate soldier and died in battle near New Hope, 
Augusta County, Va,, June 1864. 

Another of Margaret's sons, John by name, married 
a Miss Hannah, of Elk, daughter of Dr John Haniiali, 
ancestor of the Pocahontas Hannalis, and lived on the 
home place, now held by David Moore. A grandson, 
Joseph Moore, lives between Frost and Glade Hill. 
Near his residence the spot is pointed out where Rev 
Henry Arbogast was slain during fhe Civil War. 

Hannah Moore, daughter of Moses, was manned to 
Abram Duffield, on Stony Creek, the ancestor of the 
Pocahontas JJuflields. 

Fhebe Moore, another daughter, became Mrs Jona- 
than McNeill on Swago. She was a person highly es- 
teemed for her piety, sound sense, and business energy. 
For yeart she attended the mill, one of the best of its 
kind at that time, — iu the twenties and thirties. Some- 
times that mill would have to run day and night, t() 
supply the custom and avoid grinding on the Sabbath 
day. There used to be a saying that "an honest miller 
has hair on the palm of his right hand." Were this n 
fact, Aunt Phebe's right liand would have been more 
hairv than Esau^s would have been. 



There wBs a Rebecca Mooro, who was niariied to 8 
Mr Cole, and lived in Rockbridge. 

The Sons of Moses Moore. 

Robert married a Miss McCoilam and lived at Edray 
where William Sharp now lives. Rev Geo. P. Moore 
is a great gi-andson of Moses Moore, also Samuel B. 
Moore, both resicleiits of Edray. 

Aaron Moore lived on the Greenbrier, three or four 
miles above Marlintou. His wife was Catlierine John- 
son, daughter of John Johnson, who lived on the 
Jorieho Place, a mile north of Mailinton, Chartos L, 
Mooi-c, on Brown's Creek, and Jacob S. Mooit*, on 
Elk, are great-grandsons of Moses Moore, the pioneer, 

Moses Moore, Jr., emigrated to Kentucky. 

William Moore married Christina Dods, of Rock- 
bridge County, and lived on Stony Creek on tlie place 
now occupied by the family of the lato Dr Page Carter, 

Their daughter, Margaret, became the wife of the 
lato Colonel John W. Ruekman of Mill Point, 

Another danghtor, Jennie, was married to Captain 
William D. Hefner, who died in battle at Lewisbnrg 
during the War. 

Their son. Rev James E. Moore, was a widely 
known Methodist minister. 

John Moore, another son of the pioneer, married a 
Miss MeClung, of Gioonbrier County, and settled at 
Mt Vernon, Knapp's Creek. Their daughter Jennie 
married John Lightner, near Hightown, Highland 
County, Another daughter, Elizabeth, became Mrs 
Jacob Lightner, and lived where the late Francis Dev- 



er had his home. There was a son, John Moore, who 
died aged 18 years. 

Isaac Moore, eon of Moses, settled near tlie old 
home now occupied by I. B. Mooro. His w ife was 
Margaret Wilson, from the vicinity of the Old Stone 
Church, Augusta County. Their children were Cbea- 
ley, Preston, Malinda, who became Mrs Samuel Har- 
per; Washington, Matilda, who became Mrs John 
Baker; Isaac, Jr., and Moses. 

Chesley married a daughter of the lato Colonel John 
Hill, for whom Hillsboro was named. After her death 
Chesley married Miss Waniess, on Back Alleghany. 

Andrew Washington Moore first married Anna, 
danghter of Henry Harper, of Sunset, and settled on a 
part of the Knapp^s Creek homestead. His second 
marriage was with Margaret Jane, daughter of the late 
John Dever, of Highland County. 

Isaac Moore, Jr., lived at Dnnraore. He and a cit- 
izen named Dunkum bought from Andrew G. Mathews 
his&ne farm, and divided it. Out of their names they 
jointly coined the word Dunmore and so named the 
postoffice, which had been previously named Mathews- 
ville. Isaac Moore married Alcinda Arbogast, daugh- 
ter of the late William Arbogast of Green Bank. Their 
daughters are Mi-s George H. MofEett, of Parkersburg; 
and the late Mrs Dr Charles L. Austin of Green Bank. 
Their sons are C. Forrest, Harry, Ernest, and Rice, 
Ernest is Sheriff of Pocahontas County, Judge C. 
Forrest Moore resides at Covington, Va. He presidctl 
at the trial of Goodman for fatally shoting, at Gladys' 
lun, Va., Colonel Parsons, the proprietor of the Nat- 



lira) Bridge. At pi-osent ho is Attorney for tlic Cov- 
iiigtoii Paper Mills. He has Iieeii largely inHtrnitiental 
ill bringing the varied reuources of our county iuto 
practical notice, Forrest Depot is named for him. 

MoBi'B Moore lived on the home place. Hie wife 
was Ifabella, a daughter of Thomas Campbell of High- 
land County, and still siir\'ivcs liei- lamented husband, 
wlio was a pereou eminent for his christian character. 
She has her home with her son I. Brown Moore, who 
was recently (!l8-9yj a nieinber of the West Virginia 

The study of pioneer histoi-y is deeply inter- 
esting, and very beneiicia) when tlie reader traces 
the lines of descent, and duly reflects upon the contrast 
of what has beeu and what is now. By doing so in- 
telligently, we ai-e prepared to some extent to roalizo 
what is due the memory of those whose bravery, in- 
dustry, and selfnenial made it possible for us to have 
the coniforts we now enjoy. 

As long as tho Moores retain their characteristic in- 
dustry, prudent economy, honesty in their dealings, 
and pious proclivities, they wilt be a blessing to our 
county in the futnie, as they have been in the past» and 


Richard Hill, whose ancestral blood courses the 
veins of a great many worthy citizens, now claims our 
special notice in this paper. It is generally believed 
be came to this region soon after the armies of the Rev- 



olntion were diabaiided, fniin Nortli Cfiroliiia. H(! was 
one of the uiore distinguiHlied of tlie curly pioneers aw 
a scout aiitl a vigilant defender of Hie forts. 

Upon Ilia marriage witli Nancy McXeol, daughter of 
the venerated pioneer of the Levels, Johu McNeel, lie 
settleil on Hill's ('reek, on lands lately occupied by 
Abram Hilt's family. As long as Hill's Ci-eek flows 
and murmurs his name will be perpetuated. There 
were three daughters, Elizabeth, Martha, and Marga- 
ret; and seven sons. Thomas, John, Abraham, Isaac, 
William. Joel, and George, 

Elizabeth became Mrs John Brutfey, and lived on 
Bruffey's Creek. In reference to her family the fol- 
lowing pai'ticntars are given. Nancy Bi-uiley married 
Levi Hooker, from Counectciut, a dealer in clocks, and 
settled in Missouri. Eliza Brufley became Mrs Robert 
Moore, near Edray. Late in lire her family went to 
Iowa, George P, Mooie, now of Edray, is uue of her 
sons. Davis and Clark were the other two. now in 

Martlia Brutfey married James Ewing, and lived 
some years near Marlinton, and finally settled in Nicli- 
olas County, West Virginia. 

Margaret Bruffey married Morgan Anderson, now i>f 
Hills Creek. 

Julia Brutfey was married to William McClure. on 
Little Anthony's Creek. 

Lavinia Bruffey married Claiborne Blaine and went 

Harriet Bruffey was iimtried to Wewley CriiiksliHuks 
and went west. 



Bradford Brnffoy married Miss Mary Watts, of 
Greenbrier. T. A. Bruffey and Mrs Ida Sarver are 
his children. 

Murray Bruffey married Miss Lizzie Craig, and lives 
in Nicholas County. 

John Bruffey, Jr., married Maggie Hill, daughter of 
George Hill, son of the pioneer. 

Martha Hill was married to George Gillilan, of 
Greenbrier County, near Falling Spring. In reference 
to her family the following particulars are in hand: 

Kichard Gillilan married Miss Mary Handley, and 
lived near Frankford. Richard's daughter, Jennie, is 
now Mrs Wallace Warwick Beard, of Hillsboro. An- 
other daughter, Sarah, became Mrs Stuart, and went 
west; and another daughter, Mattie, was married to 
Cyrus McClung, of Frankford. 

Margaret Hill, daughter of the pioneer, was married 
to Samuel Gillilan, brother of George Gillilan, just 
mentioned, and settled in Illinois. Her children were 
Electa, Talitha, Nancy, Lydia, John, Samuel, and 
Shadrach Chaney. Shadrach Chancy, while a mere 
boy, was sent to mill, and was killed upon his arrival 
at the mill by another lad, who claimed to be in ahead 
of Shadrach. His mother's grief was inexpressible, as 
may be readily believed, 

Thomas Hill, in his day a very prominent citizen of 
Pocahontas, married Anne Cackley, daughter of Val- 
entine Cackley, Sv., of Mill Point. First lived on 
Hills Creek, and thou located near Hillsboro, where he 
spent most of bis life. Their family were iive dangb- 
tera and three sons: Martha, Mary, Nancy, Eveline, 



Laviuia, William, Kichard, and George. 

Colonel John Hill married Elizabeth Poage, and liv- 
ed near HilUboro. When far advanced in years, he 
migrated to Missouri, and located in Davies County. 
So many families from this region have gone to that 
connty tliat it might be called the Missonri I'ocahontae. 
In this family were seven sons and fonr daughters. 
Mai-garet, who became Mrs C'hesly K. Moore; Nancy, 
(Mrs William McMillion); Elizabeth and Mary, who 
married in Missonri, The sons were Richard, Willianj, 
John, Thomas, Robert, Davis, and George. 

Abraham Hill married Satlie Bnrr, daughter of 
Aaron Burr, of Greenbrier County, and lived on the 
old Hill homestead. In his family were nine sons and 
one daughter. John, Richard, Thomas, George, Aa- 
ron, Joel, Doctor, Peter, William, and Rebecca. Thiw 
daughter was first married to the late William ('ackley, 
near Mill Point. She is now Mrs A. J. Overholt. 
Lee Cackley is her son, living on Stamping (^roefe. 

The writer remembers Abraham Hill with feelings of 
strong attachment, for many reasons. He wrote me 
several letters wliile I was a student at college, mant- 
feetiiig great intei-est in my personal welfare and speak- 
ing woi-ds of christian encouragement, all of which I 
reciprocated to the best of my ability. Ho came near 
sudden death while batting for wolves with poison. A 
j>nflf of wind blew some of the strychnine into his face; 
he never recovei-ed fully from the effects, though he 
wnrvived many years. 

Isaac Hill did his wooing in the Lower Levels, and 
won the confidence and affections of Jennie Edmiston, 



and settled on Hilla Cieek. Two aoos and two daugh- 
ters composed his family; Nancy, Rebecca, William, 
and Hichai-d. 

William Hill, son of Richard, married Ann Ray, 
near Locust, and settled iu Nicholas County. There 
were three sons and two daughters in this family: 
Elizabeth, Nancy, John, Archibald, and Joseph. 

Joel Hitl, son of the pioneer, paid a number of visits 
to Greenbrier County, and when he came home with 
his young wife, Rebecca Levisay, his friends found out 
what the attraction had been. In this family were sis 
daughters an<l two sons. Mary Frances is uow Mrs 
Sherman H. Clark; Ann Eliza was married to Oscar 
(iirovea, of Nicholas County; Martha was married to 
Mansfield Groves, of the same county; Melinda became 
Mrs Levi Gay, near Marlinton, first wife; Caroline was 
married to D. A. Peck, first wife. 'Jler daughter is 
now Mrs Adam Young. Lucy was married to Williftni 
Curry. Mrs T. A. Brutfey is another daughter. 

Allen Hill was in Missouri at the breaking out of 
the War. Being suspected for cherishing Confederate 
sympathies, he was slain by over zealous L'^nion parti- 

Richard Washington Hill married Margaret Watte, 
of Greenbrier County, and lives on the homestead. He 
served a term as Sheritf of Pocahontas County. 

George Hill, son of Richard Hill of honored memo- 
ry, married Martha Edmistou. He was married twice. 
By the first marriage there were four sons and a daugh- 
ter: Margaret, Franklin, Claiborne, Isaac, and Wil- 
liam. George Hill's second marriage was with Re- 



becca Crnikshanks. By tliis marriagt^ there were foirr' 
SODS and two daughters: Henrietta, Miiimc, Wallace, 
Joel, Clialmerfl, and Sterling. 

Tbis venerable man died early in the forties, full of 
days and greatly respected- The writer was at (-olonel 
Jobn Hill's home wlien he returned from the burial of 
his father, and listem^ for bours to his reminiscences 
of his grand old father; but alas, so much has faded 
from his memory that he would like to writt^, 

Richard Hill, whose family bi8t<iry we have jimt en- 
deavored to illustrate, with the assistance <»f our la- 
mented frieud, Mrs Naucy Oallison, his worthy grand- 
daughter, seems to have keen endowed with a charmed 
life. It would be better to say that in tlie prinidence 
of God he had a mission to perform, and was immortal 
until that service should he accomplished. 

The Indian brave that slew James Baker, one of the 
lirst schoolmasters in this region, had shrewdly plan- 
ned to slioot Baker in the act of ci-ossing the fence and 
kill Richard Hill with his tomahawk before he could 
be able to recioss and escape to the Dreniian bouse, 
near Levi Gays. 

While Richard Hill was repairing bis broken rake in 
the rye field at Edray, near the grave yard, an Indian 
ill the fallen tree top aimed repeatedly at bis breast, 
and put his finger on the trigger time and again, and 
every time sometliing seemed to restrain him. The 
Indian thought it was the Great Spirit, and seemed to 
have felt it would not do to kill a friend of the Great 
Spirit, and thus incur bis anger. 



Then while scuuting iii the iiioiiiitaiiis toward Gauley 
he wat) thrice aroused bv ataniiiiig di-eams, aud when 
the luormiig dawued he diecovei-ed that an Indian had 
tried thi-e<! times to Hteal upon him and kill him while 
ho was asltsep. 

Thei-e is also u tradition that a dctacliincnt of In- 
dians were in ambueh for several days near Mr Hill's 
homo on Hill's Creek, for the special object of captur- 
ing or killing him, us tbey had come to feel there 
would be little or no use to raid this region while he 
was alive or at large- They had taken np the idea 
that the owner of such a nice houHe would dress much 
better than anybody else, and would not work with his 
own hands. They saw men at work in roach of their 
guns, but none of them dressed to tjuit their ideas as 
to how Mr liill would be attired. It so turned out that 
Mr Hill was one of tho hands, and it was his workday 
dress that beguiled the Indians and prevented his being 
shot at or captured. 

Kicliard Hill was one of nature's noblemen, who re- 
lied more on pure, genuine character than mere super- 
ticial appearances, and therein lay the secret of his 
safety and success. A pure character and a genteel 
appearance make a lovely sight, but a gcnteol exterior 
lUid an impure chnracter make a nuisance that is sim- 
ply unendurable to all except human John Crows oi- 


The Ai'bogast relationship is identified U< a marked 
degree with the history of our Pocahontas people, and 



justly claims rccognitiou in tlieso slioit and simple ati- 
nala. So far ae known, tlie original pn goiiitor of tho 
ArbogastB in Pendleton and Pocalioutas was Micliacl 
Arbogaet, who must have been one of tlie original 
pioneers of what is now Highland County, in "Indian 
Times."" He settled there some time previous to 1758. 
Fort Stybert on South Branch, about twelve miles 
northeast of Franklin, was tlie cliief place of refuge for 
all the pioneers in that section when there was danger 
of being pillaged, siain, or carrio<l into captivity bv 
raiding parties of Indians, le<l for the most part by 
Killbuek. Captain Seybert is reported to have made 
the remark, wlien liia fort was taken iu 1758, that if 
the Arbogasts had been there he could liave held the 
place in spite of the Indians. 

Michael Arbogast had seven sons: Adam, Oeorge. 
Henry, John, Michael, David, and Peter, — the two 
last named were twins. The sons, excepting John, 
were all very powerful and stalwart in their physique, 
and were often moi'e than two hundred pounds in 

Adam Arbogast married Margaret (Peggy) Hull, 
daughter of Adam Hull, near Hevener's Store in what 
is now Highland County, Va. They came to the heml 
of the Greenbrier, near Travellers Repose, in 1796, 
and settled on the place now occupied by Paul McNeel 
Yeager. Here he built up a home in the primitive 
forest, and reai'ed his family. His sons were Benja- 
min, William, Adam, and Jacitb. The daugliteix 
were Susan, Elizabeth, Mary, Barbara, and Catherine. 
Barbara and Catherine died in vouth. In reference to 



tlio sons, anotlioi- paper was prepared, illustrating tlic 
liistory of Benjamin ArbogaKt's family, whose sons 
were Solomon, Henry, Adam, John, and Benjamin, 
Jr., the (liatingnishetl teacher and pulpit orator. In 
tliat paper there are some omissions that are supplietl 

Margaret, daughter of Benjamin Arbogast, Sr., be- 
came Mrs John Yeager, late of Alleghany Moniitain, 
of whose family fuller particulars may be looked for in 
the Yeager Sketches. 

Mary (Polly) married Hamilton Stalnaker and lived 
in Randolph. 

Another daughter of Benjamin Arbogast became 
Mrs Henry Wade on Back Creek. In rererence toiler 
family the following particulars are in hand: 

Benjamin Wade was a physician and settled in Mis- 

John Wade was also a physician and lives at Burue- 
ville, Braxton County, where Wilson Wade also lives. 

Madora Wade, now Mra Gawyne Hamilton, lives in 

Naomi Wade married Joseph Gillespie, and also 
lives in Braxton. 

Harriet Wade became the second wife of William 
Cooper, near Green, Bank. 

Delilah Wade became Mrs Joseph Wooddell, near 
Green Bank. In reference to her children are these 

Clark Wooddell lives in Renick's Valley. 

Preston Wooddell, a gallant Confederate soldier, 
was slain in the battle of Winchester. 



Warwick Wooddell was killed at tho battle of Cold 
Harbor, Aaron Wooddell was also a Coiirederate eol- 

John Arbo((;a8t, a soti of Beiijatniu Arbogast, Sr., 
was killed near Glade bill by a falling tree. Joel Ar- 
bogast, lu8 son, is a prosperous farmei- in Kansas. 

William Arbogast, of Adani the pioneer, married 
Jane Tallman and lived at Grccu Bank. Frequent and 
fuller references to him and his family appear in other 

Jacob Hull Arbogast, of Adam the pioneer, married 
Elizabeth Wiisou Bright, of Highlnid, and settled on 
the West Branch of the I'jjper Greenbrier, on the 
place now in possession of Colonel J. T. McGraw. 
His family consisted of four sons and three daughters. 

Margaret became Mrs Levi H. Carapbt^ll, and lives 
in Elkins. 

Eliza Jane is Mrs Adam Sliuey' and lives at Kisher- 
ville, Augusta County. 

Harriet Elizabeth is now Mrs B. M. Yeager at Mar- 
linton. B. M. Yeager is a widely known citizen of 
our county as aland agent, railway pi-onioter and man- 
ager for the I'ocahontaK Development (,'ompany. 

Paul McNeel Arbogast married Amanda Buchcr, 
and lives on the Greenbrier not far from the homestead 

Jacob Lee Arbogast married Otoy Riley, and at the 
time of his recent decease was a merchant at Travellers 

William Barton Arbogast lives at Travellers Ilepore. 

Jacob H, Arbogact was a man of very interesting 
personality. He was of untiring energy, and in his 



tim« was an cxtuusive doalei- in wild land. Hie name 
frequently appears in tlie court records a pai-ty to some 
of tlie most important and warmly contested land liti- 
gation tliat ever transpired at the Pocalioutas bar. He 
was an aident supporter of tlie Confederate cause, and 
Haw service in tltc home guards. In the beginning of 
the war, a few days after the repulse of Fegram on 
Rich Mountain, in 1861 lie refugeed with his family to 
the East and spent most of the war times in Augusta 
County. He carried but Httle with liiin, and so lost 
his household effects and live stock along with liis 
dwelling. ' In 1865 he returned and began life afresh 
at the old Greenbrier homestead. But few places in 
West Virginia were more completely desolated than tlic 
head of Greenbrier by the ravages of war. 

Adam Arbogast, Jr., of Adam, the pioneer, first 
man-ied Rachel Gregg, oi' Zebulon Gregg, and settled 
near the homestead. There was one son by this mar- 
riage, Napoleon Bonaparte. ' The second marriage was 
with Harah McDaiiiel, In reference to the children of 
the second marriage the following particulars are given: 

Huldah married Faul McNeel Yeager, and lives at 
Travelers Repose. 

Eliza Arbogast became Mrs Frank McEIwee and 
lives at Elkins. 

Alice Arbogast married Early Snyder and lives in 

Rrcbo! became Mif C. C'. Arbogast and lives near 

Ella is now Mrs Benjamin Kleislicr and lives in 



Ada died in youth. 

The son Peter D. Arbognwt married Bodie Burner, 
lived awhile at Arbovalc, was a Juntiee of the I'eace: 
he lately i-csigned and is now studying medicine at the 
I'niversity of Virginiti. 

Adam Arbogast, the pioneer, lived to be nearly one 
hundred years old. v recovered his second sight and 
for years had no need of eye-glaeses. Coming to thin 
j'egion early as he did, and having gmwn up in the 
{Ktriod of Indian troublen, he had ninny thrilling a<l< 
ventui-es to relate. I'pon one occasion his dogs treed 
a panther in an immonso hemlock tree for wliicli the 
upper Greenbrier is so celebrated. He called on Joiin 
Veager, his nearest neighbor, for assistance in captur- 
ing the dangei-ous animal, one of the largest of its kind- 
John Veager was a fainons and fearless climber of 
forest trees. A torch was procured and he began to 
climb, holding it in one hand. When lie had located 
the panther, ho laid the torch on twc) limbs, descended 
the tree until no could reach the ride that Mr Arbogast 
had loaded and primed for him. He thereupon re- 
turned to his toreh and by its light shot and kille<l IiIm 

Upon one occasion the pioneer had nrraiige<l for a 
l>car hunt on Burner's Mountain. When reaching the 
point designated, he was disappointed in not meeting 
his hunter friends. He killed a bear however, and as 
it was growing late and there were signs of a conuiig 
storm, he went into shelter, and so(m a hurricane oc- 
curred. The next morning lie sound there was n<tt a 
standing tree anywhere near; the dog was gone, the 



l)oav fast midur fallen timber, tlic gnu broken to pieces, 
und lie was safe without a scratch or bruise. He liad 
to go home for aii axe to cliop the tree off the bear and 
get help to bring it in. 

What gives tlieae stories tlieirintt'rost, it all occurred 
Just as lie told it. Like the Father of his Oouutry, 
Adam Arbogast could not and would not tell anything 
but the truth as he saw it. 


Ilobert Gay, Esq., the subject of this sketch, was 
one of tlie most prominent personalities of his time in 
the affairs of early pioneer days. He was a native of 
Augusta County, and was brought up to manhood on 
the banks of the Calf Pasture River, between Oeerfield 
and Goshen, Just before the Revolution he came to 
this region and settled first on Brown's Creek. 

His first wife was Haiinah ooro, daughter of Levi 
Moore, Senior, who homesteaded and settled the place 
near Frost now occupied by the family of the late Sani- 
nel (iibson, Esq. 

Afterwards Mr Gay located on the east bank of the 
(rlreenbrier, about opposite fhe nioutli of Stony Creek, 
near Marlinton, Subsequently he built a new liousu 
tm the west bank, traces of which are yet visible at the 
Lumber Yard. The timbers of this house are now in 
the dwelling occupied by Colonel Levi Gay. These 
are among the oldest specimens of hewn timber in the 
county. The tradition is that the old house now owii- 
e^ by M. J. McNeel is the first building of hewn tim- 
ber ever erected in the eountv. Here the venerable 



pioiieor spent hits last years. 

H(! figured proiniiiently in tlif oi'gaiiiKatioii of tlie 
oouuty, was a brave patriot, and widely known and 
iimcli estoc.'ucd. He waw a specia' friend of Jacob 
Warwick's family, and pleasant relations have ever ex- 
isted between tlie de:<ceudants of tlie two old pioneer 
comrades and attached perscnial friends. 

Ml- and Mrs Robert (ray reai'ed a worthy family of 
six sons and three daughters. The sons were i^aniuel, 
(-ieorgo, John, An<irew, Robert, and James; t!ie diuigii- 
ters were Jennie, Sallie, and Agnes. 

Jennie married William Cackley. one of the most 
prominent citizens of liis time, and lived many yearn 
near Hnntersville, on tlie place now owned by t!ie fam- 
ily of the late Joseph Lonry, Ksq. Mr Cackley finally 
moved to Missouri, late in life. 

Sally became the wife of Jaines Bridger, and for a 
long while lived at the Bridger Place, higher iij) tlie 
Gi-eeiibrier, This family went to Iowa. 

Agnes married Alexander Gillilan, and hei' family 
moved to Missouri. 

Sanmel Gay married Alice Cackley, eldest daughter 
of Frye Cackley and l'(dly his wife, wlio came from 
near Winchester, and located ar Mill Point, about 
1778. Joseph C. Gay, on Elk, and Mrs i'olly Gib- 
son, on Old Field Fork of Elk, are their children. 
Two of their sous, Georgp and William, were slain 
during the War. Hannah sacrificed her life waiting 
on her sick friends and relatives during the War. Sa- 
rah Ann wan the first wife of the late Jacob Wangh, of 
Stony Creek. S, I). Wangh and Mi'M A. Coombs are 



liiT children. 

George Gay nianiod Susan Ligiitntr, wliose parents 
were PetiT Liglitner and Alcloda (Harper) lib wife, on 
Knapp'H Creek, Tliis sou lived several years in tlit- 
Levels, on the farm now occupied by F. A. Renick, 
Afterwards he moved to Iowa, and prospered. 

John Gay married Miss Margaret B. Clark, a lady 
from Cecil County, Maryland. He spent his eutiro 
life on the old homestead near Marlinton. 

James Gay married Miss Abbie Callison, sister of 
the late Mrs Julia Poage, of Poago's Lane. John R. 
and Qnincy Poage, well known citizens, are her neph- 

This humble effort is put forth to perpetuate thv 
memory of a very worthy man. In peace and in war 
his country could rely upon liim. He belonged to that 
pioneer citizenship of whom Washington thought in a 
dark hour when he exclaimed: "Give me but a banner 
and rear it on the mountains of West Augusta, and 1 
will rally around nie the men that will lift my bleeding 
country from the dust and set her free!" 

Having reared a very worthy family, having been 
prominent in public service in this section of Virginia, 
before and since the organization of the county of Po- 
cahontas, his life came to a close March 22, 1S34, 
His remains were borne to the old burying gi'oimd on 
Stony Creek, near the Edray croesi'ig, i" sight of his 

Mrs Hannah Gay surviveti him in widowh<x^d iiiorv 
than twenty-five years. In August, 1859, on a visit 
to Sally Bridger, something happened to enrage tho 



bees iiiid upon ^oiiig out to see, she was attacked by 
iliem and befoi-c she could be rescued bIic was fatally 
injured, and died August 15, ltS5<J, at a vitv advanced 
age. She was Iwnie to rest at the side uf lier noble 
husbniid, and thuu passed away one of whom it was 
testifie<I by many that Khe was one of the "htiwt old la- 
dies that over lived in her neighborhood,"' 

Tiic writer cordially agrees with that sentiment, 
when lie renienibers how kind, and even affectionate, 
sh« was toward him while lie was a mere youth, 
■■Keep on trying to do right, Billy,- — there will be but- 
ter times for you some day." These words he fondly 
troasurea in his memory, and for fifty yeiirs hiis huoii 
iind folt how wise and useful such worils arc. 


This papi'r id cimiposed of fragmentary notices of 
one of the eiu'ly settlers of ^lie Ulade Hill neighlnir- 
hood. Benjamin Arbogast, Senior, the progenitor of 
a well known branch of the Arbogast relationship, set- 
tled early in the century near Glade Hill, on the lands 
now in possession of Cornelius Buusard, Clark Dilley, 
and others. In liis homo ' were five sons and three 
daughters: Henry, Solomon, John, Adam, Benjamin. 
Carlotta, Sally, and i>elilali. 

Cai'lotta becanie Mrs Jonathn aPotts, and lived in 
('pshur County. 

Sally became the second wife of Ralph Wunless, near 
Mt Tabor. 

Delilah was first married to Joseph Wooddoll, near 
(xreon Bank. Her second marriage was with Kreder- 



ick Pupil, of itaiiH; vicinity. 

In reference to tlie boiis, we liave the following par- 
lionlars, gathered from a varit'ty of sources: 

Henry Arboga»t married Anna Warwick, on Uoer 
Creek, and settled on a part of tlie homestead. Tlicir 
sons Warwick and Newton diwi while young. Jamie- 
son married Sarah Hrimes. ami stittled on Elk. 

MarsIiftU Arbogawt married Rachel Nottingham, and 
lives in Ran<lolpli County. 

Sally Arljogast became the wife of (ieorge Arbogawt 
and lives near (ilade Hill. 

Margaret was married to Martin Clark Dilley, ami 
Uvea on part of the homt^stead. 

Minta became Mrs Bud Stalnaker, aiul lives in Ran- 
ilolph County. 

Henry Arbogast was a person of high natural en- 
dowments; was widely known in onr county, and was 
greatly respected for many good qualities. He was a 
local preacher in the pale of the Methodist Episcopal 
chnrch, and "cried aloud and spared not" whin de- 
nouncing the fashionable foibles of his times. The 
writer once heard him preach a sermon from the text; 
"Pray without ceasing." The sermon was largely tak- 
en up in a description of the Magic Carpet, we read 
about in the Arabian Nights Entertainment, and then 
used it as an illustration, showing that the prayerful 
soul has in prayer something far more to the purpose 
than the magic carpet evei" was or could be. He was 
an enthusiast in his religious views. To him Method- 
ism was the chief of all the prevailing "isms,"— the 
one "ism" that was "altogether lovely,"— -and he 



made no Hocrct of it. 

During the war between tlie States lie wa« a sincerf, 
deeided, but liai'iiiless sympatlii/.er witli the Union 
cause. Wlien last seen alive lie and Ins iiciglibor EH 
HuKzard were hi clini'ge of a si|iind of |icrttnnH claiming 
to be Confederate Sconts. A few days afterwards tlitise 
two ctriliane were found dead near the roadside, about 
lialf way froiu tlioir borues towards Frost, Kntm the 
attitude in wliich his body was found it in inferred that 
be died in the act of jtrdver, lieediug the text referre<I 
lo above. 

Solomon Arbogast married Nancy Nottiiighaui, an<l 
lived on part of the homestead. In j'eference to bih 
family the following particulars arc noted: 

Allen lirst married a Miss Curry; Iiis second mar- 
riage was with a Miss (iillcspic. • 

George married Snllie Arbogaat. 

Charles was a Union soldier oud died in the war. 

Lizzie inarrie<l Giimer Sharp and lives near Frost. 

Mary inai-ried William Cooper, near Green Hank. 

Kacbel became Mrs Samuel Sutton and lives bcy<ind 
Green Bank. 

Caroline tirst married the late James Ruekman; her 
second marriage was to Michael Scales, and lived near 
Mill Point. 

John Arbogajit^ son of Benjamin, Sr.. married Mar- 
garet Yeager and lived near Glade Hill, lie was kill- 
ed by a falling tree, leaving a widow iind three sons. 

Adam Arbogaet married Clarissa Sutton, and lived 
near Green Bank. Tiiey were the parents of five sous 
and throe daughters: John, Brown, Cliristoplier, Ben- 



janiiii, Kt'inl. Doriiula, iiuw Mrs David Slioarn; Eliza, 
who Waine Mfh JatiKM Sutton; ami Eiiinia, now Mi-w 
.1. TratM-, all tUrw wnv (Ji-wn Bank. 

When a little girl, Mrs Clarissa Arbogact had Inn- 
ana criishwl in a cider mill. She was given iip to die 
by the physician sent for from an adjoining comity. 
The late ('aptain John McElWce, ancestor of the Mc- 
Elwee relationsliigi in our comity, had the nerve totakf 
his joint saw and razor and amputate the arm above 
the mortified part. The patient recovered and lived to 
rear the five sons and three daughtei-B just named. 
What Mrs Arbogast could not do with her good left 
arm in houHokeeping was not worth doing. She died 
quite recently, 

Benjamin Arbogast, of Benjamin, Senior, married 
MisB Gibbons, a sister of the gallant Colonel S. B. 
Gibbons, Tonth Virginia Infantry, who dioJ May (fth. 
1862, on the McDowell battle field,— shot through the 
head the moment he reacluHl the line of fire, leading 
Ilia men into action. 

B&njamin Arbogast, Junior, was one of the most re- 
markable persons that ever lived in our county. Cpon 
attaining his majority he was appointed constable, and 
he magnified his ottice and worked it for all it was 
worth. He frequented the courts, and seemod to have 
been infatuated with the lawyers of lo<Jse habits and 
alcoholic propensities, and proficient in the history of 
the four kings. He aspired to the distinction of beat- 
ing them at thoir own game, for they seemed to be 
what a gentleman should be. He socm acquired his 
coveted distinction of being the fastest young man hi 


lllSrottY OF 1-0C4U0NTAB COUNTY 135 

the county. 

When about twonty-five years of iige lie came under 
ihe influ«nco of < liarles See, who taught iu the family 
of Colonel Paul McNeol, and there was kindled in our 
young friend's mind an irresistible desire for a college 
education. He learned the rudiments of Latin and 
algebra from MrSee, wont a seasiou or two at Academy 
and then away to Dickinson College, in Pennsylvania, 
and wati graduated among the best in his class. ]n 
the meantime he had professed piety, entered the min- 
istry, and became a noted pulpit orator, and one of the 
most distinguished teachers of the high schools under 
the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church, South. 
He died a few years since at Winchester; leaving a re- 
putation long to be remembered by his deuomination. 
Recently one of his surviving children, an acconiplish- 
wl daughter visited Marlinton. 

The writer tenderly cherishes the mcinory of this re- 
markable Pocahontas uian, for he often mauifostiHl 
special friendship for me, and we have hatl many good 
talks together. We last met in Winchester, in Octo- 
ber, 18T4. He introduced me to Norval Wilson, 
father of Bishop Wilson. 

John McNeel, the ancestor of the McNeel lelation- 
ship in our county, appears to have been the first to 
occupy the Little Levels by permanent settlement. He 
was a native of Frodoriek County, Virginia, but passed 
much of his oarly life in or near Cumberland, Mary- 



laud. Ill' McoiiiH to havu lii'eii fond of atlilolicu, ami 
in a pugilistic cmitfut his aiitagoiiist was so badly 
kiiockeil out as to hti regardod fatally injured. To avoid 
arrest and trial Un- imirder, hv lefugeed. lie followed 
tlie trend of the Alleghanie«. A long wliilc was spent 
in their gloomy solitudes, and his sufferings of mind 
and body can iint be even imagined by any if ns. 
Finally, going deeper and deeper into the wildeniess, 
he came at laat iu vit.w of the Levels, about 1765, 

As he overlooked this section from some neighbor- 
ing eminence, he saw macli to remind him of his native 
region. An oxtenaivo, wooded plain, bordered by 
mountain ran^^es of nnsurpassed beauty, and very fer- 
tile. He decided, as every thing looked so mucii like 
the old home scenery, to settle here; and chose a site 
for his cabin near the present home occupied by Hon. 
M. J- McNeel, Traces of this cabin have been seen 
by many persons yet living, between the gate on the 
public road and his residence. If the spot could bt^ 
identified, it would be well to mark it with a piece of 
the marble recently found in such fabulous quantities 
close by. 

Here the solitary man brooded over his supposed 
guilt, prayed with his broken heart for pardon, and 
hunted for his food, subsisting almost entirely upon 
venison and trout. One day wliile bunting he met 
Charles and Edward Xiuuisun, from his old home, wlm 
had come out here prospecting for a situation. He 
learned from them that the person he boxed with was 
not dead, not even seriously hurt. This was indeed 
good news, and then and there he felt free from all 


HiSTWKv i>K i-(h;ahostas culstv 137 

MooOy stain, ami lid cuiiUl return witlmiit ffiir of iiio- 

John MfNwl iiiHistiid upon his frk^mla to sliarn IiIh 
cabin witli liiiti. lit' iissiHtoil tlioui in making a solec- 
tion for a homc! ailjoiiiing hiw tnic-i". Tin- tlii-t'f tlien 
set out on thv'w n.'turu to the Uiwit Vaik-y of Vii'ffiniii. 

While on this visit honit? Joim Mtilseel niarrU'tl Mar- 
tha Davis, wild was born in Wales in 17H>, ami mioii 
after their marriage thev eamc out to the Levels. A 
few acreH were soon cleared otf, anil plenty to subsist 
upon was raised. 

Mr McNeel seemed deeply iinpressetl with a sense of 
gratitudete (iod Un- his providential care, after all his 
wanderings ami fears to permit the Hues to fall to him 
in such a pleasant, wealthy plai.:i.', that he built a ht>i;se 
for worship, the White Polo Clmrc-Ji. 

In a few years tlie Diinmore war opened up. The 
three friends, — -McNeel and two Kinnisons,— went into 
camp at Lewisburg, ami joined the expedition to Point 
Pleasant, October 10, 1TH4. They snrvived that event- 
ful and important contest, came back, but not to re- 
main very long. They went across the eastern moun- 
tains and enlisted in some company that went from 
Frederick County, served during the Kevolution, ami 
then took up the peaceful tenor of thoir lives wliere 
they had left off. There is a pathetic tradition that 
while Mr McNeel was absent t;i Point Pleasant a child 
was born and died before his return. The mother witii 
her own hands prepared the coffin and tlie grave, and 
buried it. They reared five children, two sons and 
three daughters. 



Minaiii iimriied Joliii Joitlan, mid lived near LociiKf 
(111 wlirtt is iKiw kuowii as tlie Jordan Place, owned l»_v 
Isaiit! McNocl. Tliey loarod three daiigliterri and five 
sons. Partieiilai- mention of thorn in the Jolin Jordan 

Naney MeXuut, second danghter of the pioneer, 
married Richard Hill. 

Miirtha, the pioiieer'8 tliinl dmijihter, nmrried (iritliii 
Evans, moved west and settled on the Miunii River. 

Our venerable pioneer reai'i'il tAo sona, Abrani and 

Abram tiist married a Mis:i Lamb. Her brother, 
William Lamb, was greatly esteemed by Abrani Mc- 
Neel, iind he named bis son for him. William Lamb 
was an expert Anisan. The late Captain McNeel bad 
a clock made by this person that was one of the most 
elegant speciniens of its kind to be found anywhere. 
There was one daughter, Elizabeth, who was married 
to William Hanna, of Greenbrier County. 

Abram McNeel's second wife was Miss Uridgor, rel- 
ative of the slain Bridger Brotlieiu, By this marriago 
there were three sons. Washington, who died in youth; 
John; and Abraiu, who went west. The daughters of 
this second marriage wei-e Margaret, who married the 
late William Beard of Benieks Valley, and she has 
been desul but a short while, 

Martha nnirried Bayliss Butcher, and went west. 
One of her sons practiced medicine in our county a few 
years sinoe, Dr F. Butcher. 

Miriam, another daughter, married Christopher 
Beai'd, and her son Dr Besvrd is a prominent physician 


HISTOKV (•!■" L'(.fAlHiN'rAS (■l.l"^TY IJ-!!' 

in Lewinburp, 

Nancv McN'<'el iiiiinkd Juidch Rankin, and lived mi 
tlic Greenbrier at the inmitli of Locust. 

Mary was a lifeloiij; invalid, and never inariiwl, 
Abrani McNeePrt tliiid wife was Magdalen Kt'll.v. <>i 
Monroe (oun'.y. Al the time of their niariiagc she 
was tbe widow Havne^, Rev JauieH Hayiie« is a 
grandson of her firnt liiisband. The children of this 
tliird niarriafre were Ileiirv Washington and Williani 

Henrv Washington has lived mostly in the west, and 
has led a busy life for many yenrs, and is there now. 
Captain William Liiinb McNeel, lately deceased, 
lived on the old homestead. He held many jiositiuns 
of tnist, and met tlie expectntions of his must admir- 
ing frienda, in the cam]), the legislature, and in busi- 
ness affairs. 

Isaac McNeel, the other si^n of tlie pioneer, settled 
upon lands now held by the fanuly of tlie late Jaeoli 
McNeel, M. J. McNeel, W. T. Bear<l. and (\ E. 
Bear<l. His first wife was Rachel McKeever. Ry thi-* 
marriage there were ftuir sons, Paul. .lohn. Uichar<l, 
and Isaac. Tbe dnnghfers were Hantiah, Martha, Nan- 
cy, and Rachel. 

Hainiab married Benjamin Wallace, of Ratli County 
Virginia. Dr Matt Wallace, an eminent physician at 
Mil! Point, lately deuoased, was her son. Her daugli- 
ter, Rachel, became Mrs William Hefner, a prominent 
citizen of Braxton County. Her other daughter Eliza- 
betb married Christopher Ji)rdan. 

Martha McNeel married David McCne, of Nicholas 


141' iiirrouv ok piiuarontab rdcsrv 


Nuiicy, thtUliinI dmiglitor, iimrrioa WiiH;iiii C. Price 
lat<! nf Hiittoiisvillc, Kamldljili Cuiiiity. 

Kaelici MeNoiO iicirried Jacob Croucli, of Rimlolph 

lu rcforciict! to the hihis nt tin- iiiiiiTiiig.i it will 
I>i>. i-cinciiilH'i-ed tliat ( oloiid Piiiil McNwl wuh one of 
tlie iiiOHt widely known citizens of liis day. 

Jolin McNeel's sons arc Inane McNce! and lion. M. 
.!. Mc-Nwl, of t!u. Levcda. 

Uicliard McNcoPs daught:.T, Mary, iw the wifeof .W. 
T, Beard, whose sons, Edgar and Lc.:', are well known. 

Isaac McN'oei served na Sheriff ii miinber of yearw. 
and went west. 

By Iiiw second nuirriage, Isaac McXeel, son of John, 
the pioneer, to Ann Scybert, daughter of Jacob Sey- 
bort, nioutli of Stamping Creek, there were two sons. 
Jacob and Saninol Ellis. The latfjr died a soldier in 
the war. 

Tiie daiight^'i-s of the second niirriage were Cather- 
ine, who bocanie the wife of Charles Wade, of Green 
Hill, Virginia: Elizabeth married Jacob Sharp, near 
Edray; Miriam married Joseph McClnng, of Nicholas 
('ounty; Magdalen married IJr Robert Williams, of 
Hath, Virginia. 

This brings the chronicles of the venei'able pioneer's 
family down within the memory and observation of the 
living. His life was of no ordinary interest. His 
righteous memory shonld be in everlasting remem- 
brance. He was the first to "wail vith judicions care" 
amid those monntaius the liynins sung by his ancestry 



fuiiiil the ii((iCii-H (if yciitldiid, tlie iiicii of tlu^ iikjsm litigs. 
But vci V litllc, if aiiv of tlie lamU lie prfciiipU'd lias 
parsed out of tilt' piiBscsHioii of tin; rolationsliip, now in 
the third and fourtli genci'ation, ii vory reiiiai-kalile cir- 
t-iiiiistancc ill the history of Americiiii fainiiien. 

John A. McXecl, a grout grandson, finnislios' the 
following data: 

"The knowledge I have of my great-grandfather In 
purely traditional, hnt witii one link of tradition, and 
tliat one inv father, the lute I'jiul McNeel. of Pocahon- 
tas County. John McNeel, Senior, was horn in the 
year 1745, and wax SO years old when he died, his 
death occnrring in 1825. Paul McNeel wan horn with- 
in sight of his grandfather's house, in the year 1SI>3. 
He was conseqnently "22 years of age at ids grand- 
father's death. There v-aa an intijitaey between thew 
two people. n« I have often leftrnod from my father, 
that was only ended by the death of the older McNeel, 

"Paul McNeei was taken at an e:ir!y age to live with 
liis grandparents. I have heard hiin relate .in inciflent 
to fix his very earliest reuol lectio lis of his grandparents 
which was this: His grandmother had given him a 
piece of wheat bread and butter, (ijiiite u luxury then), 
and set the little boy down to eat it. When left ahuie 
a large t<imcat came up to divide the l.ioy's meal. A 
tight followed, and the hoy threw the cat in the tire. 
where there happened to he a bed of coals. The conls 
-stuck to the cat's fur, the cat ran and screamed, until 
the boy was scared nut of Ids wits. He too ran home 
;is fast as he could. Tins oceuri'ed when I'aul McNcei 



wUH six vi'ars old, in th« old boiisct in tlio cc:!!- of M. J. 
McNei'l's ri^Kidciicc. 

"As I siiy, Paul McKui'l at n U^iulcr ago 1>l'C:iiii(! an 
iiiinntc of Ills gi'Riiilparciit'u lioitie, and tn a gruit de- 
gree I'cti'cived liin carlv training fi-uiu tliuui. Tlio duiitli 
of his iiiotlier, Mrs Racliel McN'ool, ouciiirod in 1S18. 
wliun lit! wan only 15 ycai-H old, rondoitnl his dupcnd- 
(tnec on his grand parents the more noc^'ssary. Tlior.' 
is a field belonging to tlie .t'statf of tlie latt^ Jacob Mc- 
Neel that my father has freqiutntlj in pasning pointed 
(Hit to nie, which he and his grandfiitiiei' planted in 
corn (they doing the dropping) in 18:25; and in con- 
nection lie told iiow active of body and wjund of mini! 
his grandfather was at eighty, and soon after this the 
old gentleman was seized with pneumonia and died. 

"T have related these two incidents — the heginninj; 
and ending of the acquaintance of theRC two people — 
to show you how thorongldy I have been tanght, botli 
by "legend and hiy,"' to know and revere the charac- 
ter of the venerable pioneer. Tlie exact spots wher<: 
the "White Pole Clmi-ch" and the "First t'ainp" wero 
built have been [minted out to me; and, as, you suggest 
both sliould be marked by a slab of the marble that is 
found in such abundance close by. 

"Martha Davis, the wife of this gentleman, was a 
Welch girl, a Calvinistic Methodist, born in the year 
1742, being therefore several years older than her hue- 
band. She survived him five years, being HH years 
(dd at the time of her death. Yon speak of the death 
of her child during the absence of her husband to Point 
Pleasant. Of this 1 have frequently heard, and that 



h\w witli litT own liaiidH pioparec! the body of !im- cliild 
mid performed tlie first burial ritfs ever pcrf<iiiiied at 
tiie McNi'ol graveviii-d. 

There was another matter this lady wan the fii-st to 
di>, and for wliich Iior imiue deserven to be kept in dear 
remembrance, and hy tliis latter act to tlie tivinf; gen- 
eration she has set an example of the highest cliristian 
eliaracter: and that was to bring with her to her new 
niouutain liomc as a part of her dowry, a Bible printed 
in the Welsh dialect, A noble exemplar! This is tJie 
first Bible that there is any record of having ever been 
brought to the waters of the (irwnbrier. 

"The date fixed liy you as the time when John Mc- 
Neel, Senior, arrived in the Levels, l7tir>, is correct. 
He was then in his 20tli year, and now when we reHect 
that this was the year sncceeding when the Indians had 
made the most fearful massacre of the white people in 
the Valley of Virginia, and the the Ohio Itiver Valley 
was an unbroken wilderness, we wonder at the adven- 
turous spirit of this remarkable man. 

'•Of the traditional iiistory that I have heanl of bim 
the thing that impressed me most of all was his won- 
ik'i'ful sincerity of eliaraeter and strength of pui-pose in 
his daily life. This feature of bis character had a pow- 
erful influence on his grandson, Paul McNeel. and 
contributed in no small degree to his success in after 
life. And in conclusion I will say that during the 2* 
years it was my pleasure to know my father, [ nevei' 
heard him mention the name of John McNeel, Keuior. 
hut with the words of praise upon his lips. And the 
deep hold that Methodism has held Jn the Levels of 


144 msiMKV OK hucahonta^ rmvi'v 

Pocnlit^iitiis fur tlio last liiiiniicd vfurs Ciiii be cxplaiiii'd 
wIh'ii [ Hiiv tliat t\w man an:! woniaii wliii Imilt tlu- 
"White Polo Clniidr' laid tin; foiuidiition of tlio Metli- 
orliHt Cliiircrli; jiiul let iia triint tliiit tlii; influence of tliis 
liuiiiljle ';linBtiaii uiitii and woTiiiiii will desct'iid from 
fr;^n((niti(i;i t:> gi!iior;itioii, :riil liku tlie mi!itl;< of Elijali 
prove a lilcwsiiig on wlionisouvcr it may fall."" 


i)]iv. of tlie notahlt; families in utii' local !iiiii:tl» was 
tlic! Slaven roUtiousliip, wlios'j uiiCL'.stor was John 
Slaveii, who mine from Tyrone, Ireland, about tlu" 
iriiddluof the previous century. He firat settlod in 
Ri>ckin};lnun County, and then came to what is now 
Highland County, Virginia, anil located permanently 
at Mead<!W Dale, <!n property now Iield by Stnart 
Slaven and James Fleshur, His wifi^ was a Miss Stuart. 
Traces of the <ild lioiiic are still to be seen near James 
Flesher'ti residence, wlio is a desc-eiidant by tho tiftli 

Ill reference to John Slaveii"w souh, we learn tliaf 
Henry and Reuben went to <)iii<) and settleit in the 
famous Scioto Valley. Daniel Slaven located his borne 
on Clinch River, Tennessee, Isaiah Slaven married 
Martha Stuart and went to Montgomery County, Ky, 
in 17!J2, about the time that State came inte tlie union. 
and settled at Mount Sterling, William Slaven settled 
in Smith County, Tennessee, 

Stnart Slaven remained on tbe homestead. His wife 
was a MissSohnsfon, a daughter of Jesse Johnston. 



He was one of the most prominent and influential citi- 
zens of liis time. Stuart Slaven's children were Reu- 
ben, for BO many years one of the lending citizens of 
- liis county, and perhaps celebrated more marriages 
than any magistrate lliflt ever held that office in his 
section; Jesse, William, Btnart; Nellie, who became 
Mrs Adam Lightner; Mrs Thomas Campbell; Sallio, 
who was Mrs Alexander Gilmore; Rachel, who became 
Mrs Givena, and went west; and Mrs Matilda Wade, 

Marg.treC Slaven was marrieJ to the late Benjamin 
B. Campbell. Her daughters are Mrs S. P. Patterson 
and Miss Mattie ('ampbellf of Himtersville; Stuart 
CaTnpbell, of BelingCon; Brown Caiipball, late of Mon- 
terey, and Luther Campbell, at I>unniore, are her sons. 

John Slaven, son of John from Tyrone, was twice 
married. The first wife was a Mias Wade. There was 
one son, John Slaven, who never married. The sec- 
ond marriage was with Elizabeth Warwick, a sister of 
Andrew and William Warwick, on Deer Crook. Not 
long after this nmri-iage he settled on the liead of 
Greenbrier, and he is the ancestor of the Pocahontas 
branch of the Slaven relationship. By the second mar- 
riage there were five daughters and two sons. 

He was a person of remarkable muscular powers, 
and was a Kevolntionary veteran, a noted hunter and 
successful trapper. He had thrilling descriptions to 
give of the many blootly engagements he passed thro, 
the hazardous risks he ran, and the bitter privations he 
endured iu the service of his country. He lived to an 
advanced age, and was so weakened by the infirmities 
•if age as lo make use of crutclies in moving around in 


146 HISTORY OS- i*o<;ahont\s COL'STV 

his closing days. In refcreuco to his cliildreu tlie fol- 
lowing particulars are available: 

Sallie Slaveu became Mi-b Dinwiddie, and lived for 
a time at the head of JacksoHs River; thence went to 
Hardin County, Ohio. 

Priscilla Slaven was married to Joseph Wooddell, of 
Green Bank, and lived in Pike County, Ohio. 

Anna Slaven married Patrick Bruffey, and lived near 
Green Bank, on property occupied by John Hevener. 
Patrick Brutfey was a very useful and prominent citi- 
zen; A skilled workman in stone, iron, and wood; and 
tilled most of the official positions in the gift of the 

Mary Slaven became Mrs John Wooddell, near 
Green Bank, The late Mrs M. P. Slaven, Hon W, J. 
Wooddell, and J. S, Wooddell, Esq., were her child- 

Margaret Slaven became Mrs Samuel Ruckmau. 

William Slaven, son o£ John Slaven the pioneer, 
was born July 6, 1798, and was married in 1819 t<» 
Margaret Wooddell, daugliter of Joseph Wooddell, at 
Green Bank. Slie was born June 27, 1800, 

They were the parents of six sons and two daugh- 
ters. Their names- were Charles, who died seekinjc 
gold in California; William Patrick, James Cooper, 
Henry, Nathan — a Confederate soldier killed . at Fort 
Oonelson; and Elizabeth, who became Mrs Osborne of 
Gilmer County. 

William Slaveu's second marriage was with Nancy 
Cline, of Lewis County, and there were five daughters 
and four sons by this marriage. Mary, Sarah, Caro- 



line. Martlia. Lucv Frank, Lantv, Rolnntl, and Perrv. 
William Slaveu's tlcijcemlaots inainlj live in jHcks<>ii, 
Wirt, Lewis, and Giluier counties, and are reported to 
be prosperooe and good people of that ^^ection 
of We«i Vii^nia. 

While living in P«)caliontae County. William Slaven 
was a person of marked pi-ominence — a memlKT of the 
Virginia L^ielature. magistrate, and AsseBsnr. More 
tiian sixty yearH ago he conclnded to move to Lewis 
Coanty. Aaaistcd by John Wooddell, Ills household 
effects were carried over t'heat monntain to Lawyer 
See'e near Hnttonsville on pack horses, there being 
only a bridle path at the time. He lived awhile on 
Leading Creek, Lewis County; thence wont to Wirt 
County, near Burning Springs; and tinally to Jackson 
County, a few miles from Raven8woi>d. In his new 
places of residence, after leaving Pocahontas, ho was 
honored with places of trust, served the public as mag- 
istrate and deputy sherit!, which at that time meant the 
full, active duties of sheriff. Ho leaves tho reputation 
of being always an efKcieot, trustworthy business man. 
Jacob Gillespie Slaven, sou of the pioneer of that 
much named region, Head of Greenbrier, Upper Tract, 
Travelers Keposo, married Eleanor Lockridge, daugh- 
ter of Lanty Lockridge, Senior, on Knapps (.'reek. 
These persons passed the most of their married lives on 
the hea<l of the Greenbrier, in a widely known and at- 
tractive home. In their time there was an inniiense 
travel along that road, Staunton and Parkei'sbnrg Pike. 
The most of communication between tho wostorn and 
eastern paKs of Virginia was by this i-oute. Governor 



Jots Joliiisoii and Stonewall .lackson have stopped over 
here to enjoy trout and veiiieoii. Everything seemed 
prosperous and pieaeant witli Jacob Slaven until the 
terrible ravages of war laid his home in ashes, and ex- 
iled the happy inmates. The family consisted of eight 
daughters and four sons. We lay before our readers 
the following particulars concerning these sons and 

Harriet, who was greatly admired for her personal 
attractions, bacame Mrs Patrick Uallaher and went to 

Elizabeth was marrietl to Colonel William T. Gam- 
mon, a citizen of marked prominence. She now lives 
at Odessa, Missouri. 

John Randolph Slaven, late of Huutersvillo, married 
Margaret P. Wood<lell, lately deceased. 

Lanty Lockridge Slaven mairieti Isabella Burner, 
and settled on Back Alleghany, where his widowed 
wife with her eons, Jacob, Charles, and Gratz, resides. 

Mary P. Slaven was married to Jesse B. Slaven, at 
Meadow Dale, where she died and is buried, 

Warwick Slaven married Mary Riley and lives near 
Green Bank. 

Martha Slaven became Mrs J. T. Hoggsett, and liv- 
ed near Mill Point at the time of her death a few years 

Adalaide Eleanor Slaven was first married (by the 
writer) to Washington Arbogast. He died in 1864, of 
wounds received in the battle of Spottsylvania Court- 
house. Her second marriage was with William L. 
Brown, Esq and lives at Green Bank. 



Itfai^aret Eveline Slaven, now Mrs J. II. Patterson, 
lives at MarltDtoii. Mr Pattereoii is tlie Clerk of tlie 
Pocahontiu Circuit Court. He was a Confederate sol- 
dier from start to fioish, aiiil shared the perils of those 
who were first in battle and last in retreat. 

Barah Slaven was first married to I'eter H. Slaven, 
autl lived at Monterey, Virginia. Their son Emmet 
lives in Nebraska. Her second marriage was with 
Arista Hartman, now living in Kansas. 

Winfield T. Slaven married Nannie P. Riickmaii. 
iind lives near Marvin. 

In reference to the daughters, it is interesting to 
note that Elesnor and Margaret were twins. Mi]dre<l 
and Alice were also twin sisters. 

John Slaven and wife, the ancestral pioneers, that 
had their home on the beautiful banks of the upper 
Greenbrier, had a married life of fiftv-two years, ten 
months, and twenty-one days. It would be well could 
their graves be identified, where unheeded o'er tlieir 
silent dust the etornis of the eventful present and the 
recent past have raged in such ominous fury. The 
story of their lives helps us veryntuch towards a proper 
understanding of what it cost to make it possible for 
the comforts that gladden our lives. 


Among the earlier pioneers of the Little Levels were 

Jacob and Charles Kinnison. They were among the 

persons who had heard the wonderful intelligence 

brought in by a half demented neighbor, that he had 



sveu atreatiitt flowing towanU the west dm-ing his last 
oxcureloii in the wiltloinoss ipgioiis beyond. In their 
explorations of the Greenbrier Valley they found Jolin 
McNee], a refngetMieighbor, near Millpoint. He gave 
tliem the benefit of Ins observationH, and tlie three 
persons attempted permanent settlements about 1765. 
and thus left their old homes a few miles of Winches- 
ter, Va., near Capon Springs. 

Charles KiimiHon's wife was Maitlia Day. About 
the time of Braddock's defeat she and her mother were 
taken prisoners by the Indians, in the Capon neigiibor- 
liood. On the morning after the captivity, Mrs Day 
remarked to her friends that she believed the Indians 
intended to kill her. 

"Oh, mother, what makes you think so'f" exclaimed 

"Because they have given moccasins to all the pris- 
oners but me, and have left me bare footed,' replied 
the mother. 

When all were ready to move on a warrior walked 
up to Mrs Day and with his war club struck her a stun- 
ning blow between her shoulders, knocking the breath 
out of her, and then in an instant lifted her scalp-lock. 
She was left there in a state of insensibility, and it was 
never known whether she recovered consciousness or 
died immediately. 

The lands settled by Charles Kinnison are now oc- 
cupied by Sherman H. Clark as a residence. Charles* 
Kinnison remained on this place until he was far ad- 
vanced in life, when he migrated to (Jhlo, Mr and 
Mrs Kinnison were the parents of two daughters, whose 



names are not renicmbei-ed : and five sons, l>aViil, 
Oliarloa, Mark, Nathaniel and Amos. 

David Kiuniaon was born .Tiinc 7, 1767. He mar- 
ried Susanna Hughes, a sister of Moses and Milbnni 
Hughes. She was born April 17, 1767. He died in 
1835, aged 67 years. Site died in 1854, aged 83 
years. David Kinnison, soon after liis marriage, set- 
tled north of Millpoint, where Kenney Hogaett lives. 
They were the parents of two daughters, Esther, who 
became Mrs William McNeel, and Elizabeth; and these 
are the names of the seven sons: ('harlee, William, 
Lawrence, Mark, David, James, and Jacob. All these 
children went west, except Jacob Kinnison, and we 
have no information aw to their fantilieB. 

Jacob Kinnison married in 1828 Catherine Clenden- 
niu, a Hister of William and John Clendennin, and set- 
tled on the hoiueatcad. In reference to their children 
we have this information : Hannah was the first wife 
of the late William Morrisc^n, near Buckeye; William 
married Jane, daughter of Squire John McNeil, and 
lived on Dry Branch. Ho was a Union soldier. Hez- 
ekiah-Bland married Elizabeth Ann Silva, and located 
in Braxton County; Allen married Rebecca Perkins and 
lives ou the (jreenbrier east of Hillsboro; Nancy is now 
Mrs John D. Borke, at Marlinton. Sarah Ann be- 
came Mrs Isaac Hillon Hill'sCreek; John Bland died in 
early youth; David Dyerly, a Confederate s<ildier, died 
during the war. Mrs Catherine Kinnison died in 1864. 
Jacob Kinnison was a well known citizen, and served 
many years as constable of his district. He seemed 
never suited in politics and would sometimes decline 



VDtiiig, and claiiiKMl to be a conservative. 

Natlianiel Kinnimm, of (.'imi-k-s tlie pioneer, came iiL.-' 
fixim Ohio OH a visit, and died near Greon Bank. 

Amos Kinnisoii, of ('harlca the pioneer, married 
Nancj Casobolt, on tliu Greenbrier, and settled on 
part of tlie liomestead now in tlie possession of John 
B. KiniUHon, two miles west of Hillsboro. Their cliild- 
i-en were David, Martha, and Jolin Barlow. 

David married and settled near Charleston. 

Martha became the wife of Zechanali Armeiitrout, 
and settled in Nidiolas Countj'. Jolin Anneutrout, 
Iier son, a Confederate soldier, had hisliuad torn off by 
a solid cannon shot at the battle of King's Saltworks. 

John Barlow Kinnison married Dcida Gillespie Mor- 
rison, and settled on the homestead. He fiirmed and 
operated a nourishing blacksmith shop. Ho was an 
expert at the anvil, and by patient industry and econo- 
my he acquired a fine estate, now occupied by his 

In reference to his family, we loam that his only 
<laughter Caroline died aged four years. 

James Claiborne first married Rachel Kellison; sec- 
ond marriage was with Martha Cutlip, and he now lives 
on Hills Creek. 

Thomas Franklin maiTied Julia Hanna, of Gi-een- 
brier County, and lives at the homestead, 

John Wesley married Alice Hill, and lives on pi-op- 
eily recently held by the late Thomas Hill. 

George Allen Kinnison married Serena Brock and 
lives on Hills Creek. 

Doctor Morgan Kinnison married Cora, daughter of 



Isaac Hill, and lives on Hills Creek. 

John B. Kiiinisoii's father, Aiiioh Kinniaon, d'wt\ 
March 10, -IStiO, aged H^ years, 3 niontlis, 7 days; his 
mother, Nancy, died March 1«. 1K70, aged Hi years. 
m months, ti days; his wife, Deida, died Jiily '2i>. 
isyo, azed 00 years, 2 idouths, '2'S days. 

Jaeoh Kiniiisoii, the feihiw pioneer, with his brother 
Charles, located on lan'ls just east of Hillshoro, lately ' 
ficcupicd by his sons, Nathaniel and William Kinni- 
wm. There was one daughter Elizabeth, who wan 
ueter marrietl. Nathaniel Kinnison was never mar- 
tied also, and brother and sister kept house for a great 
many ye:irs. Tlio neitntjss and generous hospitality 
that characterized this home made it pleasant for the 
itinerant ministers for a long while. Nathaniel died 
February 13, 1859, at a very aJvMno'j.l a^^', Imvini!; 
lived a consistent christian life. 

William Kinnison married Nancy Oldham of Locust, 
and sottle<l on the lionn.'Htead. There were twodaugh- 
tei-8 and four sons. Sarah became Mrs William Old- 
ham, Elizabeth Mrs James Biirnaides. fii'st wife. 

The sons were Davis, John, Nathaniel, and Williajii. 
The three sons first named were Confederate soldiers. 

Uavis Kinnison ranked among the firHt class of onr 
eounty citizenship. Ho was for many years a magis- 
trate in his district. He received a liberal education 
at the Hiilshoro Academy, mainly under the tuition of 
Rev Dunlap. Mr Dunlap regarded him a:-t one of the 
most exemplary young persona he had ever instructed. 

Squire Uavis Kinnison died iu IH'.i'i. about (12 years 



■ if ngc. 

Clmrlett niid Jacob Ktiniiiwiii, tlio pioiieei' bi-fithern. 
were skillful wurkera iu wood with tliu broad axe and 
wliip saw. Some of tlie first carpenter work ever done 
in tliia county wan by tliein and Ricliard Hill, 

rliarloH Ktnnitton bowed tlie logs for Joliii McNeel, 
pioneer. The building yet etamU. He also prepared 
the \<tgs for the lionsc now dwelt in by Claiborne Mc- 
Neil, near Buckeye. Hi« services were gi-eatly valued 
in planning and conistructing forte. 

TliHH with aHHiHtance of J. B. Kinnieon and Allan 
Kinuieon, etonietbing hat; been attempted to embalm 
the memories of these good men and their worthy de- 
scendants. We believe it is tlie temper of many of the 
living KinnisonH to sec that the lustre of the Kinnisoii 
name shall not be tarnished, but rendered more illus- 
trious by all the facilities that may come to hand. 


The ('lendennin name liaw been familiar as a house- 
hold word to our people for more than a hundred years. 

They arc the descendants of Archibald t.'lendennin, 
who wae one of the pioneers of <iii>enbrier (bounty, 
and lived iu the Big Levels, not far from Lewisbnrg. 
The place has been long known as the Ballard Smith 

Charles Clendennin was slain by the Indians in 1768 
and was survived by two sons, George and Charles. 


IllSTOKV Ol" IHK'AfldSTAS (.IllSTV Ulii 

Id regai-d t<i (iooiyo Cleiuloiiniii wt- liiive imtliiiifi 
itiithentic. CImrlea (.'loiicloniim wns tnw of tlii' pin- 
M'vre of Kanawlm Coiiitty, niu! tliu t-itv of CiiarloMtoii 
is imiiitHl for hin». Williain Ck'ndcniiiii, ii soil of 
diaries, inarriefl Sallie ('ocliran, daugliter of Jolin 
Cocliraii, and settled on tlie Biugeds place, near 
Hillsboro, now occupied by John Payne. This occur- 
red about 1780. Their sons were Williain and John: 
their daughter Catherine became Mrs Jacob Kunnison, 

John Cochran was tbo person who brought in the 
slain bodies of the Bridger Brothers. His mother was 
a Mies Hogshead, of Augusta County, very ])ious per- 
son, and her granddnughttir Sallie was a very rigid 
christian pei-son and trained her children in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord. She was called a Jewess 
hotli "outward and inwardly," as she insisted upon her 
sons learning some trade. To gratify her conscientious 
wishes, her son William Clendennin was apprenticed 
to Bayliss W. Bapp, at Frankfoi'd, for seven years. 
stivon montliB, and seven days. Upon his marriage 
, with Jane Cochran, ho settled at the Oasobcdt ndll and 
finally hicated on the Seybert Place at the moutli of 
Stamping Creek. Their children were Mary Ann who 
became Mrs Buckhannon, and settled in I'pshur. 

John Clendennin married Rebecca Byrd, and lived 
at Byrd'e Mil! in upper Greenbrier. 

James Clendennin died in youth. 

Sally Clendennin cared for her parents,- prospert^d, 
and bought the place where she now lii'es. 

John Clendennin, of William the pioneer, learned 
his trade in a voluntary apprenticeship with Kalph 



Wanlc^e, au Iiiti motliei- wis)ied. It is toUl of Jolin 
tliat when a iiiin't; child lie attended a preaching service 
at tlie Hawk I'lace, on Locust ('reok, conducted by 
l>r McElheniiey. When the minister inquirixi whether 
any chihlren were to be baptized, Jolin, in the absence 
of Iiis niotlier, eaine forward and presented liimself and 
waa baptizt^, and named himself John McElhenney. 

Upon his marriage with Catherine Beybert, ho set- 
tled at Beai-d^H Mill on Locust Creek, and after many 
years moved to Highland County. They were the pa- 
rents of six sons: 

William died at the age of eight years and liesiu an 
unknown grave in the McNeel cemetery. 

Jacob F. lives in Highland. His first marriage was 
with Elizabeth Bird, and has two sons. The second 
marriage was with Mary Bird. 

George G. married Lonella McNeel, and lives on ii 
part of the old Beybert homestead, 

Adam B. was a Confederate soldier from the first of 
the war, and died in the battle before Petersburg, 
April, 1865. 

Charles R. married Mary Ann Tomlinson, and set- 
tled in Highland County. His sons John and Baninel 
went west. 

Btewart died at the age of fourteen years. 

In reference to those six sons of John Clendennin it 
may be noticed that George, Adam, and Charles learn- 
ed the blacksmith trade, and Jacob tailoring. 

Thus we have been able to give a few interesting 
items iltnstrating the Clendennin family history as far 
as identified with our Pocahontas citizenship. The most 


of tbis information watt furnished by (icorjtt' G. ( lon- 
(leunin, of Mill Point, in a rcccTit interview. 

Since writing tlie preceding it Imn come to niimi that 
the Audersfnis, on Hills Creek, are descendants of 
Archibald Clondemiin bv the third or fourth remove. 
Rev W. S. Anderson. Principal of tlic Alleglmnv Col- 
legiate Institnte; Rev C, M. Anderwm. are among them. 

This sketch will be closed bv a historic reminiscence 
that has beon widely published, and is perhaps already 
familiar to nianv, 

A partv of sixty or more Indians, led by Cornstalk, 
appeared very saddenly in west Greenbrier, in 1763. 
and came to the Cleudcnuin home, where they found 
perhaps seventy-five persons, men, women, and child- 
ren, to spend the day in st^tcial enjoyment and help 
tlieir neighbor Clendennin feast on three fat elk he had 
just brought in. Though not invitinl or oxpt'cted, the 
Indians upon their airrival wore kindly received and 
bountifully feasted as welcome guests. While all this 
good cheer was going on, the people never dreaming 
of danger, as peace had been prevailing for the past 
two or three seasons, and the Indians had been coming 
and going in a most friendly manner, an aged person 
afflicted with a chronic sore, consulted with one of the 
older Indians and inquired if he knew of anything that 
would cure it. In a bland and assuring manner lie 
told her that lie thought he knew of tiie very thing that 
would cure her. Then drawing his tomahawk lie kill- 
ed her instantly, and before the people had time to 
think, nearly all the men in the house were killed by 
this single warrior n)edicine man. 



Mrs ClfiKlwinin fought liko a fnry; rt^proaclied the 
Iiidianij in toriiiB of tlie severeet iiivectivf, calling them 
(towards and all the mean uaiiict< she could think of, 
while the warriors hrandished their tomahawks and 
scalping knives over licr head, and slapped her fact! 
with her husband's bloody' scalp, threatening instant 
death if she did not hush up and behave herself. 

The captives were taken at once to Mnddj- Creek in 
charge of a dutiieliinent, whilo tlio r^st continued the 
raid as far as Keri-s Creek in Rockbridge Countv. 
Upon their i-etui-n in ii few days, preparations were 
hastily made to retieat to tlio Ohio. On the day they 
stai-ted from the foot of Keeneys Knob, Mrs Clenden- 
nin gave hei- infant to one of the captives to carry. 
The captives were placed in the centre of the line, with 
warriors for vangnai-d and rearguard. Wliile crossing 
the mountain she slipped into a thicket of laurel and 
concealed lioi-self in a hollow tree. The child soon be- 
came very fi-etfiil, and this led the Indians to suspect 
that the mother was missing. One of the warriors 
said he would "soon bring the cow to her calf." Ho 
caught the child by the feet and boat its brains out 
against a tree, tiimw it in the path, all marched over 
it, and its intestines wei-e trampled out by the horses. 

After nightfall Mrs Clendennin came out of her hid- 
ing place and retui-ned to her home, ten miles away. 
She found her husband dead in the yard, with one of 
the children in his ai-ms, where he had ti-ied to escape 
over the fence. After covering the dead with rails she 
went iuto the cornlield near by and waited for day. 
During the night a great fear came upon lier, as shf 



iiiiiigincd she srw a man staixling witliiii a fvv: Hto))H 
from lier. 

Mainly witli lier own liaixlH she pit'parod a place un- 
Our the porch for the last resting place of her belovetl 
dead, and then soon after refugecd to Augusta Connty, 
where she remained a year or two. She finally return- 
ed to her home in Greenbrier, and was afterwards mar- 
ried to Ballai'd Smith, the ancestor of thedistiuguiaiied 
family of that name, so prominent in the annah of t)ie 
(rresubrier citizenslnp. 


Among tlie citizens of our county in later years froni 
the forties to the sixties, that took a lively interest in 
everything that pi-omised to promote the interests of 
education, morality, and the prospei'ity of the county 
generally, John Hai'tinan Ruckman deserves more than 
a brief notice. 

He traced his ancestry to one Samuel Rncknmn, a 
native of Englanij, and born in 1643. The Ruckmans 
had lived awhile in north east Wales, boi-dering Eng- 
land, and thence came to Long Island, New York, in 
1682. Thomas Ruckman, son of Samuel Ruckman, 
riie Welsh emigrant, was born on Long Island in IGMS, 
and his son James Ruckman, another link in the an- 
cestral chain, was born in New Jersey in 1716. James 
Ruckman's son, David Ruckman, was horn in Now 
Jersey in 1747. David Ruckman is tlie progenitor of 
the Ruckman relationship in Highland and Pocahontas 
Counties. He came to what U now south east Higii- 



land ('ouut,v, Virginia, juid scttlfd in tower Back 
Creek Valloy, about 178+. The pi^ico is iinw occiipie;! 
hy William Price Oa^npball, wh w-i *if 3 is a <l ui t\ti: o ' 
David Bnckmaii, a grandson of tlio piont-or. 

The settler married a New JerMoy wife. wh-. «0Qins 
to have been a person of liigli aspiratioiiP, atid longed 
for BOniethiug far better than she could get in New 
Jersey, Marvelous aecounts sejme.l tn have been re- 
ported abont the beatity, wealth, and happiness of 
Si>uthern homed. That in Virginia pe<iple lived in 
houses with earthen fluors, discarding the nse of wood. 
She seemed to have gathered from this that the floors 
were of mosaic work, sneh as princes havQ about their 
hnnaes in the old country. Upon reaching the place 
of destination, and. finding what earthen floors meant 
on the Virginia frontier, her disappointment was so 
intense that she wished to i-eturn at once; but circmii- 
stances were sucn that this was impossible, and so the 
situation was aecjpEe;!, W3at to w.>rk, anl a homo wa^ 
reared fiut of the Virginia forest. Her name was Sn- 
sannah Little. 

David and Susannah Ruckinan wore the ) arents of 
four sons and four daughters: Elizabeth, Sophia, Ma- 
ry, and Hannah; Samuel, John, James, and David 
Little, One of these worthy people, David L., died 
on the homestead reared by their own industrious, mu- 
tually helpful efforts, July 11, 1S22, and is buried on 
a gentle eminence that overlooks the scene of the 
toils and cares from which they now so silently rest. 
She survived and came to Pocahontas with her son 
David, and died about 1845, far advanced in age. 



John H. Kuckniaii, in whose memory this biograph- 
ic paper is specially prepared, was tbe eldest sou of 
Samuel Kiickman, Esq., of Highland Couuty. Samuel 
Ruckman just named was the eldest son of the pioneer, 
aud was born in New Jersey, November 17, 1783. 
His first wife was Nancy Uartmau, from beyond 
(ireenbank. They were married July 18, 1S09, and 
settled on Back Creek, There were one son, John H., 
and two dangliters, Mary and Nancy, in the first fami- 
ly. Samuel Kuckman's second wife was Margaret 
Slaven, from Pocahontas County, and her children 
were James, Elizabeth, Asa, and David Vanmeter. 

Mary Ruckman married I^aac Gmii. She is surviv- 
ed by two sons, Isaac and Aaron Guin. 

Nancy Ruckman was mairied to William Wade, 
went west, and is survived by several children. 

James Ruckman died in youth. 

Elizabeth Ruckman was married to John P. Ervine. 
She is survived by three children, James, Mary, and 

Asa Ruckman married Cornelia Brown, and went 

David V. Ruckman married Anna Herring, daugh- 
ter of tbe late Bethuel Herring, of Augusta County, 
Their children were Kate, now Mrs Wise Herold; Lucy 
uow Mrs Edward Wade, Anna Laurie, now Mrw Wil- 
liam Price Campbell; Margerie is tbe wife of Rev 
Co^e, of Missouri; Sarah is at home; David Glendye 
Ruckman lives in Augusta; Samuel Ruckman, a youth 
of more than ordinary promise, died when a student. 

Colonel D, V". Rnckmau's second wife wag Miss 



Lizzie Kagle, daughter of the late Samuel Eagle. 

John H. Riickmai) was bont in Highland Comity, 
(then Bath), Novernbei 11, 1810. He married Mary 
BrnfTey, November 7, 1833, She was a daughter of 
Patrick Bruffey, He first settled on the old home- 
stead on Back Creek, and then moved to Pocahontas, 
al>out 18+5, to the Bradshaw place near Millpoint. He 
finally located on the Greenbrier, opposite the Stamp- 
ing Creek junction, where he built a fine residence and 
spent several years. Mr and Mrs Kuckman were the 
parents of eight children: Caroline, Sydney, diaries, 
Samuel, James A., William Patrick, David Newton, 
and Polly Ann. It is a sad reflection that not one of 
these sprightly sons and daughters is now alive. 

Caroline became Mrs William J. Caekley, near 
Millpoint, and died soon thereafter. Charles Kuck- 
inan was a Confederate soldier, became a prisoner of 
war, and was for sometime a prisoner at Fort Dela- 
ware, and on his return homeward died at Baltimore 
from the effects. Samuel Rnckman, a younger Con- 
federate soldier, died at Greenbank, occasioned by 
fatigue and exposure. James Atlee Ruckman died in 
battle at Fort Republic. William Patrick, David New- 
ton, and Polly Ann died In childhood. 

Sydney Ruckman, the eldest of the sons, was a Con- 
federate soldier, and survived the war. He married 
Almira Campbell, daughter of the late William Camp- 
bell, who at the time occupied the home opened up by 
David Ruckman the pioneer. It was the writer's 
pleasure to officiate upon the occasion, and was made 
the recipient of one of the most liberal fees ever known 


JHTY 163 

to be given for uucli a service id tliat vieiuity. After 
all tbe perils of war, lie came uear losing his life in a 
time of peace in a rencontre timt is alleged to have 
been tlie principal reason of tbe famou:^ Atchison 
lynching at Monterey. It is reported that all this was 
done in dii-ect opposition to Sidney's wishoa, and that 
he was always sorry it ever happened, as he felt hiai- 
self fully able to look out for himself. He finally 
went to Oklahoma, and on his way to meet and bring 
home his wife, visiting in Kansas, he died under sud- 
den and sad circumstances, September, 1896, at the 
hands of suspected parties, who were pursued and 
dealt with .in a very siiiuoiary niauuer. He is surviv- 
ed by his wife and two sons, Charles and William. 

John H. Ruckmaii's sfecond wife was Mary Wood- 
dell, near Greenbank. In 1863 he sold out his pos- 
sessions in Pocahontas and moved to Georgia, where 
he died a few years since. Mrs Kuckmau married 
again, and is now Mrs Wilson. 

The writer cherishes the mG:nory of this man with 
feelings of special interest. He owes something in 
the way of mental stimulus to liia influence. 

"Wiltiam, do you know that if you were to try you 
might become something of a man in time ? My ad- 
vice is, set your aim high, and see what it may all 
come to you jet." 

"Well, Mr Ruckmau, you talk differently from 
what 1 generally hear about myself. A person who 
knows me much better than you do told me that I was 
abont the biggest fool in all this country, and sooio- 
times I feel as if it might be so." 



Soino little tiiiiti after tliia interview, I was at liis 
lioDBc for dinner, and when we took onr placeti be in- 
vited ine to invoke the blessing, and so at his table my 
(irat effort of the kind was ever made. 

For some years we were confidential friends, but 
finally our paths drifted far apart and we saw and 
knew but little nf each other face to face, but in mem- 
ory he was often present to my mind, and he is now, 
as I pencil these memorial paragraphs, seemingly near 
eiiongh to grasp his haud and greet him the time of 
day. He was a ecrnpulous member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, an ardent advocate of temperance, 
and intensely devoted to the welfare of his country. 


Among the citizens of prominence in the organiza- 
tion of the county was Edward Ervine, late of the 
Greenbank District, His residence was at the head of 
Trimble's Run. This homestead is now occupied by 
his son Preston, aud David Oragg, a son in law, 

Mr Ervine was born April 2, 1790, near Miller's 
Iron works, Augusta County, aud lived there until 
manhood. He married Mary Cnrry, who was horn 
Juue 'iO, 1794, Upon leaving Augusta County soon 
after his marriage, he settled on Back Creek, near the 
Brick House at the mouth of the Long Draft. They 
were the parents of ten children, seven sons and three 
daughters. The daughters were Mary Ann, now Mrs 



George Ti-acy; Margaret Jane, born 1827, now Mrs 
Charles Philips; Frances Elzedie, born 1829, became 
Mrs Jacqb Totulinson, late of Ktrnsas. 

In reference to the eons of this pioneer Edward Er- 
vine, we have the following particulars, furnished by 
litH son, Freetttu Ervine : 

Benjamin Franklin Ervine born 1816, married Mary 
daughter of Robert Kerr, who were the parents of 
■ these children : Eliza, now Mrs James Hughes; Ed- 
ward Newton, on Buffalo Mountain homestead; Mar- 
garet, recently deceased, who was for the most of her 
usefni life an inmate of Hon, S. B, llanna's family, 
on Deer Creek. She will be long remembered for her 
very interesting charactei-. 

B. F. El-vine entered the Confederate ser^'ice, was 
captured on the Upper tract in 1861, and died a pris- 
oner of war soon after, 

James Addison Ervine, born 1818, niarried Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Patrick Bruffey, and lived on the 
Nottingham place, and were the parents of six daugh- 
ters and three sons. The sons were William, Calvin, 
and James Patrick. The daughters were Mrs Stephen 
Lockridge, late of Highland County, Mary, Harriet, 
Elizabeth, Caroline, and Rose. Soon after the war J. 
A. Ervine nioved to Missouri and located near St. Louis 

William Frye Ervine (born 1824) tirst married Eliz- 
abeth Kerr and settled on property now owned by Ma- 
rion Ray. Mrs Brown Arbogast is their daughter. 

Second marriage was with Mary Jane Burner. The 
children of this man'iage wore John Preston and Amy, 
n<tw Mrs Joe Riley. 



Tiiii-d marriage was witli Mrs Elizabeth JaneTaylDi-, 
widow of William Tajlor, daughter of the Iat« Freder- 
ick Burr, near Huiitersville, Tlie cliildreu ot,thia mar- 
riage are Mrs Mary Bunia, of Bath County, and Mc- 
Neer Ervine, on tlie Burr homestead on Browns Mt. 

Kobert Hook Ervine (born 1831) married Mrs Isaac 
Hartman (nee Matlieuyj and settled near Pine Grove, 
TIjeir one child, Bei-tha, died at the age of seven years. 

Edward Augustus Ervine (1833J married Mary Aun 
daughter of Henry Beverage, and moved to Centre- 
ville, Upshur County, where he now lives. They are 
the parents of four daughters and two sons, Vernon, 
George, Amanda, Laura Ann, Nancy Jane, and Sarah. 

Preston Cunningham Ervine (1836) married Marga- 
ret Rebecca Beverage, and settled on a section of the 
parental homestead. His family consists of four sons 
and eight daughters; Mrs Susan Varner, of Georgia; 
Mrs Alice Arbogast, Mrs Emma Kellar, Mrs Nannie 
Rader, Mrs Clara Arbogast. David Lee married Vir- 
gie Sutton, daughter of Samuel Sutton, and lives at 
the homestead ; Cora Ella, now Mrs Jesse Orndorf; 
Houston died tn 1897 in his 20tli year. Lola Grace 
and Sadie Florence at their homes. 

Charles Washington Ervine (1838) married Serena, 
daughter of Solomon Varner, and settled in Upshur 
County, near Centreville, where be died in 1896. 
Their children were Baxter, Florence Rebecca, now 
Mrs McWhoi-ter in Buckhannon; Bryson, Ida, now 
Mrs John Gawthrop, near Centreville; Walker lives in 
Upshur, Brady in the far west, and Gertrude, 



The foregoing are some of the particulars that illus- 
trate the family history of Edward Ervine, a citizen of 
marked prominence in his day in county affaire. He 
became a citizen of this region -Bome time before the 
organization of the county, and was one of the iiret 
members of the County Court. Upon his removal 
from Back Creek he settled on lands bought of Bona- 
parte Trimble, who lived in Augusta County, not far 
from Buffalo Gap. Tlie improvements at the time of 
ills purchase consisted of a primittve cabin, an acre or 
so of cleared land, and, as the reader has just been in- 
formed, reared a large family. 

He held the office of magistrate for almost his life- 
lime, celebrated numerous marriages, presided at a 
great many trials, and issued more warrants than can 
be readily enuniorated. His disposition was jovial, 
and his humor seemed inspiring, and wherever he went 
he seemed to diffuse good humor and cheerfulness. 
For a long while he was a member of Liberty Church, 
and was a model specimen of the plain, straight- 
forward, Scotch-Irish Virginian. It appears from the 
Curry records in Augusta that Mr Ervine was a lineal 
descendant of one of the three Curry brothers who 
came to the Valley of Virginia with tlie earliest emi- 

In the leadings of an all wise providence, Edward 
Ervine's lot fell to him in a sparsely populated country 
The type of religion lie inherited in Scotland and the 
north of Ireland tended to blend in personal character 
indomitable industry, wise provision, and satisfying 



ciimfoit, and tlie ideal of his endeavors was to have a 
home of his own amid fields and meadows. Of such 
homes an eloquent writer aa^s : "The honies of our 
land ai-e its havens of ppaco, its sanctuaries of strength 
and happiness. Hence como tliose principles of probi- 
itj- and integrity that arc the safeguards of our nation." 


Andrew Edniiston, Esq., of Scotch-Irish ancestry, 
late of the lower Levels, is the subject of this 
biographic memoir. The iinmeiliate ancestry of the 
Ediniston relationship is traceable to Matthew Edniis- 
ton, who came to Augusta County, V»,, from Chester 
County, Pa., among the earliest settlers of Augusta 
County, about 1740, or very soon thereafter. 

James Edmiston, a son of Matthew the ancestor, 
was one of six children and was born in Augusta 
County, October 7, 1746, and died October 7, 1817. 
James Edmiston's wife was Jane Smith, fi-om Ireland, 
who was born October 17th, 1746, and died May 
20th, 1837, aged 91 years. Andrew Edmiston, son of 
James, was born July 22d, 1777. 

Soon after his marriage with Mary (Polly) Gilliland. 
January 8tb, 1807, Mr Edmiston settled near Locust, 
on lands now owned by George Callison. In refer- 
ence to Mrs Folly Edmiston, let it he noticed here that 
she was a daughter of the first Mrs James GilHland, — 


UKTV 169 

Lydia Armstrong, born October ITtii, 1755, aud de- 
ceased July 23d, 1817. Mre Polly EdmiBton was born 
July 4tli, 1790, and was a bride at 17 years of age. 
Her death occurred January 2, 1877, eurviviDg lier 
liueband tliirteeD years. James Uilliland, lier father, 
was born in Augusta County, March 16th, 1749, and 
died February 14th, 1844, near Falling Spring, Green- 
brier County, aged 95 jeare. He married for his sec- 
ond wife Mrs Jane Smith Eduiiston, the widowed 
mother of Andrew F.dmiston, in February, 1819. By 
this marriage Mr Gilliland became Andrew Edmiston'a 
step-father, as well as father-in-law, a relationship so 
unique as to challenge a parallel in the history of Po- 
cahontas marriage relationships. 

This James Gillihmd^s father was named Nathan 
Gilliland, about whom we have no particulars. By 
the first marriage there were six sons, Robert, James, 
Nathan, William, Samnel. and George; and six daugh- 
ters, Jane, Sarah, Elizabeth, Nancy, Lydia, and Mary 
(Polly), the last named the wife of Andrew Edmiaton. 
What lends interest to what has just been said about 
James Gilliland's first family is the fact that there are 
cogent reasons for believing that Hon. Mark Hanna, " 
of Ohio, is a descendant of one of the above named 

It is also interesting to mention that Andrew Edniis 
ton was a lineal descendant of Sir David Edmiston, 
cup-bearer to James 1st of Scotland; also of Sir James 
Edmiston, standard bearer of the royal colors in the 
battle of Sheriffmuir, (1715). In the Revolutionary war 
Mr Edmiston's ancestors were distinguished, and nota 



bly at the battle of Kiiig^s Mountain. Several of his 
grandHous were good Confederate soldiers in the late 
war between the States. 

Mr and Mrs Edmiston were the parontn of five sona 
and five daiightei's: Lydia, Elizabeth, Jane, . Martha, 
Mary, James, George, Matthew, Andrew Jackson, and 

Lydia Edmiston was married to Richar<l McNeel, 
grandson of John McNeel the original settler of the 
Levels, and lived near Millpoint. 

Elizabeth Edmiston became Mrs James Gilliland, 
of James, Senior, and settled in Davies County, Mo. 
Jamesport, a town of 1:200 popnlatiou, was located on 
his farm, and honce wati called Jainesport. 

Jane Edmiston became Mrs Abram Jordan, men- 
tioned elsewhere as having gone west. So far as 
known to the writer, she is now living in Kansas with 
her daughter, Mrs William Renick. 

Martha Edmiston married Franklin Jordan, and set- 
tled in Missouri, where she died leaving no surviving 

Mary Edmiston was an invalid all her life and never 
married. She went with her brother George Edmiston 
to Missouri. 

Matthew Edmiston married Minerva Bland, in Weu- 
tou, and settled there. His name appears in the his- 
tory of our State as one of the most distinguished of 
our native born public characters. In Lewis' History 
and Government of West Virginia, mention is made 



of tbi8 diHtinguished man ae follows: 

"Judge Edmiston was born September 9, 1814, at 
Little Levels, PocaliontaB Comity, where after receiv- 
iDg a coaimoii school education, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, Fonr years after he remoTed to Lewis 
Coanty, which later he represented in hotli brandies of 
the General Assembly of Virginia. In 1852 he was 
chosen a judge of the circuit court, in which position 
he continued until 1860. He was elected to a seat in 
the Cunstitntional Convention of 1872, bnt becanae of 
ill health did not qualify. He was appointed a judge 
of the Supreme Court of Appeals in 1886, but one year 
before his death. Judge Edmiston died June 29tli, 
1 887, at his home in Weston, Lewis County. " 

Judge Matthew Edmiston reared a large family. Of 
his five sons, four became physicians and one a lawyer. 
Each distinguished himself with marked credit in both 
private and professional life. One by one they ful- 
filled the destiny of their career and answered the final 
summons of life, until to-day but one survives. He 
possesses the distinction of having been named for the 
subject of this sketch. Hon. Andrew Edmiston re- 
sides at Weston, Lewis County. Of him well may it 
be said, "His has been a life of great influence and 
usefulness." Possessing in a marked degree those 
sturdy elements and attributes of manhood which have 
always characterized the Edmiston family, he has 
brought added lustre to the name. Electing to follow 
in the footsteps of his eminent father, he has graced 
and dignified the high calling of the law. Prominent 



in politics and state-craft, he bas steadily advanced in 
the esteem of the public until be lias erected for him- 
self a monument uf honoi- and itiftuence that will testify 
in all future time to liis worth and greatness. Whether 
engaged in the discharge of the duties incident to po- 
litical office or in the less prominent walks of life, he 
has always served his couBtituoncy alike with the same 
unfaltering fidelity. The name of Andrew Edmiston, 
of Weston, is conspicuously identitied with the political 
history of West Virginia. To few men is given such 
wide power and influence. 

James Edmiston married Mary Hill, daughter of 
Thomas Hill. He lived a number of years near Mill- 
point, on the farm now held by C. Edgar Beard. Mr 
Edmiston was a member of the Pocahontas Court, and 
for years was prominent in county affairs. Late in 
life he went west. Mrs Minerva Beard, of Lewisburg, 
is his daughter. 

George Edmiston man-ied Mrs Nancy Callison, relict 
of Isaac Callison, and a daughter of John Jordan, and 
lived many years at the homestead. Ho waa a busy, 
enterprising man, and was engaged in many business 
enterprises with the late Colonel FanI McNeel. He 
finally ojoved to Missouri, where his family resides. 

Andrew Jackson Edmiston married Rebecca Edmis- 
ton, a daughter of James Edmiston, eon of William 
Edmiston, brother of Andrew Edmiston. After the 
decease of her husband, Mrs Edmiston became the 
wife of Jackson Jones, of Nicholas Comity. 

William Edmiston, the youngest of Andrew Edmis- 



ton's SODS, spent some time with Judge Edinietou at 
Weston, where he attended school. He then went sev- 
eral terms to Rev Dunlap, principal of the Pocahontas 
Academy at Hillshoro. When -he attained liis majori- 
ty he started to Missouri with Anthony C. Jordan. 
While on a steamer in Missomi waters he was seized 
with cholera and died on the boat. The towns were 
quarantined in a very rigid manner, and all landing 
was prohibited. Hence the crew were compelled to 
b'jry their passenger at a lonely, nninhabited spot, not 
very remote from St. Charles, Mo, His friend Jordan 
went ashore to assist in the burial, bat would not re- 
turn to the boat, and finished his journey to Davies 
County on toot, after successfully eluding the quaran- 
tine guards by keeping away from the public routes of 

In his youth and early manliood Andrew Edmistou 
seems to have had a consuming passion for athletic ex- 
ercises, boxing, wrestling, and feats of muscular en- 
durance. There was living at the time one Thomas 
Johnson, near the head of Stony Creek, who claimed 
to be the champion hard hitter of all that region. He 
heard of young Edmiston^s exploits as an athlete, and 
these exploits created some doubt as to which was the 
"best man"; and to settle the question the ambitious 
Stony Creek champion sent a challenge to tiie chaui- 
piou of the lower Levels, that if he would meet him he 
would find out that though he miglit be the best the 
Levels could sliow, that he would soon find himself uo- 



wliere on Stony Creek if he just dareJ to show himself 
lip there. This tired young Edmiaton, and made him 
as hot as the furnace we read of in Daniel. He may 
have sought rest but he did not find any that night, 
and 80 he set out by tho light ot the morning stars for 
West IT Lion. 

Ho walked from hie lionie near Locust to John 
S.iiith's, head of Stony Creek — fifteen or inoro miles — 
before breakfast to dispute the question of "best man" 
with Tom Johtison on Itis own Stony Creek ground. 
Without stopping for rest or breakfart he sailed into 
Johnson, tooth, fist, and toenail. In the first round 
Johnson landed a terrific blow on Edmiston's shoulder 
that dislocated Edmiston's arm, and yet he continued 
the contest until he saw his opportunity, and overpow- 
ered Johns:)" until he called out enough. 

John Smith then took charge of the victor, the now 
boat man oE Stony Creek and the Levels, and gave 
him his breakfast, and by noon ho was back at Locust. 
He felt the effects of that dislocation all of his subse- 
ijiient life. Slight exertion would ever after make his 
injured arm fly out of place at the shonlder. 

In his later years he professed a change of heart and 
became a member of the M, E. Churcb, His sincerity 
was respected by all who knew hiui best, and regarded 
genuine. Mr Edniiston died April 15th, 1864, agod 
87 years. When the dying day came, when lie was to 
pass over to the bright forever, it was found that he 
had nothing to do but to die. God had not cast him 
off in the time of old age, nor forsaken him when his 
strength failed. At evening time it was light with 



this venerable man, and he could realize tlie power of 
words like these: "1 will go in the stvength <jf the 
Lord God; I will make mention of thy righteoiisiiesH, 
even of thine only, " 

The Friel relationship trace their ancestry to one 
Daniel O'Friel, a native of , Ireland, who probably 
came to Augusta county with the Lewises, 1740. He 
.settled on Middle River, between (Jhurchville and 
BtauDton. His children were James, William, Jere- 
miah, and Anna. James O^Friel went to Maryland, 
Eaeteni Shore. William settled in Higliiand County. 
Anna became a Mrs Crawford and lived in Augusta. 

Daniel O'Friel seems to have been a person of con- 
siderable means. He sold his property for Continental 
money, with a view of settling in Kentucky, Tlu- 
money being repudiated, he was unable to carry out 
his plans. Upon Jacob Warwick's invitation, Jere- 
miah O'Friel came to Clover Lick. Mr Warwick gave 
him land on Carrich Kidge. This land was exchanged 
with Sampson Matthews, Senior, for lands on Green- 
brier, now occupied in part by his descendants. 

Jeremiah Friel's wife was Anna Brown, daughter of 
Joseph Brown, who was living at the time on Green- 
brier River, Their first home was on Carrich Ridge, 
then afterwards they lived on the river. Their child- 
ren were Joseph, Daniel, Joaiah, John, Catherine, 
Hannah, Ellen, Mary, and Jennie. 


176 HI8T0KY OF 

Josepli Friel married Jane McCoHam, and lived on 
the home place. He served on the first Pocahontas 
grand jury. His cliiUtreu were Jeremiali, William, 
Oeorge Washington, a Confederate eoldicr, Slat Vir- 
ginia Kegimeut, and died at Stribling Springe in 18<I2; 
Hannah, and Mary Ann, now Mrs Joseph Dilley. 

Daniel Friel married Anna Casebolt, daughter of 
Heury Caaebolt, on the Greenbrier near Stamping 
Creek, and settled on a section of the homestead. Of 
their ehildieu, Andrew Harvey married Anna Johnson, 
went first to Iowa, thence to Tennessee, where he died 
in 1871. Barbara became Mrs Lindsay Sharp; Sabina 
Martha became Mrs Stcplien Earnetr. Montgomery 
Allen was a Confederate soldier attached to the 31st 
Virginia Infantry. Ho married Rachel Christine, 
daughter of Rev James E. M)jr3, and lived near 
Hunters ville. 

Josiah Friel married Mary Sharp and lived on part 
of the John Sharp homestead. Their childi'cn were 
Ann; Sally, Mrs James E. Johnson; Mrs Nancy 
(irimes, near Millpoint; Ellen, Mrs George Slavcn; 
John, and Israel, who lives on Droop Mountain. 

John Friel married Jennie Brown, daugliter of Josiah 
Brown, and settled on a section of the Brown home- 
stead near Indian Draft. In reference to their child- 
ren the following particulars are in hand : James Twy- 
man lives on the Dry Branch of Elk, He was a Con- 
federate prisoner for three years, Josiah Franklin, 
Confederate soldier — 31st Virginia — died in battle at 
Port Republic. William Thomas, Confederate soldier 
— 18th Virginia Cavalry^survived the war, and was 



ili-oTviied ill Valley River, ncai- Klkwater, in IHTS. 

Mary Jane became Mrs JaincH Gibson, on Elk, ami 
died recently. Mary Frances was the tirtit wife of 
yholdon Hannah, on Elk, John Friel was a Confed- 
erate Holdiei', though exempt by age from military ser- 
vice, and died in the army on Alleghany Mountain. 
December, 1861, shortly after the battle, 

Catherine was married to James Sharp, on Elk. hi 
reference to her children these interesting particu- 
lars are available: Jeremiah Sharp was a Union sol- 
dier and died in the service, John Sharp was a Con- 
federate soldier — fi2d Regiment — and died in battle at 
Beverly in 1864. Josiah Sharp was a Confederate 
soldier, attached to the Greenbrier Cavalry. He sur- 
vived the war, married a Miss Dotson, and lives near 
Falling Spring. 

Daniel Sharp was a (Confederate soldier — 62d Regi- 
ment, He was captured on Elk, and was killed at 
Tolley's (two miles below Mingo) in an etfort to rescue 
the prisoners. 

Morris Sharp, Confederate veteran — 6"id Regiment 
■ — was woHuded at Winchester so Heverely that the sur- 
geons decided on amputating his left arm. He em- 
phatically and persistently refused to submit to the op- 
eration. The wound healed and ho now lives, and 
when last heard from he was in charge of Heni-y 
Clark's mill on Spring ("reek. 

In reference to the pioneer's daughters, we learn 
that Hannah Friel was married to Jefferson (Jasebelt, 
and lived near Stamping (Creek, Her daughter. Martha 
Casebolt, became Mrs John A. Alderman, and Barbsi- 



ra Anil wam married ti> dnliii Doiialiiio, itiiil livi-d in 
the Levcli'. Jt'iiiiic tM'cninc Mrs Tliarp and wont wt-wt. 
Kllen Fricl bccaiiit' Mrw Jidiii Oillev. ami lived lu-ar 
Kdray. Marv Fnel bocanic Mrs Williain Dillov, aiul 
Mi'ttled ill Hunters villo. 

The coiiipilor in Iuh atteni])! to illiistmti' llie history 
cf Jeremiah Kriers fimdly Ihih boeii jiiniiily aided tiv 
litH graiidHon, tlie late M. A. Friel, who took niwcial 
|)aiii8 to c<dl(ft antlieiitie inforination. It loay be iii- 
tei-cHting to sav about hiiri that he Btaiidn on the old lift 
an the first Buliscriber to "The PocahontaK'Tiine!»";aiul 
lie claims to have owned and nsetl the iirnt kerosene 
lamp in Pocahontas, in 18t)5. 

Jeremiah Friel was in the oxpotlition to l*iiinf Pleaw- 
ant, 1774-, in the esme compaiij' with Jacob Warwick. 
He was one of the soldiera detailed niidoi- Jaeoh AVar- 
wick to pro\-ide a supply of itieat foi- thi; contemplated 
advance on the Indian towns in Ohio, in the moniing: 
of that memorable battle, and was at work in the 
slaughier pens when the battle was going on. The 
hunters and bntehera wei-e rnllie«^l hy Jacoli Warwick 
and crossed over. At this the eiiciny inystcritmsly 
ceased firing and began to withdraw acmsn the Ohic) 
River, supposing that Colonel Chn'stian had aiTived 
with reiaforccrneiits. Tlie importance of that action 
by Jacob Warwick and his inen need not be dwelt 
upon here. 

Jeremiah Friel and his sons were noted i-oaixfrs. At 
that day there was cooperative harvesting. Squiri' 
Kobert Gay's wheat was usually the first to ripen. Be- 
jrinning tlRU'e, all hands from Jaiites Bridger's down. 



woukl come lialloiiig and singing, waving tlirir sickk's, 
I'ugyr to at;t,' who would cut tlie tirst sheaf anil make tln^ 
bcsr i-ccoi-d. Then from field to tield ii]> tlie river the 
hai-veetern woiihi pi'ogi-efi.i until Bmlger's h!ii-ve:st was 
reaped; tlionee to Wiliiaut and .loliu Slmvp's. an<i -lo- 
siali Brown's, and somctimoN to Robert Moore's, at 
Edi-ay. Tlu-n the sickle club w<m!d disband with great 
hilarity for their respective homes. 

Late one evening at Fi-iel's the linrvcHters quit with- 
out shocking up all that Iiad been reaped iiiid bonnil, 
■lereiniah Fi'iel observed: "Boys, it is so late and you 
are ko tired I believe we will let these slieaves ivst till 
niorniiig."' But aftei' supjier he noticed it lightning 
otninimsly in the west ami north. lie roused iii> all 
hands out of their heds, provided pine torches, 'and 
away all went in torchlight procession to the tield and 
rinishetl up the shocking just befi>re miiiuight. This 
harvest scene must have been strangely pieturesijue. 
Before day it was raining Coi-rents attended with ferrifir- 
ihniidor and lightning. 

He was a jovial cojnpanion for his sons and encunr- 
aged them from infancy in the favoriti^ |niHlinies of the 
(teriud, running foot races, wrestling and boxing. A 
favorite amusement when raining and tht^ hoys iiud to 
stay in diKirs. was a mode of swinging caHeil "weigh- 
ing bacon." A loop wan iixwl at one end of a i-ope 
or trace chain, the other end was thrown ovei' a beam 
or joist. The feet weje plac«<l in the loop, and then 
seizing the other end with the hands they would swing. 
It requires practice and nice balancing to swing, al-, 
though it looks very eiisy to one that has never ti'ied it. 


We would imt mW'wv iiiiv uno to rry it witlmiit j»nivi»l- 
iiig II big (liU'iif -(truw to fall on. 

Wlii'ii tlic Virginia ti-oopH wci-c on tlic iimicti to 
Vorkt<i\vn, Ihiiiid O't'iicl'd tCHin wai* |ji-css(hI and ,]vr- 
ciiiiali wiiN il('tail<Hl t<i taki! cimi-gi' of it. TImh was 
about tin- most of the wrviw bo wiw cailcil on to icn- 
(IiT (luring tliv Kfvohiti<iimry war. 

Scv<Tul yciirw hcforc liiw dcatb Im was riding tlirongli 
llut W001I14 ont^ dark iiigbt. The linr^c |>aFiK('<l ninU'r a 
Xrvv witli wi(b' sj)rfa(liiig liiiibw, aii<l Mr KricI wan so 
KcvcivJy injured iu liitt i^pinc tliat hy wan virtually holji- 
li-sN tlio rcniaimlor of hin life-. He tlied in ISld, sin- 
cort'ly btirK'nt<-<l by bis rtdativew. iicigblxtrs luul friciutx. 


t'orty or fifty ycarw agi>, oiui of tin- most generally 
known citizeiiH of our-connty was I'etev I.iglitner, on 
Knapps Creek. \\i; wan tall in jH^rMon, active in liin 
nuivenientH. always in a good bniiior, and <ine of tbc 
iuowt expert Imrseiiicn of Iiis times, an<l perbapH rualixvd 
as mucli ready eliange swapping iiorses as any ntlier of 
liis citi/en eon temporaries. He could couk^ ko near 
making a new ai)d young liorse of an old dilapidat<^d 
framework of an animal as waw ]>oMsible for anyone to do 
wbo liaK ever made a business of dealing iu borse-He^li. 

Near flic close of tlie last century, lie Sifttled on 
K)m]ipH Creek, on laiid pureliased fitini .lanie-t Poage. 
wlm emigrated to Kentucky. Mr I'oage bad built a 
mill wliicli Mr Liglitner improved upon, and for yeni-s 
iiccommodated n wide circle of cuNtomers. wbii had 


gotten tirod uf lioiiiinv anil liorniiiv iiicnl pouikUhI in n 
golilef-Bliapt'd block. Tlio pewtki bv wliicli Hie n-itnrii- 
tiini was dcnif w«s iiHimily a piyei' of wood liki^ a !ian<l- 
xpiko, witli Hii iron wcdgo iiiwyrtod in one end, and 
fiiMtoiKHl by an iron band t<i koojt it tVoiii wplittiup. 
TliJH mil! was a piecioiiM and valuable convenience, 
and bronglit comfort to nianv lioniew, and mune of the 
most tootliHoine br<!!ul ever eaten in our eimiity was 
made of meal from Liglitner'x mill. Sonu^ families 
bad liatid-millH, bnt Ibev were ulnmt a.s bard to operate 
iw tho honiiiiy block, or mortar wit.b tbe iron-bonn.l 

It in believed Mr Liftlitner eamt^ frojn tbe neigbbor- 
IkxkI of Crab Bottom, near tbe licadwaters of tlie S<iiifli 
Brand) of tbo Pot<iniac. His wiff wiw Alctnda Harper, 
a sister of Henrv Harper, tb« imcustor of tbe Harp<'r 
connexion in onr county, Sbe. tlierefore, bronfrlit tbat 
pretty name to I'oeabontiis, and there have been many 
Alcindaa in lier wortby deHCendantH and relatives, 

Tbe property owned by Peter I.ijflitner is now in 
possession of Hiigb Dever and tbe family of tbe late 
Francis Dever, Escj., a few niilen from Frost. 

Mr I.ightner's fairuly c<ni«iTited of one son anil four 

Jacob Linlitner, tbeir only son. itiiirricd Miss Fli/.a- 
Moore, wlio wiiM renn"! cm tlic farm now occupied liy 
Andrew Herold, Esq.. near Frost. Her fatber wa« 
•lobn Moore, a son of Mohi's Mooiv, tbe lutH-A pioneer. 
and ber motlier was a McCUing, of the (irecTdirier 
briuieJi of tliat noted conm-xion. Jacob I.ijrbtner's 
ejiijdren were I'eter l.isbtue,'. whi. i\ii-d at bome; 


M. Liglitnor, inu-c a iiieiiil»'r of tlic liiintciPivillc bin'. 
1111(1 iti»!vt'il ti) Abilene, Textw, wliero Ik- <licii a few 
vearw wince; Samuel M. Liglitiier wns a utiulent of 
I'liiMii Tliei'logieal Semiiiai-y, and Imil aboiit completed 
]d» tttiidieK for tlie Presbyterian ministry when he 
entt-red the army. He iimrried Miss Sally Mildred 
Poage, ill Rjckbritlge County, and iVutl a few montlis 
after Idit marriairc, at Batesviitc. Virginia, and waw 
bin-ied at Falling Spring Clmrt-h near the Natinul 
Bridge. Jlis widow married Kev Edward Lane, D.l).. 
a diHtingiiislied mistiioiiary to Brazil, where, he die<l 
much lamented. For Home time Mrs Lane haa resided 
in Staunton, Virginia, to be near her daiiglitern who 
wei-U pupils of Mian Baldwin')] tieiiiiimry. 

Aleinda, one of Jacob Liglitiier's danghters, was a 
noted beauty, and very popular. She became the wifo 
of the late JiimeK IJ. Cainpliell, of tligldand Connty. 

Mary, anothej' daughter, married Rev ,lolin W. 
Hedges, of Berkley County, a widely known Metli<)dist 
minister of the Baltimoi-e Conference.. 

Aliee, the yiumgeMt daughter never married. 

The eldeKt daughter of Peter and Aleiiida Lightner, 
was named Kli/.abeth. She was marriiil to Joiiepli 
Sharp at KniHt. Mr and Mrs Sharp wen^ the pareiitw 
of Abraham and Peter Sharp at Frost, and Henry Sharp 
at Doiithards Creek. Polly Sharp married John Han- 
nah; on Klk, and waM the motiier of the late Brysiiii 
Hannah, of Fi-ost, and Mrs (Teorge (iilison, iieai- 

Phebe Sharp first marritnl the late Henry HHrpcr. J r.. 


niSTORV (>!■■ ruCAHONTAS COliNTV ] SJ-i 

wIk.i tliiid of au aociduntal wound infiicttd while iixiiig 
a gatti latch near Biiiiset Bclioolhonae. Kho aftorwanlK 
married Mr Abe Kankiii. Susan Sharp bt^uainii the 
wife of the late William Burr, on Brown's Mountain, 
near Ilnntersville- Mr Burr died aiiddenly in F. J. 
yiivder's law office, whither lie hud gone to look after 
HOnie buHinemi atfaii'H. 

Rachel Sharp liven near Frost on the old home placi'.. 

Sutiiau Lightuer, another danghter of our worthy 
pioneer, Peter Lightner, was married to (leorge Gay, 
a brother of the late J<ilni Gay, Eaq., near Marlinton, 
For many years Mr and Mrs Gay lived on the fai'ni 
now in the posseasion of F. A. Renick, Esq., near 
Hilleboro, until tlieii- removal to the State of Iowa. 

Polly Lightner and the late Sheldon Clark, Esq., wert- 
married and settled in the Little Levels, wiiere their 
Nou, Sherman; now livew. Mr C'lark came from the 
titate of Connecticut, and made an ImnienNO fortune hv 
jnercliandising and fanning. He wa« a highly esteem- . 
<.mI citizen, and hy strict attention to his own businesN 
he prospered mnch. Mr Clark is survived by four 
sons: Sluy-man, Henry, Alvin, and Preston. 

Sliernnin H. Clark, the eldest, married Maiy Fiances 
daughter of the late Joel Hili, and lives on the old 
Clark homestead. 

Alvin Clai-k married Mary Agnes, danghter of the 
late Josiah Board, and resides east of Hiltsboro. 

Henry Clark lives near the head of Spring <'reek. 

Preston Clark married Josephine Levisay, neiir 
Frftukford, and lives on the (ieorge Poage property, 
west of Hillshoro. 



There wa» anotlier wortliy brother, Peter Clark, 
wliose wife was Martha Blair. He Jieil several years 
since nil a fanii south of HilUboro, 

The history of Sheldon Clark illustrates the Poca- 
liontas possibilities in reach of those who are iiiornl in 
habits, diligent in business, honest and strictly upright 
in their business rolations. The advancement of snch 
may be alow, but it will be sure and enduring, and the 
results brinjt comfort and influence to those who inherit 
tliem, a rich heritage to childien's children, 

Phebe Ann Lightuer was married to John C'leek, on 
Ivnapps Creek, on the place now occupied by the 
liomes of their sons, Peter L. and the iate William H. 
Cleek, and their daughter, Mrs B. F. Fleahinaii. 

The annals just recorded of these persons may be 
brief and simple, but yet how very suggestive as one 
i-eflects upon them. From these biographical note* 
material may bo gathered illustrating pioneer sufferiuge 
- and privations, thrilling romance, tragic incidents in 
peace and war. 


Among the worthy pioneei-s of our conirty, tho ven- 
erable John Barlow, ancestor of the Barlow connexion. 
is very deserving of remembrance. He was the <mly 
son of Alexander Barlow, of Bath C'ounty. wh(» was a 
French emigrant, and had married an English emi- 
grant, whose name was Barbara. He was living in 
Bath when the Revolutionary war came on. Entering 
the service of tho colonies he fell in battle, accoi-ding; 



to authentic tradition. 

This soldier's widow iiiarried Hoiii'V ("jiBubolt iiiiil 
lived at the AwUlridgo Plncc on the inoiuitaiii over- 
li oking Biickeve. 

Our pioneer fi-ioiid was huni November 'if!, 17S1. 
and when he reached manhood, lie found einploynienr 
vei'v readily for he wuh lioneet and industrioua. Titer' 
will always be a plaee for such as long as there reiiiaiin 
work to be done. Alexander Waddell, who lived on 
the Moort! pJaee near Marvin, had him employed. 
Vouiig Barlow and one of the danghterH became at- 
tached, and were married lU 1SI)6. The engagement 
occurred while Martha AV^addell and Voug Bnrlow were 
getting in a supply of firewood. She dr-ove the sled 
while he chopped and loaded. It is not often that 
wood is chopped and liauled under wueli pleasingly ro- 
Kiautic circumstances. At the time of their marriage 
the groom was 25 and the bride 16. 

John and Martha Barlow began home keeping at the 
"Briar Patch,'" on Bnckley Monntain, now known as 
the PylcB property, A point that commands a very 
extensive view. Afterwards Mr Barlow bought a piece 
of laud from Thomas Brock, on Kedliek mountain. 
Here lie built up a home, reared his family, and spent 
the greater part of his married life. This property is 
now owned by his son, Henry Barlow. 

They were the parents of ten sons and five daugh- 
ters: William, Alexander, James, John, Katlian, 
.losiah, Henry, Amos, George, and Andrew. The 
daughters were Elizabeth, who became the wife of the 
late William Baxter, Esq.; Miriam, who niarrie*! Sain- 



u.-l AuUln.lg.-: MaiT Ai.ii inai-riwl .hunos Aiildi-idfji;; 
Klli'ii, wlui (lied iit tin' age nf four yt'iti'H; and a daiifjli- 
Uii' iiiniaiijcd, living in iiifaiicv u few wwks old. 

The cldi'Kt sun. Williniii. iin.vt-»l wt-st iiiul si-ttled in 
Seliinlcr ('<)iint_v. Minsonri, Of tliis large family but 
three aw now Hin-viviiig, Ilfin-y Barlow, near Edrav. 
on tlie old lionieplaee, [le iias been a nioreliaiit and 
grazier, and lias been very HiieceHsfal in business. 
Tile second survivor, and one of tlie yoiuigest of tlie 
family, is Barlow, of HunterKvine. He i« a 
iiieicliant aii<l farmer, Hnd prospered greatly in bus 
inesa affairs. He is President of tlie ('oiinty Court, 
and widvly known. 

It is worthy of mention that when our worthy pioneer 
bought the Brock land lie paid for it in venison at fifty 
cents a Hiiddle or pair. Mr Barlow estimated the ninii' 
ber of deer killod by him at fifteen hnndred. On tlic 
Miost Ineky day of all liis hunting eareer be killed n'lx 
deer and wotmded the seventh. He never kept count 
of ihe bears, panthers, wildcats, tui'keys, and foxes 
shot by bini. The elk and butfalo were virtually ex- 
terminated before his hunting (iays. 

He wiis an expert niarkmiian, and passionately fond 
of shooting, but the rules of his church — the Methodit^t 
Kpiticopai, of wliicli ho was one of the original niein- 
berH im Stony (.'r(«;k — forbade shooting for prizes. A 
shooting match was arranged for in the neighborhood, 
and be attendwi as a spectator. The main prize was a 
(juarter <)f beef. Near the closo of tlui match a neigh- 
bor proposeii to Mr Bftrlow to shoot in bis place as bis 
siibstitnte. Af'.er mueb sidicitation he consented, took 



cai-iifiil aim, aiiJ pierced the centre, thus gaining the 
savoiy prize of fat beef. A Hcinpnloiis felhiw member 
felt ill lioiior boniid to report to the Presiding Elder, 
and have the offending brother duly disciplined for tlie 
eredit of religiou. The Elder had him cited to appeal' 
before the quarterly conference for trial. Bi-other Bar- 
low meekl_y ol>eyed, and put in his appearance. When 
his turn carae on the docket, the Elder said: 

"Well, Brother Barlow, you m-e charged with shoot- 
ing for a prize. What did you do ;" 

"I merely shot once, ' replied Mr Badow, "to ac- 
coinmodate a friend, not for the purpose of getting a 
prize for myself." 

"Did you win the prize,'' 

"1 did." 

"Did you get the beef i!" 

"Only so much as my friend went rne tiff i\ mess." 

"Was it good beef ;" 

"Ves, very nice," 

"Well," aaye the Elder, after some apparently se- 
rious reflection, and solemn groanings ot the spirit, "I 
see nothing wrong in what Brother Barlow has done, 
so I will just drop this Ciise and proceed to the next 
matter of business,"' 

During his last days, while kept at home and out of 
the woods by the infirmities of age* our venerable 
friend was asked if lie would like to live his life over 
f^ain. He replied; "1 have no wish to live my life 
over again, hut there is one thing T would like to do, 
and that is to have one iwm-o. good bear hunt on Ri'il 


ISH IIISTIIKV UK I'oi aui-nta;^ cui vrv 

Liok Mountain." 

TiiiH agi'd nnd inU'iv.ltng iniin jyaswd away .laiiiiai-v 
■^:i, lfSl)6, vt'igiiig «r. vt-nrw of ape. IMk *U-votcii wife 
ilk'd October 7, 1H72. aged «:>. 

('onscit'ntioiiHlv honcttt tlicinwt'lvfrt. tlu-y liclk-vt^il 
cveryboilv eiw to Ik' lioncKt. Tliov were iMraclitcs in 
ilced, ill wliom rliciv waw ii<i guilt-. On them and tliwii* 
cliildreii rest tlio blcHMing proniistfd tn tlic inwk niid 
thf pure ill licart; provi<lf(l, tlicv clicrisli purity ami 
meekness as their vciienvtwl pioiK'i>r aiiwstorn did. 


TliJM pajn-r iw devoted to tt>e memory of two pei'soiis 
whose numerous deHceiidaiits liave foriiieil an intiueii- 
ti d el3:ii3nt of our citizinnhip £oi- tliL- pur 7.> yjir*. 

Felix (Trimes, tlie pioneer, and his wife, Catlierine. 
were natives of Iralaiid. Tlie ship on which they Hnil- 
e<! came near buing lost during a stonti in mi d-ocean. 
At one time the masts wcTe touL'hing tlie waves, itnd 
water pouring in over the ship's side. The passeugerft 
and some of the sailorn were in frantic teiTor, — ^soine 
were praying, some cursing and swearing, anti Moine 
wildly screaming witli fright. The captain and sonie 
"f the crew were self- possessed eiiongli to nrge the pas- 
sengers to the opi>08ite side of tlie vessd, and it right- 
(■<1 at once, and the voyage was made in safety (heieaf- 
ter. It took three moiitha to make the crossing, Tlu- 
hiiiding was at New Castle, most probably, iind wouu- 
time was spent in Pennsylvania. Following the tide of 
emigration, thdse persons tiiially located ahojue on tin* 



iiplauds ovorlookiiig tlm VBlley of Knapji's Cioek frtmi 
the wt'Ht, iihif! or ten miles from IliinUirfville. It is 
Inslieved tliey settled liere about 1770. 

The original name wae (jraham, but it c-amu to \>v 
ttbreviati'd to Gniries, and lian so bt'tui written and pm- 
iioiiuced all along. 

Felix Grnnes settled in tlie unbroken forest on lands 
now occn|iied by Morgan (irimeK, the heirs of the late 
Davis Grimes, and others in tliat vicinity- The origi- 
nal site is now in the possession uf Margaret UriuieK, 
near Mt Zion chnruh. Traces of the pioneer home arc 
yet discernible near her residence. It was here these 
worthy pei-Rons reared their family, consisting of live 
sons and four daughters: Margaret, Mary. Sally and 
Naney; Arthur, .Itilin, Cliarlcs, Ileiiry and James. 

Margaret Grimes married William Montgomery and 
settled in Licking County, (Hiib. Nancy was marrie<l 
to Rev Samuel C, Montgomery, a Methodist minister, 
ill the same county. Mary married Henry Montgonie- 
I'y of Ohio; and Sally married n son of Alexander Wad- 
dell, the Marvin pioneer, and moved to (iaitipolis, 

Artlnir Grimes, eldest son of Felix, niarrieil Mary 
Sharp, a sister of the late William Sharp, near Verd- 
ant Valley, Tiieir eliildVen were Rachel, who married 
Solomon BuKzard; Henry, who marrieil Hester Buz- 
zard, daughter of Renben Huxzard, of Pendleton coun- 
ty. Henry's sons were Peter and Franklin: Zane and. 
Hugh, near Frost; David, in Harrison county. David 
and Hugh were Vnion soldiers, also Zane. .lane mar 
ried Leoni.ias Bowyers. Slie died in Highliind coimty. 



IUt stins, Cicero miil .latiiCH lA-oiinrd Bt'Wjcrs, wont 
til PiirktTHbiirfr, Went Virginia. .Itiliii (TriiiioK <lic!d in 
Biicklmnnoii diiriiifr tlit' late war iK'twci'ii thf States, 

David (i., Moii <»f Artliin-, married Miiry (iriitie.s, 
(iaufiliter nf .laities Griiiiea, uf Folix, tlie pioneer, 
Tlieir son, Haimon, iiiarried Mary Nottiii{;liani. dangli- 
ti^r of Mr and Mrs Harvey Nottingham, near (iladt- 
Ilill. Hanson's oidy elitid, Minnie Ciriitiei^, is now 
Mrs Earl Arlnigast, of (iitHmbank. 

Margaret, a daughter of I>avi<l G., first marii<jd W. 
n, Sims, After liis deeeane hIic married Erasinns 
Williams, now living near n<)t Spring.^, Virginia, antl 
iHtlie mother of fourteen children. Amanda, another 
daiighter of David H., uiarritHl ('harle« (). \V. Sharp, 
and ia the mother of eight childnm. Her nan Hanson 
ia in Central America, and Frank is iii liuiiiaiiuia. — ■ 
Leah another daughter of David <■}., iiiarriwl the lute 
Kev George Preston Hannah. She is the moth- 
er of seven children, four living and three dead. Mi- 
Hannah was an esteemed and useful minister of tlic M. 
K, Church. 

Rehoeea, i>f Artluir, of Felix, man-ied Thomas Driii- 
nau, settled in Buukhannou, thence to Parkersburg, 
thoncG to Chilicothe, Ohio, She was the mother of 
f<iur children. One sou, Franklin, and thvet^- tlaught' 
ere, names not remembered, 

Arthur Grimes, Jr.. son of Artliui' of Felix. iikai'i-ie<i 
liebeeca Cmnpston and lived a while on the old hottic- 
stead, then moved to I'pshiir eoiiirtj'. His son New- 
ton died yoniig; Lavinia married Silas nelmick: Re- 
becca Jane is nmrried and lives in T'pslmr county; Au- 


frcliiH' is tllO y(i|lll{r<*t, 

Hon. Joliii (Jriiiicw. son of F<!)ix, tlic |iioiiwr, uiar- 
I'ifd EliziiU'tli Biii-iK-i-. of Travflcrs Kcpost- giiid liv«] 
iK'iir Academy, on tlif farm now ownci liv l^uciilioiitas 
(.■ixinty aH an iiifinniu'v. Tlit'rc were hlx (■hil<lrt'n; 
Henry died in y<,utli; Abniliani iinirricd a ^[iHM Calli- 
sun. jvnd finally moved ti> Gallia County. Oliio. as <!id 
Wosloy and Fletelifi". Nancy inmTifd a Mr Morrinon 
and settled in r|»sliur connty; Elizabolli married Wil- 
liam McCoy and went ti (Hiio, Late in life Mr 
(iriines went to Oliio to be witli liiw sons, lie was a 
[H-rHoii of line aji)>eii ranee and posseswil natural eii- 
■lownients of a high oi-der, and made llie ni<>Kt nf liis 
limited opjiortunities for mental imiiruvcment. He 
repi-esentt*d PocaliontHH an a Dentocrat in tlie Hi)nse of 
Delegates, lS+1-42. I'pon liiw motion eliarters were 
{tranted foi-tliive academies, Hillsbon., Hmitersville 
and Greenbank. He was a very prominent member of 
liis cburcli, tlie Metliodist Episcojial. 

Cbarles (irimcs, tlie tliiril son of Felix flie emigrant, 
married Martlia HuHsard. .buigliter of lienbeii Hn«sar.l. 
Si-nior. Tlieir family consisted of ten cbildren. .lolm 
Wesley died young. Morgan mari'ied .lane, daiigbter 
of Major Daniel MeLaugliUn, near (trcenbank. Mor- 
gan's children are .John Wesley, at home. Cora is tlie 
wife of tlie Rev Ja-sper N. Hliarp, a member of tlie 
West Virginia M. E. Conference. Mantle is Mrs 
Cieorge Bainbrick. and Onierlane is at liome witli lier 
parents. Morgan (irimes was a Cnion soldier <lnriiig 
tlie war between tin- States, and so wa.s lii.s relative W. 
<■. (irime.s. 



Williiiiii l>iiviB (Triiiu!M, iiiiotltfr son of Cliarlew 
(Triiiicrt, iimi-i'ied Miirj(iirft Pmigli and Bcttlcil on a boc- 
tioii of tli<! old lioiriei^toad. lit; it-cently died, and is 
HUrvivcd h\ lii« widow and two cldldicii — Ida MisBouii 
wlio mairii^d ("lay Ditippard, and Elm(!i- E, Grimes, 

Hiimm L. , a daiiglitor of t'harlcs Gi-imes, married 
i^aiiuie) Aiildi-idge, She was tli« iiiotlier of five cliild- 
reii; TillotHOii lives at Buclveye; Charles died in 
(irewnbrier; T.iitliei- lives iieai- Mill Point; Kenney in 
tlie Levels; Klizabetb married William Cleiideiuiin. 

Margaret Grimes, daugliter of Charles Grimes, mar- 
ried Hugh Carpenter and settled <iii Tlioinas Cretik. 
She is the mother of five children. Charles went to 
Texas; Hanson and Fletcher live near Dunmore; Ka- 
L-hel married Craigan Grimes, a teacher of schools and 
lives near Millpoint. 

Elizabeth Catherine, anoth^^r daughter of Charles 
Griiufts, died during the War, — a young woman of 
niucli amiability of character. 

Anotlier daughter of this ('liarles Grimes, Mary 
Cnlluni, was married to Kev George Poage Wanlesis, » 
widely known and much esteemed Ministej' of the M. 
E, Church. Towards tlie close of his long and useful 
nnnisterial service he was Presiding Elder of the Ro- 
anoke District. At his death lie was a citizen of 
Montgomery County, Virginia. Her children were 
.losie Loretta, wife of Bently Olinger, of Price's Fork, 
Va,, who was killed while at work (m New River 
Bridge. Delia Wanless iimrried William Snedegar, 
< n Droop Mountain, who is now a merchant at Lafay- 
ette, Virginia. Samuel Wanloss is a young Methodist 



minister. Virgie is the wife of U. S. A. Hevciier, a 

MotliodiHt iriiuister, now in TeimesBce. Fannie died 


Another daughter of Charles Griinca of Felix, tho 

eEuuiigrant, was named Loretta Jane. She is the wife 

of William Jefferson Moore, who lives on a part of the 

John Moore homestead. She is the mother of nine 


Rachel A. (irimoa, another daughter of Charlci 

(jrimes, was married to A. Jackson Moore, on Back 

Alleghany. She has seven children. 

Martha S. Grimes, of Charles, became the wife of 

Peter H. Grimes; and settled in Ola, Iowa. The 
names of her six children are Thelia, Seba, Mary, Ez- 
ra, Brumby and Henry. 

Honry Grimes, son of Felix, died in youth, 
James Grimes, the last of the sons of Felix, the pio- 
neer, inarried Mary Burner of the Upper Tract, a sis- 
ter of the late George Burner. James settled on that 
section of the Felix Grimes lands now held by Mrs Ma- 
ry Fcrtig. Tliere were nine children, Abraham, who 
married Margaret Brady, daughter of Samuel Brady, 
and settled in Webster, and reared a large family. 
Rev Addison Grimes, hook agent, is one of Ahrahani'M 
SODS, Abraham died several years since, aged seventy 

Another son of James, Alien Grimes, married Fran- 
cis Weifoid, and after her death married Fannie Silva, 
and lived on Stamping Creek. His children are Craig- 
in B. Grimes, Elizabeth, who is the wife of Thomas 
Rigsby of Webster county; Geoi-giana, wife of Henry 


iJoblitt on Stamping (.'i-cck; J. Bariit-tt (iriincw, of 
8tHiiipiiig Crt'fk, a i>roiiiiiioiit tcnclier; JaiiioM (iiimeH 
on Stamping Crt-ek; Marv, wife of Willanl OtciIioU: 
mid Lucv, tlio wife of Eiunictt Notiiigliani, on Stamp- 
ing Cveek. 

(Jeorgc Grimes, of JaiiKJ'4, iiiamod Nancy Friel, 
(laughter of tlie late Josiali Frit'I, and settK'd aViovc 
Millpoiiit; George ('. Griniea married Eleanor Weiford 
and moved to Iowa, and reared seven children. Rot- 
tie, Scott, Granville, William, Ewta and Ziona are tin* 
names remembered by tlieir friends; Bryson died in 
youth, just before the War; Catherine married Leon- 
ard Bowyorf, as liia second wife; Mary married David 
Grimes; Elizabeth married James Weifoi-d, of Hillsbo- 

Tliis brings the clironicles of tlie Gi'imcH relation- 
ship witJiin the jneniory and observation of their livinjf 
friends, and a basis is fm-nished for tlie use of some fu- 
ture compiler, The writer gi-atefully appreciates liif 
patient and efficient assistance rendered him by Mor- 
gan Grimes, and Mrs Mantic Bambrick. 

Jacob Warwick and Felix Grimes eeeiii to have been 
on very friendly terms. He once asked James Grimeis 
what ho would charge for managing his affairs. While- 
James was trying to estimate what he would be willing 
to do it for, Mr Warwick remarked that all ho realized 
for what he was doing was what he oiiuld eat and wear. 

Arthur Grimes and Levi Moore, son of Levi, the 
pioneer, and afterwards a member of the Legislatui'C,, 
went on a scout to Clover Lick to see if Indians were 



around. Saeing no sign tliey want to tlie lionse, plac- 
ed tlieir guns just outside the door, and finding ji bed 
within, lay down and fell a^leap. Arthur druamtsd of 
haing bitten by a rattlesnake, sprang out of bed and 
awakened Moore. The dog was growHng at Indians 
stealing toward the liouse. The men seized their guns 
and escaped, learing the dog shut up in the houBC, 
The dog soon came to them, however. The Indianii 
tired the building, cut a pair of moccasins from a dres- 
sed deer skin belonging to old "," and amused 
themselves by striping the feitherii fi-oni two live roost- 
ers to see their antics. 

When thoy repjrted to Jaciib Warwick abiiit the af- 
fair, he told thjm that whonover h3 dream3d of wild 
tnrkeys he eava of having trouble with Indians 
very soon. 


David Oibson, a pioneer of Pocahontas county, and 
progenitcjr of the Gibson connexion in our county, 
came from Augusta county, near Waynosbavo, Virgin- 
ia, about 1770. He located near Gibson's Knob, two 
miles south of Rillsboro, now in possession of Isaac 
McNuel, He reared a largo family, but few of their 
names are known to the writer. One of his sons, John, 
moved to Indiana, where his descendants now live; a 
daagliter, Mary, died in youth; Sally married Sampson 
Ochiltree and lived near Buckeye, whoro Honry Light- 
nur now lives; Elizabeth married Joseph Buckley and 



lived on tlic iioigli boring farm, iii)W owiit'd liv Levi 
(iay; Jennie uiarricil a Mr Blake. 

David Hibwoii, another son, located on the Old Fiehl 
Fork of Elk about IS23, and began life in the woods. 
The Hannah brothers had preceded him a year or two, 
David CiibHon'tt wife, Mary, after wlioin Mary's Chap- 
el is named (a neat ii(tiise of worship on Elk,) was a 
(laughter of the late William Sharp, near Edray, Her 
mother was Elizabeth Waddell, dangbtur of Altixand^r 
Waddoll, a pioneer settler near Millpoint, the place 
now oecnpiej by Joseph Smith and otliers. 

The Gibson family on Elk eonaisted of five sona and 
three danghters. William, the oldest, lived on Elk. 
His wife waa Foliy Gay, daughter of the late Samuel 
M. Gay, near Marlinton; John married Margaret Town- 
send, near Driftwood; David, a well-known physician, 
married Elizabeth Stalnaker, daughter of Warwick 
Stalnaker, of Randolph; James Gibson married Jennie 
Friet, daughter of John Frielf who was killed in battle 
on Alleghany Mountain, December, 1861; Jacob Gib- 
son married a Mias Wamsley of Randolph, and way 
killed during the war near Huttonaville in a skirmish 
with Jonkin'a Cavalry; David Gibson'a daughter, Eliz- 
abeth became the wife of James Mct'lure, near Edray: 
Mary inarried Rankin Poage, at Edray; Nancy became 
the wife of Sanmel M. Gay, on tlie Indian Draft. 

Mr Gibson built up a comfortable home, in which he 
was aasisted by hia industrious sons and daughters. 
The habits of thrift learned fi-om their parents have 
been successfully kept up, and prosperity attends them 
in their affairs, and all have comfortable homes and are 



pr03p3iing. His lioiiie was open to tJie etrnnger that 
might come along. His confidences were sometimes 
.abusod and iDiposition pi-acticcd upon Inm, but that 
made no difference witli bis treatment of otiiers. Vbv 
years his home was at tlie sei-vico of tlie preachei-s, and 
thus most of the preaching on Uppar Elk was at his 
iionEie. It was a great undertaking to locate in the un- 
broken forest and build up a home and roar the faniilv 
these worthy people succeeded so well in accomplishing. 
All such should be remembered and their services 
gratefull}' appresiated, and the story of their lives told 
for the instrnetion and encouragement of the genera- 
tions following. The rightoont!, the honest and indus- 
trious slioukl ba held in lastibg remembrance. 


During the last century but few names have been 
more familiarly known in our county, before and since 
the organization, than the <_'tickleys. The ancestors of 
this relationship were Valentine I'ackley, Senior, and 
Mary Frye. his wife, from the lower Valley not far 
from Winchester, at Uapon Springs. They located at 
Millpoint about 1778, Thojo worthy people were ef 
German descent. The original na:ne was Keckly, and 
came to be spalled Cackley by the way it was pro- 
nounced. Their 8:>n8 wero L'jvi, William, Josepli, 
Valentine, Benjamin, and their daughters were Alice, 
Mary, Anne, and Rebocca^ — six sons and four daugh- 

Alice, the eldest ilaughter, became the wife of the 



late Snuiiiel M. (iny. wlm ri'^ideil ou tlio farm now 
held In- the huirw of the late George (lihwon. on the 
(Jreenhrier ahove Marliiitoii two niile^. Mr Gibson 
waa her giandsoii. Mrs Ga_v was a very estimable pei- 
wm, and the atory of her life would iiiake thrilling 

Mary Cackley was married to Willette I'trkina, and 
went west, 

Amio Oackley became the wife of Thomas Hill. 

Rebecca Cackley waa married to John Ewing. Her 
family went to Ohio. She waa the m()ther of eleven 
sons. The youngest was named Eleven Ewing. It is 
believed that the fantoua Tom Ewing, statesman and 
orator, and as siicli waa the pride of Ohio, in liia time 
was of this family, 

Levi Cackley married Nancy Bradahaw. daughter of 
John Bradahaw the founder of Himteraville, and set- 
tled on Stamping Creek, where aome o£ liia worthy de- 
scendants yet reside. Jacob, Levi, and William were 
the names of hia sona. Rev A, M. Cackley, !>. D., 
of the Baltimcre conference, ia a grandson, 

William Cackley, son of Valentine, married Jennie 
Gay, daughter of Robert Gay, and first settled on the 
property now owned by Mathews Rucktnan, near Mill- 
point, and also operated a store. Having aold bis farm 
to the late D, L. Rucknian, be moved hia family to a 
farm on Cummings (!reek, near Huntersville, where 
he resided for many yeara, fanning and merchandizing 
and in public office. A aingular occurrence was con- 
nected with tliia removal to Huntersville, Mrs Cack- 
ley had become tired of her Hock of pigeons and tried 



to lejivo tlieiii hack, lint tu hvr siirpriso tiie pigeons 
wei-e on the oak tree near the dwelling the next iiioni- 

Mr juid Mrs C'lickldy were tlm parents of five sonst 
and fonr daughters: Uohert, (.'laiborne, Fi-yc, Daviw, 
;ind John; Mary, Leah, Hannah, Ann and Sarali Jane. 
Mary became the wife of J. J, Clark, merchant front 
Staunton- Leah became Mi-s.)oIiii Ilogsett jind lived 
on Elk. Hannah waa ntarried to William Floyd and 
lived at Sntton, Braxton t^oiinty. 

William Cackley was a captain in the war of 1812, 
His kindness to hiH company endeared hiniHelf to the 
soldiers and their friends and gave him great populari- 
ty. He was a Jacksonian Democrat; went several 
terms tu the Legislature; was Sheriif of the County. 
Late in life he moved to Illinois, where of his 
surviving posterity reside. 

Valentine Cackley, Junior was married to Mary 
Mooio, from Eastern Virginia. Tlioir daughter Caro- 
line was the first wife of Harpur McLaughlin; and their 
8on, WilliiiHi H, Cackley, once a ]iroininont citizen of 
Pocahontas, now a merchant in Konceverte. 

Valentine Cackley took the census for I'ocahontas 
County in 1S40. He had the i<)wer mill erected at 
Millpoint. Joseph Cackley owned the upper mill, and 
after selling out to 8anip,siui Mathews, he migrated to 
Ohio, married and settled there, 

Benjamin Cackley staid awhile on his share of the 
homestead, now known as the Lee Place, and sold «uU 
to his biother Joseph and went to Jackson Comity, (). 

The youngest son of Valentino Cackley, Senior, was 



iiamod Jacob. He BfCiiied to liave bcoii excessively 
fond of of atldotic Hports — runiiiiig, wrestling, and 
))itchiiig ijiioits. One of the most ]>opidar divomoti!' 
of tiiat time seems n singular <ine to us. It was to see 
wIh> could tlii-ow a pumpkin tliu highest and cateli if 
wliile falling. Another diversion was skipping flat 
stones over the water. One day while thus ainui^ing 
himself, with several utiiers, on the mill pace, Jacob 
snddenly collapsed and was carried int() . the honBe, 
lie had overexerted Iiimself by an midcrhandcd throw, 
and received internal injuries, and died from the eHects 
a most excruciating donth. A« & final resort quicksilvei' 
was given him, the effects of whicn were agonizing in 
the extreme, i)v Althair was the attending phydician, 
Valentine (!aekley, the pioneer, accumulated an im- 
mense landed estate, KIs home was about the loca- 
tion occupied bj' Isaac McNeel's residence. It seeing 
at one time to have been within tlie limits of the fort. 
The foit was about whei-e the garden is. Persons yet 
living have seen relics picked up by parties working in 
the garden. He encouraged and pi*oinoted useful in- 
dustries, A firstclass mill, for the time, was built; a 
tannery projected, a tilt hammer started, and a store 
carried on. While the venerable pioneer conld over- 
look a wide prospect from his home, and while he was 
not quite "the lord of all his eye could survey," yet 
he could lay claim to a goodly portion of what was in 
sight east, north, and west of Millpoint, Tlie name of 
such a person is worthy of reineuibrance, for he left a 
very important and influential part of our county much 
bettor ofE than it was when he settled therein. 




Soon after llif war of lSl-2 tlierti tainc to our county 
one of the most iiitercatiiig aiul cccontric |)fiw>iiii!iti(w 
that our older people reiueiiiher iinythiiig about, Mrn 
Diana Saunders, late of Rooky Point on Dry Brancli 
of Swago, Slie waw the widowed mother of fimr child- 
ren, Anna, Eleanor, Cyrus, and Tsa-ic, Her cabin 
iiome was biiilt mar the head apringn oE Dry Branch, 
almost in speaking distancrj of tho Rocky Point school- 
house, and jiiHt bi'low, 

("yrns Saunders lived iu Modisou County, A'a., and 
was a nierchaut and a citiiseu of pru:iiinenee. 

Isaac Sannders, npou attaining Jiin nmjority, went to 
Fayette County, married, and settled on the banks of 
New River not far from the Hawk's neat. His sister 
Anna made her hojue with him for a time, and then 
became Mrs Ewing of Fayette County. 

Eleanor Saunders was married tu Barnett A<lkis- 
Hon, from Madison County, and lived ^in Spruce Flat 
on the head of Swago, on tlie place now occupied by 
James Adkisson. [n reference to her children we have 
in hand the following particulars, coiiinmiiicat-.'d by 
John Adkisson. 

Catherine first hecame wife of Williiim Tyler, fro.o 
Madison County, and then Mrs Jacob Welford, ne;ir 

William Adkisson, whose wife was Martlia Jone.s, 
from Madison (.'ounty, lived on Spruce Flat, 

Abel Adkisson, whose first wife wiis Su.i!innah, 


(laughter <if tlic late Daniel Ailkirisuii, iiiid wliodo slh;- 
oiid wife was FraiiciM Hiij^iics, lived on tlio lioad of 
SwuftD, whore liitt son Oliver Blake iimw lives. 

Daniel Atlkinmin niarried Mary Holinen of Madidnii 
(V)iinty, and settled on Spruce Flats, 

Isaac AdkisHon married Martha Young, lUid lived a- 
tlie "i'oimg Phiee" on Kidi Mountain. 

Frances AdkiHson first became Mrs James W. Silvey 
and lived at the liead of Swago. She was afterwards 
inai-i'ied to the late Joseph llodgers, and lives near 

Nancy married Benjamin Taylor of Nicholas County 
and settled on New River, lie was a iiatter by occu- 

Martha Jane Adkisson married James Arthur, of 
Webster County, and went to the western part oE tho 

Lncinda Adkissini, the youngest of Eleanor's daugh- 
ters, was married to Kev Joshua Buckley, and lived at 
Buckeye. Some reference to her family is made in 
otlier sketches. 

But few persons liave left then impress upon the 
writer's memory more vividl> than Mis IJiaiia Saun- 
dors. As to her porsonalit\, she had been formed in 
"Nature's choicest mould" and in hti >outh must iiavo 
been the peer of Edgar Allen Poe s ' lare and radiant 
maiden." The writer recalls one or mtirc of her grand- 
daughters as among the most perfect models of femi- 
nine form and feature that hr has observed anywhere. 

From the way Granny Saunders used to spean of 



Jim MiidiHon, Jim Moiii-oii, ami Tom Jefferson, ami 
wonder liow sucli finicky, linibei'-joiiitod. red lieaded, 
fiddling and dancing cuNtotiierH liad ever bet^ii made 
Prunidents of our X'liited 8tatoM, it i» inferred tluit lier 
lilooming youth iniiBt have Itei'ii passt^rl in Orange and 
Albermnrle atmoMplierc. 

Tlie writer was frwuiciitly told \ty \m lameutod nio- 
tlier that when hv was an infant abmt six weeks old he 
had the wliooping eough so severely that he was given 
lip to die. As a last resort (iranuy S:uindurs was Huiit 
for in all Imste, an<l when she arrived the haby wae to 
all appearauees cold and dead. The ordered 
a tub of hot watyr, ploiiteil the hahy in, soaked him 
awhile and gave him a goo:l rubbing. Siie then called 
for a razor and a goose quill, searified the little b<)dy 
bftween the shoulders, insert'.'d the ([uill iiiiil i^ave bim 
a blowing up until the infant heg.ui to blow for him- 
soif. He came to and retttvi-red. and has been blow- 
ing sovfcoty years on liis own hook, figuratively speak- 
ing, Tliei-e have been times iti bis life when the writ- 
er ban felt rather regretfully that (iranny Sauiider.s 
luanaged her ease so well as to ke>'p him from dying 
at that safe time. Now, however, he h:i-U thunkfiil U\ 
(iod for wtiat she was able to do. He deems it a most 
wondei'tnl privilege to have lived the life the Supreme 
Being has allotted to him. Though this life has been 
lumiblo and obscure, fnl! of mistakes and blunders, 
still, blessed b„- His Holy na:n..-. for life auil its won- 
ilei-fnl hopes for the liereafter, when the L^ird e;.mes. 

It woulil he hard to exaggerate the useful services 
j.-'i-for.nei by Mri ^rt for a hdf eimtury 



or iiKiro, wlioii rltt'ie wah ho ii^sidont piiVHiciuii iie&r<!i- 
lliiiii tilt' Wtiriii S])i'iiigH or I/jwfslmrg. For years and 
voiu-K Iiei-riiiio WHH virtiialiy wpoiit in tlics h.uiK's of tint 
suffctiii}:;. Shmiiy nights, hwoDcoi, raging iiiouDtain 
stroiuiis and torwutH wero hiavixl by tliis heroic woman 
to Iw with the sick in their tliHtri^HH. 

Wliilo it is triio thu most of her Mt;r\'ici.'s were ren- 
dered in Hceiies over wliieli the thickeBt veil of privacy 
Khouht he evur drawn, yet it may not he ont of good 
form to say tliat she never hist her self possession. Tho 
patient might hv to all appearances in extremis, witli 
less than a stc^p between lier and death in the tliroes of 
of maternity, all present eonvnised with grief and ap- 
prelionsion exeejit Granny Samiders. She would dip 
her pipe in the ashes, ejacidate prayers ahmg with the* 
putfs of smoke, and sit down by the patient: --Hold on 
old girl, we can't spare yon yet; pick your tiint and try 
it again. I have been praying for yon, and the good 
Lord Almighty never goes back on his word to old 
<Tranny Saunders."' 

In the com-ee of an horn- or so, (Jraniiy Saunders 
looks up the "old man." When she tinds him sho 
<ipeii8 her arms as if to embrace him. He draws back 
exclaiming, "Oh Granny, don't do that!" "Well, you 
ugly beast, if you won't let me kiss yon, come in and 
see what a pretty thing the goi>d Lord has sent your 
old woman. How it could be so pretty no one could 
tell without seeing the mother I" 

One of the most praiseworthy ti'aits in the character 
of this grand woman was her ablibrrence of "doggity 
ways," as she would tersely put it, She was greatly 



woiiit'd hy IIk' way a young Dian soonu'd lt> hv treat- 
ing a girl in wliom slit- felt a motliorly iiiti'iesf. Ajj- 
pearaiices Eecii:cd to indicate tliat tlie ''yoiiiig rascal of 
n puppy" Iiad plucked the llic lose. but left tlie tlioni 
witli her lieartbrokoii young friontl; or in ottier wonln 
liad foolud licr upon a pniniiseof umrringe. 

One day, it seems, tlie yoniig man met lier in the 
road, and he said: "Granny Saunders, if you do not 
({uit talking about me. as I hear of you doing, I shall 
have to sue you for slander.'' 

The old lady cleared her decks for action, rolled «]) 
her sleeves and shook her fiwt tiiuler bis nose. "I am 
ready for you here, at the court house, or anywhere 
else, outside the bottomless pit. There is wliere pups 
like you are bound to go, so I will not promise to have 
anything to do with you there, T cannot blame a 
Beavor Bam evening wcdf for coming over here anil 
stealing a lamb, for it is built that way, and can't 
know any better, but when I see a customer like you. 
with good looks, good natural sense and belonging to 
a decent family, guilty of things the Old Boy would be 
above doing, I mnst tell you, T d<i say I must tell you 
the dirtiest, yellow, egg-sucking dog in all I'ocahontas 
is an angel to what you are. If the devil knuwsyou as 
Ido, and thinks of you as I do, he will put yon on one 
of his hottest gridirons all by yoursiilf, as not tit com- 
pany for any other lost soul." 

Granny's words seem to have heon "winged ones." 
The suit was never bi-ought for slander, he mended his 
ways, looked through his Bible and found a verse in 
Paul's writings that coBviijced him that the cawiost way 



iitit i>f tlie t>lli*clt.' woiiUl b;- to iii;inv iw lic' Imd priKiiid- 


If tliei-c could li!iv(i beoii kopt a faithful vi!c<ird of all 
licr (loiiii;:* mid savings it w(ndd liavc made a Jiook bv 
itself, iiotliiiig like it in <!Xtaiit litiiraturc. Slie Imd an 
entertaining story of tbc time tlie troops were on tbe 
innrcii to Yorktowii, and about Washington stopping 
at the yard fence and calling for water, lltu- niotbei" 
sent Iicr imt with bncket and gourd, fresh from tin; 
well, and wafjre.l tho thirsty g^jneral and staff attend- 
ants, "Thfy took their water, and 1 tell yon they all 
drank a few, and tlien the grandet^s rode away with 
high heads and stiff npper lips, looking at me as if thuy 
thought it was about all tiiat I was fit for, to handle 
the water gourd fi>r tbeii- pleiisure," 

She had liiany stories that thrilled the little folks. 
One was ab<)ut a child being born in 1775 that- only 
lived a few minutes. Before it died it said just as 
l»lainly aseonld be spoken by a grown person: 

"A warm winter and a cold spring, 
A bloody summer and a new king!" 
One of her mist ]>opular lullahys had this refrain: 
"Sleep all day and cry all night, 
Whippoorwill, whippoorwill." 

Persons yet living remember tho reply she onoc 
nnitle to the salutati()n, "Weil, Granny, how are yon 
to day;'" 

"Poorly enough, to teli you truth. () dear, I am 
just hero and that is all. I have pains in iny face, 
pains in my ears, piiins in the fop of my hea',1, at tlrj 


back of my jitck, iK'twtH!!! my BliouldoiH. in my iiniis, 
ill my breast, in my body, in my knees, in my tinkles, 
in both my big totis." Then paui^iug a moment iw it' 
ti-ying to tliink of inoro places for pains, she w<inhl 
laiso hor eyes tiiwai-d heaven ami devoutly exclaim, 
"Bnt praiae the Lord. Ideas His Holy Name, I liivve a 
{;ood appetite!" 

Late in the fifties or early in the sixties, slic went to 
mnke her home with Isaiic and Ann^, on New River, 
where she died fifteen or twenty yeais afjo, aged about 
ft hundred and ihroe yeara a«mo:>t i>f her acqmiintances 
believe. Dear old friend, the Creator lias not went 
many like her Xo our part of the world uh yet. 


One of tlie most widely known of Foeabontas fami- 
lies in former years was tjiat of the ancestoj' uf tlii' 
Lockridge relationship, at Driscol, funr miles east ol' 
Iluutorsville. It was a place of reaort for visitiTig law- 
yers to and from Ilnnteraville on pnhlie oet-asioiis. 
Pleasant mention is made i»f the kind treatment receiv- 
ed and of the nice and bountiful table comforts enjoy- 
ed in the memoir of the late Ilowe Peyton, and in 
some published reniiniacencos of George Mayse, of the 
Warm Springs. 

Lancelot [Lantyj Lockridge, the progenitor of 
the name in onr county, came from the Lower 
Bull Pasture, in Highland county, about four 
iriilcK up the river from Williamsville, Bath c<)unty. 
Mrs LockHdge was Elizubeth JJouson. of the aatne vi- 



ciiiilv. Sumi- of litT iii'jir rdiitives iiiigruteil to Ohio, 
from wliotn JoHi^pli Bi-iiwni Foriik«r tiaoe.-i bis iiaiin; 
iiiul ftiici'Mtry, ami who in now in tin- Sfiiati.' of tiit- 
I'lUtL'il Ktitto.i, c<flk!a}(tie of M, A. Ilaiinn, from Oliio. 

Mr anti Mr« Loflcrulge weie of pure Scotcli-IriHli <lo- 
Hct'iit. Eiirly ill llic cuuHiry they settled on Kuapp'w 
(.'roek and Ituttt »\> a pnmperoim Iionic and reared a 
large family, four sons and five daughters: Andrew, 
Mnnhias, Lanty, .lame,^ T.. Kli/.abetli, Nelly, Harriet. 
Ki-hecca and Martha. 

Andrew Lockridj^e married Elizabeth Gillilan. 
daughter of John (iilHlan, near Millpoiiit, aud moved 
to MisMoiiri.— Matthias Loekridgo went to Missouri in 
early maniioo<], jiiarried Miss Crow, a Missouri lady, 
and settled there. — ^Laiity Lockridge mnrried Caroliiio 
('leek, daughter of .lolin Cleek, and first settled on the 
••Gay Place," near Sunset, then on the "Harper 
Place," neilr yunset, finally moved to Oitl, Nebraska, 
where bis sunn Lee and Augustus now reside. 

Col James T. Loekridge married Miss Lillif Moser, 
of 8otit)i Carolina, and occnpied the boitiGstead, whicli 
was his borne during life. He was a eitizeii of marked 
l)roniinen(;o, Colonel 127 Virginia Militia, magistrate, 
merchant, sheriff and member of Virginia House of 
Delegatus. Their eliildren, two sons and tw.> daught- 
ers, are Horace M. Loekridge, of Huntei-sville; Mi-m 
Florence Milligan, of Buena Vista; I)r J. B. Lock- 
ridge, of Driscol, and Mrs L. W. Herold, a popular 
school teacher and instructor in instnmental music. 

Elizabeth, eldest daughter, became the wife of tlio 
late Henry Herold, who moved to Nicholas county. 



where most of her famil}' aettle<l. The late Washiug- 
ton Herold,iiear Frost, was one of lier sons, 

Nellin, tlie secoud dai]glit«r, was married to the tate 
Jacob Slaveu, of Travelers Repose. Tlieir children 
were four sone and eight daughters. 

Harriet, third daughter, was married to the late John 
McNee!, near Millpoint. The tradition is that Nellie 
and Harriet were married the same day — a double 
wedding. Tlieir family numbered two sous and thres 
daughters: Isaac, Mithew John, Eveliue, who was 
married to the late Adrew 1). Amiss of Buckeye, Mi- 
Amiss was a clerk in one of the government depart- 
ments at Washington, and attended to considerable 
public business in Pocahontas during his life. Rachel 
was married to tlie Late Dr Wallace. Elizabeth Mc- 
Neel married Jacob Crouch, of Randolph County. 

Rebei^ca Lockridge, the fourth daughter, was mar- 
lied to the late Joseph Seybert, and lived first on the 
Waddell place, near Millpoint, then on the place itccu- 
pied by Henry Shai-p, on Douthard's Creek, and lastly 
on the farm now held by William L. Harper, near 
Sunset. Their sons were Lanty and Jacob. Lanty 
died a prisoner of war at Elmira, New York. Jacob 
married Mary Jones, of Greenbrier County, and lived 
a prosperous citizen of Rockbridge County, Thei-e 
were two daughters, Maria and Elizabeth. Maria Sey- 
bert was married to Andrew Herold and now lives near 
Frost. Elizabeth Seybert was married to the late Wil- 
liam D. Gribson, of Highland County. Joseph, Kem- 
per, and William Gibson are her sons. Eva Rebecca 
Gibson mai-ried David Kyle, of Rockbridge County; 



Ctera GibHou in & teac)it<i- in tlic public hc)iooU of 
Uighlaiid; Elizabi'tli (ribsun married J. M. Colaw. of 
Moiiterov, Va.; Catherine Gibson in a popular tcaclier 
in tbo Rockbri(l}ce public scboola. 

Martlia Locktidgo, the fifth daughter, vae inarritid 
to Roger Kickiiian, of Bath County. Her children 
were Lauty Hickman, now of Tucker County, and 
Elizabeth, who is Mra Stuart Rider, of Batli County, 

It lias been a pleasure to the wiiter-to collect tin* 
material for this sketch, for many of the persons men- 
tioned therein were among the cliorished friends of hiM 

Ab to the persoual appearance of this venerable man. 
it was a common remark of those who had seen Henry 
Clay that there waa a striking resemblance in the form 
and features of the two meu, and that those who had 
portraits of Henry Clay had nothing to do but 8crat<!li 
out the name and write Lanty Lockridge in place of it, 
and they would have his picture and one that every- 
body would recognize. The writer never saw Henry 
Clay, but he has been often impressed with the portrait 
he has seen, and is always reminded of our venerable 
friend by the striking resemblance, so apparent to thosu 
who wei-e acquainted with him. 


It appears from Authentic tradition that the pioiteer 
settler of the Buckeye fneighborhood, four miles south 
of Marlinton, was Joshua Buckley, at the junction of 



SA'iigoCrBek with tliL^ Grj'jii brier. It was about tlio 
year 1770 or 1775. He came from Wincliestur, Va., 
and his wife, Hatitiah CoHiiia, was a native of New- 
town, few miles sontli of Winchester. John Buckley, 
their eldtst child, was but two weeks old when his pa- 
rents set out in the month of Marcli on their pack 
horses for their new home. 

Upon their arrival they occupied a deserted hunter's 
camp, and on the same day Mr Buckley took the suf- 
fering, jaded horses to John McNeel's. in the Levels, 
to procure keeping for them awhile, thus leaving wife 
and child alone. The wolves howled all night, and 
she conld hear the snapping of their Iceth, but she 
disclaimed all fear. This camp was cjccupied until a 
cabin could be bnilt and ground prepared foi- potatoes 
and buckwheat. 

This family for the first summer subsisted on a bush- 
el and a half of meal, brought with them from Win- 
chester, with potatoes and venison. Mr Buckley could 
go up Cooks Run and pick out a deer as conveniently 
as a mutton may now bo had, and even more easily. 

One of the daughters, Mrs Hetty Kee, the ancestress 
of the Kee family, when a little girl remembered see- 
ing the Indians very often, and fretjnently heajd them 
on the ridges overlooking Buckeye, whistling on their 
powder charges, and making other strange noises as if 
exchanging signals. 

Mr Buckley raised one crop of buckwheat that he 
often mentioned to illustrate how it would yield. For 
fear the corn might not ripeen enough for bread, he 
dropped grains of buckwheat between the i-ows by 



ham) and covered with ii hoe. lie planted a lialf- 
bimhel of seed and thi-eKlied out eighty bimhelx. He 
carried the iiaila used in roofing his barn from Wid- 
clieater. They were haniiiiered out by hand, und cost 
xeveiiteen centH a pound. 

There were frequent alarms from ludian incursioim. 
The women and younger childron wonld be sent to the 
fort at Millpoint. The older boys would stay around 
home to look after the stock, with instractions to re- 
fugee in a certain hollow log if Indians ehonld be seen 
passing by. 

About the time Joseph Buckley became a grown 
man, his father had five hogs fattening at the upper 
end of the orchard. One night a panther came and 
carried the whole lot to Cooka Run, piled them up, 
and covered them over with leaves and earth. The 
father and his sons watched for several nights, and 
finally the old panther came with her cnbs. She was 
shot and the cubs captured and kept for pots. One was 
given away, and the other kept until almost grown. 
It took a great dislike to the colored servants, named 
Thyatira and Joseph. Yomig Joe Buckley took much 
delight in frightening the servants. He would hold 
the chain and start the panther after them, and would 
let it almost catch them at times. This would frighten 
the servants very mvch, and they cherished great ani- 
mosity towards the pet, and threatened to put it out of 
the way. This made the young .man uneasy abi>ut his 
panther, and he would notleave it out of doors at night 
fearing the servants would kill it, and so lie made a 
place for safe keeping near his bed. The beast would 



sleep by his side, purring like a kittcii, though niiicli 

Cue night the young mun was awakened by domc- 
thiug strange about hie throat. When became con 
scions he fouad his put was licking at his throat, slight- 
ly pinching at times witli Ua teeth, then lick awhile and 
pinch a little harder- Tlits frightened the yonng man 
so thoroughly that he sprang to his feet, dragged it out 
uf doors and dispatclied it at once. 


Among the persona settling in what is ni>w Pocahon- 
tas County early in the century, John i^harp, Senior, a 
native of Ireland, is richly deserving of more than 
pasuing notice. He is the ancestor of the familioa of 
that name that constitute such a maiked proportion of 
the Frost community, and have been identified with 
that vicinity for the past 91 yeai-s. Previous to the 
Revolution he came in witli the tide of Scotch-lrisli 
imigration that spread over Pennsylvania and New 
.Tersey, and thence moved south, and finally located in 
Rockiugliam f'onnty, Virginia. His wife was Marga- 
ret Blaine, whose parents i-esided iu the vicinity of 
Rawley Springs. She was a relative of Rev. John S. 
Blaine, one of the pioneer Presbyterian pastors in our 

After a residence of several years in Rockingham 
County, Mr Sharp came to Pocahontas to secure land 
for the use of his large and industrious family, and he 
succeeded well, and saw them well fixed in life all 



urouiid hill!. Hi' rfaelifd Frost in 1B02, aiiil fcttleil 
(III the place now occupied by Abram Shai'p. Tliere 
were six sons and as many daughters. The daughters 
were Margaret, Auua, Isabella, Elizabeth, Roea, aiid 
Polly. Margaret became Mrs Henry Dilley and lived 
on Thorny Creek. Anna was married to Daniel Mc- 
OoHaiii, who finally moved to Ohio, Isabella became 
Mrs Alexander Rider, who lived so long ou the top of 
the Alleghany, seven miles cast of Huntersville. Eliza- 
beth was the wife of Rev James Wanleas, a widely 
known minister, and lived on upper Thorny Creek, 
where John F. Wanless now resides. 

Rosa Sharp was married to the Rev William J. Ry- 
der, on Back Creek, Her family mostly went west — 
to Illinois. Rev Stewart Ryder, of Bath, is lier son. 
He was for several years an itinerant minister in the 
Baltimore Couforencc. Aaron Ryder, who liver near 
Frost, is another son. 

Mary Sharp became the wife of William Hartman, 
and settled in Upshur County. Her children wore Joel 
Susan, Elizabeth, and Mory. Joel Hartman married 
Jonathan Yeager's daughter Rachel. Mary Hartman 
became Mrs Jeter; Susan Hartman became a Mrs Har- 
per, all of Upshur County. 

In reference to the six sons that were of this family, 
aud the brothers of the six sisters whose history is 
so briefly traced, we learn the following partic- 
ulars from Mrs Elizabeth Sharp, the aged relict 
of the late John Sharp, a grandson of the pioneer John 
Sharp. This venerable lady has a remarkable history. 
Left alone during the war, she supported her yown^ 



and DuiiierouB fAutil^', p'.id oS mortgagor on the land, 
ajid came through the gi-eat trouble out of debt. 

The pioneer's sous were John, Robert, Daniel. Wil- 
Mam, James, and Joseph. 

Johu Shai-p inari-ied Rebecca Mooie, daughter of 
PeDDsylvauia John Moore, and settled on land uow 
occupied by Joseph Moore, who is a grandson of John 
Sharp, Senior. 

Robert Sharp died i;i early youth. 

Daniel Sharp iiiariied Margaret Palmer, of Augusta 
County, and settled on Buffalo Mountaui, beyond 
Greenbank. Daniel finally went to Lewis County, and 
settled on Leading Creek. 

James Sharp married Margaret Watilees, and settled 
on the head of Thorny Creek, There were five sons 
and two daughters in his family, William, Andrew, 
Robert, James, and Lindsay were the sons; and Jane, 
who became Mrs Nicholas Swadely, and Nancy, who 
married Jauies Moore, now of Nicholas County, were 
the daughters, Nicholas Swadely moved to Ritchie 
County. Lindsay Sharp lives on the old homestead. 
Andrew Sharp lives on Back Creek, and was 97 years 
of age July 3, 1897. Ho was able at that time to do 
considerable work with his axe and brush-hook. 

William Sharp married Margaret Nesbitt, of Rock- 
bridge (ouuty, and settled near Frost. There were a 
sou and three daughters. Mary Paulina married Ste- 
phen Wanless, and lived on Back Creek. Her hus- 
band was killed by a, vicious horse. Eliza Jane, be- 
came Mrs David Hannali, of Fayette Comity, Johu 
Sharp, the one son of this family, married Elizabeth 


216 irieToRY of i-ocAiroNTAS county 

Slavei) Wade, of llii^liland County, and settled on tho 
place near Frost where liis widow now lives. Tliepe: 
were five sons and four dauglitors. 

The sons were Cliarles Oshorue Wade, William Al- 
exander (iiliner, John Benjamin Franklin, Aaron 
Uriah Bradford. Little Bradford died at the age of 
seven years, his mother's darling, and though many 
years have passed she wc(;[)s at the mention of his 
name. Matilda I'rsula diet! at sixteen mouths. Mar- 
garet Ann died aged sixteen years. Martha Ellen 
and Marietta Emmeretta Virginia are yet living. 

Gilmer Sharp married Naucy Elizabeth Arbogaet, 
and settled a mile from Frost on the west branch of 
Knapps Creek, in the pine woods, and opened up a 
nice home. His family consists of seven sons and two 
daughters: Upton Porter, William Bradford, Clifton 
Chalmers, Ernest Gilmer, George Merviu, Charles 
Letcher, Minnie Ursula, and Nancy Elizabeth Daisy. 
Minnie is now Mrs Ellis Bussard, near Glade Hill. 

J. B. F. Sharp, great-grandson of the pioneer, mar- 
ried Mary Alice Gibson, of Bath, rnd now lives near 
Frost. Henderson Wickline, Carrie, Bessie, Ellen, 
and Ruth are their ciiildren. 

C. O. W. Shai-p, another son of the same family, 
married Amanda Grimes, and settled near Frost. 
There were six sims and three daughters: Hannibal 
Hamlin, Charles Hanson, David Franklin, George 
Winters, Summers Hedrick, Austin John. Trudie 
Montgomery, Isa Amanda, Esla Medora, 

Martha Ellen Sharp, one of the snrviving sisters, be- 
came the wife of Abrani Sharp, uear Frost. He was a 



Union soldier. Tlicir fRitiily coiieiets of six sons an<l 
four daughters: Jowpli Avcrill mairiod Sarah Vint 
and livDs on Browns mountain. .lolin Wasliiiigtou 
married Mary Ann Simmons, of Higliland, and lives 
near Frost. Their sons are Anderson Butler, Stewai-t 
Holmes, Aaron Abraham, and Lincoln, who died at 
the age of four years. The daughters are Julia Quebec, 
who is Mrs William Shrader and lives near Frost; and 
<'uba Truxillo, who died December, ISflS; greatly la- 
niente<l; Eli/.abetli Rachel, and Mary Hannah Susan. 

The other surviving member of Mrs Bettie Sharp's 
family is Marietta Emmoretta Virginiii, who married 
Thomas R. Kellison, and lives near Mountain Grove. 
Her family of three sons and six daughters are named 
as follows: John Benjamin Franklin Lighthourne, 
Charles Hackie, Thomas Bonar, Elizabeth Lugertin 
Moomau, Anna Amanda Jane, Ella, Marietta Con- 
stance, Hattie, and Lucy. 

The last of the sons of John the pioneer h Joseph 
Sharp, who married Eli/.abeth Lightner and settled on 
the homestead, now held by Abram Sharj). The late 
Peter Sharp, near Frost, was a son of Joseph Sharp. 
He was a ('onfederate soldier. His wife was A(ary 
Ann Herron, daughter of Leonard Herron, Thwe of 
his sons are Methodist preachers. Oscar is a local 
preacher; William and Jasper are in the itineracy; 
t^amuel died recently, and Ashby is Constable of Fmst 
District: Alice is Mrs Alexander Kirieofe, and lives 
in Augusta County. AzeliiV married Rev C, M. An- 

Another son, Henry Sharp, married Camlini' Curry, 



(Iftuglitcr of tlie liitt^ J, Harv-i^ Cuitv, of I>uuiiiore, 
luul Uvea on Doiitlianrs Creek, iiuar DriBcul. Their 
family uumborD seven dHUftlituru «inl two sdiih: Clara, 
now Mrs Henry (Jverholt; Dotia, now Mrs Warren; 
Effie, Mrs J. E. Campbell, of Covington; Lizzie, Mrs 
Mack Ervine; Beitha, Lucy, ami Pearl- (.iilbert Sharp 
is at home, a well known machinist. Albeit Sharp re- 
sides at Marlinton, where he is a well known citizen, 
and haa performed an jictive part in the construction of 

Tims far we have been able to illustrate to some ex- 
tent the history of John Sharp, the settler. As was 
intimate*!, the great motive that pnmipted his coming 
to the head of Knapps Creek was to get land. In this 
he was successful. His landed possessions reached 
from the Gibsim farm, near Frost, up the West Branch 
to Armiiius Bussanrs, near Glade Hill. He had pro- 
poitj in the Jlills, ou Thorny Creek, anil on Buffalo 
Mountain beyond Grecnbank, and the most of these 
lands yet in the possession of his descendants. 

He was small in person, blue eyes, light liair, and 
of Horid complexion. Ue was constantly employed. 
Mrs Sharp was quiet in all- her ways, very diligent in 
her duties, and patiently met and endured the toils and 
inconveniences of living in the woods. These persou-s 
were pious, and some of the tirst religious meetings 
ever held in the vicinity of Frost were at their house. 

lliis paper is prepared to pay a tribute to the meino- 



ty of A pioiieoi' citizen of our county, tlio late David 
Hannah, of the Old Fiel<l Brancli of Elk. He was a 
sun of David Hannah. Senioi-, wliii was th« progenitor 
of the Hannah Family, one of the? oldest iii Poeahon- 
tae. David Hannah, Senior, was a nativt? of Ireland. 
He married a Miss Gibson, wlio was reared in Augusta 
County, and settled at thu moiitti of Li>cuat t'l-eek soon 
after tlie Revolutionary war. H^ possessed some prac- 
tical knowledge of medicine of the botanical school, 
and did a good deal of practice in froiitior times. He 
was probably the firet person that ever practiced physic 
in lower Pocahontas. Dr and Mrs Elizabeth Hannah 
were the parents of six daughters and four sons. 

Abh became Mrs Joseph Oldham and Lucindii mar- 
ried William Oldham, Their homes were near the 
source of Locust Creek. Mary Hiinuah was married to 
John Mollohan, niid lived in what is now Webster 
County. Elizabeth liannali became Mrs William Ben- 
nett, and lived in Harrison County. Jennie Hannah 
was married to the late Samuel Whiting, on Droop 
Mountain, where the Whiting family now lives. Her 
son Ebenezcr married Sallie McMillion and lived on 
the Whiting liomeatead. Nancy Hannah became tlie 
wife of James Cochran, and lived near the Lireenbricr 

William Hannah and John Hannah <lled in youth. 

Joseph Hannah married Eli:^abeth Burnsides, on 
Greenbrier River, and settled on Elk, where his son. 
John Hannah, lately lived, over eighty years of age. 

David Hannah, Junior, the subject of this article, 
married Margaret Burnsides, on the Oreenbrier, east of 



IlillsboR, a (lauglititr of John Biirtiriiilvd ami Win wifo, 
Mary Walker, of Augusta Coiity. Ilt'r family aud tho 
family of General J. A. Walker, of Wytlieville, Va., 
are closely related. He was one of the last command- 
ers of the Stonewall Brigade. He settled on Elk, and 
reared a large family of worthy sons and danghters. 

Isabella Hannah was married to tiie late John Var- 
ner, und settled at Split liock, a few miles down Klk, 
and hnilt up a good home with their industry and ecuii- 
oiuy. Their children were M<trgaret, now Mrs Clinton 
blanker; David V^arner, a Confederate soldier killed iu 
war; Mary Varner, afterwaitU Mrs liobert Wilson, and 
lived near Lexington, Va. John Varner and Haniuol 
Varner, at Linwood; Susan Varner, now Mrs WllHaia 
Snyder, in Iowa; William Varner, at Old Field branch; 
Alice Varner became Mrs John Stewart, near Valley 
Head; Jennie Varner was married to Hamilton Sny- 
der, and located in Taylor County, Iowa; Benjamin 
Varner married Ella Moore, of Knapps Ci-eek, lived 
awhile at tlie Split Rock hoiuestoad, and finally moved 
to Ohio whore ho now resides. 

Elizabeth Hannah was married to Marinus J. Vaii- 
Keenan, and settled in Iowa. Mr VanReenan was a 
native of Holland, His father's family was attached 
to a hand of Holland oaiigrauts, who were induced t<> 
colonize on Laurel Kun in lK+2, by the Kev John 
Sehemerhorii, of Kew York, The highlands of Poca- 
hontas wore not congenial to persons from a populous 
Holland city in the Netherlands, aud after grievon^* 
privations the colony disbanded. Some went west; 
others remained in Pocahontas, and are excellent peo- 
ple. The Stultings came in this band also. The names 



of Etizabtitli VaiiRot'iimrH cliildreii mo J>aviil, Ilol>pit, 
and Mary. 

John BiimsiiJeR Ilaiiiiah iimrried Marfrnrct McC'lun', 
and located on part of tlie "Old Field" lioinesttiat', 
and has lately died. Tiie' following particulars ai-e 
given in reference to tlieir cliiidreu; Mary is now Mrs 
John Beverage, near C"!over Lick; Saiiniel David mar- 
ried Amanda Mooi-e, and settled on the Hogsett place; 
Wallace died while young; William BdikIo, whose wife 
was Miss Birdie Wiley; John Ellis niarriod MalindH 
Catheriuo Sharp, and settled on the hoiuostead; Nancy 
was married to P'letcher JUlley, and Uvea near West 
Union; Ivte Viola; Edgar Itussell, and Lena Mary died 
while yonng. 

David Hannah, the tliird of thv ancestral name, waw 
first married to Rebecca Moore, daughter of the late 
Isaac Moore, of Edray. Second marriage to Mai'gaix't 
Jane McClure, daughter of Arthur McClure of L<)wer 
Pocahontas, and settled in Iowa; thence moved to 
Missouri. The names of his children were James, 
Joseph, Mary, Margaret, and Julia. 

Robert Hannah married Jennie Burk and settled in 
Iowa. John is the name of the only one of his child- 
ren known to the writer. 

William Hannah, one of the twins born to Mr and 
Mrs David Hannah of Pioneer memory, married Cath- 
erine Khinehart of Randolph County, and settled on 
Pine Flat, head of Swago. William's family were 
three sons and a daughter. James married Maggiit 
Auldridge, a daughter of Thomas Auldridgu, and live-" 
ueai- the liend of Dry CreoU, Eugenins married Jeiini.^ 



K»lli»oii, ami lives near Poage's Laii«, Margaret is 
Mra Keiiii}- KiiiiUHOii, oii Swago. Btirluigli uiarriod 
MiB8 Lula I'eii-y, on tlio Greeubriur. 

Joseph Haunali, tho other twin son of the pioneer, 
married Elizabutli Cool, daughter of Johu Cool, of 
Webster Comitjt ami lives in that county. 

The writer reiiieiuberi the personality of the venera- 
ble pioneer very vividly. In early youth I saw hiiii 
frequently, and h;* w.w vory inte.-ejtiLig to nii fr.) n t'lo 
fact Mr Ilauiia had been off to the war of 1812. To 
tne an old soldier tH!emed more than human. He had 
an interesting way of relating lii^ adventure;), and was 
fond of talking about the war. He was at his best 
when telling how lie felt when aroused oue morning 
before day to get ready for an attack, aw the British 
wero reported as coming. He arose and piitoii his ac- 
coutrements quickly as posHible, and took his place in 
the ranks and moved off to fight. His bat kept falling 
otf as he marched until it became so troublesome that 
he was determined to find out the reason why it would 
not stay on his head. It had never been so hard to 
keep on before because it was a good lit. When the 
troops baited he examined his head and found the 
hairs were all on end, stiff as bristles, and were push- 
ing the hat otf as fast as he could put it on. The hair 
kept stiff until the oi-der was given to return to camp, 
when it all became limber enough, and the hat was 
no more trouble. He found out afterwards that the 
whole scheme was to try the new soldiers to find out 
how they would conduct themselves when ordered into 
battle. This was near Norfolk. 



The atorv, howover, lie aeeBicd tlie most fond of tel- 
ling was abont his experience iu the hospital tent. Be- 
fore liis term of stii-vico hml eXpiied h« was prostrated 
by fever and given np as a critical case, and very strict 
orders were given not to let liiin have a drop of any- 
tiling cool to drink. He noticed that tliere was whis- 
key and water on the table for the nurse't* use, and he 
determined to have some at till hazards. Tlie attend- 
ant came to him and fonnd the young soldier so weak 
and stupid that he seemed to know nothing, and was 
nnabte to lift even his hand. So the hospital man 
thought there would bo no risk to run wore he to leave 
the bottle and pitcher on the table while he would step 
out and get some fresh air. Soon as his back- was 
turned the sick soldier crawled to the table, mixqd the 
liquor and water, and drank til! he could drink no more 
nnd crawled back to his bunk, and when the nurse re- 
turned he was surprised to find his yatient apparently 
asleep and the skin .showing a tendency to moisture. 
Finally the sweat broke, and when the doctor-came to 
look at him, and seemed much pleased with the ehangi' 
in the patients condition. 

"You were mighty near gone, old fellow, and if we 
had not kept cold water away from you, where would 
you be now?" 

The soldier kept his secret, and as he was beginning 
to get stronger tliediquor was kept our of sight. He 
thought he would have meiided much more rapidly ir' 
tilings had been left on the table as before. 

The old soldier worked li.ird in building up his \ioi\ns 



and the ]>rivation8 lie and liin family li&d to oiidiiro 
would »eem unbearable iiuw. He was kind and bos- 
|)itablti to a fault, ready to sliarc tlie last he had with 
the visitor that might desire shelter and food. He was 
much esteemed by all of his acquaintances. 

Finally the end coine. One of the prettiest places 
near his home was selected and they placed him to 
sleep under the gi'een sod that his own hands liad help- 
ed to clear away. 


Among tlie earliest Mettlera of the Elk region was 
Joseph Hauuab, a eon of David Hannah, who lived at 
the mouth of Locust (Jreek. He mai-ried Elizabeth 
Burnsides and early in the century settled on the "Old 
Field Fork of Elk." 

His home was on Mill Run noar where William 
Hannah, a grrfndson, now lives. This immediate 
vicinity seems to have been a place of more than ordi- 
nary importance in pi-eliistoric tiinea. One of the most 
frequented Indian trails seems to liave been from Clo- 
ve, Lick up the Creek to the Thomas Spring; thence 
over the mountain, crossing at the notch near Clark 
Rider's farm; thence down by James (ribsou's to Elk, 
Here is the "Magic Circle," mentioned elsewhere in 
this book. Nearly b mile further down was the en- 
campment whore about two acres of land had been de- 
nuded of trees for camp iires, and this was the "old 
Held" that gave this branch of Elk its name; and was 
the- first piece of ground planted by Joseph Hannah. 



Mr and Mvd Kaunali reareJ a large fa:iiily of well- 
behaved, industrious children, TJiis family did agood 
part iu tlie industrial devolopuient of this tbrifty eee- 
tioii of our county. In reference to their children the 
following particulars are given. 

Joseph, William, Robert, and Sally died in child- 
hood or early youth. 

John Hannah married Mary Sharp, danghtur of Jos- 
eph Sharp, near FrosL. Their children wera Sarah 
Jane, who hacim-j Mra Aaron Fowlkes; Margai-et Eliz- 
abeth, who wi^i inarrieJ to the late John Hall; R,tchel 
AuQ Wiis married t) the late Georg^i Gibson, n3ir Mar- 
liuton; Maitlia Susan, now Mrs James Gibson; Aman- 
da Pleasant, the wife of William Lee Hambrick; Mary 
Ellen, who died young. Joseph Bryson Hannah, late 
a merchimt at Frost. Sheldon Clark Moore, on lower 
Elk, whose wife was Martha Moore. His children are 
namad Georgiana, D.ivis, Albert, Virgie, Eftie, Clark, 
Hugh, Feltner, Jane, Leo, and Frederick. Andrew- 
Warwick Hannah, whose wife was Dora Hannah, 
daughter of Henry White, of Driscol. Their children 
Levio, Sadie, Lucy, Mary, Maggie, Bessie, and Mar- 
vin, William Hamilton Hannah, who married Sarah 
White, sister of the purson just mentioned. Their 
children: Andrew, William, Myrta, Forrest, Bryson, 
Carrie. George Luther Hannah married Emma Bell 
McC'liire, daughter ot Arthur McOlure, of Locust. She 
expired suddenly while attending public worship in 
Mary Gibson Ohapel a few years ago. Henry Hannali, 
Peter Hannah, and John Hannah, Junior, died young, 
during the late sad wai- between the States of our 



^lorioiiH I'lijoii. 

David Hnnnal), boii of tlie "Old Field" piuneer. 
married Hoeter Sicafooso, from lower Crabbottoiu, and 
nettled on Elk. In reference to tlieir children we have 
the following infcfrniation: 

Sarah Hannah was married to Silas Sharp and set- 
tled near Linwood. Her eon, Luther David, is a well- 
known merchant at the old homestead. Her daughter 
Mary Ella Frances is the wife of Robert (Jibeon, and 
Melinda Catherine is the wife of J. E. Hannah, at the 
"Old Field." Henry Hannah married Margaret Mc- 
(Jlure, and is now a merchant at Renick's Valley, 
Greenbrier County. Another son, Kev George Han- 
nah, married Leah Grimes, and his late residence was 
in ITpshur County. Melinda is now Mrs John Rose, 
and resides in Webster County near the Randolph bor- 
der. Mary was married to Samuel Gibson, and settled 
near the homestead. Otho and Joseph Hannah died 

Jane Hannah, daughter of the pioneer, was married 
to Joseph Barlow, one of the sons of John Barlow, and 
lived on Red Lick Mountain, settling in the unbroken 
forest, and built up a nice home. In connexion with 
clearing many acres of dense forest, he had a tannery, 
a blackspnith shop, cooper shop, made and repaired 
shoes, and could do neat cabinet work and carpenter 
work also. The number and variety of fruit trees 
planted about his home is the wonder and admiration 
of all that have ever seen his orchard. 

Elizabeth Hannah was married to Dr Addison Mooro 
and lived near Edray. 



Maiy Hannah was married to Henry Buzzard, and 

settled on Oniiiinings Creek, near Huutersville. 

Joseph Ranita}i was a p'jrson of i'lipressivu p-ji-sona! 
appearance. His memory was I'emarkably retentive, 
and his conversational powers sonicthing wonderfnl. 
He had uoniimttod to meinory, it is believed by some, 
the greater portion of the Bible, and he could recite 
the Scriptores for hours at a time, — having a special 
preference for the historical narratives of the patriarchs 
and the wanderings of the Israelites and th-j conquest 
<if the Promised Land under Joshua. Ho saw in these 
historical narratives illustrations of the life now to be 
lived by Christian people, and it was one of the great- 
est pleasures of his old age to have his neighbors as- 
semble and repeat these narratives in their presence. 

Some years since an article written by a distinguish- 
ed minister in Bath County stated that Simon (rirty, 
the renegade was summarily put to death by being 
burned in a log heap by an enraged and desperate body 
of men in the Little L'jvels. Joseph Hannah wat re- 
ferred to as an eye witness of the dreadful atfair, or as 
having some personal knowledge of it. Mr Hannah^s 
children say they never hoard their father say a word 
about such an occurrence happening to anybody in this 
county, under any circumstances of provocation what- 
ever. Simon Girty's grave is now to be seen near the 
city of Detroit, so he was not burned iti a I'ocahontan 
log heap. 

When a mere lad Josepli Hannah was sent by hii; 
father to Elk, to look after the live stock in the range. 



He often wunt to fort witli liis family in his joiitli and 
early manlioud. He was romarkably active in Iuh 
movements, and very fleet of foot. He would often 
tell of a jump iie made when a practical joke, oi- 'trick* 
as lie called it, was played on liim by Bicliard Mill, 
Adam Bumgardner, one Mnllius, and a colored uiaii 
named l>ick. Young Hannah and l>ick were hoeing 
corn. The jokers explained to Dick what they were 
up to, and Dick cheerfully promised to act his part. 
While the two were hoeing away, a shot was fired from 
ambnah. Dick fell and made a dreadful outcry, roll- 
ed and kicked about in seemingly terrible agony. 
Young Joseph Hannah fled precipitately towards the 
house and in the race leaped a gully. When matters 
came to be understood and quiet restored, the leap was 
measured, and it was forty-two feet from track to 
track. Mr Hannah was foud of telling his friends that 
he had "jumped the doci'ee," "Decree" mean what 
"record" now means in races and athletic games. In 
"jumping the decree" he "broke the record" by two 

When the writer first remembers seeing Mr Hannah 
he was of very venerable appeai'ance. His gray hair 
was combed back and plaited in a cue that liung down 
between his shoulders. Tlie last time I ever saw hiia 
we were spending the night at Sampson Ocheltree's. 
in the winter of 1849, The two old men were in busy 
conversation until a late hour, and most of the talk was 
about the cliildren of Israel and the dealings of God. 
The fire was getting low, the candle about burned out, 
when Mother Ocheltree observed it was about time U> 



get rcacl,y for l>e(l. At this suggestion Mr Hannah 
arose and in a very aoft eoletmi tone repeated and ihen 
sang a hymu. He then knelt in prayer and poured 
out his full heart in humble, truttting prayer, iti the 
tone and manner of a loving child to a kind and more 
loving fatlier. The memory of that prayer, heard 
fifty years ago, impai'ta a pleasant glow to my feelings 
while writing these memorial sentences. 


One of ihe oldest families in o>ir eoniily is lliat of 
the McOolIani relationship. While it is not certain, 
yet there is good reason to believe that the pioneer an- 
cestor was named Dan. McOolIam. Fro:n some inter- 
esting correspondence had by James McCollain's family 
with a lady in New Hampsliire there is no reason to 
question that lie was of 8coloh-IHsh descent, and the 
son of a physician a graduate of the University of 
of Ediuburg, and lived in New Jersey. The name 
of the pioneer's wife canuot be recalled. 

Mr McCoUam, the ancestor, canio from New Jersey 
in 1770, or thereabouts, and settled on Brown's Moun- 
tain near Driscol, which is yet known as the "McOollani 
Vlaco," now in the possession of Amos Barlow, Esq. 
Hie children were Jacob, Daniel, William, liebecca, 
Mary, and Sarali. 

Jacob McCollam first settled oii the "Jake Place," 
a mile or so west of Hu liters ville on the road to Mai- 
)int<m; thence he went to Illinois, and was killed by a 
falling tree. 



Dank'l McCollani tiiaiTic'<! Anna Sliar)^, (laugliU-i- of 
Joiiii Sharp, tlie KiHist pioiK-er, and HettitHi first mi tlie 
Bridgvr I'laee iit-ar Verdant Valluv, tlience to tin; 
Marony Place near Buckeye, and finally settled in 
Noble Coanty. MiaMOiiri, Two of his daughters re- 
mained in Pocaliontas. Mary (Polly) wlic) tietrame Mrs 
Jolin Buckley. Her son was the Rev Joi^liua Buckley, 
a venerable and greatly respected citizen of Buckeye 
who died April 23, IWUl, at the advanced age of 92 
years. Tlie other daughter, Jane Mct'ollaiii, wan 
married to the late Joseph Kriel and lived on the 
Greenbrier about live miles above Marlinton, wliere 
some of her family yet reside. Kacliel and Nancy 
went with their fatlier to Missoui-i. Rachel became 
Mrs Van Tassell and Nancy became Mrs Brown. 
Daniel McCollam set out to visit his former houio, and 
while cnniing up the Ohio ho was exposed to the small- 
pox. He at once went hack and died of the disease in 
his western home, 

Rebecca Mct'ollom was mari-ied to the late Robeit 
Moore, Senior, of Edray, Isaac Mmire. Esq.. Robert 
Moore, Jnnior, and Jane Moore, the wife of the late 
Andrew Duffield, near West Union, were her children. 

Sarah McCollam was married to John Sharp, and 
lived on the place occupied by J. Wesley Irvine, near 
Verdaut Valley, who is her grandson. Ellen, who 
became Mrs Amaziah Irvine; Mary, who became Mr.s 
Josiah Friel; Rebecca, who was Mrs John R. Duttiekl; 
and Nancy, who was Mrs William Irvine, were her 

Mary McCollani was married to Thomas Brock and 



lived on the "Dnffi^Ul Place," now haU hy Nuwtmi 
JJnffield. Her cliildren were Daniel Brock, who mar- 
ried a Miss McClung, of JJicltolas (Jonnty; William 
Brock, Robert Brock, and Margajet, wife of the late 
William JJuffield, near the Warwick Spring, 

William McCollam married Sally Uriiinaii, daughter 
of Lawrence Drinnan, whoeo home was on Greenbrier 
River, on the npper part of Levi Gay's farm, very 
near the bank of the stream. It is to be remuiubered 
as the place where James Bakor, one of the tirst school 
teachi^rs, was slain by an Indian warrior about 1786. 
Soon after his marriage he settled near the snmmit of 
Buck's Mountain, about I7y8, perhaps three hundred 
yai-ds of the residence now occupied Ly his £cn, 
James McCollam, Esq, Traces of tlie old home are 
yet visible. His family consisted of five sons and six 
daughters. John, Lawrence, William, Isaac, James, 
Sarah, Susan, Nancy, Matilda, Rebecca, and Rutli. 

John McCollam went to Lincoln County, Tennessee, 
where one of his descendants became an eminent Bap- 
tist minister. 

Lawrence McCollam died in 1861. 

William McCollam died in youth. 

Isaac McCollam married Margaret Thomas, daughter 
of John Thomas, and settled' in Randolph County. 
Fletcher McCollam, near the Lead of Stony Creek, is 
u son of Isaac. 

James McCollam first married Anna Jane McCoy 
«nd settled on Buck's Mountain near the old home- 
stead. George W. Mc(.'oIlam, a well known citizen, 
is hia eon. His second wife was Miss Mary Anna 




Saiali McCoIIbiii, dHughtei- *.E Willimn Mo('..ll;i!ii, 
hccanio Mrs Absalom McUollaiii and liveil ou Hill's 
Creek. The lute William Morrimon, at Buckej's, was 
lier sou. 

Siisaii was married to the late Janiet) Kellison, oil 
Brier Knob, head of Hill's (reek. JJaniel Keilison, 
Esq., at Mingo P'lats, Ilaiidolph Couuty, is her eon. 

The daughters, Nancy, Matilda, and Rebecca were 
never married. They lived to be elderly persons, and 
were esteemed for their good charactei-, industiy and 
lady-like deportment, and made themselves very useful 
in many ways. All of tliem were so kind and skilful 
in waiting on their sick neiglibois. 

Ruth McCollaiii was married to William Kee, Esq., 
near Marlinton. 

Thus far it lias been placed in our power to illustrate 
the family history of these worthy people. 

William MeCollam was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Stony (Jreek M. E. Church, and while he 
lived was prominent in meetings and the official pro- 
ceedings. Upon one occasion while the parents were 
abtieut attending meeting or visiting the sick, the house 
caught tire and was consumed with the most of its con- 
tents. At the time of the burning, John, the eldest 
son, was about eight years old; Lawrence wa« about 
two. In the confusion the baby boy seems to have 
beeu forgotten, and when John asked where the baby 
was he was told by one of the little girls that he was 
in the cradle asleep. John pressed his way through 
the smoke and heat at the risk of liis life, and brought 



his brother out alivp, but in doing bo both wove t<< 
badlj bnriied ae to have scars upon tlieir persons louft 
as thuy lived. 

Ttiie man toiled on liowciver; lebuilt liia boiiie. nptu;- 
ed more land, and in tlio meanwhilo eleven cliildfen 
had gathered around his table. At the time when LU 
care and presence sosmod most neudod, it t^eisiiied good 
to the God he loved to call him away from a responsi- 
bility 80 important. The sugai' soanon had jdst opened 
— the morning was such as to indicate a heavy run, and 
much wood were needed to keep tho kettles boiling fast 
enough. On tlie 4tli of March, 1H18, lie had morning 
prayer, sang a hymn of praise to Him that watches the 
sparrow when it falls, and went forth cheerfully to his 
work. A Isrge red oak tree yuited to his purpose whs 
selected, which soon bowed and fell beneath his stal- 
wart strokes, but 8<imehow a limb from another tree 
in its rebound smote hiin with such furious force that 
lie never seemed to conscious of what had happened. 
Tiiis occurred about a mile from ho:iie, neiir wher,' 
James Hannah lives. 

Though all this was sudden, tlierj has never been a 
luisgiving about the certainty of his having found rest 
fmm his honest toii^ and efforts t^ musthi^ duties, the 
rest that remains for the people of Ood. He bad 
learned from his Scotch ancestry to sing: 

"The sword, the pestilence, or fire, 
Shall but fulfill their best desire, 
From sin and sorrow set them free. 
And bring thy children. Lord, to the;'." 




The coiiipilev of tliwso tiicinoriaU, detsplj' impressevl 
that something shouhl be attempted to perpetoat* the 
memory of these persoiie — Jacob Warwick aud Mary 
Vaiiee, hie wife^lias availed liinisolf of sneh facilitie.-i 
as Lave been in reach. He is largely indebted to Joho 
Warwick, Esq., Jwlj^e James W. Warwick, and Mrs 
Klizabeth McLiiighlin for the information from wliich 
these sketches are compiled. All these persons have 
since died, at a very advanced age. This nrticle firat 
appeared in the Southern Historical Magazine for Aug- 
ust, ISOa. Mrs McLaughlin, a daughter of William 
Sharp, lived with Mrs Warwick at intervals, as a friend 
and visitor in the family, and for whom Mrs Warwick 
manifested special attachment. 

The father of Jacob Warwick came to Augusta Oonn- 
ty, from Willianisburg, Va,, during colonial times, be- 
tween 1740-50, He was a Lieutenant in the service 
of the British Crown, aud was e.nployod in surveying 
and locating land grants in Pocahontas County, which 
County included territory of which States have since 
been formed. 

Lieutenant Warwick located and occupied the Dun- 
more property for his own use. He married Elizabeth 
Dunlap, near Middlebrook. He was one of the Eng- 
lish gentry whose families settled in Virginia in eouse- 
(jHence of political i-everses in Enghuid, and whose his- 
tory is so graphically given in Thackeray's Virginians. 

After operating extensively in lands; and securing 


H19T0RV OF |-01;AH(1KTAB LOINTV 235 

the Dunniore pnipurty in liis own imiiic, Lieuteuaiit 
Warwick concluded to visit England. He never re- 
tnrned, and being heard of no in< le, he was given nji 
for dead. In the meanwhile. Mrs War'^ick settli-d on 
the Uunuinre property, bad it secured by deed to Jacob 
and afterwards married Kobert Sitliugton, but remain- 
(td at Dunmore a number of years after lier sucOnd 
marriage. Jacob Warwick seemed to have remember- 
ed but little of his own father, and always cherished 
the highest filial regard for Mr Sitlington. When Ja- 
cob attained his majority, Mr Sitlington moved to hiw 
own property near old Miliboro, the estate now occu- 
pied by Mrs Dickinson, daughter of the late Andrew 
Sitlington. Upon her decease, Mrs yillingtou left a 
bequest of one thousand dollars to Windy Cove Church 
the annual interest of which was to bo paid to the pas- 
tor of that congregation. F"or a lonp; while it was man- 
aged by the Messrs Sloan. In the hands of Stephe:i 
Porter it was finally lost through tinancirl failure. 

Upon reaching legal age and coming int^i possession 
of his estate, Jacob Warwick was married and settled 
at Dnniiiore, Jnat here let it be stated, that when it 
was decided that Ijieuteuant Warwick was dead, the 
grandfather of David Bell, of Fislieraville, Va., was 
appointe<l guardian of Jacob Warwick. William and 
James Bell were the sons of this guardian, and James 
Bell was the father of William A. Bell and David BM 
well remembered citizens of Augusta County, 

Dunmore was Mr Warwick's first homo after his 
marriage. His wife was Miss Vance, daughter of 
Colonel John Vance, of North Caroliua. He died <iii 



Back (riick, at Monutaiii Oi-ovc, Va. Coloin'l Vance's 
family movud to tlie vicinity of Vancebnrg, Ky., ex- 
cept Saiime) Vance, Mie Warwick, and Mrs Hamilton. 
Tlie last tmme<l was the motlier of Kaclie! Terrel, of 
the Warm Springs, and Jelin Haiiultou, Esq., of Bath 
County, (loveriior Vance, of Ohio, and Senator Zeb • 
Vance, of North (.'arolina, ai-e of the same family con- 
nection. The Vancea, originally, from Opecquon, 
near Winchester, Va. 

In business trips to Rich:nond, to sell horses or cat- 
tle, Mr Warwick formed the acquaintance of JJanifl 
Warwick, a commission mercliant, who attended to 
business for Mr Warwick, and (hue became mutualiy 
interested and were able to trace a common ancestry. 

Mr Warwick remained at Dunmore a number of 
years. His children were all born there. He was in- 
dustriously and successfully occupied in accumulating 
lauds, and managing large herds of cattle and droTCs 
of horses. His possessions on Jacksons River were 
purchased from a certain Alexander Hall, of North 
Carolina, Mr Hall owned from the Byrd place to 
Warwickton. One of his sons, being charged with 
horse theft, the penalty being death by hanging, refn- 
geed to Bath County. The elder Hall cauie to Dun- 
more to see Mr Warwick, and proposed to sell this 
land to provide means to send his i-efugee son to Ken- 
tucky so as to elude arrest. Mr Warwick had sent out 
one hundred head of cattle to be wintered in the cane 
brakes. This herd was taken by Hall as part payment 
for the Jackson River lands. The cattle rated at eight 
pounds a head (about forty dollars.) The (Clover Lick 




lands were rented from tlie Lewises. 

Tho accounts from Kentucky wcie so flattering tluit 
Mr Warwick decided to settle there. He actually sot 
ont for tho purpose of locating and sueuritig a, new 
place for a new home. The persona in advance of tho 
party with which he was going were slain by Indians 
near Sewall Mountain, and when Mr Warwick and 
those with him came up and saw their slain friends, all 
returned home. Mrs Warwick thereupon became so 
unwilling to emigrate from her Poeahonias home, that 
her husband concluded to exchange his Kentucky pos- 
sessions with one Alexander Dunlap for a portion of 
the Clover Lick lands. The Dnnlap patent called for 
four hundred acres of land; the actual survey made sis 
hundred. There wjis a suit between Lewis and Dunlap 
about this possession. When matters as to these lands 
became satisfactorily arranged, Mr Warwick moved In 
Clover Lick, and lived in a row of cabins. After a 
few years he and Mrs Warwick thought it might be 
better for their children to live on the Jackson River 
estate. They moved to Bath, and remained tiiere un- 
til the marriage of their son Andrew. 

Upon their return to Clover Lick, the log cabins 
were deemed unfit for occupancy, and arrangements 
were made to build a spacious uiaiision, Patrick Briif- 
fey was employed to prepare the material. He began 
work in Mr Warwick's absence, Mrs Warwick in- 
structed Mr Bruffoy to how the timbers s:j as to have a 
hall or passage, as it was then termed. He did so. 
When Ml' Warwick returned, and found what had been 
dime, he was not pleased with his wife's plans, and had 


illSTJitY <!",' l'(K;A'IOSr.\S 

iIk! Iiij;a diangod jiccuriHiiglv. Mr Briitfey liewed t!iw 
i 'ji» mill <irt.8fled tliu plunk, but did not build tlic cliim- 
iieys. Mr Wooddoll, iioar (ireenbaiik, fiirnishod the 
plank for sixtv p<iuiids (noarlv throe liniidred dollaiB. ) 
The nails Wi!r« foi'ged by hand at tlie Warm Springs. 

Siivcral inouudB have been discovered near (lover. 
Lick, In Hoarching fur material for the foundation of 
the large now honao, tJie builders .gathered noine nice 
Hionea from a rock pile. Thoy found human remains, 
auil when Mr Warwick heard of it he emphatically or- 
dered the Htones to be replaced, and told them not to 
molest anything that looketl like a burial place. 
Greenbrier Beu often sjjoke of tlie opening of a grave 
just in frout of the Chapel; and from the superior qual- 
ity of the iirtieleB found with the reamius, all were of 
the opinion it was the toaib oE' a chief. Mr Warwick 
directed it to be carefully closwl, and the relics were 
not molested. 

One of the main objects in having the new house so 
spacious was that it might be used for preaching ser- 
vices, and there was preaching there more frequently 
than anywhere else in this region, during anumber of 
years. This historic mansion was finally removed to 
give place to the handsome residence reared by Dr 
Ligon, and which was burne<! in 18S4. 

Tlie main route for emigration from Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, and other points north and northeast, pasBed 
by Clover Lick to Kentucky and Ohio. As many as 
forty and fifty wonld be entertained over night. This 
made Clover Lick erne of the most public and widely 
known places in the wh»»le counti-j. The apjn-oach 



from the oast avoided hollows and nivines, keupin^ 
aloiig liigli poiuta and crests of ridges, so as to be more 
Becnre from ambuscades ami Indian attacks. Tlie 
original way out from Clover Lick, going east, after 
crossing tlie (ireenbrier near the mouth of ( lover Creek 
avoided Laurel Run, kept along the high point leading 
down to the river, and passed close b^ the McOutchen 
residence, Mrs Warwick had the first road cut out, up 
the Laurel Ran, in order to bring the lumber for the 
new house from Wooddell's in the Pine Woods, now 
(jrreenbank and vicinity. She g:ive thu enterprise her 
persona! attention. 

Quite a nu^nbcr of interesting incidents are givoii by 
tradition illustrating the character of Mrs Warwick. 
While renting Clover Lick, her husband and others 
were making hay, A shower of rain caniu up very 
suddenly and dampened their guns and horse i»ist<jls. 
Late in the afternoon the men tired them off, so aw to 
load them with fresh charges. iSome one hearing the 
report of Grearms in quick succession brought word to 
Mrs Warwick, at Dunniore, that the Indians were 
fighting the men at the Lick. She at once mounted a 
large black stallion, put a colored boy on behind, and 
went at full speed aud swam the ewolle:i river in her 
effort to see what happed. This colored boy is old 
"Ben," who died at Glover Lick, and is remembered 
by many of the older citizens. 

Upon another occasion, when the Shawnees were re- 
luruing from one of their raids to the east, forty or fif- 
ty of their warriors were sent by Clover Lick with the 
intention, it is believed, to pillage aud burn, A scoul 



from MillboiM wanted Mr Warwick of thiiir ino%'e- 
ineiitti. Witli itboiit twenty others li« watted for theiit 
in aiiibiisli on tlio crest of tlio iiiomitiiiii soutli of Clover 
Lick. The tire was verv eifet-tive, and every man kill- 
ed or woiiiideil hia vietim. The Iiidians in their sur- 
priao hastily retreated, and werepnrduod an far as Elk 
Water in Haitdi Iph ( oniily. Upon keaiing of tl:e lo- 
Htdt, Mrs Warwick at once followed Iter husbami 
and friends, attended by servants carrying provision ' 
for thoLu, Site met them at the Big Spring (m their 
rettirn, and the weary hungry party were greatly re- 
freshed by her thonghtfnl preparations. 

She was eminently pious, and was a iiteniher of the 
Windy Cove Presbyterian ( hurch. She never felt her 
self more honored than when ittinisters would visit litr 
home and preach. The visiting minister would receive 
a nice horse, or something else as valuable, as a token 
of appreciation. She was conscientiously rigid in her 
domestic discipline. Her brother once made this re- 
mark; "Mary, I used to think you were too strict with 
your family, and yon have beeti blamed for it. I see 
now yon are right. You have tiot a child but would 
knee in the duat to obey you. I let my children have 
more liberties, and they do not care n^ar so much for 

The Rev Aretas I^omis came front Beverly, for a 
time, every four weeks, and preached at the Warwick 
residence. She was hiahly emotional, and during the 
sei-vices often appeared vei-y happy. As to her per- 
sonal appearance she was tall, slender, and blue eyed, 
hair wlightly tinged with aubnm, and litlie and agile in 



lier carriage. So siie was distinguished for syiiinietrj' 
of person, beauty of feature, and force of cliaracter, all 
of which she retaioed even to an advanced age. She 
waB very benevolent, and her kind deetia 'vere done 
iipou the principle of not telling the left hand what the 
right ntight be doing. Persons in her employ would 
always be overpaid. Polly Brown, whose lot it was 
to support her blind mother, received two bushels of 
corn every two weoks, and uo oue knew where the 
sapply came from at the time. A persjn named Char- 
ley Collins, who was ronownod as an athlete, and 
whose name is given to one of the meadows of Clover 
. Lick, did a gieat deal of clearing. It was reported 
that he was but poorly paid, but befoie Mrs Warwick 
was done with him his family was doubly paid by the 
substantial gifts dispensed with Iter open hands. 

Among her many other generous deeds, it is told 
how a rather worthless character, disabled by frozen 
feet, was received into ber house, elotlied and fed un- 
til lie could walk. His name was Bosior. This man 
afterwards died from tlio effects of a burning tree fall- 
ing on him, against which he had made a fire, while 
on his way from Big Spring to Mace's in Mingo tlats. 
George See, a grandson of Mrs Warwick, heard his 
cries and came to him. In his efforts to rescue liirn, 
he exerted himself so laboriously that ho was never 
well afterwards. 

It should be remembered also, that Mrs Warwick, in 
her old age, gathered the first Sabbath School ever 
taught in Pocahontas County. In the summer her ser- 
vants would lift her on her horse, and she would then 



ride alxiut four milos to n seliool lioiiwe near wliere the 
JoHiali Friel cabin st<io<l, now in the posaession of 
(Jiles Sliarp. Tlio cxorciscM would liegin at ahout nine 
o'clock. Tlicre was no prayer, no singing; bat she 
would rend tlie Bible, talk a great deal, and give good 
advice. Tlie Hcliolura would road their Bibles with 
lier. The exei-cises would close at two in the after- 
noon. After this continuous aession of five liours Mrs 
Warwick would be so exhausted as to require assistance 
to arise and mount Iier horse. It wiw her custom to 
go to William Sharp's, dine and rest awhile, and then 
go later in the day. To use the la;iga,»g3 of ons 
uf her scholars, the late Mrs Elizabeth McLaughlin, 
who died near Huutersville in 1895, aged over ninety 
years: '-She would give such good advice. If all 
would do as she told them, how well it might have 
been. She was the best woman to raise girls I ever 
saw, if they would take her advite how to act and how 
to do. She has talked to nie for hours, and it was 
often thrown up to me that old Mrs Warwick made me 
proud because I tried to do as she advised me." 

The school was mainly made up of Josiah Brown's 
family, John Sharp's, William Sharp's, and Jeremiah 
Friel's. The lamented Methodist preacher, Rev Jamea 
E. Moore, once belonged to her Sabbath school, and 
received from her his earliest religious instructions. 
By common consent it is agreed that he did more for 
his church than any two ministers who have ever 
preached iii this region. 

Not a great while before her death, during one of 
Mr LoomU' ministerial visits, she received the com- 



inuniou. rpoii receiving the elements, licr eniotioiiti 
became so great that her husbniid and children, fearing 
results, carried her to her own room. For four weekw 
slie WR9 lielplesB from nervonH proatratlon. All her 
children from Bath and Pocahontas were sent for. 81ie • 
died at the ripe i^e of eighty years, in 1823, at Clover 
Lick, and there she was huried. There were no ser- 
vic93 of any kind in connection with her bnrial. 

The purpose of these sketches is already manifest to 
the discerning I'eader — to rescue, if pi.issible, fmni total 
oblivion the name and services of an obscure but emi- 
nently worthy person. Jacob Warwick was one of the 
persons who made permanent settlements in what is 
now Pocahontas and Bath counties Virginia and West 

It has been already stated that he commenced hiw 
business life at Dunmoi-e; purchased (lover Lick, 
where he resided for a time; then moved to his im- 
mense possessions on Jacksons River, and then return- 
ed to Clover I.ick, In addition to these estates he ac- 
quired some equally as valuable. He endowed his 
seven children with ample legacies, and besides be- 
queathed a competency to ten or fifteen grandchildren, 

Mr Warwick was an alert and successful Indian 
lighter, and had a series of conflicts, narrowly escap- 
ing with his life on several occasions; yet he was never 
sure of killiug but one Indian. Parties now living re- 
member seeing a tree on the lands of John Warwick, 
near Greenbank, whore Jacob Warwick killed thitt In- 
dian in single combat. It always grinved him th:it hu 



liad certainly 8«iit oii« soul into otornity niider sucli sad 
cii'c urn stances. 

Owing to liis accurate knowledge of tlie mountain 
regions far ainl near, his services were in frequent de- 
inaud br laud agents and governmental surveyors. 
He and others went to Randolph as an escort for a land 
eoiuinission in the service of the colony. It was dur- 
ing the period when Kilbuck scouted the mountains 
with bands of Shawuees and Mingocs, Colonel John 
Stuart, of Greenbrier, says: "Of all the Indians the 
Shawuees were the most bloody and terrible, holding 
all other men — Indians as well as whites — in contempt 
HB warriors in comparison with themselves. This 
opinion made tliom more tiercf and restless than any 
other savages, and they boasted that they had killed 
ten times as many white men as any other tribe. They 
were a well formed, ingenious, active people; were as- 
suming and imperious in the pi-esence of others, not of 
their nation, and sometimes very cruel. It was chiefly 
the Shawuees that cut off the British under General 
Braddock, in 1755— only nineteen years before the 
battle of Point Pleasant — when the General himself 
and Sir Peter Hackott, the second in command, were 
both slain, and the mere remnant only of the whole 
army escaped. They, too, defeated Major (irant and 
the Scotch liighlanders at Fort Pitt, in 1758, where 
the whole of the troops were killed or taken prisoners," 

At the time Mr Warwick went over to Randolph 
with the commissioner, the season had been inclement, 
and it was believed the Indians would not be abroad. 
Indeed, such was their sense of security the party did 



not think it worth while to arm themeelves on setting 
out on their bueineas. While in the lower valley about 
Huttonsville, however, it was reported by one Thomas 
Lacky, a person of aotnewhat fjueslionalile veracity, 
that he liad seen fresh Indian signs. As Mr Warwick 
and his party were unarmed, six citizens and friends of 
the escoi-t armed themsolves and proposed to go with 
them to the place where Lacky had seen the Indian 
trail. Upon coming near the place, Andrew Sitling- 
ton's horse showed fright, thereupon his rider saw In- 
dians, but for a moment coold not speak. This attract- 
ed Mr Warwick's attention, and looking in the same 
direction ne saw tho Shawnees creeping along to reaeii 
a suitable place to cut them off. He gave the alarm — 
'^Indians! Indians I" Finding themselves discovered 
the warriors fired hastily, wounding one of the party 
and Mr Warwick's horse. The horse sank to tho 
ground as if dead, but as Mr Warwick was in tho act 
of throwing oflf his cloak for flight, the horse rose and 
darted off at the top of his speed, and carried his 
rider safely home to Dunmoie before night. Those 
that were mounted all escaped— Jacob Warwick, James 
McClain, Thomas Cartmill, and Andrew Sitlington. 
Of those on foot, John Crouch, John Hulder, and 
Thomas Lacky escaped. The following were killed: 
Jolm McClain, James Ralston, and John Nelson, 
When these were attacked they were near the mouth of 
Windy Run, One man was killed running across the 
bottom. Three of the men escaped by climbing the 
hank where they were; two others, in looking for an 
easier place to get up the bank, were overtaken, killed 



and scal}H!<l. Not ver}' far (ro.ii iWis pluce is the laiirol 
tliickvt wliei'fi (.'otoiicl Wasliiiigloii wan killed in 1861. 

Tliu \ionni waK found to ho woiindod in the thigh. 
The ball was oxtnicted, and the uoble animal lived 
long and iKxraiiie very valuable for nsofut endurance, 
Mo»t of the way home tiie day be was woiindod that 
horse carried two pei-»onij a distance of thirty miles. 

Upon a 8ub8C(jiient occasion Mr Warwick went to 
Randolph County. It was night whtn he returned. 
His horse shied at somuthing in the road, which he at 
once recogai/.ad as the fresh lin:*kB of rousting ears. 
The presence of Indians was at once snspected, and 
upon approaching the house cautiously it was found 
that the row of cabins wei-e burned and the premises 
ransacked. In their glee, the Indians had caught the 
chickens, picked all their feathers off and let them go. 
The place had been loft in the care of a colored man 
named Sam and Greenbrier Ben, aged ten or twelve 
years. Sam ma<l« good his escape to the wtxxls, but 
Ben iiid in a hemp patch so near the cabin that when 
it was burned he could hardly keep still, his buckskin 
breeches were so hot. Fi'oni his retreat Ben saw the 
Indians pick the chickens, leaving their tails and top- 
knots, and laugh at their gi'otesqne appearance. Hu 
saw them run the wagon into the fire, after the cabin 
near the spring had become a smouldering heap of 
coals. This wagon was the first that ever crossed iluf 
Allegbanies. It was brought from Alountaiu Grove, 
up Little Back Creek, about three miles above where 
the liunteraville road first crosses the stream going 
east; then across Knapps Spur, along by Harper's 



Mill ; then straight across to Thorny Crealt, through 
the Lightner place, past Bethel Church, to the Saun- 
ders place ou Thorny Creek; thence up the ridge to the 
top. and then along down to the Knapp place ou tli ! 
Greenbrier River; thence to Clover Lick, 

The most nie;norab!e event of liie life, however, was 
hia being in the expedition to Point Pleasant, under 
General Andrew Lewie. The march from Lewisbarg 
to Point Pleasant — one liuudred and sixty miles — took 
nineteen days. It is most probable that he was in the 
company commanded by Captain Mathews. This con- - 
tlict with the Indians w;is the most decisive that had 
jet occurred. It was fought on Monday morning, 
October 10, l7T-t. 

It is a matter of regret that .the recorded history of 
this battle does not accord full justice to the memory 
of a very deaorving person. It is conceded hy all, so 
far as there is any record, that up to the time when 
there occurred a lull in the battle the advantage was 
with the Indians. The question arises, why should a 
warrior as skillful as Cornstalk call a halt iu the full 
tide of success, and suddenly cease firing and pressing 
upon a receding foe, with victory just in his grasp ? 

Had it not been for this, no troops could have been 
uafely detached for a flank movement. Flank move- 
ments are only a good policy for those who are press- 
ing the enemy, and not for the retreating party. When 
Cornstalk ceased to press, the victory was decided in 
favor of the Virginians, and lost to him. Had the 
battle been lost to our people and the aimy sacrificed, 
unspeakable disasters would have befallen all settle- 



iiieiitH wcHt of tlio Bliiti Rii]j;i! iii(iiint»iiis; flic Revolu- 
tion would have been defened for all time, posBibty, 
and the whole history of America far differeut from 
wiiat has been. 

How is that lull in the battle to be acconnted for. 
which resulted in victory to the Virginians ? Dr Foote 
Hiiys, iu his account, which is one of the most minute 
and extended of all in i-each of the wj-iter, that "ti>- 
wards evening, Lewis seeing no sign? of retraat or ces- 
i^ation of battle, dispatched Captains Shelby, Hathewa, 
and Stewart, at their request, to attack the enemy in 
their rear. Going up the Kanawha, under the cover 
of the banks of Crooked Creek, they got to the rear of 
the Indians unobserved, and made a rapid attack. 
Alarmed by this unlooked for assault, and thinking the 
reinforcements of Colonel Christian were approaching, 
before whose arrival they had striven hard to end the 
battle, the savages became dispirited, gave way, and 
by sunset had recroseed the Ohio. Colonel Christian 
entered the camp about midnight, and found all iu 
readiness for a renewed attack." (Second Series pl65) 

Colonel Kercheval, who claims to have derived hi» 
information from Joseph Mayso and Andrew Raad, of 
Bath County, states on their authority "that about two 
o'clock in the afternoon Colonel Christian arrived on 
the field with about five hundred men, the battle was 
still raging. The reinforcements decided the issue al- 
most immediately. The Indians fell back about two 
miles, but such was their persevering spirit, though 
fairly beaten, the contest was not closed until the set- 
ting of the sun, when they relinquished the field." 



There were peraoDs recently liviug in Batli, and tlie 
writer converseJ with one, (September, 1873j, almost 
in speaking distance of the residence where Joseph 
Mayso lived and died, who 'are certain tliat Mr Mayse 
gave the credit of that cessation in battle and falling 
back two miles ou the part of the Indians, to Jacob 
Warwick and the persons with him. According to 
Judge Warwick's statement, — and the writer's impres- 
sion is that Mr Mayse's statement was emphatically 
confirmed by Major Charles Cameron, a lieutenant in 
the battle, — Mr Mayse often repeated the fact that Ja- 
cob Warwick, an obscure private in the ranks, was de- 
tailed with a number of others, perhaps fifty or sixty 
in all, to bring in a supply of meat, that rations might 
bo snpplied for a forced march to the Indian towns, as 
Governor Dnnmore had so treacherously given orders. 
These persons crossed the Kanawha abont daybreak, 
and while at work in the banting grounds and slaughter 
pens, they beard the firing beyond the limits of the 
camp, and so far up the Ohio tliey supposed it to be a 
salute to Governor Dunmore, who was expected at any 
time by the soldiers generally. But the firing continu- 
ing too long for this, it waa surmised the troops were 
putting their arms in order for the contemplated march 
over the Ohio, Finally iboy suspected it was a battle. 
Mr Warwick was one of the first to ascertain this to he 
HO, and immediately rallied the butchers and hunters, 
iu order to return to camp and join the battle. This 
was noticed by the enemy, and (!ornstalk was of the 
opinion that Colonel Christian was at hand. He ceLis- 
vd in the roach of victory, and took me:tsures to witli- 



draw fi'oiti the field, nuobtiei-ved b^ our exlmusteil 
troopH, For uvitrl^ two hours they liad beeu falling 
hack, and whi'u the fiaiik uioveiueut was iiiiide to cout- 
iiinnicnte with the huuters, ttuppused to be Colouel 
ChriHtiau'u advauce to joiu them. Wliat fightiDg oc- 
ouri'ed afterwards wan with the i-ear guard of forii- 
stalk's retreating army of demoralized braves. 

If all this be true, and couuidcring the sources of in- 
formatiuu, the uriter sees no reason to doubt its 
authenticity in the main, it illustrates how impoi-tant 
results are sometimes made to depend, in tiie provi- 
dence of (rod, upon fidelity to duty on the pait of tlu? 
most obscure, and it brings to Hgiit the leadings ut' 
Uod's hand in humau atfaii's. 

This is not written in a complaining spirit, yet one 
feels like saying, if this be true, what a comment it 
furnishes on the justice nietod out by the historic muse. 
The reputed hero of Point Pleasant appeai-s iu bronze, 
iin honored member of tba group wherein stand Henry, 
Jefferson, and Marshall, while the humble man whose 
hand turned the fortunes of tiiat most eventful day 
sleeps in his obscure grave on the west bank of 
Jacksons River, six miles from the Warm Springs. 
Were it the grave of Campbell's "Last Man," it could 
not be in a much less frequented place. 

Major Warwick's sons and daughters were all born 
at Dunmore, Pocahontas Comity. The eldest daugh- 
ter, Rachel, remembered when the settlers would fly- 
to the fort near her home, when she was a little girl. 
The fort was near the spot now occupied by Colonel 
Pritchard's mill. 



She became the wife of Major Cliarles Cameron, a 
descendant of the Camennie so noted in the history of 
the Scottish Covenanters. He was in the battle of 
Point Pleasant, and was there called npon to mourn 
the deatli of his three brothers slain in that conflict. 
In person he was of medium stature, tidy in hiu dress. 
wore short clothes, very dignified in his manners, and 
was never known to smile after the heart-rending 
scenes he witnessed at Point Pleasant. He was an 
officer in the Revolution, and served as clerk of botli 
courts of Bath t'ouuty many yeaie. He reared the 
late Charles L. Francisco, so long clerk of Bath, as his 

Mrs Cameron drew a pension of nine hundred dol- 
lars for several years before her death in 1)^58, 

Major Cameron's residence was on Jacksons River, 
at the crossing of the Huntersville and Warm Springs 
pikti. The two story spring house yet remains in n 
good state of preservation, the upper part of which he 
used for his office, where he long and faithfully kept 
the legal records intrusted to hia care, almost one 
hundred years ago. 

One son, Colons! Andrew W. Cameron, survived 
him. He bacame a very wealthy and popular citizen. 
He represented Bath in the Virginia Legislature. He 
removed afterwards to Rockbridge County and resided 
on an immense estate uear Lexington, so as to secure 
educational and social advantages for his largo family 
of sons and daughters. He met his death in a sad 
way in the town of Lexington, where be had gone 
imxious to hear sumethjng of his sons John and (Miarles 



ill tliu ariiiv. 

Oiiu of the [laHrtengerH Ui tlie tiiail coach was u sol- 
iliei- with a iinmkvt. In the act of teaviiig the coacli 
rlii» weapon wan diHchai-gcd, the coiit(;nte infltctiiig ii 
wound frojn which he uxpii'ed nlinui^t instantly. 

Dr John II. Cftinemn, a popular physician of Deer- 
tield, Va., is his eldest sou. Mrs Thomas White, Mrs 
1>, White, and Mru Judge Leigh, of I^xington, Va. . 
and tlio late Mrs A. W. Harniun are hie daughters. 

Mrs Jane Warwick Gatewoiid and IJer Descendants. 

She was Major Warwick's sucond daughter, and be- 
came tlie second wife of William (iatewood, of Essex 
t'oimty, a near relative of President Tyler. Their 
home was at Mountain (Jrove, Bath County. Their 
sons were Warwick and Samuel Vance, and their 
daughters wei-e Mary Jaue and Frances. 

Warwick (iatewood married Miss Margaret Beale, 
ijf Botetourt County, Va., a relative of President Mad- 
ison, Their daughter Eliza became Mrs Judge Jauies 
W, Warwick, near the Warm Springs, and Catiierine 
became Mrs Ca^sereo Bias, once pi-oprietur of the Red 
Sweet Springs. Mr Bias was rescued wiien an infant 
from a wrecke<l ship, and is supposed to be of Portu- 
guese parentage. One of tlieir sous, James W. Bia» 
was a very promising candidate for the Presbyterian 
ministry, and died in Noith (.'arolina, where he was 
spending a vacation in charge of a church. Miss Katu 
Bias, her daughter, is a very etlicieut niissionai'y itt 

Coloue! Samuel V, Gatewood married Miss Eugenia 



Masaie, near AHcglmiij Falls, Va. He suceoedod to 
tlio old Momitain Grove homestead and built the fiue 
brick njaiiBioii tliere. His daugliter Susan became Mrs 
William Taliaferro, of Rockbridge County. Mary 
Pleasants, his second daughter, married Samuel Goode 
of the Hot Springs, Va. William Bias Gate wood, one 
of the sons, a prominent business man of I^ndoun 
County, lias recently died. Colonel A. C. L. Gate- 
wood, another son, resides at the Big Spring, Poea- 
hontaa County. He was an officer in the Confederate 
service, 11th Virginia, (Bath Cavalry), and ranked 
a(a'»ng tlio br.ivc-jt of his comradei. His daugliter is 
Mrs Dr W. T. Cameron, a popular physician in tln^ 
vicinity of Unwood. 

Mrs Jane Gatewood's daughter, Mai'y Jane, became 
Mrs Kennedy, a insrchint in Ms.n;>!iis, T>;:i;ij,s(jj, , 
where she died of yellow fever. 

Frances, the other daughter, became Mrs Patton, of 
Rockbridge. Her daughters, Mrs Crockett anil Mrs 
Kent, were highly esteemed ladies of Wytheville and 
vicinity. Upon her second marriage Mrs Frances Pat- 
ton became Mrs General Dorman, of Lexington, Va. 

Mrs Mary Warwick Mathews and Her Descendants. 

This member of Major Warwick's family was mar- 
ried to Sampson Mathews, and for years occupied the 
old Warwick homestead at Diinmore. Her children 
were Jacob Warwick, Andrew Gatewood, Sampson 
Lockhart, Elizabeth, and Jane. 

Jacob W. Mathews resided on Sitlington's Creek, 
near Uunmore. His wife was a daughter of Kev John 


254 HiaTOKV OF I'UCAHOXTAS colktv 

McCiie, of AnguHta rouiity, and who i» memioned in 
history as a pioneer iiiiuiater in (Iroenbner and Mon- 
roe County. There were two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Mary. Elizabeth married ('aptain Felix Hull, of Mc- 
Oowell, Highland County. Captain Hull was a prom- 
inent merchant and popular citizen. }Ie led a compa- 
ny of two liundt'cd men into Grafton, W. Va., in May 
liSSl. He died in the service of the State of Virginia, 

Mary wae married to Joseph McClung, a citizen of 
Greenbrier, near Williamsburg. Mrs Newman Feam- 
ster, in the Blue tiulphur District, is her daughter; Mrs 
Brownlee, of Birmingham, Ala., is another daughter. 

Andrew G. Mathews married Mary W. See, and lived 
several years at Dunmore, and then moved to Fulaski 
County, Va., where his later years were passed amid 
very pleasantsnrroundiugs. He was a highly respected 
citizen, and a prominent ruling elder in his church and 
well known throiighoat the Virginia Synod. 

His daughter Martha married Uriali Hevener, near 
Greenbank. Mrs James Renick, of Greenbrier Coun- 
ty, is one of hia daughters. Mrs Ellen Snyder, of 
Salem, Misses Eliza and Rachel Mathews at the old 
Pulaski homestead, are also daughters. Charles Mat- 
thews of Summers County, is his son. Mrs Samuel B. 
Hannah, near Greenbank, is a granddaughter of An- 
drew Q. Mathews. 

Sampsou L. Mathews, the third son of Mary War- 
wick Mathews, married Nancy Edgar, of Greenbrier 
County. The town of Ronceverte now occupies the 
Edgar homestead. He was a very useful and intelli- 
gent citizen of Pucaliontas. He was the first surveyor 



of the c'OHiit^- and n nji'mber of tlio coui't a ihiuiIkt of 
veare. His ouly cliilti Mary, bwaiao Mrw William H. 
McClintic, and yet lives. Her five sons were educa- 
ted at lioanoke College. Hunter was a prosperoua cit- 
izen of Pocahontas, and met liis dcatli April, IHOl, by 
A falling tree; Witln'ow Is an eutvrpiising citizen o( 
Pocabontaa; (Tcorgo is a lawyer at Charleston; Edward 
resides at Seattle, State of Wafdnugton. He was 
iimoQg those who visited Alaska, in 1S*J7, Hoarehiu;j 
for gold. I.'ickliftrt was State's attoniyy ssveral teriin 
and represented Pocahontas County in the Legislature. 
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter, was married to a Mr 
Miller, of Rockingham Connty, Virginia, euiigrated to 
Missouri, aud died young. June married Captain 
(ieorge Woods, of Albemarle County. Her home 
was near what is now Ivy Depot. She was the ha])- 
py mother of six sons and two daughters. 

Margaret Warwick See and Her Family. 

This daughter was married to Adam See, who liv- 
ed near Huttonsville, Randolph ('ounty. He was n 
well known lawyer, an extensive owner of lands, 
an influential citizen and a devoted rnling elder lit 
his churcli. There were four sons aud seven daugh- 
ters. The sons were Gwirge, Jacob, Warwick, and 
< harles Cameron. Eliza, Dolly, Christina, Mary, 
Rachel, Hannah, and Margaret wore the daugters. 

George See's daughter, Georgiana, became the wife 
<»f the late Captain Jacob W. Marshall, who raised 
nnd commanded a very cHieient comyany of mounted 
infantry for the Confederate service. He was also on,' 



of tliu original pro^noters of Marliritoii, and was an 
active memlwr of the PocaliontM Uovelnpiiijut Com- 
pany. F. 1*. Mareliall, Sheriff of itandolpli Connty; 
Dr L. J. Maruliall, of Marltnton, and Cecil Marshall 
are liiu huuh. Mru Samuel Holt, and Mrs £. I. Holt, 
of Utllshoro, art! Iuk daughters. 

George See's won Adam married Dolly Crouch and 
lived at the old home on Elkwater, Kandolpoli County 
Their daughter Florida hecamo Mrs J. Calvin Price, 
near Clover Lick. She and her two heautiful Httlt! 
boys died within n foA- months oT each other, several 
years ago. 

Jacob Warwick See married a daughter of the Rev, 
Dr. iieo. A. Baxter, one of the most eminent minis- 
ters and educatorsof hie day, and sattled in Focahon- 
tiw, on the pi-opeity owned by Mr. Uriah Hevcuer. 
The last years of his life wei-e spent in Tucker county. 
W. Va, When more than sixty years of age, he vol- 
iiuteei-ed in the Confederate service, and died in Lynch- 
burg Va,, in amilitary hospital in 1802. His son Rev, 
Chas. 8. M, See, a well-know minister, was with him 
and had his remains carried to Tinkling Spring Cem- 
etery in Augusta county, where he now sleeps well 
after his busy life. In personal apperance he is said to 
have borne a very marked likeness to his venerated 
grand-father, and no doubt inlierited his patriotic spirit 
along with his name. 

The third son, Charles Cameron, was among the 
most popular and widely known citizens of his native 
county, an ernest friend of liberal learning, and a 
zealous Christian gentleman. His wife was a daugh- 



ter of Br Squier Boawortb, an emineDt physician of 
Beverly, Peter See, a prosperous and influential citi- 
zen of Augusta County, an a ruling elder in the old 
Stone Church, is his son. Mr Peter See's wife, Marv, 
is a paughter of Mrs Eliza Gamble, one of Margaret 
Warwick See's daughters, whose husband, Ur Kobeit 
Gamble, was a noted physician, a ruling Elder in the 
Angusta Church, and a very influential citizen of 
Angusta County. 

Dolly See was married to Hon, John Hutton, of 
Hnttonsville, W. Va. Tlila gentleman was a member 
of the Randolph court, and a delegate to the West Vir- 
ginia Legislature, and did as much as any other man 
toward removing the disabilities of southern sympa- 

Christina See was married to Washington Ward, 
and lived on the old See homestead, nearly east of 
Hattonsvilte. Her sons, Jacob, Renick, and Adam, 
were all in the Confederate service, and were known 
by their coj;irades as men that never flinched froat dan- 
ger nor shirked a duty. All three with their families 
have migrated to the far west. 

Mary Sas became Mrs Andrew (r. Mathews, of 
whom mention has been mad(5. 

Hannah See became Mrs Henry Harper, near Bev- 
erly, a ruling Elder in the churcli and a highly esteem- 
ed citizen, 

Margaret See was married to the Hon. Washington 
Long, one of the wealthiest and most influential citi- 
zens of Randolph County. 

Rachel Cameron See was the wife of Hon. Paul 



McNuiil, iif PocttlioiitaB Coiiiitj. lie posBCBt^eil an iiii- 
iiiiiUHL- huuled u.state, watt for yuaru a luailiug iiiembur 
<if the court, she riff of the cijunly, and was a member 
of the Virginia convention that pjBsed the Ordinance 
<if Secession. Tlieir eldest son George resides near 
Ililleboro. He was a Confederate soldier. Andrew 
Gatewood raised a company for tlie CoDfe<lerate ser- 
vice. He died a few years since. John Adam was a 
soldier, studied law, and now resides upon a line estate 
in Rockbridge County. Eliza, the eldest of the daugh- 
tei-8, became the wife of Itev Daniel A. I'enick, a 
Presbyterian minister in liockbridge County, The 
<ither dnughtcrs are Mrs Edgar Beai-d, near Millpoiut, 
and Mrs Captain Kdgar, near Ilillsboro. 

Andrew Warwick and His Family. 

Major Jacob Warwick had another sim, Charles 
(Jameron, but he died while at school in Essex County, 
Va., ^ed fourteen. Andrew was therefore the only 
Kon that lived to be grown, and to perpetuate his fath- 
er's name. He was twice married. His tirst wife was 
a Miss Woods, of Nelson County: the second wife was 
a Miss Dickinson, of Millboro iSpring, Bath County, 

Andrew Warwick's eldest son, James Woods, lately 
resided on Jacksons River on a section of the old 
homestead. He served a term as Judge of the courtB 
of Bath and Highland counties. He received the ap- 
pointment from the Virginia Legislature. He had 
never been a lawyer by profession, but such was his 
cleur perceptions and common sense of the right thing 
to be done that he met the duties of his station with 



markud ability, and very acceptably tj the pijplo gen- 
erally. He bad three sous: 

John Andrew was a lieatenaiit in the Confederate 
survice; received several wounds, from one of which be 
siiffemd many years. For several years he was in the 
west, leading the life of a frontiersman. lie died in 

James Woods was a aoldier; a te-vchor and Siiperiii- 
tnndent of Schools in Pocahontas County. 

Charles Cameron, lately deceasad, was a cadet of 
the Virginia Military Institute, and at one time a civil 
(mgineer in the Mexican Railway service. 

Judge Warwick's daughter Mary, is the wife of Col. 
A. C. L. Gatewood. Lillie married James A. Fraaier, 
of Rockbridge Alum ISpringB. Eliza is the wife of J. 
W, Stephenson, of the Warm Springs, a lawyer and 
attorney for Commonwealth, Bath County. Another 
daughter is Mrs Jacob McClintic near the Hot Springs. 

Andrew Warwick's second son, Jacob, married Miss 
Ellen Massie, of East Virginia, and most of bis life 
was spent there. He was an extensive planter, and 
much esteemed for bis elevated, pure character, 

John Warwick, tbe third son of Andrew, resided in 
Pocahontas County. As a member of tbe court, school 
commissioner, assessor of lands, and in other positions 
of trust, he was prominent as a citizen, and influential. 
His first wife was Hannah Motfett, the only daughter 
of Andrew Gatewood, of whom special mention is yet 
to be made. His second marriage was with Caroline 
Craig, youngest daughter of George E. Craig, mer- 
chant at Huntersville, Elder in his church, and a m i ;. 



tistimable cliriatian geiitleinaii. Mifs Emiiui Warwick, 
Mrs Erneat Moore, of Duruiiore, and Mrs .Ur Lock- 
ridge, of DriHcol, are tlifir daaglitcrx. Tlioir sons 
.folm Warwick, riieruliant at Hintoii, dietl in 1SS6; 
George Warwick dieil in Lexington, while a student at 
Washington and Lee College. 

Elizabetli Warwick Woods. 

This member of Jacob Warwick's family married 
Colonel William Woods, near CharlotteHville, Va. 
There were no children born to them. He and his 
wife were paiticularlj' kind and bevevolent: A great 
man; persons remember them with gratitude for their 
ample hospitality. 

Mrs Nancy Warwick-Gate wood Poage and Her 

This member of Major Warwick's family was first 
married to Thomas Gatewood, son of William Gate- 
wood, of Mountain Grove; by a previous marriage, 
Jane Warwick, already mentioned, was the second wife 
of William Gatewood. 

Their home was at Marlin's Bottom, now Marlintou, 
Pocahontas County. Andrew Gatewood was the only 
child of her first marriage. Upon relinquishing all in- 
terest in the Marlins Bottom estate, ho received the 
Glade Hill property, near Dunmore. He is remem- 
bered as a person of uncommon sprightliness. While 
a student at Washington College, he was regarded as 
the peer of his classmate, William C. Preston of South 
Carolina, in studies and oratorical talent in their 



iicatlciiiic rivalry. He married Sally Moffett. A boh 
and diingliter snrvived Litn, Charles and Haunah. The 
daughter became the first wife of John W. War- 
wick. Her only child was the late Mrs 8ally Ligon, 
wife of Dr John Ligou, of Clover Lick. She was the 
mother of eight daughters and one son: The late 
Mrs C. P. Dorr, Mrs Dr McClintic, Mrs Louisa Coy- 
uer, Mrs Annette Coyner, Mrs Eva McNeel, Mrs Rosii 
Arbuckle, Mabel, Georgia, and Yancey. 

Upon her second marriage Mrs Nancy (latewood \k- 
came the wife of Major William Poage. Four daugh- 
ters and one son were born of this marriage. 

Mrs Puage died one morning just at the dawning. 
Feeling death to be near, she requested Jennie Johii- 
HOn, who afterwards became Mrs Jennie Lamb, to sing 
lier favorite hymn: 

■'Come, Tbou traveler unknown, 
Whom still I liold but can not see. 
Art Thou the man than died for me ! 
The secret of thy love unfold, 
With Thee all night I mean to stay. 
And wrestle till the break of day." 

Mrs Poage's eldest daughter, Rachel Cameron, was 
marrio<l to Josiah Board, of Locust. At 18 years of 
age, Mr Beard was a ruling Elder in the Falling Spring 
Church, Greenbrier County, and was the first clerk of 
Pocahontas County. During the Civil War, when 
over seventy years of age, he was taken prisoner by 
Federal troops. Something was said to rouse his ire, 
and he challenged the whole s<]uad to single combat. 


26"2 IIIST<iKY oK !■ 

Their family nmnbfred eight hohb and three daugh- 
ters. William T, Beaid, the eldest, was liberally edu- 
cated, and becaiiio an honored, inflneiitial citizen. Hia 
wife was Mary, the only daughter of Kichard MoNeel. 

Henry Moffett Beard was a Lieutenant in the Con- 
federate service, and for years was among the most 
prosperous Pocaliontas farn)ers. 

Samuel J. Beai-d has long resided in Missouri. 

Joel Early Beard died in the Confederate service. 
His niotlier came to church one Saturday morning of a 
sacrnmenta] occasion, to the Brick Church, and the 
first intimation of her soldier son^s death was the fresh 
grave and the arrival of the body for burial. Her 
other sons were Charles WixkIs. Jolin Oeorge, and 
Wallace Warwick were Confederate soldiers, and are 
influential citizens residing in the Little Levels of Pt>- 
cahoutas. Edwin Beard, the youngest son, is a mer- 
chant at Hillsboro. Mrs Alvin Clark, Mrs George 
McNeel, and Mrs Maggie Lcvisay are her daughters. 

Mrs Poage's second daughter, Mary Vance, who is 
said Ut have borne a remarkable resemblance to her 
grandmother, Mary Warwick, was lirst married to 
Robert Beale, of Botetourt County, and resided on Elk 
Pocahontas, where he died, leaving one child, Marga- 
ret Elizabeth, who married Dr George B. Moffett, one 
of the first graduates in medicine that ever resided in 
Pocahontas. One of their sons, James Moffett, lives 
in Chicago. It was at her son's home Mrs Moffett 
died a few years ago. 

Upon her second marriage Mrs Beale became the 
wife of Henry M. Moffett, the second clerk of Poca- 



lioiitaiK, a vtsrj excelleut man in every respect, and in 
his tiniG one of tli« most influential of citizens. Tlieir 
only aon tliat survived tlicui was George H. Motfett, ti 
member of the Poealiontas bar, ex-speuker of tlie WcHt 
Virginia Legislature, and at present a distingnialicd 
journalist in Portland, Oregon. 

One of her daughters, Mary Evelina, was married to 
Colonel William P. Thompson, a Confederate oflieer, 
whose late residence was in New York, and prominent 
in the management of the Standard Oil Company. 
The youngest daughter, Itachel, became Mrs I>r Mc- 
Chesney, of Lewisbnrg. 

Sally Gatowood, another daughter, became Mrs 
[>r Alexander McCheaney, of ( harleston. whose 
(laughter, Mary Winters, is the wife of Rev A, 11. 
Hamilton, a well known Presbyterian minister. 

Margaret Davies Poage, the third daughter of Mrs 
Nancy Warwick Poage, was married to James A. Price 
<>( Botetourt County, and lived at Marlins Bottom. 

Four of their sons were in the Confederate service- - 
Jauies Henry,, Joaiah Woods, John Calvin, and An- 
<lrew Gatewood. 

James Henry was captured at Marlins Bottom and 
taken to Camp Chase. He died in \SW. 

John Calvin was severely wounded in the same 
skirmish, shot down in tlie river, and afterward res- 
cued by friends. He resides near Clover Lick. 

Josiah Woods graduated with distinction at Wasli- 
ington College in 1861. He was a lieutenant in Cap- 
tain McNeel's company of mounted infantry. He waa 
:i teacher, superintendent of schools, and merchant in 



Randolph Coimty; a member of tli« Randolph court, 
aud for a term was presiding officer. He now leeidee 
at Marlinton, 

Andrew Gatewood Price was in the Confederate ser- 
vice in the Bath Cavalry. He was taken prisoner at 
Hanover Junction, and died a few weeks thereafter at 
Point Lookout, July 6, 1864, aged about twenty years. 
A lady near Richmond, seeing his name mentioned 
among the missing, wrote some very beautiful lines, 
that have been widely copied in books aud journals, 
and his name has been sweetly embalmed and his me- 
mory not soon forg<itten, 

8amtiel Uavies Price married Caroline McClure and 
lately resided on Jacksons River, where his widow and 
children now lives, 

Mary Margaret Price, the only surviving daughter, 
was married to Andrew M. McLaughlin, of whom was 
purchased the land on which the town of Marlinton is 
built. They reside near Lewisburg, W. Va. Their 
eldest son, Rev H. W. McLaughlin, is a Presbyterian 
minister, in charge of the Grecnbank and Dunmore 
churches. Lee and Edgar are their other sons; Anna 
Margaret, Lula, and Grace are their daughters. 

Concerning William T. Price, the eldest son of J. 
A. and Mary 1>. Price, the following is taken from 
Herringshaw's Encyclopaedia of American Biography : 

"William T. Price, cleryman, aAtlior, was born 
July 19, 1830, near Marlinton, W. Va. He was pre- 
pared for college at the Hillsboro Academy, and grad- 
uated in 1854 from Washington College, now called 
the Washington and Lee University, receiving a 



gold medal as the first lioiior graduate. In 1857, 
lie completed his tlieological stiidiea at UniotiSsiiiin^rj 
and was licensed tlio Ba'n3 yeai" to preacli. His time 
liaa been devoted mainly to the ministi-v of the Presbj- 
tertan Church— for forty years; — twelve years as home 
missionary in Bath and Highland counties; sixteen 
years as pastor of Cooks Creek Church, Kockingham 
County, Va. ; and twelve years as pastor of the Hun- 
tersville and Marlinton churches. He has contributed 
extensively to religious literature and is the author of 
several published works,"' 

William T. Price and Anua Louise Randolph, of 
Kichmond, Va., were married in 1865. Their child- 
ren are Dr James Ward Price, Andrew Price, Subili 
A, Price, a student at the Woman's Medical Collogo 
of Baltimore; Norman R. Price, medical student; Cal- 
vin W, Price, and Anna Virginia Price. 

Elizabeth Wood Poage, the fourth daughter, became 
the wife of Colonel Joel Mathews, of Selma. Alabama. 
A sad mortality attended her family; a few, porliaprt 
none survive. Colonel Mathews was an extensive 
planter, and owned between two and three thousand 
slaves. He tendered a colored regiment to the Con- 
federate Congress, but the Government was too punc- 
tilious to receive tliem as soldiers, and put theui to 
work on fortifications. Major Dawson, a son-in-law, 
was a member of the Southern provisional congress. 

Colonel William Woods Poage married Miss Julia 
Callison, of Locust, and lived awhile at Marlins Bot- 
tom. His later years were passed near (lover Lick. 
He served many years as a member of the court. Two 


uf liis smiH, HcDi-v Moffett and William Anthouy wtre 
slain in the war. Jlenry Motfett was n cavalry otticer. 
and was i-ecklcHsly daring. He fell near Jack Shop. 
Mrs Sally W. Beery, of Mt. Clinton, Va., is lis only 
surviving child: William Anthony waa uo less brave, 
and lost his life near Middletown, Va. , while ou a 

The Burviving sons of ('olonel Poage, John Robert 
and Quiiiey Woods, are prosperous farmers on tlio 
grand old homestead near Clover Lick. These brothers 
married sisters, daughters of Jacob Sharp, whoso mo- 
ther was the intimate friend of Mrs Mary Vance War- 
wick, long years ago. 

Authentic tradition preserves some incidents that il- 
lustrate some of Major Warwick's personal traits. 
Soon after the affair at Point Pleasant, ho went among 
the Shawuees on a trading excursion to secure skitiH 
and f iirs. On the last excursion of this kind he trav- 
eled ae far as Fort Pitt, where he found little Gitmore, 
a boy wlio had been carried a captive from Kerrs 
Creek, Koekbridge, Virginia. To put him out of the 
i-each of the mischievous boys, his master had lashed 
him to a board and laid him on the roof of a log cabiu. 
Mr Warwick tried to ransom the captive, but too mucli 
was asked by the Indian foster parent, and so he plan- 
ned to i-escue the boy and bring him home to his sur- 
viving friends in the Virginia Valley. He went with 
the Indians upon a hunting expedition, and while inov- 
ing from place to place to place he would frequently 
carry the Indian children behind him on his horse. 



and by tnriis hv. would carry tlKi Oilmore boy too. 
Sometiinea be would fall behind t!ie party, first with 
au ludian boy and tlien witli the wliite one, but still 
come up ill tiuie. Finally the Indians jilaced so much 
confidence iu the trader ae to be off their guard, where- 
upon he withdiew fi-orn the party with the captive and 
started for the settlements, aud before the Indians be- 
came siispiciouB of his intentions, his swift horse had 
carried thoin safely beyond their reach. After an 
arduous journey he arrived home in safety and restored 
the captive to his friends. 

Mr Warwick was once Jit a house r.iining iuthe vicin- 
ity of Clover Lick, A youug ni»n tn.vla himjalf un- 
pleasantly couepicaouH boasting of his Heetness of foot. 
Tbe Major took one of liis young friends aside and 
told him if he would beat that youngster at a fo<>t race 
aud take some of the conceit out of him he would 
make him a present. The race came olf in thu after- 
noon, and was won by the youug friend. Mr War- 
wick was delighted, and told him to come over to the 
Lick soon as convenient and see what was tbero for 
him. When he did so the Major gave him one of his 
tine colts. 

That youth became a distinguished MetlKxiist minis- 
ter, Eev Lorenza Waugb; traveled in West Virginia, 
Ohio, and Missouri, and finally went overland to Cali- 
fornia, where he died in 189y at the advanced age of 
1*6 years. During the greater part of this extended 
itineracy he used horses that were the offspring of tin- 
horse presented to him by Major Warwick, 

In a controversy about land on Little Back 



("reck, in Batfi (imnty, a challenge paBsetl between 
liiti) and Colonel John Baxter. Tliix was about the 
only uerioiiH ditficiilty he ever had with any itne, but 
the affair was amicably and honorably settled by niu- 
tnat friendtt. 

Hi» grandson, the hitc John Warwick, Esq., reiiioiii- 
bers the last visit paid to the old borne in Pocahontas. 
He wonld have (ireenbiier Ben, a faithful servant^ ti) 
ntotint a large hlack ninle; take his grandson, a lad of 
fonr years, in his arms and carry Iiini from Jacksout^ 
Uiver to Clover Lick — between tliirty-five and forty 
miles — the same day. The paity of ',hiee rested at 
noon in the home of John Bradshaw, the. pioneer and 
founder of Hniitersville. Squire Warwick remenibere<l 
seeing the hands at work upon the court house, thou i:i 
course of erection, and the interest manifested by his 
venerated grandfather, then more than eighty years of 
age, in what was going on. 

In person, Jacob Warwick was tall, stoop shoulder- 
ed, and exceedingly agile and muscular. His grand- 
sou, the late Jacob See, is said to have resembled birii 
more than any one else in personal appearance. 

Mrs Mary V. Warwick was a person of highly refin- 
ed taste, and took all possible pains to make home at- 
tractive. When there was preaching at her house, all 
present were pressingly invited to remain for dinner. 
Her table service was really elegant, and a prince 
might well enjoy her dinners. She had a well supplied 
library of books in the nicest style of binding, and she 
made good use of them, too. 

Mr Warwick was jovial in his disposition, and ex- 



tremely fami of iiiiiocoiit iiijrnmciit. He deliglited 
much in the eoeiety of young peopk', and even child- 
LPn. His pleasant wonls an I kindly doeds to young 
people were vividly and affestioiiatoly roiiitinibct'tid hy 
all who ever knew him. 

After the decease! of his wife, nmat of his time lie 
passed at tlie homo of Majoi- Charles (amerou. He 
Jied at the breakfast table. When apoplexy came 
upon him he was merrily twitting Misa Phwbe Wuixls 
abont her beau, young Mr Beale. This occnrred Jan- 
nary, 1826, when he was nearing hia eighty-third year. 

They carried his veuerable remiiin^ about a mile 
up the west bank of the Jacksous River, and in a 
Bpot reserved for family burial, he was buried. 
When the writer visited his grave several yenrs since, 
the place seemed to bo in danger of forgetful neas. 
A locust tree stood near it and marked the place. 
Since then it has been nicely and substantially en- 
closed, and the grave markt^tl by a neatly sculptured 
marble. In that lonely, but beautiful, valley retreat 
the ati'ong, busy man has found repose. 

So far as now known Thoniaa Galford, Senior, was 
the original ancestor of the Pocahontaa Galforda, It 
is believed he came fiom the Middle Valley and waa 
of Scotch descent. Thomas Galford lived on the place 
now held by F. Patterson and Charles Nottingham oh 
(rl^e Hill, and it is the opinion of most persona that 
ho came there just previous to the Revolution. 



Tliuiims Galfiird hm\ ii bnnlii'i-. Jnhii, of whom but 
litlie U uow kiio-vn. Tti«re w\n a sittter, Jeiiiue, wliu 
baciiiL' Mrs » (iiiui aud !iv.j,l at the head of Crab 
Bottojn, Highland Cnuiitv. There was another sUter 
whotte iiaiiit! caiinol now be recalled who became Mrs 
John Chestnut, on Little Back (reek, wliere she lias 
niuneniiis deoceiidaiits. 

Thomas (ialford inarried Naomi Slaveii, an aunt or 
Newleii Slaven, late ol' Meadow Dale, and they were 
the parent!) of two sons, John, and Tiio;iiaH, Junior; 
and a danghter, Elizabeth. 

John Galford marrie<] Jennie AicLau^Iilin, lived o:i 
the home place, tinally went to Lewis County and set- 
tled near Walkersville, There wore five sous and ouj 
daughter: Allen, John, William, Jaines. Thomas and 

Naomi Galford died a young woman in Lewis County. 

John Galfoivi, Junior, married Frederika Hilloiy 
and lived at Hmitersville where hy c<»iidacted a flourisb- 
ing tannery. Two sons and one duughter, Harrison, 
(ieorge, and Mary, who is now Mary V. llodgers, 
Buckeye, are their children. 

John Galford's second marriage was with Mary Sim- 
mons, daughter of the late Nicholas Simmons. Hamp- 
ton and Lydia, now MrsLee (Aerholt, are iter childroii, 

Thomas Galford married Alargaret Curry, on Back 
Mountain. Their children John, Brown, Naomi, Abi- 
gal, now Mrs L. A. Hefner, on 8wago. Lanty A. 
Hefner was a Confederate soldier from '61 — '65, at- 
tached to Colonel G. M. Edgar's battalion, They, are 
the parents of nine sons and two daughters. 



James Ualford married Margaret Andorsoii in Lewis 
County, Tliey are tlio parents of SJven cliildrun. Ev- 
erett is a teacher of liigli schools, Hointir lives at 
Walkers ville. James Galfonl is in tine circumstances 
financially and a highly estc3iiied, influential citizen of 
Lewis County. 

Allen Galford married Nancy Cassell and lived on 
on the (rreenbrier near the mouth of Deer Creek, 
They were the parents of four daughters and three sons. 
Full particulars are given of his family in the Casscli 

Allen Galford was a well-known citizen and pros- 
pered financially. Hi' died not long since aged 8^ 
years. Several years since he sought the forgiveness 
of his sins and united with the church at the age of 77 
years. He left in manuscript a very sincere confession 
of his faith in the merits of his Savior's atoning blood. 

Thomas Oalford, Junior, one of the ancGstrjil broth- 
ers, was first married to Naomi Slaven, a relative, and 
settled on a part of the Glade Hill honjestead, and 
thence moved and located on property now held by 
the late Hai-vey Curry's family near Uunmore. By 
this marriage there was one daughter, Jane, who mar- 
ried her cousin, William Galford, son of John Galford, 
8enior, and first settled on the head of Sitlington's 
Creek on the farm now owned by lier son, William 
Wellington Galford, and finally moved near Dunmore. 
The following particulars ai-e at hand about hor children: 

John Galford, a Confederate soldier in the Slat Vir- 
ginia Infantry, was wounded at Gettysburg and died at 
Richmond soon after, in Chiinborazo hospital. 



Tliuiiias (ittlford married Lizzie Vint au<l lived and 
died near Uniiiiiore. 

James Galford died while on a visit to relatives in 
Highland. His niemorj' is cherished as an earnest, 
christian jnau, and a person of promise for good 

William W. Galford married Ada Mayse, daugliter 
of the late Jubal Mayse and lives at the head of Sit- 
lington's Creek. 

Elizabeth Galford, a j'onng woman died at the homu 
place near Ounmore. 

Nancy Galford lives on a part of the homestead. 

Naomi Galford died soon after reaching womanhood. 

Marietta Galfoid died when nearly grown, of pulmo- 
nary affect ioit. 

In his second marriage Thonms Galford, Junior, 
was married to Henrietta Sutton, and there were no 

Thoniatt Galford was a very pronounced Confederate 
sympathizer, and as such he was regarded as a dan- 
gerous citizen to be at large in war times. In dis- 
charging what they deemed to be their duty, be was 
arrested by a detachment of Union soldiers, under thu 
command of the late Captain Kelson Pray, and sent ti> 
Camp Chase, where he died during the war. 

In reference to the pioneer's daughter Elizabetli 
Galford, the tradition is that when she was fourteen 
years old she was sent on an errand to the mill, a 
quarter of a mile east of the residence. The child 
was never seen afterwards. While parties were care- 
fully searching the creek, Indian signs were discovered 



and it was at once concliKled that »lie Imd bceu taken 
captive. Vain pursuit was made, and the neighbors 
hastened to the fort. Indians, believed to be the same 
party, attacked the fort and killed a man named Sloan, 
and an Indian was wounded. The Indian was taken 
tu a glade near Arborale, and secreted until he was 
able to leave for the Ohio towns. Htnce the name 
"Hospital Run," 

8oine months subsequently Thomas Galtord and 
Samnel (iregory went to the Indian towns, but could 
hear nothing of the child. The two men lingered about 
the town, inquiring for furs and tried to trade with tlie 
Indians, hoping thus to get the desired information 
about the missing child. Hearing nothing, they gave 
np all hopee, and turned their attention to a pair of tine 
horses. They stole them, hitched them some distance 
from the town, and then went back and waited in am- 
bnah for the warriors tliat might come in pursuit. Two 
were shot down and their ornaments taken, and these 
were kept for years. The bracelets were burned when 
Thomas (Jalford, Junior, lost hie house. Tfie captured 
horses were fine stallions. The bay was called ^uck 
Rabbit and the other Irish Grey. Buck Rabbit was 
sold to John Bird, the ancestor of the Bii'd relation, on 
upper Back Creek. The other was bought by John 
Harnes, a trader from Staunton. 

Thomas Galford, the pioneer, and Jacob Warwick, 
on retumiug from a scout, thought they would have 
sport at tlifl expense of William Higgins aud Peter In-' 
gn^ni, whom they found digging potatoes ue^r the fort 
at the mouth of Deer Creek. Higgins always claimed 



there was no iiidiRii that could ever make him run. 
While the two were busy with their digging, Galford 
and Warwick slipped up to the fence and fired eimul- 
taneouely, hitting the ground close to Higgjns and 
Rcattering the diiat all over him. He and Ingram ran 
with all speed to the stockade and reported that In- 
dians liad fired on tliem. The panic waa soon relieved 
however, wlieu hilarious laughter instead of war whoops 
we're heard in the direction of the potato patch. 


One of tlio most nnique and picturesque characters 
that figure in our local history was John R. Flemmens, 
of Laurel Creek, Early in the century residents of the 
head of Stony Creek saw smoke rising from Ked Lick 
Mountain. At first it was thought to be a hunter''s 
camp. Upon noticing the smoke continuing for some 
days, curiosity was awakened, and parties went up 
into the Red Lick wilderness to see what it meant. To 
their surprise they found a family in camp, arranging 
for a permanent settlement. 

There were five persons, John R. Flemmens and 
EHizabeth Flemmens, his wife; James and Frederick 
were the sons, and one daughter, Elizabeth. There 
were nice horses and several cows ranging about. The 
family had been there for several weeks, yet no one 
ever found ont when or whence they had come. Had 
these persons arrived in a balloon from the clouds at 
midnight, their coming could not have been better 



concealed tlian it seemed to have been from tlie iieigh- 

Tbe FlemmenB opened ' what ia now tlio "Roeser 
Place." Bnt few persons wwe ever known to labor 
more indnstrioiisly than tbe mother and her three 
children. Mr Fleniraens bought lande from Isaac 
Gregory amonnting to four thousand acres. It was a 
part of the William Lewis Lovely survey. The papers 
dated 1777, and this region was then in the metes and 
hounds of Harrison Connty. Snch a deal in lands 
sounds fabulous now, or did until the recent operations 
of Colonel McGraw and others have rather eclipsed 
the Flemmens' deals on that line. John R. Flera- 
iiiens at times seemed presaingly anxious to sell large 
tracts at ten cents an acre. Lands now held by Colo- 
nel McGruw, the Whites, Shearers, and otliers. 

On his possessions John Flentmens made an open- 
ing, built a house, and preparations were made for an 
immense barn. The barn was never finished. Some 
of the hewn timber for the barn was more than two 
feet across the face and smooth as silk. How such 
work could be so smoothly done was the wonder of all 
who may have examined it. 

The Flemmens family became noted for sugar mak- 
ing. They would work several hundred trees in the 
season. On the southern exposures an early camp 
would be worked, then move to another less exposed, 
and then move into the north and close the season 
there. The mother and children would caiTy the sap 
for miles in pails supported by straps from their shoul- 
' ders. and much of the sap was carried up hill. In 



makiug ariaugementH for evaporating tlie sap, au im- 
tiieuse tree would be foiled and tlie kettles supported 
agaiUBt it, and then tlie fii-es kindled. It was no uo- 
coramon tlihig to see fifteen or twenty large kettles 
boiling at tlie same time. 

The output would aiaonnt to Imndreds of pounds. 
The sugar was generally stirred until it pulverized, and 
much of it was nearly as fair as brown or coffee sugar. 

A good deal of the sugar was taken to Lewisburg 
and exchanged for more kettles. Mr Flemmeus could 
pack three large iron kettles ou one horse. In these 
excursions to the sugar market, and very frequently at 
other times, John Flemmeus had three horses, driving 
the foremost, riding the middle one, and leading the 
third— all arranged randem fashion. In this manner 
he could traverse the bridle paths, — at an early day 
the common means of communication between places. 

The entire family became members of the church. 

James Flemmens was fond of hunting, but ho met 
with so little success that bis father warned him that if 
he came home any more without venison, ho should 
not be allowed to waste any more time as he had been 

"Worrich pays better than no luck, Jim, in huntin', 
and so you know what will be up if you don't git 
nothin' this time." 

This was spoken in stentorian tones with a command- 
ing voice, and it seems to have rung in Jimmy's ears 
to a practical purpose. 

That day he had the luck to bring home a venison. _ 

The same day the late venerable John Barlow killed 



a deer, but he did not bring it ho:ne — l^ft it liaiiging 
iu tlie woods, liunter faahioQ — and it myeteriously dis- 
appeared; SuepicioiiH gossip ran high, which the 
Flernrnens meekly endured until tliey began to think 
that forbearance was no longer a virtue, and a church 
trial was demanded to vindicate Jimmy's character 
from the slanderous insinuations in connexion with the 
disappearance of the dear. 

The preliminaries for trial being duly arranged by 
the Presiding Elder at Hamlin Chapel, the slandered 
hnnter put in his pleas, with flowing tears and tremu- 
lous voice, when the Elder asked the question: 

"Brother James Flemmens, did you or did you not 
take Brother Barlow's deer ?" 

"I hope not. God knows I hope God does not 
know 1 took the deer, as I am slandered with." 

Ml' Barlow exclaimed; "God does n't know any 
such thing." 

The strife of tongues now promised to become sharp, 
but the imperious Presiding Elder made it short and 
decisive by a wave of the hand and a significant look 
toward the door. Somehow, as the Fle.^imens thought 
unjustly, the Elder construed Jam«s' plea as a virtual 
confession that he had spirited away the missing game. 
He solemnly deposed him from church membership, 
and thus cleared all others of slanderous intentions. 

Soon as the decision was announced, John Flem- 
mens arose an asked for a dismissal: "Give me my 
uame, and give me old Betsy's, too !" Young Betsy 
tearfully asked for her name also. They all soon found 
a church home elsewhere. 



In the course of evoiita Frederick wa^ the first to dL« 
Biid that too far away from his luountaiu home uudei- 
Hadly pt^culiar circuinntaiicoH. John R. Fleiniiiens call- 
ed at John Barlow'H to pass the night. Mr Barlow bad 
liL'ard of Fred^rick-'s death, but did not wish any one 
to eay any thing about it before morning. But one of 
the boyn came in before his father could ropreas him 
and aaid: "Mr Flemmens, do you know that Fred in 
dead V 

"Is it possible, Mr Barlow, have you hoard that my 
boy is dead '(" 

"Yes," replied Mr Barlow, "I aiu sorry to say it is 
ovon so." 

In an instant the bereaved father seemed to be 
fi-enzied by his grief. He caught up his three horses 
and started for home in the night. As he slowly as- 
cended the monntain path his agonized cries could be 
hoard for miles: "O Freddy, my dear sou; your poor 
old father will never see you again. O Freddy, my 
son, my son !" 

While on a visit to Ohio, Mr Flemmens died there. 

Mrs Flemmens and hur daughter Elizabeth spent 
their last years in the vicinity of Buckeye. They spun 
and wove ond industriously earned a living as long as 
their wilting hands coald retain their cunning, and had 
the respectful esteem of all their neighbors. 


Aaron Moore, one of the older eons of Moses Mociro 
the pioneer, hunter, and scout, after his uiarriage with 



Catherine Jolmsoo, daughter of John Johneon, first 
lived near Frost; but the greater part of his life he 
dwelt on the west bank of the Greenbrier, four miles 
above Mariinton, where he had settled in the woods. 
John Johnson, the ancestor of the Johnson relation- 
ship, and the pioneer of West Marlinton, whose log 
cabin stood weveral hundred jards below the bridge, 
near a large walnut tree, heard that corn liad tnatni'ed 
in Nicholas. He set out to bring in some of the Nich- 
olas corn for seed, and lost his way in Hlack Mountain 
aud was bewildered for nine days, having nothing to 
eat most uf the time. In Lis desperation he tried a mor- 
sel of garter snake, but he could not swallow it, and 
he concluded lie would rather die than "eat such eat- 
ings as that." Upon coming to a house he was just 
able to move, and scarcely able to talk enough to make 
the mistress of tlie place understand what had happen- 
ed. She at once proceeded to prepare a bountiful 
meal, thinking a man as hungry as he was would never 
know when to quit. In the meantime the proprietor 
came in and countermaudod all this preparation, and 
directed a little thin mush to be boiled and a little 
skimmed milk be brought from the spring house. He 
prepared a saucer of mush and milk and gave the fam- 
ished stranger one spoonful, and theu waited for re- 
sults. In a few minutes there was a violent emetic 
disturbance, ann it looked as if he was about to turn 
inside out. When this subsided, a little more of the 
mixture was given, with mare favorable results, and in 
a few hours the pangs of liunger were soiie^hat ap- 
peased. Nourishment was carefully dosed out for 



some darp, and lie finallr made tlie trip, bringing the 
cnru, wliicli planted one of the first crops ever prodnc- 
i^d in tlie vicinity of Marliiiton. 

By ai'diioiis industry and judicious economy Mr and 
Mrs Moore built up a prosperous home. Their sons 
were John, James, Samuel, Thomas, Andrew Jackson, 
Henry, William I>aniel, and (reorge Claiborne; and 
the daughters were Mary, Elizabeth, Catherine, Eliza, 
and M el ind freight sons and five daughters. 

John Moore married Jane, daughter of Colonel John 
Baxter, and settled in the woods uear MarliutoD. 
Their children were Aaron, William, Theodore, Wash- 
ington, and one daughter, Catherine, now Mrs Thomas 
Auldridge, near Indian Draft. 

James Moore married Anne McNeill daughtci of the 
late Squire John McNeill, on Dry Branch of Swago, 
and settled in the woods near Marliuton, on property 
now owned by John R. Moore. Their children wero 
John Register, Frances, Rachel, (Jeorgo, Henry, Nel- 
son, and Naomi. John Register lives on the home- 
stead. His wife was Mary Baxter, daughter of the late 
William Baxter, near Edray. 

Samuel Moore married Nancy Beale, and settled >tii 
the summit of Marlin Mountain, in the unbroken forest 
and killed ten rattlesnakes on the first acre cleared 
about his cabin. Their children were Lucas, Martha, 
Catherine, Margaret, Jennie, William Thomas, Anise, 
George, Kenney, Rachel, and Melinda— eight daugh- 
ters and four sons. Mrs Moore was a daughter of 
Thomas Beale, who came from Maryland soon after 
the war of 1812. He claimed to have been a sailor in 



oaily lift', and was one of llie defendei-B of Baltimore, 
uiid saw tilt! engagement iuimortalized b^- the "Star 
Spangled Banner.'' The farm opened up by Samuel 
Moore is visible fn»m so many points tliat a lady from 
Florida called it a revolving farm. 

William D. Moore settled on Elk Monntain iu the 
woods. He was married three times. His first wife 
was Rebecca Sharp; her children were Matthias. 
Cliarles L., Elizabeth, Mary, Jacob, and Nancy. The 
second wife was Mary Ann Auldridge, daughter of 
Thomas Anldrige, Senior. Her one child was Mary 
Ann Moore. The third wife was Hannah Beverage. 
Her children were Amanda, now MrB S. 1>. Hannah, 
on Elk; Snsan, now Mrs John (iibson, near Mary's 
<'hapel; Effie, now Mrs A. P. Oay, near ( lover Lick; 
Etta, Joseph, and Ellis. 

Thomas Moore, a noted rail splitter and fence build- 
er, never married. He opened np a nice farm on 
Back Alleghany, where he now resides. 

Andrew Jackson Moore was married twice. First 
wife was Abigail McLaughlin, daughter of the late 
Major Daniel McLaughlin, near Greenbank, Her 
childi-en were Ernest and Anise, now Mrs I>. Hevner, 
on Back Alleghany. The 8ec()nd wife was itachcl. 
daughter of the late Charles Grimes, near Fro.-tt. Hor 
children were Virginia, now Mrs Silva, <in Stumping 
Oreok, Forest, Samuel, Thomas, and Elmer, 

A. J. Moore settled in the woods on B.ick Allegha- 
ny, and opened ap a tine farm. 

• Henry Moore married Elizabeth Auldridge, and set- 
tled in the woods near Driftwood, and opened up two 



nice fariita. Tlieir only son, Andrew Moore, lives at 
the homestead. 

George ('. Moore married Kachel Duiicau ou Stijny 
Creek, Her father, Henry Doucau, came from Rix:k- 
bridge, and was oue of tlie carpenters that worked on 
the court house at Himtersville. Mr Moore lives on 
the "Young Place," on Stony Creek. 

Elizabeth Moore becaoie Mrs William Auldridge, 
These persons settled iu the woods near Indian Draft. 
Their children were Hanson, Melinda, and Eliza, 
Eliza died not long since. Hanson and Melinda are 
living on the nice homestead opened up by their wor- 
thy parents. 

Catherine Moore was married to John Burr, antl 
they settled in Burrs Valley, where she is now living. 

Eliza Moore became Mrs Price McComb, and they 
settled in the woods on Cummings Creek, densely cov- 
ered with wliite pine, and opened up virtually several 
nice farms. Their children were Nancy, Charles, 
George, WylHs, Andrt-w Beckley, Henry on the home- 
stead; and Alice, now Mrs George Waguar, at Hun- 

Melinda Moore was the second wife of the late Cap- 
tain William Cochran, on Stony Creek. Her children 
are William Cochran, on the homestead; and Catherine 
Jane, now Mrs Giles Sharp, near Verdant Valley. 
Her second marriage was with Joseph Barlow, who 
lives ou the Cochran homestead. 

It is instructive to reflect on the memoirs of such a 
i-elationship, so largely composed of patient, indus- 
trious people, accomplisbitig what they have done in 



developing our county. Nine members of this family 
settled in the woods, and hy tlieir etforta more than a 
tlionsand acies of wilderness land Iiaa been made to re- 
joice and blossom as the rose, 

Mary tiied in early womaidiood, regarded by her 
niaters as their special favorite. Two, while not set- 
tling in the woods, have shown by their industry and 
enterprise how to make the best of ntore favorable op- 
jKirtiinities, and improved what came into their hands 
already opened up and improved. 

It is not easy to appreciate what it cost — weary toil, 
wear and tear of muscle and bodily vigor — to achieve 
what they have. Nevertheless,' the oldest people tell 
us that there was more real contentment and satisfac- 
tion and enjoyment in life then than now; for there was 
a felt community of interest, and harmonious help and 
truly sympathetic endeavor, that seeiried to have a 
charm not apparent now. Then it seemed a genuine 
pleasure to show favors and render assistance, but now 
pay seems to be expected for most everything that may 
be done in the way of helpful* service. 

Like most of the persons of his time, Aaron Moore 
was a successful hunter and made it profitable. One 
of his memorable adventures occurred while oti his way 
to search for the body of his neighbor, Jahies Twyman 
who was drowned in Tiiorny Creek, January 17, 1834, 
and was not found until January ID. Mr Moore lived 
on the west bank of the river, while Thorny Creek is 
on the east side. He went up the west bank to crot^s 
at Joseph Friel's, As lie was threading his way alonji; 
- the snow covered path, his dog came iip.m the trail of 


284 1I18T0KY <)F rOCAHdNTAS fOL'NTY 

a paDthvr, and treed it in a loft}' pine near the b 
of the river ridge, about opposite Friel'B. He aliot tl e 
animal, left it where it fell to be attended to later on, 
and tlien litirried away on Iiis sorrowful duly, canoeing 
the river at liigli tide. The body of the drowned 
neighbor was found etranded on a large rock, that ie 
still pointed out not very far below the iniuth of the 

When Mr Moore died, hie remains were taken to the 
Duflield grave yard. His faithful wife enrvived him a 
few years, and then was carried to rest by his side, 
where they are now sleeping the years away, in hope 
of a blessed resurrection. May they stand in their lot 
at the end of the days. 


One hundred years ago, one of the moat widely 
known citizens in the region now embraced by Poca- 
hontas and Bath counties, was Levi Moore, Senior, a 
native of Wales. He was the pioneer of Frost, and 
came to there some time previous to the Revolution, 
and was among the first to make a permanent settle- 
ment. The lands he settled now owned by the Gib- 
sons, Sharps and others. His wife was Susannah Crist 
and lie iii-st settled in Pennsylvania, where he lived 
until his famdy, two sous and two daughters were borit 
and the older ones nearly grown, 

Hannah Moore was marn-ied to Robert Gay, the an- 
cester of the Gay relationship, so frequently alluded to 
in these papers. 



From Mrs John Simmons and Mrs Mary Jaiio Moore 
we learn the followiDg parlicalars: 

Sally Moore became Mrs John Smitlt, one of the 
firat permanent Bettlers of the Etlray district, nuar the 
liead of Stony Creek, of whom special mention is 

George Moore was at the notable wedding when Ja- 
cob Slaven and Miss Eleanor Lockridge were married 
ne»r Driscol. The tradition is that a practical joke 
was played by one James Brindley, at which the horse 
took fright, ran oil, and the rider's hsad strnek a pro- 
jecting fence stake and was instantly killed, tieorgy 
Moore lived a wliilo on the laud no.v held by Abra:n 
Sharp, but sold to John Sharp aiiJ went to Kentucky. 
He was back on a visit who:i his snddan death occnn-ed 
us just mentioned. 

Levi Moore, Junior, was a person of marked promi- 
nence in county affairs. In person ho was six feet 
eleven inches in height, and well proportioned. He was 
a member of the Virginia legislature and was on the 
commission to locate the ourt-house, and selected a 
site near where Georga Baxter, county surveyor, now 
lives. Ria first marriagu was with Miss Nancy Sharp, 
daughter of William Sharp, the Hunteravilie pioneer, 
and lived on the Moore homestead. In reference to 
their children the following items are recorded: 

B3becca Moore was m-.irrioi to Leonard Irvine, on 
Back Creek, and lived at tJie brick house where Uu' 
road to Frost leaves the Back Creek road. Levi Irvine 
was killed iu an accident; Lizzie Irvine wna married to 
Henry Coffee, of Augusta County, Va. ; Cornelia Irvinu 



wan mavried to William (iardner and settled iu Web- 
wtev ('oiiiity; Wilton Irvine married Kate McCarty, 
daughter of (icorge Mct'arty, and settled on Little 
Back Creek; SuHannali Irvine was married to Cyrus 
Kelley on Little Creek; and there is a sou, Herron 

Margaret Moore was married to Eli McCarty aiUl 
lived near Laurel Itun. Her daughter, Margaret 
McCarty, married the late John Simmons and lived on 
the homestead. Her brother, Paul, died iu the west. 

Martha Moore, another daughter of Hon Levi Moore, 
Junior, was married to the late Rev John Waugh, of 
Indian Draft. Her children were Levi, Beverly, John, 
Samuel, Miriam, Ann and Eveline, Joseph B. Mc- 
Neel, on Bucks Kun; Rev John W. McNeel, a minis- 
ter of thy Baltimore Conference, are her grand-childreii. 

Andrew Moore married Rebecca Waugh, daughter 
of Samuel Waugh, iu the Hills, and settled on Knapps 
Creek, thence moved to the head of Stony Creek, and 
tiaally located in Jackson ('ounty. He was noted for 
his skill in forecasting the seasons and weather. 

Levi Moore, the third, went to Nebraska where it is 
reported he amassed a large foituue in the fur trade. 
Having no family of his own, be adopted his nephew, 
John Moore one of Andrew's sons. 

The Hon Levi Moore's second marriage was with 
Mary McCarty, daughter of Timothy McCarty, a Rev- 
olutionary veteran, and the ancestor of the widely ex- 
tended McCarty relationship in our county, 

Rachel Moore, a daughter of this marriage, became 
the wife of James Sharp, on Thorny Creek, and mi- 



gmted to Iowa, 

Susannah Crist Moore, anotliw daiigbter, was mar- 
ried to Steplien Hadden, and alsn weut to Iowa. 

Mrs Mary Jane Moore, the third daughter, makes 
lier home with her daughter, Mrs Matilda Moore, near 
Mt.Zion Church. 

George Moove, the ^youngest son, was about as tall 
as his father. He spent some years in the west. He 
returned to Pocahontas about 1841, and was a pupil at 
the first session taught in the Pocahontas Academy, at 
Hillsboro, in 1843. The Rev Josepli Brown was 
Principal, He had the pnifession of medicine in view 
and was studious to a fault in his efforts to qualify him- 
self. Mr Brown took much interest in the quiet and 
exemplary student, so intensely anxious for intellect- 
ual improvement. After all his hard labor, the young 
man was seized with pulmonary disease, aggravated by 
his close application to books, and died at the home of 
his sister, Mrs Rebecca Irvine, on Back Creek. The 
writer remembers him well, and he tools the pathos of 
"the Epitaph" in Gray's '-Elegy of a Country 

Levi Moore, Senior, located 575 acres of a "Bntish 
survey on, the headwaters of Knapps Creek. After 
the Revolutiun now requirements were made in order 
to secure permanent possession. It was to pay a ru- 
quisite fee, a warrant would be laid, and a patent 
granted by the federal government. Tlio new papart^ 
are dated 1798, and attested by Henry Grimes and 
Allen Poage, and signed by James Madison, Governor 
of Virginia, 


2SH HI8TOKV uy i-ocahontas bounty 

I'revituis to tlii« survey George P<iage hud laid a 
warraut on two thousand acres, which would have in- 
cluded the 575 acres claimed by the Moores. At first 
the Moores contested for the British right, but when 
they fuund such was not valid tltity then availed them- 
selves of the provision authorizing exchange of war- 
rants. Levi Moore, Junior, appears in this new ar- 
rangement as assignee of Levi Mtwre, Senior, for 
lands adjoining the lands of Aaron Moore, who was 
living at that time on the H.eri>ld place. So when a 
warrant held elsewhere was exc!iange<l for the warrant 
on the land adjoining Aaron Mooi-e, was agreed upon 
by Poage and Levi Moore, it came about that when 
the patent was applied for, George Poage stated the 
fact that tliere had been an exchange of warrants, and 
at Poage's request the title for 575 acres was vested in 
Levi Moore, Junior, as assignee of Levi Moore, Sr. 

This ti'ansaction is interesting and instructive, as 
showing the spirit of tlie times, and how business 
men acted on the principles of an eidigUtened and pure 
conscience. So far as the letter of the law went, 
Poage conld have held the 575 acres, with all the im- 
provements and good qnalities of the land; yet within 
his breast there was the higher law of a conscience 
void of offense toward God and man, and he keeps 
his fellow citizen from suffering from the mistake he 
made when he relied on the validity of British right, 
which had been declared null and void by the reHult» 
of the Revolution. At the time, the warrant elsewhere 
bore no comparison, in real value, to the warrant for 
the lands adjoining the lands of Aarun Moore. 



The golden rule comes in, and an enlight'sned con- 
science decides tlie matter. The spirit did rigiit when 
the letter of the law would have been a shield for rob- 
bery. It ni:t!;t;^ \ii teA piMa:l of our pioiieer poople t.> 
catcli gliinpses of wliat manner of itiJi! thej wei-e. 

It is a aad day for any giinorati >n or f,i,nily relatiim- 
ehip to have it said of them tliat, lilio potatoes, rhe 
"beet parts of them aie in the ground." 

The record of this transaction is carefully preserved, 
and may be consulted time and again in the fnture as a 
testimony of what it is to be fair and scjuiire. 


'•Pennsytvaiiia" John Moore is represented by a 
worthy posterity, and deserves special mention as one 
of the Pocahontas Pioneers. He was among the im- 
migrants from Pennsylvania, and as there were several 
John Moores, the soubriquet "Pennsylvania" was and 
is attached to his name. Upon his marriage with Mar- 
garet Moore, daughter of Moses Moure, scout, hunter, 
and pioneer, John Moore settled and opened up the 
place now occupied by I>avid Moore, near Mount Zioii 
Church, in the Hills. Their family consisted of three 
sons and eight daughters. 

Martha Moore became Mrs John Collins, and lived 
in Upshur County, West Virginia, 

Jeunie lived to bo grown and died of cancerous 

Nancy Moore was married to Peter Bnssar<l, and 
tliey had their borne ueai' (jlade Hill. 



Hauuuli Moore married Martiii Ditley, and lived 
where Mrs Martha Dilley uow resides. 

Poo?be Moore became Mrs Samuel McCarty, and 
lived where Peter McCarty now lives. 

Elizabetli Moore was married to Daniel McCarty, a 
Moldier of the War ot 1812, and liveil where Sheldon 
Moore now dwells. 

Margaret Moore married Eli Bussard, and lived 
where their son, Armenius Bussard, now lives. 

Rebecca Moore was married to John Sharp, from 
near Frost, and lived on the place now occupied by 
Joseph Moore, near the Bussard neighborhood. 

William Moore, sou of the Pennsylvania immigrant, 
married Margaret Callahan, of Bath County, Va., and 
opened up the homestead now owned by William Jeff 
Moore. In reference to William Moore's family the 
following particulars are in hand: 

James C. Moore married Hester Nottingham, from 
Glade Hill. Their children are Adam C, William, 
and Mrs W. H. Gabbert, near Huntersvllle. Adam 
and William Moore live on the old homestead with 
their mother. James C, Moore, their father, was a 
Confederate soldier. He died of wounds received dur- 
ing the memorable seven days fight around Richmond, 
and was buried near Greenwood Tunnel, Va. 

William Jefferson Mooie married Loretta Grimes, 
and lives on the paternal homestead near Mount Zion. 
They are the parents of these sons and daughters: 
Mattie Elizabeth, George Ellsworth, Charles King 
Caroline Frances, Fannie Amoret, Myrtle Florence, 
Ira H., and Hattie. 



Mary Jane Monre, sister of Jaiies and Jeflersoii 
Mooru, was married to Ralph Dilley and lived on an- 
other section of the paternal iiomestead. 

This wortliy man, William Moore, came to end his 
iiulustrionx, nseful life nnder very aa<l circumstances, 
A fire had broken out from u clearing near his home, 
and with no one with him he endeavored to check its 
progress. In doing so he suenie to have been over- 
come with fatigue and was suffocated by the smoke 
and fla nos. He was thurotore found in the track 
o: the lira, on thj +th of April, 1S66. 

John Moore, son of John Moore the Pennsylvania 
emigrant, married Mary Hannah, one of Joseph Han- 
iiah^s danghters, on Elk, and settled on a portion of 
the pioneer homestead now occupied by David Moore. 
One of his sous, Joseph, married Susan Bussard, and 
lives near Fn>8t. Another son, David, married Matil- 
<la Moore, and lives on the homestea*! where his father 
had tivoJ b'jL.trj hi o. Alfred, another son of John 
Moore, Junior, lives with his brother, Joseph Moore. 

James W. Moore, a son of John Moore, Junior, 
married Margaret Nottingham, and lives on a section 
of the Moore homestead. 

William Moore, tlie only son of the James Moore 
just mentioned, was a (Jonfederate soldier. He was 
captnrcd near Richmond in 1862, and was never heard 
from afterwards. Ho slejps in some unknown grave, 
far from his kindred and the friends that remember 
Iiim wo tenderly. 

John Moore, the ancestor of this brancli of the 
Moore rehitionship, o!io of thj frtmilii;.4 that came 



first to FfUiisylvaiiia and tlimiCH to Virgiuia, etir]y in 
the Heveiitie» of tliu eightooiitli coutnry, Exwpt hy 
iiiarriafte, there is n<j well autbenticatod relatioiisliip 
known to exist between bin family and tbe otlter fanii- 
lios of the Moore name — 8o numerous in our county— 
and who have performed Bueb an impitrtant service in 
opening up prosperuns homes, in the face of sucli 
serious obstacles, so bravely and porseveringly met 
and overcome by them. 

We younger people, who were permitted to begin 
wliere the pioneers left off, cau scarcely realize what it 
cost in laborious privation, in personal discomfort and 
iucouvenience, in wear and of mind and body, to 
make possible what seems to come to us as naturally as 
the air we breathe. In a modified sense, the same 
qualiticH that were requisite in clearing lands, and 
rearing homes, and making improvc;neuts, in the firHt 
place, are needed to retain what has been done, and 
add thereto. Eternal vigilence is said to be the price 
of liberty that cost the blood and lives of the brave. 
So, in s higher sense, eiiternal industry and economy 
is the price of a living from the lands reclaimed at 
such a coat by those who worked and suffered while 
they lived for our good and their own. 


The late George Kee was one of the early settlers of 

our CO only, and deserves a place in the history of th« 

the Pocahontas people. He was a native of Tyrone, 

Ireland. He and his brother William left Ireland 


HISTORY l)K rOt:AH0NTAS (>»L'N"TV 293 

wlieu lie wae uiuier age, and owing to die shipping 
regulations was not allowed to e.-nbark as a regular 
passenger. Yoimg Kee went aboard to aae liis brother 
off, and concealed himself until too faraway at sea to 
put him off the vesssl. The intention was to take him 
back, but upon landing at Philadelphii ho eluded the 
partite in search of him, and escaped to the country. 

He came to America in 1780, landing at Philadel- 
phia after a voyage of thirteen weeks. At Lancaster 
City the brothers spent some time, and separated at 
that place and never mot again, and Mr Kee never 
heard anything more of him. 

From Lancaster Mr Kee went ta Lakevillc, near the 
Susquehanna Riser, where lie staid for some time. 
From Lakeville he ca.iie to Pe,idl3ton County, West 
Virginia, where he mot a relative, Aaron Kee. This 
relative was a merchant, and furninhod Gorge Kee 
some goods, and sent him to Posahontaa County, (then 
Bath), to dispose of them. He became acquainted 
with John Jordan, who had been in that business be- 
fore him, and Mr Jordan had him make his home with 
him, and for six or seven years he spent the most of 
his time in the Levels at John Jordans. 

It seems, too, that the young Irish merchant was 
fond of making trips to Joshua Buckley's on the east 
bank of the Greenbrier, opposite the mouth of Swago 
Creek. Hetty Buckley, with her smart and tidy ways, 
took his fancy, and thoy were married 1800, and open- 
ed up their home at the place now occupied by Aaron 
Kee, a grandson, two miles below Marliuton. 

There were six sons and one daughter. Two of the 



!i(ni8 dit'd ill cliiltiliocd. Tlie f<uir boiis ibat lived to W 
grown woio Jotiliiia Buckli-y, Andrew, Julni, r,iid Wil- 
liam, Tlio daughter's name whb Hanualt. 

Hannah inarriod Tiinothj- ('liinon, a native of Ire- 
land, and lived on Bucks Run, Her cliildren were 
Hetty, wlio became Mre Sterling Campbell, and lived 
on head of Swi^o; Margaret, now Mrs Luther Kellison 
on the Greenbrier near the mouth of Baaver ( reek, 
Nancy is Mrs i>aniel McNeill, at Buckeye. George 
Cluuen and Buckbannon Cluiieii live in Missouri. 
Allie Clunen lives in Indiana. Elizabeth ( luiien lives 
at the old home on Swago. 

Joshua B. Kee, the eldest sou of the Kee family, 
married Rebecca Stevenson, of Bath County, and set- 
tled on the Greenbrier, a mile below Marlinton. Es- 
ther and Rachel were the uames of his daughters, and 
they both died when about grown, Joshua Kee was a 
person of remarkable mechanical skill. He could 
work in stone, iron, and wood, as well as farm. His 
specialty was gunsmithing, in which he excelled, and 
in bis time when so much hunting was done this was 
of great service to the people, 

Andrew Kee married Mary Duncan, on Stony Creek 
H sister of the late Henry Duncan, Her family came 
from Collierstown, a few miles from Lexington, Bock- 
bridge, Virginia, His children were Hannah, Jane, 
Nancy, and Esther. The two latter died during the 
war, and had grown to womanhood. It was about this 
time that camp fever and diphtheria ravaged this whole 
region, and swept away in some instances all but one 
or two of entire families, and Andrew Kce's was one 



Biicli. Mrs Kee was the only survivor, and lived a 
widow more than thirty years. 

Andrew Kee lived on the Greenbrier, near Buckeye, 
ou the place now held by William A. Dnncan. He 
was a very expert marksman and succesaful hunter. It 
was no uncommon thing for him to shoot squirrels 
across the Greenbrier with liis monntatn rifle, over 100 
yards. Many would think it good shooting to hit a 
(leer that distance with such a weapon. 

John Kee married Hester Gwin, a daughter of James 
tiwin. Senior, near Gall Town, Highland, and a neice 
of Mrs Rebecca Kee, mentioned elsewhere. John Kee 
lived at the homestead, and the namcd of his children 
were James, Alcinda, Dallay, Aaron, Samuel, Susan, 
Henrietta, and Hester. 

James Ken was a Union soldier in thy regular sei'- 
vice, and died in the war at Winchester, Virginia. 

Alcioda became Mrs George McKcever, and lives 
on Swago. 

Aaron Kee married Milly McXeill, and settled on 
the Kee homestead, i^aniuel Kee lives with his bni- 
ther Aaron. 

Hester Keo first nmrried William Poage and lived 
Hear Edray, Her second mari'iage was with Henry 
Poage. > 

Like his brothers, John Kee was an expert worker 
in different callings. Hid specialty was wagon making 
along with fanning. 

William Keo, 8(m of George Koo, married Ruth 
McCollam, and settled on a part of the homestead 
uow occupied by Oaptaiu J. R. Apperson. Their 


i!8o HI8T0BV WF i'(k;ahontas county 

children were Eliza, George, Matilda, and William. 

Eliza was a joung person of mucli promise, and a 
highly esteemed and eucceesfnl teacher. She died De- 
cember 19, 1S61, aged 22 years, and in a week before 
her father's lamented death. 

George M. Kee first married Mary J. Palsor. and 
settled on a section of his father's hotnestead. Locke 
and Eliza were the children of this marriage. The 
second marriage was with Rachel Moore. They havo 
six children. George M. Kee was a Confederate sol- 
dier. He has filled several positions in county affairs, 
as magistrate, commissioner of the court, &c. 

Matilda Kee was married to ('aptain J, R, Api>er- 
Bon, and lived on the homestead. 

William L. Kee, who lives near Washington City, 
and holds a position in the Land Office, is the young- 
est of William Kee's family. His wife was Catherine 
Phares, daughter of William Pharea, near Elkine. 

William Kee, the youngest son of George Kee the 
ancestor, was a very estimable person, being an honest 
industrions citizen, he was of great service te the com- 
munity in which he lived. He was one of the most 
public spirited citizens of his times. He and his bro- 
thers, Joshua, Andrew, and John, built with their own 
hands and at their own expense one of the most com- 
fortable school houses anywhere in their section of the 
county, in order to have their children educated. It 
was near the stone quarry. Mr Kee's wife was Rutli 
McCollam, daughter of William McCollam and Sally 
Drennan his wife. They were married in 1837. He 
died December 25, 1862. She died February 6, 1897. 



agod 70 years, 9 niontlis, ami 14 davH, • 

George Kee; the progenitor of the Kee relationship, 
was in many respects a very remarkable person. He 
read a great deal, and reflected on what he did read, 
and could converse fluently and intelligently on what- 
ever subject that was discussed in books or the public 
journals. He was the tirst person that I had ever 
heard say anything about John Locke, llie eminent 
mental philosopher, and one of the foremost metaphy- 
sicians of his day. Mr Kee was anxious for me to i-ead 
the book, and insisted on me to do so whenever I was 
able to lay my hands on it. His copy wiis worn out, 
and he had not been able to get another, as he had 
frequently tried. So it turned out that one of the first 
books I looked for in the college library was Locke on 
the Human Understanding, an old book and out of 
print. In subsequent years when attending lectures, I 
foand that ono of the ableit le3tarers di,! not s:yj:n &* 
familiar with Locke as my old friend, in his mountain 
home. Lock had become somewhat of a back number 
with his innate ideas, and a different theory was . com- 
ing into vogue. The new theory was to cram the 
mind, and the more it should be ci'ammed the more the 
education imparted. Now the tendency is beginning 
to show itself to work from within, and develop the 
mental faculties so that the mind is prepared to receive 
and make use of whatever it finds without that w<mld 
be useful. With some qualifying conditions, Locke's 
theory is coming into use, and. it may be thinkers will 
reach the position occupied by our old friend, 60 years 
ago, and claim honor and recognition for original ro- 



Mttarcli ill udiicational atfitirs. 

He liail a paHHionate love for trees. He looked 
upon a tree as Hoiiiethiiig of more real worth and nee 
than gold or Hilver. If the forests were to he destroy- 
ed, his notion was that people would become like the 
traveler suffering from hunger and thirst on the desert, 
who noticed a well filled pouch not far ahead of iiim. 
Uttering a joyful exclamation, he hastened to pick it 
up. Upon opening it he found it tilled witli paarls of 
the iiiodt preci;iu:< and valu.ib)e quality, such as queeiitt 
only could affoixl to wear. The traveler threw it down 
and exclaimed: ''Alast, 1 thought I was finding date^ 
to (jncMcli my thirst and relieve my hunger." 

He was a Jacksouian Democrat —first, lust, and all 
the time. Were ho aliva now, with unchanged santi- 
meiits, Henry (iwrge would have had 0113 friend in 
Poealiontaa that ho could havo relied on tin-ough evil 
as well as g>>od report. 

Mr Kee claimed to bo an A9»:)ciate Rjformad Pres- 
byterian, commouly known as the Seceders or Cove- 
nanters. It was a blessing to our couifty to have such 
a per8<jn as Mr Kee identified with its history. I think 
this is a sentiment with which all will agree who re- 
member something of his stertiug character. 


Among the early settlers of our county, Heury Dil- 
ley deserves more than a passing notice. He was ont? 
of the four Dilley brothers, one of whom was the late 
Martin Uilley. It is believed the Dilleys caine from 



Maryland, and very probably of Freiieli de,-*Cf!nt. 

UoDi-y Diliey went over to John Sharp's, the early 
settler of Frost, often enough to pursiiade hia daugliter 
Margaret to have him for better or worse, and they 
were happily married and settled on Thorny Creek, 
and as long as Dilleys Mill will be known his name 
will not be forgotten. Mr Uilley never doubted the 
truth of the Bible— especially that pUcii in (Ten3sis 
where it speaks of the ground bringing forth "thorns 
and thistles." he had enough of these things to con- 
tend with on his Thorny Creek land, where he settled, 
opened up a home, and built a milt — one of the best of 
its kind at that day— and its successor keep^ up a good 
reputation as Dilley's mill yet. Men may eomo and 
men may go, but the baiutiful pjre:iiiial stre.i'u, that 
was ntilized by Henry Dilley, still goes on in its useful 
service for the benefit of his children's children, and a 
great many others, far and near. 

Joseph Uilley, son of Henry Dilley, married Mary 
Ann, a daughter of the late Joseph Friel, on Greon> 
brier River, five miles above Marliuton, and near the 
month of Thoi-ny Creek, and settled on a part of the 
homestead, where he yet lives. 

Thomas Dilley married Peacliy Vanlleenan, a native 
of Holland, and lived on Cuuimings (Jreek. He was 
a Confederate soldier. 

Ralph Dilley married Mary Jane, daughter of Wil- 
liam Moore, neaj- Mount Zion, and settled on a section 
of the Moore homestead, at one of the head springs of 
Moore's Run, which debouclies into Knapps Creek at 
Brown Moore's. Four daughters and one son coni- 



potied their family. 

Dniiiel DiDcy married a daughter of tho late Dr Ad- 
diHOii Moore, near Edra}', and migrated to Iowa. 

William Uillej' tirst niarrieii Mary Friel, daughter 
of Jeremiah Friel, the pioneer on the Greenbrier at 
the mouth of Thorny Creek, and settled in Hunters- 
ville an the village blacksmith, in which occupation hin 
oltill w.i'i vjry 8-,ipjna.-, Ws «);»aj invrriaira wia 
witli Elizabeth Baker. There were four children by 
this marriage. William UiUey'e third marriage was 
with Ann Drepperd, and by this marriage there were 
Hve sons and thi-ee daughters. 

John l>itley, son of Henry Dilley, was a mechanic 
of remarkable skill to be a self trained workman. He 
was lioneHt and industrious, and it is believed by hi» 
friendti that lie sacrificed his health in his devotion to 
his usefnt catling through exposure. What he suffered 
it is hai-d for anyone to realize. His wife was Ellen 
Friel. These persons lived for yeai-s on St<iny Creek, 
Their daughter Frances married Lieutenant Henry M. 
I*oage. He was a gallant Confederate officer, and was 
killed near Warrentoii, Virginia. Mrs Poage had died 
some time previously. They were survived by one 
daughter, who is now Mrs Sallie Woods Beery, of 
Rockinghan> County, Virginia, A Pocahontas camp 
of Confederate veterans has given to Lieutenant Poage 
the highest honor they can ccmEer when they named 
their organization 'Jie Motlett Poage Camp, which has 
Marliiiton for the place of rendezvous. 

The name Dilley indicates a French origin, and 
although Martin Dilley claimed to be of German de- 



sceut, it does not iiecensaril^ follow that the fainilj- in 
of pure German origin. A very important element of 
the immigration to this country in tlie previous centmy 
were the Huguenot Frencli, who had refugeed from 
France about or soon after 1685. to England, Holland, 
and Germany, and thence to the New Worlil, as it was 
then so frequently called. 

William Penn's colony had great attractions for the 
Germans, and for many others besides. It ia altogeth- 
er possible, and quite probable, that there wereDilleys 
(Diltes) from France am-mg tho exilei, and found their 
way to Germany; and after living there some years, 
thetr children, hearing of the advantages lo le 
had in America, came over along with the German 
immigrants, and regarded themselves as such. As a 
general thing, the Huguenot people were employed in 
the shops and manufactures; but what was the loss of 
France was the gain of continental countries and many 
places in the United States, as the reader may readily 
learn by reference to history. 

For a long time, too. Lord Baltimore's Maryland 
colony was really one of the best places for the early 
immigrants, and a great many of the early settlers of 
Maryland were attracted by tha indueomanta ho offer- 
ed. But as "burnt children dread the fire," it is not 
likely that very many of the French protestants should 
be inclined to settle permanently in a Roman Catholic 
colony, managed by an avowed Roman Catholic, To 
Lord Baltimore's credit, however, let it be remember- 
ed that there was more of religioua tolerance under his 
admiuiatration tlian almost anywlicre else in the civil- 



ized wDrld of tliRt period. Boiiic writers go so far as 
To 8»v timt Marylaii<l was the birth place of religious 
toleriition. Tlie matter is ru interesting one to inqnire 


Tliie paper is OusigneJ to perpetuate the inenaory of 
two very deserving persons, who were among the first 
to open up a ho:ije on Stony Oreen near its source, 
now known as the West Union neighborhood, John 
Smith was a native of Ireland. He came to this region 
a hundreJ and thirty years ago, fi-om Pennsylvania, 
and upon becoming acquainted with the family of Levi 
Moore, the pioneer at Frost, ho mado love to Sally 
Moore, one of the daughters. Upon their marriage 
the two young people t<Htk a fancy to the large spring 
that gushes so copiously and beautifully from the rocky 
cliffs at the source of Stony Creek, and settled close by 
it and built up their home. The place is now oecupied 
by the family of the late Captain William Cochran, 
Some particulars in regard to their sons and daughters 
have been alrea<ly given in other biographic papers, 
that nee<l not be repeated here in full. In addition, 
therefore, to wjiat has been written the following fr^- 
inentary items of their history are recorded, 

John Smith, Junior, married Fannie Cochran, 
daughter of the late John Cochran, near Marvin, and 
settled on tho place now in possession of John Young, 
a great-grandson of John Smith, Senior, near Edray. 



i'ifT<hv (F l'(^AK(^TAs (■< I ^^Y 8< Jt 

He afterwards niovvd to Hit v.e ( (.i:n1,y, j lid lived nt 
tlie three forks of Keodj', He wae a I'nifiii tjinpH- 
thizer, and was arrested by tlie f onf tf leiate military i s 
such; but when it was nacertained ihat he was not a 
dangerous person, he was paroled on his honor, bit 
died ou his return home. 

Andrew Smith's wife was Nancy Cackluy, daughter 
of Levi Cacklcy,* on Stamping Creek. After settling 
and living for a time at the ol<l Stony Creek home- 
stead, he moved to tlie Stnle of Missouri. 

Elizabeth Smith became Mrs-Jacob Dreuiian. After 
living some jows iu Bnixtoii Coi'nty, thay moved to 
Nicholae County, and located on Peter's Creek, four- 
teen miles west of Suminersville, where nieinbers of 
their family yet reside. 

Ann Smith was married to Captain WilUiim Voung, 
and lived many years ou the place near Hamlin Chapel 
now in possession of George (.'. Mooro. She was a 
person of great industry, fine mental endowuicuts, and 
a model homekeeper, and intelligently, sincerely pious. 
The writer remembers her and members of her faniily 
as cherished friends. Lateiu life she went west and died 
but a tew years since at a very advanced age in the 
State of Iowa, The first wife of Captain James M. 

McNeill was one of her daughters. The late Colonel 
Samuel Young was her eldest son, Adam Young was 

another hou. The only survivors of her family now in 

Pocahontas are her grandsouH, John Yonug and Adam 

Young and their children. 

Rebecca Suiitli was married to John Auldridge, and 

lived on Laurel Creok, a few miles from the old home- 


304 His'ruKv uv pocahoktas county 

Htead, fartlic-r w«nt. Thcee worthy pwiplc rcired an 
inteieHtiiig aiul exemplary family, (»f whom special 
mention ie made in tiie Auldriilge riie:ir>ir9. 

Mrs Rebecca Auldndije dieJ in IS'Ji), over uinety 
year:) of age. Her \a.M ye.ir8 woro »p^'iit with her 
daughter, Mrs Nancy Newcomer, i» the town of Ron- 
ceverte,aiid was liale and hearty up to the time of her 
death from extreme old age. Her late home was but a 
step or two from the Chesapeake and" Ohio Kailway 
on one side, and the other id at the edge of the Saint 
Lawrence boom, whence the logs are floated to the 
niilU by the million. Uow ditfermit the surroundings 
of her youth and early life fro n tho^so of her old age. 
A more marked contrast can scarcely be imagined. 
There is scarcely an hour, day or night, free from 
the thundering of the trains, fast or slow, and Mrs 
Auldridge seemed t*> regard them no more than t^he 
once reganled the ruetle of the falling leaves around 
the old Laurel Run homestead, sixty miles away from 
the iron road. 

Hannah Smith became the wife of Kichai-d Auld- 
ridge, a brother of John Auldridge just mentioned. 
After living some years at the Smith homestead, they 
went to Braxton County, and were happily situated on 
Wolf Creek at the opening of the late sad wai" between 
the States. Mr Auldridge sympathized with the 
Southern Confederacy, and was killed. Both sons 
were in the Southern army, John Auldridge fell at 
the battle of Gottysburg, Allen Auldridge survived 
the war, witn an honorable record as a brave and faith- 
fnl soldier. He sought a home iu tlie State of Kansas, 



taking his mother annd sititer with liim. Mrs AnliJ- 
ridge sleeps in her Kansas grave, whila at las^ asc )unts 
her sou and daughter are keeping house and doing 
well, as good dutiful children deserve. 

Sally Smith was married to Kobort Kodgers, and for 
some years lived in Buckeye Cove, near S^vago. After- 
wards they settled iu Nicli.dn Coii;ity, West Virginia, 
where Mrs Rodgers still livei, far advanced in years. 

Martha Smith became Mrs Samuel Yonng. They 
lived for a few years on a Hu:;tion of the old homestead 
and tinally moved to L>^.iu U.>.inty, Ohio, where their 
descendants mostly have their present ho.nis, and en- 
joy the fruits of hoii;ist labor and judicious manage- 

Thus we have been able to lay before our readers 
some information in regard to those worthy persons 
and their two sous and six daughters. In their day 
their home was a place where the young people liad 
good times, as good times went in the pioneer era. 
At log rollings, quiltings, w.>)l picliinj;, and flax puU- 
ings the youngsters met, fell in love, atid did much of 
their courting, Sundays it would -be preaching or all 
day prayer meatiugs, when it was dee;ned right 
and proper to think and tilk about a:iythin^ but 
Heaven and heavenly things. The grandest social 
events would be the weddings, that occurred just as 
fast as the young folks thought themselves old enough 
to get mai'ried and go to themselves. 

Mrs Smith survived her husband a good many years, 
— and did her part well, — saw her children settled 
in life. When the time came, folded her busy bands 



in rest ami quietiv weirt to sloop. It b a comforting 
reflection timt liere am) tlieru on tlie IiilUidea of our 
beautiful land are planted immortal aleepere — like tlie 
bu<lies of these worthy people^tliat will some day ap- 
pear in all that is radiant and lovely. It is touching 
to reflect how widely apart are the graves of their 
children. Kansas, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, and West 
Virginia have graves where nieinbei-s of this family are 
waiting for the coming of the Redeemer they learned 
to know and love in the old paternal home on Stony 


This sketch is designe<l to perpetnate the ineTnory of 
an early citizen of our county, whose influence was on 
the side of morality and education. 

Samuel Young, ancestor of the Youngs af Pocahon- 
tas, was a native of London, He came to America 
about 1756, leaving his parents, John and Amy 
Young, in England, and settled in Madison County, 
Virginia. He afterwards lived some years on Knapps 
Creek, Pocahontas County. He entered lands, and 
then sold much of it to settlers for ginseng, deer skins, 
and furs. This produce he took away to Winchester 
er Fredericksburg, and exchanged for merchandise, 
which he bartered or peddled, and thus acquired con- 
siderable wealth. When he became quite old, he vis- 
ited his son Charles, in Kentucky, and never returned, 

John Young, one of his sons, was born in Madison 



County, Febrnaryl8, 1761. Ho voluuteoreii in the 
war of ih'j Ravolution, s'jrved his t'jr.n of enlistment, 
and tlien was dratted into tlie service. 

Abont 1803 or 1804, he came to Auttioii_y Creek, in 
(ircenbrier, and roiiiaiaed a few years. In the nieaii- 
tiine ba inberitod eonsidefable land on Swago Oieek. 
In 1809 be eettled on Swago and opened up tho 
'■Young Place," that co n:iiaiid3 such a beautiful pros- 
pect fro.n th:i sides of Rich Mountain. 

J >h;i Y );i 1^ W.13 rn irrii.l t-vicj. His first wife was 
•^irab Kogerd, and during lier life he lived in Madison 
County. The names of her children were Jameu, EHz- 
a'oetb, John, Jane, Bamiiei, and William. She died 
July 6, 1806, leaving her yonngest cbild William aged 
four years. 

John Young married Margaret Rogers, on Anthonys 
Creek, in 1804. The names of lier children were 
Barah Ann, Martha, and Androw. 

Her daughter, Mrs Martha Adkinson, was living in 
181)4, on the "Young Place," in her 78tli yeiir, and 
the only survivor of ona of tlia original pioneer fami- 
lies of our county. Sbe bad been blind for seven 
years, with cutaract, and most of ber time was busily 
occupied in knitting. 

John Young died July 5, 1843, age<l S-i years, 4 
tnoiitbs, and 18 days. Captain William Young was 
born in Madison County, May I7ys, and was about 5 
years old when his fatlier moved to this region. His 
youth was spent on the sides of Rich Mountain. His 
tirst teachers were William Auldridge, Stjuire John 
McNeill, and William McNeill. The school house was 



(111 RiimIi Ituii, a mile or w> from itu confluence witli 
Swago Creek. In early manliood lie entered Joliii 
McNuity'n sclmol, at tlie McNally Place, near Marvin 
Cliapel, From tliis teaclier he learned suiveying, 
which qualified him for tlie office he held for a nnniber 
of years. The text book nsed by t'a(Haiii Yoniig in 
the study of surveying is yet in the popseBsioii of ("apt, 
William Cochran's family, whose first wife was Capt. 
Young's sister Elizabeth. On its well filled title page 
appears the following: 

tiEoi).«HiA. or tbe Art of Surveying and Measuring 
of Land made easy; sbowing by plain and Practical 
Rules how to survey. Moreover, A more sure and 
facile Way of Surveying by tbe Chain than has hitherto 
been taught. As also how to lay out New Lands in 
America or elsewhere, with Several other Things never 
yet Pnblishetl in our 


By John Lovb, 

The Seventh Edition, 

London, 1760. 

In the address to the reader, tlie author says: What 
would be more ridiculous than for m© to praise an art 
that all mankind know they can not live peaceably 
without. It is near hand as ancient (no doubt ou't) as 
the world. For how conld men set down to plant 
without knowing some distinction and boundary of 
their land. Bnt (necessity being the mother of inven- 
tion) we find tbe Egyptians, by reason of the Nile's 
overflowing — which either washed away all their bound 
marks, or covered them over with mud, brought this 
measuring of land first into an art, and lunioiired much 



the professors of it, Tlie great usefniiiese. a« well as 
the pleasant and delightful study atid wlioJoHinne exer- 
cise of which teiiipted so many to apply themselves 
thereto, that at length in Egypt, as i» the Bermudas, 
every rustic could measure his own land. 

On a fly leaf is this, in the handwriting of iheyoniig 
student, now iu the 3Uth year of his age: 

William Vonng, his btiok. Bought "f 
Mr John McNutty, price six sliillings, 
Aprile 16th. 1«1S, on Thursday. 

Previonely to hini the following persons seemed to 
have owned the book: 

Israel Hollowell, May 0, iTt.'i 
John Goodrich, February 13, 179-1 
Joseph Fisherton, January 30, 17!15 
George Harrison, February 13, 1805 
Joseph McNulty, 

Tliis copy was bound in very substantial calf skin, 
and when it became worn on the back edges by sixty 
years service in so many hands, it was repaired by a 
wide strip of dressed deer skin, sewed on by waxed 
threads such as shoemakers- use. 

His tuition for two months was nineshillings, (^l.-IO) 
— ^seventy-five cents \>vr month. Having learned sur- 
veying with Mr McNulty Captain Vouiig tjinght school 
a tew months, and then repaired to Lewisburg, West 
Virginia, where he studied granimor, taught by iJr 
McElhenney, as a specialty, according to (»ld (ireen- 
leaf of bitter memory to grammar students of that 


3IU IIISTOKY V¥ I'l lAH<'STAi' l< I ^TY 

IK'rioiI. Oiie Htndy at a time, was tint niK- tlien. 
IVojtle have lunnivd ditfi'itiillv fiiiict'. I'pon liis re- 
turn from LcwUburp, Mr Voiiiig npeiied a aciioul on 
Stouj- Crei^k, in tlii^ seliool liouac noar George BaJcters, 
His fii'Ktgrumiiiar wholnr was Samuel Wfiugli, l>rotlitr 
of the late Rev Joliii Waugli of revered ineiiiory. Tlie 
Hcliool was taught by on the open or vocal ]>lan, and 
Samuel Waugh did not object to tho noisy. Captain 
VoQiig seeme to have liad the nioimpolv of grnniniar 
teaching on Stony Creek for iniiny years. 

Having completed his education, ?o advanced for 
his day, and under so many difficulties, his thoughts 
turned to settling himself in life. He was happily 
married to Miss Ann Smith, and built up a hom^ on 
Stony Crook, and reared up a highly respectable fami- 
ly of sons and daughters. 

He was the captain of the Stony Creek Company. 
Justice of tiie Peace, and was the second Sui-veyor of 
Pocahontas County, successoi' to Sampson Mathews. 

He was a very quiet, exemplary person in youth, 
but did not unite with any church until somewhat ad- 
vanced in life, when he became a nicmber of the 
Methodist church. 

He died of consumption, November 2i, 1S41S, and 
his grave is in the Duffield grave yard, marked by ft 
lettered stone. His widow and most of the children 
went west. Mrs Young was a person of uiieominon 
force of character, and was mnch ostoemed for her 
many virtues. She died in her far westerii home, 8th 
of May, 1891, aged 90 years. 

Adam Young, one of tlie sons, married Susan Gay. 



and their two sons, John and Adam, are about all of 
Captain Young's descendants — of his name— in the 
county, with whoae history he was so promineutly 
identified for so many years. ■ 

Colonel Samuel Young, whose memory was recently 
honored by a large outpouring of the citizens. at the 
Sulphur Spring, Sunday, May 3, 1894,— according to 
an appointment made forty years before, that if aliv«, 
he would meet them there that day— was Iiis second 
sou. He was a local prt^acher, and afterwards an offi- 
cer in the Union army. He did not live to meet his 
unique appointment, and among those who assembled 
forty years after, there were eleven who were present 
at the original meeting, which was a preaching service 
in the open air, a large rock serving for a pulpit. 


A generation since, one of the best known cliarac- 
ters in West Highland, Virginia, was Captain Adam 
t'urry, a Revolutionai-y veteran. One of his grand- 
sons, William Curry, is a well known citizen of Poca- 
hontas County. 

Captain Curry was a native of Scotland, and came 
to America, and resided several years near Manassee 
Junction. He was among the first to enlist in the war 
of the Revolution, ond was chosen captain of his com- 
pany, and participated in all the engagements in which 
Virginia troops were engaged that followed Mercer 
and Washington, 

Soon after the war lie gathered up the remnants of 



his propcrtv and moved to Aiigiiinta ( ounly, locating 
ill the Back (reek valley on property now owned by 
William Oumiuett in oouthwettt Highland. He settled 
in the woods and raiMcd a large family of eons and 
dnughtei'fl. He was honest in his dealings, and was 
held in iiiiich esteem for- his high sense of honor and 
patriotic itnpiilHes. It fleeins nlmost too strange to be 
believed that he would not accept a pension, offered 
him for his services as a brave aud faithful officer in 
the Revolutionary atrugglc. He always declared that 
the service waa its own rewiird. Instead of baiug a 
hardship, military service was the greatest pluaeure of 
his lifu. He desired no butter reeonipense than the 
fun he had, and the pleasure it gave him to see liberty 
secured for his invaded cimntry. He waa proverbially 
neat in dress and polished in his manners. To the 
close of his life, some forty or fifty years ago, he 
dressed in the colonial style — knee breeches, long 
stockings, and shoes with silver buckles. 

He retained his habits of court life as to diet and 
sleeping as long as he lived. He died at the age of 
one hundred and five years, with but few signs of de- 
crepitude visible. To the last he was erect as a young 
grenadier, cheerful in spirit, and mental faculties 
active apparently as ever. His remains are in the 
Matheny grave yard, near the Rehobeth Church, in 
the Back Valley, a few miles from his home. 

A European traveler spent some time near Man asses, 
where Captain Curry lived before his removal to High- 
land, He speaks of meeting a party of gentlemen on 
a tavern porch: "No people could exceed these i>eo- 



pie ill politeness. On my ascendiug tl.o tttcps to tlie 
piazza every couateuaiice aeemed to say, 'This man has 
a doable claim to om- attention, for lie is a stranger in 
the place." In a moment there was room made for me 
to sit down, and every one who addressed me did it 
with a smile of conciliation. But no man asked me 
where I had come or whither I was going. A gentle- 
man in every country is the same; and if good breed- 
ing consists in eenti'ment, it was found in the circle I 
had got into. The higher Virginians seemed to vener- 
ate themselves as men; and I am persuaded there was 
not one in company who would have felt embarrassed 
at being admitted to the presence and conversation of 
the greatest monarch on earth. There is a compound 
of virtne and vice in every human character; no man 
was ever yet faultless; but whatever may be advanced 
against Virginians, their good qualities will ever out- 
weigh their defects, and when the effervescence of 
youth is abated — when reason asserts her empire- 
there 'is no man on earth who discovers more exalted 
sentiments, more contempt of baseness, more love of 
justice, more sensibility of feeling than a Virginian." 

Having lived for years in such society, we are pre- 
pared to believe all that has been written and told of 
Captain Adam Carry. 

Late in the summer of 1S61, some ('onfederate 
troops, commanded by Colonel William L, Jackson, 
were stationed at Huntersville, and used the Clerk's 
office for barracks. In the place of straw they scatter- 
ed the office papers pell-mell on the floor and spread 
their blankets. It also became apparent t!ie Kederals 



would mioii c uur the place, and e^i the court directu^l 
their eleik, Williaui ( iiny, to look out a safe place fi^r 
the comity rwoi-ds. 

Ill obedieiicu to iristnictioHu, lie secured the assist- 
ance of R. W. Hill, then a youth too youug for iniii- 
lary service, with a tiutn. The clerk removed llio 
records to Joel HilPs residence, near Hillsboro, whore 
iliey remained until Jannurj, 1S6^^ Deeming it neces- 
sary to seek a safer place, Mr (Jui-ry arranged for t!u^ 
transportation of the records to Covington, via Lewis- 
burg, young II. W. Hill teamster. For a time quar- 
ters were had in the upper rooms of William Scotl'rf 
store house, and afterwai'<ls for a few weeks room wat- 
furnished in the county clerk's office. 

September, 1853, on General Averill's approach to 
Oovingt<>n, Mr ( urry carried the records to William 
T. Clark's, eight miles north of Covingtctn, and for 
three weeks had them concealed in a rick of buckwheat 
straw. The buckwheat patch was in the midst of a 
forest and well hidden from view. 

Matters became so threatening that arrangementH 
were ma<Ie to made to move tlieni into the mountains, 
four miles east, to the residence of a Baptist minister, 
absent as a soldier in the Confederate army, leaving 
his home in the care of his wife and small girl as sole 
occupants. He was assisted in this removal to the 
lonely mountain refuge by Andy Dauglierty, one of 
Mr Clark's colored men. Andy afterwards became a 
citizen of Pocahontas, and lived at Clover Lick. He 
deserves recognition for his fidelity, because for two 
years the safety of the records depended on his not 



telling abont tlieiii. 

In June, 1865, after eiiiveinier at Apiioinattox, Mr 
Curry, asBisted hy John B. Kiiinieoii. witli a tliret^ 
liorse team, carried the records back to Joe! Hill's ami 
in a ruontli later placed tlieni in a nearby lionse bo- 
loiigiug to the Rev Mitchell D. linnlap, where they re- 
mained until September, lti65. The first court after 
the war was held at Hillsboro, Nove:.iber. 1865, in 
the Methodist churcli; and from that time the recordti 
were kept in the old Acedemy building niitil 
Jaue, 1866, when thsy were rutuniud to Hnnters- 
ville and placed in the residence of John Garvey, near 
the conrt honse, and then after a few nioiitlia were le- 
placcd in the office. Something more than five years 
intervened between the first removal and the final re- 
turn of the records, and notwithstanding the risks en- 
countered and the vicissitudes of war times, nothing 
was lost but an old process book of no intrinsic im- 
portance. This loss is believed to" have occurred while 
the office was in use as Confederate barracks. 

So far as known there is no other like instance of 
fidelity to official duty that surpasses the preservation 
of the Pocahontas County records. There were ten 
removals in all, from first to last, and when returned 
six months were spent in assorting and replacing the 

JOHN McLaughlin. 

For the past seventy-five or eighty year.-* the Mc- 
Laughlin name has been a familiar one an uig our peo- 


;J1I) lllsroKV liK I'I>i:AH(INTAS L'OLNTY 

p!c. Ki»r this rt^asnii the retatioiitilup m> long identified 
witli our cuiintv liiHtory doderves upucial iiiuntioii tlieris 
for. TliiH relntioiiHliip will hi' coiisidercid in gi-oiips as 
it in B) iiiitii'jnitiit ttnd widely diHtiibiited and derived 
tVoni a vavied thmigl) related anceHtry. 

John McLaiighliu, the ancertt<ir of several Pocahon- 
tas fa.itilie-t of th^t name, wm a nitive of Ireland, and 
settleil on JaelcHon'ti Kiver, seven or eight miles below 
Montei-ey, and was one of the pi'>neer settlers of that 
vicinity previous to the Revolution. The lands he net- 
tled wei-e lately in possession of his son, John Me- 
Laitghlin, Jr. 

His family consistL^d of uix sons and five daughters. 
In reference to these pei-soiis the following particulars 
have been mainly learned from Mrs Morgan Grimes, 
one of tilt! do3t;e:id^nts by the third or fourth ro-nove, 

Margaret became Mrs William Carpisiiter and' lived 
on Dear Creak, nj.*r (ircjjiibink; Nancy was married 
,to Jttjin Carpenter and lived on Thomas Creek, near 
Dunmore, where Peter Carpenter now lives; Jane be- 
came Mrs Alexander Benson and settled in Illinois; 
Mary was married to John Beverage and lived on 
Straight Ci'eek, near Monterey; Susan beeajne Mrs 
Holcomb, and went to West Virginia; Abigail was 
married to Thomas Galford and lived near Dunmore 
on lands lately owned by J, II, Curry. 

Major Daniel McLaughlin, upon his marriage with 
Mary Carpenter, settled on Deer Creek, opening lands 
now heUl by the Oliver Brothers. In reference to his 
family the following particulars are in hand: 

His son, the late David McLaughlin, married Jane 



Wauless, daiiglitfr of William WaiilesB. on Back Alk- 
gliany, aixl seHleil on lands lately occupied by his soiim 
Joseph and James; Abigail bwanie Mrs A. Jackson 
Mooie on Back Alleghany; Mary Elizabeth was mai- 
ried to George Sutton and lived near Grconbank; John 
M. McLaughlin married Mary Jane Moore, dangliterot 
W. 1>, Moore on Elk, John wao a Confederate soldi- 
er, taken priMoner and died at Camp (, base, Ohio; 
Margaret Jane was married to Morgan (irinies, and 
lives near Mt. Zion in the Hills. 

Major Daniel McLaughlin was ninch respected. He 
was a very hai'd working man and almost wore liinisclf 
out clearing lands. He was a major of militia and was 
a fine looking ofticer on tbo parades that came off an- 

Hugh McLaughlin, of John, the Irish immigrant, 
married Sally Grimes, daughter of Arthur, of Felix, 
the pioneer. Ho lived near Huntersville on lands now 
owned by Dr Patterson and others. J. A; McLaugh- 
lin, Mrs Mary Hogsett and Lieut. James Hickman 
McLaughlin, a Confederate otHcer who perished in the 
war, were his children. Ho was a popular anil promi- 
nent citizen. 

Hanmel McLaughlin, another son of John, married a 
Miss Wright and lived on Jackson's lliver. There 
were two children, Mary Jane was married to Martin 
Sharp and lives on Little Back Creek, near Mt. G't^ve. 
H. P. McLaughlin marrieil Atcinda Bird, dangbtor of 
the late George Bird. Valley ('entre, Va. He lives on 
Briiwu Creak, ni!:vr Huntersvilla, He a (J.intVnl- 
erate soldier, '25th Virginia, Infantry. 



Uiibei-t Meraiigliliii, aiiutlier soil of Jolin the pioneer 
ilieil in eai'Iy iiiaiiliood. He is repoi-tei] to Ijave been 
u voiiiiif man of iiiueli promise. 

JaitiL's Atc'LAiigliliii settled in Illinois soon after his 
inarria^^e. His wife's name is not remembered. He 
WHS enthused bv the gold excitbinent of lK4d, ami 
crossed the plains to California in search of wealth. 
He was in a measure suecessful. It may be said too, 
to his credit, he was not ho very hard to satisfy, and 
so he returned to his family and settled in Missouri. 

John McLaughlin, Junior, married Sally Hamilton, 
and spent his days at the hoint'stead on Jacksons River. 
His children wei-e Ewing, Ada, Sally, and I^tcher. 

John McLaughlin was widely known for liis jovial 
ways and amusing expr<:^ssions, and was also somewhat 
eccentric in his ideas. Wlien about to be overcome by 
tiie intirmititis of an advanced age, he pointed out a 
Mpot overlooking his dwelling that is well nigh inac- 
cessible, and gave positive orders to have his body 
buried thero. He scomed to abhor tha idea of being 
trampled upon, and appeared to feel that his head 
would be secure from such indignity if he could have 
his grave in a spot ahnost imp;isBiblo to reach, and so 
steep that erect piisture would bo impracticable. It 
was his boast that when he was alivo he generally came 
out '*on top," and so he eccnied to wish to be on top 
wben not alive. 

His friends saw to it that his wishes should be coiii- 
]ilied with to the very letter. A more unique burial 
scene was never witnessed in that region. The pall- 
hearers on their knees and holding to the bushes and 


iiiSTwKV ciy i'(k;aiI(>ntas uHUJiTV 811' 

rocks with one lianti and the coffin handltis with the 
other, and the procession following on all fours, cmti- 
poae a scene the like of wliich niiiy ir.-vi^' bj witiiesst^d 
while the world stands Herj an illnstratioii of th? 
ruling passion strong in death. 

Tl)e ECford giTLp of McLanghlin relatii>nplii|i trace 
tlieir ancestry to two brothers and two fisterS <if that 
name who settled in Pocahontas early iu the cntury. 
How near the relationship is, the writer has not thi^ 
requisite infonnation. William and John McLaughlin 
and their sisters Jennie and Nancy are thu persons ri'- 
inembered as the ancestry of tho second group, 

William McLaughlin marrieJ Nancy Wylie, head of 
Jacksons Kiver, and settled on Thomas Crook, near 
Duumore,— his lands now held by his sons Hugh and 
Robert. Mrs McF. lughlin died a few years since at ii 
very advanced age, of a cancerous affection. She is 
remembered art a faithful and devoted nurse of hor sick 
neighbors, and her services were held in high approui- 
ation in times when there was no physician convenient. 
She and her neighbor Elizabeth McCutclian were sis- 
ters of charity in the best sense of tlie word. Sheej) 
saffron was their main dependance in cases of measles. 
They were fully posted in the virtues of herb reinedios. 

In i-eference to William McLaughlin's family, we 
have the following details: His daughter Jane was 
married to John Hiner, second wife, and lives on 
Jacksons River. 

Rachel became Mrs Jacob Beverage, and lives on 



rhe OhI Field Fork of Elk. 

Elizabeth iimniucl JaitiuK TowiisL':itI, ami lived on 
Biick All«j(lmiiy, near Driftwood. 

Hiigli McLangliliti married Nancy Ratliif, and lives 
on a Bection of the Tlioinas t'reek Their • 
cliildreii are Mrs Mary Alice Brooks, Mrs Lena Depu- 
t.v, William Andrew Gatewood, Jacob Renick Caasell, 
Brown L'Jtclier, Minnie Belie (lately deceased), A,nnie, 
CharleH, and Lola. 

Robert McLaiigblin was married twice, and Uvea on 
a section of the homestead. His first marriage was 
with Minta Uiismisell. Her children were Nebraska, 
Melissa, Lovie, ( hristoplier, Catherine, Bertha, Law- 
rence, Cameron and.Iliissell. The second marriage 
was with Lydia liusndsell. Her children are Elmer, 
Joseph and Annie. These ladies were cousins and 
were from near Moscow, Augusta County, Va. 

Nancy McLaughlin, one of the ancestral sisters, be- 
came the wife of Jacob Cassell, senior, and lived on 
the Greenbrier at the Cassell Ford, four miles west of 
Green bank. 

Jennie McLaughlin, the otiier ancestral sister, was 
married to John Galford and lived near Glade Hill on 
]»roperty now owned by Frank Patterson. 

John McLaughlin, one of the ancestral brothers, 
married Clarissa Gregory aud settled on the place re- 
cently owned by the late Allan Galford, month of 
Deer Creek, Their children were John, James, Eliza- 
beth aud Nancy. Elizabeth was married to Harvey 
Ratcliffe and went to Roane county. Nancy became 
Mrs Henry Higgins and lived near Clover Lick; John 



married Sydney Carpenter and eellkd c.ii the home- 
stead; James married a Mies Nottingbain and migrat- 
ed to the West. 

Hugh McLaughlin was wounded during the war, 
and suffers yet from the effects. Jacob McLaughlin 
died in the war. lie is remembered as one of the 
noblest young men that was sacrificed in the cruel war. 
Hie bravery and good moral character refleete<I great 
honor upon his country and kindred. 

An interesting letter has been placed iu our hands, 
from which we are permitted to extract such parts a^s 
may be desired. It was written at Camp Bunker Hill, 
Frederick County, Virginia, on the 1st of August, 
1864, by Jacob C. McLaughlin to his cousin, Nannie 
McLaughlin, a sister of K. P. McLaughlin, »nd is the 
laat he was ever known to write to her. He fell at the 
battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, ISHi. 

The extracts illustrate what our young soldiers en- 
dured when true to their sense of duty to the cause. 
He speaks of his miud preoccupied with ine:n:)ries and 
thoughts of the passing summer's dreadful campaign: 
. "It is lamentable to look upon, for when we started 
out this spring we had fifty men, uow we have only 
fifteen. The rest have been killed, wounded, and tak- 
en prisoners. I tell you it looks discouniging to fight 
under such circumatauces; through throng the mercies 
of God I have been one of tiie few that have beeu 
' spared, which I feel very thankful for and the kind 
mercies bestowed on me." 

*'We have had a very hard tiin« sifice we came to 



the Valley. We liad a figlit at Ljiicliburg, at Liberty, 
and at Salem: sud from tliere we did not follow old 
Hunter auy farther. We then came to Lexiugtou and 
Staunton aud down the valley to Smithtield, and there 
we fought them again, aud at Harpers Ferry; aud from 
there we crossed the Potomac into Maryland, and 
fought them at Middlctown, and the next day at Fred- 
erick City. And from there we went on to within 
Mght of Washington City, and there we fought them 
two days. And when we retreated frotn there we had 
to fight them on our rear all the time until we crossed 
the Shenandoah River, and there we stopped and gave 
them a good whipping; and then came up to Winches- 
ter, and they whipped our division and then we went on 
up the valley to Strasburg and assembled all our forces 
together and marched back on them at Kernatown, 
three miles above Winchester, and gave them a whip- 

Eing that has cooled them down a good deal. They 
ad a large force — some 20,000 — and we ran them 
back across the river into Maryland. Since that they 
have been more quiet, and we returned fi-orn the Poto- 
mac up to Bunker Hill, and there is no sign of them 
crossing the river after us, us yet. I am in hopes they 
may rest awhile, for the troops are very much exhaust- 
ed from their fatiguing marches, for we. have been 
marching and %hting since the 4tli day of May, and I 
think that is long enough to give us some rest. 

"I am sorry to inform you that both of your broth- 
ers are taken prisoners, and the whole 25tli Regiment, 
excepting about fourteen, has been taken. Though we 
nmst expect to bear with many troubles in a war like 
this, you all ought to be thankful that they are prison- 
ers, instead of being killed, as there have so many 
poor soldiers fallen this summer. I think a prisoner 
now is much better off than we poor men that have to 
march and fight so much. At least I know they are in 
less danger. 



"You inuBt excuse me for not not writing to you 
more frequent, tliougii I have written to jou once be- 
fore Bince I got any letter fmm you. I would have 
written oftener, only it haa been out of my power to 
do ao, on account of our not stopping long enough for 
ine to write — and we have had no conveyance for our 
letters half the time we have been here. Write soon 
and give me all the news, and think of the many pleas- 
ures that have been, and look forward that which is to 

Yonrs with much love and due respect, 

Jacob C. MoLAi.iiULiN. 

HUGH McLaughlin. 

The third group of the McLaughlin relationship in 
our county are the descendants of Squire Hugh Mc- 
Langhlin, late of Marlinton. His early life was spent 
in part on Jacksons River, Bath County. His wife 
was Nancy G winn, daughter of John (rwinn, Senior, 
and grand -daughter of John Bradshaw. 

Squire Hugh McLaughlin and Hugh McLaughlin, 
late of Hunteraville, were cousins and wore intimately 
associated when they were young men. They were 
married about the same time, jointly leased a piece of 
land on Jacksons Itivcr, built a cabin and went to 
housekeeping. There was but one room. This they 
divided between them and kept separate establishments. 
Squire McLaughlin would often tell how an axe, maul, 
and wedge made up his original business capital, and 
how his housekeeping effects were carried by his young 
wife on a horse the day they wentto themselves in their 



cabin lioiiie on lea^vd land. 

Upon tlio expirntion of the lease, early in the twen- 
ties. Squire McLaughlin settled in the woods on 
Thomas Creek, and opened up lands now held by his 
8on George H. McLaughlin. 

Mr and Mis McLaughlin were the parents of three 
tiona and two daughters: William Jacob, .lolin Calvin, 
George Henry, Elizabeth, and Margaret, 

Margaret, a promising young girl, died suddenly. 

Elizabeth became Mrs George Rowan, and lived 
on Roaring Crook, Randolph County, and finally locat- 
ed near the Hot Spriugs, where her family now lives. 
Mr Rowan was one of the builders of the Marlintou 
bridge. He was a Ceufederate soldier in the war frojn 
start to finish. His young wife refngeed from Roar- 
ing Creek soon after the battle of Rich Mountain, and 
with lier two little children, one tied behind her and 
the other in her arms, made the journey from Roaring 
Creek to the Warm Springs alone on horse back. 

William Jacob McLaughlin first married Sarah Gum 
from Meadow Dale, Highland County, and settled 
near Huntersville. One daughter, Nancy Jane, who 
died iu early youth. His second marriage was with 
Susan Bible, daughter of Jacob Bible near Greenbank. 
In this family were two sons and two daughters. 
Elizabeth became Mis John M. Lightner, lately of 
Abilene, Texas. Alice married Dennis W. Dever and 
they live near Frost. Mitchel D. McLaughlin married 
Emma K. Greaver, of Bath, and lives near Savannah 
Mills, iu Greenbrier County. They have five children. 
Jacob Andrew McLaughlin married Sally Gibson, and 



lives at Brirntield, Indiana. 

Joliu C. McLaughlin married Isabella, daughter of 
Adam Lighlner, of Highland County, and settled near 
HuuterBville, When a youth going to school at Hills- 
boi-o, he was thrown from a horse and received injuries 
that disabled liim for manual labor. He acquired a 
good education, tanght school, wrote in the clerk's 
otSce, and was an expert business man much respected 
by his fellow citizens. 

tr. H. McLaughlin married Ruhamah Wiley; first 
lived near Dunmore, but now lives at Marliiiton. He 
was a Confederate soldier. Their children are John, 
Edward, William, Clarence, Fred, Fannie, Mary, and 

Squire Hugh McLaughlin was married the second 
time to Mrs Elizabeth Gum (nee Lightner), of High- 
land. There were two sons by this marriage. 

Harper McLaughlin first married Caroline Cackley, 
and lived at Marliuton. Second marriage was with 
Etta Yeager, of Travelers Repose. 

Andrew M. McLaughlin married Mary Price, and 
now resides near Lewisburg. JIc is a prosperous 
grazier and farmer, and a ruling Elder in the Presby- 
terian church. He was a Confederate eoldier. 

After residing a number of years near Dunmore, 
Squire McLaugldin located west of Huntersvitle where 
he prospered in buainess. Thence he removed to Mar- 
lins Bottom, wliore he died in 1870, aged 69 years. 
Squire McLaughlin was a prominent citizen^a member 
of the county court, a ruling Elder in the Presbyterian 
church. He acquired an immeKse landed estate-— one 



of tlie iiiOHt valuable in tlio eoiiuty. Hie influfnce vas 
larjtely in favor of economieul industry, good morals, 
and intuUigeiit piety. His businees sagacity was pbe- 
iiomenal, and be could see money where most others 
could liot see anything worth looking for. 

About fifty years ago the county court refused to 
license saloon keepers. The whole county was con- 
vulsed with the agitation that ai-ose. At first Squire 
McLaughlin strenuously objected to this action of the 
court, as doing violence to persoual liberty, and de- 
priving the county of revenue. Whenever the matter 
was discussed this thrilling Scripture was often repeat- 
ed: "Woe unto him that giveth his neighbor drink; 
that putteth thy bottle to him and niakest him drunken 
also, that thou mayust look on their nakedness.^' — 
Hab. ii-16. 

His conscience was touched, and he resolved to clear 
himself of the fearful liability implied by doing any- 
thing to license vice and the giving of drink to neigh- 
bors, and let the revenue take care of itself, which it 
could well do with a sober, prosperous citizenship to 
depend on. 

He was also much impressed with what was reported 
to have passed between two saloonista. One was com- 
plaining to anotlier how his business had fallen oS, 
The other remarked that at one time he noticed hia 
business was on the decline — the "old suckers" were 
all going to the hone yard so fast, and lie saw if "new 
suchei-s" were not to be had he would have to quit the 
business. He told every young man that he met that 
he had laid in some of the nicest liquors that were ever 


aisrjSlf O? l-OCAHONfAS CJL'STV 327 

broiiglit in, and that if tio would co n^ aroiiud he would 
give iiim a treat. The salooiiist observed that after 
three or four drinks tlie joungsters wonld begin to buy 
and his busiuesa was on the rise quite satisfactorily. 
Thns he had found that a few dimes in treatiug meant 
dollars to him in selling. 

Squire McLaughlin^s services as a member of the 
court for eighteen years were of much use, and along 
with John Gay, Paul McXeel, and Isaac Moore — being 
themselves large tax payers — public atfairs were man- 
aged on 8 judicious scale, and money, as a general 
thing, was laid out where t!ie prospect seemed for the 
greatest good to the greatest number. 

While these persons, and others like minded, were 
on the bench, the attorneys from a distance were in 
the habit of saying that the Pocahontas court was so 
hide bound and disagreeable that it was no use to try 
to do anything with it, or to make anything out of it 
at the expense of the people. Moreover, they com- 
plained the court kept the county to:» dry by icfusing 
saloon privileges, Reasons for such objections to the 
Pocahontas county court wj m >st devoutly hope may 
never cease to exist. 


Tlie ancestor of the Varner relationship in our coun- 
ty was Joseph Varner. He came from Pendleton coun- 
ty very early in the century and settled on the Crook- 
ed Branch of Elk, on property now in possession of 
William A. McAllister. Mr Varner's parents, it is bo- 



lieved, came from Geriiiniiy to Penn>t_>lvania, thence 
to Pendleton, omong tlie earliest settlers of tliat coun- 
ty. Tlie given nainoe of tliese parents seemed to Imve 
been forgotten. Tlie father lived to the age of 112 
yearn and died in Pendleton. The widowed niotlier 
came to live with her son Joseph, on Elk, and died 
there, and hur remains were huried near the hotne. 
Her reputed age was 114 yeara, the oldest person that 
ever lived in this region. 

Joseph Varner's wife was Snsan Herold, sister of 
Christopher Herold. They were the parents of four 
sons: John, Adam, Eli and Samuel. Their daughters ' 
were Elizabeth, Alice, Snsan and Amanda. The Var- 
jier sisters seemed to have been ladies by nature, and 
were remarkable for their beauty, spi'iteliness, attract- 
ive manners and tidy lioiisekeeping. 

Elizabeth became Mrs John Holden, and lived ma- 
ny years at Huntersville. Dnring the war the family 
refugeed to Rockbridge and never returned. 8he died 
near Lexington and is buried there in the cemetary not 
far from the grave of Stonewall Jackson. 

Alice Varner was marrie4to Hiram Scott, for years 
a well known and highly respected merchant at Frank- 
ford. Mrs Captain Dolan, at Hintun, is her daughter. 

Susan Varner became Mrs Thomas Call, for many 
years a tiilor at Huntorsvilb, Her fa nily finally wan; 
to Missouri. 

Amanda, when about fourteen years of age, was sit- 
ting on a rock just in front of her cabin home one 
Sabbath evening reading her testament. The button- 
pole of the roof fell upon her, killing ber instantly. 



The 8toiie is atiil to be seou where this moiiriiful eveut 
oecnrred. She is spoken of bj the older people us 
such a beautiful girl, and so dutiful to lierp.irents, and 
so capable and helpful in domestic atliiirs. She had 
been to Sunday school and prayer iiieBtiug in the 

In reference to Joseph Varner's sons we note the 
following particulars: 

Adam njarried Caroline, daughter of William GiV)- 
son, Sr., 80 many years a merchant at Huntersville, 
and settled in Lewis county. 

Samuel Varner was a merchant tailor, a business he 
learned of John Holden at Huntersville. He settle<l 
at Frankford, 

Eli Varner was never married. Ho excelled as a 
mower. One season while mowing at liis uncle's, 
Christopher Herold, on Donthard's Creak, a serious 
accident happened him. While grinding a scythe it 
was struck by the crank, and, turning in liii^lKind, came 
near severing it at the wrist. The flow of blood was 
alarming, and it seemed tlmt he wtmld bleed to death 
in spite of all that was done to check the bleeding. 
Mrs Katie Herold, Peter Herold's wife, gets the cred- 
it of saving his life by checking the flow of blood with 
the use of certain words as a charm. It is believed 
tlie words are found in Ezekial xvi, 6. "And when I 
passed by thee and saw thee polluted in thine own 
blood, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, 
Live'. Yea, I said unto thee when thou wast in thy 
blood, Live!" 

John Varner niairied Isabella Hannah, daughter of 



David HaniiHli, a milditT of tlie wai' of 1?^12, and an 
oarly nettliT nil Klk, Tlicy b«gaii in tlie woode and 
built lip a proKperoUH Iiuiik; at Split Rock. Tiiere were 
tivu Hons. David, John, Samuel, Wi1liuii> and Benja- 
min. The five daiightert< were Margaret, who became 
Mi-e (Clinton Blanker; Mary, who was Mre Robert Wil- 
son, near Lexington; Virginia Siittan, now Mrs William 
Snyder, of Iowa; Alice, Mrs John Stewsirt, Valley 
head; Jennie became Mre Hamilton Snyder, T^iylor 
c<miity, Iowa. 

Samuel mai'ried Ann Showalter, oi R-iykbridga, anJ 
Uvea near Linnwood; William married Mary Gibson, 
of William Gibson, and lives at the Gibson home- 
stea<l; Benjamin married Ella Moore, daughter of 
Washington Moore, and lives in Iowa: John married 
Mary Mooro, daughter of Washington Moore and 
lives near the homestead. 

David Variier, the eldest of John Varner's sons, is 
remembered and spoken of by all who knew him as a 
very amiable and interesting young man. He died in 
the battle of the Wilderness, in May, at tho time the 
Confederate lines were broken and General Edward 
Jonnson's command mainly taken prisoners of war. 
David Varner was in his place at the front with his 
face to the foe. He received the fatal shot near his 
heart, moved a little distance and fell upon his face 
and was dead before a comrade could reach him. In 
one of his letters to his sister, Mrs Blanker, he wrote 
in such a way as impress the idea that be ba<l premo- 
nitions of the sad fate which awaited him. It was his 
t wish that if should fall, to be brought home and 



buried. Seaicli wss made for the body, but it cindtl 
not be identified. The field had been burned over 
about the time he liad had fallcu and destroyed all 
traces of identity. 

The writer had the pleasure of meeting Mrs Eliza- 
beth Uuldon at Lexington, some years after the War. 
Her emotions overpowered her when she endeavored 
to tell me what had taken place since we last met in 
her pleasant home in Huntersville in 1861. 1 was told 
by others that she was one of the most regular attend- 
auts upon public worship and did more than h';r pait 
in the benevolent work of the congregation, consider- 
ing her broken health aud I'everses. She plied her 
needle with such industry tliat she lived nicely ami 
had something to spare. It greatly pleased the writer 
to hear it remarked, "Yon must have good people in 
Pocahontas if Mrs Holden and are fair speci- 
mens," What can be more wortliy of aspiration than 
than to be a credit to tha people among wao;n we hap- 
pen to be reai-ed. To be a credit to our families, our 
religion and our connty is the highest aim that can 
stimulate true and useful endeavor. 


It appears from such information as the compiler has 
been able to obtain, that this person was the pioneer 
settler of the Huntersville vicinity, aud was the first to 
open np a permanent residence. Traces of the build- 
ing he erected are yet visible near the now road around 



the tiiomitatii, a f(.'w rodd from where the iiiouiitiuii 
mad leaves the Diiuiiiore and Himtersviilei'oad. Mr 
Sharp located here about 1773, and saw service as a 
jtcoHt and a Boldier. It in believed lie canie here from 
Augusta County, and probably lived in the vicinity of 
Stsuutou. His wife's name was Mary Meeks. Sh« 
W88 a very amiable person, lived to a great age, and 
died at the home of ner son, James Sharp, many years 
ago. In reference to their sons and daughter the fol- 
lowing particidarB have eome to hand. 

Nancy Sharp was married to Levi Moore, Junior. 

Margaret Sharp was married to John Kelley and liv- 
ed on Michela Mountain. Her children wore William, 
John, Anthony, Naucy, Polly, Rachel, Jennie, and 

Naucy Kelley was married to Kobert Sharp, son of 
James Sharp on Thorny Creek, and went to Iowa, 

John Kelley was a Union soldier, and died on the 
Kanawha during the war. 

Kachei Sharp, daughter of William Sharp, was mar- 
ried to Jonathan Grlttin, and lived near the head of 
Stony Creek, on the farm now owned by Levi Gay. 
Here children were Abraham, Uenoni, Jonatiian, and 
Mrs Charles Ruckman. 

Mary Sharp became the wife of Arthur Crimes, and 
settled in The Hills overlooking the head of Knappg 
Creek. In the Crimes memoirs special mention was 
made of all her children except one, 8ally Crimes. 
She became the wife of the late Hugh McLaughlin, 
and lived near HuiitersvUle, at the Bridge. One of 
her sons was Lieutenant James Hickman McLaughlin, 



wlio died ill WiiiclieaR-r of a wouiul, during the war 
ill 1864. He was on picket at tlie llnpidaii Kiver. 
He was of a very jovial disposition, and was joking 
the federal pickets and having his fun with tbein. By 
way of sport he stuck out his foot and in an instant his 
ankie was shattered by a uiinnie ball. He was taken 
to Winchester and was doing well, until one day the 
liospital was thionged with ladies bringing all sorts of 
nice things for the wounded soldiers. The Lieutenant 
indulged too freely for the good of his health, and died 
a victim of well meant sympathy and kindness. He 
was one of the few Confederates killed by kindness. 

John Siiarp, a son of William Sharp, upon his mar- 
riage with Barah McCollam, settled on the farm near 
Verdant Valley, now occupied by his grandson, John 
Wesley Irvine. 

William Sharp, Junior, was another son of the 
Huntersville pioneer; and settled Verdant Valley, ami 
a numerous posterity is descended from them. Their 
children were James, William, Alexander, Jacob, Paul, 
John, Elizabeth, Jane. Mary, Rebecca, Anna, Ellen, 
Nancy, and Martha. He and hie resolute young wife, 
Elizabeth Waddell, settled in the woods and built up a 
fine estate out of a forest noted for the tremendous 
size of its walnut, redoak, and sugar maple trees, and 
reared a worthy family highly respected for their ii;- 
diistry and good citizenship. 

James Sharp, late of Beaver Creek, was another of 
the sons of William Sharp, Senior. His wife was Ann 
Waddell, sister of Mrs William Sharp just mentioned. 
He opened up a home on Cuimnin^s Creek, a part o:' 



tilt; Huiitersvillti homeBtead . The property wae le- 
ceiitly owiietl by the late Jusuph U. Limry. Upon dis- 
posing of his pniperty to William Cackley, Mr Sharp 
located on Beaver Creek, on property known as the 
Janie:) Sharp place. He opened up an extensive area, 
and prospered in worldly affairs and reared a worthy 
family. Ehe names of his children were Mary, Re- 
j becca, Margaret, Martha, Nancy, Ann, Rachel, Lucln- 
da, William, Andrew, and James. 
Mary was married to William Pylew. 
Rebecca became Mrs Jame.'f Lewis, and lived in the 
Levels. Mrs Ann Clark, at Hillsboro. is a danghter 
of Mrs Lewis. Mrs R. C. Shrader and the late Mrs 
Davis Kinnison are her danghters also. 

Margaret Sharp was married to Jacob Civey, on 
Anthonys Creek, Martha Sharp was also married to a 
Mr Civey of the same locality. Nancy Sharp was 
married to Robert Ryder, and lived on Anthonys 

Ann Sharp was married to Levi Cackley, Junior. 
Rachel Sharp became Mrs Robert Gay. and lived o:i 
Beaver Creek at Beaver Creek Mills, lately in posses- 
sion t)f Wallace Beard. Hamilton B. Gay, upper Elk; 
Sam Gay, Williams River, and Mrs William Jordan, 
on Elk, are her children, Lucinda Sharp was married 
to Jonathan Jordan, near Hillsboro; William married 
Susan, daughter of Solomon Bnesard and settled in the 
West; Andrew married a Mies Bussard; James Sharp 
married Mary Byrnsides, on the Greenbrier east of 
Hillsboro, and settled at the old homestead. He died 
during the war, and Mrs Sharp went to Missouri where 



somt; of lier family now reside. Mr« HaiiHoii Mc- 
Laughlin, of Odessa, is her daughter, 

James Sharp wax a member of tlm court under the 
old arrangement, was high sheiiflf of the county, a con- 
scentioua mcinber of the Presbyterian church, and was 
held in high esteem for hid patrioiism and strict, scru- 
pulous integrity. The members of the couit had much 
cnnfidence in his judgment and he had great intlueiice 
in framing dticisions. Ho was much in the habit of 
hunting at the proper season, not only for the sport, 
but as a matter of business, for the proceeds were use- 
ful in bartering for family supplies for the comfort and 
sustenance of his household. , While living at hie first 
home on (lummiugs Creek he had a very sensational 
adventure on Buckley Mountain. It was growing late 
and it was near the time to set out for home. He was 
passing leisurely along when a panther suddenly mount- 
ed a log but a few yards in front of him. He shot the 
animal, but when the smoke cleared away another 
stood in the same place on the log. This per- 
formance was repeated nine times, when the hunter be- 
came panic stricken and flanked out for home. Some 
t'me during the night the remainder of tlie pack follow- 
ed his trail to his houi<e and kilh'd a yearling calf. 
Properly reinforced, Mr Sharp went back to the spot 
where he had fired nine times and there beheld what 
uo hunter had seeu before or since. Nine panthers, 
hot they were good panthers now; every shot had told 
with fatal effect. It appears that there were seasons 
when those auimids went in packs of fifteen or twenty, 
and this happenuJ to be one of the tiinuj. 




It is piopOBud in t\m cliapter to give some particu- 
].irn illuHti-atiii^ the family history of Jainea Wangb, Jr. 
He wjis tliu eldest sou of James Waugh, the Scotch- 
Irish u:ni);raiit, who was among the first to open land 
and build a home in Tiie Hills. In these ni3;noirs h« 
will be spoken of as Jani«j Waugh the second. Early 
in life he married Kebaeca McGnire, from Pennaylva- 
riia, whose name indicat-38 Scotch ancestry, and settled 
on the Greenbrier where James Waugh the 3i-d reooiit- 
ly lived. In reference to his family we leam tha', 
itachel was married to Frederick Fleming, Elizabeth 
waa married to John Katliffc and lived on Closer 
Creek; Nancy became Mrs Abraham Griffin and lived 
many years on Buckley Mountain, a few miles east of 
Buckeye. Mrs Claiborne McNeil, near Buckeye, is 
her daughter. 

Jacob Waugli married Mary Brown daughter of Jo- 
siah Brown, near Indian Draft, and spent most of hi« 
married life in Upalmr county. They were the parents 
of fifteen children. Only five lived to be grown. Ja 
cob Waugh was a local Methodist minister of promi- 
nence. He was a very fine pensman and became clerk 
of the Upshur County Court, and occupied that respon- 
sible poaitiou for many years, and will be remembered 
as one of the best citizens in the hist^iry of Upahor 
county affairs, 

James Waugh, the third of that name, married Sally 
Cochran, daughter of John Cochran, eldest of Thomaa 



(^ocliraii, tlie progenitor of the Cochran roiationship in 
PocihiuUd cjmit^. He 8?tiled on tha Griiiibrisr ut 
the old homestead. His second wife was Hannah 
Lamb, from Highland County. In the sketch of Po- 
cahontas County given in Hardesty's Encyclopedia the 
reader will find biographic details of James Waugh's 
persona] history. 

Morgan Waugh went to Kanawha County. 

Alien Waugh went to Missouri and settled there. 

Isabella Waugh became the wife of John Brock and 
settled in Kanawha County, 

Marcus, the youngest son or Ja nes Waugh, married 
Busan Johnson, and settled on a farm adjoiiting the 
Waugh homestead higher up the river, a few miles east 
of Poagee Lane. 

Lorenza Waugh, a son of James the second, became 
a distinguished evangelist. P'rom his autobiography, 
published in Han Francisco, copies of which are in the 
possession of his friends in Pocahontas, we learn that 
he was born in 1808, at the home on the (ireeubrier 
where his earlier years were spent. At the age of six- 
teen he was a teacher in Harrison County. Ho was a 
teacher in Mason (.'ounty in 1S31, entered the Metho* 
dist ministry in that year, and was junior preacher 
on the Guyaudotte circuit. In 1833 he rode the Nich- 
olas County circuit, and was ti-ansfei-red to the Ohio 
Conference in 1834. In 1835 he became a member of 
tlie Missouri Conference. On one of his Missouri cir- 
cuits he met Miss Clarissa Jane Edsell, and they were 
married. It seems he first lost his heai't in The Hill!), 
but time makes up for such losses. 



It) 18:^7 LiicrzH Wiiiigli w&H an liHlimi uibMoiiaiy 
to tilt' Sliawni'i" uation. In 1S40 lie rod*? tlie Platte 
River circuit, now in Nebraska, nnd in 184J> lie enter- 
eil the Illinois Confereiieo, In 1851 willi liis familj 
lie crossed the plnitis and HOttled in tlie Fetaluma Yal- 
lev, iu ('alifornia, where he rt^sided until liis death, in 

This paper if devoted to the ineniorj of Samuel 
Waugh, one of the early settlers of The Hills, seven 
or eight miles north east of Huntersville. He was a 
son of James Waugh, Senior. His wife's name 
was Mary. This pioneer husband and wife opened up 
their home about 1774, on the place now held by John 
Shrador, one of their descendants by the third remove. 
Samuel Waugh, upon hie marriage with Ann McUuire, 
settled at the old Waugh homesteiid. Their family 
consisted of nine sons and live daughter;^. Concerning 
these children the following fragmentary particulars 
have been collected. 

■ Elizabeth Waugh was married to Caleb Knapp. and 
first settled in Greenbrier County. Thoy afterwards 
lived awhile on Knapps Creek; thence settled on the 
Greenbrier, known as the Knapp place, whore McCoy 
Malcomb now resides. Her daughter, Ann Knapp, 
was married to Richaitl B. Weir, and lives near Ver- 
dant Valley, Nancy Knapp m^irried Henry Shrader; 
lived several years in HuTitersville, where Mr Shrader 
operated a tamiery, and finally settled on tli3 Waugh 



lioiiiestead. Mary Slirader, her daughter, was married 
to tlie tatb William Fcrtig of Huntersville, lived some 
years on Anthonys Creek, and now Uvea near Dilleya 
Mill, Mr Fertig was a saddler by trade, then a mcr- 
oliaut, was a meiuber nf the Pocahontas court, and 
upon his removal to Greenbrier devoted his time to 
farming. B. Franklin Shrader died in tlitt war. It. 
0. Slirader lives on part of the Waugli homestead, and 
rans a fsu-m and tannery succesefnDy. His wife is a 
daughter of the late Jamcd L'j*is of the LaveU. John 
Shrader lives at the original homestead as mentioned. 
His wife was a daughter of Nicholas Stulting. 

Jacob Shrader married a daughter of David Kincaid 
in Highland County, and lives near Dilleys Miil. 
Luther Shrader married a sister of Jacob's wife, and 
lived in (jreenbrier. ElTen Susan Shrader became the 
wife of Oscar Sharp, a local Methodist minister, and 
lives at Frost. The names of the other members of 
the Shrader family are Enoch, William, CluirleH, and 
Margaret Ann. 

Eleanoi Knapp married Sampson Buzzard. Eliza- 
beth Knapp married Peter Shrader. Margaret Knapp 
married McCoy Malcomb: John and Thomas Malcomh 
are her sons. Mre W. B. Johnson is her daughter. 

E, W. Knapp lived in Tucker County. A. J. Knapp 
went to MissourL 

Rebecca Waugh married Andrew Moore, and for 
some yeai-fi lived near Frost, then at the head of Stony 
Creek, and finally her family moved to Jackson county. 
Rev John Waugh married Martha Moore, and set- 
tled on the Indian Draft, near Edray, where his son 



Jolin Wttugli now lives. Ilia eon S.iniiul dio<J tii 
j'outli, and was preparing for t!ic iniuistry. Levi 
Waiigti, a Confederate veteran; Ei'verly Wiiugb, n 
I'nioii veteran; and Jolm Waogh, lately deputy slieritf 
of Pocalioutas County, are liis sons. Mrs Ewing 
Jolmsoit, near Marliuton, and Mrs Richard Mayse, of 
Blue Ridge Springs, Va., are liis dauglitcrs. 

Tlie Rev John Waugli is worthy of reinembrance for 
many reasons. He was a skillful worker in metals. 
His specialty seemed to be the manufacture of hoes, 
one of the moat useful of implements in his time when 
with many persons it was the main reliance iu cultivat- 
ing a crop and working a garden. He excelled also 
in tempering axes — another implement of precious 
value and essential use in preparing the land for culti- 
vation. He taught school, 'and preferred the vocal 
method, when all the pupils could con their lessons 
audibly as well as recite theiu. He studiouuly improv- 
ed his limited opportunities for mental improvement, 
and became a well informed intelligent citizen, and 
had his own well matured opinions about questions of 
public interest. He was for many years a prominent 
member of his church and a local preacher that seem- 
ed to have but little regard for what persons might say 
about his discourse. He had a parable about throw- 
ing stones in the dark at certain things, and if there 
was an outcry he knew that something was hit. He 
died a few years ago, apparently in the full possession 
of his faculties, at a very advanced age. 

Samuel Waugh, Junior, moved to Missouri in early 
manhood, and there— upon his marriage with a Mis- 



Houri lady, Mary Cauterbury^he settled and we are 
favored with no fnrther particulars. 

Robert Waugli, remembered as a very bright and 
interesting young man, devoted liimself to Bchool- 
teacliing. From exposure on damp ground lie con- 
tracted a rheumatic atfectioii that disabled liim for 
inauual labor. lie was held in high reputation as a 
teacher, and some of his scholars yet speak of him 
with affection after a lapse of fifty years or more. 

Robert Waugh seems to have been gifted with fine 
oratorical powers, for some of the older people tell me 
that they have never heard anything that couid beat 
Robert Waugh speaking when he got wanned up on 
any subject. He died comparatively young at the old 
homestead, and never Jived to realize his hopes and 
ambitions in this life. In his lonely grave amid the 
Hills a tongue is silent that may have enraptured lis- 
tening audiences and escnred for Robert an illustrious 

William Waugh, another of Samuel Waugh's nine 
sons; married Martha, daughter of Josiah Brown, near 
Indian Draft. They were the parents of ten children. 
Upon leaving this place Mr Waiigh settled in Upshur 
County, thence he went to Iowa, and afterwards to 
Missouri, where Mrs Waugh di'ed many years ago. In 
1894 Mr Waugh was sti-nck by a passing train, not far 
from his home in Missouri, and died in forty minutes 
from the shock, 

Alexander Waugh married Annie Cochran, of the 
Levels, and settled in Nicholas County. 

Arthur Waugh, another of the nine sons, went in 



carl.v niftiihootl to Kaiiawlia, where ha mairicd Heiiri- 
t'tla Bo3w«ll and uPttletl. 

Jacob Wauph inarriud Sarah Ann Gav, youugefit 
ilanphter of the late Saimiel M. Gay, near Marlinton, 
and first lived at tlie Wangh hoineatead. Then he 
moved to Barbour County, and finally returned to Po- 
(a'lontas and took charge of tlie Dnffield mill, near 
Edray, where he died a few years since. This mill is 
now operated by liis son, S. I). Wangh. 

Beverly Wangli, the last to be tnentioned of this re- 
markable list of sons of Samuel Waugh, married Mar- 
tha Bradshaw, daughter of William Bradshaw, on 
Browns Creek. He lived many years on the place 
now occnpied by Robert Shrader, He then moved to 
the Levels, Mrs Kenney Wade (tirst wife) and John 
E, Waugh were his children, 

Mr Beverly Waugh was an estimable man. He led 
the Mount Ziou class for sixteen years, and yielded the 
position to the regret of his christian brethren when it 
became necessary to change homes. He died of a can- 
cerous affection hnt a few years since, and bore his 
dreadfnl sufferings with becoming resignation. He left 
an honorable reputation as a gentleman and a christian. 

In reference to Samuel Waugh "s other three daugh- 
ters, we are able to furnish but the few particulars 
herewith given. Margaret Waugh was married to 
Samuel Martin, and lived first in Upshur County, and 
tlien moved to Iowa. Mary Ann Waugh became Mrs 
Reuben Buzzard and lived near Glade Hill a few 
years. Afterwards Mr Buzzard purchased Dilleys 
Mill, and lived there a considerable while, and finally 



emigrated to the far west. 

Truly, our attention has been given tn a family 
gronp whose history is suggestive and instructive, 
Samuel Waugh and Ann Mctiuire, his wife, imbued 
with the faith and energy so peculiar to the genuine 
Scotch-Irish, endnred all that is implied in rearing a 
family of fourteen sons and daughters, and all living 
to be adults. The sons all lived to be grown, and not 
one was ever known to use tobacco or ardent spirits in 
any form. This seems scarcely credible, yet it is as- 
serted to be a pleasing truth. Samuel Waugh was one 
of the origiual members of the old Mount Zion Church 
— one of the strongholds of its denomination for so 
many years. His history shows tliat in the face of 
pioneer hindrances aud privations sons and daughters 
may be reared tliat may faithfully serve God and sup- 
port their country in their day and generation. 


So far as we have authentic information, the Beard 
relationship trace their ancestry to John Beard, the 
pioneer of Renicks Valley, Greenbrier County. He 
was of Scotch-Irish antecedents, his parents having 
migrated from the north of Ireland. While a young 
man he had his parental homo in Augusta County, io 
the bounds of John Craig's congregation, and no 
donbt helped to build the old Stone Church and the 
forts spoken of elsewhere, aud may have heard the 
very sermons Craig preached, opposing the people who 
were thinking of going back to Pennsylvania i^- over 



tlie Blue Riiifje towHi-<]8 WilliiUiiabiirfj, 

His vflllev home was in tlie vicinity of New Hope, 
aiitl afttii- flttaiiitiig \m majurity lio came to Greenbrier 
County, and eoinniencod keeping bachelor's hall at the 
bead of Renickf Valley, ou lands now occupied by 
Abram Beard, a grandson. This was about 1770, and 
tliough unmarried, John Bean! secured land, built a 
cabin, and cleared ground for cropping. 

While living in this isolated manner, some Indiauu 
came along and liberally helpe«l tiiemselves to wiiat- 
ever they could find in tlie way of sometliiug to eat; 
and when they went ou their way took the pioneer's 
gun, dog, and only horse. 

It so occurred that Mr Beard was absent that day. 
It is thought he had gone over to Sinking Creek on a 
social visit to tlie Wallace family, old neighbors in 
Augusta, and whose coming to Greenbrier possibly 
had its influence with the young bachelor. 

When young Beard returned and saw what liberties 
his visitors had taken in his absence, he looked up the 
trail and started in pursuit. Upon following the sign 
for some miles in the direction of Spring Creek, he 
beard the horse's bell. Guided by the sound he came 
upon two Indians in camp. They seemed to be very 
sick, aud Mr Beard supposed it was from over eating 
raw bacon and johnny cake they had taken from hi» 
own larder. One appeared to be convulsed with par- 
oxysms of nausea; the other was lying before the fire 
vigorously rubbing hia belly with a piece ()f bacon, on 
homeopathic principles that like cures like, 

Sesjjng his own gun near a tree and bis own dog l_v- 



i ig by it, lie crawled iiuar to get the gun, but the (Jog 
fiercely growled, aud he was forced to withdraw qnietl_v 
as he came, and leave the two sick Indians mimnlest- 
ed. He thereupon went to his horse, silenced tlie bell 
and succeeded in gutting th9 ani:n,il away. 

About this time, or soon after. Mr Beard seemed to 
realize there was nothing in single blessedness for hini 
and he and MissJanetWallacewerenmrried by takinga 
trip to Staunton and making tlieir wishes known to the 
rector of the imperial parish tliat extended fmm the 
the Blue Ridge to the Pacific ocean. In their pioneer 
liome ill Renicks Valley they reared a numerous fami- 
ly of eons and daughters, one of the sons being Josiali 
Beard, lately of Locust Creek, This paper will be 
mainly for the illustration of his personal and family 
history, as his name appears so prominently in onr 
county history. Mr Beard was the first t'lerk of the 
County after its organization and served in that capac- 
ity during the formative period of the county's history. 

His wife, Rachel Cameron Poage, was the eldest 
daughter of Majur William Poage, of Marlins Bottom. 
The names of their children are given in the paper re- 
lating to Jacob Warwick and his descendants. 

He was an expert hunter, and found recreation in 
bunting deer upon the hills and ridgu.4 tlmt make Hiin- 
tersville scenery so picturesque. Ho killed scores of 
fine deer during his residence at the court house, and 
rarely went beyond the immediate vicinity in quest of 
game, unless it would be occasional visits to Marlins 
Bottom for a chase. It proved however tliat there 
wei-e attractions to draw him there of a more pleasiinr 



and ntjimiitic natiirf. 

Hi- (H'ciiichI to liave his own idciis as t<i liow lie could 
best proiniite the iiitereatB of the county, and would 
HoiiietitncB carry them out. While residing at Locust 
(-revk lie set out one uiorning to attend court. On the 
way near Iuh huine lie discovered fresh wolf signs. He 
liasteiied hack, got his gun and called up tlio dogs, and 
sunt Aiiroii, u cohjrod servant, who was also a skilful 
liiiiiter Htid a dead siiot, to beat the laurel brake and 
(hive out the wolves. Quite a iiiiuiber wera killed aud 
the pack retreated from the ueigbborliood so far back 
into the mountains as to give no further tr>ubl!:. 

In the m-jintl ii'j, court :n*t a:i:l aJjouruad o^iii^ t> 
the absence of the clerk. That otKcial b:»wevcr was 
present next morning and explained the reasons of hie 
absence, believing it w(inld do thy people more good 
to have the wolves killed and scattered than to hold 
court that day. Court could meet most any time, but 
it was not every day that such a good chance to kill 
wolves conld be had. 

He was a stanch friend of education, and was one of 
the first trustees of the Pocahontas Academy at HilU- 
boro, and one of its most faithful patrons and wise 
counselors. In business affaire he was successful, and 
in a quiet, judicious, industrious manner acquired a 
very extensive landed estate; the larger proportion of 
which is yet in the possession of ids descendants. 

His passion for hunting was strong to the last. 
Every fall he would get restless, ahd nothing but a 
hunt would quiet liim. One of the last excursions to 
the mountains, though far advanced in age, he was the 



only one tiiat killed a deer. On his retnrn lie would 
chaff li!8 younger associates by telling all lie met on 
the way that the young men had taken him along to 
kill their meat for them. 

He retained remarkable bodily vigi>r to the age of 
four Bcore and over; and his mental faeultio3 were un- 
impaired to the last. Not njany days before liis final 
illness that closed liis life, he felt it hie duty to see the 
county surveyor on important business — as he believed 
it to be — -and should be attended to' without delay. He 
went from his home on Locust Creek to Mr Baxter's 
near Edray, about twenty miles distant, and returned 
— a cold, raw day it was, too. He overtaxed bis en- 
durance by the ride. He soon became sick, and peace- 
fully passed from his long and useful life. 

In his life was exemplified the liighest type of the 
citizen— a pious, intelligent cultivator of the soil— the 
(Occupation for wliicli tlie Creator saw fit in his wisdom 
to create the first man. It is tbe occupation now that 
feeds the world, and whatever hinders, depresses, or 
retai-ds the farmers prosperity, threatens the worst 
evils that can befall our humanity. 

David James, Senior, was one of tbe first settlers of 
the Droop neighborhood, in Lower Pocahontas. He 
was from Norfolk, Virginia. It is believed he came 
here soon after the Revolution, and located for awbile 
near the liead of Trump Run, on property now owneil 
by Richard Callison. He then lived some years at the 



Ki>cky Tiini, now kiiowu as thij Irvine Place, where' 
he built a mill. One of the xtonet) im yet to be seen 
just bel')w the raad near where \.]v3 milt stuoil. 

Friini the Irvine place he rnoveil on lando now oc- 
cii[ti.;,l hy Gj)r^j C lahriii. TiiliKi-u ij still stand- 
ing and furnishes s correct idea of the kind of houses 
the pioneers lived in. It was here lie passed the latter 
years of liis life, and passed away at the age of 1114 
years. The name iind parentage of his wife are not 
remembered , His family consisted of three daughters 
and two sonn: Xellio, Maitlia, Sally, David and John. 

Nellie Jamej was married to ThomMs Codiran, sec- 
mid wife, and lived near Marvin, 

Martha was [narried to John Salisbury, and lived 
on Trump Itun, and finally went west. This John 
Salisbury was a son of William Salisbury, a native of 
England, who opened the Salisbury settlement on 
Trump Run, William Salisbury's wife Mury was a 
native of Scotland. He lived to the age of 104 years, 
and is to be remembered as one of the pioneers of 
lower Pocahontas. 

Sally became Mrs John Cutlip, who opened up an 
improvement on Droop Mountain, now in possession 
of the Renicks. Her children were David, Abrain, 
John, George, Mai-tha, and Elizabeth. The latter 
married David Kinnison and went to the west. 

David James, Junior, married Catherine Parks and 
.settled on Droop Monntain, They were the parents 
of these children: Mordecai, Jennie, Samuel, Eliza- 
betli, John, Kebecca, Martha, and Mary. 

Mordecai married Martha Tharp and went west. 



Tlie Tbarps lived on tlie Joslma Kee placf, iiBiir Mar- 

Jsmiiie became Mrs Jesse Cochran. Her marriage 
was attsnds'J br vary ro uaatio i!i3i;lj:its, iilmtrating 
tlie fact that all may bo well that euda well. 

Samuel married Elizabetli Ewing, daugliter of Wil- 
liam Ewing, who lived on the Greotibner, w!ier« Jos- 
eph Perkins now resides, and went west. William 
Ewing excelled as a maker oc wijoden iiiouldhoards for 
plows, and had all he could do to metit the de:nand. 

John married Kellie Ccchrtin, 

Rebecca became Mrs Emanoal Barrett, 

John James married Kellie, daughter of Thoiiiaa 
Cochran the pioneer, and suttled on Droop, wliere 
Lincoln Cochran now lives, but finally went west. 
Their family consisted of three daughters and tln-eesnns: 
Jane, Eliza, Kate, David, William, and John. 

Thus with the aasistanco of the venerable John 
Cochran, probably the oldest man living on the Poea- 
hontas and Greenbrier border in lSy7, and Oeorgf 
Cochran, his relative and neighbor, the writer has been 
able to give something in illustrating the Ja:no8 family 
history. This paper will be concluded by recalling 
the fact chat David Jamea, Junior, lived to the age of 
106 years, about the gi-eatest age attained by any one 
of our Pocahontas citizens, concerning whom we have 
any autlientic information. The cottage home still 
stands whence he departed for the unseen world, and 
his grave will he an object of interest in our local 
annals and should be carefully marked so as not to be 


■ ii'<l lIlsn'KV (IK l>l>CABONTAH COUNTY 

David Coclirnn, ii mm of TIkiiiihh Coeliran, by bin 
Hei'oiid itiiirriHge witli Nellie James, deserves iiieiitioii 
fnidi tlio fact timt he was a veteran of the war of IBI'2. 
H(! had for hitt ineits mates in t)ie ariiiy WilUaiii Salis- 
hiirj, Jr., John McNeil, (known as Little John), and 
John K, Fleniinens. He was in the affair at Craney 
Island, neiir Norfolk. While it is not certain, yet it 
is believed he served a tour under General Harrison in 
the west, as he frequently spoke of him. It is prob.i- 
hle that he was in the battle of Tippecanoe. John 
Cochran; in ISyS, was the only surviving mutnber or 
tlie old soldier's family. He was y2 years of age No- 
vember 2d of that year. 

David Cochran, the vetm-an, suffered grievously tire 
last three or four years of his life. He was treated by 
Mrs Diddle of Monroe County, for three yoars. Shu 
niidertook to cure the case for forty dollars. Several 
visits were made. She was at his bedside when I.g 
died of hemorhage, caused by the cancer, in October 

John Cochran has a vivid recollection of the Kegi- 
inentai Master at Huntersville, in May, 1834, On 
returning from muster rather late in the evening, per- 
sons were racing their horses in a furious charge 
against imaginary British on the Cumminga Creek 
road, two miles from Huntersville, While not in the 
charge, Isaac Jordan's horse seemed to smell some- 
thing of the make-believe battle, reared and plunged, 
throwing his rider and severely fracturing his thigh. 

Willian] Gibson, merchant and hotel keeper at Hun- 
tersville was sent for. After some delav, means were 



contrived to cari-^ tlie injured and suffering man back 
, to Huntereville, where they arrived after dark. Squire 
Gibson — though not a physician — took charge of the 
case, reduced the fracture and kept the patient at his 
house for three months. John Cochran was employed 
to nurse him, and staid by him alt the while until he 
could be brought hojne. 

John Coclu-aii in his prime was a person of uncom- 
mon agility and muscular power. He was jovial in 
disposition and had a good word for everybody, and 
yet it was his misfortune to be in one of the fiercest 
personal combats that ever occurred in his neighbor- 
hood. \yith remarkable magnamity his opponent con- 
fessed himself in the fault, and ever after there was no 
more fighting for John Cochran. Trouble quit looking 
for him after that. 

George Cochran lives in the old James house. He 
was a faithful Confederate soldier, and stands up for 
the Lost Cause with a fluent vim that is refreshing. 

Concurrently with the past century the name Bur- 
gess has been a familiar one in lower and middle Po- 
cahontas. The progenitor of tliia family was John 
Burgess, Senior, a native of Ireland. He was a weavej' 
by occupation, and settled near Albany, New York, 
where he diligently plied .his vocation, some years 
previous to the Revolution. The name of his wife or 
her family is not remembered. There were two sons 
and four daughters. 



Kliz^lii'tli Borgf88 buca lie Mi-a VVilIia:n Vouug, 

Two of tlie (laiijrhturs, imiiiud not pumcjibured, mar- . 
lii'd two brothers by tbe name of Kelley, aud lived iu 
N<iw York Htate. 

James Burgess became a preaclier iii the pale of the 
(oiigregatioiial Church, and settled in Kentucky, 
among the pioneer niinistere of that region. 

Joliu Burgestf, Junior, married a Mins Kelley, of 
Xew York, and soon after the Revolution removed to 
Harrisonburg, Virgiuia. In his family were three sons 
Hud eight daughters, concerning whom we have tlu^ 
following details, furnislied by David Burgess. 

Mary Bnrgess married her cousin, James Youuj;, 
and settled in Augusta County. Their sou William 
Youug was a t(, Idler in the wi.r of 1812, iind died in 
service at Norfolk, Virginia. 

Nancy was married to William Mayse, and settiel 
at Millpoiut, now Pocahontas county. He was among 
the first baksmiths to strike sparks from the anvil in 
that vicinity. William Mayse, a grandson, was a cap- 
tain in the Civil War, and afterwards a government 
clerk in Washington, D. C. 

Jane became Mrs Thomas Armstrong and lived near 
(Jhurchville, Virginia. 

Hampton Burgess weut to Ohio in early manhood, 
married a MisH Si^niitli and settled in that State. 

Nathan Burgess married Martha Kinnison, of 
Charles Kinnison, the pioneer, and settled on lands 
now in sossession of the I'ayue family. He was a skill- 
ful gunsmith. I^te in tlie 18th century aud early in 
19th, many of the older hunters were supplied by him 



with rifles. Some of his rifles were used by riflemen 
in military service. One of the beat specimens of his 
workmanship was made for the late William McNeil, 
of Buckeye, When last heard of it was th3 property 
of the late James Moore. It was repnted to be oue of 
the most accurate in aim and far reaching of mountain 
rifles e7Qr in the cjunty. It would be well it' it could 
bo gotten and deposited in the Museum of the West 
Virginia Historical Society at Charleston. 

John Burgess was born neir Albany in 1778. He 
was a mere youth when his father came to Harrison- 
burg. From Rockingham he came to the Levels about 
1798. Hie first marriage was with Susan Casebolt and 
lived near Millpoint, The children of the first marriage 
were John, James, Archibald, Paul, Hannah and 
■ Mary. Hannah became Mrs David McNair and lived 
iu Augusta. The first Mrs Burgees died about 1813, 
Soon after her death John Burgess moved to the moun- 
tain farm, woat of the hoad of Swago. 

His second marriage was with Hannah McNair, 
daughterof Daniel McNair, in the viciciity of Church- 
ville. The McNairs were pioneers along with the 
Boones, Millers, Molfetts, and McDowells, notable 
familes in the Valley of Virginia during the pioiieer 
era. The McNairs were from Pennsylvania. The 
children of the second marriage were David, Martha 
and Elizabeth. 

John Burgess was a carpenter by occupation. He did 
the carpenter work on the dwelling occupied for many 
years by the late (leorge W. Poage, theruiiisof which 
are still to bo seen near Preston Clarks beautiful resi- 



deuce. The Jordan Bbiii, iioar HilUboro, was of Iiis 
niaiiT jdbtt, and still stands in a good state of preser- 
vation. For a long series of years lie made most of 
tlie coffins needed in Lower Pocahontas. He was draf- 
ted into military service during the war of 1812, but 
owing to the critical stage of his wife's health, he was 
permitted to put in a substitute, and remain with his 
family. He thus escaped the suffering privation which 
caused the death of many of our mountain people dur- 
ing the notable defense of Norfolk vicinity that was 
planned to shield Kichniond from British invasion and 

John Burgess, Junior, Bon of John Burgesri, the im- 
migrant, the immediate ancestor t>f the Pocahontas 
family, whose history is illustrated in part by this 
sketch, claimed to have been a Revolutionary soldier ■ 
and served in the artillery, and was one of the first to 
enlist and the last to be disbanded of the New York 
Continental Troops. While we have in hand no posi- 
tive information to this effect, yet there is much rea- 
son for believing that John Burgess was at tha sur- 
render of General Burgoyne, 

As the reader will readily remember, very memora- 
ble events occurred not very far from where John Bur- 
gess, the immigrant, lived and reared his family. It 
is more than probable that bis loom wove the blanket 
which his son used in the service, and some of the 
neighbor soldiers were clothed in material prepared bv 
his industrious hands. 

Thus closes one more brief chapter in the suggestive 
history of our Pocahontas People. Let it be our aim 



not only to e.nulate, but to surpass what our aieestry 
accompliBiied, and ever strive not only to ke^p but im- 
prove upon what Ims come to iia fio ii tiieii- aslf-sacri- 
ficiug toils and good nameB. 


Joseph Moore, late of Anthonys Creek, was one of 
tlie most widely known citizens of our county in his 
day. His parents were William Moore and Margaret, 
his wife. It is believed they cuiue from Rockbridge 
County about I7b0. No known relationship is claim- 
ed with other branches of the Moores. They opened 
up a home on the knol! just south of Preatoii Harper's, 
on Knapps Creek, where a rivulet crosses the road. 
Their house was just below ths present road at that 
point. It was here they lived and died. They were 
buried on the east side of the creek, on the terrace 
south of the tenant house now standing there. Persons 
now living have seen their graves. 

These pioneers were the parents of two sons and two 
daughters: Joseph, John, Mary (Polly), andadaugh-' 
ter whose name seems to bo lost to memory. 

John Moore went to Kentucky, 

Mary was the wife of Colonel John Baxter, who was 
the first Colonel of the 127th Regiment, and was very 
prominent in the organization of the county. 

Joseph Moore was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
During his service he met and married Hannah Cady, 
in East Virginia. She was a native of Connecticut, 
and was a school teacher, and is spoken of by theolder 



people H8 a spriglitly puimm. Soon after liis return. 
Joseph Moore settled on the lioinostead, building his 
house between Goelet's residence and the barn. He 
tinally moved to Anthony's Creek. 

Their family coueieted of five daughters and three 
sons: Haiina)), Sarah, Matilda, Margaret, Abigail, 
Daniel, Joseph, and Henry Harrison. 

Sarah was married to Jackson Bnssard.on Anthonys 
Creek. He was a C<'nfederate soldier, and died in 
the battle of Dry Creek, near the White Sulphur. J. 
H. Buzzard, Assessor for Pocahontas, is her son. 

Matilda became Mrs Elijah May, on Anthonys 
Creek. Her sons John and Calvin married Lizzie and 
Lillie, daughters of Register Moore, near Marlinton. 

Margaret was married to Jacob Blizzard, of Green- 
brier Connty, and went west. 

Abigail became Mrs John Wade, on Anthonys 
Creek, and lived there. 

Daniel was deputy sheriff under his father. He 
finally went to Missouri, and became a prominent citi- 
zen. He raised and commanded a company of volun- 
teers for service in the Mexican War, and was with 
Colonel Doniphan in his famous expedition to New 

Joseph Moore, Junior, went to Braxton County. 

Henry Moore married Martha Young, daughter of 
Captain William Young of Stony Creek, and is now 
living in Iowa. 

Joseph Moore, Esq., was a very prominent citizen 
in connty affairs. He was high sheriff, justice of the 
peace, and was very much sought after for drawing np 



deeds, articles of ugreemeni, and writing wills. His 
jaclgincnt in matters of controversy seeuis to have been 
very correct, as but few suits brouj^ht contrary to iiis 
advice ever succeeded in tlie courts. 

One of niy earliest recollections of Squire Moore 
was when I was a half grown lad, attending school in 
Huntersville from home in Marlinton. My first les- 
sons in grammar were conned during those nioi-ning 
and evening rides. One playtime I was at 'Governor' 
Haynes' Hotel on the coruur now occupied by the Mc- 
<Jliiitic property. Squire Moore, who had spent the 
forenoon iu t!iQ clerk's o^ico with the late Henry W. 
Motfett, was seen coining up the street very slowly. 
It was a hot day in summer, and he was iu his shirt- 
sleeves, with his vest unbuttoned and thrown open, 
and full saddle bags over his shoulder. Mr Haynes 
calls out; "Squire, you are taking things mighty slow, 
and move as if yon had no business on hand and never 
had any." 

In slow, measured tones the Squire observes, as if 
he had studied the matter very carefully: "Well, Gov- 
ernor, I have been around here long enough to find 
out there is no use in being in a hurry about anything 
except catching fleas." 

The 'Governor' was inclined to take ofifense at this, 
but the Squire pointed significantly towards the re- 
freshment counter, and in the clinking of glasses the 
flea trouble was forgotten. 

It would require more time and space than is allotted 
to these memoirs to write out all that might come 
mind about this interesting man, so we will give only 



one more remiiiisceiict!. In April, 1848, I spent a 
rainy aftenioou with Squire Moore in a school he watt 
teaching near Sunset, in the old Uaugherty bniiding. 
He showed me a question iu arithmetic that puzzled 
Iiim. He could find the answer called for but it would 
not "prove out," and he could not be satisfied with 
anything that would not "prove out.'" 

We put onr heads together and found a result that 
would "prove out," so we botli felt that we knew 
more than the man who wrote the book, — that much 
of it at least. We lingered after school was out, until 
it was so near night that when I returned to William 
Harper's the evening candle was already lighted and 
placed on the supper table. 

After proving out things in our ciphering consulta- 
tion, we had a talk about the Bible and Christian re- 
ligion. I was a Bible distributor at that time, an some 
of the older people may remember. The habit the 
Squire had of "proving out" things came intoevideiice 

"William, you must excuse me if I talk a little plain 
to you, for you may think strangely of the way I 
sometimes talk. There are people who think 1 am an 
infidel, because I sometimes make remarks they do 
not agree with. I have studied a good deal about re- 
ligion, and if you have as much sense as I think yoii 
have, you will some day see these things as I do. 1 
always keep a Bible or Testament handy to me when 
I am at home, and most always carry a Testament in 
my saddle pockets when away on business. 

"Now you must excuse me, William, when 1 say tii 


you tliat in my private opinion there can not be niucli 
in the thristian religion if it puts itw most earncbt and 
zealoue profeaeora to wearing oiit the knees of tlieir 
pants in religious services in the fall and winter, and 
then lets tlieni turn over and wear out the rest of tlieir 
breeches backsliding during the spring and summer. 
Somehow, William, it does not prove out to suit my 
notion what religion should be — provided there is such 
a thing as religion anyway." 

I felt that Squire Moore was not disposed to discuss 
personal piety seriously, and the subject was changed. 
We never met again to compare opinions about any 
matter. I leain from his friends, however, that dur- 
ing the closing years of his life he gave dote attention 
to his Bible. He has been seen sitting for hours in 
the shade of an apple tree, with tin open Bible on hia 
knee. It is my fervent hope that my aged friend was 
able to 'prove out' that it is a "faithful saying, worthy 
of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the 
world to save sinners, even the greatest," and that lie 
was willing to take the sinner's place and receive the 
sinner's salvation; at the same time praying: "fast 
me not off in the time of old age, forsake me not wli3:i 
my strength fails." 


Among the citizens of our county deserving special 

notice for industry, hospitality, and good influence on 

society, Robert Dunlap McCutchan, late of Thomas 

Creek, is to be remembered as one justly entitled to 



Biicli eonskleratioii. Wliile he was ii()t one of the 
pioneers, lie came to Pocahontas aooii after tlie organ 
ization of the county, virtnaily settled in tlie woods, 
and built up a home that was noted far and near for its 
good cheer and lariHh hospitality. 

January 11, 1825, he married Elizabeth Youel Lock- 
ridge, near Goshen, Virginia, and settled on Thomas 
Creek, in 1826. They were the parents of five eons 
and four daughters. All of their children except two 
preceded them to the grave. The eldest died in 

Samuel Hodge McCutchan was a Confederate soldier 
and a member of Captain J, W, Marshall's company. 
He was captured in 1863 and taken to Camp Chase, 
and remained there until the close of the war. He 
came home iu broken health, and died of consumption 
in 18*59. 

John Blain McCutchan was also a Confederate vol- 
unteer, and, served in the same company. He married 
soon after the war, Mrs Rachel Bird, daughter of 
Jacob Bible, near Greenbank. He lately died. There 
were four children: lizzie, now Mrs F, M. Dilley; 
Robert and Luther, twins, died young; and Margaret. 

William Andrew Gatewood McCutchan went to 
Georgia when twelve years of age, to be educated by 
his uncle, Andrew Lockridge, a Presbyterian minister. 
His health failed, and he returned borne in his fifteenth 
year. He soon after united with the church at Uun- 
niore, and began studies for the ministry. He volun- 
teered in the war. In the battle of Seven Pines he 
went into action contrary to his captain^s advice, feel- 



ing !t Iiitj duty to iigbt as long us he could liandle liiu 
muaket, but being overcome by fatigne, he was order- 
ed back to the rear, fell sick with pnenmonia, and 
never recovered. 

Luther McCutchan died the first year of the war, in 
Ills fifteenth year, 

Christina Jane McCutchan married David Wetzel, 
and lived in Lewisburg. Her children were William, 
Sallie, Lizzie, and Lena. Sallie Wetzel married New- 
ton Hartsook, and lived in Lewisburg. Lizzie became 
Mrs Lake "White, of White Sulphur, Lena married 
Gordon Bright, and lived in Jtaunton, William Wet- 
zel married Florence Ridgeway, of Monroe County, 
and lives in Lewisburg. 

Nancy Caroline McCutchan, an excellent young 
lady, died in 1861. 

Mary Martha McCutchan, wheu about verging into 
womanhood, passed away from her eartlily home. 

Elizabeth Eleanor McCutchan married A. K. l>ysard 
and lives at Driftwood. Their children are Lawrence 
and Mrs Bessie Bt^ard. 

Robert D, McCutchan was a ruling Elder in the 
Presbyterian church for forty or fifty years. He was 
born in 1803, and died after prolonged sufferings from 
a cancerous affection, February 22, 1883. 

Mrs Elizabeth V, McCutchan was born in 1803, and 
died July 2, 1878. 

Mrs McOutclian, whose pet name was 'Aunt Betsy,' 
was a typical Scotch-Irish matron. She was endowed 
with the traits of character developed in lier ancestry 
by the civil and religious commotions that occurred in 



the Scdttbli highlands and the hUt'iric p.irta of North 
Ireland, tu which referouce has occaMioiially been iiiHde 
iu theHC notes. She wax tielf reliant, kind heaited tu a 
fanlt, suit pOKseni-ed in all emergencies, diligent in 
business, fervent in spirit, ever ready to weep with 
those that wept, rejoicing with tliose that rejoiced, and 
could hold more than lier own if challenged on doc- 
trinal points. 

Mr McCutclmn inherited tlie patient, plodding habits 
of industry bis ancestors acquired on the Scottisb Iiills 
that Robert Burns knew so well and disliked to prac- 
tice so much. In a piny section of Pocahontas lie 
found lands that reminded him of the kind where bis 
own parents bad toiled and made a bountiful living for 
well nigh a century. 

Far and near this family would attend religtoas wor- 
ship, the weatber be what it might. For years Green- 
bank and Huntersville, the iirst eigbt and the other 
twelve miles away, were tlie nearest point* of the 
churcii service of their preference. 

These pleasant people, so happy in their home rela- 
tions, were not separated long. Tbey and the most of 
their children sleep in well cared for graves on a grassy 
knoll overlooking the scenes where tbey passed their 
quiet, useful lives for more than flfty years. 

By bis last will and testament Kobert McCutcban 
endowed Baxter Church with a fund of $500, Dr John 
Ligon, Trustee. The annual interest to be for pastoral 




Tlie Brown relatioiiHliip trace tlieir ancontry to Jos- 
eph Brown, whose wife was Hannah M'Afferty, They 
lived a few years in Bath County, on tlio Bull Pasture; 
thence removed and settled on lands now owned by 
the Mann family, near Edray. Some fruit trees and a 
fine spring indicate tlie spot where they lived, about 
three-fourths of a mile east of the Kann residence, 

Mr Bi-owii died a few years after t-^itling here, hut 
was survived by his widow for many years. She be- 
came suddenly blind, and remained so for twenty 
years. She spent her time in knitting, and taught 
many of her grand -daughters to knit. Among them 
was the late Mrs Thomas Nicholas. Mrs Nicholas 
would often tell how her grandmother would take her 
little hands into hers and put them through the motions 
until she could knit herself. A few years before her 
decease, Mrs Brown recovered her sight as quickly as 
she had lost it, and could count chickens and geese 
forty yards away. 

The widow Brown's danghters Polly and Hannah 
lived and died at th<! old home. 

Rachel Brown was married to William Brock, and 
settled on the homestead, 

Ann Brown became the wife of Jereiniali Friel. 

Elizabeth Brown married a Mr McGuire, and lived 
in Nicholas. 

Joseph Brown, Senior, went to Nicholas County, 
His son Wesley Brown — a Confederat^^ soldier —was 



at Etli-ay during the great war betwe^jn tli.; States, and 
made liimrtelf known to his relatively. 

Jolm Bmwii was a soldier in the war of 1812, and 
never returned. 

Josiah Brown, in whotte luemorj this sketch is spec- 
ially prepared, was the eldest of Joseph Brown's sous, 
and he married Jennie Waddell, near MiUpoint. He 
was born June 22, 1777, hia wife was born April 4th, 
1771; married in 17yy, and settled on the western sec- 
tion of the Brown hoiiierfteiid. They were the parents 
of seven dauglitefs. 

Eleanor Brown, born August 6, 1S02, was inarrietJ 
to Zechariah Baniett, from Lowia County, West Vir- 
ginia. In reference to her family the following par- 
ticulars are given: John Wesley and Jolm Andrew 
Barnett died young, and Josiah Barnett. Sarah Jane 
Barnett was married to George McLaughlin, late of 
Driftwood. He was a Confederate soldier. Hannah 
Barnett married William Townseud. Mai'tlia Barnett, 
lately deceased. James, Thomas, Stephen, and New- 
ton Barnett are well known citizens near Driftwood. 
The three first named were Confederate soldiers, 

Hannah Brown was married to Jacob Arbaugli, who 
was from near Jlillpoint, and first settled on Sugartree 
Run, a part of the Brown homestead. Her children 
were Eliza Jane, Susannah Simms, Lauretta Frances, 
Nancy Caroline, John Allen, George Brown, James 
Marion, William Hanson, and Joseph Newton. John 
A. Arbaugh was a Confederate soldier, and died in 
1861, at the Lockridge Spring, uear Driscol. George 
and James passed through the war. George Arbaugh 



waa in tho Slat Regiment of Virginia Infantry. 

Shortly aft«r tlic war, Jacob Arbaugli inovud t<i 
Jackson County, Missouri, which h« jocularly rciferreti 
to as Ills tweiiti<!th change of hoinos since hig niai-riage. 

Jennie Brown, born October 9, 1805, was married 
to John P'riel, eon of Jeremiah Friel the pioneer, and 
settled on a section of the Friel honiesriiad on the 
Greenbrier River. 

Ann Brown, bom December 9, 1806, was iiinrricHl 
to Janiea Conrtn«y. and tirst settled on a part of the 
homestead. Their children were Andrew Jackson, 
Thomas, (jcorge Washington, Hanson, wlio died at the 
age of six years; Jane, who is now Mrs Adam Geiger; 
Julia, who is now Mrs James Rhea; and Hannali, wlio 
is now Mrs Godfrey Geiger. Andrew Courtney wac 
a Confederate aoldier, and died a prisoner of war at 
Fort Delaware. Thomas Courtney was also a fJonfed- 
erate soldier, survived the war, and now Uvea near 
Marlinton. Gecirge W. Courtney was a (onfederate 
Holdier, sni'vived the war, but died near Buckeye in 

Martha Brown, bom February 14, 1808, was mar- 
ried to William Waugli, son of Samuel Waugh, the 
pioneer, and settled at tlie old home. Maitha was 
known in her family as "daddy's boy," since she was 
constantly out of doiira witli her father. She could 
harness the teams, plough, or drive the sleil, as occa- 
sion required. She wa^ the m()ther of ten children: 
Davis, Zane, Robert, Enos, Oziaa, William Clark, 
Jane Miriam, Mary Ann, and Almira. She died in 
Missouri, having lived awhile in [Ip.^hur I'oiinty, Weat 



Virginia, tlieii in I.iwa. 

Mirisin Brown wai< born Auguttt ti, 181U, was tirst 
iiiarriod to James Walker Twymaii, a native of Aug- 
usta County, Mr Twyruan was a ecliool teacher. 
They first settled on Elk, where they lived two or 
three years. The land he worked on Elk had been a 
part of David Hatuiah's. Mr Twyrnau put out a field 
of corn that grew finely and was very promising, but 
early in August there was a heavy frost; he became 
discouraged, gave up his land, aud moved to Green- 
brier River to laud give:i tlieai by Joseph Brown. 
Here he taught scluol; having the Friels, Moores, and 
(Sharps for pupils, Mr Twyrnau had business in Ruii- 
tersville tlie 17th of January, 1834, and on his return 
was drowned in Thorny Creek, The Greenbrier home 
was just above the "Bridger Place," Their daughter 
Mary Frances is now Mrs Otho W, Ruckman, on In- 
dian Draft. 

Mrs Twyman's second marriage was to the late 
Thomas Nicholas, on the Indian Draft, near Edray. 
Mr Niciiolas was a skillful mechanic — a much respect- 
ed and prosperous citizen. 

Mary Brown was born April IS, 1812, and was mar- 
ried Co Jacob Waugh, and lived in Buckhanuon. She 
was the mother of fifteen children — five only lived to 
be grown. Her sons were Brown, Enoch, Homer, 
and John William. The daughter, Leah Waugh, was 
the third wife of the late Dr Pleasant Smith, of Edray, 

The history of Josiah Brown was one of humble toil 
aud self sacrifice for the good of his family. In the 



course of his life lie endured great personal suffering 
and afHictiong. Ho was bitten twice by rattlesnakes 
when in the ranges looking after liis live stock. Once 
he was with hia neighbor, Wiiliani Sharp, who cared 
for him ant! helped him home. The second time he 
was alone, and it is believed he saved hie life by put- 
ting his lips to the punctures and sucking out the poi- 
son. Finally, a strange sore appeared in the cornei- 
of one of his eyes and spread over most of the right 
side of liis face. Many believed this was the result of 
the snake bites. It caused him excruciating suffer- 
ings, that were greatly intensified by the efforts of 
sympathizing, well meaning friends to cure him. 

Sad and pathetic memories of his brother, John 
Brown, seerned to be ever haunting his mind, and the 
teai-s seemed to be ever ready to flow at the mention 
of his name. In the war of 1812 Josiah Brown was 
drafted for service at Norfolk, Virginia. John Brown 
a younger brother, being unmarried, volunteered in 
his brother's place and was accepted, and was ordered 
to report for service at the Warm Springs. John 
seems to have been a very pious youth. On the even- 
sng before his departure for the seat of war, he came 
over to his brother JosiaU's to bid them all farewell 
and have one more season of prayer and supplication. 
Then as he went away over the fields he was heard 
singing, "When I can read my title clear." This was 
the last ever seen or heard of him by his brother 
Josiah's family, as he never came back from the war. 

Truly, Josiali Brown's history is a sad and touching 
one. He now knows, no doubt, what Moses meant 



when lie pmyed: "Make nic glad according to the 
diiya wherein thon battt afflicted ine and the years 
wlierein I iiave tteen evil." 


William Aiddridge, Senior, the ancestor and found- 
er of the family relationship of that uaine in our conn- 
ty, was a native of England. His mother, who by 
her second marriage became Mrs John Johnson, 
a pioneer of Marlinton, lived to be more than one hun- 
dred years of age. His wife was Mary Cochran. Mr 
Auldridge built up a home at the Bridger Notch, and 
it is believed the old bam stood on the spot where one 
of the Bridger boys died. This place is now owned 
by William Auldridge, a grandson. 
. There were six bods and three daughters: Sarah, 
Elizabeth, Nancy, Thomas, William, John, Samuel, 
James, and Richard. 

Thomas Auldridge, the eldest son, when in his 
prime was considered one of the strongest men physi- 
cally in West Pocahontas. The first revelation of his 
strength was at a log rolling. The champion of the 
day attempted to take young Auldridge's handspike^ 
which was a fancy article of its kind. The young 
athlete picked up both the champion and the disputed 
handspike and laid them on the log heap, with appar- 
ent ease. 

Upon his marriage with Elizabeth Morrison, daugh- 
ter of James Morrison, on Hills Creek, Thomas Auld- 
ridge leased lands now owned by John B. Poage near 



<^Io.'e.' Lick, where lie spent most of liU working days. 
Ho tliGn bought of Jacob Arbangb and Captain Wil- 
iia n Young, irj.xr Indian Draft, and opened up the 
property now owned by his aon, Thomas Auldridge. 
The sons of Tliomad Auldridge, Senior, were Jaine.j, 
AVilJia-n, Thomas, and the daughters were Sarah, Eliz- 
abeth, and Mary. 

J:i nei Auldridg \ tho eldest son, first m.irried Mary 
Ann Birlo.v, and sattled on land now occupied by 
Nitliiii B.tvlojv, and then moved to the home near 
E Jniy wh3re he n i a- resides. His children were Hen- 
ry, Miri'im, Elizabeth, MoHett, and George. He was 
sadly bjra.ivad of his first fatiiily by the ravages of dis- 
e;isj, one son George, alone was spared. James" sec- 
ond wiiB was Julia A. Diiricdu, a grand daughter of 
Colonel John Baxter. One daughter, Mary, now Mrs 
Lee Carter, George Auldridge, the snrvivor of the 
tirst family, married Hukiah Cassel, and lives on the 
homestead near Edray, 

William Auldridge married Elizabeth Moore, and 
settled on a part of the liomestead. Their children 
wjre Milindii, Hanson, and Eliza. 

Thomas Auldridge, Junior, married Catherine Moore 
and lived on the hon:i3st3-id. T.vo daughters, Mrs 
Margaret Hannah, on Bucks liun, and Mrs Ida Mc- 
<?lure, who lives on a part of the old homestead. 

Sarah Auldridge, daughter of Thomas Auldridge, 
Senior, married the late J. Harvey Carry, near Frost, 
Her life is believed to have been shortened by the ex- 
posure and oxartion due to the burning of the homo 
i]ear Frost. Her eon Ellis Curry married Miss Rock, 


370 niSTi>R\ OF ForAHoNTAa chusty 

jiiid lives ntisu- Diiiimore. William Curry want t> Mis- 
souri. Mary ("iirry inarriwl Benjaniin ArbogEist, ami 
lives near Greeiibank. E imia (Jurry inarrioJ William 
T. McUIintic, and lives near Beverly. Bwssie inarrie;l 
J. K. B. Wood.lell, and Uvea in Ritchie Connty. 

Elizabeth Auldridge married Henry Moore and lives 
near Driftwood. 

Mary Ann Auldridge married William Moore, of 
Elk, One duiigliter, Ann Moore, survives liei. 

William Anldridge, Junior, married Nancy Kelliaoii 
and settled on the Greenbrier, two miles below the 
nioHtli of Swiigo. Their only child, Martha, married 
Geore Hill, son of Abram Hill of Hills Creek. While 
he was in service in 1861 at V^alley Mountain he con- 
tracted the measles. He came home and his wife took 
down also with tht^ same disease, and the two died 
within a weuk of each other, leaving a daughter, who 
is now Mrs Ilobcrt Shafer. William Auldridge's sec- 
ond wife was a Miss Shafer. Her son, James Edgar 
Aoldridge, lives on the homestead. 

John Auldridge married Rebecca Smith, who is par- 
ticularly mention in the memoirs of John Smith, of 
Stony Creek. 

Samuel Auldridge, son oE William Auldridge the 
ancestor, married Miriam Barlow and settled at tlie 
Bridger Notch, finally on Greenbrier River near 
Stamping Creek. His children by the first marriage 
were William, John, and Mary Ann. Mary Ann died 
young, John was a Confederate soldier and was kill- 
ed in battle, William lives at Millpoint, 

Samuel Auldridge's second wife was Susan Grine^. 



Mention is made of her family in the Griiiies memoir, 

James Anl(lri<lge was a tailor by occupation, worked 
uwhile at Franliford, and tlien went to Missouri. 

Kieiiard Auldridge, youngest son of WilHam the an- 
cestor, married Hannah S.nith, daughter of John 

Sarah Auldridge marriod William McClure, and set- 
tled on the Grooiibrier River, below Beaver Creek. 
Their children wero James, Rachel, Mary, and Bessie. 
R^ichel became Mrs Jacob Pyles; Mary, Mrs George 
Overholt, on Swago, Bessie died in her youth. James 
McClure was married three times: First wife, Miss 
McCoiiib; second, Miss Pyles; and third, Miss Frances 
Adkinson, He lives on the homestead. 

Elizabeth Auldridge married Jacob McNeil, and 
settled in Floyd Connty, Virginia. 

Nancy Auldridge was married to the late Moore Mc- 
Neil, on Swago. 

Thus closes fer the present the chi-onicles of this 
worthy man's family. The writer would make men- 
tion of the assistance given him by Jame^ Auldridge 
and his son George. 

The venerable men whose history we have been 
tracing— as illustrated by his descendants — was a very 
estimable person. He was an ever busy, industrious, 
and exemplary citizen. His intlueneo was ever for 
sincere piety, strict honesty, and quiet judicious atten- 
tion to his own concerns. These same qualities char- 
acterize many of his worthy posterity. Early in his 
jnaiihood he was greatly disabled bp a falling tree and 
was seriously crippled for life; and yet the work he 



and his cliildrun accompl Uhed in opening up abundant 
lionies, under ditHciilties, is truly remarkable and wor- 
thy of special appreciation. He loved to hunt, and on 
OTie occasion came near being killed by a panther from 
which he escaped with difiiciilty, 

Mr Auldridge, owing to his disabled condition, be- 
came a school teacher, and pursued that vocation for 
years, and did much good in that line. When he died 
at an advanced age eeverai years since, tliu common 
remark was that one of our best old men bad gone 
from us. 


Among the prosperous citizens of Pocahontas Coun- 
ty in its early development, Christopher Herold de- 
serves recognition of a special character. He was of 
pure German parentage — hie immediate ancestry came 
from the Fatherland, settling in Pennsylvania, thence 
removing to Virginia. Though he could not read 
English, no one would have suspected it, so well post- 
ed he seemed to be in political matters and current 
affairs. His powers of memory were surprising, and 
his business sagacity was equal to any of his contem- 
poraries. He was honest and enterprising. He and 
his sons accumulated an imuiense landed estate on Elk, 
Douthards Creek, and other places, amountingtomany 
thousands acres. 

Christopher Herold married Elizabeth Cook, of 
Pendleton County, and soon after their marriage lo- 
cated on Back Creek, now known as the Thomas 



('aiiipbell place. From Back Orcek, Higlilaud ('oiin- 
ty, lie migrated U» Doutliards Creek, about aeventy-Bix 
years ago, aud bought of Colonel Jolin Baxter, and 
settled on lands now held by Henry Wliite and sons 
and Henry Sharp, on Dontliards Creek, On thia place 
Mr and Mrs Herold reared their family and passtsd the 
residue of their lives. Their family consisted of seven 
sons and three daughters: Susan, Jane, Elizabeth 
Ann, Henry, Peter, Benjamin, Charles, Christopher, 
Andrew, and Josiah. 

Busiin Herold was marrisd to Philip Moyers. aiui 
settled in Upshur County. 

Jane was the wife of Captain John Buzzard, who 
lived in Huntersville several years. He managed a 
hotel, was Captain of the "Liglit Horse" company, 
and finally moved to Missouri. 

Elizabeth Ann married Saninel Hogsett, Junior, and 
settled in Harrison County, where her family now live. 
Mr Hogsett died, and she was afterwai-ds married to 
Mr Sapp, 

Henry, the eldest of the pioiieer^s sons, married 
Elizabeth Lockridge and settled at Uriscol, and after 
living tiiere a nnml>er of years, moved to Nicholas 
County. Their sons were Anderson, Washington, Wil- 
liam, and Benjamin. Wise Herold, now living on 
Xnapps Creek, is a son of Washington. Henry Her- 
old's daughter Elizabeth married a McClung, in Nich- 
olas County; and another daughter Maria was married 
to John McClintic at Frankford, W. Va. 

Peter Herold married Catherine Snyder, of High- 
land; settled on the lied Lick branch of Elk, where he 


374 HISTiiRY OF I* 

tik'd, and hia fiimily afterwnidn went to Missouri, 
whither tliov liad Won prettotled bv Dani«l Herold, h 
Hiin of Pftor, 

Benjamin Herold. a very prominent citizen in Iiis 
time, wae married to Mary Boone of Franklin Conuty, 
and for several years lived iit Driscol. He bonglit out 
his brothers, Andrew and Josiah. and thereafter resid- 
ed at the homestead. Finally he moved to Missouri. 
Benjamin's sons were, Charles, Joseph, Peter, and the 
daughters were Eugenia, Mary, and Lucy. 

Cliristoplier Herold's fourth son, Charles, died when 
about grown. 

His fifth son, Christopher, Junior, married Sally 
Ann Hefner, daughter of Samuel Hefner of Anthonys 
Creek, and lived on the homestead, where both died, 
leaving a daughter, Sally Ann, who married Mr Wag- 
goner of Webster County. 

The sixtli sou, Andrew, married Maria Seybert, 
dasghter of Joseph Seybert, and lived some years on 
the old homestead, and then purchased near Frost, 
where he now resides. 

Andrews's family numbered nine sons and twD 
daughters: Mrs Ida Kebecea Moore, Myrta, Lanty W. , 
Millard F., Joseph, died aged eight; Isaac Newton, 
now in Missouri; John L., Edwin L,, Horace F., in 
Highland; Andrew Forrest and Pmyn Putterdon, de- 

The seventh son of Christopher Herold, Sr., Josiah 
Herold, married Mary Ann Cleek, of Knapps Creek, 
and located on Stony Creek, upon the farm occupied 
by the family of the late James McClurw. Deeming it 



best to refag«o during the war, lie went to Mr Cleek's. 
There he was soizad with diptheria in a. malignant 
for.ii, and he and hie t.vo little sons died, ' 

To illustr.ite 8o:n3thing of ths privations endured bjJ 
tills worthy man and family in their efforts to make 
tiieir way in tlie world, mention may be made of what 
occurred in the winter of 1840, 

Andrew, then about grown, was so. it to Elk to look 
ixhai some cattlo to ba winterad there. A snow fell, 
e.irly in the winter, betweeu four and five feet in 
liapth. The only ch.ince to keap the cattle alive was 
to fell ti;nbBr for brow's j. How to have this done was 
t!ia problem that confronted the youth. Having pro- 
cured the services of Joe Courtney, a man of stalwart 
forin and needful pluck, they started for tlitt browsing 
grounJ. Conrtnay went ahead, and the young man 
followed in his trail, sno.v np to the arm pits. They 
managed to cut what carried the cattle throiigli. 

In the maiiiwhile all communication between naigh- 
bors seemed cut off, Andrew's brother, Peter Heruld 
had taken sick and died before ho could hear of it. 
James (iibsoii, Senior, now living on Elk, managed to 
reach an e.uinuuce iu hearing of the browsing party, 
and by the loudest toucti lie could command got An- 
drew to understand what had taken place. The funeral 
rites were performed under ditticulties indescribable. 

The winter finally passed away, and when Andrew 
returned home in the spring he was emaciated and 
changed in appearance almost beyond recognition by 
his neighbors. 

When this venerated man— C'hristoplier Herold — 



(lied 80m« ytiurs agn, hi^ was verging uiiiatv years. 
He and Iiis fuithfiil wife sleep in tlio fiunilv buriu) 
ground near their last home on caith, the scene of 
much of tlieir life's toils and itintual joys and sorrows. 


Acknowledgements are due Samuel Sutton and Mrs 
Harvey Curry, near Dunmore, for the following iteniH 
that may rescue froni oblivion the niemoiy of a very 
worthy and useful pioneer of upper Pocahontas. Thia 
was Daniel Kerr, who located soon after the Revoln- 
tion on the upper end of the immense estate now own- 
ed by Uriah Heveiier. 

It seems very probable he eaine from liockbridge 
County. He established a mill, saw mill, and black- 
smith shop Oil the Little Back Creek brancii of Deer 
Creek, and his placa b3c.ima a centre of industry for a 
wide region. 

He was married twice. The first wife was a Miss 
Kirkpatrick, of Anthonys Creek. Their children were 
Robert, John, William, Thomas, and James. Daniel 
Kerr's second wife was a Miss McKamie, of Kock- 
bridge, a very sprightly and attractive person. Her 
children weiv David, Daniel, Nancy, Betsy and Mary. 

He was a sincerely pious person, and the close of 
his life was very touching. Ho had assoninled his 
family for domestic worship. Upoii finishing the 
Scripture lessou he kneeled for prayer, and for a long 
interval he was silent. Upon going to him in that 



position lie was found to be epeecliless and helplepw. 
Much of tlio time ivfter thia Iio appeared to take verv 
little notice of wliat was going on, and seemed unable 
to recognize friends. One day there was a gleam of 
intelligence and lie uttered these words: "Farewell to 
all," and then lapsed into silence, and not long there- 
after died so gently lie had been dead some minutes 
before the fact was realized. 

Andy Hughes now lives on or near the site of the 
old Kerr home, Daniel's, son, Robert Kerr, settled on 
a part of the old place, and finally moved west. John 
Kerr went to Augusta County, and lived there, and 
then moved to Missouri. William Kerr married a Miss 
Gillespie, and settled the place now occupied by Aa- 
bury Sheets, His family was composed of three sons 
and two daughters. These sons, Jacob, George, and 
Andrew now live in the vicinity of the old home place. 
Mary Ann, one of these danghters, married Henrv 
Sheets. The other daughter, Rachel, married a Mr 
Armstrong, in Highland County. 

Thomas Kerr, another son of the pioneer, married a 
Miss Foglesoiig, .of Greenbrier., and settled where 
James Kerr now resides, near the road to the top of 
Alleghany. His family consisted of three sons and 
two daughters. The sons are Robert, George, and 
James. The daiighteVs are Mrs Phtebe Phillips and 
Mrs Mary Wooddell. Robert has been quite a travel- 
ler over most of the western States and territories, and 
now owns valuabl*! lands In npper Pocahontas. 

Lieutenant Robert D. Kerr, a son of James Kerr, 
graduated with distinction from West Point, in 1898, 



buing assigtit^d to tlie engiooer braucli of the service. 
lie was ordered to tliu PhilippitieB, and died on board 
a ti'oop fiiiip, ill August, 1S!I8, and was buried in th« 
Hucitic Ocean. 

Miry iLir.; or t'l; pi i.ujr fa iiily, bj^iane Mi's War- 
wick Wolfenberger. Her brother, James Kerr, lived 
ill Greenbrier, not far from L3wiBburg. 

David W. Kerr, one of the younger members of 
Daniel Kerr's family, lived for years near Greeubank, 
iind was a person ofhigh reputation. He was a car- 
penter by trade, yet by diligent self improvement he 
rose to be a person of prominence as a member of the 
county court. Colonel of the Militia, ruling Elder iu 
the church, faithful teacher in Sabbath schools, and 
leadei in prayer meetinga. His daughter Maggie be- 
came the wife of Rev J, C Carson, a well known 
minister in West Virginia and Tennessee. AdolphuB 
Kerr, M, D., of Millboro Depot, is hia aon, and hie 
bi-other and mother reside there alao. 

Colonel Kerr's wife was Eliza Whitman, daughter 
of William Whitman, on Anthonys Creek. Mr Whit- 
man was a native of Orange County, Ooahen Town- 
ship, New York. He was a remarkable person, and 
his influence was for good wherever he lived. 

The blessing called down by the good old pioneer 
abide with hie descendants to the third and fourih gen- 
eration. "The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting 
to everlasting to those who remember his command- 
ments to do them." 



The ancestor of the Cleek relationBhip in Pocaht-n- 
tas County was Michael Cleek, who waa one of tlie 
earlier pioneers ty occupy the attrative portion of the 
Knapps Creek valley adjacent to Driseol, and came 
from Eatli County. His wife waa Margaret Hender- 
son Crawford, whose father waa from Lancaster, Pa., 
and lived in Bath County, near Windy Cove. 

Michael Cleek opened the lands comprised in tlie 
Peter L. Cleek, William H. Cleek, and Benjamin F, 
Fleshman properties — the persona just named being 
hia grandchildren. With the exception of two or three 
very small clearings, it was a primitive, densely un- 
broken forest of white pine and sugar maple. He 
built a log cabin on the site of the new stable, aud 
some yeara subaequently reared a dwelling of hewn 
timber, now the old stable at Peter L. Cleek's. The 
late John Cleek, father of Peter and William, and who 
waa the oldest of the family, could just remember 
when hia pareuta settled here. They came out by the 
way of Little Back Creek, crosaing the Alleghany 
Mountain opposite Harper's. His mother carried him 
in her lap, horseback, all the way from Windy Cove. 
Michael Cleek's family consisted of three sons, 
John, William, and Jacob; and three daughters. Eliz- 
abeth, Barbara, and Violet. 

Elizabeth married Jesse Hull, of Anthony's Creek. 
Their children were William Crawford, John, who 
died in the war; Jesse, Andrew, Mrs Margaret Mc- 



D«i-iiiott, on Little AntlioiiVB Creek; Mrs Eveline 
FleHhmaii, Mrs Alciiida Steplieiisoii, of Bath County; 
itiid Mrs Charlotte Fertig, of Anthonys Creek. 

Barbara and Violet, the other daughters of the 
pioneer Michael Cleek, died in early childhood of the 
"cold plague," and their brother Jacob died of the 
same disease, aged eighteen years. 

William Cleok never married, and spent most of his 
life with his brother John. The attachment these 
brothers Iiad for each otiier was noticed and admii'ed 
by all their acquaintances. They never seemed so 
well contented as when in each others company. His 
wit and good humor was remarkable. If all his funny 
harmless anecdotes could be recalled and written up, 
the result would be a very humorous book indeed, and 
nobody's feelings wounded thereby. He could be 
fecetious without Imrting any one's feelings — a gift 
rarely possessed by humonsts. He told most of his 
jokes on himself. 

It now remains to make further mention of John 
Cleek, the eldest son of William Cleek's pioneer home. 
He married Phfebe Ann Lightner, a daughter of Peter 

John Cleek spent his life on the home farm. IJis 
family consisted of three sons, Peter Lightner, William 
Henderson, and Shelton Washington, The daughters 
were Mary Ann, Caroline Elizabeth, Alcinda Susan, 
Margaret Eveline, aad Eliza Martha. 

Mary Ann was first married to Josiab Herold. She 
was left a widow, and afterwards marned William C. 
Hull. Her daughters are Mrs Patterson Poage and 



Mis Tokey Hull. 

Oaroline Elizabeth married tlu' late Lanty Locki-iOgc. 

Alciiida Susan married Hngti Dever, and is now in 

Margaret Eveline married Itenick Ward, late of 
Kandolpli County, and lives in Colorado, 

Shelton W. Cleek died in infancy, 

William H. Cleek married Margaret Jano Fleshnian. 
He died in 189&. 

Peter L. Cleek married Etiie May Amias, The 
pleasant liome occupied by tiiem is near the original 
site, across the valley from the public road, and near 
the foot hills of the Alleghany. Formerly the main 
road passed by the old Cleek homestead, crossing and 
recrossing the valley for the convenience of the resi- 
dents. Thus the traveler would cover a good many 
miles in making but little progress in direct distance. 
»9 matters were in former times. 


The McNeil relationship on Swago trace their ances- 
try to Thomas McNeil, who came to Swago from 
Capon Valley, Frederick Connty, between 17tiS and 
17T0, His parents, whose names can not be recalled, 
came from Scotland. Thomas McNeil's wife was Ma- 
ry Iresou, from Franklin County, Virginia. 

About 1770 Thomas McNeil entered three hundred 
acres of land and settled where Joseph Ponnell now 
lives, and built the house occupied a few years Btnc;i 
by the samily of the late William McNeil, (ino of his 


J^2 lusToKY OF >*(j(;ahonta8 county 

graiiduonti. His family of oniig am] daughters were 
widely scattered in tlie course of yeain, but wherever 
tliey went became useful citizens. Hie sons were Jon- 
athan, AbaoJein, Enoch, and Gabriel, and the dau}i;h- 
ters were Naomi and Mary, 

Naomi became Mrs Smith and Mary was married to 
William Ewing, and both went to Ohio, 

(iabriel married Rebecca Steplienaon and settled 
where Jonathan McNeil now lives, then moved to 
Jackson County, Ohio, where he became a well known 
citizen. From information furnished by one of his 
grand -daughters we learn that he was the first surveyor 
of his adopted county, and one of the most prominent 
of the pioneers, (jabriel McNeil was a civil engineer, 
machinist, chemitjt, botanist, farmer, physician, and 
preacher, and not a quack in any one, says a writer lu 
the Jackson County paper, wlio had been on a visit to 
the neighborhood wliere Dv McNeil had lived. 

Enoch McNeil married Jane Moore, and. settled on 
what is now known as the "Enoch Place," a section 
of the original homestead, but finally moved to Jack- 
son County, Ohio. 

Absoleni married Comfort Smith, and went West. 

Jonathan, senior son of the pioneer Thomas Mc- 
Neil, married Phoebe Moore, a daughter of Moses 
Moore, and settled at the Swago Mill, now held by 
WithrowMcClintic. He appears to have been an en- 
terprising person. Milling, weaving, fulling cloth and 
powder making were carried on under his supervision. 
Coverlets woven by one Jones are still to be found.— 
Mrs Phoebe McNeil survived her husband many years. 



Slie was born February 13, 1774, and claims to have 
been 13 years of age at the time of the Drinnan raid. 
when James Balser and tlie Bridger boys were killed. 
The sons of Jonathan and Phoebe McNeil were John, 
William, Moore, and Preston. Preston, while a little 
boy three or four years of age, was drowned near the 
mouth of Dry Creek and his body was found some dis- 
tance below, near the fording, 

John McNeil married Rebecca McNeil, from Frank- 
lin Co., Va., and settled on Dry Creek at the place 
now occupied by his grandson, Charles McNeil. "He 
was prominent in his church, the Methodist Episcopal; 
a member of the court, a faithful and competent school 
teacher, and possessed knowledge of medical remedies 
and at a time when physicians wore no nearer than 
Frankford or the Warm Springs. His services freely 
given were of great comfort and relief to the suffering 
before regular attention could be had. Mrs Anna 
Moore, near Marlinton; the late Mrs Jane Kennison 
on Dry Creek; Mrs Naomi Diliey, near Dilleys Mill; 
the late Washington McNeil, on Buck's Run, where 
Joseph B. Mc-Neil now lives; the late John McNeil, 
Jr., merchant at Hillsboro, were his children. There 
were other sons and daughters whose names are not 
in the writer's possession. 

Moore McNeil first married Martha McNair, of Au- 
gusta county, and settled on Dry Creek, near the 
mouth. His second marriage was with Nancy Auld- 
ridge, daughter of William Anldridge, ancestor of tlie 
Auldridge connexion in our county. By this mar- 
riage there were two daughters and one son. Clark 



dietl ill early manhood. Pboehe Aim was marriod t« 
Reuben E. Overliolt; Nancy Jane became Mrs W. H. 

William McNeil married Nancy Griffey, from Frank- 
lin coiiDty, Virginia, a daugbter of a Swiss soldier who 
eaine over with the Marquis Lafayette, and remained 
to became a citizen of the United States. They settled 
<m the Thomaa McNeil homeetead. He was a popular 
school teacher, and among the earliest of his profession 
in the present limits of our county. He taught a 12- 
nicinths sehoal at the Marony Place, and had among 
his scholars the late Martha Adkisson, Agues Gay and 
Andrew Gay, brother and sister of the late John Gay. 
Martha Young boarded with her sister Mrs Elizabeth 
Cochran. The Gays boarded with Jonathan McNeil, 
at the Mill. The Buckleys went to this school also. — 
William McNeil died a lingering and painful death of 
cancer. The sous of William and Nancy McNeil were 
Jonathan, James, Claiborne, and Moore. The daugh- 
ters were Jane, Elizabeth and Agnes. 

Jane McNeil was married to John E. Adkisson, and 
settled on the head of Swago. She became the moth- 
er of a worthy family of sons and daughters, was much 
esteemed for her amiable character, and died a few 
years since greatly lamented. 

Elizabeth was married to Solomon Cochran, son of 
Isaac Cochran on Droop Mountain, and settled in Har- 
rison county, where she died but recently, after sever- 
al years of widowhood, greatly missed by attached 
friends and children. 

Jonathan McNeil married Angelina Adkisson, 



(laughter of the late Daniel Adkl^son, at the 
h ii, 1 oi" S -v IT), and thiy saCtlod on th3 old 
liomestead near Buckeye, wbere he now rcgidee. Mrs 
Aaioii Kee aud Mre John Buckley are their daughters. 
Uav Asa McNeil, Williiim, Daniel, Doc, Uiytisee, 
Knoch, and th3 late McNeil wan their bous. 

(.'aptaiu James McNeil, second sou of William Mc- 
Neil, the teacher, married Sarah Young, and Ht;ttled 
oil a B3ctioii of the homestead, where h« now lives. 
After her lamented decease, he lived in Nicholas 
County a numbJi* of years, employed in house joiniiig. 
At the opening of the war between the States he en- 
listed in the Confederate service in a volunteer compa- 
ny at Summereville as a lieutenant. Upon the reorgan- 
ization he was elected captain. He became a prisoner 
of war at the bittle of Dro>p Mountj,in, an I was k9p:: 
at Fort Delaware a long and tedious time. His second 
marriage was with Mrs Fannie Perkins, and he came 
bock to the old home near Bnckoye. His son Douglas 
is e;nployed as clerk in a government department at 
Washington. For years ('aptain McNeil has been dis- 
abled by rlioumatic atfaetion, but the worthy old veter- 
an's heart is still war.n with sympathy for the "lost 

Claiborne McNeil married Elizabeth Adkisson, and 
lives near Buckeye, on the place bequethed him by his 
relative, "Little John" McNeil. Their daughter 
Charlotte is the wife of Joseph Fennell, wliu lives on 
Dry Creek. Their sons were the late Joshua B. an<t 
D. T. McNeil, and Senator N. C. McNeil, of Marliri- 
ton. His second mai'riage was with Margaret liritiin. 



Moure McNeil, t!ie yoiinjiest hou of William the 
teacher, became a preacher, and entered the itineracy 
under the auHpicoit of the Methodist PnitestAiit churcli, 
and traveled iiiauy years with marked snccesa and ac- 
ceptance in the counties of West Virginia bordering 
the Ohio Kiver. Ilia wife was Miss Eliza Jane Don- 
aldaou. At the present tiino he resides at Suiilhville, 
in Ritchie County. He is however still vigorona, and 
performs mucli miiiiaterial service, it) connexion with 
the duties laid upon him by the care of a large family 
and the management of extensive fanning operations. 

Thus we have traced the history of Thomas McNeil, 
the pioneer of Swago, as exemplitied by brief allusions 
to those of his descendants whose names have been 
communicated to ns. His name deserves honorable 
recognition for bie courage in penetrating the danger- 
recesses of these forest wilds, at the time among the 
most exposed and dangerous points of the Indian 
frontier. He overcame difficulties and encouraged 
others to do the same, and showed iiow it was done. 
Then when this place came to be too narrow, his sous 
and daughters trained by him were fitted to make the 
beat of the opportunities opened up on the Ohio fron- 
tier and were ready for them. 

Tlie Gum relationship in Pocahontas consists of two 
groups, descendants of Jacob Gum and William A. 
(rnm respectively. The group considered in this pa- 
per trace their ancestry to Williom A. Gum, who left 



Highland County (then Pendleton) in 1831, aud locat- 
ed on the Redden place near Greenbank, now occupied 
by John (irogg. In 1841, Mr Gum moved to Back 
Alleghany and tsettled in the woods, and opened up 
lauds now in the posseasion of hia song. 

Mra G.i n was Elizabeth, daughter of Ja :n3:j Hig^ins 
of Pendleton. Tliey were the parents of one daughter 
and two uons: Margaret Elsie, James Henry, and 
Francis McBryde. 

' MargarL^t was tirst married to James A. Logan, and 
tirst settled on a section of the homeatead. Her child- 
ren were John Commodore, who died in 1861 while 
quite young, and Elizabeth, who became Mrs E. O. 
Moore, and lived on JJeer (.'reek near Greenbank. 

By hor second marriage Mrs Logan became Mry 
Gragg, and Uves on Back Mountain near the lionit- 
stead. It is her mother in law, Mrs Zjbulon Gragg, 
who is believed to be the oldest person now living in 
the county. 

James H. Gum fisrt married Sally Ann, daughter of 
Zabulon Gragg, and settled on a part of the home- 
steid. His sjojnd marriage was with Tilda Hoover, 
daughter of Abel Hoover, near Gillespie. He was a 
Confederate soldier, attached to the 62d Regiment of 
mounted infantry, that formed a part of General Im- 
boden's command. 

Francis McBrydoGnm first married Elizabeth Peck, 
from Lewis County, and settled on the homestead. 
There were two children by this marriage, James 
Floyd and Virginia Elizabeth, who are living near 
Montgomery City, Missouri. His second marriage waa 



witli Oarolim^ Ainaiula, daiigliter of Ellis Houcliiit. 
wlione wif« was Cojifurt SUven Higgins. The 
Houc)nii family was from enst Virpiiiia. 

McBryde Gum was a Corifuderate soldier, and went 
out with the Gi-eenbaiik company, known as Ooinpiiiiy 
G 31st Virginia Infantry. He vohinteered in May, 
18(il, and served tliroiighont the war, and as tie wais 
wounded tliree timef> ho is to be remembered as a bat- 
tle scarred veteran of tliat niystorious atid strange war 
b(3twoeii the States. 

Those who are familiar with the history of the 31at 
Virginia Infantry, need not be reminded that no regi- 
ment in the service of the Confederacy has a more in- 
teresting and honorable record, or more frequently 
posted in the "deadly imminent breach" or more re- 
lied on in dire emergencies. 

Fortnnately Mr Gum's wounds were slight and did 
not disable him for any length of time. Tlie first 
wound was received in the bloody affair at Spottsyl- 
vania Court House. Tlie second wound was iuflicted 
at Liberty, Bedford County, when General Hunter was 
repulsed at Lynchburg. The third wound was receiv- 
ed at the battle of Winchester. Instead of a wound, 
he had his nuistaehe neatly and closely trimmed off by 
a minnie ball at the battle of Cold Harbor. Clippers 
might have done the trimming a Httle more in style, 
but not near so quickly. 

He was twice a prisoner of war. He was captured 
the first time at Uriah Hevener's, in 1861, and parol- 
ed. The second time he was taken at his home on 
Back Mountain, in October, 1864, This time instead 



of being leleasetl on pai-ole, he was taken to Clarks- 
burg, wlitjre lie Buffered many privations, and had a 
"plague of a time of it." He blamee the cook, how- 
ever, for the most of the hardships attending his im- 
prison in en t. It seems that the cook was infected with 
the spirit of speculation that was so mncli in the air 
duriug war time, and saw a chance to realize some 
pocket money from the rations he drew at the commis- 
sary. While the cook would draw very liberal rations, 
he was excessively economical in feeding them out. 

There were but two meals a day, breakfast and sup- 
per. For breakfast the bill of fare consisted of a slicu 
of very light brea<l, about four fingers broa<I, half tin 
cup of weak coffee, and a slice of bacon two fingers 
broad and not n)nch longer. Suppei- was served at 4 
p. ni., consisting uniformily of a tin cup of coffee and 
another small slice of bread, but no meat. It is but 
jiiet to remark that all this was without the knowledge 
of the Federal officer in charge. An individual who 
had been in the Southern service was the cook, and 
took advantage of this opportunity to make a little 
something for himself. He liad found out that Con- 
federates were in the habit of living on little or 
nothing, and to iew\ such was just to his advantage. 
He would make a nice thing of it and they would not 
know the difference, and would think they had gotten " 
all that would be allowed. 

Thus with the cheerful assistance of McBryde Gum, 
the compiler of these sketches lias had it in his power 
to illustrate the family history of William A. (lum, a 
worthy citizen of our county in his day. All who re- 


nu'iiiImt William A. (iiini liave a pood word for Iiiiii 
as a neiglibor, friond, tind ttubstantial, proHpeitiiis citi- 
7.VU. Tti<! way lie cntnu to liavu a niiddlv name in a 
little out of the nsual order. When Diinkimi & Co. 
had a stoi-e nt Dninnore, William Uiini was a HberHl 
dealer. There was another William Gum from the 
vicinity of Greenbank, and the merchant to note the 
difference and not get their accounts mixed, called the 
one from Back Mountain "William Alleghany" on his 
boiiks. In settling he had Mr (iuin to sign his name 
William A. Gum. From tliat circumstance he always 
thus signed his name in business affairs and in corres- 
pondence, and so got his middle name Alleghany long 
after he became a grown person. In studying the 
origin of names, it is interesting to find that a large 
number of names have originated from where persons 
happened to live. 

Forty-nine years ago, in August, the wi-iter spent an 
hour or two at his newly made home in the woods, and 
ever since there has been a beautiful picture in his 
mind of a truly contented man with his home and sur- 
roundings, endowed with the power of making himself 
and all around him pleasant and cheerful. 


The second group of the Gum relationship are the 
descendants of Jacob Gum, who came from what is 
now Crabbottom, in Highland County, soon after the 
war of ISVi. Upon his marriage with Martha Houchin 



lie settled iieai- Gi-eenbaiik, on land now owned by ('. 
A. Lightiier. A part of hid wife's patrimony were two 
colored gills, Delph and Daphne, and in tlieir time 
colored people were curiositiea in tliis region. Upon 
moving ho settled on the place now held by Josepli 

Mr and Mrs Gum were the pirents of seven sons 
and four daughters. Th3 girls were Mary, Margaret, 
Nancy, and Nellie, 

Mary married Randolph Powhatan Bouldin, a jour- 
neyman, shoemaker, 

Nancy married William Sutton, and lived on prop- 
erty lately occnpied by Craig Ashford. Her children 
were Robert, George, Sherman, Eldridge, Anna, now 
Mrs Craig Ashford; Magnolia, and Mary, 

Margaret Gum married Charles Mace and went to 

Nellie was a lifelong invalid. 

William M. Gum married Sallie Tallman, and lived 
on Deer Creek. His children were George, Franklin, 
Samuel, Milton, Lee, Maillia Jane, now Mrs W. J. 
Wooddell, of Addison; Caroline, wlio became Mrs La- 
fayette Burner; Ella, now Mrs Brown Trainer; Rebec- 
ca, now Mrs Lee Burner; Marietta, now Mrs Enos 
Tallman; and Nancy, who died at the age of four years. 

McBride Jackson Gum married Eliza Thomas, of 
Harrisonburg, Va., and spent much of his married 
life on Clover Creek. His family consisted of four 
sons and two daughters: Brown, WilUam, Filmore, 
Woods, Agnes, and Caroline. McBride J. Gum was 
a gallant <'oufederate soldier, and served most of his 



tiino ill Captain J. \V. Mai-Hliall's company. 

Jacob (iuin. Jiiiiioi-. inairicd Virgioia Burke, and 
iiii^ratoti to Oliio. 

C'iiarU-s tiiim ntarriuil Jane Hartman and migrated 
to Oliio. He waw a blackitinitl) by occupation. 

Gatewood Gnra went to Ohio wben a young single 
man and settled there. 

Robert N. Gum married Anna Riley and resides on 
the old Cooper farm, two miles east of Greenbiink. 
His sons are William, John, and Joseph, The daugli- 
ters are Elizabeth, who beeamo Mrs Harry Burnur and 
went to Wyoming; Mrs Anna Cooper, and Blanche. 

Robert N. Gum was a brave Confederate soldier in 
the 31st Virginia Infantry. On account of his cool- 
ness and self possession iiud'?r fire he was fre<[ucnt1y 
selected for ambulance service on the field in caring 
for the wounded. To be efiicient for such a service 
requires more than ordinary nerve, and he was found 
to be well qualified for it. In times of peace he has 
become well known as a miller, and is now managing 
tbe Hevener Mill, on the North Branch oE Deer Creek. 

John E. Gum married Harriet Hudson, and lives on 
a section of the Bible place, two miles from Green- 
bank, He was a Confederate soldier in the 18th Vir- 
ginia Cavalry, under Colonel W, L. Jackson, and act- 
ed well his part amid the Bufferings and privations that 
soldiers had to endure on the outposts during the war. 

From J. E. Gum the writer derived valuable aid ft, r 
this sketch, as we sat on our horses one warm July 
morning, after a casual meeting in the public road. 

The Pocahontas groups of the Gum relalio\iehip 



trace tlioir aiicestrv to the Iliglilaiitl famities of that 
name. These Highland families have for their prn- 
genitors pioDeera who are believed to be from westorn 
Maryland, and among the earlier setllersof Pendleton, 
possibly antedating the Revolution. 


Among the persons whose industry, economical hab- 
its, and wise management of diversified useful indus- 
tries did much for the development of our couiitj-, the 
name of Henry Harpe, Senior, is richly deserving of 
respectful notice. He was a native of Pendleton Coun- 
ty, a son of Nicholas Harper, u native of Germany, 
who lived on the South Branch. Henry Harper's wife 
was Elizabeth Lightner, daughter of William Liglitner, 
Senior, on Back Creek. For a few years after his 
marriage he lived on the Branch. About 1812, Nicli- 
oiaa Harper bought two hundred acres from Abram 
Duffield and Colonel John Baxter, on Knapps Cieek, 
and on this purchase Henry settled. 

The young settlers from Pendleton County found a 
few acres of cleared land. The thickets of thorn and 
crab apple and wild plums were almost impenetrable. 
The sheep, pigs, and calves ha<l to be penned by the 
house to protect them from wolves and bears. By pa- 
tient and persistent effort land was cleared and a hdnu' 

At his suggestitm, William Civey, of Antliouvrf 
Creek, sunk a tan yard. Then Mr Harper estjibUshtal 



a blHckstiiitti ^liop and built the tirut tilt 
tliiit region. Tliitt aliop was carried on under Itiu own 
piTHotml supervision. Ralph Wanless, George Heven- 
cr of I'endletou County, tlie latt) Antliony Liglitnur of 
Swago, and otiiei's, learned thu trade with him, and 
were all good bUtcksiniths. Mr Harper also roared a 
tlouring null, which was operated by himself and son 
Samuel cliiefly. Father and son w«re mititlm and mill- 
ers and alternated in their work. William Gibson, late 
of Huntersville, and Henry Harper were the contrac- 
tors that built the Warm Springs and Huntersville 
turnpike sixty-live years ago. Captain William Coch- 
ran, late of Stony Creek, was their pi incipal foreman 
and manager in construction. In the meantime the 
farm was duly attended to and much land cleared for 
grain and hay; additional lands bought and a splendid 
(estate became his. 

He had a passion for hunting, which lie> indulged in 
merely for recreation. 

He died in 1859, agod 70 years. Mrs Harper fol- 
lowed her husband in 1S76, aged 86 years. 

lu personal appearance Mr Harper was oC medium 
statnre, somewhat stooped in the shoulders. His voice 
was soft and flute like in tone, very quiet and retiring 
ill his manners and leisurely in his movements, and 
yet his establishment was a busy hive of industry, and 
all moved on like clockwork. 

His family consisted of five sons and four daughters: 
Elizabeth, Sally, Anna, and Susan. The sons were 
Jacob, William, Samuel, Henry, and Nicholas, who 
died at fourteen. 



Jacob Harper married Lydia Oivey, daughter of 
George (Mvey of Anthonys Creek, and settled on 
Meadow Creek, Greenbrier County, and finally mov.d 
to Monroe County, where his family yet resides, 

William Harper married Elizabeth Civey, sister of 
Jacob's wife, and settled on tbo farm now held by 
William L. Harper, near Sunset. His last yeai-s were 
passed on Greenbrier River at the Friel place, where 
his son William now resides. 

Samuel Harper married Maliiida Moore, and lives 
on the old hamestead, where he yet resides in tlio 8Ttli 
year of his life. Their daughter Elizabeth Luoiia is 
the widowed wife of Rev James E. Moore. S:irah Ann 
married Washington Herold, near Frost. Matilda 
married Frances Dever. Their son, Preston Harper, 
married Lucretia Gum, daughter of Henry Gum, late 
of Frost. Frank Wilson Harper married Anna Gum, 
sister of Mrs Preston Harper. William Lightner Har- 
per married Emma, daughter of George Hamilton, 
near Sunset. 

Sanmel Harper's second wife was Margaret J.;ne. 
daughter of John Gum, of Uighl:ind County. Her 
daughter, America, married R. 1). Rimel. and Virgin- 
ia, who died of diptheria at the age of five years. 

Henry Harper, Junior, married Phcebe i^harp, and 
lived on the place now owned by Reddy Gouiet, near 
Sunset. Their children were Peter and Rachel Ann, 
Peter died in early manhood. Rachel Ann njarried 
William Herold, of Nicholas County, where she now 
lives, Henry Harper, Junior, died of an accidental 
wound, inflicted while repairing a gate. 



Elizaboth, eldest daughter of the pioneer, married 
the late JaiiieH R. Poage, and lived first in the Levels. 
lilt land now held by Prestoi) Clark, and then near 
Edray, where they botli recently died. She was an in- 
valid for seventeen ydara from rheumatic affection, 
most of the time too weak to lielp herself. Her hus- 
!i:iii(l for many years spent most of the days and id) of 
ih(! nights a p.itient and helpful watcher at her bed- 
side. Her sons were J. R. I'oage, Hsinry Poago, ami 
Williaii Piiago. Their danglitere: Elizabeth Poago, 
t!iy rirst wit'o of liev George P. Moore; Mary Poage, 
tliu wife of Ainos Barhi*; Sirah Ann Po.igj, t!ie Hvnt 
wife of (itiorge Baxter, near Edray, and A-nanda, firet 
wife of Levi Waugli, on the old hoinedtoiul, 

Anna Harper was the first wife of A. \Vitshingt<Mi 
iloore, ifoar Fjv;st. Her daughter Sally married Za- 
chariah Gum, son of the late Henry Gmu. Her huB- 
liand was killed by a falling limb, and she was left u 
widow with tiiree small children. Mary Moore married 
John Varner at the Big Spring of Elk, Ella Moore 
married Benjamin Varner, and now lives in Iowa. 
Anna Moore is at home with hur father, tlie venerable 
Washington Moore, near Frost. Xewton Moore, Zaiie 
Moore, J. A, Moore, and Price Moore are Iiitj sons. 

Sally Harper married James Malcomb and located 
in Nicliolas County, where her fajnily now ruside, so 
far as knowi!. 

Susan Harper, the fourth daughter, ntarried the lute 
John D. McCarty, near HilJsboro. Their children 
were Ellis Mt^'arty, the late Mrs G. H. Curry, and 
IJella McCarty, who died a few years since. 



Thus close for the present the notes on the Harper 
family. Something as to the improvements made nn- 
der Henry Harper's sup'TViBion may be interesting. 

The tannery shop was built !>y William Cirey, son 
of George Civey, who built the grist mill. Robert 
Irvine and John Irvine built the saw mill, and the 
same parties pnt np the tilt hammer and shop. Th(! 
residence near the road was built by John Irvine, and 
Chesley K. Moore erected the dwelling beyond the 

The mill stones first used in the Harper mill were 
made by Adam Sharatt, near Friel's, on the Green- 
brier River. This person lived at the Sharatt place, 
three or four miles up the Greenbrier from Marliiiton, 
where he had a mill. The first burrs were bought at 
John Bradshftw's sale, near Huntersviile. These hav- 
ing been nsed for years, Mr Harper replaced them by 
buri-B brought from Rockingham ('ounty, Virginia. 
The Bradshaw burrs are now in Highland County, 
taken there years ago by Mr Sliultz. Tne Harper mill 
succeeded the I'oage mill, owned by Peter Lightner, 
The rocks used by that mill are now on Cumininge 
Creek, near Huntersviile, taken tliei-e by the late Price 
McComb, and therefore must be among the oldest in 
the county — of their dimensions. 


This ancestor of the Conrad relationsoip settled o;i 
he North Fork, just after the Revolution, on land 


•r.tH iiiKrouv or fn:AH»mAB vocwn 

now 'K.-(:ii|ii<-il by Ontar I.. Orndurf. It wB- proejipted 
Ittiid, mill ill i)i«; virgin foioHt, It u Wiiovi-tJ tliut hv 
uriil liJH wjfu Klizalit-th, wlioee family iiatiic- iiut rfiiieiu- 
hi'icil, vti-iv. triiin Marylaml. They were tin; {>arftit« 
iif ihrct; miiiH, Koloinun, J<iliii, and David; ami three 
(luiixlitcii, Mury, Nuucy, and tsally. Xaiicy uud Sally 
<li>'<l in yiKitli. Mary liircaiiie Mrs (harks Martin, 
livitd u Mliurl wliilo near tliu Conrad h.uiufituad, and 
limn ved fi tlic witHt^ni p,irt of thi» State. 

•Iitliii ('oiiniJ w('iit t ) (>!iio, ni-trriel jind settled 

David ('onrad died young. 

Soluriiiiii <,'<inrad married Mary Hogsett Brown from 
near I'lirnaHHiiH, Augusta County. Ju)iu Brown, her 
father, claimed all the land by preemption from Par- 
naHHiiN to tlie head of Deer 4'ri.^ck, and it was from him 
Harmon ('onrad obtained his lio n(t)itead. Mr Brown 
moved to Montgomery County, and it was there Solo- 
mon Conrad waa married, and settled Koon after on 
the Conrad llometttead. They were the parents of 
throo childi-iin, John, Margaret, and Mary Ann. 

.lohn married ILiihbih Uiittoti 'ukI settled on the east 
section of the D,<i.'r Croek homestead. Their cliildreu 
were Charlt's, Kniory, Marietta, and Alice, 

Chark's nnu-riinl Hiddah Kerr, daughter of Jacob 
Kerr, and settled on Deer Creek. Emory married 
Kli/.a Wooddell, tuni UvihI near Liberty Church. Ma- 
riolta iH'eamo Mi's Wilson Pngli, and lived on the 
homestead. Alice liecame Mrs Milton Gum. and set- 
tKnl oil the Deer Cnvk homestead. 

MargHivt, daughter of Sol<>:ii<in Conrad, became Ad- 



dison Nottiiigh ant's first wia^ Her surviving cliilti, 
Amos, lives in UakoUh. 

Marj Ann Coiirail boeamt' Mrs William Onidorf, 
and lived on the homostuad, William Ornclorf was 
h'oin Tennessee. He w,is a aalclier in tlio Mexican 
War, going with a company from Mmnphis, led \y 
Captain William L. Lacey. One of Lacey's lieuten- 
ants waa the person who afterwards in tlio Civil War, 
in the battle on Alleghany M'ountain, was a captain of 
Artillery, and was killed in that action. Mary Ann's 
children were Oscar, Margaret, Mollie, Estii, and 
Laura. Margaret became Mrs Samuel JIcAlpin, and 
settled at Cowon, Webster Couuty. MolHe Orndorf 
became Mra Schuyler Fitzgerald, and lives near Green- 
bank. Esta Orndorf married J, C. ('rowley. and lives 
near Greenbank. Laura became Mrs Loring Kerr. 
and lives on the Alleghany, Osear Conrad married 
Nebraska Gum, and lives on the JDeor ( reek home- 
stead. Their children are Lela, MiUuie, and Cassie. 

Mrs Solomon Conrad was a lady of great piely and 
genteel deportment, and a model housekeeper. Solo- 
mon Conrad was one of the sterling citizens of the 
piotieer times. His experience in the war of 1812 was 
one of toil, danger, and lifelong sorrow. 

Drafted as a soldier, he was marched to Norfolk,^ 
over three hundred miles, — served his time faithfully, 
was honorably discharged, and walked back to his 
mountain homo, infected with the deadly army fever. 
from which so few ever recovered of the mountaineers. 
He was just able to get hotne, and was at once pros- 
trated. The joys of the soldier's retui'n were iu a lif- 


4011 llItiTdKV <IK l-iH.-AHONTAe COUNTY 

tie wliilu cimnged to sihIik'us. Tiie mitire faiitily were 
fciziHl witli till! fever, Hrnl Davui, Nancy, aii<i Sally 
wort' l«)rne t<i tlieir graves very booh, one after tl»e 
ntlier. Lung lui Soli>nioii Conrad lived the nieniurieB 
'if tliat Had iionie coining seemed to over shadow bis 
Bpirit, and impuited a tone of Hiibdued xadnese to hiH 
de.neanor. In mature life lie made a profcr^sion of liis 
trust in Christ and live! devoutly, honestly, and cjn- 

There is nuieli reuaon for believing that Browns 
Mountain and Browns Creek derive their names from 
Solomon Conrad's father-in-law, John Brown, late of 
Montgomery County, elsewhere referred to. 


Among the early permaneut settlers of Knapps 
Creek, and a person of some prominence in county 
atfaii'S was Michael Daugherty. He was a native of 
Ireland and came from Donegal, and settled here 
about 1770. The property he owned is now in pos- 
session of Peter L. Cleek, William L. Harper, and the 
Kuckman sisters Margaret and JS'ancy. Mrs Daugh- 
erty was Margaret McClintic, whose parents lived near 
Staunton, Virginia, They were the parents of seven 
children, four daughters and three sons. 

Their daughter Martlia became Mrs John Frame and 
lived in Nicholas County. 

Isabella Daugherty was married to William Nicholas 
and lived on Douthards Creek, The late Thomas 
Nicholas, i)n the Indian Draft, was one of her sons. 



Elizabeth Dauglierty became Mrs Adam Sharatt auil 
located on tlie Greenbrier three miles above Marlinton, 
where he built a mil!, traces of which _vet remain. The 
dam remained long after the mill went out of use and 
went to ruins. It was finally destroyed as a nuisance. 
A more substantial structure of the kind perhaps was 
never constructed anywhere in this region. Thence 
the Sharatts went to Jacksons River, near the head- 

Margaret Daugherty married William Ruckman and 
first lived in Highland, afterwards came to Kiiapps 
Creek to the old homestead. In reference to her fam- 
ily we have the following particulars: 

Isabella Ruckman died at the age of fourteen years. 
Mary Ann Ruckman, a very sprightly, interesting per- 
son, was an invalid from her early youth, and died bnt 
a few years since. Two other daughters, Margaret and 
Nancy Ruckman, live on the homestead. Michael 
Daugherty Ruckman married Jane Minter, of Cumber- 
land County, Virginia, and settled near Mingo, in 
Randolph County. Thomas Ruckman married Mary 
Minter, and settled in Cumberland County. Mrs Mat- 
tie Rigglenian is hie only surviving child. Samuel 
Ruckman married Elizabeth Hall, near the Big Spring 
of Elk, and settled in Randolph County. Mrs Ln!a 
Swecker and her sister Ardelly Kuckman are her child- 
ren. Jesse Ruckman died at the age of thirteen years. 

In reference to the sons of Michael Daugherty, the 
pioneer, whose names were John, Samuel, and Wil- 
liam, we have this information: John Daugherty went 
to Kansas soon after its admission into the Union, mar- 



lifd Margaret Clark, and nettled iu that State. Satmit*! 
Daoghei-y died iu eaily _yoiitli at the old home on Mill 
Run. William Daugliorty married a Miss ('o)tina and 
after living a few years on Kiiapps Creek, went to 
Wj'tlio County, Virginia. Wellington G. Hiickman, 
who now lives near Sunset, is a great-grandson of Mi- 
cliael Daiiglierty. 

It is believed that Michael Daugherty built the tiret 
tub mill, propelled by water power, anywhere in tliis 
whole region. The site was on Mill Run, near Sunset 
and eome traces of it yet rf^main. Tliis mill seems to 
have been patronized by all sections of upper Poca- 
hontas, and had the reputation of being one of the bent 
of its kind. 

It may be news to many of our esteemed readers 
that there was a '^real old Irish gentleman'' amou^ 
those who endured the toils, privations, and perils that 
were peculiar to the early occupancy of this region, 
yet such appears to be the fact, aa attested by authentic 
tradition. He grew to manhood having the privileges 
and advantages enjoyed by the sons of the Irish land- 
ed gentry. As far as possible he wished to have 
aristocratic usages in his home on tlie frontier. He 
was one of the few settlers that attended sales in Stan- 
ton or Culpepper Courthouse, where the services of 
passengers were put up at auction in order to secure 
the charges for transportation from foreign ports. If 
a passenger could pay all charges himself and show a 
receipt for the same, it became his patent of nobility 
in the new world; but if he could not, it seems he 
could not make gcKid his claim to be one of "the qual- 



it_y," some of us people us«d to hear so miicb talked 
about. In those old times when Michael Uaugheity 
wan living, if a person could pay liis owii way acrosa 
the ocean, and hire or purchase the serviues of such as 
wei-e leas fortunate, then he was one of "the quality." 
As he was able to do both, then Michael Daughorty 
was one of the first of the new fledged nobility that 
occupied the Knapps Creek region. 

With the notions peculiar to the Irisli gentry, their 
young people felt it was essential to their comfort to 
have servants come and go at their bidding. Such a 
domestic arrangement was a pleasant shade in summer 
and a good warm fire in winter. The tradition ie that 
Michael Daugherty was one of the first to enjoy the 
shade alluded to and the winter fires. 

It is believed by bis descendants that his father had 
designed his son Michael for the Catholic priesthood, 
and with a view to this had given him special educa- 
tional advautages. Before receiving holy orders, the 
father died. It appears that in arranging the affairs 
pertaining to the settlement of the estate, in some way 
a serious disagreement arose between Michael and his 
step mother, and he thereupon received a portion of 
the g«ods allotted him and he came to America, and 
seems to have been lost sight of the Donegal Daugher- 
tys. It is believed with good reason that could Mich- 
ael Daughei-ty'e descent have been shown to the satis- 
faction of the Irish Court of Claims, that his West Vir- 
ginia heirs would have come in for a handsome share 
of the ancestral legacies. 




The pri>geiiitor of the McOartv connexion, and on« 
of tlie earliest pioneers in onr county, was Timothy 
McCarty, a native of Ireland. He settled on Kiiappa 
Creek pi-eviously tc) the Revolution, and wan a soldier 
in that memorable war for independance. He could 
speak from experience that hard was the contest for 
liberty and the struggle for independance. With his 
humble hand lie helped to make the history that forms 
one of the most instructive chapters in the annals of 
human endeavors for life, liberty, and the pursuit of 

His first marriage was with Nancy Honeyman, and 
settled on lands now in the possession of Wilson Rider 
and the Gibson brothers near Frost; tlience moved to 
Browns Mountain and opened up the property no^v in 
the possession of Amos Barlow. 

By the first marriaj^e there were seven sons: Daniel, 
Preston, Justin, James, Thomas, — the names of the 
other two not remembered. All of tliese sons were 
soldiers in the war of 1812, and but one over returned 
to Pocahontas — Daniel McCarty — to live. Tlie rest 
either perished in the war, or went to Tennessee or 

Timothy MeCarty's second marriage was with Jaue 
Waugh, sister of Samuel Waugh of the Hills, whose 
memoirs appear elsewhere. By this marriage there 
were thirteen children. The names of but eight are in 
hand: Eli, Reuben, Samuel, Jacob, Nancy, Jaue, 



Martha, and Sally. 

Nancy was married to Robert McClary, a saddler at 
MiHpoint, and Anally went to Ohio. 

Jane became Mrs Harvey Caeebolt, and after living 
awhile at the head of Locust Creek, went to one of the 
western counties of the State. 

Sally was married to Ezekiel Boggs, in Greenbrier. 

.Eli married Margaret Moore, and lived moat of his 
married life on the place lately occupied by John Sim- 
mons, head of Stony Creek. His daughter Jane was 
married to John Simmons. ' Robert, Amanda, Marga- 
ret, Calvin, Milton, Warwick, and Nancy are their 

Reuben McCai"ty lived and died unmarried. 

Samuel Waugh McCarty married Phoebe Moore, a 
daughter of "Pennsylvania"' John Moore. Their 
children were James, George, Margaret, William, . 
Elizabeth, and Peter. In reference to Samuel McCar- 
ty's family the following particulars are available, 

James McCarty went to Ohio, married Mary Had- 
den, and thence went to Minnesota, His second mar- 
riage was with Melissa Overly. 

George McCarty, a Union soldier, 3d West Virginia 
Cavalry, Company I, was killed at the battle of Win- 
chester under Sheridan. 

William McCarty, a Union soldier, 10th West Vir- 
ginia Regiment, Company A, died at home, in 1861, 

Margaret McCarty was married to James Curry, and 
they went to Kansas. 

Elizabeth McCarty, a life long invalid, but an indus- 
trious, useful person, died a few years since at the old 




I'ettT McCartv wiis a t'liioii veteran, 3d West Vir- 
ginia Cavalry, Cimipany I. He iiiairicd Elizabeth 
Araiiiiiita Hill, daii^liter of Aaroii Hill on Hills Creek, 
and reaideB on the lioineHte^id near Dilluys Mill. The 
names of their children are James William, Leaniia 
Frances, Amos Hedrick, Albert Granville, Carrie Vir- 
ginia, and Mary Price, 

Jacob McCarty, son of Tiniothy McCarty, was a 
member of the West Virgi_nia legislature in the recon- 
structive period. His first marriage was with Annie 
Boggs of Greenbrier, and lived on Droop Mountain. 
There were six children by this marriage; Samuel, 
Elizabeth, Mahala, Melissa, Julia, and Franklin. The 
second marriage was with Hannah Brock, of Droop 
Mountain. George and Fanny are the children by 
this marriage. George McCarty lives on the home- 
stead on Droop Mountain, overlooking the Hillaboii> 
charming landscape. 

Miss Susie McCarty and lier brothers, James H, and 
Thomas, teachers in the public schools, are the grand- 
children of Jacob McCarty. Their parents Samuel 
and Eliaabeth McCarty of Brutfeys Creek. 

Jacob McCarty, Esq., as already intimated was 
prominent in the political affairs of our county, soon 
aft«r the war between the States, He seems to have 
been quite ready at repartee. Soon after his return 
from Wheeling, some one undertook to guy him in 
this fashion: 

"Well, Jake, you have been to the legislature and 
found out what a fool you are." 



"Yea," rejoined Mr McCarty, "and that is more 
than you can say for yourself," 

Daniel McCarty was the only one of the seven sons 
of Timothy McCarty that went to the war of 1S12, and 
returned to Pocahontas permanently. Hia wife was 
Eiizabetii, daughter of "Pennsylvania" John Moore, 
and they lived on Browns Mountain. Their children 
were George, John David, Margaret, Louisa, and Jane. 

George McCarty married Eliza Herold, and settled 
where Sheldon Moore now lives. The names of their 
children were Andrew, Lauty, Catherine, Ella, and 

John David McCarty married Husan Harper and 
lived near Hillsboro. Their children were Ellis, the 
late Mrs Julia Curry, Sherman, who was drowned in a 
tan vat; Martha and Delia, who died young. 

Margaret McCarty was married to Jeremiah Dilley, 
and lived near Mount Tabor. 

Louisa became Mrs Warwick Jackson. 

Jane was uiarried to Henry Tomlinsou and settled 
in Iowa. 

Daniel McCarty wheli in service was in the compa- 
ny commanded by Captain William Cacklej, living at 
the time at Miilpoint. He was greatly attached to his 
captain, and seemed never to tire in rehearsing the 
deeds of kindness and careful attention performed by 
his greatly eeteemed captain. 

Among his war stories the old soldier seemed to take 
great delight in telling how the turkeys would make 
him run into camp, when he would be foraging for 
something fresh to eat for his messmates. In explain- 



ing how tilia could be for a soldier brave as lie claimed 
hiiiiHPlf to have been, Daniel would wink otie eve, fix 
liie tobacco, and study awhile, and if it happened to be 
in a rofroehmunt room, he would have to have a nip of 
thirty cent Kerrs Cit'ek whiskey. 

When i-eady he would tell how he would bait iish- 
hooks vkith grains of corn, and then throw the line 
where the turkeys could see it, and when one would 
take the bait it would start right for him, and he would 
break for the camp, and the old gobbler would never 
stop or let him alone until it was knocked on the head. 
Then it was liis time to tackle the brave old critter and 
fix liim for a turkey roast, for giving him such a scare 
and hard race. 

When it was insinuated that it took him a very long 
time to tell nothing much at last, his rejoinder would 
come quick as a flash: When there is nothing much 
to talk to it takes time to say nothing much, as the 
Preacher tells us. 

We have thus traced as well as we could the family 
history of Timothy McCarty, with such assistance as 
Mrs Margaret Simmons and James H. McCarty were 
able to render. The narrative is brought down within 
the memory and observation of the living. Some fu- 
ture biographer of the McCarty connection should col- 
lect material for correction and expansion at a later 

Timothy McCarty was one of those who stood faith- 
ful in the struggle for American independence. He is 
one of the few Revolutionary veterans buried in our 
mountain land. 




Jacob Caasell, ancestor of the numerous relation- 
ship of tliat name, was a native of Pendleton. In 
early manhood he came to Bath, where he maiTiecl 
Nancy McLaughlin, a sister of Squire Hugh McLaugh- 
lin, late of Marlinton. After living several years in 
Bath, he bought out Mr Ueaver, on Greenbrier Biver, 
three miles west of Greenbank, now known as the Cas- 
sell fording. Here he settled and becamea wellknown 
citizen of our county, about seventy years ago. His 
family were two danghtera and five sons: William, 
Jacob, John, Samuel, James, Nancy and Jane. 

William married Matilda Wanless, and settled on 
-Back Alleghany where he spent the remainder of his 
life— -he was eigthy-two years old when he died. He 
was married twice. The first children were Nancy 
Jane and George, The daughter became Mrs Henry 
Barlow and lives near Edray, George was a Confed- 
erate soldier and died of wounds during the war. Wil- 
liam Cassell'a second marriage was with Nancy CoIHdh. 
By this marriage there were seven children. Mary 
Catherine became Mrs Thomas Beverage; Martha El- 
len was married to Robert Sutton, a prominent teacher 
of schools; William, Jr,, married India Sutton and 
settled on the homestead; Louisa was married to John 
CasBell and lives near the old home; Charles married 
Annie Geiger and lives at Huttousville. Sarah Ann 
died aged 13 years; George went to Texas and after 
many adventures on cattle ranches was drowned. 



Jacob CaHHuil's 80t), Jacob, married Nancy Sharp, 
dauglitcr of tli« late Witliam Siiarp, near Verdant Val- 
loy, and nottlud in Illinois. 

John, third son of Jacob Caeseil, niarrie<I Sally Cur- 
ry and went to the far West. 

Banniel Cassell, the fourth non, married Eliza Valen- 
tine Toiiilinson, of Augusta county, near Staunton, 
Virginia, and lived for a while on the Greenbrier 
homestead, thu;! settled on Back Alleghany on lands 
now hold by his sin, .Iii<;ob Cassell. Samuel's daugh- 
ter married Harvey Hevener, and lived on the Green- 
brier. four miles, above the old homestead; Jacob mar- 
ried tiara Sutton, daughter of the late Samuel Sutton, 
and settled on B.ick Alleghany; Mary Ann married 
(-yrus Tallman and settled on Back Alleghany; Alice 
married John Wooddell and settled near Travelers Re- 
pose; Margaret Jane married George Baxter, near Ed- 
ray. It is to this member of the Cassell family that 
the writer is mainly indebted for assistance in prepar- 
ing this paper, Rachel married Zechariah Swink and 
lives on Back Alleghany; Hannah married George 
Wanless and lived on the old Wanless homestead; 
Huldah beciine Mrs George Anldridge and lives near 

James Cassell, son of Samuel, married Margaret- 
Ann Swink, of Rockbridge county, Virginia, and set- 
tled on the Greenbrier homestead. His son John 
married Louisa Cassell and settled on Back Allegha- 
ny; Samuel married Martha Hevener and lives on the 
Greenbrier, near the old Cassell home; James married 
Sarah Shiiiueberry, and lives on Back Alleghany.; 



Thomas married Lydia Halfovd aud settled on Back 
Alleghany; Ella married Henry Kessler aud lives in 
the same neighborhood. Nancy Jane married Benja- 
min Collins, a Minister of the German Baptist church; 
Rachel Ann married Amos Gillespie, justice of the 
peace and h prominent teacher in the public schools, 
and lives at Cass. 

Nancy Cassel, daughter of Jacob Casaell the ances- 
tor, married Allen Galford, and lived on the Green- 
brier near the mouth of Deer Creek. 

Jane Cassell, the other daughter of Jacob Cassel, 
married Jacob Wilfong, and when li«t heard from 
they were in Minnesota. Their children were Jacob 
and Margaret Jane. 

Jacob Cassell, Senior, the founder of the Casaell 
family in upper Pocahontas, was a person of remarka- 
ble muscular strength and agility. He was passionate- 
ly industrious, and even in extreme old age never sat- 
isfied without something useful to do. He and his 
family have done very much in developing that part of 
the county where he resided. In his attire he was very 
neat and particular, and a perfect gentleman in his de- 
portment. His personal influence and example were 
for fair dealing, strict integrity, and pure morals. He 
lived to be ninety-two years of age. Mrs Cassell died 
several years before her husband. Her death was oc- 
casioned by nasal hemorrhage, bnmght on by over- 
exertion in crossing a very high rail fence. 

With the assistance of a grand-daughter of these 
venerated persons, the compiler has been able to pre- 
pare this memorial of two very worthy people, richly 



(ioseiviii^ tif lttHtiii)( and grati'fu) rernembranci! for the 
j>ai-t tliov ami tlifir (lesconJaiita have porforiiiwl iii res- 
cuing fi'ocii a rugged anil remote forest wildenicsB and 
laboriouuly developing one of the more reaily prospor- 
oii8 suctions of onr great conuty. 


For nearly a hundred years the namu Collins has 
been a familiar one among our people. The progeni- 
tor was John Collins, a native of Ireland. He found 
his way from Pennsylvania to Pendleton county, where 
he met and married Barbara Full. He tirst tiettled on 
the Dunwoody place, near McjkIow Dale, in Highland. 
About the year 1800 he moved to what is now Poca- 
hontas county, and settled on the Greenbrier on lands 
jiow held by William H, Collins, and built up a home. 
There had been some improvements begun by former 
settlers, but so little that to all intents and purposes he 
settled in the woods. Mr and Mrs Collins were the 
parents of four sons and four daughters: John, James, 
Lewis and Charles; Barbara, Susannah, Mary and 

Barbara went west; it is believed to Ohio; Susannah 
became Mrs George Nottingham and lived in Athens 
county, Ohio; Elizabeth became Mrs William Queen, 
and went toMarion county, Ohio, 

In reference to the sons of John Collins, we learu 
that John was a dealer in horses, and upon going to 
Kichnioud with a drove he was never heard of after- 
wards. The probability seems to be that he was killed 



Biid robbed in tlio Blue Ridge, 

James went to Lawrence comity, Ohio, married 
Hennetta daughter of Jndge Davidson, settled seven 
milcB below Ironton, and reared s large family. He 
was a prosperous prominent citizen. 

Lewis was facetiously called the "monarch of all he 
surveyed," being regarded by common consent t!m 
strongest, most atblatic and largest man in tlie county. 
He excelled as a ditcher, fence builder and mower. He 
belted many large tracts of land, and cleared many 
fields. He was noted for his good temper and jovial 
disposition. He never was known to provoke any one 
and, stange to saj% he had more pugilistic knockouts 
than any one person of his times. He finally went to 
Nicholas county whore he met and married 8ally Boles 
and then settled in Upshur county. His children 
were James, Charles, Elizabeth Margaret, and Mary. 
James married Mary Leonard, went to ('alifornia and 
engaged in the lumber business; Elizabeth became Mrs 
Sampson Jordan; Charles never married, and Margaret 
remained unmarried and kept house for her brother at 
the old homestead. 

Charles Collins, of John the ancestral emigrant, 
married Mary McCarty, on Brown's Mountain, and 
settled on Back Mountain where Jacob Shinneberry 
lives. They were the parents of six sons and three 
daughters, concerning whom the followir.g particulars 
are given: Martha became Mrs John Conaway and 
lived in TTpshur county; Susannah lived at home with 
her brothers "William and Benjamin: Nancy mamed 
William Cassell, and lived on Back Mountain; John 



riiarnod Maitliti Moore, of I'entiBylvaiiia Juliu, iu the 
Hillft, and Buttlud in rpshiir county. His second 
inaniiij^o waM witli Wido* Nancy McFarland, at Luiii- 
berport, Braxton county. Benjatniu inarri'id Marga- 
ret Siiinneberry and settled on Back Mountain near 
McLaiiglilin (.'Impel. Tlieir c'.iildreii were Peter, 
Clinrlea and Emina, who became John Shiuneberry'a 
iirst wife. Andrew niRnied Martha Bcgge, of Brax- 
ton, lived awhile in Pocahontas, and then moved to 
rpshuu. Tlieir children were Mary, who became Mrs 
Lawrwiice Fitzgerald; and Alice who becJ:iio MrH John 

■ William Hutchoson ColliuH Iirst married Sallie Var- 
ner, and located at the Gi-eeubrier lioniestead. In re- 
ference to the first family tliesQ items are given: 

Benjamin Collins is a minister iu the (rerman Bap- 
tist Church. He married Nancy Jane Cassell and 
lives on the Greenbrier homedtead. 

James Solomon is at home. 

John Riley married Birdie Hoover, and lives in 

William Hunter married Vernie Hoover, and lives 
on Leatliorbark ('reek. 

Andrew Morgan married Luella May Gragg, and 
settled near Travelers Repose. 

Samuel and Susan died in youth, 

Mary Elizabeth became Mrs Amos Nottingham, and 
lives at Beech Flats, on the Greenbrier. 

Amanda Catherine fii-st married William H(H)ver, 
on Back Mountain. Her second marriage was with 
Lytle Green Jackson, and lives at Wetnmpka, Ala. 



Her last marriage was the result of an advertisement 
and exchange of photograplis. 

The second wife of William Collins was Caroline 
Gragg, daughter of Zebulon Gragg. The children of 
this marriage are EtBe Alice, Joanna Susan, Lewiij, 
and Adam. 

W. H. ColUns was a Confederate soldier from 186*2 
to 1865. He first belonged to Company G, 31st Vir- 
ginia Infantry, and after the seven days figlit around 
Richmond was released from service under the rule of 
not enlisting over 35 years of age. When this was re- 
voked he joined Captain William L. McNeel's cavalry. 

Sally Joiee, daughter of Charles Collins, never mar- 
ried, and was a confirmed invalid. 

Charles Collins married Barbara Varner, of High- 
land County, and lived on Top of Alleghany. He was 
a Confederate soldier. 

Samuel Collins first married Margaret Hayes and 
lived in Upshur County. One son, John William, be- 
came charmed with a show, left home and lived a life 
of adventure. His second marriage was with Oelia 
Weimer, of Lewis County. They had two children, 
Samuel and Amanda. Amanda became the wife of 
Rev Queen, a minister in the M. P. Church, and lives 
in Pennsylvania. Samuel Collins was a Union soldier 
in the 10th West Virginia Infantry. 

With the assistance of the venerable William H. 
Collins, the writer has been able to illustrate in part 
the domestic history of a family that has done a great 
deal in subduing our primitive forests, and prepared 
the way for many families to live in comfort now. 




John Webb, tho subject of this biographic article is 
a cliaracter about wlioni it may be said, ae was said 
about Melcliizedek, lie was without father or mother-^ 
so far as any biographical purpose can be served. His 
Ii'isli brogue and his habit of saying not foolish things 
and never doing anything very wisely, tended to cor- 
roborate what be always averred— that he was of Irish 
nativity. He had the papers showing that he was an 
honorably discharged soldier of the Revolution, and as 
a pensioner received ninety-six dollars a year. How 
he ever came to Pocahontas is simply conjectural, but 
from the fact he chose bis place of rest near Mount 
Zion, he must have had some acquaintance with parties 
that may have been in the ariny when he was. 

This Revolutionary veteran, though he exposed his 
life for independence, never owned any land and never 
married. Yet he wanted a home of his own, a place 
where he could lay his head and feel at home, which 
was very commendable in him. He received permis- 
sion of William Moore, son of Pennsylvania John 
Moore, to use without rent as much land as he might 
want for a cabin, garden, and "truck patch." He 
built himself a cozy cabin, and opened up two or three 
acres, where he produced corn, vegetables, and poul- 
try. On this he subsisted, with the assistance of his 
pension and such w^es as lie could earn in harvesting 
and baying for the farmers on Knapps Creek. This 
spot was on the place recently owned by Ralph Dilley, 



and now in the pOBHession of William iloore. 

One of John Webb's favorite places to work in hay- 
making and harvest was at Isaac Moore's. At this 
period making hay was a long, tedious industry. One 
morning quite early as the haiidt; gathered in the 
meadow when Webb, to use Ins own expression, came 
lip missing, it was purmised that he had worn off his 
"wire edge" on the hot sun the day before, and was 
aboot to give it up for the time being, and so the 
liands went to work, Between, nine and ten o'clock 
they heard his jovial brogue in the direction of the 
apple cellar, and upon looking in that course Webb's 
head was seen, "red as a beet," peering over the comb 
of the cellar roof. He inquired in the most impas- 
sioned manner whether any one would like to have a 
"dhrink ave either." It seems Webb knew where to 
look for the lost "wire edge," and had indulged his 
thirst until he was so much exhilerated as to climb the 
roof with nimble feet and willing hands, and from his 
lofty perch invite others to share with his jovial com- 
forts that he had been finding for the past hours in 
"dhrinks ave cither," 

This Revolutionary veteran had one of his arms very 
carioualy tattooed between the wrist and elbow with 
the initials of his name and emblematic characters like 
anchors and arrows, whose significance was not known. 
This was done while he was in the army, and several 
other soldiers were tattooed at the same time. The 
chemicals used disabled them so much that a regimen- 
tal order was issued prohibiting the practice. Tattoo- 
ing seems to have been a fad among soldiers and 



tiitilurs. If Hiivtlihig Hliouhi Imppeii, their personality 
inigbt bo iiletitiKed and iiHsistaiico ubtaiueil from some 
([ailtl or fraturiiity. At least, tliis was tlie supposition, 
Jle never disclosed to any one wbat tbo characters 
symbolized. The initials of course could speak for 
tbemselves. It is commonly believed now that he 
served with the troops from Augusta County under 
General Mathews. 

In the later years of bis life John Webb was very 
piously inclined iind was demonstrative of bis religious 
emotions, and was long remoiuberod as the life of many 
"good meetings" at old Mount Ziou, Frost, and else- 
where. He would frequently buve "the jerks," which 
was such a feature in the revival services so common 
at the time. As long as be lived be would always 
have a spasmodic jerk as he repeated the "amen," 
even when asking a blessing on bis meals. 

This phenomenon, that characterized the religious 
services of most of the denominations a hundred years 
ago in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia; has been 
attentively considered by mental experts as one of the 
curiosities of the emotional faculty of the hujnan race. 
What surprises them in their investigations is to find 
some of the most pronounceil examples of its influence 
among the Mohammedan Dervishes in the East, and 
in the West it seems to have been the most striking 
feature in the Indian Ghost Dances but a few years 
since. The Dervishes furiously deny the existence of 
the Holy Ghost as a fiction of Christianity; and Amer- 
ican Indians have never so much as heard that there is 
a Holy Ghost. Max Nordau, a Jewish scientist thinks 



lie liae foniid the explatiation to be a disease of the 
nervous system that is ao highly iofectiune as to sweep 
the whole rouDd of humanity at recurring periods. 

John Webb remained in his bachelor home until he 
became disabled by the infirmities of advauced Hge, 
Then it was the late Martin Dilley, of revered memory 
took charge of the old veterau; He built a very com- 
fortable cabin for his use in the yard near bis own 
dwelling, and cared for him until the old soldier 
-'fought his last battle" on the borders of the unseen 
world. This building is standing yet. His grave is 
In the Dilley Grave yard, on the line between the An- 
drew Dilley and John Dilley lands. 


Among the worthy citizens of our county deserving 
of special mention was William Baxter, near Edray, 
W. Va, He was bom on Little Back Creek, in 1808. 
He was the eldest sou of Colonel John Baxter, whose 
name appears proraiiiently in the early history of Po- 
cahontas County. His mother was Mrs Mary Moore 
Baxter, a sister of Joseph Moore of Anthonys Creek. 
She was a very industrious and careful housekeeper, 
and diligently trained her children in habits of indus- 
try and economy. 

At an early age his parents moved to Pocahoiitati 
County, and resided a good many years at the Sulphur 
Spring. Being the eldest son, he worked hard in as- 
sisting to support the family, consisting of four sons 
and three daughters. His sisters were Mrs Jane 



Moore, wife of the lat« Jolni Moore near Marliiitoii; 
Mth Martha Duncan, wife of Henry Duncan, head of 
Stony Creek; and Mrs 8arah Duncan, wife of William 
Duncan, near Ed ray, 

Mrs Baxter and three Hons, Joseph. John, and 
George, finally located in Braxton County, where she 
died a few years thereafter. John died, too, bood after 
the removal to their new home. Joseph was a Federal 
soldier, and died of wounds in Kanawha County. 
George was a Confederate Holdier, and died a prisoner 
of war si)mewhere in the State of New York, 

From early boyhood William Baxter manifested 
great fondness for reading, and lie improved his avail- 
able opportunities very studiously. His father owned 
the largest and most select library then in the county, 
and William read most of the books. At an early day 
be began teaching, and was one of the most popular 
teachers of his day. In 184(1 he purchased land sold 
for taxes by the late Jacob Arbogast, as commissioner, 
and bnilt up a home on property now owned by Ids 
son George Baxter, County Surveyor. 

This land was a section of the Philips Survey, dated 
1795, and the papers call for twenty thousand acres. 
This famous survey began at the McCoUam place, ex- 
tended beyond Beaver Dam, thence on to Williams 
River, and from there came ont on Elk at the mouth 
of Crooked Fork, thence passed on towards Greenbrier 
River at a point near Verdant Valley, thence along 
tiie lines of Drennan, Gay, and others to and up Stony 
Creek near the old Salt well, and thence to the begin- 



Hie wife was Elizabetl) Barlow, daughter of Jolin 
Barlow, By industry and economy this wortliy coaple 
opened up a pleanant home in the primitive foreet and 
reared tlieii- family very respectably indeed. Geoi^e, 
Samuel, and WilUani Baxter, near Edray, and Mrs 
Mary Moore, near Marlinton, are their surviving 

For many years William Baxter, Senior, served as 
justice of the peace and member of the Pocahontas 
court. He was a skillful amanuensis, and did a great 
deal of work in that line, framing business papers, as 
articles of agreement, conveyances, deeds, and wills. 
His opinions were much relied upon as to the right or 
wrong of questions that would occasionally arise be- 
tween neighbors, and frequently matters were quietly 
adjusted that otherwise might have led to tedious court 
proceedings, and much disagreeable personal animosi- 

This model citizen was moreover regular and atten- 
tive in his attendance upon all religious services with- 
in his reach, but did not avow his trust in a personal 
Savior until advanced in life. 

He died September, 1881, aged about 73 years. In 
two or three weeks thereafter his faithful wife also pass- 
ed away, thus lovely and pleasant in their lives, and 
in death not long divided. At this day thei-e are many 
to rise up and call them blessed. 




Among tlie persons who have been identified with 
our county liistory. the Cochran relationship claim rec- 
ognition. For more than a hundred years the name 
has been a familiar one. The Pocahontas Cochrans 
are the descendants of Thomas Cochran, senior, a na- 
tive of Ireland, one of three brotliere who came over 
together. One of these brothers settled in Augusta 
and bis descendants are highly leepected in that coun- 
ty. Another of these Cochrane went to Kentucky, it 
is belived. Thomas Cochran, the subject of this sketch, 
married a Miss MacKeinie, near Parnassus, in Augus- 
ta county, and settled on the Rankin place on the 
Greenbrier, near the mouth of Locust Creek, Theuce 
he moved to the place now held by Matliews Ruckman. 
The relationship is so widely extended that it is only 
possible to trace his descendants to a degree where the 
present generation can take up the line and complete 

By the first marriage there were two sons and three 
daughters. One daughter, name not known, becamw 
Mrs William Caraway and lived on Muddy Creek, 
Greenbrier county; Nancy became Mra Masters and 
went to Ohio; Mary was married to William Auld ridge. 

John Cocliran married Elizabeth (Betsy) James, 
daughter of David James, senior at the end of Droop ■ 
Mountain, and settled near Marvin, on property recent- 
ly occupied by the late Michael Scales. There were 
four sons and four daughters. David James married a 



Mies Corby, in Augusta, and went to Clay couiitj, 
which bis son William representoct in the legislature a 
f«?w years siuce; Thuinae married Mies Skeene and liv- 
ed near Marvin. Their children were Franklin, Amer- 
ica, Eliza and Harriet, now Mrs T. C. Wooddell. 
Jolm had two other sons, John and William, about 
whom we have uo information. 

As to tho daughters, Margaret (I'eggy) became Mrs 
Jacob Shue; Sally became Mrs James Wangli, late of 
Verdant Valley; Fannie became Mrs Jolm Smith, on 
Stoney Creek; and Elizabeth. 

Thomas Cochran, jr., son of t!ie pioneer, married 
Mary Salisbury, settled on the side of Droop Mount- 
tain, near Locust, and finally went West. Their cliil- 
dren were Gordon, Robert, William, Richard, Ueeniie 
and Sabrie— twodaugliters and four sous. 

Thomas Cochran's, the pioneer, second marriage was 
with Nellie James, daughter of David James, senior, 
already mentioned. The fruit of this marriage was 
seven sons and four daughters, viz: William, Samuel, 
Isaac, David, Solomon, James, Jesse, Rebecca, Mary 
and Nellie. 

Rebecca's first marriage was with William Salisbury 
ou Droop Mountain. By her second marriage she be- 
came Mrs John Burner, aud lived in Ohio; Mary was 
married to William Coclirau; Nellie was married to 
John James and went to Ohio, Her children were 
Jane, Eliza, Kate, William, David and John James, 

Samuel went to Ohio. 

Isaac Cochran married Jennie Salisbury, daughter 
of William Salisbury, who lived near where Richard 


421 iiisrimv ok pocahontas cccnty 

Callison now livew. His children were Elisha, Solomon 
Salisbrnv. Lewis Pi-esley, Jnckson, Briiffey, Margaret, 
and Sarab- 

David, Hon of Thomas Cocliraii. married Sarah 
Salisbury, and lived near Un)op Mountain. His chil- 
dren were John, William, Andrew, Biddie, Susan and 
Mary. Btddie became Mrs Oabriel Underwood; Su- 
san, Mrs Joseph Riidgers, late of Swago; and Nellif 
was the first wife of the late Anthony Lightner: John 
first married Mias Hanna, of CTreenbrier; second wife 
wae Sally Smith; Andrew Cochran married Miss Rach- 
el Lewis and lived on Sinking Creek, 

Solomon Cochran, of Thomas, thf pioneer, married 
Biddie Salisbury. Their children were Sally and Re- 
becca, Porter William and George. Salley died in 
youth; Rebecca became Mrs Brnffey Cochran; William 
married Almira Cochran, in Braxton county, and went 
to Illinois; George Cochran married Nancy, daughter 
of John Cochran, and lives at the end of Droop Moun- 

James Cochran married Nancy Hannah, and lived 
at the end of Droop. Their family six daughters and 
four sons: David, William, Joseph, James, Elizabeth, 
Jennie, Nellie, Eveline, Mary, and Rachel. 

Jesse Cochran married Jane James and settled on 
the end of Droop, on property owned by his son, Da- 
vid J. Cochran. Their children were David James, 
Thomas, Samuel, Clark, and Gi^rge Brown. 

David married Hannah Dutfield, aud lives on the 

Thomas settled on the homestead upon his marriage 



with Nancy Steanis. 

Clark married Sally Underwootl dauglitei- of Gabriel 
Underwood, and lives on the James honiestead. 

William Cochran, son of Thomas the progenitor, 
first married Jane Young, near Swago. Her children 
were Waahtngton and Elizabeth. Washington Coch- 
ran married Phoibu Mace, of Mingo, and settled on 
Stony Creek. Himself, wife, and son John, aged 7, 
all died during the war, 

Elizabeth Cochran married George Young. Mr 
Young (lied in Richmond dnring the war. His sons, 
William and Washingt<m, live in Iowa. Mrs Y'oung 
became Mrs Bruffey Cochran, went to Iowa, where she 
recently died. 

Captain William Cochran's second marriage was 
with Melinda Moore. Her children William Cochran, 
Junior, and Mrs Catherine Sharp, 

Captain Cochran was a busy man of affairs, noted as 
a skillfnl blacksmith, and built the first tilt hammer on 
Swago, He was captain of the Stony Creek militia, 
superintended the conatruction of the Warm Springs 
and Huulersville turnpike, and was superintendent of 
the Lewisburg and Marlins Bottom road. The Captain 
also took much interest in church affairs as a promi- 
nent layman of the Methodist Protestant Church. 

The James and Salisbury families, elsewhere men- 
tioned as early settlers of Uroop Mountain, have been 
virtually absorbed by the Cochrans. The James boys 
went to Ohio, and the Salisbury men settled in Brax- 
ton and other places in West Virginia, and some went 
finally to Ohio. 


Tiie writer in closing tliiit pa]iur w<nil(l gratefully ro- 
cognizu tim asuistaiice of David J. Cochran, that wa« 
81) helpful in collecting tiie particulars, and so clieei-- 
fully given by him, although suffering at the time se- 
verely friiin rlieu iiatic and other troubled, that sLseined 
to he wearing his useful life away. 


Abraiii Hurncr, the progenitor of the Burner rela- 
tionship iu our county, was frtun tiie lower Valley, 
probably Slieiiaudoali Countyr Soon after his mar- 
riage with Mary Hull; of Highland County, he settled 
on the Upper Tract, eai-ly in the century. Their child- 
ren were Mary, Elizabeth, George, Jacob, Adam, 
Henry, and Daniel. 

Mary Burner became Mrs George Grimea and lived 
near Mount Zion, in the Hills. 

Elizabeth Burner was married to H<m John Grimes, 
and lived in the Little Levels on the lands now owned 
by the county for an infirmary. 

Jacob Burner married Keziah Stump, and settled in 
the western part of the State. 

Adam burner married Margaret Gillespie, one of 
Jacob Gillespie's nine daughters at Greenbank, and 
settled in upper Pocahontas. 

Daniel Burner married Jennie Gillespie, sister to 
Margaret. Daniel Burner was drowned near Peter 
Yeager's in a deep eddy, during hai-vest, and left one 
son, Joshua Burner. 

Henry Burner met his death by drowning in the 



eaat fork of Greenbrier, 

George Burner, eldest son of Abrain the pioneer, 
after his marriage with Sally, daiightur of Andrew 
"Warwick, settled on part of the Burner homestead 
where tlie mad crosses the east prong of th« Green- 
brier. Their children were Andrew, Enoch, Allen, 
Lafayette, Lee, Charles, Nancy, who became Mrs Wil- 
liam Wooddell; and Isabella, now Mrs Lanty Slaven. 

Enoch Burner married Rachel Ann Tallinan, and 
settled in Missouri. 

Lafayette Burner first marriud Nannie Wooddell and ■ 
lived on the uppar Greenbrier. Second marriage witii 
Caroline Gum. 

Lee Burner married Rebecca Gujn, daughter of Wil- 
liam Gum and a sister to Caroline jnat named, and liv- 
ed oji the Upper Ti'act. 

Allen Burner first married Elizabeth Price, daughter 
of James A. Price, of Marlins Bottom, and settled at 
Greenbank. George Burner, of Minneapolis, is her 
son. Allen Burner's second marriage waa witb Vir- 
ginia Clark, of Parnassus, Augusta County, and he 
now resides at Cass. Lnla and Emma Burner, well 
known teachers are her daughters. 

Charles Burner married Elizabeth Beard of Green- 
bank, and lived on the Burner homestead. 

Hon. George Burner was a prominent citizen fnnu 
the organization of the county. As noticed elsewhere 
he was one of the first members of the county court. 
He represented the county several terms in the Vir- 
ginia Legislature, and was a Jacksonian Democrat in 
his political proclivities, and strange to say onu of the 



original I'ocaliontas eecei^HioiiiHU. so intense his devO' 
ti<iii to Stat« rights Iiad become. 

Hix Beeond iiiarriafce was with Margaret Poags, 
daughter of (ieorge W. Foage, of the Little Levels. 


One of the best known names in our piouee. annais 
was that of the Warwick^. John Warwick; the ances- 
tor of the tireenbaiik branch of the connexion, was of 
Knglitih descent. It is believed he came to npper Fo- 
caitontas previously to the Revolution, and opened up 
a settlement on Deer Creek, at the place now in the 
possession of Feter H. Warwick and John R. War- 
wick. Mrs Warwick, whose giver, name can not be 
certainly recalled, was a member of the Martin family 
in the Valley of Virginia. 

John Warwick seerns to have been a person of great 
enterprise, and braved the dangers of pioneer life with 
nn>re than ordinary courage and devotion to duty. He 
had a fort raised upon his premises, to which himself 
and neighbors would resort when threatened by Indian 
incmsions or raids Being so near to Clover Lick, 
whose facilities for hunting and fishing were so much 
prized by the Indians, its erection seems to have been 
very exasperating to them, and were very troublesome 
to tlie settlers living in reach of the Warwick fort. 

The only Indian Major Jacob Warwick was ever 
certain of killing was shot from a tree not far from 
this fort. The warrior had climbed the tree to recon- 
oitre the fort, and it is more than probable that the 



death of the scout interfered with the Indian plitna and 
ititentiouEi of attack. 

Ill reference to John Warwick's children we iiavo 
the following particulars: Their names were Williaui, 
John, Andrew, Elizabeth — of whom special mention 
was made in the Slaven sketches: Mary, who was pro- 
baly the first lady teacher of schools in our county; 
Margaret, who became Mrs James Gay and went west; 
Ann, who became Mrs Ingram and lived in Ohio. 

As the Warwick relationship is so extended, it will 
be treated in groups in these biographic notes. In 
this paper the descendants of Andrew Warwick will be 
mainly considered and their history illustrated, con- 
cluding with a fragmentary reference. 

Andrew Warwick went to Richlands, in (.Treenbrier, 
for a wife and married Elizabeth Craig, and then 
opened np a home on I>eer Creek. This property is 
now occupied by Major J. C. Arbogast. Their child- 
ren were Jane, who was married to James Wooddell, 
near tireenbank; Margaret became Mas Samuel Sut- 
ton, first wife; Nancy was married to Jacob Hartman, 
north of Greeubank, and went to the far west. Her 
children were Sarah Lucretia, Virginia, William; and 
James. Mary Warwick became the second wife of 
Isaac Hartman, and lived on property now held by 
Joseph Riley. Elizabeth Warwick was kicked in the 
face by a horse about the time she was grown to wo- 
manhood, and lingered for years in great suffering 
and finally died of the injury. Sally Warwick became 
Mrs George Burner, of Travelers Repose. Anna War- 
wick was married to Rev Henry Arbogast, and lived 


4tO iI13Tj;t\ Of I'JOVDNrAS olnty 

near UUdeliiU. 

Jacob Warwick, son of Andrew Warwick, married 
Klizabeth Hull, of Virginia, ami settled on tlie Deer 
Oreek hoinctttead; moved thence to Indiana, and fiDally 
to Mit4Houri. His children were Matliew Patton, Amos, 
Andrew Jacki^nn, William Craig, Caroline, wlio be- 
came Mrs Geoi^e Tallrnan; and Rachel, who was the 
j'oungest. They all went with their parents to the 
western states. 

This paper will bo closed by a fragmentary reference 
t J John Warwick, of John the elder. 

lu the winter of 18GI there was an officer with tjie 
Uhio troops in the Cheat Mountain garrison by the 
name of Warwick. The writer has been informed that 
he claimed descent from the Pocahontas Warwicke, 
and made some inquiry concerning the Warwick re- 

The tradition is that John Warwick. Junior, married 
Margaret Poage of Augusta County. It is believed 
James Poage, her father, lived awhile on Knapps 
Creek, and afterwards moved to Kentucky. 

Upon hie marriage John Warwick, Junior, settled 
on the lower end of the farm now owned by Captain 
G. W. Siple. Parties yet living remember seeing 
traces of the cabin he had built and dwelt in. He re- 
mained here but a short time however, and moved to 
Ohio about 1790. 

There were three little boys, one of them named 
John- The Union officer claimed to be a descendant 
of a John Warwick from West Virgtuii, a grandson, 
and was a son, doubtless, of one of those little boye 



that went to Ohio with their parents fron thjJr cabin 
home on Deer Creek. This Federal officer became a 
member of Congress, and achieved a national reputa- 
tion by defeating William McKiulej' in a Congres- 
sional contest. Many no doubt will readily recall this 
interesting event in the hiatory of Ohio politics. 


The group of the Warwick relationship treated of in 
this paper includes the descendant* of William War- 
wick, son of John Warwick, the early pioneer. 

Like his brother Andrew, William Warwick lost his 
heart in the Bichlands of Greenbrier, and married 
Nancy Craig, a sister of Mrs Andrew Warwick. They 
settled on Deer Creek, where Peter H. Warwick now 
lives, and were the parents of three children : Robert 
Craig, Elizabeth, who became Mrs Benjamin Tallman; 
Margaret, who became Mrs John Hull, and lived on 
the head of Jacksons River. 

Robert Craig Warwick, the only son, at one time 
crossed the Alleghany to pay his sister a visit. One 
resnlt of the visit was that he and Esther Hall were 
soon married, and the happy. young people settled on 
the Ueer Creek homestead. They were the parents of 
three sous aud six daughters. In reference to their 
children the following items are recorded: 

Catherine Hidy Warwick is now Mrs William Bird. 
Her children Elvira Louisa, now Mrs William Mc- 
Clune, near Millpoint; Robert Craig Bird, at Clifton 
Forge; John Henry Bird, Covington; George Newton 



Bird, Clifton F"org«; Williatri Lee Bird, Roanoke City, 
Virginift. Ilur liimband. Major W. W. Bird, was a 
Confederate officer. He had cointnand of Company 
K, 5'id Virginia Regiment in tlie battlu of McDowell, 
and was in vliarge of a regiment of reBotveB in the bat- 
tle of New Hoj>i.'. He was near General William 
Jonett wlion lie fell in that enga^:u:nent, and receivo<l 
his last orders just a few niiniitein before his death. 
He wasnained for William Wallace, a renowned hero 
in Scottish lustorj'. 

Nancy Jane Warwick is now Mrs Jacob Liglitner of 
Highland, Virginia. Her children were John Adam, 
now in the west; Robert, on Back Creek; William C, 
died in youthr Jacob Brown, on Back Creek; Peter H, 
lives in Greenbrier; James Cameron, a lawyer at the 
Warm Springs, Va. ; Mrs Malcena Catherine Cleek, on 
JackHons River; Mrs Virginia Rachel Wallace, of 
Highland; Mrs Mary Etta tiuui, of Meadow Dale, V^a. 

Sarah Elizabeth Warwick married Daniel Matheny, 
and lives at Valley (Centre. Her children Esther Ann, 
Melissa, and Robert Matheny. 

Margaret Ann Warwick became Mrs Nelson Pray. 
Her family was quite a large one, but only one snr- 
vives, Ella, who is now Mrs John Riley and lives in 
one of the western counties. One of Mrs Fray's 
daughters, Regina, received fatal injuries in a railway 

Hannah Rebecca Warwick was married to Captain 
George Siple, a Confederate officer, 31st Virginia In- 
fantry, and lives on Deer Creek in eight of the War- 
wick homestead. Her children were Nancy Jane, now 



Mrs Pierca Woaddell at Oreenbink; Anna, Mra Wil- 
liam Jacks'Ju, at Dun nore; Mary Catherine, now Mrs 
Bernard McElwee at Duniuore; Clara Belle, William, 
and Joeeph Siple. 

Louisa Susan Warwick was married to EJi Seybert, 
settled near Mt. Grove, Va., then went west. But 
one of her cliiidren snrvives, Mary Amaret, now Mrs 
Morgan Matlieny, Top of Alleghany. 

William Fechtig Warwick waa named for a pioneer 
Methodist preacher. He married Anthea Pray, and 
lives near Mt. Gr.ive, Va. His children Paul, Pray, 
Robert, Nelson, Peter Hull, Georj;3 Craig, Cliarles, 
Amelia, wlio became Mrs George Dilley, and is now 
Mrs Hopkins Wanless near Mount Tabor; Amanda 
Gabrielle, now Mrs John Landes, near Mt. Grove; 
Sally, and Louise Catherine. Three of the sons, Pe- 
ter, Robert, and Kelson, went to Kansas. 

Peter Hull Warwick married Caroline Matheny, and 
settled on the Deer Creek home place. The child- 
ren were Jesee, Otis, Forrest, and Elbert. By the 
death of Cecil, in 1S96, at Cowen, Webster County, 
his mother's heart was so broken that she did not sur- 
vive him very long. 

John Robert Warwick married Jennie Cleek, daugh- 
ter of the late John Cleek of Bath County, and lives 
on a section of the Deer Creek homestead. Their 
children aie Mary and Nancy. Lieutenant Warwick 
was a Confederate officer, Slst Virginia Infantry, and 
served as a commissioner of the Pocahontas Court. 

Elizabeth Warwick became Mrs Benjamin Tallnian, 
and lived on the property now held by Captain Siple, 



Hor c)iildrei) were William, James, Robert, John, 
ryriis, and Nancy. Nancy beca:ne Mrs Benjamin 
Talliiiau auO lives in Illinois. 

M irgaret Warwick was married to John Hull, ou 
Jacksoiis River. Her children were WilHsm Hull, 
who was one of the California foi-ty-uiners, and ha? 
not been heard of since; Robert, Andrew, Nora, Nan- 
cy Jane, who bechme the wife of Colonel Peter H. 
Kiiicaid, in Crabbottom ; Margaret, who is now Mrw 
OhriBtoplier Wallace, of Williameville; Irene Esther, 
the tirst wife of James Fleisber, of Meadow Dale. 

This relationship has furnished our citizenship with 
good citizens, brave soldiers, industrious tillei-s of the 
soil, and good homekeepers, and deserves honorable 
mention in the short and simple annals of our own 
Pocahontas people. 

The Callisons of Locust have a claim for special 
recognition in our biographical sketches as one of the 
oldest families of southern Pocahontas. Members of 
that relationship have done a great deal in developing 
their section, and have shown what can be done with 
our soil in our climate by well applied energy and In- 
dustry. The progenitor of this relationship, so far as 
it is traceable, was James Callison, Senior, This per- 
son and bis wife Elizabeth were natives of Ireland, 
but, as the name indicates, were of English origin. 
No doubt the Callisons were among the families that 
King James the First encouraged to settle in the noi-tli 



of Ireland. 

Late in the eighteenth century it appears that 
James Oallii^on went from Greenbrier County to 
(iranger County, Tennessee, and made a permanent 
settlement and reared his family. The sons of James 
Callisun the imigrant and Elizabeth his wife were 
James, Anthony, Isaac, Jesse, Samuel, and Elisha. 
Their daughters were Rebecca, Abigail, Mary, Nancy, 
and Ruth. In reference to the whereabouts of most 
of these sons and daughters but little has come to our 

Isaac Callison settled in the Meadows of southwest 
Greenbrier, where some of bis descendants now live. 

Colonel Elisha Callison, another sou of the emigrant 
and pioneer, married Margaret Bright, daughter of 
David Bright, of Greenbrier, and lived on the noted 
CallisoD homestead near Lewisburg. 

About 1782, James Callison, another son of the 
pioneer emigraut, came from Tennessee to Locust, now 
lower Pocahontas, and settled on a tract of 16i acres, 
preempted some years previously by his father. Soon 
after locating on Trump Run, Mr Callison took a great 
fancy to Miss Susan Kdmiston, the charming daughter 
of James Edmiston, Senior, who was then living on 
the farm now owned by George Callison, a grandson 
of the lovely woman just referred to. James Callison 
and Susan Edmiston his wife were the parents of five 
suns and two daughters, coucerning whom we are able 
to give the following pa.ticular8: ' 

William Callison mai'ried Hannah Ray, and settled 
in Nicholas County. 



Isaac Calliaoii inarrit^il Nancy Jordan, lived awhile 
in Nicholas County, and afterwards returue<i to Poca- 

Jaiiu-8 CalliHon married Rebecca GillilaD, daughter 
of Joliii (liDilaii, and settled in Missouri, 

Josiah Callison married Nancy Hill. They spent 
their days at the old homestead, and were the happy 
parents of five sons and three daughters. We give the 
following particulars in reference to their family: 

Jamea Callison married Ellen Alkire, of Lewis 
Oonnty, and settled in Greenbrier, where he died in 
1885. His widow and two children now live in the 
State of Kansas. 

Thomas F. Callison has been married twice. His 
first wife was Minta Myles, of Greenbrier County, and 
his second marriage was with Jane Myles, a cousin, 
and he now lives near LocuBt. 

William Callison, recently deceased, married Fan- 
nie Whiting, daughter of Ebenezer Whiting, on the 
summit of Droop Mountain, and lived on Locust creek 
a mile or so from its source. Locust Creek springs 
from the base of Droop Mountain a full sized creek, 
receiving but little volume from visible tributaries on 
its course to the Greenbrier. 

George Callison's wife was Miss Mandie McNeel, 
and his residence is at Hillsboro, on the place occu- 
pied BO long by the late Colonel John Hill. 

Richard Callison mamed Fannie Beard, daughter of 
Charles W. Beard, near Hillsboro, and he lives on the 
old Trump Run homestead, near Locust. 

All of these sons are atnong the more prosperoas 



citizeuB of lower Pocahontas, They are devoted to 
fanning and raising live etock, thaa contiibuting very 
much to the substantial prueperity of our county. 

Martha Callison, daughter of Josiah Calliaon, was 
married to James K. Bright. 

Mary Callison was married to Lorenza Reger, and 
their residence is in Itoane Couiity. 

Jetniuia Callison became Mrs Jesse Bright, near 
Frankford, in Oreeubrier. She died in 18S6. 

The other branch of the Callison relationship in our 
county is represented by the descendants of Anthony 
Callison, a son of James Callison, the iniigrant from 
Ireland, Anthony Callison was reared in Tennessee, 
and soon after coming to Virginia he lost his heart in 
Greenbrier County, and he and Abigail McClung were 
married and settled on lands adjoining the possessions 
of his brother James, These persons were the parents 
of six sons and four daughters. 

Abram Callison married Frankie Blair, from North 
Carolina, a sister of tlie late Major William Blair near 
Hillsboro, and after living a few years in Pocahontaa 
went to North Carolina, 

Joseph Callison married Elizabeth Bright, of Green- 

Isaac Callison married Huldah Hickman, iu Bath 
County, and movod to Indiana. 

Anthony Callison, Junior, was married to Martha 
Hill, and settled in Indiana. 

Israel Callison mairied Mary Bright, sister of Jos- 
eph's wife, lived many years on the old homestead, 
and Unallv moved to Illinois, 



ElUlia Callisoii located in tliu Meadows of west 

Margaret t'allisoD, daughter of Aotlionr and Abi- 
gail C'alliHon, became Mrs William Buniaides and went ' 
to Indiana to seek a lionie. 

Elizabeth Callison married Jouatliaii Jordan, and 
they lived on ('ooksDry Bun, the place lately occupied 
by Peter Clark, deceased. It was here she died. Her 
twin »>nB, John and Anthony, also died. 

Abigail CalliBon became the wife of James Gay, and 
they settled in Indiana. 

Julia Callison, the youngest daughter, married when 
she was just past fifteen the late Colonel Woods Poage. 
The writer will ever cherish the memory of Mrs Julia 
Poage as one of the kindest friends of his boyhood. 

The writer has thus far been enabled to make abrief 
contribution to the history of the Callison relationship, 
which deserves an important place in the anuala of om' 
county. It makes him feel sad to think that th» kind 
friend (Mrs Nancy Callison) who so patiently fm'nisli- 
ed him the information, without which this paper could 
not have been written, is not here to receive the thanks 
that are so justly due her. It looks now like it wae a 
special providence that permitted us to meet at the 
time when we did, and is so regarded by the compiler. 
Her bright and pleasant way of recalling the reminis- 
cences of friends and acquaintances was something like 
which one can not expect to witness very often now, 
SB so few are left to rehearse the story of that past 
which was once a living present to them. 

These people whose lives make up the past, whose 



history 80 few survive to repeat, sowed in tears, in 
priv-atious, and hai-dsliips what we who now live itre 
reaping in a joyfnt liarvosl, Wliat they sowed in tears 
■we the living may reap with grateful joy, if we have 
proper appreciation of wliat they did and suffered in 
their day and generation. Let us not forget that the 
frugality, industry, and careful attention to duties that 
enabled them to secure this goodly heritage, ia all im- 
portant for us to observe and imitate in order to keep 
it from slipping away jind vanishing from our reach. 

Like busy bees the pioneer people all over ourcoun- 
tp tried to improve every shining hour, and turn to 
some good account every opportunity in sight, no mat- 
ter how hard it may have seemed. It has been well 
said that those who look only for easy places, will 
finally round up in thf; hardest places and have no way 
to get out except by death. 

William Edmiston, in whose memory this biographic 
paper has been prepai'ed, was one of the early settlera 
of the lower Levels. He seems to have been born 
and reared in upper Greenbrier, near Falling Spring, 
and his ancestry came from Augusta County. His 
wife was Rebecca Walkup, from the Falling Spring 
vicinity, where there are families of the name now re- 
siding. She was a sister of the late John Walkup, of 
Falling Spring, a greatly respected citizen and exem- 
plary Christian man. One of her sisterH was tJie wife 



of Samuel BeErd, who was a brother of Josiah Beard, 
and his home was in Renicks Valley. 

Upon his marriage with Rebecca Walkup, Mr Ed- 
mietou settled a few miles south of Hillsboro. Their 
family consisted of one sou, James Edniiston, and 
four daughters, R:;becca, Jennie, Mattie, and Mar- 

James Edmibtou married Margaret Woods, of Nich- 
olas County- He settled on Cooks Dry Rnn, at the 
"Sinks," which is now known ae the Feter Clark 
place. The names of Jaines Edmietou'a children 
known to the writer were Samuel, William, Cliristo- 
plier, and Rebecca. This daughter Rebecca became 
the wife of Jackson Edniiston, son of Andrew Edmis- 
ton, a brother of William Edmiston. 

About 1840 James Edmiston sold his possessions to 
the late Andrew Johnson and migrated to Iowa, where 
many of his descendants now live, 

Rebecca Edmiston became the second wife of Jona- 
than Jordan. 

Jennie Edmiston was married to Isaac Hill. Upon 
his decease she and her family removed to the State 
of Iowa. 

Martha Edmiston married George Hill, and settled 
on Hills Creek and spent her life there. 

Margaret, the fourth daughter of William Edmiston, 
was married to George McCoy, moved to Cedar Coun- 
ty, Iowa, and were among the first settlers of their 
vicinity, and grew up with the development of that re- 
nowned county. William McCoy, their son, could not 
forget the girl he left behind, but returned to Poca- 



hoiitH.3 and uiariied EHzabetli GriiuBi, diiuglitssr of tliu 
late Hon Jolin Grimes. 

These few pai'ticnlars illustrating aoiuetiiiiig of the 
family history of these good people have been laid be- 
fore our readers with the assistance of the late Mrs 
Nancy Callisou and the venerable James McOollmn, 
The writer has some remenibrance of these persons 
personally, but not very distinct as to any important 

Mr Edmiston and the late Samuel Davies Poage 
were congenial friends and attached Christian brethren 
though of different persnasions and rather strennous in 
their respective doctrinal views. This indicated that 
their hearts were imbued with a pious fervor that got 
the better of their mere intellectual doctrinal notions. 
They agreed to disagree, and not mar their Ohristain 
fellowship with vain wrangling about their respective 
creeds and formalities. 

Mr Edmiston's piety was of the highly emotional, 
demonstrative type, and for years his emotions seemed 
to be the first to kindle and burn with the holy fervor 
that makes religious services so interesting to many 
persons. His Christian character was above reproach, 
and all regarded him as sincere. He was looked up to 
as a master Christian, and had it not been for the 
somewhat counteracting influence exerted by Nathaniel 
Kinnison, a silent, calm Israelite indeed in whom 
there was no guile, the impression might have been 
that no one could expect to be a model Christian like 
Mr Edmiston without his zeal and demonstrative fervor 

Such might have been the impression, but when the 



cIiaractei-H of Natlmtiiul Kiiiiiieoii and Uaviea Poagc 
were coiiBiderfd, tli« iiupruMHion prevailed tliere were 
different wavs iu which people could be warm hearted, 
genuine Cliriittaina, and no there waa mutual respect 
and lovely <'hri»tiaii fellowship. 

For many years Mr Edniiston was a pillar in the M. 
E, ('hiii'ch, aiitt the secret of his intliieiice was his love- 
ly Christaiii <leporttiient. Xathanii.-1 Kiiinison was also 
a pillar in the M. E. Chiircli, but his piety was that de- 
veloped in tliu calm retreat, the silent shade, that seciii- 
ed to hiin by Ood's bounty mad^; for tlnwo who wor- 
ship God — tK) suitable for personal prayer and praise 
to the unBoen though e\er present one. 

When far advanced in life Mr Edniiston vacated his 
old pleasant ho:ne a:nid tin gently rolling lands and 
pleasant groves for a lioine on Hills Creek, and his 
last days were spent amid the inviting scenes that sur- 
round the place where Daniel Peck now lives. 

The writer feels grateful that lie ever knew this good 
old man, even to a slight extent, and may the time 
never come when the presence of persons of like Chris- 
tian fervor, genei-ous, liberal, fraternal impulses cease 
to exist, for should such a dire calamity befall the 
county then envy, strife, confusion, and many evil 
works will be tolerated — all in the name too and for 
the sake of religion. 


For well nigh a hundred years the Yeager name has 
leen a familiar one. The Reager relationship derive 



their name from Jolm Yeager, au itiiigrant from Penii- 
sjlvauia, reared near Lancaster City. Fi-om tbe most 
authentic information available for these nottsa, he first 
located in Crabbottom. Upon his marriage with Anise 
Hull, a grandtjanghter of Peter Hnll, one of the origi- 
nal settlers of the Crabbottom section, they settled at 
Travelers Repose, where Peter D. Yeager now resides. 

In reference to John Yeager's family the following 
particulars have been obligingly furnished by the Hon 
H. A. Yeager, one of his well known doscendants. 

John Yeager, Junior, went to the far west, and set- 
tled finally in Illinois; and Ins descendants are scatter- 
ed widely over the great Northwest. 

Jacob Yeager married Sarah Hidy, oE Crabbottom, 
and tliereapon he settled on what is known as Camp 
Alleghany. In his time he ranked among the most ex- 
tensive land owners in that whole region. His claims 
comprised many thousand acres, einbracing the 'L>iitc!i 
Settlement" and other tracts contiguous. His sons 
were John, Joel, Jacob Brook, and the daughters were 
Jane, Elizabeth, Anna, Caroline, Margaret, Catherine, 
(!hriatine, and Serena. In reference to his daughters 
the following particnlars are in hand. 

Jane became Mrs Joel Vest, and lived in Iowa. 

Elizabeth was married to Colonel John Bonnett, and 
lived in Lewis County, Hor sons Jefferson and Asbu- 
ry Bonnett are prominent citizens. Sarah Ann Bon- 
net became Mrs Wasley Crookiuan and lives at Cowen. 
Serena Catherine Bonnett became Mrs Eber Post, and 
lives near Hackers Creek, in Lewis County. Caroline 
became Mrs Rhinehart. 



Mdi'garut iiiai'ri<;d Juliti Aibogast and lived near 
Glad« Hill. 

Caroline was Williiim J. WooddeirB tirat wife, and 
lived at Oreeiibunk. 

Anna tirst nmrried Warwick Arbogast and eettled 
near the bonicstoud at Camp Alleglianj'. He and two 
cliildren died ftf camp fever iu 1801. Her second mar- 
riage was with John Liizadder, and lives near Tollgatc, 
Kitcliie Connt}', and ia the motlier of a large family. 

Catherine was married to Robert Willis, and lived 
iu Indiana. There wore three daughters: Virginia 
married a Mr Britt, who was a mining expert at Frisco 
Colorado. Josephine married Dr Simms, Laura be- 
came iirs Carroll. 

('hristine became Mrs Jonathan Siron, and lived 
near McDowell, in Kighhmd. Her children were 
Joel, lately deceased: Milton," in Upshnr Connty; Mar- 
garet, now Mrs Malcoinb, iu Highland; and Christine, 
who became Mrs William WooUdell and lives on the 
Siron homestead. 

Serena was first married to John Claiborne, of Lex- 
ington, Virginia. Her children were James, who died 
in Arizona, and John, who lives at St. Joseph, Mo. 
John Claiborne was a Confederate soldier and died in 
service. 8erena Yeager"s second marriage was with 
William Wilfoug, of Orilmer Ctmnty, and is the moth- 
er of three sons by this marriage, 

Joel Yeager married Kehecca Pray, of Highland 
County, and settled in Indiana. There are three sous, 
Newton, Lnther, and Clinton. One is a lawyer, an- 
other a doctor, and the third a prosperous farmer. 



Jacob Brook Yeager manied Margaret McDauiel, at 
McDowell, in 1866, and aottled in -Iitdiana at South 
Whitney, where be still lives. Two sons and a daugh- 
ter. Hia son Charles recently visted Pocahontas. 

John Yeagei-, the third, settled at the homestead. 

Andrew Yeager, another son of John Yeager the 
pioneer, married Elizabeth Dilley, and settled on the 
homestead. Two sons, Peter and Martin, and one 
daughter, Ella, who died at the age of 15 years of 
diptheria. one of the first cases to appear in our whole 
county. In 1861 Andrew Yeager retngeed to High- 
land, where lie and his son Martin died of camp fever. 
His property was burned in the absence of the family. 
The battle of Camp Bartow was fuught here in 1861. 

Peter Dilley, the only surviving child of Andrew 
Yeager, married Margaret Bible, daughter of Jacob 
Bible, and rebuilt the pioneer homestead. The follow- 
ing particulars about his family are ir. hand: Charles 
Andrew married Allie Arbogast, and lives at Marlin- 
ton; William Jacob married Grace Hull; Etta became 
Mi-8 Harper McLaughlin of Bath Connty; Alcena is 
now Mrs Charles Pritchard, of Dnnmore; Alice was 
. married to Henry Flenner, and lives near -the home- 
stead; Gertrude is at homo with her parents. 

Peter D. Yeager now resides at Travelers Repose, 
the pioneer homestead, which he in a large measure 
restored from the terrible devastation of war. He was 
a Confederate soldier, became a prisoner and spent a 
long time at Camp Chase. He was not released until 
July, 1865. 

John Yeager, the pioneer, seems to have been n 



ptirsou of great pIiysicHl eiiOiiraiice, a iioti^d hunter, 
and H11 induetriouH, laborious farmer. One of the in- 
cidents coining to iij by tradition, illustrating what 
nianiier of man he was, is related in the Arbog.i^t 
sketched. A panther had been driven by dogs up a 
very hifty, densely branched hemlock, at night. A 
torch of pine was prepared, and the fearless, agile man 
ascended the tree, torch in hand, until he could locate 
the game. Upon doing this he laid the torch on two 
limbs and descended niitil he ould re.ic!i the fliutloc'f 
rifle, carefully primed and charged. He then returned 
to his torch and by its light shot the panther. 


Tlie relationship bearing the Yeager name is at pre- 
sent mainly represented in our county by the descend- 
ants of John Yeager, of the third remove from the 
pioneer John Yeager. Hence this paper will be main- 
ly devoted to the home history of his descendants. 

John Yeager's wife was Margai'et Arbogaet, grand- 
daughter of Adam Arbogast, the pioneer of the east 
branch of the Greenbrier. Soon after his marriage he" 
settled on the homestead, now known as Camp Alle- 
ghany. The sons were William Asbury, Henry Ar- 
bogast, Brown McLanren, Paul McNeel, and Jacob 
Reese, The daughters Eliza Ann, Fannie Elizabeth, 
Sarah Jaue, who died ^ed 13 years; Eveline Medora, 
Leah Alice, and Emma Mildred. 

Eliza Ann became Mrs A, M. V. Arbogast and lives 
on the east branch of the Greenbrier, near the north- 



ern limits of the coiintj'. Her lioine is widely known. 
Fannie Elizabeth ia now Mrs James I). Kerr, and 
lives at the Kerr homestead on Salisburvs Creek, 

Eveline Medora was mai-ried to Josiah O, Beard, 
and now Uvea near Greenbank. Her children are 
Irbie, Leslie, Arthur, Brown, Monroe, Blanche, Ber- 
tie, Bertha, Ruby, Nellie BIy, and Margie. Monroe 
and Blanche are twins, also Bertie and Bertha. Mr 
and Mrs Beard had their home on the upper (ireen- 
brier. Blanche died of membranous croup, iu her 
fatlier'a absence, and tlie house being isolated by deep 
water, the mother could get no assistauce from the 
neighbors on that sad day. In a field near the present 
home Arthur was caught in a shower. He Hret shel- 
tered under a wagon, but as it leaked so much he ran 
to a neighboring tree and wad instantly killed by light- 
ning. His brother Irby was near and saw it all. 
■ Leah Alice and hor brother Jacob Reese died of 
diptheria. They were among tne first victims of this 
drehd malady iu our whole county, so far as there is 
any record. 

Emma Mildred first married Michael (), Beard, and 
settled in Texas. He died at Fort Worth, Texas. Mrs 
Beard's second marriage was with W. P. Ledbetter, of 
Georgia. She then settled in the Indian Territory, at 
Ai-dmore, where she died a few years since, Herohild- 
ren, Clyde Yeager Beard and Veva Ledbetter, are in 
the motherly care of her sister Mrs Eliza A, Arbogast. 
Emma Mildred Yeager had a passion for learning, 
aud was very popular in society and greatly esteemed 
for lier attractive cliaj-acter. She had about completed 



till! course of study at Wincliester for a literary degree 
with marked distiiictioii. Had it not beeu for circiiin- 
staiices over wliich tlie brilliant young student had no 
control, she would have been the firrit lady from our 
county t« be thus honored. 

William Asbnry Veager was a Confederate soldier 
in the 3Ist Virginia Regiment, and was killed at 
IIatc'.i3r's Ru;), Feb, 6, 18t»5. H3 was in the brittle 
of Winchester, September 19, 1861, and when the en- 
gagement was over seventeen bullet holes were found 
in hie clothing, bat he did not get a scratch. The im- 
pression preuails among those who remember him that 
he was in all the eng^ements with the 31st, unless it 
was at Gettysburg, at which time he was in a Staunton 
hospital. He had but one furlough during the war. 

Henry A. Yeager married Luverta Beard, of Green- 
brier County, and settled at Camp Alleghany. His 
children were Eula Joe, recently deceased, who wis 
the wife of \)r J. M. Cunningham, of Marlinton; 
Maud Leps, named for Kev J, C. Leps, the chaplain 
of the 81st Virgiuia Regiment, now Mrs R, C. Mc- 
Candlish, cashier of the Pocahontas Bank; Sallie 
Glenn, now Mrs S. B. Scott, of Marlinton; Walter H, 
lives in Cheyenne, and is a clerk in the emyloy of the 
Union Pacific Railway, His wife was Mabel Tupper. 
William Edgar Yeager died while holding the position 
of paymaster's clerk at Washington. At Hie same 
time he pursued a course of medical studies, and had 
about finished with credit half of the four years pre- 
scribed course wlien hie health failed. He died Nov. 
26, 1896. Paris Uameron Yeager spent some years 



at Oheyeuiie, Wj-oiiiiug, in the service of the Pacific 
Express Coiiipany and the Continental Oil Coinpauv- 

Hon H. A. Yeager was a Confederate soldier in the 
3l8t Virpinia Regiment, aud was in all the engage- 
ments except when disabliKl hy wounds. He has rep- 
resented his county in the legislature, and was special 
agent of the National Land Office during the first 
Cleveland administration, and was stationed at Chey- 
enne, Wyoming, He was among the first to boom 

Brown McLannu Yeagor mairied Harriet Elizabeth 
Arbogast, and they live at Marlinton. Their children 
ara J. Walker Yei'^r a:id L^/fii A, YiX^a; lawyers; 
Dr John M. Yeager, Sterling, Bruce, and Paul Mc- 
<iraw, and the dangliters are Daisy, now Mrs W, B. 
Sharp; Texie, Brownie, and (loldie. Mr Yeager is 
local manager for the Pocahontas Dovelopment Com- 
pany, He has surveyed many thousand acres of land 
in Pocahontas and has served as commissioner of 
school lands. 

Paul McNeel Yeager married Huldah Arbogast and 
tives on the pioneer homestead opened up by Adam 
Arbogast. His children are Pearl, Lucy, Mamie, 
Jewall, FrjJjrisk, aui CliiitJii, He \i\i a g^'j^c repu- 
tation as a hunter. His portrait in hunting garb and 
a sketch of his exploits have appeared in one of tlie 
hunting journals. 

John Yeager,' the third, was a person of more than 
ordinary endowments. By a patient course of studies, 
mainly self directed, pursued at times when he couki 
get an hour's leisure from manual labor, he became 



qualifiiHl for tlu' ilutibs of a surveyor. He was deputy 
surveyor for a number of years, associated with Samp- 
son L. Mathews, who was the first surveyor of Poca- 
hontas County. He was in subRef^ucnt years associat- 
ed witli Colonel Paul McNeo! and George Editiiston in 
Bearcliitig for vftcant lands, and under their direction 
made entries comprising acres that even now have a 
fabulous sound in our eitr» — as to their extent and 

When Colonel Rust, of the 3d Arkansas Regiment, 
became acquainted with Mr Yeager he was so favora- 
bly impressed by his intelligence and experience as to 
select him for the perilous duty of reconoit«ring the 
Federal fortifications on the summit of Cheat Moun- 
tain. The Colonel left his encampment in the most 
secret way possible, and with John Yeager as pilot 
and solitary companion, approached the Federal en- 
campment unobserved and succeeded in passing into 
and throughout the garrison, Tnade careful observations 
of the character and position of the defence, and with- 
drew without arousing suspicion as to the purpose of 
their presence in the camp. With the knowledge thus 
obtained, Colonel Rust planned the assault he soon 
after attetnpted to make, but owing to high water and 
other obstacles, time was lost, and the Federal officers 
were thus enabled to learn what was going on, and 
they made preparations accordiugly. When this be- 
came apparent to Colonel Rust he withdrew without 
making the assault, as had been so skillfully planned 
at the extreme personal risk of himself and his trusted 
guide, John Yeager. 



A few niODtlin after this perilous adventure Joliii 
Yeager died, December, 1861, aged 48 years. Wlieu 
tht) battle uf Allegbaiiy was fought iit that same mouth 
the balls seemed to fall like hail upou tlie roof, but 
uoue of the inmates were touched. 

The first cottage prayer meeting the writer remem- 
bers was at the home of Abram Diitiield. Early one 
Sabbath in May, the writer's parents with their four 
children came to the DufBeld home to attend the meet- 
ing that had been announced. No one had yet arrived 
when we reached the place. Upon enteriog the porch 
voices were heard witliin as if persons were engaged in 
reading or prayer. Standing by the door and listen- 
ing we found that it was the venerable Abram Duffield 
reading to his invalid wife the account given by Saint 
Jklathew of our Redeemer's temptation iji the wilder- 
ness. He was reading. at the uioinent where it is 
written: "He shall give His angels charge concerning 
thee and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest at 
any time thou dash thy foot against a stone." Tlien 
she remarked: "Oh, that is so good; how encouraging 
it is for poor me." Finally the venerable man resum- 
ed and then prayed after reading. "Then the Devil 
leaveth him, and behold angels came and ministered 
unto him. Then again the same one observed: "Oh, 
how good to hear that onr Lord gained the victory. 
How safe it makes one feel to have him for our Savionr 
who is BO loved by the angels." There seemed to be 


iiiiitiiAl iTJi>ieiii2 over the RedeeiiK'r's victory, and if 
tlic beiiotits of this victory had hoeii for these two old 
people alone, th^ir t^atisfactioii cmild not have been. 
Bconiingly. more real. When silence intervened we 
knockc<) at the door and were told to come in. There 
were the two old people, and no one else, in the room. 
It was not long, however, before quite a number as- 
sembled, and the cottage pray«r meeting was qnite a 
spirited one- 

Abrani Duffield is believed to have come from the 
lower Valley, during the RevoUition or soon after, and 
at the time referred to was living on the farm now oc- 
cupied bj Newton Diiftield. The venerable Mrs Diif- 
field was Hannah Moore, daughter of Moses Moore, 
the well known pioneer. 

From Mrs Catherine Kellison, on tlie Dry Branch of 
Swago, we gathered the following particulars. 

Andrew Uuffield was the eldest son of Abram JJuf- 
field's family. ■ He married Jane Moore, daughter of 
Robert Moore, Senior. In reference to Andrew Dnf- 
ficld's family, we learn that Robert M. Duffield lives 
in Jackson County, West Virginia, William Dnftield, 
a Union soldier, died during the war at the homo of 
Jacob Waugh in Barbour County. Andrew Duffield, 
Junior, died of fever at the age of sixteen years. Re- 
becca Jane Duffield is now deceased. Eliza Dnffiehl 
became the wife of Captain Walton Allen of Clover 
Creek, who was a well known scont in the late war be- 
tween the States. Catherine Duffield was married to 
Clark Kellison, near Buckeye, a Union soldier under 
Sheridan. He was also on detached service on the 



wewtern plains after the war in the U. S. Cavalry. He 
received his discharge just in time to escape the Custer 

John liuffield, son of Abram, the pioneer, married 
Kebecca Sijarp, daughter of John Sharp, Senior. Mr 
Dnffield settled at the Mill property on Stony Creek, 
but Ilia later years were spent on the farm where his 
father Abram ]ia<l lived and died. His sons were 
Hamilton, Wenley, Newton — who lives on the old 
homestead; — Emory, and McKendree in Colorado. 
Andrew, a bright and beantiful little boy, the pet and 
pride of the household, was at play on the porch. His 
mother was basiiy sewing just inside the door, not six 
feet away. Wondering what was keeping Andrew so 
qniet, she turned to the door and found liim dead- 
strangled by the crupper of her saddle. The shock was 
such that she never fully recovered frojii the effects, 
though she lived for more than fifty years aftei-wards. 

Sarah Jane DufHeld became the wife of Joseph 
Moore, son of the late Addison Moore, 

Nancy Ellen Duffield was married to the late Mar- 
celtus Ratlifi, and now lives on a portion of the old 
homestead near tireen hill school house. 

William Duflield, son of Abram and Hannah Duf- 
field, married Hannah Brock, daughter of Thomas 
Brock, He nettled near the Sulphur Spring. The 
property is at present occupied by William Gay, whose 
wife, Martha (iay, is a daughter of William Duffield, 
Mr Gay was a Union soldier, and had remarkable ad- 
ventures while escaping from the army below Rich- 
mond, and making his way with five or aix others 



tliroii^li Enst Virfriiiia. the Vallev, the mountains of 
Bath and Pocahontas back to Stonv Creek, 

Caroline Dutfieh) was married to George Auldridfre. 
Tliev are living in Iowa, having the eomforta of a 
proBpcrous home. 

Hannah DntBeld was married to David Cochran and 
lives at tlie end of Droop Mountain. 

One of William Duffield's daughters died in early 
yonth of what was called the "cold ptague," but judg- 
ing from reported symptoms it would be called now 
"congestive chills." 

This hard working man, William Duffield, finally 
met Iiis death by a tree falling upon him which he was 
chopping for browse. Th^ snow was quite deep, and 
when the family became uneasy that he did not come 
to dinner, Rebecca, the eldest of the family, went to 
see what was the reason. She fomid him dead under 
the tree, buried iu the snow. She told what had hap- 
pened, and other members sf the family hastened to 
the neighboring homes for assistance. Rebecca went 
back and chopped the large tree in two, and had the 
log rolled away before any one had time to get there, 
and was holding her poor dead father's head in her 
arms, Rebecca now resides in Kansas, and is report- 
ed to be living in very comfortable circumstances, 

Mary Duffield became the wife of Alexander Moore 
and went to the west. 

The writer cherishes very tender recollections of 
John Duffield, the honest and faithful miller, whom he 
met 80 frequently at mill when a mere youth. A few 



jiiontl»8 before tlie venerable man's death we met after 
a separation of more than thirty years. It was at a 
sacramental service, and during tlie recess we met ami 
conversed for some time. He feelingly expressed tlie 
pleasure it gave him to meet once more in this life. 
From what I can learn thia was abont the last time my 
venerable fi-iend ever put to hie lips the visible cup of 


For more than a hundred years the Wanless name 
has been a familiar one in our region of country. Ac- 
cording to tradition vaguely entertained, Kalph and 
Stephen Wanless, natives of England, came to Virgin- 
ia and settled on the Wanless place, near Mount Tabor 
school house, iu the "Hills," live miles north of Hun- 
tersville. One of Ralph's sons was William Wanless, 
who married Nancy Wilson, from near Fort Defiance, 
Virginia. She was a sister of the wife of I^aac Moore, 
Senior, of Knapps Creek. They settled on Back Al- 
leghany, and were the parents of nine daughters and 
seven sons. The daughters were Rachel, Jane, Eliza, 
Martha, Nancy Ann, Mai-garet who died aged 7 yeai-s, 
Mary died aged 15 years, Melinda who was drowned 
when a young woman in Leatherbark Creek, and Ma- 
tilda. The sons were James, Andrew, Nelson, Ralph, 
Allen, and two unnamed who died in infancy. 

Rachel, the eldest daughter, married the late John 
Logan, and settled in Randol])h County, lived awhile 
in Barbour County, and tinally located on Alleghany. 



Mr Logan was a vtiry vstiinablu citizen, a ruling elder 
in tilt.' Prewbj'terian clnirch, and a very skillful cabinet 
maker, and an n])right peruun in his dealings. In re- 
ference to till' Logan family these particulars are giv- 
en: Nancy Jane Logan is on Back Alleghany. Eliza 
Ann I.^>gan becainti Mrs £nos Curry, and lives near 
the homestead. Mary Elizabeth Logan was married 
to John Curtio, and settled on Back Alleghany. Re- 
becca Logan married James Galford, and lives on 
Back Alleghany, Ina Josephine Logan was married 
to Samuel Renick Hogsett and lives on Browns creek. 
Preston Logan died at the age of seven, and William 
Logan when three years old. 

Jdne Wauless was married to the late David Mc- 
Laughlin near Driftwood. 

Eliza Wauless was married to the late Cliesley K. 
K, Moore, of Dnnmore, and now lives on Alleghany. 

Martha became Mrs Henry Nottingham, 

Nancy Ann marriwl P. Nicholas and moved to Min- 
nesota, where she now lives, 

Matilda Wanless was married to William Oassell, on 
Greenbrier River, a few miles east of Greenbank. 

The Rev James Wanless, a brother of William Wan- 
less, was in his day widely known as a minister of the 
M. E. Church, and in the last years of his life was in 
the pale of the M. P. Church. Early in life he mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Sharp, daughter of John Sharp, 
Senior, one of the original settlers near Frost, and set- 
tled on Thorny Creek at the place owned at this .time 
by Newton Fertig. Sometime in the twenties James 
Wanless cleared considerable land. His brother Ste- 



plien waa a blackamitli, and lived on Back Cieok near 
the Irvine Brick Hoose, While tiding to shoe a re- 
fractory lierse belonging to Squire John Hamilton, 
about sixty years ago, lie was instantly killed. His 
stfns were John F., William, and James. Rev James 
Wanless adopted the three nephews and reared them 
to manhood. In the meantime he prospered tiuancial- 
ly, and bought from James Sharp the pi-operty now 
occupied by John F. Wanless. In connexion with his 
farming enterprises, James Wanless operated two mills 
and prospered enough to accumulate a very respectable 
competency for those times. 

James Wanless was a zealous local preacher, and 
rarely ever spent a silent Sabbath. He seemed to have 
had great admiration for John the Baptist as a model 
backwoods preacher. It was evidently his belief tliat 
it was his duty Co lift up a voico in the Pocahontas wil- 
derness against the. vanities of the times. His spirit 
would be deeply stirred by the advent of a new fashion 
and then he would look up Mathew xi, S for his text: 
"But what went ye out for to see 't A man clothed in 
soft raiment ? BehoM they that wear soft clothing are 
in king's houses." 

While commenting on the wearing of soft raiment 
then the preacher would asiSign to the fashions and the 
vices their portion ii> due season, as he thought it was 
needed. "Now just consider what I say, my brethren 
and hearers. How would John the Baptist have look- 
ed in a swallow tailed coat, pointed toed shoos, pipe, 
whiskey bottle, and stovepipe hat, et cetera!" The 
devout people felt it would have been out of the quos- 



ti<!n for Joliii to Imve been foml of siicli tilings, and 
Niaiiv of tliu younger pt'Oplti from llieir talk evideutly 
llumglit tliat to be in tlie fasliion wan to make a long 
Mtep in a downward career. 

Wliile it iH liard to snppresn onr smiles, still it must 
be acknowleJgud \t 1ie:i it was felt to be a 
(')iristiau duty to be plain tind ueonoiiiicd, it saved a 
vast deal of neadless expenditure, and to rear a family 
and fnniish a passable home was not the heavy, per- 
plexing business it is now. 

Ralph Wanless, Junior, tirat married Anna Poage, 
ihiiighter of O, W. Poage of the Levels. After living 
in Iluntursville several years as thr village blacksmith, 
he located on the homestead at Mount Tabor. Their 
children were George Poage, Hopkins, Milum, Sani- 
nel, and Margaret. 

John Wanleae niarrie<l Elizabeth Bridger, and set- 
tled in Lewis County. Mrs Wanless was noted for her 
skill in nursing the sick, and her services were in de- 
mand far nnd near. Sick people had so much conti- 
dence in her that they seemed to think there was no 
danger of dying if Mrs could be had in time. 

Most all the Wanless brothers were industrious and 
skillful workers in iron, acquired from their father, ' 
who seems to have been a genius in that line of indus- 
try, so useful to the people in pioneer and later times. 
When Ralph Wanless and his sons wrought at the anvil 
and caused the primitive forests to ring with their 
strong and resonant striking of hammers and sledges, 
their business was of essential importance. In their 
times most of the implements used in clearing lands, 



cultivating the gi-ouiid, and building houses were made 
at home. In the pioneer shops, and for ^vears subse- 
quently were forged axes, hoes, bIioygI plows, buU- 
tongues, coulters, brush hooks, seng hoes, mattocks, 
broad axes, frows, grubbing hoes, pot liooks and pot 
bangers, kettle bales, log chains, double trees, single 
trees, door hinges and latches, and other articles. 

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing. 
Onward through life he goes, 

Each morning sees some task begun. 
Each evening sees its close — 

Something attempted, something done 
Has earned a night's reprise. 

Thanks, thanks to thee, my wortliy friend, 
For the lesson thou bast taught : 

Thus at the flaming forge of life 
Our fortunes must be wrought, 

Thus on the soundiug anvil shaped 
Each burning deed and thought. 

—The Village Blacksmith. 


Among the pioneer settlers of the Edray disti-iet the 
Drinn(ms are believed to have been among the vary 
first. Fi-om what the venerable James McCollaiii, a 
grandson of Lawrence Drinnon, remembers there wei-e 
three brothers, Charles, Lawrence, and Thomas, sons 
of Walt<>r Drinnon from Ireland. It is more than 
probable tbey came here about the time John McNcel 



unci t)ie Kiiniifoii brotliura had imtilt; tlifir ^uttlumuiit 
in tlie ravels, for tliey cauio from the wanie county 
and iiuitElilxirlioiid. 

Lawrt-ncu Urimiim nt-ltli;;! tin tlie (ireiMibriur nbuve 
the nioiitli of Stony Crtwk. His wit'o was a ine^nber 
of the l).iy f<i:ni!y, leferro.l t> in thy Kiniii^on papar, 
hut her name id not leiiK-nihcri'd. Their children wei-e 
Janieu, Chailee, John, Siiisan, and Hully. 

Susan married John Bo^jjs, and lived for yuars in 
the Meiwl<iwH of Greenbrier. Mr Boggs was engaged 
f»»r a long time with Charled McCluug, a noted Green- 
brier grazier and stock dealer, and prospered in busi- 
ness. From (.iroenbrier he went to Putnam County, 
eutere<l 16,000 acres of land, and founded the notable 
Boggs settlement by situating Win sons and daughter:) 
around him, 

Sally Urinnon bticame Mrs William McCollam, and 
lived on Bucks Mountain. 

John Drinnon married hiu cousin Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Drinn(m, the Edray pioneer, and open- 
ed up the pi-opeity lately owned by Tiionias Auldridge, 
Senior. His sons were Thomas, Lawrence, Junies, 
and John. Thomas Drinnon married Rebeeca (irimes 
and lived in Huntersvilie, keeping jail and slioeiuak- 
ing. Finally hf went to Harrison County. Two of 
his sons were with the Union cavalry engaged in the 
battle of Droop Mountain. Lawrence Drinnon mar- 
ried Bettie Katliif, and moved to Koane County. 
James Drinnon went to Jiicliolas County. John Drin- 
non went to Clay County, and was a teacher of schools 
in Clay and Nicholas counties. 



John Drinnoti, of Lawrence, was a soldier in the 
war of 1812, and was in camp near Norfolk. One 
damp day lie was out on dress parade, rather too early 
after an attack of measles, took a relapse and died 
soon after. 

At that time the iate William (ray, Senior, was a 
youth living at Josiah Brown's, He had been to mill 
on Knapps Creek and was returning home after sun- 
down, and it was getting dusk as lie came near the 
place where the gate opens leading to Thomas Auld- 
ridge'e present residence. The way to Browna went 
up tlie crest of the ridge on the side of which are the 
traces of the John Drinnon residence yet to be seen. 
The horse suddenly st<)p|)ed, and the mill boy looked 
to see what it was, and there in a fence corner he saw 
John Driunon, wrapped in a blanket, and seemed to 
be taking his i-est, but before be could spenk to him 
the horse started off at headlong speed, and be coidd 
not check him up before reaching Brown's. He told 
the family he had seen John Drinnon on his way 
home, and now they would hear news from the war. 
Upon going to Drinnon's however it was found that 
he had not come in, and when they looked for him he 
could not be found. 

The whole matter remained a mystery until David 
Cochran and John R. Flemmer.s returned bringing the 
news of Drinnon's death. Upon comparing the time 
of nis decease with the time Gay saw the apparition at 
the side of the road, there was a striking coincidence. 

Thomas Drinnon, brother of Lawrence the pioneer, 
settled at Edray, After liim Drinnon's Ridge is nam- 



cil, and 80 lie lias a iiiomiLiiunt a» eudiiring iib theever- 
lactiiig liilla. Ho iimdu tli« first opening wliere the 
villago of Edra; now atauds aud owtiod inucli of the 
land that coiii[>risu the attractive farm homes that pre- 
sent Hiicli a charming scene when vijwed from the -big 
turn' on the njotiiitaiii road, whence is unfolded some 
of the most pictm-esqe mountain scenery in our county. 
Near where his house stood had been a favorite camp- 
ing plaue for Indians, and many intone relics in later 
years have been found in the tields thereabouts. A 
fine, bold spring is one of the features of th<i place, 
near William Sharp's prenent residence. Thomas 
Drinnou's home was broken np by Indians and his 
wife carried away prisoner and cruelly murdered on 
Elk Mountain, several miles from her home. Tlie 
names of his sons wore Jacob, William, and James. 

Jacob Drinnon married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Smith, on Btoney Creek, and settled in Nicholas coun- 
ty. William Drinnon lived in Nicholas county. 

James Driunan settled in Muskingum county, Ohio. 
He seems to have been deeply interested in legends 
concerning silver on Elk Mountain, at a locality called 
Hickory Ridge, It is belived he returned from Ohio 
and spent quite a while in efforts to identify the place, 
but was not able to make the find he was after. 

Charles Drinnon, believed to have been a youngei- 
brother of Thomas and Lawrence was in Indian captiv- 
ity for several years. When redeemed and brouglit 
home he frequently complained of it, as if he was sor- 
ry to leave hia captors so attached he seemed to have 
become to Indian usages, manners and customs. It is 



hinted too tliat thwio might have been an attriictive 
young squaw in the question, a daughter of HOine tribal 
chief, but we will leave this for wliat it may be worth 
as a romantic confecture. At any rate he seemed sick 
about something and he always had a good word for 
the Indian friends of his youth. One of the nice and 
pleasant things about Indian habits in his estimation 
was that his oid friends make their fires, took the good 
of them and were never in a hurry about their business 
of any kind. His name is perpetuated by a field now 
owned by Anderson Barlow, The legend is that this 
field was cleared by Charles Drinnon, and was proba- 
bly the first opening on Hazel Ridge, It is now desig- 
nated as the "Charley Field." 

The compiler has recently learned from a very au- 
thentic source some particulars which he hopes the rea- 
der may notice and correct a statementelsewhere made 
about Mr Baker, who was killed by an Indian, being 
named James and a school teacher. His name was 
Henry Baker and he was doing a job of clearing for 
Lawrence Drinnon. Kichard Hill was employed in 
raising the house a story higher and putting on a new 
roof, Patrick Slator was the sehool teacher and one 
of his pupils was the late Mrs Sally McCollam. Law- 
rence Drinnon had recently set out some apple trees 
he had carried from Hardy county. Early in the mor- 
ning of Baker's death some one was seen among these 
trees and it wis snpp.>3ad to be Slator pulling up tli,! 
weeds and grass, it turned out however to be an In- 
dian warrior. Soon as night came after the shooting 



of Baker, Nathan, a colored servant bili i^iiM t > 
r^awreiice Driiiiion, was sentaci'ostt the river into Mar- 
lin Mountain, croAsin^ Knapps (reek at Leydou Bot- 
tom, then following Bnckley Mountain, cane to 
Greenbrier at Stephen Cave R;i:i, anil t!ieuc3 weut t> 
thufort at Millpoiut, loeatetl wliere Isaac McNeel's 
residence now atands. 


Robert Moore was a son of Moses Moore, the dis- 
tingnisiied pioneer. He was born May 27, 1772, aiid 
was i-eared on Knapp^ Creak, His wife w.n Rsbecca 
McCollarn, of Brown's Mountain, near Drisco!. After 
living a number of years on tlie (ireanbiier at tlie 
Bridger place, lie moved to Edray on the Dreunou 
opening. They were the parents of five sous, Isaac, 
Robert. Andrew, James, William, and one daughter, 
Jane, who became Mrs Andrew Uuffield and lived at 
the head of 8toney Creek, now owned by the Uelaii- 
ey family who recently moved into our county. 

Isaac Moore married Catherine (liltilan and settled 
at Edray wliere S. B. Moore lives. In their family 
were three sons and live daughters. Mary Ann be- 
came Mrs Amos Barlow, first wife; Rebecca became 
Mrs David Hannah; Elizabeth is Mrs Bryson Hannah, 
near Frost; Eveline became Mrs Paul Sharp; Julia is 
now Mrs William Sharp. 

Allen Taylor Moore married Mary Catherine (ray, 
daughter of the late Robert Gay and Mrs Bettie Gay. 



He lives near Edray, His childreo are John Keniiey, 
Evansville, Iiidiana; Robert, in Butte City, Mootana; 
Georgia Miami, who was the late Mrs Isaac Sharp; Al- 
wilda Nebraska, now Mrs John Young; and Lula Eliz- 
abeth, now Mrs Davis Barlow. 

William Rives Moore married Ruth Gay, and lived 
near Edray. He was a person greatly respected. His 
sympathies were with the Union adherents, and he 
died at Wheeling during the war, after many vicissi- 

Samuel Bryson Moore married Ann Sharp and lives 
on the Edray homestead, and is a farmer and mer- 
chant. Mrs EiBe Barlow and Mrs Flora Oay are his 

Andrew Moore fell from a tree near the sugar camp 
Ht the Bridger place in early youth, and was instantly 

William Moore, upon attaining his majority, went 
to Ohio, where he rose to eminence as a physician and 
became widely known as a preaching elder in the 
Church of the Disciples. 

James R. Moore, upon hie marriage with Mrs Jane 
Funkhonser, of Rockbridge County, lived some years 
on part of the homestead. He thence moved to Brax- 
ton County. His children were Porteriield, Ephraim, 
and Mary Ellen. The latest information the friends 
Iiave of his sons they were arranging for a trapping 
and bunting excursion to the Rocky Mountains. They 
had previously bunted a great deal in the Williams 
River wilds and were quite successful. The mantle of 
their eminent ancestor, Moses Moore, seems to have 



faDeii oti tliein. 

Kobert Moore, Juiiior, iimrried Eliza Bruflfey, a 
graod-tlaugliter of Richard Hill, the pioneer. After 
living; on the Edraj homestead many years he moved 
to Iowa. . His sons are Franklin, Moses, and (ieorge. 

Franklin D. Moore married Sallie Young, and re- 
sides at Fort Scott, Kansas. 

Moaes C. Moore married Snsan Liverniore, and after 
a brief reuidence at Edray, moved to Kansas. He is a 
telegraph operator. Mrs Moore is a teacher. 

George P. Miwre first married Lizzie Poage, and 
settled on a section of the Edray homestead. Hi» sec- 
ond marriage was with Mrs Ruth Moore. He is a local 
elder in the pale of the M. E. Church, a successful 
merchant and grazier, proficient as a mechanic, (Coro- 
ner of the county, and has been commissioner of the 
courti and President of the Pocahontas Bank. 

The property owned by Robert Moore waa first 
opened by Thomas Drinnon, and is one of the earliest 
settlements in this regions. The Drinuon tract must 
have included thousands of acres. The quality of the 
land is of the l)est, much of it spontaneously sodding 
in bluegrass when timber is belted. Parties who know 
are rather reticent as to the precise spot occupied by 
the Drinnon cabin home, since surveying parties have 
been so anxious to locate it. It will be remembered 
that Thomas Drinnou's home was broken up and some 
of his family killed and carried into captivity by the 

When Robert Moore took possession bnt a few acres 
were cleared. He and his sons made extensive im- 



proveineiitB of a very subetaDtisl character. He erect- 
ed a comuioiJiouB two story brick buildiiig, the first 
aD<ton]y building of its kiod in tbe viciuity. The site 
ie very near William Sharp's residence, and much of 
the brick was used in the new building. A Held just 
beyond William Sharp's in the direction of Elk is 
thought to have been one of the first to be cultivated. 

It is more than likely that the first time Eobert 
Moore overset foot on lands some day to be his own, 
was when he came from the east with Itis father and 
others in pursuit of French surveyors and their Indian 
guides. An Indian was killed and a Frenchman 
wounded near where the two prongs of the Indian 
Draft converge. It has not been so many years since 
human remains were unearthed near that place. It is. 
the impression of some, t«o, that it was the dispersion 
of this exploring party that originated the legends of 
hidden treasures in two or three localities of onr coun- 
ty, some near Millpoint others near Marlinton. 

Robert Moore was the worthy son of a worthy fath- 
er. Everybody had confidence in "Uncle Bobby," 
and when lie went hence to be uo more, genuine tears 
embalmed the memory of the kind, honest, and brave 
old settler. 


One of the sacred duties resting on the living is to 
preserve memories of worthy citizeus now deceased, 
and heed the lessons illustrated, that may stimulate 
and encourage useful endeavors to have similar aims 



ii; our own lives. 

"For as the light 
Not onlj servfcs to show but render us 
Mutually profitable; so our lives, 
lu acts exemplary, not only win 
Ourselves gootl names, but do to others give 
Matter for virtuous deeds by which we live." 

The aim of this article is to perform audi a service 
with reference to Squii'e Isaac Moore, whose name ap- 
pears in the first records of our couuty, and was asso- 
ciated with its history for forty years. 

He was born March 2, 1800, at the "Bridgerplace" 
four or five miles east of Edray. He grew up familiar 
with many of the privations of pioneer life, but wae 
happily exempt from the risks and perils that were 
Buch features of the times a few years previously from 
Indian raids. 

The surroundings of his home were picturesque: the 
river with its rapid waters of crystal purity, the over- 
hanging hills that bordered the wooded valley where 
the log home stood, made a scene that would attract 
notice anywhere. It was only one place among hun- 
dreds to be found in a vast expansive region to which 
Homer's famous line about Ithaca would apply: 

"A rough wild nurse land, whose crops were men.'" 

Here Mr Moore lived snd toiled until early manhood. 
The greatest sorrow of his young life was when he saw 
his brother Andrew buried. He was killed by falling 
from a tree near the sugar camp, while members of the 



family were stirring off a kettle of sugar. In 1820 
Robert Moore, his fatlier, moved his family to Edray 
and built uear the noted J>rinnon Spring. Soon after 
thia eliange leaac Muore married Mies Catherine GilH- 
land, daughter of Sqnire John Gilliland, whose resi- 
dence was on top of the mountain overlooking Mill- 

The young people soon settled in the woods near the 
old home. Not a tree was cut before Mr Moore be- 
gan to clear ont a place for a house, garden, and grain 
patch. Three times a day the yonng wife would go to 
the Driuuon spring, nearly a mile away, to attend the 
milking, churning, and getting things for table use. 

Mr Moore was fond of books and was anxious to be- 
come s good scholar. He diligently improved bis op- 
portunities, and with such assistance as lie received 
from an old field school teacher he mastered what was 
called the three '-K's" — Rithmetic, Reading, and Rit- 
ing. Fortunately for him Colonel John Baxter, a near 
neighbor, had what is believed to have been the largest 
and best collection of books in the county, probably as 
many as one hundred volumes — history, travel, fiction, 
and poetry. He bad the use of these books at -will, 
and thus his taste for reading was in a measure grati- 
fied until he could procure ample reading elsewhere. 

For a good many winters young Moore taught 
school in a house near the present residence of Geoi^e 
Baxter, It was of the pioneer style, built of mihewn 
logs, chinked and daubed, roofed with boards, kept in 
place by press poles, one end taken up by the chimney 
of sticks and clay. A window extended the entire 



length of ODe side, lighted with greased paper, a sub- 
stitute for glaas. 

The Barlows, Moores, Baxters, Duucarie, Smiths, 
and Diiffields were the chief patrons of the school dur- 
ing the years of his service. To promote order aod 
discipline the yoiiug teacher cut a liaw switch of por- 
teDtious length and placed it in view of the whole 
school, and for a time the effect appeared salutary. 
One day, however, just as play time was over and the 
scholars were gathering in, the teacher was an'anging 
a backlog, and while in a stooping position one of the 
scholars took down the switch and dealt the teacher a 
stinging blow across the shoulder and side of the head. 
He skipped out of the door and ran at the top of his 
speed through the woods with the teacher iu hot pur- 
suit. In about a half mile the fugitive was overtaken, 
and the first impulse was to punish him by wearing 
out the switch. The recreant scholar seemed so sorry 
and plead so piteously that the teacher relented and 
agreed to let him off that time. He became a good 
boy and gave no more trouble. 

At the first term of the Pocahontas Court Mr Moore 
was appointed a captain of the 127th Regiment of Vir- 
ginia Militia. He seived as magistrate for many years, 
and was high Sheriff when his time came as senior 
member of the court. He was one of the main busi- 
ness agents of bis neighborhood in drawing up wills, 
deeds, writings, and articles of agreement, iu all which 
he excelled. Important changes in the public roads 
suggested by him were made, and new roads were pro- 
jected. At his request a largely attended meeting was 



lield to consider reforms in the schools. So mucli was 
l»e interested in educational affairs that at this meeting 
a Board of Education was organized to supervise the 
schools in the Edraj district, and have theui tanght by 
such teachers aa were examined and approved hy the 
Board. He led a spirited controversy in the effort to 
have silent scliools in place of the noisy vocal schools. 
His point was carried and silent schools became the 
rule. This occurred about the year 1846. 

In politics Mr Moore was a Henry Clay Whig. 
Among his last votes, perhaps his veiy last, he cast for 
the ordnance of secession. During the summer and 
fall of 1861 Edray swarmed with soldiers on the march 
or in the camp. Mr Moore contracted camp fever late 
in the season. About the time he had convalesced 
enough to move about, he was seized by measles of a 
malignant type, from which he died December, 5, 
1861, in the 62dyear of his age. 

Some years previously he avowed hie faith in Christ, 
Until lately the writer of this tribute had a letter writ- 
ten to him while at College by Mr Moore, giving in- 
formation of the great change tliat had come over his 
mind, and of his new desires and heavenly hopes. In 
that letter, too, he expressed a regret that he had not 
borne the cross from his youth, and permitted so many 
years to pass away unmindful of his duty to Christ as 
an open follower. He was a conscientious person 
from his youth to old age. He had the substance, if 
not the form. To the writer and many others his name 
is precious, and will be for years to come. 



His moinory ]onf will live alone 
In all their hearts as mournful light, 
That broods above the falleu Bun 
And dwells in heaven half the uight. 


This paper is devoted to the memory of William 
Moore, the youngest of Moses Moore's sons. It is be- 
lieved by some that the plaee of his birth, (which oc- 
curred September 18, 1784,) was near the McClintic 
Mill on Swago, The locality was indicated quite re- 
cently by some apple trees of great age. His youth 
and early manhood were passed on Knapps Creek. 
After his marriage to Christine Doda, of Rockbridge 
County, he lived for a time near Timber Ridge in that 
county, and then settled permanently on Uazef Ridge, 
on lands now owned by Lee Carter and Anderson Bar- 
low, between one and two miles west of Edray. Tbeir 
family consisted of three sons and two daughters: 
James Elliot, Addison, Alexander, Margaret and Jane. 

Margaret Moore was married to Colonel John W. 
Ruckman, and lived near Millpoint. 

Jennie Moore married Captain William U. Hefner. 
(Captain Hefner was a millwright by occopation, After 
living in Pocahontas some years he located in Fayette 
County. He was a gallant Confederate omcer, an ef- 
fective scout, and finally lost his life in the battle of 
Lewisburg, along with his eldest son Franklin. Mrs 
Hefner now lives in Kansas. Pathetic memories arise 
in the mind as we think of the father and son falling 



aide by side, iniDgling their blood in tieatb on tliB gory 
ground, and then dust to dust in one honored grave. 

Alexander Moore first married Mary Bradshaw, near 
Huntersville, and settled on the homestead. His sec- 
ond marriage was with Mar}' Nuffield, and finally went 
to Kansas. The names of bis children: Lee, Moffett, 
Florence, Susie, Mary Winters, Frankie, aud Elliot. 

Addison Moore, after bis marriage with Elizabeth 
Hannah on Elk, settled on Hazel Ridge, where he liv- 
ed many years- went to Iowa, then retnrned, and died 
at an advanced age at the home of his son, William 
Allen Moore, at Huttonsville a few years since. 

Addison Moore seemed to have been a born physi- 
cian. He acquired by reading and experimenting con- 
siderable medical skill, and rendered mucli valuable 
service to afflicted friends and neighbors. 

James E. Moore was married three times. His first 
wife was Margaret Sutton. Her children were Davis, 
who died in Iowa; John Sntton, a prominent teacher of 
schools in Pocahontas County; Enoch H., a merchant; 
Bryson, Confederate soldier, slain at Gettysburg; Ka- 
chel, wife of the late M. A. Friel; Martha, first wife 
of Andrew Taylor, and lived on Laurel Creek; and 
Agnes, now Mrs Rufus Wheeler of the Baltimore Con- 

Second wife was Mary Buir. Her only son, Wal- 
lace, was drowned at Ronceverte a few years since. 

Third wife was Luemma, daughter of Samuel Har- 
per on Knapps Creek. Her daughter Ella, now Mrs 
Marion White; Birdie, wife of Rev W. H. Baltengee 
of the Baltimore Conference. Lloyd Moore married 



HuHHie Bird, and lives in L^nclibnrg, Va, Frank 
M<H>re inarritH] Anniv Cleek and lives near Millpoint. 
iji*! Moore married Lizzie Hicks, of Bath, and lives at 
tlie Millpoint lionistead. 

Rev James E. Moore wus a busy man of affairs. He 
taught Hcliool in many places at intervals for fifty or 
sixty years, was a local Methodist preacher nearly as 
long, a laborious fanner, and was Commissioner of the 
Kovenue. He is remembered by the old soldiers that 
went out to Grafton with Captain Andrew McNeeFs 
cavalry and Captain 1>. A. Stofer's "Focaliontas Res- 
cues, " for the farewell address that he delivered at 
John Varner's, near Split Rock, one Sabbath morning. 
This scene connected with the departure of these troops 
for the most advanced and exposed post of the Con- 
federate frontier, ready to do and dare, was full of in- 
terest. By the next Sabbath these troops were at Graf- 
ton with their "tin cups and pocket knives," ready to 
do and dare in the nearest north and most exposed of 
all Confederate positions. 

General William Skeenc also made an address in re- 
sponse to Mr Moore's, and some of his words are yet 
fresh in the memories of aged men. In his most im- 
passioned and eloquent manner General Skeeite ex- 
claimed: "If you will attend to the ballot boxes we 
will attend to the cartridge boxes, and we will return 
to enjoy the blessings of liberty amid these green hills, 
bringing our laurels with ns," 

The few persons now remaining that remember Wil- 
liam Moore — "Uncle Billy" as be was called by every 
body — speak of him as the kindest of persons to every 



one. He and Mrs Moore built up a very attractive 
home and reared u nice family. Tins home became 
widely known for open lianded hospitality. 

Mrs Moore, old "Aunt Teenie," as she was so fa- 
miliarly called by the neighbors, was one of the most 
helpful and benevolent of persons in seasons of sick- 
ness or bereavement. She spared no pains day or 
night at all seasons, in vernal showers, in summer's 
heat, in autumn st<irms, or wintry snows, Aunt Tenie's 
skillful hand would be one of the first to bring relief 
when pain and anguish furrowed a neighbor's brow, or 
where the death angel was heard knocking at the door 
of some one's life. Her religious proclivities were de- 
cidedly and very positively presbyterian. 

While not a member of the church, William Moore's 
walk and conversation exemplified all the visible traits 
of genuine Christian principle. In a religious meet- 
ing in the old Hamliu Chapel, some years before his 
decease, he was invited by the class leader, the late 
John R. Duttield, to testify what he thought of the 
Christian religion. William Moore arose in that sol- 
emn and dignitied manner for which he was rather re- 
markable, and stated that he had been a praying per- 
son for fifty years, and had conscientiously tried to live 
with a conscience void of offence towai-d God and man 
and, moreover, it was his heart's desire hereafter to 
live in all good conscience toward the same. This tes- 
timony is remembered as one of the most to the pur- 
pose ever heard in that venerable place of worship. 

When Aaron Mooi-e, on the Greenbrier, his brother, 
was neariug his end, William Moore paid him what 



proved bis final visit. HiB kind heart was eo touched 
at Hooiiig Ilia aged brother so near death that before 
leaving he kuoeled at the bed side and poured out hia 
full heart in prayer and fraternal intercession for his 
jiged djing brother. They then parted to meet no more 
iitive. A more impreHsivc scene is hard to imagine. 

Mrs Moore's death was occasioned by a caiicerons 
alfection. Mr Moore survived her a few years. 

These esteemed persons, so lovely and pleasant in 
their lives, lived to a great age. They have quietly 
gone from us, and are now — with so many others — at 
rest in the I>niKe1d buiying gnmnd. This is a place 
that shrold be carefully and sacredly cared for as Gods 
Acre, planted with so nineli precious, innnortal seed, 
that will some day appear springing up to the praiss 
and glory of our Redeemer's blood. 

During most of the 19th century the Cooper name 
has been familiar in our region. James Cooper, the 
progenitor of the Cooper relationship, was a native of 
Augusta County, and was reared in the Mossy Creek 
section of that great County. Having married Nancy 
Agnes Wooddell, he came over with the Wooddells, 
very early in the settlement of the upper section of our 
county, and opened up property now owned by Robert 
N. Gum, near Greenbank, then known as the Piney 
Woods. They were the parents of four sons and six 



Elizabeth Cooper became Mra Woods, aud settled 
at Greeiihill, Highland Comity. 

Margaret became Mrs Eiiucb Hill and lived in 
Ritchie Oouuty, Her daughter Harriet became Mrs 
Fling, and lived at Flag, Ohio. Nannie became an- 
otlier Mra Fling, and lived in Ritchie County. 

Jane Cooper became Mre Andrew Kerr and lived 
near Diinmore. . Htir daughter Naimie became Mra 
Washington Hoover; Anne, now Mra Raymer Davia, 
near Greenbank; Caroline, now Mrs Gatewi>od Sutton. 
at Durbin, Her son William Kerr in Rocahontaa, and 
John Kerr lives in I^ewis County. 

Lucinda Cooper became Mra John Alexander Gilles- 
pie, late of Greenbank. Her children were Taylor, 
Anioa, and Wiae, the three sons. Her daughters were 
Nancy, who became Mrs George Beverage; Rachel. 
, now Mrs Henry Sheets, near Uunmore; Margaret now 
Mrs John L. Hndson, near Louise, Mary now Mrs 
George Sheets, and Martha. 

Nancy and Melinda are the names of James Coopers 
other two daughtera. Thomas Cooper died in youth. 

John T. Cooper married in Marion County. He waa 
a popular physician. He resided a number of years 
in Parkersburg and then at Glaysviile, where he died 
in 1878. His daughter Flora teaches school in Par- 
kersburg. His son James a foreman in machine shops ' 
at Parkersburg and other points. Another son Arthur 
is a Presbyterian miniater in Illinois, and there are 
three children deceased, 

Dr Cooper read medicine with the late Dr Strather, 
of the Warm Springs. He waa prominent in church 



circles, being a ruling elder in a Parkersburg Presby- 
tcrian cougregatiou. 

JameH Harvey Cooper married Julia Anu Wliitinan, 
of Greeiibriar (.'ouiitj. Tbey were tlie pareuts of five 
Hons and three daughters. The daughters were Agnes 
who died in 1801, Julia Aim, and Rebecca. In refer- 
ence to tlie sous we have this remarkable but sad re- 
cord. They were all Confederate soldiers. Robert 
died hi the war. James lost an arm in battle. John 
and Charles wei-eeach ueverely wounded, and George 
was killed in 1864 in battle nfiar Fishers Hill. 

Joseph W. Cooper marrietl Rachel Tallman Sutton, 
and lived near Grecnbank. They were the parents .of 
four sons and one dauglitcr: Rachel, George Clark, 
James Amos, John William, and Charles Calvin. In 
1803 in the course of three weeks the dipthiretic 
scourge removed the mother, her daughter and three 
sons by death. 

J. W. Cooper's second marriage was with Harriet 
Wade of Bath County. She lived about one year. 

His third marriage was with Mary Arbogast, near 
Glade Hill. Snowden, Walter, and Vivian were the 
children of this marriage. 

The writer would hereby cheerfully acknowledge' the 
thanks due George C. Cooper for assistance rendered 
by him on the wayside, July 1, 1901, when we casu- 
ally met near Mai-vin Chapel and took notes under an 
apple tree, the thermometer 96 degrees. Without the 
data given by this grandson of the venerable pioneer 
this sketch could not have been prepared and the name 
of a moat worthy pioneer would have been overlooked. 



Jamu8 Cooper's name appears in tlie organization of 
the county as one of the constables appointed. He 
served the public as magistrate, assessor, and teacher 
of schools. He was regarded with high esteem for his 
honest and elevated character in social and business re- 
lations. He was a prominent member of the Liberty 
Church in tlie early history of that historic congrega- 
tion, and his influence was ever for good morals, in- 
telligence, and refinement of manners, himself being a 
fine specimen of what is termed "a gentleman of the 
old school," and was noted for his polite and (t;racious 
manners, correct and entertaining conversational pow- 

One of the pioneers of our county from whom quite 
a number of our people trace their descent was Alex- 
ander Waddell. He was of Scotch-Irish descent and 
was among the earliest settlers in the neighborhood of 
Marvin Chapel. His wife was a Miss Rouss, He 
came from A ngusta County before the Revolution, but 
in what year is not certainly known. He came out to 
examine the country, and looked over the Levels and 
the lands beyond Buckeye and around SewalPs Cave, 
and selected the place so long known as the Waddell 
Place, where the public itmd reaches the highest point 
on the mountain in passing from Buckeye to Millpoint. 
When he first explored the Levels all was mainly 
vacant or unclaimed, and he might have entered the 
greater part of it. He concluded it was too level and 


48l) HlSTOKl OF yocj 

^ladj, and so ii« preferred the lands north of Millpoint 
where he could be liigh ennngb to keep in the dry. 

Tlieir daagbter, Martha, married tlie late John Bar- 
low, of Edray, iiieiitioued eleewliere. 

Elizabeth Waddell married William Sharp, near 

Ann Waddell married Squire James Shtu'p of Beaver 
Creek. Each of these sons-in-law of the early pioneer 
are specially mentioned iu this book as men of promi- 
nence in the affairs of the county. 

Mary Waddell married Squire John Gillilan, near 
Millpoint. This large family moved to Missouri, 
where their numerous descendants have their prosper- 
ous homes. 

Jennie Waddell married Josiah Brown, near Edray. 

Miriam Waddell was married to John Thompson and 
moved to Ohio. 

The Waddell sons were John, William, and Alexan- 
der. To give his eons a chance to have their homes 
near lum, the venerable pioneer concluded to move to 
Ohio and settled near (rallipolis. These sons all died 
in Ohio, and their history is not much known to their 
friends iu West Virginia. 

Mr Waddell seems to have been a fervently pions 
person. It was bis intense desire to live one hundred 
years, and he made this desire for longevity a niatter 
of special prayer. He died in Ohio at the age of one 
hundred and two years, thus receiving a full measure 
and more of borrowed time. With long life God sat- 
isfied him, and showed him bis salvation. 

The history of his life shows he had paid good atten- 



tion to Bible leadiug where it is written in the thirtj'- 
fourth FBalin : "What man is he tbat desireth life and 
loveth many days that he may see good i Keep thy 
tongue from evil and thy lips from speaking guile; de- 
part from evil and do good; seek peace and pnrsue it." 
This Psatni was a great favorite with our pious pion- 
eer people, to give tliem consolation in their times of 
danger and distress. 


The Hudson family trace their ancestry to Richard 
Hudson, ■ whose wife was Elizabeth Redden. They 
came from Augusta County early in the century, and 
settled in the woods on the head waters of Sitlingtons 
Creek, on lands now held by their grandsons, War- 
wick B. and John L. Hudson. This land was purchas- 
ed from a Mr Armstrong. A small opening had been 
made by one Posten previously. Mr and Mrs Hudson 
were the parents of seven daughters and three sons. 

Sally and Polly Hudson went to Ohio and married 
and settled in that State. 

Keziah Hudson, of whom the writer has no definite 
information, more than that she was named after one 
of Job^s daughters. 

Kachel Hudson married Dysard and lived in Bar- 
bour County. 

Matilda married Thomas Humphries and lived in 
Barbour Couuty, 

Naomi became Mrs Samuel Mathews, and lived in 
Randolph County. M. U, Mathews, deceased, a 



toaclier and au))erinteiident of Pocaliotitas ecbuols, 
I'lmrlea Matliews and Captain J. W. Matbews, of 
Alvun, West Virginia, are her sons, 

Nancy Hudson first married John Seybert, of High- 
land Comity. Her second marriage was with Andrew 
Lockridge, of Bath County. 

Thomas Hudson went to Missouri, and married and 
settled there. 

Madison Hudson went to Maryland in his yontb, 
and married and reared a lai^e family. He prosper- 
ed in business, and was a citizen of prominence in 
neighborhood and county affairs. 

Elijah Hudson married Margaret Ueaver, daughter 
of James and Sally Deaver, who are believed to have 
been the firat settlers on Back Alleghany. They went 
to housekeeping on the home place, and were the pa- 
rents of five daughters and eight sons: Jackson, Tho- 
mas, William, Warwick, Bird, Davis, Dallas, Paul 
McNeel, John Letcher, Sarah, Harriet, Laura, Nancy 
Jane, and Susan. In reference to the daughters we 
learn the following particulars. 

Sarah died in early youth. 

Harriet became Mrs John E. Gum, and lives near 
Greenhank. Her children are Dolly Bell, now Mrs 
Robert Ralston, in Highland. Nebraska is Mrs Oscar 
Orndorf; Margaret is at home. Charles went to Wis- 
consin. William located in Colorado, and was with a 
party of engineers when he lost his life. Warwick 
operates a lumber train in Upshnv County, 

Laura married Madison Humphries, and lives near 



Nancy Jane became Mrs Levi Beverage, and lived 
on Clover Creek, and was the mother of five eons and 
six danghtere. 

Suean is now Mrs Uriah Bird, and livee at Marlin- 
ton, and is the mother of seven daughters and a son. 

In reference to Elijah Hudson's sons the following 
particulars are in hand: 

William Hndsou was a Union soldier, and settled in 
Missouri, where he married Maggie Palmer, They 
were the parents of four sons and one daughter. Their 
son Frank is in business in Oklahoma. William Hud- 
sou is an eminent physician and banker. He has 
prospered greatly in business, and lives at Union Star, 
De Kalb County, Missouri. 

Paul McNeel Huflson als<) went to Missouri, and 
married Eliza Livingstone. They ai-e both dead, and 
are survived by their daughter Mary, 

Davis Hudson, a Union soldier, settled in the west. 

Dallas Hudson, a gallant Confederate soldier, Slst 
Virginia Infantry, died in battle at Port Republic. 

Warwick Bird Hudson married Nancy Galford, and 
lives on a part of the homestead. Their children are 
William Frank, Mary Koxanna, Jessn Arden, and 
Kachel Cornelia Margaret, W, B. Hudson was a Con- 
federate lieutenant, Slst Virginia Infantry, and served 
in the war from start to finish. 

John Letcher Hudson married Margaret Virginia 
Oillespie, a danghter of the late John Gillespie, and 
resides at the old homestead on Sitlington's Creak. 
They are the parents of six sons and six daughters: 
Marion Conner, Henry Harper, David Warden, Ed- 



wanl Arbuckle, Lntlier Gilbert, William McNeel. 
Ethel Grace, Hattiu Jane, Laura Mattic, Clara Margie, 
Lucy Elizabeth, and Minnie Ruth. 

Kindly' assiHted by Mrs Virginia Hudson, the writer 
has thus been enabled to illustrate in a measure the 
liiHtor^ of ouu of tliG oldest of Pocahontas families. It 
will be noticed that Elijah Hudaou's decendants are 
the main representatives of the relationship now in our 
county. For this reason and others special mention is 
due his memory. 

Elijali Hudson, Esij., represented Pocahontas in the 
Virginia Legislature, was a member of tlie Pocahontas 
Court, and transacted a great deal of neighborhood 
business, writing wills, deeds of conveyance, and arti- 
cles of agreement. He was endowed with natural 
abilities of a high order, and he persistently made the 
most of his limited opportunities for mental improve- 
ment. During his life he taught many terms in the 
Old Field school house for the benefit of his neighbors 
and his own family. 

He was a speaker of more than ordinary fluency. 
The writer heard him on but one occasion, in 1844. 
His manner was instructive and logical. Tbe tones of 
bis voice were soft, and his enunciation was so perfect 
tliat not a word need be mistaken. His aim seemed 
to be to convince and instruct rather than to bo amus- 
ing. It is the impression of some that he never crack- 
ed a joke in his life while making a political address. 
He seemed to take it for granted that everybody was 
sensible like himself, and liked to hear sensible speak- 
ing when the welfare of the country was in question. 



He liad a large pair of saddle bags about full of books, 
political pamphlets, aud clippings from the newspa- 
pers, to which he would frequently refer to illustrate 
and enforce the points he made. Taken altogether, the 
effort was statesmanlike, and much above the political 
harangue so much in vogue at the time. He was a 
Jacksonian Democrat. 

He died after much intense suffering March 4, 1881, 
aged about 80 years. Mrs Hudson survived her hus- 
band until December 31, 1889, when she too passed 
away, aged about 83 years. 

Late in life Mr Hudson became a member of the 
Liberty Church. He witnessed a very satisfactory, in- 
telligent profession of his faith in the atoning blood of 
Christ. The older people tell us that one of the most 
solemn scenes they ever saw at the old Libelty church 
was when Elijah Hudson arose in the presence of the 
congregation, and with a contrite spirit assumed his 
Christian vows before taking his place at the commun- 
ion table, to take the cup of salvation and call upon 
his Lord and Redeemer. 

July 27, 1894, was the last time the writer met the 
late John Sutton, Junior, whose painful death by a 
cancerous affction was mourned by a large circle of at- 
tached friends. Much of the morning was occupied iti 
family reminiscence. His father, John Sutton the 
senior, was a native of Westmoreland County, and 
hence was neighbor of the Washington family. His 



liotiio was on tlie I'otomac not far from Mownt Ver- 
nou. For Hori)e yearn John Sutton, Senior, was oian- 
Hger for Jacob Warwick at tlie Dunmore farm, late in 
tim last century. Finally he bonght land and settled 
wh€>re his son, John Sutton, Junior, lived. Mrs Snt- 
ton waa Rachel Gillispie, daughter of Jacob (rillispie. 
wlio ownod nearly all the land in sight of Greenbank 
looking north and east. Mrs Jacob Gillispie was Re- 
becca Berry, a half sister of Mary Vance Warwick, 
the widow Berry having married Mr Vance, who lived 
at Monntnin Grove. Jacob GiUiapie's family consist- 
ed of nine daughters and six sons. 

John Sutton, Senior, paid a visit to hia old home on 
the Potomac where it is said to be twelve miles across. 
His friends seemed astonished when he told them he 
had seen the head spring and drank of its water on 
Laurel Fork, near what is known as the Wilfoug Set- 


Among the names identified with our county's his- 
tory that of Tallman has figured prominently for more 
than a hundred years, and while there are scores of 
our citizens with Tallman blood in their veins, yet the 
name is borne by but few anymore; as so many have 
moved away to other counties and western States. 

The Tallman relationship trace their ancestry to 
James Tallman, who was a native of Augusta County. 
Hiu first marriage was with Nancy Crawford, of that 
county, and soon afterwards settled on property west 



of Greenbaiik, now held by Joseph Beard, the heirs of 
Adam Arbogast, aod Dr Moomau. This must have 
becD before the Revolution, as all the probabilities 
poiut to that conclusion. There were in the first fami- 
ly three sons and two daughters: Rachel, Rebecca, 
Beujainin, William, and Boone. 

Rachel was married to Peter Hull, of Highland, who 
was a sou of Adam Hull, 

Rebecca was married to Reuben Slaven. 
Benjamin Tallman married Elizabeth Warwick, and 
Hsttled on property now owned by Captain Biple. The 
names of hia children William, James, Robert, John, 
Cyrus, and Nancy, who became Mrs Benjamin Tall- 
man (son of Boone) and lives in Illinois. 

Benjanuu Tallman was a colonel of the I2?th regi- 
ment, a member of the comt, represented the county 
in the Virginia House of Delegates, and was for many 
years a ruling elder in the Liberty Presbyterian 
clmrcli, and a justice of the peace. 

William Tallman married Jane Bradshaw, and set- 
tled on a section of the Tallman homestead. It was 
tlieir son James Tallman who was the successor of 
Henry Motfett in the clerkship of Pocahontas courts. 

Boone Tallman, the third son of the early settler, 
went to the Levels often euough to win the aflEectione 
<if Mary Poage, daughter of George W. Poage. Their 
children were George, James, Benjamin, who met his 
death by drowning, and Rachel Ann, who became Mrs 
Enoch Burner. 

In reference to the second marriage of James Tail- 
man, Senior, we learn that his second wife was 



Jeitiiiua Gillispie. Their children were Jane, Nancy. 
Margaret. Sally, Samuel, and James. 

Jane Tallman became Mrs William Arbogast and 
settled at Ureeiibank on the estate now owned by Dr 
Mooman. Their children were William, Jaaies, 
George, Alcinda, who married Isaac Moore, near 
Dnmnore, Margaret, who became Mrs David Maiipiii, 
first marriage, and Mrs Thomas Manpin, second mar- 
riage, a much esteemed lady— lately deceased. It was 
her son Harvey Maupin whose tragic death occurred 
near Marlintoii in 1898, while sliding logs. Nannie 
Arbogast the youngest, became Mrs Dr J. P. Mooniau 
and lives near Grceubank on the liomestead. E. 8. 
Moomau, pharmacist at Lewisburg, Dr L. H. Mooman 
at Greenbank, James Mooman, Mary, now Mrs Dr C. 
L. Austin, Misses Flora, Lillian. Boone, Lucy, and 
Frederick are their children. Dr Moomau is a physi- 
cian of more than forty years standing, and a promi- 
nent citizen of affairs. He has represented the county 
in the Legislature of West Virginia. 

Nancy Tallman became Mrs Brannon and lived in 
Lewis County. Margaret Tallman became Mrs Goff, 
and also lived in Lewis County, 

Sally Tallman was raaiTiod to William Gum, and 
settled on Deer Creek. 

The Tallman relationship has been long and con- 
spicuonsly identified with the development and im- 
provement of important communities. They were a 
people who aspired to be first in everything that pro- 
moted the improvement and elevation of their neigh- 
bors and . themselves, and their influence has been 



deeply impressed upon iiianj- cliaracters. Though the 
name has well nigh ceased to be lieai-d among us, yet 
the writer is pleased to believe that the spirit of James 
Tallmau, the early settler, is yet moving about among 
scores of onr families. 


Fifty years ago one of the most active men i» lower 
Pocahontas was David Little Rucknian, Constable of 
the Levels District. He was tall and wiry in person, 
quick and nervous in his movements, and usually rode 
in a rapid trot. He always meant business, and when 
he went to collect a debt the money or pi-opeity had to 
be iu evidence. Were an arrest to be made he nearly 
always found the person that was wanted. His home 
was in the cove near Marvin, and is now occupied by 
his grandson, Mathews Ruekman, 

Full particulars of his ancestry are given in another 
chapter. David L. Ruekman was born on Back creek. 
He had three brothers who lived to be grown. Samuel 
Kucknian, whose eon Colonel David V. Ruekman is 
widely known in our county. John Kucktnan went to 
Ohio. James Ruekman settled in Illinois. He had 
also these sisters: Fannie, who married John Orum. 
She was the mother of Mrs Samuel Harper, on Knapps 
Creek, and Mrs Martha Ginger, whose son George W. 
Ginger now resides in Huntersville, the village black- 
smith. Mr Ginger, her husband, was killed during 
the war. Mary Ann Ruekman went with her brother 
John to Ohio. 



Davul L. Riickiiiaii came to Pocahontas in 1832 and 
Iticated at tlie place already pointed out. He married 
PriBciila Wade, dangliter of Otho Wade of Highland. 
She wad a very superior portioii in all the relations of 
life. She died in 1K60. Her husband died in 1841, 
thii'tceii years after their removal to Pocahontas from 
their home in lower Highland. 

diaries Ruckman, their eldest son, was bom in 
Highland County. He was devoted to books and be- 
came one of the best scholars of his time. He taught 
school and transacted business for his father. He mar- 
ried Maggie Griftin, daughter of Jonathan Griffin, on 
Stony Creek. In the latter years of his life he became 
ii rhenmatic invalid, but in spite of pain and suffering 
tried to be useful to the last. He moved to Ohio, and 
was survived by a son and daughter, Julia Ann and 
Leon id as. 

The second son Samuel, died at the age of 15 years. 

The third son was John Wade, lately living on the 
old homestead near Marvin. He was born in High- 
land, 1824, and was eight years old when the family 
moved to this county. He married Margaret Ann 
Moore. Their son Mathews married Margaret Hogsett, 
daughter of Josiali T. Hogsett, and lives at the home- 
stead. Many years since Colonel Ruckman lost his 
hearing. Some time before his death one of his eyes 
was seriously affected. Before he was overtaken by 
these afflictions none seemed to have better prospects 
for wealth and advancement and social prominence. 

James Watts Ruckman was another member of Da- 
vid L. Rucknian's family. He first married Cai-oline 



Bruffey, daugliter of Patrick Bruffoj, near Gietiubank. 
By this marriage there was one son, William Wallace 
Rnckman, who now resides near Millpoiiit, whose wife 
was Miss Lizzie Patton. James W. Ruckman's bcc- 
ojid wife was Caroline Arbogt^t, near Greeiibauk. 
Her sons were Reoick and Otho Ruckman. Otlio lives 
near Buffalo Mountain, beyond Groenbank. Benick 
Buckman is a prosperous citizen on the homestead, 
H«r daughter, Nancy Priscilla Ruckman, is now 
Mrs Winfield Slaven, near Millpoint. 

In tlie war between the States James W. Ruckman 
was a Confederate soldier, and belonged to ('aptain 
W. L. McNeePa company. While on a scout near 
Edray in 1864, he was captured and sent to Fort Dole- 
ware. Thtjnce he was sent to Richmond for exchange, 
and died before leaving the city. 

Otho Wade Ruckman first married a Miss McCluiig, 
of Nicholas County, Her daughter became the second 
wife of Levi Waugh, near Edray. His second wife 
was Mary Frances Twyman, near Edray. 

Clarissa Ruckman, eldest daughter of David L. 
Ruckman, married Peter Overholt, and is now dead. 

Mary Ruckman married Jacob Cackley, wliom she 
survives, and she resides on Stamping Creek with her 
nephew Wallace. 

Catherine Ruckman married Peter McNeel, She !s 
dead, but is survived by her daughter, Mrs John S. 

David Ruckman, Junior, the youngest of David L. 
Ruckman's sons, was a Confederate soldier. He first 
belonged to Captain Smith's command in Greenbrier 



County. For a goud while liis ciimjjaiiy was assigned 
to (jeiioral Loring's body guard. Finally it was at- 
tached t<i a cavalry battallion and ordered to Tennes- 
Hee. He was iimrtally wounded near Mim-istown, 
Tennuv^HC, and died iu a few dayo thereafter. 

Thus eloscB the narrative for the preeent. Charac- 
torH have passed under our Doticc that illiiHtratc what 
may be achieved by persons who diligently make use 
of their opportunities. These persons were patriotic, 
industrious, and endowed with good minds, and have 
left their impress upon their community that makes for 
good morals, conservative citizenship, and intellectual 


Not long after the war of 1812 Isaiah Curry, a na- 
tive of Rockbridge (bounty, located on Back Allegha- 
ny, at the place now owned by Zechariah Swink. Mrs 
Curry was Abigail Hall of Virginia. These worthy 
persons aro the ancestors of the Curry relationship on 
Back Mountain. Late in life they moved to Lewis 
County. Their family consisted of four sons and four 
daughters: William, James, John, Robert, Sally, 
Elizabeth, Anna, and Margaret. 

William Curry was a stone mason, and a very swift 
^^orkman. His wife was Nancy Lytton, of Rock- 
bridge, and after his mari'iage they settled iu Lewis 

James, when about grown, was killed by a falling 
tree while bniweing cattle near home. Robert Cnrry 



aod Isaac Hays« were uear liim at tlio tiinu, likewise 

John Curry married Virginia Wauleas and petlled 
oil Back Allegnany. During the war lie was taken 
prisoner and kept until peace was ratified and the pris- 
oners released. He then located in Barbour County, 

Robert Curry married Elizabeth Swink, of Rock- 
bridge, and lived oii Back Mountain. In reference to 
his family the following particulars are available: 

His son James was a Confederate soldier, and was 
among the last soldiers killed at Appomattox in 1865. 

Enos married Miss Logan, a daughter of the late 
John Logan, and lives on Back Alleghany. 

Nancy was married to Samuel Hevener, and lives 
on Back Alleghany. 

Charlotte became Mrs Brown Gum and lives in Ran- 

Venie became Mrs Jacob Casaell, and lives on Back 

Charles married a Miss Burner, and lives on the 

Robert Curry was an elder of the German Baptist 
Oliurch. He died in 1881, meeting his death by 
drowning while attempting to ford the Leatlierbark. 

In regard to the daughters of Isaiah Curry, the an- 
cestor, tlie following illustrative items are in hand: 

Sally married James Cassell and settled in the far 
west. Elizabeth was married to James Jones, and 
settled in Harrison County. Anna became Mrs Isaac 
Hayse, and located in Barbour County. Mai-garet be- 



came Thomas Galfortl's tirBt wife, 

Thns witli tlic assiHtaDce of Mra L, A. Hi^fner, on 
8wago, {a grand -daiigbter of laaiali Cnrry), the writer 
has bejii able to record what has been dooe in illiis- 
tratiiig the hietory of thia family relationship. 

leaiali Curry posaenBed many good traits of chai-ac- 
ter, and he was a fair specimen of the genuine Scotch- 
Irish people. His remote ancestors were among the 
people that auffei'ed for thoir religious views in the 
north of Ireland, and came to the Valley of Virginia 
seeking a place to we rship, unmolested by civil and re- 
ligious tyranny. 

A predominant trait in this man's character was his 
plain, common sense views of profane laiigu^e. To 
start with, in his home training his mother and father 
had their son to notice that in the ten commandments 
cursing and swearing were forbidden along with mur- 
der, licentiousness, and theft. He could not bear the 
idea of being classided with the murderer, the immoral 
and the dishonest, in the sight of Him who has the 
power of life and death, and who is to dispense tho 
final rewards and penalties. Hence his speecli was 
pure, and he deplored profanity in others. 

As a matter of course Mr Curry's opportunities for 
observation were not very wide, but still hie ideas 
were imprensive, and who is prepared to prove them 
incorrect ? So far as it was bis misfortune to hear 
profanity, he observed that profane persons were of 
two kinds: There were some profane people who 
were without good advantages in early life and through 
companionship with tough, half civilized people ac- 



quired profane liabits of speecli. They may liave in 
after ^ears become asliained of the liabit and honestly 
tried to overcome it, but in a state of fret, worry, or 
Hudden excitement have forgotten tliemselvea for the 
time being. Simon Peter was probably one of thin 
kind, and when confronted by a servant girl about his 
identity began to "curse and to swear," and thus be- 
trayed the character of his eai-ly associations. To Si- 
mon's lasting credit be it remembered that he upon re- 
flection became so utterly disgusted with himself that 
he went out and wept bitterly. 

It was Mr Curry's misfortune, and tliu disagreeable 
misfortune of society in his day, to liavc observed that 
there was another class of profane people. Their pm- 
faiiity was the outcome of their coarse, sacriligious 
characters or dispositions, and were thus to bo regard- 
ed as moral mimstrosities or mental monstrosities, or 
mental degenerates. 

Trained as be had been, this is the way he felt and 
talked about "cussing," and who can demonstrate 
where he was mistaken in his views! 

About the year 1827 Robert Beale, of Botetourt 
County, Virginia, settled on Elk, a half mile southeast 
of the place where Mary's Chapel now stands. A bed 
of tansy near the roadside maiks the spot where the 
residence stood. The house was built of hewn timbers 
and floored with plank sawn with the whip saw by 



hand, and was considered an exctiUent building at that 
time. His wife waa Mary Vance Poage, daughter of 
Major William Poage and Nancy Warwick Poage, 
whose home was at Marlins Bottom. She was a lady 
of most excellent qualities of mind and heart. These 
worthy young people soon built up an attractive home 
in the forest, and they seemed fully contented with 
their smToundings. The neighborhuod was called the 
Old Field Fork of Elk. 

Mr Beale was very energetic and industrious, and 
while he owned servants, he worked with hie own 
hands as laboriously as the huiiibtest. It was believed 
he contracted his fatal illness at a log rolling. 

The Sabbath days wer« mostly spent in prayer meet- 
ings and Sabbath school services with the families of 
David Gibson, David Hannah, and Joseph Hannah, 
their-near neighbors, and for the most part held in his 
own dwelling. Ministers of the gospel made his home 
their place of preaching. Dr McElheuney, Eevs Kerr, 
William (i. Campbell, pioneers of th" PresbyteriauB in 
his region, officiated at his residence, and pleasant, 
profitable meetings were the result. 

In personal appearance Mr Beale was fine looking, 
his manners were those of a cultivated Christian gen- 
tleman. He was sincerely and intelligently pious and 
had he lived there is no estimating the influence lie 
nught have had all over our county, for he had come to 
stay and make this particular place his home for life. 
His ideal of a home such as he desired was to have 
ample pastures, with flocks of sheep and herds of cattle 
atid horses, live removed fi-om the extravagance and 



aJlureinente of eociety life, so termed, have books and 
papers and be on pleasant terms with kind and honest 
neighbors. His aims were rapidly materializing in 
this picturesque region, famed for its blaegrass, fertile 
heavily timbered monntains, pure streams, cool, crys- 
tal springs, and qnict sheltered dales. His was the 
sagacity to perceive that for all the elements of trne, 
happy prosperity for new beginners, no place could 
excel Elk as it then was. Therefore it was a real 
mysterious providence that a person so ninch needed 
in our county, and in such a sense the right man in 
the place after his own heart, with success just in 
reach, should be stricken with insidious disease, slowly 
pine away and at last die. His death occurred in 
1833. On an eminence overlooking his home, where 
he frequently passed Sabbath evenings in summer with 
his wife and little daughter, his grave was made, and 
he now waits for the Redeemer to come, as he has 
prouiised to do to those who love his appearing. 

Among the citizens of prominence in the early his 
tory of Pocahontas County was Saujpson Lockhart 
Mathews, the first county surveyor. ■ Hie grandfather 
was Sampson Mathews, one of the eai'ly residents of 
Staunton, whose wife was a Miss Lockhart, hence the 
Dame bornu by members of the family connexion. 
Slit; had a sister married to a Mr Nelson, and another 
married to a Mr Clark. Thus the Montgomerys and 
the Mathews became related. 



The Hubject of ttiia sketch' was the second son of 
Saiiipaon Mathewa, Junior, and Mar}- Warwick, daugh- 
ter of Jacob and llarj Warwick, of Clover Lick. 
Early in life he nianifettted an intense desire for an ed- 
ucation, and his wishes were gratified. Much of the 
time he passed in studies he was under the care of Dr 
John McElhennj, who established and for so manr 
years conducted the renowned Lewisburg Academy. 

Upon reaching liis majority in 1821, young Mathews 
and Ills father, who had become a widower, moved to 
the farm on Swago now owned by Mrs Mary McClin- 
tic, his only daughter. Father and son lived in tins 
manner for several years. 

In 1825 young Mathews was married to Mies Nan- 
cy Edgar, daughter of Thomas Edgar and Ann Mat- 
thews, whose farm afterwards became the site now oc- 
cupied by the town of Ronceverte, Mi-s Edgar was 
the daughter of Archie Mathews, whose residence is 
now known as the Alexander farm, three miles from 

He continued his residence on the Swago farm un- 
til 1834. In the meantime he received his appoint- 
ment as County Surveyor. In a letter written by the 
Hon J, Howe Peyton, in his time one of the most em- 
inent members of [he Staunton bar, mention is made 
of the first sesBions of the Pocahontas Court, and of 
the appointment of Mr Mathews. This letter is Ix) be 
found in Mr Peyton's biography, an interesting vol- 
ume recently prepared and published by his son. Col. 
J. T. Peyton of Staunton. 

Soon after their marriage Mr and Mrs Mathews gath- 



ered a Sabbath Bcbool in their home. Mrs McCoUam 
sent her children, Isaac, Ruth, and Jatneg. Wllliaui 
McNeil sent Jonathan, Claiborne, Jane, and Elizabeth 
and Joshua Buckley was one of the scholars also, Mr 
Mathews would read a chapter and olfer prayer. Mrs 
Mathews did most of the teaching. The exercises 
would open at ten o'clock, and have a recess at noon. 
In the yard was an arbor formed by a luxuriant hop 
vine. Under its shade the children would sit and en- 
joy their luncheon, brought from their homes. After 
recess the school would meet and continue two or three 
hours. The summers of 1826 and 1827 were occupied 
iu this useful service. 

In 1834 Mr Mathews purchased property in Mill- 
point from Valentine Cackley and James Cackley, and 
resided there the remainder of his life. 

In his religious sentiments he was a Presbyterian 
from conviction, and for years was the sole represen- 
tative of the New School branch. These schools have 
consolidated since the time of his death on terms of 
mutual respect and Christian confidence, and hence the 
wisdom of his position has been vindicated by results. 

He was iu declining health for quite a while, and 
awaited his decease with a calmness and self posses- 
sion that was the wonder of many and the admiration 
of others. His arrangements were calmly made, his 
instructions were given, and his requests were express- 
ed as if all was a matter of course. 

He died September 23, 1854, and was buried in a 
place selected by himself. It commands a lovely pros- 
pect in the midst of a landscape famed for beautiful 





John Jordan, the aiiccHtor of the relatioimliip of that 
name in Lower Pocahontas, was a very worthy native 
of Ireland. By occupation he was a tailor, and 
when he oticc met a fellow member of the craft after a 
prolonged separation his friend was very demonstra- 
tive in the pleasure the meeting afforded him. In his 
joyful exhilaration, as a special manifestation of his 
delight, he struck bis friend Jordan on the back of liis 
hand with a side blow of his own. This friendly Hck 
was so powerful as to inflict a bruise so serious in its 
effects as to necessitate amputation of the arm just be- 
low the elbow. Neverthelefis he learned to use a hoe 
or an axe to a good purpose in after life, 

Mr Jordan came to this region aa a traveling mer- 
cliaut, dealing in Irish linens and other portable mer- 
chandise. He was a "hard money" man in his finan- 
cial preferences, and converted all paper money he re- 
ceived into silver and gold. Miss Miriam McNeel, 
daughter of John McNee!, the Levels pioneer, fouud 
out in some way that the young merchant had about a 
half bushel of coin, and it seemed to occur to her mind 
that if a person disabled as he was could make that 
much money, he could certainly take good care of her. 
To the surprise of her friends that a nice sensible girl 
as she was should fancy a cripple, she did not diBc«mr- 
age the attentions of the hustling young Irishman, and 
they were happily married. 



At that period of our local historj a young man's 
recommendation was his ability to clear land, split 
rails, and grub, but to mai-ry a cripple in store clothes 
was not to be tliougbt of. 

After tlieir marriage Mr Jordan continued to pros- 
per in making a living, and purchased some servants 
to wait OD the girl that had made such a surprising 
venture as to marry him. He settled on the Millstone 
Kun, between Killsboro and Locust, opening up a 
property now in possession of Isaac McNeel, whose 
wife Miriam Nannie Beai-d is a grand -daughter of the 
pioneer merchant. There were five sons and three 
daughters: John, Jonathan, Isaac, Abram, Franklin, 
Jane, Nancy, and Martha. 

John Jordan, Junior, married Martha Burnsidee on \ 
the Greenbrier in view of the homestead, and settled 
near Hillsboro, where they spent the remainder of 
their lives. Their children were Christopher, Jona- 
than, Mary, Miriam, Nancy, and Jemima. Christo- 
pher married Elizabeth Wallace, daughter of Benja- 
min Wallace of Bath County, but long a resident of 
Pocahontas. Jonathan married Luciuda, daughter of 
James Sharp, on Beaver Creek, He was a Confeder- 
ate soldier, and died at home while on a furlough from 
the army. Mary became Mrs JacobMcNeel, and liv- 
ed on the McNeel homestead. John Henry and Sam- 
uel her sous. Miriam maiTied Aaron Hill and settled 
on HilU Creek, Nancy became Mrs Oeorge Hill aud 
died a few years since at Falling Spring, Greenbrier 
<'ounty. Jemima was married to Captain Samuel Gil- 
more, and lives in Highland County. 



Jouatliau Jorduii, aou of the pioneer, lirat married 
Elizabeth Callisoii, daugliter of Aiitlionj Callison at 
Locust. Her twin ^oiis Julm and Anthony died yoong. 
Joitntliati's second wife was Rebecca Edniiston. They 
nettled on Dry Knn, tlie place now in possession of 
Sherman Clark, The children of tlm second marriage 
wore Elizabeth, Rebecca, Miriam, William and James. 

Isaac Jordan, another son of the pioneer, married 
Mary Callieon, danghtor of James Callison on Trump 
Run, and settled just west of Hilleboro at the spring 
now owned by J. K. Bright. He afterwards moved 
to Davis County, Missouri. Isaac Jordan's second 
marriage was with the widow of Captain William Ren- 
ick, Lafayette County, Missoiiri. He became a pi-oni- 
inent citizen in bis adopted State, was conmiissioner of 
the revenue and justice of the peace. His daughter 
Elizabeth became Mrs Samuel Beard, son of Josiah 
Beard of Locust, and they resided tn Missouri near 
Odessa. Mr Beard died recently, 

Abram Jordan married Jane Edmistou, daughter of 
the late Andrew Edniiston, near Locust. She was a 
sister of the distinguished judge Mathew Edmiston of 
Weston. Abram lived a few years on the old Jordan 
homestead, and afterwards migrated to Saline 
County, Missouri, Nancy and Lydia were his daugh- 
ters, Nancy became Mrs Faulkner, and Lydia was 
married to William Renick, from Greenbrier County, 
Mr Renick was an extensive dealer in live stock, and 
was partner in trade with Levi Way during his sojourn 
in Missouri. 

Franklin Jordan married Martha Edmistou, and 



went to Missouri. After her decease he married Mrs 
Ballonger, from Ashland, K,v- 

Jane Jordan, eldest daughter of the |)ioneer, was 
married to the late Major William Blair, and lived 
near Hillaboro. Her sons were Morgan, Claiborne, 
Doctor Franklin, Colbert, and John, who died during 
the war. Morgan Blair married Ann Ga^, daughter 
of (reorge Gay", and settled in Iowa, (ylaiborne Blair 
married Lavlnia Bruffey and went west. 

Mrs Jane Blair's daughters were Frankie Blair, who 
was married to the late Isaac Clutter, and lived on 
Briar Knob, head of Hills Creek. Miriam Blair was 
married to William Hill, and settled in Iowa. Eliza- 
beth Blair became Mrs John G. Beard, and lives on 
the Blair homestead uear Hillsboro. Martha Blair 
was first married to Peter Clark, and after his decease 
she became Mrs Abram Beard, and lived in Renick's 
Valley, whore she' died not long feince. 

Nancy Jordan, the second of pioneer Jordan's 
daughters, was first married to Isaac CalHson and went 
west. Her son, James B. Oallison, lives at James- 
port, Mo. Her daughter Miriam was married to 
William Walkup, from Greenbrier County, and lived 
in Missouri, where she died. Mrs Walkup's son is a 
Presbyterian minister. Mrs Nancy Oallison's second 
marriage was with the late George Edmiston near Lo- 
cust, lived awhile on the old Andrew Edmiston home- 
stead, and finally went to Missouri. 

Martha, the youngest of the Jordan sisters, was mar- 
ried to the late Joseph Beard of Hillsboro. For sev- 
eral years they lived on Spring Creek in Greenbrier, 



and tlicii rcsitlecl in Hills boro. Her son Jolin Jordan 
KeanI iiinmed Minerva Edniietou. Tlieir daugbter 
Mollic became Mrs C F. Moore. Harrj Beard, or.e 
uf tlieir sons, is a pliysician iu Lewisbnrg, and J. Fred 
Beard lives at Ilnntersvillo. 

LieutcDant J. J. Beard was a gallant Confederate 
officer. He was severely wounded and greatly disa- 
bled by wounds received in battle in tlic lower valley. 
He served for two terms as clerk of both the circuit 
and county courts of Pocahontas. His death occm-red 
in 1898. 

Margaret Jaiie Beard, her eldest daughter, was mar- 
ried to Captain William L. McNeei. Mrs George Cal- 
lisOQ, Mrs J. Thrasher, Misses Mary, Pauline, and 
Maggie McNeel are lier daughters. Joseph McNeel 
and the late Henry McNeel are her sons. 

Miriam Nancy, Mrs Martha Beai-d's voungeBt 
daughter, was married to Isaac McNeel, at MiUpoint, 
where they now dwell. Their son Thomas ^ummeifi 
ie Prosecuting Attorney for Pocahontas County, and 
Harvey Wintere McNeel is a pliysician at Hillsboro. 
Lanty McNeel is at home, and Mary Gold their only 

Mrs Martha Beard died quite recently, over, eighty 
years of age. Some time before her death she was 
disabled by a fall that prevented her from walking for 
the remainder of her life. 

Thus far we have been able to record something in 
memory of a very worthy and rather remarkable per- 
son. If the reader has derived any pleasure from this 
sketch his thanks are largely due James McCollam and 


the late Mia Nancy Ca!lid:);i, iipju wliose retentive 
memories the writer hae drawn for moat of the partic- 
ulars here given. 

John Joi-dan, the pioneer, was one of the original 
ruling elders of the Oak Grove Presbyterian church. 
Hia house was open to Metiiodist and Presbyterian 
ministers without any apparent discrimination, and for 
years was one of the main preaching places iov Metho- 
dist ministers. He donated the site for the Methodist 
church near bis residence, Tlue church was destroyed 
by fire about sixty years ago. In its time this was the 
most comfortable building of the kind in Pocahontas in 
posseasion of tliatsect. In his death Mr Jordan was 
greatly mourned, for many felt they had been bereav- 
ed of a true and useful friend. He was buried near 
the ruins of the Millstone Run Church, and his grave 
seems to have been nicely cared for. A neatly-carved 
stone (the handiwork of the late John Brutfey) marks 
the place where a good man rests in hope, Hia life's 
duty is done, and with tears of genuine affection he 
was tenderly laid nuder the trees, planted by the un- 
seen hand of the (rod he served. 


In his day and generation one of the most conspicu- 
ous citizens of our county was John Bradshaw, Esq., 
of Huntorsville. His residence was on ths site now 
occupied by the "Lightner House" belonging to Amos 
Barlow. John Bradshaw was a native of England, 
Bradshaw is a historic name in England — as readers of 



English Instory readily remember —and eo is the name 

About 1760 two brothers, Jatnes and John Brad- 
shaw catne to America. James Bradshaw went to 
Kentncky to reside. John Bradshaw remained hi 
Augusta (\)nnt;, Virginia, and married Mies Nancj* 
McKamie, in the vicinity of Parnassns, and soon after- 
wards settled on the Bnllpaetni-e River, ten or eleven 
miles below McDowell, on property at this time owned 
by Franklin Bra<lshaw and the family of the late John 
Bradehaw, Connt^ Surveyor. Here he resided a num- 
ber of years, and then early in the last century came 
to Huntersville, His family consisted of four sons 
and four daughters: Nancy, Elizabeth, M area i-et, Jane, 
Jaineij, John, Thomas, and William. 

James Bradshaw married Isabella Stevens of Green- 
brier County, and settled ou the old liotnest«ad. John 
and Franklin Bradshaw, well known citizens of High- 
land County, were hie sous. Mrs Eveline Byrd, near 
Falling Spring, Greenbrier County, was a daughter. 
Captain R. H. Braflehaw, a gallant soldier who fell in 
the battle of Port Republic, was a grandson, and James 
Bradshaw of McDowell is also a grandson of James 

Jehn Bradshaw married Nancy Stevens, sister of 
Mrs Isabella Bradshaw, and settled in the Big Valley 
between the Bullpasture and Jacksons River, on what 
is now known as the Poi-ter Place, and afterwards 
went to Missouii. These ladies were the daughters of 
Robert Stevens, who owned the famous ferry at Fort 
Spring over the Greenbrier, 



Thomas Bradalinw married Naucv Williams on An- 
tbonys Creek, and settled on Browns Ci-eek, three 
miles from Hnntersville, on property now held by C. 
L. Moore. He exchanged farina with his brother Wil- 
liam, and moved to the Bradsliaw place near Hillpoint 
now owned by Isaac McNeel. He was a botanical 
physician of the Thompsoniaii Selmol, and -had all of_ 
Pocahontas County for his practice. Lobelia and 
"No, 6" were the main remedies employed, along 
with hot baths and bleeding. Dr Bradshaw died at an 
advanced age in Huntersville in 1862, His family 
first moved to Webster Connty, and then to Missouri, 

William Bradshaw was a soldier of the war of 1812. 
His wife was Jane Elliot Hickman, daughter of Wil- 
liam Hickman on Back Oreek, who was the ancestor 
of the Hickman relationship in Bath, William Hick- 
man's wife was Mary Elliot, and one of her sisters was 
the wife of Moses Moore, and hence the name Elli<it 
or Ellot so frequently used in the Moore connexion, 
William Bradshaw first settled near Millpoint, where 
he lived several years. Then upon exchaugilig places 
with his brother Thomas he moved to Browns Creek, 
where he reared bis family. He operated a carding 
machine along witli his farm. The machine stood near 
the Hunniore road about wliore tlie Sheldon Moore 
road turns off. The bales of ndls were fastened with 
black thorns, which were gathered by boys for a small 
consideartionr Mr Bradshaw finally moved to Lewis 
County, where ho died a few years since at an ad- 
vanced age. As was intimated, he was a soldier of 
the war of 1812, and was a very good man in all the 



relatioHH of life, aii<l reared a tiigtily respectable family 
of eiglit daughtern and one eon. 

Maucy Makauiie Bradsbaw married Isaae Hartiuaii, 
near GreoubHuk. Mary Jane married Alexander 
Jlooi-e, on Stony Ci-eek. Senilda Eiler married Wash- 
ington Nottinglmiii, of Uladehill. Hnldali Hickman 
beCHme tlie wife of Joliw'A. McLaughlin, near Hun- 
terHville, Martha Ann was married to the late Bev- 
erly Wangh, near HilJeboro. Matilda Margaret was 
married to the late Nicholas Linger, of Lewis County, 
where she now resides. Kebecca Frances, a very prom- 
ising person, died in early youth. Rachel Hannah, 
the pride of the family, died at six years of age. Wil- 
liam James married Mai-y Ellen Watson, in Lewis 
County, and settled there. 

Nancy Bradshaw, d.iugliter of thj Hiintersville 
piontier, married Levi Cackley, and lived on Stamping 
Creek, near Millpoint, 

Margaret Bradsbaw, the second daughter, was mar- 
ried to the late John Gwiu, on Jacksous Kiver. Her 
daughter Nancy was the first wife of Squire Hugh Mc- 
Laughlin, late of Marlinton. Her son David GwiD 
married Eliza Stevenson, on Jacksons River. Another 
son, John Gwin, Junior, married Miss Gillespie, and 
lived near the Hot Springs. B. Austin Gwiu is her 
grandson. Jane Gwin, her daughter, married a Mr 
Starr, an Englishman, and lived at Winchester. Eliz- 
abeth Gwin married a Mr Giveus cm Jacksous River. 

Elizabeth Bradshaw, daughter of the pioneer, was 
the first wife of the late Samuel Hogsett, who came 
from Augusta County, and was a relative of the Mak- 



amies. He was n well known citizen, a member of 
the old county court, and was in every sense of the 
word a jnalice ef the peace. He was over six feet in 
height and ]arg» in proportion, and feared the face of 
no living man. On public days his pi-esence and 
strong arms spoiled many a fight. Mr Hogaett lived 
on the farm now owned and occnpied by Hon William 
Ourry. Their children were John, who married Leah 
Cackley, Nftncy, who became Mrs McAtee, William 
Perry, Josiah Thomas, Samuel, Margaret, Mary, 
Eliza, and Elizabeth. 

Jane Bradshaw, fourth daughter of the pioneer, wsb 
married to Williaiy Tallman of Greenbauk, and lived 
at the old home. Her son Colonel James Tallman was 
a protege of Henry M. Mofltett, and was clerk of tho 
two conrts of Pocahontas for many years, and Colonel 
of the 137th Regiment of Virginia Militia. He is re- 
membered aa one of the mest popular and promiaing 
young citizens of his times, and liis sad and early 
death waa sincerely lamented by the entire county. 

Mrs Tallnian's second marriage was to Thomas Gam- 
mon. William, John, Franklin, Cyrus, and Martha 
were her children by this second marriage. William 
Tallman Gammon married Elizabeth Slaven, and Iti- 
cated at Huntersville, and became a prominent citizen, 
merchant, member of the court, promoted fi-oin captain 
to colonel of the militia, and was a ruling elder in the 
Preabyterian church. Martha Jane Ganmion first mar- 
ried Amos Campbell, son of Thomas Campbell, High- 
land County, Virginia. Her second marriage was with 
the Bev J.' W. Canter, of the Methodiat church. 



Thus far we liave it in our power to tell our readers 
soiiietliiDg of one of the most noted men in the early 
liiBtoi-y of our county, aided by liis gram) daughter Mrt 
ihildah McLaughliu. Mr Bradsliaw owned tlie lands 
new lield by William Curry, Amos Barlow, that re- 
cently held by the late William J. McLaughlin, the 
Hite of HuuterHville, and from the James Sharp prop- 
erty ou Browns Oeek to Oilleya Mill. H^ donated 
and deeded the site for the public buitdiiigs of I'oca- 
bontae County, without reservation. In a lottery ven- 
ture he drew a prize of ten thousand dollars, which 
made him one of the money kings of bis tinie». 

In appearance his personality was striking, largo 
and portly and scrupulously neat in his dress. Ho 
used a crutch that was profusely ornanteuted with sil- 
ver ntouutiugs. His manuers were those of an elegant 
gentleman of the old school. 

About the time of Tarloton's raid to Charlottesville, 
he was drafted int<) the service. Late Saturday even- 
ing the notice was sei-ved on bini to be ready for duty 
Monday moriuiig. His young wife was ecjual to the 
emergency. She cooked, washed, cried, and prayed 
all day Sunday and had him ready for the war early 
Monday morning, and by night he was in Staunton on 
his march to Yorktown, where ho said he fought in 
blood "shoe-mouth deep,'' 

He died suddenly in 1S37, His grave is marked by 
the wild cherry tree in the old Huiitersville cemetery, 
that is said to be growing directly over his grave. 




Hon. John Gay, but lately of Marliiiton, a citizen of 
market] prominence in the aflairH of our county for 
forty or fifty years, deserves special mention in local 
annals. He was born May 36, 1804, on the place 
now occupied by hie eon, Levi Gay. His parents 
were Kobert Gay and Hannah Moore, who were 
among the pioneers of our county as early as 17 '0. 

John Gay was married in- Hnntersville June 24, 
1834, to Margaret B, Clark. She was born in Cecil 
County, Maryland, June 19, 1810, The whole of 
their married life was spent on the home farm. Theii' 
family consisted of eight children, four sons and fonr 

Samuel M, Gay lives near Edray, at the head of 
the Indian Oraft, a prosperous citizen. He was a 
Confederate soldier attached to the Slst Virginia In- 
fantry, one of the most distinguished regiments in 
Lee's army. He was wounded at the battle of Stras- 
burg, Virginia. 

Levi Gay resides on the home place near Marlin- 
ton, and is a widely known citizen. He was also a 
Confederate soldier in the 31st Infantry, and was 
wounded at Bpottsylvania Courthouse. 

Edward lives with his brother Levi. James died in 
infancy not more than a year old. Hannah died in 
1862, a grown young lady. Harriet died in 1861. 

Susan first married Adam Young. Her sons John 
Young and Adam Young are citizens of Pocahontas. 



I'pon her hochiuI itiania^e she became Mrs D. A. 
Peck, and rodides on HitU Cieok. 

Ann Maria became Mrs Jacob Moore and iived on 
upper Elk, a few iiiileH fnttti Edraj. 

Satlie Uamihoti died in 1S57, fonr years of age. 

By common consent this family, was regarded one of 
tl>o very interesting and pleasant families of the com- 
nitmity, and as neighbors not to be excelled. 

For twenty-eight years Mr Gay was a justice of the 
peace, deputy sheritf, and high sheriff and captain of 
the Stony (!i-eek company, State militia. He served 
three or four terinp in the Virginia Honse of Delegates 
1839 and 1844. It was during one of his terms of 
service the charter for the Staunton and Parkersburf; 
roml was issued and its constructiou undertaken. The 
road was located by Engineer Crozet. 

For many of the qualities that prepare for useful cit- 
izenship Mr Gay was justly distinguished. A solid 
conservative mind, judicious management of his busi- 
ness affairs, and a high sense of personal honor. He 
seemed to realize that that public office is a public 
trust, and that the peoples money should be U8e<l as 
carefully as his own, and expended where it was likely 
to yield the most serviceable returns. 

In person and manners he was a model type of the 
Scotch- Irish, a stock of people that get the credit of 
being the (irst to move in the contest for American In- 
dependence. He lived to tiio age of eighty-five, and 
carried his years so well that up to his final sickness 
his intellect seemed clear as it ever was, and bnt slight 
indicafioiia of bodily decrepitude were discernable. 



111 politics lie was a Jacksouian democrat. "Old 
Hickory" never had a more loyal admirer and adher- 
ent, or Thomas Ritchie of the Richmond Enquirer, a 
more attentive reader. 

For a immber of years he was a professing Christian, 
aiid his end was peaceful and hopvfu). He and liiti 
devoted wife were not long separated in their decease, 
which occurred but a few years since. He died Octo- 
ber 30, 1890. Mrs Oay was a very superior person, 
and the writer cherishes Iier kindness to him as among 
the most pleasant uiemories of his early hfe. Beauty 
is vain and favor deceitful, but a woman that feareth 
the Lord, she shall be praised. 

She survived her noble husband but a few fleeting 
muQths. Her decease was sodden but very safe. 
Their bodies repose in the Gibson grave yard, and 
their graves indicated by beautiful monniiionts placed 
there by their dutiful children. 


The Poagc relationship claims a place in the annals 
of our county, and sinne attention will be given to 
them in this sketch. 

The Poages are of pure Scotch-Irish ancestry. The 
line of descent can be traced to two brothers, Robert 
and John Poage, wlio "proved their importation at 
their own charges," at Orange Courthouse, 1 ,'40. The 
Pocahontas Poages are the descendants of Robert 
Poage, who settled between Staunton and Fort Lteii- 
ance, and wa^ among the first to occupy that attractive 


|)urtiou of tlio famuuB Valley of Virgiuia. His wife 
was Elizabt'tli Frcston, wlioso faiuilj' settleO in tbe vi- 
ciuitj' of Waynesboro with tbe pioneers abont 1740. 
Their son John married Mary Blair and settled near 
tbe PoHge homestead in Augnsta (Joatity. 

William Poago, one of John Poage's sons, married 
Margaret Daviea and settled in the Little Levels abont 
1782, at tbe place where Charles W. Beard now re- 
sides. Mrs Poage died in 1843, aged 98 years. Their 
children were William, George Washington, Mosea 
Hoge, Samuel Davies, and Elizabeth. 

William Poage, Junior, married the widow Nancy 
Ciatewood, a daughter of Major Jacob Warwick, and 
lived at Marlin's Bottom. Their daughter Rachel was 
inarried to Josiah Beai'd, of Locust. 

Mary Vance Poage was married first to Robert 
Beale, and settled on Elk, where be died, leaving one 
daughter, Margaret Elizabeth Beale. There was an- 
other child that died at the age of a few mouths. 
When it was buried the father walked aroand tbe grave 
and then looking upward with bis tearful eyes said: 
"Our God io heaven only knows who will bo tbe next 
to be buried here; it may be myself." Four weeks 
from that day he too was carried there and buried. 

Mrs Mary Beale waa married the' second time, to 
Henry M. Moflfett, clerk of tbe county, and lived first 
at Huntersville, and then at the Levels. Margaret 
Beale, her eldest daughter, became the wife of Dr G. 
B. Motfett. Their sons Robert and James Moffett live 
in St, Louis and Chicago, employed in the Standard 
Oil business. Sally Moffett became Mrs Alexauder 



McCliesiiej, late of Clisrlestoii, W. Va. Martha Mof- 
fett is now Mrs Hall, of Philippi, Barbour County. 
Mary Eveliua was the late Mrs William P. Tliompson, 
of Kew Vork. Rachel Moffett is now Mrs Robert Mc- 
Cliesuey, of Lewisbuig. George H. Motfett became a 
lawyer, speaker of the West Virginia legislature, and 
distinguished editor. He resides at Parkersburg, 

Colonel William Woods Poage, son of Major Wil- 
liam Poage, married Jnlia Callison of Loeupt, and atit- 
tled on the homestead, finally moved to Poagee Lane, 
where his sons John Robert and Quincy W, Poage 
oow reside, 

Margaret Daviea Poage was married to the late Jas. 
A.. Price. 

Moses Hoge Poage, son of William Poage, the Lev- 
els settler, married Martha McDannald, of Windy 
Cove, Bath County, and settled on the place now held 
by Alvin Clark, Their sons and daughters were Wil- 
liam, Franklin, Cyrus, Davis, Elizabeth, who became 
Mrs George Van Eman, a Presbyterian minister; and 
Mary Poage, who became Mrs Hanna. Late in life 
Moses Poage emigrated to Missouri. 

George Washington Poage married Miss Rankin 
and settled on the place now occupied by Preston 
Clark. The children of the first marriage were Wil- 
liam, who was killed by a falling tree; Rankin, who 
married Nancy Wolfenbarger, and settled where the 
late Rev M. D. Dunlap resided. He tinally went west, 
James R, Poage, late of Edray, Mrs Ann Wauless, 
wife of Ralph Wauless in the Hills, Mrs Elizabeth 
Burner second wife of the late George Burner of Trav- 



elers RepdHU, 

tieurjito W, Poago's 8ecou<l wife was Elizabeth 
Beard, siHter of Josiali Beard. Tlie cliildren of the 
socoikI family were George Waeliiiigtou Poage, Jr., 
Saiiiuo) Davies Poage, John B. Poage, and Elizabeth 
Poage, who became Mrs William P. Hill. 

George W. Poage was a person of fine appearance, 
and his i-ceemblauce to the portraits of Washington — 
of whom he was a namesake— was frequently remark- 
ed upon. An evergreen prayer meeting was conduct- 
ed at his house on silent Sabbaths. He loved to "wail 
with judicious care" the hymns and tunes that were 
Bung by the Covenanting ancestry in Scotland. While 
there w^s much singing and mncli reading and much 
praying, but few things were sung, read, and prayed, 
and 8o the minds of the worshippers were concentrated 
on the few things needful — the forgiveness of sins 
through the blood of Jesus, a new heart and a right 
spirit. Advanced in years, Mr Poage went west with 
his family and settled in Missouri. 

Samuel Davies Poage, youngest son of William 
Poage, Senior, married Miss Rebecca Arbuckle, of 
Lewiaburg, sister of Captain Clmrles Arbuckle of Texas 
and lived at the old homestead. He had been educat- 
ed for the Presbyterian ministry, but declined the ex- 
ercise of its duties through a morbid sense of unworth- 
iness, unfitness for assuming duties so sacred and re- 
sponsible as he regarded Ministerial vows demanded. 
He was a faithful helper in the prayer meetings led by 
his brother George Poage. While attending school 
taught by Rev Joseph Brown at the Brick Church, the 



writer boarded in Mr Poage's family. He liae heard 
him ill secret prayer in his private room long after 
midnight, such were bis devotional habits. It matter- 
ed not how cold the night might be, Mr Poage would 
spend lioure in that room in secret devotions, and 
oftentimes he would come out with his features all 
radiant with ecstatic emotion. 

Elizabeth Poage, daughter of William Po^e, Sr., 
became the wife of Colonel John Hill, son of Hichard 
Hill, BO often mentioned in these biographic notes as 
a pioneer and scont. 

Colonel Hill, late in life, felt it liis duty to remove 
west. It was one of the most mournful episodes that 
ever occurred in the social history of the Levels when 
Moses Poage, George Poage, and Colonel Hill set out 
for the west with their families in order to seek new 
homes in their old age. The most of these persons lo- 
cated in Davies County, Missouri, and many of their 
descendatits are in that t^tate, which has been to so 
large extent occupied by Virginia people as to be re- 
garded as a new Virginia. 

William Poage, Senior, was a Presbyterian ruling 
elder, and virtually the founder of the Oak Grove 
church. Some of the first meetings conducted by 
Presbyterian ministers in this region were at his house. 
When the pnlpit would be vacant years at a time there 
would be religious meetings at his home or the homes 
of his sous, who were also elders. 

Visiting friends from Kentucky brought with them 
the revival spirit that has rendered the early history of 
Kentucky so famous, and it broke out in the Levels in 



1^01. Partiti8 in Auguata heard of it, aud came over 
to see aud liear wliat it all iiieant.' 

The pastor of tlie Old Stone Church, Kev William 
Wileoti, a relative of the Poagos, and fiftcien or twenty 
of the youLg people, also relatives, came over togeth- 
er. Tlicy became imbued with the spirit of the mo- 
ment, and went back eiiiging and praying as thej trav- 
eled along. The effect upon the home people in the 
valley as they rode np singing and praying was over- 
whelming, and from that point — the Old Stone church 
— the revival influence went all over the State, where- 
cver there were Presbyterian congregations, and the 
results are visible at the present time. So it appears 
that a great matter was kindled by a little watch tire 
that had been kindled in the old Poage homestead. 


One of the most substantial and prosperous citizens 
of our county in its formative period was the late Wil- 
liam Sharp, near Verdant Valley, He was the sou of 
William Sharp, Senior, who settled near Huntersville. 
He had scarcely attained his majority when he and 
Elizabeth Waddell were married at Alexander Wad- 
delPs. This worthy couple at once settled in the woods 
and opened up a line estate out of a forest noted for 
the tremendous size of its walnut, red oak, and sugar 
maple trees, and reared a worthy family. In reference 
to their sons and daughters the following particulars 
have been maiidy learned from his daughter, Mrs Mar- 
tha Dilley, near Dilleys Mill. 



James Sharp, the eldest sou, inArned Althea Martin 
and lived on Browns Creek, on the farm now owned 
by Amos Barlow. His son William died at home. 
Hanson died in Camp Chaee, Ohio. George died a 
prisoner of war. His daughter Elizabeth married 
Thomas Logan, in Randolph County, and Sarali Sharp 
has her home with her siBter. 

William Sharp, Junior, married Rachel Dilley, and 
settled near Linnwood. His sons Harmon, Silas, and 
Hugh are well known citizens. Bernard fell mortally 
wounded at Duncan's Lane. Henry was wounded near 
William Gibson's on Elk, and died of his wounds. 
Luther was shot near his father's home by a scouting 
party. All three of these sons were Union soldiers. 
Mary Ella, the only daughter, died at the age of six 

Alexander Sharp married Mai'y Uilley, and settled 
<m a section of the old homestead. His only child is 
Mrs Hannah Johnson. A. 1>. Williams his grandson 

Jacob Warwick Sharp married Elizabeth McNeel, 
and lived on the homestead. His son William married 
Julia Moore, and lives at Edray. Their daughter Lura 
is Mrs Dr J. W. Price. Paul married Eveline Moore, 
and lives on the Greenbrier River at the Bridger place. 
Isaac lives near Edray. Giles lives on the homestead. 
Jacob, junior, died in childhood. Elii^abeth married 
J. R Pot^e, and Catherine married Quincy W. Poage. 
Francis married A. N. Barlow, and lives on a section 
of the homestead. Ann became Mrs S. B. Moore. Ja- 
cob W, Sharp died but recently much lamented by a 
very large circle of friends and relatives. 



John Sharp luarricd Sally JohoHon, daughter of the 
iato William Johnson ou the Greenbrier, and lives 
near Marlintou. Hie sons are Henry, Hugh, Ewing, 
Jamef, and David. Mary ie Mrs Frank Dilley, Nan- 
cy is Mrs Erviue Wilfong, Martha is Mrs James Wil- 
fong, Susan is Mrs Amzi Ervine. 

Elizabeth Sharp mari-ietlHugh McLaughlin, at Hun- 
tersville, and has recently died aged nearly a linndred 

Jane Sharp married James Hanson and settled in 
(ialla County, Ohio. Her children were William, 
John, Lydia, Elizabeth, and Catherine. 

Mary Sharp married David Gibson and settled on 
Elk, where Robert Gibson now lives. 

Rebecca Sharp married Wm. D. Moore, and settled 
on the Crooked Branch of Elk, on the place now own- 
ed by her sou Jacob S, Moore. Her children were 
Mary Jane, who married John McLaughlin, sou of 
Major Daniel McLaughlin, and settled beyond Green- 
bank, Elizabeth married Joseph C. Gay, and lives on 
Elk Mountain near the old home. Mr Gay was a not- 
ed Confederate scout and is a prosperons citizen. Mat- 
thias Moore married Jennie Mays, and lives in Bote- 
tourt County, Virginia. C. L. Moore married Mary 
Martha McLaoghlin. Jacob Moore married Harriet 
Gay, lately deceased. Nancy Moore married Jonas 
Simmons, and lived at Mingo, Randolph County. 

Anna Sharp married Alexander Stalnaker, and set- 
tled in Randolph County. Her daughter Mary mar- 
ried Brysou Hamilton of that county. 

Ellen Sharp married Warwick Stalnaker, of Ran- 



ilolph County. Her daugliter Lizzie became Mrs Dr 
David GibeoD of tlie saintj vicinity. 

Nancy Sharp married Jacob Caeaell, from Back Al- 
leghany, and are living at Woodstock, Illinoia. 

Martha Sliai'p, youngest daughter of the pioneer, 
married Andrew Dilley and settled on Thorny Creek. 

Thus far the writer has been able to furnish some 
historical items that illnstrate the family history of two 
.very estimable persons. As related elsewhere, these 
people were the intimate friends of Jacob Warwick and 
his wife. Mr Sharp lived to a very advanced age, 
having survived his wife many years. He lived to 
see his children married and settled. His appearance 
was venerable, and nature had done very much for him 
in the way of natural endowments of mind and vigor 
of body. 

He first saw the young person he married at Thomas 
Orinnon's, near Edray, where she spent a week or two 
spinning fl^x. While she was there a preacher hap- 
pened to come along, (believed to have been Bishop 
Aebury). Mr Drinnon drummed up a congregation, 
and among those present was a young and bashful 
youth with a new coonskin cap that he seemed to set a 
great deal of store by. Miss Waddell seemed to think 
it was verv funny, and when she went home made 
some remark about the ugly, funny looking young man 
she had seen at the meeting. The mother remonstrat- 
ed and said: "Oh Betsy, don't talk so; that young 
chap will be to see you yet, first thing you know," 

Sure enough he did slip in, and found Betsy nqt ex- 
actly "robed and ready" either. She had just finish- 


622 HISTORY OF i-ocahontab county 

imI and Imiig out "a wash," and by way of a restfn! 
clmiigu was performing on her spinning wheel, in short 
petticoat, chemise, and bare footed. Having eliowu 
him a chair, she resumed her performance at the wheel 
and as he meant business and time was precious, mat- 
ters were pretty well arranged by midnight. 

These young people thus being all the world to each 
other and not afraid to work, their cabin home was an 
earthly paradise. A tine estate was opened up, a wor— 
tliy family wasVeanKl, and the way prepai-ed for many 
worthy families to have a local habitation and name in 
a goodly land. The influence of these good people 
was in the interest of untiring industry, honest dealing, 
generous hospitality, and patriotic citizenship. 

Among the well known citizens of our county from 
the twenties to the forties was Martin Dilley. It 
is believed he was from Maryland and of Quaker de- 
scent. His wife was Hannah Moore, daughter of 
Pennsylvania John Moore, the pioneer. He located 
near Dilleys Mill where his sou the late Andrew Dii- 
ley lived. Here he settled in the virgin forest and 
rescued from t)ie wilderness quite a large estate and 
accumulated an ample competency. His home was 
known far and near where a bountiful hospitality was 
dispensed, a cordial welcome awaited friends and 
strangers alike. In reference to his family the follow- 
ing particulars have been gleaned from the reminis- 



cences of some of his surviving friends. 

His SOU John Dilley riiamed Isabel (Ibbie) I>illey, 
daughter of Henry Dillejr, a brother of Martin. John 
Dilley's daughter Margaret married Samuel Sutton 
near Greeiibank, where she now resides. Jeremiah 
Dilley, sou of John, married Margaret McGarty, 
daughter of Daniel McCarty. Clayton Dilley married 
Mary Moore, daughter of James Moore. Clark Dilley 
a Union soldiei', married Margaret Arbogast, daughter 
of Rev Henry Arbogast, who was slain during the wai' 
between Frost and Glade Hill, 

John Dilley's second marriage was with Xaomi Mc- 
Neil, daughter of John McNeil, of Swago. The chil- 
dren by the second marriage were as follows; Han- 
nah Jane married Wesley Irvine and lives near Verd- 
ant Valley. George married Amelia Warwick. He 
died in Lewis county. His widow married Hopkins 
"Wanleas and now lives near Dilleys Mill, Register 
Uilley lives in Iowa, Wilson Dilley married Marga- 
ret Rush and lives on Brown's Mountain. Fletcher 
Dilley married Nancy Hannah, on Elk, and lives near 
West Union, Kenney Dilley is a journeyman printer 
and founded the Pocahontas Herald at Huntersville 
in 1893, Davis Dilley at home. Summers married 
Amanda McLaughlin and died near Frankford recent- 
ly. Peter married Georgia Hamilton and lives on 
Knapp's Creek, Rebecca became Mi's Gratton S. 
Weiford and Uvea on the old homestead, 

Elizabeth Dilley, daughter of Martin Dilley, mar- 
rid Peter Yeager, and lived at Travelers Repose where 
Peter Yeager, hei' son now lives. Her other children 



wtTti Martin and Ella, 

Anil married Williiini Sharp and lived od Thorny 
Creek where Lindsejf Sharp now Uvea. 

Martha married William Cleek, of Bath connty, 
Virginia, and lived near Windy Cove, Her sons were 
William and Charles. Her danghter Ann Cleek mar- 
ried George Simpson. Sarah Cleek married William 
SimpeoD, and both lived in Bath. 

Rachel DUley married William 8harp, junior, amJ 
lived near the Big Spring of Elk. Her daughter Ella 
died at the age of six years. Her sona Bernard, Hen- 
ry and Luther were Union soldiers and died of wounds 
received during the war. Hugh, Silas and Harmou 
are well known and prosperous citizens, living on an<! 
near the homestead. 

Mary Dilley married Alexander Shai'p, near Verd- 
ant Valley, and lived on a part of the William _ Sharp 
homestead. Her only child is Mrs Hannah Johnson. 

Andrew Dilley, Martin Dilley'a second son, married 
Martha Sharp, youngest daughter of WtlHam Sharp, 
senior, and settled on the homestead. His family con- 
sisted of two sons and a daughter, Hanson, Amos and 
Elizabeth, who died aged two years. 

Amos J. Dilley married Araminta, daughter of 
Ralph Dilley, near Mt Zion in the Hills, and settled 
on Thorny Creek. Thfcir children were Missouri 
Francis, now Mrs George A. Fertig; William Andrew; 
Noah Patterson; Howard Dennis, lately deceased; 
Uriah Hevener; Elizabeth Martlia; Virgie May; Ern- 
est, and Everett Amos. 

Hanson Dilley married Caroline Stalnaker and set- 



tied at Dilley's Mill of which he is the present owner. 

Johu Dillej and Andrew Diltey were worthy sonH 
of tlieir Tery wortliy father, Martin Uilley, In his day 
Martin l>illey was one of the moat widely known of 
Pocahontas citizens, and his presence and character re- 
flected credit upon tlie citizensliip of the county in the 
estimation of those coming from abroad. He was of 
that type of citizenship of wliich any county might be 
considered fortunate to possess. As a member of so- 
ciety Martin Dilley was worthy of high esteem be- 
cause of liis energy, industry, attention to business, 
honest economical thrift, and exemplary morals. Ho 
owned a family of slaves to whom he was very indul- 
gent and lenient. For many years on public occasions 
at H n nte r 8 ville— musters, superior courts and presi- 
dential elections^"Dilley'B Gerrge" was usually one 
of the most conspicuous figures in the crowd as the 
vender of ginger cakes, apples and cider. He would 
be dressed "fine as a preaclier," very dignified ii> his 
manners and would count the cakes and deal out the 
cider as if it made no difEerencc to liim whether you 
wanted it or not. He put on very sanctimonious airs 
trying to look and act like tha preachers, and the iii»- 
itation of tone, look and gesture was quite a success. 
The articles he vended were the admiration of the 
whole connty, and the prosaic old colored man found 
it remunerative, and all was owing to the indulgence 
of his benevolent master. 

Some years before his decease, Martin Uilley was 
waylaid, fired upon and severely wounded at the bend 
of the road a mile or so east of Driscol. The event 



Htiirtled tlio wliole coiiuty, and was one of the most pa- 
thetic ami tragical ecenea ever trniigacted iit our conn- 

Mr Dilley deserves to be reuieiiibered as one of the 
mufu Hubstantial and useful citizens of liia genei'atiou. 
He should be held iit high esteem for what he accom- 
plished in developing his part of our county, for he 
demonstrated that a rich reward awaited the diligent 
worker, and that an ample competence could be secur- 
ed by such in spite of natural obstacles of dense forests 
rugged soil and seemingly capricious climate. 

A chilly, rainy evening in April, 1817, the writor 
spent under the roof of this good old man and shared 
the comforts so profusely provided. And he will ever 
remember how impressively the venerable man stood 
up, repeated and sang a liymo. Then ho had us to 
kneel and he the "priest and father*" led in the fami- 
ly devotions preliminary tw i-etiring for the night's re- 
pose'. Such are the homes whence true peace and 
prosperity come forth to bless our people at large. 
May there be many such. 


For more than a hundred years Nottingham has been 
a familiar name in our part of West Virginia. Th« 
ancestor of the Nottingham relationship was William 
Nottingham, Senior, a native of England. His wife, 
whose name cannot be recalled, was of Irish descent. 
Soon after the Revolution these persons settled in 



what b now Pocahoutiis on land at preseut owned by 
Uriah Hevener and the heirs of the lato Washington 
Nottingham. Their faitiity consisted of five sons and 
a daughter. Their iiantes were William, Sampson, 
James, Jacob, George and Elizabeth. James Not- 
tingham migrated to TenneBsee, Sampson Nottingham 
settled on the upper part of the home place. Jacob 
Nottingham settled on part of the Glade Hill farm, 
then went to Braxton Country, Geoi^e Nottingham 
settled, it is believed, in Lewis Goiinty. 

William Nottingham, Junior, married Mary Arbo- 
gast, daughter of Adam Arbogast, and settled on the 
farm now held by the family of the late Adam Not- 
tioghani. In reference to his family the following 
particulars have been furiiished ns by his son, Harvey 

Margaret Nottingham married James Moore in the 
Hills. Mary Moore, her daughter, married Clayton 
Dilley. She was the mother of A. L. Dilley and F. 
M. Dilley. A. L. Dilley is remembered as one of the 
fouudere of the Pocahontas Herald. Willian) Moore, 
a son of James and Margaret Moore, was in the Con- 
federate service, and is numbered with the unknown 

Maiiala Nottingham married Captain John McElwee 
lately of the Hot Springs, Va. Her sons. Divers Mc- 
Elwee of Driscol, Bernard McElwee of Dunmore, and 
Burton McElwee of Groenbank, are well known citi- 
zens of our county, 

Jennie Nottingham married William Tallman, and 
moved to Upshur County. 



Hestlie Nottiitghaiii niarrietl Jamea C. Moore, near 
DillevH Mill. Mr Moore was killed in battle, June, 
lKti4, near New Hope, Va. 

Mary Nnttiiigliani never married, and died niaity 
years since. 

Addison Nottingham, son of William Nottingham, 
Jr., Ima been twice married. His tirst marriage was 
with Miss Margaret ('onrad, daughter of Solomon Con- 
rad, near Gi-eenbank. His second wife was Miss Eliz- 
abeth Herron, near Frost. He settled in the nnbrokeu 
forest with his young family on the place where he now 
lives, and by patience and perseverence, with the bleas- 
ingsof Providence, he has prospered. 

Harvey Nottingham, antither son of William Not- 
tingham, Jr., married Miss Caroline Swtuk, whose 
parents came from the Valley of Virginia in her early 
youth. He settled on a section of the home farm where 
he now resides, near (ilade Kill. He began in the 
woods, and in the conrse of a few years, after much in- 
dustrious t'>il, these persons have gathered about them 
the comforts of a charming home on the hill-side facing 
the rising smi. The two bi-others, Harvey and Addison, 
live on adjoining farms, and hei-e one can find an il- 
lustration of what may be realized by prudence and 
industry in the way of a comfortable competency. 

William Nottingham, son of William Nottingham, 
Jr. went west. 

Washington Nottingham, son of William, Jr., mar- 
ried Miss Senilda Bradshaw, daughter of the late Wil- 
liam Bradshaw, on Browns Creek, She was a grand- 
daughter of John Bradishaw, Esq., the founder Hunt- 



tersville, and a first coueiii of tlie celebrated Bishop 
William Taylor, who claims to have preached all 
around the world, and has led a hundred thousand 
souls to the cross, according to the beet of his knowl- 
edge and belief. 

Hon. Adam Nottingham, son of William, Jr., mar- 
ried Miss Henrietta Philips, near Travelers Repose, 
and lived on the Glade Hill homestead opened up by 
hie father. At an early age he was thrown apon his 
own resources by bis own choice. His natural endow- 
ments were of a high order, and he studiously improv- 
ed whatever opportunities came to hand: For several 
years be taught school, aflerwai-ds became deputy- 
alieriff, and then sheriff, and be also served as magis- 
trate several terms. He represented Pocahontas in the 
house of delegates in the Virginia Legislature at Kich- 
iijond, Va. He was an influential political leader and 
was a strenuous Jacksonian Democrat. 

Mr Nottingham has been dead but a few years. His 
widow and several sons and daughters survive him, 
some of them still at the old home, while others have 
gone out, some far as Texas and the far west. 


Samuel Whiting was a native of Sussex County, 
England, where he was born May 18, 1776. His wife 
was Sarah Lancaster, and was four years younger. 

After a long, tedious voyage of three or four months 
Mr Whiting and bis young family landed at New York 
in 1823, where he remained for a year or two. Thence 


lit' came to Virgiuia in what what is now Gilmer conn- 
ty. From Oilmer county to Jacksons River in Bath 
county, thence to Elk uear the Big Spring, whore Mrs 
Whiting (lied unexpectedly in her chair. 

They were the parents of three aons and two daugh- 
ters: Samuel, Robert, Ebenezer,' Mercy, and Mary. 
Mercy became Mrs Varner; Mary was first MrsSleathe 
then Mrs Masseuger. Both sisters settled and lived 
in (iilraer County. Two of the sons, Samuel and Rob- 
ert, settled and lived in Gilmer County, where their 
descendants now live and are reported to be very esti- 
mable people. Samuel Whiting, Junior, was born in 
1811, and died in 1858. 

Vpon his second marriage with Jennie Hannah, 
daughter of Dr David Hannah, on Locust Creek, Sam- 
uel Whiting, Senior, settled in the woods -on Droop 
Mountain, on property now owned by his grandson, 
George W, Whiting. Here he lived many years, 
opened up a fine improvement with the assistasce of 
his son Ebenezer, who was the staff of hie declining 
years, a kind, devoted son. These persons, father and 
son, were skillful masons, plasterers, and brick layers. 
Some of their work yet remains in the Renick mansion 
in Renicks Valley, and the old chimney at Alvin 
Clark's. It is reported that the mortar they u^ed 
would adhere so tenaciously that sometimes the stone 
had to be chipped or the brick would break in remov- 
ing it. The smooth finish they would give to the 
plastering was sometimes looked upon as phenomenal 
in their times, and people tell us they have seeu 
nothing to excell it in our times, with all the mod- 



eiii i in prove men ts. 

Samuel Whiting was a devout Weslcjaii Metliodist, 
and died strong in the faith giving glory to God, 
and was placed where he wished to sleep and wait 
for the dawn t<» hreak upon the golden shore. The 
writer never saw him but once, and that waa in Janu- 
ary more than fifty years ago. I was trying to find 
the "short cut" from Locust to Reuick's Valley which 
led by the Whiting home. Upon calling at the fence 
to make inquiries Mr Whiting appeared. Hia presence 
was iinpresKive, and in vividly remembered to this day, 
and the writer seems to see and hear bim now as he 
gave liie directions in alow and solemn words. There 
were sevei-al placea where paths deviated and where 
there were crossings. "When you come to these keep 
straight on, turn neither to the right or to the left." I 
kept my eye on the western sun, moved towards it, and 
though there were numerous deviations and crossings, 
by keeping the words in mind, "turn neither to the 
right liand or left," I did not make a single miss, and 
by twiiiglit I was amid the charming < surroundings of 
one of the most pleasant of homes. 

Many a time since that venerable presence has seem- 
ed to stand before me, leaning on his staff, looking 
towards the setting sun, and admonishing the traveler 
to "turn not to the right hand or to the left." Many 
times have I moralized on these words, and reflected 
bow many deviationa and mistakes we might avoid by 
keeping the setting sun of our lives in mind, and turn 
neither the right band or the left, and finally when the 
Bun went dowu find a place of rest in tfie valley inter- 



veiling our journey's end. 

The reader will please pardon this digression, and 
we will return and finish up wbnt was begnn. 

Ebenezei' Whiting married Sallv McMilliou, head of 
Spring Creek, and lived at tlie homestead on Droop 
Mountain. In reference to his sons and daughters the 
following particulars have been kindly ftirnisbed bv 
his daughter, Laura Frances. 

Kachel Ann became Mrs James Schisler, and lives 
at the noted "Big Spring," bead of Kenicks Valley, 

Margaret Jane became Mrs Peter Hill, and lives at 
Jacox, and is theinothor of five sons and three dangh- 
ters: Lena, Mary, Anna, Wilson, Sherman, Geoi^e, 
Ernest, and Simon. 

Mary Elizabeth was married to Lutliei- Blair, and 
went to Lainposas, Texas. Her children were Neva, 
Myra, and Mary. 

Sarah Caroline was inai-i-ied to Rev Joseph S. Wick- 
line, and now lives in Delaware. 

Susan Virginia became Mrs Alexander Knight, and 
lived on 8inking»Creek in west Greenbrier. Her chil- 
dren were Thomas, Minnie, and Emma. 

John Sherman Whiting died aged nine months. 

George William Whiting married Elizabeth Bruffey 
and settled at the homestead. Mr Whiting now lives 
at Falling Spring, in Greenbrier. His children are 
Mabel, Bessie, Grace, Floy, Harry, Thomas, Milton, 
and Earle, 

Laura Frances became Mrs William H. Csllisou and 
lives near Locust. Her children are Quincy, Thomas, 
James, and Iraa. 



It was the writer's privilege to be aomewhat ac- 
quainted with Ebeuezer Whiting. In April, 1848, tlie 
writer wae dietribatiug Biblee and Testaments, and 
spent a night at the Whiting Itome. Somehow he let 
hifl tongue wag rather freelj, and Mrs Whiting hu- 
mored matters by appearing very mueli amused. Mr 
Whiting appeared to be very solemn and groaned in 
spirit while the rest would be in smiles. While the 
visitor tried to be funny and thought he would get Mr 
Whiting to feel better, he found out by bed time that 
there was no fun about it. When it was time to "get . 
ready for bed," Mr Whiting snuffed the candle and 
took down the Bible, and for some time was turning 
the leaves and seemed much troubled in spirit from his 
sighs and suppressed groauiugs and solemn features. 
At last he found the chapter he wanted aud began 
reading fifth of Ephesiaus: 

Be ye followers of God as dear children. 

And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and 
hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to 
God for a sweet smelling savor. 

But fornication, and all uncleanness, and covetous- 
iiess, let it not be once named among ynu, as becont- 
eth saints. 

Neither fllthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, 
which are not convenient, but rather giviug of thanks. 

He read the whole chapter, but he read the verses 
uamed in a mach louder tone than the rest of t,be chap- 
ter. He then prayed long and very feelingly that the 
meditations of all hearts and the words of all mouths 



iiiipiit Ik.' acct!i)tablc in tlie aiglil of Him who is our 
strt'iiptli and rfdueiner. 

Worship over, snch a aolemii Btilluese pervaded tlie 
attnosphcre that Mra Whiting becniiie very sleepy and 
withdrew with the little diildren. Tie featnres of the 
mail of the house relaxed into a smile when I proposotl 
to retire, and he showed me where to sleep. I felt 
i^omewhat mortitiud, and was sure that he had lost all 
reepect for mo aa a pious youth. 

Much to my Biirprise the next tnorning he handed 
. me the Bible and requested "a word of prayer," be- 
fore breakfast. As well as I can remember tbe sixth 
chapter of Galatians was about tbe first that fell un- 
der my eye, and this was read: . 

Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye timt 
are spiritual restore such a one in a spirit of meeknesa, 
considering thyself te^t thou also be tempted. 

Bear ye one anothers burdens and so fulfill the law 
of Christ. 

For if a man think himself to be something when lie 
is nothing he deceiveth himself. 

But let every man prove bis own work, and then 
shall he have rejoicing in himself alone and not in an- 
other. For every man shall bear his own burden. 

Worship over, breakfast was served, pleasant words 
of farewell were exchanged, and pressing invitation to 
return came from the hearts of both as well as their 
lips, and their names are in the book of my remem- 
brance as good people trying to walk in "all the coni- 
mandmonts and ordinances of the Lord blameless." 



Ebenezer Whiting was boru in Englaud, Septem- 
ber 4, 1817, aDtl died at the Droop MoHiitaiu home 
May 31, 1869, It was a gloom giving day when at- 
tached friends, neighbors, and children placed him 
lovingly and tenderly in his secluded mountain grave. 


Among the worthy industrious persons whose ardu- 
ous toils and severe privations helped to make our 
county what it is, deserving of respectful mention was 
the late James Rodgers, Senior, He wan a native of 
Madison County, born February 13, 1789. His first 
marriage was with a Miss Jackson of Madisou County. 
The issue of this marriage was seven children. The 
eons were Robert, whose wife was a daughter of John 
Smith, one of the pioneers of Stony Creek, Joseph, 
and Drury. The daughters were Sarah, Elizabeth, 
Mary, and Tabitha. Respecting these children we 
have virtually no particulars in hand, 

James Rodgers came to Pocahontas in 1824 and sot- 
tied in the woods on Lewis Ridge, at a spot overlook- 
ing the Buckeye Cove. Thus he and his family be- 
came identified with the county almost from its organi- 

His second marriage was with Nellie Lewis, of the 
Little Levelfi, a grand daughter of Alexander Waddell, 
whose descendants are so numerously represented by 
prosperous and influential citizens in our county at this 
time. By the second marriage there were six children: 



Margaret, who liocaiiie Huiiry Adkisson's first wife. 
Uebecca, who became Mra Filhen. William BodgerB 
married Polly Fleming, daughter of tlie late James 
Fleming of Swago, and settled ou part of the Fleming 
homestead near Bnckeye, where his widow and two 
daughters now reside. lie was a Union pensioner for 
service in the Union armj. Chesley Kodgers married 
Mrs Sally Morrison and settled near Jacox. Johu 
Kodgers married a Miss Harter. 

James L. Rodgors, Junior, was married twice. The 
first wife was Eliza Burgess. There were ten children 
in the first family: Justice N. 0. Bodgers of Buckeye; 
the late Mrs Hannah Wade; G, W. Rodgerson Beaver 
Dam; Davis Rodgers, deceased; John H. Bodgers, 
also dead ; Maggie became Mi-s William Adkiason. of 
Buckeye; EHza became Mrs Olie Auidridgo and lives 
at Hillsboro, Mary, and Alvin W, near Buckeye. 

By the second marriage with Mrs Mary Kellison 
there was a son Lewis, who is now dead, and a daugh- 
ter Laura. 

Thus the writer has endeavored to present the avail- 
able information concerning this worthy old citizen and 
his family, aided by his grandson, A. W. Rodgers. 

In his time James Rodgers had the reputation of be- 
ing one of the most industrious of working men. He 
tried to train his sons and daughters to habits of indus- 
try and strict economy. Soon as they became old 
enough for service they went from home and found 
ready employment as field hands and house keepers. 
This venerable man was a zealous and devoted adhe- 
rent of the Metlwdiat Protestant church. He was one 



of the fii-atnieinbers iu tlie Buckeye society, and pro- 
bably one of the first in the coanty. His prayers and 
experience talks were in good language, interspersed 
with allusions to the parables and quotations of the 
promises. All this indicated that in early, impressible 
youth he must have been familiar with persons of more 
than ordinary culture, sncli as Madison County was 
distinguished for. In his speech lie had the tone anil 
style that characterized the old Virginia gentry, as the 
writer learned to know in subsequent years from actual 
acquaintance with east Virginians. 

The writer cherishes the niemoij* of this old citizen 
with feelings of much respect, as the two often toiled 
in the meadows and harvest fields side by side in his 
boyhood. He remembers being often impressed by 
the pathos and fervency of t!ie old man's occasional 
prayers in the morning worship. This was something 
which was never omitted in the old MarJinton home. 

The belief of the older people was that "prayer and 
provender hinder no man," and so time was always 
found for prayer, as well as for breakfast and supper. 

Some of his expressions still linger in memory after 
more than fifty years. One was an allusion to the 
grapes of Eschol as typical of the richness of the pnim- 
ised land. His idea was that God would give his 
humble praying people here while on the pilgrimage a 
cluster now and then from the heavenly vine so as to 
refresh and encourage them to put forth their earnest, 
faithful efforts to go up and receive possession of the 
heavenly land. This allusion was utilized as sugges- 
tive of a sermon prepared and preached by tho writer 



tliirty years ago. May wc meet and eae for ourselves 
the blessed land in all its ricbuees and glorious beatity, 
and especially tbe vine from wbtch the clusters were 
gathered that cheered and encouraged biin. 

Reuben Bussard, the progenitor of the Bassarde, 
was the son of an emigrant froin Germany, who set- 
tled at an early day near Lancaster, Penn. Upon his 
marriage with a Miss Sicafoose, in Pendleton County, 
he settled on lands now in possession of his descend- 
ants near (Jlade Hill, or rather between Glade Hill 
and Frost. Tiiese early settlers were the parents of 
five sons and four daughters, as we learned from 
Morgan Grimes, Esq., near Mount Zion. 8usan, Fan- 
nie, Hester, and Martha were their daughters. The 
sons were Eli^ Solomon, Henry, ReubeL, and Samp- 

Fannie Bussard was married to Benjamin Bassard 
and lived in Greenbrier County, 

Hester Bussard became Mrs Henry Grimes and liv- 
ed in the Hills. 

Martha Bussard was married to Charles Grimes, and 
lived in the Hills near Mount Zion. 

Eli Bussard married Margaret Moore and, settled on 
a part of the home place, now occupied by his son Ar- 
menius. In reference to their family the following 
particulars are given; 

Armiuiue Bussard married Frances Kelley and set- 
tled near Glade Hill. He was a Union soldier, amem- 



berof Company U, Idtli Weat Virginia IiifHiitry. 

Morgan Bnssard inarrietl Rhncia Sirnins, daiightci' of 
John Sims from Pendleton County. Tlieir cliiidren 
are Sherman, Ellis, Perry Lee, Cora, now Mrs Wil- 
liam Shiuneben-y near Driftwood, and Alcinda, who 
was married to Enibry Sliinneberiy near Clover Lick. 

Peter Bussard, aon of Eli, married Nancy Moore, a 
sister of Eli Bnssard's wife, and lived near Glade Hill 
where John Lindsay now resides. The daughter Su- 
rah was married to John Lindsay, Virginia was mar- 
ried to John Philips, of Barbour County. He was a 
Union soldier, 6th West Virginia Infantry, and was 
killed in the affair at BuUtown, Braxton County. 
Maltha became Mre Hedrick and lived in Preston 
County, but now lives at Grafton. Mr Hedrick was 
a Union Soldier. 

Perry Bussard belonged to Company L 3d West 
Virginia Cavalry, and died in a Maryland hospital in 
the early spring of 1864. 

Laura and Phcebe were the names of Eli Bussard'a 

Solomon Busaard, son of Reuben, married Rachel 
Grimes and settled on a section of the homestead. 
Their children were Wesley, who inaiTiod Miss Ma- 
theny of Highland, and aettlod in the Big Valley, 
Jesse Allen lived in Highland. Susan married Wil- 
liam Sharp and went west. Mary was married to Da- 
vid Kincaid and settled in Highland County, at Bolar 

Henry Bnssard married Mary Hannah and lived on 
Cummings Creek near Hunteraville. Their daughter 



Bally became Mrs 3. B. Pyles, Siman Mra Tillotson 
Aaldridgi!, aud Aabary married Mies BDriisides and 

Vfttlll WCBt. 

Henry Bu»»ard'e second marriHge was with a Miss 
Perkins. Of tiic two eon^ of this marriage, Moses lost 
Ills life eight or ten years since near Millboro by the 
overtui-iiing of a wagon he was in charge of. George 
is a carpenter aud lives on Cumuiings Creek. 

lleubeu Biissard, Jnnior, married Mary Ann Waugb 
daughter of Saumel Waugh iu the Hills, and after liv- 
ing 80IU3 years at Dilleys Mill, went to Iowa. The 
names of their children are Arthelia, Kacbel, Samuel, 
and Adotphus. Samuel Bnssard is a prominent phy- 
sician in Lucas County, Iowa. 

Sampson Bussard was another son of the pioneer. 
His wife was Eleanor Knapp, daughter of Caleb 
Knapp, and he settled on the place purchased of Solo- 
mon Bussard. Their children were CorneliDs, Oronin, 
Mildred, aud Jerueha. Mildred was married to Abrani 
Shinneberry, and lives near Clover Lick, Jerusba be- 
came Mrs Isaac Shinueberry and lives near Glade Hill. 

Where Iteuben Bussard the aticestor made a selec-. 
tion for a permanent settlement was far from being aa 
inviting spot in pioneer days. His idea seems to have 
been that though the lands were deemed of little value, 
yet these glades aud marshes could be made into valu- 
able meadows. The mountains ai-ound afifoi-ded good 
range for stock for much of the yeai-, aud by blending 
the facilities for ranges aud meadows, live stock could 
be handled to good purpose. By making moderate 
gains and saving what would come in hand, he saw 



there was a living in r«acli of tlie Imndf of the diligent. 
Were Reuben Bnssard now to revieit the scene of his 
pioneer toil and privations, lie would see more than 
realized the liighest expectations he may have ever 
cherished in reference to the development of this se- 
questered vale amid the mountains, where he selected 
a place for his permanent habitation. 

Moreover it turned out that this vicinity was well 
adapted to fruit raising. A supply of good fruit adds 
very mnch to the comfort of a home, and the time will 
come when such land, heretofore deemed of compar- 
atively little value, will be greatly prized for its fruit 
producing qualities. There is plausible reason for be- 
lieving that the largest apple tree in Pocahontas Coun- 
ty, and it may be even in West Virginia, may be seen 
near the place where Reuben Bussard bnllt his frontier 
home. It measures three feet and six inches in diam- 
eter. The branches were about forty feet long. Sev- 
enty-five bushels have been gathered from this tree at 
one time. 

From what we can gather from Reuben Bussard's 
personality, he seems to have been a man that ponder- 
ed Agur's prayer to a good purpose: "Two things have 
I required of Thee, deny me them not before I die. 
Remove far from me vanity and lies; give me neither 
poverty nor riches; feed me with food convenient for 
me. Lest I be full and deny Thee, and say who is 
the Lord ; or lest I be poor and steal and take the name 
of mv God in vain. "—Proverbs xxx. 7-9. 




Owiug to tiuiiierous fuiitil}' afiiliatioiis in our county, 
uoine particulart) iu retcard to the Biigbt connexion in 
(iruenbi-ier are interesting hi our readere. 

David Briglit came from PeiinsylTaiiia and was one 
of the pioneerd of upper Greenbrier, and located im 
place now occupied by Andrew Briiikley and sous near 
Fiaukford. David's wife was a JVliss tirant, also of 
rennpylvania. Their sons were Michael, Jesse, David 
and George. There were two daughters, one of whoiu 
was named Mary. 

Jesse Bright married Margaret 11 ampteii stall, and 
settled ou the homestead and reared the family that has 
BO many relations in Pocahontas County. His daugh- 
ter Margaret was married to Joseph Callison, and went 
to Illinois. Mary Bright was married to Israel Calli- 
son, lived awhile in Pocahontas, then went to Illinois; 
aud was still living at last accounts (in 1897.) 

Rachel Bright became the wife of the late Joseph 
Levisay, near Frankford. Her son, G. W. Levisay, 
married Maggie Beard, youngest daughter of the late 
Josiah Beard of Locust, and located at Frankford, 
where lie farms and merchandises. Josephine Levisay 
became Mrs Preston Clark of the Levels, Mary Levi- 
say became Mrs F. I. Bell, aud lives uear Savannah 
Mills. Samuel Brown Levisay was one of the victims 
of the fearful boiler explosion that occurred in 1896 
near Frankford. Jesse A., Lotitia, Louella, and Eliz- 
abeth are the names of Mrs Levisay'a other children. 



Jesse Brigbt, Jnnior, married Margaret Piiinell and 
resides iu Lewisbui^, 

Margaret Brigbt, daagliter of Jesse Brigbt, Senior, 
became the wife of tlie late John Levisaj-, wh<i settled 
□ear Frankford, where he lately died. Her eldest 
daughter, Mary Margaret, la the wife of Rev D. S, Sy- 
denstricker, D. D., the pantor of the Oak Grove Pres- 
byterian Church. Sabina Levisaj' was married to John 
Rodgers, and moved to OallipoUs, Ohio. Jesse Levi- 
say married Miss Addie Johnson and migrated to Illi- 
nois. Cornelia Levisay was married to W. Henry 
Wallace, and lives on Sinking t'reek. John Brown 
Levisay married Minnie Johnson and resides on a por- 
ttuD of the old homestead. Lillian I^visay was mar- 
ried to Dr James A. Larue and now resides at Fulaski, 
Teoii. James W., Virginia, and Louisa Lerisay live 
on the homestead. 

Francis Bright was married to James Ludington and 
went to llliDois. 

Samuel Bright married Miss Mary Pollock. 

Julia Bright was married to Allan 8. Levisay, and 
lived near Frankford, Mr and Mre Levisay have for 
a few years lived near Mnrlinton with their daughter, 
Mrs Levi Gay. Their son John Granville Levisay 
married Emma Kobinsou and lives near Frankford. 

David Bi'ight married Elizabeth Price. 

Sarah Bright marriad WilliaiH Cassidy and nettled 
in Fayette County. 

George Bright married Harriet Bowen and moved 
to Missouri. His second wife was a Miss Steenberger 
of Missouri. 



Abrani Bright iiiarrieO Margaret Bowen. Abram's 
Hecornl wife waa a lady from Ricliinoud, Va. His third 
wife was Misd Nickel, of Monroe, and fourth was Miss 
Swishor, now of (lallipolis, Ohio. 

The ladies that were the tirst wives of George »iid 
Abram Bright jast mentioned were sietere, and daugh- 
ters of James Bowen, who lived at the mouth of Spring 
Creek. Mr Bowen was a person of great business 
ability and promoted a number of useful industrial eu- 
terprises. He built a grist mill, carding machine, savf 
mill, and oil mill on the property now held by Newton 

This about exbansts all the information in the com- 
piler's possession that illustrates the relationship these 
good people snstaiu to the citizenship of our county. 

The writer feelingly cherishes the memory of Jesse 
Bright, Senior, about whose large and interesting fam- 
ily these biographic notes have been prepared. The 
last time he ever saw this venerable man was on a 
Sabbath morning in the spring of 1857, on the way to 
church. As 1 was passing from Mr John Levisay's to 
Frankford, near where the cemetery now is, I heard a 
singular noise, and on turning around saw that some- 
one's horse had stumbled and thrown the rider. On 
going back it was found to be Mr Jesse Bright. In 
the meantime his daughter, Mrs Margaret Levisay, 
with her husband and two daughters, Mary and Jennie, 
had come up with him, Mr Bright was led to a fence 
corner where he remained a little while, apparently not 
nmch hurt, but thought it best to return home. It is 
said he never felt the same after the contusion be suf- 



fered from the falling of Ins faitlifii] oJd giey Iiorse 
that had carried him so safely and pleasantly for many 
years. From the noise made the animal fell heavily, 
and the wonder is. the rider escaped instant death. 

The compiler of this sketch is mainly indebted to 
Mr Washington Ijevisay for the information given 
liere, taken from memory or gathered i)y biin from the 
rominiscences of elderly friends. 


What is relied upon as authentic tradition is to the 
etfect that the progenitor of the Frice relationship in 
(i reeubrier, Botetourt, Craig, Monroe, and Pocahon- 
tas counties was cue Samuel Price, who was among 
the earlier settlers of Augusta County in the vicinity 
of New Hope, lie was it is believed a native of Wales 
but had lived in Maryland before coming to Virginia. 
So far as known his family consisted of three eons, 
Thomas, Jacob, and Samiiel, All three were Revohi- 
tiouary soldiers and Indian fighters. 

Samuel Price, Jnnior, settled in (ireenbrier County, 
near Savanna Mills, on preempted lands, a part of 
which is now in the possession of Washington Price, a 
descendant of the fourth remove. Samuel Price's first 
wife was Margaret Black, of Albemarle County, and 
her child red were Samuel (third), William, Jacob, 
James, Sally, who becaine Mrs Mielmet Bright; Mrs 
Thomas Beard and Mrs Jacob Walknp. The names of 
Mrs Beai-d and Mrs Walkup are not known to the 
compiler. The second marriage of Sanuiel Price, Jr., 



was with Hiiothcr Miss Maigaret Black, of Augasta 
(■onnty, and a relative of the former wife. Her chil- 
dren were Jiilin, wboHe son WaHhiiigton ha» just been 
named, a daughter who became Mrs Archibald Mc- 
('linttc and went west; Margaret, who became Mrs 
Hcmptonstall. She was the mother of the late Jesse 
Briglit, near Krankfoi-t, W. Va. 

Jacob Price, Hon of Hamnel the progenitor, married 
Winiieford Tilleiy, and lived in the Big Levels on 
property lately occupied by Frank Bell. Their children 
were James (born 1780), John, Samuel, William, Ja- 
cob, Abraham, Geoi^e, Isaac Austin, Margaret Col- 
vert, who became Mrs Cocheuour, west Gi-eenbrier. 

Jacob Price, Jnnior, married Mary B. Cox and set- 
tled near Organ Cave in the Irish Corner. Rev Addi- 
son H, Price, a widely known and useful Presbyterian 
minister, was one of his sons. J. M, Price, Mayor of 
Bonceverte, was his youngest son, 

Jacob Price, Junior, was a veteran of the war of 
1S12, a soldier nnder General William Henry Harri- 
son at Tippecanoe and the battle of the Thames. He 
was born November 1, 1790, and died July 28, 1887, 
aged 96 years. He had sous in the war between the 
States, and grandsons in the war of 1898. 

Through the painstaking care of William P. Camp- 
bell, of Monterey, Hon. J. M. Price, of Ronceverte, 
the late Mrs Sarah Price, of Organ Cave, Anne W. 
Scott, of Craig City, Va., and others, the writer has 
in hand biographic material enough to make a consid- 
erable book. The contents, however, wonld be of 
special interest only to the relationship and the numer- 



OU8 families connected by intermarriage distribnti^d so 
iimneroiisly tluougliout aoutliern West Virginia and 
Miasonri. But as a v«rj small element of the Price 
relationstiip has been identified with the citizenship of 
oiir county, what remains of this article will be devot- 
ed to some biographic particulars illustrating the fami- 
ly history of Thomas Price, one of the three sons of 
Saiimel Price the Welshman. 

The name Price is a blending of two Welsli words, 
'ap* and 'recsc/ Ap means son, and reese means a 
stout or strong man. Then ap-reese would be the son 
of the strong man, and Price is a sliort way of saying 

The Pocahontas branch of the relationship are t!ie 
descendants of Thomas Price, whose Itonie was on 
Howard ('reek, Oraig County, seven miles east of the 
Sweet Springs, at the base of Seven Mile or Middle 

Thomas Price had some knowledge of medicine and 
surgery. One of his books on medicine, bearing his 
name and the date 1700 is in the possession of l)r J. 
W. Price, of Marlinton, one of his descendants. 

His first wife was Elizabeth Taylor, whose parents 
were Scottish immigrants. They were the parents of 
seven daughters and one son. Mary became Mrs Wil- 
liam Scott, Sally became Mrs Littlepage. Elizabeth 
became Mrs Holstoin, Margaret became Mra Bennett. 
Sopliia became Mrs Jacob Price. Rebecca became 
Mrs John Hank, of Monroe (bounty, John Hank was 
a brother of Jehu Hank, the noted singing evangelist 
of former years. Agnes Price became Mrs William A, 



Mastin, piopriftor of tlio '*MaBtiii Hotel" at White 
Siilpluir Spriiigi:!, in itH time one of the most noted in 
the niontituius. John William Price, the only son of 
tUeiirttt family, v/am never married. He was a surgeou 
on board of a ship in the war of IH12, atationod near 
Norfolk, and died on board the ship, and so far as ia 
knt>wn to the contrary may have been buried at sea. 

Thomas Price's second marriage was with Margaret, 
the eldest daughter of John Beard of Renicka Valley, 
who with his wife were among the pioneera of that 
part of Greenbrier County. There were two sons and 
two daiightei-8 in the second family: James Atlee, 
Thompson, Virginia and Medora. 

In reference to the Beards we have learned these 
additional items. Thomas Beard, the ancestor of per- 
sons of that name in Augusta, Greenbrier, and Poca- 
hontas Oonnties, with his brother Edwin came from 
ScotlaucI with the Scotcli-Iriah. Edwiu went to Geor- 
gia, while Thomas settled in Augnata County, along 
with the earliest settlers, near what is now known as 
the New Hope vicinity. Hia family consisted of two 
eons, John and Thomas, Junior. The daughters were 
Roaa, who became Mrs Colonel James Kincaid, near 
Lewiaburg. Elizabeth, who became Mra John Poage, 
who lived awhile on Knsppa Creek, Pocahontas Coun- 
ty. The other five daughters, whose names are not 
known to ua, married in Augusta County, whence four 
of them and their families migrated to Kentucky. 

Thomas Beard, Junior, had no family. 

John Beard, the Renick^a Valley pioneer, reared a 
family of five aons and six daughters: Mai^aret, who 



became Mrs Tboiiias Price; Mrs Jaue Armstrong; Mrs 
Agues Walkup, Mm Subiiia Walkiip, Elizabeth, who 
became Mrs George W, Poage of the Levels, and one 
whose imiiiti is not remembered. The sous were Sam- 
uel, Thomas (third), Josiuh, Jesse, and William. 

As Josiah Beard was a lifelong and prominent citi- 
zen of our county, bis history is of special interest and 
has been referi'ed to in other places. His wife was 
Kachel Poi^^e. Mrs Grace Clark Price, the wife of 
one of the publishers of tliis book, is one of his grand- 

Josiah Beard was a person of tine mind, had a good 
education, which be improved upon by reading and 
reflection. Though gentle in bis manners, be bad a 
pronounced will of bis own, being endowed with phy- 
sical and moral courage to a marked degree, a rare 
combination. Uis practical wisdom and spotless in- 
tegrity gave weight to his opinions. The tenor of his 
life was peaceful, and his influence was for good mor- 
als and intelligent piety, and tliere is but one instance 
where bis temper seems to have gotten the better of 
his discretion. This was while a prisoner in the hands 
of federal soldiers towards the close of the war. At 
the time referred to be wjis past seventy yeara of age, 
and some taunts and jeers were made at bis e^ipcnse. 
The aged prisoner flared up, reminding his captors 
that he was old and unariued, but if they would put 
down tbelr guns, '^pick out a dozen men, and come at 
liim one at a time he would show them a thing or two. ^' 

Thompson Price, son of Thomas Price, Junior, died 
when about grown in Botetourt County. 



JaiiicH A. Price, married Margaret Uavies Poage, 
wettl«d at Marlins Bottom. Particulars are given of 
liis family i)i the memoirs of Jacob Warwick. Thev 
(lieil ill 18 r4 and are buried near their Marliotoii 
home. Tlif,v were people who had hot few advantages 
in their youth, compared to what is to be enjoyed now 
by tiieir posterity. Both were righteous before Ood. 
and to the best of their knowledge tried to walk in the 
counuandinents and ordinances of the Lord, aiming to 
walk humbly, loving mercy and acting jnstly. 

"Our boast is not that we deduce our birth 
Fr<im loins enthroned and rulers of the earth: 
But higher far our proud pretensions rise, 
Children of parents passed into the skies." 

Medora Sabina Beard Price was married on Powell 
Hill, near Marlinton, May U, 1834, to William Ham- 
ilton, of Bath County. They were the parents of sev- 
en danghters and three sons: Virginia Agnes, Sue 
Margaretta, Alice M,, Mary Sophia, John William, 
Ellen Frances, Rose L,, Eugenia Gatewood, Charles 
Atlee, and Paul Price. After a residence of several 
years on Back Greek near Mountain (rrove, Mr Ham- 
ilton moved to Texas, in 1855, Blanco County, where 
he became sheriff, and had many narrow escapes from 
the Comache Indians, who went ou the war path while 
he was iu office. He was born in 1811, and died at 
Blanco City, Texas, July 4, 1894. Mrs Hamilton had 
died at the same city November 10, 1882. 



Paul Price Kelley, one of the sons, became a U. S, 
soldier in 1865, served in Montana against the Nez 
Percee, developed heart disease, was honorably dis- 
charged, and returned to Blanco City, wlicre he died 
September 24, 1892. 

Walter P. Campbell, of Monterey, Va., and his sis- 
ters Lillie and Virginia, widely knowii in onr county 
as popular teachers, are grandchildren of William 
Hamilton. Their parents Mr and Mrs Austin Camp- 
bell, live in Hinton. 

The eldest daughter of the second family group was 
Virginia Agues Price, who became Mrs Nathaniel 
Kelley, of Monroe County. They were the parents of 
four children: William, Samuel. Henry, Catherine, and 
Medora. Upon the death of her husband she came to 
Pocahontas to live with her mother Mrs Thomas Price. 
Their home was the Abram Sybert place, two miles 
east of Hillsboro, By over exertion one wash day, 
Mrs Kelley was stricken by a very malignaut attack of 
brain fever, of which she died in about two weeks. At 
the close of the burial services, Samuel Henry ap- 
proached Mrs Elizabeth Miller and said he wanted to 
go home with her. The kind lady took him to her 
home and for years cared for him with a motherly 
kiuduees truly and affectionately bestowed. This oc- 
curred in 1839. The three others remained for some 
years with their grandmother. They attended school. 
at tlie Academy and made a good beginning in their 
educational course. 

About the time Samuel Henry Kelley became grown 
he went to California, iu 1648. So far as can be 


555! MinTuRY or pouahontab count\" 

lunriiod it n|ipeart< that lio opened n store near Loa An- 
golex anil nppuareil to be doing well. One niglit, in 
l^lil, Ilia atoru wait bi-uken into hy Mexican bandits. 
In tlic etfoit to repulHe tliein be was slsin, bis goodu 
carried otf, and the building burned. 

WiDiani Scott Kelley, the eldest of the family, was 
born in IS'27. He attended school miveral sessiens 
and made tine progress under the instractious or 
Messrs Browu and Dunlap, eminent teachers in their 
day. Ho also went to California in his early nian- 
IkhhI, but did not remain very long. For some years 
he led a roving life in the west, and seems to have be- 
come pretty well known from Cincinnatti to New Or- 
leans as a sporting man. Finnlly he decided to study 
medicine and was graduated in fine standing, in 1858, 
by Newton's ('linicat Inetitute at t'incinnatti, Ohio. 
Boon after lie located in Bucliatniou County, Missouri, 
where he marrie<l Miss Nellie Curie, daughter of Clay- 
ton Curie of Kentucky. 

Dr Kelley rapidly advanced in his profession, had a 
tine patronage, and stood high as a skillful practition- 
er. He was an enthusiastic Confederate, and was 
among the first to enlist at the opening of the war be- 
tween the Slates. He whs appointed Surgeon General 
on the recommendation of General Sterling Price, 
commander of the Missouri Confederate forces,. l>r 
Ktiiley was in all the battles with the Missouri troops 
during the first year of the war. He died of typhoid- 
piienniouia December 11, 1S61, and was, buried Ht 
midnight in his garden. 

Dr Kelley was survived by his wife and daughter 



Willie, After reHidiiig u few years in MiHStniri, Mrs 
Kelley i-etnriied to K^ntncky and remained tliere until 
1875. Mi83 Willie Kelley was a teaclier, and in 1883 
was married t() George L. Rector, of Nashville, Ark., 
manager of tlie Rector Store Company. Tliey were 
the parents of seven children: Willifini Henry, Nellie, 
Lillian Augusta, Jesse Nathaniel, George, I^nora, 
and John Carlisle, 

In thinking of William S. Kelley, who is remember- 
ed by many persons in Pocahontas, it is pleasant to be 
able to say that he was known in Missouri as a person 
of pure life, and in his family circle the gentleness of 
his nature was beautifully developed. The care and 
attention he gave his sisters should be remembered and 
was rewarded in a very remarkable manner, as our 
readers will learn, 

Catherine Kelley tinished her education at the school 
taught by Miss Maria Richards, at Warm^Springs, Va, 
She was enabled to do this by her brother William's 
assistance in good part. She met l)r William N, Snod- 
grass at Fincastle, Va., and they were married in 
1856. He graduated from the medical department of 
the University of New York in 1851. Soon after their 
marriage they settled in Jefferson City, Mo., where he 
i>ecame recognized as an able physician. He espoused 
the Confederate cause and was a surgeon in General 
Price's command, and was in the battles of Carthage, 
Wilsons Creek, and Missouri. He was with the Mis- 
souri troops until within a few months before the war 
closed. Owing to his broken health lie was obliged to 
leave the service, and went to liis father's home in 



Jack:jua County, Texas, wliitlier li<; liad previodslj Buut 
\xie wif<! aiul two noun. His liealth was iieverrcstored, 
and l)r Snodprasn diod in November, 1S65. 

After the death of her haebaiid, Mrs Suod^rass and 
)ier two children lived for a time at Walnut Hill, Ark., 
and afterwartlH at Itoekj Comfort, Ark. Her son 
Xewtoii was born in l!S57, and died in 1876 on Ked 
Ktvur, whither he had gone on business. We are in- 
formed that lie waH a youth of fine character aud mark- 
ed businuHs ability. The other, William Edward, was 
born in 1K5*J. In 1SIJ4 he married Miss Louolia Rhea 
and is now living in Little Bock, in bnsiuess with M. 
Cohn, a IcadinK clothier of the city. 

October, 1877, Mrs Kate Suodgrass married her 
second husband, W. (". Kybert, a prosperous merchant 
of Nashville, Ark., and lived there until lier decease 
ID 188!). >She is spoken of as a. noble Christian wo- 
man, a devout member of the Episcopal church. Mr 
Sybert died May 16, 1881. 

Medora Virginia, Mrs Nathaniel Kelley's youngest 
daughter, was loft an orphan at the tender age of two 
or three years. She remained with her gjandmother 
Price until she was about eight years old. After her 
grandmother's death she lived with her aunt Madora 
Hamilton until her brother William Kelley had lier 
placed in a school taught by the Misses Daiugerfield, 
near the Hot Springs. She afterwards entered Hol- 
lins Institute, whence she graduated with gi-eat credit 
in 1858, While on a visit to her sister in Jefferson 
City, Mo., she met and married Dr Charles T. Hart, 
of Georgia, her brother Willianrs partner in the prac- 



tice of medicine, l>r Hart was the son of a wcalthv 
platiter, who spared no pains in the education of his 
son. Dr Hart gradnated from tlic same Ciucinnatii 
medical institute and in the same class with Dr W. S. 
Kelley, He had previously obtained diplomae fn)ni 
two other medical schools. Dr Hart was a surgeon in 
the Confederate service. He establshed a hospital 
at r^winsville. Ark., for wounded Confederates. Af- 
ter the war he was Professor of Medicine in a New 
York school, aixi proprietiH- of a popular dnig, whose 
discovery he claimed. His health was broken by ex* 
poaure during the war, and he died in August, 1868. 
and burled in Greenwood cemetery. J)r Hart's ances- 
tors came over with William Peiui. 

After his death Mm Hart went to Kocky Comfort, 
Ark., to be near her sister Kate, On October, 16, 
1872, she married Dr W, H. Hawkins, of North Car- 
olina, a graduate of a Philadelphia medical college. 

In January, 188^, Dr Hawkins moved to Texarkana, 
where he died September 7, 1887, Dr Hawkins stood 
high in his profession, was at one time president of the 
Arkansas Medical Association, a brigade surgeon in 
the war, a public spirited citizen, a genial, courteous. 
Christian gentleman. Mrs Medora Hawkins died 
March 17, 1888, 

Lillian Hart was born in 1861, near H-Mitt Joseph, 
Mo. In 1877 she married George Keid, a merchant 
of Rocky Coinfoi-t. After living there several years, 
tliey moved in 1884 to De Kalb, Ark., and from thence 
to Texarkana in 1888. They liave two children, 
Charles William, born in 1880, and a daughter. 


556 msTOKV ok hocahontab county 

Kate Kiwx Hawkins, Mcdora'B »ec<)iid daiigbtcr, 
waa born at Rdcky Comfort, Jiil^ :i3, 1873, At the 
age of !4 sli« was bereaved of lier pareiite witliin » 
few iiiotitlis. January S, ISiti, alie married E. W. 
Stewart, a iiiercliant, and settled in Texarkana. They 
liavcoiie daiigliter. 

Thomas Price, son of ^aniue! Price the Welsh im- 
migrant, was a veteran of tlie Revolution, and was in 
General Lincoln's command when surrendered at 
('harlcston, South Carolina, and thereupon became a 
prisoner of war. He and a comrade managed to eludu 
the sentries at day break wliilo the change of gnartls 
was going on. Tliey hid in a briar patch and watted 
for night to come. It was a day of much suspense 
and anxiety. Some British soldiers while driving in 
a fresh cow with her calf come very near running over 
them as they" hugged the ground. A British soldier 
approached the patch later in the day and seemed to 
look right at them, but he turned away, and from that 
on they expected to have a squad to surround and cap- 
ture them. Sluch to their i-eliuf he never came back, 
and soon it was night and they, guided by the pole 
star, set out for home and liberty. 

At one stage of theic journey, when about famished, 
thev happened about daylight on the camp of a negro 
fugitive trying to make his way to the British. He 
was soundly sleeping, and when they waked him he 
jumped up and ran for dear life. They found inex- 
pressible enjoyment in the ash cake raked from the 
coals and the piece of bacon found in his wallet, and 



aiid I'tisumed tlieir journey with new utreugtli aiid liope. 
From that time on it was easy to tinU all that waa 
needed for their sustenance and refresliment until the^ 
were at home again. 




Joliii Hiid Jameij BriOger were ^laiu b^ Indians dur- 
ing tliti laut raid made by Indians in what is now Po- 
caliontas County. Tliey were in tlie party that came 
to the relief of the Drinnou family on the tireenbrier 
River, nearly a mile above the month of Stony Creek. 
Henry Baker was killed while he and Richard Hill 
were going to the river to wash and prepare for break- 
feet. Natliau, a colored man belonging to Lawrence 
Drinnon, notified the settlers in the Levels. A party 
came on and on their return the Moore and the Wad- 
dell families joined them. The Bridger brothers and 
Nathan left the main party and took across to the near 
way through the Notch, while the rest passed around 
by the WaddelPs. 

Indians were concealed at a place whei-e a clump of 
lynn saplings were growing ont of the decaying stump 
of a tree that had been cut down for sugar troughs. 
Two shots were fired in quick succession. John fell 
mortally wounded. The other, being untouched, ran 
on through the "notch," closely pursued by an Indian. 
Just at the foot of the mountain was a straight path 



tlirongli which the young man was running wlitn the 
Indian paused and shot liini in the back. The mark 
of the Indian's heel was seen where he halted to de- 
liver the fatal discharge. 

Nathan had stopped to fiisten his moccasins, and 
was thus out of reach. He scolded the Indians for 
hui-ting the boys, and escaped unhui-t. The rest ()f the 
company were at the Waddell place when the heard 
the shooting. 

Shortly after the shooting, loud whoops were lieard 
near the Notch, These seemed answered by whoopc 
on the Gillilan Mountain, and then were whoopingM 
heard near the head of Stamping Creek, as if tlie sav- 
age bands were signaling to that the settlers were on 
the move and danger was threatening, sor soon all be- 
came silent and nothing more was seen or heanl of 
them in the vicinity. By the time the refugees reach- 
ed the fort, on the liill now occupied by Isaac McNeelV 
residence, all danger was over. 

Arrangements were (piickly made to bring in the 
slain. Jolm Cochran had brought a "half sled'" to 
the fort and an old, gentle horse. The sled was taken 
to where Jim Bridgor lay weltering in his bbiod, and 
jmd remained there nntil John was carried down from 
the Notch, and thus they were borne to the fort and a 
f^rave prepared for them on the knoll overlooking 

Old Mother Jordan, who lived when a young per- 
Hon where Mathew John McNoel now lives, remember- 
ed how Jim Brjdger was fixing himself up like he was 
^oing to a wedding while the n»en were getting ready 



to ((<> to tlic relief of tlie IJriiitions. He wanted to bor- 
row lier silver slu>e buckles, and sbe objected: "Jim, 
you Utul better not take my shoe bncklee, for the lu- 
diann might get yon and I will never see my buckleu 
any more," 

Aunt I'li.i-be McNeel and Mrs Sally McCollam, 
ilaii^htoi- of Larry Dremian, remembered with emotion 
long as tltey lived how the heart broken father of the 
Bridger boys put hitt arms aromid the necks of his 
slain sons ei-u they were put into the one grave. Hii< 
sleeves were all bli^ody, and when the men gently 
forced him away from his dead, and he lay upon the 
gi-omid resting his head on one arm and wiping his 
tears with the bloody sleeve of the other, it looked so 

This should always be remembered as a consecrated 
spot, being made sacred by the tears of a father wept 
over sons cruelly slain, incidental to thti perils and 
hardships of the early settlement of I'ocahontas. 



Ill 1 'US tile Indiana raided tbe Miiyso home iu Bath 
County, a few miles from Bath Alum. Joseph Majse, 
aged 13 years, his mother, ftii unknown white girl and 
Mrs ii^loun and her infant were taken prisoners. 

About live or six miles from the Ata^'se residence 
the party halted on the top of a high ridge by a large 
rock to rest awhile. The Indian leader, an old man, 
sat on this iTJck. Around his shoulders hung a hearts 
iiite(<tine tilled with cornirieal mush. This he would 
squeeze out and eat for his luuch. Thence the Indians 
proceeded on a hee Hue westward over the Warm 
Springs Mountain, and on the evening of the first day 
camped on Muddy Run, about five miles north oast of 
the Warm Springs. 

On the second day they crossed Jacksons River near 
Warwickton, Back Creek Mountain, and camped near 
the mouth of Little Back Creek, now Mountain Grove. 
The boy prisoner, Joseph Mayse, was placed to sleep 
between two warriors. He was made very uucomfort- 
able by a large lOot of the tree under which they had 
lain down to sleep. His sufferings becoming toopain- 



ful to uiidure, lie took onv of ttie Indiana b^ the liand 
Hiid placed it on the source of his mieury. He niider- 
Htood the tronble and made the other lie over and give 
voiing prisoner a softer place to sleep. 

The third day they crossed the Alleghany and camp- 
ed about half way between Marlintoii and Hnnters- 
ville. Early on tlie fourth day, just after crossing the 
Greenbrier River at the Island ford, the Indians and 
their prisoners were overtaken by a piirsning party. 
The young prisoner was on a pack horse, and it be- 
coming frightened when the skirmish opened, ran off 
and bocame entangled in some grape vines. The boy 
was pulled off into a thicket of nettles. The Indiaus 
were so closely pressed they had not time to turn and 
kill the boy. The Indians were pnrsned some distance 
np Stony Creek and Indian Draft, but could not be 
overtaken. On tlieir return the pursuing party picked 
up the young prisoner, still in the nettles near the 
fording, and took him back to the settlement. The 
late George Mayse, Esij. , of the Warm Springs, was a 
Hon of this prisoner. The infant had been dashed 
to death against a tree on the first approach of the pur- 
suers. It was buried near the crossing of the Marliii 
Run in Marlinton. 

Eight or nine years after his captivity Joseph Mayse 
was a soldier in tlie battle of Point Fleasant, and was 
severely wounded. Forty-six years afterwards liis 
■wounded leg was amputated above the knee, by Dr 
Charles Lewis, who came all the way from Lynchburg 
and remained with his patient six weeks. Joseph 
Mayse sei-red as magistrate between forty-five and fifty 



jeais, and was twice higli alieriff. His memory was 
considered as reliable as an "oSicial rPcard. " His 
health wag aiicli he was never known to take a dose of 
medicine, and never knew what whiskey and coflec 
taste like. He died "serene and calm," in April, 
1840, in the 89tli year of his age. 

Mrs Mayse, Mrs Sloan, and llie nameless white 
girl, were taken to tlie Indian towns near Chilicothe, 
abont 275 miles from Marlintoii, by the route taken 
hy their captors. From Chilicothe they made their 
way towards Detroit. By the aid of friendly Indians 
they received directions, and linally reached Pennsyl- 
vania and thence home, after an absence of about fif- 
teen mouths. 

When her son was wounded at Point Pleasant, Octo- 
ber 11, 1774, and she hoard where he was, she went 
with a led horse two hundred and fifteen miles and 
brought him home early in November. 



May 5, IS57, tlie writer paid a visit to tlic late Ma- 
jor Andrew Crouch, at the time regarded the oldest 
person in Tjgart's Valley. He livefl near the inuutli 
t>t Elkwater, Randolph County. Among the interest- 
ing items he gave an was one in reference to a land 

Near the old Hiittonsville brick church one James 
Warwick built a pole cabin and cleared a potato patch, 
in virtne of which lie claimed the whole bottom con- 
tiguous. John and William White, two brothers, as- 
serted their claim to the same land. It was finally de- 
cided to settle the dispute by a fair fight, fist and skull. 
Mr Warwick, being a small man, proposed to Joseph 
Crouch — or rather to liis fattier — to exchange landn 
with him. He did so, and moved on to the tract. 
The Whites came on soon after to drive him away. 
After some wrangling it was finally agreed upon to 
settle the dispute by a tight, provided Andrew Crouch 
would accept the challenge, Joseph Crouch being soine- 
wtiat deficient in pluck. 

The ground was chosen for the contest, and John 



White was sent to iuforna Andrew froueb of the ar- 
raiigeineut. He accepted the challeuge and defeated 
William White. The title was settled, and the parties 
wei-e very friendly ever afterwards. 

William White would frequently visit the hoiite of 
Andrew Crouch^ Seuior, and (he Major had a vivid re- 
membrance of the impression White's appearance made 
upon his yonthfnl mind as he walked the floor, he was 
so very tall and portly. 

John White fell in the battle of Point Pleasant, and 
William White was killed by Indians in what is now 
Upshur County. 

Id the visit to Major Andrew Crouch, May 5, 1857, 
this aged man related a reminiscence of his boyhood. 

When he was abont six years of age hie father took 
him to the corn Held, and while the father worked the 
little boy sat on the fence. One of his uncles came up 
in great haste, bringing the news that Lewis Cauaaii 
and tliree children had just been killed by Indians. 
The two Crouches hurried their families to the home 
of James Warwick, not far from where the old brick 
church stood. In their hurry the Crouch brothers and 
Warwick seized their guns to go to the help of the 
families exposed to the Indians farther up the river, 
they neglected to barricade the fort, and so the little 
boy and two little girls went out to the branch, and 
while the boy was washing the blood from his face, 
caused by hie nose bleeding, the little girU became 
frightened, and without saying anything, ran back into 



tlie fort and left liim alone. Wheu hie bleeding stop- 
ped lie went back and fonnd tbe fort barricaded. The 
Croncli brothers liad been met by some persons from 
the lower fort, Utcik them along, and so their wives 
and children were left to themselves at Warwick's to 
make the best of their perilous situation. 

When the bov Andrew Crouch came to the fort he 
heard his aunt in a loud voice giviug oi'ders as if there 
were quite a number of men in the fort, when in fact 
the force consisted of three white women and one col- 
ored man and wife, and some little children. An In- 
dian climbed the i-oof of one of the fort buildings after 
nightfall and set it on fire. The colored man put it 
out. Then the stable was fired. The black man said 
they should not burn his horse. He went out and care- 
fully approached the place. Seeing an Indian by the 
light he shot at him, and let the horses out and re- 
turned in safety to the fort. He dared the Indians to 
come on, and as there seemed to be not more than two 
or three that showed themselves, it seems . they wore 
not disposed to storm the loud but little garrison. 

When the barn burner] down and all became dark, 
thecolored woman insisted on .leaving the fort and 
giving the alarm lower down. She was allowed to do 
so, and the next day the men calue up and moved all 
farther down, and then the little boy with eight or 
ten others went to bury the slain Lewis Canaan and 
his three children. He says no one wept nor did any 
seem afraid while the burial was going on. 

After the funeral the men, seeing no signs of In- 
dians, believed they had withdrawn, and so they dis- 



handed. But late in the evening one Indian killed it 
iiiau nnined Frank Riffle, near where the brick church 
stood, and burned two houses not far away belonging 
to James Lackey. 

Major Cronch remembered seeing Lackey not very 
long after the battle of Point Pleasant. He could 
show the rock on which Lackey sat and sung a war 
song, then very popular among the mountaineers in 
commemoration of that eventful struggle. 

In subsequent years James Warwick moved to Ohio, 
and rewarded his faithful negro with his freedom for 
his gallantry in saving the fort and tlie property. This 
Mr Warwick was the ancestor of the Ohio Congress- 
man who represented the McKinley district a few years 



About 175(t John Wilson and Bowvfi- Miller locat- 
ed oil Jacksnug River, in what is udw Highland Coun- 
ty, Va. Mr WiUoii settled at the ntoutli of Peak or 
Stony Run, wliile Miller located at Wilaoiivillo, fai-ther 
up. During Braddock's war Mr Miller refugeed tu 
Tinkling Spring, and finally across the Blue Ridge. 
leaving land, liouHe, and property uncarod for. 

About 1756 Mr Wilson refugecd near (rreenville. 
taking his movable property with him, but Ending it 
imposaiblti to get sabsiateuce, sent his horses and cat- 
tle back and employed some one to do the ranging and 
salting. We hear nothing more of him. In a year 
or two his family ventured to return and took up their 
abode on the east bank of the river, some two hun- 
dred yards perhaps below the crossing leading to thi; 
Bolar Spring. The Indians then raided their home 
about the year 1760. 

This John Wilson, the pioneer, was the grandfather 
of the the late William Wilson, whose daughters Char- 
lotte and Susan married Adam and Wasliington Htepli- 
enson, citizens of Highland County. 



The morning of the raid John .Wilwon, one of the 
BOiis, had gone to Fort Lewis on the Oowpastui'e to in- 
vite liands to assist in raising the honse recently occu- 
pied by Mrs Wasliington Steplienson. In the mean- 
while Mrs Wilson and her danghters Barbara and Sn- 
san were very busy in preparations for the raising, and 
were cooking and washing on tlio east bank of the river 
near the cabin. Thomas Wilson, a younger son, was 
at the miH grinding the needed corn meal. The mill 
stotxl neai- the crossing of the Warm Run leading to 
the residence of the late David Stephenson. 

Upon John's return late in the evening as he came 
in sight of home he was fired upon by Indians. One 
ball passed under his arm pit and tore the fringe off 
his hunting shirt. Mounted on a tieet horse he turned 
instantly to return to the fort whence he had just come 
and was soon out of sight of the Indians. While go- 
ing at full speed through the gap a limb knocked his 
hat off. He stopped and picked it up at the peril of 
his life. This person was the father of the William 
Wilson already mentioned, and of the late Mrs Esther 
Bolar near the Warm Springs. 

Upon reaching the fort he told what had happened . 
and begged for assistance at once. None wore willing 
to venture that night. The captain then ordered a 
draft for a detachment. It was very late in the night 
before the detail reached the summit of Jack Mountain 
overlooking the valley. It was dark, no light save 
that of the summer stars, and in the valley this light 
was obscured by a dense fog. With sad forebodings 
they began the descent into the darkness of the ravine 



boiieatli, through wliicli they were to gmpe their way, 
and where their yonug guide had Iteeii fired on and 
)>iirHued by the wily enemy. Tliey cantioiisly moved 
down the mountain, <juiet1y posHcd through the gap — 
all on foot except their guide John Wilson. At the 
gap he diamoiinted, hung up \m Huddle and bridle, and 
tnrned the jaded horwe out to graze iii the woods. He 
alHo a4lviijtid hie friends to leave the path, cross tlie 
Warm Kun, and pass down the right bank by a cireia- 
Vtus way to the mill to see wiiether it was running or 
not. "If it be running,*' says John Wilson," "it is a 
bad sign, for then I know the Indians have surprised 
Brother Tom and killed liiin, because they would not 
know how to stop the mill. But if it is not running 
there is some hope, for he may have seen the Indians, 
stopped the mill and made his escape, for I know no 
Indian can catch him by running." 

The mill was found to be silent. Young Wilson 
entered it quietly and found everything in place, and 
the newly ground sack of meal was at the chest, se • 
cnrely tied. Taking hope from this, the rescuing pai-- 
ty crossed the river jnst above the mouth of the Warm 
Run, and passed over the bottom to the knoll on 
' which the church stands, and thence moved with th« 
greatest caution in the direction of the dwelling on the 
opposite side of the river. 

Upon reaching the camp just opposite the cabin, 
John Wilson advised the men to remain there until he 
c<m1d wade over and find out what had happened. If 
all was well he could call them over, but if the cabin 
had been destroyed or occupied by the Indians he 



would return and deterniiiie on what would be best to 
do. Wlieii lie approached the dwelling he found the 
doors heavily bairieaded, but through a well known 
crevice he discovered the fauiilj- was yet there. There- 
upon he gave the signal, and Ids fi'ienda hastened 
over in all the transports of exulting joy, so great was 
their relief from the long and powerful suspense they 
had been in for so many hours. 

The mother and her daughter Bai-bara had been 
wounded by the clubs or tomahawks of the Indians, 
but not fatally injured, Susan had escaped unhurt. It 
was found that none but Tom Wilson was missing. 
The last thing known of him he was at the mill. I'p- 
on going to the mill early in the morning, the party 
found his track, and that he had been running. This 
they followed until they found where Tom had stepped 
ou a stick, had fallen, been overtaken and captured. 
The Indians were trailed from that point across the 
river to the bluff near the residence of the late Michael 
Wise. Thence they went southwest to a point about a 
mile below where the church now stands. There they 
remained some time, as the signs indicated. From 
th&t point they were traced back to Peak's Ilun, up 
which they went. 

Tom's sister Susan took the lead in all this search 
for Tom. She was well nigh frantic with grief. At 
frequent times she would cry out as she went in ad- 
vance of the party by fifteen or twenty yards: "Here 
are my poor brother's tracks." 

Upon reaching the top of Back Creek Mountain, it 
was thought best to go no further, as fourteen men 



could do iiotliiiig with M) many savages at) the signs in- 
dicated. It Vas with great ditticiilty that tiuitaii could 
he prevailed on to return. For years nothing was 
heard of Tom. He died of fever soon rfter his cap- 
ture. We hear nothing of John Wilsoii, the father, as 
lie does not appear to have been at home. 

The writer is indebted to the late John Cleek, Esq., 
for tlie material for this and other sketcliee. 

Information was ix'teived eoiicerning Tom Wilson 
in the following manner. 

David Kincaid, wlio had been one of the fourteeu 
rescuers, went with an expedition sent to treat with 
the Indians at Fort Pitt concerning the ransom of pris- 
oners. A treaty was made and a day appointe<i for 
giving up all in captivity. That day- passed away and 
no prisoners were brought in as agreed. It looked 
suspicious, and that night every precaution against snr- 
prise was taken, lest tiie Indians should prove hostile 
and treacherous, but nothing occurred as feared. 

The next day was nearly spent, when late in tho 
evening a tittle girl ten years of age was brought in. 
She could speak nothing but Indian dialect, and could 
tell nothing about herself. Mr Kincaid^s wife and 
three children had been taken prisoners about the time 
Tom Wilson was taken. He remembered one of the 
children had lost a thnmh. Upon examination it was 
found as he had stated, and the recognition of father 
and child was of the most touching character. The , 
next evening Mrs Kincaid was brought in, whereupon 



IiusbaDd, wife, and the only surviving child were reu- 

MiB Kincaid could tell all about that which had hap- 
pened to Tom Wilson. He had just' finished his task 
at tho mill, and was on the way to the house, when lie 
discovered the Indians, who were coming down the 
east bank of the river. Wishing to take him alive they 
headed him off, and he took up the rivtl- and was 
caught. They wishe<l also not to alarm the women at 
work near the dwelling, nor the men at work on the 
west bank near where the new house was to be reared, 
getting in the logs and hewing them. 

Tom and tlie other prisoners were taken to a place 
some distance away. They were securely bound and 
" left in the charge of an old Indian, while the rest 
should return and capture the parties already referred 
to. In this they failed, and all escaped to the bouse, 
though some were slightly wounded by the tomahawks 
thrown at them. The doors were barricaded, and the 
Indians repulsed without taking any captives. 
. John Wilson having made his escape on horseback, 
the Indians supposed be would soon return with men 
from the fort, and so they did not press the seige, but 
started immediately for their towns and wei-e miles 
away ere John returned. 

Thomas did not survive bis captivity very long. 

John Wilson said he had great difficulty in persuad- 
ing the family to give up the house raising and go to 
the fort until it was certain all danger for the time be- 
ing was over. John also reports that among the 
wounded, besides his mother and sister Barbara, was 



Hii Iriwli wcaviir wliOHtf name is forgottiiii. At the tiin« 
tlie attack was iriade Ii« was weaving in an out house. 
During tli<? iimlcu an Indian camv apon him and drew 
hiH gun. The Iri^liiiiau fell forward on his face just 
at) the trigger watt pulled, the hall inflicting a wound 
on his hip. 

When the relief party came in the night, and the 
i{uenti<in was anked "is anybody killed {" the Irishman 
quickly reHponded: "An faith, there is nobody killed 
but liieself !" 

The writer is also under obligatiovs to Squire John 
("leek for the following iteniK: 

A tight occurred between the whites and Indians at 
Cunningliam^e Helds, near Ilarpert^, head of Kerr's 
('reek. The Indians are reported by tradition to have 
carried their dead to the summit of the mountain and 
buried tbeni under the stones now found near the road- 
side on the way from Rockbridge Alum to Lexington. 

Tlie first settlement on the Bullpasture River, in 
Highland, was made near the Blue Spring, known as 
the Locrkidge farm, by the Hicklins and EstilJs. Tlie 
(jrahams and Carlyles the next farms higher up the 
river. Pullin, a native of Ireland, settled above Car- 
lysle. A good many of these settlers sold nnt and 
moved to Kentucky, and some of them prospered 
greatly in their western homes. 



Tlie writer received tlio following items of history 
from tlie late William McCHntic. Esq., of Batli ('onii- 
ty. This geiitletiian was a promlneiit citizen, anO ac- 
cepted most of the important eoiintv offices in t!ie gift 
of his fellow citizens, and he bad a paasion for iiistory. 
He lias B grandson living in oar county. Dr K. T. Mc- 
Ollntic, who ranks liigli as a physician. 

Mr McClintic says that when the Indians gained 
their victory near the mouth of Falling Spring Run. in 
Alleghany, 1768, they were so elated that one linii- 
drod and eighty warriors pressed on as far as Kerr's 
('reek, where some persons were slain and others tak- 
en prisoners. On tlioir return they crossed the Warm 
Springs Mountain near the springs, and camped close 
by the springs. The next day tliey camped on Back 
Creek, near the place where John Gwiii resided a few 
years since, eight or ten miles above Mountain Grove. 

As soon as possible, three companies under Captains 
Lewis, Dickinson, and Chi-istie started in purauit. 
Christie's company was from near Waynesboro. The 
Indians were followe:! to the north fork of this South 



Branch of t!ie I'otimiac. TIio Hciiutu diecovcre*! the 
i!iiciuiiprii(!tit not fill- from Harper's Mill. Strange to 
my the liKliaiis Hecnied to be lieedlcsd of danger. 
Some were OreuHing deer skiiiH, mending or making 
iiiocc.irtiiiM, Koiiie cooking nud hiiiiting and fiHliing. 

Tlie HcoiitH having made tlieir ri^port, it was debated 
whether the attack be made at once or wait until night. 
It Heemed moat likely that the Indian ttcouts might get 
in the trail of the whiten before night and hence be 
wiirned of their <langcr, and it wag conclnded best to 
attack them without delay. 

The three companies were to be deployed in such a 
manner as to invest the camp and to begin the attack 
siiniiltaneonsly. Major Vance was sent forward to a 
point overlooking the encampment, with instriictioni:^ 
that if the Indians showed any signs of having discov 
ered the approach of the whites to signify it by fli-iug a 
gun. Lewis and Dickinson had nearly reached the 
points they wished in order tc) open the attack, but 
(i^hristie had not quite reached his porition, when the 
signal was heard. Lewis and Dickinson rushed in. 
Unfortunately, Christie's men set up a tremenduous 
yelling and began to rush toward the scene of action. 
The Indians, with much presence of mind, retreated 
in the direction where there was no noise, and what 
happened to be the course most favorable for their es- 
cape, so they succeeded in making good their retreat 
with but a slight loss <»f life. One warrior came into 
camp after a short lull, and dodged from tree to tree, 
escaping the t^hots discharged and the st<ineB and toni- 
iihawks thrown at him until he reached his gun, and 



then he (iHrted off, apparently unharmed. 

Blame was attached to Major Vance for being in too 
much of a hurry in giving the signal for the attack, 
bat he and hia coiiipaniona made what was decided to 
be a good excuse. Major Vance said tliey happened 
OD two Indians, one leading a horse and the other 
holding a buck upon it, and tbey were coming in a di- 
rection by which they would unavoidably be discover- 
ed, so it waa thought better to shoot thorn than be dis- 
covered, and the Indians in camp have timely warning 
uf the approach of the pursuere. 

All the plunder of any value found in the camp, 
horses, blankets, guns, knives, pots, and kettles, were 
taken to Waynesboro and about twelve hundred dol- 
lars realized by .their sale. 

On page 567 reference is made to one Lackey sing- 
ing the "Shawnee Battle Song," commemorative of 
the battle of Point Pleasant. As a matter of curiosity 
the words are herewith reproduced. 

Let us mind the tenth day of October, 
'Seventy -four, which caused woe, 

The Indian savages they did cover 
The pleasant banks of the Ohio. 

The battle beginning in the morning, 
Throughout the day it lasted sore 

Until the evening shades were returning down 
Upon the banks of the Ohio. 



Judgiiiunt pi-cMjeeds to execution, 
Lot fame througlioiit all dangers go, 

Oiir lieroes fought with reeulntion, 
I'pon the banks of the Ohio. 

Se>'bn score lay dead and wounded 
Of champions that did face the foe. 

By whicli the heathen wei-e confounded 
Upon the banks of tlie Oliio. 

Colonel Lewis and some uoblw Captains 
Did down to death like Uriah go: 

Alas ! their heads wound up in napkins. 
Upon the banks of the Ohio. 

Kings lamented their mighty fallen 
Upon the mountains of Gilboa, 

And now we mourn for brave Hugh Allen, 
Far fi-om the banks of the Ohio. 

Oh bless the mighty King of Heaven 
For all his wondrous wcirks below: 

Who hath to us tlie victory given 
Upon the banks of the Ohio. 


March ^2, 1858, it was the writer's pleasure to visit 
Mrs Smith, the aged mother of the late William 8mith, 
who reaided five and a half miles north of Covington, 
ou Jackson's River. She had been well acquainted 
with ^'Mad Ann," an^l related some recollections of 
tliie noted character of pioneer history. 

She was of English birth, and claimed to have bail- 
ed from Liverpool. Her tirst husband was a Mr Trot- 
ter, who was drowned in Jacksons Kiver neai- the resi- 
dence of the late Squire Alexander McOHntic, The 
water was quite aliallow, but being in a state of intoxi- 
cation he perished in the ripples, leaving a widow and 
two sons, William and John. William Trotter, in 
1868, was living at Point Pleasant. 

Mi's Trotter lived awhile as one of the nearest neigh- 
bors of the Smith family. Her property uas a little 
rude log hut, three acres of arable land, two cows, two 
pigs, and a horse. Before her reason became inipaii'- 
ed she was a person of tine sense, and was mnch better 
educated than the generality of females at her day. 
Ah to her moral reputation in later life, she was not on 



a i>ar with ('guar's wife— above BiiBpiciou. Yet sLe 
paid lier debts, would not steal, or aeek revenge for 
any insult in otealtliy wajfl. 

S)ie made frequent journeys to Point Pleasant to 
carry powder and lead for the use of the troops sta- 
tioned there to check Indian incursions. She became 
very erratic in later life, her mind becoming unsettled 
by grief over the death of one Baily, supposed to have 
been killed by the Indians. In person she was quite 
small, and after her mental troubles preferred to wear 
man's attire. She rode "Liverpool," a black, blaze- 
faced pony, and cari'ied her rifle and shot pouch. 8he 
chewed tobacco, drank liquor, and thought it very be- 
coming to use profane language. 

She was regarded as pei-fectly. harmless, unless irri- 
tated. Then she wonld sboot juat as quickly as the 
triggers would work. On her last visit to Alleghany 
she went into camp and remained most of the summer, 
and the neighbors furnished her with with provisions 
cheei-fully and plentifully. Mrs Smith's husband hav- 
ing lost his horses by water murrain, hired "Liver- 
pool" to plow corn; paid well for his use, put him in 
good order, and so poor Ann had a good fat horse to 
ride back to Ohio wheu her visit ended in the fall, and 
she soon after died. 

Only one incident occurred to mar the pleasure of 
her last visit. One night some mischievous persons 
out coon hunting molested her camp by throwing 
stones. She was soon out after them with her rifle, 
and it was with difBcutty they escaped by flight and 
concealment. They were thus made to know how it 



feels to be hunted tbeniBelvee, and quiet prevailed after 

She had a great inau; inarvelous tales of adventure 
with the Indians to relate, but Mrs Smith thouji^ht they 
were mostly fanciful. The one she would tell the 
oftenest was that when pursued by the Indians she 
trtok refuge in a swamp, and by lying in tiie water all 
night made her pursuers lose her trail, and they could 
not track her the next day. Mrs Smith thought the 
following to be a true occurrence!: 

A man, to annoy '^Mad Ann^' and to amuse himself 
and others to see how she would talk, weep, and rave, 
told her that one of her sons was dead. As was ex- 
pected, she was greatly distressed and was very de- 
monstrative in her expressions of grief, until she heard 
it was all in fun. When she met the young man after- 
wards she reminded him of the cruel jest, and told him 
in a most solemn manner that lie would be the first to 
die in his neighborhood. What she foretold actually 
occurred the following summer, almost a year after- 
wards. It was a striking coincidence, to say the least. 

She died in Kanawha, aged, as was supposed, one 
hundred and live years. The Hon. Virgil Lfiwia has 
prepared an interesting sketch of tiiis remarkable per- 
son, and her fame is assured as long as the history of 
pioneer adventure has interested readers, and that will 
be as long as the State of West Virginia lias a local 
habitation and a name. 



Ill ruspoiittc to (iiir ret^tit-st for the iiaiii<;(i of I'liioii 
Hiid OoDfedei'Bt€' soldiers, the following are all tliat 
liave coiue to liand, furnisiied by H. P. McLauglilJti, 
Beverly Waugli, and A. L, (.iatewood. 

Company I 25tli Reg. Virginia Infantry, C, S. V, 

D. A. Stofer. Captain. 

J. H. McLaughlin, 1st Lieutc-nant. 

Anguij, Tinioleau 
Alderman, Andy C: 
Akers, James H. 
Arbogast, Daniel 
Boon,*B. B. 
Bnrr, Geoi-ge 
Burr, Frederick 
Burr, William 
Bradley, Janics 
Oorbett, Mnstoe H. 
Cleek, Peter L. 
Cash, (ieorge H. 
Carpenter, William H. 
Cole, William 

Johnson, Joe 
Lyons, Enos 
Moore, I^vi 
McGlanghlin, H. P. 
Maber, Patrick 
Moore, Michael 
Mitche^ Sylvester 
Mathewti, J, W. 
Moriarty, Pat 
Piles, John 
Piles. William L. 
Pence, J. W. 
Robey, Waltor H, 
Swadly, James 



£agan, Charles 
Ervine, William H. 
Friel, M. A. 
Grand field, John 
Gi-iffio, M. P. 
Grimes, Ptter 
Gammon, William 
Gammon, 0. 8. 
Hannah, Robert 
Hannah, Joseph 
Helmick, George A. 
Heuson, William H. 
Hogsett, William R. 
Herold, C. B. 
Herold, B. F. 
Haines, J. B. 
Hamilton, A. G. 
Jordan, Joseph J. 

Siaven, W. W. 
Seebert, Lanty B. 
Sivey, Cain H, 
Shannon, James 
Shannon, Miehaol 
Smith, Louis 
Simmons, C. A. 
Sbrader, B. F. 
Varner, I>aTid A. 
Weaver, C. W. 
Weaver, R. L. 
Ware, Eugene 
Ware, George 
Ware, William T. 
Ware, Benjamin 
Willihan, Michael 
Willihan, Pat 
Waugh, Levi 

This company was engaged in the following battles : 
Philippi, McDowell, Winchester, Cross Keys, Port 
Republic, Seven days tight around Richmond, Slaugh- 
ter Mountain. Second Manassas, Bristow Station, 
Sbarpeburg, Fredericksburg, Second Winchester, Get- 
tysburg, Mine Run, and Wilderness. In the latter 
the 25tii Regiment wa-j captured. Seveuteen men of 
Company I were in the capture. They were first taken 
to Point Lookout, Md., thence to Elmira, N. Y. 
Eleven of the seventeen lived through the war, the 
others died prisoners. 

Twenty men enlisted in Company I, 
ginia Cavalry, U. S, A., vi«; 



Julin Kelly, Porr.v Buzzard, W. H. Sinm. C. O. W". 
8)iai'p, Peter H. Grimes, Sarfreanta; Frank Griiiie»<. 
Abraham Sharp, ('. N. Kellej, J. B. Haniiali, (-orpo- 
rals; Bevcrlv Waiigh, Lieutenant. Privates Zane B, 
Grimes, I), K. Sim», Calvin Kelley, J. H. Duncan, 
Wesley Barlow, Alfred I). Gay, George W. McCarty. 
Clark Grimes. W. A. Kelley, John W. Tyler. 

Then thero were I'nicm suldiers from this connty in 
other i-cgimentH, viz: Andrew Wanless, Nelson Wan- 
less, John Curry, TlioiiiBS Akers, William Cutlip, Jer- 
emiah Sharp, ArnteniuH Buzzard, Clark Kellisun, An- 
drew Kellisoii, James Kec. William Ouflield, William 
Duncan, Joseph Moore, David Moore, Milton Sharp, 
Brown Arbogaot, George Arbogsst, James E. Johnson 
Clark Dilley. John Slaton, John F. Wanless, Peter 

When the Levels Cavalry under Captain Andrew G. 
McNeel, 1861, were disbauded, many of its members 
joined the Bath Cavalry under Captain Archie Rich- 
ards. April 25, 1862, this company was formed into 
two companies, "F" and "G," and was known as the 
Bath Squadron, attached to the Hth Virginia Cavalry. 
Dr A. G. McCliesney was Captain of Company F. A. 
C. L. Gatewood, 1st Sergeant, and Edwin S. Beai-d, 
2d Sergeant. The following persons from Pocahontas 
were members of this company : Mollett Beard, W, 
W, Beard, John G. Beard, John J. Beard, James 
Burnside, James Callison, Clark Cochran, Geoi^e B. 
Cochran, Andrew Edmiston, Gichard Edraiston, Mat- 



tliew Edmiston, Johu L. Keiiiiison, Davie Keimiaoii, 
D. B. McElwee, B. D. McElwee, John McCarty, A. 
G. McNeel, G. H. Motfett. 

Foxhall A, Daiiigerfield wo8 captaiu of Company G. 
John Andrew Warwick 2d lientenaiit by brevet. An- 
drew G, Price, James Friel, James W. Warwick, Jr., 
and George Yount; were members of the company 
when organized. 

Quite a humber of our citizens were soldiers in Cap- 
tain William L. McNeel's and Captain Jacob W. Mar- 
shall's companies of mounted infantry, and in Captain 
J, C, Arbogast's Greeubank company, 31et Virginia 
Infantry, but the compiler has been unable to secure 
requisite information respecting them. 



For a lumiUer of ytai-B previous to the organization 
of the county, in 18'21, Unntertjville had been a public 
place, as merchants and tradesmen from the eant would 
arrange to meet the hunters here and barter goods for 
the pn^ceeds of the chose. It was suggested by some 
that Smithville would be an appropriate name for the 
county seat, for apparent historical raaaotie. The pre- 
sent name Hanterttville, liowever, was strenuously in- 
sisted upon by John BiadHhaw atid liis friends, as a 
s)>ecial compliment to the hunters that swarmed there 
during the trading seasim, and to whoso presence and 
patronage the place owed very much for its prosperooe 

It was for a long while after the orgauization of the 
county that Huntersville retained precedence as the 
pnncipal trading place for the entire county. The 
largest stores were usually here. Many people would 
come every month to the courts, and once a year the 
"Big Muster" would bring out all subject to military 
duty between the ages of 18 and 45, and many others 
besides. During the superior courts and the big mus- 



ters, quite a number of persons fi-om the easterit coun- 
ties would be here to sell hats, saddles, harness, stone 
ware, tobacco, thirty cent whiskey, and other com- 
modities too unmerons to specify. The stores and bar 
rooms would do a rushing business, and the horse and 
cattle market would sonietinies be very lively. Take 
it altogether, Hnnteraville was by common consent le- 
garded as a little place with large ways. It was no 
uncommon thing for Huntersville merchants to realize 
three or four hundred per cent on dry goods, and not 
much less on groceries, during the period from 1822 to 
1845. When the Huntersville and Warm Springs 
turnpike was made, and the Parkersburg road pene- 
trated upper Pocahontas, then stores of importance, 
opened at Greenbank aud Millpoint and in rapid suc- 
cession at other points until mercantile operations have 
come to what tbey are now. 

A very disastrous tire occurred in the winter of Ibb'i 
by which the most of the business part of the village 
was cousumed to ashes. The Craig residence, two 
stores, and a hotel, comprising a range of buildings 
extending from the Presbyterian church to the corner 
oppo&ite the court bouse. At the time there lived on 
Browns Mountain one of Napoleon Bonaparte's veter- 
ans who had fought in the battle of Waterloo, named 
Frederick Burr. He came down to view the smoking 
ruins aud on his return lie was met by a person who 
inquired: "Well, Mr Burr, how does Huntersville look 
now?" In his solemn way he replied: "It looks like 
a coat with nothing but the tails left." 

During the war Huntersville was burned by Federal 



tronpH sent hi from the garrieoi) at Beverly, to prevent 
it being a ("oiifedurate depot for iiiilitarj supplies. 

When pence was restored between the 8tatee, Huu- 
terKville recuperated rapidly. Flourishing stores were 
carried on by Amos Barlow, J. V, Loury & Hon, and 
Loury & l>oyle. The farms were reinclosed, improv- 
ed methods of agriculture adopted, and at this tiuic 
preuents a more attractive appearance than at any time 
ill all it» previous history. 

The more notable djys in the history of Hunters- 
ville and of tEie county citizenship, were tha trainings 
and the general master that would follow. For several 
years after tlie organization of the lS7th Kegiment the 
.Brigade Inspector was Major .lohn Alexander, of Lex- 
ington. He would bring his dmmmer and lifer with 
him, two likely colored men nuiformed in scarlet like 
British soldiers, and were the admiration and envy of 
all the colored people. Some of the black boye would 
say that they desired no better heaven than be musi- 
cians and wear such red clothes. 

When the militia regulations were modilied, the col- 
onel of the regiment would train the officers for abont 
three consecutive days before the rt!gimontal muster. 
These were usually seasons of much social hilarity, 
and the saloons reaped lucrative returns. The mnsters 
came oif in May, jutt after corn planting. More ani- 
mated scenes were never witnessed in our county, as 
the throngs passed into Kuntersville from all sections. 

Abont 11 o'clock the long roil of the drum waii 
heard. The colonel and his staff appeared at the head 
of the street, and paraded the street preceded by tifo 



and drum. On their return the colonel instructed the 
adjutant to have the n^iraent fomietl. The colonel 
aud staff would then disappear and retii-e to head- 

In the meantime the loud orders of the captains 
were beard for their men to fall into ranks, and when 
formed the adjutant placed them in position and then 
reported to the colonel that all was in readiness. The 
colonel and staff reappeared at the head of the regi- 
ment. Three beaiitifnl silken flags were put in charge 
of the color guard. The rt^ar rank of the regiment fell 
back a few paces in open order. A procession, form- 
ed of the colonel's staff and color guard, pi-oceded bv 
the band, reviewed the regiment, stationed the flags, 
and returned to the head of the regiment. 

In stentorian tones the order was given to close 
ranks and form a coluum of twos, and soon the whole 
regiment would be on the march to a neighboring field 
selected for the evolutions. The field juat west of the 
town was frequently selected, and the one back of the 
court house was sometimes used. Two or three lioni-s 
would be passed in the evolutions. The bugle would 
sound the retreat, the drum and fife take up "Bona- 
parte's Retreat froui Moscow," and tlie whole column 
would prepaie to leave the field and fall back on Hun- 
teraville in slow and regular order. Having formed in 
open order on tlie street the et>lonel and staff, preceded 
by the music, bad another procession to collect the 
flags. The color guaixi was led to the head of the col- 
umn, the colonel dismounted, received the flags one 
by one, and each was saluted by the roll of tlie drum. 



atiil placed away for safe keeping. 

After this the regimfiiit was diebaiided, aud then 
<;ame thefuuiiy eceues that wonld reqoire a graphic 
pell to deeci'ibe with due justice. Cakes, beer, and 
something sti-oitger were now in profuse refjnisition. 
Tlie ?nii would sometiineH go down leaving a large 
crowd enjoying the hilarity of the occaeion, aeeiningly 
siirry that irmstei* day did not last a week at least. 
"Tomorrow is Sunday, aud there is no use iu being in 
H hurry to get home. Let us go it while we have a 
chance,^' were some of the communications tliat were 
ijiiite a strain to good morals. 

Amoug the distinguished citizens of the county who 
were colonels of this regiment appear the names of 
John Baxter, Benjamin Tallmau, John Hill, Paul Mc 
Neel, 1). W. Kerr, James Tallman, W. T. Gammon, 
James T. Lockridge. J>avid W. Kerr yet lives, and 
is the only survivor. 

The next notable days were the superior court ternm 
when lawyers and judges froni abroad would be pi-es- 
ent and hold the courts with great dignity, being out 
()f reach of the voters aud asked nobody any favors. 
Their decisions were above suspicion, and but few 
cases were ever appealed. Such as were appealed 
never amounted to anytliiug very encouraging. 

The circuit judges, in the order named, were Judge 
Taylor, of Lexington, J. J. Allen, of Fincastle, Judge 
Johnson, also of Fincastle, who died while attending 
court in Huntersville. Judge Harrison, of Union, 
Judges Molt and McWhorter, of Lewieburg, and Judge 
Campbell, of Union. 



The clerks of Pocahontas have been John Baxter, 
pro tern., Josiah Beai-<], K. M. Moffett, JamcB Tall- 
man, (ieneral William Skeen. WilUaui Curr^-, Robert 
Gay, aud Johu J. Beard. The (oregoiiig held both of 
the offices at the eauie time. A few jears BiDce the 
offices were divided, aud J. H. Patterstm becauie cir- 
cuit clerk, aud S. L. Brown coiiuty clerk. During the 
war William Curry was clerk, aud his adventures and 
BuccesB in preserving the records will be long remem- 
bered, ae one of the most notable instances of official 
fidelity in the history of the State. 

The responsible office of Commonwealth's Attorney 
has been held by Johnston Reynolds, cf Lewisburg, 
W. H. Terrell, of Warm Springs, 1). A. Stofer, B. S. 
Turk, aud L. M. MeCHutic. 

The attorneys who have plead at the Huutersville 
Bar include such names as the following, besides thosi' 
already mentioned: J. Howe Peyton. General Samuel 

C, Blackburn, George Mayse, Andrew Uamerou, 
Captain R. F. Dennis, J. C. Woodson, Matthew Ed- 
miston, F, J. Snyder, Judge Seig, C. P. Jones, L. H. 
and J. W. Stephenson, William McAllister, Judge 
Baily, Governor Samuel Price, Dr Rucker, J. W. Ar- 
buckle, T. H. Dennis, J. T, McAllister, J. A. Preston 

The resident attorneys have beeu T, A. Bradford, 

D. A, Stofer, William Skeen, H. S. Rucker, R. S. 
Turk, C. Osborne, C. F. Moore, N. C. McNeil, W. A. 
Bratton, L. M. McClintic, Andrew Price. 

The physicians who have been located at Huuteis- 
ville were Dr Sexton, Dr McClelland, Dr Portei-field 
Wallace from Rockbridge, and Dr Payne of Waynea- 



boru. I>r Payuo claimed to be Huflicieutly proticieut 
iu tiftcet) trades and ucciipatious to make a living by 
any one, if required to do eo. Bo far as knowu, Dr 
(.ieorgo B.- Moffett was tlie first graduate id medicine 
to locate iu Huntersville. He came in 1843. Since 
tlieu the Scott brotliers, Howard & Archie, Dr Matt 
Wallace, Dr H. M. Patterson, Dr J. M. Hamilton, 
and i)r S. P. Patterson have been resident physicians. 
The last named is the present resident physician. 

For many years a thriving business was carried uii 
in tlie harness and oaddlery business. First by Joliu 
Haines, who employed three or four hands. After 
him William Fertig, who employed as many, and 
haudeome returns were realized by both. The business 
is now in the hands of William Grose & Son. 

Before the peripatetic children of Israel brought 
ready made clothing in our connty, tailoring was a 
good business at KuntersviUe. Messrs Campbell and 
John and James Holden tnrned out a great deal of 
work. Three or fonr hands would be busy much of 
the time, especially in the fall and early winter, or 
when there were weddiiigs in prospect. Weddings 
also gave the saddlers a g<xxlly share of business. It 
was considered in good form for the bride to have a 
new outJit, horse, saddle, and bridle. The groom 
would not think he had much of a chance for success 
if be did not do his courting and visiting on a new sad- 
' die and bridle, all made at Huntersville. 

For a long while blacksmithing was an excellent 
business, as there was so much horse shoeing and 
wagon repairing to do for the teamsters, and so few 



shops of any pretensiouH anywli<;re near. Finley'u 
shop stood at the iutersectioo of the Cumiuiage Creek 
and MarliDton roads. Three or four hands seemed to 
have all they could do. No traces of it now remain. 

Jack Tidd, a man of herculean strength and physical 
proportions, carried on the work in a large shop that 
stood in the corner now occupied by H. S. Rucker's 
law office. Jack Tidd was succeeded .by William Dil- 
ley, whose skill as an artisan waa thought to be rather 
i-emarkable. The business is how in the hands of O. 
W. Ginger. 

For a long series of years, however, nothing seemed 
more nourishing that the hostelry business in conjunc- 
tion with salooning. One of the principal hotels, and 
where the colonels usually had their headquarters, was 
located about where the Loury store house now stands. 
It was conducted by J. Williams, John Bnssard, John 
Holden, Porterfield Wallace, 1. 0. Carpenter, and E. 
Campbell in succession, but was burned in the great 
fire of 1852, The other hotel was managed by Wil- 
liam Gibson, John Haines, and Davis Hamilton in 
succession, but was burned during the war by the fed- 
eral troops. About the year 1848 license for saloon- 
ing was refused by the court, which course has been 
uniformally sustained from that day to this. 

In regard to educational interests, Huntersville has 
had some good schools. About the year 1841 a char- 
tered Academy was built near the place now occupied 
by Dr Patterson's residence. The names of the teach- 
ers, as now remembered, were J. C. Humphries, from 
Wreenville, Augnsta County, A. Crawford, of Browns- 



biirg, Va., Rev T. P. W. Magruder, from Maryland, 
.1, Woods I'rice, and a Professor Miller, from Penn- 

To HuiiterHville is due the distinction of being the 
tiret place in Pocahontaa where a Sunday acliool was 
hold throughout the year. In the year 1839, Rev J. 
M. Harris, a young minister in broken health, was ad- 
vised to come to. the mountains as a relief for bronchial 
troubles. He was a native of Pennsylvania, and in 
his preparation for the ministry he was a student of 
Huch brilliant promise that he was called to do his lirst 
preaching by a chureh in Kew Orleans. His charge 
bus since become the foremost Presbyterian church in 
the city, and achlevetl a national reputation under the 
ministry of l)r Palmer. 

For a time it looked as if Mr Harris were destined 
to bo a pulpit star of the first magnitude. Nervous 
prostration disabled him, and he resorted to the Vir- 
ginia mountains as his forlorn hope for health. In a 
few weeks after reachiug Huntersville he opened 
school, and also gathered a Sabbatli school. His school 
room was in a building near where the Methodist 
cliurch DOW stands, and was in after years used by Dr 
Matt. Wallace as a physician^s office. After a sojourn 
at Huntersville for a year or two, his health improved 
y good deal. It was in his room at Holden's Hotel 
the writer saw what a Greek Testament and Hebrew 
Bible looked like, and came to the conclusion that it 
would require something more than human to be able 
to make any sense out of books printed with some- 
thing that looked more like grammatical bug tracks 



and systematic 6y spvcks tlian printed words. 

When Mr Harris left HiiDtersviUe he went to Hamp- 
shire County. There he married a lady of considera- 
ble wealth, and lived for many years in an isolated 
mountain home, where it was high and dry. He had 
a fine library, the leading newspapers, reviews, and 
magazines, and kept well informed as to what was go- 
ing on in the world. He tried to do good when op- 
portunities permitted, though expecting any year might 
be his la^t. Mr Harris was iu early life the peer of 
Summertield, and both entered the ministry about the 
same time. Summei'field^s career was brief, but bril-. 
liant and famous. Harris by coming to the mountains 
had a career that was long, but nseful and happy. 

The first published notice of preaching services at 
Huntersville occurs in the diary of the Rev 8. B. Witt, 
a Baptist minister. He spent a year or two iu pioneer 
preaching in Pocahontas, Bath, and tireenbrier Coun- 
ties, about 182S-24. During the time of his tirst visit 
to Huntersville there was a dancing school iu progress. 
The dancing master very politely suspended when time 
for preaching came, and took his scholars to hear the 
seamoD. Soon as the preaching was over the class re- 
assembled and finished the lesson at a later hour. 
Here is an extract from Dr Witt's diary : 

SsKrEHBBR 18, 1824 — Preached to-day at Hunters- 
ville to a considerable congregation. At this place 
there is a dancing school just commencing, and as soon 
as the meeting was over the g'reater part of the con- 
gregation returned to the ball room aud commenced 


r>ilb HI8TOK1 OF ritCAi 

(laiiciiig. Oil. tliat 1 nisy be tlic bonoi-od instrninent 
in the liaiids of tin* Alinifrlitv of brin^in^ them to tli€> 
kiKiwIoilfcc of tli« trntli. 

I)r Witt btcame a noted iDinieter w Prince Edward 
Comity, and gathered n church of seven or eight Iion- 
(Ired nicmbera on Bandy River. Tlie writer wliile » 
student at the seminary hoard Dr Witt preach the mo- 
morial ecrmon of a wealthy citizen, who committed 
Huicido on hia wife's grave a abort time after her death. 
Tlie writer led the singing of the hymns. After the 
wei-vice we made I)r Witt's acqnaintauce. The vener- 
able man had not forgotten about the dance, and men- 
tioned the PoagPB and Callisons as persons be well re- 
membered. Dr Witt was quite independent, even 
wealthy, and spent bis old age in a charming connti-y 
home in the limits of the grand congi-egation he had 
gathered in a pastorate of nearly thirty years dnration. 
S. B. Witth, Jr., a Richmond lawyer, is bis son. 

For many years religious services were held in the 
courthouse. Then when the academy was built in 1842 
it was used as a place of worship by Methodists of all 
branches. Episcopalians, arid Presbyterians. Tlie 
Presbyterian church afterwards became the place where 
all denominations generally worshipped. This build- 
ing was erected about the year 1855. It was used for 
barracks daring the war and was much defaced. 

In the early summer of 1865 the Rev M. D. Dnnlap 
and W. T. Price were engaged in the first sacramental 
meeting lield after the war. A detachment of federal 
troops from Buckhannon passed through the town, rode 



around tli« cliurcli, looked in at the broken windows, 
examined the horses with critical eyes, and religions 
services were going on all the while without even paus- 
ing. Sermon and sacramental services over, Mr Dun- 
lap, who had i-ode in from the country that morning 
and hitched his horse near the church, went to get his 
horse and found that it had been taken away as a 
•'branded horse." During Averill's retreat through 
the Levels this horse was abandoned as worn out. 
Mr Dnnlap had taken it up and put it in good condi- 
tion. The venerable preacher had to return to his 
home at Hillsboro on a bon-owed horse. 

Ten or eleven years since the Methodist church was 
built on its present site, and so for the present the 
town is well provided with churches. 

Five or six yeai-s ago the Masonic fraternity of Pi)- 
cahontas County, represented by the Huntersville 
Lodge, needed a lodge room. Arrangements mutually 
satisfactory were made with the trusteeship of the Pres- 
byterian church, and the building was enlarged and 
renovated in very attractive style. The inception and 
completion of this arrangement is largely due to James 
H. Doyle. 

Nature seems to have marked Huntersville and vi- 
cinity as designed for something of more than ordinary 
importance. The locality is approachable from the four 
quarters of the earth by valleys converging here. The 
beauty of the scenery everywhere displayed is some- 
thing phenomenal, in the view of all who have eyes to 
appreciate whatever is picturesque in mountains, forest 
and streams. The air is pure and exhilarating. Min- 



ei'al waters abotiiid in profusion, chalybeate, alum, and 
sul[>liur. Tlie most remarkable, however, are the 
arsODious-litliia fountains that bubble up in the Curry 
Meadow, iu volume suflicient to meet the needs of a 
world of health seeking people requiring; the benefits 
of litliia remedies. 



In December, 1863, General Averiil's army suddeu- 
ly appeared on the creat of the river ridge opposite 
Hillsboro, and covered the face of the country by 
straggling along routes parallel witli the county roads. 
It was the army that a few weeks before had been vic- 
torious at Droop Mountain. Now cold, wet and starv- 
ing the men were in headlong, disorganized retreat. 
They appeared so suddenly that the men who were at 
home had no opportunity to escape and were taken 
prisoners, and the women had no time to conceal their 
scanty household stores. At one place the house was 
ransacked, but a large quantity of maple sugar was not 
fonnd. It was under a lounge, and the lady of the 
house had three girls calling. . They sat on the lounge 
and spreading their skirts concealed effectively the 
treasured sugar. 

The soldiers were practically starving. At one place 
tliey eagerly consumed all the scraps of rancid fat that 
had been set aside for soap grease. At anotiier place 
some Dutch soldiers drank and ate from the swill tub. 
A woman whose husband was in the Confederate army 



Huw liur H)c>ii(ltir supply of bacon carried awaj by a 
prirato soldier. An olfioer riding up, she appealed to 
liim for protection. He ordered the man to leave the 

bac<in. Tlie soldier replied, "You be !"' Tlie 

ofKcer immediately tired npon tlie uoldier, who drop- 
ped the stotcu meat and ran. 

The men who were at home were nearly all taken. 
A largo number of these prisoners were kept in the old 
Academy in HilUboro, and the guards who were plac- 
ed over them slept the sleep of utter exhaustion, A 
bold movement on the part of the pursuing Confeder- 
ates wonUl have captured the whole force. Not until 
the town of Edray was reached and news of immediate 
reinforcements from Beverly, did the men of Averill's 
command see any peace or comfort. Tlie retreat was 
made from Salem to Beverly, four hundred miles, hi 
sixteen days and in the worst weather. 

The information from which this sketch is written is 
gathered from various sources, and we can not persou- 
ally vouch for its correctness, and it is very apt to be 
criticised by those who wore actors in these scenes. 
But that is the genei-al fate of war literature. Let an 
old soldier write of the war, and men who have served 
with him will have a different version of it. It will 
iiot be until the memory of man runneth not to the 
contrary that a true history of the great war will be 

General William Woods Averill was born in Came- 
ron, N. Y., in 1832. He was graduated at West Point 
in 1855, and until 1857 served in the garrison at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He then went to tike frontier in the Indian 



wars, where lie was wounded. At tlie battle of Bull 
Cud he was first lieutenaut of a company of iiioniitcd 
rifiemeii. He was made eoltiuel of the 3d Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry later in 1861, His most notable 
achievements were hia campaign in Virginia and his 
notable retreat in December, 1863, whereby lie extri- 
cated his army of five thousand men from the heart of 
the Confederacy, was his most brilliant exploit. He 
attained the rank of Major General, and resigned at 
the close of the wai'. He was afterwards president of 
H manufacturing company. His campaign in this sec- 
tion made his name famous. 

The "fourth separate brigade" was created March 
38, 1863, and the command given to General Roberts, 
who fixed hia headquarters at Weston. It included the 
all the eastern section of West Virginia, in which sec- 
tion were numerous Confederate sympathizers, there 
being probably more Confederate than Union people. 
Thia waa the "bushwhacking" section of the country, 
there being so many deadly rifle shots, and both sides 
engaged in this species of unlawful warfare. Regular 
soldiers would at times practice it. 

A staid old man (a Union soldier who has made his 
fortune in the west) told the writer : "Three of us lay 
up on the hill-aide juat weat of the Marlinton bridge 
on a scout. We aaw a man in Confederate nniforni 
ride up to the end of the bridge, atop his liorse and 
look through. We all cocked our guns and took aim, 
but we thought it might be a neighbor and held our 
iire. He turned and I saw it was an uncle of youra. 
I have always been glad we waited. He never knew 



Iiow nttarlie came to being shot/' 

Thie state of things General Roberts intended to put 
down, by driving the Confederates out. Jones, Jack- 
son, and Iiuboden made a raid on him, and all aband- 
oned the country to pillage, and Roberts was eot)n in 
(liBgracti at Washington, 

May 18, 1H63, Averill superseded him. His orders 
were to lind Roberts and relieve him of his command, 
protect the country between the line of the Baltimore 
& Ohio and Kanawha River, and guard the passes in 
Cheat Monotaiu. At this time he was about thirty 
years old. He tried Ui clear the country of Confed- 
erates between Pendleton »ad Greenbrier. 

In Aognet he destroyed saltpetre works near Frank- 
lin. He passed through Monterey, and instead of 
proceeding against Staunton as Imboden expected, he 
came to Hunt«rsvU)c, where he dispersed small de- 
tachments of Confederates, capturing some arms and 
stords. A few days later he met a force of 2500 Con- 
federates under General Jones at Rocky Gap, near the 
White Sulphur, and after tightiug a day and a night 
was utterly routed. This was a hot light. The can- 
nonading was heard in Pocahontas by people who 
conld not imi^^iue what forces wereeng^ed. Captain 
Von Koenig was killed in this battle by his own men, 
and two reasons are given. The one is that he had 
struck several of his men recently, and the other that 
he was killed by men who thought it was Averill. 
The Uni<m forces retreated to Beverly, reaching there 
August 31. 

On Averill's next appearance in the county the bat- 



tie of Droop Mountain was fougbt. The Confederates 
fell back from Hunteraville to the Levels witbout mak- 
ing a stand, but there wae continual skirmiehiug. 
These Confederates wore under the com>nand of Colo- 
nel William P. Tliompaon, who married a Miss Moffett 
of this county, and who after the war became a great 
railway magnate of New York, The Confederate 
forces numbered 4000, and were under the command 
of Major EchoU. They took their stand on the top of 
Droop Mountain, where tlie turnpike crosses. From 
the front it seemed impregnable. Some four or five 
miles distant in the Levels, Averill's 5000 men pitch- 
ed their tents. From the heights of Droop Mountain 
the Confederate soldiers could almost see what the 
enemy was cooking for supper, Averill waited a day 
for reinforcements which did not arrive. Ecbols was 
reinforced. November 6th Averill began- the battle. 
He sent Colonel Moore with 1000 men west to flank, 
while he made a show of an attack on the front and 
made a fent of passing to the east of the enemy down 
the old road around the end of Droop Mountain where 
the Greenbrier passes through. 

The flanking detachment made a curve of nine miles 
and fell upon the Confederates to the west. As soon 
as Averill detected the confusion incident to an attack 
in an unexpected quarter, he harried his men up the 
mountain, and on their arriving at the top the Confed- 
erate forces scattered. It moves the old Confederates 
to smiles to this day to think how well they ran that 
day after the field was lost. 

It was here that Colonel Cochran of Virginia made 



IiiH fainouci cijcapt!. He was, appartiiitlr, in the power 
of a sqnad of Union Boldiera but fscapwl. When ask- 
ed why lie had not surreudered, lie said: "If they had 
wuid, 'Colonel, surrender!' I would have done ho; but 

they yelled, 'Stop, you led-headed son of a 

((ini!' and 1 would not accommodate any man who used 
diich language to me." 

Averill went as far south as Lowisburg, and then 
went W) the northern part of the State in Hampshire 
Conuty. He was notified that he must make a raid 
to Salem, Virginia, and destroy the Virginia & Tenn- 
essee Railr<.)ad. This was sending him with a small 
force into a country which the Confederates held in 
undisputed possession. His n)ute lay through Peters- 
burg, Frauklin, M<mterey, Mt. Grove, Catlahans, 
Sweet Sulphur Springs, and New Castle to Salem. 
<'olouel Moore with a considerable force advanced 
througli Pocaliout^e County. The march began De- 
cember Sth. It was a hurry call and the horses were 
not all shod, and this work had to be finished on the 
road. Averill reached Salem just us a train load of 
soldiers were arriving to defend the place. His artil- 
lery force<l the tiain to back out of tlie place, and he 
destroyed the railroad, cut the telegraph wires, and de- 
stroyed the stores. The track was torn up for sixteen 
miles, five bridges burned, 100,000 bushels of shelled 
corn, 10,000 bushels of wheat, 2000 barrels of Hour, 
1000 sacks of salt, 100 wagons, and much other valua- 
ble property was destroyed. Six hours were spent in 
this work. Having completed this work, his next 
business was to get out of a death trap. Averill was 



heiiiRied in by forces niKier I'itzliugli Lee, Jackson, 
Early, and Echols, and a terrible rain setting in every 
stream was flooded. It was one of the memorable 
freshets of this section. 

His object was to cross into West Virginia, striking 
Monnie, Greenbrier, or Pocahontas county. The first 
brush with the Confederates on the retreat was within 
eight miles of the Janiea^River Bridge, on the Fincas- 
tle and Covington turnpike. The Confederates raced 
for the bridge, crossed it first, but did not have time 
to burn it. He raced them to the next bridge, five 
miles farther, and the same thing happened. At the 
second bridge before he could get cross, Jackson's 
force was upon him, and Averill held the bridge at n 
loss of 124 men. General Early sent a formal request 
for his surrender, to which Averill made no reply. Ho 
crossed the Altegliauies, and so one morning when the 
weather was cold and the Greenbrier greatly 
swollen, he put his command across it and swarmed 
into the Levels, before the inhabitants knew there 
were any soldiers about. It is to be doubted if there 
was ever a more wretched lot of soldiers. 

They were in perfect agony as they approached the 
Mariinton Bridge, where a road from the east joins 
the State road running north and south on which they 
were traveling. We have heard men who were carried 
along as prisoners say that when they passed tne point 
whore Mariinton is now built without being. intercepted 
their spsrits rose and they seemed to be immediately 
relieved fro.n all fears of being captured. At Edray 
they camped, and so worn were they that the setincls 



could not kuep awake. It ie said that a hundred meu 
could have taken the whose army. They were ready 
to drop with fatigue, and their powder was wet. The 
goveniineut recognized thie as a briiliant achievemeDt, 
though their escape was due to pure luck, the Confed- 
erates taking the wrong roads. The United States pre- 
sented each of Avenll's men with a suit of clothes aod 
a pair of shoes to take the place of those worn out on 
the march. 



At April Term, 1826, two geutlemeii were indicted 
foi' liorse racing on the public road. 

Against another for retailing gpiritouH liquors by tlie 
ainall measin'es wtthoat a license therofor. 

A list of the rates fixed for ordinaries: Whiskey by 
the half pint l^^c, French brandy half pint 25c, rum 
per giil 25c, apple brandy 12ic, peacli brandy 18Je, 
wines 25c, diet by the meal 25c, grain by the gallon 
12^c, hay for 24 hours 12ic, lodging 12c. 

The crop t'f old wolf scalps for 1825-6 amounted to 
twenty-one at $5 each. 

James Brindly is allowed $7 for traveling to Lewia- 
burg for stovepipes. 

Surveyors of the county ivads were allowed 6^ cents 
for each day necessarily employed: William Brock, 
62^0 for 10 days; James Waugh 25c for i days, etc. 

June, 1827 a levy of $49 was laid and John Brad- 
sliaw and Samuel Hogsett ci>mnnssioDers were appoint- 
ed to let out the erection of the public stocks and pil- 

The court seems to have the power to license preach- 



eru and f(uiitleiiiui) to colebrutt; tlie riles of matiiiiioiiy 
\*y taking a Imutl <if 1(11500. . 

Everyone lias lieard of Major Jacob Warwick's fa- 
inoDH servant Ben who accompanied liim on all hie 
warring, liuntiiig and surveyin); tripe, and to whuiu 
Wis maHtor granted his freedom. At tlic Ai jt court 
the following order was entered in reference to hi^ 
life and character: 

"Ben, a man of color, who is entitled to bis freedom 
under the last will and testament of Jacob Warwick, 
deceased, bearing date on the 7th day of March, 1818, 
of record in the Clerk's Office of this county. This 
day motioned the court, (the common wealth's attorney 
being present) for permission to remain in this county: 
whereupon, it is the opinion of the court, that the said 
Ben be permitted ro remain and reside for Iiis general 
good conduct and also for acts of extraordinary merit, 
it appearing to their satisfaction that the said Bsii hath 
given reasonable notice of this motion. 
"The acts of extraordinary merit, upon which the 

order of the court is founded, are the following: 

"It appearing from the evidence of Mr Robert (iay 
that at an early period when the county of Bath (now 
Pocahontas) was invaded by the Indians, ho protected 
with fidelity the possessions of his master, and assist- 
ed in defending the inhabitants from the tomahawk 
and scalping knife. 

"In addition to this public service it appears from 
the evidence of Messrs Waugh and P. Brutfey that he 
rendered most essential service to his master in saving 
his life on divers occasions. 

"Upon these meritorious acts tlm ourt gr.)uiided 
their order." 



March 1828, William Brock, prisoner for debt, con- 
fessed the amonct of his debts, ¥30, and " all parties 
consenting, he took the1)enifit of the act for the relief 
of insolvent debtors, which consisted of his giving up 
a echednle of all his property, and the sheriff ib direct- 
ed to rei(""ie him from custody when he shall have de- 
livered I'.iie property named iu the schedule. 

April, 182H — The county is laid off into three dis- 
trictH. The upper eud as low down as Sitlingtons 
Creek, then down to the mouth of Beaver Lick Creek, 
then to the lower end of the county, 

June Term, 1829— County levy $341.37^. Six hun- 
dred and eighty-one tithables at 50 cents each. Wolf 
scalps, eleven old ones at fS each, and four young 
ones at $4 each — $104, or neai-ly one third of the ex- 
penses of the county. The wolves seemed to have 
taken up the greater part of the page space in the early 
history of our county, and to have taken a very large 
part of the revenue. That the citizens tiad these de- 
structive creatures on the i-un is apparent from the re- 
c< ids. The price upon their heads rises by stages — $4 
$6, $8, $10, $12, — and finally readies the princely 
sum of $15, at which price two were proved in 1855. 
About that time a number of old fox scalps were prov- 
ed at $1 each. From 1829 up, the young wolf scalp 
was worth half as much as an old one would bring 
from the public. 

September court au appraisement bill Was tiled 
which contained an item which has passed out of such 
lists forever: "To two black women, Delph aud Daf- 
lie, $71.00," These must have been very old slaves, 



or of little value from some other cause. 

In another appraisement bill tiled at the October 
Court 18 a list of slaves: One black man named Bill 
willed t4) be sold, 1^200; one black woman named Nan- 
cy, J-asO; one black girl named Eveline, $75; one 
black man named Aaron, ¥300r one black man named 
Lewis, $150; one black boy named Peter, $275, one 
black girl Rachel, $100; one black child Charlotte $40. 

In this appraisement bill sheep are rated at $1 a 
head, cows $10, four year old steers $10, horses $35 
to $45. 

The Messinbird negroes were liberated by their mas- 
ter, Henry Messinbird, who settled on the mountain 
overlooking the levels, and to wtiom he left his pro- 
perty and granted them freedom. Why he was here 
will be always a mystery. He may have been a fugi- 
tive from justice. He was a man of great scholarly 



loHMu Built By WilliBDi Ewiiig, at Ewiogton, Ohio, 1812. 

Enoch Ea-ino, 179J)-1SS5. 

Va.-0.-Mich, l <ii,;,;iiv.Cooylc 


Tbe Ewing family of Pocahontas County and vicini- 
ty was founded by James Ewing, born near London- 
derry, Ireland, of Scotch parents, about 1720. He 
came to Virginia as a young man, and there married 
Margar<^t Sargent, of Irish birth, who bore him live 
children: Jennie, who married Clendeunin, Susan 
who married Moses Moore. Elizabeth who married 
George Dougherty, John, and William. John was 
born in 1747, At the time of the Clendeunin massa- 
cre iu Greenbrier County, John, a mere lad, was taken 
prisoner by tbe Indians, and carried into the Ohio 
country. There he was adopted into an Indian tribe, 
baptized according to Indian custom, and given an In- 
dian name. But Jobu's Scotcb-Irisb blood was not 
easily converted to Indian, and when a returning party 
of warriors bi-ought back as a curiosity an English 
Bible, he explained to them that it was the word of 
God. Tbe Indians asked wbetlipr his God was an In- 
dian or a white man, and when John answered that lie 
\^aB a white man, they would no longer Hsten to liis 
reading the book. 



Juliii learned tlio ludtan tongue, but Im never loved 
tlie Indian. In Iiib old age, at the mention of tlie 
word "Indian in liia presence he would always aaj, 
"('urge and confound the Indian." He was released 
from captivity under a treaty with the Indians, proba- 
bly in 1761, and delivered to the whitee at Fort Pitt, 
from wliich point he made his way back to his old Vir- 
ginia home. In 1774 he married Ann Smith, Irish. 
They had eleven children, namely: William, 1775— 
1858; Susannah Holcomb, 1766-; Hon. John Smith 
Ewing, 1778-1837; Janeat Howell, 1781-1855; Sarah 
Holcomb, 1782-1850; Ann Ewing, 1785-; Andrew, 
1787-1868; Elizabeth; Nancy Mills, 1781-; Lydia 
Bun-is 1792-1872; Samuel, 1797-1855. The children 
of these gave John a list of grand children numbering 
sixty-five. In 1801, John emigrated from Pocahontas 
and located in Gallia County, Ohio, where he died in 
1825. Of his family, his son William alone remained 
in Virginia, occupying lands on Stony Creek until tlie 
time of his death. John Smith Ewing represented his 
district in the Virginia Assembly in about 1812.' An- 
selm T. Holcomb, son of Sarah, was a member of the 
Ohio Legislature. John Ewing, son of Andrew, and 
Ueorge Burris, son of Lydia, were members of the 
Missouri Legislature. Andrew, son of John S., was 
a member of the California Legislature. 

John's living descendants are legion. They may 
be found in nearly every western state, and counted 
among the successful farmers, business men, and pro- 
fessional men of the country. Among them are John 
Ewing, lawyer, Grant City, Mo., Clay Ewing, York- 



town, Kan., Jennie Spi-ouee, M. 1). (Jreenriew, II]., 
M. Howell Finnegan- New London, Mo., P. H. Hol- 
couib, lawyer, Butler, Mo., S, C. Holcomb, lawyer, 
Yates Centre, Kan., A. T. Holcomb, Portanioutb, O., 
William Whitman, county clerk, Van West, O., S. G, 
Burnside, merchant, Kansas City, Mo., Bumner Ew- 
■ ing, teacher and author, Springiield, O. , Mrs Homer 
McCraj, Kendallville, lud., Laura Dunning, Ingomar 

The descendants of John Ewing reverently refer to 
him as "Indian John." 

William Ewing, brother of "Indian John,"' was 
born in 1756. In 1774 he joined Arbuckle's compa- 
ny of militia, and pursued Chief Cornstalk and his 
braves to the Ohio Kiver, where lie participated in the 
famous battle of Point Pleasant. Here he was in the 
thickest of the fight, but came out without a scratch, 
narrowly escaping instant death. He had availed him- 
self of the shelter of a sapling while tiring at thr red- 
skins, when an excited comrade rushed up to the place 
pushing him from his shelter and occupying it himself. 
William was scarcely out of the way before his com- 
rade was struck in the head by an ludian bullet and 
killed instantly. In after years he related that every 
time he took deliberate aim at an Indian in that battle 
his rifle flashed in the pan, and his Indian got away, 
but when he tired at random his gun never missed tire. 
If he kilted an Indian lie never knew it, but he tried 
his level best to avenge the capture of his sister Mrs 
Olcndeunin and his brother John. 

In 1785 be married Mary McNeil, sister of Gabriel 



McNeil, and daughter of Thomae McNeil. He settled 
on Swago Creek, near Buckeye,' and was popularly 
known aa "Swago Bill/' It ia said that he blazed a 
line of trees around the lands he selected, and after- 
wards had tlie tract patented. Once he was plowing 
when the alarm came that the Indians were preparing 
to attack the settlement, .The shelter of the nearest 
fort was sought, but the Indians did not appear. After 
a few days of qniet, William ventarcd ont to the farm, 
where he found everything about as he had left them, 
except that a brood of quails which had bi-eu hatched 
and mothered by a chicken had disappeared. On his 
return to the fort he shouldered his plow, thinking to 
hide it from the Indians in- the woods. While pro- 
ceeding through the woods he suddenly heard "thump, 
thump, thump," followed by "click, click, click," 
and turning to one aide he saw three Indians behind a 
largo log with their gmis pointed at him. Tliey had 
tried to shoot, but their powder was damp, and the 
guns had missed fire. William dropped his plow and 
started for tlie fort as fast as he could run, with the 
Indians after him. Going over a hill and into a gully, 
he suddenly changed his course, ran up the ravine a 
short distance and stopped, and shortly had the pleas- 
ure of seeing his pursuers trot by in the regular course. 
Ewiiig made his way to the fort iu safety, 

William and Mary Ewing were the parents of twelve 
children, all born on the Swago, near Buckeye, name- 
ly: Elizabeth Doddrill, 1787-1852; Thomas, 1788- 
1874; Jonathan, 1790-1850; William, 1792-; James, 
1793-1824; John, 1795-: Sai-ah Wallace, 1797-1827; 



Enoch, 1799-1885; Jacob, 1802-1878; Abraiu Mc- 
Neel, 1804r-1891; George, 1807-1883; Andrew, 1S09- 
1885. The children of these gave William and Mary 
a list of grand children numbering eigbty-one, twenty- 
two of whom are still living. In 1810. William and 
his family moved to (jallia County, Ohio, and the 
town of Ewington was named in their honor. Thomas 
served as Justice of the Peace for many years. Eliza- 
l>eth, Tliomae, William, James, John, 8arah, Abram, 
George, and Andrew lived and died in or Dear 
Gallia County, Jonatban and Jacob died in Hancock 
Connty, 111., Enoch died in Hillsdale County, Mich;, 
and Andrew died iu Iowa. Mary McNeal Ewing, the 
mother, died in Mercer County, Mo., in 1868. Enoch 
Ewing and Lis family went to Michigan iu 1853, and 
seveo of his children are still liviDg iu that State, be- 
sides a host of grand children. William's descendants^ 
like John's, are counted among the successful men of 
the country. Among them are Dr G. A, Ewing, 
Jackson, O.; Ur G. K, Ewing, Ewington, O.; Dr U 
B. G. Ewing, Richmond, Ind.; Dr William Leonard. 
Fostoria, O. ; Rev Thomas E. Peden, President Theo- 
logical Seminary, Aydeu, N. C. ; Rev M. L. Peden 
Temperance, Mich.; W. J. Aleshire, editor, Gibson 
burg, O. ; E. E. Aleshire, lawyer, Btanberry, Mo.; Le- 
vi Howell, civil engineer, Luray, Mo.; Frank P, Mc- 
Cariey, civil engineer, Pittsburg, Pa, ; Hon. W. & 
Matthews, President Insurance Company, Toledo, O. 
ex-member of the Ohio Legislature; E, B, Matthews, 
manufacturer, Jackson, O. ; G. W. Ewing, Plymouth, 
111.; W. L. Ewing, Rntlege, Mo., J. K. Ewing, Por 



Blakelj, Wash.; John W., H. McK., James L., and 
Andrew A., of Camden, Midi.; E. C. White, Wliite. 
Mich,: J. C Jenkins, Cunningham, Kansas; Isaac 
Jenkins, White, Mich.; William H. Ewing, merchant, 
Camden, Mich.; I. E, Ewing, manufacturer, Reading, 
Mich.; W. J. Ewing, merchant, Kunkle, O. ; Rev I. 
R. Ewing, Bristol, lud. ; J. C. Ewing, merchant. 
Pioneer. O. ; L. P. Cravens, teacher, Lake City, 
Minn.; Ida M, Ewing, Pontooauc, 111.; A. L. Ewing, 
teacher, Wellstoii, O. ; Smith H. Ewing, merchant, 
Frankfort, O. ; John H. Ewing, county clerk, Uallipo- 
lis, O. ; Rev Sadie P. Cooper, Detroit, Mich.; Prof. 
R. B. Ewing, Ewington, O.; Theresa Gilbert, Sioux 
Fftlls, South Dakotah. 

The compiler is indebted to Hon, A. E. Ewing, of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., for most of the material con- 
tained in this sketch. He is a great-grandson of 
-'Swage Bill," a grandson of Enoch, and a son of 
Henry McK. Ewing. His mother was a Miss Hank, 
of Monroe County. He is a lawyer, and a member of 
the House of Representatives of Michigan in 1893, 

Captain James Ewing, the founder of these families, 
died probably about the year 1800. He was captain 
of a company of militia in Augusta County during the 
Revolutionary war, and tradition asserts that he re- 
ceived a large tract of land in consideration of his ser- 
vices. Tradition makes him the hero of more than 
one occasion. One of especial interest is told of how 
he captured an outlaw by the name of Shockley, who 
was a terror to the country, and who had stolen James' 



rifle from ever hip cabiii door. His dencendaute have 
reached to the eighth geiieratioo, and numerically have 
reached into the thousands. His Highland Scotch in- 
stinct made hiiu to prefer the mountains to the plains, 
and it is probable that in his monatain home, sur- 
rounded by the perils of pioneer life, beset on the one 
hand by wild animals, and on the other by savage In- 
dians, he found life quite to his liking. 

His wife, it ie said, lived to be one hundred years 



It may not bu iDappropriate at tliit^ time to embody 
in this book some factH conceruiug tlit; development of 
the comity in the last decade of the I'Jth century, 
which were moinentouB years for Pocahontas County. 

In December, ISltO, an epoch marking snow fell, 
making it tlie "winter of the deep snow." While it 
lay on the grond to the depth of three feet or more. 
Colonel J<ihn T, McGraw, of Grafton, made a visit t<> 
this county and purchased the farms known as Marlins 
Bottom for a town site. Five familie'j lived on the 
land now occupied as the site of the town of Marlin- 
ton. The name of the postoffice had been changed a 
few years before from Marlin's Bottom to Marlintou. 
Mrs Janie B. Skyles, a Maryland lady, who was 
living here, being instrumental in effecting the change. 
It was bitterly opposed by some of the older citizens, 
who objected to the giving up of the descriptive and 
historic name of Marliu's Bottom. 

The purchase of the town site by Colonel McGraw 
was the lirst intimation that county people had of pro- 
posed railway developments. The plan was that the 



Camden SvsteiH of railroads was to be extended up 
Williams River, across the divide at the head of Stonj 
Creek, and to Marliiitou. It was a part of the plan 
that the 0. & O. R. K. woald bnild an extension fn^sii 
the Hot Springs to Marlinton and connect with the 
Caiuden Road at that place. 

The (own of Marlinton was laid oft in town lots in 
1891, and widely advertised as a place where a town 
wonid be bnilt. The building of the railroad was re- 
garded as a certaiutv. The Pocahontas Development 
Company was chartered and took a deed for 640 acres 
on which the town was to be built. They put valuable 
improvements on it. An offer of f 50U(> to be applied 
on a new court house was made, if the people of the 
county would change the county seat from Hnntersville 
to Marlintuu. The election held in the fall of l!>iti 
gave the county seat to Marlinton. At this time Mar- 
linton had a population of about one Imudred people. 

The railroad was not built at that time because of 
the money panic which came on the country at that 
time. Colonel McGraw, who had invested largely in 
lands elsewhere in the connty, never ceased to try to 
interest capitalists in this county aud develop it vfith 
a railroad. His attention being called to the natural 
route for a railroad up Greenbrier River, he had a sur- 
vey made from Marlinton to Roncevei-te, at a cost of 
¥10,000, and it was on this location that the railroad 
was afterwards bnilt. The Greenbrier Railway was 
commenced in 1899 and finished in 1901. The Coal 
& Iron Railway is being built at the present time to 
connect with it at Durbin. In two yeai-s Pocahontas 



County cliaiige<l from being one of the few coiiiitiea in 
tlie State witlioiit a railroad, to the conuty having the 
greatest railwap mileage of any county of the State. 

Marlinton began to improve at once. It waa incor- 
porated at tlie April Term of the Circuit Court, 1900, 
and held its first election of otHcers May 5th, 1900. 

Tlie tirat newspaper to be pnbliehed in this county 
WIS the Pocahontas Times, founded in 1S82 at ilun- 
tersville, and moved to Marlinton in 1892. The Po- 
cahontas Herald was published in 1894 at Hunters- 
ville, and later at Marlinton, and ceased to be publish- 
«1 in 1S96. The Marlinton Messenger was first pub- 
lished in 1900. 

The first telephone to be built in the county was the 
Marlinton and Beverly telephone line finished to Mar- 
linton in August, 1899. That same year telephone 
linea were built along all the principal roads of the 

The first bank to go into business in the county was 
the Bank of Marlinton in 1899, and later in the same 
year the Pocahontas Bank was opened. ' For more 
than a year these banks carried in large sums of money 
by special messengers from the nearest express stations 
from 45 to 57 miles distant, over lonely roads. 

Writing at the time of the railroad development just 
begiunitig, the natural resources of the county have 
not been touched. No attention has been paid to the 
vast areas of iron ore land in the east of the county, 
which will some day make this county famous as an 
iron field. 

In the nineties it was discovered that Pocahontas 



County had a vast supply of marble wliicli was equal 
ill value to any marble ever found in the United States 
A company has been formed to develop this marble, 
and it will some day be ranked high among thf marble 
deposits of the world. 

The bulk of the timber is still standing, but an im- 
mense amount. has been floated down the Greenbrier 
River, the St. Lawrence Boom & Manufacturing Com- 
pany having' removed in this manner a quarter of a 
billion feet of white pine. The walnut and cherry 
have. been taken out in the 4ast twenty-five years by 
rafting on the Greenbrier, which was once an import- 
ant industry, rafting floods in the river being anxiously 
waited for. There were a number of skillful pilots 
who could thread their way with a raft of 50,000 feet 
of lumber between the rocks of this swift river. 

We record these few facts in passing. It will re-- 
quire another book to do justice to the hi8t<)ry of this 
county from the Civil War down, and there is much in 
tiiat history that can better be reviewed by another 

The sketches which are embodied in this work have 
appeared in the Pocahontas Times, and have thus been 
scanned by the persons interested, and an opportunity 
afforded for correction that is invaluable, for history 
is nothing if not true. It has not been the work of a 
few months, but represents the work of ten years or 
more of preparation. 

We wish to call attention to the fact that this book 
is a home product, written and printed in the county 
and published by reason of the hearty response of 



many PocalioiitAs people who deeirtHi to have the an- 
nals of the county in an enduring form. The paper on 
which this book ia printed is from wood grown ou 
('heat ^Mountain, in this connty, and rery kindly fur- 
nished at a uoininal price by the West Virginia Fulp 
& Paper Company. 

In compiling this bonk the writer and pabliehers 
have endeavored to make it an honest history of Poca- 
hontas County, and they have in no instance given un- 
due promineuce to any name in it for a consideration, 
though opportunities have presented themselves which 
were tempting to the publishers, who are at heavy ex- 
pense in publishing so large a book. 

In submitting this book to the public, we are aware 
that there are imperfections and omissions that will be 
apparent to many readers. To such we would say that 
uo book or writer can cover so great a subject, but 
that you will find in this work so much pertaining to 
the history of this county that it can well lay claim to 
its title. 



Carboniferous Era 


Am. Indians, origin 
Aibogaet, Benjamin 
Arbogast, Adam, Sr 
Aiildvidge, Wnj., Sr 
Averill's Retreat 



Corn first ripe 
Coal rescurees 
Composite Character 
Census Returns 
Cleiidennin, Arch. 
Cackley, Valentine 



Cnrry, Adam 


Baker, Henry 
Bai-low, John 


Curry, William 



Oleek, Michael 


Backley, Joslma 


Conrad, John H. 


Battle Point Pleasant 


Cassell, Jacob 


Beai-d, Josiali 


Collins, John 


Burgess, John Sr. 


Cochran, Thomas 


Brown, Joseph 


Callison, James 


Brown, Josiah 


Callison, Anthony 


Baxter, William 


Cooper, James 


Burner, Abrani 


Curry, Isaiah 


Beale, Robert 


Crouch, Maj. Andrew 564 

Bradshaw, John 


Crabbottom, Battle 


Bnssard, Reuben 


County Records 


Bright, David 




Bright, Jesse Si-. 



Burr, John (not Wm 


Bridger, John & Jas 


Death of Cornstalk 



Devonian Era 


Devonian Rocks 




Dilley, Henry 




Daugherty, Michael 


Craig, Rev John 


Duffield, Abram 


Circle at Gibsons 


Drinnoii, Walter 


Cambrian Era 


Dilley, Martin 



Examples to emulate 23 

Ervine, Edward 16& 

Edmiston, Andrew 169 

EdmiBtoii, William 48» 

Eternal Laws 86 

French Jesuit Fathers ■ 5 
First farming operatioiis5!) 

Flowers SO 

First Court Day lUO 

Friel, Jeremiah 175 

Flemmens, John R. "274 


Geographical 51 

Grasses, their value 70 

Grimes, Felix 188 

Gay, Robert 128 

Gibson, David 195 

Galford, Thomas Sr 269 

Gum, William A. 386 

Giira, Jacob 390 

Gay, Hon. John 541 


Humplireys, Mrs M. 16 

Ruskiug Bees *S1 

House raising 61 

Hughes, Ellis 108 

Hill, Richard 116 

Haunah, David 218 

Uaunah, Joseph 224 

Herold, Christopher 372 

Harper, Henry 393 

Hudson, Richard 481 

HuntersvHle Notes 586 

James, David 347 

Jordan, John 500 


Kill buck 7 

Kinnisoo, Chas. & J 149 

Kee, George 292 

Kerr, Daniel 376 


Logan, Chief 15 

Lin>estoue formed 32 
Lewis, Colonel Chai'les 7 

Lcasons from Stones 81 

Ixicatiou of first C. H. 103 

Lightner, Peter 180 

Lockridge, Lanty 207 

Lackey's Song 577 

Machine, tirst threshing 65 

Mills, the first 67 

Marble 71 

Mountains 75 

Mosses S3 

Marlin, Jacob 105 

Mayse, Joseph 561 

Moore, Moses 108 

Moore, Margaret 112 

McNeel, John 135 

McCollara, Daniel 239 

Moore, 'Penn.' John 289 
McLaughlin, Ist group 315 
McLaughlin, 2d group 319 

McLaughlin, Hugh 323 
Moore, Aaron 

Moore, Levi Sr 278 


McCliiitic, Mrs Mary 255 
Moore, Joeepli 355 

McCntcIiao, Robert 1) 350 
McNeil, Thomas 381 

McCarty, Timothy 404 
McCarty, Daniel * 407 

Moore, Robert 464 

Moore, Isaac 467 

Mooro, William 470 

Matthev^ SampBoii L 497 
"Mad Ami" 579 

Natural Sceiieii^ 55 

Natural Curiosities 58 

Nottingham, Wm. 526 

Pioneer Characteristics 12 
Pontiac S 

Pocahontas Stroams 52 
Pocahontas min, spr's 54 
Poage, William Kr 513 
Price, Samuel 545 

Price, Thomas 547 

Roads 73 

Regiment, 127tli 102 

Rnckmau, John II 159 
Ruckman, David L. 489 
Rodgers, James 535 

Shawneos 7, 9 

Scoth-Irish Character 15 
Silnrian Era 31 

Summer, the t 
Scotch- Irish 

Sewall, Stephen 105 

Slaven, John 144 

Saunders, Diana 201 

Sharp, John 213 

Smith, John 302 

Sharp, William Sr 331 
Soldiers, Union & Con583 

Sharp, Squire James 333 

Sntioh-, John Sr 485 

Sharp, William Jr 518 


Tallman, James 486 


Varner, Joseph 327 


Wool and Flax 63 

Wheat (^rowing 64 

Wheat Threshiiig 65 
Whence rain and snow 48 

Warwick, Jacob 234 

Warwick, Mrs Mary 239 

Waugh, James Jr 336 

Waugh, Samuel 338 

Webb, John 416 

Warwick, Andrew 428 

Warwick, William 431 

Wanlees, William 455 

Wanless, Rev James 457 

Waddell, Alexander 479 

Whiting, Samuel 529 

Wilson, Tliomaa 568 


Young, William 306 

Yeager, John Sr 442 

Yeager, John Jr 446 





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JUN 2