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Full text of "Historical sketch of the parish of Saint Neot (Cornwall). Including the life of Saint Neot, together with a description of the Parish church and its windows, and the Ballad of Tregeagle"







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NEW EDITION. 



Historical Sketch 



OF THE 



PARISH OF SAINT NEOT 

(CORNWALL). 



INCLUDING THE 



LIFE OF SAINT NEOT, 



TOGETHER WITH A 



Description of the Parish Church 

AND ITS WINDOWS, 

AND THE BALLAD OF TREGEAGLE. 



Compiled by William A. Axworthy. 



PAIGNTON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED AT THE TORBAV PRINTING WORKS, 

26, PALACE AVENUE, 
1906. 



Much valuable information contained in the following 
pages has been taken from *' Michell's Parochial History" 
(1833), and the description of the Church Windows is mainly 
from the Rev. Henry Grylls' Handbook, published in 1854. 
Many interesting details have also been gleaned from past 
and present Vicars of St. Neot Parish. 



HISTORY OF SAINT NEOT. 



-«-e>8<x*- 



SAINT NEOT PARISH. 



/^HE Parish of St. Neot, Cornwall, lies about seven-and-a- 
^-^ half miles south-east from Bodmin, eight miles north- 
east from Lostwithiel, and five miles north-west from Liskeard. 
It contains about 12,739 acres, and is in the Hundred and 
Deanery of West. It is bounded on the west by Warleggan 
and Broadoak, on the south by St. Pinnock and Liskeard, 
on the north by Alternun, and on the east by St. Cleer. 
The population of the parish by the census taken in 1882, 
was 1,196; in 1831 it was 1,424, and at the last census in 
1901 it was 1020. Many centuries ago the parish had the 
name of Guerryer Stoke ; in the ninth century it was named 
Hamstoke ; from that period until the conquest it was called 
Neotstoke, which was afterwards changed to St. Neot. 

Mr. James Michell, in a " Parochial History" published 
in 1833, says : — '* The bounds of the parish of St. Neots were 
last viewed by the Vicar and Inhabitants, on the 12th day of 
May, 1613. 'On the north side, the bounds of the said 
parish beginneth from a tenement in Alternun, called 
Dryworks, by the river Foye, which divided the said parish 
of St. Neots from the several parishes of Alternun, St. Cleere, 
Liskeard, St. Pinnock, and Braddock, until it come to a 
place called Bedalder-foot, where the river of Bedalder falleth 
into the river of Foye. From Bedalder-foot, the bound 
leadeth by the said river of Bedalder, which divideth the said 
parish of St. Neots from the parish of Warleggan, until it 
come to the head-ware, in the river above Pontwer's Bridge ; 



and from thence by a little lake, that falleth into the said 
head-ware, until it come to the head of Dewey Moor : from 
Dewey Moor-head, the bound leadeth to the marsh, which 
divideth between the said parish of St. Neots, and the parish 
of Temple, until it come to Temple Causeway : from Temple 
Causeway, the bound leadeth by the way to Peverell's Cross, 
otherwise Shorter Cross : and from that cross, unto a place 
called Leathern Bridge: and from thence, bounding in several 
places in the moor, called by the names of Stannum Hill and 
Stannum Ball, it leadeth unto a place called Deephatches : 
from thence the bound leadeth unto the said place in the river 
of Foye, from whence the bounds and the limits first began.' " 

By this sketch of the bounds of the parish, its western 
extremity is at a place called Leathern Bridge, where the three 
hundreds of West, Trigg, and Lesnewth, form a junction, 
namely the parishes of St. Neot, Blisland, and Alternun ; the 
spot still bears the same denomination, and in the remem- 
brance of persons now living, the large stones on which the 
bridge or causeway was anciently placed, were visible, it being 
the only place of passing over a very dangerous marsh, in the 
direct road from Dozmare Pool to Camelford. The accumu- 
lations of soil and sand from the tin stream works above have 
destroyed every vestige of the causeway, and the marsh is no 
longer passable. By a reference to Martyn's large map of 
Cornwall, taken from actual survey, the bounds of St. Neot 
are correctly described, in the perambulation of 1613, and 
Leathern Bridge is marked on this map as the place at which 
the three hundreds alluded to meet. 

In the north part of the parish there are immense moor- 
lands, used in the summer months for depasturing cattle. 
The east, west, and south parts of the parish are generally of 
good quality, and well adapted for corn and pasturage. 
Early historians state that in the ninth century the moors 
were clothed in forest trees, and were then used by the Kings 
of Cornwall as their principal hunting grounds. In the year 
867 Alfred, in one of his hunting excursions, accidently heard 
of the Church of St. Guerryer, at whose altar he became a 
fortunate supplicant ; and Leland states that in his time 
abundance of red deer haunted the woods upon the moors 
near Dozmare Pool. 

It is stated that the parish abounds with mineral, and a 
considerable portion of the lower moorlands have been worked 
by stream-tinners and large quantities of the purest tin have 
been found. There has been handed down from generation 



5 

to generation a prediction of Saint Neot that a rich, green 
lode would one day be discovered, which would prove the 
source of immense wealth. No mines are at present working, 
and many disused engine-houses, with their tall chimney- 
stacks, may be seen in the neighbourhood. In the eastern 
parts of the parish granite is found in abundance, but it is 
thought to be too far from railway and seaport to be exported 
at a profit. A slate quarry near the village produces roofing 
and flooring slate. 

In various parts of the parish may be found ancient moor- 
stone crosses. A cross about ten feet high, of great antiquity, 
ornamented with various scrolls, stands by the road-side on 
the St. Neot Moors, between Bodmin and Launceston. 

The village is situate on St. Neot's river (a branch of the 
Fowey), which takes its rise at Dozmare Pool. It has been 
stated that in the summer of 1826 the water flowing from the 
pool was insufficient for the grist mills and a small mine near 
the village. In order to increase the stream a deep cutting 
was opened adjoining the lake, and roots of large trees were 
found a few feet below the surface, which had evidently been 
cut off with a saw. 

THE VILLAGE 

Is about three miles from the Doublebois Railway Station, 
and is picturesquely situated in a sheltered valley. In 1833, 
besides the church and two inns, there were about sixty other 
dwellings. Very little alteration has taken place, the number 
of dwellings and inns being nearly the same, with a County 
Council School and Wesleyan and Bible Christian Chapels 
added. 

Cattle and pleasure fairs are held twice yearly, on the 
first Tuesday in April and the first Tuesday in November. 

In the 15th and i6th centuries a public market was held 
in the Churchyard annually, and the parish account-book 
contains several entries of sums received for " standings" in 
the Churchyard on " Good Friday Market." 

BERRY DOWN. 

The remains of an ancient fortification are still to be seen 
at Berry Down, a mile from the village. It had a triple wall 
of granite and, no doubt, was of considerable importance in 
remote ages. Its name was Berry Castle, and from its height 
the North and South Seas are visible. 



6 




ANCIENT FAMILIES OF St. NEOT. 



The following information relative to the Ancient Families 
of St. Neot, and extracts from the parochial registers is 
quoted from Mr. James Michell's Parochial History \ — 

Sir John Anstis was born at St. Neots, in September, 1669. In 
1702, after being' educated at Oxford, from whence he removed 
to the Inner Temple, he represented the Borough of St. 
Germans ; and in 1714 he was appointed Garter King" at Arms, 
which he held until his death, March 4, 1744, when he was 
interred in the family vault at Duloe. In addition to the works 
which he published, which are known to all lovers of heraldry, 
he left in manuscript a history of Launceston, a treatise on the 
antiquities of Cornwall, and many other works and collections 
now dispersed in different hands. 

Bennett. This family resided at Lewarne, in the early part of the 
17th century, and possessed several estates now alienated. 

Bewes. This family resided at Lantewey for several generations, 
and, in the 17th century, Thomas married Catherine, one of 
the daughters of Sir John Anstis, to whose estates she became 
co-heiress with her sister Mary, married to Henry Bennett, Esq. 

Beer or Bere. This was a younger branch of the Beers of 
Killigarth, and settled here in consequence of a marriage with 
the heiress of Pengelly. William Beer, the last of this house, 
died in 1610, and was buried near the altar, in the parish church. 
He is represented on his monument in the act of prayer, and 
behind him are his wife and two daughters in the same attitude. 
It appears from the inscription that he was patron of the 
church, and lord of the manor. Of his daughters, Grace was 
married to Sir John Grylls of Lanreath, and her sister to Bellott, 
of Bochym, and to tjiose families the property of the Beers 
devolved. 



BoRLASE. It appears that a branch of tiiis family resided here in 
the i6th century, and married the heiress of Vivian. The 
second window from the east, in the soutii aisle of the church, 
was put up in the early part ot that century, at the expense of 
Borlase and Vivian : It is still denominated the Borlase 
Window. 

Erisey. Richard Erisey, a younger branch of the Eriseys, of 
Erisey, in the parish of Grade, resided at Trevenna in 1683, 
and left co-heiresses, of whom the eldest married Vyvyan. 

Lampen. This family resided at Lampen for several generations, 
and William Lampen was one of the twelve men of the parish 
in 1610. In 1683 John Lampen conveyed the family estate, in 
fee, to Lyne of St. Cleer, and removed, soon after that period, 
to the neio^hbourhood of Plvmouth. 

MoHUN. This family resided at Trevenna in the 15th and i6th 
centuries, where they erected a spacious mansion. On the 
pews in the church belonging- to Trevenna were carved the 
arms of Mohun, Edward Duke of York, Horsey, Coode, 
Trevanion, Courtnay, Montague, Lord Strange, and Treganyon. 
. . . Sir Reginald Mohun resided at Trevenna in 161 1. 

MiCHELL. This family resided at Trevegoe and Hamet, in the 
15th, i6th, and lylh centuries ; and, in the year 1644, the 
heiress of Robert Michell married Morshead of Penhergate, 
ancestor of the Morsheads of Lavethan and Cartuther. 

Morshead. Edward, the second son of Richard Morshead of 

Penhergate, settled in this parish, and in the year 1644 married 

the heiress of Robert Michell, by whom he inherited very 

considerable estates. William, his son and heir, married Cole 

of Cartuther, whose son and heir married Herrinsf of 

... .. ^ 

Longstone ; William, his son and heir, married Charlotte, 

only daughter of John Trieze of Levethan, and died at 

Treverbyn, in St. Neots. Both himself and wife were interred 

at the south-east end of the church, under plain monuments 

of granite. 

Pomeroy, or Pomery. This family claims descent from a younger 
branch of the Tregoney Pomeroys ; and by a marriage with 
one of the descendants of Bellott, acquired very considerable 
property in this parish. The heiress of Pomeroy married 
White in the i8th century ; and the family property has 
passed by sale to Grylls, Robins, and Glencross. 

RuNDLE. This family has resided in St. Neot six generations, and 
acquired several estates by purchase. James Rundle filled 
the offices of twelve-man and churchwarden in the year 161 1. 



8 

The Registers of the parish commence and are perfect 
from the year 1549. 

The Vicarage is estimated at £6 13s. 4d. in taxation of 
Pope Nicholas, in the year 1291. It is estimated at 
£\T, 13s. 8d. in the valor of 26th of Henry the Eighth. It 
stands at £,g is. o^d. in the King's books. The composition 
to the Vicar, in lieu of tithe, is is. 6d. in the £, according to 
actual rent and annual value. 

The tithe sheaf of the manor of St. Neot-Barrat, pro- 
ducing from £10 to £15 per year, is appropriated to the 
repairs of the church ; as is also the annual rent of certain 
lands called the Furse Parks and Parish Meadow. 

The income of certain other lands, called the Dower- 
Parks, or Parish Lands (adjoining Furse Parks), was for 
many years applied to the support of a charity school for poor 
children of the parish, until the School Board was established ; 
since then the rent (about £1'-^ per year), has been distributed 
to the deserving poor. 

The purchase of the above lands was m.ade in the latter 
part of the 17th century by the proceeds of a legacy of 
10,000 lbs. weight of sugar, given to the poor of St. Neot by 
John Staddon, of the Island of Barbadoes, formerly of this 
parish ; and by several other charitable donations. 

The following record is found in the twelve-men's book 
of the parish muniments, in the handwriting of the late 
John Anstis, Esq. (father of Sir John Anstis, Garter King at 
Arms), who was then one of the said twelve-men. 

4II1 of May, 1683. Whereas one, John Staddon, sometime of 
this parish, divers years since went into the Barbadoes, and there 
lived until tlie time of his death ; and dying- without issue, in and 
by his last will and testament did give and bequeath to the poor ot 
this parish ten thousand weight of sugar : and whereas the inhabi- 
tants of the said parish did, by letter of attorney, about fourteen 
years since, impower Mr. Francis Bond, then living- in the 
Barbadoes, to receive the said legacy, and did desire him to 
return the same in specie, or the value thereof, as he thought fit: 
and although the said Mr. Bond promised to perform the same 
accordingly, yet for the space of ten years last past, or upwards, 
the said inhabitants never received one line from him, notwith- 
standing they writ several letters to him : whereupon the said 
inhabitants petitioned the Right Honourable John, Earl of Radnor, 
Lord President of His Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, 
to use his power in order to the getting an account from the said 



10 

Mr. Bond ; and His Lordship was pleased thereupon to write to 
the said Mr. Bond, who within six months after sent a bill of 
exchange, and ordered his brother-in-law, Mr. Turney, to pay to 
the said inhabitants the sum of forty and five pounds, in part of 
fifty pounds received by him, being the first and original value of 
the said legacy, the other five pounds being deducted by him for 
the charges in procuring the same : out of which said sum of forty 
and five pounds, the said inhabitants have given a present of five 
pounds to Mr. Joseph Tooker, servant to the Earl of Radnor, for 
his care and pains therein ; and the forty pounds remaining was 
this day paid unto the said inhabitants by Mr. John Cole, servant 
to the Earl of Radnor, and was delivered over to John Hodge, 
to be by him set out at interest, who is ordered to take bond 
for the same in the name of Richard Erisey, Esquire, one of the 
present overseers of the poor. All which the said inhabitants 
have thought fit to record in this their parish book, in perpetual 
memory of His Lordship's favour and kindness to them. 

Thomas Philpe, Vicar, 
John Anstis, John Cole, 

Richard Erisey, Richard Ponieroy, 

Nicholas Glynn, Roger Laundrye, 

Emanuel Lampen, Richard Martyn. 




11 




MONASTERY OF ST. NEOT. 

In the time of Edward the Confessor there was a 
monastery here said to be founded in honour of St. Neot. 
Borlase in his Antiq. Corntvall considers it was founded by 
King Alfred the Great, whom it is supposed was a very near 
relation to St. Neot. Asser in his life of Alfred tells us that 
King Alfred, being ill, prostrated himself in the Church of 
St. Guerir, and there performing his devotions with great 
zeal, was surprisingly recovered. And St. Neot dying here 
and being here interred, it is not unlikely that Alfred or his 
son Edward might establish a religious house of Clerks (as 
Spelman calls them), in grateful remembrance of Alfred's 
recovery, and to do honour to the name of so near a relation. 



PARISH FESTIVAL. 

On the 31st July a festival was held annually, but was 
discontinued after the trme of Henry VIII. These feasts were 
held in high esteem among the primitive Christians having 
been instituted in memory of the dedication of the parochial 
Churches. They were originally kept on that saint's day to 
whose memory the Church was dedicated. Those feasts were 
very much declaimed against, by people who did not dis- 
tinguish between the institution and the disorderly observance 
of them, and in 1627, the judges of the Assize sitting at 
Exeter made an order to suppress all such feasts ; this was 
also done in Somersetshire in 1631 ; but upon Bishop Laud's 
interposition the order was reversed, and the Bishop of Bath 
and Wells with 72 of his most able clergy certified that on 
those feast days which generally fell on a Sunday, the 
Churches were better frequented than any other Sunday of 
the whole year, and that the Clergy did in most places observe 
them for several estimable reasons, among them being that it 
instituted a good time for composing differences by the 
mediation and meeting of friends ; for the increase of love 



12 

and unity by these feasts of Chanty, and for the rehef and 
comfort of the poor. In 1875 the Rev. E. Steele, the Vicar, 
revived the Dedication Festival in St. Neot, and it is held 
annually on the last Sunday in July and the first week in 
August. Strictly speaking the Feast of the Patron (St. Neot) 
is on the 31st day of July, and the Dedication Festival on 
October 14th, the Church having been originally dedicated 
on that date, in the year of our Lord, 132 1. 

EXTRACT FROM THE PAROCHIAL 

REGISTER. 



Corniib : 
Parish of St. 
Neots 



A copy of such lands and goods as belong to 
repairing and maintaning the parish Church, whereof 
and wherewith the parish is now possessed ; and 
also a note of the moneys as are given towards the 
poor o( the said parish, to be employed for ever ; 
taken the 6th of May, 161 3, and the copy is 
delivered in at Exon. 



Ornaments 
of the 
Church 



Four bells in the church-house, well arrayed 
and orderly, kept for ringing. One fair com- 
munion cup of silver gilt, with a cover to the same ; 
and one lesser communion cup, with a cover to the 
same ; with all other such ornaments belonging to 
the church, as are enjoined by the book of canons 
and constitutions. 



The Church 
Rate 



Tithe Corn 



" Hill 
House" 

"St. Neot 
Meadows " 



'■ Fursey 
Park" 



Barrat's 
Lands, in 
Tremad- 
dock 



A confirmed rate for the repairing and main- 
taining of the church, a copy whereof remaineth in 
the Registry of the Lord Bishop of Exon. 

A parcel of Tithe Corn, accruing yearly out of 
those several tenements and parcels of land, 
commonly called, reputed, and known, by the 
several names of "All the lands in Tybon's 
Coombe, alias. Hill House." The meadows in 
St. Neots, called "St. Neot Meadows," of late the 
lands of John Tubb, Esquire, deceased. One close 
of land adjoining the town of St. Neots, lying in 
Woodcock Hill, called by the name of " Fursey 
Park ;" lying above the way leading towards 
Treverbyn, by estimation three acres, or there- 
abouts. All the lands and tenements of John 
Barrat, of St. Mabyn, Esquire, deceased, being 
within the manor of St. Neot-Barrat ; saving and 



13 



excepting- three plots of land, whereof the one is 
called the Middle Park, and the other two called 
the Hole Parks ; being parcel of the tenement ot 
John Laundry, of Tremaddock. All one tenement 
called " Whiteburrows." All the lands which one 
John Trubody, of Trengale, Gent., and the heirs of 
John Derite, Gent., deceased, claimeth to hold in 
the township, quillets, and fields of Tremaddock 
aforesaid. All such lands as one Edward Ellery, 
of Luxulion, Gent., deceased of late, and within the 
said town of Tremaddock and Newton. All the 
lands of John Beer, of Warleggon, Gent., deceased, 
lying and being in Tremaddock aforesaid. All the 
lands of John Coode, Gent., deceased, William 
Watkins, of Foye, and others within the said town 
of Tremaddock. All the lands and tenements in 
Hamet, both higher and lower. One Meadow in 
Tremaddock, aforesaid, being the Parish Land of 
St. Neots, of late in the occupation of Edmund 
Hatche, deceased, his assign or assigns. And one 
other close of land, belonging to the Parish Church 
of St. Neots aforesaid, next adjoining to Woodcock 
Hill, of late in the tenure and occupation of John 
Crapp, deceased, his assign or assigns. All which 
tithes are let by the twelve-men of the said parish, 
unto Joseph May, Clerk, his assign or assigns, for 
the term of twenty and one years, under the yearly 
rent of Four Pounds ; which rent, and the fines 
thereof, are employed towards the repairing and 
maintaining the said Parish Church. 



" Whitebur- 
rows" 
Trubody's, 
Derite's and 
Ellery's 
lands, in 
Tremad- 
dock and 
Newton 



Beer's 
Lands 

Coode's, 
Watkin's 
and other 
Lands in 
Tremad- 
dock 

Hamet 

Parisli 
Lands in 
Tremad- 
dock 



Church 
Laud 



One plot of land, called the Fursey Park, let 
by the twelve-men of the parish, for twenty and 
one years, unto Roger Young, his assign or 
assigns, under the yearly rent of Eight Shillings, 
containing by estimation three acres or thereabouts ; 
and is bounded on the east by the lands of John 
Samwell, Gent., on the south side by the highway ; 
on the west and north by the lands of the heirs of 
William Beer, Gent., deceased, And one other 
close of land, in Tremaddock, containing by 
estimation three quarters of an acre, or thereabout, 
with the house and garden to the same, let in like 
manner, under the yearly rent of Eight vShillings ; 
bounded on the south and west with a lane ; and 
on the north and east with the lands of John 
Trubody, and John Vincent, Gents. ; which parcels 



Church 
and Parish 
Lands 



14 

of land are confirmed by the exemplifications under 
the exchequer seal, now in the custody of the said 
parish. 

Eight Pounds, given by the last will and 
t^eVoof °' testament of George Marratt, of Blisland, deceased, 
to be laid out for the use of the poor for ever ; 
yielding in yearly, on Good Friday, Twenty Pence 
for every Pound ; then to be distributed among the 
poor of the said parish of St. Neots. And Twenty 
Shillings, given in like manner, by Philip Crapp's 
widow, of St. Pinnock, deceased, yielding in yearly 
Two Shillings, to be distributed as aforesaid ; which 
sums of money are employed according to the will 
of the givers. 



<^<?Sb9P^J^ 




15 




LIFE OF SAINT NEOT. 

From*what can be gathered from MS. Lives of S. Neot,^ 
eight of which are still in existence, it is conjectured that he 
was born of noble parentage, and brother to King Alfred. 
"When quite a youth he took the monastic habit at 
Glastonbury. He applied himself assiduously to his studies, 
and became one of the greatest scholars of his age, and was 
noted for his piety, humility, and devotion." 

*' The bishop of the diocese was so taken with his saintly 
deportment and conversation, that when the Saint was yet 
very young he, by compulsion, ordained him, first, Deacon, 
and soon after. Priest. Saint Neot dreaded the danger 
of being drawn out of his beloved obscurity, which he 
coveted above all earthly blessings ; being more desirous to 
slide through the world without being taken so much notice 
of by others, and without being distracted from applying his 
mind to his only great affair in this life, than most men are, 
to bustle and make parade on the theatre of the world. He 
feared particularly the insinuatious poison of vanity, which 
easily steals into the heart amidst applause, even without being 
perceived. Therefore, with the leave of his Superior, he 
retired into his solitude, in Cornwall, which was then called 
Saint Guerryers, from a British Saint of that name ; but is 
since called, from our holy anchoret, Neotstoke. In this 
hermitage he emaciated his body by rigorous fasts, and 
nourished his soul with heavenly contemplation ; in which he 
received great favours of God, and was sometimes honoured 
with the visits of angels. After seven years spent in this 
retreat, he made a pilgrimage to Rome, but returned again to 

* I. Brit. Museimi, an Anglo Saxon MS. of 12 pagfes on vellum. 

2. Bodleian Library, Oxford, 26 pag-es on vellum. 

3. Brit. Museum, 31 pages on vellum — Biography and Legendary Tales by 

a Monk. 

4. John de Tinmouth's Historia Aurea — An abstract of the Cottonian lite of 

the Saint (1367), by John, a Monk of St. Albans. 

5. John de Tinmouth's Sanctilogium. copy from the Historia Aurea, written 

in the I4tli Century. 

6. Lambeth Palace, in vellum, folio, with initial leitei's richly illuminated. 

7. Bodleian Libi-ai-y, in folio, vellum, wiitten in 1377 for llie Monks of Bury 

St. Edmunds. 

8. Magdalen College, Oxford — Vellum, 410., containing 673 lines. 



36 

the same cell. vSeveral persons of quality and virtue began to 
resort to him, to beg- the assistance of his prayers and his 
counsels ; and the reputation of his wisdom and experience, 
in the path of an interior life, reached the ears of Alfred. 
That great prince from some time, especially while he lay 
concealed in vSomersetshire, to the death of the holy hermit, 
frequently visited him, and doubtless, by his discourses, 
received great light, and was inflamed with fresh ardour in 
the practice of virtue. Saint Neot's counsels were also to him 
of great use for regulating the government of 4iis king- 
dom. Our Saint particularly recommended to him the 
advancement of useful and sacred studies, and advised him to 
repair the schools of the English founded at Rome, and to 
establish others at home. Both which things this King most 
magnificently executed. 

Our historians agree, that the plan of persuing a general 
study of all the sciences, and liberal arts was laid by this holy 
anchoret ; and upon it Alfred is said to have founded the 
University of Oxford. By his advice the King invited to his 
Court Asserius, a Monk of Menevia or St. David's, in Wales ; 
Grimbald, a Monk of St. Bertins ; and John the Saxon, from 
Old Saxony, whom he nominated Abbotof the new Monastery 
which he founded at Athelingay, in Somersetshire. Atford 
Wood, and Camden, upon the authority of certain annals of 
Worcestershire, made Saint Neot the first Professor of 
Theology at Oxford ; but this seems not consistent with the 
more ancient authentic accounts of those times : and Samt 
Neot seems to have died about the time when that University 
was founded. His death happened on the 31st of July, on 
which day his principal festival was kept : his name was also 
commemorated on the days of the translation of his relics. 
His body was first buried in his own church, in Cornwall, 
where certain disciples, to whom he had given the monastic 
habit, had founded a little monastery. His relics, in the reign 
of King Edgar, were removed by Count Ethelric and his 
famous lady Ethelfleda, out of Cornwall into Huntingdon- 
shire and deposited at Ernulfsbury, since called St. Neots, 
where an Abbey was built by Count Afric, which bore his 
name. When Osketel was the ninth Abbot ot Croyland, his 
sister Lewina, to whom the manor of Ernulfsbury belonged, 
caused these relics to be transferred to Croyland, but they were 
afterwards brought back to the former church, which from that 
time took the name of St. Neots. Many memorials of this 
Saint were preserved at Glastonbury, with an iron grate (or 
rather a step made of iron bars), upon which the holy man 
used to stand at the altar, when he said mass, being of a very 




ciLn RRinoK, ••c'Aui.vox AK^rs " inx. and schooi,.s. 




ST. Ni;oi \ ii.i,\(;i.:. 
From I'holograplts by F. Kitto and Sun, Foiviy. 



17 

low stature, as John of Glastonbury, and Malmesbury testify. 
Asserius assures us that King Alfred experienced the power- 
ful assistance of Saint Neot's intercession, when the saint had 
quitted this mortal life. Being much troubled in his youth 
with temptations of impurity, he earnestly begged of God that 
he might be delivered from that dangerous enemy, and that 
he might be afflicted with some constant painful distemper. 
From that time he was freed from those alarming assaults, 
but felt a very painful disorder. He sometimes poured forth 
his prayers and sighs to God a long time together, at the 
tomb of Saint Neot, formerly his faithful director, whose body 
then remained in Cornwall, and found both comfort and relief 
in his troubles. The corporal distemper here mentioned only 
left him to be succeeded by violent cholics." (Butler). 

It is believed that he died in the year 877, on the 31st of 
July, in the monastery which he had erected, at the age of 67 
years. He was buried with due honour in the church which 
he had built upon the site of the more ancient chapel of St. 
Guerryer, and after about 60 years had elapsed a larger church 
was built, and his body removed to the north side of the altar. 
About a century later the principal remains of St. Neot were 
supposed to have been removed into Huntingdonshire ; but 
several historians — notably, Leland, Asser, and Capgrave — 
deny that they were removed, and that the only relics ever 
boasted to have been possessed by the monks of Ernulphbury, 
were *'the interior tunic of Saint Neot, made of hair, and a 
comb, made in the form of the jaw of a river fish — the pike." 

An Anglo Saxon Jewel, supposed to contain a miniature 
of St. Neot, is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 

The following legends are told of the Saint : — " Neot was 
so diminutive in his stature that he has been called another 
Zacheus. He was accustomed therefore, when he chanted 
mass, at Glastonbury, to stand on an iron stool, which was 
long after preserved in that abbey as a relic. It happened, at 
a certain day, that a person of high rank came to the abbey, 
at noon, when the monks usually rested and locked their gates. 
In vain did the stranger knock for admittance ; no person 
heard the sound ; he therefore repeated the summons with 
such violence as to awaken the Sacristan Neot, who was 
officially reposing in the church. Hastening to the door 
when scarcely roused from his slumbers, he missed his iron 
stool, and was unable to reach the lock. At last, when in 
great distress, the lock gradually decended to the level of his 
monastic girdle. The legend adds, that the lock continued 
long in this position as testimony of the truth of the miracle. 



18 

Near the site of the hermitage, to which the holy confessor 
retired, was a pool,* in which there were three fishes ; of these 
(the fabulous narrative affirms), the hermit had a divine per- 
mission to take one, and only one, every day ; this condition 
being observed he was assured that the supply should never be 
diminished. It happened, however, that he was afflicted with 
a severe indisposition, and was unable to take any sustenance. 
His attendant, Barius with a studious regard to the delicacy of 
his master's appetite, went to the pool and caught two fishes ; 
having boiled one and broiled the other he hoped to induce 
the hermit to eat. Neot was alarmed, and anxiously enquired 
whence the two fishes came. Barius told his simple tale. 
What has thou done, said the hermit? Lo ! the favour of 
God deserts us : go instantly and restore these fishes to their 
element. Whilst Barius was absent at the pool, Neot pros- 
trated himself in earnest prayer, till his servant returned with 
the intelligence that the fishes were disporting in the 
water as usual. He went again to the well and took only one 
fish, which the hermit had no sooner tasted than he was 
restored to perfect health. 

During the period of Neot's residence in Cornwall, as an 
anchoret, he is said to have been accustomed to repeat the whole 
psalter once each day, standing in a fountain of clear water, 
near his hermitage. The celebrity of this beautiful spring has 
been perpetuated by tradition. This crystal pool which was 
probably the hermit's bath, is said to have been the scene of 
more than one strange event. One of these is recorded in an 
Anglo-Saxon homily, on Saint Neot. On a certain day the 
saint retired to the sequested spring to chant his psalms; while 
bathing in the pool, as his custom was, he heard many horse- 
men riding through the wood ; the timid hermit fled, in 
confusion, to his sylvan oratory, unwilling that any earthly 
man should be acquainted with his devotions. In the haste of 
his retreat he lost his shoe, in search of which (having first 
concluded his orision), he dispatched his servant. On his way 
to the spring, a crafty fox, who had run over hill and dale, 
casting his eyes wildly about hither and the thither, suddenly 
came to the spot where the holy man had been bathing his feet, 
and took away the shoe. In order that the saint might not be 
scandalized by so mean a thing, the fox was miraculously cast 
into a deep sleep, and died, having the thongs of the shoe 
in his vile mouth. The servant, having obtained the shoe, 
returned to his master, by whom he was strictly enjoined not 
to divulge the event till after his death. 

*St. Neot's Well, 



19 

On a certain day, says his biographer, when Neot was 
chanting his psalms, in the fountain, according to his custom, 
a trembling doe, flying through the thickets of a neighbouring 
forest, and bounding over the impassable underwood, fell 
down at the feet of the saint, and by her anxious pantings 
implored the aid which she could not ask by more intelligible 
signs ; touched by her pitiful terror, the holy man determined 
to afford her a refuge. The dogs followed in full chase, pant- 
ing to tear her in pieces ; but when they saw her at the foot 
of the saint, chey fled back to the wood as if they had been 
wounded, whilst Neot dismissed the deer unhurt. The hunts- 
man, astonished at the event, cast away his quiver, 
implored the counsel of the holy hermit, by his advice 
relinquished the world, and became a monk at the neighbour- 
ing convent of Saint Petrock, at Bodmin. The very horn 
which he wore (continues this writer), remains to this day a 
witness of the fact, being hung up in the church. 

In the next legendary story we are introduced to the con- 
vent or college of priests, founded by Neot, when he quitted 
his cell to sustain the office of an abbot. Some thieves came 
by night and stole the oxen belonging to the farm of the 
monastery ; on the following morning, when the holy 
brethren wanted to use their ploughs, the bullocks were 
missing. In this difficulty many stags, from the neighbour- 
ing woodlands, tamely offered their necks to the yoke, and 
patiently submitted to all the labour necessary for the tillage 
of the farm ; when unyoked, in the evening, they resorted to 
their favourite pastures, but voluntarily returned, each morn- 
ing, to their accustomed work. The report of such a wonder- 
ful event reached the ears of the thieves. With unfeigned 
penitence they repaired to the abbot, confessed the robbery, 
lamented their wickedness, assumed the vows and habit of the 
convent, and consecrated the remainder of their lives to 
devotional exercises. The oxen having been restored, the stags 
were dismissed to their native woods ; but concerning them 
(says the credulous biographer), we have a marvellous report, 
that the whole progeny retain the signs of their having been 
thus laboured ; there is a white ring, like a yoke, about their 
necks, on that part which was pressed by the collar. " I 
will not," adds the more cautious monk, who wrote the life 
preserved in the Cottonian Library, "positively assert the 
truth of this report, yet I dare not distrust the power of God 
and deny it." 

The saint (says his biographer) had a rich neighbour, 
proud, and who oppressed the inhabitants of the parish by 
compelling them to perform unreasonable services. The 



20 

vassals were once driving the lord's wains from his corn- 
fields ; a furious hurricane arose, and blew with such violence 
that men, oxen, and wains were forced back like an arrow from 
a bow. As soon as the rich man heard of the storm, his 
conscience suggested that it was an indication of the divine 
anger at his oppressive conduct. He hastened to Neot, and 
with the hope of obtaining pardon for his sins liberated all the 
tenants of the church lands from future services. 



ST. NEOT'S WELL. 

The Well is situate about a quarter-of-mile west of the 
Church, in Milltown Fields, and may be reached by a lane 
close to the corner of the " Carlyon Arms " Inn. Very many 
years ago there was an ancient arch of stone over the well, 
with doors to the entrance. About the year 1762 a large and 
spreading oak grew on the bank above. It was of fan-like 
form, and had probably been allowed to grow unmolested for 
centuries from, perhaps, religious motives. It was however, 
cut down by a tenant of the estate for repairing purposes. 
The well was restored, as it at present appears, by the late 
Capt. Charles Gerveys Grylls, r.n., in 1852. A young oak 
tree now flourishes above it. It is stated that St. Neot com- 
municated to its waters gifts and powers, and children used to 
be brought even so distant as Exeter to be bathed in the water 
of the well on the three first mornings in May. The spring 
supplies the village with an almost constant flow of water. 



THE CROW POUND. 

About a mile to the west of the village, close to a" directing- 
post " on the top of the "Downs," low-banked hedges may 
be seen enclosing about a quarter of an acre of land. This 
(runs the legend) was the place where Saint Neot impounded 
the crows. It appears that the Saint had remonstrated 
with the farmers on their inattention to their religious duties, 
especially with regard to attending Church on Sundays. They 
excused themselves by stating that the crows committed such 
depredations on their corn fields that it required continual 
watching to drive away the feathered plunderers, and so pre- 
vent their crops being spoilt. The Saint, having considered 
the matter, directed all his parishioners duly to attend service, 
and impounded all the crows every Sunday during the whole 
time of service. 



21 




THE PARISH CHURCH. 

The Church has something far more than a local or even a 
county interest. Historically it is one of the most interesting- 
Churches in England. St. Neot built a Church on the site of 
the ancient chapel of St. Guerryer ; and about the year 884 it 
was greatly enlarged. " In the reign of Henry the first the 
advowson was given by William, Earl of Moreton, to the 
priory of Montacute, in Somersetshire, to which the rectory 
was appropriated. The present edifice appears to have been 
erected in the time of Edward the fourth. The following 
inscription, in rude characters, appears upon the roof, near the 
west-end of the nave, "Anno. dn. mcccclxxx. hsec. dom. 
edificata." It is a handsome building; the pinnacles of the 
buttresses between the south windows are elegant, and 
ascending considerably above the parapet of the roof, give the 
exterior an airy appearance. At the west-end rises a neat 
tower, with a peal of six bells ; it is built of white granite ; 
the altitude to the summit of the pinnacles is 71 feet. The 
extreme length of the church, from the door of the tower to 
the east window, is 116 feet; the breadth is 55 feet. The 
building is wholly of large masses of granite, excellently cut. 
The interior consists of a nave and two side aisles : the south 
aisle is separated from the nave by seven uniform pointed 
arches ; the north aisle has six arches corresponding with 
those opposed to them in the south aisle ; the seventh, or 
most eastern, is an og(ie arch, upon a lower pitch, which was 
probably cut out of a Saxon arch, having belonged to a more 
ancient structure, and having formed the entrance to a chapel, 
where the remains of Neot were deposited. The roof is a 
semi-circular vault of oak ; it is ornamented with lozenges, 
containing knots, flowers, and initial letters ; in the western 
lozenge is the date 1593." 

The patron Saint was held in great veneration during his 
life, and his remains after death were greatly revered. Prob- 
ably a small chapel existed during his lifetime, and that a 
larger church was built as a memorial some fifty or sixty years 



22 

after his death. An ancient writer has said of him, "The 
people daily increases which come to honour the saint, 
so that the place cannot contain them, and then immediately 
a resolution is taken to pull down the small church and speedily 
build a new one. The work as resolved on is made large and 
grows amazingly and is shortly finished, and the populace 
comes bringing those donations in their hands which are 
sufficient for the building. The church being finished and 
enriched with various ornaments, the Saint is lifted out of the 
earth with pious love and carried by hand above the altar, and 
then accrues fresh honour to the Saint and fresh glory to God." 
Another writer has said, *' When the sun has six times 
measured the houses of the signs and the year has seven 
times rolled around, the temple was rebuilt in a greater fabric, 
being enlarged by some very religious persons. This was, 
therefore, thought a reasonable opportunity to transfer the 
body of the servant of God to another part of the same church. 
It was accordingly, with watchings and prayers and fastings, 
lifted up from thence, was stored up and deposited in a place 
very proper on the northern side of the altar of the said 
church." 

It is, therefore, more than probable that portions of the 
walls and foundations of the church are of every early date, 
but in the architectural portions of the present building there 
is no work traceable to an earlier date than 14th century work, 
of which the tower, and a porion of the east walls, and a 
remnant of the noble tomb on the north side of the chancel, 
are the only parts known to remain. 

The following inscription may be seen over the Cenotaph 
of St. Neot, in the north-east aisle of the church : — 

Hie olim noti jacuere relicta Neoti, 
Nunc prjBter cineres nil superesse vides ; 
Tempus in hac fossa carne consunipsit et ossa : 
Nomen perpetiium Sancte Neote tuiim. 

Consuming time Neotus' flesh 

And bones to dust translated ; 
A sacred tomb this dust enclosed, 

Which now is ruinated. 
Though flesh and bones, and dust and tomb, 

Thro' tract of time be rotten. 
Yet Neot's fame lemains with us, 

Which ne'er shall be forgotten ; 
Whose father was a saxon King, 

St. Dunstan was his teacher ; 
In famous Oxford he was eke 

The first professed pieacher. 
That there in schools, by quaintest terms. 

The sacred themes expounded ; 
Which schools, by his advice, the good 



23 

King- Alfred well had founded ; 
But in those days, the furious Danes 

The Saxons' peace molested, 
And Neot foiced was to leave 

That place so much invested 
With hostile spoils. Then Ainsbury 

His place of refuge was ; 
Within the shiie of Huntingdon, 

Where since it came to pass. 
That for his sake, the place from him 

Doth take its common name. 
The vulgar call it now St. Needs, 

Their market town of fame ; 
There Alfric built a monastery, 

To Neot 'twas behested, 
And Rosey, wife to the Erie of Clere 

With means the same invested, 
For maintenance in after times ; 

Where long he did not stay. 
But thence enforced by furious Danes, 

He forward took his way 
To Guerrirr's Stoke for his respose ; 

This place so called of yore. 
But now best know by Neot's name, 

More famous than before. 
For why ? A college heie of Clarks 

He had, whose famed encreased. 
When as his corpse was clad in clay, 

And he from hence diceased. 
Some say his bones were carried hence ; 

St. Needs will have it so. 
Which claims the grace of Neot's tomb ; 

But hereto we say No ! 



Antto. Dom. 8g6. 



The present nave and aisles were probably built about 
1480, although the north aisle bears evidences of being of a 
somewhat earlier date. The exterior view of the church from 
the south-east, with its fine northern porch, traceried win- 
dows, pinnacled buttresses, and cut granite-faced walls, is a 
very striking one ; while the interior is also distinctly striking 
because of its spaciousness. It is, in its form and construction, 
similar to many Cornish churches, having a wide nave with 
broad gabled aisles running parallel east and west. But the 
great feature of the interior that will strike the most ordinary 
observer is the stained glass in the windows. Every window 
in the church is filled, and, with few exceptions, is of really 
good old glass of different periods, each window being of 
great beauty. The periods that have been assigned to the 
different portions range from about 1250 to 1533, and the 
finest windows in the church are undoubtedly the "Creation " 
window, in the east-end of the south aisle, and the "St. 
George's " window, at the west-end of the north aisle. After 
these come the "Noah" window, in the south aisle, and 
" St. Neot's " window, in the north aisle. The other windows 



24 

in the north and south aisles are "The Young Women's," 
"The Wives'," " The Harris," "The Callawy," " The Tubbe 
and Callawy," "The Borlase," "The Martyn," "The 
Mutton," "The Redemption." "The Acts," and the " Grylls 
Arms " windows. The chancel window, of which we give 
an illustration, is a representation of the Lord's Supper, 
copied from a coloured print found in the British 
Museum. There are few parish churches in England 
possessing so many beautiful windows. The Church was 
partially restored in 1884, at a cost of between ;^5oo and ^600, 
and in addition to this the Rev. G. E. Hermon presented an 
organ, which cost about ;^400. And in 1889 further interior 
restoration was accomplished, from designs by Mr. G. H. 
Fellowes Pyrnne, of London, at a cost, together with repairs 
to the Bell Tower and Bell Machinery, of ;^i,ioo. The 
double row of fine brass lamps hanging from the roof on 
either side of the nave seems to carry the eye direct to the 
altar which now being, as it were, canopied by a richly gilded 
and coloured roof, and screened in by richly carved screens 
of teak, etc., at once forms the centre of attraction. The vestry 
certainly has the disadvantage of being altogether out of 
keeping with the general character of the now beautifully 
restored church. 

During the residence in the parish of the late 
General Sir J. H. Lefroy, k.c.m.g., f.r.s., some very 
interesting statistics were collected by him with reference to 
the church and parish. For intance, the number of inter- 
ments in the church between the years 1608 and 1708 
amounted to 548. The greatest number in any one year was 
14, viz., in 1644. The modern "Sanitary Authority " may 
well stand aghast, says Sir Henry Lefroy, at such defiance of 
sanitary laws. The vestry took alarm in 1677, and passed a 
resolution that no person or persons do break the ground in 
either of the three chancels unless such person or persons do 
first pay down to the Churchwardens the sum of ten shillings 
for each grave, and that no persons break the ground within 
the body of the said Parish Church unless there be first paid 
the sum of seven shillings for such grave. 

The Parish Armour, or Church Armour, consisted of two 
pairs of corslets, with their swords, daggers, and pikes, one 
musquet in the vestry, and one pike in the keeping of John 
Smith, the younger. 

In the account of the destruction of vermin, the fox 
catcher appears as a recognised personage, like the mole 
catcher of the present day. The animals paid for were bad- 
gers, pole cats, foxes, wild cats, rats (as many as 52 were paid 
for in 1677J, kites, vultures, and once or twice an otter. 



Judging from the provision of Sacred Elements, the large 
sums paid for a provision of bread and wine for the Holy 
Communion on Church Festivals, especially at Easter, are 
very noticeable. Ten gallons of sack are mentioned in 1744, 
and even concluding that the number of communicants was 
very large, the quantity is so much in excess of what 
would be consumed in any devout or decent Celebration, that 
there can be no doubt that it was put to other purposes. 

Conspicuous is the liberality of the inhabitants of this 
remote Cornish parish to objects to which they were asked to 
contribute, or which appealed to their compassion. Thus, 
for example: — ;j^s ^3^- lod. was collected in 1665 for London, 
in the time of the plague ; ;£2 los. for London after the fire ; 
for the redemption of captives from Turkish slavery, ;^6 6s. 6d. ; 
in [661, towards Ripon Church in Yorkshire, 4s 6d. ; for 
Grantham in Lincoln, 8s 6d. ; for Bungay in Suffolk, 
15s. 8d.; for Chagford in Devon, 8s. 2d.; for the sufferers by fire 
in the Parish of S. George, Southwark, 7s. 6d. ; and many 
others. The Vicar from 1660 to 1704, when zeal in alms- 
giving was so very fervent, was the Rev. Thomas Philpe, 
who probably was a man of exceptional liberality and 
sympathy. 

VICARS OF THE PAROCHIAL CHURCH OF 
SAINT NEOT. 

1. Martin de Huntingdon, presented by tlie Prior and Convent 
of Montacute, October 26, 1266. 

2. William de Tetton, presented by the Bishop of Exon, October 
18, 1288. 

3. John Echym, presented by the Prior and Convent of Monta- 
cute, December 10, 1318. 

4. Roger de Helston, presented by tlie .same, May 26, 1329. 

5. John Molyns, presented by the same, October 2, 1342. 

6. Richard Guly, presented by the same, June 21, 1362. 

7. William Guly, presented by the Bishop of Exon, March 23, 

1363- 

8. John Trengoff, presented by Edward the Third, December 17, 

1369. 

9. John Symon, presented by the Prior and Convent of Monta- 
cnt«, F'ebruary 21, 1429. 

10. John Pyy, presented by the same, September 4, 1440. 

11. Thomas Davey, presented by the same, October 13, 1469. 

12. William Pope, presented by the same, July 8, 1472. 

13. John Wyppell, presented by the same. 

14. Thomas Bodley, presented by the same, April 28, 1498. 

15. Rog'er Savage, presented liy the same, October 10, 1499. 

16. Robert Tubb, presented by the same, August 4, 1508. 



26 

17- Richard Bennett, presented by John Tregonwell, July 7, 1544. 

18. Thomas John, presented by Edward the Sixth, December 9, 

1549- 

19. Walter Ringfwood, presented by Queen Elizabeth, December 

17. 1585- 
20- Joseph May was ejected from the Vicarage. 

21. Machin, was Incumbent in the Reign of Charles the 

First. 

22. Thomas Philpe was Vicar in 1660. 

23. Joseph Rowe, presented by John Rowe, March 8, 1707. 

24. John Parsons, presented by Francis Sawle, September 8, 1730. 

25. Samuel Thomas, presented by Stephen Thomas, March 15, 

1756- 

26. Richard Gerveys Grylls, on his own petition, April 5, 1793. 

27. Henry Grylls, presented by R. G. Grylls, Clerk, January 1821. 

28. F. P. J. Hendy, 1862. 

29. Edward Steele, 1874. 

30. G. E. Hermon, 1896. 

31. W. R. S. Majendie, 1900. 

The Churchyard was closed for burials in 1887, and a 
small burial-ground near the river, the gift of Lieut.-Col. S. 
M. Grylls, was then consecrated. 

MONUMENTS. 

On the floor, in the south aisle of the church, is a plain 
slate monument, with the following inscriptions, " Here lieth 
the body of Richard Pomery, of Tremardock, buried the 5th 
of February, 1744, aged 87." *' Mary his daughter, buried 
19th day of March, 1734, aged 47, and Elizabeth his wife 
buried 22nd June, 1760, aged 80." 

On the floor of the north aisle is a stone, " In memory of 
Thomas Pomery, of this parish. Gentleman, who departed 
this life October the 21st, 1750, in the sixty-first year of his 
age." 

" The soul is fled, and in this dusty urn 

The Body rests until the Soul return 

At resurrection-day ; and so we trust that then 

The Soul and Body shall be joined again. 

To be exalted unto bliss, and have 

Eternal triumph over death and grave." 

On the south of the altar is a slab of white marble, on 
which the following is inscribed, "The last tribute of an 
afflicted father to the memory of his dutiful and affectionate 
child, Caroline Foot, who died May 3, 181 3, aged thirteen 
years." 

" Here lies the sweetest bud of hope 

That e'er to parents' wish was given ; 
If you would see its happier state, 

Repent, and seek the flower in heaven." 



27 

There is also an altar tomb of slate, bearing the effigies 
of William Beer, his wife, and his two daughters, kneeling in 
the act of prayer, with this inscription, — 

*' Here lieth Beer, whom Ang^els to heaven beare, 
Banisht thougfh earth, yet now made heaven's heire ; 
Faithful he was to friends, faithful in law of man ; 
Practic'd in lawe of God, it so heaven's heritage wonn. 
Hence learne of the dead good deeds to imitate, 
Hence learne of the dead gainst death this caveat. 
Nothing more certain than is death to all 
Nor more certain than death's hour of call. 
Now whilst thou liv'st then learn to die to sin, 
With Christ, through Christ, in grace to live begin ; 
So when thou diest thy death no death shall be. 
But passage unto life, the God of life to see. " 

On the walls of the Church are a large number of mem- 
morial tablets in marble, erected to the memory of members of 
the Dangar family. 




28 







^jm 



THE CHURCH WINDOWS. 

The windows of colored glass were of very great interest 
to antiquarians many years ago, and Whittaker assigned the 
date of their completion to a period as early as a.d. 1199, 
whilst Gorham and others give the earliest date at a.d. 1480. 
The different style and execution of the work proved them to 
have been the production of different periods, of which the 
earliest may be taken probably about a.d. 1200 and the latest 
about A.D. 1533. In the year 1825, the Rev. R. Gerveys 
Grylls, of Helston, the patron of the living, conceived the 
design of restoring the windows ; for many of them had 
become through lapse of time, entire neglect, and perhaps 
criminal spoliation, so badly mutiliated, that whilst one or two 
remained tolerably perfect, the greater number were so much 
defaced that their subjects could with difficulty be traced, and 
some had been destroyed and replaced with plain glass. In 
the w^ork of restoration the object has been to preserve and 
replace all the old glass that could be rendered serviceable ; 
to restore to every window its original design as far as could 
be traced ; and in some cases where the former subjects were 
entirely lost, to supply their place by such as appeared best to 
accord with the whole. The style of the original work has 
been adhered to throughout as closely as possible. The 
Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, at his own expense, restored, 
renewed, and ornamented the windows in the years 1826-1829; 
his son, Henry, being the vicar ; John Hedgland, of London, 
the designer and conductor of the work ; James Nixon, the 
painter ; and B. Baillie, the glazier. 

Following is appended a detailed description of the 
windows : — 

No. I. The St. George Window. 

(At the west-end of the North Aisle). 

This window has been removed from No. 14, where it 
lately stood, on Whittaker's suggestion, who says it did not 
originally belong there, but was taken from some other part 



29 

of the church — most probably its present situation. The 
tracery lights in the head of it are entirely new. In the centre 
of these is seen the medallion of the order of the Red Cross 
Knights, representing St. George slaying the dragon ; whilst 
on either side is his shield, bearing his well-known device of 
the red cross. 

The body of the window has been restored, as nearly as 
possible, with the subjects which originally occupied it, being 
some of the principal events in the fabulous history of 
England's renowned saint, in twelve compartments, as 
follows : 

1. St. George fighting the Gauls ; with the inscription, 
*" Here George fights against the Gauls." 

2. The Gauls having made St. George prisoner, behead- 
ing him at the shrine of the Virgin, who is seen with her 
infant child in the corner; inscription, " Here the Gauls slay 
George." 

3. The Virgin, attended by an angel, restoring him to 
life; inscription, "Here the blessed Mary restores him to 
life from the tomb. 

4. The Virgin arming the saint with his helmet, whilst 
one angel behind holds his sword and spurs, and a second 
his spear and shield ; inscription, " Here the blessed Mary 
arms George." 

5. St. George slaying the dragon ; the king and queen 
of Egypt looking on from a tower, whilst their virgin 
daughter is seen in the distance bound, and attended by her 
little dog ; inscription, " Here he kills the dragon." 

6. The saint guarded and bound, led before the king on 
a charge of treason ; inscription, " Here he is taken and led 
before the king." 

7. St. George put to the torture, by two men v/ho are 
tearing his flesh with iron rakes ; inscription, " Here his body 
is lacerated." 

8. The saint, saddled and bridled, and on all fours, 
ridden by the king's son, who is brandishing a knotted whip 
over him, whilst one attendant is urging him on with the 
point of his spear, and another with a club ; inscription, 
" Here the emperor's son rides upon him." 

g. The saint undergoing another species of torture ; 
one executioner drawing him up to a gibbet by his hands tied 
behind him, whilst another attaches a heavy stone to his feet : 
the king looking on; inscription, "Here they suspend a 
great stone to him." 

10. Another torture. The saint thrown headlong into 
a furnace of molten lead by an executioner, whilst a person, 

♦The inscriptions on all the windows are in Latin, and we give the translations. 



30 

* 

habited as a monk, stirs the fire beneath ; the king and 
another looking on; inscription, "Here he is put into a 
furnace with lead." 

11. The fifth torture. St. George dragged by his feet, 
by a wild horse, which is ridden by one individual, and led 
by another ; inscription, "Here he is dragged by a wild 
horse." 

12. The termination of the saint's sufferings, by his 
being beheaded in the king's presence ; with his confessor 
shriving him ; inscription, " Here George is beheaded." 



No. 2. St. Neot's Window. 

We are here presented with the legendary and fabulous 
history of St. Neot, in twelve designs, which have all been 
restored as they originally stood, in the following order: 

1. Neot resigning his crown to his younger brother, who 
is kneeling to receive it ; whilst two attendants stand behind. 
In the background of this and all the other compartments, is 
seen his monastery. Immediately underneath runs the 
label, " Here he delivered up the crown to his younger 
brother." 

2. Neot kneeling, taking the vows as monk. The abbot, 
with the croiser in his hand, reading the vows to him, whilst 
a monk is covering his head with a cowl. Another monk, in 
a white dress, bears the holy oil ; inscription, " Here he is 
completed a monk." 

3. Neot, reading his psalter, as was is daily wont with 
his feet immersed in his favourite well, rescues a doe from her 
hunter, who, struck with awe at the miracle which has 
preserved her from his dogs, is delivering up his horn to the 
saint, and afterwards turns monk himself; inscription, " Here, 
sitting in the well, rehearsing his psalter, he rescued the 
doe." 

4. Neot receiving instructions from an angel, respecting 
three fishes which he shows him in his well. (These 
instructions were, that so long as he took one, and only one, 
of the fishes for his daily food, the supply should never be 
diminished). Inscription, " Here, by the revelation of an 
angel, he found three fishes in his well." 

5. The saint, sick in his bed, ordering his servant Barius 
to bring him one of the fish for his dinner, as usual ; inscrip- 
tion, " Here he ordered a fish to be brought to him." 

6. Barius, anxious to suit his master's taste, has here 
taken two fishes from the well (which is seen behind with the 
third fish in it), and is boiling one in a vessel, and broiling 



31 

the other on a gridiron ; inscription, " Here Barius broiled 
one of the fish, and boiled another." 

7. Barius bringing the two fishes on a dish to his 
master in bed ; inscription, " Here Barius carried up the two 
fishes in a dish." 

8. Barius, sent back by the saint, in alarm at his having 
transgressed the angel's instructions, throwing the two fish 
again into the well, where they are immediately restored to 
life ; inscription, " Here Barius carried back those two fishes 
again into the well." 

g. A thief driving away the saint's oxen from before 
the monastery ; inscription, " Here his oxen were stolen." 

10. A man and boy ploughing the ground with four 
stags, which at the saint's prayers, came and offered them- 
selves tamely to the yoke, in lieu of the stolen oxen ; inscrip- 
tion, " Here the stags were yoked in place of the oxen." 

11. One of the robbers (who were terrified by the report 
of the foregoing miracle) bringing back the oxen to Neot, in 
consequence of whose instructions out of the book he is 
reading to him, the thief and his companions become monks, 
and enter the convent; inscription, "Here the thieves, 
touched with compunction, restored the oxen." 

12. Neot kneeling to receive Pope Martin's blessing, 
who wears the papal crown and robes, and holds the asper- 
gillum, or holy water sprinkle, in his right hand, and his 
staff surmounted by the triple cross, in the left; inscription, 
" Here he received a blessing from the Pope, at Rome." 

Along the bottom of the windo^v runs the following 
inscription, indicative of its donors and date : — At the cost of 
the young men of this parish of St. Neot, who erected this 
window, A.D. 1528. 



No. 3. The Young Women's Window. 

(So called from tlie donors). 

This and the three following windows were in an extremely 
mutilated condition ; but, by comparing together the remnants 
of the figures and broken inscriptions which were found in 
them, they have all been enabled to be restored with their 
original designs. The present window gives us the four 
following figures, beginning from the spectator's left hand. 

I. St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, decorated with 
the pallium, or archiepiscopal stole, mitre, and crosier. He 
died A.D. 465. Below is the inscription, "St. Patrick, pray 
for us." 



32 

2. St. Clarus, or Clerus, an English saint, to whom the 
neighbouring church of St. Cleer is dedicated. He is also 
decorated with episcopal robes, mitre, and crosier. He died 
A.D. 894. Inscription, "St. Clere, pray for us." 

3. St. Mancus, an Irish saint, and Bishop of Cornwall ; 
decorated as the foregoing. He was buried at the neigh- 
bouring church of Lanreath. Inscription, "St. Mancus, 
pray for us." 

4. St. Brechan, a Welsh saint, and king in the fourth 
century. He is robed and crowned, and in his mantle of 
royal ermine, holds a group of heads (eleven in number), 
intended to represent his own offspring, all of whom (twenty- 
four in the whole) were said to be holy martyrs or confessors 
in Devon and Cornwall. Those settled in Cornwall were — 
I. John giving name to the church of St. Ives. 2. Endelient, 
to that of Endellion. 3. Menfre, to St. Minver. 4. Tethe, 
to St. Teath. 5. Maben, to St. Mabyn. 6. Merewenna, 
to Marham Church. 7. Wenna, to St. Wenn. 8. Yse, 
to St. Issey. 9. Morwenna, to Moorwinstow. 10. Cleder, 
to St. Clether. 11. Keri, to Egloskerry. 12. Helie, to 
Egloshayle. 13. Adwen, to Advent. 14. Lanent, to 
Lelant. (This account is given by Leland, as cited by 
William of Worcester, from the Cornish Calendar at Mount 
St. Michael, in Cornwall). Inscription, "St. Brechan, with 
all the saints, pray for us." 

Beneath the whole are twenty female figures, five in each 
compartment, in a kneeling posture, intended to represent 
the donors of the window ; while below them runs the 
inscription, "At the cost of the young women of the parish 
of St. Neot, who erected this window. A.D. 1529. 



No. 4. The Wives' Window. 

(So called from the donors). 

The original figures are restored here also, in the 
following order. 

1. St. Mabena, a female crowned, one of the daughters 
of the foregoing King Brechan ; she bears a palm branch in 
her right hand, and an open book in her left. The neigh- 
bouring church of St. Mabyn is dedicated to her. Inscription: 
" St. Mabena, pray for us." 

2. The Virgin Mary seated, with her hands clasped in 
grief over her dead son, who is laid across her lap. 
Inscription : St. Mary, pray for us." 

3. Our blessed Lord, risen from the grave, as shewn by 
the five wounds, and the crown of thorns on his head. His 




ENTRAN'CK TO THK CHrKCHVARP NI'.AR THK "LONDON INN. 




33 

left hand holds the cross and banner. Inscription: "Jesus, 
Son of God, have mercy on us." 

4. St. Mebered or Mewbred, a male figure, dressed in a 
monkish robe, with a brass skull-cap on his head. In his left 
hand is his staff, or walking-stick ; whilst his right hand 
holds a head, to show that he underwent martyrdom by 
decapitation. The adjoining church of Cardynham is 
dedicated to this saint. Inscription : " Saint Mebered, pray 
for us." Beneath are twenty female figures, disposed as in 
the preceding window, representing the donors, with the 
inscription under them : "At the cost of the wives of the 
west side of this parish of St. Neot, who erected this glass 
window, A.D. 1530. 



No. 5. The Harris Window. 

(So called from the donor). 

This window, restored as the others, exhibits the following 
figures. 

1. St. John the Baptist. In his left hand he holds a 
book, on which rests the Lamb with a cross ; whilst the right 
hand is pointing to it, as though he would say, " Behold the 
Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world " 
(John i. 29). Beneath is a group of three figures, kneeling, 
and praying, in the words of the inscription, "St. John 
Baptist, pray for us." 

2. The figure of a Pope, as distinguished by the triple 
crown, and the double cross at the head of his staff. The 
original inscription of this figure was entirely lost, but it was 
supposed to represent Pope Gregory the Great, who sent the 
Gospel into Britain by Augustine the monk, A.D. 596. 
Beneath are a male and female figure praying, " St Gregory, 
pray for us." Before them is a shield, with the Harris coat 
of arms — sable, a broad arrow argent. 

3. St. Leonard, with a bishop's mitre on his head, and 
the crosier in his left hand, whilst his right hand holds a 
book, and has a fetter suspended from the wrist. He was 
Bishop of Limosin, in France, A.D. 500. Having obtained 
of King Clodoveus a favour, that any prisoners whom he 
visited should be set free, and having exercised his privilege 
in behalf of those who were persecuted for the Gospel's sake, 
he came to be looked upon as the guardian saint of all 
prisoners, and is generally represented with a loose fetter in 
his hand. The monkish legend, improving upon the story, 
tell us, that if any one in prison called upon his name, his 
fetters would immediately drop off, and the prison doors fly 



34 

open. Beneath is a single male figure, probably representing 
the donor, kneeling at an altar, and praying, " Saint Leonard, 
pray for me." 

4. St. Andrew, leaning upon his cross, which he 
embraces with his left hand, whilst the right holds an open 
book. Beneath, a male and female figure kneeling at an 
altar, and praying, " Saint Andrew, pray for us." Along 
the bottom of the window is this inscription, *' At the gift 
and cost of Ralph Harris, and by his workmanship this 
window was made." Shewing the fact of his being the 
painter, as well as donor, of the window. 



No. 6. The Callawy Window. 

(So called from the donor). 

This window is also restored with its original designs, as 
follow : 

1. St. Callawy ; in a monkish dress, Avith a book in his 
right hand, and a cross in his left. We find no record of this 
saint ; but he was, in all probability, a canonized member of 
the donor's family. In front of the pedestal on which he 
stands is a shield with the Callawy arms — sable, a fess, 
between three daggers, or; having, beneath, the date 1577, 
in extremely small figures. Whether this date refers to the 
time of the donation of the window, or was subsequently 
transferred to it with the coat of arms from the family mansion 
of the donor, is uncertain ; most probably the latter, as it 
would otherwise refer the window to a much later period than 
any of the others. Below is a female figure, kneeling in 
prayer before an altar, with the inscription, "Saint Callawy, 
pray for me." 

2. St. Germain, with his mitre and crosier. He was 
Bishop of Auxerre, in France, A.D. 418 ; and was afterwards 
(A.D. 439), sent into Britain, by Pope Celestin, to suppress 
the Pelagian heresy. The neighbouring parish of St. 
Germans, which was once a bishop's see, derived its name 
from him. Below is a female figure as in the preceding, 
praying, " Saint Germain, pray for me." 

3. St. John the Evangelist ; with the book of his gospel 
under his left arm, and his right hand pointing to it. 
Beneath, a male figure habited as a monk (probably the 
donor), praying at an altar, "Saint John, pray for me." 

4. St. Stephen, the first martyr ; holding in his right 
hand, on the skirt of his robe, a pile of stones (emblematic of 
his martyrdom,) to which the left is pointing. Beneath, a 



85 

male and female figure, kneeling at the altar, on which lies 
an open book ; inscription, " Saint Stephen, pray for us." 

Along the bottom of the whole runs this inscription, 
" Pray for the soul of John Callawy, who erected this 
window." 



No. 7. TUBBE AND CaLLAWY WiNDOW. 
(So called from the donors). 

As very little more remained of this window than the 
arms of Tubbe and Callawy, with the inscription beneath, it 
was thought best to appropriate it to the figures now occupy- 
ing it, which were taken from the chancel window. These, 
till cleaned by the skill of the artist, were almost obliterated 
by the corrosion of the glass ; whilst the evident difference 
between the lead work in the head of the window, and that in 
the compartments below, where these figures stood, proved 
that they must have been removed thither from some other 
place, and could never have formed an original part of the 
chancel window. The upper compartments of this window 
were also taken from another (the Martyn window. No. 12), 
to which they also were known to have been transposed from 
other parts of the church. In this way, the window has been 
filled up as follows : — 

Head. In the centre, a monkish conceit of the Holy 
Trinity, Father, Son, and Spirit (the last represented by the 
Dove) crowning the Virgin Mary as Queen of Heaven. On 
one side, St. Catherine, as known by her wheel and sword ; 
(see her story in the Borlase window, No. 11) on the other, 
St. Barbara, with a crown of thorns on her head, a palm 
branch in her right hand, and a book in her lap, with the 
tower in which she was confined in the background. 

The four beautiful figures in \.\\^body of the window are — 

1. St. Paul ; with a book, " The word of God," in one 
hand, and a long swordj emblematic of his martyrdom, in the 
other. The name, " Sanctus Paulus," beneath. 

2. St. Peter ; with the double keys, one of Gold, the 
other of Silver, in one hand ; and a book in the other. The 
name, "Sanctus Petrus," beneath. 

3. The Saviour ; holding in one hand a sceptre, and in 
the other an orb surmounted by a cross; representing the 
extension of his dominion and gospel over the whole world. 
The letters "^ Ij c" (being the old contraction of the words, 
Jesu) beneath. 

4. St. Neot, when old (in contrast to his figure in the 
Borlase window, No. u when young). He is here repre- 



36 

sented in his pilgrim's dress, with staff and beads : whilst 
the scallop shell in front of his hat denotes his visit to the 
Holy Sepulchre to have been paid. The name " Sanctus 
Neotus," beneath. This window was originally given by the 
families of Tubbe and Callawy, whose arms and memorial 
have been preserved, as follows : 

Below the figure of St. Paul, arms of Tubbe, viz. argent, 
a chevron sable between three gurnets (in Cornish idiom, 
7)ebbs,), hauriant, gules. Below St. Neot, the arms of Callawy, 
viz. sable a chevron between three daggers, or. The space 
between these coats of arms is occupied by an elegant scroll 
with the following inscription : "At the cost of John Tubbe, 
and John Callawy, who erected this window,"^ 



No. 8. Chancel Window. 



The original design of this window is said to have been 
the institution of the Lord's Supper ; but it was so much 
corroded, as well as mutilated, that no trace of any regular 
subject remained, and not even the beautiful specimens of the 
figures discovered by the artist, and now transferred to the 
adjoining north-east window. No. 7 were visible. In re- 
storing this appropriate subject, recourse has been had to a 
coloured wood print, one of a very curious collection preserved 
in the British Museum, executed in the fifteenth century, and 
said to have been the first illustration of the Bible extant. The 
character of this print was considered to accord with the 
general style of the windows better than the representations of 
the same subject given by the great masters. It exhibits our 
Saviour immediately facing the spectator, with the apostles 
seated around the table, at the paschal supper (a Iamb whole), 
in the following order, reckoning from his right hand : i, 
Simon Peter ; 2, Philip ; 3, James the Less, the son of 
Alpha^us ; 4, Judas Iscariot, who is represented as grasping 
the sop (John xiii. 26) in his right hand, behind his back; 
5, Matthew ; 6, Simon Zelotes, or the Canaanite ; 7, Bartholo- 
mew ; 8, Lebbfeus, whose surname was Thaddaus or Jude, the 
brother of James the Less ; 9, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother ; 
10, Thomas ; 11, James, the elder, the son of Zebedee ; 12, 
John, the beloved disciple, and brother of James the elder, 
lying in our Lord's bosom. The upper compartments exhibit 
the original designs, as follows, beginning at the spectator's 
left hand : 

I. An angel, bearing a shield, with the arms of Valle- 
tort ; viz. or, three bends gules, a bordure sable bezantee. 

*Tubbe mHirietl the heiress of Callawy. 



37 

2. Mary, the wife of Cleophas or Alph^us, and mother 
of James the Less and Lebbseus. 

3. Mary Magdalene. 

4. The Virgin Mary. 

These are the three Marys related by St. John (chap. xix. 
25), to have been present at the crucifixion. 

5. An angel in the posture of worship, with the words 
'* Hail, Mary, full of grace." 

6. An angel, bearing a shield, with the arms of Luc- 
combe, viz. argent, a saltier sable, between four etoiles gules. 

Most of the windows appearing to have been originally 
presented by particular individuals, who in some instances 
commemorated the gift by placing their coats of arms on the 
glass, it seems not improbable that the families of Valletort 
and Luccombe may have been the joint donors of this ; but 
there remains no record of the fact. 



No. 9. The Creatiom Window. 

(So called from its subject.) 

This is the most elaborate of all the windows, and 
remained in a far better state of preservation than any of the 
others, requiring only the restoration of a few detached 
portions of the glass to render it complete. It has been 
admired as a rich specimen of the art in the age to which it 
belonged (A.D. 1200). The upper compartments, ten in 
number, are occupied by the nine different degrees of angelic 
powers, according to the monkish legends in the following 
order, beginning from the left hand above. 

I, Thrones. 2 and 3, Seraphim. 4, Cherubim. 5, 
Angels. 6, Dominions. 7, Virtues. 8, Powers. 9, 
Principalities. 10, Archangels. They are inscribed respec- 
tively, as follows: — i, Tronus, 2 and 3, Seraphim. 4, 
Cherubyn. 5, Angeli. 6, Dominatus. 7, Virtutes. 8, 
Potestates. 9, Principatus. 10, Archangeli. 

The body of the window, in fifteen compartments, 
represents the creation of the world by Christ, the Son or 
word of God ; together with some of the principal succeeding 
events till the time of Noah, in the following order : — 

1. Christ, with a pair of compasses in his hand, plan- 
ning the Creation ; inscription, " Here the Lord plans the 
world." — Gen. i. i, and Prov. viii. 27. 

2. The division of the waters from the dry land ; 
inscription, " Here the Lord makes the waters and the earth." 
(Gen. i. 9.). 



38 

3. The creation offish and fowl ; inscription, " Here the 
Lord makes the fish and fowl." — Gen. i. 20. 

4. The creation of man ; inscription, "Here the Lord 
makes Adam." — Genesis i. 27. 

5. The creation of woman ; inscription, '* Here the 
Lord makes Eve out of Adam." — Gen. ii. 22. 

6. The command to Adam respecting the forbidden 
fruit; inscription ''Here the Lord commanded Adam con- 
cerning the fruits of Paradise." — Gen. ii. 16, 17. 

7. Adam and Eve tempted by the serpent, (who is 
represented as twined round the tree, with a virgin's face,) eat- 
ing the forbidden fruit ; inscription, " Here Adam breaks the 
command of Christ." — Gen. iii. 6. 

8. The angel driving our first parents out of Paradise ; 
inscription, " Here the angel commanded Adam to go out of 
Paradise." — Gen. iii. 24. 

9. Adam and Eve at work, he with a spade, and she 
with a spindle and distaff; inscription, "Here Adam and 
Eve began to labour." 

10. The offerings of Cain and Abel ; the former stand- 
ing beside his sacrifice, the flame of which is bent downwards ; 
the latter kneeling beside his, the flame of which ascends ; 
inscription, "Here Abel and Cain offered sacrifices." — Gen. 

iv. 3» 4. 5- 

11. Cain slaying Abel with a jaw-bone; inscription, 
" Here Cain kills Abel."— Gen. iv. 8. 

12. God, the Father, from heaven passing sentence upon 
Cain ; inscription, " Behold the blood of thy brother !" — Gen. 
iv. 10. 

13. Lamech shooting Cain, his servant-boy standing at 
his side ; inscription, " Here Lamech shoots Cain with an 
arrow." This event is not mentioned in the Bible. The 
legend of the Jews says, that Lamech, going out to shoot wild 
beasts, and being very old and dim-sighted, is shewn Cain in 
a bush, by his servant-boy, who, from his hairy appearance, 
mistakes him for a beast, and persuades his master to shoot 
him. (Founded, probably, on Gen. iv. 23, 24). 

14. The death of Adam, with Seth placing three apple- 
pips in his mouth and nostrils : on the right is seen a tree, 
with a child lying in it. "Here Seth puts the three seeds 
under Adam's tongue." 

This subject, too, is derived from a Jewish legend, to the 
following effect : — When Adam was about to die, conscious 
of his many sins, he sent his sons Seth to Paradise, to seek 
the oil of mercy. Seth sees there the Tree of Life, with thein- 
fantjesus lying in it. From this tree an angel gathers an apple, 
out of which he takes three kernels, and giving them to Seth, 



bids him, as soon as Adam shall be dead, to put one beneath 
his tongue, and one into each of his nostrils. From these, he 
tells him, shall spring a tree which, when full grown, shall 
yield the oil of mercy in five thousand five hundred years' 

time. 

15. Adam's history being concluded, that of Noah here 
commences. This compartment shows us Christ command- 
ing Noah to build the ark. Inscription, " Make to thee an 
ark." — Gen. vi. 14. 



No. 10. The Noah Window. 

(So called from its subjects). 

The openings in the head of this window are filled with a 
new design (the old one being entirely lost), from a print of 
Albert Durer, born A.D. 147 1 ; representing in the centre, 
the Almighty seated on the rainbow, with the universe be- 
neath his feet, and on either side an angel in the posture of 
adoration. 

The body of the window retains its original subject, being 
an immediate continuation of the Bible history from the win- 
dow preceding. It represents the principal events in the life 
of Noah, in eight compartments, as follow. 

1. Noah, assisted by his sons, building the ark; with 
the inscription, " Here Noah makes the Ark." — Gen. vi. 22. 

2. Noah and one of his sons rolling a cask into the ark ; 
inscription, " Here Noah entered into the ark." — Gen. vii. 7. 

3. Noah in the ark, floating on the waters, sends out 
the raven and the dove; inscription, "Here he sent out the 
raven and the dove." — Gen. viii. 7,8. 

4. The dove returning, with the olive-leaf in her mouth ; 
inscription, " Here he sent forth the dove, which returned." — 

Gen. viii. 11. 

5. Noah and his family, together with the pairs of the 
brute creation, coming out of the ark; inscription, "Here 
Noah went forth from the ark." — Gen. viii. 18,19. 

6. Noah and his family offering their sacrifice of 
thanksgiving; inscription, "He ofl"ered a whole burnt- 
offering on the altar." — Gen. viii. 20. 

7. Ham looking upon the nakedness of his father Noah, 
whilst Shem and Japheth are approaching him backwards, 
with a garment upon their shoulders to cover him ; inscription, 
** Here Ham saw his father naked." — Gen. ix. 22,23. 

8. The death of Noah, his sons standing by ; inscription, 
" Here Noah is dead." — Gen. x. 29. 



40 

No. II. The Borlase Window. 

(So called from the donors). 

In the tracey lights here we have — 

1. The letters " .^ Ijc," being the contraction anciently 
used for the word "Jesus." 

2. The figure of an animal ; doubtful whether intended 
to represent the Agnus Dei, or the Borlase family-crest : most 
probably the latter, though it does not now agree with it. 

3. A contraction of the Virgin Mary's name, " Maria," 
in a monogram — an old monkish conceit. 

The body of the window contains the following subjects, 
in the separate compartments : — 

1. St. Christopher, with his staff, carrying the child 
Jesus across the river. A legend says that, being converted 
by a hermit, he was sent to reside on the bank of a dangerous 
river, that, being strong and of gigantic stature, he might 
carry over those who required to pass it. One day a little child 
presented itself, and desired to be carried across. The saint 
accordingly took him on his shoulders, and, with his staff, in 
his hand, entered the river. The child, however, grew so 
heavy, that by the time they got across, Christopher was 
nearly drowned : hereupon he said to him, "Thou hast put 
me in great peril, and weighest almost as I had had all 
the world upon me." The child replied, "Christopher 
marvel thou nothing ; for thou has not only borne all the 
world, but Him that created all things, upon thy shoulders. 
I am Jesus Christ, the King whom thou servest in this 
work." From this transaction, the saint's name, which before 
was Reprobus,was changed into Christopher, br Clirist-bearer^ 
and he grew into great renown. 

Beneath is a figure of Nicholas Borlase, praying ; with 
the words, " St. Christopher, pray for me." 

2. St. Neot, when young, as a Monk of Glastonbury. 
Beneath, Catherine Borlase, the wife of Nicholas, praying — 
"St. Neot, pray for me." 

3. St. Leonard ; as in the Harris window. No. 5, which 
see. Beneath, the sons of Nicholas and Catherine Borlase, 
praying — "St. Leonard pray for us." 

4. St. Catherine; a virgin convert of Alexandri.n, about 
A.D. 305. She was placed on a wheel, stuck round with iron 
spikes, and miraculously delivered by an angel ; she was 
afterwards beheaded. Hence she is always represented with 
such a wheel by her side, as well as with a sword. Beneath 
are the daughters of Nicholas and Catherine Borlase, praying 
— "St. Catherine, pray for us." Along the bottom of the 
window is this inscription—" Pjay for the souls of Catherine 



41 

Borlase, Nicholas Borlase, and John Vyvyan (he was the 
father of Catherine Borlase) who caused this window to be 
made." 

No. 12. The Martyn Window. 

(So called from the donors). 

In the upper compartments of this window we have, 

1. The letters "^Ijc" as in the preceding, encircled 
with the crown of thorns. 

2. The arms of Martyn ; viz. argent, a chevron gules, 
between three martins proper. 

3. An ancient passion flower, emblematic of our 
Saviour's sufferings on the cross. 

The body of the window contains, 

1. The Virgin, with the infant Jesus in her arms; 
beneath, figures of some of the Martyn family, praying, 
" Mother of God, be propitious." 

2. The crucifixion ; the head of the cross bearing a 
scroll with Pilate's superscription, " I. N.R.I." ( i.e. Jesus 
Nazm-eniis Rex JudcEorum — Jesits of Nazareth, King of the 
Jexvs.) On either side of the foot of the cross lie a skull and 
a shoulder bone, as emblems of mortality. Beneath, the 
donor, Martyn and his wife, praying, "Jesus, Son of God, 
have mercy on us." 

3. St. John the Evangelist ; " The disciple whom Jesus 
loved." Beneath, the sons of the donor, praying, "St. John, 
pray for us." 

4. St. Stephen ; as in the Callawy window. No. 6, which 
s ee. Beneath, daughters of the donor, praying, ' ' St. Stephen 
pray for us." 

Across the bottom, " Pray for the souls of Martyn 

and his sons, who caused this window to be made." 



No. 13. The Mutton Window. 

(So called from the donors). 

This is an extremely fine window. The head contains, 

1. The monogram of the word "Maria" as in the 
Borlase window. No. 11. 

2. A sheep or lamb ; uncertain, as in the Borlase 
window, whether intended to represent the Agnus Dei, or the 
armorial bearing of the Mutton family ; unity of design with 
the preceding window would make us rather infer the latter. 

2. The chalice, containing the consecrated wafer, 
marked with the letters " ^ Ij c " and the nails used in the 
crucifixion. 



42 

The body of this window is occupied by very fine 
figures of the four evangelists, each holding in his hand the 
book of his gospel surmounted by his peculiar emblem, in the 
following order : 

1. Mark, with a winged lion : inscription beneath, *'St. 
Mark, pray for us." 

2. Luke, with an ox or calf; inscription, "St. Luke, 
pray for us." 

3. Matthew, with a man; inscription, **St. Matthew, 
pray for us." 

4. John, with an eagle. (A palm branch in his right 
hand). Inscription. " St. John, pray for us." 

Above the head of each evangelist is given, in a 
beautiful scroll, the commencing sentence of his gospel, from 
the Latin vulgate, as follows : 

1. Mark. "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, as it is written in Isaiah the 
prophet." 

2. Luke. " There was in the days of Herod the king a 
certain priest, by name Zacharias." 

3. Matthew. "The book of the generation of Jesus 
Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham." 

4. John. "In the beginning was the word, and the 
word was with God, and the word was God." 

Beneath their feet, in a continued scroll of exquisite 
design and execution, supported by four hands coming out of 
the clouds, is the commencement of the noble hymn of 
Zacharias (Luke i. 68, 69) " Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, 
for he hath visited and redeemed his people, and hath raised 
up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant 
David," 

Across the bottom of the window is the inscription, 
" Pray for the soul of John Mutton, a benefactor of this 
church." 



No. 14. The Redemption Window. 

(So called from its subjects). 

The head of this window retains its original design, and 
represents in the centre, the Saviour, in the act of stepping 
out of his tomb, having the crown of thorns on his head, and 
the cross and banner in his left hand. On his right is St. 
John, with the chalice, and on his left St. Thomas with the 
lance. 

The main compartments here were formerly occupied by 
the legend of St. George, which has been removed, on 



43 

Whittaker's suggestion, to its present situation, No. i, and 
its place filled by four entirely new designs of the leading 
events in our Lord's history, subsequent to his death, in the 
following order : 

1. The taking down of the body from the cross. Joseph 
of Arimathea, with one of the disciples, taking the body 
down, and the three Marys receiving it. A plate with the 
crown of thorns in the lower corner. On a scroll above is 
the inscription, " The body taken down." 

2. The burial. Joseph, assisted by a soldier of the 
Roman guard, putting the body into a stone coffin ; one of 
the Marys applying a napkin to the wounded side, and the 
other two standing by, weeping. The crown of thorns is 
here also seen in the lower corner. The mouth of the cave in 
the background. On the scroll above, "The burial," 

3. The resurrection. Christ risen, standing on his 
tomb ; on the end of which is seen the seal yet unbroken. 
Three Roman soldiers, in different attitudes of terror, around. 
On the scroll, " The Resurrection." 

4. The ascension. The Saviour in the air, with his 
hands extended towards heaven ; beneath him, the group of 
his apostles (five are seen) in the act of adoration. Scroll, 
'* The Ascension." 



No. 15. The Acts' Window. 

(Tlie subjects being taken from the Acts of the Apostles). 

The tracery lights in the head here also remain as before, 
and represent the annunciation. In the centre is seen the 
Holy Ghost descending out of a cloud in the form of a dove ; 
on his left, the angel Gabriel, in a kneeling posture, with a 
sceptre in his right hand, and over his head a scroll, with his 
salutation to the Virgin, *' Hail thou that art highly favoured, 
the Lord is with thee," ; on the right, the Virgin Mary 
standing at an altar, on which lies an open book ; in a scroll 
above, her reply to the angel, " Behold the handmaid of the 
Lord, be it unto me according to thy word." 

The body of this window is occupied by four entirely new 
designs, taken from the Acts of the Apostles, as follows : 

1. The descent of the Holy Ghost on the disciples on 
the day of Pentecost. The assembled group represents the 
virgin mother and six of the apostles, with the cloven fiery 
tongues above their heads. On the label above is the inscrip- 
tion, " The descent of the Holy Ghost." 

2. The stoning of Stephen. The first martyr is here 
seen, kneeling and looking up to heaven, his meek counten- 



44 

ance strongly contrasting with the savage ones of his two 
executioners, who are hurUng great stones upon him. In the 
foreground is Saul keeping their clothes, whilst the city of 
Jerusalem is seen behind. Over their heads the Saviour 
appears above a cloud, holding in his left hand his cross, to 
which his right hand is directing the martyr's view ; whilst 
from Stephen's mouth issue the words, " Lord Jesus, receive 
my spirit." On the label above, " Stephen Stoned." 

3. The conversion of Saul. The Saviour appearing 
above a cloud, from which strong rays of light issue ; with the 
words on a scroll, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" 
Beneath is Saul, fallen from his startled horse, and lying on 
the ground with his eyes closed, uttering the words, " Lord, 
what wilt thou have me to do"? The group accompanying 
him consists of four Roman soldiers, armed, and bearing their 
standard with its well-known inscription, "S.P.Q.R." — the 
Roman senate and people. 

4. Paul pleading before Felix. We here see the Roman 
governor sitting on the seat of judgement, and the apostle, 
with his hands chained, pleading his cause before him. 
Standing by are two of the Roman guard, with spears in their 
hands ; whilst in the foreground is a figure, supposed to be 
St. Luke (the author of the Acts, and Paul's chosen com- 
panion), writing down the Apostle's defence. On the label 
above, which is supported by a hand issuing from a cloud, 
is the inscription, " Paul's defence before Felix." 



No. 16. The Armorial Window. 

Tradition relates this window to have been originally 
occupied by different armorial bearings. These, however, 
together with their remembrance, had entirely perished, with 
the exception of one coat of arms which remained in the 
upper tracery light, but of which the family was unknown. 
Under these circumstances, it was judged best to preserve the 
original design of the window as an armorial one, and (in 
the entire absence of all trace of its former subjects), to render 
it commemorative of the restoration of the whole. It has 
therefore been appropriated to the family arms of Grylls, the 
donor, together with those of some of the principal families 
connected with his at the respective periods marked by the 
dates attached to them. The window, thus completed anew, 
presents, both in design and execution, a splendid specimen 
of the modern art. 



45 

Center tracery light above ; arms of Grylls, or three bendlets 
enhanced gules ; surmounted by the crest, a porcupine argent. 
Motto beneatli, " Vires Agminis unus habet." On the dexter 
side ; a siiield, with the arms of Bere, an ancient family of the 
Barton ot Pengelley, in this parish, now represented by Mr. 
Grylls, who derives through it the advowson and other property 
in tiie parish ; argent, a bear rampant sable, muzzled or. On 
the sinister side, an escutcheon of fifteen quarterings, as taken from 
tlie walls of the withdrawing-room in the old family mansion of 
Court, in the parish of Lanreath. In the first, the coat of Grylls. 
2. Argent, a chevron sable between three gournets hauriant gules, 
for Tubbe. 3. Gules, a chevron vaire between three ducal 
coronets or, for Mayo. 4. Argent, a chevron between three 
griffins' heads erased, those in chief respectant, sable, for Scowene. 
5. Azure, fretty argent, a fess gules, for Cane. 6. Gules, on a 
bend wavy argent, three Cornish choughs sable, for Reed. 7. 
Azure, a bend ingrailed argent, cotised or, for Symons. 8. Or, a 
lion rampant holding in his paws a cross ingrailed gules, for 
Wootton, 9. Party per bend indented or and azure, two 
fleurs-de-lis counterchanged, for Heare. 10. Or, three piles in 
chief sable, for Landear. 11. Argent, on a saltire gules five owls 
proper, for Westlacke. 12. Sable, six escallops 3, 2 and i or, 
for Estcott. 13. Gules, two pallets or, on a chief argent three 
pallets, for Foynter. 14. Barry wavy of eight, argent and azure, 
on a chief gules, three barnacles or, for Symth. 15. Argent, a 
castle, between three battle-axes sable, for Hickes. 

In the head of each of the principal compartments of the 
window is seen an angel, holding on his breast a shield, to which 
the other shields in each compartment are respectively suspended. 
Their bearings are as follows : — ist compartment. The arms of 
Grylls, as above, bearing on an escutcheon of pretence the arms of 
Bere; on a scroll beneath, "Grylls and Bere, 1635." 2. Bere 
and Pengelly, party per pale ; on the dexter side, Bere, on the 
sinister, or, a chevron between three griffins passant gules, for 
Pengelley ; on the scroll beneath, " Bere and Pengelly," with the 
date, 1530, on the rose immediately below. 3. Bere and Bond, 
party per pale ; on the dexter side, Bere ; on the sinister, argent, 
on a chevron sable three bezants, for Bond ; on the scroll beneath, 
"Bere and Bond." 

Second compartment, i. Grylls, bearing the arms of Gerveys 
on an escutcheon of pretence ; argent, a chevron between three 
garbs, or wheat-sheaves, sable, for Gerveys ; on the scroll beneath, 
*' Grylls and Gerveys, 1671." 2. Gerveys and Trevanion, party 
per pale, on the dexter side, Gerveys ; on the sinister, argent, 
on a fesse azure, between two chevrons gules, three escallops or, 
for Trevanion ; on the scroll below, " Gerveys and Trevanion, 
1620." 3. Gerveys and diamond, party per pale, on the dexter 
side, Gerveys ; on the sinister, argent, a chevron between three 
fleurs-de-lis gules, for Chamond ; on the scroll, " Gerveys and 
Chamond, 1580." 



46 

Third compartment, i. Grylls, bearing- on an escutcheon of 
pretence the arms of Glynn ; argent, three salmon spears with the 
points downwards sable, for Glynn ; beneath, " Grylls and Glynn, 
1758." 2. Glynn and Pendarves, party per pale, on the dexter 
side, Glynn ; on the sinister, sable, a falcon rising between three 
mullets pierced or, for Pendarves ; beneath, " Glynn and Pen- 
darves, 1700." 3 Glynn and Polkinhorne, parly per pale, on the 
dexter side, Glynn ; on tlie sinister, argent, three bars sable, for 
Polkinhorne: beneath, "Glynn and Polkinhorne, 1662." 

Fourth compartment, i. An escutcheon, quarterly : in the 
first, Grylls ; in the second, Bere ; in the third, Gerveys ; fourth, 
Glynn ; on the scroll beneath, "Grylls." 2. Grylls and Rashleigh, 
party per pale, on the dexter side Grylls ; on the sinister, sable, a 
cross or, between a Cornish chough legged and beaked gules, and 
a text T in chief, and two crescents in base all argent, for Rash- 
leigh ; on the scroll beneath, "Grylls and Rashleigh, 1816." 3. 
Grylls and Hill, party per pale, on the dexter, quarterly — i. 
Grylls ; 2. Bere ; 3. Gerveys ; 4. Glynn. On the sinister, argent, 
a chevron between three water boujets sable, for Hill ; on the scroll 
beneath, "Grylls and Hill, 1783." These are the arms of the 
donor and his wife 

Along the bottom of the window runs the following inscription, 
commemorating the work of restoration : — " Omnes hujus ecclesiee 
fenestras, incuria et vetustate coUapsas, per annos 1826, 1827, 
1828, 1829, e re privata restauravit, redintegravit, ornavit, Ricardus 
Gerveys Grylls, Helstoniensis, olim ab 1792 ad 1820 hujus parochise 
vicarius, et adhuc patronus ; suo filio Henrico vicario ; praefecto 
operis Johanne Hedgeland, Londini ; pictore J. Nixon ; opifice B. 
Baillie." 



No. 17. The Belfry Window. 

In 1864 the singing gallery was taken away, and this 
window was placed in the belfry. It was made by Lucas 
Barrand, and along the centre is represented St. Peran, as 
Patron of Cornwall ; St. Nicholas, as Patron of Sailors ; St. 
Alban, as the Protomartyr of England ; St. George, Patron 
of Soldiers ; and St. Catherine, Patron of Spinsters. Above 
are representations of the Acts of Mercy, and below, subjects 
from the life of the saints above. At the bottom is the 
dedicating inscription with the names of the Rev. Henry 
Grylls, Mrs. Grylls, and their sons and daughters. 




47 




DOZMARE POOL. 

This lake or pool is about a mile in circumference, and 
lies about two miles to the right of the road between Bodmin 
and Launceston, or about five miles north-east of the Parish 
Church. The best way to visit the romantic spot is to ascend 
the hill below the Day Schools, passing Hill-town Farm and 
Tremadock, thence along a fairly good road to Gillhouse, at 
which vehicle can be left, and to proceed on foot over about a 
mile of open moorland. A popular legend attached to 
Dozmare Pool is as follows : — A person who had been a rich 
and powerful man, but very wicked, guilty of murder and 
other heinous crimes, lived near this place ; and that after his 
death his spirit haunted the neighbourhood, but was at length 
exorcised and laid to rest in Dozmare Pool. But having in his 
lifetime, in order to enjoy the good things of this world, 
disposed of his soul and body to the wicked one, his infernal 
majesty takes great pleasure in tormenting him, by imposing 
on him difficult tasks, such as spinning a rope with sand, 
dipping out the pool with a limpet shell, &c., and at times 
amuses himself with hunting him over the moors 
with his hell-hounds, at which time Tregeagle is heard to 
howl and roar in a most dreadful manner ; so that " roaring 
and howling like Tregeagle " is a common expression 
amongst the vulgar in Cornwall. 

The following tale of Tregeagle, or Dozmare Pool, is 
believed to have been written by John Penwarne, a Cornish 
poet. 



48 




TREGEAGLE. 



PARTE THE FIRST E. 



In Cornwaile's famed land, bye the poole on the nioore, 

Tregfeagle the vvickede did dwelle ; 
He once was a shepheide contented and poore ; 
But growing- ambj'tioiis, and wishing for more, 

Sad fortune the shepherde befelie. 

One nygfhte, all alotie, as he cross'd the wylde heathe 

To drive his scant flocke to the folde. 
All natin-e was stille, the wj'nds scarcely breathe 
O'er the moone silver'd hilies and the valleys beneath, 
As he cast his eye over the wolde. 

" Ah ! why shoulde I live bye harde labonre" — quothe he, 

" And be helde bye the riclie in disda)'ne ! 
" I wish " — quothe Tregeagle, — "for all that I see, 
"Oh then what a happye greate man I shoulde be ! 

"When lorde of extensive domaine. " 

Nowe scarce had he utter'd hys impious breath. 

When the wolves they hovvl'd wildlye and loude, 
The wyndes sadly sygiiing swept over the heathe, 
As natuie awoke from the styllness of deathe, 
And the moone hyd her head in a cloude. 

When suddaine he saw, midst the gloome of the nyghte, 

A figfure gygantick advance ; 
His hayre bristled up as he view'd the felle Spryte, 
Who seemed in form to be armed as a knyghte. 

And he wielded an ebonye lance. 

All blacke was the gfaunte steede on whych he dyd ryde ; 

A sable plume shadow'd his heade ; 
And blacke was his arinoure, wyth bloode all bedy'de ; 
And blacke was the bugle that hung- bye his syde. 

Which no mortale mig-hte hear without dreade. 

Two dogges fierce and felle, and whych never knew feare, 

Dyd run his fleete courser before ; 
Their forms weie all hydeous, and grislye their haire, 
And througii their lanke sydes their sharpe ribs dyd appeare, 

And their mouthes were stille dripping- wyth gore. 



49 

Then thus spake Tregfeag-le — " who arte thou Syr Knyghte ? 

" And vvlieie at this tynie dost thou wende ? 
"Ah, why dost thou wandei" alone tliro' the nj'ghte ? 
"And why dost thou liarrowe my soule wyth afFrighte ? 

" Or what dost tliy coming poitende ?" 

The Knyg-hte nothing- spake, but he leap'd wyth a bound 

From ofFe hys hyglie steede (with a frowne) 
And as he alitte on the trembUnge grounde, 
His armoure clank'd hollowe, a terrible sound, 

And at length thus he spake to the Clowne. 

"Say, what dydst thou wish for, thou treniblinge knave? 

" But thy wjshes are known imto mee ; 
" I give my consent then if thou arte my slave ; 
" Longft lite to enjoj^e too, thy wish thou shall have, 

•' And an hundrede years give I to thee. 

" I'll builde thee a castle soe fair and soe fyne, 

" Arounde it green forrests I'll reare, 
" And vassals and serving men too shall bee thyne ; 
" And thy halle, all wyth gold and wyth sylvere shall shyne, 

" And wytli Svr shall bee greeted th\'ne eare. 

"And when thj' longe terme shall bee passed awaye, 

"At thy lot wilt thou nevei' I'epine ? 
"And wilt thc)u be ready thy boone to repaye? 
" Speake boldlye Tregeagle ! pra}' what dost thoue saye ? 

"Shall thy soule and tlij' bodye bee mine?" 

"A bargaine ! a bargaine !" then said he aloude, 

" At mj' lot I will never repine : 
" I sweare to obseive it, I sweare bye the roode, 
" And am readye to seale and to sygne with my bloode : 

" Both my soule and m\' bodj-e are thyne." 

The Spiyte grinn'd soe horrid, and said — "that will bynde 
" Bothe thy soule and thy bodye my righte :" 

Then mounting his courser as fleete as the wynde ; 

And whilst his gr\-mme hell-houndes ran yelpinge behind, 
He was loste in the gloome of the nyghte. 

Oh, then his dreade bugle he w\Mided soe shrilie, 

Soe Jis all morlale ears to astounde : 
The vallies all trembled, and shooke was each hylle, 
The wolves ceased to howle, and with terror lay stylle, 

Whyle Tregeagle felle flat on tlie grounde. 

There in a deade sleepe all entranced he laye, 

Spelle bounde by the arte of the Spiyte ; 
Nor jiwake initii morne in her mantel of graye, 
With ruddy hands o[)en'd the portalles of day, 

And dispell'd the tiarke mysts of the nyghle. 

Then upsprangc Tregeagle, no longer a clowne, 

But cloathed in gorgeous attyre ; 
And |)roude wavinge forrests the hylls all did crowne, 
Whych erst was a bare and a barren bleake downe ; 

And much did Tregeagle admire. 

Where Dozmare Lake its daike writers did roll, 

A Castle now reared its heade, 
Wythe many a turrete soe stately and tall. 
And nianye a warden did walke on its walle, 

All splendidly cloaliied in rede. 



50 

And manye a vassale did hayle hym " Syr Knighte,' 

And doffing-e their caps, bowed lowe ; 
And miiche Syr Tregeagle was pleased wylhe the syghte, 
While inwardlye swellinge with pryde and delyghte, 

He into his castle did goe. 

Then pioudlye advauncinge he enter'd the halle, 

VVitli golde and with sylver bedyghte ; 
Fronie the loftye roofe many gaye banners did falle, 
And bryghte suites of armouie did hange on eache vvalle, 

Was ever soe gorgeous a sighte ! 

And there the gaye servynge men bowinge profounde, 

Obsequious did wait hys commande ; 
And manye faire damsels did stande hym arounde, 
Who modestlye bente their bryghte eyes to the ground ; 

Ah, who could such beautye W3'thstande ! 

The Mynstrel sweete musyck drewe fort he frome his lyre, 

Whych ravysh'd the soule wyth delyghte ; 
The Knyghte treads on aire, and his soule is on fyre, 
And muche he the skylle of the Harper admyres, 

For he sunge forlhe the prayse of the Knyghte. 

And manye a steede in his stables were seene, 

All fitted for chace or for warre ; 
With manye bolde Huntesmen, all cloathed in greene, 
At theire sydes hunge theire bugles of sylver so sheene, 

Whych range thro' the forrests a-farre. 

Nowe oft woulde the Kn3'ghte, on his courser soe faire, 

Follovve svvifte the fleete hoiindes and the home, 
To rouse the grynime wolfe from his secrete laire. 
Or pursue the iyghte bounds of the ti-eniblynge deere, 
As he brush'd the biighte dews of the morne. 

But tyme flew awaye, W3'th the wyndes winged speede, 

Tregeagle ne'er nolye'd its flyghte ; 
But he marked each day with some horrible deede. 
Some mansyon must burne, or some traveller bleede, 

Or hatefuUe that dye to his sighte. 

It chaunced one evenynge, as homewards he wendes, 

Deepe nuitter'd the hagg of the storme ; 
Eaithe trembles as boungynge the skyes she ascendes, 
The welkyn acrosse her blacke winges she extendes, 

And nature with darkness deformes. 

And nowe the bolde hunters theye stoode alle aghaste, 

Theire sloute heartes withe feare overaw'd ; 
The rede lyghtnings glaied, the rayne poured faste, 
And loude liowl'd the Demons that rode on the blaste, 
And Terrour the tempeste bestrode ! 

Whene svvifte from the woode, and all wylde with affryghte, 

A damsele advauncinge they spyed ; 
All whyte were her garments, her palfrye was whyte, 
Wyth sylver and golde, and wyth jeweles bedyghte. 

And a little page rode by her S3'de. 

" Oh, save me ! oh, save me ! Sir Knyghte," then she said, 

" Oh, let me thy succoure obtaine ! 
*' Ah, where from the storme shall I shelter my lieade? 
" My spiiits are sinking with horrour and dreade, 

" And my garments aie drenched with rayne. 



61 

" My poor little pag-e, too, with tei roure doth quake ! 

" Though ne'er little page was more bold " : — 
" Ah, Mistress deare, I vvoulde dye for your sake ! 
"It is not with feare that I shiver and shake, 

" But I shake with the wet and the colde. " 

"See you," sayd the Knj'ghte, " where my castle dothe reare, 

" Thyther hasten fayre ladye with me ; 
" And there we all scone will thy little page cheere ; 
" Bryghte damsels I've many, all modest and fayre, 

" Sweete ladye, to wait upon thee." 

" Now quickly they rode — and the drawebridge let downe. 

They into the castle repayre ; 
And cheerfulle the fyres now blaz'd in the halle, 
Tregeagle aloude for his damsels did calle. 

His damsels so lovelye and faire. 

Some wayte on the Lady, some kindlye are led 

To make the younge urchin theire care ; 
Wheie lovelye he sat wih his cheeks roseye rede, 
And lyke a wet rosebud he hunge downe his heade, 

Whyle they wrunge forthe the rayne from his hayre. 

" Nowe saye, little page," said a Damsel so milde, 

"And quicklye unto us declare, 
" Why thro' the darke forreste, so savage and wylde, 
" Thou rangest at nyghte, who arte yet but a chylde ? 

" And who is thye Lady soe faire ? " 

" Her father's Earl Cornwaile, — I weene that his name 

"Can never sounde straunge to youre eare ; 
" For large his possessyons, and wyde is hys fame, 
" And I am her page, and Roberto's mye name, 
" And they call her Goonhylda the Faire. 

" Thys mornynge from Dunevyd Castle* soe stronge, 

" We came forthe ere the sunn shew'd his face ; 
" For she loves, with her trayne, the greene foi^rests amonge 
" To rouse the fleete deere, and the vallies alonge 
" To pursue the keene joyes of the chase. 

" To-daye we left all oure companyons behynde, 

" And involv'd in the mj'sts of the hylle ; 
" To trace backe our steps we in vaine weie inclyn'd, 
"When the shoutes of the hunters we heartle in the wynde, 

" And the bugle blewe cheerlye and shrylle. 

" Then we hitherwarde sped, all deceyv'd by the sounde, 

" In hopes our companyons to fynde : 
" When the howlinge storme shooke the vaste forreste arounde, 
" Fromthe rayne wesoughtesheltere, butnone could befounde, 

" Till we met with youre mastere so kynde. " 

Then Goonhylda came forth, — like a beautiful flower, 

And all in fresh garments arrayed ; 
She seem'd a tall lyllye, refresh'd by a showere, 
Tregeagle he gaz'd, for ne'er till that houre, 

Had he seene such a beautiful Mayde. 

"Thanks, gentle Syr Knyghte, — said Goonhylda the faiie, 

Whyle modestye mantled her cheeke, 
" Your guests for the nyghte we must be, Syr, I feare, 
" Wliylst my father, a preye to sad griefe and despaire, 

" In vayne his Goonhylda will seeke. " 
* Launcestou Castle. 



52 

" I am proude of my sfiieste," Syr Tregeagle reply'd 

"And praye, faireste Ladj'e don't grieve ; 
" A messengere quick to youf fallier shall ryde, 
*' To tell hym no ille does his daughter betyde, 
"And his breaste froiiie its terroiire relieve." 

Whyle thus, with faire speeches soe courteous and kynde, 

Hyniselfe to tiie Maj'de he address'd ; 
To glooine antl to thoughtfuliiess seeiii'd much inclyn'd, 
And, if that the countenance speaketh the mynde, 

Darke deedes he revolv'd in his breaste. 



PARTE THE SECONDE, 



Whyle sweete slept Goonhylda, of beautye the pryde, 

The Earle was absorbed in grief; 
For no messengere fleete to his castle did ryde, 
To saye that no ill did his darlynge betyde, 

And to give his fonde bosome reliefe. 

All nyghte his lone chambete he pac'd to and fro ; 

As he lysten'd, no sound could he lieare, 
But the blaste which against his darke windows did blowe ; 
His aged bi^easte heaved with sorrowe and woe, 

Till he saw the greye morninge appeare. 

With his knyghts and esquyies, and servynge men all, 

Then foithe from his castle did ryde ; 
Midst the forreste soe wylde, on Goonhylda did call, 
Bui dyre forebodings his heart did appalle, 

When noughte but the echoes reply'd. 

At length to the plaine he emerg'd from the woode 

For a father, alas, what a s^'ghte ! 
There laye her fayie garments all drenched in bloode. 
Her palfr3'e all torn in the dat ke crimsone floode, 

By the rav'nous beastes of the nyghte. 

Soft-eyed Pitye descende o'er the heart-rending sighte ; 

Be widely extended thy veyle : 
For I weene it is past learned clerke to indyghte, 
Or the pen or the pencile to paint or to wrj'te, 

What a fond, tender father nuiste feele. 

And now let's retuine to that Iraytouie so vyle ; 

Darke piojects revolv'd in hys breaste, 
Whylst his heart was envelope! in fraude and in guyle, 
He borrowed kynde Hospytalytye's sm3'le, 

And thus he Goonhylda address'd : — 

" Fayr Mayden, than floweres the fa3'rest most fayre 

" Of demeanouie soe modeste and sweete ; 
" O, saye ! maye a Knyghte of possessj'ons soe rare, 
" Presume that both them and hj'mselfe to declare, 

" Dear Ladye, are caste at your feete. 

Wythe a blushe on her cheeke, tlien Goonhylda reply'd, 

" I ill shoulde your kindness requj'te, 
" Should I treateyou, Syr Knyghte, or withscorne, or with pryde, 
"Or the state ot m\' liearte should I stryve, Syr, to hyde • 

" I'm already betroth'd to a Knyghte. 



53 

" Now faire is the daye, and refulgfente (he morne, 

" And fayne would I haste to depaite ; 
" That no longer my fonde paitiale father may mourne, 
" And no longer in vaine waite Goonh3'lda's retourne, 

"Whose absence must wrynge his kynde heart." 

The Knyglite sni) I'd insydious, and bent his darke browe : 

" Faire Ladye, you cannot go lience ; 
"There are robbers abroade in the forreste, I trowe ; 
" Besydes, my sweete danisele, I boldlye avowe, 

" With youre presence I camiot dyspence." 

"Then am I a prys'ner?" Goonliylda replied 

(Indygnante beholdynge the Kniglite) 
" But soone shall the strength of thy castle be try'd ; 
"And thynkest thou longe from Earl Cornwaile to hyde 

"A daughtere, his pryde and delyg;hte ? " 

"Ah, vaine expectatione, fayre Ladye," he sayde, 

" Thy father hopes not th)' retourne ; 
" Alreadye he thynkes that ihj' bloode has been shed 
" Bye the beaste of the forresle, and thynkyng thee deade, 

" He is gone to his castle to mouine." 

Nowe little Roberto, tho' few were his yeares, 

Yet cunnyng and shrewde was the bo)'e ; 
Where he sat in a corner, tin's speeche overheares, 
And faythfuUe as swyfte to the stable repayres, 

And seyzes his courser with joye. 

From the castle he steals, and the forreste he g-aynes, 

Resolv d (o averte her sad fate : 
Nowe spuriing, and g'iving his fieete horse the reynes, 
Ere the soft tears of evenyng- had spangled the plaines, 

Blewe his home at Dunevy'ds higfh g'ate. 

"Oh, hasten. Earl Cornwaille! oh, hasten !" he cry'd, 

" Thy peerless Goonhylda's in thralle ; 
" Bye a recreante Knyghte is thy powere defy'd ! 
" Bye force Sj-r Tregeagle would make her his bryde ! 

"And he keepes her within his stronge walle ! " 

" For thy newes, little Robert, oh, faire thee befalle, 

"Tho' bitter and sweete, little page ; 
«"Mye Goonhylda, then lives ! though a traytor enthralles, 
'But soone will I thundere arounde his strongf walles, 

" The catyfTe I burne to engag;e ! " 

Then he drewe forthe his horsemen, so valj'aunte and bolde ; 

" And gyve me mj'e armoure," he said, 
" My frame can sustayne it, tiio' W3'iher'd and olde, 
"And my hande in its gras|)e stille the faulchyon can holde, 

" When a daughtere's cause calls for its aide. 

" To horse, litlle Robert ! to horse agjiin flye ! 

" Tho' tyr'd thou surely must be ; 
" But I knowe for thy Mystress thoud'st readylye dye, 
"And for thy rewarde I'll make thee bye and bye, 

"A Squire of highest degree." 

Nowe, through the daik nygfhte, ovei- forreste and moore, 

" Theye bye tlieire fleete conrseis are borne ; 
Whyle little Roberto lotic bljihesome before. 
And ere the grey morne peep'd the easterne hills o'er, 
At Tregeagle's gate sounded his home. 



54 

All is sylente wythin, and the stillness of deathe 

The daike frowninge towers sunoundes ; 
When theyhearde, and each lysteningf suspended his breathe, 
They heaide the shryll blaste, from the far dystannte heathe, 

Which the eares of all inortales confoundes. 

They hearde the Black Hunter 1 and dreade shook each mynde; 

Heartes saiike that had never known feare : 
They hearde the Black Hunter's dread voyce in the wynde ! 
They hearde his curste hell-houndes runn yelping behynde ! 

And his steede thundered loude on the eare! 

And nowe he appear'd thro' the gloome of the nyghte ; 

His plume seem'd a cloude in the skyes ; 
His forme the darke mists of the hilles to the syghte, 
And as from a furnace shootes forthe the rede lyghte, 

Soe glared the fierce beams of his eyes ! 

He blewe from his bugle so dreadful a blaste, 

His dogges howlyng hydeous the whyle. 
That all Nature trembled, and shooke as aghaste ! 
And from the hygh walles the huge battlements braste ! 

Felle downe from the tottering pyle. 

" Come forthe, Syr Tregeagle ! " in thundere he cryed, 

" Come forthe, and submit to thy fate ! 
" Thy time is expired ! to me thou art tyde ! 
" Wythin thy dark castle in vayne thou would'st hyde : 

" Come forthe ! for here endeth thy date I " 

Then forthe came Tregeagle, all palsyed with feare, 
And fayne woulde more favoure have founde I 

But loude roar'd the thundere, and swift through the ayre ; 

The rede bolte ot vengeance shot forthe with a glare, 
And stroke him a corpse to the ground ! 

Then from the blacke corpse a pale spectre appear'd. 

And hied him awaye through the night ; 
Whene quicklye the yelpes of the hell-houndes are hearde. 
And to the pursuite bye the bugle are clieer'd, 

Whyle behynde thunderes after the Spryte. 

And now ruddye morneyng agayne gilds the skyes; 

The hellish enchantmente is o'er ; 
The forreste and castle no more meete their eyes ; 
But where from greene woodes its brj'ghte turrets did rise, 

Now spreades the darke poole on the moore. 

And near its dreare margyn a Mayden was seene, 

Unhurted ! Goonhylda the Fayre ; 
Fore stylle guardian angels did keep her, I weene. 
And neare her gay palfrye, in trappings so sheene, 

Whych late torne bye wolves did appeare, 

Earle Cornwaile rejoycyng, now thanked that powere 

That did his Goonhylda restore ; 
And ofte his olde Mynstrel, at eve's sober lioure, 
Beneathe the darke walles of Dunevyd's greye towere, 

Sunge the tale of the poole on the moore. 

And stylle, as the trav'llere pursues his lone waye, 

In horroure, at nyghte o'er the waste. 
He hears Syr Tregeagle with shrieks rushe awaye, 
He heares the Blacke Hunter pursueing his preye 

And shrynkes at his bugle's dreade blaste. 



55 

Concerning the personal history of " Tregeagle " there 
are many stories in circulation. "Of these tales, one is that 
Tregeagle was the Steward to John, Earl Radnor, of Lanhyd- 
rock, to whom a debtor had paid a large sum of money, which 
Tregeagle had neglected to enter in his books. After his 
death the new Steward demanded the sum, of which payment 
was refused. A lawsuit was the immediate consequence ; but 
when the case was brought on at the assizes, the supposed 
debtor contrived to raise the spirit of Tregeagle and bring him 
into court. Being questioned concerning the affair in debate, 
Tregeagle admitted the payment, and the plaintiff, was non- 
suited. On returning from the bar, this singular witness was 
left behind in the court, the defendant being requested by some 
of the gentlemen of the long robe to take him away ; but he 
sternly replied that, as he had been at the pains of bringing 
the evidence, those who complained might take the trouble to 
remove him. 

To consign the spirit of Tregeagle to repose was now 
become an arduous task. Perpetual rest was deemed 
impossible ; but some work of extreme difficulty was thought 
necessary to furnish his spirit with employment. Dozmare 
Pool was at this time considered as unfathomable ; his task, 
therefore, was to lade it dry with a limpet shell having a hole 
in its bottom. However, on the rising of an easterly wind 
the wicked one was thought to pursue him three times round 
the pool, from which place he was always obliged to escape 
to Roach Rock, when, on putting his head into one of the 
chapel windows, he was safe. 

Having accomplished this arduous work, or obtained a 
release from it, Tregeagle was next ordered to the Northern 
Coast to make a truss of sand, and to bind it with ropes of 
the same materials, of his own making. This he, in part, 
accomplished ; but in attempting to bind his truss his rope 
always broke ; and in stormy weather his shrieks were heard 
mingled with the beating of the tempest and the roaring of the 
seas. From the Northern Shore he has been transported to 
the Southern, where he came metamorphosed into a gigantic 
spirit, and doomed to remove the sand from one cove to 
another, from which the sea was always sure to return to it. 
In one of these expeditions it is said, he either wilfully or 
accidently, dropped a sackful at the mouth of Loo Pool, which 
was then a harbour, in consequence of which the bar was 
immediately formed. In this place also his voice is said to 
have been heard in tiie howling of the storm, and in the 
various echoes which resound from the distant hills." 




The Chancel Screen in St. Neot Church, from a drawing by the Architect 
(Mr. Fellowes-Prynne), reproduced by kind permission of the proprietors of 
'•The Cornish Times." 



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