PARISH OF SAINT NEOT
LIFE OF SAINT NEOT,
TOGETHER WITH A
Description of the Parish Church
AND ITS WINDOWS,
AND THE BALLAD OF TREGEAGLE.
Compiled by William A. Axworthy.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED AT THE TORBAV PRINTING WORKS,
26, PALACE AVENUE,
Much valuable information contained in the following
pages has been taken from *' Michell's Parochial History"
(1833), and the description of the Church Windows is mainly
from the Rev. Henry Grylls' Handbook, published in 1854.
Many interesting details have also been gleaned from past
and present Vicars of St. Neot Parish.
HISTORY OF SAINT NEOT.
SAINT NEOT PARISH.
/^HE Parish of St. Neot, Cornwall, lies about seven-and-a-
^-^ half miles south-east from Bodmin, eight miles north-
east from Lostwithiel, and five miles north-west from Liskeard.
It contains about 12,739 acres, and is in the Hundred and
Deanery of West. It is bounded on the west by Warleggan
and Broadoak, on the south by St. Pinnock and Liskeard,
on the north by Alternun, and on the east by St. Cleer.
The population of the parish by the census taken in 1882,
was 1,196; in 1831 it was 1,424, and at the last census in
1901 it was 1020. Many centuries ago the parish had the
name of Guerryer Stoke ; in the ninth century it was named
Hamstoke ; from that period until the conquest it was called
Neotstoke, which was afterwards changed to St. Neot.
Mr. James Michell, in a " Parochial History" published
in 1833, says : — '* The bounds of the parish of St. Neots were
last viewed by the Vicar and Inhabitants, on the 12th day of
May, 1613. 'On the north side, the bounds of the said
parish beginneth from a tenement in Alternun, called
Dryworks, by the river Foye, which divided the said parish
of St. Neots from the several parishes of Alternun, St. Cleere,
Liskeard, St. Pinnock, and Braddock, until it come to a
place called Bedalder-foot, where the river of Bedalder falleth
into the river of Foye. From Bedalder-foot, the bound
leadeth by the said river of Bedalder, which divideth the said
parish of St. Neots from the parish of Warleggan, until it
come to the head-ware, in the river above Pontwer's Bridge ;
and from thence by a little lake, that falleth into the said
head-ware, until it come to the head of Dewey Moor : from
Dewey Moor-head, the bound leadeth to the marsh, which
divideth between the said parish of St. Neots, and the parish
of Temple, until it come to Temple Causeway : from Temple
Causeway, the bound leadeth by the way to Peverell's Cross,
otherwise Shorter Cross : and from that cross, unto a place
called Leathern Bridge: and from thence, bounding in several
places in the moor, called by the names of Stannum Hill and
Stannum Ball, it leadeth unto a place called Deephatches :
from thence the bound leadeth unto the said place in the river
of Foye, from whence the bounds and the limits first began.' "
By this sketch of the bounds of the parish, its western
extremity is at a place called Leathern Bridge, where the three
hundreds of West, Trigg, and Lesnewth, form a junction,
namely the parishes of St. Neot, Blisland, and Alternun ; the
spot still bears the same denomination, and in the remem-
brance of persons now living, the large stones on which the
bridge or causeway was anciently placed, were visible, it being
the only place of passing over a very dangerous marsh, in the
direct road from Dozmare Pool to Camelford. The accumu-
lations of soil and sand from the tin stream works above have
destroyed every vestige of the causeway, and the marsh is no
longer passable. By a reference to Martyn's large map of
Cornwall, taken from actual survey, the bounds of St. Neot
are correctly described, in the perambulation of 1613, and
Leathern Bridge is marked on this map as the place at which
the three hundreds alluded to meet.
In the north part of the parish there are immense moor-
lands, used in the summer months for depasturing cattle.
The east, west, and south parts of the parish are generally of
good quality, and well adapted for corn and pasturage.
Early historians state that in the ninth century the moors
were clothed in forest trees, and were then used by the Kings
of Cornwall as their principal hunting grounds. In the year
867 Alfred, in one of his hunting excursions, accidently heard
of the Church of St. Guerryer, at whose altar he became a
fortunate supplicant ; and Leland states that in his time
abundance of red deer haunted the woods upon the moors
near Dozmare Pool.
It is stated that the parish abounds with mineral, and a
considerable portion of the lower moorlands have been worked
by stream-tinners and large quantities of the purest tin have
been found. There has been handed down from generation
to generation a prediction of Saint Neot that a rich, green
lode would one day be discovered, which would prove the
source of immense wealth. No mines are at present working,
and many disused engine-houses, with their tall chimney-
stacks, may be seen in the neighbourhood. In the eastern
parts of the parish granite is found in abundance, but it is
thought to be too far from railway and seaport to be exported
at a profit. A slate quarry near the village produces roofing
and flooring slate.
In various parts of the parish may be found ancient moor-
stone crosses. A cross about ten feet high, of great antiquity,
ornamented with various scrolls, stands by the road-side on
the St. Neot Moors, between Bodmin and Launceston.
The village is situate on St. Neot's river (a branch of the
Fowey), which takes its rise at Dozmare Pool. It has been
stated that in the summer of 1826 the water flowing from the
pool was insufficient for the grist mills and a small mine near
the village. In order to increase the stream a deep cutting
was opened adjoining the lake, and roots of large trees were
found a few feet below the surface, which had evidently been
cut off with a saw.
Is about three miles from the Doublebois Railway Station,
and is picturesquely situated in a sheltered valley. In 1833,
besides the church and two inns, there were about sixty other
dwellings. Very little alteration has taken place, the number
of dwellings and inns being nearly the same, with a County
Council School and Wesleyan and Bible Christian Chapels
Cattle and pleasure fairs are held twice yearly, on the
first Tuesday in April and the first Tuesday in November.
In the 15th and i6th centuries a public market was held
in the Churchyard annually, and the parish account-book
contains several entries of sums received for " standings" in
the Churchyard on " Good Friday Market."
The remains of an ancient fortification are still to be seen
at Berry Down, a mile from the village. It had a triple wall
of granite and, no doubt, was of considerable importance in
remote ages. Its name was Berry Castle, and from its height
the North and South Seas are visible.
ANCIENT FAMILIES OF St. NEOT.
The following information relative to the Ancient Families
of St. Neot, and extracts from the parochial registers is
quoted from Mr. James Michell's Parochial History \ —
Sir John Anstis was born at St. Neots, in September, 1669. In
1702, after being' educated at Oxford, from whence he removed
to the Inner Temple, he represented the Borough of St.
Germans ; and in 1714 he was appointed Garter King" at Arms,
which he held until his death, March 4, 1744, when he was
interred in the family vault at Duloe. In addition to the works
which he published, which are known to all lovers of heraldry,
he left in manuscript a history of Launceston, a treatise on the
antiquities of Cornwall, and many other works and collections
now dispersed in different hands.
Bennett. This family resided at Lewarne, in the early part of the
17th century, and possessed several estates now alienated.
Bewes. This family resided at Lantewey for several generations,
and, in the 17th century, Thomas married Catherine, one of
the daughters of Sir John Anstis, to whose estates she became
co-heiress with her sister Mary, married to Henry Bennett, Esq.
Beer or Bere. This was a younger branch of the Beers of
Killigarth, and settled here in consequence of a marriage with
the heiress of Pengelly. William Beer, the last of this house,
died in 1610, and was buried near the altar, in the parish church.
He is represented on his monument in the act of prayer, and
behind him are his wife and two daughters in the same attitude.
It appears from the inscription that he was patron of the
church, and lord of the manor. Of his daughters, Grace was
married to Sir John Grylls of Lanreath, and her sister to Bellott,
of Bochym, and to tjiose families the property of the Beers
BoRLASE. It appears that a branch of tiiis family resided here in
the i6th century, and married the heiress of Vivian. The
second window from the east, in the soutii aisle of the church,
was put up in the early part ot that century, at the expense of
Borlase and Vivian : It is still denominated the Borlase
Erisey. Richard Erisey, a younger branch of the Eriseys, of
Erisey, in the parish of Grade, resided at Trevenna in 1683,
and left co-heiresses, of whom the eldest married Vyvyan.
Lampen. This family resided at Lampen for several generations,
and William Lampen was one of the twelve men of the parish
in 1610. In 1683 John Lampen conveyed the family estate, in
fee, to Lyne of St. Cleer, and removed, soon after that period,
to the neio^hbourhood of Plvmouth.
MoHUN. This family resided at Trevenna in the 15th and i6th
centuries, where they erected a spacious mansion. On the
pews in the church belonging- to Trevenna were carved the
arms of Mohun, Edward Duke of York, Horsey, Coode,
Trevanion, Courtnay, Montague, Lord Strange, and Treganyon.
. . . Sir Reginald Mohun resided at Trevenna in 161 1.
MiCHELL. This family resided at Trevegoe and Hamet, in the
15th, i6th, and lylh centuries ; and, in the year 1644, the
heiress of Robert Michell married Morshead of Penhergate,
ancestor of the Morsheads of Lavethan and Cartuther.
Morshead. Edward, the second son of Richard Morshead of
Penhergate, settled in this parish, and in the year 1644 married
the heiress of Robert Michell, by whom he inherited very
considerable estates. William, his son and heir, married Cole
of Cartuther, whose son and heir married Herrinsf of
... .. ^
Longstone ; William, his son and heir, married Charlotte,
only daughter of John Trieze of Levethan, and died at
Treverbyn, in St. Neots. Both himself and wife were interred
at the south-east end of the church, under plain monuments
Pomeroy, or Pomery. This family claims descent from a younger
branch of the Tregoney Pomeroys ; and by a marriage with
one of the descendants of Bellott, acquired very considerable
property in this parish. The heiress of Pomeroy married
White in the i8th century ; and the family property has
passed by sale to Grylls, Robins, and Glencross.
RuNDLE. This family has resided in St. Neot six generations, and
acquired several estates by purchase. James Rundle filled
the offices of twelve-man and churchwarden in the year 161 1.
The Registers of the parish commence and are perfect
from the year 1549.
The Vicarage is estimated at £6 13s. 4d. in taxation of
Pope Nicholas, in the year 1291. It is estimated at
£\T, 13s. 8d. in the valor of 26th of Henry the Eighth. It
stands at £,g is. o^d. in the King's books. The composition
to the Vicar, in lieu of tithe, is is. 6d. in the £, according to
actual rent and annual value.
The tithe sheaf of the manor of St. Neot-Barrat, pro-
ducing from £10 to £15 per year, is appropriated to the
repairs of the church ; as is also the annual rent of certain
lands called the Furse Parks and Parish Meadow.
The income of certain other lands, called the Dower-
Parks, or Parish Lands (adjoining Furse Parks), was for
many years applied to the support of a charity school for poor
children of the parish, until the School Board was established ;
since then the rent (about £1'-^ per year), has been distributed
to the deserving poor.
The purchase of the above lands was m.ade in the latter
part of the 17th century by the proceeds of a legacy of
10,000 lbs. weight of sugar, given to the poor of St. Neot by
John Staddon, of the Island of Barbadoes, formerly of this
parish ; and by several other charitable donations.
The following record is found in the twelve-men's book
of the parish muniments, in the handwriting of the late
John Anstis, Esq. (father of Sir John Anstis, Garter King at
Arms), who was then one of the said twelve-men.
4II1 of May, 1683. Whereas one, John Staddon, sometime of
this parish, divers years since went into the Barbadoes, and there
lived until tlie time of his death ; and dying- without issue, in and
by his last will and testament did give and bequeath to the poor ot
this parish ten thousand weight of sugar : and whereas the inhabi-
tants of the said parish did, by letter of attorney, about fourteen
years since, impower Mr. Francis Bond, then living- in the
Barbadoes, to receive the said legacy, and did desire him to
return the same in specie, or the value thereof, as he thought fit:
and although the said Mr. Bond promised to perform the same
accordingly, yet for the space of ten years last past, or upwards,
the said inhabitants never received one line from him, notwith-
standing they writ several letters to him : whereupon the said
inhabitants petitioned the Right Honourable John, Earl of Radnor,
Lord President of His Majesty's most honourable Privy Council,
to use his power in order to the getting an account from the said
Mr. Bond ; and His Lordship was pleased thereupon to write to
the said Mr. Bond, who within six months after sent a bill of
exchange, and ordered his brother-in-law, Mr. Turney, to pay to
the said inhabitants the sum of forty and five pounds, in part of
fifty pounds received by him, being the first and original value of
the said legacy, the other five pounds being deducted by him for
the charges in procuring the same : out of which said sum of forty
and five pounds, the said inhabitants have given a present of five
pounds to Mr. Joseph Tooker, servant to the Earl of Radnor, for
his care and pains therein ; and the forty pounds remaining was
this day paid unto the said inhabitants by Mr. John Cole, servant
to the Earl of Radnor, and was delivered over to John Hodge,
to be by him set out at interest, who is ordered to take bond
for the same in the name of Richard Erisey, Esquire, one of the
present overseers of the poor. All which the said inhabitants
have thought fit to record in this their parish book, in perpetual
memory of His Lordship's favour and kindness to them.
Thomas Philpe, Vicar,
John Anstis, John Cole,
Richard Erisey, Richard Ponieroy,
Nicholas Glynn, Roger Laundrye,
Emanuel Lampen, Richard Martyn.
MONASTERY OF ST. NEOT.
In the time of Edward the Confessor there was a
monastery here said to be founded in honour of St. Neot.
Borlase in his Antiq. Corntvall considers it was founded by
King Alfred the Great, whom it is supposed was a very near
relation to St. Neot. Asser in his life of Alfred tells us that
King Alfred, being ill, prostrated himself in the Church of
St. Guerir, and there performing his devotions with great
zeal, was surprisingly recovered. And St. Neot dying here
and being here interred, it is not unlikely that Alfred or his
son Edward might establish a religious house of Clerks (as
Spelman calls them), in grateful remembrance of Alfred's
recovery, and to do honour to the name of so near a relation.
On the 31st July a festival was held annually, but was
discontinued after the trme of Henry VIII. These feasts were
held in high esteem among the primitive Christians having
been instituted in memory of the dedication of the parochial
Churches. They were originally kept on that saint's day to
whose memory the Church was dedicated. Those feasts were
very much declaimed against, by people who did not dis-
tinguish between the institution and the disorderly observance
of them, and in 1627, the judges of the Assize sitting at
Exeter made an order to suppress all such feasts ; this was
also done in Somersetshire in 1631 ; but upon Bishop Laud's
interposition the order was reversed, and the Bishop of Bath
and Wells with 72 of his most able clergy certified that on
those feast days which generally fell on a Sunday, the
Churches were better frequented than any other Sunday of
the whole year, and that the Clergy did in most places observe
them for several estimable reasons, among them being that it
instituted a good time for composing differences by the
mediation and meeting of friends ; for the increase of love
and unity by these feasts of Chanty, and for the rehef and
comfort of the poor. In 1875 the Rev. E. Steele, the Vicar,
revived the Dedication Festival in St. Neot, and it is held
annually on the last Sunday in July and the first week in
August. Strictly speaking the Feast of the Patron (St. Neot)
is on the 31st day of July, and the Dedication Festival on
October 14th, the Church having been originally dedicated
on that date, in the year of our Lord, 132 1.
EXTRACT FROM THE PAROCHIAL
Parish of St.
A copy of such lands and goods as belong to
repairing and maintaning the parish Church, whereof
and wherewith the parish is now possessed ; and
also a note of the moneys as are given towards the
poor o( the said parish, to be employed for ever ;
taken the 6th of May, 161 3, and the copy is
delivered in at Exon.
Four bells in the church-house, well arrayed
and orderly, kept for ringing. One fair com-
munion cup of silver gilt, with a cover to the same ;
and one lesser communion cup, with a cover to the
same ; with all other such ornaments belonging to
the church, as are enjoined by the book of canons
A confirmed rate for the repairing and main-
taining of the church, a copy whereof remaineth in
the Registry of the Lord Bishop of Exon.
A parcel of Tithe Corn, accruing yearly out of
those several tenements and parcels of land,
commonly called, reputed, and known, by the
several names of "All the lands in Tybon's
Coombe, alias. Hill House." The meadows in
St. Neots, called "St. Neot Meadows," of late the
lands of John Tubb, Esquire, deceased. One close
of land adjoining the town of St. Neots, lying in
Woodcock Hill, called by the name of " Fursey
Park ;" lying above the way leading towards
Treverbyn, by estimation three acres, or there-
abouts. All the lands and tenements of John
Barrat, of St. Mabyn, Esquire, deceased, being
within the manor of St. Neot-Barrat ; saving and
excepting- three plots of land, whereof the one is
called the Middle Park, and the other two called
the Hole Parks ; being parcel of the tenement ot
John Laundry, of Tremaddock. All one tenement
called " Whiteburrows." All the lands which one
John Trubody, of Trengale, Gent., and the heirs of
John Derite, Gent., deceased, claimeth to hold in
the township, quillets, and fields of Tremaddock
aforesaid. All such lands as one Edward Ellery,
of Luxulion, Gent., deceased of late, and within the
said town of Tremaddock and Newton. All the
lands of John Beer, of Warleggon, Gent., deceased,
lying and being in Tremaddock aforesaid. All the
lands of John Coode, Gent., deceased, William
Watkins, of Foye, and others within the said town
of Tremaddock. All the lands and tenements in
Hamet, both higher and lower. One Meadow in
Tremaddock, aforesaid, being the Parish Land of
St. Neots, of late in the occupation of Edmund
Hatche, deceased, his assign or assigns. And one
other close of land, belonging to the Parish Church
of St. Neots aforesaid, next adjoining to Woodcock
Hill, of late in the tenure and occupation of John
Crapp, deceased, his assign or assigns. All which
tithes are let by the twelve-men of the said parish,
unto Joseph May, Clerk, his assign or assigns, for
the term of twenty and one years, under the yearly
rent of Four Pounds ; which rent, and the fines
thereof, are employed towards the repairing and
maintaining the said Parish Church.
One plot of land, called the Fursey Park, let
by the twelve-men of the parish, for twenty and
one years, unto Roger Young, his assign or
assigns, under the yearly rent of Eight Shillings,
containing by estimation three acres or thereabouts ;
and is bounded on the east by the lands of John
Samwell, Gent., on the south side by the highway ;
on the west and north by the lands of the heirs of
William Beer, Gent., deceased, And one other
close of land, in Tremaddock, containing by
estimation three quarters of an acre, or thereabout,
with the house and garden to the same, let in like
manner, under the yearly rent of Eight vShillings ;
bounded on the south and west with a lane ; and
on the north and east with the lands of John
Trubody, and John Vincent, Gents. ; which parcels
of land are confirmed by the exemplifications under
the exchequer seal, now in the custody of the said
Eight Pounds, given by the last will and
t^eVoof °' testament of George Marratt, of Blisland, deceased,
to be laid out for the use of the poor for ever ;
yielding in yearly, on Good Friday, Twenty Pence
for every Pound ; then to be distributed among the
poor of the said parish of St. Neots. And Twenty
Shillings, given in like manner, by Philip Crapp's
widow, of St. Pinnock, deceased, yielding in yearly
Two Shillings, to be distributed as aforesaid ; which
sums of money are employed according to the will
of the givers.
LIFE OF SAINT NEOT.
From*what can be gathered from MS. Lives of S. Neot,^
eight of which are still in existence, it is conjectured that he
was born of noble parentage, and brother to King Alfred.
"When quite a youth he took the monastic habit at
Glastonbury. He applied himself assiduously to his studies,
and became one of the greatest scholars of his age, and was
noted for his piety, humility, and devotion."
*' The bishop of the diocese was so taken with his saintly
deportment and conversation, that when the Saint was yet
very young he, by compulsion, ordained him, first, Deacon,
and soon after. Priest. Saint Neot dreaded the danger
of being drawn out of his beloved obscurity, which he
coveted above all earthly blessings ; being more desirous to
slide through the world without being taken so much notice
of by others, and without being distracted from applying his
mind to his only great affair in this life, than most men are,
to bustle and make parade on the theatre of the world. He
feared particularly the insinuatious poison of vanity, which
easily steals into the heart amidst applause, even without being
perceived. Therefore, with the leave of his Superior, he
retired into his solitude, in Cornwall, which was then called
Saint Guerryers, from a British Saint of that name ; but is
since called, from our holy anchoret, Neotstoke. In this
hermitage he emaciated his body by rigorous fasts, and
nourished his soul with heavenly contemplation ; in which he
received great favours of God, and was sometimes honoured
with the visits of angels. After seven years spent in this
retreat, he made a pilgrimage to Rome, but returned again to
* I. Brit. Museimi, an Anglo Saxon MS. of 12 pagfes on vellum.
2. Bodleian Library, Oxford, 26 pag-es on vellum.
3. Brit. Museum, 31 pages on vellum — Biography and Legendary Tales by
4. John de Tinmouth's Historia Aurea — An abstract of the Cottonian lite of
the Saint (1367), by John, a Monk of St. Albans.
5. John de Tinmouth's Sanctilogium. copy from the Historia Aurea, written
in the I4tli Century.
6. Lambeth Palace, in vellum, folio, with initial leitei's richly illuminated.
7. Bodleian Libi-ai-y, in folio, vellum, wiitten in 1377 for llie Monks of Bury
8. Magdalen College, Oxford — Vellum, 410., containing 673 lines.
the same cell. vSeveral persons of quality and virtue began to
resort to him, to beg- the assistance of his prayers and his
counsels ; and the reputation of his wisdom and experience,
in the path of an interior life, reached the ears of Alfred.
That great prince from some time, especially while he lay
concealed in vSomersetshire, to the death of the holy hermit,
frequently visited him, and doubtless, by his discourses,
received great light, and was inflamed with fresh ardour in
the practice of virtue. Saint Neot's counsels were also to him
of great use for regulating the government of 4iis king-
dom. Our Saint particularly recommended to him the
advancement of useful and sacred studies, and advised him to
repair the schools of the English founded at Rome, and to
establish others at home. Both which things this King most
Our historians agree, that the plan of persuing a general
study of all the sciences, and liberal arts was laid by this holy
anchoret ; and upon it Alfred is said to have founded the
University of Oxford. By his advice the King invited to his
Court Asserius, a Monk of Menevia or St. David's, in Wales ;
Grimbald, a Monk of St. Bertins ; and John the Saxon, from
Old Saxony, whom he nominated Abbotof the new Monastery
which he founded at Athelingay, in Somersetshire. Atford
Wood, and Camden, upon the authority of certain annals of
Worcestershire, made Saint Neot the first Professor of
Theology at Oxford ; but this seems not consistent with the
more ancient authentic accounts of those times : and Samt
Neot seems to have died about the time when that University
was founded. His death happened on the 31st of July, on
which day his principal festival was kept : his name was also
commemorated on the days of the translation of his relics.
His body was first buried in his own church, in Cornwall,
where certain disciples, to whom he had given the monastic
habit, had founded a little monastery. His relics, in the reign
of King Edgar, were removed by Count Ethelric and his
famous lady Ethelfleda, out of Cornwall into Huntingdon-
shire and deposited at Ernulfsbury, since called St. Neots,
where an Abbey was built by Count Afric, which bore his
name. When Osketel was the ninth Abbot ot Croyland, his
sister Lewina, to whom the manor of Ernulfsbury belonged,
caused these relics to be transferred to Croyland, but they were
afterwards brought back to the former church, which from that
time took the name of St. Neots. Many memorials of this
Saint were preserved at Glastonbury, with an iron grate (or
rather a step made of iron bars), upon which the holy man
used to stand at the altar, when he said mass, being of a very
ciLn RRinoK, ••c'Aui.vox AK^rs " inx. and schooi,.s.
ST. Ni;oi \ ii.i,\(;i.:.
From I'holograplts by F. Kitto and Sun, Foiviy.
low stature, as John of Glastonbury, and Malmesbury testify.
Asserius assures us that King Alfred experienced the power-
ful assistance of Saint Neot's intercession, when the saint had
quitted this mortal life. Being much troubled in his youth
with temptations of impurity, he earnestly begged of God that
he might be delivered from that dangerous enemy, and that
he might be afflicted with some constant painful distemper.
From that time he was freed from those alarming assaults,
but felt a very painful disorder. He sometimes poured forth
his prayers and sighs to God a long time together, at the
tomb of Saint Neot, formerly his faithful director, whose body
then remained in Cornwall, and found both comfort and relief
in his troubles. The corporal distemper here mentioned only
left him to be succeeded by violent cholics." (Butler).
It is believed that he died in the year 877, on the 31st of
July, in the monastery which he had erected, at the age of 67
years. He was buried with due honour in the church which
he had built upon the site of the more ancient chapel of St.
Guerryer, and after about 60 years had elapsed a larger church
was built, and his body removed to the north side of the altar.
About a century later the principal remains of St. Neot were
supposed to have been removed into Huntingdonshire ; but
several historians — notably, Leland, Asser, and Capgrave —
deny that they were removed, and that the only relics ever
boasted to have been possessed by the monks of Ernulphbury,
were *'the interior tunic of Saint Neot, made of hair, and a
comb, made in the form of the jaw of a river fish — the pike."
An Anglo Saxon Jewel, supposed to contain a miniature
of St. Neot, is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.
The following legends are told of the Saint : — " Neot was
so diminutive in his stature that he has been called another
Zacheus. He was accustomed therefore, when he chanted
mass, at Glastonbury, to stand on an iron stool, which was
long after preserved in that abbey as a relic. It happened, at
a certain day, that a person of high rank came to the abbey,
at noon, when the monks usually rested and locked their gates.
In vain did the stranger knock for admittance ; no person
heard the sound ; he therefore repeated the summons with
such violence as to awaken the Sacristan Neot, who was
officially reposing in the church. Hastening to the door
when scarcely roused from his slumbers, he missed his iron
stool, and was unable to reach the lock. At last, when in
great distress, the lock gradually decended to the level of his
monastic girdle. The legend adds, that the lock continued
long in this position as testimony of the truth of the miracle.
Near the site of the hermitage, to which the holy confessor
retired, was a pool,* in which there were three fishes ; of these
(the fabulous narrative affirms), the hermit had a divine per-
mission to take one, and only one, every day ; this condition
being observed he was assured that the supply should never be
diminished. It happened, however, that he was afflicted with
a severe indisposition, and was unable to take any sustenance.
His attendant, Barius with a studious regard to the delicacy of
his master's appetite, went to the pool and caught two fishes ;
having boiled one and broiled the other he hoped to induce
the hermit to eat. Neot was alarmed, and anxiously enquired
whence the two fishes came. Barius told his simple tale.
What has thou done, said the hermit? Lo ! the favour of
God deserts us : go instantly and restore these fishes to their
element. Whilst Barius was absent at the pool, Neot pros-
trated himself in earnest prayer, till his servant returned with
the intelligence that the fishes were disporting in the
water as usual. He went again to the well and took only one
fish, which the hermit had no sooner tasted than he was
restored to perfect health.
During the period of Neot's residence in Cornwall, as an
anchoret, he is said to have been accustomed to repeat the whole
psalter once each day, standing in a fountain of clear water,
near his hermitage. The celebrity of this beautiful spring has
been perpetuated by tradition. This crystal pool which was
probably the hermit's bath, is said to have been the scene of
more than one strange event. One of these is recorded in an
Anglo-Saxon homily, on Saint Neot. On a certain day the
saint retired to the sequested spring to chant his psalms; while
bathing in the pool, as his custom was, he heard many horse-
men riding through the wood ; the timid hermit fled, in
confusion, to his sylvan oratory, unwilling that any earthly
man should be acquainted with his devotions. In the haste of
his retreat he lost his shoe, in search of which (having first
concluded his orision), he dispatched his servant. On his way
to the spring, a crafty fox, who had run over hill and dale,
casting his eyes wildly about hither and the thither, suddenly
came to the spot where the holy man had been bathing his feet,
and took away the shoe. In order that the saint might not be
scandalized by so mean a thing, the fox was miraculously cast
into a deep sleep, and died, having the thongs of the shoe
in his vile mouth. The servant, having obtained the shoe,
returned to his master, by whom he was strictly enjoined not
to divulge the event till after his death.
*St. Neot's Well,
On a certain day, says his biographer, when Neot was
chanting his psalms, in the fountain, according to his custom,
a trembling doe, flying through the thickets of a neighbouring
forest, and bounding over the impassable underwood, fell
down at the feet of the saint, and by her anxious pantings
implored the aid which she could not ask by more intelligible
signs ; touched by her pitiful terror, the holy man determined
to afford her a refuge. The dogs followed in full chase, pant-
ing to tear her in pieces ; but when they saw her at the foot
of the saint, chey fled back to the wood as if they had been
wounded, whilst Neot dismissed the deer unhurt. The hunts-
man, astonished at the event, cast away his quiver,
implored the counsel of the holy hermit, by his advice
relinquished the world, and became a monk at the neighbour-
ing convent of Saint Petrock, at Bodmin. The very horn
which he wore (continues this writer), remains to this day a
witness of the fact, being hung up in the church.
In the next legendary story we are introduced to the con-
vent or college of priests, founded by Neot, when he quitted
his cell to sustain the office of an abbot. Some thieves came
by night and stole the oxen belonging to the farm of the
monastery ; on the following morning, when the holy
brethren wanted to use their ploughs, the bullocks were
missing. In this difficulty many stags, from the neighbour-
ing woodlands, tamely offered their necks to the yoke, and
patiently submitted to all the labour necessary for the tillage
of the farm ; when unyoked, in the evening, they resorted to
their favourite pastures, but voluntarily returned, each morn-
ing, to their accustomed work. The report of such a wonder-
ful event reached the ears of the thieves. With unfeigned
penitence they repaired to the abbot, confessed the robbery,
lamented their wickedness, assumed the vows and habit of the
convent, and consecrated the remainder of their lives to
devotional exercises. The oxen having been restored, the stags
were dismissed to their native woods ; but concerning them
(says the credulous biographer), we have a marvellous report,
that the whole progeny retain the signs of their having been
thus laboured ; there is a white ring, like a yoke, about their
necks, on that part which was pressed by the collar. " I
will not," adds the more cautious monk, who wrote the life
preserved in the Cottonian Library, "positively assert the
truth of this report, yet I dare not distrust the power of God
and deny it."
The saint (says his biographer) had a rich neighbour,
proud, and who oppressed the inhabitants of the parish by
compelling them to perform unreasonable services. The
vassals were once driving the lord's wains from his corn-
fields ; a furious hurricane arose, and blew with such violence
that men, oxen, and wains were forced back like an arrow from
a bow. As soon as the rich man heard of the storm, his
conscience suggested that it was an indication of the divine
anger at his oppressive conduct. He hastened to Neot, and
with the hope of obtaining pardon for his sins liberated all the
tenants of the church lands from future services.
ST. NEOT'S WELL.
The Well is situate about a quarter-of-mile west of the
Church, in Milltown Fields, and may be reached by a lane
close to the corner of the " Carlyon Arms " Inn. Very many
years ago there was an ancient arch of stone over the well,
with doors to the entrance. About the year 1762 a large and
spreading oak grew on the bank above. It was of fan-like
form, and had probably been allowed to grow unmolested for
centuries from, perhaps, religious motives. It was however,
cut down by a tenant of the estate for repairing purposes.
The well was restored, as it at present appears, by the late
Capt. Charles Gerveys Grylls, r.n., in 1852. A young oak
tree now flourishes above it. It is stated that St. Neot com-
municated to its waters gifts and powers, and children used to
be brought even so distant as Exeter to be bathed in the water
of the well on the three first mornings in May. The spring
supplies the village with an almost constant flow of water.
THE CROW POUND.
About a mile to the west of the village, close to a" directing-
post " on the top of the "Downs," low-banked hedges may
be seen enclosing about a quarter of an acre of land. This
(runs the legend) was the place where Saint Neot impounded
the crows. It appears that the Saint had remonstrated
with the farmers on their inattention to their religious duties,
especially with regard to attending Church on Sundays. They
excused themselves by stating that the crows committed such
depredations on their corn fields that it required continual
watching to drive away the feathered plunderers, and so pre-
vent their crops being spoilt. The Saint, having considered
the matter, directed all his parishioners duly to attend service,
and impounded all the crows every Sunday during the whole
time of service.
THE PARISH CHURCH.
The Church has something far more than a local or even a
county interest. Historically it is one of the most interesting-
Churches in England. St. Neot built a Church on the site of
the ancient chapel of St. Guerryer ; and about the year 884 it
was greatly enlarged. " In the reign of Henry the first the
advowson was given by William, Earl of Moreton, to the
priory of Montacute, in Somersetshire, to which the rectory
was appropriated. The present edifice appears to have been
erected in the time of Edward the fourth. The following
inscription, in rude characters, appears upon the roof, near the
west-end of the nave, "Anno. dn. mcccclxxx. hsec. dom.
edificata." It is a handsome building; the pinnacles of the
buttresses between the south windows are elegant, and
ascending considerably above the parapet of the roof, give the
exterior an airy appearance. At the west-end rises a neat
tower, with a peal of six bells ; it is built of white granite ;
the altitude to the summit of the pinnacles is 71 feet. The
extreme length of the church, from the door of the tower to
the east window, is 116 feet; the breadth is 55 feet. The
building is wholly of large masses of granite, excellently cut.
The interior consists of a nave and two side aisles : the south
aisle is separated from the nave by seven uniform pointed
arches ; the north aisle has six arches corresponding with
those opposed to them in the south aisle ; the seventh, or
most eastern, is an og(ie arch, upon a lower pitch, which was
probably cut out of a Saxon arch, having belonged to a more
ancient structure, and having formed the entrance to a chapel,
where the remains of Neot were deposited. The roof is a
semi-circular vault of oak ; it is ornamented with lozenges,
containing knots, flowers, and initial letters ; in the western
lozenge is the date 1593."
The patron Saint was held in great veneration during his
life, and his remains after death were greatly revered. Prob-
ably a small chapel existed during his lifetime, and that a
larger church was built as a memorial some fifty or sixty years
after his death. An ancient writer has said of him, "The
people daily increases which come to honour the saint,
so that the place cannot contain them, and then immediately
a resolution is taken to pull down the small church and speedily
build a new one. The work as resolved on is made large and
grows amazingly and is shortly finished, and the populace
comes bringing those donations in their hands which are
sufficient for the building. The church being finished and
enriched with various ornaments, the Saint is lifted out of the
earth with pious love and carried by hand above the altar, and
then accrues fresh honour to the Saint and fresh glory to God."
Another writer has said, *' When the sun has six times
measured the houses of the signs and the year has seven
times rolled around, the temple was rebuilt in a greater fabric,
being enlarged by some very religious persons. This was,
therefore, thought a reasonable opportunity to transfer the
body of the servant of God to another part of the same church.
It was accordingly, with watchings and prayers and fastings,
lifted up from thence, was stored up and deposited in a place
very proper on the northern side of the altar of the said
It is, therefore, more than probable that portions of the
walls and foundations of the church are of every early date,
but in the architectural portions of the present building there
is no work traceable to an earlier date than 14th century work,
of which the tower, and a porion of the east walls, and a
remnant of the noble tomb on the north side of the chancel,
are the only parts known to remain.
The following inscription may be seen over the Cenotaph
of St. Neot, in the north-east aisle of the church : —
Hie olim noti jacuere relicta Neoti,
Nunc prjBter cineres nil superesse vides ;
Tempus in hac fossa carne consunipsit et ossa :
Nomen perpetiium Sancte Neote tuiim.
Consuming time Neotus' flesh
And bones to dust translated ;
A sacred tomb this dust enclosed,
Which now is ruinated.
Though flesh and bones, and dust and tomb,
Thro' tract of time be rotten.
Yet Neot's fame lemains with us,
Which ne'er shall be forgotten ;
Whose father was a saxon King,
St. Dunstan was his teacher ;
In famous Oxford he was eke
The first professed pieacher.
That there in schools, by quaintest terms.
The sacred themes expounded ;
Which schools, by his advice, the good
King- Alfred well had founded ;
But in those days, the furious Danes
The Saxons' peace molested,
And Neot foiced was to leave
That place so much invested
With hostile spoils. Then Ainsbury
His place of refuge was ;
Within the shiie of Huntingdon,
Where since it came to pass.
That for his sake, the place from him
Doth take its common name.
The vulgar call it now St. Needs,
Their market town of fame ;
There Alfric built a monastery,
To Neot 'twas behested,
And Rosey, wife to the Erie of Clere
With means the same invested,
For maintenance in after times ;
Where long he did not stay.
But thence enforced by furious Danes,
He forward took his way
To Guerrirr's Stoke for his respose ;
This place so called of yore.
But now best know by Neot's name,
More famous than before.
For why ? A college heie of Clarks
He had, whose famed encreased.
When as his corpse was clad in clay,
And he from hence diceased.
Some say his bones were carried hence ;
St. Needs will have it so.
Which claims the grace of Neot's tomb ;
But hereto we say No !
Antto. Dom. 8g6.
The present nave and aisles were probably built about
1480, although the north aisle bears evidences of being of a
somewhat earlier date. The exterior view of the church from
the south-east, with its fine northern porch, traceried win-
dows, pinnacled buttresses, and cut granite-faced walls, is a
very striking one ; while the interior is also distinctly striking
because of its spaciousness. It is, in its form and construction,
similar to many Cornish churches, having a wide nave with
broad gabled aisles running parallel east and west. But the
great feature of the interior that will strike the most ordinary
observer is the stained glass in the windows. Every window
in the church is filled, and, with few exceptions, is of really
good old glass of different periods, each window being of
great beauty. The periods that have been assigned to the
different portions range from about 1250 to 1533, and the
finest windows in the church are undoubtedly the "Creation "
window, in the east-end of the south aisle, and the "St.
George's " window, at the west-end of the north aisle. After
these come the "Noah" window, in the south aisle, and
" St. Neot's " window, in the north aisle. The other windows
in the north and south aisles are "The Young Women's,"
"The Wives'," " The Harris," "The Callawy," " The Tubbe
and Callawy," "The Borlase," "The Martyn," "The
Mutton," "The Redemption." "The Acts," and the " Grylls
Arms " windows. The chancel window, of which we give
an illustration, is a representation of the Lord's Supper,
copied from a coloured print found in the British
Museum. There are few parish churches in England
possessing so many beautiful windows. The Church was
partially restored in 1884, at a cost of between ;^5oo and ^600,
and in addition to this the Rev. G. E. Hermon presented an
organ, which cost about ;^400. And in 1889 further interior
restoration was accomplished, from designs by Mr. G. H.
Fellowes Pyrnne, of London, at a cost, together with repairs
to the Bell Tower and Bell Machinery, of ;^i,ioo. The
double row of fine brass lamps hanging from the roof on
either side of the nave seems to carry the eye direct to the
altar which now being, as it were, canopied by a richly gilded
and coloured roof, and screened in by richly carved screens
of teak, etc., at once forms the centre of attraction. The vestry
certainly has the disadvantage of being altogether out of
keeping with the general character of the now beautifully
During the residence in the parish of the late
General Sir J. H. Lefroy, k.c.m.g., f.r.s., some very
interesting statistics were collected by him with reference to
the church and parish. For intance, the number of inter-
ments in the church between the years 1608 and 1708
amounted to 548. The greatest number in any one year was
14, viz., in 1644. The modern "Sanitary Authority " may
well stand aghast, says Sir Henry Lefroy, at such defiance of
sanitary laws. The vestry took alarm in 1677, and passed a
resolution that no person or persons do break the ground in
either of the three chancels unless such person or persons do
first pay down to the Churchwardens the sum of ten shillings
for each grave, and that no persons break the ground within
the body of the said Parish Church unless there be first paid
the sum of seven shillings for such grave.
The Parish Armour, or Church Armour, consisted of two
pairs of corslets, with their swords, daggers, and pikes, one
musquet in the vestry, and one pike in the keeping of John
Smith, the younger.
In the account of the destruction of vermin, the fox
catcher appears as a recognised personage, like the mole
catcher of the present day. The animals paid for were bad-
gers, pole cats, foxes, wild cats, rats (as many as 52 were paid
for in 1677J, kites, vultures, and once or twice an otter.
Judging from the provision of Sacred Elements, the large
sums paid for a provision of bread and wine for the Holy
Communion on Church Festivals, especially at Easter, are
very noticeable. Ten gallons of sack are mentioned in 1744,
and even concluding that the number of communicants was
very large, the quantity is so much in excess of what
would be consumed in any devout or decent Celebration, that
there can be no doubt that it was put to other purposes.
Conspicuous is the liberality of the inhabitants of this
remote Cornish parish to objects to which they were asked to
contribute, or which appealed to their compassion. Thus,
for example: — ;j^s ^3^- lod. was collected in 1665 for London,
in the time of the plague ; ;£2 los. for London after the fire ;
for the redemption of captives from Turkish slavery, ;^6 6s. 6d. ;
in [661, towards Ripon Church in Yorkshire, 4s 6d. ; for
Grantham in Lincoln, 8s 6d. ; for Bungay in Suffolk,
15s. 8d.; for Chagford in Devon, 8s. 2d.; for the sufferers by fire
in the Parish of S. George, Southwark, 7s. 6d. ; and many
others. The Vicar from 1660 to 1704, when zeal in alms-
giving was so very fervent, was the Rev. Thomas Philpe,
who probably was a man of exceptional liberality and
VICARS OF THE PAROCHIAL CHURCH OF
1. Martin de Huntingdon, presented by tlie Prior and Convent
of Montacute, October 26, 1266.
2. William de Tetton, presented by the Bishop of Exon, October
3. John Echym, presented by the Prior and Convent of Monta-
cute, December 10, 1318.
4. Roger de Helston, presented by tlie .same, May 26, 1329.
5. John Molyns, presented by the same, October 2, 1342.
6. Richard Guly, presented by the same, June 21, 1362.
7. William Guly, presented by the Bishop of Exon, March 23,
8. John Trengoff, presented by Edward the Third, December 17,
9. John Symon, presented by the Prior and Convent of Monta-
cnt«, F'ebruary 21, 1429.
10. John Pyy, presented by the same, September 4, 1440.
11. Thomas Davey, presented by the same, October 13, 1469.
12. William Pope, presented by the same, July 8, 1472.
13. John Wyppell, presented by the same.
14. Thomas Bodley, presented by the same, April 28, 1498.
15. Rog'er Savage, presented liy the same, October 10, 1499.
16. Robert Tubb, presented by the same, August 4, 1508.
17- Richard Bennett, presented by John Tregonwell, July 7, 1544.
18. Thomas John, presented by Edward the Sixth, December 9,
19. Walter Ringfwood, presented by Queen Elizabeth, December
20- Joseph May was ejected from the Vicarage.
21. Machin, was Incumbent in the Reign of Charles the
22. Thomas Philpe was Vicar in 1660.
23. Joseph Rowe, presented by John Rowe, March 8, 1707.
24. John Parsons, presented by Francis Sawle, September 8, 1730.
25. Samuel Thomas, presented by Stephen Thomas, March 15,
26. Richard Gerveys Grylls, on his own petition, April 5, 1793.
27. Henry Grylls, presented by R. G. Grylls, Clerk, January 1821.
28. F. P. J. Hendy, 1862.
29. Edward Steele, 1874.
30. G. E. Hermon, 1896.
31. W. R. S. Majendie, 1900.
The Churchyard was closed for burials in 1887, and a
small burial-ground near the river, the gift of Lieut.-Col. S.
M. Grylls, was then consecrated.
On the floor, in the south aisle of the church, is a plain
slate monument, with the following inscriptions, " Here lieth
the body of Richard Pomery, of Tremardock, buried the 5th
of February, 1744, aged 87." *' Mary his daughter, buried
19th day of March, 1734, aged 47, and Elizabeth his wife
buried 22nd June, 1760, aged 80."
On the floor of the north aisle is a stone, " In memory of
Thomas Pomery, of this parish. Gentleman, who departed
this life October the 21st, 1750, in the sixty-first year of his
" The soul is fled, and in this dusty urn
The Body rests until the Soul return
At resurrection-day ; and so we trust that then
The Soul and Body shall be joined again.
To be exalted unto bliss, and have
Eternal triumph over death and grave."
On the south of the altar is a slab of white marble, on
which the following is inscribed, "The last tribute of an
afflicted father to the memory of his dutiful and affectionate
child, Caroline Foot, who died May 3, 181 3, aged thirteen
" Here lies the sweetest bud of hope
That e'er to parents' wish was given ;
If you would see its happier state,
Repent, and seek the flower in heaven."
There is also an altar tomb of slate, bearing the effigies
of William Beer, his wife, and his two daughters, kneeling in
the act of prayer, with this inscription, —
*' Here lieth Beer, whom Ang^els to heaven beare,
Banisht thougfh earth, yet now made heaven's heire ;
Faithful he was to friends, faithful in law of man ;
Practic'd in lawe of God, it so heaven's heritage wonn.
Hence learne of the dead good deeds to imitate,
Hence learne of the dead gainst death this caveat.
Nothing more certain than is death to all
Nor more certain than death's hour of call.
Now whilst thou liv'st then learn to die to sin,
With Christ, through Christ, in grace to live begin ;
So when thou diest thy death no death shall be.
But passage unto life, the God of life to see. "
On the walls of the Church are a large number of mem-
morial tablets in marble, erected to the memory of members of
the Dangar family.
THE CHURCH WINDOWS.
The windows of colored glass were of very great interest
to antiquarians many years ago, and Whittaker assigned the
date of their completion to a period as early as a.d. 1199,
whilst Gorham and others give the earliest date at a.d. 1480.
The different style and execution of the work proved them to
have been the production of different periods, of which the
earliest may be taken probably about a.d. 1200 and the latest
about A.D. 1533. In the year 1825, the Rev. R. Gerveys
Grylls, of Helston, the patron of the living, conceived the
design of restoring the windows ; for many of them had
become through lapse of time, entire neglect, and perhaps
criminal spoliation, so badly mutiliated, that whilst one or two
remained tolerably perfect, the greater number were so much
defaced that their subjects could with difficulty be traced, and
some had been destroyed and replaced with plain glass. In
the w^ork of restoration the object has been to preserve and
replace all the old glass that could be rendered serviceable ;
to restore to every window its original design as far as could
be traced ; and in some cases where the former subjects were
entirely lost, to supply their place by such as appeared best to
accord with the whole. The style of the original work has
been adhered to throughout as closely as possible. The
Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, at his own expense, restored,
renewed, and ornamented the windows in the years 1826-1829;
his son, Henry, being the vicar ; John Hedgland, of London,
the designer and conductor of the work ; James Nixon, the
painter ; and B. Baillie, the glazier.
Following is appended a detailed description of the
windows : —
No. I. The St. George Window.
(At the west-end of the North Aisle).
This window has been removed from No. 14, where it
lately stood, on Whittaker's suggestion, who says it did not
originally belong there, but was taken from some other part
of the church — most probably its present situation. The
tracery lights in the head of it are entirely new. In the centre
of these is seen the medallion of the order of the Red Cross
Knights, representing St. George slaying the dragon ; whilst
on either side is his shield, bearing his well-known device of
the red cross.
The body of the window has been restored, as nearly as
possible, with the subjects which originally occupied it, being
some of the principal events in the fabulous history of
England's renowned saint, in twelve compartments, as
1. St. George fighting the Gauls ; with the inscription,
*" Here George fights against the Gauls."
2. The Gauls having made St. George prisoner, behead-
ing him at the shrine of the Virgin, who is seen with her
infant child in the corner; inscription, " Here the Gauls slay
3. The Virgin, attended by an angel, restoring him to
life; inscription, "Here the blessed Mary restores him to
life from the tomb.
4. The Virgin arming the saint with his helmet, whilst
one angel behind holds his sword and spurs, and a second
his spear and shield ; inscription, " Here the blessed Mary
5. St. George slaying the dragon ; the king and queen
of Egypt looking on from a tower, whilst their virgin
daughter is seen in the distance bound, and attended by her
little dog ; inscription, " Here he kills the dragon."
6. The saint guarded and bound, led before the king on
a charge of treason ; inscription, " Here he is taken and led
before the king."
7. St. George put to the torture, by two men v/ho are
tearing his flesh with iron rakes ; inscription, " Here his body
8. The saint, saddled and bridled, and on all fours,
ridden by the king's son, who is brandishing a knotted whip
over him, whilst one attendant is urging him on with the
point of his spear, and another with a club ; inscription,
" Here the emperor's son rides upon him."
g. The saint undergoing another species of torture ;
one executioner drawing him up to a gibbet by his hands tied
behind him, whilst another attaches a heavy stone to his feet :
the king looking on; inscription, "Here they suspend a
great stone to him."
10. Another torture. The saint thrown headlong into
a furnace of molten lead by an executioner, whilst a person,
♦The inscriptions on all the windows are in Latin, and we give the translations.
habited as a monk, stirs the fire beneath ; the king and
another looking on; inscription, "Here he is put into a
furnace with lead."
11. The fifth torture. St. George dragged by his feet,
by a wild horse, which is ridden by one individual, and led
by another ; inscription, "Here he is dragged by a wild
12. The termination of the saint's sufferings, by his
being beheaded in the king's presence ; with his confessor
shriving him ; inscription, " Here George is beheaded."
No. 2. St. Neot's Window.
We are here presented with the legendary and fabulous
history of St. Neot, in twelve designs, which have all been
restored as they originally stood, in the following order:
1. Neot resigning his crown to his younger brother, who
is kneeling to receive it ; whilst two attendants stand behind.
In the background of this and all the other compartments, is
seen his monastery. Immediately underneath runs the
label, " Here he delivered up the crown to his younger
2. Neot kneeling, taking the vows as monk. The abbot,
with the croiser in his hand, reading the vows to him, whilst
a monk is covering his head with a cowl. Another monk, in
a white dress, bears the holy oil ; inscription, " Here he is
completed a monk."
3. Neot, reading his psalter, as was is daily wont with
his feet immersed in his favourite well, rescues a doe from her
hunter, who, struck with awe at the miracle which has
preserved her from his dogs, is delivering up his horn to the
saint, and afterwards turns monk himself; inscription, " Here,
sitting in the well, rehearsing his psalter, he rescued the
4. Neot receiving instructions from an angel, respecting
three fishes which he shows him in his well. (These
instructions were, that so long as he took one, and only one,
of the fishes for his daily food, the supply should never be
diminished). Inscription, " Here, by the revelation of an
angel, he found three fishes in his well."
5. The saint, sick in his bed, ordering his servant Barius
to bring him one of the fish for his dinner, as usual ; inscrip-
tion, " Here he ordered a fish to be brought to him."
6. Barius, anxious to suit his master's taste, has here
taken two fishes from the well (which is seen behind with the
third fish in it), and is boiling one in a vessel, and broiling
the other on a gridiron ; inscription, " Here Barius broiled
one of the fish, and boiled another."
7. Barius bringing the two fishes on a dish to his
master in bed ; inscription, " Here Barius carried up the two
fishes in a dish."
8. Barius, sent back by the saint, in alarm at his having
transgressed the angel's instructions, throwing the two fish
again into the well, where they are immediately restored to
life ; inscription, " Here Barius carried back those two fishes
again into the well."
g. A thief driving away the saint's oxen from before
the monastery ; inscription, " Here his oxen were stolen."
10. A man and boy ploughing the ground with four
stags, which at the saint's prayers, came and offered them-
selves tamely to the yoke, in lieu of the stolen oxen ; inscrip-
tion, " Here the stags were yoked in place of the oxen."
11. One of the robbers (who were terrified by the report
of the foregoing miracle) bringing back the oxen to Neot, in
consequence of whose instructions out of the book he is
reading to him, the thief and his companions become monks,
and enter the convent; inscription, "Here the thieves,
touched with compunction, restored the oxen."
12. Neot kneeling to receive Pope Martin's blessing,
who wears the papal crown and robes, and holds the asper-
gillum, or holy water sprinkle, in his right hand, and his
staff surmounted by the triple cross, in the left; inscription,
" Here he received a blessing from the Pope, at Rome."
Along the bottom of the windo^v runs the following
inscription, indicative of its donors and date : — At the cost of
the young men of this parish of St. Neot, who erected this
window, A.D. 1528.
No. 3. The Young Women's Window.
(So called from tlie donors).
This and the three following windows were in an extremely
mutilated condition ; but, by comparing together the remnants
of the figures and broken inscriptions which were found in
them, they have all been enabled to be restored with their
original designs. The present window gives us the four
following figures, beginning from the spectator's left hand.
I. St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, decorated with
the pallium, or archiepiscopal stole, mitre, and crosier. He
died A.D. 465. Below is the inscription, "St. Patrick, pray
2. St. Clarus, or Clerus, an English saint, to whom the
neighbouring church of St. Cleer is dedicated. He is also
decorated with episcopal robes, mitre, and crosier. He died
A.D. 894. Inscription, "St. Clere, pray for us."
3. St. Mancus, an Irish saint, and Bishop of Cornwall ;
decorated as the foregoing. He was buried at the neigh-
bouring church of Lanreath. Inscription, "St. Mancus,
pray for us."
4. St. Brechan, a Welsh saint, and king in the fourth
century. He is robed and crowned, and in his mantle of
royal ermine, holds a group of heads (eleven in number),
intended to represent his own offspring, all of whom (twenty-
four in the whole) were said to be holy martyrs or confessors
in Devon and Cornwall. Those settled in Cornwall were —
I. John giving name to the church of St. Ives. 2. Endelient,
to that of Endellion. 3. Menfre, to St. Minver. 4. Tethe,
to St. Teath. 5. Maben, to St. Mabyn. 6. Merewenna,
to Marham Church. 7. Wenna, to St. Wenn. 8. Yse,
to St. Issey. 9. Morwenna, to Moorwinstow. 10. Cleder,
to St. Clether. 11. Keri, to Egloskerry. 12. Helie, to
Egloshayle. 13. Adwen, to Advent. 14. Lanent, to
Lelant. (This account is given by Leland, as cited by
William of Worcester, from the Cornish Calendar at Mount
St. Michael, in Cornwall). Inscription, "St. Brechan, with
all the saints, pray for us."
Beneath the whole are twenty female figures, five in each
compartment, in a kneeling posture, intended to represent
the donors of the window ; while below them runs the
inscription, "At the cost of the young women of the parish
of St. Neot, who erected this window. A.D. 1529.
No. 4. The Wives' Window.
(So called from the donors).
The original figures are restored here also, in the
1. St. Mabena, a female crowned, one of the daughters
of the foregoing King Brechan ; she bears a palm branch in
her right hand, and an open book in her left. The neigh-
bouring church of St. Mabyn is dedicated to her. Inscription:
" St. Mabena, pray for us."
2. The Virgin Mary seated, with her hands clasped in
grief over her dead son, who is laid across her lap.
Inscription : St. Mary, pray for us."
3. Our blessed Lord, risen from the grave, as shewn by
the five wounds, and the crown of thorns on his head. His
ENTRAN'CK TO THK CHrKCHVARP NI'.AR THK "LONDON INN.
left hand holds the cross and banner. Inscription: "Jesus,
Son of God, have mercy on us."
4. St. Mebered or Mewbred, a male figure, dressed in a
monkish robe, with a brass skull-cap on his head. In his left
hand is his staff, or walking-stick ; whilst his right hand
holds a head, to show that he underwent martyrdom by
decapitation. The adjoining church of Cardynham is
dedicated to this saint. Inscription : " Saint Mebered, pray
for us." Beneath are twenty female figures, disposed as in
the preceding window, representing the donors, with the
inscription under them : "At the cost of the wives of the
west side of this parish of St. Neot, who erected this glass
window, A.D. 1530.
No. 5. The Harris Window.
(So called from the donor).
This window, restored as the others, exhibits the following
1. St. John the Baptist. In his left hand he holds a
book, on which rests the Lamb with a cross ; whilst the right
hand is pointing to it, as though he would say, " Behold the
Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world "
(John i. 29). Beneath is a group of three figures, kneeling,
and praying, in the words of the inscription, "St. John
Baptist, pray for us."
2. The figure of a Pope, as distinguished by the triple
crown, and the double cross at the head of his staff. The
original inscription of this figure was entirely lost, but it was
supposed to represent Pope Gregory the Great, who sent the
Gospel into Britain by Augustine the monk, A.D. 596.
Beneath are a male and female figure praying, " St Gregory,
pray for us." Before them is a shield, with the Harris coat
of arms — sable, a broad arrow argent.
3. St. Leonard, with a bishop's mitre on his head, and
the crosier in his left hand, whilst his right hand holds a
book, and has a fetter suspended from the wrist. He was
Bishop of Limosin, in France, A.D. 500. Having obtained
of King Clodoveus a favour, that any prisoners whom he
visited should be set free, and having exercised his privilege
in behalf of those who were persecuted for the Gospel's sake,
he came to be looked upon as the guardian saint of all
prisoners, and is generally represented with a loose fetter in
his hand. The monkish legend, improving upon the story,
tell us, that if any one in prison called upon his name, his
fetters would immediately drop off, and the prison doors fly
open. Beneath is a single male figure, probably representing
the donor, kneeling at an altar, and praying, " Saint Leonard,
pray for me."
4. St. Andrew, leaning upon his cross, which he
embraces with his left hand, whilst the right holds an open
book. Beneath, a male and female figure kneeling at an
altar, and praying, " Saint Andrew, pray for us." Along
the bottom of the window is this inscription, *' At the gift
and cost of Ralph Harris, and by his workmanship this
window was made." Shewing the fact of his being the
painter, as well as donor, of the window.
No. 6. The Callawy Window.
(So called from the donor).
This window is also restored with its original designs, as
1. St. Callawy ; in a monkish dress, Avith a book in his
right hand, and a cross in his left. We find no record of this
saint ; but he was, in all probability, a canonized member of
the donor's family. In front of the pedestal on which he
stands is a shield with the Callawy arms — sable, a fess,
between three daggers, or; having, beneath, the date 1577,
in extremely small figures. Whether this date refers to the
time of the donation of the window, or was subsequently
transferred to it with the coat of arms from the family mansion
of the donor, is uncertain ; most probably the latter, as it
would otherwise refer the window to a much later period than
any of the others. Below is a female figure, kneeling in
prayer before an altar, with the inscription, "Saint Callawy,
pray for me."
2. St. Germain, with his mitre and crosier. He was
Bishop of Auxerre, in France, A.D. 418 ; and was afterwards
(A.D. 439), sent into Britain, by Pope Celestin, to suppress
the Pelagian heresy. The neighbouring parish of St.
Germans, which was once a bishop's see, derived its name
from him. Below is a female figure as in the preceding,
praying, " Saint Germain, pray for me."
3. St. John the Evangelist ; with the book of his gospel
under his left arm, and his right hand pointing to it.
Beneath, a male figure habited as a monk (probably the
donor), praying at an altar, "Saint John, pray for me."
4. St. Stephen, the first martyr ; holding in his right
hand, on the skirt of his robe, a pile of stones (emblematic of
his martyrdom,) to which the left is pointing. Beneath, a
male and female figure, kneeling at the altar, on which lies
an open book ; inscription, " Saint Stephen, pray for us."
Along the bottom of the whole runs this inscription,
" Pray for the soul of John Callawy, who erected this
No. 7. TUBBE AND CaLLAWY WiNDOW.
(So called from the donors).
As very little more remained of this window than the
arms of Tubbe and Callawy, with the inscription beneath, it
was thought best to appropriate it to the figures now occupy-
ing it, which were taken from the chancel window. These,
till cleaned by the skill of the artist, were almost obliterated
by the corrosion of the glass ; whilst the evident difference
between the lead work in the head of the window, and that in
the compartments below, where these figures stood, proved
that they must have been removed thither from some other
place, and could never have formed an original part of the
chancel window. The upper compartments of this window
were also taken from another (the Martyn window. No. 12),
to which they also were known to have been transposed from
other parts of the church. In this way, the window has been
filled up as follows : —
Head. In the centre, a monkish conceit of the Holy
Trinity, Father, Son, and Spirit (the last represented by the
Dove) crowning the Virgin Mary as Queen of Heaven. On
one side, St. Catherine, as known by her wheel and sword ;
(see her story in the Borlase window, No. 11) on the other,
St. Barbara, with a crown of thorns on her head, a palm
branch in her right hand, and a book in her lap, with the
tower in which she was confined in the background.
The four beautiful figures in \.\\^body of the window are —
1. St. Paul ; with a book, " The word of God," in one
hand, and a long swordj emblematic of his martyrdom, in the
other. The name, " Sanctus Paulus," beneath.
2. St. Peter ; with the double keys, one of Gold, the
other of Silver, in one hand ; and a book in the other. The
name, "Sanctus Petrus," beneath.
3. The Saviour ; holding in one hand a sceptre, and in
the other an orb surmounted by a cross; representing the
extension of his dominion and gospel over the whole world.
The letters "^ Ij c" (being the old contraction of the words,
4. St. Neot, when old (in contrast to his figure in the
Borlase window, No. u when young). He is here repre-
sented in his pilgrim's dress, with staff and beads : whilst
the scallop shell in front of his hat denotes his visit to the
Holy Sepulchre to have been paid. The name " Sanctus
Neotus," beneath. This window was originally given by the
families of Tubbe and Callawy, whose arms and memorial
have been preserved, as follows :
Below the figure of St. Paul, arms of Tubbe, viz. argent,
a chevron sable between three gurnets (in Cornish idiom,
7)ebbs,), hauriant, gules. Below St. Neot, the arms of Callawy,
viz. sable a chevron between three daggers, or. The space
between these coats of arms is occupied by an elegant scroll
with the following inscription : "At the cost of John Tubbe,
and John Callawy, who erected this window,"^
No. 8. Chancel Window.
The original design of this window is said to have been
the institution of the Lord's Supper ; but it was so much
corroded, as well as mutilated, that no trace of any regular
subject remained, and not even the beautiful specimens of the
figures discovered by the artist, and now transferred to the
adjoining north-east window. No. 7 were visible. In re-
storing this appropriate subject, recourse has been had to a
coloured wood print, one of a very curious collection preserved
in the British Museum, executed in the fifteenth century, and
said to have been the first illustration of the Bible extant. The
character of this print was considered to accord with the
general style of the windows better than the representations of
the same subject given by the great masters. It exhibits our
Saviour immediately facing the spectator, with the apostles
seated around the table, at the paschal supper (a Iamb whole),
in the following order, reckoning from his right hand : i,
Simon Peter ; 2, Philip ; 3, James the Less, the son of
Alpha^us ; 4, Judas Iscariot, who is represented as grasping
the sop (John xiii. 26) in his right hand, behind his back;
5, Matthew ; 6, Simon Zelotes, or the Canaanite ; 7, Bartholo-
mew ; 8, Lebbfeus, whose surname was Thaddaus or Jude, the
brother of James the Less ; 9, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother ;
10, Thomas ; 11, James, the elder, the son of Zebedee ; 12,
John, the beloved disciple, and brother of James the elder,
lying in our Lord's bosom. The upper compartments exhibit
the original designs, as follows, beginning at the spectator's
left hand :
I. An angel, bearing a shield, with the arms of Valle-
tort ; viz. or, three bends gules, a bordure sable bezantee.
*Tubbe mHirietl the heiress of Callawy.
2. Mary, the wife of Cleophas or Alph^us, and mother
of James the Less and Lebbseus.
3. Mary Magdalene.
4. The Virgin Mary.
These are the three Marys related by St. John (chap. xix.
25), to have been present at the crucifixion.
5. An angel in the posture of worship, with the words
'* Hail, Mary, full of grace."
6. An angel, bearing a shield, with the arms of Luc-
combe, viz. argent, a saltier sable, between four etoiles gules.
Most of the windows appearing to have been originally
presented by particular individuals, who in some instances
commemorated the gift by placing their coats of arms on the
glass, it seems not improbable that the families of Valletort
and Luccombe may have been the joint donors of this ; but
there remains no record of the fact.
No. 9. The Creatiom Window.
(So called from its subject.)
This is the most elaborate of all the windows, and
remained in a far better state of preservation than any of the
others, requiring only the restoration of a few detached
portions of the glass to render it complete. It has been
admired as a rich specimen of the art in the age to which it
belonged (A.D. 1200). The upper compartments, ten in
number, are occupied by the nine different degrees of angelic
powers, according to the monkish legends in the following
order, beginning from the left hand above.
I, Thrones. 2 and 3, Seraphim. 4, Cherubim. 5,
Angels. 6, Dominions. 7, Virtues. 8, Powers. 9,
Principalities. 10, Archangels. They are inscribed respec-
tively, as follows: — i, Tronus, 2 and 3, Seraphim. 4,
Cherubyn. 5, Angeli. 6, Dominatus. 7, Virtutes. 8,
Potestates. 9, Principatus. 10, Archangeli.
The body of the window, in fifteen compartments,
represents the creation of the world by Christ, the Son or
word of God ; together with some of the principal succeeding
events till the time of Noah, in the following order : —
1. Christ, with a pair of compasses in his hand, plan-
ning the Creation ; inscription, " Here the Lord plans the
world." — Gen. i. i, and Prov. viii. 27.
2. The division of the waters from the dry land ;
inscription, " Here the Lord makes the waters and the earth."
(Gen. i. 9.).
3. The creation offish and fowl ; inscription, " Here the
Lord makes the fish and fowl." — Gen. i. 20.
4. The creation of man ; inscription, "Here the Lord
makes Adam." — Genesis i. 27.
5. The creation of woman ; inscription, '* Here the
Lord makes Eve out of Adam." — Gen. ii. 22.
6. The command to Adam respecting the forbidden
fruit; inscription ''Here the Lord commanded Adam con-
cerning the fruits of Paradise." — Gen. ii. 16, 17.
7. Adam and Eve tempted by the serpent, (who is
represented as twined round the tree, with a virgin's face,) eat-
ing the forbidden fruit ; inscription, " Here Adam breaks the
command of Christ." — Gen. iii. 6.
8. The angel driving our first parents out of Paradise ;
inscription, " Here the angel commanded Adam to go out of
Paradise." — Gen. iii. 24.
9. Adam and Eve at work, he with a spade, and she
with a spindle and distaff; inscription, "Here Adam and
Eve began to labour."
10. The offerings of Cain and Abel ; the former stand-
ing beside his sacrifice, the flame of which is bent downwards ;
the latter kneeling beside his, the flame of which ascends ;
inscription, "Here Abel and Cain offered sacrifices." — Gen.
iv. 3» 4. 5-
11. Cain slaying Abel with a jaw-bone; inscription,
" Here Cain kills Abel."— Gen. iv. 8.
12. God, the Father, from heaven passing sentence upon
Cain ; inscription, " Behold the blood of thy brother !" — Gen.
13. Lamech shooting Cain, his servant-boy standing at
his side ; inscription, " Here Lamech shoots Cain with an
arrow." This event is not mentioned in the Bible. The
legend of the Jews says, that Lamech, going out to shoot wild
beasts, and being very old and dim-sighted, is shewn Cain in
a bush, by his servant-boy, who, from his hairy appearance,
mistakes him for a beast, and persuades his master to shoot
him. (Founded, probably, on Gen. iv. 23, 24).
14. The death of Adam, with Seth placing three apple-
pips in his mouth and nostrils : on the right is seen a tree,
with a child lying in it. "Here Seth puts the three seeds
under Adam's tongue."
This subject, too, is derived from a Jewish legend, to the
following effect : — When Adam was about to die, conscious
of his many sins, he sent his sons Seth to Paradise, to seek
the oil of mercy. Seth sees there the Tree of Life, with thein-
fantjesus lying in it. From this tree an angel gathers an apple,
out of which he takes three kernels, and giving them to Seth,
bids him, as soon as Adam shall be dead, to put one beneath
his tongue, and one into each of his nostrils. From these, he
tells him, shall spring a tree which, when full grown, shall
yield the oil of mercy in five thousand five hundred years'
15. Adam's history being concluded, that of Noah here
commences. This compartment shows us Christ command-
ing Noah to build the ark. Inscription, " Make to thee an
ark." — Gen. vi. 14.
No. 10. The Noah Window.
(So called from its subjects).
The openings in the head of this window are filled with a
new design (the old one being entirely lost), from a print of
Albert Durer, born A.D. 147 1 ; representing in the centre,
the Almighty seated on the rainbow, with the universe be-
neath his feet, and on either side an angel in the posture of
The body of the window retains its original subject, being
an immediate continuation of the Bible history from the win-
dow preceding. It represents the principal events in the life
of Noah, in eight compartments, as follow.
1. Noah, assisted by his sons, building the ark; with
the inscription, " Here Noah makes the Ark." — Gen. vi. 22.
2. Noah and one of his sons rolling a cask into the ark ;
inscription, " Here Noah entered into the ark." — Gen. vii. 7.
3. Noah in the ark, floating on the waters, sends out
the raven and the dove; inscription, "Here he sent out the
raven and the dove." — Gen. viii. 7,8.
4. The dove returning, with the olive-leaf in her mouth ;
inscription, " Here he sent forth the dove, which returned." —
Gen. viii. 11.
5. Noah and his family, together with the pairs of the
brute creation, coming out of the ark; inscription, "Here
Noah went forth from the ark." — Gen. viii. 18,19.
6. Noah and his family offering their sacrifice of
thanksgiving; inscription, "He ofl"ered a whole burnt-
offering on the altar." — Gen. viii. 20.
7. Ham looking upon the nakedness of his father Noah,
whilst Shem and Japheth are approaching him backwards,
with a garment upon their shoulders to cover him ; inscription,
** Here Ham saw his father naked." — Gen. ix. 22,23.
8. The death of Noah, his sons standing by ; inscription,
" Here Noah is dead." — Gen. x. 29.
No. II. The Borlase Window.
(So called from the donors).
In the tracey lights here we have —
1. The letters " .^ Ijc," being the contraction anciently
used for the word "Jesus."
2. The figure of an animal ; doubtful whether intended
to represent the Agnus Dei, or the Borlase family-crest : most
probably the latter, though it does not now agree with it.
3. A contraction of the Virgin Mary's name, " Maria,"
in a monogram — an old monkish conceit.
The body of the window contains the following subjects,
in the separate compartments : —
1. St. Christopher, with his staff, carrying the child
Jesus across the river. A legend says that, being converted
by a hermit, he was sent to reside on the bank of a dangerous
river, that, being strong and of gigantic stature, he might
carry over those who required to pass it. One day a little child
presented itself, and desired to be carried across. The saint
accordingly took him on his shoulders, and, with his staff, in
his hand, entered the river. The child, however, grew so
heavy, that by the time they got across, Christopher was
nearly drowned : hereupon he said to him, "Thou hast put
me in great peril, and weighest almost as I had had all
the world upon me." The child replied, "Christopher
marvel thou nothing ; for thou has not only borne all the
world, but Him that created all things, upon thy shoulders.
I am Jesus Christ, the King whom thou servest in this
work." From this transaction, the saint's name, which before
was Reprobus,was changed into Christopher, br Clirist-bearer^
and he grew into great renown.
Beneath is a figure of Nicholas Borlase, praying ; with
the words, " St. Christopher, pray for me."
2. St. Neot, when young, as a Monk of Glastonbury.
Beneath, Catherine Borlase, the wife of Nicholas, praying —
"St. Neot, pray for me."
3. St. Leonard ; as in the Harris window. No. 5, which
see. Beneath, the sons of Nicholas and Catherine Borlase,
praying — "St. Leonard pray for us."
4. St. Catherine; a virgin convert of Alexandri.n, about
A.D. 305. She was placed on a wheel, stuck round with iron
spikes, and miraculously delivered by an angel ; she was
afterwards beheaded. Hence she is always represented with
such a wheel by her side, as well as with a sword. Beneath
are the daughters of Nicholas and Catherine Borlase, praying
— "St. Catherine, pray for us." Along the bottom of the
window is this inscription—" Pjay for the souls of Catherine
Borlase, Nicholas Borlase, and John Vyvyan (he was the
father of Catherine Borlase) who caused this window to be
No. 12. The Martyn Window.
(So called from the donors).
In the upper compartments of this window we have,
1. The letters "^Ijc" as in the preceding, encircled
with the crown of thorns.
2. The arms of Martyn ; viz. argent, a chevron gules,
between three martins proper.
3. An ancient passion flower, emblematic of our
Saviour's sufferings on the cross.
The body of the window contains,
1. The Virgin, with the infant Jesus in her arms;
beneath, figures of some of the Martyn family, praying,
" Mother of God, be propitious."
2. The crucifixion ; the head of the cross bearing a
scroll with Pilate's superscription, " I. N.R.I." ( i.e. Jesus
Nazm-eniis Rex JudcEorum — Jesits of Nazareth, King of the
Jexvs.) On either side of the foot of the cross lie a skull and
a shoulder bone, as emblems of mortality. Beneath, the
donor, Martyn and his wife, praying, "Jesus, Son of God,
have mercy on us."
3. St. John the Evangelist ; " The disciple whom Jesus
loved." Beneath, the sons of the donor, praying, "St. John,
pray for us."
4. St. Stephen ; as in the Callawy window. No. 6, which
s ee. Beneath, daughters of the donor, praying, ' ' St. Stephen
pray for us."
Across the bottom, " Pray for the souls of Martyn
and his sons, who caused this window to be made."
No. 13. The Mutton Window.
(So called from the donors).
This is an extremely fine window. The head contains,
1. The monogram of the word "Maria" as in the
Borlase window. No. 11.
2. A sheep or lamb ; uncertain, as in the Borlase
window, whether intended to represent the Agnus Dei, or the
armorial bearing of the Mutton family ; unity of design with
the preceding window would make us rather infer the latter.
2. The chalice, containing the consecrated wafer,
marked with the letters " ^ Ij c " and the nails used in the
The body of this window is occupied by very fine
figures of the four evangelists, each holding in his hand the
book of his gospel surmounted by his peculiar emblem, in the
following order :
1. Mark, with a winged lion : inscription beneath, *'St.
Mark, pray for us."
2. Luke, with an ox or calf; inscription, "St. Luke,
pray for us."
3. Matthew, with a man; inscription, **St. Matthew,
pray for us."
4. John, with an eagle. (A palm branch in his right
hand). Inscription. " St. John, pray for us."
Above the head of each evangelist is given, in a
beautiful scroll, the commencing sentence of his gospel, from
the Latin vulgate, as follows :
1. Mark. "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus
Christ, the Son of God, as it is written in Isaiah the
2. Luke. " There was in the days of Herod the king a
certain priest, by name Zacharias."
3. Matthew. "The book of the generation of Jesus
Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham."
4. John. "In the beginning was the word, and the
word was with God, and the word was God."
Beneath their feet, in a continued scroll of exquisite
design and execution, supported by four hands coming out of
the clouds, is the commencement of the noble hymn of
Zacharias (Luke i. 68, 69) " Blessed be the Lord God of Israel,
for he hath visited and redeemed his people, and hath raised
up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant
Across the bottom of the window is the inscription,
" Pray for the soul of John Mutton, a benefactor of this
No. 14. The Redemption Window.
(So called from its subjects).
The head of this window retains its original design, and
represents in the centre, the Saviour, in the act of stepping
out of his tomb, having the crown of thorns on his head, and
the cross and banner in his left hand. On his right is St.
John, with the chalice, and on his left St. Thomas with the
The main compartments here were formerly occupied by
the legend of St. George, which has been removed, on
Whittaker's suggestion, to its present situation, No. i, and
its place filled by four entirely new designs of the leading
events in our Lord's history, subsequent to his death, in the
following order :
1. The taking down of the body from the cross. Joseph
of Arimathea, with one of the disciples, taking the body
down, and the three Marys receiving it. A plate with the
crown of thorns in the lower corner. On a scroll above is
the inscription, " The body taken down."
2. The burial. Joseph, assisted by a soldier of the
Roman guard, putting the body into a stone coffin ; one of
the Marys applying a napkin to the wounded side, and the
other two standing by, weeping. The crown of thorns is
here also seen in the lower corner. The mouth of the cave in
the background. On the scroll above, "The burial,"
3. The resurrection. Christ risen, standing on his
tomb ; on the end of which is seen the seal yet unbroken.
Three Roman soldiers, in different attitudes of terror, around.
On the scroll, " The Resurrection."
4. The ascension. The Saviour in the air, with his
hands extended towards heaven ; beneath him, the group of
his apostles (five are seen) in the act of adoration. Scroll,
'* The Ascension."
No. 15. The Acts' Window.
(Tlie subjects being taken from the Acts of the Apostles).
The tracery lights in the head here also remain as before,
and represent the annunciation. In the centre is seen the
Holy Ghost descending out of a cloud in the form of a dove ;
on his left, the angel Gabriel, in a kneeling posture, with a
sceptre in his right hand, and over his head a scroll, with his
salutation to the Virgin, *' Hail thou that art highly favoured,
the Lord is with thee," ; on the right, the Virgin Mary
standing at an altar, on which lies an open book ; in a scroll
above, her reply to the angel, " Behold the handmaid of the
Lord, be it unto me according to thy word."
The body of this window is occupied by four entirely new
designs, taken from the Acts of the Apostles, as follows :
1. The descent of the Holy Ghost on the disciples on
the day of Pentecost. The assembled group represents the
virgin mother and six of the apostles, with the cloven fiery
tongues above their heads. On the label above is the inscrip-
tion, " The descent of the Holy Ghost."
2. The stoning of Stephen. The first martyr is here
seen, kneeling and looking up to heaven, his meek counten-
ance strongly contrasting with the savage ones of his two
executioners, who are hurUng great stones upon him. In the
foreground is Saul keeping their clothes, whilst the city of
Jerusalem is seen behind. Over their heads the Saviour
appears above a cloud, holding in his left hand his cross, to
which his right hand is directing the martyr's view ; whilst
from Stephen's mouth issue the words, " Lord Jesus, receive
my spirit." On the label above, " Stephen Stoned."
3. The conversion of Saul. The Saviour appearing
above a cloud, from which strong rays of light issue ; with the
words on a scroll, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?"
Beneath is Saul, fallen from his startled horse, and lying on
the ground with his eyes closed, uttering the words, " Lord,
what wilt thou have me to do"? The group accompanying
him consists of four Roman soldiers, armed, and bearing their
standard with its well-known inscription, "S.P.Q.R." — the
Roman senate and people.
4. Paul pleading before Felix. We here see the Roman
governor sitting on the seat of judgement, and the apostle,
with his hands chained, pleading his cause before him.
Standing by are two of the Roman guard, with spears in their
hands ; whilst in the foreground is a figure, supposed to be
St. Luke (the author of the Acts, and Paul's chosen com-
panion), writing down the Apostle's defence. On the label
above, which is supported by a hand issuing from a cloud,
is the inscription, " Paul's defence before Felix."
No. 16. The Armorial Window.
Tradition relates this window to have been originally
occupied by different armorial bearings. These, however,
together with their remembrance, had entirely perished, with
the exception of one coat of arms which remained in the
upper tracery light, but of which the family was unknown.
Under these circumstances, it was judged best to preserve the
original design of the window as an armorial one, and (in
the entire absence of all trace of its former subjects), to render
it commemorative of the restoration of the whole. It has
therefore been appropriated to the family arms of Grylls, the
donor, together with those of some of the principal families
connected with his at the respective periods marked by the
dates attached to them. The window, thus completed anew,
presents, both in design and execution, a splendid specimen
of the modern art.
Center tracery light above ; arms of Grylls, or three bendlets
enhanced gules ; surmounted by the crest, a porcupine argent.
Motto beneatli, " Vires Agminis unus habet." On the dexter
side ; a siiield, with the arms of Bere, an ancient family of the
Barton ot Pengelley, in this parish, now represented by Mr.
Grylls, who derives through it the advowson and other property
in tiie parish ; argent, a bear rampant sable, muzzled or. On
the sinister side, an escutcheon of fifteen quarterings, as taken from
tlie walls of the withdrawing-room in the old family mansion of
Court, in the parish of Lanreath. In the first, the coat of Grylls.
2. Argent, a chevron sable between three gournets hauriant gules,
for Tubbe. 3. Gules, a chevron vaire between three ducal
coronets or, for Mayo. 4. Argent, a chevron between three
griffins' heads erased, those in chief respectant, sable, for Scowene.
5. Azure, fretty argent, a fess gules, for Cane. 6. Gules, on a
bend wavy argent, three Cornish choughs sable, for Reed. 7.
Azure, a bend ingrailed argent, cotised or, for Symons. 8. Or, a
lion rampant holding in his paws a cross ingrailed gules, for
Wootton, 9. Party per bend indented or and azure, two
fleurs-de-lis counterchanged, for Heare. 10. Or, three piles in
chief sable, for Landear. 11. Argent, on a saltire gules five owls
proper, for Westlacke. 12. Sable, six escallops 3, 2 and i or,
for Estcott. 13. Gules, two pallets or, on a chief argent three
pallets, for Foynter. 14. Barry wavy of eight, argent and azure,
on a chief gules, three barnacles or, for Symth. 15. Argent, a
castle, between three battle-axes sable, for Hickes.
In the head of each of the principal compartments of the
window is seen an angel, holding on his breast a shield, to which
the other shields in each compartment are respectively suspended.
Their bearings are as follows : — ist compartment. The arms of
Grylls, as above, bearing on an escutcheon of pretence the arms of
Bere; on a scroll beneath, "Grylls and Bere, 1635." 2. Bere
and Pengelly, party per pale ; on the dexter side, Bere, on the
sinister, or, a chevron between three griffins passant gules, for
Pengelley ; on the scroll beneath, " Bere and Pengelly," with the
date, 1530, on the rose immediately below. 3. Bere and Bond,
party per pale ; on the dexter side, Bere ; on the sinister, argent,
on a chevron sable three bezants, for Bond ; on the scroll beneath,
"Bere and Bond."
Second compartment, i. Grylls, bearing the arms of Gerveys
on an escutcheon of pretence ; argent, a chevron between three
garbs, or wheat-sheaves, sable, for Gerveys ; on the scroll beneath,
*' Grylls and Gerveys, 1671." 2. Gerveys and Trevanion, party
per pale, on the dexter side, Gerveys ; on the sinister, argent,
on a fesse azure, between two chevrons gules, three escallops or,
for Trevanion ; on the scroll below, " Gerveys and Trevanion,
1620." 3. Gerveys and diamond, party per pale, on the dexter
side, Gerveys ; on the sinister, argent, a chevron between three
fleurs-de-lis gules, for Chamond ; on the scroll, " Gerveys and
Third compartment, i. Grylls, bearing- on an escutcheon of
pretence the arms of Glynn ; argent, three salmon spears with the
points downwards sable, for Glynn ; beneath, " Grylls and Glynn,
1758." 2. Glynn and Pendarves, party per pale, on the dexter
side, Glynn ; on the sinister, sable, a falcon rising between three
mullets pierced or, for Pendarves ; beneath, " Glynn and Pen-
darves, 1700." 3 Glynn and Polkinhorne, parly per pale, on the
dexter side, Glynn ; on tlie sinister, argent, three bars sable, for
Polkinhorne: beneath, "Glynn and Polkinhorne, 1662."
Fourth compartment, i. An escutcheon, quarterly : in the
first, Grylls ; in the second, Bere ; in the third, Gerveys ; fourth,
Glynn ; on the scroll beneath, "Grylls." 2. Grylls and Rashleigh,
party per pale, on the dexter side Grylls ; on the sinister, sable, a
cross or, between a Cornish chough legged and beaked gules, and
a text T in chief, and two crescents in base all argent, for Rash-
leigh ; on the scroll beneath, "Grylls and Rashleigh, 1816." 3.
Grylls and Hill, party per pale, on the dexter, quarterly — i.
Grylls ; 2. Bere ; 3. Gerveys ; 4. Glynn. On the sinister, argent,
a chevron between three water boujets sable, for Hill ; on the scroll
beneath, "Grylls and Hill, 1783." These are the arms of the
donor and his wife
Along the bottom of the window runs the following inscription,
commemorating the work of restoration : — " Omnes hujus ecclesiee
fenestras, incuria et vetustate coUapsas, per annos 1826, 1827,
1828, 1829, e re privata restauravit, redintegravit, ornavit, Ricardus
Gerveys Grylls, Helstoniensis, olim ab 1792 ad 1820 hujus parochise
vicarius, et adhuc patronus ; suo filio Henrico vicario ; praefecto
operis Johanne Hedgeland, Londini ; pictore J. Nixon ; opifice B.
No. 17. The Belfry Window.
In 1864 the singing gallery was taken away, and this
window was placed in the belfry. It was made by Lucas
Barrand, and along the centre is represented St. Peran, as
Patron of Cornwall ; St. Nicholas, as Patron of Sailors ; St.
Alban, as the Protomartyr of England ; St. George, Patron
of Soldiers ; and St. Catherine, Patron of Spinsters. Above
are representations of the Acts of Mercy, and below, subjects
from the life of the saints above. At the bottom is the
dedicating inscription with the names of the Rev. Henry
Grylls, Mrs. Grylls, and their sons and daughters.
This lake or pool is about a mile in circumference, and
lies about two miles to the right of the road between Bodmin
and Launceston, or about five miles north-east of the Parish
Church. The best way to visit the romantic spot is to ascend
the hill below the Day Schools, passing Hill-town Farm and
Tremadock, thence along a fairly good road to Gillhouse, at
which vehicle can be left, and to proceed on foot over about a
mile of open moorland. A popular legend attached to
Dozmare Pool is as follows : — A person who had been a rich
and powerful man, but very wicked, guilty of murder and
other heinous crimes, lived near this place ; and that after his
death his spirit haunted the neighbourhood, but was at length
exorcised and laid to rest in Dozmare Pool. But having in his
lifetime, in order to enjoy the good things of this world,
disposed of his soul and body to the wicked one, his infernal
majesty takes great pleasure in tormenting him, by imposing
on him difficult tasks, such as spinning a rope with sand,
dipping out the pool with a limpet shell, &c., and at times
amuses himself with hunting him over the moors
with his hell-hounds, at which time Tregeagle is heard to
howl and roar in a most dreadful manner ; so that " roaring
and howling like Tregeagle " is a common expression
amongst the vulgar in Cornwall.
The following tale of Tregeagle, or Dozmare Pool, is
believed to have been written by John Penwarne, a Cornish
PARTE THE FIRST E.
In Cornwaile's famed land, bye the poole on the nioore,
Tregfeagle the vvickede did dwelle ;
He once was a shepheide contented and poore ;
But growing- ambj'tioiis, and wishing for more,
Sad fortune the shepherde befelie.
One nygfhte, all alotie, as he cross'd the wylde heathe
To drive his scant flocke to the folde.
All natin-e was stille, the wj'nds scarcely breathe
O'er the moone silver'd hilies and the valleys beneath,
As he cast his eye over the wolde.
" Ah ! why shoulde I live bye harde labonre" — quothe he,
" And be helde bye the riclie in disda)'ne !
" I wish " — quothe Tregeagle, — "for all that I see,
"Oh then what a happye greate man I shoulde be !
"When lorde of extensive domaine. "
Nowe scarce had he utter'd hys impious breath.
When the wolves they hovvl'd wildlye and loude,
The wyndes sadly sygiiing swept over the heathe,
As natuie awoke from the styllness of deathe,
And the moone hyd her head in a cloude.
When suddaine he saw, midst the gloome of the nyghte,
A figfure gygantick advance ;
His hayre bristled up as he view'd the felle Spryte,
Who seemed in form to be armed as a knyghte.
And he wielded an ebonye lance.
All blacke was the gfaunte steede on whych he dyd ryde ;
A sable plume shadow'd his heade ;
And blacke was his arinoure, wyth bloode all bedy'de ;
And blacke was the bugle that hung- bye his syde.
Which no mortale mig-hte hear without dreade.
Two dogges fierce and felle, and whych never knew feare,
Dyd run his fleete courser before ;
Their forms weie all hydeous, and grislye their haire,
And througii their lanke sydes their sharpe ribs dyd appeare,
And their mouthes were stille dripping- wyth gore.
Then thus spake Tregfeag-le — " who arte thou Syr Knyghte ?
" And vvlieie at this tynie dost thou wende ?
"Ah, why dost thou wandei" alone tliro' the nj'ghte ?
"And why dost thou liarrowe my soule wyth afFrighte ?
" Or what dost tliy coming poitende ?"
The Knyg-hte nothing- spake, but he leap'd wyth a bound
From ofFe hys hyglie steede (with a frowne)
And as he alitte on the trembUnge grounde,
His armoure clank'd hollowe, a terrible sound,
And at length thus he spake to the Clowne.
"Say, what dydst thou wish for, thou treniblinge knave?
" But thy wjshes are known imto mee ;
" I give my consent then if thou arte my slave ;
" Longft lite to enjoj^e too, thy wish thou shall have,
•' And an hundrede years give I to thee.
" I'll builde thee a castle soe fair and soe fyne,
" Arounde it green forrests I'll reare,
" And vassals and serving men too shall bee thyne ;
" And thy halle, all wyth gold and wyth sylvere shall shyne,
" And wytli Svr shall bee greeted th\'ne eare.
"And when thj' longe terme shall bee passed awaye,
"At thy lot wilt thou nevei' I'epine ?
"And wilt thc)u be ready thy boone to repaye?
" Speake boldlye Tregeagle ! pra}' what dost thoue saye ?
"Shall thy soule and tlij' bodye bee mine?"
"A bargaine ! a bargaine !" then said he aloude,
" At mj' lot I will never repine :
" I sweare to obseive it, I sweare bye the roode,
" And am readye to seale and to sygne with my bloode :
" Both my soule and m\' bodj-e are thyne."
The Spiyte grinn'd soe horrid, and said — "that will bynde
" Bothe thy soule and thy bodye my righte :"
Then mounting his courser as fleete as the wynde ;
And whilst his gr\-mme hell-houndes ran yelpinge behind,
He was loste in the gloome of the nyghte.
Oh, then his dreade bugle he w\Mided soe shrilie,
Soe Jis all morlale ears to astounde :
The vallies all trembled, and shooke was each hylle,
The wolves ceased to howle, and with terror lay stylle,
Whyle Tregeagle felle flat on tlie grounde.
There in a deade sleepe all entranced he laye,
Spelle bounde by the arte of the Spiyte ;
Nor jiwake initii morne in her mantel of graye,
With ruddy hands o[)en'd the portalles of day,
And dispell'd the tiarke mysts of the nyghle.
Then upsprangc Tregeagle, no longer a clowne,
But cloathed in gorgeous attyre ;
And |)roude wavinge forrests the hylls all did crowne,
Whych erst was a bare and a barren bleake downe ;
And much did Tregeagle admire.
Where Dozmare Lake its daike writers did roll,
A Castle now reared its heade,
Wythe many a turrete soe stately and tall.
And nianye a warden did walke on its walle,
All splendidly cloaliied in rede.
And manye a vassale did hayle hym " Syr Knighte,'
And doffing-e their caps, bowed lowe ;
And miiche Syr Tregeagle was pleased wylhe the syghte,
While inwardlye swellinge with pryde and delyghte,
He into his castle did goe.
Then pioudlye advauncinge he enter'd the halle,
VVitli golde and with sylver bedyghte ;
Fronie the loftye roofe many gaye banners did falle,
And bryghte suites of armouie did hange on eache vvalle,
Was ever soe gorgeous a sighte !
And there the gaye servynge men bowinge profounde,
Obsequious did wait hys commande ;
And manye faire damsels did stande hym arounde,
Who modestlye bente their bryghte eyes to the ground ;
Ah, who could such beautye W3'thstande !
The Mynstrel sweete musyck drewe fort he frome his lyre,
Whych ravysh'd the soule wyth delyghte ;
The Knyghte treads on aire, and his soule is on fyre,
And muche he the skylle of the Harper admyres,
For he sunge forlhe the prayse of the Knyghte.
And manye a steede in his stables were seene,
All fitted for chace or for warre ;
With manye bolde Huntesmen, all cloathed in greene,
At theire sydes hunge theire bugles of sylver so sheene,
Whych range thro' the forrests a-farre.
Nowe oft woulde the Kn3'ghte, on his courser soe faire,
Follovve svvifte the fleete hoiindes and the home,
To rouse the grynime wolfe from his secrete laire.
Or pursue the iyghte bounds of the ti-eniblynge deere,
As he brush'd the biighte dews of the morne.
But tyme flew awaye, W3'th the wyndes winged speede,
Tregeagle ne'er nolye'd its flyghte ;
But he marked each day with some horrible deede.
Some mansyon must burne, or some traveller bleede,
Or hatefuUe that dye to his sighte.
It chaunced one evenynge, as homewards he wendes,
Deepe nuitter'd the hagg of the storme ;
Eaithe trembles as boungynge the skyes she ascendes,
The welkyn acrosse her blacke winges she extendes,
And nature with darkness deformes.
And nowe the bolde hunters theye stoode alle aghaste,
Theire sloute heartes withe feare overaw'd ;
The rede lyghtnings glaied, the rayne poured faste,
And loude liowl'd the Demons that rode on the blaste,
And Terrour the tempeste bestrode !
Whene svvifte from the woode, and all wylde with affryghte,
A damsele advauncinge they spyed ;
All whyte were her garments, her palfrye was whyte,
Wyth sylver and golde, and wyth jeweles bedyghte.
And a little page rode by her S3'de.
" Oh, save me ! oh, save me ! Sir Knyghte," then she said,
" Oh, let me thy succoure obtaine !
*' Ah, where from the storme shall I shelter my lieade?
" My spiiits are sinking with horrour and dreade,
" And my garments aie drenched with rayne.
" My poor little pag-e, too, with tei roure doth quake !
" Though ne'er little page was more bold " : —
" Ah, Mistress deare, I vvoulde dye for your sake !
"It is not with feare that I shiver and shake,
" But I shake with the wet and the colde. "
"See you," sayd the Knj'ghte, " where my castle dothe reare,
" Thyther hasten fayre ladye with me ;
" And there we all scone will thy little page cheere ;
" Bryghte damsels I've many, all modest and fayre,
" Sweete ladye, to wait upon thee."
" Now quickly they rode — and the drawebridge let downe.
They into the castle repayre ;
And cheerfulle the fyres now blaz'd in the halle,
Tregeagle aloude for his damsels did calle.
His damsels so lovelye and faire.
Some wayte on the Lady, some kindlye are led
To make the younge urchin theire care ;
Wheie lovelye he sat wih his cheeks roseye rede,
And lyke a wet rosebud he hunge downe his heade,
Whyle they wrunge forthe the rayne from his hayre.
" Nowe saye, little page," said a Damsel so milde,
"And quicklye unto us declare,
" Why thro' the darke forreste, so savage and wylde,
" Thou rangest at nyghte, who arte yet but a chylde ?
" And who is thye Lady soe faire ? "
" Her father's Earl Cornwaile, — I weene that his name
"Can never sounde straunge to youre eare ;
" For large his possessyons, and wyde is hys fame,
" And I am her page, and Roberto's mye name,
" And they call her Goonhylda the Faire.
" Thys mornynge from Dunevyd Castle* soe stronge,
" We came forthe ere the sunn shew'd his face ;
" For she loves, with her trayne, the greene foi^rests amonge
" To rouse the fleete deere, and the vallies alonge
" To pursue the keene joyes of the chase.
" To-daye we left all oure companyons behynde,
" And involv'd in the mj'sts of the hylle ;
" To trace backe our steps we in vaine weie inclyn'd,
"When the shoutes of the hunters we heartle in the wynde,
" And the bugle blewe cheerlye and shrylle.
" Then we hitherwarde sped, all deceyv'd by the sounde,
" In hopes our companyons to fynde :
" When the howlinge storme shooke the vaste forreste arounde,
" Fromthe rayne wesoughtesheltere, butnone could befounde,
" Till we met with youre mastere so kynde. "
Then Goonhylda came forth, — like a beautiful flower,
And all in fresh garments arrayed ;
She seem'd a tall lyllye, refresh'd by a showere,
Tregeagle he gaz'd, for ne'er till that houre,
Had he seene such a beautiful Mayde.
"Thanks, gentle Syr Knyghte, — said Goonhylda the faiie,
Whyle modestye mantled her cheeke,
" Your guests for the nyghte we must be, Syr, I feare,
" Wliylst my father, a preye to sad griefe and despaire,
" In vayne his Goonhylda will seeke. "
* Launcestou Castle.
" I am proude of my sfiieste," Syr Tregeagle reply'd
"And praye, faireste Ladj'e don't grieve ;
" A messengere quick to youf fallier shall ryde,
*' To tell hym no ille does his daughter betyde,
"And his breaste froiiie its terroiire relieve."
Whyle thus, with faire speeches soe courteous and kynde,
Hyniselfe to tiie Maj'de he address'd ;
To glooine antl to thoughtfuliiess seeiii'd much inclyn'd,
And, if that the countenance speaketh the mynde,
Darke deedes he revolv'd in his breaste.
PARTE THE SECONDE,
Whyle sweete slept Goonhylda, of beautye the pryde,
The Earle was absorbed in grief;
For no messengere fleete to his castle did ryde,
To saye that no ill did his darlynge betyde,
And to give his fonde bosome reliefe.
All nyghte his lone chambete he pac'd to and fro ;
As he lysten'd, no sound could he lieare,
But the blaste which against his darke windows did blowe ;
His aged bi^easte heaved with sorrowe and woe,
Till he saw the greye morninge appeare.
With his knyghts and esquyies, and servynge men all,
Then foithe from his castle did ryde ;
Midst the forreste soe wylde, on Goonhylda did call,
Bui dyre forebodings his heart did appalle,
When noughte but the echoes reply'd.
At length to the plaine he emerg'd from the woode
For a father, alas, what a s^'ghte !
There laye her fayie garments all drenched in bloode.
Her palfr3'e all torn in the dat ke crimsone floode,
By the rav'nous beastes of the nyghte.
Soft-eyed Pitye descende o'er the heart-rending sighte ;
Be widely extended thy veyle :
For I weene it is past learned clerke to indyghte,
Or the pen or the pencile to paint or to wrj'te,
What a fond, tender father nuiste feele.
And now let's retuine to that Iraytouie so vyle ;
Darke piojects revolv'd in hys breaste,
Whylst his heart was envelope! in fraude and in guyle,
He borrowed kynde Hospytalytye's sm3'le,
And thus he Goonhylda address'd : —
" Fayr Mayden, than floweres the fa3'rest most fayre
" Of demeanouie soe modeste and sweete ;
" O, saye ! maye a Knyghte of possessj'ons soe rare,
" Presume that both them and hj'mselfe to declare,
" Dear Ladye, are caste at your feete.
Wythe a blushe on her cheeke, tlien Goonhylda reply'd,
" I ill shoulde your kindness requj'te,
" Should I treateyou, Syr Knyghte, or withscorne, or with pryde,
"Or the state ot m\' liearte should I stryve, Syr, to hyde •
" I'm already betroth'd to a Knyghte.
" Now faire is the daye, and refulgfente (he morne,
" And fayne would I haste to depaite ;
" That no longer my fonde paitiale father may mourne,
" And no longer in vaine waite Goonh3'lda's retourne,
"Whose absence must wrynge his kynde heart."
The Knyglite sni) I'd insydious, and bent his darke browe :
" Faire Ladye, you cannot go lience ;
"There are robbers abroade in the forreste, I trowe ;
" Besydes, my sweete danisele, I boldlye avowe,
" With youre presence I camiot dyspence."
"Then am I a prys'ner?" Goonliylda replied
(Indygnante beholdynge the Kniglite)
" But soone shall the strength of thy castle be try'd ;
"And thynkest thou longe from Earl Cornwaile to hyde
"A daughtere, his pryde and delyg;hte ? "
"Ah, vaine expectatione, fayre Ladye," he sayde,
" Thy father hopes not th)' retourne ;
" Alreadye he thynkes that ihj' bloode has been shed
" Bye the beaste of the forresle, and thynkyng thee deade,
" He is gone to his castle to mouine."
Nowe little Roberto, tho' few were his yeares,
Yet cunnyng and shrewde was the bo)'e ;
Where he sat in a corner, tin's speeche overheares,
And faythfuUe as swyfte to the stable repayres,
And seyzes his courser with joye.
From the castle he steals, and the forreste he g-aynes,
Resolv d (o averte her sad fate :
Nowe spuriing, and g'iving his fieete horse the reynes,
Ere the soft tears of evenyng- had spangled the plaines,
Blewe his home at Dunevy'ds higfh g'ate.
"Oh, hasten. Earl Cornwaille! oh, hasten !" he cry'd,
" Thy peerless Goonhylda's in thralle ;
" Bye a recreante Knyghte is thy powere defy'd !
" Bye force Sj-r Tregeagle would make her his bryde !
"And he keepes her within his stronge walle ! "
" For thy newes, little Robert, oh, faire thee befalle,
"Tho' bitter and sweete, little page ;
«"Mye Goonhylda, then lives ! though a traytor enthralles,
'But soone will I thundere arounde his strongf walles,
" The catyfTe I burne to engag;e ! "
Then he drewe forthe his horsemen, so valj'aunte and bolde ;
" And gyve me mj'e armoure," he said,
" My frame can sustayne it, tiio' W3'iher'd and olde,
"And my hande in its gras|)e stille the faulchyon can holde,
" When a daughtere's cause calls for its aide.
" To horse, litlle Robert ! to horse agjiin flye !
" Tho' tyr'd thou surely must be ;
" But I knowe for thy Mystress thoud'st readylye dye,
"And for thy rewarde I'll make thee bye and bye,
"A Squire of highest degree."
Nowe, through the daik nygfhte, ovei- forreste and moore,
" Theye bye tlieire fleete conrseis are borne ;
Whyle little Roberto lotic bljihesome before.
And ere the grey morne peep'd the easterne hills o'er,
At Tregeagle's gate sounded his home.
All is sylente wythin, and the stillness of deathe
The daike frowninge towers sunoundes ;
When theyhearde, and each lysteningf suspended his breathe,
They heaide the shryll blaste, from the far dystannte heathe,
Which the eares of all inortales confoundes.
They hearde the Black Hunter 1 and dreade shook each mynde;
Heartes saiike that had never known feare :
They hearde the Black Hunter's dread voyce in the wynde !
They hearde his curste hell-houndes runn yelping behynde !
And his steede thundered loude on the eare!
And nowe he appear'd thro' the gloome of the nyghte ;
His plume seem'd a cloude in the skyes ;
His forme the darke mists of the hilles to the syghte,
And as from a furnace shootes forthe the rede lyghte,
Soe glared the fierce beams of his eyes !
He blewe from his bugle so dreadful a blaste,
His dogges howlyng hydeous the whyle.
That all Nature trembled, and shooke as aghaste !
And from the hygh walles the huge battlements braste !
Felle downe from the tottering pyle.
" Come forthe, Syr Tregeagle ! " in thundere he cryed,
" Come forthe, and submit to thy fate !
" Thy time is expired ! to me thou art tyde !
" Wythin thy dark castle in vayne thou would'st hyde :
" Come forthe ! for here endeth thy date I "
Then forthe came Tregeagle, all palsyed with feare,
And fayne woulde more favoure have founde I
But loude roar'd the thundere, and swift through the ayre ;
The rede bolte ot vengeance shot forthe with a glare,
And stroke him a corpse to the ground !
Then from the blacke corpse a pale spectre appear'd.
And hied him awaye through the night ;
Whene quicklye the yelpes of the hell-houndes are hearde.
And to the pursuite bye the bugle are clieer'd,
Whyle behynde thunderes after the Spryte.
And now ruddye morneyng agayne gilds the skyes;
The hellish enchantmente is o'er ;
The forreste and castle no more meete their eyes ;
But where from greene woodes its brj'ghte turrets did rise,
Now spreades the darke poole on the moore.
And near its dreare margyn a Mayden was seene,
Unhurted ! Goonhylda the Fayre ;
Fore stylle guardian angels did keep her, I weene.
And neare her gay palfrye, in trappings so sheene,
Whych late torne bye wolves did appeare,
Earle Cornwaile rejoycyng, now thanked that powere
That did his Goonhylda restore ;
And ofte his olde Mynstrel, at eve's sober lioure,
Beneathe the darke walles of Dunevyd's greye towere,
Sunge the tale of the poole on the moore.
And stylle, as the trav'llere pursues his lone waye,
In horroure, at nyghte o'er the waste.
He hears Syr Tregeagle with shrieks rushe awaye,
He heares the Blacke Hunter pursueing his preye
And shrynkes at his bugle's dreade blaste.
Concerning the personal history of " Tregeagle " there
are many stories in circulation. "Of these tales, one is that
Tregeagle was the Steward to John, Earl Radnor, of Lanhyd-
rock, to whom a debtor had paid a large sum of money, which
Tregeagle had neglected to enter in his books. After his
death the new Steward demanded the sum, of which payment
was refused. A lawsuit was the immediate consequence ; but
when the case was brought on at the assizes, the supposed
debtor contrived to raise the spirit of Tregeagle and bring him
into court. Being questioned concerning the affair in debate,
Tregeagle admitted the payment, and the plaintiff, was non-
suited. On returning from the bar, this singular witness was
left behind in the court, the defendant being requested by some
of the gentlemen of the long robe to take him away ; but he
sternly replied that, as he had been at the pains of bringing
the evidence, those who complained might take the trouble to
To consign the spirit of Tregeagle to repose was now
become an arduous task. Perpetual rest was deemed
impossible ; but some work of extreme difficulty was thought
necessary to furnish his spirit with employment. Dozmare
Pool was at this time considered as unfathomable ; his task,
therefore, was to lade it dry with a limpet shell having a hole
in its bottom. However, on the rising of an easterly wind
the wicked one was thought to pursue him three times round
the pool, from which place he was always obliged to escape
to Roach Rock, when, on putting his head into one of the
chapel windows, he was safe.
Having accomplished this arduous work, or obtained a
release from it, Tregeagle was next ordered to the Northern
Coast to make a truss of sand, and to bind it with ropes of
the same materials, of his own making. This he, in part,
accomplished ; but in attempting to bind his truss his rope
always broke ; and in stormy weather his shrieks were heard
mingled with the beating of the tempest and the roaring of the
seas. From the Northern Shore he has been transported to
the Southern, where he came metamorphosed into a gigantic
spirit, and doomed to remove the sand from one cove to
another, from which the sea was always sure to return to it.
In one of these expeditions it is said, he either wilfully or
accidently, dropped a sackful at the mouth of Loo Pool, which
was then a harbour, in consequence of which the bar was
immediately formed. In this place also his voice is said to
have been heard in tiie howling of the storm, and in the
various echoes which resound from the distant hills."
The Chancel Screen in St. Neot Church, from a drawing by the Architect
(Mr. Fellowes-Prynne), reproduced by kind permission of the proprietors of
'•The Cornish Times."
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