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Full text of "Historical sketches of the Raleigh Public Schools, 1876-1941-1942"

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HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE RALEIGH PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS , 1876-1941-1942 



^ 



Jennie M, Barbee 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 



http://www.archive.org/details/historicalsketchOObarb 



tMiito^UcGi Sketolte^ 



RALEIGH 

PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS 

1S76 

BY 

MRS. J. M. BARBEE 

1943 




Raleigh 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



OF THE 



Raleigh Public Schools 



1876-1941-1942 



By 



MRS. J. M. BARBEE 



NORTH CAROUNIANA 




J 



Grateful acknoirledgruciif is tnadc to Mrs. Friiiices Cox 

Morrison for her aid i)i voinvUinfi Historical Sketches 

OF THE Raleigh Public Schools 






Published hy 

Barbee I'upils' Association 

Raleigh, N. C. 

1943 



Presses of 

Mitchell Printing Company 

Raleigh. N. C. 



^y^ T THE annual meeting of the Barbee Pupils' Association 
on Febrnary 22, 1943, a committee was appointed to 
review the manuscript of IIistoricat. Sketches of the 
Raleigh Public Schools. The committee was given full 
authority to have the manuscript published in book form if 
such action should be deemed feasible. The committee thus 
authorized is Claude F. Gaddy, chairman; John A. Park and 
Charles U. Harris. 

Deeply impressed with the valuable historical information 
given in the manuscript, the members were unanimous in 
their opinion that this book should be pul)lished and oifered 
to the citizens of Xortli Carolina. 

Close observations and careful recordings of school and 
community life as Mrs. Barbee saw it during years of useful 
service should indeed furnish a record of great value to 
posterity. 

Photographs of former superintendents of the Raleigh 
Public Schools could not be secured for publication in this 
edition. 

The valued counsel and helpful inspiration to ''her boys 
and girls'' will live forever in the minds and hearts of the 
hundreds of her former pupils. Ever mindful of the under- 
privileged and less fortunate, she has ministered to them with 
a spirit of love that did not seek acclaim of the masses. 

SHERWOOD BROCKWELL. 

President Barhee Pupils' Assoeiation. 




Mks. J. M. Barbee 

Beldvt'd teac-her of hundreds dt' Raleiijrh children and proliably the state's 
Ifest-known pulilie sehodl teacher, juined the Raleiirh system in ISSI. and 
retiring at the close of the lJt41^42 session. She now is livin.tr in <ireens- 
horo with her son, Robert Barbee. She observed her S9th birthday on 
Fel>ruary I'i. 194o. 



9 nt^ad44.ctlo.n 

Joseph Lancaster established the first Lancaster School at 
Fayetteville, I^. C, in 181-4. "The same year another was begun 
in Wake County to which children unable to pay for the instruc- 
tion were admitted free of charge. In February of the following 
year a Lancaster School was opened in Raleigh where children 
were taught free of tuition charges. By K'ovember the enroll- 
ment was more than one hundred pupils. Many of these who, 
before entering the school, 'did not know a letter in the book,' 
Avere in a short time able to read, write, have some knowledge 
of figures, and repeat by heart a number of moral verses."* 

"Josej^h Lancaster of England seems to have been most suc- 
cessful in the application of new methods to the instruction of 
the children. The method is founded upon a profound knowledge 
of the human mind. The basis of the method is the excitement 
of the curiosity of children, thereby awakening their minds and 
preparing them to receive instruction." f 



* Edgar D. Knight, The Public School /« Xortli CaroUiin. pi). 60, 74. 
t Ibid., p. 73. 



ADMINISTRATION OF JOHN E. DUGGER 

1876-1883 

Prior to the establishment of the Centennial Graded School 
in 1876, the public schools of Raleigh were taught in some small 
houses situated in different parts of the township, with no super- 
vision except that exercised by the local school committee. In 
1875 the committee determined to husband the school funds and 
establish one central school for all the white children of the 
township. Accordingly, in 1876, the Centennial Graded School 
was organized. This was the second graded school in the state. 

The 1876-77 Legislature gave the people permission to vote 
upon the question of a tax levy of one tenth of one per cent on 
one hundred dollars worth of property for the support of the 
public schools of Raleigh Township. This was ratified by the 
people, and thus a fund of about $5,000 Avas raised. This fund, 
together with the amount of state tax received by apportionment, 
a part of the county common school tax, grants and fees, and 
voluntary contributions from patrons, constituted the sources of 
revenue. "From the summer of 1876 to the summer of 1877, the 
Peabody Board appropriated $1,500 to Raleigh."* The definite 
objective in 1877 was to give every child at least the usual ele- 
mentary branches of education, f 

At this time the towmship school committee consisted of three 
members : Col. A. W. Shaffer, chairman ; M. Y. Gilbert, secre- 
tary, and H. C. Jones (colored). Capt. John E. Dugger of War- 
renton, JST. C, was elected principal. A lively Confederate vet- 
eran of the Civil War, Captain Dugger was a member of the 
Teachers' Association of the State, a most prominent school man. 
He was connected with the Summer Normal School at Chapel 
Hill during the 80's while serving the Raleigh Graded Schools 
as principal. 

Classes were conducted in the sixty-year-old Governor's Man- 
sion, known as "The Palace," at the foot of Fayetteville Street, 
on South. Two hundred forty pupils enrolled the first day for a 
term of ten months. The attendance grew to include 317 boys 
and 251 girls. There were four grades: primary, intermediate, 
grammar, and high school. 



* Edgar W. Kxight. Public School Education i)i Xorth Carolina, 
p. 288. 

t Reports of Suijerintendent of Public Instruction (1879-1886), p. 93. 



Historical Sketches of the 



The ell extension of "The Palace" was first occupied by the 
family of the principal. A log corncrib on the lot was moved 
alongside the Mansion to make room for the primary grade. 
Later, the entire sj^ace of the building was needed for classes. 
Captain Dugger then bought part of the Kemp P. Battle lot on 
Fayetteville Street, extending through to Salisbury. In 1880 the 
buildings for colored schools known as the Washington and Gar- 
field were bought by the school board. 

Captain Dugger, interested in j)honics, was principal, and also 
held classes in Latin. Other members of the first faculty were: 
W. B. Burkhead, E. B. Thomas, who formerly taught in the 
western ward of the city; Miss Alice Partin (Mrs. W. W. Will- 
son), Miss Pattie Litchford (Mrs. Fred Purefoy), Miss Evaline 
Davis, and Mr. and Mrs. Fairchild of New York. Others were 
L. T. Buchanan, Eugene Branson (later of U. N. C.), Lee Blair, 
Miss ISTettie Marshall, Miss Emma Hood, Miss Pattie Lawrence 
(Mrs. Charles Ashley), Miss Annie Beckwith (Mrs. Thaxton), 
Mrs. John A. McDonald and daughter. Miss Mary. ISTo pupils 
of the first grade taught by the McDonalds ever failed to remem- 
ber very graciously their work. Mrs. J. M. Barbee joined the 
faculty in 1881 and taught the second grade. In this class were 
the noted twins, Tom Joe and Joe Tom, sons of Mr. and Mrs. 
A. J. Ellis. If the roll of this second grade were called in the 
year 1941-12, the answer of Rev. T. J. Watts would be heard 
from Dallas, Texas; from Baltimore, the answer of Rev. J. T. 
Watts would come; from Raleigh, Mittie Ellis Henley, a shut-in 
for years, would answer. Many more worthwhile pupils of 
pleasant memory Avere members of that 1881 class. It is inter- 
esting to recall names of other pupils : Addie Worth Bagley 
(Mrs. Josephus Daniels), Jennie Simpson (Dr. Jane S. Mc- 
Kimmon), Jennie Pescud (Mrs. W. A. Withers), Grace Bates, 
Mary Bates (Mrs. M. B. Sherwood), Loula Riddle, Lizzie Bell- 
amy (Mrs. W. J. Peele), Lilly Branson (Mrs. Simmons), Nan 
McMacken, Kate McDonald (Mrs. David Ellis), Edgar Wom- 
ble, Guy Bunch, Clarence DoAvell, and David Ellis, who vividly 
recalls that his first meeting with Principal Dugger was a strictly 
disciplinary one. Principal Dugger was vigorously using the rod 
on an unruly lad. (It is a hazardous undertaking to recall names. 
Many have been omitted.) 

Captain Dugger made frequent visits to the elementary grades, 
stressing the need of developing the child's perspective faculties. 



Raleigh Public Schools 



The demand for object lessons ( !), the conseioiis memory of get- 
ting pupils to grasp what the teacher only faintly grasped, and 
earnest search for light — these later totaled the grateful joy of 
letting the pupil browse, helpfully guided at last by the teacher. 

Dugger built a residence which later became the home of 
Lawyer W. IST. Jones. 

During Principal Bugger's administration a Peabody Xormal 
School scholarship of $200 per year for two years was offered 
students passing the competitive entrance examination. Students 
accepting the scholarships were obligated to teach two years. 
E. McK. Goodwin, Mary T. Pescud, David L. Ellis, and Clarence 
Dowell won scholarships and entered Peabody. The latter two 
entered in 1880. 

With seven years of valuable service, John E. Dugger resigned 
and moved to Rocky Mount in 1SS3. It is gratifying to hear 
pupils of the Dugger administration speak of the teachers and 
satisfactory Avork accomplished. The school board at the close 
of his administration consisted of X. B. Broughton, S. W. Whit- 
ing, and C. B. Root. 

* 4 . 

ADMINISTRATION OF ANDREW J. McALPINE 

1883-1885 

A. J. McAlpine, of Weaverville College, Buncombe County, 
Avas elected principal of Centennial School, succeeding Capt. 
John E. Dugger. During his administration there was one school 
for the Avhite (the Centennial) and four schools for the colored; 
Johnson, Vv'^ashington, Garfield and Oberlin. The Johnson School, 
needing repairs, Avas closed in ISS-i. ( See History of the Johnson 
School.) The other school buildings had sufficient accommoda- 
tions. 

The same school committee of Dugger's administration con- 
tinued through McAlpine's, until 1885. 

Teachers of the Dugger faculty Avere retained Avith these addi- 
tions : Miss Maggie McDowell (Mrs. Jesse Siler), Miss Ella 
Fleming (Mrs. Houston), Mrs. Miriam Cooper, Miss Jean Gales 
(Mrs. D. T. Ward, mother of Miss Jean Ward of Hayes-Barton 
School.) 

Salaries of McAlpine's administration Avere represented by 
these figures: the Avhite principal received $1,200 per year; the 



10 Historical Sketches of the 

colored principal, $50 per moutli ; male teachers, $50 per mouth ; 
female teachers, $40 per month. 

As principal of the Centennial School, McAlpine's enrollment 
for 1883-84 was 337 boys and 251 girls; for the year 1884-85, 
385 boys and 359 girls. 

In 1885 during his administration both the Washington and 
the Garfield schools were enlarged and improved. 

The course of study was as follows: Lipptncotl's Readers, 
Object Lessons. Swinlon's Language Primer. Xorfh Carolina 
(ieography, North Carolina History by Moore; Reed and Kel- 
Jogg's Graded Lessons, Commercial Arithmetic, and Sanford's 
Arithmetic. (There are memories of classes in Lippincott's 
Fourth Reader. Leaders of the class looked up references, com- 
prehending the text ; others feebly called words, causing listless- 
ness and boredom. The result was unjust grading.) 

Members of the school board at the close of McAlpine's ad- 
ministration Avere W. S. Primrose, Mills Brown, and X. B. 
Broughton. 



ADMINISTRATION OF EDWARD P. MOSES 

1885-1895 

Information Concerning $25,000 Bond Issue of 1885 for 
Erection of Centennial School 

r' Authorized by Act of Legislature of 1885. Katified February 
23, 1885. 

Meeting of Board of Aldermen, December 5, 1884 — City At- 
torney submitted deed from T. J. Jarvis, Governor, for the 
Graded School land and Imilding. Purchased from State for 
$9,733.33. 

Meeting of Board of Aldermen, March 6, 1885 — First Raleigh 
Township School Committee was appointed, to assume office 
in March, L885 : 

Eev. F. L. Reid 
Messrs. G. Rosenthal 
R. H. Lewis 
T. H. Briggs, Jr. 
S. F. Mordecai 
X. B. Broughton 



Raleigh Public Schools 11 

Election held May -t, 1885. 

Voters Registered.. 1,470 

Votes Cast for Bonds 934: 

Votes Cast Against Bonds... 33 

Meeting of Board of Aldermen, May 15, 1885 — Reported A. G. 
Bauer selected as architect. Committee authorized to expend not 
more than $15,000.00 in erection and equipment of building. 

Meeting of Board of Aldermen, July 3, 1885 — Committee re- 
ported awarding contract for erection of building to Ellington, 
Royster lV Co., for $12,702.83. Building was to have slate roof, 
brown stone window sills, penitentiary press brick front, 10 
classrooms, assembly hall. 

Dedicatory services Avere held Xovember 30, 1885. Addresses 
were made by Hon. S. M. Finger, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and C. M. Busbee, Esq. 

Entire cost, $27,121.17. 

Other Statistics 

Xumber of Raleigh Schools. 1895 — 
1 Avhite (Centennial) 
3 colored (Washington, Garfield, Oberlin) 

Value of School Property (1886) $35,500 

Xumber of School Rooms 25 

Xumber of Teachers 28 

Average Salary ._ $ 32.45 

Authorized by Act of Legislature of 1885, ratified by 
the people : 
A superintendent Avas chosen for all the public 
schools of the township. 
Census of Raleigh Township, 1885-86 — Total of 4,597 
pupils. 

Edward Pearson Moses, a Tennesseean, was elected to the 
superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools in the year 1885, 
Avithout solicitation, to succeed A. J. McAlpine. He came from 
the Goldsboro schools and four years' service there. 

"Echvard Pearson Moses Avas one of the earliest and most in- 
fluential natiA'e Southern Avorkers for universal education in the 
period 1885-1895. . . . After Curry, probably no man in the 
South influenced more men and Avomen of character and ability 



12 Historical Sketches of the 

to go into school work, at a time when the profession was wretch- 
edly paid and scarcely considered, than did Moses."* 

A new one-story building, an actual necessity, was ready by 
December, 1885, at the beginning of Moses' administration. An 
effort to change the name from Centennial to Wiley failed. In 
the new building the first grade enrolled 83 pupils, the second 
grade 70, other grades 60 to the teacher. The capacity of the 
school was 600, with an enrollment of 800. With the steady in- 
crease in attendance the school committee was forced to find 
additional accommodations, and closed a contract with Messrs. 
Andrews and Hawkins for the erection of a large school house 
in the northeastern section of the city, the building to contain 
nine rooms. (See History of Murphey School.) 

Until the completion of the building, upper rooms of a hard- 
ware store on Fayetteville Street were rented, new furniture was 
purchased, and additional teachers were employed. Miss Eliza 
Pool and Miss Metta Folger (Mrs. Townsend) were among these. 
W. y. Savage Avas principal of both Centennial and the annex- 
on Fayetteville Street. One hundred tAventy-five boys were trans- 
ferred from the Centennial School to the annex. Mrs. Townsend 
(Metta Folger) of Lenoir, Caldwell County, though a shut-in, 
keeps in touch with some of the transfers, recalls many names. 

In 1861, Governor of North Carolina John W. Ellis, said : 
"True independence must be based on moral character and on 
popular iiift'llif/ence and industrial development." The following- 
words are contained in Moses' first report of 1886-87 : "The Pub- 
lic School is the grandest institution for the education of the 
world ever devised by man. Its influence in lifting humanity to 
a higher plane is surpassed alone by the religion Avhich comes 
from above. In this age no sophistry can persuade the world that 
it is unwise or inexpedient to cultivate all the talents which 
Almighty God in His wisdom has given every man. The cause 
of the Public School is the cause of unselfishness, a spirit of the 
noblest philosophy and purest patriotism. Every child in our 
State can be enabled to make out of himself, for the State's sake 
and for his own sake, eA'erything that can be made." 

There were kindred spirits during this time through the years 
1885-1895. Charles D. Mclver (founder of Xorth Carolina Col- 
lege for Women), Edward A. Alderman (President of U. jST. C), 



* (''haki,p:s W. Dabney. T'niver.stil EdiK-iitioii in the Sonfh. pp. 19.- 
198. 



Raleigh Public Schools IS 

and C. M. S. jS^oble (Dean of Education of U. N. C), were noted 
workers influenced bv E. P. Moses to enter the teaching pro- 
fession. Some worthwhile sayings and wise conchisions gained 
by the exjjeriences of these men in county teachers' institutes 
conducted by them, follow : 

''The school is the seedcorn of civilization and none but the 
best is good enough to be used." 

"Woman is the priestess in humanity's temple and presides at 
-the fountain head of civilization." — Charles D. McIver. 

''An untaught woman is the most sadly marred of God's crea- 
tures. It is their part to bear the children of the commonwealth 
and to teach them the duties of life. This is a serious work, and 
the State that leaves it to untrained women robs itself of its 
highest jDOssibilities." 

"The strength of the State resides in the people Avho should 
be educated at public expense without distinction of class." 

"Public education is an investment and not an expenditure." 

"Taxation is the involuntary tribute Avhich men must pay for 
their share of the common good." 

"Contributions for public education have been aptly compared 
to the vapor drawn from the earth, not to be exhatisted, but to 
be returned in fertilizing showers." — E. A. Aldermax. 

Superintendent Moses' first report (1S86-S7) continues: "As 
to the present prospects of the schools, they are daily growing- 
brighter. As our accommodations and means of usefulness are 
enlarged, just to that measure Avill the schools win increasing 
share of public confidence and support. As far as my observa- 
tion and information extend, the opposition to public schools in 
the South is constantly growing less. When the duty that the 
State owes her children in the way of education is more clearly 
recognized by the people, they will see that the public schools 
shall rank among the best, and all classes will give them a cordial 
and liberal support." 

A SUMMARY OF MOSES' TEACHINGS 

Discipline 

"Discipline is an atmosphere of light and love for the develop- 
ment of the child. It is the duty of every teacher to protect the 
honor and purity of every child in every school, and to teach 
truthfulness, gentleness, and devotion to duty. If only all our 



1I^ Historical Sketches of the 

teachers of the jniblie schools will realize that morality is of 
traiiscendentally more importance than arithmetic or geography, 
that unselfishness is better than mental culture ! There Avas a 
time when many people in Ealeigh, as everywhere else in the 
South, feared to intrust their son and daughter to the public 
schools. If our teachers Avill insist upon it that these principles 
be carried out by the pupils in the school room and on the play 
grounds, no reproach will fall upon the public schools." 

"It is better to do right and lose than to do Avrong and gain a 
temporary advantage. This is as plain as a path to a parish 
church. 

'Ours is the seed time, God alone 

Beholds the end of what is sown ; 

Beyond our vision Aveak and dim 

The harvest time is hid with Him.' " 

"There was ncA'er a good school without good discipline." 
"When the Avill of the child bows in cheerful obedience to the 

will of the teacher, this is perfect discipline." 

"The teacher who now (1888) retains in her school a single 

unruly pupil, does herself and her school a great injustice, for 

a teacher should have no thought of discipline, but should be 

able to devote her whole attention to teaching." 
"Discipline doesn't necessarily imply harshness." 
"The teacher to a very great extent shapes the destiny of 

future generations." 

Readixg 

Superintendent Moses was one of the earliest to advocate the 
use of phonics in teaching a child to read. 

"All reforms should begin in the first grade. The word and 
phonic method used, based on sound educational philosophy, was 
not adopted because new but seems the best. A difficulty was met 
and overcome in chauging from the alphabetic method. It is an 
earned success to have the pupil master his own difficulties. The 
reading in each school room, not crowded, is excellent. There is 
a need for supplementary readers to keep pupils interested. Xo 
child is educated unless given books suited to his capacity. We 
earnestly desire to implant within the pupils before they leave 
our schools a love for good books, Avhich will abide with them. 
'The love of books,' Gibbons declared, 'is the pleasure and joy 
of life.' " 



Raleigh Ptblic Schools lo 

Reading, according- to the teachings of Superintendent Moses, 
involved studying the dictionary (Stonnouth's), using the 
Greek alphabet, tracing derivatives, intently watching diacritical 
marks, applying established facts, noting the exceptions, analyz- 
ing Avords. Spelling required a moitaJ picture of the word. He 
taught that the time to learn spelling is the instant it is needed. 
Words in the reading text were used in preference to words from 
the speller. 

Listed in the library of the University of Xorth Carolina : 
Moses' Primer, Moses' Readers, Primary Reading and Spelling, 
and The Teaching of English Words hy Sound, by Moses. 

Arith:\ietic 

''The best course in teaching any science is to follow the 
method used in building up that course. In the ringing words 
of Rousseau : 'Things ! Things !' I can never enough repeat it. 
We make words of too much consequence. Lord Bacon, in stating 
the teacher's office, said, 'Establish a just familiarity between 
the mind and things.' Teaching objectively is based on sound 
philosophical principles, learning by long and patient dealing 
with things. Arithmetic, next in importance to reading, is mental 
discipline. In the study of arithmetic, it is not the acquisition 
of knowledge, but the power to think accurately. Rely on inter- 
est excited in the pupil for the subject. Interest removes coercion. 
Arithmetic is taught by objects, not pages, not figures — figures 
used but not abused. All rules and definitions may be discarded 
except those which the children are able to deduce. The science 
of numbers is to be taught only by reference to the numbers 
themselves. Teach fractions, denominate numbers and percent- 
age objectively. (A joy to find out!) 'Let things that have to be 
done, be clone by doing them,' said Comenius. To feed intelligent 
children year after year almost exclusively upon the three R's 
is to give them little better treatment than the dose of treacle 
and sulphur administered ever}' morning to the Squeers pupils 
in Dotheboys Hall." 

Grammar 

"The study of grammar should be subordinate to the practice 
of original writing. Valuable articles should be learned from 
memory. The study of technical grammar should be deferred 
until later, then taught thoroughly and studied diligently. Gram- 



16 Historical Sketches of the 

mar was made after language, so should be taught after language. 
This is an inference which all who recognize the relationship 
between the evolution of the race and the individual will know 
to be unanswerable. A library is a necessity." 

Geography 

"The study of physics is a needed base for geography. With- 
out some knowledge of air, heat, water, etc., geography is of little 
value. To tell why a country is well watered is of more value 
than naming the rivers in it. Moulding boards and sand tables 
are helpful. Geography, when well taught, is fine for the imagi- 
nation." 

Other Si'b.iects 

"The study of Latin sliould not be postponed beyond the 
seventh grade." 

"The child needs manual training, which is necessary for a 
rounded development." 

(A class for girls was formed at the Centennial School to teach 
sewing on Saturdays. Miss Fannie E. S. Heck was instrumental 
in the organization of this class. This was a happy beginning for 
a future development.) 

"School is a place to develop every talent." 

Meml)ers of the school board in 1886-87, when Moses made 
his first re})ort, were T. H. Briggs, Jr., E. H. Lewis, G. Rosen- 
thal, Rev. F. L. Reid, X. B. Broughton, W. X. Jones. Alfred A. 
Thompson was mayor. As secretary, T. H. Briggs, Jr., reported : 
"Under the efficient management of Superintendent Moses, the 
public school system of Raleigh has improved in effectiveness, 
and compares very favorably with any city in the State." 

Murphey School, on the corner of Person and Polk streets, was 
ready in LS87. An eighth grade of twelve pupils was organized 
at Murphey School, but abandoned on account of opposition 
from private schools and preparatory departments of colleges. 
The courses of study in our American schools is not extensive 
enough. One thousand dollars invested in a pupil over 12 years 
of age did more than $3,000 invested in one under eight years. 
Depriving better pupils of an advanced grade of additional 
schooling beyond the seventh proved a disadvantage. They were 
not able to attend private schools requiring a tuition fee. The 
public school was considered a charitable institution. 



Raleigh Public Schools ^^^Mnlk ^7 



In 1888-89 there was mention of a high school, hut this met 
opposition. Lack of interest and the increasing need for money 
threatened to revert the control of the school to the shiftless 
method of the old "free school" system. It was unfortunate that 
Raleigh Township schools received but 26 per cent of the com- 
mon school fund of the county, although the taxable property 
of the township was 58 per cent of the whole county. The schools 
progressed slowly. From the report of T. H. Briggs, secretary, 
we learn that the salary of the superintendent and teachers at 
this time amounted to $13,995.11. There was a balance of $21.21 
due the schools. The schools closed after a term of five months, 
following a struggle for a bond issue. A school census of March 
16, 1889, states that there were 4,548 persons from six to 21 
of school age. Enrolled were 1,133 white, 1,401 colored. 

"Mr. Moses called upon the school committee to ask the city 
authorities to join in requesting the Legislature to pass an act 
by which the people might vote on a larger school tax and give 
the Capital City of the State a school term of not less than 
eight months and also for $100,000 bond issues for new build- 
ings," says Josephus Daniels.* "The Board of Aldermen ac- 
quiesced only on the condition that no student should be taught 
above the seventh grade." Mayor Thompson, a man of sound 
sense and judgment, was able to lead his administration along 
progressive lines. This was a great fight for a chance to have 
longer terms in Raleigh. "Real estate worth hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars was listed at one fifth of its value." f Dr. R. H. 
Lewis and jST. B. Broughton (members of the school board). 
Superintendent Moses, and Josephus Daniels (editor of The 
State Chronicle) , ardently championed the increase in taxation 
for the schools and the construction of adequate school buildings. 
"When the matter came before the Committee on Education, I 
shall never forget the incomparable service rendered by three 
men before that committee. The meeting Avas held in a very 
small committee room and nothing appeared in the daily papers 
about it. . . . Dr. Richard Lewis, N. B. Broughton, and Peter 
Fleming, the last dean of the high-class mechanics at the Raleigh 
and Gaston Railroad shops, made speeches which deserve to live, 
particularly that of Dr. Lewis, who then and all his life was 
an outstanding leader among the professional men in Raleigh, 



* Josephus Daniels, Tar Heel Editor, p. 373. 
t Ibid, p. 375. 



18 Historical Sketches of the 

ill evcTv public school fight, and for whom the Richard H. Lewis 
School ill Raleigh is named. This fight was purely local, but it 
had a far-reaching efl"ect and focused the attention upon the 
forthcoming luiblic school issue in Xorth Carolina." * 

The General Assembly authorized the issue of a $50,003 five 
per cent thirty-year bond for general school purposes, voted on 
June 12, 1890. Wiley School, as a result, was built on West 
Morgan Street in that year. Permanent improvements to other 
buildings Avere also made. The township school property was out 
of debt. The progress of the school system was almost revolu- 
tionary. Because of the efforts of Thompson, Lewis, Broughton 
and Daniels, fitting tribute was paid these men in naming new 
schools and school societies for them. The Thompson School on 
East Hargett Street was named for Alfred A. Thompson ; the 
Lewis School on Glenwood Avenue was named for Richard H. 
Lewis, and also the Lewis Literary Society of Hugh Morson 
High. The Daniels Literary Society of Xeedham B. Broughton 
High was named for Josephus Daniels. 

A young lawyer from the University of Xorth Carolina, Alex 
Stronach, taught during Moses' administration in 1889-90 at 
Centennial School until he was old enough to secure a license 
to practice law. Some of his pupils recalled to mind are Murray 
Allen, Charles Allen, Early LIughes, Ceburn Harris, and Baxter 
Durham. 



ADMINISTRATION OF LOGAN D. HOWELL 

1895-1898 

In 1895, after a service of ten years. Superintendent Moses 
resigned to accept a professorship in the State Xormal School, 
Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C. The city public schools were 
fortunate in securing Mr. Logan D. Howell of Goldsboro for the 
superintendency to succeed Moses. Howell earnestly pursued the 
methods established by his predecessor. He was a strict believer 
in attention to details, in cultivating the perceptive faculties. A 
believer in the practical aspects of science, he stressed a scientific 
attitude toward nature. Many were the times he taught his young 
pupils to ask "Why?" and "Why not?" Even his teachers en- 
joyed a study of astronomy with him. 

* (>li. <it.. \K 'MC). 



Raleigh Public Schools 19 

The library was important, he thought, so during his adminis- 
tration the children were stirred and inspired to make contribu- 
tions of books. Some 685 readable books for children were do- 
nated, 202 pedagogical books, 980 texts, 68 bound reports. The 
School Supplement (see below) contained the names of many 
pupils contributing to the library. A total of 1,935 contributions 
for the three years of his administration marked this experiment 
as very successful. 

THE SCHOOL SUPPLEMENT 

An outstanding feature of Howell's administration was The 
School Supplement , a small paper edited by the superintendent 
and Avhite teachers, and published once a week by friends and 
patrons of the school. Furnished free of charge to all pupils in 
the Raleigh schools, it served as a means of communication be- 
tween parents and teachers and a desirable advertising medium 
for Raleigh Township. Advertisements written by students and 
teachers, and outside subscriptions, paid for the paper. It Avas 
sold for two and one half cents a copy outside the school. It was 
bound into volumes about the year 1898. One copy of that year 
is extant. It is to be found in the present superintendent's office. 

The Supplement was intended to serve several purposes. The 
leading one was to furnish for primary and intermediate grades 
more literature suited to their ability and taste. Each number 
of The Supplement contained some classic stories written for 
beginners on phonic principles. The paper was not confined to 
primary classes. Besides containing literature for all, it supplied 
material for geography, history, and nature study. It was in- 
tended to extend the school work in all departments. Children 
became proficient in reading by practice. 

Progress is made not by desperate struggling vrith difficult 
passages, but by much reading of easy, attractive literature. By 
means of The Supplement's appearing every week, all pupils, 
even the youngest, always had something of immediate interest 
to read, something they wanted to read for the sake of the thought 
in it, and not something they must read as a duty assigned. 

The Crosby School was opened in Howell's administration. A 
new Garfield School building was erected near Crosby. (See His- 
tory of Crosby-Garfield.) 

After his term was ended in 1897-98, Superintendent Howell 
resigned after three years to enlist for seiwice in the Spanish- 
American War. 



20 Historical Sketches of the 

SECOND ADMINISTRATION OF EDWARD P. MOSES 

1898-1907 

Superintendent Moses returned in 1898 from the professor- 
ship at Winthrop Normal College, after ''three of the happiest 
years," to the superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools. 

A later report of Moses during his second administration re- 
sulted in the remodeling of the curriculum. A course of study 
was plainly mapped out. A definite amount of work was assigned 
in each grade, year by year, in the public schools. The measure 
of success of each teacher was determined by the result of exami- 
nations and promotions made with more safety. 

A training class of 16 members was held twice a week to 
prepare teachers for vacancies in the faculty. Principles laid 
down by Froebel, Pestalozzi, Herbart, Spencer, and Joseph 
Payne, were studied. Members were employed to assist in the 
crowded primary grades at $10 per school month. Members of 
that class (1900) are valuable principals of elementary schools 
today (1941-42). Moses thought that none but trained teachers 
should be employed, that professional training for teachers was 
as necessary as for a physician. Weekly teachers' meetings were 
held to discuss discipline and professional studies. Moses often 
quoted Comenius as saying, "The noblest of all sciences is the 
science of teaching." 

In 1901 the Bartlett Yancey School was opened to relieve 
crowded conditions at Murphey School. The building used was 
the former home of A. M. Lewis on North Wilmington Street. 
The older, larger boys were transferred from Murphey to Cen- 
tennial. For the first time in 16 years there Avas a seat for each 
pupil in the schools, white and colored. 

Suburban schools were established about 1903 : Caraleigh to 
the south, Pilot Mills to the north, and Brooklyn to the west. 
(See History of Chavis School.) 

In this year (1903) there Avere one superintendent, 49 white 
teachers, and 34 colored teachers. Salaries of white teachers for 
the year amounted to $12,075.72. Colored teachers received 
$7,049.50. 

In 1904-05 a compulsory school law w^as passed for the Raleigh 
Township. It Avas deemed necessary to stop truancy and parental 
negligence. 

Raleigh's first high school was opened in 1905 on West Morgan 
Street. (See History of Raleigh High School.) 



Raleigh PrsLic Schools 3/ 

About 1906-07 a full-time domestic science teacher, Miss Lizzie 
Bellamy (Mrs. W. J. Peele), was employed, conducting classes 
in a four-room cottage on the high school lot. Vocal music was 
taught for the first time by Miss Nina Green (Mrs. LeRoy 
Thiem.) 

Moses, interested in development, was a member of the Wa- 
tauga Club, which was instrumental in establishing the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College in Raleigh. 

At a meeting of the State Literary and Historical Association 
at the Olivia Raney Library January 23, 1903, Mr. Moses intro- 
duced a resolution (a copy of Avhich can be found in the Public 
Laws of Xo7'th Carolina, 1903), an act to establish a historical 
commission. The bill was presented in the General Assembly a 
week later by Senator R. F. Beasley and unanimously passed 
both Houses. Mr. Moses, in an interview at Chapel Hill, June 
15, 1941, says the only lobbyists for that bill were the two patri- 
otic women, Mrs. E. E. Moffatt of Raleigh (aunt of Mrs. Jose- 
plius Daniels), and Mrs. T. K. Bruner of Salisbury (then living 
in Raleigh). 

Superintendent Moses resigned, leaving the Raleigh Public 
Schools in the hands of Frank M. Harper, one of his teachers. 
With the closing of Moses' administration, The Raleigh Evening 
Times (August 3, 1907) published the following: 

RETIRIN^G SUPERINTE^v^DEXT MOSES 

School Committee Adopts Testimonial in Recogxitiox of 
His Splendid Services 

At a meeting of the Raleigh Township School Committee, held 
this day, the following testimonial was unanimously adopted and 
the secretary directed to transmit a copy to Mr. Moses and have 
it published in the daily papers of the city : 

In view of the voluntary retirement from the superintencl- 
ency of the schools under its charge of Mr. Edward P. Moses, 
after a service of nineteen years, the school committee of 
Raleigh Township desires to give official expression to its 
appreciation of those services. By his thorough knowledge of 
pedagogy, his earnestness, his singleminded devotion to his 
work, his enthusiasm, inspiring his teachers to put forth their 
best effort, he has done a great work in our schools and has 
earned not only the gratitude of the committee, but of the 
whole community. 

The committee wishes to assure Mr. Moses of their personal 
regards and esteem and of their desire for his continued wel- 
fare and success. 



Historical Sketches of the 



ADMINISTRATION OF FRANK M. HARPER 

1907-1918 

Frank M. Harper was selected as siiperinteiident of the pub- 
lic schools at the resignation of E. P. Moses in 1907-On. 

Interesting statistics marking the beginning of Harper's ad- 
ministration are below : 

Value of Property 

Assessed value of township property — white $6,541,312.00 

colored 441,242.00 

Value of school property. white 114,168. 2S 

colored 35,500.00 

Xumber of school houses white 8 

colored 5 

Enrollment of Schools 
Name Enrollment Grades 

High 168 

Centennial _ 310 1-7 

Murphey 385 1-7 

Wiley .^ - 445 1-7 

Thompson ..299.. 1-6 

Caraleigh 88....... 1-4 

Pilot Mills 60 1-4 

Brooklyn 178 1-5 

COLORED 

Washington .....382 1-6 

Crosby^ 245..... 3-6 

Garfield 303 1-2 

Oberlin 183..... 1-5 

Chavis 74..... 7-9 

The School Committee of Raleigh Township 

Officers: James I. Johnson, Mayor; G. Rosenthal, Secretary. 

Members: R. H. Lewis, H. AV. Jackson, G. Rosenthal, E. L. 
Harris, B. F. Montague, T. B. Crowder. 

Superintendent Harper's requisites of a successful teacher 
were personality, scholarship, and earnestness of purpose. 

There were six members of the high school faculty in the new 
building on West Morgan Street. Latin was required. This was 



Raleigh Public Schools 



taught by Hugh Moi-son, the principal. Superintendent Harper 
was anxious to appoint "men of wisdom and common sense" to 
the principalship of Centennial, Murphey, and Wiley schools, 
at a salary of $1,200. 

The superintendent was interested in collecting a pedagogical 
library for teachers. Pupils not residents of Raleigh Township 
were required to pay a tuition fee. Ten dollars of the month's 
tuition fees was used to purchase books for the library. 

The first graduating class of the Raleigh High School (1907- 
1908) held its exercises in the old Academy of Music on South 
Salisbury Street. It contained 16 members. 

The ladies of the School Betterment Association for the school 
year 1907-08, with Mrs. Josephus Daniels as president, made it 
possible to provide necessary furniture for the high school. The 
first Tag Day in Raleigh was held on St. Patrick's Day of that 
year, and enough money to buy chairs for the auditorium was 
secured. 

Mr. C G. Keeble, teacher of English, was interested in the 
work of the two literary societies, Richard H. Lewis for boys, 
and Hugh Morson for girls. He conducted the first high school 
debate between Raleigh and Di;rham. The debating team was 
composed of William Joyner, William Richardson, George Bag- 
well, Frank Smethurst, and Neil Ivey. Frank and ISTeil debated 
Greensboro High School for the second successive year in 1909. 
Frank and Ivan Procter worked on the annual in this year. The 
Rattler's design was drawn by Clifton Beckwith. 

The schools were closed March 6, 1909, at the end of six 
months, for lack of funds. An election for an additional graded 
school tax of 15 cents on $100 worth of property and 45 cents 
on the poll was successfully held March 16. The schools received 
$50,000. A whirlwind canvas of two days secured the required 
number of signatures of interested citizens, and the schools were 
reopened March 29 and closed May 31, a term of eight months. 
The school committee borrowed $4,500 to carry on. It is inter- 
esting to recall the members of the whirlwind canvas : Mesdames 
Ivan Procter, Josephus Daniels, George Womble, Wiley Rogers, 
David Elias, J. S. Jeffries, Justin Jones, M. Rosenthal, William 
Robbins, Fab Weathers, Miss Bertha Rosenthal and Miss Sadie 
Robbins. 

L. E. Blanchard, class of 1909, Trinity College, was employed 
as a full-time teacher of science (physics and biology) in 1909. 



9.^ Historical Sketches of the 

The previous year Harry Heiiderlite and Polk Denmark ran a 
physics and chemistry laboratory in the basement of the school. 

"The incorrigible pupil of excessive animal spirits should have 
manual training, shop work, outdoor gardening. A room in the 
Centennial School building equipped with tools, in charge of a 
special teacher, would be beneficial for the incorrigible," said 
Superintendent Harper. A class in school gardening, conducted 
on the grounds of the Centennial School, was financed by a 
friend. The sale of the vegetables was used to refund money bor- 
rowed for the gardening. Twenty bushels of Irish potatoes were 
marketed at $1 per bushel. English peas, snap beans, and other 
vegetables were sold. The gardeners were pleased to keep records 
of expenses and sales. 

The compulsory school law enacted for Raleigh Township in 
1910 required the attendance of children from 8 to 14 years 
nine months of the year. There was no record of an attendance 
officer until 1912. 

The superintendent led a class of teachers interested in study- 
ing McMurry's How to Study, and Teaching Children How to 
St)idi/. (See History of the Lewis School.) 

The school committee endorsed a plan for taking the senior 
class to Washington, D. C, immediately after graduation, under 
the direction of Superintendent Harper. (There were memorable 
and laughable experiences during the satisfactory trip.) The 
party was privileged, through the courtesy of Senators Overman 
and Simmons and Congressman Pou, to have an audience with 
President Taft in the White House. They were received by the 
Speaker of the House, the Hon. Champ Clark. 

An athletic field Avas made at Centennial, and a football team 
was organized with Frank P. Graham (now of TJ. N. C.) in 
charge. The Paleigh High School team won the state champion- 
ship in football and baseball in the year 1911-12. The track 
team was also victorious. In the inter-high school debate, Raleigh 
High won a most signal victory with Greensboro and Charlotte. 
The credit was due Frank P. Graham, the English teacher at 
this time, for his skill and untiring efforts. The picture changed 
soon in view of an urgent need for adequate buildings. 

As the years advanced, the pedagogical library grew to contain 
600 volumes. It was liberally patronized by many of the teachers. 

The rental of text books, rented for the first time in the public 
schools in 1911-12, resulted in great gain. Assignments were 



Kaleigh PrBiJc Schools 



begun promptly. Valuable time was not lost. Kesponsibility for 
the care of the rented text was good for the child. 

At this time Dr. H. W. Chase, president of the University of 
l^orth Carolina, spent two days in the schools at the request 
of Superintendent Plarper. He discovered quite a number who 
needed special instruction. It was recommended that a room at 
Centennial School be fitted up with Avork benches, so that the 
children might have handwork along with certain literary 
branches. Individual attention was stressed. It was a problem 
to find a teacher fitted for the work. Miss Mamie Holman filled 
the bill. The need for industrial work in the coloi*ed school was 
acute; therefore basketry, chairbottoming, broommaking, wood- 
work and gardening Avere provided. 

Medical inspection by Dr. Aldert S. Root surpassed all expec- 
tations in 1912-13. 

Work by Truant Officer D. R. B^anim became effective in 191'2. 
There was an addition of 600 pupils; schools were crowded, 
double sessions were required in primary grades. Raleigh's great- 
est need at this time Avas fireproof buildings. 

The departmental system Avas introduced into the sixth and 
seventh grades. Mr. Harper believed that a change of A'oice Avas 
often restful. 

The operetta "Jack and the Beanstalk" Avas rendered by Miss 
Clara Chapel, supervisor of music. The sum of $161 was realized 
and invested in music books. To Mrs. M. B. Terrell as business 
manager Avas due the financial success. 

After the close of the Raleigh schools in May, 1912, Superin- 
tendent Harper, Avitli 43 teachers, visited the schools in Cincin- 
nati, observing the Avork for one Aveek. There Avere helpful con- 
ferences held each CA'ening concerning the day's observations. 

The greatest problem (1913-14) Avas providing additional 
rooms. The excess of AA'hite and colored pupils over the capacity 
of the school buildings numbered 500. The overcrowded classes 
wxre a great hindrance to eflicient Avork. Abnormally bright chil- 
dren from the fourth and fifth grades Avho deserved consider- 
ation, if classed separately, could save tAvo years in eight years, 
AA^as Mr. Harper's belief. Provision Avas made that those Avho 
desired instrumental music might substitute music for one high 
school subject. The privilege Avas guarded by Avise regulation. A 
high school orchestra Avas formed by Grustav Hagedorn. Each 
student was charged five dollars a Aveek. 



26 Historical Sketches of the 



By the year 1914-15 the TeaeluT-j' Retirement Fund had heen 
considered for seA-eral years. The following plan was outlined : 
One per cent a month was to be deducted from the teacher's 
salary and this amount applied to a retirement fund for teachers 
(who had served for thirtv years in the public schools"). This 
fund was to be supplemented from other sources from time to 
time, under the management of a board of trustees. The board 
was to consist of three teachers, one of whom Avas the sujierin- 
tendent. The two other members, making five in all. were mem- 
bers of the school committee. Thirty years of serWce were re- 
quired. Fifteen years of the thirty had to be spent in Xorth 
Carolina, or ten vears in Raleigh. The plan was inaugurated in 
January, 1915. It was recommended that the school committee 
contribute yearly an amount equal to that contributed by the 
teachers. The Retirement Fund changed its name to ''Teachers' 
M^utual Aid Society,'' amounting to $S00 in one school year. 
The fund was deposited in the Wake County Savings Bank at 
four per cent. The school committee contributed tuition fees 
from pupils not residing in Raleigh ToA^^lship. 

The Brooklyn School building on Glenwood Avenue was to- 
tally destroyed by fire in Julv, 1914. The loss was covered by 
insurance amounting to $1,853.04. The Murphey School burned 
the same year. Children of these schools had to be cared for. 
Some classes were conducted at the Bartlett Yancey School and 
others at Wiley and Raleigh High on account of the burned 
buildino's. The city issued a permit for the erection of the new 
school building on Glenwood Avenue. A fireproof building, it 
contained five large classrooms, constructed so that more rooms 
could be added. The amount of insurance was entirely inadequate 
to pay for the new building, so it was necessary to borrow $5,000. 
The cost was about $7,250. (See History of the Lewis School.) 
The County Board of Education gained a suit against the Board 
of County Commissioners for diverting school funds to the gen- 
eral fund of the county. Raleigh Township's share was $4,322.34. 

The Barbee School was awarded the attendance medal, offered 
by J. V. Sims, owner of the Daili/ Times, for a period of five 
years. (See History of Barbee School.) 

Manual training was gradually introduced into the schools 
as soon as possible. Home gardening in 1915 was conducted by 
Supervisor L. H. Roberts (colored) in the colored schools. ]\[ore 
than three hundred children received agricultural training, studv- 



Raleigh Public Schools 21 

iiig forty minutes in the classroom, eighty minutes in the garden 
plot. One hundred fifty vacant lots were turned into gardens by 
children, parents and mothers' clubs. One plot 30x50 feet yielded 
$19 worth of vegetables sold. 

A night school was conducted throughout the winter by Messrs. 
Keeble and Rotter three nights per week. They enrolled over 
one hundred. Summer school was also conducted. 

June 23, 1916, Mr. Gustav Rosenthal, for many years the 
secretary of the Raleigh Township School Committee, passed 
into the great beyond. He was elected a member of Raleigh Town- 
ship Committee in 1885, was made secretary in 1893, and served 
efficiently in this office up to the time of his death for 31 years. 
He possessed many traits of character that won for him strong 
personal friends. These he retained throughout his life. He took 
particular interest as secretary in the conduct of the Raleigh 
Public Schools, and gave them his entire time. He believed in 
discipline, and as a school committeeman could always be counted 
on to do his duty fearlessly as he saw it. The school children of 
Raleigh lost in him a valued friend. 

In the year 1917-18 there was an enrollment of 4,460 pupils. 
The children of the Raleigh Public Schools invested $63,101.63 
in war savings stamps. T. B. Crowder, many years a faithful 
member of the school board, died. His death was a great loss 
to the schools. Dr. R. H. Lewis, who for 33 years championed 
the cause of public education, resigned. The children of this 
city owe him a debt of gratitude for his labors in their behalf. 

The following high school boys gave their lives for their 
country: Seymour Whiting, Walter Jeffreys, Byron Stephenson, 
Harry Watson, Djalma Marshburn, Dudley Robbins, Alexander 
Pickell. Two bronze tablets to Seymour Whiting and Walter 
Jeffreys were placed on the auditorium Avails of the Raleigh 
High School. The tablets were contributed by pupils and faculty. 

A report of the Teachers' Mutual Aid Society, organized in 
1915, follows: 

Cash in bank $ 350.28 

Loan to teachers 91.00 

Liberty Bonds 2,500.00 

Amount turned in by the school board 449.51 

Liabilities (amount due on Liberty Bunds i.. 60.00 

Mary A. Page. Trvaxnrcr. 

The Raleigh Public Schools were given a regular system of 
physical training under a trained physical director. A good com- 



^S Historical Sketches of the 



pulsory attendance law was carefully enforced. Domestic science, 
headed by experienced teachers, was placed on a scientific basis. 
Much interest was manifested. The department needed space. 
One hundred fourteen girls enrolled. 

Four new libraries in four colored schools Avere secured by a 
bighearted citizen and appropriations from the school commit- 
tee. The library at the Garfield School was kept open during the 
summer and liberally patronized. 

The year 1917 completed ten years of service by Superin- 
tendent Frank M. Harper. 

1907-08 1917-18 

Kalei.di local graded tax $20,922.01 .$.o5..594.16 

(Vnuity apportionmi^iit .$16.o0(;.20 .«2T,2:^.:isO 

Out of tdwiisliii* tuition .$ i:!2..~>o .i l.(Mi."i.(i(» 

White enrollment I.!t2s 2.s.")4 

Colored enrollment 1.187 l.G.So 

Total enrollment .3,115 4..")?.n 

Cases of tardiness 5.331 T<)3 

Cases of absence 31.423 17.5(;i 

Teachers' salaries $32,798.27 .$67,984.18 

Number of teachers 77 119 

Number of study courses in liiKli 

school 1 3 

Members of high school faculty, 

includint,' principal 6 13 

In getting information for Historical Sketches of the 
Ealeioh Pfblic Schools, I am indebted to the annual reports 
of Superintendent Harper (1908-1917-18) kept by Miss Lizzie 
Terrell. 



ADMINISTRATION OF HARRY HOWELL 

1918-1921 

After 11 years of earnest, efficient service as superintendent, 
Frank M. Harper resigned, being succeeded by Harry Howell. 
Mr. Howell's two "large purposes" Avere to increase teachers' 
salaries and extend the educational activities of the schools. "The 
public schools should minister to the educational needs of all 
persons avIio have definite and reasonable desires for training, no 
matter Avhat may be their ages or station, and particularly those 
who are in employment and who wish a better education. There 
are the illiterates; those with meager advantages; those who. 



Raleigh Public Schools '29 

though employed, desire to prepare for some specific employ- 
ment or career, and those who have entered industrial occupa- 
tions who wish to increase their skill and earning capacity. These 
could be taught in classes conducted in the elementary schools 
with assistance from the State Department of Education," said 
Howell. He Avished to divide the funds between salaries and ex- 
tensions. 

Following in the footsteps of Superintendent Harper, Mr. 
Howell realized keenly the needs of the schools expressed by 
his predecessor. He found the same urgent need for adequate 
buildings that Superintendent Harper had found. He outlined 
his Avork clearly, at the beginning of his administration, and 
worked toward his goal ; but little relief was to be had. 

Howell advocated training in industries. He suggested that 
arrangements be made with two excellent local institutions for 
I^egroes Avhereby the high school students could obtain very good 
training in industrial subjects in Avliich they were interested. 
He stressed seAving classes and household arts for girls. He be- 
lieved that the potential value of music in the li\^es of pupils 
Avas great enough to warrant serious attention, and that a super- 
A'isor's entire time Avas needed for music classes in the high school. 
Large glee clubs and orchestras Avould contribute greatly to the 
life of the city, Avas his thought. The tAvo departments of the 
high school most in need of improvement, according to HoAvell, 
Avere science and history. "Extension of the science department 
will iiiA^oh^e the enlargement of the laboratory space and equip- 
ment," he reported. He considered a study period held where a 
recitation Avas conducted, a farce. He took the music and physical 
training classes from the auditorium, which Avas Avithout seats, 
finding space for them elseAvhere. The Good Shepherd Church 
Avas used for assembly service. 

"A knoAAdedge of the phenomena and the laAvs of nature both 
forms the basis of modern industrial progress and supplies some 
of the most interesting and formatiA'e material for training the 
youth. The place to begin to acquire that knoAvledge is in the 
elementary school, because children are naturally attracted to 
such facts and because the majority of them never reach high 
school, Avhere systematic science training is giA^en. Our children 
in the grades are getting none of it. Our teachers are untrained 
for this sort of instruction. We need a supeiwisor A\dio Avould 
train and supervise the teachers in nature study, elementary 



30 Historical Sketches of the 

science, including gardening. I have become convinced that gar- 
den teaching through the means of classroom recitations, direct 
observation in the room and out-of-doors, the use of window- 
boxes, breeding cages, hotbeds, cold frames and demonstration 
gardens at school, Avould be far more effective in intelligent and 
permanent interest in gardening than the 'hurrah' methods now 
advocated."* The efficiency of Superintendent Harry Howell was 
recognized and his help appreciated by his corps of teachers. 



ADMINISTRATION OF SAMUEL B. UNDERWOOD 

1921-1923 

Mr. Samuel B. Underwood from Wilmington, succeeded Mr. 
Harry HoAvell as superintendent of Raleigh Public Schools in 
1921-22. 

Members of the school board were T. B. Eldridge, mayor ; 
S. W. Marr, William J. Andrews, J. F. Ferrell, Mrs. w'^, A. 
Withers, Mrs. W. A. T'pchurch, and A. M. Maupin. 

Mr. UnderAvood's statement before the school board in August, 
1921, follows: "Raleigh's chief school problem is a financial one. 
I came to Raleigh, after mature deliberation, with a full realiza- 
tion of the difficulties in the way, but Avith sufficient faith in 
Raleigh's interest in the welfare of her children to believe these 
problems can be solved. It takes a long time to solve a problem 
of such magnitude. The school needs of Raleigh have accumu- 
lated Avhere it is necessary to expend a large amount to give the 
children proper school facilities, to give the voters an oppor- 
tunity to decide in favor of the child's Avelfare." 

A special representative of the United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation made a survey soon after his report to the board. Archi- 
tects Avere consulted. They reported the need for one and a half 
million dollars for adequate buildings to relieve deplorable school 
conditions. The first immediate problem Avas to relieve the con- 
gestion, to provide actual seating room, to do aAvay Avith double 
sessions. Wiley, Thompson, and Crosby-Garfield Avere crude 
structures at this time. The High School needed an addition 
of seven brick rooms designed for manual training, classes in 



* Harry Howell, Report to the Raleigh School Committee. April 16. 
1919 (to be found in the present superiutendenfs ortiee). 



Raleigh Public Schools 31 

science and academic subjects. There Avere 11 scliools at this 
time. The superintendent was instructed to invite representatives 
from many civic organizations to serve as an advisory board with 
reference to the school building program. An annual tax was 
levied to pay said bonds. The act to authorize the issuance of 
bonds of Raleigh Township for school purposes was ratified 
December 14, 1921. The Raleigh Chamber of Commerce favored 
the bond issue, so i:)etition was made to the County Board of 
Commissioners to order a special election April -4, 1922, for the 
purpose of voting on the issuing of bonds not exceeding $1,000,- 
000 for buildings and land. 

A committee of business men and women was appointed to 
cooperate with the school committee in the building program. 
A new day Avas dawning for the Raleigh Public Schools. 

Special emphasis on fundamental subjects of the course of 
study was part of the plan for school work. A definite and logical 
course of study was worked out by Miss Martha Kelly (Mrs. 
James Tippett of Chapel Hill), supervisor of elementary instruc- 
tion during Superintendent Underwood's administration. The 
children heartily cooperated Avith standard texts. Their progress 
in reading was notCAVorthy. The superintendent's plans could be 
summarized as folloAvs : The teacher is the real key to any school 
situation ; time for supervised study AA^th pupils, and time for 
individual pupils should be given; the most important task of 
the school is to teach the child hoAV to study. 

Busy Avith building, Superintendent UnderAvood's health 
failed. He offered his resignation May 30, 1923, to be acted on 
June 30 of the same year. A member of the school committee 
suggested that Avith a year's leave of absence, the principal of 
the High School, H. F. Siygley, could serve in his stead. The 
school board expressed itself January 24, 1924, in this Avay: 
"We AA'ish to put on record our appreciation of Superintendent 
UnderAvood's faithful service. A teacher by instinct and learniiig, 
and an administrator of high attainment, he AA^as prepared to 
solve the problems of our schools. During his administration, by 
AA'ise planning and effort, Raleigh A'oted a million dollar bond 
issue (April 4, 1922). He AA^as interested in raising the personnel 
of the city teachers. He commanded the respect of our com- 
munity by his ability, courtesy, and tact, and gained the admira- 
tion of his co-laborers by his Avholehearted and intelligent co- 
operation." 



32 Historical Sketches of the 

ADMINISTRATION OF HUBBARD F. SRYGLEY 

1923-1930 

H. F. Srygley, principal of Raleigh Higli, Avas elected super- 
intendent of the Kaleigh Public Schools in 1923-24, succeeding 
S. M. Underwood. 

Members of the school board in that year were E. E. Culbreth, 
mayor ; George L. White, Dr. C^larence Poe, Dr. W. C. Horton, 
William Bailey Jones, Mrs. W. A. Withers, and Mrs. W. A. 
Upchurch. 

The million dollar bond issue of April 4, 1922, made it possi- 
ble to replace the following elementary schools with modern fire- 
proof buildings : Wiley, Thompson, Caraleigh (known as Eliza 
Pool), Pilot Mills (known as Barbee), and Washington High 
School. A $1,300,000 bond issue of 1926, during Srygley's ad- 
ministration, resulted in new schools opened in 1927; Hayes- 
Barton, Fred A. Olds, and Boylan Heights. (See histories of 
these schools.) 

Crowded conditions at the High School on West Morgan 
Street resulted in purchasing the Benehan Cameron property, 
four acres, two blocks east of the capitol, for $60,000. The needed 
building known as the Hugh Morson High School was ready 
September 2, 1924. (See History of Hugh Morson High School.) 

The overcrowded capacity of the Hugh Morson High School 
23roved the urgent need for a new building in the western part 
of Raleigh. A site Avas selected on the Smallwood property on 
St. Mary's Street. (See History of Xeedham B. Broughton 
High School.) 

Extra-curricular activities directed by Miss Mildred English, 
assistant superintendent, and Dr. Thomas Alexander of Colum- 
bia University, beginning in 1923-24, resulted in rapid expansion 
of the Raleigh school system. The activities of Miss English 
reported by Mrs. Mary Powell Brantley of Hugh Morson High 
School (1941-42) follows: 

The project in curriculum revision in the Raleigh schools, be- 
gun in 1923 under the direction of Dr. Thomas Alexander of 
Teachers College, Columbia University, was capably directed by 
Miss Mildred English, assistant superintendent and director of 
instruction from 1923-24 to 1934-35. 

Miss English gave vitality and direction to a program of cur- 
riculum experimentation, Avhich was a pioneer experiment, not 
only in the state, but also in the nation. 



Raleigh Public Schools 



Activity programs, with the interest around a large unit of 
work, were just coming in. As they have done on many other 
vital occasions, the primary teachers led the way in this reform. 
Dealing, as such teachers do, Avith the child as a whole, there 
were no subject-matter barriers to break down, and no entrenched 
interests of traditional organizations in periods, credits and units 
to fight. The plan of reorganization adopted in Raleigh was to 
select certain fundamental principles essential to democratic liv- 
ing, and individual and collective well-being ; to place these prin- 
ciples on certain maturity levels ; to set up objectives and suggest 
subject-matter fields for attaining these; to- choose activities ap- 
propriate to the various groups and of interest to them ; to pursue 
these activities as long as they were fruitful for pupil growth; 
to check the progress made by criteria drawn up by teacher com- 
mittees, and to progress to a higher level of interest and activities. 
In doing this the high schools adopted some of the organization 
features used in the lower grades. Each high school teacher of 
a large unit of work was given a group of pupils with whom 
she worked three 45-minute periods per day. The teacher and 
pupils, under this plan, chose some center of interest about which 
to place their work. Generally these centers of interest were in 
the fields of social studies and comprised in scope the work form- 
erly done in the social studies and English classes. Some were 
combinations of science and English, science and history, mathe- 
matics and social studies, or social studies with some of the 
languages. The social studies were made the core of the cur- 
riculum. 

Miss English directed the work in the high schools as well as 
in the elementary grades. To further the work a professional 
library was begun which served as a reading and work room, a 
place for committee meetings and individual conferences. The 
entire faculty was organized into committees which met fre- 
quently, worked out their individual projects and made written 
reports. These repoi'ts were typed or mimeographed and held 
in the office of the assistant superintendent for reference. As the 
work progressed, so many requests came from other schools for 
information that Miss English edited these reports and put 
them in published form. Meetings were held frequently. One 
year Dr. Lois Mossman of Teachers College ga^^e an extension 
course in educational procedures Avhich was taken for credit by 
two thirds of the entire facultv. 



3Jf Historical Sketches of the 

Dr. Tliomas Alexander of Teachers College, who directed the 
entire project in cnrriculum revision, was a frequent visitor, 
and on such occasions held meetings Avitli the faculty of a par- 
ticular school. Various committees and individual conferences 
were arranged by Miss English. Interesting and enjoyable fea- 
tures of such meetings and conferences were the afternoon teas 
and dinner meetings which were held for a particular group. 
Sometimes these teas or dinner meetings were held in the home 
economics room or cafeteria of one of the high schools. At other 
times they were held at the home of the assistant superintendent 
or faculty members. The teachers in the Hugh Morson High 
School who were doing the unit Avork organized themselves into a 
group and held monthly dinner discussions, the dinner meetings 
in rotation at the homes of group members. At such meetings 
the first hour was spent in social activities and dinner, the sec- 
ond in discussions and plans for further Avork. There was a 
recording secretary who kept minutes of all business and dis- 
cussions and distributed these among the members for future 
reference. Prominent educators were frequent visitors at these 
meetings. 

Samples of children's work were collected and displayed in 
state, national, and even international exhibits. A large exhibit 
was sent from the Raleigh Public Schools to Frankfort, Ger- 
many, in 1932. It was placed in an international exhibit of 
education arranged by the superintendent of schools of the city, 
in a building which had been used by the allied army of occupa- 
tion in (lermany after the World War. After the French army 
of occupation was withdrawn from Frankfort in 1930, the super- 
intendent of schools obtained the use of their former barracks 
from the city for an international exhibit hall of education. 
Ealeigh teachers studying in Germany in the summer of 1932 
saw with pride samples of the work of Raleigh school children 
in this exhibit hall. Miss English encouraged Raleigh teachers 
to study, to travel, and to attend state and national professional 
meetings. Many teachers under her inspiration began graduate 
work at Teachers College or elsewhere. Every year saw Raleigh 
teachers in attendance at the iSTational Education Association 
and other national meetings of a professional nature. They ap- 
peared on programs at these meetings and arranged exhibits of 
school work and projects. 



Raleigh Public Schools 35 

At the close of H. F. Srygley's administration in 1930, an 
appreciation for Miss Mildred English was expressed by the 
J^egro Division of the Raleigh Public Schools. Her great service 
as assistant superintendent had proved an inspiration. Mrs. Julia 
A. Williams (principal of Lucille Hunter School), Miss Rosa- 
belle B. Manly (principal of Oberlin School), W. H. Fuller 
(principal of Washington High), and J. L. Levister (principal 
of the elementary section of Washington High), reported to 
Superintendent Srygley : "The ISTegro Division of Raleigh Public 
Schools has been developed and expanded, as well as housed, in 
convenient, comfortable quarters, with the enrichment of the 
course of study throughout the system culminating in a high 
school equal to the best." 



ADMINISTRATION OF PAUL S. DANIEL 
1930-1936 

Paul S. Daniel, at one time principal of Junior High School, 
and a short while principal of Broughton High School, Avas 
elected to the superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools 
after the resignation of H. F. Srygley, September, 1930. 

The school term was reduced to eight months in 1931. Cur- 
ricular activities were cut out. "ISTo more frills," they said. 

In 1932-33 the Methodist Orphanage entered the state system 
of public schools under the supervision and direction of the 
school committee of Raleigh Township. 

The Parent-Teacher Council of 1932 deplored crowded con- 
ditions of classrooms suited for 35 pupils, occupied by 50. There 
was loss of teachers and reduction of teachers' salaries. The 
established salary schedule was cut 15 per cent. A proviso was 
inserted into teachers' contracts protecting the school committee 
in case of an emergency. The year 1934-35 was the last school 
year for Miss Mildred English as assistant superintendent of 
schools. The assistant superintendency was discontinued and 
Miss English was employed as English teacher at Needham B. 
Broughton High. The Parent-Teacher Council expressed appre- 
ciation of the fine spirit shown by Miss English in bringing 
Raleigh schools up to a high standard. The slogan had been 
''Raleigh Children First." 



S6 Historical Sketches of the 

The first graduating exercises for both schools were held in 
the City Memorial Auditorium in 1934. Caps and gowns were 
used, and have been required since, except for one vear, 1935. 

The school committee of 1934-35 requested the county com- 
missioners to call a special election, the purpose being to A'ote 
a tax \exy at such a rate as to raise an additional supplement. 
This Avas to be used for the purpose of supplementing the cost 
of an eight-month term, and for creating a nine-month term. 
The election was held July 17, 1934, but was defeated three to 
two. The maximum tax rate voted in this election was 16 cents on 
the one hundred dollar ($100) assessed valuation on property. 

The secretary and a member of the school board were author- 
ized to confer with the Wake County delegation in the General 
Assembly to have a bill introduced. It was to provide compen- 
sation for certain teachers with long records of service in the 
Raleigh Public Schools. The board decided that "because con- 
ditions have changed so much since the vote on a school supple- 
ment in 1934, and because the effects of drastic reduction in 
school expenditures have become more keenly recognized, Ave 
feel that our citizens should now he given another opportunity 
to decide Avhether or not they wish to improve the educational 
opportunities offered by our schools for the last three years. 
With a shortened term of eight months, Avith large classes and 
extremely Ioav salaries, our schools have lost their approved 
rating by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools and a considerable amount of their former efficiency. 
We need a term of nine months, an increase in the number of 
teachers, and an increase in present salaries. The highest salary 
noAv paid is $864 per year. It is less than the minimum salary 
of $900 recognized by the Southern Association. There is also 
need for a tAvelfth grade to better prepare students for college." 

Miss Frances Lacy Avas supervisor of elementary schools for 
the first time in 1935-36. 

The Raleigh classroom teachers were disturbed by the gen- 
eral conditions in 1935-36, and a petition was sent to the mem- 
bers of the school board Avitli certain propositions. A motion by 
the board arranged to liaA'e the classroom teachers notified that 
their petition had been filed as part of the board's records. The 
superintendent Avas authorized to explain the attitude of the 
board in all matters referred to in the petition. A second supple- 
ment was voted on Saturday, March 21, 1936. The maximum 



Raleigh Public Schools 37 

tax rate in this election was 25 cents on the one hundred dollars 
($100) assessed valuation on property. This supplement passed, 
but difficulties concerning registration arose. The passing of the 
supplement was contested, votes were culled out, and the matter 
finally dropped. 

Superintendent Daniel was reelected for the school year 
1936-37, but offered his resignation. By June 18 the committee 
began to receive applications. A number applied. It was finally 
recommended that Claude F. Gaddy (not applying) be elected 
superintendent, to begin his administration in July, 1936, at a 
salary of $4,500. 



ADMINISTRATION OF CLAUDE F. GADDY 
1936-1942 

B]! Fraxces B. Lacy 

When Claude F. Gaddy became superintendent the Raleigh 
schools were in a state of unrest. Because of a closely contested 
school election and a public disagreement between two members 
of the school staff, the community had, to some extent, lost con- 
fidence in the schools. When Mr. Gaddy resigned five and a half 
years later he had not only built up in the citizens of Raleigh 
confidence in their schools but he had also made of the school 
system an efficient democratic organization composed of teachers, 
principals, and other workers eager to follow his leadership in 
working for the good of boys and girls. 

The growing improvement of relationships in the community 
and in the schools was one of Mr. Gaddy's outstanding accom- 
plishments but it was by no means the only one. 

A school supplement was voted April 25, 1938. This provided 
for a ninth month, a twelfth year, reduced teacher load, and 
also supplied funds for a small addition to the salary of the 
teachers. The election was not only passed by a decisive majority 
but it lacked the bitterness and contention of previous elections. 
This Avas definitely a result of the confidence of the people in 
the school superintendent. 

Mr. Gaddy did much to promote professional growth. Teach- 
ers and principals were encouraged, sometimes in a very prac- 
tical and concrete way, to attend state and national meetings. 
Opportunities were given teachers to visit other schools in 



38 Historical Sketches of the 

Raleigh and elsewhere. Specialists Avere employed to come and 
help evaluate classroom procedures. 

Under his leadership teachers organized themselves into groups 
for the study of various curriculum problems. In one or two 
instances experts were called in to lead these group studies. The 
most successful of the classes was one led by James S. Tippett. 
A list of minimum skills for the elementary schools was selected. 
This has not only been of aid to the Raleigh teachers but has 
been used in other schools throughout the state. 

Much was done during Mr. Gaddy's administration in the 
improvement and expansion of school property. 

New furnaces were installed, roofs Avere mended, Avails painted, 
seats added, new auditorium curtains bought and the grounds 
were improved and beautified. 

A modern building replaced the old Crosby-Garfield School. 
Another floor Avas added to the Boylan Heights School, doubling 
the capacity of the building. At LeAvis School an auditorium was 
built. 

Cafeterias Avere either built or enlarged in the folloAving 
schools : Barbee, Boylan Heights, Fred A. Olds, Murphey, Hayes- 
Barton, Wiley and Crosby-Garfield. 

Library space Avas increased at Hugh Morson, ISTeedham 
Broughton, Thompson, LeAvis, Boylan Heights, Crosby-Garfield, 
Lucille Hunter and Oberlin. A definite sum Avas set aside each 
year for buying additional library books. 

Property on Person, Xcav Bern and Morgan streets was bought 
from the Central Methodist Church at a cost of $20,000. This 
Avas done to provide space for the expansion of the vocational 
and home economics departments and to furnish offices for the 
administration unit. 

More important than these tangible accomplishments and 
more far-reaching is a spirit that Mr. Gaddy Avas able to inspire 
in his co-Avorkers, in the children and in the patrons of the 
schools. His genuine interest in their Avelfare, personal and pro- 
fessional, his understanding of boys and girls and their needs, 
his ability to interpret the schools to the community — the effect 
of these w^ill continue and cannot be measured in terms of the 
few years that Mr. Gaddy served Raleigh as its school super- 
intendent. 

Mr. Gaddy's administration ended Avith his resignation, eft'ec- 
tive February 1, 1942. Jesse O. Sanderson, principal of the 
Methodist Orphanage School, succeeded him. 



Raleigh Public Schools 39 

SKETCHES OF THE RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

1876-1942 
THE JOHNSON HIGH AND NORMAL SCHOOL 

The school was organized in 1865, for Negroes. It Avas con- 
ducted by white teachers from the North. Miss Louise Dorr 
was' principal. The school, in an old building, was located on 
West Street near West Edenton. The high school and normal 
department were supported by the Friend Freedman's Aid So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania. Care was given to prepare pupils of 
advanced grades for teaching. Greek and Latin Avere taught to 
two boys preparing for Lincoln University, and two preparing 
for the Theological Department of HoAvard University. 

An elementary department of the Johnson School was sup- 
ported by public school funds of Raleigh ToAvnship in 1877. 
Classes for adults (many grandfathers attended) Avere conducted 
at night. 

The Johnson School Avas the largest colored school in Raleigh 
in 1879. 



OBERLIN SCHOOL 
1941-42 

Margaret Harris, Principal 

The school is located in Oberlin Village in the Avestern part 
of Raleigh. 

The first school was conducted in a Methodist church in 1869. 
A rural school of four months Avas held in a one-room building 
in 1882. With the groAvth of the school, tAvo rooms Avere added 
in 1884, in McAlpine's administration. In 1916 (Harper's) the 
three-room building was moved back, leaving the site for a new 
brick structure. This building contains eight classrooms with 
steam heat, electric lights, drinking fountains, a library (part- 
time librarian), and an auditorium in the basement. There is 
great need of enlarged space for serving lunches to underprivi- 
leged children. The three-room building, moA^ed back on the lot, 
was later used for classes in domestic science. All girls above the 
fifth grade were taught cooking and soAving. 



w 



Historical Sketches of the 






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Raleigh Public Schools - -kl 

Miss R. E. Manlev, priucipal-teaclier, served through 1940-41, 
but resigned in the spring of 1941 because of poor health. Activi- 
ties of Miss Manley's last year -were interestingly participated 
in and well described by individual pupils. "Making the Home 
Beautiful," ''The Fireman," "The Community Store," "Clean- 
liness in Holland," "The Farm," "Health in Our Community," 
"New Story of Light," and "North Carolina Education in the 
Seventh Grade," Avere a few of these. 

Enrollment... 251 

Grades 7 

Teachers 7 

Library Books 969 

WPA Librarian 1 

P.T.A. Membership 55 (Approx.) 



WASHINGTOA" HIGH SCHOOL 

1941-42 
M. "W. AKi>rs, Principal 

A two-story wooden building was erected in IS 69 on West 
South Street for a school, to be conducted by Avhite teachers 
from the North and supported by the American Missionary So- 
ciety of New York City. Prof. Fisk P. Brewer was the first to 
take charge of the school. He brought his family to Raleigh and 
lived as a missionary worker for the education of the Negro. 
Professor Brewer was at one time teacher of Greek at a summer 
session of U. N. C, and later served as Ignited States Minister 
to Greece. More teachers came as the school grew, for students 
were showing an appreciation for an education. 

In 1875 the city bought the building and the school was re- 
organized as a public school. 

In 1916 J. L. Levister from Shaw L^niversity became prin- 
cipal, and at this time the agitation for a high school was re- 
iieAved. The students finishing the elementary school had no 
school to attend for advanced work, as ShaAv L'^niversity and 
St. Augustine's had discontinued the high school department. 
Several rooms were added to Washington School that year, along 
with fire escapes. 



Jf2 Historical Sketches of the 

The elementary buiklhig had served "well. Superintendent 
Harry HoAvell (1918-21) realized the need for a new one. 

With the bond issne for needed school buildings during S. B. 
Underwood's administration (1921-23) the site at 1000 Fayette- 
ville Street beyond the railroad tracks was chosen for the Wash- 
ington School. The building was begun in 1923, and was opened 
in the fall of 1924. It was known as the Washington Elementary 
and High School. A three-story brick building, it has thirty 
classrooms, an auditorium, a cafeteria and a library. The prob- 
lem is to keep children through the elementary grades long 
enough to enter high school and prove the need for the ad- 
vanced grades. 

The school has grown steadily. In 1927 14 rooms were added 
as a south wing to the building. A division was made, separating 
the elementary and high school departments, each in charge of 
a principal. M. W. Akins, a teacher in the natural science de- 
partment, became principal of both sections, continuing until 
1941-42. 

The corps of teachers is among the best. Outstanding colleges 
and universities are represented in the faculty. St. Augustine's, 
ShaAv^ Talledega, A. (S: T., Wilborforce, Howard and Columbia 
universities are among these. English, mathematics, science, 
music, Latin, French, mechanical arts, and industrial arts, are 
included in the school curriculum. Among the extra-curricular 
activities are football, boxing, debating, dramatics. Girl Reserves, 
Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Hi-Y, an honorary society, and pho- 
tography. During the year campaigns are observed. Vocational 
guidance, j^egro history, character building, the Community 
Chest, the Red Cross, and tuberculosis, are stressed for a definite 
period. 

Mrs. I. M. Mitchell, the oldest teacher in the system, has 
served for 67 years. 

Enrollment (high school) 731 

Grades (high scliool) - 8-11 

Teachers (high school) 27 

Graduates (high school) 29 

Enrollment (elementary) 863 

Grades (elementary) 7 

Teachers (elementary) 20 

Library Books — - 3,017 



Raleigh Public Schools -43 

CENTENNIAL SCHOOL 

Tlie Centennial was organized in the 60-year-old Governor's 
Mansion, ''The Palace," in the Centennial year 1876. 

The first principal was John E. Dngger of Warrenton, N. C. ; 
the second, Andrew J. McAlpine of Weaverville, JST. C. The 
third principal, E. P. Moses of Goldsboro, N. C, became super- 
intendent. Under him, as principals, were W. V. Savage, 
Charles J. Parker, Mrs. J. M. Barbee, Mabel Hale, and Mrs. 
M. B. Terrell. Frank M. Harper followed Moses as superin- 
tendent. Lender him Avere Gray King, a Mr. Kelley, Mary A. 
Page, and Mary B. Holman. The Centennial building closed in 
1930-31 and the site became the City Memorial Auditorium in 
1932. This was the original site of the Governor's Mansion 
(1816). 

MURPHEY SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Emma D. Conk, Principal 

Murphey School at 443 North Person Street, the second pub- 
lic school building for the white, was established in 1887 during 
Superintendent E. P. Moses' administration. The school was 
named for Archibald D. Murphey (1777-1832) of Caswell 
County, called the "Father of Common Schools." The two-story 
wooden building was erected by Messrs. Llawkins and Andrews. 
The first principal was Miss Eliza Pool of Oxford, who joined 
the Raleigh Public Schools in 1886. She continued there until 
more advanced pupils were transferred to Wiley. She then be- 
came principal of Wiley. 

During the demand for men as principals, the Murphey 
School had P. E. Seagle (1907-08) for two years; W. P. Stacey 
half a year; J. L. Hathcock one and a half years. He was suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. Charlotte M. Williamson. Other principals were 
Miss Pearl Cross (Mrs. R. B. Green), teacher of Palmer method 
of writing; Miss Mary W. Quinn (Mrs. Hartwick Mills) ; Miss 
Myrtle Miller (Mrs. W. F. Upshaw), and Miss Emma Conn, 
who came in 1920. She has continued successfully as principal 
to the present time (1941-42). 

The building Avas burned in the summer of 1914. Some of the 
classes were conducted in the residence of A. M. Lewis on North 



Historical Sketches of the 



Wilmington Street, known as Bartlett Yancey School. This is 
now the residence of Dr. Charles Lee Smith. Other classes were 
conducted at Wiley and Raleigh High. Daily double sessions 
were necessary. 

A new two-story fireproof building was ready in 1916-17. 

A library was opened in Xovember of !1930. Books Avere cata- 
logued and classified. The Parent-Teacher Association, under 
the leadership of Mrs. W. B. Aycock, gave many of the fine col- 
lection. Three hundred forty dollars was spent during 1940-41 
for new books. This ])ast vear it bad a librarian for several 
months paid by the WPA. 

In 1927 eight classrooms and a new section for the library 
and auditorium were added. 

Some of the equipment consists of a stereopticon with three 
hundred slides, pianos, a typewriter, a radio, victrolas, 101 pic- 
tures, and two sets of curtains for the stage of the auditorium. 

Present activities consist of civic, good citizenship, bird and 
science clubs; Boys' and Grirls' Scout organizations. Girl Re- 
serves, Boys' Safety Patrol, and the Murphey Band. 

MurpJieif Flash, an interesting monthly publication, in com- 
petition with other elementary school papers, Avas graded as best 
from the elementary schools of Raleigh for the year 1941-42. 

Enrollment 762 

Library Books 2,108 

Magazines 18 

P.T.A. Membership 322 

P.T. Council Study Course and 

Membership (S rating) 9 



METHODIST ORPHAXAOE SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Mrs. Lilliax C. Saxdlixg. Principal 

In 1899 a charter was granted for the establishment of the 
Methodist Orphanage. The site was purchased from Mr. John 
Devereaux. 

The first l)uilding, the Brown, Avas known as C^ottage 1. The 
first child was admitted in 1901. Rev. John Wesley Jenkins 
was first superintendent; Miss Mattie Atwater was first matron. 



Ealeigh Public Schools -4-5 

Miss Atwater became the second Mrs. Jenkins. The first prin- 
cipal was Miss Nannie DaA'is. The first 15 children attended 
school in the Methodist Church on Peace Street. 

Miss Lncy Ricks of Warren County was appointed first teacher 
at the Orphanage. Classes were conducted in the Brown Build- 
ing, later in the Jenkins Building. When the BroAvn Avas con- 
demned in 1924, the Vann became the administration building. 
All classes are now conducted on the third floor of the Vann. 
There is a modern library with a part-time librarian. 

The school has two honor rolls, one for school and one for 
work. Good behavior is required for each. School hours last for 
half the school day. Work is done in the remaining half. Good 
behavior in the early years brought trips to the well-known 
Royster candy factory. 

The first class for graduation (about 1919) consisted of one 
boy and three girls. At one time the two upper classes attended 
Needham B. Broughton High (ready in 1929). 

On alternate Saturdays the boys and girls are permitted to 
attend picture shows and many of the musical programs and 
plays. The Museum, Hall of History, State College and other 
places of interest are visited by the grades. 

Rev. A. S. Barnes became superintendent in 1915. The growth 
of the home under his care was remarkable. From the beginning, 
with 15 pupils and one teacher (1901), the Orphanage has 
grown to the enrollment of 282 pupils and nine teachers (1941- 
42). Jesse 0. Sanderson, principal of the Orphanage for ten 
years, became superintendent of the Raleigh Public Schools in 
1942, and was folloAved by Mrs. Lillian C. Sandling as principal 
of the Orphanage. Since 1932-33, the school operates under the 
supervision of the Raleigh Public Schools, with a nine-month 
session and 12 grades. 

Enrollment (high school section) 85 

Grades (high school section) 4 

Teachers (high school section).... ._ 4 

Graduates (high school) 18 

Enrollment (elementary section) 197 

Grades (elementary section) 7 

Teachers (elementary section) 5 

Library Books 2,712 

Part-time Librarian 1 

Magazine Subscriptions 28 



If6 Historical Sketches of the 

WILEY SCHOOL 

1941-42 

]\Irs. Mary B. Sherwood, Principal 

The original Wiley Scliool on the corner of Morgan and West 
streets Avas a wooden structure of four classrooms on each of 
two floors, built in 1900. 

The school was named for Oalvin H. Wiley, the first superin- 
tendent of public instruction in North Carolina. The class work 
(at first) above the fourth grade was departmental. Subjects 
were English, English history, Latin, German, French, algebra 
and geometry. Pupils ready for these subjects Avere transferred 
from Centennial and Murphey schools. Miss Eliza Pool, prin- 
cipal of Murphey School, became the first principal of Wiley, 
remaining until she was connected with the first high school in 
1905. 

Crowded conditions brought about the use of additional rooms 
in the rear on West Street. Double daily sessions took place. A 
busy student body, with the help of the faculty, secured electric 
lights, a piano, and other needed things. Morgan Street, by order 
of the mayor, was barricaded during the lunch period to protect 
the pupils. Having no space for a cafeteria, Miss Daisy Green, 
living on the adjoining lot, served soup and sandwiches from her 
back porch. She was happy to serve in the new building from 
1924-40. 

In 1907-08 (Harper's first year as superintendent) there was 
a demand for men to act as principals of schools at a salary of 
$1,200. Mr. Roy Brown of Chapel Hill, principal of Wiley, left 
after an early closing because of lack of funds. Mr. Gray King, 
principal of Centennial, was transferred to Wiley (190S-09). 
He left at the end of the term. Mrs. M. B. Sherwood succeeded 
King, faithfully serving until 1941-42. 

Patrons were urging a new building on a new site by 1919, 
during Howell's administration. With the coming of Superin- 
tendent S. B. Underwood (1921), the dire need for fireproof 
buildings brought a bond issue. Superintendent H. F. Srygley 
was brought for the building program. The site for new Wiley 
chosen by the committee Avas 306 St. Mary's Street. The present 
fireproof building contains 16 classrooms, an auditorium, a 
library (Sherwood-Bates), a cafeteria, a gymnasium and offices, 



Kaleigh Public Schools .^7 

completed at a cost of $264,225.56. It was first occupied in 
September, 1924. 

The active Parent-Teaclier Association, witli Mrs. R. L. Mc- 
Millan, member of the School Ground Committee, planted many 
dogwoods and crepe myrtles, making the grounds attractive. 

Valuable activities of the school are carried on in all grades, 
first to seventh. In the first grade in 1940-41, home living, 
working together, flowers and vegetable gardens Avere stressed ; 
in the second, animals and the making of a "zoo" interested and 
occupied the children ; in the third, the farm and clothing ; the 
fourth, birds ; the fifth, traveling in America ; the sixth, develop- 
ment in printing and writing; in the seventh, citizenship in 
N^orth Carolina. 

Membership 380 

Grades T 

Teachers 12 

Library Books 2,111 

P.T.A. Membership 301 

P.T. Council Membership 

and Study Course.. 7 



BARBEE SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Mary B. Holman, Principal 

The proprietors of Pilot Mills, Williamson and Foster, were 
interested in a school for the children of the employees. 

A school was conducted in the Baptist Church of the com- 
munity in 1903 during the administration of Superintendent 
E. P. Moses. Miss Bertha Stein, a member of the Superintend- 
ent's Training Class, had charge of the school. With the growth 
in numbers, the school was moved to the second floor of the Pilot 
Mercantile Building on Harp Street. The proprietors of the mill 
furnished playground equipment on a lot in front of the build- 
ing. They insisted on prompt attendance and ready obedience 
of pupils. 

The first principal in the changed position was Miss Etta 
Monroe. After the burning of the Brooklyn School in 1914, 
Myrtle Underwood took charge of new Lewis. She Avas trans- 



JfS HisTOEicAL Sketches of the 

ferrecl to Pilot Mills School in 1916-17. When she returned to 
Lewis, the proprietors of Pilot Mills showed appreciation of 
her Avork Avith a bonus of $185 I Miss Winona Carey resigned 
as principal in 1922-23, and was succeeded by Mrs. J. M. Barbee. 
Most efficient helpers at this time Avere Miss Lizzie Terrell, con- 
nected Avith the school for seA^eral years ; Mrs. E. L. Sherron, 
doing unexcelled AA'ork in the first grade, and Mrs. O. S. Slaun- 
AA'hite. Mrs. SlaunAA'hite and the principal taught the older pupils. 

Superintendent Harper aAA'arded a sih'er troph\" for the best 
attendance among the city schools. Pilot Mills School had the 
best attendance record for iive successiA^e years (97.3%) and 
won the trophy. Much credit is due the faithful janitress, Ellen 
Hinton, AA'ho AA^ent into homes (the parents being engaged in the 
mills) and urged the cliildren to be prompt for school. She acted 
independently of the truant otticer. Miss Mary Kilpatrick, em- 
ployed by the mill proprietors as AA-elfare AA^orker, Avas A-ery help- 
ful, Avorking in the kindergarten AA'ith the young children. Miss 
Martha Kelly (Mrs. James Tippett of Chapel Hill), elementary 
supervisor, Avas also helpful. A superA-isor directed playground 
actiA'ities. Mr. A. Y. Kelly, manager of Pilot Mills, gaA-e a Bible 
to each pupil passing from third to fourth. 

During H. F. Srygley's administration (192-4) a brick build- 
ing AA-as erected on the corner of Blount and Poplar streets. The 
building contains six classrooms, an auditorium, shoAv^er baths 
in the basement, and a cafeteria, built on the Avest of the build- 
ing in 19-40. By motion cf Mrs. W. A. LTpchurch, member of 
the school board, the ncAv building Avas named the Barbee School. 
With the erection of Halifax Court Apartments one block east 
of the school, the enrollment calls for six teachers through the 
sixth grade. More rooms for classes and for the library are badly 
needed. Miss Mary B. Holman, at one time a special teacher of 
an ungraded class at Centennial School, became the principal 
of Barbee School in 1931-32. She has been principal-teacher 
of Barbee since her appointment. 

Enrollment - — 253 

Grades - 1-6 

Teachers 7 

P.T.A. Membership 26 

P.T. Council Study Course 

and Membership 2 



Raleigh Public Schools ^9 

HISTORY OF ADULT CLASS AND COMMUNITY 
. PROGRAM AT BARBEE SCHOOL— 1926-31 

By Katherine Weight, Instructor 

Directed and Sponsored by the Raleigh Public Schools and the 

North Carolina Vocational Education Department, 

State Department of Education 

In the fall of 1926, as part of the adult program, the Depart- 
ment of Vocational Education, through the cooperation of the 
Raleigh Public Schools and the administration of Pilot Mills, 
a class for the mothers of the mill community was organized. 

The objective of this program was to give the homemakers 
an opportunity to get assistance in building health of their 
families, improving home situations, and learning how to spend 
money more Avisely. 

The class was organized in a room above a dilapidated store, 
with 15 members. Because of lack of equipment, not much prac- 
tical work could be done. Several of the women wanted to make 
new curtains for their homes. They were taught some of the 
simple rules for selecting and making suitable curtains. Block 
print designs were cut in sweet potatoes ; oil prints were used in 
stamping the design in border effects on unbleached curtains. 
The results were most interesting. 

As interest grew in the Avork and demands were made for 
study of foods, Mr. Srygley, superintendent of the Raleigh 
schools, suggested that we use the Barbee School cafeteria for 
evening class work. 

For a year an effective piece of work was carried on twice 
a week during the school session. Demonstrations of the prepara- 
tion of the foods needed in everyday living, to build a Avell- 
rounded diet, were given. 

The attendance was excellent. We always had at least twenty 
people to come, regardless of the weather. Hard rain or snow 
would not keep them away. 

Several times during the winter, the ladies of this group 
invited the superintendent of the mill and other officials to have 
dinner with them. At this time they planned, prepared, and 
served 12 men. 

The classes soon outgrew quarters. By this time, the mill 
officials were seeing the results of the work in improved homes, 
less sickness in families, and better attitudes among the group. 



50 Historical Sketches of the 

Tliey came to the rescue and gave us one of tlie homes for a 
community home. The home Avas repainted inside and out. 

Our problem Avas to get it furnished, as nearly a model mill 
home as possible. 

The mill superintendent told us Ave could have any material 
from the mill Ave could use. They manufactured the foundation 
material for AvindoAv draperies. Mr. Srygley had bought some 
unpainted furniture, mostly chairs, one table. Contributions 
were made by the Lions Club. The INTeedham Broughton High 
School had just been completed and needed some stage curtains. 
When the check for the material Avas sent to the mill, that Avas 
turned over to me for our Community House. 

We first made the draperies for the house out of materials 
A\^e selected from the mill. They Avere lovely and the ladies had 
lots of fun Avith this project, besides being shoAvn how attrac- 
tively the materials they Avorked Avith every day could be used. 

The chairs Avere painted and suitable Avieker living room fur- 
niture Avas bought. *We bought a second-hand Avooden cabinet, 
scraped all the paint off and revarnished it; bought an oil 
stove, dishes and silver for the service of 24:. The manual train- 
ing department of the high school made tAvo large tables. 

When Ave completed our house furnishing project aa'c had an 
attractiA'e place for meeting. Everyone Avas proud of the Avork. 

The food projects Avere resumed and CA-eryone enjoyed the iicav 
kitchen and dining room. The social affairs Avere centered around 
"dinner parties," for the ladies liked to shoAv the neAv things 
they had learned. 

Home nursing and care of the sick Avere taught at the request 
of the members of the group. 

The problem of leaA'ing small children at home needed atten- 
tion. Again Mr. Srygley came to the rescue and gave us some 
kindergarten tables and chairs, so Ave fitted one room as a kin- 
dergarten. Each night tAvo girls from the Child Study Class of 
IvTeedham Broughton High School AA-eut out to teach kinder- 
garten. We didn't lack children, and this Avas one of the most 
successful parts of our project. 

When the Avork in decorating and furnishing the house had 
been completed, Ave held "open house" and invited all people in 
Raleigh aa'Iio had helped Avith the project to come out and see 
the results of our efforts. Our guests of honor were Mrs. J. M. 
Barbee, who Avas most beloved among the people of the village; 
Mr. and Mrs. Srygk^y. and the mill superintendent and his Avife. 



Raleigh Public Schools 51 

People from Raleigli were most gracious iu acceptiiig our invi- 
tations. The evening was most successful. 

When the depression came, work of the schools was curtailed. 
The mill needed our lively little house and we had to move out. 
This was the end of a community project and class in adult 
education that had functioned most successfully. It really was 
the tragic end. 

CHAYIS SCHOOL 

1941-42 

The Harvey property at 508 South West Street Avas bought 
at a cost of $3,000 and fitted for a high and industrial school 
for !N"egroes during E. P. Moses' administration in 1903. A 
colored teacher from Washington, D. C, was employed to teach 
the girls in the industrial section. She complained about the lack 
of equipment. J. W. Paisley, principal, taught the eighth and 
ninth grades. Louise Jeffreys taught the seventh. Classes were 
small. The school closed in 1907-08 and was sold in 1910 along 
with the Garfield. 

ELIZA POOL SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Berxice Dexxisox, Principal 

In 1903 Caraleigh Mills Company of Raleigh furnished free 
of rent a building containing three rooms for a school of five 
grades, known as Caraleigh (Carolina-Raleigh) School. 

In 1904 the company proposed to the County Board of Edu- 
cation a readiness to donate a lot and $500 for a school build- 
ing, provided said board would appropriate a like amount. The 
proposition was accepted, and the property was conveyed to the 
School Board of Raleigh Township. It was furnished by the 
school committee at a cost of $177.15. The company gave a 
piano to the school. Horse-and-buggy transportation from the 
city was given teachers of the school. There was no pavement. 

Provision was made in 1916-17 for an additional room for the 
fifth grade. When pupils finished the fifth, they were transferred 
to Centennial School for the sixth and seventh grades, then on 
to high school on West Morgan Street. The crowded conditions 
in the high school required daily double sessions from 9 to 12, 
from 12 to 3. 



52 Historical Sketches of the 

With a bond issue during S. B. Underwood's administration 
(1921-23) a new site Avas secured for a brick building whicb was 
to contain 12 rooms. 

In 1925, during H. F. Srygley's administration, the scliool 
board, in recognition of Miss Eliza Pool's efficient service in the 
Ealeigh Public Schools, changed the name of the building to 
Eliza Pool School. 

With the reopening of the manufacturing plant in 1941, there 
will be need for an enlarged school building. 

Enrollment.... 262 

Grades 7 

Teachers 7 

Library Books 800 

Magazine Subscriptions 5 

P.T.A. Membership 54 

P.T. Council Membership 

and Study Course (S rating) 6 



RALEIGH HIGH SCHOOL 

A News and Ohserrer editorial dated June 1, 1905, says: ''Fol- 
loAving the repeal of the foolish law preventing the public schools 
of the city furnishing instruction sufficient to prepare for col- 
lege, the school committee yesterday decided definitely to build 
a high school as part of the school system of the capital city 
and to place its direction into the hands of Prof. Hugh Morson. 
Professor Morson, whose school for boys has been famous 
throughout the state, is an ideal selection as principal. His 
thorough knowledge of boys, combined with a long experience 
and scholarship as varied and practical as that of any man in 
the South, assures in advance the success of the new departure." 

The first high school was organized in 1905. Mr. Hugh Morson 
came from his Academy, bringing his classes of boys (Hugh 
Thompson, Francis Sherwood, McAuley Costner, and many 
others). Classes were conducted in six rooms of the Centennial 
School Building (a marvelous innovation!). Associated with 
him were C. G. Keeble from the Academy, Miss Eliza Pool, Miss 
Ada V. Womble, Miss Daisy Waitt, and Mrs. J. M. Barbee. He 
had an enrollment of 100 boys and 65 girls. This school (Raleigh 
High) continued in the Centennial Building for three years. 



Raleigh Public Schools -^S 

The site on West Morgan Street was selected for the high 
school in 1905 (during E. P. Moses' administration) on account 
of the nearness to the State and Olivia Raney libraries, which 
the superintendent considered necessities for high school stu- 
dents. The school had no library of its own. 

The new two-story brick building on West Morgan (built at 
a cost of $20,689.15) consisted of eight classrooms, an audi- 
torium, and an extensive basement. It was ready for 250 or 300 
students in 1907, but soon the enrollment grew to about 500. 

A two-story brick addition of seven rooms was built in the 
rear during S. M. Underwood's administration (1921-22). This 
''annex" was intended for manual training, science, and academic 
classes. (The nearness of the Oak City Laundry on the east, and 
the city water tower on the west, proved quite a diversion!) 

Schools were closed during the influenza epidemic of World 
War I. The Raleigh High Building was used for patients. By 
1928-29 the building was closed for good, because by this time 
the two schools, Hugh Morson and Needham B. Broughton, had 
been erected. Later it was used by the Salvation Army for 
sleeping quarters. After being practically destroyed by two fires, 
the remaining part of the building was sold for $200. The site 
was rented by the city for a parking space. The ISTorth Carolina 
Education Association purchased part of the lot for $22,500 ; 
the Presbyterian Church purchased the remainder for $10,000. 
(The original lot cost about $3,000 before additions from the 
Charles Busbee and B. P. Williamson lots Avere purchased.) . 

THOMPSON SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Elizabeth Holman, Principal 

The school located at 567 East Hargett Street Avas organized 
in 1907 during E. P. Moses' administration. The six-room 
Avooden building was the former home of Miss Sophia Partridge, 
who conducted a select school there for girls before the Civil 
War. The site was knoAvn as "The Knoll." Mrs. Mamie Brewster 
Terrell, transferred from Centennial School, Avas appointed first 
principal. 

The six rooms AA-ere soon filled, and three additional rooms 
Avere built in the rear. The school Avon the cooperation of the 
community, Avhich proudly Avatched its deA'elopment. Xeighbor- 



5If. Historical Sketches of the 

hood cafeterias were conducted by the active Parent-Teacher 
Association to supply lunches for the underprivileged pupils. A 
piano for the school was purchased by them. 

Mrs. Terrell conducted the school of six grades for 12 years. 
Faithful to her trust, beloved by the school and community, she 
died in the summer of 1919. Miss Elizabeth Holman, co-worker, 
teacher of first grade, was appointed principal in her place, con- 
tinuing through the 1941-42 session. 

The old building was moved back, and a much-needed brick 
building Avas erected in 1923 during S. B. UnderAvood's adminis- 
tration. The new one contains 11 classrooms, offices, a library, 
an auditorium, a gymnasium, and a cafeteria. In the front en- 
trance of the building is a metal tablet dedicated to the memory 
of Mamie Brewster Terrell. It is interesting to trace the history 
of the funds used for the tablet : The school had purchased a 
one hundred dollar Liberty Bond during World War I. This 
Avas used for the memorial. 

Interesting activities of Thompson are the Boys' Safety Pa- 
trol, the members of which are chosen on a basis of dependability, 
trustworthiness, good judgment, and ability to work with others; 
the Homemakers' Club, and the monthly school paper called 
Th m pso n H ifjh 1 igh is. 

Enrollment 407 

Grades 1-7 

Teachers 11 

Library Books 1,860 

Magazine Subscriptions 5 

P.T.A. Membership 75 

P.T. Council Study Course 

and Membersliip (S rating) 14.5 

LEWIS SCHOOL 

1941-42 

Mrs. Williaji S. Hicks, Principal 

A school was held in 1903 in a Methodist church on Peace 
Street, Avith Miss Emma Conn in charge. It Avas moA'ed to a 
AA'ooden building on Boylan AA^enue containing three rooms. This 
Avas knoAvn as the Brooklyn School, as it Avas in the Brooklyn 
communitA'. 



Raleigh Public Schools 55 

A lot was purchased (in 1910-11) from J. W. Hinsdale for 
$5,000, $1,000 cash. A new concrete building was planned to 
take the place of the Brookl\m School building, which was en- 
tirely inadequate. 

During the school year 1913-14 there were five teachers and 
287 pupils in the three rooms. (This was like the cry of the 
man in the moon: "Room! Room!") Miss Myrtle Underwood 
was principal and teacher. She had followed Miss Emma Conn. 

In the summer of 1914 the building was destroyed by fire. 
The first three grades attended Wiley School; the remaining 
grades attended Murphey. 

The new building at 709 Glenwood Avenue contained five 
large classrooms in 1914-15. It was constructed for additional 
rooms. By 1917 the building was completed, having 18 class- 
rooms. 

The school Avas named for Dr. Richard H. Lewis (1850-1926). 
He served during the trying years of the Raleigh Public Schools 
as a member of the school board. Dr. Lewis and wife aided in 
purchasing a piano for the school. In 1923 a cafeteria was added. 

As the community grew, the building became crowded. By 
1925 six temporary classrooms were built in the rear of the 
school lot. A lot adjoining the Lewis property was bought to 
enlarge the school grounds. By 1926-27 the school had an enroll- 
ment of 730 pupils and twenty teachers. Miss Myrtle Underwood 
continued as principal. 

The development in West Raleigh community brought the 
building of West Raleigh School, relieving crowded conditions 
at Lewis. Miss Sallie Blackwell was elected principal of Lewis 
in 1927, continuing through 1941-42 as Mrs. William S. Hicks. 

A library was begun in 1928, a state standard library in 
1940-41. In 1940 an auditorium was added at the rear of the 
original building; neAV steps were built on the front. 

Enrollment ._. _.._ _ 246 

G-rades 7 

Teachers 8 

Librarian 1 

Library Books 825 

Magazine Subscriptions 6 

P.T.A. Membership 85 

P.T. Council Membership 

and Study Course .....(S rating) 8 



56 Historical Sketches of the 

CROSBY-GARFIELD SCHOOL 

1941-42 
AV. H. Fuller, Principal 

In 1878 t^ae East Raleigh Seliool was organized in a small 
chureli building on East Davie Street, the present site of St. 
Matthew's Church. Charles I^. Hunter was in charge. With the 
rapid growth of the school, a larger building was secured on 
Swain Street, a building formerly used by members of the 
Second Baptist Church, now located on the corner of Hargett 
and Person streets. The school became known as the Garfield 
about 1881. W. L. Crosby was principal. 

The Watson property on East Lenoir Street was bought by 
the school board in 1897 during Logan D. Howell's administra- 
tion. The building was repaired. This, the Crosby School, w^as 
needed to relieve crowded conditions in the Garfield. Money was 
left for this school by Henry Crosby, Xegro educator connected 
with Shaw L'niversity. 

In 1910 the Chavis and Garfield schools were sold, necessitat- 
ing the moving of the Garfield to the property on East Lenoir. 
The new Garfield was a two-story brick building with eight 
rooms. J. W. Ligon Avas principal. Mrs. Julia A. Williams was 
principal of Crosby. In 1920. during Harry Howell's adminis- 
tration, the two schools were consolidated as the Crosby-Garfield 
Scliool. Crosby became the primary, Garfield the grammar. 

In 1935 the Garfield section was injured by fire. Insurance 
paid for the loss amounted to $5,573.40. Pupils attended Lucille 
Hunter School until the building Avas repaired. Meanwhile the 
Crosby section Avas torn doAvn. A strictly modern Crosby-Garfield 
building Avas completed and occupied in 1939, during Claude F. 
Gaddy's administration. Some of the material in the handsome 
building Avas taken from the discarded Centennial School. The 
Centennial material had come from ''The Palace" on South 
Street. The fine care taken of this building is proof that it is 
appreciated. It is a AA'ide-aAvake school. (Lena M. Hunter, 
daughter of the noted teacher, Charles X. Hunter, teaches the 
seventh grade.) 

The years betAveen 1878 and 1939 have shoAvn a marvelous de- 
A-elopment in structures for the Xegro. 

Enrollment 736 

Grades 1-7 



Raleigh Public Schools 



Teachers .-- 19 

Classrooms 20 

Seating Capacity of Auditorium 618 

Library Books 722 

P.T.A.' MembersMp 100 



JUmOE HIGH SCHOOL 

By Ellen R. Glenn* 

Nor buildings inadequate, nor limited finances, nor crowded 
classes, nor shortage of allotted teachers have prevented con- 
tinuous sessions and progress of public education in Raleigh 
since the first high school was established in 1905. Only epi- 
demics of illnesses have forced temporary breaks in the progress. 

Such crowded conditions existed in the high school and the 
various grammar schools that advantage was taken to use a 
building just vacated on West Jones Street, Caswell Square, by 
the Blind Institute. In September, 1923, Paul S. Daniel, as prin- 
cipal, and a corps of teachers for grades seven and eight set in 
operation an emergency junior high school. For two years this 
part of the education program attempted to give adolescents a 
good foundation training for high school. Some teachers com- 
muted from the high school ; some students commuted from 
building to building in order to get their program regulated; 
student assemblies w^ere held in the Sunday school auditorium 
of Edenton Street M. E. Church, one block away. In spite of 
unfavorable conditions the close cooperation of the principal and 
teachers, with the common good uppermost in mind, helped 
many boys and girls to become well prepared to go on through 
high school and eventually take prominent places in public life. 

In September, 1925, Raleigh High School was moved into the 
new- building on East Hargett Street to be called Hugh Morson 
High School. Junior High moved t© the old Raleigh High build- 
ing, nearer the downtown business district. The calmness, fair- 
mindedness, and sincerity of purpose on the part of the prin- 
cipal many times ironed out smoothly and satisfactorily what 
had seemed to be serious problems. At the close of the second 
year of Junior High in this building, Superintendent Srygley, 
in presenting to the faculty the plan for transferring the eighth 

* Xeedham B. Broualiton Hi£;li School. 



58 Historical Sketches of the 

grade back to the high school, said, "Any teacher working in 
this environment for one Tear forfeits five years of her life." 
He, no donbt, had in mind the classrooms in the dark, damp 
basement ; the close proximity of the front classrooms to the 
fire department just across the street ; the annex rooms, where 
a creamery loaded trucks across the alley, and the laundry sent 
off steam on the afternoon sunny side; the auditorium where 
165 students were croAvded into a study hall. Even so, boys and 
girls learned here valuable lessons and have taken their responsi- 
bilities in life, proving themselves to be worthy citizens. 

For the next two years Paul S. Daniel and his teachers con- 
ducted classes in that building for seventh grade students only. 
In September, 1929, the students in grades seven to eleven, 
inclusive, were divided according to the city lines and were 
assigned either to Hugh Morson or the new High School on 
St. Mary's Street. 

This Raleigh adaptation of a program for secondary schools 
was far from the ideal system accepted by education. However, 
it evidenced the determination of the citizens of Raleigh to let 
no obstacles stand in the way of preparing boys and girls for 
better citizenship. 

The statistics that follow show the provisions for the seventh 
and eighth grades during a period of twenty years — 1922 to 1942. 
Briefly, also, is shown how the 7-4 system evolved in the 8-4 
system during the same period. 

Year Grades Location 

192.3-25 7, S Blind Institute Buiklint;. Caswell Square. 

192.5-27 7, 8 Raleigh High School Building, West Morgan 

Street. 
1927-29 7 Raleigh High School Building. 

S Hugh Morson High School. East Hargett 

Street. 
1929-.38 7. 8 Hn^li Morson or Needham Broughton with 

grades 9-11. 
1938 7 Respective grammar schools, 12th grade added 

in hi^h schools. 
1942 8 Officially considered last year of grammar 

grades, though still located in high school 

buildings. 

System According to Grades 

1922 7-4 

1923-27 6-2-3 

1927-38 6-1-4 

1938-42 7-5 

1942 8-4 



Raleigh Public Schools 59 

HUGH MORSOX HIGH SCHOOL 

1941-42 

G. H. Arnold, Principal 

Crowded conditions resulted in the erection of Hugh Morson 
High School, which Avas ready to be occupied in September, 
1925, by advanced classes. The school is located two blocks east 
of the Capitol on the four-acre Benehan Cameron Square. It 
was purchased for $60,000. The school, at 301 East Hargett 
Street, covers an entire block. It Avas built at a cost of $533,- 
771.94. The total school assets are valued at $631,824.50. 

When the school board undertook to name the new structure, 
i% was suggested that it be named for Mr. Hugh Morson, beloved 
veteran teacher and first principal of Raleigh High. Mr. Morson 
consented to the naming, and this Avas done. He wrote the fol- 
loAving letter to Superintendent H. F. Srygley : 

September 20, 1923. 
Superintendent H. F. Srygley 
Secretary of the School Board 
Dear Sir: 

In reply to your notification of the action of the school 
board of Raleigh Township at the last meeting in selecting 
my name for the proposed new high school, I desire to ex- 
press through you to the members of the board, individually 
and collectively, my grateful appreciation of this high honor 
which they have seen fit to confer on me — an honor for which 
I feel that I possess little claim except the deep and earnest 
desire which, for nearly half a century, has filled my heart 
for the educational welfare and uplift of the children of our 
beloved city. 

I am truly thankful to see the long-cherished hope now be- 
ing rapidly realized by the construction of such buildings and 
other improvements as our boys and girls sadly need and to 
which they are entitled. 

Yours very truly, 

Hugh Morson. 

The first principal of the new high school was C. E. Wessinger 
(1925-1935-36). He Avas followed "in 1936-37 by G. H. Arnold. 

On the first floor of Hugh Morson High is to be found a beau- 
tiful oil painting of Hugh Morson; the principal's office, the 
office of Miss Frances Lacy, Supervisor of Elementary Schools; 
the offices of the dean of boys and dean of girls ; an auditorium 
Avith a seating capacity of 1,168 ; the gymnasium, covering a 
space of 64 by 85 feet; a Avell-planned industrial arts shop, a 
first aid room, and a modern cafeteria. Six rooms for classes 



60 Historical Sketches of the 

are on the first floor, besides other work rooms. Twelve class- 
rooms are on tlie second. The main attraction on the second is 
the Eliza Pool Library, which is 24 feet wide and 72 feet long. 
The reading room is 26 by 31 feet. A Avell-equipped commercial 
department is another featnre of the second floor. The adequately 
arranged home economics department is to be found on the third, 
along with eight classrooms. Above the third floor is a room 
used by the band. 

At Hugh Morson there are many and varied clubs. These give 
students an opportunity to participate in the life of the school. 
In the club work one can clearly see the school motto carried 
out : "An Opportunity for Every Ability." 

Hugh Morson was the first high school in the state selected 
to give a series of radio broadcasts acquainting Tar Heels with 
their state. government. Governor Clyde R. Hoey inaugurated 
the series (1940-41) by havins,- the first broadcast from his oflice. 
The program Avas entitled ''Know A'our State Government." Six 
students of the government classes participated, under the direc- 
tion of their teacher, Mrs. ]\rary Powell Brantley. 

There is a regular school newspaper, The Purple and Gold. 
published by classes in journalism taught by Mrs. Brantley. 
Since purple and gold are the school colors, the paper is appro- 
priately named. 

The annual ])rodu('tion of the students, a project of the senior 
class, is the (htJ,- Leaf. Miss Xatalie Coft'ey directs work on the 
publication. 

Foot]>all, basketball. basel)all, swimming, tennis, golf, and 
track are the sports that are enthusiastically supported in the 
school. 

Enrollment ._..._ .._ 1,068 

Grades (8-12) 5 

Teachers 33 

Graduates 141 

Subjects Taught 25 

Library Books..... 4,038 

Magazine Subscriptions 35 

P.f.A. Membership 325 

P.T.A. Publications 23 

P.T. Council Membership and 

Studv Courses (S rating) 20 



Raleigh Public Schools 01 



HUGH MOESOX 

Hugh Morson was borii in Fredericksburg, Va., in 1850. He 
was a student at the University of Virginia, majoring in classi- 
cal languages and mathematics. He began teaching when 21 
years of age, and came to Raleigh in 1877 as head of the Raleigh 
Male Academy. In 1905 he became the first principal of Raleigh 
High. He was principal-emeritus by 1920, though he still taught 
classes in Latin for three years, resigning in 1923. 

Simplicity, a strong personality, and a powerful physique were 
characteristics of his. He was a teacher, not an entertainer. His 
rules were simple, but they had to be obeyed. One of ISTorth 
Carolina's most noted educators, serving the cause of education 
for about fifty years, he witnessed early struggles for education 
in Raleigh and gave inspiration when it was needed. 

Upon his death on March 29, 1925, the high school faculty of 
Raleigh published the following in The Raleigh Student of 
April 3 : 

In the removal from our midst of our faithful and devoted 
friend and fellow teacher. Hugh Morson. we. the teachers of 
the Raleigh High School, mourn the passing of one whose 
friendship and inspiration has been to us a tower of strength, 
and whose power and intluence as a teacher we shall strive to 
emulate. 

"He was the noblest Roman of them all" to us. In all things 
he revealed those superb qualities of character of only those 
who have been nurtured liy the classics. The spirit of the old 
Greeks, the maxim "nothing in excess." dominated the course 
of his life and proved to be its suniinum honum. 

While we continue to perform the task which he had begun, 
we can do a far greater work by reason of his having shown 
us the way. 

IvA Bardex. Chairman ; 
Edith Russell, 

XlXA COVIXGTOX, 
CORIXXA Mial. 
Natalie Coffey, 

Committee. 



ELIZA A. POOL 

Eliza A. Pool was born in Oxford, X. C, in 1850. She joined 
the Raleigh Public Schools in 1886, continuing with them about 
forty years. She was the first principal of Murphey, then was 
transferred with advanced classes to Wiley as principal. She 
remained until she went to Raleigh High as teacher of romance 
languages. 



62 Historical Sketches of the 

Miss Eliza served one year as lady principal of St. Mary's 
School. Two years were spent abroad, studying in Paris and 
Germany, and visiting in Switzerland. She was selected in 1926 
as jVortli Carolina's most outstanding teacher, and she repre- 
sented the state at Philadelphia's Sesqnicentennial, where she 
was presented a gold medal. She resigned from the faculty of 
Hugh Morson High in 1930. 

Miss Eliza died November 25, 1935, in the home of Mrs. 
Thomas H. Briggs. Both her time and energy were always ready 
to be used for the benefit of others. 



MPS. J. M. BARBEE 

(Mrs. Barbee says her life is before the community. "Enough 
said.") 



BOYLAX HEIGHTS SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Mrs. Herimax Sexter, Principal 

The Boylan Heights Improvement Association gave a large, 
wooded lot to the Raleigh School Board for a school building in 
1927. A story-and-a-half brick building, containing an audi- 
torium, four classrooms on the main floor, three in the basement, 
costing $51,117.89, noAV stands on that lot. Mrs. Herman Senter, 
present principal (1941-42), became principal in 1928. By her 
wise management, always demanding the best, the improvement 
in all lines has been marked. The first year saw an enrollment 
of 229 pupils and seven teachers. 

When the Centennial School Avas closed in 1931-32, the larger 
number of pupils Avas transferred to Boylan Heights School, 
which then became inadequate because of crowded conditions. 

The Parent-Teacher Association proved from the beginning a 
moving force. There was need for a cafeteria. Xo room was 
available. A space in the rear of the auditorium Avas used and 
one Avas improvised. Food was prepared in the homes and brought 
to the school. 

By 1936, 306 pupils Avere enrolled. The ucav school superin- 
tendent, Claude F. Gaddy, saAv the pressing need for additional 
rooms. In 1940 an enlargement took place. The half story Avas 



EaleictH Public SchooLvS 63 

completed. Now the upper floor contains four classrooms and a 
new, well-liglited library. Pupils liave library lessons daily. The 
main floor contains four classrooms, an auditorium, a modern 
cafeteria, and a bookroom in the basement. The cost of this 
enlargement was $32,000. From the valuable records of the 
Boylan Heights P.T.A., we find that $500 has been spent on 
books for the library ; $400 for school improvements, and about 
$1,000 for food and clothes for underprivileged children. 

The school has one of the largest, well-planned playgrounds 
in the city. There is a shaded portion for younger children, two 
tennis courts, and a field for baseball or football. The Boylan 
Heights community is justly proud of the school of seven grades 
and earnest teachers. 

Enrollment 302 

G-rades 7 

Teachers. - -- 7 

Library Books 1,232 

Magazine Subscriptions 7 

P.T.A. Membership - 117 

P.T. Council Study Course 

and Membership .....(S rating) 22 



PEED A. OLDS SCHOOL 

1941-42 

Maey a. Page, Principal 

To meet the needs of the growing community of West Paleigh, 
a brick building was erected at 204 Dixie Trail in 1927 during 
H. F. Srygley's administration. The school was first known as 
the West Ealeigh School. This relieved crowded conditions of 
Wiley. The building contains 11 classrooms, an auditorium and 
a cafeteria. One of the classrooms is used for the library. A full- 
time librarian, by request of the patrons, served in 1940-41. 

Mary A. Page, former principal of Centennial School, became 
first principal, with a corps of eight teachers. She has taught the 
seventh grade from the beginning of her principalship. 

The name of the school was changed in 1931 to Fred A. Olds 
School. Fredrick Augustus Olds was the founder of the Xorth 
Carolina Hall of History. He was born aboard ship October 12, 
1853. He died July 2, 1935. Colonel Olds was a great lover of 



6'^ Historical Sketches of the 

children, and could he called the first scout leader of Raleigh's 
children on their many hikes. During World War I he took a 
group of boys and girls on Saturdays to cotton fields to pick 
cotton. Liberty Bonds were bought with "the pickings." A bronze 
tablet dedicated to the memory of Colonel Olds, and a picture of 
him, are found near the front entrance to the school. 

The school grounds were made beautiful by the sowing of grass 
and the planting of shrubs. A $15 prize Avas won in 1935 in 
competition with other public schools of the city, as a result of 
improved grounds. 

Enrollment 377 

Grades 1-7 

Teachers 10 

Library Books 1,440 

Magazine Subscriptions 20 

P.T.A. Membership 233 

P.T. Council Study Course 

and Membership (S rating) 8 



HAYES-BARTO^T SCHOOL 

1941-42 
Myrtle Underwood, Principal 

The school is located at 1614 Glenwood Avenue in the Hayes- 
Barton community. It bears the name of Sir Walter Raleigh's 
English estate. The brick building was erected during Superin- 
tendent H. F. Srygley's administration in 1927. It was needed 
to relieve crowded conditions in the Lewis and Wiley schools. 

The building contains IS classrooms, an auditorium of 552 
seats, a cafeteria, a first aid room, and a library. A WPA li- 
brarian is employed. Books are taken out for home room use. 
Some of the class activities are conducted in rooms adjoining 
the regular classrooms, making 27 rooms in use. 

A very efficient citizenship council claims the interest of pu- 
pils. A representative from each classroom serves for one month. 
Officers are chosen by the representatives. They discuss subjects 
which are reported to home rooms for further discussion and 
action. Varied activities keep the school busy, give the pupils an 
interested attitude. 



Raleigh Public Schools 65 

The present principals of Murphey, Fred A. Olds, and Hayes- 
Barton schools were members of a training class conducted by 
Superintendent E. P. Moses in 1900. They were first used as 
assistant teachers and substitutes. 

Enrollment 629 

Grades 1-7 

Teachers 18 

Library Books 1,917 

Magazine Subscriptions. 19 

P.T.A. Membership 475 

P.T. Council Study Course 

and Membership (S rating) 8 



LUCILLE HUNTER SCHOOL 

1941-42 

Mrs. Julia A. Williams, Principal 

The brick building located at 1018 East Davie Street, fire- 
proof, modern in every way, was erected in 1927 during Super- 
intendent H. F. Srygley's administration. (Mrs. Lucille Hunter, 
a native of Wilmington, N^. C, was educated in the public schools 
of Boston. She taught successfully in the Raleigh Public Schools 
for 45 years. Her former pupils, now citizens of this community, 
were anxious that the new building be known as Lucille Hunter 
School.) 

The building contains twenty classrooms, an auditorium of six 
hundred seats, a library, a cafeteria, and a clinic room. A land- 
scape gardener from State College laid off plots on the front 
grounds, suggested trees and shrubs. A stone gateway on the 
front was a gift by the principal of the school in 1932 for kind- 
ness shown during absence from duty on account of accident. 
Fine care of the building and grounds prove appreciation. 

The principal is the former principal of Crosby School. She 
and her corps of teachers intend having Lucille Hunter School 
a standard elementary one of seven grades. 

During 14 years of the school there has been promotion of 
about eight hundred pupils to Washington High. 

The rock quarry near the school (once a "crime pit") now 
wears a dress of green. 



66 Historical Sketches of the 

(In the files of the Lucille Hunter School may be found the 
history of the land containing the present school site.) 

Enrollment 738 

Grades 7 

Teachers 19 

Library Clerk 1 

Library Books 1,331 

Magazine Subscriptions 2 

P.T.A. Membership 75 



NEEDHAM B. BEOFGHTON HIGH SCHOOL "^ 
1941-42 
H. A. Helms, Principal 
By Ellen R. Glenn * 

In the history of Raleigh the year 1929 offered these outstand- 
ing events: dedication of t]ie new fairgrounds; establishment of 
Curtiss-Wright Flying Field (now Municipal Airport) ; dona- 
tion of the floodlights on the Capitol by Carolina Power and 
Light Company; introduction of the Vitaphone in the movies; 
completion of the new high school on St. Mary's Street. 

On a knoll of the ten-acre purchase of the Smallwood prop- 
erty between West Peace and Cameron streets on St. Mary's 
Street stands the imposing structure of native stone, designed by 
William Henry Deitrick, in an adaptation of Italian Renaissance 
architecture. This half million dollar structure is conceded to 
be one of the most beautiful school buildings in the South. 

Various delays during the year of construction prevented hav- 
ing a building comj^letely ready for occupancy when school must 
begin in September, 1929. Work of all kinds was necessary dur- 
ing school hours in order to complete the building and students 
w^ere always ready Avith various comments. "When do we eat ?" 
was heard Avhen the cafeteria was flooded, but food was served 
in the unfinished auditorium; "Two whole periods omitted for 
chapel!" came when, on December 13, the auditorium, with seat- 
ing capacity for 1,500, was ready for the student assembly; 
"Judging from the appearance of the halls the science motto 

* Needham B. lirouulitdii Hi.uli School. 



Raleigh Publtc Schools » 67 

must be 'Excelsior/ " was the comment heard when apparatus 
was being installed. 

Routine class Avork was accepted readily, and time Avas found 
for extra-curricular activities. By the end of the second month 
students were fast forming small clubs for the promotion of 
school spirit. During the year 12 clubs existed, including such 
as science, literary, Girl Reserves, Hy-Y, pep, dramatic, accord- 
ing to student interests. Student Council from the beginning has 
been the head organization, sponsoring all other activities until 
such could be chartered. 

Not until near the close of the school year was the school 
known other than the New High School or West Raleigh High. 
At that time the "naming of the school in memory of Needham 
B. Brought on was at the request of a number of citizens who 
remembered the stanch fight of Mr. Broughton, Dr. R. H. Lewis 
and iVlf A. Thompson in the late 80's for an adequate school 
for Raleigh. Public education which is taken for granted today 
was unpopular, particularly with the large taxpayers, in those 
days but with Mr. Broughton leading the fight, legislation was 
secured for an eight-month school." The name was suggested to 
the school board by letter from Mr. C. B. Edwards, a business 
associate in Edwards and Broughton Printing Company. Mr. 
Edwards wrote, "I respectfully suggest that it be named the 
Broughton High School for Needham B. Broughton who served 
on the school committee for many years and who did faithful 
work as long as he was on it. I know and associated with him 
in boyhood and was in business with him for about forty years. 
I do not think there is a man in Raleigh Avho helped more young 
people and did more for the upbuilding of our city and its public 
institutions according to his means." 

From the J. O. U. A. M. came this sentiment, "Too much 
credit cannot be given to men like Mr. Broughton — men of like 
vision for the fight they made for public education. . . . Our man- 
nificent public school system of today is but the crowning glory of 
the foundation laid half a centur}' ago by these men — Dr. R. H. 
Lewis, Alf A. Thompson and Needham B. Broughton." 

The present structure was not completed until 1936. The 
three-story building provides the following : 29 classrooms ; com- 
merce department and music room, acoustically treated ; little 
theater, science laboratories; library, containing approximately 
5,000 volumes, gymnasium, with showers and play room below 
it; auditorium, seating capacity for 1,500; cafeteria; four offices 



68 * Historical Sketches of the 

for principal and advisers; teachers' room, a number of small 
rooms on different floors used respectively for book storage. Stu- 
dent Council files, central banking system, Hi-Times, Latipac, 
j)rojector booth, athletic equipment and janitor's supplies. The 
student supply store occupies a part of the cafeteria convenient 
for sales during lunch period. The athletic fields and playgrounds 
are a part of the ten-acre property. The shop is located in a 
wooden structure in the grove apart from the main building. 

School opened September 3, 1929, with Paul S. Daniel, prin- 
cipal, 35 teachers and about 650 students. When Mr. Daniel was 
elected to the superintendency, William Henry Shaw came to 
be principal at the opening of the fall term in 1930, and served 
as an efficient and popular principal for eight years. Paul A. 
Reid, the principal from 1938-19-41, made his contribution in 
this modern school by adjusting the curriculum for the nine- 
month, twelve-year program provided by the supplement voted 
in a special election held in August, 1938. In September, 1941, 
H. A. Helmes began his administration as principal, and in his 
quiet, unassuming manner has attempted to get thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the situation and solve problems fairly and justly 
as they present themselves. 

Broughton High School lost each principal by a promotion 
to superintendency in Raleigh, Sumter, S. C, and Elizabeth City, 
X. C, respectively. 

For several years the curriculum was in the form of an ac- 
tivity program providing large units of work based on student 
interests and included service courses according to grade levels. 
This program progressed during the administration of W. H. 
Shaw. With the addition of the 12th grade and the large per- 
centage of graduates entering College, it became necessary to 
make adjustments in the curriculum. Activities or units of Avork 
still are found invaluable, but serve according to dift'erent plans 
within the subject fields to implement various problems of in- 
terest ; extra-curricular activities vary from year to year accord- 
ing to student requests. 

In 1938 the seventh grade students were left in their respec- 
tive grammar grade schools and an orientation program was 
planned for the eighth grade in the high school building. It was 
hoped that bridging the gap betAveen grammar grades and high 
school would give a thorough foundation and preparation for 
the high school in the 12-year system. Students are advised to 
make plans early for their 16 credits above eighth grade required 



Raleigh Public Schools ■ 69 

for graduation. Tlie present curriculum provides for the college 
preparatory, the general group and the commerce group with the 
various elective available, according to student requests and 
needs. 

During the life of Broughton High School the student body 
has grown from 650 to 1,165. The teaching personnel seemingly 
has not grown in proportion but for the first year seven mem- 
bers of the faculty had duties in both high schools. The class of 
1938, of about 185 members, sent approximately 66 per cent on 
to college. Since then there has been a variance of 60-85 per cent 
going to college. Of the 150 graduates in the class of 1942, 75 
transcripts have been sent to colleges as requested. 

From the very beginning of activities in this high school the 
Parent-Teacher Association has been one of the strongest allied 
forces. Parent education and welfare work have been the most 
successful undertaking's but the unlimited and ever-ready loyal 
support for any school activities cannot be evaluated. 

Continued interest in their alma mater was evidenced in De- 
cember, 1939, when approximately one hundred graduates met 
and organized an alumni association. 

Enrollment 1,150 

Grades (8-12) 5 " - 

Teachers... 39 

Graduates 150 

Subjects Taught 

Library Books 5,000 

Magazine Subscriptions... 43 

P.T.A. Publications 21 

P.T.A. Membership 393 ' 

P.T. Council Membership 

and Study Course (S rating) 21 



I^EEDHAM B. BR0UGHT0:N^ 

1941-42 

"It is significant of a new era that men who render a lasting 
service to their community are honored by their own. ... In 
thus naming our schools for our home-grown, sun-crowned men. 
. . . Ave hold up to the youth of Raleigh the inspiration of high 
civic achievement. 



10 ■ Historical Sketches of the 

"As one who Avas honored Avith the friendship of Xeedham B. 
Broughton and fought by his side in more than one contest for 
ciA'ic righteousness and better schools, I count it an honor to be 
permitted, in the name of his family, to present a portrait of 
the man Avhose name this school bears. It is the prayer of all 
AA'ho kneAv him and correctly measured his usefulness that out 
of these halls Avill go, from year to year, boys and girls animated 
in public spirit, high ideals, and consecration to the principles 
that AA'ere gOA-erning forces in the life of Xeedham B. Brough- 
ton." So spoke Josephus Daniels, May 29, 1931, at the unA'eiling 
and presentation of the portrait of Xeedham B. Broughton to 
the school named for him. 

In ansAver to a natural question, "Why should Raleigh's most 
magnificent school structure be named for Xeedham B. Brough- 
ton ?" Mr. Daniels suggested that "unborn children may be ask- 
ing that same question and Avill be entitled to an ansAver." He 
then explained in detail the hard-fought battle in legislature for 
public education in the late 80's AA^hen Raleigh's one public school 
AA'as imperiled. 

Superintendent E. P. Moses AA'as quoted as liaA'ing said, "Of 
all Xorth Carolinians I eA-er kncAv, Xeedham B. Broughton AA'as 
one of the three aa'Iio tOAA^ered head and shoulders aboA'e the 
throng and, in some respects, he A\'as the greatest man I haA'e 
eA^er knoAvn." Mr. Daniels also referred to the tribute paid to 
Xeedham B. Broughton by the Rca'. Dr. R. T. Vann, "Probably 
no other citizen of Raleigh CA-er dcA'Oted his thought, time, and 
money to the upbuilding of our city schools more generously 
than did Mr. Broughton." 

The portrait noAv hangs in the hall so anyone entering the 
front door may gaze unconsciously upon it. Would that all AAdio 
gaze could imbibe his philosophy — "the education of all is the 
combined duty of all" and that his one idea concerning education 
AA'as more and better schools. 

Hence Xeedham B. Broughton High School stands today as 
a monument to the memory of his useful life, — dedicated to the 
serA'ice of liumanitA'. 



Raleigh Public Schools 71 



EDNA METZ WELLS — ANN PITTS HICKS 

On either side of the portrait of Xeedham B. Broughton, 
hangs a portrait of a teacher, each portrait being a gift of stu- 
dents, teachers and friends. 

Edna Metz Wells (Mrs. B. W.) taught in the science depart- 
ment of the old Raleigh High School for several years before 
coming to Hugh Morson and being transferred to Broughton 
High School in 1929 as teacher of biology. 

IN MEMORIAM 

Edna Metz Wells February, 1938 

"Scientist, Teacher, Counsellor. Friend — 
Whose life was an inspiration 
Whose memory is a hen edict ion." 

Ann Pitts Hicks (Mrs. W. N.) became a member of the 
Broughton faculty as a social science teacher only a few years 
ago and served also as Student Adviser in Guidance. 

IN MEMORIAM 

Mrs. W. N. Hicks April, 1940 

"To all the students, Mrs. Hicks icas a friend to 
irhotn they might go for sympathetic council. We 
found her sincere interest. infi)nte patience, and 
noble character an inspiration to all who knew her." 

SUPPLEMENT 



THE ELEMENTARY SUPERVISOR 

By Ella Ford Senter ''" 

The Elementary Schools of Raleigh are fortunate in having 
as supervisor Miss Frances Lacy, who brings cheer and happi- 
ness to the children when she enters the room. A very helpful 
person, she always tries to do whatever called upon to do. She 
is certainly at the beck and call of every principal and teacher 
in the system. 

* Principal of Boylan Hei.uhts Seliool. 



72 Historical Sketches of the 

Her supervision is most helpful. Criticisms are always con- 
structive, kind, and tliouglitful. She suggests a remedy for every 
defect, and if tried, the remedy proves most effective. The 
Raleigh schools have improved under her supervision, and we 
feel that the children are receiving a well-rounded program of 
worthwhile activities. They are encouraged to learn by doing, 
and to live in a democratic way. More and more they show self- 
control through this practice of democracy. 

She has time to find books for her helpers in the professional 
library, which she is in charge of, and often takes these books to 
and from the schools. 

The addition of many new volumes to school libraries is due 
to her help and enthusiasm for books. She somehow finds rooms 
in the buildings for the library, and means of opening and 
equipping it for the children. 

Miss Lacy was largely responsible for the coming of Dr. James 
Tippett of \J. 'N. C, who helped and guided the superintendent, 
principals and teachers in working out the skills for each sub- 
ject in every grade. She organized the various committees, whose 
work was to formulate certain skills for the different subjects in 
each grade, met with them, and helped in every way possible. 

She is a patient, understanding supervisor that knows what a 
classroom teacher has to do, and never forgets that she was once 
a classroom teacher herself. 



Raleigh Public Schools 



73 



RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOL DIRECTORY 

1941-1942 

Claude F. Gaddy, Supermtendent (first half). 

Jesse O. Sanderson, Superintendent (second half). 

J. F. Bryant, Business Manager. 

Millard P. Burt, Band. 

Leo F. de Sola, Band. 

Frances Lacy, Elementary Supervisor. 

Mrs. Frances Moore Rankin, Cafeteria Supervisor. 

Jessie Sclmopp, Coordinator. 

Frederick Stanley Smith, Music Director. 

Nell S. Iden, Bool^Jceeper 

Mrs. Mary D. Freeman, Secretary. 



HUGH MORSQ]^ HIGH SCHOOL 

301 EAST HARGETT STREET 



Arnold, George H., Principal 
Alexander. Myrtle 
Bain, Mrs. Anna W. 
Barbee, Mrs. J. M. 
Barden, Iva 
Barnett, John 
Beddingfield. Nancy 
Brantley. Mrs. Mary Powell 
Breithaupt, Clifford C. 
Coffey. Natalie 
Creighton, Ruth 
Daniels. Mrs. C. P. 
Eason, Fred 
Efird. Laura 
Ferguson, Fletcher W. 
Floyd, Marcus W. 
Gilmore, Lucy 
Godwin, Leah 
Godwin, Marguerite 



Herring. Mildred 
Ilornback, John J. 
Jones, Laura M. 
Larabee, Helen W. 
McClees, Nellie 
Marcom. Mrs. J. L. 
Morgan. J. W. 
Morrison. Mrs. Frances C. 
Nickell. John Paul 
Ogburn. (xrace 
Penney. Mary 
Ramseur. Mary E. 
Reimer. Mrs. Anna V. 
Sanderford. Helen 
Smith, Farmer S. Jr. 
Tomlinson. Eileen 
Wood, Mrs. John O. 
Kellogg, Josephine 



NEEDHAM B. BROUGHT OX HIGH SCHOOL 
723 ST. MARY'S STREET 



Helms, H. A., Principal 
Bailey, Harold 
Beatty, Jane 
Bray. Mrs. B. B.. Jr. 
Burdette, Ruth 
Byerly. Margaret 
Cannon. Mary B. 



Cozart, Da'sad L. 
Dugan. Helen 
Ellington. Mary Oliver 
Fletcher. Mrs. Ernest 
Fouville, Mrs. Mary S. Beam 
Freeman, Thomas Willmott 
Glenn. Mrs. Ellen R. 



Historical Sketches of the 



(tOSHoIiI, Betty P'linor 
Gregson. Raymond T. 
(Ti'ittin. Hazel 
Hall. Mrs. A. C. 
Hester, Mary 
House. John A. 
Joyce, Emmett Robert 
Joyner. Mrs. O. K. 
Lewis. Charles 
Lewis. Oma Bliss 
Nelson. Mary W. 
Norris. Thomas Joseiih 
Paschal. Laura Helen 



Penny, Celeste 
Phillips. Dorothy 
Reavis. Mrs. P. A. 
Root. Mrs. John C. 
Runnion. Helen 
Saylor, Jean S. 
Smaw. Annie 
Smith, Carrie Glenn 
Starnes. Dewey E. 
Starnes. Mrs. Dewey E. 
Strother. Melissa 
Taylor, Elizabeth 
Sellars. Mrs. William R. 



MURPHEY SCHOOL 



POLK AND PERSON STREETS 



Conn. Emma D.. Principal 

Bailey. Ida H. 

Ball, Mrs. Adele Reese 

Bryant. Mrs. Frances 

Burton. Mary 

Chadwick. Mrs. Bronnie C. 

Crawford. Marianne C. 

Fitzserald. Gladys 

Harper. Anne 

Home. Mary C. 

Jackson. Mrs. Martha C. 



Lancaster, Cora 
Lanier. Eleanor 
Morgan, Mrs. (Gwendolyn S. 
Murray. Mrs. Charles K. 
Thomas. Mrs. Fannie K. 
Umstead. Mrs. Virjrinia C. 
Walkup, Elizal)eth 
Webb. Mrs. Sara C. 
Welhms. Mrs. Alice F. 
Woltz, Mrs. Jessie McN. 



HAYES-BARTOX SCHOOL 
GLENWOOD AVENUE 



Underwood. Myrtle. Principal 

Alvis. Frances 

Bell. Lila 

Bulla rd. Mrs. M. Louise 

Cooper, Joyce 

Eldridiie. G. Virginia 

Holt. Blanche 

Hurst. Mrs. Nannie Marjiaret 

Kirkpa trick, Katherine 

Kirkpatrick, Virginia 



Lawrence. Mrs. Frank 
Martin, Mrs. Grace L. 
Massi'iitrill. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Munt. Mrs. Delia S. 
Riiigan. Mrs. Myrtle C. 
Sykes, Mrs. Viririnia B. 
Ward. Jean Gales 
Willard, Mrs. Coma Cole 
Wilkins. AUiene 



WILEY SCHOOL 

ST. MARY'S STREET 



Sherwood. Mrs. Mary B.. 

Principal 
Burks. Ethel D. 
Davis. Mrs. Annie P. 
Flemin.u. Irene 
Jenkins. Pattie 
Justice, Mrs. Evangeline 



McDonald. Mrs. Ethel H. 
Peirson, Mrs. Ellen U. 
Ray. Dorothy 
Reeves, I.,orenna 
Smith, Mrs. Ruth T. 
Squires, Ruahiie C. 
Stephenson. Mrs. Agnes W 



Raleigh Public Schools 



75 



THOMPSON SCHOOL 

567 EAST HARGETT STREET 



Holman. Elizabeth. Priucipal 
Beard, Ruth 
Coruwell. Mrs. Carrie 
Creesan. Mrs. Fave J. 
Duke. Mrs. Otho G. 
Hunter, Nancy 



Garren. Mrs. G. M. 
Mial. Victoria 
RutHn, Helen 
Southerland. Annie Rose 
Thoroughgood. Mrs. Zelma W 
Webli. Fannie 



LEWIS SCHOOL 
GLEXWOOD AVENUE 



Hicks, Mrs. William S.. 

Principal 
Fort. Mrs. William L. 
Hunter. Elizabeth 
Hunter, Ruth 



Matthews, Juanita 
Valentine, Fannie Mae 
Williams. Irma 
Wilson. Mrs. R. B. 



BOYLAN HEIGHTS SCHOOL 

SOUTH BOYLAN AVENUE 



Senter. Mrs. Herman, 

Principal 
Curtis. Dora F. 
Eskridge. Mrs. Eloise G. 



Hood. Pauline 
Lane; Lucy 
Martin, Esther 
Neal, Sadie 



ERED OLDS SCHOOL 

DIXIE TRAIL 



Page, Mary A.. Principal 
Bain, Eva 

Doggett, Mrs. Louise L. 
Draper, Jessie O. 
Ferguson. Mrs. Helen M. 



Herndon. X^annie Mae 
Lawrence. Mrs. John S. 
Mann, Edna 
Royall. Letha 
Watson. Virginia 



ELIZA POOL SCHOOL 
CARALEIGH MILLS. FAYETTEVILLE ROAD 



Dennison, Berniee, Principal 
Gibson, Mrs. Elizabeth T. 
Randolph. Mrs. Elizabeth H. 
Russell, Mrs. Dorothy C. 



Shelley. Mrs. Carolyn McL. 
Veach. Mrs. E. K. 
Yates, Carolyn 



BARBEE SCHOOL 

PILOT MILLS, XORTH BLOUXT STREET 



Holman, Mary B.. Principal 
Bradley. Mrs. Blanche T. 
Highsmith, Lucille 
Jenkins, Mrs. Julia W. 



LaFrage. Mrs. Xina J. 
Smith, Velma 
Wellons, Lee Douglas 



HisTOEicAL Sketches of the 



METHODIST ORPHANAGE SCHOOL 
GLEXWOOD AVENUE 



Sanderson. J. ()., Principal 
Cnimpton. Mrs. Eula 
Ferree. Mary 
(Taddy, Mary 
McDonald, Monnie 



Nichols, Madge 
Ragau, Irma 
Sandling, Mrs. Lillian C. 
Smith, Fred 



NEGRO SCHOOLS 
1941-1942 

WASHIXGTOX HIGH SCHOOL 

1000 FAYETTEVILLE STREET 



Akins, M. W., Principal 
Allen. Xiniinia Marie 
P.ngg. Margaret B. 
Clanton, Mrs. Josephine 
Collins, (ieorge Van Hov 
Evans. Ida M. 
Franklin, Mrs. Aurelia "W. 
Harris, Mrs. Gertrude E. 
Herndon, Agnes C. 
Hicks, Jeanette 
Hill, Merrinian C. 
Hunt. Mrs. Clara P>rown 
Inhorden, Wilson P.. 
Johnson, Henrv T. 



Kelly, Mrs. Emily M. 
Latham, Mr.s. Fannie V. 
Levingston, John C. 
Levingston, Mrs, Alberta 
Levister. Joshua L. 
Lexing, Ethel M. 
Ligon. Maye Edna 
Perrin, Mrs. Louise F. 
Perry, Mrs. Ellen A. 
Perry, Mrs. Susie V. 
Smith, William W. 
Toole. R. Herndon 
Williams, Peter Hines, Jr. 
Yeargin, Eftie M. 



ELEMENTARY 



Baker, James H. 
Brown, Mrs. (ieneva P. 
L)avis, Helen Burnette 
Eaton, Mrs. Lucy P. 
Fuller, Mrs. Nannie W. 
Hayes, Martha Y. 
Hayes, Octavia W. 
Love, Pattie M. 
Maye, Mrs. Faye P. 
Melver, Mrs. Mildred T. 
Mitchell, Mrs. Ida M. 



Morgan, Nannie H. 
O'Kelly. Mrs. Anna P. 
Prather, Mrs. Carrie M. 
Reid. Mrs. Gwendolyn Y. 
Sills, Mrs. Marjorie 
Sims, Mrs. Fannie J. 
Thomas, Mrs. Kathleen L. 
Wiley, Mrs. Eva P. 
Williams, Louise R, 
Baucom. Willie Steeve 



LUCILLE HUXTER SCHOOL 
1021 EAST LENOIR STREET 



Williams. Mrs. J. A., Principal 
Bryant. Mrs. Lucille :\I. 
Davis, Mrs. Eliza Allen 
Easterling. ]\Irs. Marion 
Evans, Mrs. Daisy B. 



Frazier, Mrs. Nan P. 
Gra.v. Mrs. Augusta H. 
Hardie. Mrs. Ora Burnette 
Harris. Mrs. Gila S. 
Hunt, Mrs. Ethel H. 



Ealeigh Public Schools 



Jones. Mrs. Alice 
Lane, Dorothy S. 
Ligon. Mrs. Clinton B. 
Logan. Mrs. Addie G. 
MeCauley, Racliel H. G. 



Mitcliell. Mrs. Hattie T. 
Pliillips, Mary E. 
Somorville, Mrs. Alice E. 
Stredwick, Mrs. Henri J. 
Wortlaam, Mrs. Celia J. 



CROSBY-GAEFIELD SCHOOL 

569 EAST LENOIR STREET 



Fuller, W. H., Principal 
Akins, Mrs. Mattie E. 
Brooks, Minnie T. 
Christmas, Clarine E. 
Culler, Mrs. Mary A. 
Dunston. Mrs. Alice J. 
Elliott. Maggie E. 
Gorham, Mrs. Marie A. 
Hunter, Lena M. 
Leake, Mrs. Bertha A. 



Logan. Mrs. Amelia H. 
Nanton, Mrs. Olivia 
Prince. Mrs. Clementine T. 
Roberts. Mrs. Margaret R. 
Smith. Mrs. Margaret A. 
Watson, Mrs. Mary E. 
Watts, Mrs. Garnelle 
Williams, Mrs. Alma T. 
Yeargin. Mamie T. 



OBERLi:^^ SCHOOL 

1004 OBERLIN ROAD 



Harris, Margaret R., Principal 
Brewington, Mrs. Ethel C. 
Flagg, Minnie F. 
Haywood, Mrs. Margaret 



Kay. Gloria C. 

Kelly, Mrs. Mattie M. 

Rhone, Amanda B. 



RALEIGH SCHOOL CAFETERIAS— 1929-1942 

By Mrs. Frances Moore Ran'kin, Supervisor 

111 1929 there were the following cafeterias in operation in the 
public schools of Raleigh : Hugh Morsoii, Broughton, Miirphey, 
Wiley, Lems, Centennial, Thompson, Eliza Pool, Barbee, Boy- 
Ian Heights, Hayes-Barton, Fred A. Olds, Washington, Crosby- 
Garfield, and Lucille Hunter. With the exception of Centennial, 
Avliose last school year was ended with the term of 1930-31, all 
of these are active today, but under greatly improved conditions 
and on a much larger scale. The cafeterias met situations very 
nicely then, but many were operating within a single room, with 
not even a partition between the kitchen and the dining room. 
All food was prepared and served in the one room. Oil stoves 
were in frequent use. Broughton had the only electric refriger- 
ation in the schools, and it was being paid for at the time on 
installments. 



7S Historical Sketches of the 

There have been coHstant changes within the cafeterias to 
meet the times and needs. Cafeterias in those days were not con- 
sidered essential, and there was no tie-up between them and the 
health program of the school. Ealeigh has never had any rule 
prohibiting students leaving the school grounds for lunch, and 
the progress shown by the cafeterias is due to their selling them- 
selves in the program of the schools. 

Until 1940 the Boylaii Heights cafeteria was a makeshift 
proposition. There was no space for a cafeteria in the building, 
yet there Avas a demand for same. For years the back of the 
auditorium Avas used for serving food prepared in a private home 
and brought to school, where it was kept hot for serving by an 
oil stove. The only other stationary equipment was a sink added 
some time later. At this time the manager was paid a salary 
from the cafeteria funds ; then it was put under similar private 
management. Since this was not an attractive proposition, in 
1933 the cafeteria was brought back into the organized cafeteria 
system, but with the limited facilities existing right on. 

When it was decided that Boylan Heights was to be enlarged, 
adding a number of classrooms and a cafeteria, it was with great 
delight there we could plan same. Ample space was allowed, 
providing proper lighting, ventilation, and modern ecjuipment. 
The cafeteria was equipped with an electric institutional range, 
an electric steam table, an exhaust hot water heater, and refrig- 
erator. With proper soiled-and-clean dish units and work count- 
ers, serving Avas improved. In the year of 1932 the sales of the 
school in the make-shift cafeteria amounted to $500.83, and for 
the school year 19-1:1-42 they were $2,167.41. 

In 1936-38, following the Crosby-Garfield fire, there was no 
cafeteria in the school. In the fall of 1938 with the construction 
of the new building, that elementary school found itself with a 
modernly equipped cafeteria. It was even better equipped than 
the Boylan Heights School just mentioned, for here Ave find 
tables and chairs, replacing the old enamel-top tables and 
benches. Three schools noAV have them : Hugh Morson, Brough- 
ton, and Crosby-Garfield. In Hugh Morson alone the cost of 
these tAvo items Avas $1,300. 

The increase in sales each year shows the groAvth and popu- 
larity of the school cafeterias. The school year showing the low- 
est receipts AA^as 1932-33. In 1929 they were $45,721.97. They 
shoAved a doAvinvard trend in the depression years until 1932, 
then they increased each year until the 1941-42 nCAV high Avas 



Ealeigh Pcblic Schools 7.9 

reached at $69,059.32. Of tlie total receipts for these years from 
1929-42 ($544,359.04), $377,018.04 has been spent in food, $26,- 
333.65 for eqnipnient and repair, and the remaining for salaries 
of all workers, for telephone, laundry, fuel, soda straws, napkins, 
cleaning supplies, auditing, bond premiums, medical fees, and 
many miscellaneous items for operation. 

Let us consider each school for improvements within the 
cafeterias : At Broughton we find a complete new serving counter 
with stainless steel top and insets, the first counter being bought 
second hand and not in keeping with the new, modern building. 
Other items of equipment which have been added are electric 
water fountain, pastry stove with a double oven, deep fat fryer, 
large mixing machine, potato peeler, large beverage cooler, elec- 
tric dish washer and tables and chairs. 

At Hugh Morson, where most banquets and groups gather, we 
have an attractive display of china. This is not the usual school 
cafeteria ware of all Avhite or green band, but cream with brick- 
colored figure. The service is set up for five hundred. Here also 
we find an electric water cooler, beverage cooler, large refrig- 
erator, electric mixer, potato peeler, exhaust fan, and tables and 
chairs. 

Hayes-Barton boasts of a dish room equipped with an electric 
dish washer and a double compartment sink. The steam table 
has been enlarged, a potato peeler, mixer, refrigerator and a new 
large institutional stove added. 

In 1929 Murphey Avas one of the schools cooking and serving 
in the same room. The first move was to separate the kitchen 
from the dining room, as we had ample room to do this. The 
most recent work done at Murphey is to make a double dining 
room and to construct a dish room. The dish room is likewise 
equipped with an electric Avasher and soiled-and-clean dish units 
and sinks. The floor of the cafeteria is of asphalt tile. Here we 
find also tAvo electric Avater fountains, one in each dining room ; 
a potato peeler, refrigerator, large mixer, a neAv gas stove Avith 
an additional three-burner gas hot plate. 

Barbee has been in its ncAv cafeteria quarters for tAvo years. 
It moved from its one-room set-up to the basement. Here Ave 
have adequate facilities on the north side of the building Avith 
plenty of AvindoAvs. An electric refrigerator and vegetable sink 
haA-e been bought for that school. 

Thompson has been equipped Avith a new stove, refrigerator, 
electric mixer, and A'egetable sink. 



so Historical Sketches of the 

Lewis, which operates on a small scale, has received a new 
stove and refrigerator. 

Wiley has received considerable attention. The dining room 
has been greatly enlarged, and also storage facilities. The serv- 
ing counter has been improved, and a noAv stove, refrigerator, 
mixer and sink installed. 

Fred A. Olds has likewise groAvn from one room to basement 
quarters. AVhen that Avas done ncAv equipment, such as an electric 
steam table, exhaust fan, and electric water cooler, were added 
to the former equipment. 

At Washington Ave observe an institutional electric range and 
electric steam table and refrigerator, AA'hile at Lucille Hunter 
there are an electric stove and refrigerator and enlarged soiled- 
and-clean dish units. 

There are dozens of other things that all cafeterias are en- 
joying in common. Bright, shiny trays haA'e replaced all alumi- 
num ones hard to clean. Oil paintings done by local artists deco- 
rate the Avails, and Qxen an adding machine, files, and a type- 
Avriter have been added to office equipment. 

A story of the cafeterias would not be complete Avithout a 
Avord concerning the interest shoAvn in Avelfare lunches to the 
underprivileged group. Each year this group has been consid- 
ered and has been fed by contributions from parent-teacher or- 
ganizations, cafeteria funds, the Barbee Fund, WPA, FERx\, 
American Legion, Tar Heel Club, and possible other club con- 
tributions not accounted for, Sunday school classes, and the 
Family Service of the Community Chest. The greatest expendi- 
ture for lunches Avas in 1934-35 Avhen the FERA financed $5,- 
700.57 for school lunches. The largest supporter noAv of Avelfare 
lunches is the Family Service. The amount received this year 
from that source Avas $2,652.80. 

We are proud of the groAvth of the cafeterias in the schools, 
and realize that they are essential in the educational program. 
It is a Avaste of the taxpayer's money to try to teach a hungry 
child. Lunches brought from home seldom meet the needs of the 
growing boy and girl. The cafeterias aim to establish good health 
habits that Avill go Avith them through life. 



Raleigh Public Schools 81 

HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMEXT, HUGH MORSON" 

1941-1942 

By Mary Penny, Instructor 

The objectives of home economics in the Hugh Morson School 
are to help the individual student to grow into a healthy, happy 
and useful individual, and to develop the skills, appreciations, 
and managerial abilities necessary to the making of satisfying, 
constructive homes. Specifically, the year 1941-42 has focussed 
sharp attention on the necessity of health and conservation ; 
therefore adequate diet, one hundred per cent health, and con- 
servation of resources, have been the theme of home economics 
for the year. 

During the year homemaking was taught from the eighth 
through the twelfth grades. Required of all girls in the first year 
of high school, home economics classes met twice weekly and 
gave pupils brief units on food preparation ; clothing, through 
the making of a simple garment ; the girls' bedroom, personal 
grooming, and personal and social development. Ninth grade 
work consisted of home nursing and child care ; personal appear- 
ance; selection and construction of pajamas, housecoat, or simple 
dress ; planning, preparation, and serving of luncheons or sup- 
pers ; knitting and crocheting; social customs; conservation of 
clothing, and marketing. Tenth grade units furthered clothing 
construction and selection, with selection and construction of 
any garment that the pupil was prepared to make. Other units 
consisted of conservation of clothing and household equipment ; 
meal planning and nutrition; buying, planning, preparation, and 
serving of dinners; etiquette; personality; housing and interior 
decoration, and general health. 

Pupils in the 11th and 12th grades found it possible to elect 
(1) a course in "Social Culture," the study of social custom, 
including units on budgeting, first aid, marriage, housing, voca- 
tions, boy-girl relationships, family relationships, etc., depend- 
ing on the interests of the group; or (2) a general home eco- 
nomics for advanced students who had had no home economics 
before, units depending, again, on the interests of the student. 
Units materialized into the buying, preparation, and serving of 
meals, care of the kitchen, nutrition, manners, vocations, safety 
in the home, child care, grooming, and general health. 

In addition to regular classroom and extra-curricular activi- 
ties, the vocational teacher, responsible for 102 of the 275 pupils, 



Historical Sketches of the 



supervised at least two home projects per pupil, and made over 
100 visits to their homes to check on projects and to study 
student problems that might be solved as project work. During 
1941-42, 32 projects were completed on home improvement; 26 
on provision of food for the family; 56 on construction and care 
of clothing; five, care and guidance of children; 39, health; 
eight, home management; three, consumer buying; six, family 
and social relationships ; 44, personal problems, totaling over 
210 projects in addition to home practice work. 

In addition to this, school teas, exhibits, class parties, etc., 
were sponsored by the teachers of the department. Further com- 
munity work was prohibited by extensive duties in class and 
extra-curricular work, and guidance of the individual pupil who 
sought help after school hours on his personal problems. 

The department is supported by fees of $1 per year per pupil 
to cover food and running expenses, and this sum is supple- 
mented by donations from the school board sufficient for essen- 
tial equipment. Physical equipment supplies two clothing labora- 
tories and fitting rooms, two food laboratories, and reception 
and dining room. 

COMMERCIAL DEPAETMENT, HUGH MORSOX 
By J. J. HoRNBACK, Instructor 

Freshman — Junior Business Training 1 and 2. 

Sophomore — Bookkeeping 1 and 2 ; Typewriting 1 and 2. 

Junior — Bookkeeping 3 and 4; Typewriting 3 and 4; Short- 
hand 1 and 2. 

Senior — Secretarial Training 1 and 2 ; Shorthand 3 and 4. 

The purpose of the commercial department is to qualify sti;- 
dents in the necessary office knowledge and skills to make them 
self-sufficient economically and an asset socially and industrially. 

IMPROVEMENTS IX THE ELIZA POOL LIBRARY 
FROM SEPTEMBER, 1936 TO MAY, 1942 

By Mildred C. Herring, Librarian 

During the past six years many changes have taken place in 
the Eliza Pool Library located at Hugh Morson High School. 
The book stock has increased from 2,721 to 4,038 ; magazine 
subscriptions from 14 to 35 ; circulation of books from 6,720 to 



Raleigh Public Schools S3 

15,504. An extra room has been added to tlie library space and 
is known as the reference room. At the back of this room a small 
work room has been cut off by using double-faced shelving and 
a gate which may be locked. The reference room has been fur- 
nished Avith six tables, 36 chairs, bulletin board, and low shelv- 
ing underneath the bulletin board. 

In the main reading room new low shelving, magazine shelv- 
ing, newspaper racks, and tAVo bulletin boards with shelving 
underneath one of them have been built by Mr. Clifford Brei- 
thaupt and Mr. Farmer Smith, teachers in the Industrial xA.rts 
Department. 

The equipment purchased for the library during this period 
includes the following: One typewriter (Royal) ; desk and chair 
for librarian; 25 chairs for main reading room; 36 chairs and 
six tables for reference room ; one high chair for main charging 
desk in main reading room; one 30-drawer card catalog; one 
six-drawer catalog ; one typewriter table ; Venetian blinds for 
entire library, and one stool with rollers. 

Mrs. J. M. Barbee has been very generous with her contribu- 
tions to the library. These have consisted of $25 for books; 
money for framing six pictures; a framed picture of the State 
of JSTorth Carolina Capitol, and one flower stand. 

The P.T.A. of the Hugh iSorson High School has contributed 
brass andirons for the library fireplace, and for the year 1941-42 
$37.50 for the subscription for Junior Literary Guild books — 
one book for older boys and one for older girls. 

SUPERYISI^^G AN INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAM 
1941-1942 

By Farmer S. Smith, Jr.* 

In Hugh Morson High School our Industrial Arts is made 
up of printing, woodwork and mechanical drawing. 
A summary of the objectives of our department are: 

1. To develop in each pupil an active interest in industrial 
life and in the methods of production and distribution. 

2. To develop in each pupil the ability to select wisely, care 
for, and use properly the things he buys or uses. 

3. To develop in each pupil an appreciation of good workman- 
ship and good design. 

* Hugh Morsou High School. ' ■ 



SJ/. Historical Sketches of the 

4. To develop in each pupil an attitude of pride or interest in 
liis ability to do useful things. 

5. To develop in each pupil a feeling of self-reliance and con- 
fidence in his ability to deal with people and to care for himself 
in an unusual or unfamiliar situation. 

6. To develop in each pupil the habit of an orderly method of 
procedure in the performance of any task. 

7. To develop in each pupil the habit of self-discipline Avhich 
requires one to do a thing when it should be done, whether it is 
a pleasant task or not. 

8. To develop in each pupil the habit of careful work without 
loitering or wasting time (industry). 

9. To develop in each pupil an attitude of readiness to assist 
others when they need help and to join in group undertakings 
(cooperation). 

10. To develop in each pupil a thoughtful attitude in the mat- 
ter of making things easy and pleasant for others. 

11. To develop in each pupil a knowledge and understanding 
of mechanical draAving, the interpretation of the conventions 
in drawings and working diagrams, and the ability to express 
by means of a drawing. 

12. To develop in each pupil elementary skills in the use of 
the more common tools and machines in modifying and handling 
materials, and an understanding of some of the more common 
construction problems. 

In the eighth grade, classes only meet twice a week in the shop. 
During this time we try to teach each boy to coordinate mind 
and hands by bringing in various other related subjects such as 
mathematics, science, English, physical education, etc., which 
deal with his particular project. 

In our department we believe in and have a large amount of 
student participation. To enable the instructor to give each indi- 
vidual student more of his time, we have organized a personnel 
organization. This system involves reelection each month of 
members of the class. The class takes one period each month to 
do this. The superintendent is nominated and elected. The rest 
of the personnel is then elected in order. Upon completion of 
the election, the various foremen choose their respective helpers. 
The first one chosen by each foreman is the first assistant and 
takes the foreman's place Avhen he is absent. No student is al- 
loAved to serve two months in a roAV on the same group. By using 
this system of rotation, each student has a chance to become 



Raleigh PrBUC Schools 85 

better acquainted witli the various departments of the shop. In 
other words, if a student serves in the machine room one month, 
he cannot go back there the following month, but must go to the 
tool room or some other department. Each foreman has about 
six or seven members to help him, depending upon the size of the 
class. To give the various superintendents and foremen a sense 
of responsibility, we have a grading chart for the personnel 
organization. The foreman grades his helpers "S" for satisfac- 
tory, "U" for unsatisfactory. The superintendent in turn grades 
each foreman on the job as a whole. By organizing in this man- 
ner, it takes only five minutes to do all the cleaning and replac- 
ing of tools for the next class. 

The students are very cooperative and look forward to their 
elections each month. They realize that they may be a superin- 
tendent or a foreman the following month and will want the 
cooperation of all members. Another great advantage of this 
organization is that the instructor has more time to help the 
students that need it, and the students also learn how to care 
for equipment and tools as well as cooperating with one another 
working toward a common goal. By using the shop personnel 
system, the instructor may devote his entire time to teaching 
and not to routine duties. IvTot only does this help the instructor, 
but the students themselves learn to cooperate, care for tools and 
other shop equipment, check supplies, figure lumber cost, grease, 
clean and repair tools, and learn how to plan a job by themselves. 

The students discuss various projects which may be made, and 
projects that the students are interested in making, and projects 
that can be used in and around the home. When each student 
decides upon a particular one he is then ready to work out his 
project card. The purpose of the project is to teach planning in 
a systematic, orderly fashion. 

In our shop we have a library' of shop books, project sheets, 
reference books, etc., which the students may check out through 
the record supply clerk and use for reference or new project 
ideas. Each student is encouraged to keep a notebook of future 
projects which he would like to make. The students are taken 
on trips to furniture stores, lumber mills, and industrial wood- 
work and machine shops. 

One period in every four is given over to related study. In 
this period the students discuss various problems encountered, 
the best ways in which to deal with them. Reports are given on 



86 Historical Sketches of the 

the different phases of lumbering, dealing with processes from 
the forest to the home. 

In the advanced shop Avork, the same routine and personnel 
system is used except, of course, more in detail. Quality of work- 
manship is stressed. For instance, instead of a rough sketch, we 
require a scale drawing. Machine woodwork is also taught in the 
advanced shopwork. 

A XEW COURSE : SOCIAL CULTLTRE 
By Helen W. Larabee, Instructor 

The genesis of a new high school subject known as Social Cul- 
ture in the Hugh Morson High School was simple. 

A general survey of the student body unexpectedly revealed 
a desire by numbers of the students for something wholly unique 
and different from any other subject in the curriculum, a regular 
high school course for both sexes in which the problems for 
social behavior, every-day etiquette and modern gregarious liv- 
ing could be studied — for credit. 

It was a thrilling cliallenge, and the possibilities seemed un- 
limited. What would the school authorities do about it ? Prin- 
cipal G. H. Arnold set out at once to meet that challenge. At the 
beginning of the fall term students were given the privilege of 
enrolling in a brand new course with the intriguing title of Social 
Culture. 

The results Avere gratifying from the start. A group of rather 
mature boys and girls with explorati^'e minds began working a 
A'irgin field. Student interest Avas evidenced by the spontaneity 
Avith Avhich objectives for the course AA^ere outlined, and the suit- 
ability of a text and numerous reference books Avas discussed. In 
order to facilitate this textual exploration, books Avere borroAA-ed 
from the school library and numerous reference materials from 
the Home Economics Department AA-ere thoroughly scanned. 

The book finally chosen as a text was Behave Yourself.^ Why 
this book ? Because it Avas so obA'iously Avritten for the modern 
teinjjo of American youth. It skillfully and graphically depicts 
the proper procedure of a high school student and the path he 
should folloAV, from the strenuous ordeal of Avaking in the morn- 
ing, to the whispered "Good night" at the door, folloAving the 



* Allen and Bkiggs, Behace Yourself. ,1. B. Lippiiicott Company. 
New York. 1037. 



Ealeigh Public Schools 81 

junior-senior prom. Furthermore, it offers very helpful advice 
on such troublesome matters as letter writing, what to do when 
traveling, proper conversation, entertainment, introductions, 
public appearances and other topics. 

Units set up for primary consideration, suggested by the stu- 
dents themselves, were "Hospitality in the Home," "Everyday 
Manners and Customs," and "Courtesies of the Day." Later, 
such topics as character, personality development, the art of ef- 
■fective grooming, proper dress on all occasions, family living, 
courtship, marriage, personal hygiene and other similar subjects 
were discussed frankly and honestly by teacher and students. To 
vary the program, several outside speakers appeared before the 
class and made contributions on topics for interest to the edifica- 
tion and delight of the group. 

During the study of the first few units, naturally enough, the 
students began to cast a very critical eye at the conduct of their 
fellow classmates and of the entire student body. This led to a 
desire to effectuate a change in the general deportment of those 
about them. To this end, a set of practical, workable rules for 
behavior on the school grounds, in the halls, auditorium, and 
classrooms was devised. 

To provide a medium for securing a general student interest 
in this personal improvement, a question box was placed in the 
hall and questions were solicited bearing on vexatious school 
problems of conduct and manners. These questions were then 
answered by the class in accordance with the list of prescribed 
rules and returned to the originators. 

Then followed quite an ambitious undertaking. Questionnaires 
were sent to 294 upper classmen on problems of social conduct. 
Girls were interrogated as to what were the little annoying, bore- 
some things they disliked most in boys and also what were the 
characteristics they admired most in the opposite sex. Boys were 
in turn questioned in like manner. The findings were indeed 
interesting. 

The girls stated that their most violent dislike were boys who 
smelled strongly of tobacco smoke, who were boorish and un- 
couth in manner and careless in the matter of dress and care 
of the body. They very definitely objected to a fellow who was 
always giving a girl the "rush" and then passing on to other 
interests. They deplored dishonesty, sissiness and dirty finger- 
nails. Most of the girls expressed a distaste for the boy who was 
rough in his treatment of them. 



88 Historical Sketches of the 



On the other hand, the type of boy who was held in most 
favor was the one who had good manners and high ideals. Best- 
liked types of individuals were those who were dependable, sin- 
cere, neat in dress and personal appearance, good mixers, socia- 
ble and friendly in spirit. 

The boys indicated by their replies that they disliked girls who 
used too much make-up, who were conceited, incessant smokers, 
fickle, loud and boisterous, those who wore flashy clothes, affected 
long fingernails and bright red fingernail polish, and, last but 
not least, had the habit of public primping. 

By their replies the boys evidently liked the girls who had a 
good disposition, who were attractive, honest, sincere, truthful, 
who were good sports, had good common sense and were not con- 
stant fault finders. Their ideal girl should be domestic, tidy in 
person and dress and should have a good character. 

Thus these homemakers of tomorrow delineated in all sin- 
cerity just the traits and characteristics we oldsters like to see 
in our fellowmen. Such preferences among these selfsame stu- 
dents will most likely serve as determining factors to them in 
later life. The crux of the matter is the clear thinking which 
originated within the group itself. 

Several of the students have voluntarily expressed an appre- 
ciation for the precedents set up by the class. Others have shown 
a visible improvement in school citizenship which is most grati- 
fying. It has been a joy to take part in this fostering of the 
principles of right thinking and acting in these embryonic citi- 
zens. An innate satisfaction has resulted from the realization 
that some small part has been played in a definite advancement 
toAvard what is known as social culture. 

SOME QUESTIOXS ABOUT THE DIVERSIFIED OCCU- 

PATIOXS PROGRAM AT^^D THEIR PROPER 

ANSWERS (1939) 

Bi/ C. C. Breithaupt, Coordinator * 

1. AVhat is "Diversified Occupations" I 

Ans. Diversified occupations is a type of part-time vocational 
education. 

2. \yhat is the plan of training? 

Ans. Two parties cooperate in giving the training — 



Hush :M()rsoii Hisiih School. 



Raleigh Public Schools S9 

(1) Some local business that will furnish part-time em- 
ployment and thereby offer training in doing the 
job. 

(2) The high school, through the coordinator, furnishes 
the study materials that go along with that job. 

3. Who is eligible to become a member of the class? 

Ans. (1) High-school students, 16 years of age or older, in 
the 11th and 12th grades who have chosen a suit- 
able occupation and who may be doubtful about 
going to college. Some students attending college 
may benefit from this training. 
(2) Graduates of high school. 

4. What is a suitable occupation? 

Ans. A suitable occupation is one that is: 

a. Represented locally. 

b. Suited to the apprenticeship type of training. 

c. Able to give all-around training. 

d. Complex enough to take one school year, at least, to 
learn it. 

e. Offer opportunities of employment at the end of 
training period. 

5. How can a student get in the program or class? 
Ans. a. Choose an occupation. 

b. File an application with the coordinator. 

c. Arrange for an interview with the coordinator. 

d. Coordinator surveys city for a training station. 

e. When suitable training station is found the student 
is sent to interview^ the employer. 

f. If the employer finds the student to be satisfactory 
for his business and is walling to cooperate by fur- 
nishing part-time employment, the student is al- 
lowed to schedule his classes. 

Notice that student is not allowed to enter class before 
part-time employment is found. 

6. What is the schedule of a student in the Diversified Occupa- 
tions Class? 

Ans. (1) Morning: 

a. One required subject — English. 

b. Two subjects related to the student's occupation. 
One of these may be taught by a teacher other 
than the coordinator if in the opinion of co- 



00 Historical Sketches of the 

ordinator that teacher is better qualified to 
give the instruction. 

(2) Afternoon : 

a. A minimum of three hours' -work at training 
station. 

(3) Prefer to arrange for afternoon work on the job. 
School work the first, second, and fourth period — 
lunch the fifth period — job beginning from 1 :30 to 
2, working until 5 or 6 o'clock. 

7. When may a student begin training? 

Ans. l^ew students Avill be accepted from present time to the 
close of school. No change in students' schedule next 
fall. Enrollment will be known by close of school and 
the list of students placed with the training agency will 
be announced. Xo student will be accepted for less than 
a year's program. 

8. What credit Avill be given for this work? 

Ans. Upon successful completion of a full year's work the 
student will receive four units of high school credit. 

English 1 unit 

For one relate^d subject 1 unit 

For other related subject 1 unit 

For work at job (training 

station) 1 unit 

These units will be accepted for graduation — not col- 
lege entrance. 

9. Does student receive pay for work? 

Ans. Student must receive pay for Avork on job. 

10. Is student entitled to Social Security card and compensation 
insurance? 

Ans. Yes, entitled to both. Also must have work permit if 
under IS years. Eeceived at County Welfare Depart- 
ment fold Eex Hospital). 

11. If students are behind in their grades as subjects are con- 

cerned will this effect their placement ? 
Ans. Yes, it very likely will give them too heavy a schedule. 

12. What wages are paid students? 

Ans. From 10 to 20 cents per hour, depending upon other 
factors. 

13. Must students work three consecutive hours daily? 
Ans. Yes. 



Raleigh Public Schools 91 



14. Wliat is average number of hours worked by students at 
present ? 

Ans. Twenty-two hours per week. 

15. Ti/pical Schedule for a Machinist: 

English .-- 1 period 

Machine Drawing 1 period 

Theory — Machine Shop .... 1 period 
Job 3 hours 

daily 
Architectural Drawing: 

English - 1 period 

Architectural Drafting 1 period 

Theory — Arch. Design 1 period 

Job 3 hours 

daily 

DAT^ K. STEWART 

Dan K. SteAvart, a most earnest man, was one of Raleigh's 
first industrial teachers. During Srygley's administration he 
conducted classes of men in the industrial trades, men anxious 
to improve. At the close of one of his interesting night class ses- 
sions, gatherings were held in the cafeteria of Hugh Morson 
High School. The members, old and young, joyfully related what 
they had gained from their study. Stewart's keen sense of under- 
standing and tact brought light and safety to many. His sym- 
pathy for the erring boy helped to solve many a school problem. 

GUIDANCE THROUGH THE TEACHING OF HIGH 
SCHOOL BIOLOGY 

By Mary Oliver Ellington * 

Our youth of today needs guidance if we are to believe nine 
tenths of what the current educational books and magazine 
articles say. Teachers are now employed by many superintend- 
ents on the basis of their skill in guidance, and innumerable 
schools are revolutionizing their curricula so that they may rest 
more firmly on the foundation stones of the principles of guid- 
ance. Books and articles on guidance are flooding the market, 



* Xeeclham Brcugbton High School. Taken from Norih Carolina 
Education. March, 1941. 



92 Historical Sketches of the 

and a wonderful terminology is growing up to embellish the 
ideas set forth. Let us hope that guidance will not lose any of 
its sterling qualities and fundamental principles because of this 
publicity, and that classroom teachers will not become hardened 
to it, or so wrapped up in the techniques of handling it that they 
lose the zest for it or the spontaneity of dealing Avith it. 

Seriously, the classroom teacher has a real mission to perform. 
Grave responsibility rests squarely upon his or her shoulders, 
for by coming in closer contact Avith boys and girls than any- 
one else in the educational system, he has greater opportunities 
for guidance. He cannot be just a dispenser of subject-matter, 
but must be a guide, a philosopher, and a friend. It is his duty, 
as Arthur J. Jones states it, "to assist the individual to make 
wise choices, adjustments, and interpretations in connection Avith 
critical situations in his life." The biology teacher, because of 
the nature of the subject-matter he teaches and because he knoAvs 
the problems of adolescent boys and girls probably better than 
any other teacher, has the opportunity to assist these boys and 
girls make Avise choices, become adjusted to a A'ariety of situa- 
tions, and interpret the meaning lying beneath th(^ surface of 
things. 

What Questions Connote 

When I first started teaching biology a question from a child 
concerning some interest in his or some phase of his life Avas 
simply a question and nothing more. I ansAvered it or failed 
to ansAver it blissfully unaAvare that this might be the focal point 
of a problem Avhicli might change the course of that child's life. 
Questions are still coming in and, sometimes as I ansAver them, 
I Avonder Avhat possibly prompted that question or Avhat problem 
rested in that pupil; but usually I just ansAver the best I can 
and then Avait till I've gone to bed to Avonder AA'hether I liaA-e, 
by ansAvering the question, guided the pupil in the right direc- 
tion. 

Opportunities for guidance arise so unexpectedly and from 
so many places. These, like poverty, Ave haA^e ahvays with us and 
I doubt if anyone, regardless of hoAv specialized he is in this 
field, can tell just AAdien he's struck the nail on the head, and so 
Ave must grasp all opportunities, Avhether seemingly insignificant 
or not, for directing the thoughts and footsteps of the boys and 
girls Avho suffer themselves to come under our o'uidance. 



Raleigh Public Schools 93 

Questions present the best starting point for guidance, and 
Avho more than the biology teacher is bombarded with questions ? 
Guidance requires curiosity and motion, and the person to be 
guided must be searching for something, going somewhere, reach- 
ing toward some goal. It is up to us to direct him. If we get in 
his way, we handicap him ; but if we help him find his way more 
surely, we gain his confidence and friendship. 

Biology presents a particularly rich field for guidance because 
it has within its scope subject-matter which is of vital and last- 
ing interest, and activities which are stimulating and worth- 
while. This subject catches boys and girls at the time when they 
are questioning the facts of life. It gives them the answers to 
many of their questions and touches their lives at innumerable 
points. Biology is a subject that high school students like. I 
know that this is a broad statement but one that I feel is essen- 
tially true, and if it isn't true the fault lies in the teacher and 
not ill the subject. 

Cause for I>:tekest 

What young person isn't fascinated by watching for the first 
time an amoeba move in its irregular streaming way across the 
field of a microscope ; or the mad scramble of paramecia con- 
gregated around a toothsome bit of decaying plant life; or a 
starfish gliding smoothly up the sides of an acquarium; or a 
crayfish hopping and jumping backward away from another 
crayfish? What young person isn't astounded when he studies 
the human body and finds that his personality and his disposi- 
tion depend largely upon the balance the secretions from the 
ductless glands achieve in his body ; or actually feels the increase 
in pulse rate after exercising vigorously a minute or two; or 
charts for the first time the course that a hookworm might, if 
given a chance, take through his body. Find one who isn't inter- 
ested in comparing the many different forms of seeds and seed 
cases, and learning about their adaptation for dispersal; or in 
watching the growth and coloring of bacteria colonies in a petri- 
dish across which he has brushed his finger tips or let a fly walk. 
Show me one whose eyes don't grow larger with interest when 
he first hears abovit the laws of heredity and begins to trace back 
in his OAvn family certain characteristic traits. 

Biology is interesting not only because of the "subject-matter 
involved, but also because of the many and varied activities con- 
nected Avith it. There's no end to the things they can actually 



9-k- - Historical Sketches of the 

do. They adore getting their hands on a microscope and looking 
at any and everything they can find. They really like to dissect 
even though they may anticipate the operation on the earth- 
worm with misgiA-ing. They take great pride in building an 
acquarium and getting it so well balanced that it remains clear 
and fresh. They like to dig and plant and tend flowers, especially 
if they have, as we do, a greenhouse in which to Avork, and they 
go after the insects which threaten their plants with real ven- 
geance. They beam with delight Avhen their collections of shells, 
leaves, wild flowers, or insects are ready for displaying. This 
working with things, most of which are living, satisfies some- 
thing vital within the-m. These things are real to them and these 
activities do not stop with the time in class, but are carried over 
into out-of -school hours. 

Many Probleais for Adolescents 

Biology presents a rich field for guidance because the boys 
and girls wlio take it are in a receptive stage of their lives. They 
are brimming over with life and curiosity and they are just at 
the right age to devour any subject which deals with life in 
general and themselves in particular. They are ready to m.ake 
comparisons between themselves and other living things and 
many of them find answers to problems which have long trou- 
bled them by studying the development of living organisms and 
their relationship one Avith another. All these things contribute 
to a saner and happier outlook on life. 

Adolescent boys and girls are confronted Avith many problems. 
There are educational hurdles, social adjustments, health prob- 
lems, moral perplexities, vocational questions, recreational 
choices, and citizenship responsibilities to be met. Biology by 
the A'cry nature of its subject-matter and the interest Avhich it 
stimulates helps a student to set up objectiA'es Avhich are for him 
important, reasonable, and AvorthAA'hile ; and helps him to attain 
these objectives. The things AA^hich are taught today should be 
useful, and the things which are taught in biology are useful — 
those AA'hich aren't should be Avecded out. There is a mass of 
facts to be looked into and assimilated, and it is up to the 
teacher to shoAv the student hoAv these facts can be put to use. 

In the biology class the student begins to grasp the scientific 
attitude tOAvard tested truth and he gains specific knowledge of 
scientific facts. This knoAvledge is not catalogued in his brain 
as just science and left there, but the attitudes and knoAA'ledge 



Raleigh Public Schools 95 

which he gains can be carried over into any of his other learn- 
ing. A few weeks ago I made out a questionnaire and gave it 
to juniors and seniors in our school who had already completed 
their work in biology. One of the questions was, "Has biology 
helped you in any of your other subjects, and if so, in which 
ones ?" These were some of the subjects listed : chemistry, physics, 
home economics, sociology, English, general science and public 
speaking. 

Another question was, "Are you more interested in the things 
you read in current newspapers, books, and magazines of a bio- 
logical nature than you were before taking the course?" 

Two hundred fourteen out of the 272 who answered this ques- 
tion said that they are. Many of them said that biology helped 
them to think through problems, and still others said that it 
had made them value neatness and accuracy in their work more 
than they had before. Surely these things will help them with 
any of the educational hazards which they may encounter. 

Working With Others 

A young person strives at all times to become socially ad- 
justed and during his teen age he is particularly anxious to fit 
in Avell as a member of the group. The biology course offers him 
through committee and group work a chance to learn how to 
work well with others. It helps him also to understand himself 
and other people better. According to the questionnaire 209 out 
of 268 were more open-minded concerning things and people 
than they were before studying biology. This open-mindedness 
will help them greatly in their dealing Avitli other people. One 
hundred eighty-two of them said that biology had helped to 
furnish them with topics of conversation. If this is true then 
one of the social hurdles is taken care of at least in part. 

To adolescents health is a very real problem and biology is 
a veritable godsend to them. This is the time when their bodies. 
are changing from childhood into young womanhood or man- 
hood. They don't know just Avhat is taking place, but they know 
they don't feel like they used to or even feel about other things 
and people like they used to. JSTo one seems really to understand 
them, and to tell the truth they don't understand themselves. In 
the study of the human body in biology they learn something 
of the complicated changes which are taking place. If the 
teacher can handle it properly they get a saner outlook on the 



96 Historical Sketches of the 

problems of sex, and tlieir attitude for probably tbe rest of their 
life is determined here by proper guidance. At tbis time also 
they are confronted with complexion difficulties, and even though 
these may seem trivial enough later on, to a growing boy or girl 
just starting out in the social Avorld pimples and blackheads are 
a really vital issue. Biology offers them a solution because they 
find from studying the skin and its care, the excretory system 
and the importance of the proper elimination of wastes, and the 
value of a balanced diet that these complexion problems are not 
hopeless ditficulties. Some of them are too skinny or too fat and 
begin to develop complexes because they are ashamed of the way 
they look in a bathing suit or an evening dress. These diihculties 
become surmountable when they learn what proper diet can do 
for them and also how the ductless glands, especially the thyroid, 
affect their figures. Their study of the body with emphasis on 
posture, and the care of the hair and eyes and teeth gives them 
really important information which they are only too glad to 
use. No other subject can possibly strike so close home to them 
at this time. 

YOCATIOXAL (tUIDAXCE HeLPS 

Biology presents a Avonderful field for vocational guidance. 
So many things of interest are presented in a biology course 
that many of them start working toward a vocation which af- 
fords them pleasure as well as a livelihood. In the questionnaire 
which I have mentioned before these were some of tlie vocations 
chosen by students who said that biology had hel})ed them in 
making a choice : laboratory technician Avork, medicine, surgery, 
school-teaching, home demonstration work, dietetics, archeology, 
nursing, church work, social work, civil engineering, floriculture, 
and scientific research. Of course I don't know how many of 
them will continue to be interested in these choices five years 
from now but they have them in their minds at present. One 
boy stopped me in the hall the other day and asked what we 
were doing in biology. I told him that Ave were getting ready 
to dissect a frog. He startled me by saying, "You know, the frog 
Avas the turning point in my life. I decided then and there I 
Avanted to be a surgeon and I'm going to Duke next year to 
start my Avork." They can see a definite tie-up betAveen biology 
and vocations and their study opens up so many possibilities of 
Avliich they had not been aAvare before. 



Raleigh Public Schools 97 

Leisure Time Helps 

N"ot only does biology help them with a choice of vocations 
but it helps them fill their leisure time with pleasant and profit- 
able activities. So many in_teresting things grow out of a biology 
course which can be carried over to out-of-school time. These are 
some of the activities that the boys and girls said they worked 
on in their leisure time as a result of their biology course : plant- 
ing and tending flowers and vegetables ; dissecting frogs, fish, 
cats and rabbits ; mounting small animals and skinning snakes ; 
starting collections of neAv things and adding to the collections 
started in class; making terraria acquaria ; keeping bees; fight- 
ing Japanese beetles; Avorking with a microscope; working on 
nature merit badges in scouting ; drawing flowers in their natu- 
ral habitats ; taking pictures of plants and animals ; building 
bird houses and feeding stations for birds, and caring for do- 
mestic animals. Leisure time is not so much time on a young 
person's hands if his interest in nature has been stimulated by 
a good course in biology. 

Youth needs guidance from a moral point of view. Some peo- 
ple may not think that science helps here but I believe truly that 
it does. Any subject Avhich inspires them to respect truth has gone 
a long way toward straightening out moral perplexities. Also 
any subject which points out the orderliness of our universe has 
laid a foundation stone in the moral attitude of an individual. 
According to the questionnaire 230 students out of 258 said that 
biology had helped them to see that this world (or nature) is 
orderly and dependable. One of my students worded it thus : 
''Biology has helped me to see that there must be an infinite 
intelligence behind the universe." 

Better Citizens 

Biology also makes better citizens of the youth of our country, 
because it helps them become better adjusted physically, morally, 
mentally, and socially. They are more open-minded and alert 
toward civic problems. They are brought face to face with the 
problems of community health and learn certain fundamentals 
concerning sanitation Avhich will be carried over into their adult 
life. In the questionnaire Avhich I gave out 82 per cent said that 
they were more open-minded concerning the importance of vac- 
cinations, serums, and tests for susceptibility of disease. Four 
fifths said that they understood better the importance of eradi- 



98 Historical Sketches of the 

eating social diseases ; 242 out of 265 said that they had a more 
sympathetic feeling toward people of lower mentality and toAvard 
those suffering with mental diseases. Not only will they be better 
citizens from a health point of view, but their attitude toward 
the conservation of our natural resources will be improved. 
Three fourths of them said that because of their study of biology 
they are now more conscious of their responsibility in conserv- 
ing the natural resources of their country; that they have more 
respect for game laws, and that when they have the opportunity 
they cooperate in the conservation and restoration of wild life. 

The high school biology course then seems to be a panacea 
for the problems of youth. Fundamentally I feel that its teach- 
ings are sound, and a biology teacher if he is genuinely inter- 
ested in the individual boys and girls, is sympathetic, patient, 
enthusiastic, and imaginative, has almost unlimited possibilities 
for helping the boys and girls in his classes make wise choices, 
adjustments, and interpretations, and therefore guiding them 
into happy, well-balanced, and useful ways of life. 

MUSIC IX JUNIOR HIGH AKD NEEDHAM BROUGH- 
TOX HIGH SCHOOLS 

Bi/ Annie ScARBORoron Lawrence * 

To be asked to write a chronological record of the steps in the 
development of musical training in the Junior High and Xeed- 
ham Broughton High schools would challenge the talents of the 
skilled writer, Avith both time and data at his disposal. This 
brief sketch is not submitted as being in any way such a record, 
but only as a recording of the highliglits in that training, by one 
who was privileged to have a teacher's part from September, 
1923, the date of the establishment of the Junior High School, 
to May, 1938, Avhen the seventh grade groups were transferred 
to the elementary school buildings. 

Outstanding during these years for their contributions to the 
important work of giving our teen age boys and girls fuller 
appreciation and love of good music were W. A. Potter, Mar- 
garet Highsmith Brown, Mabel Kenyon Davis, and James 
Gerow. Xone of them are Avith us today, but their Avork is being 
ably carried on by the gifted Dr. Frederick Stanley Smith. These 



Needbam B. Broiiahton Hiijh School. 



Raleigh Public Schools 99 

men and women, with the warm support of principals and the 
cooperation of classroom teachers, have had a large part in 
making Raleigh the music-loving city that it is today. 

Under such supervision what invaluable opportunities have 
been offered our high school children to experience the lasting 
joys of music ! Twice-a-Aveek lesson periods where the funda- 
mentals of music Avere taught and drilled, of course, but where 
there was time too for singing, just for the love of it; music 
appreciation hours when the works of the masters, heard through 
recordings, became a part of the listener's heritage ; try-out 
periods for glee club memberships, open to all students (and 
how many boys and girls had their voices "discovered" by the 
director) ; chapel ''songs," with everyone who would joining in 
singing, with happy abandonment, songs merry and sad, old 
and new, popular, semi-classical, classical, in response to the 
leader's invitation, "Come on — let's sing!" Armistice Day pa- 
rades when the uniformed members of the school band were 
cheered for their spirited playing of patriotic airs ; Christmas 
carolings around the lighted community tree on Capitol Square 
(and what a blessed substitute for the blaring of tin horns and 
clanging cow bells Avith which Christmas Avas ushered in, in the 
days before all Raleigh kncAv and loved the carols) ; participa- 
tion in state music contests with all that that meant of painstak- 
ing preparation of the difficult numbers to be rendered — solos, 
duets, trios, quartets, band and orchestra selections; glee club 
concerts Avhen the young musicians Avere adorable in eA^ening 
togs that lent beauty and dignity to their performances (hoAV 
glorious Avas their rendition of "The Building of the Ship"!) 
operettas, so colorful, so delightful with melodies so tuneful that 
we hummed them for Aveeks afterwards ; May Day fetes held on 
the school court, Avith children from the grades as guest per- 
formers ; spring f estiA^als in Memorial Auditorium — the vast hall 
packed as for no other annual event in the city; radio broad- 
casts that brought messages of appreciation from music lovers 
near and far ; class night programs with the school orchestra 
playing and lovely accompaniments for the musical numbers 
and the seniors singing as their recessional their Alma Mater, 
composed by one of their OAvn class members ; baccalaureate Sun- 
day services when the senior choir in exquisite harmony led the 
class in singing majestic hymns : there are some of the experi- 
ences that haA^e proved lasting. 

Through participation in such experiences liaA^e our children's 
personalities been enriched, and their characters strengthened. 



100 Historical Sketches of the 

Indeed, they are finer citizens becanse Ealeigli lias seen to it 
that thev have the best in innsical training in the pnblic schools. 

STUDEXT CO-OPEKATIYE ASSOCIATIOX 
Bij Ellen R. Glenx " 

The present Stndcnt Cooperative Association had its roots in 
the study hall of Mary Sue Beam (Mrs. X. G. Fonville) in 
1024 in the old Raleigh High School. There was a need felt 
for student participation for governing conduct in a large study 
hall in preference to all teacher discipline. During the folloAving 
year a constitution was draAvn up and an organization was really 
started. The first handliook Avas published by the Cooperative 
Association of Hugh Morson, 1926-27, and during the same year 
representatives were sent to the State Student Congress. At that 
time the state organization was affiliated with the national. 

When Broughton High School was established, a student co- 
operative association similar to the one at Hugh Morson was 
organized. A democratic council was composed of an executive 
committee, standing committee, and representatives from each 
home room. A faculty adviser was appointed for counsel and 
guidance. Miss Louise Smaw served in this capacity until 1933 
when she married Dwiglit Osborn and went elsewhere to make 
her home. Since that date Mrs. A. C. Hall has been faculty 
adviser for the Council. 

From tlie beginning student leadership has been encouraged 
through participation in extra-curricular activities. All clubs 
existing in connection Avith school affairs must be chartered by 
the Student Council, the executive organ of the Cooperative 
Association. It has become a custom to hold annually a student 
leaders' banquet — a get-together meeting for all officers of classes 
and chartered clubs, standing committee chairmen, faculty ad- 
visers, the principal and the superintendent. 

"The basic idea behind all the activities of our Council is 
not a student government; avc call it, for lack of a better name, 
'student cooperation.' Xo student in the school has any disciplin- 
ary power whatsoever. When a rule is made by a committee 
composed of representatives of the Student Council and faculty 
concerning, for instance, noise in the halls, there are no Student 
Council 'cadets' placed in the halls to see that this rule is en- 
forced. Instead, in the first Council meeting after the rule is 
made, it is read and explained to the home-room representa- 

* Ncedhain I>. I'rou.KhtiPii IIi.u:li Scliool. 



Raleigh Public Schools 101 

tives, who are instructed by the president of the Council to pre- 
sent this new regulation to their respective home rooms, and 
urge each student to act as his oavu cadet to remind him to obey 
the regulation. Although the student body knows perfectly well 
that the Student Council has no authority whatsoever in enforc- 
ing this new regulation, when they are approached from the 
standpoint of loyalty to the school and in pride for its Avell-being, 
they observe this regulation so well that no faculty supervision is 
needed to enforce it." f 

The biblical quotation, "Approve ye the things that are ex- 
cellent," has been adopted as the permanent slogan for the Coun- 
cil and now appears in plaque form on the walls of the ]S]'eedham 
B. Broughton School. 

A school store, which now finances the Student Council, has 
operated since 1931. The Council, in turn, appropriates money 
for various items, and profits are turned over to the Council. 
The school store manager, recommended by the faculty and prin- 
cipal, is approved by the student president. 

The Central Banking System of Broughton has grown out of 
school activities, since the Student Supply Store, the Motion 
Picture Fund and the Hi-Times found it difiicult to keep their 
respective bank balances to the point of not paying a service 
charge. Merging the finances of these projects suggested merging 
all student funds of the various organizations and clubs char- 
tered by the Student Council. A system was set up and called 
the Broughton Central Banking System. 

The Student Council provides an elections committee to have 
charge of all elections for each class organization as well as the 
Council elections. 

Xot a perfect organization is the Student Cooperative Asso- 
ciation but one with the aim to provide for student participation 
with the hope of developing good leadership. The Council con- 
siders that there are a number of qualities for student citizen- 
ship contained in the slogan "Approve ye the things that are 
excellent" — honesty, good sportsmanship, good scholarship, trust- 
Avorthiness. reverence, school spirit, friendliness, good health, 
thoughtfulness, good conduct, dependability, sense of humor, 
politeness, gratitude and tolerance. 

t Address liy W. T. :\Iartin. Jr.. President. September. 1937. 



102 Historical Sketches of the 

BETTEEMEXT ASSOCIATIOX, FOEEEUXXER OF 
THE PAEEXT-TEACHEE ASSOCIATIOX 

(To 19:39-40) 

By Mrs. ^\ W. Jones 

The objects of all pareiit-teaelier associations, as outlined by 
tlie national association, are as follows: 

To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school, 
church, and community. 

To raise the standards of home life. 

To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of chil- 
dren and youth. 

To bring into closer relation the home and the school, that 
parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training 
of the child. 

To develop between educators and the general public such 
united efforts as will secure for every child the highest advan- 
tages in physical, mental, social, and spiritual education. 

Each local association bends its best efforts towards the ac- 
complishment of these objectives. Any problem arising that 
relates to the schools is discussed by competent speakers at the 
monthly meetings. In addition to this there are programs on 
health, safety, art, religion in the home, and numerous other 
subjects relating to the well-being of children. 

Study groups are held in each school for the purpose of con- 
sidering the character traits of children and learning how best 
to deal with those that need remedying. Leaders of outstanding 
ability are often secured to conduct these groups. Books dealing 
Avitli child training are purchased by parent-teacher associations 
for the benefit of their members, and the National' Parent- 
Teacher Magazine, which deals exclusively with child problems, 
is sold by every association to its members. 

The leaders in each association are trained by reading the 
material prepared by the national association, by attending the 
conferences, Avhich are held each year and have as leaders men 
and women prominent in national as well as state life, who have 
made real contributions to public betterment. Sessions are also 
held each summer at Chapel Hill for further instruction of 
these leaders, and a course is given in Greensboro for those who 
specialize in child study work. 



Raleigh Public Schools 103 



Thompson Parent-Teacher x\ssociation 

The pioneer in parent-teacher work in Raleigli was Thompson 
School. It formed an association called "The Thompson Better- 
ment Association" in 1907, three weeks after the school itself 
opened. Mrs. E. E. Moffett was principally responsible for the 
organization of this association, which started with only 23 
members. In the first years of its existence the association had 
the school Avired for electricity, started the library, bought an 
encyclopedia, piano and pictures. The "Betterment Association" 
eventually became a parent-teacher organization. 

MuRPHEY Parent-Teacher Association 

At the instigation of Miss Myrtle Miller, Avho later became 
Mrs. W. F. Upshaw, the Murphey Parent-Teacher Association 
was organized February 23, 1919. A constitution and by-laws 
were adopted. Equipment furnished by this association included 
a lunchroom Avith tables, chairs, range, electric dish-washer, re- 
frigerator, cooking utensils, curtains, and window boxes. Play- 
ground equipment costing $600 was bought, a cement walk laid 
in front of the school, scales for weighing the children purchased, 
and teachers' rest room furnished, the principal's office renovated, 
and shrubbery planted on the grounds. An encyclopedia and 
many new books were placed in the library. 

Lewis Parent-Teacher Association 

Lewis School was the next to organize a parent-teacher asso- 
ciation in September, 1919, under the leadership of Miss Myrtle 
Underwood. Some of the improvements made by its members 
included grading and planting the school grounds, adding play- 
ground equipment, equipping a first aid room in the school, 
supplying scales and bookcases. The association also donated 
$50 to the city for public playgrounds. Lender the direction of 
its third president, Mrs. C. L. Sims, a drive was made to put 
across the million-dollar bond issue for schools. 

Wiley Parent-Teacher Association 

The initial meeting of the Wiley Parent-Teacher Association 
took place in September, 1919. A health crusade was then car- 
ried on, scales bought, and many prominent speakers secured to 
lecture on different phases of health. A victrola, records, refer- 
ence books, Avindow boxes and shades Avere bought. At the second 



lOJi Historical Sketches of the 

meeting of the association tlie need for a new building was dis- 
cussed, and it was principally because of its efforts that a new 
school was finally erected. 

Centennial Parent-Teacher Association 

One of the first problems the parent-teacher organization at 
the Centennial School in 1919 had to deal Avith was the use of 
the school playground as a sort of loafer's paradise. The first 
president directed the association's efforts toward having a fence 
built, and in addition were successful in having this old build- 
ing remodeled. ISTew furniture, a library, a teacher's rest room 
and a piano were some of the contributions this association made 
to the school. 

Caraleigh and Eliza Pool Parent-Teacher Association 

In 1923 the parents at Caraleigh organized a parent-teacher 
association. In 1924 a new school building Avas erected at Cara- 
leigh and named after a beloved teacher, Miss Eliza Pool. This 
organization has done a very Avorthwhile work in promoting a 
better understanding between parents and teachers. 

Ji'NioR HniH School Parent-Teacher Association 

The Junior High School which was housed in the old Institute 
for the Blind organized a parent-teacher association in January, 
1924. Efforts of this association Avere principally directed at 
renovation of the old and inconvenient building. 

Barbee Parent-Teacher Association 

The Barbee Parent-Teacher Association organized in 1924. 
This association's outstanding contribution to its community 
was its welfare Avork. 

Hi'OH MoRsoN HioH School Parent-Teacher Association 

In 1925 the ncAv Hugh Morson High School organized a 
parent-teacher association. Its initial act Avas to present to the 
school a beautiful oil portrait of the great educator for Avdiom 
the school was named. Professor Hugh Morson. A large amount 
of money Avas then raised to enlarge the very inadequate library. 
The school grounds were graded and planted and other equip- 
ment given. 



KaleictH PrBLic Schools ^05 



BoYLAx Heights and Hayes-Barton 

In 1927 two new schools Avere added to the city, Boylan 
Heights and Hayes-Barton. Parent-teacher associations were or- 
ganized in both schools. A moving picture machine was installed, 
which not only provided the Boylan Heights community with 
weekly wholesome entertainment at moderate cost, but earned 
enough money to enlarge the library, provide works of art and 
ventilators for the school rooms. At Hayes-Barton the grounds 
were transformed into beautiful green lawns. The library was 
brought up to standard. Pictures, stage drops, and visual aid 
material were provided. 

l^EEDHAM BrOI-GHTON PaRENT-TeACHER ASSOCIATION 

The last association to be organized was at Xeedham Brough- 
ton, Raleigh's handsome new high school, in 1930. It was active 
in having the grounds landscaped, and a year or two later home 
economics classes were begun. In the year 1939-40 the carnival 
was started and has been the means since of providing all the 
money needed by the association. 

The Raleigh Parent-Teacher Council 

The Raleigh Council of Parents and Teachers started life in 
1920 under the name of the City Federation of Parent-Teacher 
Associations. Mrs. Weston Bruner, Mrs. F. D. Castlebury, Mrs. 
F. C. Handy, and Mrs. D. Sam Cox were its first presidents, in 
the order named, and helped to launch successfully Avhat has 
become one of the most influential bodies in Raleigh. The Coun- 
cil is primarily a conference body and presidents of the local 
associations and principals of each school are members. Here 
local units unite in common projects and cooperate upon defi- 
nite lines of work for the improvement of conditions affecting 
childhood. A strong force for good in the community, the Council 
has made an enviable record of worthwhile achievement in its 
19 years of existence. 

The very able president of the Raleigh Parent-Teacher Coun- 
cil for the past two years has been Mrs. T. S. Johnson. Her in- 
spiring and vigorous leadership has resulted in an active flourish- 
ing parent-teacher membership which has made a fine contribu- 
tion to the schools and school children of Raleigh. 

The Council and all local associations are under the direction 
of the State and jSTational Congresses of Parents and Teachers. 



106 Historical Sketches of the 

ATHLETICS 

Ealeigh High athletics prior to the year 1936-37 cannot be 
traced accurately, because records have been destroyed. Certain 
names, however, should be mentioned : Frank P. Graham, now 
president of U. I\T. q.^ ^vas here from about 1910-11 to 1912-13. 
He served as coach as well as teacher of English. Guy B. Phillips, 
also teacher of English and coach, followed him in 1913-14. 
Phillips' stay is marked by the winning of the championship 
cup, given by the Athletic Committee of Chapel Hill, for the 
third consecutive year. He left about the year 1916. 

J. Peele Johnson was coach for about four years prior to 
1928-29. Albert T. Spurlock was with him in 1929. Hoav long 
Johnson remained is not certain, but Ray Gregson came about 
1932. Gregson has remained until the year 1941-42. 

From 1936-37 Raleigh High athletics can be definitely traced 
by referring to the annuals : 

1936-37 
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. 0. Brandon, James 
Gerow. Sponsor: Dorothy Coates. 

Basketball — Sponsor: Sara Frances Terrell. 
Baseball — Sponsor: Mary Xorris. 

1937-38 
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. O. Brandon, James 
Gerow, Willie Duke. Spoiisor: Harriet Jones. 
Baseball — Sponsor: Mary Helen Farlow. 

1938-39 
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. O. Brandon, James 
Gerow. Sponsor: Bitth Phillips. 

Basketball — Sponsor: Myrtle BroAvn. 
Baseball — Sponsor: Ruth Brown. 

1939-40 
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Charles Dandelake. Spoti-- 
sor: McGartha Johnson. 

Basketball — Sponsor: Christine Matthews. 
Baseball — Sponsor: Ann Hatcher. 



Raleigh Public Schools 107 

1940-41 
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Charles Dandelake. Spon- 
sor: Mary Jo Williamson. 

Basketball — Sponsor: Lucille Bell. 
Baseball — Sponsor: Juleen Bryan. 

1941-42 
, Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Fletcher Ferguson, Farmer 
Smith. Sponsor: Viola Yates. 

Basketball — Sponsor: Elizabeth Mills. 

Baseball — Sponsor: Sally Young. 

RALEIGH PARK AI^D RECREATION COMMISSION 

The Raleigh Recreation Center walks hand in hand with the 
public schools of the city to carry out a well-rounded recreation 
program. Part of the city government, it functions all year 
under the direction of Oka T. Hester and an advisory committee 
of laymen : James R. Bynum, chairman ; Mrs. Alma Wynne 
Edgerton, Mrs. Jesse Mills, Wade C. Lewis, John F. Miller, 
Fred D. Dixon, J. J. Fallon, and Arnold Peterson, city land- 
scape engineer. 

The Center is about four years old. At first it was very 
limited in scope, but now it is part of a joint system whereby 
the schools and the Center have like aims and do a similar 
work for the good of the community. Devereux Meadow, for 
example, is used by both. Though owned and controlled by the 
Raleigh School Board, the Recreation Center uses it in the sum- 
mer months and handles the maintenance the year around. 

It was not until July 24, 1941, that a city ordinance was 
adopted providing for the creation of the Raleigh Park and 
Recreation Commission. This was an outgrowth of a North 
Carolina State Enabling Act, passed in 1923, which gave muni,- 
cipalities and school districts the right to conduct and maintain 
recreation facilities. But it was from civic clubs that the Center 
was more directly organized. In 1932 the civic clubs of Raleigh 
called it into being by oifering it support. They donated money to 
operate a playground during the summer months. Its scope was 
very limited at that time, and it functioned first as an advisory 
playground committee, until the city ordinance was passed a 
year ago. 



1G8 Historical Sketches of the 

The present Avork of the Park and Recreation Commission of 
Raleigh is larger in scope than at its beginning, and it continues 
to grow. It operated 11 playgrounds during June, July and 
August of 1942, with a man and a woman at each, to supervise 
baseball, tennis, and Softball. These are open the entire day in 
summer, but are necessarily limited to after-school hours in 
Avinter because of the school program. In summer months the 
Center tries to take ujj this matter of supervised recreation where 
the schools drop it in the sjjring. Leadership for the playground 
is kept on a par with that of the schools. At present, the Recrea- 
tion Center operates at Devereux Meadow, LcAvis School, Boylan 
Heights School, St. Savior's Church, and St. Monica. In addi- 
tion to this summer program, which continues to grow with the 
years, community centers are conducted within the schools the 
year around. At Thompson School, Halifax Court, Fred A. Olds, 
Hugh Morson High, Xeedham B. Broughton High, Obcrlin 
Road, Washington High and Chavis Heights, there are inside 
activities for adults in night groups. These community centers, 
operated in the school buildings, using school facilities, are more 
for adults than children. 

THE RALEIGH SCHOOL BOARD 

By Avhat means do the City Commissioners find persons suffi- 
ciently interested in Raleigh's jjublic schools to serve on the 
School Board? Board members are sworn to serve. 

There are fixed ])eriods for Board meetings once a month. 
Often extra meetings require the attendance of every member. 

Applications of teachers for positions in the schools are pre- 
sented to the Board through the superintendent. Qualifications 
and experiences have to be considered. Photographs often make 
an interesting collection I 

The Board holds conferences with the problem parent about 
the problem child. Criticism is ofttimes the compensation. 

The School Board is sometimes found lacking funds for im- 
mediate needs. What then 'i It is the School Board's problem. 

There are instances of decades of service by members of the 
Board. I^o financial compensation is awarded, but a citizenry is 
helped by faithful guarding. 



Raleigh Public Schools 109 

SCIENCE IN RALEIGH HIGH SCHOOL 

By L. Polk Denmark 

The first courses in the pure sciences were offered in the fall 
of 1909. Prior to that time there had never been sufficient room 
available to accommodate the courses considered as absolutely 
necessary. With the opening of the ncAV building on Morgan 
Street this condition no longer prevailed. 

Two boys, students in the sophomore class, were so interested 
in physics and chemistry that they prevailed on Superintendent 
Harper to allow them to construct a laboratory in the spare 
room in the northeast corner of the basement. Of course there 
was to be no expense of the venture handled through the school 
funds. 

These boys, Harry B. Henderlite and L. Polk Denmark, con- 
structed tables and work benches, installed water and gas con- 
nections, and in general set up a very creditable workshop for 
general experimentation. 

Equipment was next obtained by visiting Dr. Pickel of the 
State Chemists' Department, old discarded bunsen burners and 
other "next to useless" equipment was gladly turned over to 
the boys. Through their own ingenuity they constructed innum- 
erable pieces of mechanical equipment, levers, pulleys, inclined 
planes and dozens of other apparatus for demonstrating prin- 
ciples in physics. Of course all this was observed by Superin- 
tendent Harper and Principal Hugh Morson. 

In mid-summer, 1909, Mr. Harper called the two boys to his 
office, told them the Domestic Science work was to be moved 
from its crowded room in the front center of the second floor to 
t]]e newly acquired cottage in the back yard of the school, and 
the old quarters turned over to a new Science Department. 
Equipment had already been received, and the boys were told 
to go up to the new quarters and unpack and set up the complete 
laboratory with all its appurtenances. 

The new instructor had not yet arrived, so everything was 
put in order by the "founders." Wlien Professor Lawrence E. 
Blanchard reported for duty he found everything in order to 
begin his new work. He was just out of Trinity College and 
bubbling over Avith enthusiasm for his work. Under his guidance 
the work was off to a sound start. 



(ERRATA: The name "A. J. Ellis" on page 8, line 15, of 
the second paragraph should be "A. J. Watts.") 



INDEX 
CHRONOLOGY OF SUPERINTENDENTS 

OF 

RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

(1876-1942) 

Page 

foreword 8 

Introduction 5 

John E. Dugger (1876-1883) 7 years 7 

Andrew J. McAlpine (1883-1885) 2 years 9 

Edward P. Moses (1885-1895) 10 years 10 

Logan D. Howell (1895-1898) 3 years 18 

Edward P. Moses (1898-1907) (return) . . . 9 years 20 

Erank M. Harper (1907-1918) 11 years 22 

Harry Howell (1918-1921) 3 years 28 

Samuel B. Underwood (1921-1923) 2 years 30 

Hubbard F. Srygley (1923-1930) 7 years 32 

Paul S. Daniel (1930-1936) 6 years 35 

Claude F. Gaddy (1936-1942) 51/2 years 37 

Jesse O. Sanderson (1942 spring term) 38 

Sketches of the Raleigh Public Schools 

Johnson 1865 39 

Oberlin 1869 39 

Washington High 1869 41 

Centennial 1876 43 

Murphey 1887 43 

Methodist Orphanage 1899 44 

Wiley 1900 46 

Barbee 1903 47 

History of Adult Class and Community Program at Barbee 49 

ChaviJ ^ 1903 51 

Eliza Pool 1903 51 

Ealeigh High 1905 52 

Thompson 1907 53 

Lewis 1915 54 

Crosby-Garfield 1923 56 



l^I)EX—( Continued) 

Page 

Junior High 1923 57 

Hugh Morson High 1925 59 

Hugh Morson 61 

Eliza A. Pool 61 

Boylan Heights 1927 62 

Fred A. Olds 1927 63 

Hayes-Barton 1927 61 

Lucille Hunter 1927 65 

Xeedham B. Broughton High 1929 66 

X€H-dham B. Broughton 69 

Edna Metz Wells— Ann Pitts Hicks 71 

Supplement 

The Elementary Supervisor 71 

Raleigh Public School Directory— 1941-42 73 

Raleigh School Cafeterias 77 

Home Economics Department, Hugh Morson 81 

Commercial Department, Hugh Morson S2 

Library Improvements, Hugh Morson 82 

Industrial Arts Program 83 

A New Course: Social Culture 86 

Diversified Occupations Program 88 

Dan K. Stewart 91 

Guidance Through the Teaching of High School Biology . 91 
Music in Junior and Xeedham Broughton High Schools 98 
Student Cooperative Association, Xeedham B. Broughton . 100 

History of Parent-Teacher Association 102 

Athletics 106 

Recreation 107 

The Raleigh School Board 108 

Science in Raleigh Lligh School 109 

Errata .110 






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