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HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE RALEIGH PUBLIC
SCHOOLS , 1876-1941-1942
Jennie M, Barbee
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
State Library of North Carolina
MRS. J. M. BARBEE
Raleigh Public Schools
MRS. J. M. BARBEE
Grateful acknoirledgruciif is tnadc to Mrs. Friiiices Cox
Morrison for her aid i)i voinvUinfi Historical Sketches
OF THE Raleigh Public Schools
Barbee I'upils' Association
Raleigh, N. C.
Mitchell Printing Company
Raleigh. N. C.
^y^ T THE annual meeting of the Barbee Pupils' Association
on Febrnary 22, 1943, a committee was appointed to
review the manuscript of IIistoricat. Sketches of the
Raleigh Public Schools. The committee was given full
authority to have the manuscript published in book form if
such action should be deemed feasible. The committee thus
authorized is Claude F. Gaddy, chairman; John A. Park and
Charles U. Harris.
Deeply impressed with the valuable historical information
given in the manuscript, the members were unanimous in
their opinion that this book should be pul)lished and oifered
to the citizens of Xortli Carolina.
Close observations and careful recordings of school and
community life as Mrs. Barbee saw it during years of useful
service should indeed furnish a record of great value to
Photographs of former superintendents of the Raleigh
Public Schools could not be secured for publication in this
The valued counsel and helpful inspiration to ''her boys
and girls'' will live forever in the minds and hearts of the
hundreds of her former pupils. Ever mindful of the under-
privileged and less fortunate, she has ministered to them with
a spirit of love that did not seek acclaim of the masses.
President Barhee Pupils' Assoeiation.
Mks. J. M. Barbee
Beldvt'd teac-her of hundreds dt' Raleiijrh children and proliably the state's
Ifest-known pulilie sehodl teacher, juined the Raleiirh system in ISSI. and
retiring at the close of the lJt41^42 session. She now is livin.tr in <ireens-
horo with her son, Robert Barbee. She observed her S9th birthday on
Fel>ruary I'i. 194o.
Joseph Lancaster established the first Lancaster School at
Fayetteville, I^. C, in 181-4. "The same year another was begun
in Wake County to which children unable to pay for the instruc-
tion were admitted free of charge. In February of the following
year a Lancaster School was opened in Raleigh where children
were taught free of tuition charges. By K'ovember the enroll-
ment was more than one hundred pupils. Many of these who,
before entering the school, 'did not know a letter in the book,'
Avere in a short time able to read, write, have some knowledge
of figures, and repeat by heart a number of moral verses."*
"Josej^h Lancaster of England seems to have been most suc-
cessful in the application of new methods to the instruction of
the children. The method is founded upon a profound knowledge
of the human mind. The basis of the method is the excitement
of the curiosity of children, thereby awakening their minds and
preparing them to receive instruction." f
* Edgar D. Knight, The Public School /« Xortli CaroUiin. pi). 60, 74.
t Ibid., p. 73.
ADMINISTRATION OF JOHN E. DUGGER
Prior to the establishment of the Centennial Graded School
in 1876, the public schools of Raleigh were taught in some small
houses situated in different parts of the township, with no super-
vision except that exercised by the local school committee. In
1875 the committee determined to husband the school funds and
establish one central school for all the white children of the
township. Accordingly, in 1876, the Centennial Graded School
was organized. This was the second graded school in the state.
The 1876-77 Legislature gave the people permission to vote
upon the question of a tax levy of one tenth of one per cent on
one hundred dollars worth of property for the support of the
public schools of Raleigh Township. This was ratified by the
people, and thus a fund of about $5,000 Avas raised. This fund,
together with the amount of state tax received by apportionment,
a part of the county common school tax, grants and fees, and
voluntary contributions from patrons, constituted the sources of
revenue. "From the summer of 1876 to the summer of 1877, the
Peabody Board appropriated $1,500 to Raleigh."* The definite
objective in 1877 was to give every child at least the usual ele-
mentary branches of education, f
At this time the towmship school committee consisted of three
members : Col. A. W. Shaffer, chairman ; M. Y. Gilbert, secre-
tary, and H. C. Jones (colored). Capt. John E. Dugger of War-
renton, JST. C, was elected principal. A lively Confederate vet-
eran of the Civil War, Captain Dugger was a member of the
Teachers' Association of the State, a most prominent school man.
He was connected with the Summer Normal School at Chapel
Hill during the 80's while serving the Raleigh Graded Schools
Classes were conducted in the sixty-year-old Governor's Man-
sion, known as "The Palace," at the foot of Fayetteville Street,
on South. Two hundred forty pupils enrolled the first day for a
term of ten months. The attendance grew to include 317 boys
and 251 girls. There were four grades: primary, intermediate,
grammar, and high school.
* Edgar W. Kxight. Public School Education i)i Xorth Carolina,
t Reports of Suijerintendent of Public Instruction (1879-1886), p. 93.
Historical Sketches of the
The ell extension of "The Palace" was first occupied by the
family of the principal. A log corncrib on the lot was moved
alongside the Mansion to make room for the primary grade.
Later, the entire sj^ace of the building was needed for classes.
Captain Dugger then bought part of the Kemp P. Battle lot on
Fayetteville Street, extending through to Salisbury. In 1880 the
buildings for colored schools known as the Washington and Gar-
field were bought by the school board.
Captain Dugger, interested in j)honics, was principal, and also
held classes in Latin. Other members of the first faculty were:
W. B. Burkhead, E. B. Thomas, who formerly taught in the
western ward of the city; Miss Alice Partin (Mrs. W. W. Will-
son), Miss Pattie Litchford (Mrs. Fred Purefoy), Miss Evaline
Davis, and Mr. and Mrs. Fairchild of New York. Others were
L. T. Buchanan, Eugene Branson (later of U. N. C.), Lee Blair,
Miss ISTettie Marshall, Miss Emma Hood, Miss Pattie Lawrence
(Mrs. Charles Ashley), Miss Annie Beckwith (Mrs. Thaxton),
Mrs. John A. McDonald and daughter. Miss Mary. ISTo pupils
of the first grade taught by the McDonalds ever failed to remem-
ber very graciously their work. Mrs. J. M. Barbee joined the
faculty in 1881 and taught the second grade. In this class were
the noted twins, Tom Joe and Joe Tom, sons of Mr. and Mrs.
A. J. Ellis. If the roll of this second grade were called in the
year 1941-12, the answer of Rev. T. J. Watts would be heard
from Dallas, Texas; from Baltimore, the answer of Rev. J. T.
Watts would come; from Raleigh, Mittie Ellis Henley, a shut-in
for years, would answer. Many more worthwhile pupils of
pleasant memory Avere members of that 1881 class. It is inter-
esting to recall names of other pupils : Addie Worth Bagley
(Mrs. Josephus Daniels), Jennie Simpson (Dr. Jane S. Mc-
Kimmon), Jennie Pescud (Mrs. W. A. Withers), Grace Bates,
Mary Bates (Mrs. M. B. Sherwood), Loula Riddle, Lizzie Bell-
amy (Mrs. W. J. Peele), Lilly Branson (Mrs. Simmons), Nan
McMacken, Kate McDonald (Mrs. David Ellis), Edgar Wom-
ble, Guy Bunch, Clarence DoAvell, and David Ellis, who vividly
recalls that his first meeting with Principal Dugger was a strictly
disciplinary one. Principal Dugger was vigorously using the rod
on an unruly lad. (It is a hazardous undertaking to recall names.
Many have been omitted.)
Captain Dugger made frequent visits to the elementary grades,
stressing the need of developing the child's perspective faculties.
Raleigh Public Schools
The demand for object lessons ( !), the conseioiis memory of get-
ting pupils to grasp what the teacher only faintly grasped, and
earnest search for light — these later totaled the grateful joy of
letting the pupil browse, helpfully guided at last by the teacher.
Dugger built a residence which later became the home of
Lawyer W. IST. Jones.
During Principal Bugger's administration a Peabody Xormal
School scholarship of $200 per year for two years was offered
students passing the competitive entrance examination. Students
accepting the scholarships were obligated to teach two years.
E. McK. Goodwin, Mary T. Pescud, David L. Ellis, and Clarence
Dowell won scholarships and entered Peabody. The latter two
entered in 1880.
With seven years of valuable service, John E. Dugger resigned
and moved to Rocky Mount in 1SS3. It is gratifying to hear
pupils of the Dugger administration speak of the teachers and
satisfactory Avork accomplished. The school board at the close
of his administration consisted of X. B. Broughton, S. W. Whit-
ing, and C. B. Root.
* 4 .
ADMINISTRATION OF ANDREW J. McALPINE
A. J. McAlpine, of Weaverville College, Buncombe County,
Avas elected principal of Centennial School, succeeding Capt.
John E. Dugger. During his administration there was one school
for the Avhite (the Centennial) and four schools for the colored;
Johnson, Vv'^ashington, Garfield and Oberlin. The Johnson School,
needing repairs, Avas closed in ISS-i. ( See History of the Johnson
School.) The other school buildings had sufficient accommoda-
The same school committee of Dugger's administration con-
tinued through McAlpine's, until 1885.
Teachers of the Dugger faculty Avere retained Avith these addi-
tions : Miss Maggie McDowell (Mrs. Jesse Siler), Miss Ella
Fleming (Mrs. Houston), Mrs. Miriam Cooper, Miss Jean Gales
(Mrs. D. T. Ward, mother of Miss Jean Ward of Hayes-Barton
Salaries of McAlpine's administration Avere represented by
these figures: the Avhite principal received $1,200 per year; the
10 Historical Sketches of the
colored principal, $50 per moutli ; male teachers, $50 per mouth ;
female teachers, $40 per month.
As principal of the Centennial School, McAlpine's enrollment
for 1883-84 was 337 boys and 251 girls; for the year 1884-85,
385 boys and 359 girls.
In 1885 during his administration both the Washington and
the Garfield schools were enlarged and improved.
The course of study was as follows: Lipptncotl's Readers,
Object Lessons. Swinlon's Language Primer. Xorfh Carolina
(ieography, North Carolina History by Moore; Reed and Kel-
Jogg's Graded Lessons, Commercial Arithmetic, and Sanford's
Arithmetic. (There are memories of classes in Lippincott's
Fourth Reader. Leaders of the class looked up references, com-
prehending the text ; others feebly called words, causing listless-
ness and boredom. The result was unjust grading.)
Members of the school board at the close of McAlpine's ad-
ministration Avere W. S. Primrose, Mills Brown, and X. B.
ADMINISTRATION OF EDWARD P. MOSES
Information Concerning $25,000 Bond Issue of 1885 for
Erection of Centennial School
r' Authorized by Act of Legislature of 1885. Katified February
Meeting of Board of Aldermen, December 5, 1884 — City At-
torney submitted deed from T. J. Jarvis, Governor, for the
Graded School land and Imilding. Purchased from State for
Meeting of Board of Aldermen, March 6, 1885 — First Raleigh
Township School Committee was appointed, to assume office
in March, L885 :
Eev. F. L. Reid
Messrs. G. Rosenthal
R. H. Lewis
T. H. Briggs, Jr.
S. F. Mordecai
X. B. Broughton
Raleigh Public Schools 11
Election held May -t, 1885.
Voters Registered.. 1,470
Votes Cast for Bonds 934:
Votes Cast Against Bonds... 33
Meeting of Board of Aldermen, May 15, 1885 — Reported A. G.
Bauer selected as architect. Committee authorized to expend not
more than $15,000.00 in erection and equipment of building.
Meeting of Board of Aldermen, July 3, 1885 — Committee re-
ported awarding contract for erection of building to Ellington,
Royster lV Co., for $12,702.83. Building was to have slate roof,
brown stone window sills, penitentiary press brick front, 10
classrooms, assembly hall.
Dedicatory services Avere held Xovember 30, 1885. Addresses
were made by Hon. S. M. Finger, State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, and C. M. Busbee, Esq.
Entire cost, $27,121.17.
Xumber of Raleigh Schools. 1895 —
1 Avhite (Centennial)
3 colored (Washington, Garfield, Oberlin)
Value of School Property (1886) $35,500
Xumber of School Rooms 25
Xumber of Teachers 28
Average Salary ._ $ 32.45
Authorized by Act of Legislature of 1885, ratified by
the people :
A superintendent Avas chosen for all the public
schools of the township.
Census of Raleigh Township, 1885-86 — Total of 4,597
Edward Pearson Moses, a Tennesseean, was elected to the
superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools in the year 1885,
Avithout solicitation, to succeed A. J. McAlpine. He came from
the Goldsboro schools and four years' service there.
"Echvard Pearson Moses Avas one of the earliest and most in-
fluential natiA'e Southern Avorkers for universal education in the
period 1885-1895. . . . After Curry, probably no man in the
South influenced more men and Avomen of character and ability
12 Historical Sketches of the
to go into school work, at a time when the profession was wretch-
edly paid and scarcely considered, than did Moses."*
A new one-story building, an actual necessity, was ready by
December, 1885, at the beginning of Moses' administration. An
effort to change the name from Centennial to Wiley failed. In
the new building the first grade enrolled 83 pupils, the second
grade 70, other grades 60 to the teacher. The capacity of the
school was 600, with an enrollment of 800. With the steady in-
crease in attendance the school committee was forced to find
additional accommodations, and closed a contract with Messrs.
Andrews and Hawkins for the erection of a large school house
in the northeastern section of the city, the building to contain
nine rooms. (See History of Murphey School.)
Until the completion of the building, upper rooms of a hard-
ware store on Fayetteville Street were rented, new furniture was
purchased, and additional teachers were employed. Miss Eliza
Pool and Miss Metta Folger (Mrs. Townsend) were among these.
W. y. Savage Avas principal of both Centennial and the annex-
on Fayetteville Street. One hundred tAventy-five boys were trans-
ferred from the Centennial School to the annex. Mrs. Townsend
(Metta Folger) of Lenoir, Caldwell County, though a shut-in,
keeps in touch with some of the transfers, recalls many names.
In 1861, Governor of North Carolina John W. Ellis, said :
"True independence must be based on moral character and on
popular iiift'llif/ence and industrial development." The following-
words are contained in Moses' first report of 1886-87 : "The Pub-
lic School is the grandest institution for the education of the
world ever devised by man. Its influence in lifting humanity to
a higher plane is surpassed alone by the religion Avhich comes
from above. In this age no sophistry can persuade the world that
it is unwise or inexpedient to cultivate all the talents which
Almighty God in His wisdom has given every man. The cause
of the Public School is the cause of unselfishness, a spirit of the
noblest philosophy and purest patriotism. Every child in our
State can be enabled to make out of himself, for the State's sake
and for his own sake, eA'erything that can be made."
There were kindred spirits during this time through the years
1885-1895. Charles D. Mclver (founder of Xorth Carolina Col-
lege for Women), Edward A. Alderman (President of U. jST. C),
* (''haki,p:s W. Dabney. T'niver.stil EdiK-iitioii in the Sonfh. pp. 19.-
Raleigh Public Schools IS
and C. M. S. jS^oble (Dean of Education of U. N. C), were noted
workers influenced bv E. P. Moses to enter the teaching pro-
fession. Some worthwhile sayings and wise conchisions gained
by the exjjeriences of these men in county teachers' institutes
conducted by them, follow :
''The school is the seedcorn of civilization and none but the
best is good enough to be used."
"Woman is the priestess in humanity's temple and presides at
-the fountain head of civilization." — Charles D. McIver.
''An untaught woman is the most sadly marred of God's crea-
tures. It is their part to bear the children of the commonwealth
and to teach them the duties of life. This is a serious work, and
the State that leaves it to untrained women robs itself of its
"The strength of the State resides in the people Avho should
be educated at public expense without distinction of class."
"Public education is an investment and not an expenditure."
"Taxation is the involuntary tribute Avhich men must pay for
their share of the common good."
"Contributions for public education have been aptly compared
to the vapor drawn from the earth, not to be exhatisted, but to
be returned in fertilizing showers." — E. A. Aldermax.
Superintendent Moses' first report (1S86-S7) continues: "As
to the present prospects of the schools, they are daily growing-
brighter. As our accommodations and means of usefulness are
enlarged, just to that measure Avill the schools win increasing
share of public confidence and support. As far as my observa-
tion and information extend, the opposition to public schools in
the South is constantly growing less. When the duty that the
State owes her children in the way of education is more clearly
recognized by the people, they will see that the public schools
shall rank among the best, and all classes will give them a cordial
and liberal support."
A SUMMARY OF MOSES' TEACHINGS
"Discipline is an atmosphere of light and love for the develop-
ment of the child. It is the duty of every teacher to protect the
honor and purity of every child in every school, and to teach
truthfulness, gentleness, and devotion to duty. If only all our
1I^ Historical Sketches of the
teachers of the jniblie schools will realize that morality is of
traiiscendentally more importance than arithmetic or geography,
that unselfishness is better than mental culture ! There Avas a
time when many people in Ealeigh, as everywhere else in the
South, feared to intrust their son and daughter to the public
schools. If our teachers Avill insist upon it that these principles
be carried out by the pupils in the school room and on the play
grounds, no reproach will fall upon the public schools."
"It is better to do right and lose than to do Avrong and gain a
temporary advantage. This is as plain as a path to a parish
'Ours is the seed time, God alone
Beholds the end of what is sown ;
Beyond our vision Aveak and dim
The harvest time is hid with Him.' "
"There was ncA'er a good school without good discipline."
"When the Avill of the child bows in cheerful obedience to the
will of the teacher, this is perfect discipline."
"The teacher who now (1888) retains in her school a single
unruly pupil, does herself and her school a great injustice, for
a teacher should have no thought of discipline, but should be
able to devote her whole attention to teaching."
"Discipline doesn't necessarily imply harshness."
"The teacher to a very great extent shapes the destiny of
Superintendent Moses was one of the earliest to advocate the
use of phonics in teaching a child to read.
"All reforms should begin in the first grade. The word and
phonic method used, based on sound educational philosophy, was
not adopted because new but seems the best. A difficulty was met
and overcome in chauging from the alphabetic method. It is an
earned success to have the pupil master his own difficulties. The
reading in each school room, not crowded, is excellent. There is
a need for supplementary readers to keep pupils interested. Xo
child is educated unless given books suited to his capacity. We
earnestly desire to implant within the pupils before they leave
our schools a love for good books, Avhich will abide with them.
'The love of books,' Gibbons declared, 'is the pleasure and joy
of life.' "
Raleigh Ptblic Schools lo
Reading, according- to the teachings of Superintendent Moses,
involved studying the dictionary (Stonnouth's), using the
Greek alphabet, tracing derivatives, intently watching diacritical
marks, applying established facts, noting the exceptions, analyz-
ing Avords. Spelling required a moitaJ picture of the word. He
taught that the time to learn spelling is the instant it is needed.
Words in the reading text were used in preference to words from
Listed in the library of the University of Xorth Carolina :
Moses' Primer, Moses' Readers, Primary Reading and Spelling,
and The Teaching of English Words hy Sound, by Moses.
''The best course in teaching any science is to follow the
method used in building up that course. In the ringing words
of Rousseau : 'Things ! Things !' I can never enough repeat it.
We make words of too much consequence. Lord Bacon, in stating
the teacher's office, said, 'Establish a just familiarity between
the mind and things.' Teaching objectively is based on sound
philosophical principles, learning by long and patient dealing
with things. Arithmetic, next in importance to reading, is mental
discipline. In the study of arithmetic, it is not the acquisition
of knowledge, but the power to think accurately. Rely on inter-
est excited in the pupil for the subject. Interest removes coercion.
Arithmetic is taught by objects, not pages, not figures — figures
used but not abused. All rules and definitions may be discarded
except those which the children are able to deduce. The science
of numbers is to be taught only by reference to the numbers
themselves. Teach fractions, denominate numbers and percent-
age objectively. (A joy to find out!) 'Let things that have to be
done, be clone by doing them,' said Comenius. To feed intelligent
children year after year almost exclusively upon the three R's
is to give them little better treatment than the dose of treacle
and sulphur administered ever}' morning to the Squeers pupils
in Dotheboys Hall."
"The study of grammar should be subordinate to the practice
of original writing. Valuable articles should be learned from
memory. The study of technical grammar should be deferred
until later, then taught thoroughly and studied diligently. Gram-
16 Historical Sketches of the
mar was made after language, so should be taught after language.
This is an inference which all who recognize the relationship
between the evolution of the race and the individual will know
to be unanswerable. A library is a necessity."
"The study of physics is a needed base for geography. With-
out some knowledge of air, heat, water, etc., geography is of little
value. To tell why a country is well watered is of more value
than naming the rivers in it. Moulding boards and sand tables
are helpful. Geography, when well taught, is fine for the imagi-
"The study of Latin sliould not be postponed beyond the
"The child needs manual training, which is necessary for a
(A class for girls was formed at the Centennial School to teach
sewing on Saturdays. Miss Fannie E. S. Heck was instrumental
in the organization of this class. This was a happy beginning for
a future development.)
"School is a place to develop every talent."
Meml)ers of the school board in 1886-87, when Moses made
his first re})ort, were T. H. Briggs, Jr., E. H. Lewis, G. Rosen-
thal, Rev. F. L. Reid, X. B. Broughton, W. X. Jones. Alfred A.
Thompson was mayor. As secretary, T. H. Briggs, Jr., reported :
"Under the efficient management of Superintendent Moses, the
public school system of Raleigh has improved in effectiveness,
and compares very favorably with any city in the State."
Murphey School, on the corner of Person and Polk streets, was
ready in LS87. An eighth grade of twelve pupils was organized
at Murphey School, but abandoned on account of opposition
from private schools and preparatory departments of colleges.
The courses of study in our American schools is not extensive
enough. One thousand dollars invested in a pupil over 12 years
of age did more than $3,000 invested in one under eight years.
Depriving better pupils of an advanced grade of additional
schooling beyond the seventh proved a disadvantage. They were
not able to attend private schools requiring a tuition fee. The
public school was considered a charitable institution.
Raleigh Public Schools ^^^Mnlk ^7
In 1888-89 there was mention of a high school, hut this met
opposition. Lack of interest and the increasing need for money
threatened to revert the control of the school to the shiftless
method of the old "free school" system. It was unfortunate that
Raleigh Township schools received but 26 per cent of the com-
mon school fund of the county, although the taxable property
of the township was 58 per cent of the whole county. The schools
progressed slowly. From the report of T. H. Briggs, secretary,
we learn that the salary of the superintendent and teachers at
this time amounted to $13,995.11. There was a balance of $21.21
due the schools. The schools closed after a term of five months,
following a struggle for a bond issue. A school census of March
16, 1889, states that there were 4,548 persons from six to 21
of school age. Enrolled were 1,133 white, 1,401 colored.
"Mr. Moses called upon the school committee to ask the city
authorities to join in requesting the Legislature to pass an act
by which the people might vote on a larger school tax and give
the Capital City of the State a school term of not less than
eight months and also for $100,000 bond issues for new build-
ings," says Josephus Daniels.* "The Board of Aldermen ac-
quiesced only on the condition that no student should be taught
above the seventh grade." Mayor Thompson, a man of sound
sense and judgment, was able to lead his administration along
progressive lines. This was a great fight for a chance to have
longer terms in Raleigh. "Real estate worth hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars was listed at one fifth of its value." f Dr. R. H.
Lewis and jST. B. Broughton (members of the school board).
Superintendent Moses, and Josephus Daniels (editor of The
State Chronicle) , ardently championed the increase in taxation
for the schools and the construction of adequate school buildings.
"When the matter came before the Committee on Education, I
shall never forget the incomparable service rendered by three
men before that committee. The meeting Avas held in a very
small committee room and nothing appeared in the daily papers
about it. . . . Dr. Richard Lewis, N. B. Broughton, and Peter
Fleming, the last dean of the high-class mechanics at the Raleigh
and Gaston Railroad shops, made speeches which deserve to live,
particularly that of Dr. Lewis, who then and all his life was
an outstanding leader among the professional men in Raleigh,
* Josephus Daniels, Tar Heel Editor, p. 373.
t Ibid, p. 375.
18 Historical Sketches of the
ill evcTv public school fight, and for whom the Richard H. Lewis
School ill Raleigh is named. This fight was purely local, but it
had a far-reaching efl"ect and focused the attention upon the
forthcoming luiblic school issue in Xorth Carolina." *
The General Assembly authorized the issue of a $50,003 five
per cent thirty-year bond for general school purposes, voted on
June 12, 1890. Wiley School, as a result, was built on West
Morgan Street in that year. Permanent improvements to other
buildings Avere also made. The township school property was out
of debt. The progress of the school system was almost revolu-
tionary. Because of the efforts of Thompson, Lewis, Broughton
and Daniels, fitting tribute was paid these men in naming new
schools and school societies for them. The Thompson School on
East Hargett Street was named for Alfred A. Thompson ; the
Lewis School on Glenwood Avenue was named for Richard H.
Lewis, and also the Lewis Literary Society of Hugh Morson
High. The Daniels Literary Society of Xeedham B. Broughton
High was named for Josephus Daniels.
A young lawyer from the University of Xorth Carolina, Alex
Stronach, taught during Moses' administration in 1889-90 at
Centennial School until he was old enough to secure a license
to practice law. Some of his pupils recalled to mind are Murray
Allen, Charles Allen, Early LIughes, Ceburn Harris, and Baxter
ADMINISTRATION OF LOGAN D. HOWELL
In 1895, after a service of ten years. Superintendent Moses
resigned to accept a professorship in the State Xormal School,
Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C. The city public schools were
fortunate in securing Mr. Logan D. Howell of Goldsboro for the
superintendency to succeed Moses. Howell earnestly pursued the
methods established by his predecessor. He was a strict believer
in attention to details, in cultivating the perceptive faculties. A
believer in the practical aspects of science, he stressed a scientific
attitude toward nature. Many were the times he taught his young
pupils to ask "Why?" and "Why not?" Even his teachers en-
joyed a study of astronomy with him.
* (>li. <it.. \K 'MC).
Raleigh Public Schools 19
The library was important, he thought, so during his adminis-
tration the children were stirred and inspired to make contribu-
tions of books. Some 685 readable books for children were do-
nated, 202 pedagogical books, 980 texts, 68 bound reports. The
School Supplement (see below) contained the names of many
pupils contributing to the library. A total of 1,935 contributions
for the three years of his administration marked this experiment
as very successful.
THE SCHOOL SUPPLEMENT
An outstanding feature of Howell's administration was The
School Supplement , a small paper edited by the superintendent
and Avhite teachers, and published once a week by friends and
patrons of the school. Furnished free of charge to all pupils in
the Raleigh schools, it served as a means of communication be-
tween parents and teachers and a desirable advertising medium
for Raleigh Township. Advertisements written by students and
teachers, and outside subscriptions, paid for the paper. It Avas
sold for two and one half cents a copy outside the school. It was
bound into volumes about the year 1898. One copy of that year
is extant. It is to be found in the present superintendent's office.
The Supplement was intended to serve several purposes. The
leading one was to furnish for primary and intermediate grades
more literature suited to their ability and taste. Each number
of The Supplement contained some classic stories written for
beginners on phonic principles. The paper was not confined to
primary classes. Besides containing literature for all, it supplied
material for geography, history, and nature study. It was in-
tended to extend the school work in all departments. Children
became proficient in reading by practice.
Progress is made not by desperate struggling vrith difficult
passages, but by much reading of easy, attractive literature. By
means of The Supplement's appearing every week, all pupils,
even the youngest, always had something of immediate interest
to read, something they wanted to read for the sake of the thought
in it, and not something they must read as a duty assigned.
The Crosby School was opened in Howell's administration. A
new Garfield School building was erected near Crosby. (See His-
tory of Crosby-Garfield.)
After his term was ended in 1897-98, Superintendent Howell
resigned after three years to enlist for seiwice in the Spanish-
20 Historical Sketches of the
SECOND ADMINISTRATION OF EDWARD P. MOSES
Superintendent Moses returned in 1898 from the professor-
ship at Winthrop Normal College, after ''three of the happiest
years," to the superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools.
A later report of Moses during his second administration re-
sulted in the remodeling of the curriculum. A course of study
was plainly mapped out. A definite amount of work was assigned
in each grade, year by year, in the public schools. The measure
of success of each teacher was determined by the result of exami-
nations and promotions made with more safety.
A training class of 16 members was held twice a week to
prepare teachers for vacancies in the faculty. Principles laid
down by Froebel, Pestalozzi, Herbart, Spencer, and Joseph
Payne, were studied. Members were employed to assist in the
crowded primary grades at $10 per school month. Members of
that class (1900) are valuable principals of elementary schools
today (1941-42). Moses thought that none but trained teachers
should be employed, that professional training for teachers was
as necessary as for a physician. Weekly teachers' meetings were
held to discuss discipline and professional studies. Moses often
quoted Comenius as saying, "The noblest of all sciences is the
science of teaching."
In 1901 the Bartlett Yancey School was opened to relieve
crowded conditions at Murphey School. The building used was
the former home of A. M. Lewis on North Wilmington Street.
The older, larger boys were transferred from Murphey to Cen-
tennial. For the first time in 16 years there Avas a seat for each
pupil in the schools, white and colored.
Suburban schools were established about 1903 : Caraleigh to
the south, Pilot Mills to the north, and Brooklyn to the west.
(See History of Chavis School.)
In this year (1903) there Avere one superintendent, 49 white
teachers, and 34 colored teachers. Salaries of white teachers for
the year amounted to $12,075.72. Colored teachers received
In 1904-05 a compulsory school law w^as passed for the Raleigh
Township. It Avas deemed necessary to stop truancy and parental
Raleigh's first high school was opened in 1905 on West Morgan
Street. (See History of Raleigh High School.)
Raleigh PrsLic Schools 3/
About 1906-07 a full-time domestic science teacher, Miss Lizzie
Bellamy (Mrs. W. J. Peele), was employed, conducting classes
in a four-room cottage on the high school lot. Vocal music was
taught for the first time by Miss Nina Green (Mrs. LeRoy
Moses, interested in development, was a member of the Wa-
tauga Club, which was instrumental in establishing the Agri-
cultural and Mechanical College in Raleigh.
At a meeting of the State Literary and Historical Association
at the Olivia Raney Library January 23, 1903, Mr. Moses intro-
duced a resolution (a copy of Avhich can be found in the Public
Laws of Xo7'th Carolina, 1903), an act to establish a historical
commission. The bill was presented in the General Assembly a
week later by Senator R. F. Beasley and unanimously passed
both Houses. Mr. Moses, in an interview at Chapel Hill, June
15, 1941, says the only lobbyists for that bill were the two patri-
otic women, Mrs. E. E. Moffatt of Raleigh (aunt of Mrs. Jose-
plius Daniels), and Mrs. T. K. Bruner of Salisbury (then living
Superintendent Moses resigned, leaving the Raleigh Public
Schools in the hands of Frank M. Harper, one of his teachers.
With the closing of Moses' administration, The Raleigh Evening
Times (August 3, 1907) published the following:
RETIRIN^G SUPERINTE^v^DEXT MOSES
School Committee Adopts Testimonial in Recogxitiox of
His Splendid Services
At a meeting of the Raleigh Township School Committee, held
this day, the following testimonial was unanimously adopted and
the secretary directed to transmit a copy to Mr. Moses and have
it published in the daily papers of the city :
In view of the voluntary retirement from the superintencl-
ency of the schools under its charge of Mr. Edward P. Moses,
after a service of nineteen years, the school committee of
Raleigh Township desires to give official expression to its
appreciation of those services. By his thorough knowledge of
pedagogy, his earnestness, his singleminded devotion to his
work, his enthusiasm, inspiring his teachers to put forth their
best effort, he has done a great work in our schools and has
earned not only the gratitude of the committee, but of the
The committee wishes to assure Mr. Moses of their personal
regards and esteem and of their desire for his continued wel-
fare and success.
Historical Sketches of the
ADMINISTRATION OF FRANK M. HARPER
Frank M. Harper was selected as siiperinteiident of the pub-
lic schools at the resignation of E. P. Moses in 1907-On.
Interesting statistics marking the beginning of Harper's ad-
ministration are below :
Value of Property
Assessed value of township property — white $6,541,312.00
Value of school property. white 114,168. 2S
Xumber of school houses white 8
Enrollment of Schools
Name Enrollment Grades
Centennial _ 310 1-7
Murphey 385 1-7
Wiley .^ - 445 1-7
Thompson ..299.. 1-6
Caraleigh 88....... 1-4
Pilot Mills 60 1-4
Brooklyn 178 1-5
Washington .....382 1-6
Crosby^ 245..... 3-6
Garfield 303 1-2
Oberlin 183..... 1-5
Chavis 74..... 7-9
The School Committee of Raleigh Township
Officers: James I. Johnson, Mayor; G. Rosenthal, Secretary.
Members: R. H. Lewis, H. AV. Jackson, G. Rosenthal, E. L.
Harris, B. F. Montague, T. B. Crowder.
Superintendent Harper's requisites of a successful teacher
were personality, scholarship, and earnestness of purpose.
There were six members of the high school faculty in the new
building on West Morgan Street. Latin was required. This was
Raleigh Public Schools
taught by Hugh Moi-son, the principal. Superintendent Harper
was anxious to appoint "men of wisdom and common sense" to
the principalship of Centennial, Murphey, and Wiley schools,
at a salary of $1,200.
The superintendent was interested in collecting a pedagogical
library for teachers. Pupils not residents of Raleigh Township
were required to pay a tuition fee. Ten dollars of the month's
tuition fees was used to purchase books for the library.
The first graduating class of the Raleigh High School (1907-
1908) held its exercises in the old Academy of Music on South
Salisbury Street. It contained 16 members.
The ladies of the School Betterment Association for the school
year 1907-08, with Mrs. Josephus Daniels as president, made it
possible to provide necessary furniture for the high school. The
first Tag Day in Raleigh was held on St. Patrick's Day of that
year, and enough money to buy chairs for the auditorium was
Mr. C G. Keeble, teacher of English, was interested in the
work of the two literary societies, Richard H. Lewis for boys,
and Hugh Morson for girls. He conducted the first high school
debate between Raleigh and Di;rham. The debating team was
composed of William Joyner, William Richardson, George Bag-
well, Frank Smethurst, and Neil Ivey. Frank and ISTeil debated
Greensboro High School for the second successive year in 1909.
Frank and Ivan Procter worked on the annual in this year. The
Rattler's design was drawn by Clifton Beckwith.
The schools were closed March 6, 1909, at the end of six
months, for lack of funds. An election for an additional graded
school tax of 15 cents on $100 worth of property and 45 cents
on the poll was successfully held March 16. The schools received
$50,000. A whirlwind canvas of two days secured the required
number of signatures of interested citizens, and the schools were
reopened March 29 and closed May 31, a term of eight months.
The school committee borrowed $4,500 to carry on. It is inter-
esting to recall the members of the whirlwind canvas : Mesdames
Ivan Procter, Josephus Daniels, George Womble, Wiley Rogers,
David Elias, J. S. Jeffries, Justin Jones, M. Rosenthal, William
Robbins, Fab Weathers, Miss Bertha Rosenthal and Miss Sadie
L. E. Blanchard, class of 1909, Trinity College, was employed
as a full-time teacher of science (physics and biology) in 1909.
9.^ Historical Sketches of the
The previous year Harry Heiiderlite and Polk Denmark ran a
physics and chemistry laboratory in the basement of the school.
"The incorrigible pupil of excessive animal spirits should have
manual training, shop work, outdoor gardening. A room in the
Centennial School building equipped with tools, in charge of a
special teacher, would be beneficial for the incorrigible," said
Superintendent Harper. A class in school gardening, conducted
on the grounds of the Centennial School, was financed by a
friend. The sale of the vegetables was used to refund money bor-
rowed for the gardening. Twenty bushels of Irish potatoes were
marketed at $1 per bushel. English peas, snap beans, and other
vegetables were sold. The gardeners were pleased to keep records
of expenses and sales.
The compulsory school law enacted for Raleigh Township in
1910 required the attendance of children from 8 to 14 years
nine months of the year. There was no record of an attendance
officer until 1912.
The superintendent led a class of teachers interested in study-
ing McMurry's How to Study, and Teaching Children How to
St)idi/. (See History of the Lewis School.)
The school committee endorsed a plan for taking the senior
class to Washington, D. C, immediately after graduation, under
the direction of Superintendent Harper. (There were memorable
and laughable experiences during the satisfactory trip.) The
party was privileged, through the courtesy of Senators Overman
and Simmons and Congressman Pou, to have an audience with
President Taft in the White House. They were received by the
Speaker of the House, the Hon. Champ Clark.
An athletic field Avas made at Centennial, and a football team
was organized with Frank P. Graham (now of TJ. N. C.) in
charge. The Paleigh High School team won the state champion-
ship in football and baseball in the year 1911-12. The track
team was also victorious. In the inter-high school debate, Raleigh
High won a most signal victory with Greensboro and Charlotte.
The credit was due Frank P. Graham, the English teacher at
this time, for his skill and untiring efforts. The picture changed
soon in view of an urgent need for adequate buildings.
As the years advanced, the pedagogical library grew to contain
600 volumes. It was liberally patronized by many of the teachers.
The rental of text books, rented for the first time in the public
schools in 1911-12, resulted in great gain. Assignments were
Kaleigh PrBiJc Schools
begun promptly. Valuable time was not lost. Kesponsibility for
the care of the rented text was good for the child.
At this time Dr. H. W. Chase, president of the University of
l^orth Carolina, spent two days in the schools at the request
of Superintendent Plarper. He discovered quite a number who
needed special instruction. It was recommended that a room at
Centennial School be fitted up with Avork benches, so that the
children might have handwork along with certain literary
branches. Individual attention was stressed. It was a problem
to find a teacher fitted for the work. Miss Mamie Holman filled
the bill. The need for industrial work in the coloi*ed school was
acute; therefore basketry, chairbottoming, broommaking, wood-
work and gardening Avere provided.
Medical inspection by Dr. Aldert S. Root surpassed all expec-
tations in 1912-13.
Work by Truant Officer D. R. B^anim became effective in 191'2.
There was an addition of 600 pupils; schools were crowded,
double sessions were required in primary grades. Raleigh's great-
est need at this time Avas fireproof buildings.
The departmental system Avas introduced into the sixth and
seventh grades. Mr. Harper believed that a change of A'oice Avas
The operetta "Jack and the Beanstalk" Avas rendered by Miss
Clara Chapel, supervisor of music. The sum of $161 was realized
and invested in music books. To Mrs. M. B. Terrell as business
manager Avas due the financial success.
After the close of the Raleigh schools in May, 1912, Superin-
tendent Harper, Avitli 43 teachers, visited the schools in Cincin-
nati, observing the Avork for one Aveek. There Avere helpful con-
ferences held each CA'ening concerning the day's observations.
The greatest problem (1913-14) Avas providing additional
rooms. The excess of AA'hite and colored pupils over the capacity
of the school buildings numbered 500. The overcrowded classes
wxre a great hindrance to eflicient Avork. Abnormally bright chil-
dren from the fourth and fifth grades Avho deserved consider-
ation, if classed separately, could save tAvo years in eight years,
AA^as Mr. Harper's belief. Provision Avas made that those Avho
desired instrumental music might substitute music for one high
school subject. The privilege Avas guarded by Avise regulation. A
high school orchestra Avas formed by Grustav Hagedorn. Each
student was charged five dollars a Aveek.
26 Historical Sketches of the
By the year 1914-15 the TeaeluT-j' Retirement Fund had heen
considered for seA-eral years. The following plan was outlined :
One per cent a month was to be deducted from the teacher's
salary and this amount applied to a retirement fund for teachers
(who had served for thirtv years in the public schools"). This
fund was to be supplemented from other sources from time to
time, under the management of a board of trustees. The board
was to consist of three teachers, one of whom Avas the sujierin-
tendent. The two other members, making five in all. were mem-
bers of the school committee. Thirty years of serWce were re-
quired. Fifteen years of the thirty had to be spent in Xorth
Carolina, or ten vears in Raleigh. The plan was inaugurated in
January, 1915. It was recommended that the school committee
contribute yearly an amount equal to that contributed by the
teachers. The Retirement Fund changed its name to ''Teachers'
M^utual Aid Society,'' amounting to $S00 in one school year.
The fund was deposited in the Wake County Savings Bank at
four per cent. The school committee contributed tuition fees
from pupils not residing in Raleigh ToA^^lship.
The Brooklyn School building on Glenwood Avenue was to-
tally destroyed by fire in Julv, 1914. The loss was covered by
insurance amounting to $1,853.04. The Murphey School burned
the same year. Children of these schools had to be cared for.
Some classes were conducted at the Bartlett Yancey School and
others at Wiley and Raleigh High on account of the burned
buildino's. The city issued a permit for the erection of the new
school building on Glenwood Avenue. A fireproof building, it
contained five large classrooms, constructed so that more rooms
could be added. The amount of insurance was entirely inadequate
to pay for the new building, so it was necessary to borrow $5,000.
The cost was about $7,250. (See History of the Lewis School.)
The County Board of Education gained a suit against the Board
of County Commissioners for diverting school funds to the gen-
eral fund of the county. Raleigh Township's share was $4,322.34.
The Barbee School was awarded the attendance medal, offered
by J. V. Sims, owner of the Daili/ Times, for a period of five
years. (See History of Barbee School.)
Manual training was gradually introduced into the schools
as soon as possible. Home gardening in 1915 was conducted by
Supervisor L. H. Roberts (colored) in the colored schools. ]\[ore
than three hundred children received agricultural training, studv-
Raleigh Public Schools 21
iiig forty minutes in the classroom, eighty minutes in the garden
plot. One hundred fifty vacant lots were turned into gardens by
children, parents and mothers' clubs. One plot 30x50 feet yielded
$19 worth of vegetables sold.
A night school was conducted throughout the winter by Messrs.
Keeble and Rotter three nights per week. They enrolled over
one hundred. Summer school was also conducted.
June 23, 1916, Mr. Gustav Rosenthal, for many years the
secretary of the Raleigh Township School Committee, passed
into the great beyond. He was elected a member of Raleigh Town-
ship Committee in 1885, was made secretary in 1893, and served
efficiently in this office up to the time of his death for 31 years.
He possessed many traits of character that won for him strong
personal friends. These he retained throughout his life. He took
particular interest as secretary in the conduct of the Raleigh
Public Schools, and gave them his entire time. He believed in
discipline, and as a school committeeman could always be counted
on to do his duty fearlessly as he saw it. The school children of
Raleigh lost in him a valued friend.
In the year 1917-18 there was an enrollment of 4,460 pupils.
The children of the Raleigh Public Schools invested $63,101.63
in war savings stamps. T. B. Crowder, many years a faithful
member of the school board, died. His death was a great loss
to the schools. Dr. R. H. Lewis, who for 33 years championed
the cause of public education, resigned. The children of this
city owe him a debt of gratitude for his labors in their behalf.
The following high school boys gave their lives for their
country: Seymour Whiting, Walter Jeffreys, Byron Stephenson,
Harry Watson, Djalma Marshburn, Dudley Robbins, Alexander
Pickell. Two bronze tablets to Seymour Whiting and Walter
Jeffreys were placed on the auditorium Avails of the Raleigh
High School. The tablets were contributed by pupils and faculty.
A report of the Teachers' Mutual Aid Society, organized in
Cash in bank $ 350.28
Loan to teachers 91.00
Liberty Bonds 2,500.00
Amount turned in by the school board 449.51
Liabilities (amount due on Liberty Bunds i.. 60.00
Mary A. Page. Trvaxnrcr.
The Raleigh Public Schools were given a regular system of
physical training under a trained physical director. A good com-
^S Historical Sketches of the
pulsory attendance law was carefully enforced. Domestic science,
headed by experienced teachers, was placed on a scientific basis.
Much interest was manifested. The department needed space.
One hundred fourteen girls enrolled.
Four new libraries in four colored schools Avere secured by a
bighearted citizen and appropriations from the school commit-
tee. The library at the Garfield School was kept open during the
summer and liberally patronized.
The year 1917 completed ten years of service by Superin-
tendent Frank M. Harper.
Kalei.di local graded tax $20,922.01 .$.o5..594.16
(Vnuity apportionmi^iit .$16.o0(;.20 .«2T,2:^.:isO
Out of tdwiisliii* tuition .$ i:!2..~>o .i l.(Mi."i.(i(»
White enrollment I.!t2s 2.s.")4
Colored enrollment 1.187 l.G.So
Total enrollment .3,115 4..")?.n
Cases of tardiness 5.331 T<)3
Cases of absence 31.423 17.5(;i
Teachers' salaries $32,798.27 .$67,984.18
Number of teachers 77 119
Number of study courses in liiKli
school 1 3
Members of high school faculty,
includint,' principal 6 13
In getting information for Historical Sketches of the
Ealeioh Pfblic Schools, I am indebted to the annual reports
of Superintendent Harper (1908-1917-18) kept by Miss Lizzie
ADMINISTRATION OF HARRY HOWELL
After 11 years of earnest, efficient service as superintendent,
Frank M. Harper resigned, being succeeded by Harry Howell.
Mr. Howell's two "large purposes" Avere to increase teachers'
salaries and extend the educational activities of the schools. "The
public schools should minister to the educational needs of all
persons avIio have definite and reasonable desires for training, no
matter Avhat may be their ages or station, and particularly those
who are in employment and who wish a better education. There
are the illiterates; those with meager advantages; those who.
Raleigh Public Schools '29
though employed, desire to prepare for some specific employ-
ment or career, and those who have entered industrial occupa-
tions who wish to increase their skill and earning capacity. These
could be taught in classes conducted in the elementary schools
with assistance from the State Department of Education," said
Howell. He Avished to divide the funds between salaries and ex-
Following in the footsteps of Superintendent Harper, Mr.
Howell realized keenly the needs of the schools expressed by
his predecessor. He found the same urgent need for adequate
buildings that Superintendent Harper had found. He outlined
his Avork clearly, at the beginning of his administration, and
worked toward his goal ; but little relief was to be had.
Howell advocated training in industries. He suggested that
arrangements be made with two excellent local institutions for
I^egroes Avhereby the high school students could obtain very good
training in industrial subjects in Avliich they were interested.
He stressed seAving classes and household arts for girls. He be-
lieved that the potential value of music in the li\^es of pupils
Avas great enough to warrant serious attention, and that a super-
A'isor's entire time Avas needed for music classes in the high school.
Large glee clubs and orchestras Avould contribute greatly to the
life of the city, Avas his thought. The tAvo departments of the
high school most in need of improvement, according to HoAvell,
Avere science and history. "Extension of the science department
will iiiA^oh^e the enlargement of the laboratory space and equip-
ment," he reported. He considered a study period held where a
recitation Avas conducted, a farce. He took the music and physical
training classes from the auditorium, which Avas Avithout seats,
finding space for them elseAvhere. The Good Shepherd Church
Avas used for assembly service.
"A knoAAdedge of the phenomena and the laAvs of nature both
forms the basis of modern industrial progress and supplies some
of the most interesting and formatiA'e material for training the
youth. The place to begin to acquire that knoAvledge is in the
elementary school, because children are naturally attracted to
such facts and because the majority of them never reach high
school, Avhere systematic science training is giA^en. Our children
in the grades are getting none of it. Our teachers are untrained
for this sort of instruction. We need a supeiwisor A\dio Avould
train and supervise the teachers in nature study, elementary
30 Historical Sketches of the
science, including gardening. I have become convinced that gar-
den teaching through the means of classroom recitations, direct
observation in the room and out-of-doors, the use of window-
boxes, breeding cages, hotbeds, cold frames and demonstration
gardens at school, Avould be far more effective in intelligent and
permanent interest in gardening than the 'hurrah' methods now
advocated."* The efficiency of Superintendent Harry Howell was
recognized and his help appreciated by his corps of teachers.
ADMINISTRATION OF SAMUEL B. UNDERWOOD
Mr. Samuel B. Underwood from Wilmington, succeeded Mr.
Harry HoAvell as superintendent of Raleigh Public Schools in
Members of the school board were T. B. Eldridge, mayor ;
S. W. Marr, William J. Andrews, J. F. Ferrell, Mrs. w'^, A.
Withers, Mrs. W. A. T'pchurch, and A. M. Maupin.
Mr. UnderAvood's statement before the school board in August,
1921, follows: "Raleigh's chief school problem is a financial one.
I came to Raleigh, after mature deliberation, with a full realiza-
tion of the difficulties in the way, but Avith sufficient faith in
Raleigh's interest in the welfare of her children to believe these
problems can be solved. It takes a long time to solve a problem
of such magnitude. The school needs of Raleigh have accumu-
lated Avhere it is necessary to expend a large amount to give the
children proper school facilities, to give the voters an oppor-
tunity to decide in favor of the child's Avelfare."
A special representative of the United States Bureau of Edu-
cation made a survey soon after his report to the board. Archi-
tects Avere consulted. They reported the need for one and a half
million dollars for adequate buildings to relieve deplorable school
conditions. The first immediate problem Avas to relieve the con-
gestion, to provide actual seating room, to do aAvay Avith double
sessions. Wiley, Thompson, and Crosby-Garfield Avere crude
structures at this time. The High School needed an addition
of seven brick rooms designed for manual training, classes in
* Harry Howell, Report to the Raleigh School Committee. April 16.
1919 (to be found in the present superiutendenfs ortiee).
Raleigh Public Schools 31
science and academic subjects. There Avere 11 scliools at this
time. The superintendent was instructed to invite representatives
from many civic organizations to serve as an advisory board with
reference to the school building program. An annual tax was
levied to pay said bonds. The act to authorize the issuance of
bonds of Raleigh Township for school purposes was ratified
December 14, 1921. The Raleigh Chamber of Commerce favored
the bond issue, so i:)etition was made to the County Board of
Commissioners to order a special election April -4, 1922, for the
purpose of voting on the issuing of bonds not exceeding $1,000,-
000 for buildings and land.
A committee of business men and women was appointed to
cooperate with the school committee in the building program.
A new day Avas dawning for the Raleigh Public Schools.
Special emphasis on fundamental subjects of the course of
study was part of the plan for school work. A definite and logical
course of study was worked out by Miss Martha Kelly (Mrs.
James Tippett of Chapel Hill), supervisor of elementary instruc-
tion during Superintendent Underwood's administration. The
children heartily cooperated Avith standard texts. Their progress
in reading was notCAVorthy. The superintendent's plans could be
summarized as folloAvs : The teacher is the real key to any school
situation ; time for supervised study AA^th pupils, and time for
individual pupils should be given; the most important task of
the school is to teach the child hoAV to study.
Busy Avith building, Superintendent UnderAvood's health
failed. He offered his resignation May 30, 1923, to be acted on
June 30 of the same year. A member of the school committee
suggested that Avith a year's leave of absence, the principal of
the High School, H. F. Siygley, could serve in his stead. The
school board expressed itself January 24, 1924, in this Avay:
"We AA'ish to put on record our appreciation of Superintendent
UnderAvood's faithful service. A teacher by instinct and learniiig,
and an administrator of high attainment, he AA^as prepared to
solve the problems of our schools. During his administration, by
AA'ise planning and effort, Raleigh A'oted a million dollar bond
issue (April 4, 1922). He AA^as interested in raising the personnel
of the city teachers. He commanded the respect of our com-
munity by his ability, courtesy, and tact, and gained the admira-
tion of his co-laborers by his Avholehearted and intelligent co-
32 Historical Sketches of the
ADMINISTRATION OF HUBBARD F. SRYGLEY
H. F. Srygley, principal of Raleigh Higli, Avas elected super-
intendent of the Kaleigh Public Schools in 1923-24, succeeding
S. M. Underwood.
Members of the school board in that year were E. E. Culbreth,
mayor ; George L. White, Dr. C^larence Poe, Dr. W. C. Horton,
William Bailey Jones, Mrs. W. A. Withers, and Mrs. W. A.
The million dollar bond issue of April 4, 1922, made it possi-
ble to replace the following elementary schools with modern fire-
proof buildings : Wiley, Thompson, Caraleigh (known as Eliza
Pool), Pilot Mills (known as Barbee), and Washington High
School. A $1,300,000 bond issue of 1926, during Srygley's ad-
ministration, resulted in new schools opened in 1927; Hayes-
Barton, Fred A. Olds, and Boylan Heights. (See histories of
Crowded conditions at the High School on West Morgan
Street resulted in purchasing the Benehan Cameron property,
four acres, two blocks east of the capitol, for $60,000. The needed
building known as the Hugh Morson High School was ready
September 2, 1924. (See History of Hugh Morson High School.)
The overcrowded capacity of the Hugh Morson High School
23roved the urgent need for a new building in the western part
of Raleigh. A site Avas selected on the Smallwood property on
St. Mary's Street. (See History of Xeedham B. Broughton
Extra-curricular activities directed by Miss Mildred English,
assistant superintendent, and Dr. Thomas Alexander of Colum-
bia University, beginning in 1923-24, resulted in rapid expansion
of the Raleigh school system. The activities of Miss English
reported by Mrs. Mary Powell Brantley of Hugh Morson High
School (1941-42) follows:
The project in curriculum revision in the Raleigh schools, be-
gun in 1923 under the direction of Dr. Thomas Alexander of
Teachers College, Columbia University, was capably directed by
Miss Mildred English, assistant superintendent and director of
instruction from 1923-24 to 1934-35.
Miss English gave vitality and direction to a program of cur-
riculum experimentation, Avhich was a pioneer experiment, not
only in the state, but also in the nation.
Raleigh Public Schools
Activity programs, with the interest around a large unit of
work, were just coming in. As they have done on many other
vital occasions, the primary teachers led the way in this reform.
Dealing, as such teachers do, Avith the child as a whole, there
were no subject-matter barriers to break down, and no entrenched
interests of traditional organizations in periods, credits and units
to fight. The plan of reorganization adopted in Raleigh was to
select certain fundamental principles essential to democratic liv-
ing, and individual and collective well-being ; to place these prin-
ciples on certain maturity levels ; to set up objectives and suggest
subject-matter fields for attaining these; to- choose activities ap-
propriate to the various groups and of interest to them ; to pursue
these activities as long as they were fruitful for pupil growth;
to check the progress made by criteria drawn up by teacher com-
mittees, and to progress to a higher level of interest and activities.
In doing this the high schools adopted some of the organization
features used in the lower grades. Each high school teacher of
a large unit of work was given a group of pupils with whom
she worked three 45-minute periods per day. The teacher and
pupils, under this plan, chose some center of interest about which
to place their work. Generally these centers of interest were in
the fields of social studies and comprised in scope the work form-
erly done in the social studies and English classes. Some were
combinations of science and English, science and history, mathe-
matics and social studies, or social studies with some of the
languages. The social studies were made the core of the cur-
Miss English directed the work in the high schools as well as
in the elementary grades. To further the work a professional
library was begun which served as a reading and work room, a
place for committee meetings and individual conferences. The
entire faculty was organized into committees which met fre-
quently, worked out their individual projects and made written
reports. These repoi'ts were typed or mimeographed and held
in the office of the assistant superintendent for reference. As the
work progressed, so many requests came from other schools for
information that Miss English edited these reports and put
them in published form. Meetings were held frequently. One
year Dr. Lois Mossman of Teachers College ga^^e an extension
course in educational procedures Avhich was taken for credit by
two thirds of the entire facultv.
3Jf Historical Sketches of the
Dr. Tliomas Alexander of Teachers College, who directed the
entire project in cnrriculum revision, was a frequent visitor,
and on such occasions held meetings Avitli the faculty of a par-
ticular school. Various committees and individual conferences
were arranged by Miss English. Interesting and enjoyable fea-
tures of such meetings and conferences were the afternoon teas
and dinner meetings which were held for a particular group.
Sometimes these teas or dinner meetings were held in the home
economics room or cafeteria of one of the high schools. At other
times they were held at the home of the assistant superintendent
or faculty members. The teachers in the Hugh Morson High
School who were doing the unit Avork organized themselves into a
group and held monthly dinner discussions, the dinner meetings
in rotation at the homes of group members. At such meetings
the first hour was spent in social activities and dinner, the sec-
ond in discussions and plans for further Avork. There was a
recording secretary who kept minutes of all business and dis-
cussions and distributed these among the members for future
reference. Prominent educators were frequent visitors at these
Samples of children's work were collected and displayed in
state, national, and even international exhibits. A large exhibit
was sent from the Raleigh Public Schools to Frankfort, Ger-
many, in 1932. It was placed in an international exhibit of
education arranged by the superintendent of schools of the city,
in a building which had been used by the allied army of occupa-
tion in (lermany after the World War. After the French army
of occupation was withdrawn from Frankfort in 1930, the super-
intendent of schools obtained the use of their former barracks
from the city for an international exhibit hall of education.
Ealeigh teachers studying in Germany in the summer of 1932
saw with pride samples of the work of Raleigh school children
in this exhibit hall. Miss English encouraged Raleigh teachers
to study, to travel, and to attend state and national professional
meetings. Many teachers under her inspiration began graduate
work at Teachers College or elsewhere. Every year saw Raleigh
teachers in attendance at the iSTational Education Association
and other national meetings of a professional nature. They ap-
peared on programs at these meetings and arranged exhibits of
school work and projects.
Raleigh Public Schools 35
At the close of H. F. Srygley's administration in 1930, an
appreciation for Miss Mildred English was expressed by the
J^egro Division of the Raleigh Public Schools. Her great service
as assistant superintendent had proved an inspiration. Mrs. Julia
A. Williams (principal of Lucille Hunter School), Miss Rosa-
belle B. Manly (principal of Oberlin School), W. H. Fuller
(principal of Washington High), and J. L. Levister (principal
of the elementary section of Washington High), reported to
Superintendent Srygley : "The ISTegro Division of Raleigh Public
Schools has been developed and expanded, as well as housed, in
convenient, comfortable quarters, with the enrichment of the
course of study throughout the system culminating in a high
school equal to the best."
ADMINISTRATION OF PAUL S. DANIEL
Paul S. Daniel, at one time principal of Junior High School,
and a short while principal of Broughton High School, Avas
elected to the superintendency of the Raleigh Public Schools
after the resignation of H. F. Srygley, September, 1930.
The school term was reduced to eight months in 1931. Cur-
ricular activities were cut out. "ISTo more frills," they said.
In 1932-33 the Methodist Orphanage entered the state system
of public schools under the supervision and direction of the
school committee of Raleigh Township.
The Parent-Teacher Council of 1932 deplored crowded con-
ditions of classrooms suited for 35 pupils, occupied by 50. There
was loss of teachers and reduction of teachers' salaries. The
established salary schedule was cut 15 per cent. A proviso was
inserted into teachers' contracts protecting the school committee
in case of an emergency. The year 1934-35 was the last school
year for Miss Mildred English as assistant superintendent of
schools. The assistant superintendency was discontinued and
Miss English was employed as English teacher at Needham B.
Broughton High. The Parent-Teacher Council expressed appre-
ciation of the fine spirit shown by Miss English in bringing
Raleigh schools up to a high standard. The slogan had been
''Raleigh Children First."
S6 Historical Sketches of the
The first graduating exercises for both schools were held in
the City Memorial Auditorium in 1934. Caps and gowns were
used, and have been required since, except for one vear, 1935.
The school committee of 1934-35 requested the county com-
missioners to call a special election, the purpose being to A'ote
a tax \exy at such a rate as to raise an additional supplement.
This Avas to be used for the purpose of supplementing the cost
of an eight-month term, and for creating a nine-month term.
The election was held July 17, 1934, but was defeated three to
two. The maximum tax rate voted in this election was 16 cents on
the one hundred dollar ($100) assessed valuation on property.
The secretary and a member of the school board were author-
ized to confer with the Wake County delegation in the General
Assembly to have a bill introduced. It was to provide compen-
sation for certain teachers with long records of service in the
Raleigh Public Schools. The board decided that "because con-
ditions have changed so much since the vote on a school supple-
ment in 1934, and because the effects of drastic reduction in
school expenditures have become more keenly recognized, Ave
feel that our citizens should now he given another opportunity
to decide Avhether or not they wish to improve the educational
opportunities offered by our schools for the last three years.
With a shortened term of eight months, Avith large classes and
extremely Ioav salaries, our schools have lost their approved
rating by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools and a considerable amount of their former efficiency.
We need a term of nine months, an increase in the number of
teachers, and an increase in present salaries. The highest salary
noAv paid is $864 per year. It is less than the minimum salary
of $900 recognized by the Southern Association. There is also
need for a tAvelfth grade to better prepare students for college."
Miss Frances Lacy Avas supervisor of elementary schools for
the first time in 1935-36.
The Raleigh classroom teachers were disturbed by the gen-
eral conditions in 1935-36, and a petition was sent to the mem-
bers of the school board Avitli certain propositions. A motion by
the board arranged to liaA'e the classroom teachers notified that
their petition had been filed as part of the board's records. The
superintendent Avas authorized to explain the attitude of the
board in all matters referred to in the petition. A second supple-
ment was voted on Saturday, March 21, 1936. The maximum
Raleigh Public Schools 37
tax rate in this election was 25 cents on the one hundred dollars
($100) assessed valuation on property. This supplement passed,
but difficulties concerning registration arose. The passing of the
supplement was contested, votes were culled out, and the matter
Superintendent Daniel was reelected for the school year
1936-37, but offered his resignation. By June 18 the committee
began to receive applications. A number applied. It was finally
recommended that Claude F. Gaddy (not applying) be elected
superintendent, to begin his administration in July, 1936, at a
salary of $4,500.
ADMINISTRATION OF CLAUDE F. GADDY
B]! Fraxces B. Lacy
When Claude F. Gaddy became superintendent the Raleigh
schools were in a state of unrest. Because of a closely contested
school election and a public disagreement between two members
of the school staff, the community had, to some extent, lost con-
fidence in the schools. When Mr. Gaddy resigned five and a half
years later he had not only built up in the citizens of Raleigh
confidence in their schools but he had also made of the school
system an efficient democratic organization composed of teachers,
principals, and other workers eager to follow his leadership in
working for the good of boys and girls.
The growing improvement of relationships in the community
and in the schools was one of Mr. Gaddy's outstanding accom-
plishments but it was by no means the only one.
A school supplement was voted April 25, 1938. This provided
for a ninth month, a twelfth year, reduced teacher load, and
also supplied funds for a small addition to the salary of the
teachers. The election was not only passed by a decisive majority
but it lacked the bitterness and contention of previous elections.
This Avas definitely a result of the confidence of the people in
the school superintendent.
Mr. Gaddy did much to promote professional growth. Teach-
ers and principals were encouraged, sometimes in a very prac-
tical and concrete way, to attend state and national meetings.
Opportunities were given teachers to visit other schools in
38 Historical Sketches of the
Raleigh and elsewhere. Specialists Avere employed to come and
help evaluate classroom procedures.
Under his leadership teachers organized themselves into groups
for the study of various curriculum problems. In one or two
instances experts were called in to lead these group studies. The
most successful of the classes was one led by James S. Tippett.
A list of minimum skills for the elementary schools was selected.
This has not only been of aid to the Raleigh teachers but has
been used in other schools throughout the state.
Much was done during Mr. Gaddy's administration in the
improvement and expansion of school property.
New furnaces were installed, roofs Avere mended, Avails painted,
seats added, new auditorium curtains bought and the grounds
were improved and beautified.
A modern building replaced the old Crosby-Garfield School.
Another floor Avas added to the Boylan Heights School, doubling
the capacity of the building. At LeAvis School an auditorium was
Cafeterias Avere either built or enlarged in the folloAving
schools : Barbee, Boylan Heights, Fred A. Olds, Murphey, Hayes-
Barton, Wiley and Crosby-Garfield.
Library space Avas increased at Hugh Morson, ISTeedham
Broughton, Thompson, LeAvis, Boylan Heights, Crosby-Garfield,
Lucille Hunter and Oberlin. A definite sum Avas set aside each
year for buying additional library books.
Property on Person, Xcav Bern and Morgan streets was bought
from the Central Methodist Church at a cost of $20,000. This
Avas done to provide space for the expansion of the vocational
and home economics departments and to furnish offices for the
More important than these tangible accomplishments and
more far-reaching is a spirit that Mr. Gaddy Avas able to inspire
in his co-Avorkers, in the children and in the patrons of the
schools. His genuine interest in their Avelfare, personal and pro-
fessional, his understanding of boys and girls and their needs,
his ability to interpret the schools to the community — the effect
of these w^ill continue and cannot be measured in terms of the
few years that Mr. Gaddy served Raleigh as its school super-
Mr. Gaddy's administration ended Avith his resignation, eft'ec-
tive February 1, 1942. Jesse O. Sanderson, principal of the
Methodist Orphanage School, succeeded him.
Raleigh Public Schools 39
SKETCHES OF THE RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS
THE JOHNSON HIGH AND NORMAL SCHOOL
The school was organized in 1865, for Negroes. It Avas con-
ducted by white teachers from the North. Miss Louise Dorr
was' principal. The school, in an old building, was located on
West Street near West Edenton. The high school and normal
department were supported by the Friend Freedman's Aid So-
ciety of Pennsylvania. Care was given to prepare pupils of
advanced grades for teaching. Greek and Latin Avere taught to
two boys preparing for Lincoln University, and two preparing
for the Theological Department of HoAvard University.
An elementary department of the Johnson School was sup-
ported by public school funds of Raleigh ToAvnship in 1877.
Classes for adults (many grandfathers attended) Avere conducted
The Johnson School Avas the largest colored school in Raleigh
Margaret Harris, Principal
The school is located in Oberlin Village in the Avestern part
The first school was conducted in a Methodist church in 1869.
A rural school of four months Avas held in a one-room building
in 1882. With the groAvth of the school, tAvo rooms Avere added
in 1884, in McAlpine's administration. In 1916 (Harper's) the
three-room building was moved back, leaving the site for a new
brick structure. This building contains eight classrooms with
steam heat, electric lights, drinking fountains, a library (part-
time librarian), and an auditorium in the basement. There is
great need of enlarged space for serving lunches to underprivi-
leged children. The three-room building, moA^ed back on the lot,
was later used for classes in domestic science. All girls above the
fifth grade were taught cooking and soAving.
Historical Sketches of the
Raleigh Public Schools - -kl
Miss R. E. Manlev, priucipal-teaclier, served through 1940-41,
but resigned in the spring of 1941 because of poor health. Activi-
ties of Miss Manley's last year -were interestingly participated
in and well described by individual pupils. "Making the Home
Beautiful," ''The Fireman," "The Community Store," "Clean-
liness in Holland," "The Farm," "Health in Our Community,"
"New Story of Light," and "North Carolina Education in the
Seventh Grade," Avere a few of these.
Library Books 969
WPA Librarian 1
P.T.A. Membership 55 (Approx.)
WASHINGTOA" HIGH SCHOOL
M. "W. AKi>rs, Principal
A two-story wooden building was erected in IS 69 on West
South Street for a school, to be conducted by Avhite teachers
from the North and supported by the American Missionary So-
ciety of New York City. Prof. Fisk P. Brewer was the first to
take charge of the school. He brought his family to Raleigh and
lived as a missionary worker for the education of the Negro.
Professor Brewer was at one time teacher of Greek at a summer
session of U. N. C, and later served as Ignited States Minister
to Greece. More teachers came as the school grew, for students
were showing an appreciation for an education.
In 1875 the city bought the building and the school was re-
organized as a public school.
In 1916 J. L. Levister from Shaw L^niversity became prin-
cipal, and at this time the agitation for a high school was re-
iieAved. The students finishing the elementary school had no
school to attend for advanced work, as ShaAv L'^niversity and
St. Augustine's had discontinued the high school department.
Several rooms were added to Washington School that year, along
with fire escapes.
Jf2 Historical Sketches of the
The elementary buiklhig had served "well. Superintendent
Harry HoAvell (1918-21) realized the need for a new one.
With the bond issne for needed school buildings during S. B.
Underwood's administration (1921-23) the site at 1000 Fayette-
ville Street beyond the railroad tracks was chosen for the Wash-
ington School. The building was begun in 1923, and was opened
in the fall of 1924. It was known as the Washington Elementary
and High School. A three-story brick building, it has thirty
classrooms, an auditorium, a cafeteria and a library. The prob-
lem is to keep children through the elementary grades long
enough to enter high school and prove the need for the ad-
The school has grown steadily. In 1927 14 rooms were added
as a south wing to the building. A division was made, separating
the elementary and high school departments, each in charge of
a principal. M. W. Akins, a teacher in the natural science de-
partment, became principal of both sections, continuing until
The corps of teachers is among the best. Outstanding colleges
and universities are represented in the faculty. St. Augustine's,
ShaAv^ Talledega, A. (S: T., Wilborforce, Howard and Columbia
universities are among these. English, mathematics, science,
music, Latin, French, mechanical arts, and industrial arts, are
included in the school curriculum. Among the extra-curricular
activities are football, boxing, debating, dramatics. Girl Reserves,
Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Hi-Y, an honorary society, and pho-
tography. During the year campaigns are observed. Vocational
guidance, j^egro history, character building, the Community
Chest, the Red Cross, and tuberculosis, are stressed for a definite
Mrs. I. M. Mitchell, the oldest teacher in the system, has
served for 67 years.
Enrollment (high school) 731
Grades (high scliool) - 8-11
Teachers (high school) 27
Graduates (high school) 29
Enrollment (elementary) 863
Grades (elementary) 7
Teachers (elementary) 20
Library Books — - 3,017
Raleigh Public Schools -43
Tlie Centennial was organized in the 60-year-old Governor's
Mansion, ''The Palace," in the Centennial year 1876.
The first principal was John E. Dngger of Warrenton, N. C. ;
the second, Andrew J. McAlpine of Weaverville, JST. C. The
third principal, E. P. Moses of Goldsboro, N. C, became super-
intendent. Under him, as principals, were W. V. Savage,
Charles J. Parker, Mrs. J. M. Barbee, Mabel Hale, and Mrs.
M. B. Terrell. Frank M. Harper followed Moses as superin-
tendent. Lender him Avere Gray King, a Mr. Kelley, Mary A.
Page, and Mary B. Holman. The Centennial building closed in
1930-31 and the site became the City Memorial Auditorium in
1932. This was the original site of the Governor's Mansion
Emma D. Conk, Principal
Murphey School at 443 North Person Street, the second pub-
lic school building for the white, was established in 1887 during
Superintendent E. P. Moses' administration. The school was
named for Archibald D. Murphey (1777-1832) of Caswell
County, called the "Father of Common Schools." The two-story
wooden building was erected by Messrs. Llawkins and Andrews.
The first principal was Miss Eliza Pool of Oxford, who joined
the Raleigh Public Schools in 1886. She continued there until
more advanced pupils were transferred to Wiley. She then be-
came principal of Wiley.
During the demand for men as principals, the Murphey
School had P. E. Seagle (1907-08) for two years; W. P. Stacey
half a year; J. L. Hathcock one and a half years. He was suc-
ceeded by Mrs. Charlotte M. Williamson. Other principals were
Miss Pearl Cross (Mrs. R. B. Green), teacher of Palmer method
of writing; Miss Mary W. Quinn (Mrs. Hartwick Mills) ; Miss
Myrtle Miller (Mrs. W. F. Upshaw), and Miss Emma Conn,
who came in 1920. She has continued successfully as principal
to the present time (1941-42).
The building Avas burned in the summer of 1914. Some of the
classes were conducted in the residence of A. M. Lewis on North
Historical Sketches of the
Wilmington Street, known as Bartlett Yancey School. This is
now the residence of Dr. Charles Lee Smith. Other classes were
conducted at Wiley and Raleigh High. Daily double sessions
A new two-story fireproof building was ready in 1916-17.
A library was opened in Xovember of !1930. Books Avere cata-
logued and classified. The Parent-Teacher Association, under
the leadership of Mrs. W. B. Aycock, gave many of the fine col-
lection. Three hundred forty dollars was spent during 1940-41
for new books. This ])ast vear it bad a librarian for several
months paid by the WPA.
In 1927 eight classrooms and a new section for the library
and auditorium were added.
Some of the equipment consists of a stereopticon with three
hundred slides, pianos, a typewriter, a radio, victrolas, 101 pic-
tures, and two sets of curtains for the stage of the auditorium.
Present activities consist of civic, good citizenship, bird and
science clubs; Boys' and Grirls' Scout organizations. Girl Re-
serves, Boys' Safety Patrol, and the Murphey Band.
MurpJieif Flash, an interesting monthly publication, in com-
petition with other elementary school papers, Avas graded as best
from the elementary schools of Raleigh for the year 1941-42.
Library Books 2,108
P.T.A. Membership 322
P.T. Council Study Course and
Membership (S rating) 9
METHODIST ORPHAXAOE SCHOOL
Mrs. Lilliax C. Saxdlixg. Principal
In 1899 a charter was granted for the establishment of the
Methodist Orphanage. The site was purchased from Mr. John
The first l)uilding, the Brown, Avas known as C^ottage 1. The
first child was admitted in 1901. Rev. John Wesley Jenkins
was first superintendent; Miss Mattie Atwater was first matron.
Ealeigh Public Schools -4-5
Miss Atwater became the second Mrs. Jenkins. The first prin-
cipal was Miss Nannie DaA'is. The first 15 children attended
school in the Methodist Church on Peace Street.
Miss Lncy Ricks of Warren County was appointed first teacher
at the Orphanage. Classes were conducted in the Brown Build-
ing, later in the Jenkins Building. When the BroAvn Avas con-
demned in 1924, the Vann became the administration building.
All classes are now conducted on the third floor of the Vann.
There is a modern library with a part-time librarian.
The school has two honor rolls, one for school and one for
work. Good behavior is required for each. School hours last for
half the school day. Work is done in the remaining half. Good
behavior in the early years brought trips to the well-known
Royster candy factory.
The first class for graduation (about 1919) consisted of one
boy and three girls. At one time the two upper classes attended
Needham B. Broughton High (ready in 1929).
On alternate Saturdays the boys and girls are permitted to
attend picture shows and many of the musical programs and
plays. The Museum, Hall of History, State College and other
places of interest are visited by the grades.
Rev. A. S. Barnes became superintendent in 1915. The growth
of the home under his care was remarkable. From the beginning,
with 15 pupils and one teacher (1901), the Orphanage has
grown to the enrollment of 282 pupils and nine teachers (1941-
42). Jesse 0. Sanderson, principal of the Orphanage for ten
years, became superintendent of the Raleigh Public Schools in
1942, and was folloAved by Mrs. Lillian C. Sandling as principal
of the Orphanage. Since 1932-33, the school operates under the
supervision of the Raleigh Public Schools, with a nine-month
session and 12 grades.
Enrollment (high school section) 85
Grades (high school section) 4
Teachers (high school section).... ._ 4
Graduates (high school) 18
Enrollment (elementary section) 197
Grades (elementary section) 7
Teachers (elementary section) 5
Library Books 2,712
Part-time Librarian 1
Magazine Subscriptions 28
If6 Historical Sketches of the
]\Irs. Mary B. Sherwood, Principal
The original Wiley Scliool on the corner of Morgan and West
streets Avas a wooden structure of four classrooms on each of
two floors, built in 1900.
The school was named for Oalvin H. Wiley, the first superin-
tendent of public instruction in North Carolina. The class work
(at first) above the fourth grade was departmental. Subjects
were English, English history, Latin, German, French, algebra
and geometry. Pupils ready for these subjects Avere transferred
from Centennial and Murphey schools. Miss Eliza Pool, prin-
cipal of Murphey School, became the first principal of Wiley,
remaining until she was connected with the first high school in
Crowded conditions brought about the use of additional rooms
in the rear on West Street. Double daily sessions took place. A
busy student body, with the help of the faculty, secured electric
lights, a piano, and other needed things. Morgan Street, by order
of the mayor, was barricaded during the lunch period to protect
the pupils. Having no space for a cafeteria, Miss Daisy Green,
living on the adjoining lot, served soup and sandwiches from her
back porch. She was happy to serve in the new building from
In 1907-08 (Harper's first year as superintendent) there was
a demand for men to act as principals of schools at a salary of
$1,200. Mr. Roy Brown of Chapel Hill, principal of Wiley, left
after an early closing because of lack of funds. Mr. Gray King,
principal of Centennial, was transferred to Wiley (190S-09).
He left at the end of the term. Mrs. M. B. Sherwood succeeded
King, faithfully serving until 1941-42.
Patrons were urging a new building on a new site by 1919,
during Howell's administration. With the coming of Superin-
tendent S. B. Underwood (1921), the dire need for fireproof
buildings brought a bond issue. Superintendent H. F. Srygley
was brought for the building program. The site for new Wiley
chosen by the committee Avas 306 St. Mary's Street. The present
fireproof building contains 16 classrooms, an auditorium, a
library (Sherwood-Bates), a cafeteria, a gymnasium and offices,
Kaleigh Public Schools .^7
completed at a cost of $264,225.56. It was first occupied in
The active Parent-Teaclier Association, witli Mrs. R. L. Mc-
Millan, member of the School Ground Committee, planted many
dogwoods and crepe myrtles, making the grounds attractive.
Valuable activities of the school are carried on in all grades,
first to seventh. In the first grade in 1940-41, home living,
working together, flowers and vegetable gardens Avere stressed ;
in the second, animals and the making of a "zoo" interested and
occupied the children ; in the third, the farm and clothing ; the
fourth, birds ; the fifth, traveling in America ; the sixth, develop-
ment in printing and writing; in the seventh, citizenship in
Library Books 2,111
P.T.A. Membership 301
P.T. Council Membership
and Study Course.. 7
Mary B. Holman, Principal
The proprietors of Pilot Mills, Williamson and Foster, were
interested in a school for the children of the employees.
A school was conducted in the Baptist Church of the com-
munity in 1903 during the administration of Superintendent
E. P. Moses. Miss Bertha Stein, a member of the Superintend-
ent's Training Class, had charge of the school. With the growth
in numbers, the school was moved to the second floor of the Pilot
Mercantile Building on Harp Street. The proprietors of the mill
furnished playground equipment on a lot in front of the build-
ing. They insisted on prompt attendance and ready obedience
The first principal in the changed position was Miss Etta
Monroe. After the burning of the Brooklyn School in 1914,
Myrtle Underwood took charge of new Lewis. She Avas trans-
JfS HisTOEicAL Sketches of the
ferrecl to Pilot Mills School in 1916-17. When she returned to
Lewis, the proprietors of Pilot Mills showed appreciation of
her Avork Avith a bonus of $185 I Miss Winona Carey resigned
as principal in 1922-23, and was succeeded by Mrs. J. M. Barbee.
Most efficient helpers at this time Avere Miss Lizzie Terrell, con-
nected Avith the school for seA^eral years ; Mrs. E. L. Sherron,
doing unexcelled AA'ork in the first grade, and Mrs. O. S. Slaun-
AA'hite. Mrs. SlaunAA'hite and the principal taught the older pupils.
Superintendent Harper aAA'arded a sih'er troph\" for the best
attendance among the city schools. Pilot Mills School had the
best attendance record for iive successiA^e years (97.3%) and
won the trophy. Much credit is due the faithful janitress, Ellen
Hinton, AA'ho AA^ent into homes (the parents being engaged in the
mills) and urged the cliildren to be prompt for school. She acted
independently of the truant otticer. Miss Mary Kilpatrick, em-
ployed by the mill proprietors as AA-elfare AA^orker, Avas A-ery help-
ful, Avorking in the kindergarten AA'ith the young children. Miss
Martha Kelly (Mrs. James Tippett of Chapel Hill), elementary
supervisor, Avas also helpful. A superA-isor directed playground
actiA'ities. Mr. A. Y. Kelly, manager of Pilot Mills, gaA-e a Bible
to each pupil passing from third to fourth.
During H. F. Srygley's administration (192-4) a brick build-
ing AA-as erected on the corner of Blount and Poplar streets. The
building contains six classrooms, an auditorium, shoAv^er baths
in the basement, and a cafeteria, built on the Avest of the build-
ing in 19-40. By motion cf Mrs. W. A. LTpchurch, member of
the school board, the ncAv building Avas named the Barbee School.
With the erection of Halifax Court Apartments one block east
of the school, the enrollment calls for six teachers through the
sixth grade. More rooms for classes and for the library are badly
needed. Miss Mary B. Holman, at one time a special teacher of
an ungraded class at Centennial School, became the principal
of Barbee School in 1931-32. She has been principal-teacher
of Barbee since her appointment.
Enrollment - — 253
Grades - 1-6
P.T.A. Membership 26
P.T. Council Study Course
and Membership 2
Raleigh Public Schools ^9
HISTORY OF ADULT CLASS AND COMMUNITY
. PROGRAM AT BARBEE SCHOOL— 1926-31
By Katherine Weight, Instructor
Directed and Sponsored by the Raleigh Public Schools and the
North Carolina Vocational Education Department,
State Department of Education
In the fall of 1926, as part of the adult program, the Depart-
ment of Vocational Education, through the cooperation of the
Raleigh Public Schools and the administration of Pilot Mills,
a class for the mothers of the mill community was organized.
The objective of this program was to give the homemakers
an opportunity to get assistance in building health of their
families, improving home situations, and learning how to spend
money more Avisely.
The class was organized in a room above a dilapidated store,
with 15 members. Because of lack of equipment, not much prac-
tical work could be done. Several of the women wanted to make
new curtains for their homes. They were taught some of the
simple rules for selecting and making suitable curtains. Block
print designs were cut in sweet potatoes ; oil prints were used in
stamping the design in border effects on unbleached curtains.
The results were most interesting.
As interest grew in the Avork and demands were made for
study of foods, Mr. Srygley, superintendent of the Raleigh
schools, suggested that we use the Barbee School cafeteria for
evening class work.
For a year an effective piece of work was carried on twice
a week during the school session. Demonstrations of the prepara-
tion of the foods needed in everyday living, to build a Avell-
rounded diet, were given.
The attendance was excellent. We always had at least twenty
people to come, regardless of the weather. Hard rain or snow
would not keep them away.
Several times during the winter, the ladies of this group
invited the superintendent of the mill and other officials to have
dinner with them. At this time they planned, prepared, and
served 12 men.
The classes soon outgrew quarters. By this time, the mill
officials were seeing the results of the work in improved homes,
less sickness in families, and better attitudes among the group.
50 Historical Sketches of the
Tliey came to the rescue and gave us one of tlie homes for a
community home. The home Avas repainted inside and out.
Our problem Avas to get it furnished, as nearly a model mill
home as possible.
The mill superintendent told us Ave could have any material
from the mill Ave could use. They manufactured the foundation
material for AvindoAv draperies. Mr. Srygley had bought some
unpainted furniture, mostly chairs, one table. Contributions
were made by the Lions Club. The INTeedham Broughton High
School had just been completed and needed some stage curtains.
When the check for the material Avas sent to the mill, that Avas
turned over to me for our Community House.
We first made the draperies for the house out of materials
A\^e selected from the mill. They Avere lovely and the ladies had
lots of fun Avith this project, besides being shoAvn how attrac-
tively the materials they Avorked Avith every day could be used.
The chairs Avere painted and suitable Avieker living room fur-
niture Avas bought. *We bought a second-hand Avooden cabinet,
scraped all the paint off and revarnished it; bought an oil
stove, dishes and silver for the service of 24:. The manual train-
ing department of the high school made tAvo large tables.
When Ave completed our house furnishing project aa'c had an
attractiA'e place for meeting. Everyone Avas proud of the Avork.
The food projects Avere resumed and CA-eryone enjoyed the iicav
kitchen and dining room. The social affairs Avere centered around
"dinner parties," for the ladies liked to shoAv the neAv things
they had learned.
Home nursing and care of the sick Avere taught at the request
of the members of the group.
The problem of leaA'ing small children at home needed atten-
tion. Again Mr. Srygley came to the rescue and gave us some
kindergarten tables and chairs, so Ave fitted one room as a kin-
dergarten. Each night tAvo girls from the Child Study Class of
IvTeedham Broughton High School AA-eut out to teach kinder-
garten. We didn't lack children, and this Avas one of the most
successful parts of our project.
When the Avork in decorating and furnishing the house had
been completed, Ave held "open house" and invited all people in
Raleigh aa'Iio had helped Avith the project to come out and see
the results of our efforts. Our guests of honor were Mrs. J. M.
Barbee, who Avas most beloved among the people of the village;
Mr. and Mrs. Srygk^y. and the mill superintendent and his Avife.
Raleigh Public Schools 51
People from Raleigli were most gracious iu acceptiiig our invi-
tations. The evening was most successful.
When the depression came, work of the schools was curtailed.
The mill needed our lively little house and we had to move out.
This was the end of a community project and class in adult
education that had functioned most successfully. It really was
the tragic end.
The Harvey property at 508 South West Street Avas bought
at a cost of $3,000 and fitted for a high and industrial school
for !N"egroes during E. P. Moses' administration in 1903. A
colored teacher from Washington, D. C, was employed to teach
the girls in the industrial section. She complained about the lack
of equipment. J. W. Paisley, principal, taught the eighth and
ninth grades. Louise Jeffreys taught the seventh. Classes were
small. The school closed in 1907-08 and was sold in 1910 along
with the Garfield.
ELIZA POOL SCHOOL
Berxice Dexxisox, Principal
In 1903 Caraleigh Mills Company of Raleigh furnished free
of rent a building containing three rooms for a school of five
grades, known as Caraleigh (Carolina-Raleigh) School.
In 1904 the company proposed to the County Board of Edu-
cation a readiness to donate a lot and $500 for a school build-
ing, provided said board would appropriate a like amount. The
proposition was accepted, and the property was conveyed to the
School Board of Raleigh Township. It was furnished by the
school committee at a cost of $177.15. The company gave a
piano to the school. Horse-and-buggy transportation from the
city was given teachers of the school. There was no pavement.
Provision was made in 1916-17 for an additional room for the
fifth grade. When pupils finished the fifth, they were transferred
to Centennial School for the sixth and seventh grades, then on
to high school on West Morgan Street. The crowded conditions
in the high school required daily double sessions from 9 to 12,
from 12 to 3.
52 Historical Sketches of the
With a bond issue during S. B. Underwood's administration
(1921-23) a new site Avas secured for a brick building whicb was
to contain 12 rooms.
In 1925, during H. F. Srygley's administration, the scliool
board, in recognition of Miss Eliza Pool's efficient service in the
Ealeigh Public Schools, changed the name of the building to
Eliza Pool School.
With the reopening of the manufacturing plant in 1941, there
will be need for an enlarged school building.
Library Books 800
Magazine Subscriptions 5
P.T.A. Membership 54
P.T. Council Membership
and Study Course (S rating) 6
RALEIGH HIGH SCHOOL
A News and Ohserrer editorial dated June 1, 1905, says: ''Fol-
loAving the repeal of the foolish law preventing the public schools
of the city furnishing instruction sufficient to prepare for col-
lege, the school committee yesterday decided definitely to build
a high school as part of the school system of the capital city
and to place its direction into the hands of Prof. Hugh Morson.
Professor Morson, whose school for boys has been famous
throughout the state, is an ideal selection as principal. His
thorough knowledge of boys, combined with a long experience
and scholarship as varied and practical as that of any man in
the South, assures in advance the success of the new departure."
The first high school was organized in 1905. Mr. Hugh Morson
came from his Academy, bringing his classes of boys (Hugh
Thompson, Francis Sherwood, McAuley Costner, and many
others). Classes were conducted in six rooms of the Centennial
School Building (a marvelous innovation!). Associated with
him were C. G. Keeble from the Academy, Miss Eliza Pool, Miss
Ada V. Womble, Miss Daisy Waitt, and Mrs. J. M. Barbee. He
had an enrollment of 100 boys and 65 girls. This school (Raleigh
High) continued in the Centennial Building for three years.
Raleigh Public Schools -^S
The site on West Morgan Street was selected for the high
school in 1905 (during E. P. Moses' administration) on account
of the nearness to the State and Olivia Raney libraries, which
the superintendent considered necessities for high school stu-
dents. The school had no library of its own.
The new two-story brick building on West Morgan (built at
a cost of $20,689.15) consisted of eight classrooms, an audi-
torium, and an extensive basement. It was ready for 250 or 300
students in 1907, but soon the enrollment grew to about 500.
A two-story brick addition of seven rooms was built in the
rear during S. M. Underwood's administration (1921-22). This
''annex" was intended for manual training, science, and academic
classes. (The nearness of the Oak City Laundry on the east, and
the city water tower on the west, proved quite a diversion!)
Schools were closed during the influenza epidemic of World
War I. The Raleigh High Building was used for patients. By
1928-29 the building was closed for good, because by this time
the two schools, Hugh Morson and Needham B. Broughton, had
been erected. Later it was used by the Salvation Army for
sleeping quarters. After being practically destroyed by two fires,
the remaining part of the building was sold for $200. The site
was rented by the city for a parking space. The ISTorth Carolina
Education Association purchased part of the lot for $22,500 ;
the Presbyterian Church purchased the remainder for $10,000.
(The original lot cost about $3,000 before additions from the
Charles Busbee and B. P. Williamson lots Avere purchased.) .
Elizabeth Holman, Principal
The school located at 567 East Hargett Street Avas organized
in 1907 during E. P. Moses' administration. The six-room
Avooden building was the former home of Miss Sophia Partridge,
who conducted a select school there for girls before the Civil
War. The site was knoAvn as "The Knoll." Mrs. Mamie Brewster
Terrell, transferred from Centennial School, Avas appointed first
The six rooms AA-ere soon filled, and three additional rooms
Avere built in the rear. The school Avon the cooperation of the
community, Avhich proudly Avatched its deA'elopment. Xeighbor-
5If. Historical Sketches of the
hood cafeterias were conducted by the active Parent-Teacher
Association to supply lunches for the underprivileged pupils. A
piano for the school was purchased by them.
Mrs. Terrell conducted the school of six grades for 12 years.
Faithful to her trust, beloved by the school and community, she
died in the summer of 1919. Miss Elizabeth Holman, co-worker,
teacher of first grade, was appointed principal in her place, con-
tinuing through the 1941-42 session.
The old building was moved back, and a much-needed brick
building Avas erected in 1923 during S. B. UnderAvood's adminis-
tration. The new one contains 11 classrooms, offices, a library,
an auditorium, a gymnasium, and a cafeteria. In the front en-
trance of the building is a metal tablet dedicated to the memory
of Mamie Brewster Terrell. It is interesting to trace the history
of the funds used for the tablet : The school had purchased a
one hundred dollar Liberty Bond during World War I. This
Avas used for the memorial.
Interesting activities of Thompson are the Boys' Safety Pa-
trol, the members of which are chosen on a basis of dependability,
trustworthiness, good judgment, and ability to work with others;
the Homemakers' Club, and the monthly school paper called
Th m pso n H ifjh 1 igh is.
Library Books 1,860
Magazine Subscriptions 5
P.T.A. Membership 75
P.T. Council Study Course
and Membersliip (S rating) 14.5
Mrs. Williaji S. Hicks, Principal
A school was held in 1903 in a Methodist church on Peace
Street, Avith Miss Emma Conn in charge. It Avas moA'ed to a
AA'ooden building on Boylan AA^enue containing three rooms. This
Avas knoAvn as the Brooklyn School, as it Avas in the Brooklyn
Raleigh Public Schools 55
A lot was purchased (in 1910-11) from J. W. Hinsdale for
$5,000, $1,000 cash. A new concrete building was planned to
take the place of the Brookl\m School building, which was en-
During the school year 1913-14 there were five teachers and
287 pupils in the three rooms. (This was like the cry of the
man in the moon: "Room! Room!") Miss Myrtle Underwood
was principal and teacher. She had followed Miss Emma Conn.
In the summer of 1914 the building was destroyed by fire.
The first three grades attended Wiley School; the remaining
grades attended Murphey.
The new building at 709 Glenwood Avenue contained five
large classrooms in 1914-15. It was constructed for additional
rooms. By 1917 the building was completed, having 18 class-
The school Avas named for Dr. Richard H. Lewis (1850-1926).
He served during the trying years of the Raleigh Public Schools
as a member of the school board. Dr. Lewis and wife aided in
purchasing a piano for the school. In 1923 a cafeteria was added.
As the community grew, the building became crowded. By
1925 six temporary classrooms were built in the rear of the
school lot. A lot adjoining the Lewis property was bought to
enlarge the school grounds. By 1926-27 the school had an enroll-
ment of 730 pupils and twenty teachers. Miss Myrtle Underwood
continued as principal.
The development in West Raleigh community brought the
building of West Raleigh School, relieving crowded conditions
at Lewis. Miss Sallie Blackwell was elected principal of Lewis
in 1927, continuing through 1941-42 as Mrs. William S. Hicks.
A library was begun in 1928, a state standard library in
1940-41. In 1940 an auditorium was added at the rear of the
original building; neAV steps were built on the front.
Enrollment ._. _.._ _ 246
Library Books 825
Magazine Subscriptions 6
P.T.A. Membership 85
P.T. Council Membership
and Study Course .....(S rating) 8
56 Historical Sketches of the
AV. H. Fuller, Principal
In 1878 t^ae East Raleigh Seliool was organized in a small
chureli building on East Davie Street, the present site of St.
Matthew's Church. Charles I^. Hunter was in charge. With the
rapid growth of the school, a larger building was secured on
Swain Street, a building formerly used by members of the
Second Baptist Church, now located on the corner of Hargett
and Person streets. The school became known as the Garfield
about 1881. W. L. Crosby was principal.
The Watson property on East Lenoir Street was bought by
the school board in 1897 during Logan D. Howell's administra-
tion. The building was repaired. This, the Crosby School, w^as
needed to relieve crowded conditions in the Garfield. Money was
left for this school by Henry Crosby, Xegro educator connected
with Shaw L'niversity.
In 1910 the Chavis and Garfield schools were sold, necessitat-
ing the moving of the Garfield to the property on East Lenoir.
The new Garfield was a two-story brick building with eight
rooms. J. W. Ligon Avas principal. Mrs. Julia A. Williams was
principal of Crosby. In 1920. during Harry Howell's adminis-
tration, the two schools were consolidated as the Crosby-Garfield
Scliool. Crosby became the primary, Garfield the grammar.
In 1935 the Garfield section was injured by fire. Insurance
paid for the loss amounted to $5,573.40. Pupils attended Lucille
Hunter School until the building Avas repaired. Meanwhile the
Crosby section Avas torn doAvn. A strictly modern Crosby-Garfield
building Avas completed and occupied in 1939, during Claude F.
Gaddy's administration. Some of the material in the handsome
building Avas taken from the discarded Centennial School. The
Centennial material had come from ''The Palace" on South
Street. The fine care taken of this building is proof that it is
appreciated. It is a AA'ide-aAvake school. (Lena M. Hunter,
daughter of the noted teacher, Charles X. Hunter, teaches the
The years betAveen 1878 and 1939 have shoAvn a marvelous de-
A-elopment in structures for the Xegro.
Raleigh Public Schools
Teachers .-- 19
Seating Capacity of Auditorium 618
Library Books 722
P.T.A.' MembersMp 100
JUmOE HIGH SCHOOL
By Ellen R. Glenn*
Nor buildings inadequate, nor limited finances, nor crowded
classes, nor shortage of allotted teachers have prevented con-
tinuous sessions and progress of public education in Raleigh
since the first high school was established in 1905. Only epi-
demics of illnesses have forced temporary breaks in the progress.
Such crowded conditions existed in the high school and the
various grammar schools that advantage was taken to use a
building just vacated on West Jones Street, Caswell Square, by
the Blind Institute. In September, 1923, Paul S. Daniel, as prin-
cipal, and a corps of teachers for grades seven and eight set in
operation an emergency junior high school. For two years this
part of the education program attempted to give adolescents a
good foundation training for high school. Some teachers com-
muted from the high school ; some students commuted from
building to building in order to get their program regulated;
student assemblies w^ere held in the Sunday school auditorium
of Edenton Street M. E. Church, one block away. In spite of
unfavorable conditions the close cooperation of the principal and
teachers, with the common good uppermost in mind, helped
many boys and girls to become well prepared to go on through
high school and eventually take prominent places in public life.
In September, 1925, Raleigh High School was moved into the
new- building on East Hargett Street to be called Hugh Morson
High School. Junior High moved t© the old Raleigh High build-
ing, nearer the downtown business district. The calmness, fair-
mindedness, and sincerity of purpose on the part of the prin-
cipal many times ironed out smoothly and satisfactorily what
had seemed to be serious problems. At the close of the second
year of Junior High in this building, Superintendent Srygley,
in presenting to the faculty the plan for transferring the eighth
* Xeedham B. Broualiton Hi£;li School.
58 Historical Sketches of the
grade back to the high school, said, "Any teacher working in
this environment for one Tear forfeits five years of her life."
He, no donbt, had in mind the classrooms in the dark, damp
basement ; the close proximity of the front classrooms to the
fire department just across the street ; the annex rooms, where
a creamery loaded trucks across the alley, and the laundry sent
off steam on the afternoon sunny side; the auditorium where
165 students were croAvded into a study hall. Even so, boys and
girls learned here valuable lessons and have taken their responsi-
bilities in life, proving themselves to be worthy citizens.
For the next two years Paul S. Daniel and his teachers con-
ducted classes in that building for seventh grade students only.
In September, 1929, the students in grades seven to eleven,
inclusive, were divided according to the city lines and were
assigned either to Hugh Morson or the new High School on
St. Mary's Street.
This Raleigh adaptation of a program for secondary schools
was far from the ideal system accepted by education. However,
it evidenced the determination of the citizens of Raleigh to let
no obstacles stand in the way of preparing boys and girls for
The statistics that follow show the provisions for the seventh
and eighth grades during a period of twenty years — 1922 to 1942.
Briefly, also, is shown how the 7-4 system evolved in the 8-4
system during the same period.
Year Grades Location
192.3-25 7, S Blind Institute Buiklint;. Caswell Square.
192.5-27 7, 8 Raleigh High School Building, West Morgan
1927-29 7 Raleigh High School Building.
S Hugh Morson High School. East Hargett
1929-.38 7. 8 Hn^li Morson or Needham Broughton with
1938 7 Respective grammar schools, 12th grade added
in hi^h schools.
1942 8 Officially considered last year of grammar
grades, though still located in high school
System According to Grades
Raleigh Public Schools 59
HUGH MORSOX HIGH SCHOOL
G. H. Arnold, Principal
Crowded conditions resulted in the erection of Hugh Morson
High School, which Avas ready to be occupied in September,
1925, by advanced classes. The school is located two blocks east
of the Capitol on the four-acre Benehan Cameron Square. It
was purchased for $60,000. The school, at 301 East Hargett
Street, covers an entire block. It Avas built at a cost of $533,-
771.94. The total school assets are valued at $631,824.50.
When the school board undertook to name the new structure,
i% was suggested that it be named for Mr. Hugh Morson, beloved
veteran teacher and first principal of Raleigh High. Mr. Morson
consented to the naming, and this Avas done. He wrote the fol-
loAving letter to Superintendent H. F. Srygley :
September 20, 1923.
Superintendent H. F. Srygley
Secretary of the School Board
In reply to your notification of the action of the school
board of Raleigh Township at the last meeting in selecting
my name for the proposed new high school, I desire to ex-
press through you to the members of the board, individually
and collectively, my grateful appreciation of this high honor
which they have seen fit to confer on me — an honor for which
I feel that I possess little claim except the deep and earnest
desire which, for nearly half a century, has filled my heart
for the educational welfare and uplift of the children of our
I am truly thankful to see the long-cherished hope now be-
ing rapidly realized by the construction of such buildings and
other improvements as our boys and girls sadly need and to
which they are entitled.
Yours very truly,
The first principal of the new high school was C. E. Wessinger
(1925-1935-36). He Avas followed "in 1936-37 by G. H. Arnold.
On the first floor of Hugh Morson High is to be found a beau-
tiful oil painting of Hugh Morson; the principal's office, the
office of Miss Frances Lacy, Supervisor of Elementary Schools;
the offices of the dean of boys and dean of girls ; an auditorium
Avith a seating capacity of 1,168 ; the gymnasium, covering a
space of 64 by 85 feet; a Avell-planned industrial arts shop, a
first aid room, and a modern cafeteria. Six rooms for classes
60 Historical Sketches of the
are on the first floor, besides other work rooms. Twelve class-
rooms are on tlie second. The main attraction on the second is
the Eliza Pool Library, which is 24 feet wide and 72 feet long.
The reading room is 26 by 31 feet. A Avell-equipped commercial
department is another featnre of the second floor. The adequately
arranged home economics department is to be found on the third,
along with eight classrooms. Above the third floor is a room
used by the band.
At Hugh Morson there are many and varied clubs. These give
students an opportunity to participate in the life of the school.
In the club work one can clearly see the school motto carried
out : "An Opportunity for Every Ability."
Hugh Morson was the first high school in the state selected
to give a series of radio broadcasts acquainting Tar Heels with
their state. government. Governor Clyde R. Hoey inaugurated
the series (1940-41) by havins,- the first broadcast from his oflice.
The program Avas entitled ''Know A'our State Government." Six
students of the government classes participated, under the direc-
tion of their teacher, Mrs. ]\rary Powell Brantley.
There is a regular school newspaper, The Purple and Gold.
published by classes in journalism taught by Mrs. Brantley.
Since purple and gold are the school colors, the paper is appro-
The annual ])rodu('tion of the students, a project of the senior
class, is the (htJ,- Leaf. Miss Xatalie Coft'ey directs work on the
Foot]>all, basketball. basel)all, swimming, tennis, golf, and
track are the sports that are enthusiastically supported in the
Enrollment ._..._ .._ 1,068
Grades (8-12) 5
Subjects Taught 25
Library Books..... 4,038
Magazine Subscriptions 35
P.f.A. Membership 325
P.T.A. Publications 23
P.T. Council Membership and
Studv Courses (S rating) 20
Raleigh Public Schools 01
Hugh Morson was borii in Fredericksburg, Va., in 1850. He
was a student at the University of Virginia, majoring in classi-
cal languages and mathematics. He began teaching when 21
years of age, and came to Raleigh in 1877 as head of the Raleigh
Male Academy. In 1905 he became the first principal of Raleigh
High. He was principal-emeritus by 1920, though he still taught
classes in Latin for three years, resigning in 1923.
Simplicity, a strong personality, and a powerful physique were
characteristics of his. He was a teacher, not an entertainer. His
rules were simple, but they had to be obeyed. One of ISTorth
Carolina's most noted educators, serving the cause of education
for about fifty years, he witnessed early struggles for education
in Raleigh and gave inspiration when it was needed.
Upon his death on March 29, 1925, the high school faculty of
Raleigh published the following in The Raleigh Student of
April 3 :
In the removal from our midst of our faithful and devoted
friend and fellow teacher. Hugh Morson. we. the teachers of
the Raleigh High School, mourn the passing of one whose
friendship and inspiration has been to us a tower of strength,
and whose power and intluence as a teacher we shall strive to
"He was the noblest Roman of them all" to us. In all things
he revealed those superb qualities of character of only those
who have been nurtured liy the classics. The spirit of the old
Greeks, the maxim "nothing in excess." dominated the course
of his life and proved to be its suniinum honum.
While we continue to perform the task which he had begun,
we can do a far greater work by reason of his having shown
us the way.
IvA Bardex. Chairman ;
ELIZA A. POOL
Eliza A. Pool was born in Oxford, X. C, in 1850. She joined
the Raleigh Public Schools in 1886, continuing with them about
forty years. She was the first principal of Murphey, then was
transferred with advanced classes to Wiley as principal. She
remained until she went to Raleigh High as teacher of romance
62 Historical Sketches of the
Miss Eliza served one year as lady principal of St. Mary's
School. Two years were spent abroad, studying in Paris and
Germany, and visiting in Switzerland. She was selected in 1926
as jVortli Carolina's most outstanding teacher, and she repre-
sented the state at Philadelphia's Sesqnicentennial, where she
was presented a gold medal. She resigned from the faculty of
Hugh Morson High in 1930.
Miss Eliza died November 25, 1935, in the home of Mrs.
Thomas H. Briggs. Both her time and energy were always ready
to be used for the benefit of others.
MPS. J. M. BARBEE
(Mrs. Barbee says her life is before the community. "Enough
BOYLAX HEIGHTS SCHOOL
Mrs. Herimax Sexter, Principal
The Boylan Heights Improvement Association gave a large,
wooded lot to the Raleigh School Board for a school building in
1927. A story-and-a-half brick building, containing an audi-
torium, four classrooms on the main floor, three in the basement,
costing $51,117.89, noAV stands on that lot. Mrs. Herman Senter,
present principal (1941-42), became principal in 1928. By her
wise management, always demanding the best, the improvement
in all lines has been marked. The first year saw an enrollment
of 229 pupils and seven teachers.
When the Centennial School Avas closed in 1931-32, the larger
number of pupils Avas transferred to Boylan Heights School,
which then became inadequate because of crowded conditions.
The Parent-Teacher Association proved from the beginning a
moving force. There was need for a cafeteria. Xo room was
available. A space in the rear of the auditorium Avas used and
one Avas improvised. Food was prepared in the homes and brought
to the school.
By 1936, 306 pupils Avere enrolled. The ucav school superin-
tendent, Claude F. Gaddy, saAv the pressing need for additional
rooms. In 1940 an enlargement took place. The half story Avas
EaleictH Public SchooLvS 63
completed. Now the upper floor contains four classrooms and a
new, well-liglited library. Pupils liave library lessons daily. The
main floor contains four classrooms, an auditorium, a modern
cafeteria, and a bookroom in the basement. The cost of this
enlargement was $32,000. From the valuable records of the
Boylan Heights P.T.A., we find that $500 has been spent on
books for the library ; $400 for school improvements, and about
$1,000 for food and clothes for underprivileged children.
The school has one of the largest, well-planned playgrounds
in the city. There is a shaded portion for younger children, two
tennis courts, and a field for baseball or football. The Boylan
Heights community is justly proud of the school of seven grades
and earnest teachers.
Teachers. - -- 7
Library Books 1,232
Magazine Subscriptions 7
P.T.A. Membership - 117
P.T. Council Study Course
and Membership .....(S rating) 22
PEED A. OLDS SCHOOL
Maey a. Page, Principal
To meet the needs of the growing community of West Paleigh,
a brick building was erected at 204 Dixie Trail in 1927 during
H. F. Srygley's administration. The school was first known as
the West Ealeigh School. This relieved crowded conditions of
Wiley. The building contains 11 classrooms, an auditorium and
a cafeteria. One of the classrooms is used for the library. A full-
time librarian, by request of the patrons, served in 1940-41.
Mary A. Page, former principal of Centennial School, became
first principal, with a corps of eight teachers. She has taught the
seventh grade from the beginning of her principalship.
The name of the school was changed in 1931 to Fred A. Olds
School. Fredrick Augustus Olds was the founder of the Xorth
Carolina Hall of History. He was born aboard ship October 12,
1853. He died July 2, 1935. Colonel Olds was a great lover of
6'^ Historical Sketches of the
children, and could he called the first scout leader of Raleigh's
children on their many hikes. During World War I he took a
group of boys and girls on Saturdays to cotton fields to pick
cotton. Liberty Bonds were bought with "the pickings." A bronze
tablet dedicated to the memory of Colonel Olds, and a picture of
him, are found near the front entrance to the school.
The school grounds were made beautiful by the sowing of grass
and the planting of shrubs. A $15 prize Avas won in 1935 in
competition with other public schools of the city, as a result of
Library Books 1,440
Magazine Subscriptions 20
P.T.A. Membership 233
P.T. Council Study Course
and Membership (S rating) 8
Myrtle Underwood, Principal
The school is located at 1614 Glenwood Avenue in the Hayes-
Barton community. It bears the name of Sir Walter Raleigh's
English estate. The brick building was erected during Superin-
tendent H. F. Srygley's administration in 1927. It was needed
to relieve crowded conditions in the Lewis and Wiley schools.
The building contains IS classrooms, an auditorium of 552
seats, a cafeteria, a first aid room, and a library. A WPA li-
brarian is employed. Books are taken out for home room use.
Some of the class activities are conducted in rooms adjoining
the regular classrooms, making 27 rooms in use.
A very efficient citizenship council claims the interest of pu-
pils. A representative from each classroom serves for one month.
Officers are chosen by the representatives. They discuss subjects
which are reported to home rooms for further discussion and
action. Varied activities keep the school busy, give the pupils an
Raleigh Public Schools 65
The present principals of Murphey, Fred A. Olds, and Hayes-
Barton schools were members of a training class conducted by
Superintendent E. P. Moses in 1900. They were first used as
assistant teachers and substitutes.
Library Books 1,917
Magazine Subscriptions. 19
P.T.A. Membership 475
P.T. Council Study Course
and Membership (S rating) 8
LUCILLE HUNTER SCHOOL
Mrs. Julia A. Williams, Principal
The brick building located at 1018 East Davie Street, fire-
proof, modern in every way, was erected in 1927 during Super-
intendent H. F. Srygley's administration. (Mrs. Lucille Hunter,
a native of Wilmington, N^. C, was educated in the public schools
of Boston. She taught successfully in the Raleigh Public Schools
for 45 years. Her former pupils, now citizens of this community,
were anxious that the new building be known as Lucille Hunter
The building contains twenty classrooms, an auditorium of six
hundred seats, a library, a cafeteria, and a clinic room. A land-
scape gardener from State College laid off plots on the front
grounds, suggested trees and shrubs. A stone gateway on the
front was a gift by the principal of the school in 1932 for kind-
ness shown during absence from duty on account of accident.
Fine care of the building and grounds prove appreciation.
The principal is the former principal of Crosby School. She
and her corps of teachers intend having Lucille Hunter School
a standard elementary one of seven grades.
During 14 years of the school there has been promotion of
about eight hundred pupils to Washington High.
The rock quarry near the school (once a "crime pit") now
wears a dress of green.
66 Historical Sketches of the
(In the files of the Lucille Hunter School may be found the
history of the land containing the present school site.)
Library Clerk 1
Library Books 1,331
Magazine Subscriptions 2
P.T.A. Membership 75
NEEDHAM B. BEOFGHTON HIGH SCHOOL "^
H. A. Helms, Principal
By Ellen R. Glenn *
In the history of Raleigh the year 1929 offered these outstand-
ing events: dedication of t]ie new fairgrounds; establishment of
Curtiss-Wright Flying Field (now Municipal Airport) ; dona-
tion of the floodlights on the Capitol by Carolina Power and
Light Company; introduction of the Vitaphone in the movies;
completion of the new high school on St. Mary's Street.
On a knoll of the ten-acre purchase of the Smallwood prop-
erty between West Peace and Cameron streets on St. Mary's
Street stands the imposing structure of native stone, designed by
William Henry Deitrick, in an adaptation of Italian Renaissance
architecture. This half million dollar structure is conceded to
be one of the most beautiful school buildings in the South.
Various delays during the year of construction prevented hav-
ing a building comj^letely ready for occupancy when school must
begin in September, 1929. Work of all kinds was necessary dur-
ing school hours in order to complete the building and students
w^ere always ready Avith various comments. "When do we eat ?"
was heard Avhen the cafeteria was flooded, but food was served
in the unfinished auditorium; "Two whole periods omitted for
chapel!" came when, on December 13, the auditorium, with seat-
ing capacity for 1,500, was ready for the student assembly;
"Judging from the appearance of the halls the science motto
* Needham B. lirouulitdii Hi.uli School.
Raleigh Publtc Schools » 67
must be 'Excelsior/ " was the comment heard when apparatus
was being installed.
Routine class Avork was accepted readily, and time Avas found
for extra-curricular activities. By the end of the second month
students were fast forming small clubs for the promotion of
school spirit. During the year 12 clubs existed, including such
as science, literary, Girl Reserves, Hy-Y, pep, dramatic, accord-
ing to student interests. Student Council from the beginning has
been the head organization, sponsoring all other activities until
such could be chartered.
Not until near the close of the school year was the school
known other than the New High School or West Raleigh High.
At that time the "naming of the school in memory of Needham
B. Brought on was at the request of a number of citizens who
remembered the stanch fight of Mr. Broughton, Dr. R. H. Lewis
and iVlf A. Thompson in the late 80's for an adequate school
for Raleigh. Public education which is taken for granted today
was unpopular, particularly with the large taxpayers, in those
days but with Mr. Broughton leading the fight, legislation was
secured for an eight-month school." The name was suggested to
the school board by letter from Mr. C. B. Edwards, a business
associate in Edwards and Broughton Printing Company. Mr.
Edwards wrote, "I respectfully suggest that it be named the
Broughton High School for Needham B. Broughton who served
on the school committee for many years and who did faithful
work as long as he was on it. I know and associated with him
in boyhood and was in business with him for about forty years.
I do not think there is a man in Raleigh Avho helped more young
people and did more for the upbuilding of our city and its public
institutions according to his means."
From the J. O. U. A. M. came this sentiment, "Too much
credit cannot be given to men like Mr. Broughton — men of like
vision for the fight they made for public education. . . . Our man-
nificent public school system of today is but the crowning glory of
the foundation laid half a centur}' ago by these men — Dr. R. H.
Lewis, Alf A. Thompson and Needham B. Broughton."
The present structure was not completed until 1936. The
three-story building provides the following : 29 classrooms ; com-
merce department and music room, acoustically treated ; little
theater, science laboratories; library, containing approximately
5,000 volumes, gymnasium, with showers and play room below
it; auditorium, seating capacity for 1,500; cafeteria; four offices
68 * Historical Sketches of the
for principal and advisers; teachers' room, a number of small
rooms on different floors used respectively for book storage. Stu-
dent Council files, central banking system, Hi-Times, Latipac,
j)rojector booth, athletic equipment and janitor's supplies. The
student supply store occupies a part of the cafeteria convenient
for sales during lunch period. The athletic fields and playgrounds
are a part of the ten-acre property. The shop is located in a
wooden structure in the grove apart from the main building.
School opened September 3, 1929, with Paul S. Daniel, prin-
cipal, 35 teachers and about 650 students. When Mr. Daniel was
elected to the superintendency, William Henry Shaw came to
be principal at the opening of the fall term in 1930, and served
as an efficient and popular principal for eight years. Paul A.
Reid, the principal from 1938-19-41, made his contribution in
this modern school by adjusting the curriculum for the nine-
month, twelve-year program provided by the supplement voted
in a special election held in August, 1938. In September, 1941,
H. A. Helmes began his administration as principal, and in his
quiet, unassuming manner has attempted to get thoroughly ac-
quainted with the situation and solve problems fairly and justly
as they present themselves.
Broughton High School lost each principal by a promotion
to superintendency in Raleigh, Sumter, S. C, and Elizabeth City,
X. C, respectively.
For several years the curriculum was in the form of an ac-
tivity program providing large units of work based on student
interests and included service courses according to grade levels.
This program progressed during the administration of W. H.
Shaw. With the addition of the 12th grade and the large per-
centage of graduates entering College, it became necessary to
make adjustments in the curriculum. Activities or units of Avork
still are found invaluable, but serve according to dift'erent plans
within the subject fields to implement various problems of in-
terest ; extra-curricular activities vary from year to year accord-
ing to student requests.
In 1938 the seventh grade students were left in their respec-
tive grammar grade schools and an orientation program was
planned for the eighth grade in the high school building. It was
hoped that bridging the gap betAveen grammar grades and high
school would give a thorough foundation and preparation for
the high school in the 12-year system. Students are advised to
make plans early for their 16 credits above eighth grade required
Raleigh Public Schools ■ 69
for graduation. Tlie present curriculum provides for the college
preparatory, the general group and the commerce group with the
various elective available, according to student requests and
During the life of Broughton High School the student body
has grown from 650 to 1,165. The teaching personnel seemingly
has not grown in proportion but for the first year seven mem-
bers of the faculty had duties in both high schools. The class of
1938, of about 185 members, sent approximately 66 per cent on
to college. Since then there has been a variance of 60-85 per cent
going to college. Of the 150 graduates in the class of 1942, 75
transcripts have been sent to colleges as requested.
From the very beginning of activities in this high school the
Parent-Teacher Association has been one of the strongest allied
forces. Parent education and welfare work have been the most
successful undertaking's but the unlimited and ever-ready loyal
support for any school activities cannot be evaluated.
Continued interest in their alma mater was evidenced in De-
cember, 1939, when approximately one hundred graduates met
and organized an alumni association.
Grades (8-12) 5 " -
Library Books 5,000
Magazine Subscriptions... 43
P.T.A. Publications 21
P.T.A. Membership 393 '
P.T. Council Membership
and Study Course (S rating) 21
I^EEDHAM B. BR0UGHT0:N^
"It is significant of a new era that men who render a lasting
service to their community are honored by their own. ... In
thus naming our schools for our home-grown, sun-crowned men.
. . . Ave hold up to the youth of Raleigh the inspiration of high
10 ■ Historical Sketches of the
"As one who Avas honored Avith the friendship of Xeedham B.
Broughton and fought by his side in more than one contest for
ciA'ic righteousness and better schools, I count it an honor to be
permitted, in the name of his family, to present a portrait of
the man Avhose name this school bears. It is the prayer of all
AA'ho kneAv him and correctly measured his usefulness that out
of these halls Avill go, from year to year, boys and girls animated
in public spirit, high ideals, and consecration to the principles
that AA'ere gOA-erning forces in the life of Xeedham B. Brough-
ton." So spoke Josephus Daniels, May 29, 1931, at the unA'eiling
and presentation of the portrait of Xeedham B. Broughton to
the school named for him.
In ansAver to a natural question, "Why should Raleigh's most
magnificent school structure be named for Xeedham B. Brough-
ton ?" Mr. Daniels suggested that "unborn children may be ask-
ing that same question and Avill be entitled to an ansAver." He
then explained in detail the hard-fought battle in legislature for
public education in the late 80's AA^hen Raleigh's one public school
Superintendent E. P. Moses AA'as quoted as liaA'ing said, "Of
all Xorth Carolinians I eA-er kncAv, Xeedham B. Broughton AA'as
one of the three aa'Iio tOAA^ered head and shoulders aboA'e the
throng and, in some respects, he A\'as the greatest man I haA'e
eA^er knoAvn." Mr. Daniels also referred to the tribute paid to
Xeedham B. Broughton by the Rca'. Dr. R. T. Vann, "Probably
no other citizen of Raleigh CA-er dcA'Oted his thought, time, and
money to the upbuilding of our city schools more generously
than did Mr. Broughton."
The portrait noAv hangs in the hall so anyone entering the
front door may gaze unconsciously upon it. Would that all AAdio
gaze could imbibe his philosophy — "the education of all is the
combined duty of all" and that his one idea concerning education
AA'as more and better schools.
Hence Xeedham B. Broughton High School stands today as
a monument to the memory of his useful life, — dedicated to the
serA'ice of liumanitA'.
Raleigh Public Schools 71
EDNA METZ WELLS — ANN PITTS HICKS
On either side of the portrait of Xeedham B. Broughton,
hangs a portrait of a teacher, each portrait being a gift of stu-
dents, teachers and friends.
Edna Metz Wells (Mrs. B. W.) taught in the science depart-
ment of the old Raleigh High School for several years before
coming to Hugh Morson and being transferred to Broughton
High School in 1929 as teacher of biology.
Edna Metz Wells February, 1938
"Scientist, Teacher, Counsellor. Friend —
Whose life was an inspiration
Whose memory is a hen edict ion."
Ann Pitts Hicks (Mrs. W. N.) became a member of the
Broughton faculty as a social science teacher only a few years
ago and served also as Student Adviser in Guidance.
Mrs. W. N. Hicks April, 1940
"To all the students, Mrs. Hicks icas a friend to
irhotn they might go for sympathetic council. We
found her sincere interest. infi)nte patience, and
noble character an inspiration to all who knew her."
THE ELEMENTARY SUPERVISOR
By Ella Ford Senter ''"
The Elementary Schools of Raleigh are fortunate in having
as supervisor Miss Frances Lacy, who brings cheer and happi-
ness to the children when she enters the room. A very helpful
person, she always tries to do whatever called upon to do. She
is certainly at the beck and call of every principal and teacher
in the system.
* Principal of Boylan Hei.uhts Seliool.
72 Historical Sketches of the
Her supervision is most helpful. Criticisms are always con-
structive, kind, and tliouglitful. She suggests a remedy for every
defect, and if tried, the remedy proves most effective. The
Raleigh schools have improved under her supervision, and we
feel that the children are receiving a well-rounded program of
worthwhile activities. They are encouraged to learn by doing,
and to live in a democratic way. More and more they show self-
control through this practice of democracy.
She has time to find books for her helpers in the professional
library, which she is in charge of, and often takes these books to
and from the schools.
The addition of many new volumes to school libraries is due
to her help and enthusiasm for books. She somehow finds rooms
in the buildings for the library, and means of opening and
equipping it for the children.
Miss Lacy was largely responsible for the coming of Dr. James
Tippett of \J. 'N. C, who helped and guided the superintendent,
principals and teachers in working out the skills for each sub-
ject in every grade. She organized the various committees, whose
work was to formulate certain skills for the different subjects in
each grade, met with them, and helped in every way possible.
She is a patient, understanding supervisor that knows what a
classroom teacher has to do, and never forgets that she was once
a classroom teacher herself.
Raleigh Public Schools
RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOL DIRECTORY
Claude F. Gaddy, Supermtendent (first half).
Jesse O. Sanderson, Superintendent (second half).
J. F. Bryant, Business Manager.
Millard P. Burt, Band.
Leo F. de Sola, Band.
Frances Lacy, Elementary Supervisor.
Mrs. Frances Moore Rankin, Cafeteria Supervisor.
Jessie Sclmopp, Coordinator.
Frederick Stanley Smith, Music Director.
Nell S. Iden, Bool^Jceeper
Mrs. Mary D. Freeman, Secretary.
HUGH MORSQ]^ HIGH SCHOOL
301 EAST HARGETT STREET
Arnold, George H., Principal
Bain, Mrs. Anna W.
Barbee, Mrs. J. M.
Brantley. Mrs. Mary Powell
Breithaupt, Clifford C.
Daniels. Mrs. C. P.
Ferguson, Fletcher W.
Floyd, Marcus W.
Ilornback, John J.
Jones, Laura M.
Larabee, Helen W.
Marcom. Mrs. J. L.
Morgan. J. W.
Morrison. Mrs. Frances C.
Nickell. John Paul
Ramseur. Mary E.
Reimer. Mrs. Anna V.
Smith, Farmer S. Jr.
Wood, Mrs. John O.
NEEDHAM B. BROUGHT OX HIGH SCHOOL
723 ST. MARY'S STREET
Helms, H. A., Principal
Bray. Mrs. B. B.. Jr.
Cannon. Mary B.
Cozart, Da'sad L.
Ellington. Mary Oliver
Fletcher. Mrs. Ernest
Fouville, Mrs. Mary S. Beam
Freeman, Thomas Willmott
Glenn. Mrs. Ellen R.
Historical Sketches of the
(tOSHoIiI, Betty P'linor
Gregson. Raymond T.
Hall. Mrs. A. C.
House. John A.
Joyce, Emmett Robert
Joyner. Mrs. O. K.
Lewis. Oma Bliss
Nelson. Mary W.
Norris. Thomas Joseiih
Paschal. Laura Helen
Reavis. Mrs. P. A.
Root. Mrs. John C.
Saylor, Jean S.
Smith, Carrie Glenn
Starnes. Dewey E.
Starnes. Mrs. Dewey E.
Sellars. Mrs. William R.
POLK AND PERSON STREETS
Conn. Emma D.. Principal
Bailey. Ida H.
Ball, Mrs. Adele Reese
Bryant. Mrs. Frances
Chadwick. Mrs. Bronnie C.
Crawford. Marianne C.
Home. Mary C.
Jackson. Mrs. Martha C.
Morgan, Mrs. (Gwendolyn S.
Murray. Mrs. Charles K.
Thomas. Mrs. Fannie K.
Umstead. Mrs. Virjrinia C.
Webb. Mrs. Sara C.
Welhms. Mrs. Alice F.
Woltz, Mrs. Jessie McN.
Underwood. Myrtle. Principal
Bulla rd. Mrs. M. Louise
Eldridiie. G. Virginia
Hurst. Mrs. Nannie Marjiaret
Kirkpa trick, Katherine
Lawrence. Mrs. Frank
Martin, Mrs. Grace L.
Massi'iitrill. Mrs. Elizabeth
Munt. Mrs. Delia S.
Riiigan. Mrs. Myrtle C.
Sykes, Mrs. Viririnia B.
Ward. Jean Gales
Willard, Mrs. Coma Cole
ST. MARY'S STREET
Sherwood. Mrs. Mary B..
Burks. Ethel D.
Davis. Mrs. Annie P.
Justice, Mrs. Evangeline
McDonald. Mrs. Ethel H.
Peirson, Mrs. Ellen U.
Smith, Mrs. Ruth T.
Squires, Ruahiie C.
Stephenson. Mrs. Agnes W
Raleigh Public Schools
567 EAST HARGETT STREET
Holman. Elizabeth. Priucipal
Coruwell. Mrs. Carrie
Creesan. Mrs. Fave J.
Duke. Mrs. Otho G.
Garren. Mrs. G. M.
Southerland. Annie Rose
Thoroughgood. Mrs. Zelma W
Hicks, Mrs. William S..
Fort. Mrs. William L.
Valentine, Fannie Mae
Wilson. Mrs. R. B.
BOYLAN HEIGHTS SCHOOL
SOUTH BOYLAN AVENUE
Senter. Mrs. Herman,
Curtis. Dora F.
Eskridge. Mrs. Eloise G.
ERED OLDS SCHOOL
Page, Mary A.. Principal
Doggett, Mrs. Louise L.
Draper, Jessie O.
Ferguson. Mrs. Helen M.
Herndon. X^annie Mae
Lawrence. Mrs. John S.
ELIZA POOL SCHOOL
CARALEIGH MILLS. FAYETTEVILLE ROAD
Dennison, Berniee, Principal
Gibson, Mrs. Elizabeth T.
Randolph. Mrs. Elizabeth H.
Russell, Mrs. Dorothy C.
Shelley. Mrs. Carolyn McL.
Veach. Mrs. E. K.
PILOT MILLS, XORTH BLOUXT STREET
Holman, Mary B.. Principal
Bradley. Mrs. Blanche T.
Jenkins, Mrs. Julia W.
LaFrage. Mrs. Xina J.
Wellons, Lee Douglas
HisTOEicAL Sketches of the
METHODIST ORPHANAGE SCHOOL
Sanderson. J. ()., Principal
Cnimpton. Mrs. Eula
Sandling, Mrs. Lillian C.
WASHIXGTOX HIGH SCHOOL
1000 FAYETTEVILLE STREET
Akins, M. W., Principal
Allen. Xiniinia Marie
P.ngg. Margaret B.
Clanton, Mrs. Josephine
Collins, (ieorge Van Hov
Evans. Ida M.
Franklin, Mrs. Aurelia "W.
Harris, Mrs. Gertrude E.
Herndon, Agnes C.
Hill, Merrinian C.
Hunt. Mrs. Clara P>rown
Inhorden, Wilson P..
Johnson, Henrv T.
Kelly, Mrs. Emily M.
Latham, Mr.s. Fannie V.
Levingston, John C.
Levingston, Mrs, Alberta
Levister. Joshua L.
Lexing, Ethel M.
Ligon. Maye Edna
Perrin, Mrs. Louise F.
Perry, Mrs. Ellen A.
Perry, Mrs. Susie V.
Smith, William W.
Toole. R. Herndon
Williams, Peter Hines, Jr.
Yeargin, Eftie M.
Baker, James H.
Brown, Mrs. (ieneva P.
L)avis, Helen Burnette
Eaton, Mrs. Lucy P.
Fuller, Mrs. Nannie W.
Hayes, Martha Y.
Hayes, Octavia W.
Love, Pattie M.
Maye, Mrs. Faye P.
Melver, Mrs. Mildred T.
Mitchell, Mrs. Ida M.
Morgan, Nannie H.
O'Kelly. Mrs. Anna P.
Prather, Mrs. Carrie M.
Reid. Mrs. Gwendolyn Y.
Sills, Mrs. Marjorie
Sims, Mrs. Fannie J.
Thomas, Mrs. Kathleen L.
Wiley, Mrs. Eva P.
Williams, Louise R,
Baucom. Willie Steeve
LUCILLE HUXTER SCHOOL
1021 EAST LENOIR STREET
Williams. Mrs. J. A., Principal
Bryant. Mrs. Lucille :\I.
Davis, Mrs. Eliza Allen
Easterling. ]\Irs. Marion
Evans, Mrs. Daisy B.
Frazier, Mrs. Nan P.
Gra.v. Mrs. Augusta H.
Hardie. Mrs. Ora Burnette
Harris. Mrs. Gila S.
Hunt, Mrs. Ethel H.
Ealeigh Public Schools
Jones. Mrs. Alice
Lane, Dorothy S.
Ligon. Mrs. Clinton B.
Logan. Mrs. Addie G.
MeCauley, Racliel H. G.
Mitcliell. Mrs. Hattie T.
Pliillips, Mary E.
Somorville, Mrs. Alice E.
Stredwick, Mrs. Henri J.
Wortlaam, Mrs. Celia J.
569 EAST LENOIR STREET
Fuller, W. H., Principal
Akins, Mrs. Mattie E.
Brooks, Minnie T.
Christmas, Clarine E.
Culler, Mrs. Mary A.
Dunston. Mrs. Alice J.
Elliott. Maggie E.
Gorham, Mrs. Marie A.
Hunter, Lena M.
Leake, Mrs. Bertha A.
Logan. Mrs. Amelia H.
Nanton, Mrs. Olivia
Prince. Mrs. Clementine T.
Roberts. Mrs. Margaret R.
Smith. Mrs. Margaret A.
Watson, Mrs. Mary E.
Watts, Mrs. Garnelle
Williams, Mrs. Alma T.
Yeargin. Mamie T.
1004 OBERLIN ROAD
Harris, Margaret R., Principal
Brewington, Mrs. Ethel C.
Flagg, Minnie F.
Haywood, Mrs. Margaret
Kay. Gloria C.
Kelly, Mrs. Mattie M.
Rhone, Amanda B.
RALEIGH SCHOOL CAFETERIAS— 1929-1942
By Mrs. Frances Moore Ran'kin, Supervisor
111 1929 there were the following cafeterias in operation in the
public schools of Raleigh : Hugh Morsoii, Broughton, Miirphey,
Wiley, Lems, Centennial, Thompson, Eliza Pool, Barbee, Boy-
Ian Heights, Hayes-Barton, Fred A. Olds, Washington, Crosby-
Garfield, and Lucille Hunter. With the exception of Centennial,
Avliose last school year was ended with the term of 1930-31, all
of these are active today, but under greatly improved conditions
and on a much larger scale. The cafeterias met situations very
nicely then, but many were operating within a single room, with
not even a partition between the kitchen and the dining room.
All food was prepared and served in the one room. Oil stoves
were in frequent use. Broughton had the only electric refriger-
ation in the schools, and it was being paid for at the time on
7S Historical Sketches of the
There have been coHstant changes within the cafeterias to
meet the times and needs. Cafeterias in those days were not con-
sidered essential, and there was no tie-up between them and the
health program of the school. Ealeigh has never had any rule
prohibiting students leaving the school grounds for lunch, and
the progress shown by the cafeterias is due to their selling them-
selves in the program of the schools.
Until 1940 the Boylaii Heights cafeteria was a makeshift
proposition. There was no space for a cafeteria in the building,
yet there Avas a demand for same. For years the back of the
auditorium Avas used for serving food prepared in a private home
and brought to school, where it was kept hot for serving by an
oil stove. The only other stationary equipment was a sink added
some time later. At this time the manager was paid a salary
from the cafeteria funds ; then it was put under similar private
management. Since this was not an attractive proposition, in
1933 the cafeteria was brought back into the organized cafeteria
system, but with the limited facilities existing right on.
When it was decided that Boylan Heights was to be enlarged,
adding a number of classrooms and a cafeteria, it was with great
delight there we could plan same. Ample space was allowed,
providing proper lighting, ventilation, and modern ecjuipment.
The cafeteria was equipped with an electric institutional range,
an electric steam table, an exhaust hot water heater, and refrig-
erator. With proper soiled-and-clean dish units and work count-
ers, serving Avas improved. In the year of 1932 the sales of the
school in the make-shift cafeteria amounted to $500.83, and for
the school year 19-1:1-42 they were $2,167.41.
In 1936-38, following the Crosby-Garfield fire, there was no
cafeteria in the school. In the fall of 1938 with the construction
of the new building, that elementary school found itself with a
modernly equipped cafeteria. It was even better equipped than
the Boylan Heights School just mentioned, for here Ave find
tables and chairs, replacing the old enamel-top tables and
benches. Three schools noAV have them : Hugh Morson, Brough-
ton, and Crosby-Garfield. In Hugh Morson alone the cost of
these tAvo items Avas $1,300.
The increase in sales each year shows the groAvth and popu-
larity of the school cafeterias. The school year showing the low-
est receipts AA^as 1932-33. In 1929 they were $45,721.97. They
shoAved a doAvinvard trend in the depression years until 1932,
then they increased each year until the 1941-42 nCAV high Avas
Ealeigh Pcblic Schools 7.9
reached at $69,059.32. Of tlie total receipts for these years from
1929-42 ($544,359.04), $377,018.04 has been spent in food, $26,-
333.65 for eqnipnient and repair, and the remaining for salaries
of all workers, for telephone, laundry, fuel, soda straws, napkins,
cleaning supplies, auditing, bond premiums, medical fees, and
many miscellaneous items for operation.
Let us consider each school for improvements within the
cafeterias : At Broughton we find a complete new serving counter
with stainless steel top and insets, the first counter being bought
second hand and not in keeping with the new, modern building.
Other items of equipment which have been added are electric
water fountain, pastry stove with a double oven, deep fat fryer,
large mixing machine, potato peeler, large beverage cooler, elec-
tric dish washer and tables and chairs.
At Hugh Morson, where most banquets and groups gather, we
have an attractive display of china. This is not the usual school
cafeteria ware of all Avhite or green band, but cream with brick-
colored figure. The service is set up for five hundred. Here also
we find an electric water cooler, beverage cooler, large refrig-
erator, electric mixer, potato peeler, exhaust fan, and tables and
Hayes-Barton boasts of a dish room equipped with an electric
dish washer and a double compartment sink. The steam table
has been enlarged, a potato peeler, mixer, refrigerator and a new
large institutional stove added.
In 1929 Murphey Avas one of the schools cooking and serving
in the same room. The first move was to separate the kitchen
from the dining room, as we had ample room to do this. The
most recent work done at Murphey is to make a double dining
room and to construct a dish room. The dish room is likewise
equipped with an electric Avasher and soiled-and-clean dish units
and sinks. The floor of the cafeteria is of asphalt tile. Here we
find also tAvo electric Avater fountains, one in each dining room ;
a potato peeler, refrigerator, large mixer, a neAv gas stove Avith
an additional three-burner gas hot plate.
Barbee has been in its ncAv cafeteria quarters for tAvo years.
It moved from its one-room set-up to the basement. Here Ave
have adequate facilities on the north side of the building Avith
plenty of AvindoAvs. An electric refrigerator and vegetable sink
haA-e been bought for that school.
Thompson has been equipped Avith a new stove, refrigerator,
electric mixer, and A'egetable sink.
so Historical Sketches of the
Lewis, which operates on a small scale, has received a new
stove and refrigerator.
Wiley has received considerable attention. The dining room
has been greatly enlarged, and also storage facilities. The serv-
ing counter has been improved, and a noAv stove, refrigerator,
mixer and sink installed.
Fred A. Olds has likewise groAvn from one room to basement
quarters. AVhen that Avas done ncAv equipment, such as an electric
steam table, exhaust fan, and electric water cooler, were added
to the former equipment.
At Washington Ave observe an institutional electric range and
electric steam table and refrigerator, AA'hile at Lucille Hunter
there are an electric stove and refrigerator and enlarged soiled-
and-clean dish units.
There are dozens of other things that all cafeterias are en-
joying in common. Bright, shiny trays haA'e replaced all alumi-
num ones hard to clean. Oil paintings done by local artists deco-
rate the Avails, and Qxen an adding machine, files, and a type-
Avriter have been added to office equipment.
A story of the cafeterias would not be complete Avithout a
Avord concerning the interest shoAvn in Avelfare lunches to the
underprivileged group. Each year this group has been consid-
ered and has been fed by contributions from parent-teacher or-
ganizations, cafeteria funds, the Barbee Fund, WPA, FERx\,
American Legion, Tar Heel Club, and possible other club con-
tributions not accounted for, Sunday school classes, and the
Family Service of the Community Chest. The greatest expendi-
ture for lunches Avas in 1934-35 Avhen the FERA financed $5,-
700.57 for school lunches. The largest supporter noAv of Avelfare
lunches is the Family Service. The amount received this year
from that source Avas $2,652.80.
We are proud of the groAvth of the cafeterias in the schools,
and realize that they are essential in the educational program.
It is a Avaste of the taxpayer's money to try to teach a hungry
child. Lunches brought from home seldom meet the needs of the
growing boy and girl. The cafeterias aim to establish good health
habits that Avill go Avith them through life.
Raleigh Public Schools 81
HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMEXT, HUGH MORSON"
By Mary Penny, Instructor
The objectives of home economics in the Hugh Morson School
are to help the individual student to grow into a healthy, happy
and useful individual, and to develop the skills, appreciations,
and managerial abilities necessary to the making of satisfying,
constructive homes. Specifically, the year 1941-42 has focussed
sharp attention on the necessity of health and conservation ;
therefore adequate diet, one hundred per cent health, and con-
servation of resources, have been the theme of home economics
for the year.
During the year homemaking was taught from the eighth
through the twelfth grades. Required of all girls in the first year
of high school, home economics classes met twice weekly and
gave pupils brief units on food preparation ; clothing, through
the making of a simple garment ; the girls' bedroom, personal
grooming, and personal and social development. Ninth grade
work consisted of home nursing and child care ; personal appear-
ance; selection and construction of pajamas, housecoat, or simple
dress ; planning, preparation, and serving of luncheons or sup-
pers ; knitting and crocheting; social customs; conservation of
clothing, and marketing. Tenth grade units furthered clothing
construction and selection, with selection and construction of
any garment that the pupil was prepared to make. Other units
consisted of conservation of clothing and household equipment ;
meal planning and nutrition; buying, planning, preparation, and
serving of dinners; etiquette; personality; housing and interior
decoration, and general health.
Pupils in the 11th and 12th grades found it possible to elect
(1) a course in "Social Culture," the study of social custom,
including units on budgeting, first aid, marriage, housing, voca-
tions, boy-girl relationships, family relationships, etc., depend-
ing on the interests of the group; or (2) a general home eco-
nomics for advanced students who had had no home economics
before, units depending, again, on the interests of the student.
Units materialized into the buying, preparation, and serving of
meals, care of the kitchen, nutrition, manners, vocations, safety
in the home, child care, grooming, and general health.
In addition to regular classroom and extra-curricular activi-
ties, the vocational teacher, responsible for 102 of the 275 pupils,
Historical Sketches of the
supervised at least two home projects per pupil, and made over
100 visits to their homes to check on projects and to study
student problems that might be solved as project work. During
1941-42, 32 projects were completed on home improvement; 26
on provision of food for the family; 56 on construction and care
of clothing; five, care and guidance of children; 39, health;
eight, home management; three, consumer buying; six, family
and social relationships ; 44, personal problems, totaling over
210 projects in addition to home practice work.
In addition to this, school teas, exhibits, class parties, etc.,
were sponsored by the teachers of the department. Further com-
munity work was prohibited by extensive duties in class and
extra-curricular work, and guidance of the individual pupil who
sought help after school hours on his personal problems.
The department is supported by fees of $1 per year per pupil
to cover food and running expenses, and this sum is supple-
mented by donations from the school board sufficient for essen-
tial equipment. Physical equipment supplies two clothing labora-
tories and fitting rooms, two food laboratories, and reception
and dining room.
COMMERCIAL DEPAETMENT, HUGH MORSOX
By J. J. HoRNBACK, Instructor
Freshman — Junior Business Training 1 and 2.
Sophomore — Bookkeeping 1 and 2 ; Typewriting 1 and 2.
Junior — Bookkeeping 3 and 4; Typewriting 3 and 4; Short-
hand 1 and 2.
Senior — Secretarial Training 1 and 2 ; Shorthand 3 and 4.
The purpose of the commercial department is to qualify sti;-
dents in the necessary office knowledge and skills to make them
self-sufficient economically and an asset socially and industrially.
IMPROVEMENTS IX THE ELIZA POOL LIBRARY
FROM SEPTEMBER, 1936 TO MAY, 1942
By Mildred C. Herring, Librarian
During the past six years many changes have taken place in
the Eliza Pool Library located at Hugh Morson High School.
The book stock has increased from 2,721 to 4,038 ; magazine
subscriptions from 14 to 35 ; circulation of books from 6,720 to
Raleigh Public Schools S3
15,504. An extra room has been added to tlie library space and
is known as the reference room. At the back of this room a small
work room has been cut off by using double-faced shelving and
a gate which may be locked. The reference room has been fur-
nished Avith six tables, 36 chairs, bulletin board, and low shelv-
ing underneath the bulletin board.
In the main reading room new low shelving, magazine shelv-
ing, newspaper racks, and tAVo bulletin boards with shelving
underneath one of them have been built by Mr. Clifford Brei-
thaupt and Mr. Farmer Smith, teachers in the Industrial xA.rts
The equipment purchased for the library during this period
includes the following: One typewriter (Royal) ; desk and chair
for librarian; 25 chairs for main reading room; 36 chairs and
six tables for reference room ; one high chair for main charging
desk in main reading room; one 30-drawer card catalog; one
six-drawer catalog ; one typewriter table ; Venetian blinds for
entire library, and one stool with rollers.
Mrs. J. M. Barbee has been very generous with her contribu-
tions to the library. These have consisted of $25 for books;
money for framing six pictures; a framed picture of the State
of JSTorth Carolina Capitol, and one flower stand.
The P.T.A. of the Hugh iSorson High School has contributed
brass andirons for the library fireplace, and for the year 1941-42
$37.50 for the subscription for Junior Literary Guild books —
one book for older boys and one for older girls.
SUPERYISI^^G AN INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAM
By Farmer S. Smith, Jr.*
In Hugh Morson High School our Industrial Arts is made
up of printing, woodwork and mechanical drawing.
A summary of the objectives of our department are:
1. To develop in each pupil an active interest in industrial
life and in the methods of production and distribution.
2. To develop in each pupil the ability to select wisely, care
for, and use properly the things he buys or uses.
3. To develop in each pupil an appreciation of good workman-
ship and good design.
* Hugh Morsou High School. ' ■
SJ/. Historical Sketches of the
4. To develop in each pupil an attitude of pride or interest in
liis ability to do useful things.
5. To develop in each pupil a feeling of self-reliance and con-
fidence in his ability to deal with people and to care for himself
in an unusual or unfamiliar situation.
6. To develop in each pupil the habit of an orderly method of
procedure in the performance of any task.
7. To develop in each pupil the habit of self-discipline Avhich
requires one to do a thing when it should be done, whether it is
a pleasant task or not.
8. To develop in each pupil the habit of careful work without
loitering or wasting time (industry).
9. To develop in each pupil an attitude of readiness to assist
others when they need help and to join in group undertakings
10. To develop in each pupil a thoughtful attitude in the mat-
ter of making things easy and pleasant for others.
11. To develop in each pupil a knowledge and understanding
of mechanical draAving, the interpretation of the conventions
in drawings and working diagrams, and the ability to express
by means of a drawing.
12. To develop in each pupil elementary skills in the use of
the more common tools and machines in modifying and handling
materials, and an understanding of some of the more common
In the eighth grade, classes only meet twice a week in the shop.
During this time we try to teach each boy to coordinate mind
and hands by bringing in various other related subjects such as
mathematics, science, English, physical education, etc., which
deal with his particular project.
In our department we believe in and have a large amount of
student participation. To enable the instructor to give each indi-
vidual student more of his time, we have organized a personnel
organization. This system involves reelection each month of
members of the class. The class takes one period each month to
do this. The superintendent is nominated and elected. The rest
of the personnel is then elected in order. Upon completion of
the election, the various foremen choose their respective helpers.
The first one chosen by each foreman is the first assistant and
takes the foreman's place Avhen he is absent. No student is al-
loAved to serve two months in a roAV on the same group. By using
this system of rotation, each student has a chance to become
Raleigh PrBUC Schools 85
better acquainted witli the various departments of the shop. In
other words, if a student serves in the machine room one month,
he cannot go back there the following month, but must go to the
tool room or some other department. Each foreman has about
six or seven members to help him, depending upon the size of the
class. To give the various superintendents and foremen a sense
of responsibility, we have a grading chart for the personnel
organization. The foreman grades his helpers "S" for satisfac-
tory, "U" for unsatisfactory. The superintendent in turn grades
each foreman on the job as a whole. By organizing in this man-
ner, it takes only five minutes to do all the cleaning and replac-
ing of tools for the next class.
The students are very cooperative and look forward to their
elections each month. They realize that they may be a superin-
tendent or a foreman the following month and will want the
cooperation of all members. Another great advantage of this
organization is that the instructor has more time to help the
students that need it, and the students also learn how to care
for equipment and tools as well as cooperating with one another
working toward a common goal. By using the shop personnel
system, the instructor may devote his entire time to teaching
and not to routine duties. IvTot only does this help the instructor,
but the students themselves learn to cooperate, care for tools and
other shop equipment, check supplies, figure lumber cost, grease,
clean and repair tools, and learn how to plan a job by themselves.
The students discuss various projects which may be made, and
projects that the students are interested in making, and projects
that can be used in and around the home. When each student
decides upon a particular one he is then ready to work out his
project card. The purpose of the project is to teach planning in
a systematic, orderly fashion.
In our shop we have a library' of shop books, project sheets,
reference books, etc., which the students may check out through
the record supply clerk and use for reference or new project
ideas. Each student is encouraged to keep a notebook of future
projects which he would like to make. The students are taken
on trips to furniture stores, lumber mills, and industrial wood-
work and machine shops.
One period in every four is given over to related study. In
this period the students discuss various problems encountered,
the best ways in which to deal with them. Reports are given on
86 Historical Sketches of the
the different phases of lumbering, dealing with processes from
the forest to the home.
In the advanced shop Avork, the same routine and personnel
system is used except, of course, more in detail. Quality of work-
manship is stressed. For instance, instead of a rough sketch, we
require a scale drawing. Machine woodwork is also taught in the
A XEW COURSE : SOCIAL CULTLTRE
By Helen W. Larabee, Instructor
The genesis of a new high school subject known as Social Cul-
ture in the Hugh Morson High School was simple.
A general survey of the student body unexpectedly revealed
a desire by numbers of the students for something wholly unique
and different from any other subject in the curriculum, a regular
high school course for both sexes in which the problems for
social behavior, every-day etiquette and modern gregarious liv-
ing could be studied — for credit.
It was a thrilling cliallenge, and the possibilities seemed un-
limited. What would the school authorities do about it ? Prin-
cipal G. H. Arnold set out at once to meet that challenge. At the
beginning of the fall term students were given the privilege of
enrolling in a brand new course with the intriguing title of Social
The results Avere gratifying from the start. A group of rather
mature boys and girls with explorati^'e minds began working a
A'irgin field. Student interest Avas evidenced by the spontaneity
Avith Avhich objectives for the course AA^ere outlined, and the suit-
ability of a text and numerous reference books Avas discussed. In
order to facilitate this textual exploration, books Avere borroAA-ed
from the school library and numerous reference materials from
the Home Economics Department AA-ere thoroughly scanned.
The book finally chosen as a text was Behave Yourself.^ Why
this book ? Because it Avas so obA'iously Avritten for the modern
teinjjo of American youth. It skillfully and graphically depicts
the proper procedure of a high school student and the path he
should folloAV, from the strenuous ordeal of Avaking in the morn-
ing, to the whispered "Good night" at the door, folloAving the
* Allen and Bkiggs, Behace Yourself. ,1. B. Lippiiicott Company.
New York. 1037.
Ealeigh Public Schools 81
junior-senior prom. Furthermore, it offers very helpful advice
on such troublesome matters as letter writing, what to do when
traveling, proper conversation, entertainment, introductions,
public appearances and other topics.
Units set up for primary consideration, suggested by the stu-
dents themselves, were "Hospitality in the Home," "Everyday
Manners and Customs," and "Courtesies of the Day." Later,
such topics as character, personality development, the art of ef-
■fective grooming, proper dress on all occasions, family living,
courtship, marriage, personal hygiene and other similar subjects
were discussed frankly and honestly by teacher and students. To
vary the program, several outside speakers appeared before the
class and made contributions on topics for interest to the edifica-
tion and delight of the group.
During the study of the first few units, naturally enough, the
students began to cast a very critical eye at the conduct of their
fellow classmates and of the entire student body. This led to a
desire to effectuate a change in the general deportment of those
about them. To this end, a set of practical, workable rules for
behavior on the school grounds, in the halls, auditorium, and
classrooms was devised.
To provide a medium for securing a general student interest
in this personal improvement, a question box was placed in the
hall and questions were solicited bearing on vexatious school
problems of conduct and manners. These questions were then
answered by the class in accordance with the list of prescribed
rules and returned to the originators.
Then followed quite an ambitious undertaking. Questionnaires
were sent to 294 upper classmen on problems of social conduct.
Girls were interrogated as to what were the little annoying, bore-
some things they disliked most in boys and also what were the
characteristics they admired most in the opposite sex. Boys were
in turn questioned in like manner. The findings were indeed
The girls stated that their most violent dislike were boys who
smelled strongly of tobacco smoke, who were boorish and un-
couth in manner and careless in the matter of dress and care
of the body. They very definitely objected to a fellow who was
always giving a girl the "rush" and then passing on to other
interests. They deplored dishonesty, sissiness and dirty finger-
nails. Most of the girls expressed a distaste for the boy who was
rough in his treatment of them.
88 Historical Sketches of the
On the other hand, the type of boy who was held in most
favor was the one who had good manners and high ideals. Best-
liked types of individuals were those who were dependable, sin-
cere, neat in dress and personal appearance, good mixers, socia-
ble and friendly in spirit.
The boys indicated by their replies that they disliked girls who
used too much make-up, who were conceited, incessant smokers,
fickle, loud and boisterous, those who wore flashy clothes, affected
long fingernails and bright red fingernail polish, and, last but
not least, had the habit of public primping.
By their replies the boys evidently liked the girls who had a
good disposition, who were attractive, honest, sincere, truthful,
who were good sports, had good common sense and were not con-
stant fault finders. Their ideal girl should be domestic, tidy in
person and dress and should have a good character.
Thus these homemakers of tomorrow delineated in all sin-
cerity just the traits and characteristics we oldsters like to see
in our fellowmen. Such preferences among these selfsame stu-
dents will most likely serve as determining factors to them in
later life. The crux of the matter is the clear thinking which
originated within the group itself.
Several of the students have voluntarily expressed an appre-
ciation for the precedents set up by the class. Others have shown
a visible improvement in school citizenship which is most grati-
fying. It has been a joy to take part in this fostering of the
principles of right thinking and acting in these embryonic citi-
zens. An innate satisfaction has resulted from the realization
that some small part has been played in a definite advancement
toAvard what is known as social culture.
SOME QUESTIOXS ABOUT THE DIVERSIFIED OCCU-
PATIOXS PROGRAM AT^^D THEIR PROPER
Bi/ C. C. Breithaupt, Coordinator *
1. AVhat is "Diversified Occupations" I
Ans. Diversified occupations is a type of part-time vocational
2. \yhat is the plan of training?
Ans. Two parties cooperate in giving the training —
Hush :M()rsoii Hisiih School.
Raleigh Public Schools S9
(1) Some local business that will furnish part-time em-
ployment and thereby offer training in doing the
(2) The high school, through the coordinator, furnishes
the study materials that go along with that job.
3. Who is eligible to become a member of the class?
Ans. (1) High-school students, 16 years of age or older, in
the 11th and 12th grades who have chosen a suit-
able occupation and who may be doubtful about
going to college. Some students attending college
may benefit from this training.
(2) Graduates of high school.
4. What is a suitable occupation?
Ans. A suitable occupation is one that is:
a. Represented locally.
b. Suited to the apprenticeship type of training.
c. Able to give all-around training.
d. Complex enough to take one school year, at least, to
e. Offer opportunities of employment at the end of
5. How can a student get in the program or class?
Ans. a. Choose an occupation.
b. File an application with the coordinator.
c. Arrange for an interview with the coordinator.
d. Coordinator surveys city for a training station.
e. When suitable training station is found the student
is sent to interview^ the employer.
f. If the employer finds the student to be satisfactory
for his business and is walling to cooperate by fur-
nishing part-time employment, the student is al-
lowed to schedule his classes.
Notice that student is not allowed to enter class before
part-time employment is found.
6. What is the schedule of a student in the Diversified Occupa-
Ans. (1) Morning:
a. One required subject — English.
b. Two subjects related to the student's occupation.
One of these may be taught by a teacher other
than the coordinator if in the opinion of co-
00 Historical Sketches of the
ordinator that teacher is better qualified to
give the instruction.
(2) Afternoon :
a. A minimum of three hours' -work at training
(3) Prefer to arrange for afternoon work on the job.
School work the first, second, and fourth period —
lunch the fifth period — job beginning from 1 :30 to
2, working until 5 or 6 o'clock.
7. When may a student begin training?
Ans. l^ew students Avill be accepted from present time to the
close of school. No change in students' schedule next
fall. Enrollment will be known by close of school and
the list of students placed with the training agency will
be announced. Xo student will be accepted for less than
a year's program.
8. What credit Avill be given for this work?
Ans. Upon successful completion of a full year's work the
student will receive four units of high school credit.
English 1 unit
For one relate^d subject 1 unit
For other related subject 1 unit
For work at job (training
station) 1 unit
These units will be accepted for graduation — not col-
9. Does student receive pay for work?
Ans. Student must receive pay for Avork on job.
10. Is student entitled to Social Security card and compensation
Ans. Yes, entitled to both. Also must have work permit if
under IS years. Eeceived at County Welfare Depart-
ment fold Eex Hospital).
11. If students are behind in their grades as subjects are con-
cerned will this effect their placement ?
Ans. Yes, it very likely will give them too heavy a schedule.
12. What wages are paid students?
Ans. From 10 to 20 cents per hour, depending upon other
13. Must students work three consecutive hours daily?
Raleigh Public Schools 91
14. Wliat is average number of hours worked by students at
Ans. Twenty-two hours per week.
15. Ti/pical Schedule for a Machinist:
English .-- 1 period
Machine Drawing 1 period
Theory — Machine Shop .... 1 period
Job 3 hours
English - 1 period
Architectural Drafting 1 period
Theory — Arch. Design 1 period
Job 3 hours
DAT^ K. STEWART
Dan K. SteAvart, a most earnest man, was one of Raleigh's
first industrial teachers. During Srygley's administration he
conducted classes of men in the industrial trades, men anxious
to improve. At the close of one of his interesting night class ses-
sions, gatherings were held in the cafeteria of Hugh Morson
High School. The members, old and young, joyfully related what
they had gained from their study. Stewart's keen sense of under-
standing and tact brought light and safety to many. His sym-
pathy for the erring boy helped to solve many a school problem.
GUIDANCE THROUGH THE TEACHING OF HIGH
By Mary Oliver Ellington *
Our youth of today needs guidance if we are to believe nine
tenths of what the current educational books and magazine
articles say. Teachers are now employed by many superintend-
ents on the basis of their skill in guidance, and innumerable
schools are revolutionizing their curricula so that they may rest
more firmly on the foundation stones of the principles of guid-
ance. Books and articles on guidance are flooding the market,
* Xeeclham Brcugbton High School. Taken from Norih Carolina
Education. March, 1941.
92 Historical Sketches of the
and a wonderful terminology is growing up to embellish the
ideas set forth. Let us hope that guidance will not lose any of
its sterling qualities and fundamental principles because of this
publicity, and that classroom teachers will not become hardened
to it, or so wrapped up in the techniques of handling it that they
lose the zest for it or the spontaneity of dealing Avith it.
Seriously, the classroom teacher has a real mission to perform.
Grave responsibility rests squarely upon his or her shoulders,
for by coming in closer contact Avith boys and girls than any-
one else in the educational system, he has greater opportunities
for guidance. He cannot be just a dispenser of subject-matter,
but must be a guide, a philosopher, and a friend. It is his duty,
as Arthur J. Jones states it, "to assist the individual to make
wise choices, adjustments, and interpretations in connection Avith
critical situations in his life." The biology teacher, because of
the nature of the subject-matter he teaches and because he knoAvs
the problems of adolescent boys and girls probably better than
any other teacher, has the opportunity to assist these boys and
girls make Avise choices, become adjusted to a A'ariety of situa-
tions, and interpret the meaning lying beneath th(^ surface of
What Questions Connote
When I first started teaching biology a question from a child
concerning some interest in his or some phase of his life Avas
simply a question and nothing more. I ansAvered it or failed
to ansAver it blissfully unaAvare that this might be the focal point
of a problem Avhicli might change the course of that child's life.
Questions are still coming in and, sometimes as I ansAver them,
I Avonder Avhat possibly prompted that question or Avhat problem
rested in that pupil; but usually I just ansAver the best I can
and then Avait till I've gone to bed to Avonder AA'hether I liaA-e,
by ansAvering the question, guided the pupil in the right direc-
Opportunities for guidance arise so unexpectedly and from
so many places. These, like poverty, Ave haA^e ahvays with us and
I doubt if anyone, regardless of hoAv specialized he is in this
field, can tell just AAdien he's struck the nail on the head, and so
Ave must grasp all opportunities, Avhether seemingly insignificant
or not, for directing the thoughts and footsteps of the boys and
girls Avho suffer themselves to come under our o'uidance.
Raleigh Public Schools 93
Questions present the best starting point for guidance, and
Avho more than the biology teacher is bombarded with questions ?
Guidance requires curiosity and motion, and the person to be
guided must be searching for something, going somewhere, reach-
ing toward some goal. It is up to us to direct him. If we get in
his way, we handicap him ; but if we help him find his way more
surely, we gain his confidence and friendship.
Biology presents a particularly rich field for guidance because
it has within its scope subject-matter which is of vital and last-
ing interest, and activities which are stimulating and worth-
while. This subject catches boys and girls at the time when they
are questioning the facts of life. It gives them the answers to
many of their questions and touches their lives at innumerable
points. Biology is a subject that high school students like. I
know that this is a broad statement but one that I feel is essen-
tially true, and if it isn't true the fault lies in the teacher and
not ill the subject.
Cause for I>:tekest
What young person isn't fascinated by watching for the first
time an amoeba move in its irregular streaming way across the
field of a microscope ; or the mad scramble of paramecia con-
gregated around a toothsome bit of decaying plant life; or a
starfish gliding smoothly up the sides of an acquarium; or a
crayfish hopping and jumping backward away from another
crayfish? What young person isn't astounded when he studies
the human body and finds that his personality and his disposi-
tion depend largely upon the balance the secretions from the
ductless glands achieve in his body ; or actually feels the increase
in pulse rate after exercising vigorously a minute or two; or
charts for the first time the course that a hookworm might, if
given a chance, take through his body. Find one who isn't inter-
ested in comparing the many different forms of seeds and seed
cases, and learning about their adaptation for dispersal; or in
watching the growth and coloring of bacteria colonies in a petri-
dish across which he has brushed his finger tips or let a fly walk.
Show me one whose eyes don't grow larger with interest when
he first hears abovit the laws of heredity and begins to trace back
in his OAvn family certain characteristic traits.
Biology is interesting not only because of the "subject-matter
involved, but also because of the many and varied activities con-
nected Avith it. There's no end to the things they can actually
9-k- - Historical Sketches of the
do. They adore getting their hands on a microscope and looking
at any and everything they can find. They really like to dissect
even though they may anticipate the operation on the earth-
worm with misgiA-ing. They take great pride in building an
acquarium and getting it so well balanced that it remains clear
and fresh. They like to dig and plant and tend flowers, especially
if they have, as we do, a greenhouse in which to Avork, and they
go after the insects which threaten their plants with real ven-
geance. They beam with delight Avhen their collections of shells,
leaves, wild flowers, or insects are ready for displaying. This
working with things, most of which are living, satisfies some-
thing vital within the-m. These things are real to them and these
activities do not stop with the time in class, but are carried over
into out-of -school hours.
Many Probleais for Adolescents
Biology presents a rich field for guidance because the boys
and girls wlio take it are in a receptive stage of their lives. They
are brimming over with life and curiosity and they are just at
the right age to devour any subject which deals with life in
general and themselves in particular. They are ready to m.ake
comparisons between themselves and other living things and
many of them find answers to problems which have long trou-
bled them by studying the development of living organisms and
their relationship one Avith another. All these things contribute
to a saner and happier outlook on life.
Adolescent boys and girls are confronted Avith many problems.
There are educational hurdles, social adjustments, health prob-
lems, moral perplexities, vocational questions, recreational
choices, and citizenship responsibilities to be met. Biology by
the A'cry nature of its subject-matter and the interest Avhich it
stimulates helps a student to set up objectiA'es Avhich are for him
important, reasonable, and AvorthAA'hile ; and helps him to attain
these objectives. The things AA^hich are taught today should be
useful, and the things which are taught in biology are useful —
those AA'hich aren't should be Avecded out. There is a mass of
facts to be looked into and assimilated, and it is up to the
teacher to shoAv the student hoAv these facts can be put to use.
In the biology class the student begins to grasp the scientific
attitude tOAvard tested truth and he gains specific knowledge of
scientific facts. This knoAvledge is not catalogued in his brain
as just science and left there, but the attitudes and knoAA'ledge
Raleigh Public Schools 95
which he gains can be carried over into any of his other learn-
ing. A few weeks ago I made out a questionnaire and gave it
to juniors and seniors in our school who had already completed
their work in biology. One of the questions was, "Has biology
helped you in any of your other subjects, and if so, in which
ones ?" These were some of the subjects listed : chemistry, physics,
home economics, sociology, English, general science and public
Another question was, "Are you more interested in the things
you read in current newspapers, books, and magazines of a bio-
logical nature than you were before taking the course?"
Two hundred fourteen out of the 272 who answered this ques-
tion said that they are. Many of them said that biology helped
them to think through problems, and still others said that it
had made them value neatness and accuracy in their work more
than they had before. Surely these things will help them with
any of the educational hazards which they may encounter.
Working With Others
A young person strives at all times to become socially ad-
justed and during his teen age he is particularly anxious to fit
in Avell as a member of the group. The biology course offers him
through committee and group work a chance to learn how to
work well with others. It helps him also to understand himself
and other people better. According to the questionnaire 209 out
of 268 were more open-minded concerning things and people
than they were before studying biology. This open-mindedness
will help them greatly in their dealing Avitli other people. One
hundred eighty-two of them said that biology had helped to
furnish them with topics of conversation. If this is true then
one of the social hurdles is taken care of at least in part.
To adolescents health is a very real problem and biology is
a veritable godsend to them. This is the time when their bodies.
are changing from childhood into young womanhood or man-
hood. They don't know just Avhat is taking place, but they know
they don't feel like they used to or even feel about other things
and people like they used to. JSTo one seems really to understand
them, and to tell the truth they don't understand themselves. In
the study of the human body in biology they learn something
of the complicated changes which are taking place. If the
teacher can handle it properly they get a saner outlook on the
96 Historical Sketches of the
problems of sex, and tlieir attitude for probably tbe rest of their
life is determined here by proper guidance. At tbis time also
they are confronted with complexion difficulties, and even though
these may seem trivial enough later on, to a growing boy or girl
just starting out in the social Avorld pimples and blackheads are
a really vital issue. Biology offers them a solution because they
find from studying the skin and its care, the excretory system
and the importance of the proper elimination of wastes, and the
value of a balanced diet that these complexion problems are not
hopeless ditficulties. Some of them are too skinny or too fat and
begin to develop complexes because they are ashamed of the way
they look in a bathing suit or an evening dress. These diihculties
become surmountable when they learn what proper diet can do
for them and also how the ductless glands, especially the thyroid,
affect their figures. Their study of the body with emphasis on
posture, and the care of the hair and eyes and teeth gives them
really important information which they are only too glad to
use. No other subject can possibly strike so close home to them
at this time.
YOCATIOXAL (tUIDAXCE HeLPS
Biology presents a Avonderful field for vocational guidance.
So many things of interest are presented in a biology course
that many of them start working toward a vocation which af-
fords them pleasure as well as a livelihood. In the questionnaire
which I have mentioned before these were some of tlie vocations
chosen by students who said that biology had hel})ed them in
making a choice : laboratory technician Avork, medicine, surgery,
school-teaching, home demonstration work, dietetics, archeology,
nursing, church work, social work, civil engineering, floriculture,
and scientific research. Of course I don't know how many of
them will continue to be interested in these choices five years
from now but they have them in their minds at present. One
boy stopped me in the hall the other day and asked what we
were doing in biology. I told him that Ave were getting ready
to dissect a frog. He startled me by saying, "You know, the frog
Avas the turning point in my life. I decided then and there I
Avanted to be a surgeon and I'm going to Duke next year to
start my Avork." They can see a definite tie-up betAveen biology
and vocations and their study opens up so many possibilities of
Avliich they had not been aAvare before.
Raleigh Public Schools 97
Leisure Time Helps
N"ot only does biology help them with a choice of vocations
but it helps them fill their leisure time with pleasant and profit-
able activities. So many in_teresting things grow out of a biology
course which can be carried over to out-of-school time. These are
some of the activities that the boys and girls said they worked
on in their leisure time as a result of their biology course : plant-
ing and tending flowers and vegetables ; dissecting frogs, fish,
cats and rabbits ; mounting small animals and skinning snakes ;
starting collections of neAv things and adding to the collections
started in class; making terraria acquaria ; keeping bees; fight-
ing Japanese beetles; Avorking with a microscope; working on
nature merit badges in scouting ; drawing flowers in their natu-
ral habitats ; taking pictures of plants and animals ; building
bird houses and feeding stations for birds, and caring for do-
mestic animals. Leisure time is not so much time on a young
person's hands if his interest in nature has been stimulated by
a good course in biology.
Youth needs guidance from a moral point of view. Some peo-
ple may not think that science helps here but I believe truly that
it does. Any subject Avhich inspires them to respect truth has gone
a long way toward straightening out moral perplexities. Also
any subject which points out the orderliness of our universe has
laid a foundation stone in the moral attitude of an individual.
According to the questionnaire 230 students out of 258 said that
biology had helped them to see that this world (or nature) is
orderly and dependable. One of my students worded it thus :
''Biology has helped me to see that there must be an infinite
intelligence behind the universe."
Biology also makes better citizens of the youth of our country,
because it helps them become better adjusted physically, morally,
mentally, and socially. They are more open-minded and alert
toward civic problems. They are brought face to face with the
problems of community health and learn certain fundamentals
concerning sanitation Avhich will be carried over into their adult
life. In the questionnaire Avhich I gave out 82 per cent said that
they were more open-minded concerning the importance of vac-
cinations, serums, and tests for susceptibility of disease. Four
fifths said that they understood better the importance of eradi-
98 Historical Sketches of the
eating social diseases ; 242 out of 265 said that they had a more
sympathetic feeling toward people of lower mentality and toAvard
those suffering with mental diseases. Not only will they be better
citizens from a health point of view, but their attitude toward
the conservation of our natural resources will be improved.
Three fourths of them said that because of their study of biology
they are now more conscious of their responsibility in conserv-
ing the natural resources of their country; that they have more
respect for game laws, and that when they have the opportunity
they cooperate in the conservation and restoration of wild life.
The high school biology course then seems to be a panacea
for the problems of youth. Fundamentally I feel that its teach-
ings are sound, and a biology teacher if he is genuinely inter-
ested in the individual boys and girls, is sympathetic, patient,
enthusiastic, and imaginative, has almost unlimited possibilities
for helping the boys and girls in his classes make wise choices,
adjustments, and interpretations, and therefore guiding them
into happy, well-balanced, and useful ways of life.
MUSIC IX JUNIOR HIGH AKD NEEDHAM BROUGH-
TOX HIGH SCHOOLS
Bi/ Annie ScARBORoron Lawrence *
To be asked to write a chronological record of the steps in the
development of musical training in the Junior High and Xeed-
ham Broughton High schools would challenge the talents of the
skilled writer, Avith both time and data at his disposal. This
brief sketch is not submitted as being in any way such a record,
but only as a recording of the highliglits in that training, by one
who was privileged to have a teacher's part from September,
1923, the date of the establishment of the Junior High School,
to May, 1938, Avhen the seventh grade groups were transferred
to the elementary school buildings.
Outstanding during these years for their contributions to the
important work of giving our teen age boys and girls fuller
appreciation and love of good music were W. A. Potter, Mar-
garet Highsmith Brown, Mabel Kenyon Davis, and James
Gerow. Xone of them are Avith us today, but their Avork is being
ably carried on by the gifted Dr. Frederick Stanley Smith. These
Needbam B. Broiiahton Hiijh School.
Raleigh Public Schools 99
men and women, with the warm support of principals and the
cooperation of classroom teachers, have had a large part in
making Raleigh the music-loving city that it is today.
Under such supervision what invaluable opportunities have
been offered our high school children to experience the lasting
joys of music ! Twice-a-Aveek lesson periods where the funda-
mentals of music Avere taught and drilled, of course, but where
there was time too for singing, just for the love of it; music
appreciation hours when the works of the masters, heard through
recordings, became a part of the listener's heritage ; try-out
periods for glee club memberships, open to all students (and
how many boys and girls had their voices "discovered" by the
director) ; chapel ''songs," with everyone who would joining in
singing, with happy abandonment, songs merry and sad, old
and new, popular, semi-classical, classical, in response to the
leader's invitation, "Come on — let's sing!" Armistice Day pa-
rades when the uniformed members of the school band were
cheered for their spirited playing of patriotic airs ; Christmas
carolings around the lighted community tree on Capitol Square
(and what a blessed substitute for the blaring of tin horns and
clanging cow bells Avith which Christmas Avas ushered in, in the
days before all Raleigh kncAv and loved the carols) ; participa-
tion in state music contests with all that that meant of painstak-
ing preparation of the difficult numbers to be rendered — solos,
duets, trios, quartets, band and orchestra selections; glee club
concerts Avhen the young musicians Avere adorable in eA^ening
togs that lent beauty and dignity to their performances (hoAV
glorious Avas their rendition of "The Building of the Ship"!)
operettas, so colorful, so delightful with melodies so tuneful that
we hummed them for Aveeks afterwards ; May Day fetes held on
the school court, Avith children from the grades as guest per-
formers ; spring f estiA^als in Memorial Auditorium — the vast hall
packed as for no other annual event in the city; radio broad-
casts that brought messages of appreciation from music lovers
near and far ; class night programs with the school orchestra
playing and lovely accompaniments for the musical numbers
and the seniors singing as their recessional their Alma Mater,
composed by one of their OAvn class members ; baccalaureate Sun-
day services when the senior choir in exquisite harmony led the
class in singing majestic hymns : there are some of the experi-
ences that haA^e proved lasting.
Through participation in such experiences liaA^e our children's
personalities been enriched, and their characters strengthened.
100 Historical Sketches of the
Indeed, they are finer citizens becanse Ealeigli lias seen to it
that thev have the best in innsical training in the pnblic schools.
STUDEXT CO-OPEKATIYE ASSOCIATIOX
Bij Ellen R. Glenx "
The present Stndcnt Cooperative Association had its roots in
the study hall of Mary Sue Beam (Mrs. X. G. Fonville) in
1024 in the old Raleigh High School. There was a need felt
for student participation for governing conduct in a large study
hall in preference to all teacher discipline. During the folloAving
year a constitution was draAvn up and an organization was really
started. The first handliook Avas published by the Cooperative
Association of Hugh Morson, 1926-27, and during the same year
representatives were sent to the State Student Congress. At that
time the state organization was affiliated with the national.
When Broughton High School was established, a student co-
operative association similar to the one at Hugh Morson was
organized. A democratic council was composed of an executive
committee, standing committee, and representatives from each
home room. A faculty adviser was appointed for counsel and
guidance. Miss Louise Smaw served in this capacity until 1933
when she married Dwiglit Osborn and went elsewhere to make
her home. Since that date Mrs. A. C. Hall has been faculty
adviser for the Council.
From tlie beginning student leadership has been encouraged
through participation in extra-curricular activities. All clubs
existing in connection Avith school affairs must be chartered by
the Student Council, the executive organ of the Cooperative
Association. It has become a custom to hold annually a student
leaders' banquet — a get-together meeting for all officers of classes
and chartered clubs, standing committee chairmen, faculty ad-
visers, the principal and the superintendent.
"The basic idea behind all the activities of our Council is
not a student government; avc call it, for lack of a better name,
'student cooperation.' Xo student in the school has any disciplin-
ary power whatsoever. When a rule is made by a committee
composed of representatives of the Student Council and faculty
concerning, for instance, noise in the halls, there are no Student
Council 'cadets' placed in the halls to see that this rule is en-
forced. Instead, in the first Council meeting after the rule is
made, it is read and explained to the home-room representa-
* Ncedhain I>. I'rou.KhtiPii IIi.u:li Scliool.
Raleigh Public Schools 101
tives, who are instructed by the president of the Council to pre-
sent this new regulation to their respective home rooms, and
urge each student to act as his oavu cadet to remind him to obey
the regulation. Although the student body knows perfectly well
that the Student Council has no authority whatsoever in enforc-
ing this new regulation, when they are approached from the
standpoint of loyalty to the school and in pride for its Avell-being,
they observe this regulation so well that no faculty supervision is
needed to enforce it." f
The biblical quotation, "Approve ye the things that are ex-
cellent," has been adopted as the permanent slogan for the Coun-
cil and now appears in plaque form on the walls of the ]S]'eedham
B. Broughton School.
A school store, which now finances the Student Council, has
operated since 1931. The Council, in turn, appropriates money
for various items, and profits are turned over to the Council.
The school store manager, recommended by the faculty and prin-
cipal, is approved by the student president.
The Central Banking System of Broughton has grown out of
school activities, since the Student Supply Store, the Motion
Picture Fund and the Hi-Times found it difiicult to keep their
respective bank balances to the point of not paying a service
charge. Merging the finances of these projects suggested merging
all student funds of the various organizations and clubs char-
tered by the Student Council. A system was set up and called
the Broughton Central Banking System.
The Student Council provides an elections committee to have
charge of all elections for each class organization as well as the
Xot a perfect organization is the Student Cooperative Asso-
ciation but one with the aim to provide for student participation
with the hope of developing good leadership. The Council con-
siders that there are a number of qualities for student citizen-
ship contained in the slogan "Approve ye the things that are
excellent" — honesty, good sportsmanship, good scholarship, trust-
Avorthiness. reverence, school spirit, friendliness, good health,
thoughtfulness, good conduct, dependability, sense of humor,
politeness, gratitude and tolerance.
t Address liy W. T. :\Iartin. Jr.. President. September. 1937.
102 Historical Sketches of the
BETTEEMEXT ASSOCIATIOX, FOEEEUXXER OF
THE PAEEXT-TEACHEE ASSOCIATIOX
By Mrs. ^\ W. Jones
The objects of all pareiit-teaelier associations, as outlined by
tlie national association, are as follows:
To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school,
church, and community.
To raise the standards of home life.
To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of chil-
dren and youth.
To bring into closer relation the home and the school, that
parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training
of the child.
To develop between educators and the general public such
united efforts as will secure for every child the highest advan-
tages in physical, mental, social, and spiritual education.
Each local association bends its best efforts towards the ac-
complishment of these objectives. Any problem arising that
relates to the schools is discussed by competent speakers at the
monthly meetings. In addition to this there are programs on
health, safety, art, religion in the home, and numerous other
subjects relating to the well-being of children.
Study groups are held in each school for the purpose of con-
sidering the character traits of children and learning how best
to deal with those that need remedying. Leaders of outstanding
ability are often secured to conduct these groups. Books dealing
Avitli child training are purchased by parent-teacher associations
for the benefit of their members, and the National' Parent-
Teacher Magazine, which deals exclusively with child problems,
is sold by every association to its members.
The leaders in each association are trained by reading the
material prepared by the national association, by attending the
conferences, Avhich are held each year and have as leaders men
and women prominent in national as well as state life, who have
made real contributions to public betterment. Sessions are also
held each summer at Chapel Hill for further instruction of
these leaders, and a course is given in Greensboro for those who
specialize in child study work.
Raleigh Public Schools 103
Thompson Parent-Teacher x\ssociation
The pioneer in parent-teacher work in Raleigli was Thompson
School. It formed an association called "The Thompson Better-
ment Association" in 1907, three weeks after the school itself
opened. Mrs. E. E. Moffett was principally responsible for the
organization of this association, which started with only 23
members. In the first years of its existence the association had
the school Avired for electricity, started the library, bought an
encyclopedia, piano and pictures. The "Betterment Association"
eventually became a parent-teacher organization.
MuRPHEY Parent-Teacher Association
At the instigation of Miss Myrtle Miller, Avho later became
Mrs. W. F. Upshaw, the Murphey Parent-Teacher Association
was organized February 23, 1919. A constitution and by-laws
were adopted. Equipment furnished by this association included
a lunchroom Avith tables, chairs, range, electric dish-washer, re-
frigerator, cooking utensils, curtains, and window boxes. Play-
ground equipment costing $600 was bought, a cement walk laid
in front of the school, scales for weighing the children purchased,
and teachers' rest room furnished, the principal's office renovated,
and shrubbery planted on the grounds. An encyclopedia and
many new books were placed in the library.
Lewis Parent-Teacher Association
Lewis School was the next to organize a parent-teacher asso-
ciation in September, 1919, under the leadership of Miss Myrtle
Underwood. Some of the improvements made by its members
included grading and planting the school grounds, adding play-
ground equipment, equipping a first aid room in the school,
supplying scales and bookcases. The association also donated
$50 to the city for public playgrounds. Lender the direction of
its third president, Mrs. C. L. Sims, a drive was made to put
across the million-dollar bond issue for schools.
Wiley Parent-Teacher Association
The initial meeting of the Wiley Parent-Teacher Association
took place in September, 1919. A health crusade was then car-
ried on, scales bought, and many prominent speakers secured to
lecture on different phases of health. A victrola, records, refer-
ence books, Avindow boxes and shades Avere bought. At the second
lOJi Historical Sketches of the
meeting of the association tlie need for a new building was dis-
cussed, and it was principally because of its efforts that a new
school was finally erected.
Centennial Parent-Teacher Association
One of the first problems the parent-teacher organization at
the Centennial School in 1919 had to deal Avith was the use of
the school playground as a sort of loafer's paradise. The first
president directed the association's efforts toward having a fence
built, and in addition were successful in having this old build-
ing remodeled. ISTew furniture, a library, a teacher's rest room
and a piano were some of the contributions this association made
to the school.
Caraleigh and Eliza Pool Parent-Teacher Association
In 1923 the parents at Caraleigh organized a parent-teacher
association. In 1924 a new school building Avas erected at Cara-
leigh and named after a beloved teacher, Miss Eliza Pool. This
organization has done a very Avorthwhile work in promoting a
better understanding between parents and teachers.
Ji'NioR HniH School Parent-Teacher Association
The Junior High School which was housed in the old Institute
for the Blind organized a parent-teacher association in January,
1924. Efforts of this association Avere principally directed at
renovation of the old and inconvenient building.
Barbee Parent-Teacher Association
The Barbee Parent-Teacher Association organized in 1924.
This association's outstanding contribution to its community
was its welfare Avork.
Hi'OH MoRsoN HioH School Parent-Teacher Association
In 1925 the ncAv Hugh Morson High School organized a
parent-teacher association. Its initial act Avas to present to the
school a beautiful oil portrait of the great educator for Avdiom
the school was named. Professor Hugh Morson. A large amount
of money Avas then raised to enlarge the very inadequate library.
The school grounds were graded and planted and other equip-
KaleictH PrBLic Schools ^05
BoYLAx Heights and Hayes-Barton
In 1927 two new schools Avere added to the city, Boylan
Heights and Hayes-Barton. Parent-teacher associations were or-
ganized in both schools. A moving picture machine was installed,
which not only provided the Boylan Heights community with
weekly wholesome entertainment at moderate cost, but earned
enough money to enlarge the library, provide works of art and
ventilators for the school rooms. At Hayes-Barton the grounds
were transformed into beautiful green lawns. The library was
brought up to standard. Pictures, stage drops, and visual aid
material were provided.
l^EEDHAM BrOI-GHTON PaRENT-TeACHER ASSOCIATION
The last association to be organized was at Xeedham Brough-
ton, Raleigh's handsome new high school, in 1930. It was active
in having the grounds landscaped, and a year or two later home
economics classes were begun. In the year 1939-40 the carnival
was started and has been the means since of providing all the
money needed by the association.
The Raleigh Parent-Teacher Council
The Raleigh Council of Parents and Teachers started life in
1920 under the name of the City Federation of Parent-Teacher
Associations. Mrs. Weston Bruner, Mrs. F. D. Castlebury, Mrs.
F. C. Handy, and Mrs. D. Sam Cox were its first presidents, in
the order named, and helped to launch successfully Avhat has
become one of the most influential bodies in Raleigh. The Coun-
cil is primarily a conference body and presidents of the local
associations and principals of each school are members. Here
local units unite in common projects and cooperate upon defi-
nite lines of work for the improvement of conditions affecting
childhood. A strong force for good in the community, the Council
has made an enviable record of worthwhile achievement in its
19 years of existence.
The very able president of the Raleigh Parent-Teacher Coun-
cil for the past two years has been Mrs. T. S. Johnson. Her in-
spiring and vigorous leadership has resulted in an active flourish-
ing parent-teacher membership which has made a fine contribu-
tion to the schools and school children of Raleigh.
The Council and all local associations are under the direction
of the State and jSTational Congresses of Parents and Teachers.
106 Historical Sketches of the
Ealeigh High athletics prior to the year 1936-37 cannot be
traced accurately, because records have been destroyed. Certain
names, however, should be mentioned : Frank P. Graham, now
president of U. I\T. q.^ ^vas here from about 1910-11 to 1912-13.
He served as coach as well as teacher of English. Guy B. Phillips,
also teacher of English and coach, followed him in 1913-14.
Phillips' stay is marked by the winning of the championship
cup, given by the Athletic Committee of Chapel Hill, for the
third consecutive year. He left about the year 1916.
J. Peele Johnson was coach for about four years prior to
1928-29. Albert T. Spurlock was with him in 1929. Hoav long
Johnson remained is not certain, but Ray Gregson came about
1932. Gregson has remained until the year 1941-42.
From 1936-37 Raleigh High athletics can be definitely traced
by referring to the annuals :
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. 0. Brandon, James
Gerow. Sponsor: Dorothy Coates.
Basketball — Sponsor: Sara Frances Terrell.
Baseball — Sponsor: Mary Xorris.
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. O. Brandon, James
Gerow, Willie Duke. Spoiisor: Harriet Jones.
Baseball — Sponsor: Mary Helen Farlow.
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, J. O. Brandon, James
Gerow. Sponsor: Bitth Phillips.
Basketball — Sponsor: Myrtle BroAvn.
Baseball — Sponsor: Ruth Brown.
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Charles Dandelake. Spoti--
sor: McGartha Johnson.
Basketball — Sponsor: Christine Matthews.
Baseball — Sponsor: Ann Hatcher.
Raleigh Public Schools 107
Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Charles Dandelake. Spon-
sor: Mary Jo Williamson.
Basketball — Sponsor: Lucille Bell.
Baseball — Sponsor: Juleen Bryan.
, Football — Coaches: Ray Gregson, Fletcher Ferguson, Farmer
Smith. Sponsor: Viola Yates.
Basketball — Sponsor: Elizabeth Mills.
Baseball — Sponsor: Sally Young.
RALEIGH PARK AI^D RECREATION COMMISSION
The Raleigh Recreation Center walks hand in hand with the
public schools of the city to carry out a well-rounded recreation
program. Part of the city government, it functions all year
under the direction of Oka T. Hester and an advisory committee
of laymen : James R. Bynum, chairman ; Mrs. Alma Wynne
Edgerton, Mrs. Jesse Mills, Wade C. Lewis, John F. Miller,
Fred D. Dixon, J. J. Fallon, and Arnold Peterson, city land-
The Center is about four years old. At first it was very
limited in scope, but now it is part of a joint system whereby
the schools and the Center have like aims and do a similar
work for the good of the community. Devereux Meadow, for
example, is used by both. Though owned and controlled by the
Raleigh School Board, the Recreation Center uses it in the sum-
mer months and handles the maintenance the year around.
It was not until July 24, 1941, that a city ordinance was
adopted providing for the creation of the Raleigh Park and
Recreation Commission. This was an outgrowth of a North
Carolina State Enabling Act, passed in 1923, which gave muni,-
cipalities and school districts the right to conduct and maintain
recreation facilities. But it was from civic clubs that the Center
was more directly organized. In 1932 the civic clubs of Raleigh
called it into being by oifering it support. They donated money to
operate a playground during the summer months. Its scope was
very limited at that time, and it functioned first as an advisory
playground committee, until the city ordinance was passed a
1G8 Historical Sketches of the
The present Avork of the Park and Recreation Commission of
Raleigh is larger in scope than at its beginning, and it continues
to grow. It operated 11 playgrounds during June, July and
August of 1942, with a man and a woman at each, to supervise
baseball, tennis, and Softball. These are open the entire day in
summer, but are necessarily limited to after-school hours in
Avinter because of the school program. In summer months the
Center tries to take ujj this matter of supervised recreation where
the schools drop it in the sjjring. Leadership for the playground
is kept on a par with that of the schools. At present, the Recrea-
tion Center operates at Devereux Meadow, LcAvis School, Boylan
Heights School, St. Savior's Church, and St. Monica. In addi-
tion to this summer program, which continues to grow with the
years, community centers are conducted within the schools the
year around. At Thompson School, Halifax Court, Fred A. Olds,
Hugh Morson High, Xeedham B. Broughton High, Obcrlin
Road, Washington High and Chavis Heights, there are inside
activities for adults in night groups. These community centers,
operated in the school buildings, using school facilities, are more
for adults than children.
THE RALEIGH SCHOOL BOARD
By Avhat means do the City Commissioners find persons suffi-
ciently interested in Raleigh's jjublic schools to serve on the
School Board? Board members are sworn to serve.
There are fixed ])eriods for Board meetings once a month.
Often extra meetings require the attendance of every member.
Applications of teachers for positions in the schools are pre-
sented to the Board through the superintendent. Qualifications
and experiences have to be considered. Photographs often make
an interesting collection I
The Board holds conferences with the problem parent about
the problem child. Criticism is ofttimes the compensation.
The School Board is sometimes found lacking funds for im-
mediate needs. What then 'i It is the School Board's problem.
There are instances of decades of service by members of the
Board. I^o financial compensation is awarded, but a citizenry is
helped by faithful guarding.
Raleigh Public Schools 109
SCIENCE IN RALEIGH HIGH SCHOOL
By L. Polk Denmark
The first courses in the pure sciences were offered in the fall
of 1909. Prior to that time there had never been sufficient room
available to accommodate the courses considered as absolutely
necessary. With the opening of the ncAV building on Morgan
Street this condition no longer prevailed.
Two boys, students in the sophomore class, were so interested
in physics and chemistry that they prevailed on Superintendent
Harper to allow them to construct a laboratory in the spare
room in the northeast corner of the basement. Of course there
was to be no expense of the venture handled through the school
These boys, Harry B. Henderlite and L. Polk Denmark, con-
structed tables and work benches, installed water and gas con-
nections, and in general set up a very creditable workshop for
Equipment was next obtained by visiting Dr. Pickel of the
State Chemists' Department, old discarded bunsen burners and
other "next to useless" equipment was gladly turned over to
the boys. Through their own ingenuity they constructed innum-
erable pieces of mechanical equipment, levers, pulleys, inclined
planes and dozens of other apparatus for demonstrating prin-
ciples in physics. Of course all this was observed by Superin-
tendent Harper and Principal Hugh Morson.
In mid-summer, 1909, Mr. Harper called the two boys to his
office, told them the Domestic Science work was to be moved
from its crowded room in the front center of the second floor to
t]]e newly acquired cottage in the back yard of the school, and
the old quarters turned over to a new Science Department.
Equipment had already been received, and the boys were told
to go up to the new quarters and unpack and set up the complete
laboratory with all its appurtenances.
The new instructor had not yet arrived, so everything was
put in order by the "founders." Wlien Professor Lawrence E.
Blanchard reported for duty he found everything in order to
begin his new work. He was just out of Trinity College and
bubbling over Avith enthusiasm for his work. Under his guidance
the work was off to a sound start.
(ERRATA: The name "A. J. Ellis" on page 8, line 15, of
the second paragraph should be "A. J. Watts.")
CHRONOLOGY OF SUPERINTENDENTS
RALEIGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS
John E. Dugger (1876-1883) 7 years 7
Andrew J. McAlpine (1883-1885) 2 years 9
Edward P. Moses (1885-1895) 10 years 10
Logan D. Howell (1895-1898) 3 years 18
Edward P. Moses (1898-1907) (return) . . . 9 years 20
Erank M. Harper (1907-1918) 11 years 22
Harry Howell (1918-1921) 3 years 28
Samuel B. Underwood (1921-1923) 2 years 30
Hubbard F. Srygley (1923-1930) 7 years 32
Paul S. Daniel (1930-1936) 6 years 35
Claude F. Gaddy (1936-1942) 51/2 years 37
Jesse O. Sanderson (1942 spring term) 38
Sketches of the Raleigh Public Schools
Johnson 1865 39
Oberlin 1869 39
Washington High 1869 41
Centennial 1876 43
Murphey 1887 43
Methodist Orphanage 1899 44
Wiley 1900 46
Barbee 1903 47
History of Adult Class and Community Program at Barbee 49
ChaviJ ^ 1903 51
Eliza Pool 1903 51
Ealeigh High 1905 52
Thompson 1907 53
Lewis 1915 54
Crosby-Garfield 1923 56
Junior High 1923 57
Hugh Morson High 1925 59
Hugh Morson 61
Eliza A. Pool 61
Boylan Heights 1927 62
Fred A. Olds 1927 63
Hayes-Barton 1927 61
Lucille Hunter 1927 65
Xeedham B. Broughton High 1929 66
X€H-dham B. Broughton 69
Edna Metz Wells— Ann Pitts Hicks 71
The Elementary Supervisor 71
Raleigh Public School Directory— 1941-42 73
Raleigh School Cafeterias 77
Home Economics Department, Hugh Morson 81
Commercial Department, Hugh Morson S2
Library Improvements, Hugh Morson 82
Industrial Arts Program 83
A New Course: Social Culture 86
Diversified Occupations Program 88
Dan K. Stewart 91
Guidance Through the Teaching of High School Biology . 91
Music in Junior and Xeedham Broughton High Schools 98
Student Cooperative Association, Xeedham B. Broughton . 100
History of Parent-Teacher Association 102
The Raleigh School Board 108
Science in Raleigh Lligh School 109
GC 379.756551 B233h
Barbee, Jennie M.
Historical sketches of the Raleigh Publi
3 3091 00150 3135
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