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Full text of "Historical sketch of the missions in India. Under the care of the board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church"

C. A. R.Janvier 



Hlstcrlcal Sketch of the 
Missions In India 





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INDIA. 

Till-: LAND AND ITS l'I%OI»Lt:. 

India is geographically the Italy of the Asiatic continent. 
Historically, too, she is Italy's counterpart in at least one 
respect. What the one, with her bountiful streams and sun 
Ht plains, wa^ to the coucpieriu^ adventurers from northern 
Iuiroj)e, that was the other to tlie successive hordes of liardy 
invaders, who, looking across at her fertile i)lains from the 
bleak table-lands of Central Asia, swept over her lofty 
mountain barriers and took possession of her treasures. 
Kolarian, I )ra vidian, Aryan, Persian. Grecian, Hactrian. 
Parthian, Scythian, Hun and Afghan, Tatar and Mongolian 
— all these and others have had their share of India's spoils, 
some scarce more than touching her borders, others leaving 
their permanent impress on her life and character. 

He is a rash man who would attempt to tell the exact 
details of these successive invasions. The Kolarians. as 
exemplified to day in the Santals. for instance, are often 
spoken of as aborigines : but the probability is that the real 
aborigines were Negritos, specimens of which race are still 
to l>e found in the Andaman Islands, and that the Kolarians 
were themselves invaders, coming through the northeast 
passes — preceded possibly by still other invaders from the 
same direction. 

The northwest passes were thereafter the way of access, 
the first to use them being the Dravidi.ins. The when and 
the whence of their movement no one knows : though as to 
the whence, it may l>e safe to include them under the general 
name Turanian, and to point to significant similarities 
between certain Dravidian dialects and mo<lern Korean. 

Next came the Aryans. From their original home, 
probably in the region south of the Aral Sea. they had 
divided into two in'eat streams, one flowing northward and 
westward to people the Iuiroj>ean continent, and the other 
pouring southward, and sulxlividing into Iranian ■ Persian) 
and Indian branches. The time, too, of the movement into 
India is a matter of conjecture. History there is none. 



I HISTORICAL SKKTCII Ul 

The sole literature of the period is the Rig- Veda, from the 
;i>inns of which only the vaguest conclusions can be drawn. 
I )ates varying from one another by a thousand years or more 
nave been assigned by various writers. Mr. W. St. Clair 
Pisdall-' infers from the connection between the language of 
he Rig- Veda and that of the A vesta (the sacred book of 
mcient Persia) that B. C. 1500 is the earliest likely date. 
It is. however, probably safer to place the Aryan invasion 
not much later than B. C. 2000 

The word .?///</////, the Sanscrit for " ocean ' or " large 
•ody of water,'" was probably the name given by the Aryans 
hemselves to the first great river they reached in their 
uuth-eastward progress. From this name, SiudliK, Hind or 
indns, come both India and Hindustan, the one through the 
(ireek and the other through the Persian. The two are 
generally used synonymously, but Hindustan is more pre- 
cisely api)licable — and is applied by the people themselves 
to-day — to the northern half of the peninsula, the valleys of 
the Indus and the ("ianges ; while India is now often made 
to take in the entire Indian lunpire, including Burmah. 

The invasion of India by the Aryans was not a sudden 
inroad, but a long continued movement. Resting first on 
the Indus, the invaders gradually spread eastward, every- 
where ])ushing back their predecessors, whom they called 
dasyi/s Tenemies or 'ruffians). They counted these dark- 
skinned savages as little better than wild beasts, whom it 
was a virtue to destroy. The Dasyus, however, were not 
all uncivilized. Some had forts and cities, and no small 
wealth. But they could not stand before the superior 
strength and civilization of the Aryans. Those who were 
not .slain were either reduced to a position akin to slavery. 
or forced further and further back to the .south and west. 
This process continued through perhaps eight or ten centu- 
ries , till the .\ryans had overspread the whole of northern 
India, to Behar on the east and the \'indhya Hills on the 
south. This region they called .'//r</-:v/;/(^ as distinguished 
from Mlt'fhha-dtsa. "the land of the unclean,' the region 
that lay beyond. 

Then began a somewhat different movement toward the 
south, more a colonization than a complete comjuest. " It 
was." to quote a recent wrileri, "a social rather than an 
ethnical revolution. The aborigines were not hunted down, 
nor even dispossessed of the land, but, coming under the 

• "India : Its Hislory, DaikncM* and Dainii," p. i. 
\ C. V. <le la Fosse, "HiHory of India." p. .^o. 



THH MISSIONS IN INDIA 5 

influence of a stronger race, they learned to adopt its civili- 
zation and religion In the mixed race that arose, 

the preponderating element was naturally the Dravidian. 
The mass of the people continued to use their own tongue 
then, as they still do, in Southern India ; and here and there 
scattered tribes, far removed from civilization, remained in 
the enjoyment of their primitive habits and beliefs." 

Attempts to fix even approximate limits of time have so 
far been largely guess-work. The dawn of real history is 
to be reckoned from the invasion by Darius Hystaspes 
(about 500 B. C), who probably extended his conquest 
almost to the borders of Rajputana, yet made no permanent 
impress on the country. Then comes the first unquestioned 
date, 327 B. C. when Alexander the Great conquered Porus, 
the greatest of the Aryan over-lords of that time, and carried 
the Grecian standards as far as the Sutlej. He again estab- 
lished no permanent control ; and yet the contact between 
Greek and Hindu was not without its influence on the phil- 
osophy of the one and the science and art of the other, 

Seleucus I., the first of the Graeco-Bactrian kings, failed 
soon after this in an attempt to subdue India, but at least 
succeeded in forming an alliance with Chandragupta, who- 
as King of Magadha (approximately the modern Behar and 
Oudh), had extended his dominion over the entire Panjab. 
To Megasthenes. Seleucus' ambassador at the Magadhan 
capital, we owe most of our knowledge of the India of that 
day. Second in succession to Chandragupta was his grand- 
son. Asoka the Great, the famous Buddhist king, who 
extended his strong and beneficent sway over almost the 
whole of India (B. C. 263-223). 

Of the next nine or ten centuries our .sources of history 
are scant. There were invasions by the Graeco-Bactrians. 
the Parthians, and the Scythians, the last-named continuing 
their successive inroads well into the Christian era, and 
making a permanent impression on the life of the country. 
Next followed the Huns, who, under their dread leader, 
Toroman, came near shattering the Aryan power. Toro- 
man's death and the defeat of his son Mihirakula by Yasod- 
harman. King of Ujjain (Central India), delivered the land 
from this devastating influence (533 A. D.). 

Soon after this there came to power the Rajput race, who 
claimed to be Aryans of the Kshattriya or Warrior caste. 
Warriors they were, but probably of Scythian,''' not Aryan, 

• See de la Fosse's " History of India," pp. 58, 59. 



6 HISTORICAL SKETCH OK 

origin. Their ascendancy brought with it the fall of Bud- 
dhism and restoration of Hinduism. But already in the 
north-west were heard the first mutterings of the storm of 
Mohammedan invasion that was to overwhelm the Hindu 
])0\vcr. First came the Arabs, who made desultory inroads 
during the seventh century, conquered and occupied Sindh 
during a part of the eighth, and were finally repelled by the 
Rajputs early in the ninth. Meanwhile, however, another 
Moslem power, of Tatar or Turkish origin, ^^ with (Uia/ni in 
Afghanistan as its capital, had lisen to prominence : and in 
the closing years of the tenth century, Sabaktagin, followed 
later by his more famous son, Mahmud of Ghazni, swept 
over the Panjab, establishing what is known as the Pathan 
(or Afghan) Empire, whose various dynasties covered the 
next five hundred years. It was a period of almost continu- 
ous warfare. Not only did the Afghans find formidable 
opponents in the Rajputs and other Hindu neighbors to the 
south, but they soon had to begin to deal with the inroads 
of the all conquering Mughuls or Mongols, the third set of 
Moslem invaders of India. P'irst among them came the 
" World stormer." Chengiz Khan, who, early in the thir- 
teenth century, pierced as far as Peshawar, and then turned 
back into Afghanistan, which he had previously overrui>. 
Nearly a century later Timur, or Tamerlane, of the same 
fierce race, carried his conquest as far as Delhi : but it was 
left to Babar early in the sixteenth century to make a 
permanent concpiest of the Panjab, and later of almost the 
whole of Northern India. The three most famous emperors 
in this Mughul line are Akbar the ("ireat. ( 1536- 1605;, who 
extended his em])ire through Bengal and Orissa on the east 
and Binir on the south, and who, tliough he overthrew the 
Rajputs, the great defenders of Hinduism, yet by his con- 
ciliatory statesmanship gained the friendship of the Hindus ; 
Shah Jahan, (1^)27-1658), under whom the Moslem lunpire 
reached the /.enith of its glory — not unfitly marked by the 
erection at Agra of that triumph of architectural skill, the 
Taj Mahal; and Aurungzeb, (1658-1707). whose long 
reign, begun in bloodshed but marked by no small degree of 
effort after justice, ended in that general disorder which 
ushered in on the one hand the decline of the Mohammedan 
ascendancy, and on the other the partial return of Hindu 
power under the Mahrattas in tl;e south and the Sikhs in 
*he north. 



katzil s " History of Mankiud," p. 361. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 7 

Meanwhile a new and potent factor in the problem of 
India's development was beginning to make itself felt. The 
liast India Company, granted its first charter by Queen 
Klizabeth in 1600, had by the end of Aurnngzeb's reign al- 
ready grown, largely under the force of circumstances beyond 
its control, from a quiet trading concern into a complex civil 
and military organization, with prosperous fort- protected 
towns at Madras, I^ombay and Calcutta. The limits of this 
sketch forbid the telling of how, while the Mahrattas en- 
croached upon and finally humbled the Mughuls in the 
north, the English overcame in the south their rivals, tlie 
French, allied with the Nizam of Hyderabad (battle of 
Plassey, 1757) ; how the issue as between the Mahrattas 
and the English was settled by the great victory of Assai 
(September, 1S03); and how the Sikhs in their turn were 
vanquished in the wars of 1846 and 1S4S, leaving the 
British in undisputed possession of practically the whole of 
India. 

Next came the awful mutiny of 1857. The Sepoys, the 
trusted native troops of the East India Company, rose in 
rebellion in almost all the military centres of Northern 
India, taking as their pretext the serving out of a cartridge 
supposed to be greased with the fat of cows and pigs. Had 
the uprisings been simultaneous and under the control of 
leaders of capacity, India would have had to be re con- 
quered. But the natives had no real generals, while the 
handful of British were led by such men as Havelock. Out- 
ram, Colin Campbell and Nicholson. The sieges of Cawn- 
pore and Lucknow, the one ending in massacre and the 
other in final relief, are only paralleled in thrilling interest 
by the heroic storming of Delhi — 7,000 in the open against 
30,000 behind the massive stone walls. The end was com- 
plete victory for the British. But as a result the East India 
Company was dissolved, and the administration of the 
country was transferred to the Crown — an act which cul- 
minated in the formal proclamation, in 1877, of Victoria as 
Empress of India. 

Whatever may be said of the not infrequent blunders, 
intrigues and excesses which marked the early history of the 
East India Company, or even of some of the methods 
followed in the period of its more firm and just administra- 
tion through Governor-generals (beginning with Warren 
Hastings in 1774), there can be no (question as to the general 
character of British rule since the mutiny. It is systematic, 
enlightened, uncorrupt and truh' altruistic. Never under 



8 HISTORICAL SKKTCH OF 

any other rjjle have taxes in India been less oppressive, or 
the benefits given in return more generous. Schools, tele- 
graphs, railroads, unsurpassed postal facilities, all speak for 
themselves. The fruit is the loyalt\' of the great majority 
both of the feudatory princes and of the enlightened classes, 
and the passive acquiescence of the masses. No one who 
knows India at first hand, however he may criticize some 
features of the government's policy, can question the general 
beneficence of British rule/'' 

The attitude of the authorities toward Christianity has 
varied greatly at different periods. Carey, when he first 
reached India (1793), was not only forbidden to enter British 
territory for missionary purposes, but not allowed to remain 
even as an indigo-planter, and had to begin his work in 
Danish possessions (Serampore) near Calcutta. Opposition 
diminished under Lord W'ellesley ( 1798-1805), butreached its 
climax after his resignation, when the Court of Directors of 
the East India Company frankly avowed their advocacy of 
Indian heathenism and took the ground that missions threat- 
ened the security of the Indian Government.* In 18 13, 
however. Parliament, moved by the untiring efforts of 
Wilberforce and others, inserted in the renewed charter of 
the Company the so-called " pious clause, "^ which put an 
end to all open opjwsition to missionary enterprise, friendli- 
ness or unfriendliness being thereafter a matter of the atti- 
tude of the individual ruling officer, local or supreme. The 
final stage was reached in the famous proclamation of 
political liberty and complete religious toleration issued by 
Queen \'ictoria at the time of the assumption of the gov- 
ernment of India by the crown (November i, 1857). This 
proclamation, while it guaranteed ]:)rotection to all the 
Queen's subjects in the fulfillment of their religious convic- 
tions and promised ab.solute neutrality on the part of Gov- 
ernment in all such matters, was essentially a Christian 
document, >^ one paragraph being ])refaced with these words : 
** Firmly rely nig ourselves on the truth of Christianity, and 
acknowledging with gratitude the solace of religion. ' The 

•The proRi-ess in mutfUiil things i.s hinted at by ihc following figures: Rail- 

w lys in India, end of '53. 20 miles : end of '77. 7,322 miles : May 1, 'ol. 25.378 miles. 

In '81. 20,34*1 iiiile.s of telegraph line in operation, and a little over 1 ,000.000 private 

messages de.spatched ; in 01, 5=i.055 miles, with 3,750.000 messages. Money orders 

'01 nearlv Si .001.000. 

Warneck, " History of rrolestant Missions,'* p. 252, fl". 

The clause is as follows : " It is the duty of this country to encourage the in- 
:ro>luction of useful knowledge and of religious and moral enlightenment into 
India, and in lawful ways to atTord every facility to such persons as go to India 
and desire to remain there for the accomplishment of such benevolent putposes " 

■^ee Graham's " Missioaaiy Kxpansion of the Reformed Churches," p. 108. 



THE MISSIONS IX INDIA 9 

following out of the policy thus proclaimed still depends 
somewhat upon the bias of the individual officer ; but on 
the whole the government's attitude has been and still is 
one of friendly neutrality toward Christianity. 

Turning to some of the geographical features of the 

country : British India, inclusive of Burmah, has an area of 

1,560,159 square miles, (595,167 square miles of this is the 

territory of the feudatory native states, such as Hyderabad, 

Mysore, Kashmir, Gwalior, Baroda, etc.), being about as 

large as the United States east of the Mississippi. It lies 

mainly between ten and thirty-five north latitude. The whole 

of it is tropical or semi-tropical, variations of temperature 

depending on altitude rather than on latitude. The onl}- 

places of escape from the heat of summer are the various 

sanitaria, located at heights of 4,000 to 7,000 feet above sea 

level on the different mountain ranges. The climate during 

the four or five winter months — from November to March — 

are delightful, not unlike an American October. The rest 

of the year is divided between the dry hot season and the 

rainy hot season, the thermometer during the former often 

reaching temperatures ranging from 110° to 125° in the 

shade. '=^ The intensity of the heat, however, is far less 

trying than its persistency. 

The soil is exceedingly fertile in most parts of the coun- 
try, yielding, in spite of crudest methods of cultivation, 
large and frequent crops (as many as three and four in a 
single year in some cases). The main products are wheat, 
rice, cotton, opium, oil-seeds, tea, indigo and (in the north) 
potatoes. The staple diet in the southern and eastern 
regions is rice ; in the north, wheat for the upper classes, 
and corn, barley and the coarse millets for the poorer. 
Meat is a part of the regular diet of such Mohammedans 
and Christians as can afford it ; it is not uncommon, es- 
pecially goat's meat, among some classes of Hindus. 

The population, as given by the census of 1901, is 
294,362,676, which includes Aden as well as Burmah and 
Ceylon . 

The sketch of the early history of India has in some 
measure indicated the diversity of the race elements which 
have gone to make up its population. The languages in use 
give even greater evidence of this diversity. Recent inves- 

•Here is a day's record for Allahabad, taken entirely at random from the 
period (March 28th) between the cool and the hot seasons : Maximum temperature, 
in shade, 106.4 ; maximum, in sun, 15^} 6 ; minimum in shade, 69 ; mean tempera 
ture, 87.1 ; normal mean temperature, 81.3. 



lO HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

ligation by a Government expert ( Mr. Grierson) reveals the 
existence of no less than 707 languages and dialects. Some of 
these differ far more widely from each other than they do from 
the languages of Europe. They fall in general into four 
groups: Semitic, Aryan, Dravidian and Kolarian. Those 
of the last group are spoken only by aboriginal hill tribes. 
The main Dravidian languages are Tamil (spoken by up- 
wards of 15.000,000) ; Telugu, (20,000,000) ; Kanarese, 
(10,000,000), and Malayalam, (5,000,000). The Aryan 
group includes among many others Bengali, (41,000,000) ; 
Hindi, (85,000,000); Panjabi, (18,000,000); Gujrati, 
Cio.ooo.ooo), and Uriya, (9,000,000). Hindustani or Urdu 
is usually classed wuth this group, but might more properly 
be called an Aryo-Semitic language. It is one of the most 
curious linguistic hybrids in the world, having been pro- 
duced by India's Mohammedan conquerors, who forced 
Hindi into combination with Persian and Arabic. It is the 
most widely diffused language of India, being spoken or at 
least understood, not only by most of those who speak Pan- 
jabi or Hindi, but by almost all Mohammedans the country 
over. It is safe to say that nearly half the population of 
India can be reached through it and Hindi, its next of kin. 



THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA. 

I. Axi.MivSM. — The religion of the al^origines of India 
seems to have been a sort of animism or spirit- worship — the 
spirits being evil spirits. All natural phenomena, and 
especially all untoward events, were referred to the agency 
of these demons, who were propitiated by incantations and 
bloody sacrifices. It is exceedingly difllcult to draw the 
line accurately between Animists and Hindus to-day ; for 
the worship of the latter has been largely modified by the 
])eliefs of the former, and the former have in many cases 
added to their demon worship the polytheism and idolatry of 
the latter, and have often actually classed themselves as 
Hindus. •• The census of 1901 gives the luimber as 
10,000,000. 

II. Buddhism, though it does not come next chrono- 
logically, may well be disposed of at this point because ot 
its present insignificant position among the religions of 



•It is related by a mi.ssionary of the Madras Pre.sidency that in one village the 
Animists adoptetl the sujjjit'stion of Hindu neiRhbors and ninrried their female 
demons to Hindu gods, and thereafter complacently worshipped them all. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA II 

India. It has now only 7,000,000 adherents, and these con- 
fined ahnost entirely to Burmah and Ceylon. Yet once it 
controlled India. Siddharta Gautama, '•'' its founder, son of 
Suddodhana, King of the Sakyas, was born about 560 B. C, 
at Kapilavastu, a hundred miles north of Benares. Bur- 
dened with the sense of life's sorrows and mysteries, he 
turned his back on worldly prospects, and after years of 
vain searching for peace by means of Hindu asceticism, he 
finally attained " enlightenment,'' and propounded the basal 
doctrine of his system, that " suffering is 10 be got rid of by 
the suppression of all desires and by extinction of personal 
existence." Principal Grant, in "The Religions of the 
World," well describes Buddhism as " a system of humani- 
tarianism with no future life, and no God higher than the 
perfect man." It won its way to power partly because it 
was on the one hand the logical outcome of certain phases of 
philosophic Hinduism, and on the other a protest against its 
utter formalism and the tyrannj^ -of its priests, and partly 
because of the attractiveness of its moral code and of its 
comparatively unselfish teachings. t 

Buddhism reached its zenith under the Emperor Asoka 
(263-223 B. C), its "golden age" continuing till toward 
the end of the reign of Kanishka, one of the Indo-Scythian 
Kings, who came to the throne in 78 A. D. Thencefor- 
ward Brahman influence gradually regained its place, till by 
the end of the tenth century it had practically driven Bud- 
dhism out of India, confining it, as now, to Ceylon and 
Burmah. 

III. JainismJ is nearly related to Buddhism, arising at 
the same period (possibly an earlier) and out of the same 
conditions. Like it, it is practically atheistic. Its moral 
code is closely allied to that of Buddha, and consists of five 
prohibitions (against killing, lying, stealing, adultery and 
worldliness) and five duties (mercy to animate beings, alms- 
giving, fasting, and veneration for sages while living and 
worship of their images when dead. Its most conspicuous 
feature is its zeal for the preservation of animal life. Its 
adherents, though numbering only about a million and a 
half (mainly in Bombay Presidency), have no small influence 
in India, chiefly because of their wealth and comparatively 
high degree of education. 

*GautAma was the family name, Siddharta the persoual. Buddha means " the 
enlightened." He was also called Sakya Muni, "the sage of the Sakyas." 
tSee sketch in St. Clair Tisdall's " Religions of India," pp. 66-76. 
jSee Murdoch's " Religious History of India," p. 85, ff. 



T2 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

IV. Hinduism . — To give a brief and yet complete 
account of Hinduism is an impossibility. To give an 
authoritative account of it, no matter at what length, is 
equally an impossibility. It is difficult to find any two 
writers — especially any two Hindu writers — who agree in 
their statement of even its essential features. Not only has 
it been constantly changing through the centuries, always 
for the worse, but at no time has it been the same in differ- 
ent parts of India, nor even self -consistent in any one part. 
The most that can be done here is to outline the develop- 
ment of its complex system, and to present some of the 
more conspicuous of its modern characteristics. 

As a preliminary, a brief statement as to the sacred books of the 
Hindus is necessary. These are classed under the two heads Sruti* 
("that which has been heard" from the Divine voice), the fully 
authoritative, and Smriti, ("that which is remembered"), less 
authoritative writings, based upon the Sruti. To the former class 
belong the Vedas alone. These are four in number: Rig, Sama, 
Yajur (the Black and the White) and Atharva : and each consists of 
three parts, Hvnins {Sanhita or Mantra), Pitual [Brahmana] and 
Philosophical Tieatises ^Upanishad, included with Aranyaka or 
" Forest Treatises.") The 6'a«/n/tfi^ are the oldest portion (variously 
placed by different authorities between the dates 1800 and 800 B. C.),t 
and consist of versified prayers and praises ; the Brahnianas come 
next (falling approximately between 900 and 500 B. C), and are com- 
mentaries, mostlvin prose, explaining how the Mihitras [Sanhiia) are 
to be used in the performance of religious rites; and last come the 
Ara)ivaka5 and l^panishads (the earliest of them probably dating 
from ' about 600 B. C), consisting of philosophical inquiries on 
religious themes, ostensibly based on the Mantras. The term Veda is 
sometimes applied exclusively to the Hymns, and yet, as Dr. Murdoch 
well says ("Letter to Maharaja of Darbhanj^ah," p. 19), not only are 
the Brahtnanas and (Jpanlshads as much Sruti as the Mantras, but 
the I'panishads " are practically the only I'eda studied by thoughtful 
Hindus of the present day." 

The term Smriti \9, more elastic, its content varying more or less 
with the view-point of the individual sect of Hindus; but it may be 
said to include among other books the following : 

I. The Darsanas or systematized " exhibitions " of the philoso- 
phy of the (Jpanishads. These are six in number, each serving as the 
basis of a separate ])hilosophical sect: A^yaya, I'aiseshika, Sankhya, 
}'oga, iMimansa and / 'edanta. Their date it is impossible to fix with 
exactness, further than to say that they are probably contemporary 
with the rise of P>uddhism, but did not take their present fi'rm much 
before the Christian era. 'X\iKt Sankhya, )'(>i,'(7and / V^A/w/a have been 
the three most inilucntial schools of thought, the last the most influ- 
ential of all. 

*See Mitchell's " Hinduism, Past and Present," p. 13, ff 
tThe Atharva Veda is probably of much later date. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 1 3 

II. The Laws of Manu, or Mdnava Dharnta Shastra, a treatise on 
religious jurisprudence, bearing somewhat the same relation to the 
Brahnianas as the Darsanas do to the Upanishads, and belonging to 
the period between 500 and 300 B. C* (Other similar treatises followed 
later.) 

III. The Epic poems, Raniayana and Mahabharata, which 
include legends of a remote age, but may in their present form safely 
be placed in the early centuries of the Christian era.t 

IV. The eighteen Purtmas, a kind of versified encyclopaedia of 
religion, philosophy, science and history, belonging, in their collated 
form, to the period between the twelfth aud seventeenth centuries, A. D. 

V. The Tantras, somewhat similar to the Purdnas, but belonging 
probably to a slightly later period, and setting forth the principles of 
Sakti worship. (See p. 17). 

The stages in the development of Hinduism are marked 
by these religious books, which are, each in its turn, expres- 
sions of the thought of one period and controllers of the next. 
These stages overlap as the writings overlap ; their chro- 
nology is as wholly uncertain as are the dates of these 
writings. In general, however, the following stages of 
development are traceable : 

I. Vedic Hinduism, (1800 to 800 B. C), exhibited 
especially in the Rig- Veda. It was polytheistic nature icor- 
ship. ' ' Thrice eleven ' ' deities are frequently mentioned ; 
once (III, 9, 9), we have a much larger number. The 
most prominent were l^aruiia (Greek Oiiranos), the encom- 
passing firmament; Indra, the rain god ; Agni, the god ot 
fire ; Surya, the sun god, and Dyaus Pita?-, who is unques- 
tionably the relic of an original monotheism, and of whom 
Prof. Max Muller forcibly says : 

If I were asked what I consider the most important discover} 
which has been made during the nineteenth century with respect to the 
ancient history of mankind, I should answer by the following short 
line: 

Sanskrit Dyaush-Pitar = Greek Zeus Pater = Latin Jupiter ^ 
Old Norse Tyr. 

Think what this equation implies ! It implies not only that our 
own ancestors and the ancestors of Homer and Cicero i^the Greeks and 
Romans) spoke the same language as the people of India — this is a 
discovery which, however incredible it sounded at first, has long ceased 
to cause any surprise — but it implies and proves that they all had once 
the same faith, aud worshipped for a time the same supreme Deity 
under exactly the same name— name which meant Heaven-Father. 



*Sir W. W. Hunter's " Brief History," etc., P- 66; Mitchell's "Hinduism," p 
82, ff. 

tDr. Mitchell places i\\e Mahabharaia in its present form in the sixth or seventh 
century, A. D. 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

The following extracts well exemplify two extremes in 
the hymns of the Rig- Veda : 

"Drinker of the soma juice ilndra^ wielder of the thunderbolt, 
bestow upon us ahuncauce of cows with projecting jaws." 

"Whenever we men, O Varuna, co-.niit an offence before the 
heavenly host ; whenever we break thy law through thoughtlessness ; 
have uiercy, Almighty, have mercy ! " 

2. Brahmanic Hinduism,* (900 to 500 B. C). — As 
time passed the number of the gods greatly increased. Fear 
of evil spirits became conspicuous, perhaps under the in- 
fluence of aboriginal cults. Religion began to be stereotyped. 
P'ormulas took the place of worship, and the influence of 
those who learned and repeated them increased accordingly. 
Success in dealing with supernatural powers depended upon 
the proper selection of mantras and absolute accuracy in 
their repetition. The very formulas themselves were deified. 
The literary fruit of this development was the Brahvianas of 
the Vcdas and later the code of Manu ; and its main re- 
ligious and social fruit was the supremacy of the priest 
class (the Brahmans) and the complete organization of the 
caste system. This was beyond doubt primarily a matter of 
race (as hinted at in the original word for caste, varna, color). 
Aryans separated themselves from the despised non-Aryans 
and from those of mixed parentage. At the same time they 
divided off among themselves according to their occupations, 
which naturally tended to become hereditary. Priests 
{Bra/i7?ia?i), warriors {K's/uittriva) and tillers of the soil 
{Vaisya) formed each their own caste; and gradually, 
though not without a struggle, which between the Brah- 
nians and Kshattriyas seems to have been a bitter and bloody 
one, they established the above order of priority. To the 
non-Aryans, who made up the Sthira caste, were left all the 
trades and menial service.!" Just as the Hindu religious 
writings contain no less than fourteen different accounts as to 
the source of tlie Vedas, so do the}' offer a generous choice 
regarding the origin of caste. | The most commonly ac- 
cepted view is that set forth by Manu (Bk. I., 31) that 
Brahma, the parent of worlds, after his birth from a golden 
^gg, peopled the earth by producing the Brahman from his 
mouth, the Kshattriya from his arms, the latsya from his 

*The term Brahmanism is to be avoided, partly because it is a word never used 
by any one in India to describe his own religion, partly because it is inaccurate, 
there being no such thing as Brahmanism distinct from Hinduism, and partly 
because its very derivation is doubtful, {B/ahrn. Brahman or Bra/imatta). 

tSee de la Fosse's " Historv of India,'' pp. 11, 12, and Murdoch's " Religious 
History of India," p. 48. ff. 

See Murdoch's " Letter to the Maharaja of Darbhaugah,' p. 50, ff. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 15 

thighs, and the Siidra from his feet.''' Whatever the origin 
of the system, of the Brahman's complete and permanent 
supremacy — amounting to deification — there can be no 
question. 

3. Philosophic Hinduism (600, B. C, to Christian 
Era). The inevitable reaction from the elaborate ritual, the 
empty formalism, the endless and meaningless sacrifices of 
Brahmanic Hinduism came in the wave of philosophic 
speculations which produced first the Upanishads and then 
the six Darsanas professedly based on them. The thought 
of this period was mainly pantheistic, though in one or other 
of these six schools we have apparent afiirmations of atheism, 
polytheism and even monotheism. In the Brahmanic period 
the way of deliverance had been the karma-mdrg or ' ' path 
of works (or ritual) " ; in the philosophic it was the jiuhid- 
mdrg or "way of knowledge." To know one's identity 
with the true, infinite and eternal self,t this was salvation. 
Transmigration of souls had come now to be an essential 
feature of Hindu thought,! and the one idea of salvation 
was that of deliverance from endless rebirths (8,400,000 is 
the popular conception). The six systems professing to set 
forth this way of deliverance, though all appealing to the 
Vedas, and all accepted to this day as wholly orthodox, were 
utterly opposed one to another. The Bhdgavad Gita, that 
remarkable production which comes as an obvious interpola- 
tion in the great epic, the Mdhdbhdiata, is an attempt to 
harmonize three of these systems, and belongs properly to this 
same period of Philosophic Hinduism, in a later stage. 

4. PuRANic Hinduism (A. D. i to 1700). — The char- 
acteristics of the successive stages of this period are to be 
traced in the two great Epic poems, and in the Purd?ias and 
the Tdntras. During the centuries of Buddhist supremacy the 
Hinduism of the masses, partly probably under the accentu- 
ated influence of southern India and its Dravidian cults, 
partly possibly through the deliberate purpose of the Brah- 

*Caste has been subdivided until the four original castes now number many 
thousands. It is estimated that the Brahman caste alone is divided into 1 866 sub- 
castes. The lower castes are still more complex Hindu custom forbids inter- 
cour?e between persons of different castes. The touch and often the shadow of a 
low-caste man defiles. The Brahmans from different provinces in many cases will 
not eat together. ^ ., j -t- . 

tThe two " great sentences" were Br.ihmdsmi, I am Brahma, and lat- 
/rf'awz <*.j/, " It thou art " 

tThere can be little or no question that this doctrine was taken by Buddha from 
Hinduism, not by the latter from Buddhism, as is sometimes stated. (See " Hin- 
duism, Past and Present," pp. 50, 132; de la Fosse's "History of India," p. 28 ; 
Tisdall's "India : Its History, Darkness and Dawn." p. 5^)- Indeed Buddhism may 
be said to be but the extreme development of the Sankhya Philosophy. 



I 6 HISTORICAL SKETCH OV 

mans to offset tlie power of Buddhism by popularizing 
Hinduism along evil lines, developed decidedly in the 
direction of a grosser polytheism, and at the same time 
adapted itself to Buddhistic thought by putting sacrifice 
further into the background and inculcating a great regard 
f(;r animal lile. 

One of the main features of this j)eriod, with its 
330,oc)<:).ooo divinities of sorts, is the triad of gods (or 7V/- 
f/nir/i), /yra/imd, I'tshftu, .S7//iV7. represented as the mani- 
festation of the great original IT or Ihahm. The sacred 
monosyllable Om, whose proper utterance is supposed to 
secure marvellous results, is made up of the letters rei)resent- 
ing these three names. />;v7//;//</ attracted few followers, and 
\'ishnu lx.'came the more popular of the remaining two. A 
second new and conspicuous feature was the doctrine of 
incarnation"-. Ten incarnations, all of Vishnu, are u.sually 
recognized. The seventh, eighth and ninth were Ram 
' hand) a, the hero of the Rdmayana, Krishna, the hero ot 
he Mdhiibhiinita, and especially of the Bhiii^avada i.ita, 
A\(\ Buddha, skillfully ado])ted as a compromise with Budd- 
hism. The tenth, yet to come, is. most significantly, to be 
a .s/;//<'i5 incarnation, is to be born of a virgin, and, riding 
>n a white horse, is to destroy all the wicked with his 
Mazing sword. The source of this striking conception can 
lardly l:>e (questioned, if the Scripture accounts of the first 
md second Advents be in imagination run together. A 
liird feature was the introduction of hliakti, or adoring 
vorship of divinity, as an alternative spiritual "path." thus 
i.lding the hhakti-fniUx to the /fiihui of the Philo-sojihic and 
he karmd of the Brahmanic ])eriod. The most pojnilar 
•bject of this bhnkti was Krishna (it is in the Bluigavada 
.ita that bhakti first appears), and it was partly at least 
wing to the evil character of that incarnation that a thought 
() true soon iKcame low and gro.ss. i A fourth feature of 
his period is the idea (which Dr. Mitchell traces to 200 B.C.) 
• t .sacred ])laces, e.specially rivers, and of i)ilgrimages thereto. 
hirst the Indus, then the Saraswati. then the Ganges: 
among cities, Pryag (Allahabad). Kiishi ( B.enares\ Dwarka, 
I'.indraban: these are a few of the hundreds of lirlhns 



• Thlw doctrine U iiometline»» tmced to Huddhint influeocr ("Hinduism Vm^X 
Hid Prmtnt." p mj). hut It ih n qur^tloii whether it mnv not have «»ern ^imply « 
t^iote»«iiic ni.inifr>»t«tlon of B deep I v in k truth, possibly a truth learned In part 
ttoni Christian nources. 

t See •• Hindulnm : Pnut and Pre»»ent." p. m6 ff. It i* to t>e noted that the 
>tshHa of the flh.igaf.id Gita \% ii vantly higher conception than the h'ftskma of 
le rest of the .V.iA.7/>A.i»a/a and of the Pu*.inas. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA IJ 

(sacred places; whicli gradually came into ])romiiience as 
merit bestowing; j)oiiits of pilgrimage. One other character- 
istic demands reluctant notice — the .Sa/v7/- worship of the 
Tdutras. Sakti means power, the power of the gods, per- 
sonalized as the wives of the gods, especially of the great 
triad. The rites connected with this worship, especially 
among the " left-hand " devotees, are obscene and horrible 
beyond belief. "'^ 

5. MoDKRN Hinduism (1800-). — The outlining of 
the previous periods has been worth while mainly because 
modern Hinduism is simply a composite of all these periods, 
with the possible exception of the first. Almost everything 
that ever has been, still is. The Brahman still makes the 
extravagant claims of the Hrahmanic period, and the people 
bow in submission ; the educated classes still hold to the 
philosophies of the Darsanas, and the masses still delight in 
the stories of the Epics and Purdnas, and grovel before the 
divinities they celebrate. Dr. Mitchell well says ("Hin- 
duism," p. HV) ): 

As to belief, Hiiuluisni includes a quasi-nionolheisin, pantlicism, 
polythcistn, polydenionisni, and atheism, or at least ajjnosticisni. As 
to Ivor ship, it includes meditation on Rrahm, the One, the All — with- 
out external rites or mental homage — imaj^c-worship, fetish-worship, 
ghost-worship and demon- worship. But, again, a man may be a good 
Hindu, who avows no belief at all, provided he pays respect to Brah- 
mans, does no injury to cows, and observes with scrupulous care the 
rules and customs of his caste. 

This may well be supplemented by a quotation from 
Guru Prasad Sen's "Introduction to the Study of Hindu- 
ism" (pp. a, 3) : 

Hinduism is not, and has never been, a religious organization. 
It is a pure social system, imposing on those wlio are Hindus the 
observance of certain social forms, and not the profession of particular 
religious beliefs. It is perfectly optional with a Hindu to choose from 
any one of the ditTercnt religious creeds with which the Slulstras 
abound; he may choose to have a faith and a creed, if he wants a 
creed, or to do without one. He may be an atheist, a deist, a uiono- 
theist, or a polytheist. a believer in the Vedas or SliAstras, or a sceptic 
as regards their autlu)rity, and his position as a Hindu cannot be 
questioned by anybody because of his beliefs or unbeliefs sc long as 
he conforms to social rules. 

In all this diversity, however, two general trends of 
religious thought — not infrec^uently found, strangely enough, 
in the same person — may be traced : Among the more intel- 

• Ibid, p. 136 ff. 



1 8 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

ligent the pantheistic philosophy of the Upa7iishads, espe- 
cially the Vedanta, is uppermost, with a constant tendency 
to diverge in one of three directions — polytheism, agnos- 
ticism or theism ; among the ignorant, polytheism is upper- 
most, with an invariable pantheistic tendency. Pantheism, 
with its corollary in the transmigration of souls, is thus 
common to all. This as a creed, caste as a social system, 
and grossest idolatry as the commonest expression of the 
religious instinct, constitute the real Triad of Hinduism 
to-day. 

V. Reform Movements from within Hinduism.— 
Buddhism might in a sense be called the first of these. The 
system preached by the great Shankara Acharya of the 
eighth century might be another candidate for a place in 
this category, except that it was after all but a re-statement 
of the philosophy of the Vedanta Darsana. Probably the 
first place rightly belongs to 

1. Aa/7/>.— He flourished early in the fifteenth century, 
lived in or near Benares, and, influenced largely by Moham- 
medanism, proclaimed a modified pantheism that came very 
near to monotheism. His verses, pointed, suggestive and 
often full of truth, are popular all over northern India to 
this day. Says Dr. Mitchell (" Hinduism,'' etc., p. 156) : 

In many respects Kabirism departs widely from Hinduism. It 
rejects caste, denounces Brahmanical arroj^ance and hypocrisy, and 
ridicules the vShastras. Idolatry is sinful. The temple is only a place 
for men to pray in. Renunciation of the world and contemplation 
are enjoined. The system runs easily into quietism and mysticism. 
One noble characteristic of it is the inculcation of moral purity ; 
while of ceremonial purity and outward forms of worship it takes 
little or no account. It looks on life as almost sacred, and inculcates 
universal kindness— in this respect reminding us of Buddhism. 

Kabir's followers are called k'abhpantJus {panth means 
path ); and while they are fairly numerous in West Central 
and North Central India (213,909 in the United Provinces 
in 1901). they have so largely conformed to Hinduism, at 
least in all outward forms, that they are classed simply as a 
Hindu sect. 

2. Sikhisvi. — A more radical movement on lines similar 
to Kabir's was led a century later by Xanak Shah, a Hindu 
from near Lahore. His evident aim was to coml)ine Hin- 
duism with the tenets of Islam — with naturally unsatisfac- 
tory results. The creed of the Sikhs ("disciples") has 
been described both as deism and pantheism : it certainly is 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA I9 

not monotheism. Their sacred book, compiled mainly by 
Guru ^(teacher) Arjun, fifth in succession to Nanak, is called 
the Adi-Granth ("the basal book"), and has, in the course 
of the centuries, been deified— is in fact their distinctive 
object of worship at the present day. Had it not been for 
persecution by the Mohammedans (especially Aurangzeb) 
and consequent development into a great political and mili- 
tary power, Sikhism would probably have long ago faded 
away. As it is, it numbers more than two million adherents, 
mainly in the Panjab. The Sikhs are, however, more and 
more remerging in Hinduism, so much so that the census of 
1 89 1 says : 

The only trustworthy method of distinguishing this creed was 
to ask if the person in question repudiated the services of the barber 
and the tobacconist ; for the precepts most strictly enforced nowadays 
are that the hair of the head and face must never be cut, and that 

smoking is a habit to be absolutely avoided Not only is a true 

Sikh generally called a Hindu in common parlance, but manv of those 
who are spoken of as Sikhs are not true Sikhs, but Hindus. 

3. The Brahmo Savidf-. — Its founder, Ram Mohan Roy, 
a Brahman of Bengal, beginning with a strong antipathy to 
idolatry t, passing through a period of Vedantism, and 
finally, through contact with Christianity and the Scriptures, 
reaching a definite theistic belief, organized the Brahmo 
Sa7mij\ and in 1830 opened the first Hindu Theistic church. 
He went to England in 1831 and died there in 1833. He 
was followed by Dabendra Nath Tagore, under whose 
leadership the Samaj in 1850 definitely rejected the infalli- 
bility of the Vedas. 

In 1857 Mr. Tagore was joined by the famous Keshab 
Chandar Sen, ' * whose religious views, as we heard from his 
own lips," says Dr. Mitchell, "were drawn in the first 
instance from the Bible and from the writings of Dr. Chal- 
mers" t- For a while the two leaders worked cordially 
together, but Tagore' s ideas were more or less reactionary, 
while the younger man was eagerly progressive and seemed 
to be drawing nearer to Christianity: so that in 1866, 
Mr. Sen and his friends separated themselves and formed 
the ' ' Brahmo Samaj of India, ' ' the older branch being 
known as the ' ' Adi (original) Brahmo Samaj . ' ' Another 
split occurred in 1878, when as the result of controversies 
growing out of the marriage of Mr. Sen's under-age 

* Samaj simxily means an association. 

t Under the influence, it has been suggested by some, of the teachings of Islam. 

X "Hinduism," etc., p. 217. 



20 HISTORICAL SKKTCH OP 

daughter to the Mahdrdjd of Kiicli Hehar uvho was not a 
Hrahmo). twotliirds of his followers, incliuling some of the 
Ixrst men in the Samaj witlulrew and formed the SaJharan 
(Universid) Stim.i/, leaving their former leader to call him- 
self and his remaining adherents "The New I)is|>ensation.**' 
On Mr. Sen s death in 18S4, Mr. P. C. Mo/.nmdar, not 
without protest from the "twelve apostles" whom the 
former had appointed, succeeded to tlie leadership of the 
" Church of the New Dispensation." and has since l)een the 
best known exponent of Ikahmoism. 

To accurately characterize this movement is very diffi- 
cult. Mr. Sen made much of the distinctly Christian doc- 
trines of the Fatherhood of G«j(1 and the brotherhood of 
man. and he once used the remarkable words, " None but 
Jesus, none but Jesus deserves this precious diadem, India : 
and none but Jesus .shall have it." But at the same time 
he declared all religions to be true, and ended by claiming 
distinct in.spiraticm for himself and introducing all sorts of 
extravagances both of doctrine and ceremonial. The most 
that can Ix; said for Brahmoi.sm is that it is a theistic eclecti- 
cism, and constitutes a va.st advance on orthodox Hinduism, 
in matters social as well as religiousf. What with its lack 
of definite l^liefs, and its endless sub-divisions, it is no 
wonder that it is making small progress, passing only from 
3,051 in 1 89 1 to just over 4.000 in 1901. 

4. T/if Ana Samdj.—VWQvXy different in many respects 
from the preceding is the movement staned in 1863 and 
formally organized in 1875 by a Hrahman from Kathiawdr 
(born 1827), who, after his initiation as a Sanydsi Hlindu 
ascetic), was known as Daydnand Saraswati. and who l)efore 
his death in 1883 had gained a large following. The 
leading tenets of the sect he established aret : i . The four 
Vedas alone, and of them only the Sanhitas or Hymns, are 
inspired. 2. There are three eternal substances— (»<kI, 
Spirit and Matter. 3. The soul is incor|K)real. but is always 
I>erfectly distinct from (kkI. 4. The soul is subject to re- 
birth, which may l)e in the form of a human iK-ing or an 
animal or a vegetable. 5. " Salvation is the state of eman- 
ci|)ation from pain and from subjection to birth and death, 
and of life, lilx-rty and hajipiness in the immensity of God." 

• IB • letter to Mas MQIIer hrdo^rlbr* U ••'•■ new HliidiiiBm which oomhiBCS 
Koaro ""■' '■*'^" "" ' ' •" "•■" i*hriM»«nUjr which bleoda togethrr At>oMoltc«l 
r»iih nil rnc« •• .. -. 

t F -r •■ HindnUni fast and I*r<»ent." |». «ti ffl; 

•Uo Mu; ... ..^. ; . uf IndU." p. 143 ■" 

: Taken mainly Iron* VoJ. .\V1. of the Cennaii of India. 1901. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 21 

To the credit of the Arya Samaj it is to be noted that it 
is opposed to caste, to idolatry, to child-marriage, to lavish 
expenditure at weddings and to pilgrimages : all of which 
points are unfortunately to be discounted by the fact that 
much of this opp<3sition. especially as to caste, is theoretical 
only. The positive weaknesses in it are tliat it is practically 
deistic rather than theistic ; that it is utterly illogical, Ix'ing 
based on the most fanciful and pre])osterous inter[)retation 
of the X'edas:- — Sanskritists of a/iv faith l)eing the judges ; 
that its advocates have in their discussions been largely 
marked by a spirit of conceit, narrowness, bigotry and bitter- 
ness seldom surpassed ; and that they have devoted their 
strength to attacking Christianity rather than the errors of 
Hinduism, the correction of which is their avowed raison 

The growth of the Aryas has been remarkable, especially 
in their stronghold, the North-west Provinces,' where in 
the decade 1S91 to 1901 an increase of 196 per cent, was 
recorded — the increase in native Christians within the same 
limits being just under 199 per cent. The explanation is 
probably to be found partly in the aggressive activity of 
their i)ropaganda ; partly in their imitation of Christian 
methods, not only in the use of tracts and ]\ii(l and volun- 
tary preachers, but in the establishment of schools, orphan- 
ages and colleges} ; and partly in the fact that while 
reforming certain abuses of Hinduism of which intelligent 
Hindus themselves are ashamed, they still appeal to Hindu 
pride in that they retain the old philosophy and cosmogony 
and the doctrine of the inspiration of at least a portion of 
the Vedas. Their progress is in spite of division ; for strife 
has waxed fierce between the consei"vatives, or vegetarians, 
and the liberals, or meat-eaters>5. In any case thev are a 
force to be reckoned with in the present missionary situation. 
It will take all the wisdom of Christian workers to meet 
their sophistries, all their gentleness to meet their exasper- 
ating tactics. 

5 Thcosophy. How far this can l)e called a reform 
movement is open to (juestion. Of its po]nilarity under its 
present high-priestess and interpreter, Mrs. Annie Besant, 

• The Aryiia cUim lh»t the Vedaii are the repositories of all knowledxv.aecuUr 
an well at religious: they read iato them the telegraph, the ftteain-etiKiae, and 
even the X-ray* ' 

♦ Now more sircursteW re-nante<i the "I'nited !*rovlncr» of Ajfra and Oudh " 

: They hA ' i:e« at Bareilly. CawDt>ore nnd Allahabad, a Hieh School 

■ IMrrriit.a* 'lore. and a number of <icattered achoolt* of lower fcrade, 
inclU'iinK a ',• 

t Ckiisfi ■!) irra-vHiea" and "fleshicA* ) they derlslvclv rail e.nch other • 



22 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

there is no doiiht. It may be called Hindu Pantheism Up 
to Date, or the six systems based on the I'panishads, the 
Yoga is its prototype. It differs from the \'ed»'inta in that 
the latter rejects tlie external universe as illusion ' miivti), 
while Theosophy re^^ards it as the manifestation of the Uni- 
versal Soul, just as the body is the manifestation of the 
individual soul. The great goal is the a])prehension of the 
identity of the individual self with the World-Self. Of the 
latter Mrs. Hesant says : * 

Theosophy postulates the existence of an eternal Principle, known 
only through its ctTects. No words can describe It, for words imply 
discriniinalions, and This is Al.L. We murmur, Absolute, Infinite, 
Unconditioned, — but the words mean naught. Sat. the Wise speak 
of: Bk-ness, not ev?n Being nor Existence. 

Transmigration of souls is one of the postulates. Of the 
post-tuortevi self she says: ("The desire for sentient life, 
for objective expression, that desire which set the Universe 
a-building, impels the Kgo to seek renewed manifestation : 
it is drawn to the surroundings which its own past has 
made necessary for its further progress." 

To the modified Yoga system modern Theosophy has 
added, among other things, a most thorough-going applica- 
tion of the doctrine of evolution, and as thorough-going an 
ada])tation of the essentially Christian doctrine*— not even 
hinted at in the Upanishads — of the Fatherhood of God and 
the Brotherhood of man.t; To the skilful use of these bor- 
rowed features, combined with a whole-souled adulation of 
everything Indian (including even idolatry, as a kind of 
kindergarten), is largely due the popularity of this cult — a 
popularity which has found marked manifestation in the 
establishment of a Hindu College at Henares. 

Doubt as to the reality or permanence of this reform, if 
reform it can Ix; called, is deej^ned by the fact that the writ- 
ings of .Madame lilavalsky. whose gross imi)ositions in con- 
nection with the magical side of Theosoi>hy were shown up 
in 1884 by the Madras '* Christian College Magazine. ">i are 
accepted! I as a part of the authoritative basis of Indian The- 
osophy. 

V. MoHAM.MEDANiSM or Isi. \M,* the religion of sixty- 
two millions of the inhabitants of India, is an eclectic sys- 

• " RcliKiout STNtcmii of the World .*• p. f^43. 

t n)Jd. p '.4V 

: Srr p«iK'r bv Dr. A. H. Kwinji, lead txrfore North India Conference of ChrU- 
tian Workem. 1<K)2 

y Srr «1ho c.nrretf i« " \%\* Very .Much I'nx'eUed." 

I •The Srlf and \\* Sheathn." p. 3 

*.So-ciillcd after \K» chJefdiily. tfittnatxon to Alla>t Much of thr foUowmg 
aketch in taken from Dr. rhilip SchafT iSchafT-Heriog Kncyclopre^dia). 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 23 

tein. originally composed of Jewish, heathen and Christian 
elements, which were scattered through Arabia l>efore Mo- 
hammed. It borrowed monotheism and many rites Ce. g. 
circumcisionj and ceremonies from the Jews. Professedly a 
restoration of the faith of Abraham, it traces its line tlirough 
Ishmael. In relation to Christianity it might Ixf styled the 
great Unitarian heresy of the ICast. Christ is acknowledged 
as the greatest prophet next to Mohamme<l, whose coining 
he is claimed to have predicted when he promised the Para- 
clete. His birth from a virgin is acknowledged, as also his 
second coming to judge the earth; but tlie doctrine of his 
divinity is regarded as blasphemy -still more the doctrine of 
the Trinity. The inspiration of the Pentateuch, of the 
Psalms, and of the (losj^ls, is admitted; with these two 
(pialifications, that all have been superseded by the Ouran, 
and that the Gospels have been largely interpolated by 
Christians. The crucifixion is rejected. It is held that 
Christ was caught up alive into the fourth heaven after his 
arrest, and that someone — probably Judas — was crucified in 
his place. The Christian elements in the (Juran are obvi- 
ously taken from apocry]>hal sources, not from the Gospels. 
With these inaccurate Jewish and Christian traditions Mo- 
hammed mingled, with some modifications, heathen sensual- 
ity, polygamy, slavery, and even an approach to heathen 
idolatry in the superstitious veneration of the famous black 
stone in the Kaaba at Mecca. 

Starting with the fundamental iloctrine, "There is nt) 
God i)ut Allah, and Mohammed is his j)rophet," Islam has 
six articles of faith. — God. fatalism (under the guise of pre- 
destination), angels, sacred books (especially the Ourdn). 
prophets, resurrection and judgment (w'nh eternal reward 
and punishment". Absolute submission to Allah's will is 
the first duty of the Moslem. Prayer, fasting, almsgiving 
and pilgrimages are enjoined. Not onl> ]>olygamy. but 
concubinage, is permitted, ordinary Moslems being restricted 
to four wives, pashas and sultans being allowed as many as 
they please." Believers are promised a sensual paradise, 
with special rewards for those who die fighting for the 
faith. 

The Mohammedan era dates from the Hegira (more cor- 
rectly, Hijrah I, July 15th, 622 A. D., when Mohammed fled 
for his life from Mecca to Medina. Beginning as a poor 
caravan -attendant, or camel-driver, and marr>'ing in his 



The prophet hiini(«irbad fourteen t\ ives, besides concubines. 



24 HISTORICAL SKETCH Oh' 

twenty-fifth year the rich widow Khadijah, he received at 
the age of forty-two (A. D. 612) what he believed to be his 
divine call, through Gabriel, to the prophetic office. He 
had but little success in securing adherents until the perse- 
cution he provoked compelled him to flee to Medina. There 
he was accepted as the prophet of God, took the field with 
an ever-increasing army of followers, and eight years later 
entered Mecca in triumph. Of the sincerity of his original 
purposes there can be little question. He was a zealous re- 
former; a morbid imagination, combined with the seeming 
need of supernatural sanction for his reforms, did the rest. 
Then with success came ambition, with power came sensual 
passion. The reformer of Mecca became the conquest- 
seeking autocrat of Medina. 

The Quran Mohammed professed to have received from 
Gabriel piece by piece. A year after his death his amanu- 
ensis, Zaid, collected the scattered fragments "from palm 
leaves, and tablets of white stone, and from the breasts of 
men." The 6,225 verses are arranged in 114 Suras, and re- 
motely resemble Hebrew poetry. It contains injunctions 
and warnings, interspersed with narratives about Adam, 
Noah, Moses, Abraham, Ishmael, John the Baptist, Jesus 
and many others. It abounds in historical blunders and 
tedious repetitions, but has also passages of great poetic 
beauty. It is pointed to as Mohammed's one and conclusive 
miracle, though he is also sometimes credited with having 
cut in two the moon and then restored it. 

There can be little doubt that the spread of Islam in 
India was mainly due to the power of the sword, especially 
during and after the reign of Aurangzeb. Tippoo Sahib, 
for instance, Sultan of Mysore, secured 70,000 " converts " 
in a single day. At the same time, other motives than fear, 
some of them not more worthy, have contributed their quota. 
The resultant Mohammedanism bears the marks of its mixed 
ancestry and its Hindu environment. Tlie account in the 
census of India for \)i (v. 16S) is instructive : 

Shiah andSuiini* joined issue without recourse to arms. The 
^'ood men amongst tlie teachers (the Islami/ed Hindus) received 
divine honors as if thev had never left the Hrahmanic fohl; and in 
default of the pil^rima^e to Mecca, whirh was beyond the reach of 
the majority, resort was had to the tom])S of the canoni/ed, where 
fruit and flowers are olTcrcd, as to one of the orthodox pantjieon, and 



•The Shfahs. who are jrreatly in the minority in Iiuha (in f«ct everywhere 
except in Persia) maintain that .Mi . son in law of Mohammed, was his first l«'KHi- 
mate successor, and so reject the first three Caliphs accepted by the Sunnis. Ordi- 
narily the strife between the two sects is hitter to a degree. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 25 

often by Hindu and Moslem alike ! Saints are the special feature 
of the Indian development of Islam, and the worship of relics follows. 
In some places there is a hair or two. in others a slipper, elsewhere a 
foot-print, of the Prophet, to which the devout pay homage, and are 
rewarded by miracles. Even where the two religions do not partici- 
pate in the same festival, the more simple has borrowed for Indian 
use some of the attributes of the more elaborate, as in the case of 
the procession of paper tombs at the Muharram*, and the subsequent 
dipping of the imitation fabrics in water, as in the Durga Puiat of 
Bengal. 

At the opposite extreme from the conservative though 
somewhat Hinduized majority, there is a small but influ- 
ential progressive party formed by the late Sir Saiyad 
Ahmad Khan, and finding its best expression in the splendid 
college founded by him at Aligarh. The important conces- 
sions made by this party are the recognition of reason as 
having a place in the interpretation of the Quran, and the 
rejection of the^ great mass of Moslem tradition 

Viewing Islam in India as a whole, the closing sentence 
of Mr. Tisdall's able chapter on this theme {'' hidia, lis 
History,'' etc., p. 77, ff.) compels assent : 

In spite of its many half truths, the existence of which we mis- 
sionaries thankfully acknowledge, and upon which we base our at- 
tempts to induce Moslems to accept the full li^lit of the Gospel, it is 
not too much to say that, in the life and character of its Founder, the 
" Chosen '' of God, and His ideal for the human race (as held by Mos- 
lems), Islam has preserved an enduring and ever active principle of 
corruption, degradation and decay. 



CHRISTIANITY IX INDIA. 
Missionary Bec;innin(;s. 

The earliest known Christian missionary to India, sent 
apparently at the request of certain Indian' merchants, al- 
ready Christians, was Pantaenus, the Principal of the Chris- 
tian College at Alexandria (about A. D. iSoi. Theophilus 
Indicus, paying a passing visit to India in Constantine's 
time "found a flourishing Christian Church; and among 
the Bishops at the Nicene Council (A. D. 325) was John, 
the Metropolitan of Persia and ' of the Great India.' " Of 
the further history of these Christians, and of the Roman 
Catholic movement later on, Rev. J. A. Graham, in his 

* A great Mohammedan festival, which with the Shiahs is a memorial of the 
death of their martyrs, Hasan and Hussain, whose tombs thev carry in effiKv 

t Durga V\\]A is the great Hindu festival in honor of Durgcl or Kk\\ the cruel 
wife of Shiva. " 



26 HISTORICAL SKKTCH UV 

"Missionary Kxpansion of the Reformed Churches," says 
(pp. 1 02, 103) : 

Later they came under the inlluencc «>f llic Nestorian Church of 
Tersia, and when it was destroyed by the Moliauuncdati conquest, the 
isohilcd Churrh in India grew ij^norant and impure. Vasco da Gama 
found these Christians enjoying much ])olitical inHucnce, and the 
Portu>^uese, in cxtenrhn^ their dominions from Goa alon^ the west 
coast, tried to force them into ecclesiastical subjection to Rome. 
With the help of the Infjuisition they succeeded for a time with the 
communities in the coast villavjes. and these, numberin>» perhaps 
150,000* are still known as Syro Romati Christians. Claudius Bu- 
chanan, who visited those who still adhered to the Syrian Church and 
looked to Antioch as their centre, i)ersuadcd them to Irai.slate the 
<TOspcls into their Malayan vernacular, and at his suggestion the 
Church Missionary Society sent missionaries in 1.S16 to encouraj^e the 
Church and aid it to reform itself. The alliance, which lasted for 
twentv-onc vears. had ^ood results, and there is now a considerable 
partv of reform within a Church of 2<«o,ooo" (248,737 in census of 
1901 ). 

Of the work of the Romish Church, to which the census 
of 1901 j;ives 1.122.27S adherents, the same author says 
(p. 103) 

The best trailitions of Roman Catholic Missions cluster around 
the name of the ^reat and devoted Jesuit, Francis Xavier, who landed 
at Goa in 1542, and of whom Bishop Cotton wrote to Dean Stanley: 
" While he deserves the title of the Apostle of India for his enerj^y, 
self-SHcril'ice. and piety, I consider his whole method thorouj^hly wrong, 
and its results in India and Ceylon deplorable, and that the aspect of 
the Native Christians at (.foa and elsewhere shows that Romanism has 
had a fair trial at the conversion of India, and has entirely failed " 

In this connection the following from Mr. Tisdall 
(" India : Its History," etc., p. i;;), is of interest : 

The corrupt and merely notninal Chri«tianitv of many of these 
Roman Catholics often brings discredit on their Christian profession, 
and is the main reason whv Huropcans tliiiik they have grounds for 
coiidemninv; Christian servants as often more dishonest aufl unscrupu- 
lous than Hindu and MohHuimcdan servants. Comparatively few Pro- 
testant Christians arc to be found as the servants of Ivuropcans. 

Of Dutch religious enterprise, which began soon after 
the overthrow of the Portuguese by that power (Ceylon, 
1658, India, 1663), little need be said, except that the work 
was strangely superficial, no earnest attempt l)eing made to 
bring the Hible or si)iritual traching within the reach of the 
people. Though more than half a million converts were 
reported in Ceylon alone, Protestant Christianity had prac- 

*This i<« .nn iiicxplicablr unc1er-«iitim«tr. Tot the c^mua or 1901 Kives 322,663. 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 2'] 

tically ceased to exist in the isUiiid in twelve years after 
the Dutch pcjwer had passed ( 1794J from control ! 

To Denmark and to Frederick IV.. under the influence of 
Dr. Liitkens, the court chaplain, belongs the honor of send- 
ing to India the first Protestant missionaries, Ziegenbalg and 
Pliitschau, who reached the Danish colony, Tranquehar ion 
the Coromandel Coast, south of Madras City;, on July 9, 
1706. The greatest of the Danish-Halle missionaries — and 
one of the greatest the world has known — was Christian F. 
Schwartz, whose service (Tramiuebar, Trichinopoly and 
Tan jore), extended from 1750 to his death in 179S. "He 
was," says Mr. Graham,-^' " indefatigable in his missionary 
tours, and wherever he went his devoted, modest and unsel- 
fish life, his care for the poor, his scholarshi]) and knowl- 
edge of the native languages and thought, and his marvel- 
lous personal influence fascinated luiropeans and Indians." 
In illustration of his influence with native rulers it is worth 
recording that the Hindu Rajah of Tanjore on his death-bed 
entrusted to Schwartz his adopted son Serfojee, with the ad- 
ministration of all the affairs of his country : and that the 
powerful Mohammedan Prince. Haidar All, of Mysore, 
when treating with the British said: " Send none of your 
agents ; send me the Christian missionary, and I will 
receive him." 

British missions in India began with William Carey, 
"the consecrated cobbler. ' Overflowing with enthusiasm 
for the cause of missions, and filling his brief pastorates at 
home with prayer and preaching along this line, he finally. 
in 1792, by the preaching of tlie famous sermon on Is. 
LIV : 2, 3, with its two-fold division, " Ivxpect great things 
from God: attempt great things for God," brought about 
the organization of the Baptist Missionary Association, 
and himself became its first missionary. Arriving in 
India T 17931 during the period of the I^ast India Company's 
bitterest opposition to missionary enterprise, he spent six 
years in Calcutta and Dinajpore ostensibly as an indigo- 
planter, and then was compelled to take refuge, together 
with Marshnian and Ward, who had been sent to re-inforce 
him. in Serampore, a town under Danish rule, thirteen 
miles north of Calcutta. The first care of the " Serampore 
Triad " was the translation and printing of the Scriptures. 
The result was the production of parts or the whole of the 



•'* Missionary Bxpaosion," etc., p. 57. 



28 HISTORICAL SKKTCH OF 

Bible in nearly fortv'^- languages and dialects, twenly-fuur 
of them of India.' Education, too, had a large place 
in their work. Not only were vernacular schools estab- 
lished, but out of the earnings of the missionaries them- 
selves the splendid Serampore College was built. 

Not the least of Carey's services was the missionary fire 
which he kindled outside of his own denomination. The 
London Missionary Society, founded in 1795, was a direct 
fruit of his enthusiasm ; and the Church Missionary Society, 
now the greatest in the world, owed its inception ' 1 799)1' 
in no small degree tu the interest he aroused. 

The " Hay-.stack prayer-meeting ' at Williamstown, 
Mass., did for the United States very much what the work 
and prayers of Carey did for England, and bore its first 
manifest fruit in the organization of the A. B. C. F. M. in 
iSio, and then in the departure for India in 181 2 of Judson, 
1 1 all. Xott. and two others. Refused the right of residence in 
Calcutta, Judson, who had meanwhile become a Baptist, 
,ent «m to Burmah. while Hall and Xott began the great 
\ork of the American P.oard in the region of Bombay. 

This enumeration of ])eginnings leading up to the establish- 
ment of American Presbyterian Missions would not be com- 
plete without mention of the famous Scottish ** Educational 
Trio." Duff, Wilson, and Anderson. The last two founded 
nstitutions in Bombay and Madras respectively, following 
ines laid down in Calcutta in 1S30 by the first. Of him 
Mr. ( Graham says ' ' Missionary Ivxpansion," etc., p. 113): 
Alexander InilT was iljc epoch-making missionary, who. ihongh 
Nlouily opposed bv the use and prejudice of ihe day proved that the 
I'.n^ili'sh language was 'the most cUeclive medium of Indian illumina- 
tion." * * • » * He opened his school in 1S30 with five pupils. 
Hv the end of the first week he had 300 applicants for admission. 
N'ine years afterwards the five had become Soo, and the (Kuernor- 
t;eneral declared that the system had produced "unparalleled results." 
Notable converts were won from the ujipcr classes, among them Knsh 
na Mohan Hanerjee, a Brahman of high social position and the ac- 
complished editor of the /m/uirer, who was, until his death a few 
vcars ago, the recognized leader of the Native Christian community of 
Hcngal. /\n idea of the influence of this work may be foimcd from 
Sherring's statement tliat in 1S71 nine of Duff's educated converts 
were ministers, ten were catechists, seventeen were professors and 
higher grade teachers, eight were Government servants, and four were 
assistant surgeons and doctors. One of them, the Hon. Kali Charan 
Hanerji. LL. B . was i 1S97) appointed by the Senate i>f Calcutta Ini- 
versity as their representative on the Bengal Legislative Council. 

•Dr. C.corKc Snuth'h ■" Conversiuii of India." p. 180. They enlit.tf<l in tiic work 
the services also of the devotetl Chn plain*, Heury Martyn and Thoniiihon. HDd even 
of n Roman Catholic priest. 

IHeKun as " Society for Missions tu Africa uud the h.a»t," and changed to ' C. 
M. b." in 1812. 



the missions ix india 29 

The American Prksmvtkrian Mission. 

It was before the organization (1837) of the present 
Foreign Board, and while the Western Foreign Missionary 
Society (formed in 1831 by the Synod of Pittsburgh; was 
still in existence, that the Rev. John C. Lowrie, afterward 
for fifty- five years one of the Secretaries o( the l^oard. and 
the Rev. William Reed, with their wives, were sent to India 
to lay the foundations of the work which the Presbyterian 
Church had resolved to carry on in that land. The selection 
of the particular field in which they should begin their labors 
was left to their judgment after consultation with friends of 
the work in India. Leaving America, (Xew Castle, Del. j, 
in May, 1833, the}' reached Calcutta in October of the same 
year, and after getting the best information available, they 
decided to begin the work at Lodiana, then a frontier town 
of the Northwest Provinces. It was the gateway to the 
Pan jab, a territory at that time under Ranji't Singh, the 
famous ruler of the Sikhs. Dr. Lowrie, in his "Two Years 
in India," after stating some more general reasons which 
intluenced his colleague and himself in their decision, says : 

Having now the history of nearly seventeen years to confirm 
the opinion, I have no doubt that Lodiana was on many accounts 
preferable to any other as a point from which to commence our efforts. 
Other cities had a larger population, and could be reached in less time 
and at less expense, but at no other could more favorable introducing 
intUiences have been enjoyed; at no other could our position have 
been more distinctly marked, nor our characters and object more accu- 
rately estimated by the foreign residents of the upper provinces; 
at no other were wc less likely to find ourselves laboring " in another 
man's line of things made ready to our hand," or to occupy ground 
that other bodies of Christians would shortly cultivate ; and, not to 
insist on the important consideration of health, no other place could 
be more eligible in its relation to other and not less dark regions of the 
earth in its facilities for acquiring a number of the languages chiefly 
spoken in those parts. 

While Messrs. Lowrie and Reed were detained at Cal- 
cutta, it became evident that Mrs. Lowrie "s health, which 
had been impaired before leaving America, was rapidly fail- 
ing, and on November 21st she was called to her rest. Soon 
after this Mr. Reed, too, began to fail in health, and, reluct- 
antly turning toward America again, died on board ship and 
was buried in the Bay of Bengal. The solitary remaining 
member of the band, as soon as arrangements for the toil- 
some journey could be completed, turned undismayed 
toward the far north-west, and, journeying by boat up the 
Ganges to Cawnpore, and over four hundred miles further 



30 HISTORICAL SKKTCH ( )1- 

ill a palankeen, reached Lodiana on the 5th of November, 
1834. Reinforcements, consisting of Rev. Messrs. John 
Newton and James Wilson and their wives, arrived a year 
later-'- — only just in time to relieve Dr. Lowrie. whose 
broken health forbade longer stay in India. 

In the course of time not only did this one station grow 
to be an extensive mission, but two other missions were 
added, the Farukhabad or United Provinces Mission in 
1838, and the Kolhapur or Western India Mission in 1870. 
The missionaries of each of these missions are organized 
into a separate body, meeting annually, and controlling the 
location of its own members, the appointment of preachers, 
teachers, etc., the administration of the funds received from 
home, and the work in general, all under the superintend- 
ence and sanction of the Board in New York. The two 
northern missi(jns are so closely allied, both geographically 
and linguistically, that, in addition to the annual meeting of 
each, they meet in joint session triennially, and have the 
privilege of transfer of missionaries from the one to 
the other without reference to the Board. Details of 
the work of these missions can be best obtained from 
a brief survey of the individual stations. 

TiiH P.\NjAj{ (Lodiana) Mission. — As already inti- 
mated, Mr. Lowrie's objective, when, after consultation with 
missionaries at Calcutta, including Carey, Marshman and 
DufT, he started up the Ganges, was the "Land of five 
rivers '" i/\n/J, five and <id, water), then in the hands of the 
Sikhs. While waiting for the opening, however, the mis- 
sionaries laid foundations at Lodiana as broad and deep as if 
no further point had been in mind ; so that to 
Lodiana this day Lodiana is one of the most important 

stations of the mission. One of the first per- 
manent agencies e.stablished was the Press. Two presses 
and fonts of type were early on the .scene, and a practical 
printer, who went out in 1S3S, soon trained a corps of 
efhcient native workmen. The fruit of this work has been 
over 350,ooo.oo<i page< of Christian truth. 

The Anglo- Vernacular High School here was the first 
started in North India, and has been doing efficient work 
through all the years. Much later (1877) a school for 
Native Christian boys was brought here from Lahore, and 
after a four years' suspen.sion for lack of an available mi.ssion- 



•II took this party five and a half mouths to make the journey from Calcutta- 
three months in a bont to Faiehgarh. the rest of the way in a ' palankeen drawn 
by oxen." The journey require* forty hours now ! 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 3 1 

ary to manage it, was re-opened in 1883 by the Rev. K. M. 
Wherry, D. D., in a building provided by the W. F. M. S. 
(Philadelphia). An industrial department was added, with 
instruction in shoe-making, carpentering and weaving of 
Turkish rugs ; and it is now one of the most important 
institutions for Christian boys in all North India. 

From the first, energetic evangelistic work has been 
carried on both in the city and in the great out-lying dis- 
trict/'- A part of the result is to be seen in the Lodiana 
church, and in the hundreds of Christians scattered through 
the villages and organized into several small churches. 
Ivffective work for women also has always been a marked 
feature in this station, and Jagraon, an out-station, has 
become an important centre for work among village women. 
At Khanna. another out-station, is a training school for vil- 
lage preachers and teachers, founded by Rev. E. P. Newton. 

During all the earlier years the missionaries were hoping 
and praying for the opening of the Panjab. With the close 
of the second Sikh war, in 1S49, tlie opening came. Ranjit 
Singh, dying in 1S39. had left no successor capable of 
wielding his iron sceptre, and the Sikh council of Sirdars 
had rashly embarked on two unprovoked and disastrous wars 
against the British power. The second ended in the annexa- 
tion of the Panjab ; and almost on the heels ot 
Lahore the British forces, Messrs. John Newton and 

C. W. Forman entered Tahore, the capital, and 
began mission work. From the very beginning the mis- 
sionaries received the cordial sympathy and support of such 
distinguished Christian otTicers as Lord Lawrence, Sir Donald 
McLeod, Sir Herbert Edwardes and Sir R. Montgomery. 
A school was opened and street preaching begun soon after 
the arrival of the missionaries : and in this work these 
brethren were permitted to continue, Dr. Newton for forty- 
two and Dr. P^orman for forty-five years. Their influence 
upon the life and thought of the entire province was very 
great and still abides. It is of interest to note that the one 
lived to see all his four sons and his one daughter ( Mrs. 
Forman) in the mission field around him, and the other, 
three of His sons and two of his daughters. 

The boys' school, now known as the Rang Mahal 
School, founded in the early days of the mission, and pre- 
sided over by Dr. Forman till his death in 1S94, is one 
of the largest and best known in the Panjab. In connection 

•It was at Auandpnr in the Rupar district, attached to I.odiana Station, that 
Rev. I^vi Janvier, then stationed at SabAthu, was murdered in 1S64. 



32 HISTORICAI. SKKTCII OT 

witli it, in i.s^)4, a Collegiate department was opened, which 
was later atTiliated with Calcutta University, with Rev. J. 
A. Henry as its first President. Five years later, owing to 
the death of Mr. Henry and the reduction of the Mission 
staff by sickness and death, it was indefinitely suspended. 
In 1886, however. College classes were re-opened by Dr. 
Forman and Rev. H. C. Velte. The institution was known 
simply as the Mission College, but at the death of Dr. 
Forman, who was succeeded as President by Dr. J. C. 
R. Ewing, it was appropriately named the Forman Christian 
College. It opened with a roll of fifteen students, but has 
grown to be the most largely attended College — Government 
or Missionary — north of Calcutta. The enrollment was 368 
in 1902. The President and four of the Professors are 
Fellows of the Panjab University, and have had no small 
share in shaping the educational progress of the province. 
In 1889 commodious buildings, which had been erected on 
a site valued at 20,000 rupees, given by the Government, 
were formally dedicated, Lord Lansdowne and other dis- 
tinguished guests l)eing present The total cost of the 
buildings was 56,000 rupees, of which 20,000 were a grant 
from government in addition to the site. Substantial addi- 
tions to the property of the College have been made from 
time to time. These have been provided through the gifts 
of individuals and government, at a cost of about 100,000 
rupees. The income annually from tuition fees is about 
23,000 rupees. This, together with 54,000 rupees from 
government, provides for the salaries of all non-missionary 
profes.sors, general ex])enditure upon laboratory, library, 
repairs, etc. and covers as well a considerable portion of the 
salaries of the four mi.ssionaries. 

Evangelistic effort finds its opportunities in the Lobar 
(rate Chapel and in an extensive district work. Woman's 
work, which has been earnestly prosecuted, has its main 
centres in two large .schools and a dispensary. Labours in 
behalf of luiropeans have borne fruit in a strong Scotch Pres- 
byterian Church ; and perhaps the best result of all of the 
seed-sowing of every form is the self-supporting Native 
Presbyterian Church of Xaulakha, Lahore. 

Saharanpur was one of the first cities occupied 
Saharanpur by our missionaries. Here labored for half a 

century the mi.ssionaries of the Covenanter or 

Reformed Presbyterian Church. Here was established in 

183S a Boys' Or])hanage, from which have gone forth some 

of our most distinguished evangelists. Tiiis institution has 



THE MISSIONS IX INDIA 33 

in recent years been greatly enlarged, and industrial training 
on an extensive scale is being carried on under the suptr- 
vision of Rev. C. W. Forman, M. I)., whose latest addition 
to the course is a business department. There are now 
(1903) 160 boys in the orphanage, about half of whom are 
the ingatherings from the terrible famines of 1897 and 1899. 
Here, too. is the Theological Seminary of the Synod of 
India (established in 1S84). where have been trained not 
only many of the most effective preachers of our own mis- 
sion, but some of those of the Scotch Presbyterian Mission 
in Rajputand. A school for the wives of the students has 
also rendered valuable service ; and woman's work in 
general has one of its largest and best organized centres at 
this station. A general dispensary has long been in opera- 
tion, where, in 1900, 21,900 patients were treated; and 
under mission management is the Municipal Leper Asylum, 
where 19 out of the 32 inmates have become Christians. 

Ambala, situated in the centre of a splendid 
Ambala rural district, and the headquarters of the 

great military district of Sirhind, was early 
chosen as a mission station . and good work has been done 
both in the city and at the Cantonments four miles away. 
The Boys' High School in the former has maintained an 
excellent stand for scholarship, ranking second in the prov- 
ince in some years. Two-thirds of the inmates of the Leper 
Asylum, which was established in 1848, are now Christians. 
In connection with the well-equipped " Philadelphia Hos- 
pital for Women,"' there were during the year 1900, 210 in- 
patients and over 18,000 out-patients. Extensive zenana 
work is carried on. and village work on a large scale at five 
main centres in the district. 

The city of Jalandhar has the distinction of 
Jalandhar being the first point occupied within the terri- 

tory over which the Sikh Raja Ran jit Singh 
held sway. No' sooner had the victory of the Knglish in 
the first Sikh war been announced than the missionaries at 
Lodiana sent one of their number. Rev. Joseph Porter, to 
inspect this field and to arrange for the location of an assist- 
ant there. This assistant was the Rev. Oolak Xath, the 
first convert baptized at Lodiana, and the first native minister 
of our Church in India. He went to Jalandhar in 1846, 
and there he labored wisely and faithfully for nearly half a 
century. For several years before the death of Mr. Golak 
Nath and for all the years since, this station has been occu- 
pied by American missionaries, who carry on the three-fold 



34 HISTORICAL SKKTCH OF 

work of ew-ingelistic preaching in city and surrounding 
villages, educational work in scliools for h>oys and girls, and 
work among the women in the zenanas. The Rev. Dr. 
C. B. Newton has for many years been in charge, and has 
conducted extensive work among the low caste population 
of the outlying districts. A son of the first preacher in 
Jalandhar is in charge of the work at Phillour out-station. 
Kapurthala. too, a native state, where work had been sus- 
pended for thirty years, has recently been re-occupied as an 
out-station, with the full consent of the friendly Maharajah. 

The work in Dehra Doon was begun in 1S53, 
Dehra by Rev. J. S. Woodside. The Dehra Valley 

CDoon) lies between the first low range of 
mountains called the Sewaliks and the higher range of the 
Himalayas. It is the seat of a famous shrine of the Sikhs, 
and is visited by many thousands of devotees every year. 
It is also a military cantonment where the Gurkha or Xe- 
palese soldiery of the British army are stationed, thus 
affording an opportunity to evangelize a class quite inaccess- 
ible as yet in their native land. Since the establishment of 
the mission, Dehra Doon has become famous for its Chris- 
tian girls' boarding-school, which, from very small begin- 
nings, has grown not only to a splendid size, but to a posi- 
tion of large influence in the Native Christian community 
of Northern India. Its present prosperity is, under God, 
largely due to the wisdom and self-denying zeal of the two 
ladies at first connected with it — Mrs. Heron, the wife of 
the Rev. David Heron, and Miss Kate L. Beatty. 

It is of interest to note in this connection, as .setting 
forth the principles that underlie all such work in India, 
the purposes sought by this school, as presented by Mr. 
Heron in a paper read before the Allahabad Missionary 
Conference : 

ist. To j^ive the children the comforts and advantages of a home. 

2d. To ^\\c thcni the highest intellectual culture that they are 
capable of receiving. 

3d. To bring tlicni to Christ, and to cultivate in them the Chiis- 
tian virtues. 

4th. To lead the native Christians to value the education of their 
daughters by making them pay for their children's support when they 
are able to do so. 

The girls' school has for some time j^ast had over one 
hundred pupils, and has recently been raised to the lower 
College status, /. e., teaching to the First Arts examination. 
Other activities include a successful High School for boys 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 35 

extensive zenana and district work, and both a Native and a 
European Church. 

Mussoorie or Landour Station, a delightful 
Woodstock, sanatariuni, thirteen miles from Dehra and 
Mussoorie 6,000 feet above it (at an elevation of 7,000 

feet), is mainly of interest as the seat of Wood- 
stock School. It was started in 1847 through the influence 
of the Dehra missionaries, and was moulded into its present 
effective form largely through the executive ability of Mrs. 
J. L. Scott, for many years its Principal. The primary 
object of the institution was to furnish an education for the 
children of our missionaries. The shape that it finally took 
was a school of the higher grade, for the instruction not 
only of the daughters of missionaries (and the sons also, up 
to a certain age), but also for European, Eurasian and 
native Christian girls. The largest number of pupils is 
from the second of these classes, of mixed luiropean and 
Indian descent — a class greatly needing the care and training 
afforded by such a school. 

The school was some years ago raised to the College 
standard, and commands to a marked degree the confidence 
of all ranks of Anglo-Indian life. The longest principal- 
ship since that of Mrs. Scott has been that of Rev. and 
Mrs. H. M. Andrews. 

Very early in the mission's history (1836) 
Sabathu Sabathu, on the lower range r4,500 feet) of 

the Himalayas, was occupied, partly with a 
view to its usefulness as a sanatariuni for invalid mission- 
aries, partly as a centre for work among the Hill tribes. In 
the former regard it has not been valuable, but good work 
in the other line, and on general educational and evangelistic 
lines, has been done there. It is best known, however, as 
the home of one of the largest leper asylums in India, with 
which the names of the late Dr. John Xewton and of Dr. 
M. B. Carleton are most intimately associated. 

In his "History of the American Presbyterian 
Hoshyarpur Missions in India " Dr. Xewton says: 

Hoshyarpiir was occupied in 1S67. It contains 
20,000 people and is the chief town, after Jalandhar. in the country 
l)'ing between the Sutlej and the Beeas. It is within half a dozen 
miles of the lower hills which flank the great Himalayan range of 
mountains, and much of the civil district of Hoshyarpur, with a 
population of 900,000, lies among the hills. Of the inhabitants of 
this district, 550,000, according to the late census, are Hindus, 290,000 
Mohammedans, and 59,000 Sikhs. The Station was occupied in the 
first instance by the Rev. Guru Dass Moitra, who very soon, however, 
gave place to the Rev. Kali Charan Chatterjee. 



T,^' iiisTOkicAi. ski:tlh of 

Tlie peculiar interest attaching to Hoshyarpur district is 
the fact thai it has been entirely under the control of native 
workers. Its development along evangelistic lines has fully 
justified the confidence placed in those in charge. Prosjxr- 
ous Christian coninuinities have grown up in various towns 
and villages in the district. The Christians number over 
one thousand. 

Dr. Chatterjee has been in charge of this station for 
more than thirty years. A ('.iris' School and Orphanage 
was established in iSS8, which continues under the eflicient 
charge of Mrs. Chatterjee. Medical work has been recently 
l)egun by Miss Dora Chatterjee. M. D. 

This promising field was occupied by Dr. F.J. 
Fcrozepur Newton in 1 882. and extensive district work has 

been a marked feature from the beginning. 
A Woman's Hospital was erected in 1893, chiefly through 
the exertions of Mrs. Newton. Attached to Ferozepur as 
an out-station — soon to be made a separate station — is 
Kasur, the centre of a large and ]iromisin.- village work. 

Tm: F-VRiKiiAHAi) ok United Provincks Mission. — 
The upsetting of a Ganges boat and the consequent loss of 
some parts of a printing press led to the establishment of a 
new mission. Rev. James Mcl^wen, of the Lodiana Mis- 
sion's re-inforcing party of 1S36, was left at Allahabad, the 
capital of the North-west Provinces, to replace 
Allahabad the loss, and the opening for work seemed so 

])romising that it was decided that he should 
return and settle there. When Rev. Joseph Warren came 
in 1839, a press was established in a bath room in his house ; 
and a native boy, who had been cared for by the mission, 
was instructed in the art of printing, and later became not 
only one of the proprietors of the press, but an elder in the 
Presbyterian Church. The same year with Mr. Warn-n 
came Rev. J. H. Morrison, who. after his first furlough, 
joined the Lodiana Mission and filled t)Ut forty-three years of 
service. It was at Allahabad that Dr. A. A. Hodge, too, 
afterward the great Princeton theologian. s|x}nt his two 
years of missionary life. 

Next after the press, educational work was taken up, and 
has always l)een a prominent feature. The Jumna Nlission 
High School was one of the earliest in the province, and has 
done effective work through all the >ear> of its history. In 
connection with it a College department, with Rev. A. H. 
Kwing, Ph.D.. as its first Principal, was opened in i^>o2, to 



TIIK MISSIONS IN INDIA 37 

» meet llie obvious need, not only for a mission college at tlie 
Provinces educational centre, but for an institution to do for 
this mission somethiui^^ of the same splendid service that has 
been rendered by h'orman Christian College for the Panjab 
Mission. 

Meanwhile (in 1SS7', under the initiative of Rev. J. J. 
Lucas, a boarding school for Christian girls, somewhat 
on the lines of the one at Dchra, was opened at Allahabad, 
teaching girls up to the University Entrance standard, and 
calliu);^ for the services of three missionary ladies and several 
assistants. It has twice outgrown its quarters, till now the 
munificence of the Hon. John Wanamaker has provided new 
and commodious buildings in another part of Allahabad, at 
the same time setting free the old buildings and grounds for 
the new college. 

Another conspicuous feature at Allahabad has for some 
years been the " Sara Seward Hospital for Women,'' grow- 
ing out of work begun by the medical missionary for whom 
it was named, and reaching with its message of physical and 
spiritual healing thousands of women every year. ( )iher 
efforts for women have of course been carried on. including 
a s::hool for Hindu girls and not a little zenana leaching. 

Allahabad station is a double one, including the Jamna 
mission, on the bank of that river, not far from its con- 
fluence with the Ganges, and Katra station, a separate section 
of the city, three miles away. At each there is an organized 
church with a comfortable house of worship. Half the 
funds for the one at Katra, erected in icjoo. were raised on 
the field some years before, largely through the elTorts 
of Rev. J. M. Alexander. Still another church building, 
erected in 1888 in the heart of the city, is used for nightly 
evangelistic services, while its upper floor has been made 
over to the V. M. C. A. as a reading-room. 

A lilind Asylum and a Leper Asylum, both supported by 
Municipal and other non-mission funds, have always been 
under a missionary manager, and have been the spiritual 
l)irth-place of many devoted Christians. 

Shortly after the occupation of Allahabad, 

Fatch^arh- Fatehgarh, • with the native city, Farukhabad, 

Farukhabad three miles, away, was opened (183S) as a 

station, with a boys' orphanage, the fruit of 

the great famine of 1837, as its main work. The seventy 



•Fatehjfarh is the civil station, within the limits of which is fiaiha, with its 
orphanaRe, Christian village, etc. just outside of Farukhabad Cityisthe village 
of Barhpur , where arc two mission houses, boys orphanage, etc. 



3<S HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

orphans had previously been cared f<jr (slI Fatchgarh and 
Faiehpur respectively; by two devoted Christian British 
ofticials. Out of and around this orphanage grew up 
an eminently successful tent factory and a flourishing Chris- 
tian \illage. The former, passing through many vicissi- 
tudes, finally disappeared ; the latter, too, failed of per- 
manent success and is greatly reduced. The boys' ori)han- 
age was many years ago united with the one at Saliaranpur. 
and was replacetl by a girls' orphanage, where there are now 
about one hundred and fifty girls, mainly waifs rescued 
from the famines of 1897 and 1899. As a result of these 
same famines a boys' orphanage was opened by Rev. C. H. 
Handy (a portion of the boys having been gathered by Rev. 
A. G. McGaw at ICtawah), and eighty boys have there l)een 
receiving mental, industrial and spiritual training. 

There are four small church organizations in this double 
station : Rakha, Fatehgarh, Harh])ur and Farukhabad : 
l>esides one at Bahadarpur. just across the Ganges from 
Farukhabad. This last is a part of the extensive village 
work of the di.strict. with out-stations at four centres. In 
this work Rev. J. X. I*'orman was for many years a leader. 
Much of the most successful elTort, both in city and district, 
has ))een among the low-caste and out-caste community. To 
meet the demand for workers in this and other similar fields, 
there was established in Barhpur in 1893 a Training School 
for village preachers and teachers. Tlie results have abun- 
dantly justified the hopes of its founders. 

In Farukhab^^d city is a large and successful lioys' High 
School, as well as a X'ernacular School for Hindu and Mo- 
hammedan girls, and. in the neighborhood, several vernacu- 
lar schools for l>oys. Zenana teaching and ba/aar preaching 
com])lete the outline of the main features of this station. 

Gf the many points at which serious damage was done 
during the dreadful Mutinyd 857), Fatehgarh was the only one 
where there was actual s;icrifice of the lives of our mission- 
aries. Messrs. Freeman, Mc Mullen and Campbell, with 
their wives and two little children of the C impl)ells, joined 
the luiglish residents in an attempt to escajx* down the Gan- 
ges from the unsjife fort at I'atehgarh to supposed safety at 
Cawnpore. They were ca])tured at Bithur. marched eight 
miles to Cawnpore, and shot on the parade-ground next day 
with a hundred others, under the orders of the infamous 
Nana Sdhib. The sjHrit in which they face<i death is 
best shown by an extract from a letter written by Mrs. 
Freeman just l>efore the end : 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 39 

We are in God's hands, and we know that He reigns. We have no 
place to flee for shelter but under the covert of His win>js, and there we 
are safe. Not hut thnt He may suffer our bodies lo l)e slain. If He 
docs, we know that He has wise reasons for it. I sometimes think 
our deaths would do more goo<l than we would do in all our lives ; if so, 
His will be done. Should I be called to lay down my life, most joy- 
fully will I die for Him who laid down His life for me. 

Meanwhile work had been beijun in two other cities. 
Mainpuri, forty miles from Katehgarh and even now thirty 

miles from a railway, a city of 30,000 inhabit- 
Malnpuri ants, thecentre of a district of over 8ofj, 000, was 

occupied in 1S43. A Hoys' High School has 
exerted a wide inlluence in the comnitmity. In its main 
liall a Sunday evening service in English for Hindus and 
Mohammedans has been held from time to time in recent 
years, and has been largely attended. There are vernacular 
schools both for boys and for girls, and extensive zenana 
work. X'illage preaching has been prominent, and perma- 
nent centres have been established at Sliikohabad and 
Karauli. There is an organized church in Mainpuri. 

The other city occupied before the Mutiny was F'ateh- 

]n'ir, (1853J. with a district similar to Main- 
Fatchpur pi'iri in size and character. It lies on the ICast 

Indian Railway, seventy-five miles from Alla- 
habad. It has a small Christian community and church. 
The work is wholly evangelistic, and as in Farukhabad and 
Mainpuri, ours are the only foreign missionaries in the 
entire district. 

Just stich another city and district came under Christian 

intUience when hUawali was occupied in 1863. 
Etawah Here, too. evangelistic work, especially among 

the villages, has been a prominent feature. 
Woman's work has been energetically pushed, especially by 
Miss Helz, who after thirty years of constant preaching to 
women, in city, village and mela. was in 1902 called to 
higher service. The little church in the city has its own 
pastor, and. like several others in the mission, has been mak- 
ing progress toward self-suj^port. 

The mission's only station in a Native state was occupied 

when Rev. J. Warren in 1876 began work in 
Morar, Gwalior Monir. the capital of Gwalior. ruled by the 

Maharajah Sindhia. Mrs. Warren contintied 
Sabbath School and evangelistic work through all the years 
after Dr. Warren's death till her own, refusing to leave even 
when the British troops were withdrawn from Gwalior terri- 



lory. Our mission is almost alone in ihis great State, 
and greatly neede<l the reinforcement recently sent. 

In IS86 work was l>egun by Kcv. J. K Holcomh at 

Jliansi. an imj>orlant railway centre, and sur- 
Jhami rounded by a vast unoccupied field. One of 

the prominent features has lx?en a large and 
efficient school for liengali girls, manage<l by Mrs. Holcomb, 
as is also the extensive zenana work. A well e«iuipi>e<i 
reading-room has exerted a good influence, and alongside of 
it there is a commodious building for the little Christian 
congregation. Much district work has l>een done, with 
encouraging results at the out-station of Mau Ranipur 

It if-ni (ins to speak of the station at which far the largest 

numerical results in all this mission have been 
htah secured. laab, which adjoins Fatehgarh, 

Mainpuri and I'Uiiwah, was for more than 
twenty years an out-station, sometimes of Mainpuri. some- 
times of Fatehgarh. In i S9S there began to l>e an in gath- 
ering from among the out caste community, a part of the 
mass movement toward Christianity from which the Metho- 
dist Mission's workers had already been gaining such large 
results. In a year and a half, mainly under the leadership 
of Rev. H. Forman. the Christians in the district 
increased from twenty-five to more than five hundred. 
Accordingly in HfOiy F!ltah was made a full station, and a 
mission house and buildings for a lx)ys Injarding sch(K>l of 
the lower grade and for a training class for village teachers 
were sanctione<l. These were erected in hm»2, but are inade- 
quate to the rapidly growing need. For at the close of u^2 
there were alx>ut fifty Ixjys in the boarding-sch<K)l. and 
iwenty-eight young men in the training class ; while larger 
or smaller Christian conununities. aggregating over a thou- 
sand, are found scattere<l through seventy villages. In 
ihejie villages are twenty five ])rimary schools f»)r Christian 
Ixjys and six or seven for girls. F'vangelistic work for 
Hindus and Mohammedans, in both city and village, is also 
carried on. 

CK»st-lv connected with this movement is the (x:cu|>ation. 

in 1901, of Cawnpore. "the Manchester of 
Ciwnporc North India." where more than forty thousand 

hands are employed in the various mills and 
factories It was occupied partly to meet the neetl of our 
converts already there, gatherexl from various stations but 
mainly iK-cause of the »»plendid < -ly 

in the way of employment for v s. 



Tin* MISSIONS •'••'••• 41 

hut for the estabUshnient of an imliisinai school for lH)ys. 
whether from the villajjes or from the hatehgarh orphanaj^c. 
Tliis industrial school is one of the urji^ent needs of the mis- 
sion, for aloii).; this line unquestiona!>ly lies one of the 
solutions of the problem of providing? for the Rowing 
Christian community. 

Thk \Vi:sti:kn India Mission The region occupied 
by the Western India Mission lies in the Deccan, south ot 
Bombay. The (ihdts, a range of mountains forty or fifty 
miles from the coast, cut the field in two. The Kolhapur 
State lies east of this range, and has a population of 
802.691. The adjoining districts, in which are no mission- 
aries, have a pijpulation of i.jocDivx); add to this the 
Konkan, or the portion between the (ihats and the sea. and 
there is a total of 4,0()0.(xx) who are to l>e reached with the 
truth. The principal language is Marathi. The Kev R. G. 
Wilder began the work in 1852, but it was not till 1S70 
that our Board assumed charge of the Mis.sion. This 
pioneer missionary entered into rest in 18S7. His wife and 
daughter still continue their connection with the work to 
which he gave his life. 

livery phase of the life of the mission has been more or 
less affected during recent years by the terrible scourges of 
famine and bubonic plague, which. iK^ginning in 1H96, 
attacked this region in full force. Famine left as its legacy 
over one thousand waifs, most of them orphans: and both 
famine and plague, with all the burdens they brought upon 
the missionaries, gave wonderful opportunities for exempli- 
fying the true spirit of the (*osi)el. ( >nly one missionary 
(Dr. Williamson, of Miraj), took the plague, and he 
recovered. 

Kolhapur. where Mr. Wilder laid the founda- 
Kolhapur tions in 1852, is the capital of the State of the 

same name, and has a population of about 
45.000. It has to the Hindu mind a high reputation for 
sanctity, a common legend l>eing that the gods in council 
once pronounced it the most sacred spot on earth. 

Famine necessitated relief works here as elsewhere : the 
people quarried stone, burned brick, dug wells, repaired 
roads and built small school-houses in out-stations, receiving 
about five cents a day for their lalMjr. Sometimes during 
the rainy season of 11700 there were five thousand present at 
the semi-weekly distribution of grain to the starving. 



42 HISTOKICAI, SKKTCII OT 

Diirin^^ the faniiiie of 1S76 an orphanage liad been es- 
lal)lishecl al Kolhapi'ir. from which in 188S the hoys were 
reni()\ed to Sangli to form the nucleus of a boarding-school 
for Christian boys, while the girls were retained as the be- 
ginning of one for girls. There are now over two hundred 
girls in the institution, receiving training not only along 
s]Mritual and intellectual lines, but also in all domestic 
industries. In July, u^o2. new dormitories and a fine 
school building, caj^able of accommodating three hundred 
girls, were added. 

The fruit of the years of missionary labor is seen in a 
church of 246 members (1902), with 225 at Wadgaon out- 
station. To the training of these Christians, Rev. and Mrs. 
J. M. Goheen, ably seconded by Pastor Shiveramji, have 
largely devoted their lives. Another pair of names closely 
identified with the progress of this station are those of 
Rev. and Mrs. (lalen \V. Seiler. the former of whom, after 
thirty years of successful service, broke down under the 
strain of 1900, compelling their return to America in 1902. 
Among other things for which Mrs. Seiler will be gratefully 
remembered is the establishment of the first self-supporting 
industry in the Mission — ''Daniel's Bakery,' which sup- 
plies bread to all the Deccan stations. 

It is of interest to note that a V. M. C. A. has been a great 
means of usefulness among iMiglish-speaking young men. 

Ratnagiri was o]iened as a station in 187"^, but 
Ratnagiri it was never fully manned till, after being 

virtually abandoned for a while, it was re- 
occupied in 1891. It is a city of 15.000 inhabitants, and 
situated on the coast about 80 miles south of Bombay. It 
is the most isolated station in the Mission, and the only one 
in British territory, the others l)eing in the feudatory States. 
It is the centre of work for the Konkan, a strip of territory 
alxjut 2i<) miles long by 40 miles wide, and densely jiojui- 
lated. There are no other mi.ssionaries within seventy miles, 
except the ladies of the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission, 
who work in co-operation with our Mission. Much touring 
has l)een done in this district, sometimes including villages 
where people fled at the approach of the first white visitors 
they had ever seen. 

The church reports a memlx?rshij) of sixty, and there 
are about a hundred children in the day-schools. 

\'engurle, *v() miles south of Ratnagiri on the 
Ven^urlc coast, was occu]Hed in igoo; and Rev. and 

Mr^. \Vm. IT Haniinni and Rev. and Mrs. T. 



Tin- MISSIONS IN INDIA 43 

M. Irwin have done pioneer work in the midst of much 
opposition. An Industrial School of 42 famine lads is the 
most hopeful work here. A church organized in 1902 
reports 27 members. 

Sangli, the ca])ital of a small State of the same 
San^li name, was oj^ened as a station in 18.S4. The 

plague was so lerrible here that in less than a 
year 5,000 died, or about one-third of the population. The 
next year came the famine, leaving forty-four waifs as its 
legacy to the Mission. The Boarding-school has nearly 
two hundred boys in a fine modern i)uilding, with a well- 
equipped Industrial department. An organized church of 
forty members is housed in a good building, and has a large 
Sunday-school. 

Kodoli is a small market town, about 14 miles 
Kodoli, north of Kolhapur. When the station was 

Panhala opened it was thought that Panhala on the hill 

would be a more healthful location, but ex- 
perience proved that Kodoli was a better centre for reaching 
the people. A post-ofhce has been recently established wnth 
a Chrisfiau postmaster, one of the Mission schoolmasters. 
The patient labor of more than twenty years in this field, 
crowned by the charity and self-sacrifice displayed in caring 
for the starving and plague-stricken, was rewarded by a 
wonderful blessing. In 1900 over two hundred adults, 
representing twenty- five towns, were baptized within a few 
days. The good old native pastor, since called to his 
reward, said: "The growth of the Christian religion de- 
pends upon the lives of the Christians : seeing the com- 
passion of the missionaries, the poor and the great were 
convinced that they were the .servants of the true God." 

The following extract from a report from Miss Brown in 
1900, gives a vivid picture of many phases of the work of 
the station : 

The village visiting, which I, with mv family of five hundred 
orphans could not ilo, the women of the church took up, and for pure 
love's sake they trampeil and they preached, ten of them, in fifty-one 
different towns. They went iu twos ; those who could not sing took 
two or three school-girls who coukl. Those who could not write the 
names of the villages, took a string and made a knot for every village 
visited. 

Five schools for girls and women have been going nearly all the 
year. Mv school for widows (thirty of them) takes the girls' verandah 
out of school hours. The teacher has to bring her baby, which is 
handed around while she teaches. 

The weaving house built for the relief work last year is still 
turning out large quantities of coarse cloth, which we use for sheets 



^4 HISTORICAL SKETCH ol 

md boys' clothing, and many towels. All the l)oys' clothes are made 
HI my verandah by the boys themselves. A flock of sheep supplies 
wool for blankets ; fourteen arc woven each week by six boys. 

In January, 1901, I had five hundred and fiflv famine children. 
Afterward the number reached seven hundred and thirty. In Septem- 
ber two hundred were returned to their parents. We hope they may 
carry the light with them. One hundred and seventy-five who came 
to us as Hindus have been bafStizejl by their parents' desire. Nineteen 
»f the older boys and girls were received into the church. 

The Cluirch reported 557 members in 1902, and there 
were then 600 cliildren in the Brownie Orphanage. There 
is a little hospital, built by Dr. Wilson, and a dispensary 
built by Rev. Geo. H. Ferris. 

Miraj, occupied in 1892 by Dr. Wanless, is an 
Miraj important position, because of its railway con- 

nection and its poptilation of 25,000. The 
medical work is prominent. By the generosity of Mr. J. H. 
Converse, of Philadelphia, a fine hospital and dispensary 
were opened in 1S94, and in 1902 " The Bryn Mawr Annex" 
provided one of the finest operating rooms in India, a lecture- 
room and laboratory for the Medical School, and accommo- 
dation for six private patients, one of the wards being for 
Europeans. The hospital has 50 beds. In 1901, 773 in- 
patients were treated, and 29,000 in the two dispensaries. 

Says Dr. Wanless : 

There is scarcely a class or caste in Western India not repre- 
sented among our patients. Many Christians come from a distance, 
and llicir influence has alwavs been for good. Hospital work is a 
growing leveller of caste. It is an education in itself for these people 
to come into a place where Hrahtnans and out-castes arc treated abso- 
lutely alike. 

A Leper Asylum, built with funds from the " Mission 
to the Lepers in India and the Ivast," was opened in 1901, 
and ten of the inmates were baptized in 1902. 

In 1899 fo"^ missionary ladies went out with 
The Viilajjc the purpose of settling in some desirable centre 
Settlement whence they could ha\'e easy access to the 

villages, and infiuence the women's lives by 
daily contact. This plan could not be carried out during 
the prevalence of the ])lague. and they have been assisting 
the different stations as need arose. 



the missions in india 45 

Special Phases of Mission Work. 

While the one supreme and definite aim of all missionary 
effort in India — as the world over — is so to present Christ 
crucified to men and women as to enable them to know Him 
personally and accept Him as their only Saviour, yet the 
lines along wliich and the methods by which that effort is 
made are not only widely various, but some of them are 
more or less peculiar to particular fields or particular mis- 
sions. Some points, accordingly, in connection with the 
work of our church in India, call for special mention : 

I. llo7/ian's Work for 11 07Na?i.— The seclusion ot 
women, with its underlying assumption of the extreme 
fragility of feminine morality, is the rule among Hindus and 
Mohammedans alike, especially in North India. \'illage 
women are comparatively more free than those in cities and 
towns, and low-caste women and menials have a larger degree 
of liberty everywhere. But in no case can women be reached 
wuth the men or by men. The work, if done at all, must be 
done by women. Of its importance there can be no question. 
The ignorance, bigotry and superstition of the women are 
almost past belief, and constitute one of the greatest obsta- 
cles to the progress of Christianity. Dr. Kellogg^' tells of an 
educated Hindu who expressed his cordial conviction of the 
truth of Christianity, and who was found to be kept back 
from becoming a Chri.stian by the bigotry of the women of 
his household. Such illustrations could i)e multiplied indefi- 
nitely. On the other hand the winning of the women means 
the winning of the home : the winning of the home means 
the winning of the next generation. Work for women, 
therefore, especially if carried out in systematic co-operation 
with that for men, is one of the most important factors in the 
evangelization of India. 

In the early days, owing to the unsettled state of 
the country, the way was not open for the work of single 
women. But missionaries were almost invariably accom- 
panied by wives, who became zealous co-workers in the pro- 
pagation of the faith. They sometimes obtained access 
to the women in the homes of Hindus and Moslems, and 
were able to witness for the pure gospel of Jesus by words 
and deeds of kindness ; and they always had a sphere of 
missionary labor in the environment of their own homes, 
and in the homes of native Christians, in the education and 
training of orphan children rescued from death by famine 

*** Church at Home and Abroad," April, 1896. 



46 HISTORICAI. SKKTCH OF 

and neglect, and finally in the ])eginning of work for 
heathen girls and women in school and zenana. ■•'• For the 
edncation of men soon led to a desire for or, at least, a tol- 
eration of, female education, and thus to the opening of 
many homes to the missionary and her assistants. To-day 
hundreds of single women find a special sphere open to 
them in all parts of the land. They conduct the schools 
and orphanages for both Christian and non-Christian girls. 
They undertake the work of systematic teaching in the 
homes where women are secluded in zenanas. They do not 
hesitate to go into isolated towns and villages and undertake 
work far away from the abodes of European neighbors. 
Many of them have gone out with special medical train- 
ing, and have established hospitals and dispensaries for 
women and children, where thousands of patients have 
received medical aid and been nursed back to health. 

The recognized pioneer in zenana missions was Miss 
Cooke, of the C. M. S., who, in 1821, opened a school for 
Hindu girls in Calcutta. Miss Wakefield seems to have 
been the first (1835) to gain actual access to zenanas ; while 
systematic work in this line, begun in 1840 by a suggestion 
from Prof. T. Smith, which was carried out by Rev. and 
Mrs. John h'ordyce (all of the Free Church of Scotland), 
was fully developed some years later by Mrs. Sale and Mrs. 
Mullens (of the Baptist Mission). The pioneer in medical 

ork for women was Clara Swain, M. D., of the American 
Methodist Mission. The beginnings of work for women in 
:ie American Presbyterian Mission date from the early 
lifties. when in the girls' orphanage at Lodiana, with which 
the names of Mrs. IClizabeth Newton, Mrs. Rudolph. Mrs. 
Mary R.Janvier and Mrs. Myers arect)nspicuously associated, 

tlective work was organized. 

The results of woman's work in India are well stated by 
Mr. Ciraham, in part, as follows:! 

The cruelty and iinmoraHty connected with child niarriaj^e have 
been so far mitigated the hv raisinj^ of the legal "age of consent" to 
twelve years. The deplorable position, sometimes amounting to a 
iving death, of the 2, cxx), 000 child- widows is being ameliorated. Some 
>f them have been re-married, and others have escaj^cd from the Ict- 
ors of centuries bv confessing Chri.st and taking refuge in such homes 
or widows as Ihat'of Pandita Ramabai at r»)ona. l-jghty years ago 
lot one female in 100, ocx) is s.ii<l to have been able to read and write, 
ut now I 1S98), through the missionary and Government schools, the 
.iroportion of literates and learners is six per thousand. • ♦ ♦ 

* Zenana (more properly -ari.trt.i from Persian xan, a woman), meaoi tlie 
women's portion of a ho»ise. as maKi.in.i means the men's. 
t" Missionary Expansion," etc.. p. 117. 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 47 

The regular visits of 700 foreign ami Eurasian^ and ;>,ooo Native 
Christian women to 40,00(3 houses are profoundly influencing the 
home life of India and preparing the way for a mighty change. 

Possibly even more significant are the words of an 
enlightened Hindu paper ( The IndiaJi Social Reformer^ 
March 15, 1903), which says : 

Though cut off from the parent community by religion and by 
prejudice and intolerance, the Indian Christian woman \ herself the 
fruit of icoman's :cork\ has been the evangelist of education to hun- 
dreds and thousands of Hindu homes. Simple, neat and kindly, she 
has won her way to the recesses of orthodoxy, overcoming a strength 
and bitterness of prejudice of which few outsiders have an adequate 
conception. * * • To these brave and devoted women, wherever 
they are, friends of female education all over the country will heartily 
wish " God-speed." 

2. Christian Literature. — The preparation of Christian 
literature, including the translation of the Bible, has natur- 
ally had a conspicuous and early place in the liistory of all 
missions— notably so in that of our missions in North 
India. Dr. Sherring, of the London Missionary Society, 
and Dr. Murdoch,! of the Christian Literature Society, 
agree in giving to our missionaries the first place in this 
regard in all northern India. The mechanical part of the 
work has been done by the two great mission presses at 
Lodiana and Allahabad. These have long since passed out 
of mission management into tlie hands of Native Christian 
proprietors, but are still doing the same eflicient work in 
the sending out both of God's Word and of general Chris- 
tian literature. 

The literary end of the work has called forth the activi- 
ties of many of the best minds among the missionaries, and 
good service has been rendered, too, by some of the leaders 
of the Indian Church. The range covered has been wide, 
and includesj: the following: {a). fUble Translation, in 
which department the conspicuous names are John Newton, 
Levi Janvier and H. P. Newton in Panjabi : Lowenihal in 
Pushtu (the language of the Afghans) ; James Wilson in 
Urdu ; and Owen, I'llmaim and Kellogg in Hindi. < b). 
Commeiitaries. — Here the work has not much more than 
begun, being limited to portions of Genesis, the Psalms, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, portions of the Minor Prophets, the Gos- 

*Of mixed Kuropean and native parentage. 

tDr. Murdoch, who reached India in 184-1, has himself done far more than any 
other one man for the creation of Christian literature tor the English speaking 
community 

ISee also article by Rev. J. J. Lucas, in IndianETargelical Revifw for July and 
Octot>er, 1886. 



4S HISTORICAL sKi:Tcn oi- 

pels, First Corinthians, Ivphesians and Colossians. =' Almost 
all of these are in I'rdii (Roman character), Jeremiah alone 
being in Hindi ; and the writers are John Newton, vSr. and 
Jr., Scott, Owen, \V. F. Johnson and Lucas. In < r) Tlie- 
oio^q;]', the two prominent writers are Rev. Messrs. Ishwari 
Das and J. J. Caleb, the latter having translated Hodge's 
"Outlines of Theoloj^^y." {d). Coutrovcrdal -icritiuirs. — 
Here the out-put has naturally been large, covering both 
Hinduism and Iskim and ranging from extensive treatises in 
hjiglish, {e. ^. Wherry on the Ouran) for the use especially 
of missionaries, to four-page leaflets in the vernaculars for 
gratuitousT distribution to Hindus and Mohammedans. In 
this department one of the most effective tracts ever sent 
forth in any land is Mr. Ullmann's D/iarm Tula, to the 
reading of which many a convert in every part of North 
India traces his conversion, {e). Periodic Literature. — 
Two religious papers are published by our missions : the 
Makhzan-i-Masilii ("Christian Treasury,") a fortnightly 
paper, established in 1S67 at Allahabad, and the Xur-Af- 
shdn f" Dispenser of Light," ) established in 1872, at Lodi- 
ana ; both are intended for the building up of the spiritual 
life of the church, though the Nur A f shdn enters also 
the controversial field. (/. ) Misallamous. — Hymnology, 
Church History, Literature for the Church at home and 
many other lines of effort might well be enumerated, but 
space permits the mention of but two books more, Kellogg's 
Hindi Grammar, which has become a classic, and Zabur aur 
Git, a splendid collection of hymns, which has been adopted 
not only by our own churches, but by some of those of the 
London Missionary Society, and which includes not only 
448 translations (from lx)th Knglish and German) and origi- 
nal hynnis in foreign metres, but nearly a hundred original 
hymns {bhajayis and _i:/iaca/s) set to native airs, besides a 
selection of chants. Among the authors are both natives 
and foreigners. Rev. I. iMcldbrave's name leading the van in 
the former class, and Mr. Ullmann's in the latter. An edi- 
tion with music— the first musical book ever printed in 
India — was is.sued in 1898. 

It is to be noted that since the organization of the Panjdb 
and North India Hible vSocieties and Tract Societies and the 
Christian Literature Society of Madras, the main part of the 

•The style «nd linfirufiKe of Dr John Newton. Jr.'« commentary on ColoMlana 

are so admirable that thr hook ha.-* been made a teitlwok for new misRionanea. 

fit is the unifurtn policy to seU all bookn and tracts, though at a nominal price. 
Only these lenflets arc given away. 



Tin-: MISSK)NS IN INDIA 49 

literary work of our missionaries has ])een done in co-opera- 
tion with those agencies. 

,V Medical Work and Asylums. — Although India is sup- 
plied with a well-equipped Government Medical Department, 
with hospitals and dispensaries in the chief cities and towns, 
there is still a large sphere for medical missionaries, espe- 
cially for women. Sometimes the work is done while tour- 
ing through towns and villages, more often it is localized at 
hosjMtals and dispensaries in large centres. In either case, 
not only is prejudice removed and God's love made tangible, 
but constant opportunity is given for the direct proclamation 
of the Gospel. Ivvery patient hears the message from either 
missionary or assistant, and usually takes home on the back 
of the very dispensary ticket some portion of truth from 
Gods Word. Hospitals or dispensaries, the majority of 
them for women and children only, are to be found at 
Ferozepore, Lahore, Ambdla, Sabathii, Jagrdon, Saluiranpur, 
Allahabad, Fatehgarh, Kodoli, Miraj. and at certain sub- 
stations. There are twenty-two in all, at which in 19(32 no 
less than 121,686 patients were treated. 

Our missionaries have not been unmindful of the lepers, 
of whom there are about 250,000 in the Kmpire. Six 
asylums-'- are at present under Mission management, though 
the funds are provided partly by Government, partly by 
voluntary contributions on the field — sometimes from non- 
Christians — and still more by donations from the Edinburgh 
" Mission to Lepers in India and the I^ast." The asylum 
at Ambala was built in 1858 with funds contributed by 
Europeans in the Cantonments. Of the one at Sabathu, 
which was begun as a general poor-house by the British 
officers and men who returned from the Kabul war in 1844, 
and to which a department for European lepers was added a 
few years ago, Rev. John Newton wrote : 

It grew into an institution of importance after Dr Newton (son 

of the writer! was posted to that station He built a number of 

houses at a short distance from the Mission House, that he miglit have 
the objects of his benevolent attentions near him. He rej^anled them 
not as medical patients only, but as emphatically the poor who need 
to have the gospel preached to them. So there was a small building 
erected which answered the double purpose of a dispensary and a 
chapel. Here the lepers voluntarily assemble every day for worship, 
besides coming for the special service on the Lord's Day. 

4. Educational Work. — The Gospel and education have 
always gone hand in hand, especially where the bearers ot 

* At Sabdthu. AmbAlA, Dehra Dun. Saharanpur, Allahabad and Miraj. 



50 HISTORICAL SKKTCH OF 

the Evangel have been Presbyterians. But education is not 
looked upon as an end : it is a means to an end. In the 
case of Christians it is to make them an effective instrument 
for the uplifting of their countrymen, in the case of Hindus 
and Mohammedans it is to bring them within the reach of 
the truth. The pupils in both school and college not only 
have the Gospel preached to them in the opening religious 
exercises of every school day, not only are they daily 
taught a lesson irom the Bible by competent Christian 
teachers, and so grounded in the fundamentals of Christian- 
ity, but they are brought into constant personal contact, 
during the most impressionable period of their lives, with 
men of Christian faith and character. 

The importance of this work, especially in the higher 
grades, is emphasized by the present-day crisis in the reli- 
gious attitude of educated young India. Higher education 
has largely been Government education, which again has 
necessarily been religiously neutral, and therefore always 
irreligious and practically antitheistic. lulucated young men 
can seldom continue to believe what their fathers believed. 
They have cut loose from the old moorings, and are drifting 
out into the darkness of materialism and agnosticism. A 
Christ-fdled educational system, side by side with the effect- 
ive work of the Y. M. C. A., seems the one solution of the 
problem. Said Dr. Chatterjee, of Hoshyarpur, recently : 
" I can testify after an experience of forty yeais' service in 
missionary work — educational as well as evangelistic — that 
I consider a Christian college, which has as its chief aim the 
conversion of its students, to be the best evangelistic agency 
we have in connection witli our Mission" — this although the 
imniL-diate results in baptisms are so small. 

All this has been increasingly api)reciated by our mis- 
sionaries : all the stations have primary schools, several have 
high schools, the college at Lahore has been doing its work 
for nearly forty years, and recently the one at Allahal)ad has 
been started on a similar career of usefulness. In all 173 
institutions are reported, with over eight thousand pu])ils. 

5. ll^orA- iinioui^ the Outcastcs. — Another crisis of a very 
different sort has marked recent years The "submerged 
fourth" of the Hindu population began in the eighties to 
reacli up toward the light. The American Methoilists in 
the United Provinces were the first in Northern India to 
gather in large numbers from this community. Tlieii the 
movement extended to the Panjbd, till, in 1891. Mr. \'elte 
could sav that in six vears three mission^ ' Scotch I^stab- 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 5I 

lishecl, American V. P. and our own) liad baptized i2,(XX) 
Chuliras.-' The work spread to almost every district of the 
Panjab Mission, and later to the Ktah (see p. 40 and Faru- 
khabad districts of the United Provinces Mission. 

That mixed motives lie back of such a mass movement 
is unciuestionable. ! On the one liand these out-castes have 
comparatively little to lose in becoming; Christians — though 
they, too, are liable to serious persecution — and they have 
much to gain. They see that Christianity means u/)/i// — 
intellectual, social, financial as well as spiritual — and it is 
little wonder that the highest motives are not always upper- 
most. But back of the whole movement God's Spirit is 
undoubtedly working. Vast possibilities for the Church lie 
in it. Careful teaching, cautious admission to baptism, and 
subsefjuent patient and loving, yet firm, discipline, are the 
requisites. For all this the urgent call is for a vastly in- 
creased force of workers. The fields are white and the 
harvest plenteous : the lat3orers are pitifully few. 

6. T/ieohi^ica/ Schools. — In the early days candidates for 
the Ministry received ])rivate instruction from individual 
missionaries. But as the number of candidates increased, 
the lavish expenditure of time involved in this method made 
it abviously expedient to set apart certain men for this work 
at a central point. A theological class was formed at 
Allahabad under Messrs. Brodhead, Wherry and Wynkoop. 
Later (1S84) the Synod of India took the matter into its 
immediate control and established the Seminary at Saharan- 
pur, with Messrs. Wherry and J. C R. lowing as the first 
teachers. The work has gone on uninteruptedly though 
under various leaders — Rev. A. P. Kelso and capable 
Native assistants having had charge during recent years. 

The need for workers with less elaborate training, for 
work in the villages, has led to the estal^lishment of theolog- 
ical schools on a humbler scale, one at Khanna and the 
other at F'atehgarh. Both these training .schools have done 
good work in their special line. 

As many of the students are married men. and come to 
the schools accompanied by their families, a grand field for 
work is opened tq the wives of the Professors, which they 
do not fail to improve. While our future native pastors are 
being fitted to ])reach the gospel to their own people, their 
wives are being trained to become not only more intelligent 



•The Chuhras of thePanj ab correspond to the M ihtars further to the south-east. 
+See "Missionary Expansion," etc., p. 126. 



52 HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 

Christians, but better lioiise-keepers and more useful 
members of society. 

The hope of church extension in India lies in the develop- 
ment of the church from within. These schools are rapidly- 
preparing ministers and evangelists for the great concjuest 
of the land. Many faithful preachers have already gone 
out into the great harvest field and much of the large 
ingathering of recent years is to be traced to them. 

7. llic Indian Cliurcli. — From the very first, wherever 
the number of converts warranted, churches have been or- 
ganized. The pastoral duties were long performed by mis- 
sionaries, and still are in some cases ; but the securing of 
pastors from among themselves has always been the goal 
presented to the churches, and in recent years marked 
progress has been made in this direction. Self-support has 
also been urged — though not perhaps with all the emphasis 
possible : and in this direction, too, good progress can be 
recorded. For instance, in the Panjab Mission, in addition 
to about ten churches in the scattered village communities 
(churches not always fully organized), each station has at 
least one fully organized church, which in nearly every case 
has its native pastor, largely supported by the members 
themselves. In addition to this local self-support, the 
churches in this Mission contribute increasingly (they 
began in 1897) toward a Home Mission fund in the hands 
of the Presbytery of Lahore or of Lodiana, as the case may 
be. This fund is supplemented by the Mission on a .sliding 
scale (beginning with S^.oo, to $1 .00 given by the churches), 
but is managed wholly by the Presbytery, the native breth- 
ren taking a leading part. The same plan is also in o]iera- 
tion in the Presbyteries of Allahabad, Farukhabad and 
Kolha])ur, tliough with differences in detail {e. x'., Allaha- 
bad began with a grant of $2.00. to Si .00 contributed by 
the churches J. 

Such movements as these have helped to prejiare the 
way for the formation of the United Presbyterian Church of 
India, the goal toward which the Presbyterian Alliance of 
India has so long been working. The South India Fnited 
Church has already been formed by the union of the Arcot 
Dutch Ref. j and the I'nited PVee Church of Scotland mi.ssion 
churches, and the i^reliminary steps toward the larger union 
which will include almost every one of the twelve Presby- 
terian bodies in India, have recently been taken. The 
latest statistics of the Alliance indicate as the constituents 



THK MISSIONS IX INDIA 5.^ 

of this united Church, 7 Synods, 33 Presbyteries, 324 min- 
isters, 139 licentiates, and 21,121 communicant members 
( over one-seventh of these from the churches of our Mis- 
sionsj, besides 31,305 adult adherents. While this body 
will control all the ecclesiastical relations of the Presby- 
terian churches in India, it will not affect their financial 
relations to the home churches, nor the relation of the mis- 
sionaries to their respective Boards or Committees. There 
are not a few who hope and pray that even this splendid 
consummation is not to be the end of the union movement : 
that some day, even this side of the heavenly union, there 
shall be for all Christian India but one fold, as there is, 
thank God, but one Shepherd I 

A practical question that suggests itself, calls for a fair 
answer : What is the character of the Indian converts ? 
Here is the answer of a careful observer :'■' 

It would be easy, on the one hand, to take individual cases of 
men and women who have exhibited the ripest fruits of Christian 
experience, and who, in Apostolic fervour and patient sutTering for 
Christ's sake, niijjht be placed in the front ranks of Christian saints. 
On the other hand, we might point to large numbers but yesterday 
out of the thraldom of grossest idolatry or debasing devil-worship, 
who as yet are ignorant and weak, and on whom the shadow of the 

old customs still rests As far as criminal statistics go, they tell 

in favor of the Christians; for in a return for Southern India, it was 
stated that, while there was one criminal to every 447 and 728 of the 
Hindu and Mohammedan population respectively, there was only one 
in every 2,500 of the Christians. 

To which may be added Sir Wm. Muirs testimony that 
' 'they are not sham nor paper converts, as some would have 
us believe, but good and honest Christians, and many of 
them of a high standard." No better confirmation of this 
can be found than in a brief sketch of a life just closed in 
Kodoli ( W^estern India Mission):! 

Twenty-five years ago, Satoba Ranbhisi, a guru of his caste, came 
to the Rev. Mr. Hull at Kolhapur, asking to be taught the religion of 
the Bible. He gave up to him the strange collection of heathen 
books, in the studv and recitation of which he had spent years, saying , 
" It has been like trvinti to get a fist full of water : nothing remains 
after all my effort. "' For some time Christian truth, too. seemed of 
but little avail. But soon there came a change: the last chapters of 
John's Gospel reached his soul, and a life principle was implanted. 
Originallv of one of the lowest castes, in time he won the respect of 
all classes— even of the Brahmans. When he first went back to his 
village after baptism, his own family kept him out of his home and 



*Mr Graham in "Missionary' Expansion," p 1 2S. 

fThe facts are taken partly from Mr. J. P Graham's account in the Mission 
Report IM2. partly from an article by Miss Brown in Woman' i Work fot Woman. 



54 mSTORICAI. SKKTCH OF 

refused him a drink of water ; the j>eople of the village drove him out 
of it. For months he lived in the fields near by, subjected to the jeers 
and taunts of his former friends. But throuj^h it all he remained loyal 
to the Master, and bore insults and persecution without complaint. 
In that same community he became pastor t)f the largest church in the 
Mission, with most of his relatives and neighbors on the membership 
roll! 

He was " on fire for souls. In his home, in the fields, on tour, his 
one thought was to make men accjuaintcd with Christ. He had found 
One whom his soul loved, and he would burn out his life till he had 
made every one else love Him. The miles he walked, the sermons he 
preached are past our counting. Often, breakfastless, lie was off to 
villages preaching ; returning hungry at noon, his faithful wife would 
have to lock him and his dinner into the little study, or he would have 
given it all to soii.e one hungrier than himself. So loving was he, 
that infliction of church discipline was his hardest duty, yet he en- 
forced it, even in the case of his own nephew. The Bible was his one 
book, praver his vital breath. His little 6 x 3 study in Kodoli, where 
he could get a man alone with God, was the gate of heaven to many 
a soul. On the day of greatest in-gathering to the church, October 7, 
1900, he baptized 161 adults, on the following Sabbath 51; and to the 
day that God took him, the church grew." 

Just before his fatal illness, he had a juemonition of death, saying, 
e.xultaiitly, " I am going to my Father;" and when visited near the 
entl bv Mr. Graham, he begged him not to pray for his recovery. 
Never'has Kodoli witnessed such a scene as the throng of hundreds of 
men, women and children — Hindus as well as Christians— that fol- 
lowed hisbodv, wrapped in white muslin and laid on a stretcher, to 
the cemetery 'outside of the town. At the start, the wailitig of the 
crowd, after the demonstrative manner of the F^ast, was terrific ; but 
soon the scores of school children began singing " vShall we gather at 
the River." and all the way to the grave hymn followed hymn, till 
the funeral procession became a triumphal march. 

Is it worth while to send and carry the Gospel to win 
such lives ? 

S. The Foras iu the l-'icld and the rromisc for the Future. 
—It will l>e remembered that the " Week of Prayer " had 
its origin in a call issued, after three days spent in earnest 
l)rayer, by the Lodiana Mission in 1858. It is worth while 
to reproduce that call at this point : 

" WhkrkaS, Our spirits have been greatly refreshed by what we 
have heard of the Lord's dealings with His people in America, and 
further, being convinced from the signs of the times that God has still 
larger blessings for His people and for our ruined world, and that 
He now seems ready and waiting to bestow them as soon as asked ; 
therefore, 

'•/\V5^/:r</, That we appoint the second week in January. 1.S59, 
beginning with Montlay the Sth, as a time of special prayer, and that 
all Go<rs people, of every name and nation, of every continent and 
islaiul, be cordiallv an<l earnestly invited to unite with us in the peti- 
tion that God would now pour'out His Spirit upon all fiesh. so that 
all the ends of the earth might see His salvation." 



THK MISSIONS IN INDIA 55 

A part of the answer to the prayers that have gone up 
in response to this call is to be found in the vastly increased 
force now engaged in the work in India. A careful exami- 
nation of Dr. Husband's "Protestant Missionary Directory" 
for 1902, yields the following figures for the force actually 
on the field : Separate societies (a few of them employing 
only one foreigner), 84, besides 48 "independent mission- 
aries: ' ' and total of foreign missionaries, 3.536, of whom i ,064 
are ordained.-' Of the entire number about three- fifthsr are 
women, of whom again two-fifths (or one-fourth of the total) 
are wives of missionaries. The native force engaged in direct 
missionary work is i)laced by Mr. Heach at 23,000. To these 
are to l)e added lumdreds of earnest Christian luiropeans and 
thousands of earnest Native Christians, who for at least a part 
of their time are directly or indirectly engaged in missionary 
work. There were at the end of 1900 no less than 5,362 
organized congregations, with 274.402 scholars enrolled in 
6,888 Sabbath-schools. Surely this is no small army that 
is arrayed under the baiuier of the Cross I 

The promise for the future is to be found partly in the 
presence of the forces just enumerated; partly in the grow- 
ing loyalty of the land to a Christian government, and the 
people's growing friendliness and accessibility to the mis- 
sionary — due in no small measure to the services rendered 
in the awful stress of famine and plague ; partly in the 
movement from among the low castes and out-castes ; partly 
in the marked sjMrit of in(iuiry among educated young men : 
partly in the religious unrest and spiritual discontent among 
many classes — as evidenced, for instance, in the numerous 
modern reform movements; and partly in the results already 
accomplished. Many of these results defy tabulation. 
They lie as completely hidden as the waters in the moun- 
tain's heart : but they will as surely leap forth one day to 
refresh the land. Results capable of tabulation are shown 
partly in the following figures : 

PROTKSTANT CHRISTIANS IN INDIA. 

185 1 91.092 

1861 138.731 

1871 224.258 

1881 417.372 

1S91 (including Burniah 1 559.661 

1901 868,283: 

• The fieures given by Rev HP Reach in his "Geography and Atlas of Protestant 
Missions," are 93 missions, and 3,8;6 missionaries The discrepancy in the former 
figure is probably due to the inclusion of some whom Dr. Husband counts as 
"Independent Missionaries," and in the latter to the fact that Mr. Beach included 
niis«!ionaries on furlough. 

t 1.304 single women and 89^ married, as given by Mr. Beach. 

J Mr. Beach's 6gure is much larger — 1,102,458. 



5^-> HISTORICAL SK1:TCH O!- 

The total Christian population ^ foreigners and natives, 
Catholics and Protestants), as given by the census of 1901, 
is 2,923,349, or almost exactly one now in every hundred 
of the general po])ulation. While the Hindus slightly de- 
creased between 1 89 1 and 1 90 1 (the main cause being plague 
and famine J, and the Mohammedans increased 9 per cent., 
Christians increased 30 per cent. ( to 2 ,664,3 1 3 ^ ^"^ Protestajit 
Christians about 60 per cent.! And, finally, the strongest 
ground for confidence lies, asever, in something yet more re- 
reliable and encouraging than numerical results. To the (jues- 
tion, " What are the prospects in India i* ' ' the answer still is, 
" Bright as the promises of God I ' 

But on the other hand, this well-grounded optimism must 
be backed up by tremendous effort. God still works by means. 
The force in the field is absolutely inadequate to the task 
set before it. Two and a half millions have been Christian- 
ized : what of the remaining two hundred and ninety-one 
millions?* The recent Decennial Conference of Missionaries 
in India made no extravagant demand when it asked that 
the present force should be quadrupled within ten years. 
Let the Churcli in America listen to their cry : 

"In the name of Christ our common Lord — for the sake 
of those who. lacking Him. are as sheep without a shepherd, 
we ask you to listen to our appeal. You, under (lod, have 
sent us forth to India. We count it a privilege to give our 
lives to this land. For Christ's sake and the Gospel's, 
strengthen our hands, and enable us to press on toward the 
goal of our great calling, when the kingdoms of the world 
shall become tlic Kingdom of the Lord and of His Clirist." 



THE MISSIONS IN INKIA 



STATISTICS— IJOJ 




Ordained Missionaries. 

Lay Missionaries 

Wives of Missionaries. 
Single Women 



Native Ministers and Licentiates 87 

Other Native Workers 140 

Churches 20 

Meeting Places 38 

Communicants 2,109 

Adherents 4i433 

Boarding-schools 6 

Other Schools 56 

Pupils 5^^^5 

Hospitals 4 

Dispensaries S 

I'atients. 1901 -1902 60,64s 



20 
(3 M.U.] 
3 

[I M.D.] 
18 

[I M.D.I 
20 



(4 M.D.I [2 M.D ] 



45 
[6 M D ] 




5^ -HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 



STATIONS, 1903 

PANJAB MISSION 

LoDiANA ( 1S34) : near the river Sutlej, 1,100 miles northwest of 
Calcutta. Rev. Edward P. Newton and Mrs. Newton, Rev. V, S. G. 
Jones and Mrs. Jones, Rev. K. M. Wherry, D. D., and Mrs. Wherry, 
Rev. F. O. Johnson and Mrs. Johnson, Rev. A. B. Gould and Mrs. 
Gould, M.I)., Rev. Robert D. Tracy, Miss Carrie Clark i At Japraon) : 
Dr. Maud Allen, Miss J. E. Jenks, Miss h:mnia Morris, Miss Harriet 
Savage, Miss S. M. Wherry, Miss G. O. Woodside. 

Saharanpur (1836^ : 130 miles southeast of Lodiana. Rev. Alex- 
ander P. Kelso and Mrs. Kelso, Rev. C. W. Forman, M.D., and Mrs. 
Forman, Miss Alice B. Jones. 

Sahathu (1836) : in the lower Himalaya Mountains, no miles 
cast of Lodiana. Missionaries — M. B. Carleton, M. D., and Mrs. 
Carleton. 

Jl'LLUNDUR (1846): 120 miles east of Lahore, 30 miles west of 
Lodiana. Missionaries— Rev. C. B. Newton, D.D., and Mrs. Newton, 
Miss Caroline C. Downs, and Miss Margaret C. Given. 

Amhai^.a ( 1848) : 55 miles southeast of Lodiana. Missionaries — 
Rev. Reese Thack well. D.D., and INIrs. Thackwell. Rev. W.J. Clark 
and Mrs. Clark, Mrs. William Calderwood, Miss J. R. Carleton, M.D.. 
and Miss Mary E. Pratt. 

Lahork (1849): the capital of the Punjab. 1,225 mile 
northwest of Calcutta. Missionaries — Rev. J. C. Rhea Ewing, D.I)., 
and Mrs. FCwing, Rev. J. Harris Orbison, M D., and Mrs. Orbison. 
Rev. Henry C. Vclte and Mrs. Velte, Rev. H. D. Griswold and Mrs- 
Griswold, Prof J. G. Gilbertson and Mrs. Gilbertson, Mrs. Jno- 
Newton, Jr., Dr. Emily Marston, Miss Christine Herron, Rev. F. B- 
McCuskey and Mrs. McCuskey. (At Waga): Miss Clara Thiedc. 

Dkhra (1853) : 47 miles east of Saharanpur. Missionaries — Rev. 
W. J. P. Morrison, Miss Elma Donaldson, Miss Jennie L. Colman, 
Mrs. Abbie M. Stebbins, Dr. Sarah Vrooman, Miss Si. Iv Rogers. 

Hoshyarpur I 1867): 45 miles north of Lodiana. /^rv. A'. C. 
Chatter jee, D. D., and Mrs. Chatter j^c. 

Woodstock (1S72) : in Landour, 15 miles cast of Dehra. Rev. 
II. M. Andrews and Mrs. Andrews, Rev. J. vS. Woodside and Mrs. 
Woodside, Miss Alice Mitchell, M. D., Miss .Anna K. Paving. 

Fkro/kpork (1882) : 50 miles southwest of Lodiana. Mission- 
aries—Rev. I'. J. Newton, M.D., and Mrs. Newton, Rev. J. N. Hyde. 
Mrs. C. W. Forman. 

Kasur: Rev. Robert Morrison and Mrs. Morrison. 

UNITED PROVINCES MISSION 

.Ar.LAHAHAn (^i.S3h : at the junotiou of the Ganges and the Jumna, 
506 miles northwest of Calcutta. Rev. J. J. Lucas, D.I)., and Mrs. 
Lucas, Rev. Arthur H. Ewing, Ph.D., and Mrs. Ewing, Rev. A. B. 
Allison and Mrs. Allison, Mr. P. H. Edwards, Miss Hester McGaughey, 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 59 

Miss J. W. Tracy, Dr. Margaret K. Norris, Miss Caroline E Ewing, 
Miss M. P. Forman, Rev. J. J. Caleb, Rev. I. l-ieldbrave. 

Etawah (1863) : on the Jumna, 30 miles southwest of Mainpuri. 
Rev. W. F.Johnson, D. D., Miss Mary Johnson, Rev. Farm Sukh. 

1'atehgarh-Farukhabad (1837) : the former the civil station 
and the latter the native city, 733 miles northwest of Calcutta. 
Rev. C. H. Bandy and Mrs. Bandy, Rev. Ray C. Smith and Mrs. 
Smith, Rev. J. H. Lawrence and Mrs. Lawrence, Miss M.J. Morrow, 
Miss Mary Fullerton, Miss Josephine Johnson, Rev. k'edar Nath, 
Rev. Abdul Qi'idtr. 

Fathhpur ( 1853) : 75 "liles northwest of Allahabad. Mission- 
aries—Rev. Thomas Tracy and Mrs. Tracy, Rev. C. H. Mattison 
and Mrs. Mattison. 

JHANSI (1886) : 250 miles west of Allahabad ; population, 52,000. 
Rev. James F. Holcomb and Mrs. Holcomb, Rev. Nabi Hakhsh, Rev. 
Dharm Singh. 

Mainpuri (1843) • 4° miles west of Fatehgarh. Rev William T. 
Mitchell and Mrs. Mitchell, Rev. Gulam Masih. 

Morar (1874) : capital of the native State of Gwalior. Rev. J. 
S. Symington, M.D., and Mrs. Svmington, Mrs. B. D. Wyckoff, Rev, 
Sukh PiU. 

Etah (1900): Missionaries— Rev. John N. Forman and Mrr?. 
Forman, Rev. A. G. McGaw and Mrs. McGaw, Rev. Henry Forman 
and Mrs. Forman. 

Cawnpore (1901) : Rev. S. M. Gillam. 

WESTERN INDIA MISSION 

KOLHAPUR (1853) : 200 miles southeast of Bombay; 45.000 in- 
habitants. Rev. Galen \V. Seiler and Mrs. Seiler, Rev. Joseph M. 
Goheen and Mrs. Gohecn, Mrs. R. G. Wilder, Miss Esther Patton, 
Miss Grace E. Wilder, Miss C. L. Seiler, Rev. E. W. Simpson. 

RaTnagiri ( 1873) : 82 miles northwest of Kolhapur, on the coast- 
Rev. A. L. Wilev and Mrs. Wiley, Rev. R. C. Richardson and Mrs- 
Richardson, Miss Emily T. Minor, Miss Amanda M.Jefferson, Miss 
Bertha Johnson. 

KODOU (1877): 12 miles north of Kolhapur. Rev. Lyman R. 
Tedford and Mrs. Tedford, Rev. J. P. Graham, Miss F. Isabelle 
Graham, Miss A. Adelaide Brown, Dr. Victoria McArthur, Miss M. J. 
Thomson, Miss E. E. Sheurman, Miss Alice S. Giles, Dr. Winifred 
Heston (village settlement 1. 

Sangu (1S84) : 30 miles east of Kolhapur. Mr. John JoUv and 
Mrs. Jolly, Rev. Edgar M. Wilson and Mrs. Wilson, Miss Grace 
Enright. ' 

MiRAj(i892): 6 miles south of Sangli. William J. Wanless, M.D.. 
and Mrs. Wanless, Alexander S. Wilson, M.D., and Mrs. Wilson, Rev 
R. C. Richardson and Mrs. Richardson, J. Rutter Williamson, M. D., 
Miss Elizabeth A. Foster, Miss Patterson. 

Vknguri-p: (1900): on the coast, 85 miles south of Ratnagiri. 
Rev. J. M. Irwin and Mrs. Irwin, Rev. W. H. Hannum and Mrs. Han- 
num, Rev. A. W. Marshall and Mrs. Marshall. M. D. 



[IISTORICAL SKHTCH Ol" 



Missionaries in India, 1833-1903 

•Died. Figures, Term of Service in the Field. 



Alexander, Rev. J. M., 

n.D., 1S65-1903 

Alexander, Mrs., 1865-1903 

Allen, Maud, M.D., 1894 
Allison, Rev. A. B , 1902 
Allison, Mrs.. 1902 

Andrews, Rev. H. M.. 1890 
Andrews, Mrs. (Miss 
S. S. Hutchinson, 
1 879- 1 885), 1890 

Rabbitt, Miss Bessie, 1888-1891 
Bacon, Miss J. M., 1872-1882 

Bailv, Miss Marv E., 1889-1901 
Bandy, Rev. C. H., 1894 
Bandv, Mrs., 1894 

Barker, Rev. \V. P., 1S72-1876 
Barker, Mrs., 1872-1876 

"Barnes, Rev. Geo. O., 1855-1861 
Barnes, Mrs., 1855-1861 

*Bcattv, Miss C. L., 1S62-1869 

Bell, Miss J F., M.D., 1884 -1888 
*Bel/., Miss C, 1872-1903 

Bergen, Rev. G. S., 1865-1883 
Bergen, Mrs., 1869- 1883 

Braddock, Mrs. E H., 1892-1900 
Brink, Miss I'.A.,M. I). ,1X72 1874 
•Brodhead, Rev. Aug., 1.S58-1878 
Brodhcad. Mrs., 1858-1878 

Brown, Miss A. A., 1894 
Butler. Miss J. M.. 1S80-1881 

^Calderwood, Rev. Wni. ,1X55-1889 
• Caldcrwood, Mrs. L.G., 1855-1859 
Calderwood, Mrs. E., 1863 
"^Caldwell, Rev. Joseph, 1838- 1877 
Caldwell, Mrs , 1838- 1839 

"Caldwell, Mrs , 1S42-1878 

Caldwell, Bertha T., 

M I) . 1894- 1902 

"Campbell, Rev.Jas. R., 1836-1862 

♦Campbell, Mrs., 1836-1873 

♦Campbell, Rev. I), l-.., 1850-1857 

*Cam])bell, Mrs., 1850-1857 

Campbell, Miss Marv A. 1860-1863 

Campbell, Miss A., ' 1S74-187S 

Campbell,!.. M.. 1875-1878 

*Carleton, Rev. M. M., 1.S55 1S98 

*Carleton, Mrs.. 1855 18S1 

Carleton, Mrs., ivS84 

Carleton. Marcus B , 

M.I)., 18S1 

Carleton, Mrs., 1.SS7 

Carleton, Dr. Jessie R , 1886 



Clark, Rev. W.J., 1893 

Clark, Mrs., 1893 

Clark, Miss C. R., 1895 

Colman, Miss J. L-, 1890 
Condit, Miss Anna M., 1886-1888 
*Craig, James, 1838-1845 

*Craig, Mrs., 1838-1846 

*Craig, Miss M. A., 1870- 1890 
*Davis, Miss Julia, 1835-1836 

Davis, Miss M. C, 1895-1897 

Donaldson, Mi-s Elma, 1.SS9 
Downs, Miss C. C, 1881 
Edwards. Preston H., 1902 
luiright, MissG. L., 1902 
Ely, Rev. J. B., 1896-1901 

Ely, Mrs., 1896- 1901 

Evans, Miss Clara, 1901 
•Ewalt, Miss Marg't L., 1888-1892 
Ewing. Rev. J. C. R., 

D.D., 1879 

Ewing, Mrs.. 1879 

I<:wing,Rev.A.H.,Ph.Di89c) 
lowing, Mrs., 1890 

lowing. Miss C E., 1901 
Ewing, Miss Anna K., 1901 
♦Ferris, Rev. O H., 1S78-1893 
Ferris, Mrs., 1878-1900 

Fisher, Rev. H., Ml)., 1889-1899 
Fisher, Mrs.. 1896-1899 

♦Forman, Rev. C W., 

D.D., 1848-1S94 

♦Forman. Mrs. ^^Miss 

Margaret Newton), 1855-1878 
Korman, Mrs. G. S., 1884 
Forman, Rev. Henry, 1.S84 
♦Forman, Mrs. (Miss A. 

K Bird. 1888), 1889-1896 

Forman, Mrs. (MissC. 

vS. Newton^, 1898 

Forman, Rev. C. W., 

M.D., 1883 

Forman, Mrs., 1888 

Forman, Rev. John N., 1S87 
Forman, Mrs. 1 Miss K. 

M. Foote. i8S6\ 1890 
Forman, Miss Mary P.,|.SJ>7 
I'ortnan.Miss I^mily N. 1892 
I'Osler. Miss E. A., 1897 
•I'recnian. Re V.John l'". .1838-1.S57 
♦iMceiiian. Mrs. M. A . 1.S38-1849 
•Freeman, Mrs Eli^.. 1851-1857 
♦Fullerlon. Rev. R. S., 1850- 1865 



THE MISSIONS IN INDIA 



6l 



*Fullerton, Mrs., 


1S50- 


1866 


Fuller tou, Miss M. 






1877-188S, 


'1H95 




Giddings, Miss C. C, 


1889- 


1897 


GilhcrtsoH, Prot. J. G., 


1889 




Gilbertson, Mrs., 


1889 




Giles, Miss Alice L., 


1899 




Gillam, Rev. S. M., 


1900 




Given, Miss Marg't M. 


,1881 




(iohecn. Rev. J. M., 


i>^75 




*Goheen, Mrs., 


1875- 


1876 


Goheen, Mrs. (Miss A 






B. M'Ginnis, 1876 1, 


1879 




Gould, Rev. A. B., 


1900 




Gould, Mrs., M.D. (Miss 




Helen Newton, '93) 


,1902 




Graham, Rev. J. P., 


1872 




*Grahani, Mrs. 1 Miss M 






Bunnell;, 


1872- 


1901 


Graham, Miss F. I., 


1900 




*Green, Willis, M.D., 


1842- 


1S43 


Griffiths, Miss Irene, 


1S79- 


1890 


Griswold, Rev. H. D., 






Ph.D , 


1890 




Griswoid. Mrs., 


1890 




Hamilton, Miss Mary, 


1901 




Haniuini, Rev. W. H., 


1890 




Hannuni, Mrs., 


1890 




Hanlie, Miss M. H., 


1874- 


1876 


*Hav, Rev. L. G., 


1850- 


1857 


Mla'v, Mrs.. 


1850- 


1857 


*Henry, Rev. J. A.. 


1864- 


1869 


Henry, Mrs., 


1S64- 


1869 


♦Heron, Rev. David, 


J«55- 


1886 


'Heron, Mrs. (Miss M 






L. Browning, 1855), 


1857- 


1863 



* Heron, Mrs., 
Herron, Miss C. B 
Heston, Dr. Winifred, 1902 
Heyl, Rev. Francis, 1 867-1 88 1 

* Hodge, Rev. A. A., 

* Hodge, Mrs., 
Holconil), Rev. J. F 
Holconib, Mrs., 

•Hull, Rev. J. J , 

Hull, Mrs., 

Hutchison, Miss S., 

Hvde, Rev. J X., 
Mn'glis, Rev. T. E., 

Inglis, Mrs., 
•Irving, Rev. David, 
^Irving, Mrs., 

Irwin, Rev. J. M., 

Irwin, Mrs., 

Irwin, Miss Rachel, 
^Jamieson, Rev. J. M 



I 868- I 874 
1896 



1 848- 1 850 

I 848- I 850 

1870 

1870 

1872-1881 

1S72-1891 

1885-1894 

1S92 

1 884 -1 89 2 

1884-1892 

1846-1849 

1846-1849 

1890 

1890-1898 
1836-1856 



*Jamieson, Mrs. R.. 

*Jamieson, Mrs. E- McL 

'^Janvier. Rev. Levi, 

*Janvier, Mrs., 

^Janvier, Mrs. (Mrs. M. 

R. Porter, 1849), 
Janvier, Rev. C. A. R., 
Janvier, Mrs., 
JcfTerson, Miss A. M , 
Jenks, Miss J. H., 

*Jolinson, Rev. A. O., 

*Johnson, Mrs., 
Johnson, Rev. William 
F., D.D., 

*Johnson, Mrs., 
Johnson, Miss Bertha, 
Johnson, Miss M. E., 
Johnson, Rev. h\ O., 
Johnson, Mrs., 
Johnson, Miss J. C, 
JoUv, Mr. John, 189 
Jolly, Mrs , 189 

Jones, Rev. V. S. G., 
Jones, Mrs., 
Jones, Miss Alice B., 

^Kellogg. Rev. S. H., 
1865-1876; 

*Kellogg, Mrs., 
Kellogg, Mrs., 
Kelso, Rev. A. P , 
Kelso, Mrs., 
Lawrence, Rev. J. H., 
Lawrence, Mrs., 
Lawson, Miss Marv B , 

*Leavitt, Rev. E. H., 

*Lowenthal, Rev. I , 

*Lowrie, Rev. John C, 

*Lowrie, Mrs. Louisa A., 
Lucas, Rev. J. J.,D D., 
Lucas, Mrs. ( Miss Sly), 
Marshall, Rev. A. W., 
Marshall, Mrs., M.I). 
(Miss M.J. Stewart 
Marston, Emilv, M.D., 
Martin, Rev. E. D., 
Martin, Mrs. ( Miss C 

Hutchison 1, 
Mattison, Rev. C. H., 
Maltison, Mrs. (Miss 

Lincoln), 
Mc.'\rthur, Dr. Victoria 

*McAulev, Rev. W. H., 

*McAule'y, Mrs., 
McComb, Rcv.Jas. M. 
McComb, Mrs., 
McCuskey, Rev. F. B . 



836-1845 
848-1856 
841-1864 
841-1854 

856-1875 

887-: 1 901 

887-1901 

891 

9J1 

855 -'857 

855- "857 

860 

860-1888 

902 

891 

897 

897 

9Ji 

-'94 ; '97 
-'94 ; '97 

888 

893 
898 

892-1899 
865-1876 
892- 1 899 
S69 
869 
901 
901 
887- I 888 

855-1857 
855-1864 
833- '836 

833-1833 
870 
871 
900 

900 
891 
893-1901 

891-1901 
901 

901 

899 

840-1851 

840-1851 

882-1898 

882-1898 

902 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF 



McCuskey, Mrs., 


1902 




*C)rbison, Rev. J. H., 


1850-1869 


McKweu, Rev. James, 


[836- 


1830 


♦Orbison, Mrs. Agnes C. 


.1853-1855 


Mcl\weu, Mrs.. 


[836- 


1838 


Orbison, Mrs., 


1859-1869 


McGaughey, Miss H., 


1898 




Orbison, Rev. J. H. 




McOaw, Rev. A. G., 


1894 




M.D., 


1886 


Mciiaw, Mrs., 


894 




Orbison, Mrs., 


1886 


McMullin, Rev. R. M., 


[856- 


1857 


Orbison, Miss Agnes L. 


1889-1896 


McMullin.Mrs., 


856- 


1857 


^Ovven, Rev. Joseph, 


1840-1870 


Meek, Rev. C. C, 


895- 


1896 


'Owen, Mrs. Augusta M. 


1844-1864 


Millar, Mrs. S. J., 


873- 


1877 


( )wen, Mrs., 


I 867- I 870 


Miller, Miss Bertha, 


[901 




Patterson, Miss D. ¥,., 


1902 


Minor, Miss E. T., 


[891 




Patton, Miss E. H., 


1880 


Mitchell, Dr. Alice, 


^95 




Pendleton, MissE. M., 


1882-1889 


Mitchell, Rev. W. T., 


[896 




Perley, Miss P\, 


1879-1882 


Mitchell, Mrs., i 


896 




Pollock, Rev. Geo. W., 


1881-1887 


Morris, Rees, 


[8^,8- 


1845 


Pollock, Mrs., 


I 88 1-1887 


Morris, Mrs., ] 


838- 


1845 


♦Porter, Rev. Joseph, 


1836-1853 


Morris, Miss Kmma, 


[892 




■Porter, Mrs., 


1836-1842 


Morrison, Rev. John H. 


837- 


1881 


Pratt, Miss M. E., 


1873 


* Morrison, Mrs. Anna M. 


^837- 


1838 


*Rankin, Rev. J. C, 


1840-1848 


•Morrison, Mrs. Isabella, 


^839- 


1843 


*Raiikin, Mrs.. 


1840-1848 


♦Morrison, Mrs. Anna, ] 


846- 


i860 


-Reed, Rev. William, 


1833- 1834 


^Morrison, Mrs. E. A., 


870- 


1 888 


♦Reed, Mrs., 


1833-1834 


Morrison, Rev. W.J. P., 


865 




Richardson,Rev. R.C., 


1901 


♦Morrison, Mrs. (Miss 






Richardson, Mrs., 


1901 


Thackwell, 1S77-), ] 


879- 


1888 


^Rogers, Rev. Wm. S., 


ift36-i843 


♦Morrison, Mrs. 1 Miss 






♦Rogers, Mrs., 


1836-1843 


Geisinger, 1882-), 1 


892- 


1898 


Rogers, Miss M. E., 


1899 


Morrison, Miss H., 


865- 


1876 


*Ru(iolph, Rev. A., 


1846-1888 


Morrison, Rev. Robt., 


883 




♦Rudolph. Mrs.. 


1846-1849 


Morrison, Mrs. (Miss 






♦Rudolph, Mrs., 


1851-1855 


Annie Heron, '79-), 


[884 




Savage, Miss H. A., 


1888 


Morrow, Miss M. J., i 


890 




Say re, Rev. E. H., 


1863- 1S70 


♦Munnis, Rev. R. M., 


846- 


1861 


Sayrc, Mrs., 


1863-1870 


•Muiinis, Mrs., 


851- 


1861 


Sciieurman.MissE.E., 


1899 


*Mvers, Rev. J. H., 


S6s- 


1869 


♦Scott, Rev. J. L., 




♦Myers, Mrs., 


865- 


1875 


I 838- I 867 ; 


1877-1880 


Nelson, Miss J A., 


871- 


1878 


♦Scott, Mrs. CM., 


1838-184S 


♦Newton, Rev. John, 


835 


1 89 1 


♦Scott, Mrs. J. L., 




^Newton, Mrs.Elizab'th, 


835- 


•857 


1853 ; 1860-1867 ; 


1877-1892 


♦Newton, Mrs., 


866 


1893 


Scott, Miss .\nna E., 


1874-1892 


*Newton, Rev.Jno., Jr., 






♦Seeley, Rev. A. H., 


1846-1854 


M.D. 


1860- 


1880 


♦Seeley, Mrs., 


1846-1853 


Newton, Mrs., i86i-'82; 


1888 




♦Seclcy, Rev. (;. A., 


1870-1887 


Newton, Rev. C. H., 






Seelcv, Mrs., 


1879 1887 


D.D. 


867 




♦Scelcy, Miss !•;. J., 


1879^887 


♦Newton, Mrs. Miss M. 






Scilcr, Rev. C \V., 


1.S70 


B. Thompson, '69), 


1871- 


1897 


Seiler, Mrs., 


1881 


Newton. Mrs. (Miss J. 






♦Seward, Sara C. M.D. 


1873- 1891 


F. Dunlap, 1889 1, 


900 




Shaw, Rev. H. W., 


18 so- 1855 


Newton,Rev.E.J.,M.I). 


1.S70 




Shaw, Mrs.. 


1850-1855 


Newton, Mrs., 


870 




Sherman, Miss J., 


1889-1899 


Newton, Rev. E. P., 


873 




Simonson, Rev. (i. H., 


1893-1900 


Newton, Mrs., 


1874 




Simpson, Rev. E. W., 


1902 


Noble, Dr. Mary R.. 


902 




Smith, Rev. Ray C. 


1900 


Norris, Dr. Marg't R., 


900 




Smith, Mrs.. 


1900 



THK MISSIONS IX INDIA 



63 



i«93 

1888- 

1902 

1902 

1880 

1880 



Stebbins, Mrs. A. M. 
Symes, Miss Mary L. 
Symiugton, Rcv.J.S 
Syiiiington, Mrs., 
Tedford, Rev. L. B.. 
Tedford, Mrs., 
Tenipliu, Dr.Kuima L.,1893 
Thackwell, Rev. Reese, 
D.D., 1859 

* Thackwell, Mrs., 1859 

Thackwell, Mrs. (Miss 

S. Morrison, 1869), 1875 
Thiede, Miss Clara, 
Thomson, Miss M. J., 
Tracy, Rev. Thomas, 
Tracy, Mrs. (Miss N 

Dickey), 
Tracy, Miss J. W., 
Tracy, Rev. Robt. D., 

*Ullman. Rev. J. F., 

*Ullmau, Mrs., 



1894 

1894 
i«73 



1873 
1899 
iSb9 



1896 
I S90 
*Vanderveer, Miss Jane, 1840-1846 



1870 

1898 

1901 

1848- 

1848- 



Velte, Rev. H 

Velte, Mrs., 

Vrooman, Dr. Sarah, 

Walsh, Rev. J. J., 
*\Valsh, Mrs., 

Walsh, Miss Marian, 
*Walsh, Miss Emma, 

Walsh, Miss Lizzie, 

Wanless, W. J., M.I) 

Wan less, Mrs., 
* Warren, Rev. J., 

1838-1854; 1873- 
*Warren, Mrs., 
■Warren, Mrs., 

Wberrv, Rev. E. M., 
D D., 1S67-1889; 1898 



1882 

1692 

1901 

i''^43- 

1843- 

1864^ 

1868- 

1870- 

1889 

1889 



i»73- 
1838- 

i«73- 



1873 
1873 
1866 
1869 
1882 



1877 
1854 
1901 



Wherry, Mrs,, 

I 867- I 889; 1898- 
Wherry, Miss S. M., 1879 
*Wil(ler, Rev. R. G., 1870-1876 
Wilder, Mrs., i87o-'76; 1887 
Wilder, Miss Grace E., 1887 
Wilder, R. P., 1892-1895 

Wilder, Mrs., 1892- 1895 

Wiley, Rev. A. L., 1899 
Wiley, Mrs., 1899 

*Williams, Rev. R. E.. 1852-1861 
Williamson, Miss C. J., 

1882-1884; 1895 
Williamson, J. Rutlcr, 
M.D., 1902 

♦Wilson, Rev. H. R., 1838-1846 
^Wilson, Mrs., 1838-1846 

*Wilson, Rev. James, 1838-1851 
nVilson, Mrs., 1838-1851 

*Wilson, Miss M. X., 1873-1879 
Wilson, Rev. Ivlgar M.,1894 
Wilson, Mrs., 1897 

Wilson, Alex S.,M.D., 1896 
Wilson, Mrs., 1896 

Winter, Dr. Sarah E., 1893 1S95 
Woodside, Rev. J. S., 1848 
*Woodside, Mis., 1.S4S-1888 

Woodside, Mrs. (Mrs. 

Leavitt, 1856), 1890 

■^Woodside, Miss J., 1868-1889 

Woodside, Miss G. D., 1902 
*Wray, Rev. John, 1841-1849 

*Wrav, Mrs., 1841-1849 

*Wyckoff, Rev. B. D., 

1860-1875; 1883-1896 
Wyckoff, Mrs.. 

1860-1875: 1883-1896 
Wynkoop. Rev. T. S., 1868-1877 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

Among India's Students. Robert P. Wilder. 

Asiatic Studies. Sir Alfred Lyall. 

Bits About India. Helen H. Holconib. $i.oo. 

Rrahnioism : a History of Reformed Hinduism. R. C. Bose. 

Buddhism : In its Connection with Brahmanism and Hinduism, Sir 

Monier Williams. 
Conversion of India. George Smith. $1.50. 
Everyday Life in India. Rev. A. D. Rowe. $1.50. 
From Da'rkness to Light (Telegu Awakening). J. K. Clough. 
Hinduism and its Relations to Christianity. Rev. John RoVjsou. 
Hinduism : Past and Present. Rev. J. Murray Mitchell, LL.D. |i.6o. 
Historv of A. P. Missions in India. Rev. J. Newton. $1.00. 
History of India for High Schools. C. F. dc la Fosse, M.A. 
History of India. James Grant. 2 vols. |iooo. 
History of Protestant Missions in India. M. A. Sherring. 
India and Indian Missions. Alexander Duff, D.D. 
India: Historical, Pictorial and Descriptive. C. H. Eden. $200. 
India : Its History, Darkness and Dawn. Rev. W. St. Clair Tisdall. 
India Missions, Scmi-Ccntennial Celebration, 1S84. 
India. Sir John Strachcy. 
Indian Buddhism. T. W. Rhys Davids. 

Indian Missions. Sir Bartle F'rere. 

Indian Mutinv. Alexander Duff, D.D. 

India's Proble'm : Krishna or Christ. John P. Jones, D.D. f 1.50. 

Life and Travel in India. A. H. Leonowens. 

Life by the Ganges. Mrs. Mullens. 80 cents. 

Life iti India John W. Dulles D.D. $1.06. 

Life of Alexander Duff. G. Smith. ^2.00. 

Life and Times of Carey, Marshman and Ward. 

Life of Wdliam C. Burns. Islay Burns. 

Lux Christi. Mrs. C. A. Mason. 

Martyrs of the Mutiny. 50 cents. 

Memoirs of John Scudder. 51.25. 

Memoirs of Rev. Joseph Owen, D.D. J. C. Moffatt. 

Men of Might in Indian Missions. Helen H. Holcomb. 

Missions of A. B. C. b\ M in India and Ceylon. S. C Bartlett. fi.50. 

Missionary Expansion of Reformed Churches. Rev. ]. A. (iraham. 
IS. 6c/. 

Missionary Life Among the Villages of India. T. J. Scott. So cents. 

Modern India and the Indians. Sir Monier Williams. 14.^. 

Modern Hinduism. W. J. Wilkins. i6s. 

Our Sisters in India. Rev. bv vStorrow. I1.25. 

Pandita Ramabai. Helen S. Dyer. $1.25. 

Religions of India. 1'. Max Miillcr. 105 6d. 

Scenes in Southern India. Mrs. Murray Mitchell. $1.00. 

Suwarta. Miss Annie H. Small. 

The High Caste Hindu Woman. Pandita Ramabai. 75 cents. 

The Cross in the Land of the Trident. Harlan P. Beach. 50 cents. 

Two Years in Upper India. Rev. John C. Lowric. f 1.50. 

Village Work in India. Rev. N. Russell. #1.00. 

Wrongs of Indian Womanhood. Mrs. M. B. IniUcr. J 1.25. 




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