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Full text of "Historical sketch of the State Normal School at San José, California : with a catalogue of its graduates and a record of their work for twenty-seven years"






IN MEMORIAM 

John owett 




Of rr )tJCAT!ON, 







1862. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



OF THE 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



AT 



SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA, 



WITH A 



CATALOGUE OF ITS GRADUATES AND A RECORD OF THEIR 
WORK FOR TWENTY-SEVEN YEARS. 



6EPARTMENT Of EDUCATION, 



erred 



SACRAMENTO. 

STATE OFFICE :::::: j. D. YOUNG, SUPT. STATE PRINTING. 
1889. 



TABLE OK CONTKNTS. 



PAGE. 

PREFACE 5 

INTRODUCTION 7 

HISTORICAL SKETCH, WITH REMINISCENCES BY GRADUATES 9 

STATISTICAL TABLES 102 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARDS OF TRUSTEES 106 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRINCIPALS 108 

LIST OF TEACHERS 123 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GRADUATES 130 

HOLDERS OF ELEMENTARY DIPLOMAS 145 

GRADUATES' RECORD 148 

PROSPECTUS FOR 1889-90 .. 283 



541623 



6 Preface. 

such a history required more time than was given in the circular, 
and the sketch was, therefore, retained here. It was thought, fol- 
lowing the lead of some of the older schools, that the history 
might be issued at the expiration of the first twenty-five years of 
the School's existence, but the large number of graduates, scat- 
tered over so large a State, made it impossible to collect, in so 
short a time, any accurate record of their work. For six years 
past information has been gradually, yet diligently, collected, 
and even now the work is not complete. It is, however, thought 
best no longer to delay the publication. 

Few who read these pages will appreciate the amount of labor 
expended in collecting and arranging the facts herein contained. 
In the catalogues of the school for the past five years, in circulars, 
and personal letters, information has been sought in all directions. 
To most of the circulars and letters courteous responses have been 
received, and thanks are due to many for their lively interest in 
the history and their willing contributions to it. 

It is now presented, containing all the attainable information, 
from reliable sources, and it is sincerely hoped that the work will 
prove satisfactory. If the good that results from the publication 
is at all commensurate with the labor that has been bestowed 
upon it, it will prove indeed valuable as a contribution to the 
educational history of California. 

It is but just to state, that almost the entire labor of collecting, 
arranging, preparing statistical tables, in short of editing the work, 
has been done by Miss Ruth Royce, a graduate of the school, and 
if the history proves at all valuable, the credit belongs to her. 

With sincere and ardent hopes for the highest prosperity of the 
Normal School at San Jose, I for the last time sign myself, 
Sincerely, 

CHAS. H. ALLEN, Principal. 

SAN JOSE, June 30, 1889. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In an address before the California State Teachers' Institute, in 
May, 1863, Mr. Samuel I. C. Swezey* gave the following eloquent 
account of the founding of the first Normal School in the United 
States: 

On the third day of July, eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, the first Ameri- 
can Normal School was opened, at Lexington, Massachusetts. The place and 
the time were fittingly chosen. The place was where the opening battle of the 
Revolution was fought, when it first became clear that freedom was to be 
secured for this great land where we dwell, and that henceforth the people were 
to be trusted with power for evermore. It was fitting that there, also, should 
first be formally commenced the special preparation of teachers for the work 
of teaching humbly and teaching well in the public schools of the State which 
that battle ground had proven worthy to be free. It was a fitting time for the 
commencement of such a work the day before the anniversary of American 
Independence shadowing forth, with a wisdom greater than the founders of 
that Normal School designed, the great fact that before a people can hope to be 
fully free, before they are worthy of the exalted privilege of ruling themselves, 
they must be taught aright. The Third of July must ever come before the 
Fourth. 

At the time that the first State Normal School in California 
was opened, July, 1862, but eight out of the thirty-four States 
belonging to the Union had established State Normal Schools. 
These schools numbered fourteen in all, distributed, in order of 
the date of opening, as follows: Massachusetts, four, New York, 
two, Pennsylvania, three, Connecticut, one, Michigan, one, New 
Jersey, one, Illinois, one, and Minnesota, one. Besides these, 
Philadelphia, Boston, and St. Louis each had a flourishing City 
Normal School. 

It is a matter of some educational interest, though perhaps only 
as a curiosity, that as early as 1836 there existed in California a 
school dignified by the title of " Normal School." Of this insti- 

*Mr. Swezey was a graduate of the State Normal School at Albany, New 
York, class of 1850. He taught several years, was prominent in educational 
interests in California, and was for four years a Trustee of the California State 
Normal School. 



8 Introduction. 



tution, Mr. Henry L. Oak, Librarian of the Bancroft Historical 
Library, furnishes the following sketch: 

Among the colonists who came to California from the City of Mexico in 1834, 
were half a dozen teachers. There was need enough for their services here at 
the time, but no opportunity whatever to earn a livelihood by their profession. 
Therefore, most of them, like many of other professions in the colony, soon 
left the country. Some remained, however, one of the number being now a 
prominent citizen of Southern California. Another, Jos Mariano Romero, 
attempted to found an educational establishment at the Capital, Monterey, giv- 
ing it the somewhat absurd title of " Normal School." He obtained a few pupils, 
and even went so far as to publish a text-book, a little treatise on orthoepy, or 
" orthology," dedicated to the "Alumni" of his institution. The title is as fol- 
lows: Catecismo de Ortologea. Dedicado d los Alumnos de la Escuela Normal de 
Monterey por su Director, Jose Mariano Romero. Monterey, 1836. Imprenta del C. 
Agust V. Zamorano. 18 mo* This work is preserved among the treasures of 
the Bancroft Library in San Francisco. Don Jose" failed to achieve success; 
and, becoming implicated in a revolution, w r as soon banished from California. 
But the first Normal School and the first text-book merit prominent notice in 
the educational annals of our country. 

* Catechism of Orthoepy. Dedicated to the Alumni of the Normal School in 
Monterey, by its President, Jos4 Mariano Romero. Monterey, 1836. Printing 
office of August V. Zamorano. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



ORIGIN OF THE SCHOOL 

The necessity for the establishment of a State Normal School 
in California was first urged by a few gentlemen of San Francisco, 
who were prominent in forwarding the educational interests of the 
State during its early history. Among the most active of these, 
were State Superintendent Andrew J. Moulder, his successor, Mr. 
John Swett, and City Superintendent Henry B. Janes. 

By the earnest efforts of these gentlemen, a City Normal School 
was established in San Francisco in 1857, with George W. Minns 
as Principal, and John Swett, Ellis H. Holmes, and Thomas S. 
Myrick assistants. This was known as the "Minns' Evening 
Normal School." The sessions of the school were held weekly, 
on Monday evenings, and the attendance of city teachers was 
made compulsory. Superintendent Janes, in his reports of 1857 
and 1858, reported favorably on the success and efficiency of the 
City Normal School. This school was continued until 1862, its 
graduates numbering fifty-four. 

In his annual school report of 1859, State Superintendent Moul- 
der recommended the establishment of a State Normal School, 
and in 1860 repeated the recommendation, but both of the suc- 
ceeding Legislatures adjourned without action. Mr. Moulder 
writes: "When I appealed personally to the members of the Leg- 
islature at that early day, to pass the law organizing the school, 
not a few of them admitted that they did not know what a Nor- 
mal School was. It was several years after I recommended the 
measure before legislators could be educated up to a knowledge 
and appreciation of the value of such an institution." 

During the session of the first California State Teachers' Insti- 
tute, held in San Francisco in May, 1861, a committee, consisting 
of Henry B. Janes, Geo. W. Minns, and Ellis H. Holmes, was 
appointed to examine and report upon the subject of Normal 
Schools. In conformity with their instructions, they addressed 
the following communication to the State Superintendent: 



io Historical Sketch. 



Hon. A. J. MOULDER, Superintendent of Public Instruction: 

SIR: The undersigned were appointed a committee upon a State Normal 
School by the recent Educational Convention. 

In part performance of the duty thus devolved upon us, we desire, through 
you, to present to the next Legislature some considerations favoring the estab- 
lishment of such a school, and respectfully solicit your cooperation with us. 
In so doing, we are actuated by the opinion that such a measure would do 
much to advance the educational interests of this State, and that while it is 
deferred, our public school system will fail to secure to us the greatest benefits 
of education, or the largest return for the money expended in its support. 

In a Normal School the principles of teaching are considered both as a 
science and an art. Its subjects are the powers, capacities, and laws of'growth 
of the mind; the order, as to time, in which the different faculties are to be 
addressed and developed; the best modes of their development; the special 
adaptation of each school study to the particular necessities and faculties of 
the juvenile mind; the laws of bodily health as to ventilation, posture, school 
calisthenics and gymnastics ; and the moral natures of children. It also con- 
siders the best methods of school organization, classification, programmes of 
daily exercises, and modes of teaching, as exemplified in the best systems and 
best schools in the world; and the knowledge so acquired is practically applied 
in the model or experimental school (a necessary part of a Normal School) in 
the presence of competent and experienced teachers. 

This statement of the objects of such a school, forces the mind to the con- 
clusion that a teacher thus educated and trained, thus taught how to teach, 
must be incomparably superior to one who lacks such advantages. The pos- 
session of knowledge is one thing, ability to teach is another and a far different 
thing. The most limited observer is aware that a very learned man may pro- 
foundly understand a subject himself, and yet fail egregiously in elucidating it 
to others. The profession of a teacher imperatively demands a special school 
for instruction in its appropriate science and methods. 

How to teach and what to teach are classes of knowledge equal in importance to 
the teacher, and absolutely necessary to the proper progress of the scholar. 
Both must be acquired somehow. It may well be asked why this should be 
reserved for the common school-room; why the time of the school and the 
public money should be squandered by empirics rather than husbanded by 
adepts. 

No one would intrust a steam engine to a man who was acquainted with that 
machine only through books. The danger and folly of thus risking life, time, 
and money in educating an engineer would not be questioned; universal 
opinion would force him to an apprenticeship under a competent master. Is 
there less of folly or danger in intrusting the mysterious and subtle mechanism 
of the mind to teachers unlearned in the practical duties of their profession ? 
Such is the principle insisted on in all the common occupations of life. The 
gardener, for instance, we should all insist, must have a practical acquaintance 
with the nature of different soils, the habits of different plants, the best modes 
of cultivating and training them, and the soil and position suitable for each. In 
his case, no amount of book knowledge would compensate for his want of such 
practical knowledge. So of the farmer and the mechanic; the State fosters and 
endows societies which constantly reward their best practical skill. 

Are not the best methods of performing the highest social duty, the intel- 
lectual, moral, and physical training of our children, equally worthy of the 
attention of the State ? 



State Normal School. 1 1 

Horace Mann, widely and justly celebrated as an eminent educator, expressed 
his amazement "that a parent will often intrust the education of his children 
to a person of whose experience and qualifications he knows nothing, when he 
would not allow him to mend a watch without first ascertaining that he pos- 
sessed the requisite practical skill." 

Such then being the design of a Normal School, to afford to those who x design 
to become teachers that previous training which, for any other business, is 
deemed indispensable, we need not say more of its importance to California, 
than to call attention to the fact, that the large number of our citizens, male 
and female, who are looking to the profession of teaching as an employment 
for life, compete at a great disadvantage with those who come hither educated 
in the Normal Schools of other States. Our citizens should not be longer sub- 
jected to such disadvantages. 

The report then goes on to mention the number and efficiency 
of Normal Schools in Europe and in the Eastern States, with the 
cost of supporting some of the most prominent, and closes with 
the following paragraph: 

The amounts stated as the annual expense of these schools in other States, 
are referred to here as showing the estimation in which they are held, but do 
not constitute a criterion for judging the amount necessary to the establish- 
ment of such a school here. We believe a sum much less than either of those 
named, will suffice to secure its opening, upon a plan sufficiently extended to 
meet the present wants of our citizens. 

Hoping that these views may meet your approval, we remain, sir, 
Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

HENRY B. JANES, 
GEORGE W. MINNS, 
ELLIS H. HOLMES, 
Committee on State Normal Schools. 
SAN FKANCISCO, January 2, 1862. 

This communication was embodied by Superintendent Moulder 
in his report to the Legislature of 1862, and earnestly commended 
by him to their consideration, with the statement that an appro- 
priation of $5,000 would be sufficient to establish the school and 
put it in successful operation. 

The result of these combined efforts of the State Superintend- 
ent and the Teachers' Institute, was an Act passed by the Legis- 
lature May 2, 1862, providing for the establishment of a State 
Normal School, and appropriating $3,000 for its support for five 
months. The following is a copy of the Act: 

SECTION 1. The Board of Education of the State of California, together with 
the Superintendent of Common Schools in the Cities of San Francisco. Sacra- 
mento, and Marysville, are hereby constituted (ex officio) a Board of Trustees 
for the Normal School of the State of California, as hereinafter provided. 

SEC. 2. Such Board of Trustees shall be known and designated as "The 
Board of Trustees of the State Normal School," and they shall have power to 



12 Historical Sketch. 



establish and maintain, in the City of San Francisco, or at such other place as 
the Legislature may hereafter direct, a Normal School, for the free instruction 
in the theory and practice of teaching of such citizens of this State as may 
desire to engage as teachers in the public schools thereof; to prescribe a course 
of study for such Normal School, and the text-books to be used therein; to 
examine, employ, and fix the salaries of teachers therein ; to hold stated exami- 
nations of the pupils attending such Normal School, and to award diplomas 
and certificates, as hereinafter provided ; to arrange and effect all the details 
necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 

SEC. 3. The said Board of Trustees shall, on or before the first day of June, 
A. D. eighteen hundred and sixty-two, arrange for the opening of such Normal 
School, and may, in their discretion, adopt the Normal School now existing in 
the City of San Francisco, and may also agree with the Board of Education of 
said city for the establishment of an Experimental School, to be connected with 
such Normal School; also, for the use of buildings, furniture, apparatus, etc., 
necessary for the same; provided, that the sessions of such Normal and Experi- 
mental School shall be held in the day time, at least once each day for five days 
of each week, during five months of each year. 

SEC. 4. Females, of fifteen years or over, or any male of the age of eighteen 
years or over, shall be entitled to admission, as pupils in such Normal and 
Experimental School, upon declaring, in writing, to the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, his or her intention to engage permanently in teaching in 
the common schools of this State; provided, that all persons applying for 
admission as pupils may be instructed in said school for such rates of tuition 
as the Board of Trustees may determine. 

SEC. 5. The seats in such Normal School shall be apportioned among the 
applicants therefor from the different counties of this State, as near as may be, 
in proportion to the representation of such counties in the State Legislature. 

SEC. 6. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall visit the said school 
at least once in each month, and, at the end of each annual session thereof, the 
Trustees shall examine such applicants as are pupils of the Normal School, 
regarding their proficiency in the studies of the course, and especially in their 
knowledge of the practice of teaching and school government, and shall grant 
diplomas to such only as give satisfactory evidence of their qualification in 
both the studies of the course and in the practice of teaching and school gov- 
ernment. Certificates of qualification may be issued to those who have pursued 
only a practical course of study, specifying the grade of schools w r hich they are 
qualified to teach ; and such diplomas and certificates shall entitle the person 
to whom they are awarded to teach in any 'common school in this State," of 
the grade specified therein, for the term of two years from its date, without 
further examination by the State or County Board of Examination. 

SEC. 7. The Trustees shall hold a meeting on the opening and closing day of 
each annual session of such Normal School, and as much oftener as they may 
deem necessary for the public interest. 

SEC. 8. The sum of three thousand dollars is hereby appropriated for the 
purposes of this Act, payable out of the General Fund ; and the Controller of 
State is hereby authorized and required to draw his warrant for that sum, in 
favor of the Board of Trustees of the State Normal School, to be expended by 
them solely for the purposes of this Act; and they shall report annually, on or 
before the tenth day of January of each year, to the State Legislature, all their 
expenditures; also, the number of pupils attending such Normal School, their 
name, age, and residence, and the number of diplomas and certificates of qual- 
ification granted, and to whom; provided, that no expense incurred by said 



State Normal School. 13 

Board, under this Act, exceeding said sum of three thousand dollars, shall be 
a charge against the State. 

SEC. 9. This Act shall take effect from and after its passage; and all laws 
and parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby 
repealed. 



SUCCEEDING HISTORY. 



1862-63. 

(July 21, 1862 May 14, 1863.) 

In pursuance of the Act passed May 2, 1862, the Board of Trus- 
tees held their first meeting May 23, 1862, at the office of the 
Governor, in Sacramento, and organized by electing Governor 
Stanford Chairman, and Superintendent Tait Secretary. There 
were present at this meeting, Governor Leland Stanford, Surveyor- 
General J. F. Houghton, State Superintendent A. J. Moulder, 
City Superintendent George Tait of San Francisco, and City 
Superintendent G. Taylor of Sacramento. 

The Board accepted the offer of the San Francisco Board of 
Education tendering to the Normal School the use of a vacant room 
in the High School building, together with apparatus. The Beni- 
cia Board of Education offered the use of the old State House, 
but the offer could not be accepted, as the Act established the 
school at San Francisco. It was decided to publish in one news- 
paper of San Francisco, Sacramento, and Marysville, respectively, 
the intention of the Board to open the Normal School on the third 
Monday in July, and applicants were notified to file their names 
with the Secretary of the Board at least three days before the 
opening of the school. A large attendance seems to have been 
anticipated, and there was much discussion as to the proper 
apportionment of seats, " all desiring," as the minutes of the meet- 
ing record, " to secure to each county in the State its proportionate 
privileges in the school, and at the same time to afford sufficient 
advantages to the greater number of persons who will undoubtedly 
seek admission to the school from our large cities." The number 
of pupils to be admitted during the first term was finally limited 
to sixty; "provided, that at least one pupil shall be admitted from 
each county." The examination was advertised to be held Friday, 
July 18, 1862, in San Francisco, at the rooms of the Board of Edu- 



14 Historical Sketch. 

cation, then located in the Odd Fellows' Building, on Montgomery 
Street. The rate of tuition for those not entitled to gratuitous 
admission was fixed at $5 per month. 

At a subsequent meeting, Ahira Holmes, of San Francisco, was 
elected Principal. 

The expectation that a large number would apply for admis- 
sion was not realized. Up to the day appointed, only one appli- 
cation was registered, and on the eighteenth day of July but five 
applicants presented themselves. These, with one additional, 
formed the first class organized, consisting of one gentleman and 
five ladies, whose names are worthy of mention here as the "pio- 
neers" of the school: Frank G. Randle, San Francisco; Nellie 
Hart, San Francisco; P. Augusta Fink, San Francisco; Emily L. 
Hill, San Francisco; Ellen Grant, Nevada County; Ellen S. Bald- 
win, Contra Costa County. Four of these remained in the school 
and graduated. Miss Grant and Miss Baldwin are still teaching 
in the San Francisco schools; Miss Hart, now Mrs. Ramsdell, is 
teaching in Alameda; Miss Fink taught twelve years in San Fran- 
cisco, then married, and is now Mrs. T. C. AVhite, of Fresno; Mr. 
Randle is now in the office of the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany in Stockton; of Miss Hill nothing has been learned. 

On Monday, July 21, 1862, the school was organized in a room 
on the ground floor of the High School building on Powell Street. 
Fortunately the early history of the school is preserved in the form 
of a diary kept by Principal Holmes during the three years of his 
administration. From this diary the following record of the open- 
ing day is taken: 

At the opening exercises of the school there were present Hon. A. J. Moul- 
der, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Dr. G. Taylor, of Sacramento, 
the former of whom made remarks to the class relative to the objects and 
designs of the institution and their duties as pupils. Remarks were also made 
by the Principal, regarding the course of study and the rules and regulations 
of the school. In this manner was planted the feeble germ of the State Nor- 
mal School in California. 

The number of students increased, until, by the close of the 
term, the school numbered thirty-one, only three of whom were 
gentlemen. There seems to have been some disappointment to 
the organizers of the school in the qualifications of many of the 
students admitted. "A considerable number," it is recorded, " are 
found exceedingly deficient in knowledge of the rudiments of the 
common school branches, as well as in the mental discipline and 
intellectual vigor necessary to pursuing the studies of the course 



State Normal School. 15 

to advantage. They have been admitted on probation in accord- 
ance with the suggestions of the Normal School Board." Another 
difficulty frequently mentioned is the irregular attendance of pu- 
pils, "which is a source of discouragement to the Principal, and 
greatly detrimental to their progress and improvement." 

The declaration required by the Trustees at admission was as 
follows: 

We, the subscribers, do hereby declare that it is our intention to engage per- 
manently in teaching in the common schools of this State, and that it is our 
object in resorting to this school to prepare ourselves for the discharge of this 
important duty; and we moreover pledge ourselves to remain at least one term 
in the school, and to observe faithfully all the regulations of the institution so 
long as we continue members thereof. 

It differs from the form now iq use, principally in declaring the 
intention to engage in teaching permanently, and in giving a 
pledge to remain in the school for a definite time. Two pupils 
attending during the first term declined to sign this declaration, 
and were therefore required to pay tuition. 

For the first three months there was no model class, and the 
advanced pupils were " occasionally required to conduct the exer- 
cises in geography, arithmetic," etc. 

October 31. A Model Class was organized to-day in connection with the Nor- 
mal School, located on Fourth Street near Mission, and placed under the charge 
of Miss H. M. Clark, formerly a teacher in the Model Department of the Nor- 
mal School in Toronto. About thirty pupils have been received into the class, 
selected from the different Primaries of the city. These pupils are all girls, 
averaging about seven years of age. 

November 12. The Normal School was to-day removed to the old Music Hall, 
over the room occupied by the Model School. Although the room is more 
spacious than the one in which the sessions of the school have hitherto been 
held, it is in every way unsuitable for school purposes, being without facilities 
for ventilation, located on a noisy thoroughfare, and in close proximity to the 
street, and having windows only on one side. It is often almost impossible to 
hear the pupils distinctly when conducting class exercises, so great is the con- 
fusion produced by the sounds from the street. 

November 20. A Grammar Department of the Model School has also been 
formed, consisting principally of pupils from some of the City Grammar Schools, 
and Miss Clark has been appointed to conduct it. The Primary Department 
has been placed in charge of Miss K. Sullivan, formerly a teacher in one of the 
Chicago Primary Schools. The Model Grammar Department consists at pres- 
ent of only eighteen pupils. The members of the first division of the Normal 
School will be detailed to teach in both classes of the Model School. 

December 21. The first semi-annual examination of the Normal School took 
place to-day. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. J. Moulder, several 
of the public school teachers of the city, and some of the friends of the pupils 
were present. The examination was exclusively oral, and the exercises were 
interspersed with calisthenics and vocal music. None of the pupils were found 
qualified to graduate. 



1 6 Historical Sketch. 

The Act establishing the school provided for but one session of 
five months, but as there was a balance of the appropriation still 
on hand, sufficient for the expenses of the school for two months, 
the Board decided to open a second session, and trust to the liber- 
ality of the Legislature to carry it through. The school was there- 
fore reopened January 12, 1863, and in answer to an appeal from 
the Board, the Legislature granted an additional appropriation of 
twelve hundred dollars, enabling the Board to continue the session 
until May fourteenth. During the term, three special teachers 
were employed Mr. Elliott in music, Mr. Burgess in drawing, 
and Mdlle. Parbt in calisthenics. Dr. Henry Gibbons gave, gratu- 
itously, a series of lectures on botany. More time was spent in the 
Model Class, and students were sometimes detailed to act as sub- 
stitutes in the San Francisco public schools. 

The principal event of the term was the Third California State 
Teachers' Institute, held in Platt's Hall during the week begin- 
ning May 4, 1863. The Board of Trustees ordered that the school 
be adjourned for the week, to attend the Institute. Accordingly, 
the names of the students of the Normal School appear on the 
register as members of the Institute. At the request of the Board 
and of the managers of the Institute, the teachers of the Model 
School appeared with their classes, and gave exercises in lan- 
guage, spelling, oral instruction, etc., which are spoken of in the 
report of proceedings in very high terms. A calisthenic drill 
given by a class from the Normal School is thus described: 

Mdlle. Parbt, their instructress, a graduate of Dr.Dio Lewis' famous Institute 
at Boston, appeared at the head in calisthenic uniform, and ordered the class 
through a series of half a dozen different exercises, performed to music on the 
piano. First, wooden dumb-bells were handled, then rings, then little bags con- 
taining Indian corn were circulated with wonderful celerity in three or four 
different ways, and finally broom-sticks were brought into requisition, in a 
semi-military performance, with most graceful effect. Miss Parbt's class ob- 
tained the unqualified approbation of the audience. 

It was at this Institute that Professor S. I. C. Swezey delivered 
the able address on State Normal Schools, from which the quota- 
tion at the opening of this sketch is taken. At the close of his 
address, he spoke of the California Normal School as follows: 

In our adopted State the experiment of sustaining a Normal School is about 
to close its first year. The difficulties have been very great; but one difficulty, 
which was perhaps the most dreaded, has been entirely removed. It was feared 
that where other employments afford so great.inducements for active minds, 
there would be no students for a Normal School. But even now the number 
is estimated by the score, and not by the unit. The year has demonstrated 



State Normal School. 17 

that even here, in the land of gold, there are young men and women who are 
willing to give themselves for the benefit of the race, and who, after full knowl- 
edge of the conditions, have accepted them all, and entered this institution 
with full purpose to prepare well for the teacher's work. As soon as the organ- 
ization is completed, and there is a chance to do for these students what they 
need to have done, who can doubt that earnest-hearted men and women will 
be added greatly to this noble few, and the influences already at work will con- 
tinue increasing in power for good until the number of students shall go by 
fifties, if not by hundreds, instead of by scores, as now. The teachers have done 
well. Too few in number to accomplish the half of what their hearts longed 
to accomplish, they have labored on in hope, and have brought to this institute 
some hints of the success which the Normal methods are yet to make general 
throughout the State. Three teachers, with so many Normal and Model pupils, 
in such rooms as they have used, with such apparatus as was theirs in fact, 
no apparatus at all have had full work in simple instruction, and could not 
possibly have done towards the strictly professional training what ought to be 
done. But they have cleared the way; have been the pioneers in this especial 
work, which we hope yet to see carried on in a building and with conveniences 
as worthy as those of our Society of California Pioneers. The Legislature and 
the people are willing to do their part. The $3,000 given for the first year became 
$6,000 for the coming year; and if the experiment succeeds, as the teachers of 
the State have the power to make it, this last sum may be doubled after a time, 
when a faculty may be secured numerous enough to do all parts of the normal 
work well, both for the classes who will throng the rooms and for the outside 
work among the teachers in their various fields. * * * All the arguments 
that support the establishment of these institutions in other States, have equal 
force in this new land and in this early time. Other States have, indeed, waited 
for their maturity in years before they thought of a Normal School. This State, 
in fact, is as mature as if the fathers had lived here before the sons who are 
working now, and has its needs as sharply defined. Most pressing of these 
needs is not a University, important and desirable as that is acknowledged to 
be but a place where teachers of the public schools can be trained as such, 
for laying the foundation of the work which the University will eventually 
complete and perfect. 

Among the resolutions, adopted by the Institute at the close of 
the session, was the following: 

WHEREAS, We believe the State Normal School to be one of the necessities of 
our State, and that its efficiency for the end designed is our only hope of con- 
tinued or increased support from the State ; and, whereas, we believe it has not 
thus far received a proper encouragement from teachers; 

Resolved, That it is the imperative dutfy of all teachers and school officers to 
use their efforts to secure the maximum attendance allowed by law from every 
county of the State. 

As provided by the law the annual examination was held dur- 
ing the closing week of the school. From the diary is taken this 
account of the first graduating day: 

May 14, 1863. This being the closing day of the term, and the written exam- 
inations having been completed, an oral examination of the pupils was con- 
ducted by the Examining Committee, Messrs. Swett, Tait, and Swezey, assisted 



1 8 Historical Sketch. 

by the Principal, Dr. Gibbons, and others. Exercises were conducted in most 
of the studies of the course, and some of the members of the First Division 
were required to conduct exercises in the Model School, before the committee, 
as a test of their skill in imparting instruction. The exercises were quite satis- 
factory, and most of the pupils acquitted themselves in such a manner as to 
merit special commendation. Many teachers and friends of the pupils were 
present. 

After the examination of the manuscripts of the pupils was completed, it 
was decided by the committee and Principal that four of those in attendance 
during the year were entitled to receive diplomas, namely : the Misses Bertha 
Comstock, P. Augusta Fink, Nellie Hart, and Louisa A. Mails. 

It appears from a later report, that as no form of diploma had 
yet been adopted by the Board, a certificate was issued to these 
four students, stating that they were entitled to receive diplomas 
whenever a form was adopted and engraved. 

Thus closed the first year's work of the first California State 
Normal School. 

The total number in attendance during the year was fifty, dis- 
tributed among twelve counties as follows: Alameda, 2; Butte, 1; 
Contra Costa, 1; El Dorado, 1; Marin, 1; Napa, 1; Nevada, 1; 
Sacramento, 1; San Francisco, 37; San Joaquin, 1; Santa Clara, 
1; Solano, 2. 

In his annual report, the Principal speaks with regret of the 
small number in attendance from the mining and agricultural 
counties, but adds that " a considerable number of those registered 
from San Francisco must be considered as residents of other sec- 
tions of the State," as they were living in San Francisco but tem- 
porarily, to enjoy its educational advantages. 

He speaks again of the great difficulties encountered through 
irregular attendance, and the deficiency of the pupils in the ele- 
mentary branches, and expresses a hope that the time may come 
when those only will be admitted who are well advanced in all 
the studies taught in the grammar schools. He reports: 

The following branches have been taught in the school during the year: 
Practical and mental arithmetic, physical and descriptive geography, English 
grammar and analysis, rhetoric, composition, reading, penmanship, algebra, 
plane geometry, physiology, natural philosophy, vocal music, calisthenics, and 
the theory and practice of teaching. 

The direct instruction on the science or methods of teaching which has been 
given to the class, has been principally of an incidental nature, and in connec- 
tion with the ordinary class drills. The more advanced pupils have been 
required to conduct class exercises in the Model Department, under the super- 
vision of one of the teachers, and have done the same in the Normal School 
also, at every favorable opportunity. I have also conducted all the exercises 
of the school with special reference to the cultivation of the pupils' power of 
verbal expression; and have taken every available opportunity to call the 
attention of the classes to the best methods of teaching the various branches. 



State Normal School. 19 

EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER OF REMINISCENCES OF THIS YEAR, BY MRS. AUGUSTA 
FINK WHITE, CLASS OF MAY, 1863. 

We first occupied one of the rooms of the High School building, and to its 
teachers we are indebted for many acts of kindly interest. Professor G. W. 
Minns, in particular, who gave us pleasant and profitable lectures and experi- 
ments in philosophy. 

Our Principal was hard worked, having to teach all the solid branches. 

Among the extra teachers, I remember Professor Elliott in music; always 
lively and pleasant, and always accompanied by his violin. Also Professor 
Burgess, in drawing. He must have taught the conjugation of the verb " love " 
successful^, as he selected a wife from our number. Mdlle. Parbt, in gymnas- 
tics, who exercised us, or we exercised her, poor soul, as she did not speak English 
very perfectly, and I fear we sometimes wished to misunderstand. Dr. Henry 
Gibbons often visited us, and gave us interesting " talks " on physiology and 
physical geography. The late Charles Swezey was a frequent visitor and firm 
friend and adviser of the class. 

Four graduated at the end of the year, and composed the "First Class." 
Louisa Mails died soon after leaving school. She possessed ability, and I doubt 
not would have reflected credit upon the teachers and school had she engaged 
in teaching, but she passed on to a knowledge of a higher life. The remaining 
three taught, subsequently married, and are now fulfilling their missions as 
wives and mothers. My son asks me sometimes: "Mamma, why don't you 
teach now ?" I wonder if, in the years to come, he will realize that the best 
and truest teaching is that dictated by " holy mother love." 

The school was afterwards moved to San Jose'. Of the results of its grand 
work, the gradual elevation of the schools throughout the State will bear evi- 
dence and prove the wisdom of its founders. 

As I bring my reminiscences to a close, I feel grateful for the past, and proud 
of the future of our school. While "our class " may have been small, yet, like 
the rivulet in its tiny bed, as it unites with others, and at last becomes a mighty 
current, so may the "Normal" send out its representatives until its influence 
shall be as broad as truth itself. 



1863-64. 

(August 4, 1863 May 20, 1864.) 

The California State Normal School began its second year, no 
longer an experiment, but an established State institution. Its 
first year of work had proved both the necessity for its existence, 
and its possibilities of usefulness. In April, 1863, the Legislature 
repealed the first Act, establishing the school, and approved a 
second Act, substantially the same, embodying it as a part of the 
State School Law. A few minor changes were made. The Super- 
intendent of Marysville was omitted from the Board of Trustees, 
and the Governor was made ex officio Chairman. Applicants 
for admission were to be examined, and were not required to 



2O Historical Sketch. 

declare their intention to teach permanently, nor to remain any 
given length of time in the school. No provision was made, as 
in the former Act, for admitting, on tuition, those not intending 
to teach. The. right to issue teachers' certificates was no longer 
given to the Board, but they were empowered to grant diplomas, 
entitling the holders to receive from the State Board of Examina- 
tion a second grade certificate. The State Superintendent was to 
visit the school twice each term, instead of once a month, and 
was to embody in his annual report a full account of the proceed- 
ings and expenditures of the Board and of the condition of the 
school. 

The appropriation for 1863-64 was made $6,000, double the 
original appropriation for the first year, and sufficient to continue 
the school two terms of five months each, from August 4, 1863, 
to May 20, 1864. 

By October, 1863, the school had so increased in numbers that 
a second teacher was needed, arid H. P. Carlton, a teacher in the 
San Francisco public schools, was appointed assistant. During 
the same month the school was removed to a building known as 
Assembly Hall, on the corner of Post and Kearny Streets. This 
building, though more commodious than the one formerly occu- 
pied, was little better fitted in other respects for Normal School 
work. It was close to a noisy street, the partitions were of thin 
boards, so that recitations disturbed classes in adjoining rooms, 
and some of the rooms were cold and damp. Considerable sick- 
ness among the pupils at this time is accounted for, in part, by 
unhealthful class rooms. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, the 
school grew and prospered. The Principal writes of being encour- 
aged by greater studiousness in the pupils and increased interest 
in the work of the Model School. Visitors are frequently men- 
tioned, among them several eastern teachers. 

The primary grades of the Model School, numbering about one 
hundred and fifty, still occupied rooms in the Fourth Street build- 
ing, under the charge of Miss Sullivan, and the grammar grades, 
numbering about fifty, in the Post Street building, under Miss 
Clark. Some fifteen of the most advanced pupils in the Model 
School were admitted to normal classes in October. 

In January, 1864, the school was reorganized, and separated 
into Senior, Junior, and Sub-Junior Classes, and a regular course 
of study was prescribed by the Board, as follows: 



State Normal School. 21 



SUB-JUNIOR CLASS. 

Arithmetic, Grammar, Descriptive and Physical Geography with Map Draw- 
ing, History of United States, Penmanship, Drawing, Reading, Spelling, Oral 
Exercises from Charts, Elocution, Blackboard-writing and Drawing, Vocal 
Music, Calisthenics and Gymnastics, Elementary Instruction. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

Arithmetic, Algebra, Grammar, Geography, History United States, Botany, 
Physiology, Reading, Definitions and Spelling, English Composition, Elocu- 
tionarjr Exercises, Elementary Instruction, Vocal Music, Calisthenics and Gym- 
nastics. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Grammar, Rhetoric, Geology, Natural Phil- 
osophy, General History, Physiology, Botany, Physical Geography, Bookkeep- 
ing, Select Readings, Art of Teaching, Constitution of United States, School 
Law of California, Use of State School Registers, Forms, Blanks, and Reports, 
Vocal Music, Calisthenics and Gymnastics. 

The division into three classes made another teacher necessary, 
and it was decided to appoint a lady. The position was filled 
during January by Miss Mary R. Harris, a teacher from Boston. 
Upon her resignation to take another position, she was succeeded 
by Miss Mary D. Bod well, of Buffalo, New York. Dr. Gibbons 
continued to lecture at different times in the year on botany, 
physiology, and chemistry. Through the efforts of the Principal, 
donations of minerals and plants were received, forming the nu- 
cleus of a cabinet. By March, the library had grown to one thou- 
sand volumes, six hundred being text-books, and the remainder 
miscellaneous books and works of reference. Until January, 1865, 
pupils were supplied from the library with most of the text-books 
required. After that time they were expected to furnish their own 
text-books. 

By the new regulations, each member of the Senior Class was 
required to spend one week in the Model School, and to write a 
full report of the work done while there. No pupil was gradu- 
ated who had not been a member of the school for at least five 
months, and teachers who had the necessary scholarship, and 
wished to avail themselves of the advantages of the Model School 
training, were invited to enter for a five months' course. The 
Principal speaks frequently, however, of the haste of pupils to 
graduate, as a great hindrance to the best success of the school; 
as indeed it is even to the present day. 

The daily sessions of the school were from 10 A. M. to 3:30 p. M., 
with an intermission at noon. 
3 



22 Historical Sketch. 

The highest attendance reached during the year was seventy. 
By the close of the second year, the entire attendance, from the 
first opening of the school, had been one hundred and twenty-six, 
representing nineteen different counties. Twelve of the number 
were gentlemen; twenty had engaged in teaching previous to 
entering. 

The closing exercises of the year were held in Dashaway Hall, 
May 20, 1864, and are thus described: 

The school assembled at the usual hour in the morning. The exercises of 
the forenoon consisted of the reading of original essaj^s and selections by mem- 
bers of the graduating class, original declamations by the young gentlemen, 
singing, under the direction of Mr. Elliot, and calisthenic exercises by all the 
pupils. In the afternoon similar exercises were held until three o'clock, at 
which time Dr. Bellows, President of the Sanitary Commission, addressed the 
school. His address was followed by one to the graduating class, from George 
W. Minns, of the San Francisco High School. The Principal of the school then 
delivered the diplomas to the graduating class, making a short address. The 
State Superintendent, Mr. Swett, then followed with remarks to the class, and 
delivered to them the State certificates to which they were entitled. The Rev. 
A. E. Kittridge then addressed the school in an eloquent and appropriate 
speech. The exercises were interspersed with vocal music and calisthenics. 

Normal School graduates were already in demand. By the 
middle of June, nearly all of the nineteen members of the gradu- 
ating class had secured positions, five of them in the San Fran- 
cisco schools. 

REMINISCENCES BY MARTIN V. ASHBROOK, CLASS OF MAY, 1864. 

Your favor is at hand, requesting my salutation as an ancient to the modern 
Normal giant. Since my first acquaintance with the school, it has, indeed, 
grown from a pigmy to a giant. My introduction to the school was made in 
the fall of 1862. It was then held in a side room of the High School of San 
Francisco, on Powell Street. The room most resembled a hat room deprived 
of its racks and improvised with rickety seats. 

The Normalites were intruders upon the domain of the High School pupils ; 
hence had no rights they could call their own. 

Ahira Holmes was Principal, Vice-Principal, Assistant, and Professor to all 
the twenty-five Normalites that is, when they were in attendance. On semi- 
occasions, Mr. Holmes shed his many sided dignities and responsibilities, and 
allowed the Hope of the Golden West (us, the Normalites) to slip into side and 
back seats to hear Professor Minns give an illustrated lecture to his class in 
chemistry. In the beginning of 1863 we were moved to a tumble-down two- 
story wooden structure on Fourth Street, and to our great regret lost the lec- 
tures of Professor Minns, save only one which we went back to Powell Street 
to hear. The place we went to was worse than the room we left ; for while it 
stood upon what can well be termed a stable foundation, it was shaky, and its 
outside stairs upon their two posts were shaky. 

When vehicles went rumbling over their cobbled way we suspended class 
exercises; we had to, for the tremble, rattle, roar, and clatter drowned human 



State Normal School. 



voices. We had further misfortunes; there were neither maps, apparatus, nor 
books of reference in or about our school. We had one piece of furniture other 
than our seats and desks a piano, hired by the pupils. 

During the first term of 1863 the school waned and waxed. In waning it went 
down to about twenty, then ran up to about thirty pupils. It trembled in the 
balance. The pupils held council what to do to forsake the institution in a 
body, or continue faithful to the end. The decision was to stay with the school, 
old house and all. We were faithful to the end. From that date the school has 
gone on to prosperity. 

In perusing these hasty lines, allow me to pay my respects to my classmates, 
and say, you were heroines in meeting and overcoming obstacles almost insur- 
mountable, and were worthy to represent the State in its forefront of intel- 
lectual battle; but understand that vice versa does not come in here; for at 
that time there were on the Pacific Coast few schools opening their portals to 
overgrown country louts. It was a sight to see a bearded youth carry school 
books. I had to go there or stay out of school. 

I could tell many incidents of school teachers and classmates; but time and 
space admonish that a few incidents, and those mostly personal, must close this. 

Thomas Starr King was expected to address our graduating class, but death 
rowed him over the dark river, and Rev. Drs, Kittridge and Bellows addressed 
us in old Dashaway Hall, and Hon. John Swett distributed our diplomas. 

After graduation I took a small school on San Pablo Creek, and taught one 
year; from thence to Antioch for two years; thence to Walnut Creek one year, 
and from thence to Crescent City three years. So I was the pioneer Normal 
teacher in the counties of Contra Costa and Del Norte. 

I never had school trouble and could have had each school longer, but pre- 
ferred to change for higher grades and advanced wages. 

I attributed my little success in teaching to my early realizing that what I 
had learned in the Normal School would only make a small and fragmentary 
volume, and what I did not know would make many volumes. 



1864-65. 

(July 11, 1864 May 31, 1865.) 

Through the school year 1864-65 the records show a continued 
increase in attendance and in the efficiency of the school. The 
growing interest and confidence throughout the State in the Nor- 
mal School work, is best shown by the fact that twenty-three 
counties were represented by the new students admitted during 
the year. The same number of teachers was employed in the 
Normal classes. Miss Bodwell, who resigned to take a position 
in the Girls' High School, was succeeded, in July, 1864, by Miss 
Eliza W. Houghton, a teacher from the High School, Providence, 
Rhode Island. 

Miss Clark resigned her position as Principal of the Model 
School, and Miss Sullivan was elected Principal. In consequence 
of their being but one teacher to criticise the pupil teachers, the 



24 Historical Sketch. 

work of the Model School was not so efficient as formerly. An 
arrangement was made with the San Francisco Board of Educa- 
tion, by which four Normal students were detailed each week to 
teach, either as substitutes or assistants, in the city public schools, 
the Principals of the schools in which they taught being required 
to make a report of their work to the Principal of the Normal 
School. This arrangement did not prove altogether satisfactory, 
as these pupils had no special supervision or criticism. It made 
it possible, however, to increase the amount of practice, so that 
each member in the Senior Class spent about one fourth of the 
time in teaching. 

A larger proportion of young men entered the school, and as a 
result, a lyceum was organized, holding literary exercises and 
debates on Friday afternoons. 

Important additions were made to the cabinet, the principal 
being a collection of fine mineral specimens from D. C. Stone, 
Principal of the Marysville schools. 

Two classes were graduated during the year: one in Decem- 
ber, 1864, numbering nine; the other in June, 1865, numbering 
fourteen. Among the graduating exercises is given the admin- 
istering of the Oath of Allegiance, which was then required, by 
legislative Act, of all teachers, before their certificates were issued. 

REMINISCENCES BY AUGUSTA CAMERON BAINBRIDGE, CLASS OF JUNE, 1865. 

When the State Normal School opened for the first session in the "Old Music 
Hall," on Fourth Street, in San Francisco, I was a pupil in the Model School, 
lower floor. What a glad day it was for us when we were invited up stairs to 
see the first class graduate ! There were no white dresses, no immense audi- 
ence, no show or display to attract our attention ; but such earnest faces ! A 
very strong sense of the real side of life came to us, as we listened to the exer- 
cises. Several good speeches were made by gentlemen present, picturing the 
future of the State Normal; but when John Swett addressed the class so seri- 
ously, and yet so cheerfully, and sent them on their mission with hope beaming 
brightly before them, a teacher's calling seemed the grandest on earth, and we 
longed the more intensely for the time to come when we could take our 
diplomas and join their band. 

When the Model School disbanded, we all entered the State Normal, and a 
proud party of girls we were as we took up our march to the old Assembly 
Hall, on Post Street, near Kearny. The rooms were much more comfortable 
than those we had left, but the main assembly room, with blackboards on both 
sides, and its two tall windows, was our delight. We had patent desks, with 
chairs, and there were four rows. How neat and tasty it seemed ! A fine piano, 
a good desk for the teacher, and a cabinet for minerals, curiosities, etc., and a 
fine, large globe were what I first noticed. Three classes were formed, Senior, 
Junior, and Sub-Junior. The school numbered about seventy-five in all. With 
one or two of my mates I entered the Junior Class, and found great delight in 
my studies. 



State Normal School. 25 

The programme varied little save on Fridays. After roll call I can hear it 
yet singing by the school; reading of the scriptures by the Principal, and the 
usual opening remarks ; a tap of the bell brought us all to our feet, the Junior 
Class to go to the front class-room, through the front hall, the Sub-Juniors to 
the back class-room through the back hall, and the Seniors to the front seats. 
At 10:40 o'clock we came to the assembly room for recess; then another tap, 
and another change. At first it seemed disorderly, but, as we became accus- 
tomed to the routine, and learned to move quietly, we enjoyed it. 

Mr. A. Holmes, the Principal, was stern and exact, and though in many 
things he seemed hard, he did a good work for us. H. P. Carlton was kind and 
good, and stirred up all that was noble in us, thus helping us to see and love 
the better side of everything. Miss Houghton, with her pleasant, lady-like 
ways, was a pattern we loved to imitate. 

Our arithmetic, algebra, philosophy, reading, and spelling we recited to the 
Principal in the main room. While physiology, history, and grammar we 
recited to Mr. Carlton. Our blackboard work in the assembly room was often 
very extensive. None of us will ever forget its trials and its triumphs. On 
Fridays Mr. Burgess came to instruct us in penmanship and drawing. Dr. 
Gibbons also gave us lectures on physiology, using charts and other means of 
illustration. 

How proud we were of our Seniors ! Julia Clayton's pretty ways ; Jane Day, 
so precise; Annie Jewett, so bright and such a good talker, and withal so kind 
to us "Junes;" Jane Smith, so brisk and prompt; and Eva Solomon, who played 
and sang so well. That graduating class of May, 1864, meant much to us. It 
seemed sad to lose them all ; and life began to be more earnest when we had to 
stand in the front of the battle. 

Several new studies were added to our curriculum ancient history, chem- 
istry, mental philosophy, bookkeeping, and natural history. Mrs. Dr. Young 
gave us a very interesting series of lectures on physiology, and illustrated them 
with the manikin that the Board had just bought of her. Madam Par5t gave 
us lessons in calisthenics, and was followed by Professor Robinson, and he by 
Professor Knowlton, who also added vocal culture. What good times we had 
with the wands, rings, dumb-bells, and even free calisthenics ! Miss Carrie 
Menges, or Miss Carrie Field, or myself, used to lead the school when Professor 
Knowlton was not there. Carrie Menges was a grand commander. She 
scolded us roundly, and made us try again if we failed. 

Our Lyceum, which met on Friday evenings, was our pride. Probably we 
should smile now at what we then thought were wonderful productions of 
genius. We girls took little part in the debates, but enjoyed music, essays, reci- 
ations, and criticism. Miss Youngberg wrote a few chronicles that were pro- 
nounced excellent. Our paper was above the average, we thought. Opinions 
were divided as to whether W. R. Bradshaw or H. E. McBride made the best 
President, but both were good. 

The December class of 1864 graduated out of our class. I passed the exami- 
nation and stood high, but barely fifteen years could I call my own ; therefore 
Mr. John Swett advised me to review, and graduate with the next class. 

We missed them very much, but a few new ones were added, and soon the 
usual order was restored, and we were as busy as bees. How we patronized the 
Juniors, and how we love to think of them now! Jennie Greer, who was so 
kind, and always ready to play and sing for us, and who petted and nursed us 
all when we felt ill or disheartened. Mr. Loutitt, whom we would laugh at, but 
could not outwit. J. F. Kennedy, who would toss his head so independently 
as he marched up to the blackboard to give an explanation any of us might 



26 Historical Sketch. 



envy. Mary Hall, so earnest in her studies that a joke seemed mockery. Nettie 
Doud, whose merry laugh set every ringlet dancing. Lillie Gummer's sprightly 
waj r s, and Almira Flint's fair face. 

In our own class Anna Gibbons, with her quiet Quaker ways, was the decided 
favorite; Florence Morgan, sweet and pretty; Mary Perkins, our baby, we 
called her; Fannie Nicols, whose quaint ways covered a kindly heart ; Cornelia 
Campbell, who used to declare so earnestly that she "never would marry, but 
would teach all her life "I can see them all as I write, and heartily wish we 
could meet again ; for the saddest thought in connection with our school life 
is, that we, who were once so near, should so soon lose sight of each other and 
drift apart. 

Our graduating day was a very bright one. The hall was filled with visitors. 
Miss Clark, our dear teacher at the Model, came and brought her pictures. I 
was very proud of the honor of being the first native California!! to graduate 
from the Normal, and not yet sixteen years of age. The law now in force, which 
prevents such "hot-house growth," is a good one for the school and for the 
State. After the essays, addresses, etc., our class conferred on me the privilege 
of presenting the steel engraving "Milton Dictating his Last Poem" to our 
teacher, Mr. A. Holmes. The Juniors presented H. P. Carlton with a copy of 
Webster's Unabridged, and the Sub-Juniors also gave Miss Houghton some- 
thing nice. 

I taught three years and a half in San Francisco, and am now teaching my 
fifteenth year in this county. 

The onward march of the State Normal has been a source of great satisfac- 
tion to me; but those who see it now in its glory and pride have little idea of 
its earlier struggles, and all honor should be paid to its founders ; particularly 
to Mr. John Swett, who labored for its welfare so untiringly. 



1865-66. 

(July 10, 1865 June 7, 1866.) 

In June, 1865, Mr. George W. Minns, Principal of the Boys' 
High School, was elected Principal of the California State Normal 
School. H. P. Carlton was reflected first assistant, and Miss E. W. 
Houghton, second assistant. 

The school opened for the year, July 10, 1865, in Dashaway 
Hall, the Model School being for a time disbanded. After about 
six weeks it was transferred to the Lincoln School building, then 
just completed. In September it was again removed, this time 
to a primary school building between the Lincoln School and St. 
Ignatius College, the entrance being on Market Street. Here the 
Normal School found a permanent home during the remainder of 
its stay in Sari Francisco, and though far from suitable for Normal 
School purposes, the building was a great improvement upon those 
previously occupied. It had, at least, the advantage of a retired 
and comparatively quiet location. 



State Normal School. 27 

A Training School of four classes was formed from classes in 
the city schools; Mrs. C. H. Stout was appointed by the City 
Board of Education as Principal, and Miss Helen M. Clark, 
assistant. As had been the custom in previous years, the salary 
of the Principal of the Training School was paid by the city, and 
the salary of the assistant by the State. 

In January, 1866, Miss Clark resigned her position, and was 
succeeded by Mrs. John Swett. 

During the year each member of the Senior Class spent four 
weeks in the Training School. 

By a resolution of the Board of Trustees, no pupils were admit- 
ted to the normal classes from the San Francisco schools after 
June, 1865, until they had passed the examination for the High 
School. 

Two classes were graduated, as in the year previous, a class of 
eleven, December 16, 1865, and a class of twenty-two, June 7, 1866. 

In his annual report, Mr. Minns recommended that the long, 
written examination, customary at the close of each term, be held 
but once a year, and that there be but one class graduated during 
the year. He says: 

I have no doubt the Trustees will discourage the idea which some pupils 
appear to entertain, that they can learn all that is necessary for them to know 
to qualify them to become good teachers, in one term of the Normal School. 
Another objection to the present course is, that some actually enter the school 
merely to see how soon they can obtain a diploma, and only for the sake of the 
diploma; and not from a desire to learn systematically and thoroughly the 
different branches of their profession. 

He urges the different counties of the State to contribute to the 
cabinet specimens in geology and natural history, and suggests 
that the school be made the medium of interchange of specimens 
among the different counties; also, that the Legislature make an 
appropriation for the purchase of apparatus. 

EXTKACT FROM GOVERNOR Low's MESSAGE ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS, JANUARY, 1866. 

The Normal School has increased in usefulness during the last two years, 
and has fully demonstrated the fact that it is an indispensable auxiliary in the 
educational plan of the State. 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT SWETT, 1865. 

I take pleasure, in behalf of the Board of Trustees, in paying a merited 
tribute to the efficiency with which all the teachers of the Normal School have 
discharged their duties. Their positions are the highest and most responsible 
in the State. The Board of Trustees have paid them liberal salaries, have 
expected them to do their duty well, and have not been disappointed. The 



28 Historical Sketch. 

school is rapidly gaining ground, and its influence is beginning to be felt on 
the common schools of the State. Many persons who have been engaged in 
teaching for years, enter the school to better fit themselves for their profession. 
Most of the graduates who have gone out to teach, have proved themselves 
accomplished teachers. The Normal School is a part of the public school sys- 
tem of education, and every dollar expended in its support tends to elevate 
the character of the common schools. 

At the close of the school year Mr. Minns asked for a leave of 
absence for five months to visit the East. The request was granted, 
and the following resolution was adopted by the Board: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Board of State Normal School Trustees be 
tendered to Mr. George W. Minns for the able manner in which he has discharged 
the duties of Principal of the State Normal School during the past year, and that 
the Secretary of the Board be instructed to present him with a general letter of 
introduction to eastern educators, expressive of their high appreciation of his 
educational services in this State during the past ten years. 

Mr. H. P. Carlton was promoted to the principalship of the 
school for the next year, and Miss Houghton to the position of 
First Assistant. Mrs. C. R. Beale was elected to take the position 
made vacant by the promotion of Miss Houghton. 

The graduating exercises, June 7, 1866, were held in Lincoln 
Hall, and occupied the whole day and evening, with intermissions. 
Essays were read by fourteen of the graduating class; sample 
exercises were given with classes from the Training School; and 
the whole was interspersed with music and calisthenics. Mr. 
Minns was presented with a handsome service of silver plate from 
his pupils, and a gold watch and chain from the teachers of San 
Francisco. In his closing entry on the school records, he says: 
" I desire to leave on record here an expression of my heartfelt 
thanks for the many kindnesses which I have received from all 
connected with the great cause of education. I can never forget 
my warm-hearted California friends. " g 

REMINISCENCES OF THE YEAR. BY SILAS A. WHITE, CLASS OF JUNE, 1866. 

Seventeen young women and five men were graduated in J une, 1866. A more 
industrious class I have never known. Several had taught for years ; Mr. Hum- 
phreys, Mr. Noah T. Flood, John A. Moore, and the writer of this had served 
an apprenticeship in the Eastern States. I had taught three years in this State. 
Every time I was employed to teach a new school I was obliged to submit to a 
reexamination. I presume some of our classmates sympathized with the "old 
fellows" who had to go to school, because from the first day we were made wel- 
come, and though well bearded, were not regarded as interlopers. John Swett, 
who was a Trustee of the school, had already systematized the school law and 
laid the foundation of the excellent system under which we are working to-day. 
Bernhard Marks was another earnest friend. They were constant and atten- 



State Normal School. 29 

tive visitors. In the infancy of the school, to be a Trustee implied labor, per- 
sonal attention, and watchfulness. John Swett is the Horace Mann of this coast. 
The earnest class feeling and desire for self-improvement was engendered by 
him and fostered by our revered Principal, Geo. W. Minns. I never think of 
this good man without desiring to be like him. 

We occupied four contiguous rooms, connected by folding doors, on the second 
floor of a miserable, old, wooden structure, back of the Lincoln School. It was 
reached by a narrow passage leading in from Market Street. We had a few 
antiquated charts, worn out maps, and a globe. I must not forget the old man- 
ikin, one half interest belonging to the city, the other half to the State. If we 
had but little to do with, in the way of apparatus, we used that little well. Our 
teachers, by zeal, ability, and personal interest in their pupils, more than made 
up the lack of accommodations and equipments. Henry P. Carlton (specialties, 
physiology and normal training) was indefatigable, and accurate in marking 
examination papers. Miss Houghton commanded our respect by her dignity 
and grace. Her specialties were English grammar, literature, and belles-lettres. 

Mrs. Stout was Principal of the Model School. Her assistant was Mrs. John 
Swett, one of the kindest teachers and best women I have ever known. She 
was of invaluable service to me by criticism, suggestion, and encouragement. 
This Model or Training Department, down stairs, was to those who had expe- 
rience, the most valuable adjunct of the State Normal school. I have taught 
in these city schools nearly twenty-three years. Had it not been for that able 
Faculty, the stimulus of my classmates, and the professional standing 
accorded to a graduate of the school, I should have ceased to teach. George 
W. Minns was a remarkable teacher, for his range of knowledge and his won- 
derful felicity in imparting it. In astronomy, botany, physical geography, or 
the higher mathematics, he seemed equally at home. He would hold us spell- 
bound, entranced by the power of his thought and the magic of his words. 
Whether his topic was a picture of the magnificent victoria regia, or a date 
palm, or a rounded pebble from the seashore, he was always captivating, 
always instructive. 

Almost the entire class have taught; many are teaching still. Some have 
died with the harness on ; others will. God bless our teachers of " auld lang 
syne." 



1866-67. 

(July 5, 1866 June 3, 1867.) 

By an Act approved in March, 1866, the State Board of Edu- 
cation was made to consist of the Governor, the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the Principal of the State Normal 
School, the Superintendents of Schools of the City and County of 
San Francisco, Sacramento County, Santa Clara County, and San 
Joaquin County, and two professional teachers, nominated by the 
State Superintendent and elected by the Board. 

By the same Act, the State Board of Education, except the 
Principal of the State Normal School, constituted the Board of 
Trustees of the State Normal School. The State Superintendent 



30 Historical Sketch. 



was made the Executive Agent and Secretary of the Board, with 
the same duties as in the former Act. The Board was empowered 
to appoint an Executive Committee to audit bills. Other rules 
governing the Board were made more specific than before. The 
age of admission to the school for males was changed to seventeen. 
It was made the duty of the Principal of the Normal School to 
attend Institutes; also, to make an annual report to the Board, 
including a catalogue of members of the school, which was to be 
printed, and copies furnished to all other Normal Schools in the 
United States. It was further provided that a biennial appropri- 
ation of $16,000 be made for the support of the Normal School. 

On July 5, 1866, the school entered on its fifth year. The course 
of study was considerably modified. Some of the higher branches 
were omitted, allowing more time for professional work. The course 
required that in each class not less than half an hour each day 
must be devoted exclusively to instruction in methods of teaching 
and school government. Two pupils from the Senior Class and 
two from the Junior were detailed each week to teach, and two 
from the Sub-Junior Class each day to observe in the Training 
Schools. Reports were required from the teachers in charge, giv- 
ing the standing of pupil teachers in the following points: Punctu- 
ality, neatness, thoroughness, energy, government, self-possession 
and manner, ability to interest pupils, teaching manners and mor- 
als, calisthenics, tact in teaching, carefulness. 

No class was graduated at the middle of the year, and in place 
of the usual closing exercises in December, the pupils gave a liter- 
ary entertainment, the proceeds of which were expended in addi- 
tions to the library and cabinet. The California Teacher of that 
date comments as follows: 

The Normal School closed on the eleventh of December with a very pleasant 
elocutionary, literary, and calisthenic entertainment in Lincoln Hall. The 
readings by the young ladies were excellent, and give evidence of careful train- 
ing by their teachers. The singing was good, and the calisthenic exercises were 
altogether the best we have ever seen. We commend the good taste of the 
pupils and teachers in dispensing with the clap-trap of theatrical imitations, 
and giving the audience what was infinitely better, a literary treat. 

The Principal, in his report to the Board, says: 

This entertainment had an excellent effect upon the school, manifest through 
the entire following term. It was a trial of ability, and was successful. It 
removed, to a considerable degree, the impression that had hitherto existed, 
that the school was of an inferior grade, and occupied only a secondary position 
compared with others and with our High Schools. The exercises were spoken 
of by the press, without exception, as being of a superior order; and the classes, 



State Normal School. 31 

particularly the class in calisthenics, were publicly complimented by the State 
Superintendent for their proficiency. These friendly notices developed confi- 
dence and self-reliance in the pupils, and made them hopeful for the future, 
and was altogether salutary. 

The attendance was larger than in any previous year, reaching 
at one time one hundred and twenty-five, every seat being taken 
and many applicants rejected for want of room.. This number 
was diminished toward the close of the year by the unusual de- 
mand upon the school to supply teachers. Over twenty from the 
different classes, some even from the Sub-Junior, left to take posi- 
tions in various parts of the State, and, as shown by letters received 
by the Principal, gave "good satisfaction." 

From the opening of the school, in July, 1862, up to the close 
of this year, there had been three hundred and eighty-five pupils 
admitted to the school, representing thirty-three counties of the 
State. 

A class of thirty-one received their diplomas June 3, 1867. The 
percentages received by students in the studies of the Senior Class 
and in the Training School were recorded on the back of the 
diplomas. 

1867-68. 

(July 8, 1867 May 28, 1868.) 

The resignation of Mr. Minns having been received, the Board 
of Trustees in July, 1867, elected Mr. George Tait Principal of the 
Normal School, and H. P. Carlton and Miss Houghton assistants. 
The Board adopted a resolution tendering their thanks to Mrs. 
Beale, whose services were now no longer needed, for the able and 
satisfactory manner in which she had discharged her duties as 
assistant teacher. 

Mr. Tait was for four years City Superintendent of Schools in 
San Francisco, and was one of the earliest and warmest friends of 
the school. Both on account of his wide experience and personal 
fitness for the position, the appointment was considered a fortunate 
one for the school. 

Mr. Tait did not, however, hold the position long. In February, 
1868, he resigned to engage in real estate business, and Mr. Carl- 
ton was again made Principal for the remainder of the year. 
During this year again two classes were graduated November 
29, 1867, a class often; and May 28, 1868, a class of thirty-eight. 



Historical Sketch. 



EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF STATE SUPERINTENDENT SWETT, 1867. 

The design of the Normal School is to provide well trained teachers for the 
common schools of the State. More than nine tenths of the pupils since its 
organization have been young ladies who desired to fit themselves to engage in 
teaching City Primary Schools or ungraded Country Primary Schools. 

It has been my object as the Executive Agent of the Board of Trustees, keep- 
ing these facts in view, to limit the course of study to the elementary branches ; 
to require a large share of time to be devoted to practical work in the Training 
School, and to the study of the methods of teaching, and thus to graduate on a 
fair standard of scholarship as many teachers as possible, fitted to engage in 
Primary and Ungraded Schools. 

Many of the young men and young women in the school have been strug- 
gling along to secure for themselves, and often for dependent parents, a liveli- 
hood by teaching. This has been an additional reason why the course of study 
has been kept down to a minimum. 

The great demand in this State is for good teachers in the lower grade public 
schools, and it is in these schools that good teachers are most needed to make 
the system efficient. 

Skill in teaching, with average scholarship in studies, for the common schools, 
is more desirable than the highest scholarship without a knowledge of the prac- 
tical methods to be pursued in the school-room. 

The revised school law provides that the graduates of the Normal School 
shall receive State certificates of a grade to be determined by the State Board 
of Examination. Under this provision certificates have been awarded to grad- 
uates according to ability and scholarship some receiving diplomas, some first 
grade, and others second grade and third grade certificates. 

Five members of the last graduating class had taught school from one to 
three years previous to entering the school; their standing was high, and they 
received State educational diplomas, which entitled them to teach as Principals 
of Grammar Schools. Six members of the class, whose standing was 80 per 
cent, received first grade certificates ; eleven received second grade ; and nine, 
whose standing was from 70 to 75 per cent, received only third grade certifi- 
cates, which entitled them to teach only in Primary Schools * 

This seems to me to be a fair way of graduating pupils, according to ability 
and attainments. I am not aware that it is pursued in any other Normal 
School in the United States, but I feel confident it will be found the very best 
plan, even though it is without a precedent. 

The percentage of a member of the graduating class is determined by taking 
into consideration the standing in recitation records during the term, the 
report of success in the Training School, and the result of the written exam- 
ination at the close of the term. 

WORK OF GRADUATES UP TO THE FALL OF 1867, AS GIVEN BY SUPERINTENDENT 
SWETT IN THE SAME REPORT. 

Of the first graduating class, May, 1863, four young ladies, all engaged in 
teaching. Two of them, Miss Comstock and Miss Fink, are still teaching in 
the city schools. Miss Nellie Hart is married, and Miss Mails is dead. 

Of the second class, 1864, nineteen members, all engaged in teaching. Five of 
the young ladies are married, and the rest are teaching. Miss Annie Jewett, 
Miss Lizzie Jewett, Miss Susie Carey, and Miss Jennie Smith have all distin- 

*In July, 1867, the standard for graduation was fixed by the Board at not 
less than 80 per cent. 



State Normal School. 



33 



guished themselves as superior teachers in the various positions which they 
have filled. Mr. Ashbrook, the first young man who was graduated from the 
school, is engaged in teaching in Contra Costa County. 

Of the third class, of nine members, all engaged in teaching, and all but two 
are still teaching. Mr. McBride has been for three years sub-master of the 
Washington Grammar School. Miss Carrie Field is head assistant of the Spring 
Valley Grammar School, and Miss Davis is a most successful primary teacher 
in the Fourth Street School. 

The fourth class, June, 1865, numbered fourteen members, all of whom 
engaged in teaching. Nine of these are now teaching in San Francisco, one is 
married, and one has gone to Oregon. 

Of the fifth class, eleven members, six are teaching in San Francisco. Mr. 
Louttit is teaching a grammar school at Brooklyn, and has distinguished him- 
self as a most promising young teacher. 

The sixth class, June, 1866, numbered twenty-two members, all of whom 
engaged in teaching. Fourteen of these are now teaching in San Francisco. 
Silas A. White is Principal of the Shotwell Street School, and Ervin D. Hum- 
phrey, Principal of the Mission Grammar School. 

Of the seventh class, thirty-one, June, 1867, all engaged at once in teaching. 
Mr. Shipley engaged as teacher in the San Francisco Industrial School. Miss 
Heydenfeldt was employed in the Normal Training School, and the other 
members of the class are successfully engaged in teaching in different parts of 
the State. 

Of the whole number of graduates, one hundred and ten, fifty-five are now 
teaching in San Francisco. All but thirteen are teaching, and have been teach- 
ing since their graduation. 

REMINISCENCES BY HENRIETTA SLATER MO!NTIRE, CLASS OF NOVEMBER, 1867. 

Twenty years ago the California State Normal School was in its infancy ; and 
although it had no commanding edifice, surrounded by spacious grounds to 
attract public gaze, yet it can look back with pride to its able corps of teachers, 
and the thorough normal training given to its pupils, which has been clearly 
proven by the marked success in the school-room of some of the graduates of 
that time. 

Well do I remember the gateway on Market Street, San Francisco, with the 
arched sign, " State Normal School," over it, leading through a long passage-way, 
to a dingy, unpretentious, frame building, in the rear of the Lincoln Grammar 
School, the first floor being used for a Training School, under the able manage- 
ment of Mrs. Stout and Mrs. Swett, and the second story for the Normal School 
proper. Three class-rooms, connected by folding doors, together with a few 
small ante-rooms, were all the school could boast of. Apparatus, it had none, 
save a manikin, for the benefit of the physiology class, who found much to 
amuse, as well as instruct, in the dissection of this excellent representation of 
the human frame. 

A favorite occupation of the pupils at recess was to look down into the yard 
of the Lincoln Grammar School, where hundreds of boys were marching, or 
going through with various evolutions with military precision. 

During the two years, beginning with 1866, that it was my privilege to attend 
the Normal School, Henry P. Carlton and George Tait were successively Prin- 
cipals of the school, with Mrs. Beale and Miss E. W. Houghton, assistants. 

Mr. Carlton's special fondness was for normal training and natural history, 
and his strenuous efforts to teach his pupils to think for themselves, and study 



34 Historical Sketch. 



nature as well as text-books, has been an incentive to many. Vagueness of 
ideas he abominated, and when a pupil rose to recite without having any defi- 
nite conception of the subject under consideration, another was soon called 
upon. 

The State Normal School was exceedingly fortunate in having Miss E. W. 
Houghton, a Mt. Holyoke graduate, for an instructor in arithmetic, botany, 
elocution, and vocal culture. The very embodiment of dignity, her simple pres- 
ence commanded respect and attention, and no difficulty did she apparently 
ever experience in maintaining order. One look of hers was quite enough to 
cause any disorder to subside, and a word of rebuke was the keenest mortifica- 
tion to which a pupil could be subjected. Clear-cut in thought, finished in 
style, cultivated in manners, she was a most admirable teacher of those who 
were themselves to teach. 

It was during this period that Hon. John Swett held the office of State Super- 
intendent, and his warm interest in the State Normal School was shown by his 
frequent .visits there, which were always hailed with delight by the pupils, whom 
he often addressed or examined in some study. We knew that if he happened 
in during class recitations we might expect some puzzling questions, quite out 
of the text-book order, which we always found of practical value. 

While I was in the graduating class the Seniors conceived the idea of editing 
a paper, christened " The Acorn," of which I ani the possessor of two copies- 
pleasant reminiscences of days gone by. From these I copy the following little 
poem by my classmate, C. D. McNaughton, now deceased : 

Those Days Are Past. 

Those days are past, and oft I track, 

With weary gaze their rapid flight, 
Could I, on eagle's wings go back, 

Ah ! quickly would I flee to-night. 
But nothing beautiful can last 
Those bright and happy days are past. 

Youth meets us once, and leaves us when 

We learn to love its fond embrace; 
But once, and never comes again 

To cheer the heart's forsaken place. 
How like the flowers around us cast 
They perish when their days are past. 

In each bright scene we love to trace 
The joys and hopes we once have known, 

And fancy in each youthful face 
An image that was once our own. 

With time's malignant freezing blast, 

That image and its days are past. 

But after all why thus regret 

The ever buoyant flight of time? 
Youth's follies let us all forget, 

And seek the sunlight of our prime. 
Rich are the treasures round us cast, 
And bright, though other days are past. 



State Normal School. 



35 



The parent bird, in search of food, 
Is joyous, as its growing young, 

And noon calls sweetly from the brood 
The song the mother early sung. 

The noon-tide joys are wedded fast 

To those whose fleeting days are past. 

In early life some settled grief 
Embitters oft the golden bowl, 

But years remove with soft relief 
The burden clinging to the soul. 

So perish all those griefs at last, 

And pleasures come when they are past. 



1868-69. 

(July 1, 1868 May 21, 18G9. 

In May, 1868, Dr. Wm. T. Lucky was elected Principal of the 
Normal School, H. P. Carlton Vice-Principal, and Miss E. W. 
Houghton and Mrs. Dorcas Clark assistants. Except for the 
occasional employment of an assistant or a special teacher for a 
short time, the faculty remained the same from this time until 
1872. Dr. Lucky was a teacher of many years experience, chiefly 
in private institutions. At the time of his election, he was Princi- 
pal of the Lincoln Grammar School in San Francisco. 

As far as can be ascertained, during the remainder of the time 
that the school was located in San Francisco, the teachers in the 
Training School were paid by the city, though the work of the 
Training School was entirely under the supervision of the Trustees 
and teachers of the Normal School. 

During this year, the form of diploma was adopted which has 
been in use ever since. The subject of a permanent location for 
the school now began to be agitated, and a committee was 
appointed by the Board of Trustees to consider the matter and 
report upon it. The claims of numerous places, most of them 
near the center of the State, were urgently presented, each by its 
residents and special friends. Oakland, Berkeley, Stockton, San 
Jose, San Francisco, Sacramento, Napa, Martinez, and many 
minor places were in turn recommended. State Superintendent 
Fitzgerald, Dr. Lucky, and others strongly favored San Jose, on 
account of its size not so large as to present the disturbance and 
temptations of a city, and yet large enough to offer suitable board- 
ing accommodations for students its healthful climate, and its 



36 Historical Sketch. 



accessibility; also on the principle of an equitable distribution of 
State institutions. The question remained unsettled, however, 
until 1870. 

At the beginning of Dr. Lucky 's administration, the Sub- Junior, 
or " Entering Class" was dropped, and a regular two years' course 
adopted, consisting of Junior year and Senior year. Each year 
was divided into two divisions of five months each, as follows: 

JUNIOR CLASS. Second Division: Arithmetic, Grammar, Geography, Reading, 
Moral Lessons, Spelling. First Division : Arithmetic, Grammar, Rhetoric, Physi- 
ology, History, Vocal Culture, Bookkeeping, General Exercises, including 
Penmanship, Object- Lessons, Calisthenics, Methods of Teaching, School Law, 
Composition, and Declamation. 

SENIOR CLASS. Second Division: Arithmetic reviewed, Algebra, Grammar, 
Natural Philosophy, Physiology, Rhetoric, Natural History. First Division: 
Botany, Physical Geography, Normal Training, Geometry, English Literature, 
Bookkeeping, General Exercises, same as in the Junior Year. 

EXTRACTS FROM A LETTER OF REMINISCENCES BY MARIETTA GOULD Buzzo, CLASS 

OF MAY, 1869. 

Very little apparatus, and that little very primitive, was furnished us in those 
days. The great earthquake of October, 1868, demolished our largest and most 
valuable "aid to learning," the manikin, greatly to the disappointment of the 
physiology class (Senior), then under Professor Carlton's instruction. I do 
not think any of us have forgotten Professor Carlton's great delight when the 
class got very much wrought up pro and con over some question in physiology, 
language, or methods, and his quiet way of leaving us to settle the matter for 
ourselves, if we could. Nor, again, our hearty enjoyment of the recitations 
conducted by Miss Houghton, whose example of thorough preparation for the 
exercise and womanly dignity and decorum was ever esteemed a model for our 
future emulation. 

The only excursions I remember, of which there were many, combining 
pleasure with profit in about equal proportions, arranged for us by Dr. Lucky, 
were those to the Sugar Refinery, the Mission Woolen Mills, the Mint, to Sau- 
salito, and one especially enjoyable, to inspect a large China steamer, the largest 
of that day. Another memorable occasion was the celebration at the Mechan- 
ic's Pavilion of the completion of the transcontinental railway. 

Our graduating exercises to us the great event of the year were held at 
Platt's Hall, where State Superintendent O.P. Fitzgerald presented our coveted 
diplomas. 



1869-70. 

(July 1, 1869 March 10, 1870.) 

The subject of the best times in the year for opening and clos- 
ing the Normal School, has been in its past history, as it still is, 
an open question. For the first seven years, the school opened 
and closed at about the same time as the public schools in the 



State Normal School. 37 

cities. Many, however, of the schools throughout the State, espe- 
cially in country districts, where a long winter vacation is unavoid- 
able, open for the summer term in April or May. This made it 
seem, to some, desirable to send out the annual graduating class 
in time to take positions in these schools. It was therefore thought 
best to try the experiment; and in order to effect the change, the 
school year 1869-70 was shortened more than two months, and 
the class graduated in March. This plan was continued until 
1877. 

Miss Matilda Lewis, a graduate of the Oswego State Normal 
School of New York, became Principal of the Training School in 
1869, and infused new life by putting into active operation the 
methods used in the Oswego school, making a specialty of object 
teaching. One episode of the year in connection with the work 
of the Training School, is given in the following account by one 
of the students specially interested: 

Following the resignation of Mrs. Stout, Principal of the Training School, in 
1869, came the introduction of teaching by the object system, by Miss Matilda 
Lewis, of the Oswego, New York, Normal Training School, who succeeded Mrs. 
Stout as Principal of the Training School. She found the school in a most 
unsatisfactory condition, on account of the insufficient number of regular 
teachers, the pupils having no regard for the authority of the young girls 
placed over them from week to week. The first request of Miss Lewis was for 
four young ladies to be placed as regular teachers in the Training Department, 
the pupil teachers to spend a week in the class-rooms as before, consulting with 
the regular senior teacher. This plan gave the children some one to look to as 
authority, and much valuable time previously devoted to reorganization of 
classes each week, was spent by both pupils and teachers in learning the new 
system of teaching from objects. 

Miss Lewis, besides teaching by this system, gave regular lectures to the 
Senior Class illustrative of her methods, which were a most interesting and 
useful feature of the school work. The four pupils selected from the Senior 
Class were Emelie McNeil, Ada Oglesby, Sarah A. Rightmire, and Cornelia E. 
Greer. We remained in charge of the classes, under the direction of Miss Lewis, 
eight months, the pupils coming from the Normal School every week to teach 
with us. In March, 1870, the Normal School Class graduated, leaving us still 
in the Training School. In the meantime Miss Lewis went to the Legislature, 
and obtained diplomas for us. In May of the same year we passed examination 
in our class-rooms, with our pupils, before the Faculty, in methods of teaching 
all the primary branches, general government, etc., and were granted first grade 
State certificates and " Normal Training School diplomas," exactly like the 
diplomas of the March class, except for the addition of the word "Training." 

Miss McNeil taught in one of the higher grades in a school in San Francisco 
for two and a half years, then married a gentleman by the name of Dwyer, 
and now resides in San Francisco. 

Miss Oglesby taught in the San Francisco public schools eight years, then 
married (present name unknown), and resides in Kansas. 

4 



38 Historical Sketch. 

Miss Rightmire has been teaching constantly in San Francisco, and ranks 
high as the Principal of the Emerson Primary School. 

I commenced teaching immediately after graduating, and taught successfully 
in Contra Costa County for three and a half years, at Pacheco. In 1872, 1 was 
granted an educational diploma (complimentary, the three years required by 
law before making application, not having expired). I taught continuously 
afterwards in San Mateo County till 1876, when I was married to William W. 
Cunningham of San Francisco, and now reside in Alameda. 

CORNELIA E. CUNNINGHAM. 

In March, 1870, the Legislature selected San Jose as the per- 
manent location for the Sta.te Normal School, and enacted a law 
providing for the selection of a site, and the erection of a build- 
ing. Some changes were made in the laws governing the school, 
the principal change being that the Board of Trustees were differ- 
ently constituted. The. following is a copy of the Act: 

SECTION 1. There shall be established in the City of San Jose", County of 
Santa Clara, a school, to be called the California State Normal School, for the 
training and educating of teachers in the art of instructing and governing in 
the public schools of this State. 

SEC. 2. The Governor of the State of California, the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of the said State, and the Principal of the State Normal School are 
hereby appointed and created Trustees, with full power and authority to select 
a site for the permanent location of the State Normal School in the City of San 
Jose". Said Trustees shall, within thirty days after the passage of this Act, 
examine the sites offered by the City of San Jose" for the location of the State 
Normal School buildings, and select therefrom a suitable location for said State 
Normal School buildings, and the site selected by them shall be and remain the 
permanent site for the State Normal School buildings. 

SEC. 3. The Mayor and Common Council of the City of San Jose" are hereby 
authorized, empowered, and directed, immediately after such site shall have 
been selected by said Trustees, to convey such site, by good and sufficient con- 
veyance, to the Trustees of the State Normal School, who are hereby authorized 
and empowered to receive and hold the same and the title thereto in trust and 
for the use of said State Normal School; provided, that whenever the State 
Normal School shall be removed from said site selected, the same and the title 
thereto shall, immediately upon such removal, revert to said City of San Jose", 
and become the property thereof absolute!}*-. 

SEC. 4. The Governor, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
five others, to be appointed by the Governor, shall constitute the Board of Nor- 
mal School Trustees. The appointed members, at the first meeting of the Board 
of Trustees, shall determine by lot their respective terms of office, which shall 
be for two, four, six, eight, and ten years. 

SEC. 5. Said Board of Trustees shall have power, and are hereby authorized 
and required, to remove to said City of San Jose", County of Santa Clara, the 
State Normal School, now located in the City of San Francisco, and to continue 
the same for the gratuitous instruction of such persons residing in this State 
as may desire to prepare themselves to teach in the public schools of this State. 
They shall have power to expend all moneys appropriated or donated for 
building school rooms and boarding houses, and for furnishing the same, as 
well as all moneys for the current expenses of the school. 



State Normal School. 39 

SEC. 6. The Board of Trustees shall have power to elect a Principal and all 
other teachers' that may be deemed necessary ; to fix the salaries of the same, 
and to prescribe their duties. 

SEC. 7. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees to prescribe the course 
of study, and the time and standard of graduation, and to issue such certificates 
and diplomas as may, from time to time, be deemed suitable. These certificates 
and diplomas shall entitle the holders to teach in any county in this State for 
the time and in the grade specified in the certificate or diploma. 

SEC. 8. The Board of Trustees shall prescribe the text-books, apparatus, and 
furniture, and provide the same, together with all necessary stationery, for the 
use of the pupils. 

SEC. 9. Said Board shall, when deemed expedient, establish and maintain a 
training or model school, or schools, in which the pupils of the Normal School 
shall be required to instruct classes under the supervision and direction of 
experienced teachers. 

SEC. 10. Said Board shall make rules for the government of the boarding 
house or houses; shall superintend the same, and make all necessary arrange- 
ments for conducting the same in the most economical manner that will make 
them self-sustaining. 

SEC. 11. At each annual meeting the Board shall determine what number of 
pupils may be admitted into the school; and this number shall be apportioned 
among the 1 counties of this State according to the number of representatives 
from said counties in the Legislature; provided, that teachers holding first or 
second grade certificates may be admitted from the State at large. The County 
Superintendents and the County Boards of Examination shall hold competi- 
tive examinations before the first of May in each year of all persons desiring 
to become pupils of the Normal School, which examinations shall be conducted 
in the same manner as examinations for third grade teachers' certificates. A 
list shall be made of the applicants thus examined, and they shall receive 
recommendation in the order of standing in the examination ; provided, that 
Superintendents may discriminate in favor of those whose age and experience 
specially fit them to become normal pupils. After the expiration of the year, 
a new list must be prepared, and those not recommended must be reexamined 
or forfeit their right to recommendation. 

SEC. 12. To secure admission into the Junior class of the Normal School, the 
applicant, if a male, must be seventeen years of age, or v if a female, sixteen 
years of age; to enter an advanced class the applicant must be proportionately 
older. Applicants must also present letters of recommendation from their 
County Superintendent, certifying to their good moral character, and their fit- 
ness to enter the Normal School. Before entering all applicants must sign the 
following declaration : " We hereby declare that our purpose in entering the 
California State Normal School is to fit ourselves for the profession of teaching, 
and that it is our intention to engage in teaching in the public schools of this 
State." 

SEC. 13. Pupils from other States and Territories may be admitted to all 
privileges of the school on presenting letters of recommendation from the 
Executives or State School Superintendents thereof, and the payment of one 
hundred dollars. The money thus received shall be appropriated to the pur- 
chase of library and apparatus. Pupils from other States shall not be required 
to sign the declaration named in section twelve. 

SEC. 14. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be the Executive 
Agent and Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the Normal School. He shall 
visit the school from time to time, inquire into its condition and management, 



40 Historical Sketch. 



enforce the rules and regulations made by the Board, require such reports as 
he deems proper from the teachers of the school and officers of the boarding 
house, and exercise a general supervision of the same. He shall, in connection 
with the Executive Committee appointed by the Board, expend all moneys 
appropriated for salaries and incidental expenses, and shall make a semi-an- 
nual statement, in writing to the Board, of all moneys received and expended. 

SEC. 15. It shall be the duty of the Principal of the school to make a detailed 
annual report to the Board of Trustees, with a catalogue of the pupils, and 
such other particulars as the Board may require or he may think useful. It 
shall also be his duty, authorized by the Board, to attend County Institutes, 
and lecture before them on subjects relating to public schools and the profes- 
sion of teaching. 

SEC. 16. The Board of Trustees shall hold two regular meetings annually, at 
such time and place as may be determined; but special meetings may be called 
by the Secretary, by sending written notice to each member. 

SEC. 17. The Board shall have power to make all rules and regulations 
necessary for discharging the duties named above. 

SEC. 18. An annual ad valorem tax of two cents on each one hundred dol- 
lars' value of taxable property in this State is hereby levied, for the twenty- 
second and twenty-third fiscal years, and is directed to be collected in the same 
manner as other State taxes are collected; and the money raised by said tax 
shall be paid into the State Treasury, and said money and the money by this 
Act appropriated shall be known as the State Normal School Building Fund. 

SEC. 19. Said State Normal School Trustees shall, from time to time, as the 
services herein provided for, or by them ordered and performed, and labor done 
or materials furnished for said State Normal School buildings, draw orders on 
the State Controller, specifically describing the services rendered, labor per- 
formed, or materials furnished, together with the amount, and to whom pay- 
able. Upon presentation of such orders, the State Controller shall draw his 
warrant on the State Treasurer, for the amounts thereof, payable out of said 
State Normal School Building Fund; and the State Treasurer is hereby author- 
ized and directed to pay such warrants out of said fund. Said State Normal 
School Trustees and Controller each shall keep a correct register of the war- 
rants or orders issued, the amount of each warrant, to whom ordered paid, and 
for what services or materials given ; such registers shall be kept in their respec- 
tive offices for publifc inspection. 

SEC. 20. The sum of twenty-four thousand dollars is hereby appropriated, 
biennially, out of any moneys in the General fund not otherwise appropriated, 
which said appropriation shall be set apart at the commencement of each fiscal 
year, to support the California State Normal School; and the Controller is 
hereby directed to draw his warrants, from time to time, on the State Treasurer* 
payable out of said appropriation, and the unexhausted remainder, if any, of 
any appropriation for such claims or accounts as have been audited by the 
Board of Trustees of the Normal School, or the Executive Committee thereof, 
and the Board of Examiners ; provided, that the bills for the salaries of regular 
teachers may be allowed by the Controller without the indorsement of the 
Board of Examiners ; provided, also, that the aggregate of warrants drawn shall 
not exceed, in any one fiscal year, one half the appropriation herein made for 
such years, together with the remainder of unused appropriations, if any, of 
any previous fiscal year, or years ; and whenever, at the close of any fiscal year, 
a balance remains to the credit of the California State Normal School Fund, 
such balance shall be carried forward and added to the appropriation for the 
succeeding year. 



State Normal School. 41 

SEC. 21. All classes may be admitted into the Normal School, who are admit- 
ted, without restriction, into the public schools of the State. 

SEC. 22. The provisions of this Act shall take effect from and after its pas- 
sage; provided, that the removal of the school shall be made whenever the 
Board of Trustees decide that suitable accommodations have been prepared for 
the same. 

SEC. 23. All Acts or parts of Acts passed by the Senate and Assembly of the 
State of California conflicting with the above are hereby repealed. 

REMINISCENCES BY ALBERTA MONTGOMERY ECKER, CLASS OF MARCH, 1870. 

The class of 1870 had its home in San Francisco, in the building now used by 
classes of the Lincoln Primary School. 

Dr. Lucky was Principal. Prof. Henry P. Carlton, Miss E. W. Houghton, 
and Mrs. Dorcas Clark were assistants. Miss Houghton was in the East dur- 
ing the first term, and Miss Letitia Ryder taught in her place. Miss Lewis, of 
the Oswego Training School, superintended us while we taught in the Training 
Classes. Professor Carlton labored diligently to inspire us with a love for 
physiology and mental philosophy. Miss Houghton taught us elocution and 
rhetoric, and gave us such short lessons that we had no excuse for not getting 
them. Dr. Lucky instructed us in mathematics. His interest in his pupils 
ceased only with his life, and many can bear witness to his efforts in their 
behalf after they were engaged in teaching. 

Our Principal's work is done, and he has been joined " over the river " by 
Leonora Carothers (Mrs. Barry Baldwin), Nellie Savage, Helen Stone, Jessie 
Wilson, Alice Snow (Mrs. George Pardee), Mrs. Tillotson, and Mary L. Greer. 
We weave a garland sacred to the memory of teacher and classmates ; they 
shall be enshrined in our hearts till our life's drama has closed. 

Rev. 0. P. Fitzgerald was State Superintendent and made us frequent visits. 

Our apparatus was limited, and our library small. We had access to the 
Mercantile and other city libraries, and were often addressed by talented speak- 
ers. We had a debate every Wednesday afternoon on a topic previously 
announced. Every pupil was required to express an opinion on the subject 
selected. We had special lessons in drawing and music. 

The " Musical Festival," under the auspices of Madame Camilla Urso, was 
held in the spring of 1870. Many of our students were among the twelve hun- 
dred chorus singers. We remember also a very pleasant steamboat excursion 
taken by our school. We sailed around the bay, out to the Golden Gate, and 
made a visit to Alcatraz Island, where all points of interest were explained 
to us. 

The subject of the removal of the Normal School from San Francisco had 
already been agitated. San Jose wished the new school. The Normal Trus- 
tees, the Faculty, and scholars, and members of the press went on a railroad 
excursion as guests of the City of San Jose". We were given a banquet at the 
Auzerais House, with the usual toasts and after-dinner speeches, and then vis- 
ited the Convent, Court House, Washington Square, the site to be donated to 
the Normal School, and other points of interest. Probably the kind treatment 
given the excursionists helped San Jose in the decision that located the school. 

The graduating exercises were held on the evening of March 10, 1870, two 
months earlier than usual, so that the graduates might obtain positions for the 
spring term. The exercises were held in Platt's Hall. Miss Belle Carruthers 
opened the exercises, after a prayer by Rev. Dr. Scott, with an essay on " The 
Artist's Implements." Miss Leonora Carothers followed with an essay on 
" The Shady Side of Teaching." The school Sang " Hail Happy Day." Miss 



42 Historical Sketch. 



Casey read an essay on " Mythology." The essay on " Localism," by Miss Gar- 
land, came next. Mr. Tillotson delivered an oration on " Teachers and Teach- 
ing." Miss Withrow read an essay on " Music and its Votaries," and afterwards 
gave a vocal solo "Ave Maria." Miss Montgomery followed with an essay on 
" The Seen and the Unseen." Miss Burrill's essay was entitled " Let in the 
Sunshine." Miss Allison read an essaj^ on "Another Day," with valedictory 
addresses. The diplomas were delivered by Rev. O. P. Fitzgerald, after an 
appropriate address to the graduates. Dr. Lucky concluded with a brief fare- 
well to his late pupils. After the Doxology and a benediction by Rev. Dr. 
Walker, the class of 1870 separated, never to meet again until we reach the 
" other side." 



1870-71. 

(June 1, 1870 March 11, 1871.) 

The first meeting of the Board under the new law was held in 
Sacramento April 25, 1870. The appointed members drew lots, 
as provided by law, to determine the length of their terms of office, 
and the new Board was organized as follows: President, Governor 
H. H. Haight; Secretary (ex officio), Superintendent 0. P. Fitz- 
gerald; appointed members: Henry 0. Weller, two years; Andrew 
J. Moulder, four years; C. T. Ryland, six years; James Denman, 
eight years; J. H. Braly, ten years. Of these, Mr. Moulder 
resigned in 1871, and was succeeded by Dr. B. Bryant; Mr. 
Braly resigned in 1873, and was succeeded by T. Ellard Beans; 
Mr. Ryland and Mr. Denman were reappointed at the expiration 
of their terms of office. An executive committee was appointed, 
and instructed to procure plans and initiate measures for the 
erection of a Normal School building. 

In August the Board formally accepted from the City of San 
Jose, for the use of the Normal School, the property then known 
as Washington Square, containing over twenty-six acres. As pro- 
vided for in the Act, the square was conveyed to them with the 
condition that whenever the State Normal School shall be removed 
from this site, the land shall revert to the City of San Jose. 

The cornerstone of the first California State Normal School 
building was laid October 20, 1870, with imposing masonic cere- 
monies, conducted by the Grand Lodge of the State, assisted by 
Howard Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and San Jose Encamp- 
ment, No. 35, of I. 0. O. F. 

A large assembly was present, including the pupils and Faculty 
of the Normal School, from San Francisco, the public school 
children of San Jose, and many citizens. The address was deliv- 
ered by State Superintendent 0. P. Fitzgerald. 



State Normal School. 43 

ADDRESS OF REV. 0. P. FITZGERALD. 

It was a joyful day for the Hebrew people when the moving tabernacle was 
superseded by the magnificent temple at Jerusalem. The moving tabernacle 
served its temporary purposes during the journey through the wilderness, but 
the permanent temple expressed the culmination of the national wealth, prop- 
erty, and glory. So this day may well celebrate the exodus of California from 
the transient condition of a new State, the change from its preparatory history 
to well organized society and established institutions, commercial, agricultural, 
literary, and religious. The cornerstone, which we lay to-day with the appro- 
priate and impressive ceremonies of the " brethren of the mystic tie," is fitly 
celebrated by the parade of the military, the presence of the representatives of 
organized benevolence, the invocation of the blessings of God, the glad shouts 
of children, and the smile of beauty. The laying of this cornerstone is at once 
the register of our present attainment and the prophecy of our future progress. 
We have met to lay the cornerstone of the California State Normal School build- 
ing in its permanent location on this magnificent square, in this beautiful val- 
ley, amid this hospitable and generous people; and it is a memorable and joyful 
day. 

The occasion reminds us, fellow citizens, that we are passing from the old to 
the new ; that we have closed one era in the life of our State, and are entering 
upon another. The day of reckless speculation, wild ventures, and transient 
expedients is gone. Farewell, California of the past ! Farewell ox trains across 
the plains, canvas tents, board shanties, womanless houses, and hopeless bache- 
lorhood ! Hail the new California ! Hail the great railway ! Hail the opulent 
city, the thriving village, the well inclosed and beautiful farm, the comfortable 
and elegant mansion, the well built school house, the quiet and virtuous homes 
in which are realized all the blessings and delights of the one institution that 
has survived the fall ! Pardon my enthusiasm. I am too much of a Califor- 
nian to measure my words, or temper them to the rhetoric of a cold conven- 
tionality, when my pulses are quickened and my heart rejoicing in prospect of 
the consummation of a grand enterprise, which has for so many months excited 
my solicitude, aroused my hopes, and engaged my energies. The exuberance 
of my feelings is not lessened by the fact that I am surrounded here to-day by 
my old neighbors and friends, who have never allowed me to forget that this 
valley is my home. The laying of this cornerstone symbolizes the work which 
we of this generation are doing. We are laying the foundations of a new State. 
We are laying the foundations of an educational system. We must be careful 
to lay them properly, for the whole superstructure will conform to the character 
of its foundations. 

The foundation plan of our system of popular education must be broad, 
embracing the principles of justice and right, giving equal privileges to all 
classes of citizens. 

The foundation of our system must be strong, resting on right ideas clearly 
defined and firmly maintained. 

The foundation of our system must be symmetrical. We want no patch- 
work or conglomerate of dissimilar elements or antagonistic principles. We 
must adopt a definite and consistent theory of education, and faithfully embody 
it in practice. 

We must begin at the beginning. First in this structure is the concrete foun- 
dation harder than granite, capable of resisting the heaviest earthquake shocks, 
and incombustible by any heat short of the final fires of the last day. Then 
follows the brick work ; after which the wooden framework, story by story ; 
and last of all the cornices, capitals, and other ornamental and finishing touches, 



44 Historical Sketch. 



ending with the gilded or sculptured dome. So, in our system of education, 
we must begin at the beginning, not following the false fashion of giving our 
children a smattering of the "ologies" and teaching them to jabber bad French 
before they have learned to spell or cipher. 

Above all, the cornerstone must be properly laid in its proper place. In prac- 
tical architecture, every man understands the necessity for this. What is the 
cornerstone of a true system of popular education ? I answer, a pure morality. 
Without this no system can stand. Leaving this out, there will be nothing to 
hold the different parts of a system of education in their proper relation toward 
each other. Using the untempered mortar of a false morality, it will dissolve 
upon its first contact with opposing elements, and the whole superstructure 
will sink into ruin. A pure morality must be based upon a recognition of God, 
submission to His will, and a sense of accountability to Him. A pure morality 
means a conscience enlightened by Divine truth, a nature molded, controlled, 
and directed by the Divine will. We owe it to our children and to all who shall 
come after us, to have this cornerstone fitly laid in our educational system. 

Would it be straining the figure, or changing it too abruptly, to say that the 
State Normal School is itself the cornerstone of our public school system ? The 
functions of the State Normal School are : To mold the type of the public school 
teachers, to inculcate the principle that shall guide and govern them in their 
work, and to suggest to them and drill them in the method they should follow 
in the school room. Upon its proper adjustment to the machinery of the sys- 
tem and the efficient performance of its proper functions will very greatly 
depend the success of the entire system. This being so, the laying of this 
cornerstone to-day becomes a very significant act, reminding us of the pro- 
found feeling of responsibility and the thorough conscientiousness which we 
should bring to bear in discharging our official duties in organizing and estab- 
lishing this institution on a right foundation. Let, then, this noble structure 
rise upon its solid foundations. Let it rise in its beauty and grandeur, the 
mother institution of its class upon the Pacific Coast. Let it rise as a monu- 
ment of the enterprise and far-reaching sagacity of an enlightened people. 
Let it rise here in this valley of surpassing beauty and fertility, in the very 
heart and center of California, where it will be accessible to all, and from which 
it shall radiate light and blessing all over the State, from the sunny crests of 
the Sierras to the orange groves of the south. This is the first State Normal 
School of California; others will be established in due time and in proper 
places. 

The time is coming when California will contain two million inhabitants. 
This valley will then be a continuous garden, and the Alameda will be a willow- 
planted street running through one grand city, into which San Jos6 and Santa 
Clara will be merged. The three hundred miles of our " foothill " country will 
then rival the best vine-growing regions of Europe in the extent and value of 
its vineyards, and the density of its population. Should our provisions for 
popular education keep pace with our material development, additional normal 
schools will be demanded. At Los Angeles, on the north side of the Bay of 
San Francisco, at Napa, or at some other equally charming spot, in the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys, and " up north," will these intellectual light- 
houses be erected, leaving not a single spot in all our State unillumined by their 
beams. In view of the grand future thus hastily outlined, how great is the 
responsibility that rests upon us as the officers and guardians of this institu- 
tion. We represent not only for the present, but for the future. We are now 
planting a tree whose growth coining generations will foster, and whose fruit 
they will gather. Let us do our work well, that those who come after us may 



State Normal School. 45 

follow our good example, and carry forward the great work which we shall 
transmit to them. 

Mankind are learning more and more to appreciate the influence of natural 
surroundings in molding forms, features, and character. Without attempting 
here to give the philosophy of this fact, I accept it; and accepting it, let me ask, 
where could a better location be found for the State Normal School? Where 
will you find richer vegetation, brighter flowers, more fertile fields, more beau- 
tiful slopes, swelling hills, and towering mountains, than those that adorn and 
inclose this garden valley of the earth ? Where can you look up to a bluer sky, 
or find breezes more balmy than those that float around us to-day? May the 
characters here developed be as symmetrical as the features of yonder land- 
scape, as strong as yonder wall that beats back the surges of the vast Pacific, 
as pure as the silver waters that gush in their beauty from your artesian wells. 



1871-72. 

(June 14, 1871 March 14, 1872.) 

The Normal School opened its first session in San Jose, June 
14, 1871. Until the new building was ready for occupation, rooms 
for the use of the school were kindly furnished by the San Jose 
Board of Education; for the first few weeks in the High School 
building on Santa Clara Street; after that in the Reed Street 
building, then just completed. Dr. Lucky urged strongly the 
desirability of providing at once a boarding house for the young 
lady students, but the Board concluded that it was inexpedient, 
for the present, to undertake this, and boarding places were secured 
in private families. When the Political Code of California was 
established, in March, 1872, some slight changes were made in 
the laws relating to the Normal School. The age of admission 
was fixed at sixteen, for males as well as females. The faculty 
Vere no longer authorized to grant teachers' certificates to under- 
graduates, but graduates were given the right to teach in the pub- 
lic schools of the State, for the time and in the grade prescribed 
by their diplomas. 

EXTEACTS FROM THE REPORT OF DR. LUCKY, DECEMBER, 1871. 

Do NORMAL GRADUATES TEACH? 

The following facts in reference to the classes that have graduated since I have 
been connected with the school, will satisfactorily answer the above question: 

There were twenty graduates in 1869, all of whom secured good situations in 
a few months. 

Of the forty-four graduates in 1870, all except four are known to have com- 
menced teaching. Twenty of the twenty-one graduates in 1871 have already 
entered upon their work. Thus it will be seen that only five in an aggregate of 
ninety-four are not teaching, and these are unemployed because of ill health 
or because they are unwilling to accept situations out of San Francisco. 



46 Historical Sketch. 



Of the class of 1869, eight obtained situations in San Francisco, and twenty- 
one in fourteen different counties. Of the class of 1870, eleven obtained situa- 
tions in San Francisco, and twenty-nine in fifteen different counties. Of the 
class of 1871, six are teaching in San Francisco, and fourteen in nine different 
counties. 

The demand for Normal graduates is far greater than the supply. All gradu- 
ates can at once secure good situations, provided they are willing to go into the 
country. 

The reason for the preference expressed for Normal School pupils, is the 
natural result of the uniform success of the teachers trained here. Very many 
complimentary and flattering reports have been received from County Super- 
intendents and district trustees. The following is given as a specimen : 

"The benefits of Normal instruction are especially seen in schools taught by 
teachers from our State Normal School at San Jose". The superior and system- 
atized instruction and their well regulated government give the most complete 
satisfaction. They come forth from that school having well matured plans, 
and are prepared at once to enter on their great work." [Mack Matthews, 
County Superintendent, Lake County. 

During a period of nearly four years, I have heard no complaint of inability 
to teach, and I know of but three instances in which graduates, in their first 
schools, failed in government. These are now successful and popular teachers. 
All who attend the school are taught to believe there is a moral obligation 
resting upon them to become earnest teachers, in order that they may benefit 
the State that has so kindly assisted them. 

REMINISCENCES BY CHARLES E. MARKHAM, CLASS OF MARCH, 1872. 

You inform me that I am appointed to speak for the Class of '72. It is a 
pleasure to do so, for the task calls up a throng of happy memories. Perhaps, 
however, the duty should have fallen to other hands. Miss Rixon, for instance, 
would be more finished and picturesque; Miss Terry, more artless and pleas- 
ing; Miss Wagenseller, more piquant; Mr. Kennedy, more strong and original; 
Mr. Beal, more simple and direct. Miss Stephens could give us detail and deli- 
cate satire; Miss Hilton, grace and quiet beauty. And so, also, do the rest of 
the class come to me in memory, each with some special fitness for the work. 

One pleasing feature of the school in the old time was the occasional excur- 
sion and half holiday. These were chiefly for the purpose of studying some 
piece of machinery or some process of manufacture. We young men, of course, 
had our literary and debating society. Then, too, there was our weekly after- 
noon institute for the discussion of school-room problems. Many visitors 
attended, and reporters were always present. Dr. Lucky presided, and all stu- 
dents joined in the debates. Many were the sallies of wit, many were the blows 
from Wisdom's logic fist, many were the ludicrous blunders, in that day of bud- 
ding orators. Not a few of the students, however, were advanced in years, were 
even experienced teachers, and could speak to the point, and with precision. 
And, in this connection, it is pleasant to remember that several of the class 
have since reached distinction in educational work, as in the case of Mr. Thos. 
E. Kennedy, who is now Inspector of the San Francisco schools. 

Another feature of our student life was Dr. Lucky's morning lecture on 
teaching. These lectures occupied five months in their delivery. He began 
the course by calling attention to the child entering the school for the first 
time, with its little fears and tremblings, and ended by pointing us to that 
higher school in heaven, where the Father and Mother truth unvail. 



State Normal School. 



47 



Ours was the first class graduated after the removal to San Jose". Dr. Lucky 
was Principal, Prof. H. P. Carlton, Vice-Principal, Miss Eliza W. Houghton, 
Mrs. Dorcas Clark, and others were assistants. Under Dr. Lucky the disci- 
pline was strict, yet kindly the hand of iron in the glove of velvet. He was 
a man of impressive dignity, robust head and shoulders, countenance frank 
and open as the day, bold crag-like brows, and a smile that lighted up the face 
in a wonderful manner. 

Professor Carlton had strong and pleasing traits of character. He strove to 
put off the pedagogue and to be a comrade, a fellow student. Nothing pleased 
him more than to have a pupil bring in matter outside of the text-booksome- 
thing that showed independent investigation. To call out the shrill note of 
personality, to form habits of thought and study, to stir the spiritual forces 
these were his aims. Of nervous temperament, he felt keenly, was terribly in 
earnest. He was himself impressed, and so he impressed others, with the 
mystery and pathos of life. His philosophy was a passionate idealism. His 
style of expression was bold and abrupt. His favorite quotation seemed to be 
that one from Kant : " Two things are sublime conscience and the stars." He 
could recite The Raven with magical effect. Once he recited it before an assem- 
bly of teachers and students. The dim light of the lamps gave to him a half 
unearthly aspect. Figure tall and erect, face energetic and pale, hair thin and 
scattered, he himself seemed an apparition from "the tempest and the night's 
plutonian shore." 

Through Miss Houghton we came to know and love the plants of field and 
hedgerow. And it was with fine feeling and sympathy that she led us, also, 
into the high places of literature. Happy were we who went that primrose 
way. Her presence was inspiring, uplifting. Always painstaking, always 
insisting on thorough work and accurate expression. These qualities made 
her effective as a teacher ; she had others which made her loved as a woman. 

The motherly Mrs. Clark, with her great good sense and kindly nature, had 
also a high place in all hearts. It seems, as I remember her, that her brain 
approached to Huxley's ideal, " a calm, cold, logic engine, trained to spin gos- 
samers, as well as forge the anchors of the mind." 

It has been a pleasure to speak of these old familiar faces. And though I 
now lay down my pen, they will not be forgotten; they have an assured place 
in my heart friends of blessed memory. We prepare for the future by an 
affectionate reverence for what is worthy in the past. 



1872-73. 

(June 17, 1872 March 29, 1873.) 

By the seventh of July, 1872, the Board of Building Commis- 
sioners had prepared rooms sufficient for immediate wants, and 
the school at last found a home. 

The tax provided for in the first bill proved insufficient to com- 
plete the building, and another tax, amounting to $75,000 per year, 
was levied for the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth fiscal years, 
1873-75. This still did not prove enough, and subsequent appro- 
priations were made of over $3,000, at one time, and $25,000 at 



48 Historical Sketch. 



another. The building was finally completed in 1876, at a total 
cost of about $285,000. Though imperfectly planned for school 
purposes, it was a handsome building, both in architectural de- 
sign and in detail of finish. Its numerous porticoes, supported by 
Corinthian pillars, and its handsome entrances, gave exterior grace 
and beauty, while within, the corridors were wide, the rooms spa- 
cious, and the wood work elegantly finished. It is unfortunate 
that so large an amount of time, money, and skill should have 
been expended in erecting a building almost entirely of wood. 
Had it been of more enduring material, it might still have been 
standing. 

As the school increased in size, the need of an additional teacher 
was strongly felt, and the Board appointed a committee to select 
a qualified teacher. After considerable correspondence Charles 
H. Allen, of Wisconsin, well known as an institute lecturer, and 
for many years connected with Normal Schools, was, on recom- 
mendation of the committee, elected as teacher of the natural 
sciences, music, and drawing. Professor Allen entered upon his 
duties October 7, 1872. 

Since its removal from San Francisco, no training school had 
been connected with the Normal School. As soon as the school 
was permanently located, steps were taken to organize this indis- 
pensable department of every true Normal School. In November, 
1872, Miss Mary J. Titus, a graduate of the Oswego Normal School, 
was elected Principal of the Training School. The pupils admitted 
were taken from the public schools of San Jose, and their number 
limited to forty. For the first year the value of this department 
to the Senior Class was entirely in the way of observation, as they 
were not required to teach. 

These necessary additions to the teaching force so increased the 
expenses of the school that, during this and the succeeding year, 
a deficiency of over $4,500 was created, which was provided for 
by the next Legislature. 

REMINISCENCES BY MARY E. HENDRIX, CLASS OF MARCH, 1873. 

The year 1872 brought some important changes in the Normal School. The 
beautiful new building that had cost so much time and money, was near enough 
completion to admit of its being occupied by the school. One room was fur- 
nished for the use of the Senior Class, two for the Junior Class, one for the use of 
the Principal, and one for the Library. A large room in the basement was fitted 
up for general exercises, and another for the Training School, which was estab- 
lished and placed in the charge of Miss Titus. How pleasant the large roomy 
building seemed! Up and down the long corridors, and in the unfinished 



State Normal School. 49 

rooms, the pupils could be seen, promenading at recess hours, with books in 
hand. Not much time could be wasted. 

This was Dr. Lucky's last year in the Normal School. He was well liked by 
his pupils. He was a man of dignified appearance, though he discouraged any 
display of false dignity. He used to tell us: "The teacher who dares not go 
out and play with his pupils, for fear of losing his dignity, has no dignity to 
lose" 

One of the studies we enjoyed most was our mental philosophy. Our teacher in 
this branch was Professor Carlton. He was a fair, slender, nervous man, whose 
distinguishing characteristic as a teacher was his great earnestness. What- 
ever his hand found to do he did with his might. His method of recitation 
was to require the pupil to give the author's opinion, then give his own and 
illustrate it. The discussions which followed were a source of pleasure and 
profit. 

This was Professor Allen's first year in the school. He seemed to be acquainted 
with every difficulty that ever beset a teacher in our common schools. Look- 
ing forward as we did to the difficulties ahead of us, poetry could not have inter- 
ested us more than did what he had to say about the practical work of the 
school-room. 

A few weeks before the close of the school, the teachers met in what seemed 
to us mysterious conclave. We knew at that time it would be decided who 
would graduate. The pupils were informed privately whether they were suc- 
cessful or not. The anxiety of the class at this time may be imagined. With 
what bright faces some left the Principal's room ! 

Contrary to the usual custom, the valedictorian was selected by the teachers. 
It was thought desirable to choose one who had taken the entire course gone 
through the Junior year as well as the Senior. Their choice fell on Miss Delia 
Snow, of Salt Lake; so to her essay on "The Child" was added the valedictory 
address. I do not think any one was surprised at the choice, except Miss Snow 
herself. She well represented the class, both in her ability as a valedictorian 
and in her success as a teacher. " I was so anxious," she afterward said, " to 
try the new methods I learned at the Normal School. 1 took such an interest 
in my school." I have heard her highly commended by the patrons of the dis- 
trict in which she taught. 

Miss Belle Merrit was selected to write the class song for the commencement 
exercises; she was the youngest in the class, but the selection did us justice. 
We copied the song from the blackboard, Miss Houghton,our teacher in elocu- 
tion and rhetoric, calling our attention to its beauties. 

The choice of class poet was left to the class. Miss Houghton had said any 
one in the class could write a poem; so there was no danger of making a mis- 
take. Something was already known of Mr. Chipman's ability as a poet; so he 
received the vote of the class. He gave us a humorous poem on " Thanksgiv- 
ing Day." 

Now began the drill on our commencement exercises. We were taken, one 
at a time, into the large, unfinished audience hall to practice. Miss Houghton 
was an able elocutionist. She seemed to have an ocean of voice at her com- 
mand. She was appreciative. No beautiful thought, well expressed, ever 
escaped her notice. The was also an unsparing critic. It was of no use for the 
girls to lose their tempers. A little temper sometimes came in good play when 
spirited reading was required. 

As preceptress, Miss Houghton was vigilant. We used to think she under- 
stood everything. She cautioned the girls against expense and display in the 
selection of dresses for the graduating exercises. A plain dress of good material, 



50 Historical Sketch. 



she said, was in better taste. She used to say, " If a girl ever wishes to look 
pretty, it is when she is married, and if you dress your best now, you cannot 
do better at your wedding." Her advice was generally appreciated and followed. 

The graduating class consisted of four young men and sixteen young ladies 
a combination of fours. 

Gay as we felt over our prospects, we could not avoid a solemn feeling, as we 
met, for the last time, in the basement, for morning exercises. As we looked 
on the Board for the number of the song selected by Professor Allen, a subdued 
whisper was heard, " How appropriate ! " It was : 

Our Father, through the coming year, 

We know not what shall be ; 
But we would leave, without a fear, 

Its ord'ring all to Thee. 



1873-74. 

(June 18, 1873 March 26, 1874.) 

In March, 1873, Dr. Lucky was reflected as temporary Princi- 
pal, Professor C. H. Allen as Vice-Principal, and Miss E. W. 
Houghton and Miss Lucy M. Washburn, a graduate of the Nor- 
mal School at Fredonia, New York, as assistants, and Miss M. J. 
Titus as Principal of the Training School. With this Faculty, the 
school opened its twelfth year June 18, 1873. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held August 4, 1873, 
Professor C. H. Allen was elected permanent Principal, and 
August ninth, J. H. Braly, who had resigned his office as Trustee, 
was elected Vice-Principal, and Miss E. W. Houghton was desig- 
nated Preceptress. Feeling the necessity of the improvement of 
the school, and its more satisfactory organization, the Board, at 
the same meeting, appointed a committee consisting of Trustee 
Cory and the Principal, to present a report upon the condition, 
wants, and objects of the Normal School. In accordance with 
this appointment, the following report was presented at the next 
meeting, October 22, 1873, and was unanimously adopted: 

To the Board of Trustees of the State Normal School of California : 

GENTLEMEN: Your committee, to whom was referred the matter of "The 
Objects and Wants of the Normal School," beg leave respectfully to submit the 
following report: 

The primary object of a Normal School is to fit young persons to enter upon 
the work of teaching, intelligently, and to perform the work successfully. 

Theoretically, a Normal School should teach only how to teach, receiving 
pupils after they are fully prepared in scholastic attainments, and giving them 
the necessary instruction in the philosophy of education and methods of teach- 
ing. 



State Normal School. 51 

Practically, it has in all cases, your committee believe, been found necessary 
to devote much of the time and the labor of the school to preparing pupils in 
the branches to be taught. 

Several causes conspire to make this divergence between the theory and the 
practice in Normal Schools. Among them are the following: 

I. The profession of teaching has, as yet, not become so permanent and 
remunerative that pupils will take the time, after having acquired sufficient 
knowledge to obtain certificates, to qualify themselves in methods of teaching, 
and a school doing only professional work would find itself without pupils. 

II. The successful teacher requires more. positive, exhaustive, and definite 
knowledge of the branches he is to teach than is usually given in other schools. 

III. It is believed, and perhaps truly, that there is a certain economy in 
combining the instruction how to teach with that which gives what is to be 
taught. 

IV. Most persons who desire to fit themselves for teaching, desire at the 
same time to acquire the knowledge that will fit them for any or all the duties 
of life. 

Whether all this is founded in good philosophy or not, we are obliged to accept 
it as true, and schools must, to meet the public demand, be organized and con- 
ducted accordingly. 

It remains, then, to present the plan which will, under the circumstances, 
best meet the public demand and accomplish the desired end. In connection 
with this, your committee make the following suggestions: 

The school must be manned by a corps of well qualified instructors. This 
involves teachers who, in addition to the thorough and critical knowledge of 
the branches taught, which is absolutely necessary, shall have devoted time, 
study, and thought enough to the subject of teaching, so that they have arrived 
at the natural or normal method of presentation, and who are sufficiencly 
acquainted with the laws of mental growth and development to be able to 
judge whether their work is accomplishing what they desire. They must also 
have that somewhat rare power of selection, which will enable them to distin- 
guish between essentials and non-essentials, and to work accordingly. 

In addition to this, they must have that mental strength and activity which 
will enable them, when brought into contact with adult and vigorous minds, 
to lead them instead of being led by them. 

If such teachers can be found and secured, the success of your school is 
certain. 

A Normal School, from its very nature, must be progressive. No school, and 
no teacher in the school, must rest contented upon the laurels already gained 
or the point already attained. There is need for constant intercourse with 
educators the world over. One who would hold and worthily fill his position 
as a teacher in a Normal School, can do so only by a life of labor. 

The course of study and training should provide for two distinct kinds of 
work. That is, there are certain subjects which teachers are required to know, 
and there are other subjects, which, under existing circumstances, they can 
only be expected to know about. Could our course of study be extended to 
three, or even four years, we might enlarge the first class of subjects, and 
diminish the second. That, for the present, seems impracticable. 

There must, then, be given a thorough, searching, definite knowledge of the 
branches which are to be taught in the public schools, and a power to express 
that knowledge with clearness and precision. Nothing can take the place of 
this. And especially should this knowledge and power be given in the struc- 



52 Historical Sketch. 



ture and use of our mother tongue. Language is the teacher's instrument; if 
he would be successful, he must become the master of it. 

Of the second class of subjects those upon which we may expect only gen- 
eral information but a general knowledge can be given. This knowledge 
should be accurate, as far as it goes ; should give the boundaries and divisions 
of the subject, and such other information as will enable the pupil to pursue it 
alone after leaving the school, and, if possible, such a love for study as will give 
him the inclination so to do. 

Many of these so called higher studies have a very important economic 
value; that is, they are closely connected with the laws of life and health, with 
the daily avocations of life, and with the protection and development of the 
resources of our State. The instruction in these should be such as to bring 
this relation constantly before the pupil, thus compelling him to realize that 
our schools should prepare children for the practical duties of life. 

As many of these studies require for their proper prosecution, illustrative 
apparatus, the Normal School must have, at as early a time as possible, a com- 
plete apparatus. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

BEN. CORY, 
CHAS. H. ALLEN, 
Committee. 

The school had now reached a point where it became almost a 
necessity to make some provision for pupils from a distance, who, 
upon examination, were found unqualified for work in Normal 
Classes. Besides having incurred heavy traveling expenses in 
coming to the Normal School, these pupils had, in most cases, 
completed the work of the Grammar Schools in the counties from 
which they came, and so could gain little by reentering those 
schools. It was, therefore, thought best to form a class specially 
for these, and a Preparatory Class was organized in November, 1873, 
with Miss Cornelia Walker, formerly of the State Normal School 
at St. Cloud, Minnesota, as teacher. The special work of this 
class was a thorough review of the elementary branches in prep- 
aration for the work of the Junior Class. A tuition fee was 
charged of one dollar per week, afterwards reduced to seventy- 
five cents. 

During this year, the Senior Class began regular practice work 
in the Training School, under the supervision of its Principal, 
Miss Titus. 

Rooms were fitted up to receive specimens in geology and nafc 
ural history, forming the nucleus of the future Museum. 



State Normal School. 53 

1874-75. 

(June 10, 1874 March 25, 1875.) 

By an Act passed March 30, 1874, the laws relating to the 
Normal School were amended in a few particulars. The new 
building affording abundant accommodation for all who were 
likely to apply for admission, the sections providing for competi- 
tive examinations of candidates, by County Boards, were repealed. 
Tuition was no longer required from residents of other States and 
Territories, but such students were required to sign a declaration 
of intention to teach, either in California or in the States and Ter- 
ritories where they resided. 

The Board of Trustees was authorized, at its discretion, to issue 
elementary diplomas to those who worthily completed a portion 
of the course of study, to be prescribed. The State Board of Ex- 
amination was required to grant second grade State certificates 
on these elementary diplomas, first grade State certificates on 
diplomas of graduation, and educational diplomas on past grad- 
uate diplomas. 

It was distinctly specified that the Trustees should receive no 
compensation for their services, and no money for traveling ex- 
penses. 

The State Superintendent was no longer made ex officio Secre- 
tary of the Board, but the Board was to appoint a Secretary, with- 
out salary, and was required to keep a record of its proceedings, 
open to public inspection. A few other changes and additions 
were made, of minor importance. Under the new provision, 
Principal Allen was elected Secretary of the Board. 

The school now increased rapidly in numbers, reaching at one 
time in the year nearly three hundred in the Normal Classes. 
This necessitated still further additions to the Faculty. Miss 
Walker was promoted to the Normal Department, her place in 
the Preparatory Class being filled by Miss Phebe P. Grigsby, and 
Miss Annie E. Chamberlain, a graduate of the Normal Depart- 
ment of the University of Wisconsin, was elected as assistant in 
the Junior Classes. Miss Florence Grigsby, a graduate of the 
class of 1874, was made assistant in the Training School. Not- 
withstanding these additions, the Principal says in his annual 
report for 1875: 
5 



54 Historical Sketch. 



During the year we have been obliged to keep up four Junior Classes. These 
have, much of the time, numbered forty-five each. The Senior Class has num- 
bered about fifty, and of this but one class could be made. 

Our instructional force has been quite too small. While it is as easy to teach 
forty as one, it is impossible to give to classes of this size the training in expres- 
sion, and in clearness of thought, so desirable in the teacher. From the very 
nature of our work, a Normal School requires a much larger corps of teachers, 
in proportion to the number of pupils, than other schools. The principal work 
must be training rather than teaching. 

Up to this time, the Training School Classes had been made up 
of pupils from the public schools, and the San Jose Board of Edu- 
cation had paid a certain sum monthly for each class. At the 
beginning of the second term of the school year 1874-75, the 
Training School was opened as a tuition school, independent of 
the city schools, and soon became nearly self-sustaining. 

Work on the building was still in progress. During the latter 
part of the year, class-rooms on the second floor were fitted up 
for the better accommodation of the large number in attendance, 
and the assembly hall, which was at first designed only for pub- 
lic gatherings, was seated, and used for the daily morning assem- 
bling of the school. 

As no special appropriation for furnishing had yet been made, 
these expenditures drew heavily upon the current expense fund, 
creating a deficit of over $1,000. Referring to this, the annual 
report of the Trustees says: 

The school for the coming year will doubtless number more than three hun- 
dred, or double the number provided for when the last appropriation was made. 
To meet the increased demand for instruction, we must increase the corps of 
teachers, and unwillingly, on our part, create a still greater deficit. The only 
alternative is to refuse admission to the school (which, if pupils are qualified, 
we have no right, under the law, to do), or to close the school for a part of the 
year. We feel assured that we have taken the better course, and that the com- 
ing Legislature will cheerfully appropriate a sufficient amount to meet this 
deficit, when the circumstances under which it has arisen shall be understood. 

The appropriation of $3,000 for apparatus, and of $500 annually for library, 
are being expended with great care, purchasing only those articles which will 
be of constant use. 

We felt warranted in expending $500 of the apparatus appropriation in the 
purchase of a very valuable collection of shells, consisting of nearly three 
thousand species, collected and named by the late Dr. Cantield, of Monterey, 
to be named the " Canfield Collection." 



State Normal School. 55 

1875-76. 

(June 15, 1875 March 31, 1876.) 

The year 1875-76 was marked by the addition to the Faculty 
of Professor Henry B. Norton, of the State Normal School at 
Emporia, Kansas. Professor Norton was elected March 25, 1875, 
and began his work in the school at the opening of the year, in 
June. From that time until his death in 1885, he labored tire- 
lessly as teacher and lecturer, both in the school and in Teachers' 
Institutes throughout the State. A fellow teacher, Miss Hough ton, 
writes thus of his coming: 

His skillful handling of all subjects that he taught, his great fund of infor- 
mation, his ready, kindly answers to all questions, made his pupils feel that a 
new and strong power had been added to the school, while the Faculty, each 
and all, soon found themselves deferring to his opinions, drawing from his rich 
store of knowledge, and feeling that he was a man ready to. fill any gap, toper- 
form able, generous services here, there, and everywhere. 

The growth and progress of the school for the year can best be 
shown by the following extracts from the annual report of the 
Principal, in 1876: 

The records of the school show a continued and healthful growth. * * * 
The average attendance for the year has exceeded, by sixty, the highest num- 
ber enrolled last year, and is more than double the average attendance for the 
two preceding years, upon which our biennial appropriation was based. We 
have felt it necessary to raise somewhat the grade of admission, and to drop 
from the school those whose mental habits convinced the Faculty that they 
could never make successful teachers. About twenty have thus been dropped, 
and perhaps an equal number discouraged from entering. Had our effort been 
simply to make a large school, we might have reported an attendance of more 
than four hundred; but we have, under your suggestions, striven to have a 
school composed only of good working members, and of such the school is now 
chiefly composed. * * * 

The Faculty unanimously recommend extending the course to three years, 
and a provision for graduation at the end of the second year, with an element- 
ary diploma. Teachers will be thus qualified for the great mass of the schools 
of the State, and it is believed many more will, by this arrangement, remain 
through the course. 

At the beginning of the year one additional teacher was elected, but the 
growth of the school has left us still very short of help. We have carried 
through the year five Junior Classes, and these have numbered as high as fifty- 
six. With such classes no teacher can do really good work. With an oppor- 
tunity to recite only once in two or three days, even the most earnest pupils 
will become slack in preparing lessons. The only antidote to this is written 
recitations. This has been unceasingly applied, but entails such labor upon 
the teacher as few can endure. I venture the assertion, that the teachers of 
the Normal School have, for the past year, devoted more time to school work 



56 Historical Sketch. 

than is required of laboring men by the hardest task-masters. Our task-master 
has been necessity. * * * 

We need, and, to make the school what it should be, must have, at least two 
additional teachers, and confidently indulge the hope that our Legislature, in 
its wisdom, will place at your disposal an amount sufficient to enable you to 
meet this demand. 

We are using all of the completed portions of the building, and are pressed 
for room. The completion of the building is also a necessity. 

The preparatory class and training schools are filling their places well, and 
have been kept full, while many applicants for admission have been sent away. 



1876-77. 

(June 20, 1876 March 31, 1877.) 

Beginning with this year the course of study was extended to 
three years Junior, Middle, and Senior. For the next four years 
elementary diplomas were granted to those who completed the 
work of the Middle year, but as this plan did not prove in all 
respects satisfactory, the Board, in 1880, decided not to grant ele- 
mentary diplomas in future.* 

In accordance with the reports and recommendations of the 
Board of Trustees, the Legislature, in March, 1876, increased the 
appropriation for current expenses to $24,000 per year for the next 
two years, and made liberal appropriations for library and furni- 
ture, besides providing for the deficiency already created. The 
necessary means being thus provided, two valuable additions were 
made to the Faculty. In April, 1876, the Board elected as teachers 
in the Normal Department Professor Ira More, formerly Principal 
of the State Normal School at St. Cloud, Minnesota, and Miss 
Helen S. Wright, who had been a teacher in the Normal Schools 
at Fredonia and at Potsdam, New York. 

In the Training Department Miss Mary E. Wilson, of the class 
of 1875, was elected Assistant in June, 1876, and in November was 
elected to take the place of Miss Florence Grigsby. who resigned 
at that time. 

EXTRACT FROM REPORT OF PRINCIPAL, MARCH, 1877. 

After long and careful deliberation we have reached the conclusion that the 
interests of the school and of the educational interests of the State require a 
change in our terms. We close now about the last of March. This j^ear one 
hundred pupils will leave the school one month before we close, to attend the 
March examinations. This takes away much of interest and zest from those 

*The names of students who received elementary diplomas are given after 
the alphabetical list of graduates with full diplomas. 



State Normal School. 57 

who remain, and those leaving lose the inspiration to go on, always drawn from 
the closing exercises. Again, we close so late that the graduates, who, of course, 
cannot leave before April first, will find it too late to engage schools, and will 
be left without employment when they need it most. If we closed one month 
earlier, or about two months later, both these difficulties would be in a measure 
obviated. If we closed two months later, the graduates, after a few weeks' rest, 
would be ready for the new school year, and we could close on the full tide of 
attendance. There are many considerations which lead us to conclude that 
the school year hereafter should begin about the first of August, and close 
the last of May ; and we ask that you so arrange the terms for the next year. 

REMINISCENCES BY A MEMBER OF 77. 

Happy Normal days of new ways and new associates, and new vistas open- 
ing adown the avenues of hope ! Return for a joyous while with your golden 
memories and the glow of the old-time, young impressions fresh upon you. 
Yet impose not upon me the dignity of class historian; that were better main- 
tained by many another member in a manner pleasingly characteristic ; by 
Miss Salkeld with enlivening diversity ; by Mr. Sanborn with an undercurrent 
of quiet satire; by Miss Snedaker with the boldness of originality; by Miss 
Royce with painstaking accuracy; by Miss Patterson with modest grace; by 
Miss Allen with bewitching piquancy and ndiveU and a refreshing intersper- 
sion of jibe and jest to keep us in a roar; by Miss Sprague with chaste elegance ; 
by sweet Sue Moore with a motherly kindness that would bring us clustering 
about her feet to listen ; or it might acceptably appear with a touch of the poetic 
fervor shining through Miss Barry's dreamy eyes, or in a setting of the artistic 
finish characteristic of Kate More's handiwork. Indeed, what a variety of 
desirable ways are suggested as the individual classmates pass in review before 
memory's mirror. 

Entering for the first time upon the thoroughly systematized work of the 
Normal course, what a contrast appears between the accustomed mode of rou- 
tine drill and this, where everything that is done and the way in which it is 
done have a reason behind them and an object in perspective. 

A fitting prelude to the day's work were the devotional exercises, occupying 
fifteen minutes each morning, when all students and instructors were expected 
to be present in the assembly hall, either to take part, or to maintain a respectful 
silence. After a formal registering of class reports by the Vice-Principal, a 
chapter from the scriptures was read by the Principal, Prof. Charles H. Allen. 
The words fell sweetly impressive from his lips, the venerable presence of the 
man harmonizing peculiarly with the situation. Ascending to the reading 
stand upon the rostrum, the overtasked frame, the flowing beard, white hair, 
and overhanging brows, the fine, pale features, the penetrating, clear blue eye, 
even the characteristic, outward swing of the right foot, all combined to form 
a harmonious whole at once venerable and commanding; a man who wore his 
honors with a native grace. In general it would be remarked: "This is the 
right man in the right place ;" but here we forget, so at one is he with the 
school in all its workings, that it could go on without him, the central figure, 
and we would say, rather: "This is the proper setting for the man." As he 
descends from the executive chair, he goes crowned with the glory of a work 
well done, a charge faithfully kept. 

After the scriptural reading, grand anthems rolled to the trembling dome, 
poured forth by three or four hundred voices, led by the musical director, Prof.. 
Z. M. Parvin. 



58 Historical Sketch. 



From the assembly hall the classes passed to their various recitation, to 
receive from their teachers not only instruction, but the characteristic impres- 
sion which each was inevitably stamping upon his or her pupils. 

An almost electric keenness pervaded the atmosphere of Miss Walker's class- 
room. Maintaining forever a war of wits with her pupils, which kept them on 
the keen edge of alertness, her method could not fail to arouse the most slug- 
gish intellects to unwonted activity. It acted, indeed, as a wholesome stimu- 
lant, a gentle contrast to which lay, not less pleasingly, in the tranquil presence 
and winning ways of the geiitlewomanly Miss Wright, who was elected to the 
Faculty in March, 1876, succeeding Miss Houghton as Preceptress, upon the 
resignation of the latter, in March, 1877. 

Were I to choose a single word which should most fittingly characterize Miss 
Houghton, that word if you will please to accept it in its pureness, entering 
into the genuine elegance of it that word should be thoroughbred; a woman 
whose taste was perfect, whose simple presence was a silent educator. 

At the same time with Miss Wright, Professor More joined the corps of 
instructors. He was an iron-clad man with an iron-frame mind ; one whose 
strong personality was not to be fathomed in a day, or a week, or a month; a 
man likely to be underestimated by immaturity, but liked intensely by those 
fortunate enough to appreciate him ; a man of geometric proportions, physi- 
cally, mentally, and morally. 

Miss Washburn's work throughout was characterized by accuracy and finish. 
It seems to me that the secret underlying her success was her happy faculty of 
imparting to her classes a contagion of interest in whatever subject she handled ; 
so that the most persistent drill (and she was persistent) did not become mo- 
notonous with her. 

Professor Braly's genial face graced the Vice-Principal's chair. Affable, com- 
panionable, and thrown by the general duties of that office into contact alike 
with all the classes, he was a social favorite throughout the school as with his 
associates everywhere and was in demand upon all social occasions. 

Foremost among these for pleasurable memory is the reception and banquet 
given by the Senior Class in honor of the birthday anniversary of our beloved 
Principal; to which were invited all members of the Board of Instruction and 
members of the Alumni who chanced to be present, and where wit and merri- 
ment sparkled and flowed, while the fair waitresses in dainty muslin caps and 
aprons with their pink and blue ribbons (a prettj 7 conceit for the occasion) 
flitted hither and thither dispensing viands from Yankee baked beans to trifles 
and delicacies ad infinitum; in-so-much that Professor Norton, when toasts 
were in order, facetiously remarked upon the litter-ary bent of the assemblage. 
Later in the season, but not less delightful, was the reception given by Professor 
and Mrs. Allen to the Senior Class in honor of the nuptials of Mrs. Josie Wright 
Armstrong, a popular member of the class, and, previously, a teacher of experi- 
ence and ability. 

Our Literary Society was of a general character, representing all of the classes. 
Once, by way of variety, we revived memories of old-fashioned ways by chal- 
lenging the gentlemen's debating club to an open contest in spelling, Professor 
Norton, he of blessed memory, the loved and revered of all, teachers and stu- 
dents alike, kindly consenting to preside and " give out the words." The ladies' 
society dishonored its name of " Work and Win," the " Amphictyons " whipping 
us right royally. However, we gave, occasionally, delightful public entertain- 
ments, when the vast assembly hall was full to overflowing with the elite of the 
citv. 



State Normal School. 59 

Throughout the Senior year we enjoyed the privileges of Professor Allen's 
lectures upon mental growth and development, and methods of teaching based 
thereon ; with the addition during the last five months of practical work in the 
Training School, under the supervision of the efficient instructors of that 
department. 

And then we graduated and were happy ever after. Go thou and do like- 
wise. 



1877-78. 

(August 7, 1877 May 23, 1878.) 

The change in the time of opening and closing terms, recom- 
mended by the Faculty, was made in 1877, prolonging the sum- 
mer vacation to August, and making the second term begin in 
January instead of in November. 

Before the opening of the year, Miss Houghton, who had been 
connected with the school since 1864, sent her resignation to the 
Board of Trustees on account of failing health. The resignation 
was accepted by the Board with expressions of regret and of high 
esteem for Miss Houghton's character and services. They elected 
Miss Helen S. Wright as her successor in the position of Precep- 
tress. 

During the second term, Miss Mary E. B. Norton, a sister of 
Professor Norton, and for many years a teacher in the Rockford 
Seminary, Illinois, was elected to a position in the Normal Depart- 
ment, her specialty being botany. 

EXTRACTS FROM KEPORT OF PRINCIPAL, MAY, 1878. 

Contrary to our expectations, the past year has shown a notahle increase in 
the numbers in attendance at the school. We had thought that during last 
year we had reached the maximum; but, notwithstanding the "hard times," 
as will be seen, there has been an increase of nearly twenty-five per cent. * * * 

We present two classes for graduation. The Senior Class numbers fifty-eight 
and the Middle Class forty-nine. Of the present Senior Class, fifteen graduated 
with second grade diplomas last year. 

This seems a large number of teachers to be sent out in one year, but will 
not, we think, oversupply the demand for trained teachers. As Superintend- 
ents and District Boards learn the difference between the work of those who 
have only scholarship to recommend them and those who have, besides this, a 
definite plan of work and a knowledge of the means to be used in securing the 
best results, trained teachers will be more and more in demand. 

At the beginning of the year, Miss Eliza W. Houghton, long connected with 
the school, and well and favorably known through the State, resigned her posi- 
tion, owing to failing health. We parted with her regretfully, feeling that the 
school would suffer a great loss by her withdrawal. * With the means 

now placed at the disposal of the Board, the school can, during the next two 



60 Historical Sketch. 



years, be supplied with teachers so as to reduce the numbers in each class 
taught, to a maximum of twenty-five. We shall thus be able to do much more 
satisfactory work, as each pupil can have more opportunity for recitation, and 
will receive more special training in manner and expression. 

REMINISCENCES OF THE CLASS OF '78. 

What an inspiration it is to go into Room K and look upon the array of 
bright faces portrayed in the class pictures! How insignificant our photo- 
graph is compared with the fine one '89 has just placed there ! Ours is one of 
the smallest and nearly the oldest in the collection. I wonder if we have faded 
into insignificance like that. Surely photography has advanced since our day; 
the world has progressed; have we? Perhaps it is our modest example that 
has suggested this fine display ; let us hope that in other directions we have 
been setting a't work forces that are developing great things. 

How well I remember the day we went to Santa Clara to sit for this picture ! 
I went with the two Fannies; and just as the artist was showing my negative, 
which mirrored a smile he had evoked with much labor, one Fanny touched 
the dripping plate with her index finger. Oh, the wrath of the artist! Oh r 
the scolding we received ! But he atoned for it afterwards by sending us a 
photograph of all the famous places in Santa Clara. Fanny was our youngest, 
and we lost trace of her for a long time after graduation; but we found her at 
last, with a fine looking young husband and "just the dearest baby." The 
other Fanny was one of the quietest girls in the class, but very sweet and capa- 
ble. I used to think she was already pluming her wings for Heaven; and in 
one short year after graduation, the angel with the amaranthine wreath took 
her home. 

The picture reminds us of our fine group of young men, seventeen per cent ; 
can any other class give as good a showing? Mr. Pettit, the mature looking 
young man at the right, won our warmest admiration when he nursed his 
room-mate through the small-pox. We were all summoned to the assembly 
hall one afternoon, and Professor Allen called him to the platform to receive 
a fine watch, the gift of the school in appreciation of his self-sacrifice. How 
noble he looked as he gave his word of thanks, adding " I only did my dutjr ! " 
Henceforth he was a hero in our eyes. We never had a class meeting at which 
he did not preside, and in our reunions it has always been a pleasant feature to 
have him in his accustomed place. 

There were affinities in our class. We all had our chums. And if two of 
the most charming girls did monopolize two of the young men, I am sure the 
rest of us have long since forgiven them. There was one very noticeable trio, 
Miss Nelson, so dashing and jolly, Miss Chapman, refined and lovable, Miss 
Raymond, good and faithful. If I remember rightly, they were particularly 
fond of visiting with Professor More. 

He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of knowledge, but we never could 
discover when he worked to get it. He did everything so easily, and always 
had abundance of time to argue and joke with us. It was he who opened our 
eyes to the wonders of the heavens. Who does not remember gratefully the 
evenings he gave us with the telescope? Once our class was very suddenly 
transferred to him for arithmetic. We were very indignant, for our dear Miss 
Washburn had labored for months to teach us the importance of percentage ; 
and now he swept away our arguments and methods with one ruthless stroke. 
Afterwards we were told that this was done just to teach us that there is more 
than one way of doing a thing. 



State Normal School. 61 



But if any one wished to talk to Professor Norton, the busy man must be 
stopped in the hall, carrying a bottle under one arm and a coil of tubing on the 
other. He always met such interruptions with hearty good will. In those days 
our laboratory work was carried on in a crude way. Each pupil was provided 
with a square tin pail, converted by Professor Norton's ingenuity into a chem- 
ist's water bath, by a movable tin shelf pierced with holes for collecting gases 
in inverted bottles. The same pail, after the water was turned out, served to 
hold the rest of our little collection of apparatus. So we received the practical 
lesson how to make much of little in our own schools. 

It was just before our graduation that Miss Norton entered the school. We 
remember the girlish enthusiasm of those who had never before known any 
one who had traveled in Europe. In two weeks she put us into a new world of 
nature and of art. 

I never study this picture of ours without thinking of a little treasure box I 
have. Let us see what its contents will recall. Here is a badge of crape, worn 
the day we went with our teachers to attend the funeral of Annie Harrigan. 
We heaped flowers upon her desk at school; and here also are the resolutions 
we published, Clara Richardson's name heading the committee. This little 
bunch of pressed violets lay by my plate at the banquet we gave Professor Allen 
on the golden day that numbered his fifty years. Best of all the feast of good 
things were the after-dinner speeches from the Faculty a custom worth reviv- 
ing by later classes, for this inspiration did much to make us what we are. The 
influence of that day is a part of my best life; but the only speech I can quote 
word for word is that of Miss Royce, who said she was the baby of the Faculty, 
and " children should be seen and not heard." She was assistant in the Pre- 
paratory then, and our library, managed by a student and opened but occasion- 
ally, was a thing of beauty rather than of utility. I remember taking home 
but one book during my connection with the school Darwin's u Origin of Spe- 
cies." It is a constant source of regret that Miss Royce, whose invaluable ser- 
vices have made the Normal library such a power in the school, could not have 
unfolded these treasures in our day. The next keepsake that appears is a small 
card of invitation, rosy as our hopes that bright morning, embossed with letters 
as golden as our memory of that good time Professor Braly's breakfast party 
at New Almaden. By nine o'clock, after a delightful ride, we *vere grouped 
with our teachers around six blazing camp fires at Hacienda. Each person 
was provided with a piece of fresh beef, and a long stick upon which to roast 
it. The recipe had not been included in our study of household science, and 
some of the inexperienced produced strange contrasts, steaks coal black on one 
side and lobster red on the other, with a copious seasoning of ashes and cinders. 
But no amount of inexperience could spoil the delicious coffee, the bread and 
butter, and the boiled eggs our hostess placed before us. After keen enjoyment 
of this unique breakfast we spent the remainder of the day climbing the hills, 
searching for botanical specimens, and visiting together. At night we returned, 
tendering enthusiastic thanks to the kind Professor whose bounty had made 
us so happy. How genial he was, always with such warm greetings for all, 
that each student felt himself the recipient of special favor. 

And here is the programme of our Commencement week. We thought we 
should like a baccalaureate address, so as many as wished went on the last 
Sunday evening to hear our beloved Professor Norton preach a gospel of devel- 
opment in work, from Phil. 2 : 12, 13. He taught us that the way of labor is 
the royal way God's way ; that we must do our duty and leave the rest with 
God. " Man commenced in a garden, he ends in a mansion; this is a type of 
growth. Think of Christ the laborer; like Him we are to work." 



62 Historical Sketch. 



Thus Professor Norton taught us how to labor, Professor Braty taught us to 
temper our work with the little courtesies that bring sunshine into daily life, 
while Professor Allen taught us what to be. You remember his favorite maxim, 
" Be what you would have your pupils become." He does not know how lov- 
ingly his "children" think of him, as they try to live out his teachings. Class- 
mates, we are coming into the heat of the day, we -realize the crisis that is upon 
the New West. As we take up our share of the great day's toil with fresh 
enthusiasm it is fitting that we should recall the influences that have fashioned 
our lives, and pay tribute to the hand that has made our Alma Mater one 
of the greatest forces in the true development of this coast. Some day may he 
realize that he has u builded better than he knew." 



1878-79. 

(August 6, 1878 May 22, 1879.) 

No changes of importance were made in the work of the school 
during this year. Two additions were made to the Faculty. 
Professor C. W. Childs, of the class of June, 1867, was elected in 
June, 1878. He had taught successfully ever since his gradua- 
tion, for six years as Principal of the High School at Suisun City, 
and had been County Superintendent of Solano County two terms. 
Professor Childs began his work in the Normal School in August, 
1878, his specialties being history and bookkeeping. 

Miss Frances L. Webster, of the Normal School at Cedar Falls, 
Iowa, also came into the school in August, specially as a teacher 

of reading. 

FROM PRINCIPAL'S REPORT, MAY, 1879. 

This term Closes the most satisfactory year's work that has been accom- 
plished since my connection with the school. With the two additional teachers, 
elected at the beginning of the year, I have been able to arrange and assign 
the work in such a way that much more has been accomplished than ever 
before. Reading and industrial drawing have received especial attention, the 
result of which will, we hope, be made apparent in the work of our graduates. 

The attendance has been somewhat less than that of last year, owing partly 
to the pressure of " hard times," and, possibly, to the fact that the school is 
now quite as large as is demanded by the present educational wants of the 
State. Comparatively more have entered the higher classes, and many, already 
holding first grade State certificates, have attended the school to improve 
themselves in the profession of teaching. 

REMINISCENCES BY JESSIE WILLIAMSON, CLASS OF MAY, 1879. 

How many happy memories cluster round those magic words, Class of '79 ! 
We were a happy, care-free set, as memory shows them to me, few of us 
taking thought for the future and the responsibilities soon to rest upon us as 
educators of the youth of our land. We were a unique class, in our own 
estimation, having many distinguishing features that set us apart from ordi- 
nary classes. We were of all ages, from the dear little girl who wore short 



State Normal School. 63 

dresses and was the pet of the class, to the step-great-grandmother, if the ex- 
pression may be used, of thirteen great grandchildren. There were all nation- 
alities and styles, and decidedly more girls than boys. Thos. Edmonds had 
been a "midshipmite," and was familiarly called the Fiji Islander. He had a 
turn for poetry, as had also Kate Appleby, Mary Muir, Hattie Haile, and Si 
Hanscom, and many and various were the songs of the muses served up to us 
by these interesting members. Then there were the musical ones, Ella Irish, 
Mary Adams, Charlotte McCleran, Wm. Newcum, and Francis M. Sullivan; 
Wm. Walter Brown, who always walked the halls with an encyclopedia under 
each arm, taking in knowledge by absorption ; quiet Claude Wakefield, who 
knew much, but was careful not to tell it if it could be helped; plump little 
May Crittenden, and Roby Hines, and many others. 

We enjoyed the distinction of being the last class to graduate from the old 
building. Dear old building ! Handsomer by far than the new one ever dreamed 
of being. What if it was not quite so convenient? Does beauty count for 
naught in this age of art? There were four stately entrances, one from each 
street. The halls were spacious and finished in handsome woods. The assem- 
bly hall, where the school gathered each morning, occupied the entire eastern 
wing of the building, and was two full stories in height. There was a commo- 
dious gallery, and the seats both in it and on the lower floor were in tiers, thus 
giving a good view from all parts of the house. But the building was a gem 
without a setting, for at that time the land surrounding it was only an alkali 
waste. 

We might have been known as the class of petitions, for many and various 
were the written requests made of the Faculty. It seems laughable now, for 
none of them were ever gran ted, yet we never hesitated when the spirit moved 
us to present another. At one time we tired of reading, and a committee con- 
sisting of the young men of the class, waited upon the Principal, and requested 
that we be allowed to discontinue our work in that study. We were satisfied 
on being told that a change would be made at the end of the term. We did 
not stop to think that it would have been done even if we had not made the 
request. We were even audacious enough to present a petition requesting the 
Faculty to graduate one of our number whose name had not been placed upon 
the list. It is needless to state the answer. 

We were particularly fortunate in having as our class teacher Professor 
Braly. No kinder man ever had charge of a class. In spite of our wayward- 
ness, by his tact and kindly ways, order and discipline were fully preserved, and 
perfect harmony reigned between teacher and pupil. We '79ers pity those of 
later days who have not known our teachers, Professors Braly, More, Norton, 
and others. 

Our chemistry work was done with Professor Norton. We all admired him, 
for he talked just as steadily and unceasingly while hunting under tables for 
some missing article or gathering together chemicals in the closet, as while sit- 
ting at his desk. Part of the class did experimental work under his guidance, 
and many laughable incidents occurred. One day Mary Adams was mixing 
and shaking in a test tube, when to her horror, the Professor announced " Miss 
Mary now holds in her hand the most deadly explosive known to science." 
The look on her face convulsed the class and a mighty shout went up. 

Geology and astronomy were learned from Professor More. No text-books 
were used, the instruction being entirely by lecture. No other man ever talked 
so fast and so steadily as he. By the time a lecture was over, we were worn out 
and our note books were full. 

The terror of the Senior year was the review in grammar and arithmetic con- 
ducted by Professor Allen. Boldly would we plunge into a tangle of figures, 



64 Historical Sketch. 



and after straightening them out to our entire satisfaction hand in our papers 
for criticism. With fear and trembling did we receive them back again next 
day only to find zero, zero, zero marked in various places. We were also led 
through the mazes of political economy by Professor Allen and enjoyed it 
immensely. 

Now approaches the gala day of the year, Professor Allen's birthday. Here 
again we departed from the usual custom, which was to spread an afternoon 
feast in honor of the occasion. We determined upon an evening reception* 
The tables were spread in the library and the large parlors on the opposite side 
of the hall were thrown open for the reception of our guests. A profusion of 
flowers, smilax, and evergreens was to be seen everywhere. After the ban- 
quet, toasts appropriate to the occasion were given and then Hattie Haile, 
Mistress of Ceremonies, called upon Thomas Edmonds, the poet of the even- 
ing, who read the following : 

Mistress Haile has my thanks, but I hardly agree 
That a man is a poet, who a poet would be. 
I'm a poetical mushroom here firm as a post, 
For my subject has lent me the power of a host. 

We've assembled this evening with pleasure to share 
In the speech of the wise and the smiles of the fair, 
Though the beauties of both but in a measure display 
'How we all do rejoice on our Allen's birthday. 

Here we call him " Our Allen," we hope he'll excuse, 
And we promise his friendship we'll never abuse. 
When we growl at our tasks, our report, our per cent, 
We believe in our heart our benefit 's meant. 

Since the days of his youth in a noble career, 
He has well done his part without favor or fear. 
In his own Quaker State, in the East, in the West, 
And especially here, hand in hand with the best. 

Our Minerva, Miss Wright, of poetical art, 
Is not greater in genius than in kindness of heart. 
While Philosopher Braly, so sparkling in jokes 
And philology, reigns a true king of young folks. 

In perception of truth, and in genius to rule, 
Glows Miss Titus, the queen of a wonderful school, 
Where" perchance but few others affairs could arrange, 
To well govern and monthly all officers change. 

Misses Washburn and Chamberlain in art so exact, 
Do on every occasion show talent and tact. 
Our great scientist, Norton, true scholar and man, 
Leads us on by example, as a chieftain his clan. 

Here's a point I would raise about Professor of Space, 
For he demonstrates well that each point has its place. 
Now when pupils have troubles, as they have o'er and o'er, 
Why like Oliver Twist, do they cry out for More ? 



State Normal School. 65 

Our Professor C. Childs, is an artist so free 

When of him we but think it's " Oh, Ho ! " and " He ! He ! " 

Though we him might appease in angelic strain, 

Could we equal Miss Webster or Miss M. McChain. 

The name Norton, like Youmans, takes most of its worth 
From connection with all the sweet flowers of earth. 
While are clustered together (like jewels most choice, 
Or bright birds of a feather) names Wilson and Royce. 

Misses Walker and Grigsby with Professor Hamm, 
Well to give them due credit, 'twould a folio cram. 
To return to our Allen, our genial sage, 
And his band of instructors illustrate the age. 

Now, together they are, and our thanks well can claim, 
As they work for our good, quite regardless of fame. 
Though humility adds so to Reason's bright light, 
That from summit to sea spreads our Faculty's might. 

And now friends and classmates, from Mamie to Claude, 
We may take as a toast what we all can applaud. 
Here wish him of birthdays our number yet more, 
And joy ever like this that cries Allen! Hurrah! 

A short time after this the class was entertained at the house of Professor 
Allen, and then again at Professor Braly's home. As picnic season approached 
we became anxious for one more good time together, and a picnic to Black- 
berry Farm was agreed upon. George Ogd,en and W. A. Newcurn were the 
Committee of Arrangements and right well did they do their work. We all 
came home reporting a perfect day as the closing of the social part of our con- 
nection with the school. Soon after we received our diplomas, and with min- 
gled feelings of joy and sorrow said that sad word, farewell. 



1879-80. 

(August 5, 1879 May 20, 1880.) 

With the school year 1879-80 came a catastrophe which, in its 
results, gave the strongest proof of the strength and vitality of the 
school and of its hold upon the people of the State. 

On the morning of Tuesday, February 10, 1880, the Normal 
School building was totally destroyed by fire. The fire originated 
in a defective ash chute, and probably had smoldered for hours 
before it was discovered. When the alarm was given, at two 
o'clock in the morning, the center of the building and the tower 
were already in flames, making hopeless the attempt to save any 
portion of the building; and by five o'clock, the beautiful and 
costly edifice was a smoldering ruin. 



66 Historical Sketch. 

The greater part of the library and a portion of the furniture were 
saved; but the valuable museum and herbarium, the result of 
years of collecting and labor, many books of reference, and most 
of the furniture, valued in all at more than $18,000, were lost. 
These, with the building, which cost $285,000, make a total loss 
to the State estimated at nearly $304,000. There were also serious 
private losses of valuable collections and personal property owned 
by the Curator of the Museum, the teacher of Botany, and others. 

Nothing daunted by this apparently fatal catastrophe, the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Board of Trustees, with the Principal and 
a few of the leading citizens, held an informal meeting on the" 
grounds while the fire was still in progress, to devise means for 
continuing the work of the school. On Tuesday morning the 
Board of Education of the City of San Jose promptly tendered the 
High School building for the use of the Normal School, making 
arrangements to accommodate the High School classes in other 
buildings. Of this generous action, through which the school 
was enabled to continue its work with but one day's interruption, 
the Trustees, in their- annual circular, thus expressed their appre- 
ciation: " Too much praise can hardly be awarded to the Board of 
Education of San Jose for their action in the matter, to the citi- 
zens, in cheerfully acquiescing in their action, and to the teachers 
and pupils of the city schools, for their ready and cheerful accept- 
ance of a change productive of so much inconvenience to all." 

An enthusiastic meeting of citizens was held on the evening of 
February tenth, and a committee appointed to visit the Legisla- 
ture, which fortunately was in session at the time, and urge an 
immediate appropriation to rebuild the lost edifice. April 12, 
1880, a bill was approved appropriating $100,000 to erect another 
State Normal School building at San Jose. The insurance com- 
panies promptly paid to the Trustees the insurance of $50,000 on 
the old building, and work on the new building was at once begun. 

Meanwhile the school, though feeling much the inconvenience 
of its limited accommodations and loss of apparatus, continued 
its work uninterrupted. 

EXTRACTS FROM REPORT OF PRINCIPAL, MAY, 1880. 

During the legislative discussions in reference to the Normal School, two 
assertions were made upon the floor, which do the school great injustice. As 
there was no opportunity to answer them there, I beg leave to answer them here. 

One assertion was, that the Normal School is a San Jose", or Santa Clara 
County, High School; and that it therefore should not be sustained by the State. 
In answer to this charge I submit the following: 



State Normal School. 67 

From our records of this year, I find that two hundred and seventy-five pupils 
have entered the school from outside counties. These are distributed as follows : 
San Francisco, twenty-seven; San Joaquin, twenty-four; Alameda, fifteen; 
Monterey, ten; Nevada, eleven; Sonoma and Sutter, each nine; Los Angeles 
and Stanislaus, each eight ; El Dorado and Napa, each seven ; Santa Barbara, 
six; Butte, Sacramento, San Luis Obispo, and Yuba, each five ; Amador, Cala- 
veras, Colusa, Mendocino, Placer, and Sierra, each four; Merced, San Benito, 
San Mateo, Siskiyou, Solano, and Tuolumne, each three ; Lassen, Marin, Mari- 
posa, Santa Cruz, and Tulare, each two ; Fresno, Humboldt, Kern, Plumas, San 
Bernardino, San Diego, Shasta, and Yolo, each one. From other States, pupils 
coming here to qualify themselves to teach in California, sixteen. 

It would seem that this should effectually answer the charge that the school 
is not a State school. 

We have always declined to receive from San Jose" or Santa Clara County, 
pupils as free pupils, unless we were satisfied that they were fitting themselves 
for the work of teaching. The work aimed at has been to supply the schools 
of the State with trained teachers, without reference to the locality whence they 
came. No pupils properly qualified have ever been rejected from other coun- 
ties to make places for pupils from Santa Clara County. 

Teachers have been sent from the Normal School to every county in the State 
but two,' and it is more than probable that some have found their way even to 
those counties. One thing is certain, the influence of the Normal School is felt, 
and felt for good, in every county in California. 

Having examined the catalogues of eastern schools, I am prepared to say that 
the California State Normal School has had a larger percentage of pupils from 
the State at large than any other school, save one (Michigan), in the United 
States. 

The second assertion was that the graduates of the school were not as well 
qualified as many graduates of High Schools; that they could not pass the 
examination to enter the Junior Class of the University, etc. 

The Normal School is not a High School ; nor is it a preparatory school for 
the University. It has for its object the preparation of teachers for the district 
schools of California. Its course of study and training are all formed with this 
object only in view. The best graduates of the High Schools in San Francisco, 
Oakland, Stockton, San Jose", and other cities of the State, find one year's hard 
work to complete the reviews, studies, and training required in the Normal 
School. One third of the time of this year is devoted to the study and practice 
of teaching. A mere assertion that, after this year's work, they are not as well 
prepared to teach as those who know a little more Latin or French, or some 
other more advanced studies, can carry very little weight. 

It has never been claimed that all the graduates of the Normal School will 
become excellent teachers ; but the fact is, that the time given to the prepa- 
ration for the work makes all much better teachers, and increases very largely 
the probabilities of success. 

All the graduates are, so far as scholarship is concerned, qualified for their 
work. Our knowledge of this is based, not on a single examination under pecu- 
liar and many times exceptional circumstances, but upon more than a score of 
examinations, oral and written, continued through months and years. We 
may possibly err in our judgment, but there is no temptation to lead to erro- 
neous conclusions. 

The foregoing are the only serious charges made against the school, and we 
hope that those who heard and read the charges, will also read the answers. 



68 Historical Sketch. 



THE BURNING OF THE NORMAL BUILDING. RUTH GUPPY, CLASS OF MAY, 1880. 

In the ebb and flow of daily life, the motley crowd of human beings move on 
to their appointed destiny, so fashioned by Providence" that to the future 
blindness is kindly given." What could encourage the artisan, the tradesman, 
in his ambitious plans, were he working ever in the shadow of a possible 
destruction ? How could legislators frame laws, vote appropriations, anticipat- 
ing that in a year or two their labor would be as naught ? How could the Normal 
teachers and pupils of 1880 have moved onward in their chosen way, knowing 
that in a few hours the fiery demon would, by one sudden stroke, annihilate 
the work of so many months and years ? For on the morning of February 
tenth, of that memorable year, fire bells rang out the burning of the Normal 
building. 

Firemen appeared, only to realize their inability to combat successfully with 
the great tongues of flame enveloping the tower and spreading over the roof. 
The fire started in the second story, and swept in tempestuous haste through 
the assembly hall, the corridor, and recitation rooms. Attempts were made to 
force water from the first floor, but the intense heat rendered this futile. The 
upper windows of the third story were then broken, and water poured in upon 
the glowing mass which once was the museum. A great crash! and the roof 
and third floor fell through, giving fresh impetus to the flames already at work 
in the laboratory and chemistry rooms. Below, men rushed in, secured the 
records, the most of the library books, and pieces of furniture, and conveyed 
them to places of safety. 

The firemen worked bravely with ladder and hose, but to no avail, for the 
powerful element moved on, glorying in its strength, and laughing to scorn 
the strenuous efforts made to arrest its course, 

"For the elements still hate, 
What mortal hands create." 

Sorrowful it was, indeed, to enumerate the losses of those few hours. Miss 
Norton's herbarium, upon which she had spent so many years of labor, and 
Mrs. Bush's shell collection of twenty-seven hundred species, neither of which 
can ever fully be replaced; books, maps, apparatus were, in the most part, all 
burned. 

The loss to the State and to the school was very great; but the sympathy of 
friends and the hopefulness of Professor Allen expressed in the stirring words, 
"Though the Normal building is dead, the Normal School still lives," cheered 
many a despondent one. And with the same spirit the Trustees, in full view 
of the falling walls, discussed plans for carrying on the school work. They 
decided to accept the generous offer of the City Board of Education, and make 
use of the High School building. Accordingly, at the usual hour, on AVednes- 
day morning, the pupils assembled in this place of temporary refuge, thankful 
there there was to be no interruption in class-room work, yet with anxious 
inquiry depicted on every countenance. In the grand old anthem sung that 
morning, and in the remaining exercises, there was a unison and a depth of 
feeling that left its echo in every heart. 

The day following the fire, being the birthday of Professor Allen, the Senior 
Class, according to custom, were to give a reception in his honor. For days 
beforehand, busy hands had gathered flowers, and woven wreaths, with which 
to decorate the Normal library and parlors. Other extensive preparations were 
in progress, not the least being a huge cake. But 

" The best laid schemes o' mice an' men gang aft a-gley." 



State Normal School. 69 

The question arose as to the disposal of this cake, which, gleaming white and 
gigantic in proportion, stood a lone monument of defeated plans. The class 
resolved to raffle it off, and give the proceeds to students who had suffered most 
loss from the fire. The result was highly satisfactory. By the generosity of the 
holder of the winning ticket the cake was donated to the class. And shortly 
after, at a reunion held at the home of Professor Allen, each member had the 
privilege of testing this triumph of culinary art. 

REMINISCENCES BY MAKTHA M. KNAPP. CLASS OF MAY, 1880. 

We began our work in the building which was consumed by fire in the Feb- 
ruary preceding our graduation. The feelings aroused by the sight of the 
conflagration will never be forgotten by those that witnessed the scene. When 
we met the following morning it seemed as if we were indeed homeless; but 
the citizens of San Jose, ever loyal to the interests of the Normal School, gen- 
erously tendered the use of the High School building, on Santa Clara Street, in 
which to carry on the work. 

The Training Department held its sessions in two small buildings hastily 
fitted up in the school yard, and was presided over by Misses Titus snd Wilson, 
assisted by Miss Scott. The suggestions and criticisms given by these teachers 
have been invaluable to us in our work in the public schools. 

Room D, where we recited to Professor More in mathematics, is held in pleas- 
ant remembrance, though demonstrating the chances of error in finding the 
first and second figures of the cube root of a number proved a pitfall to some 
of us. The pleasure experienced by those who gathered around his table and 
listened to his stories and good humored sarcasm, will long be remembered by 
the participants. It was through his kindness that we were permitted to view 
the heavens through the telescope, which had just been added to the school 
apparatus. 

We recall with pleasure Miss Webster's patience and skill in teaching us to 
read with more expression than we had hitherto used. 

Professor Childs assured us that every one could learn to draw, but when 
the dreaded examination came, and barrels that were shapely were liberally 
interspersed with those that were otherwise, it is probable that he was con- 
vinced that all had not become proficient in that most useful branch. He was 
good natured, however, gave us credit for our endeavors, and told us how to do 
better, so that difficulty was safely tided over. 

In physiology and school law we were ably instructed by Miss Norton, a lady 
in the best sense of the word. 

Word analysis, so full of interest, as we traced the derivation and change in 
meaning of our common words, was taught by a man universally respected as 
a kind friend and a true gentleman Professor Braly. 

Although we did not recite to Miss Wash burn, we recognized in her a woman 
of sterling worth and rare intellectual ability. 

Our class was not much given to "outings," but enjoyed them with a keen 
relish when we could combine profit and pleasure, as we did in the botanical 
excursion led by our excellent Preceptress, Miss Wright. On that occasion we 
spent the day at Alma, and returned laden with specimens that more than 
compensated us for the weariness we felt. As a small sum of money was left 
after defraying the expenses of that trip, it was decided to invest it in candy. 
The young ladies agreed to furnish cake, coffee, strawberries, and pure cream , 
with which to refresh the inner man. It was voted that we meet at the Nor- 
mal on Saturday, invite the young men of the class, and surprise them with 
" a spread." Professor More kindly consented to allow us to set the tables in 

6 



70 Historical Sketch. 



his room. Two of the gentlemen were obliged to be taken into the secret, as 
their assistance was needed in moving tables. One of the girls, in a fit of 
absentmindedness, mentioned the expected treat to a third young man, leav- 
ing, but one to be surprised. Happily, he was equal to the occasion, and every- 
thing passed off pleasantly. Dancing was indulged in, and thoroughly enjoyed 
by every one, although the skill shown by some was criticised by a small boy 
who was present. 

The Middle A Class of 1879 was the last one to whom elementary diplomas 
were given ; and we were particularly elated because Professor More, who had 
charge of us, stated that we had a higher class average than any of our pre- 
decessors. This public acknowledgment of our standing was especially grati- 
fying, as we felt that he never bestowed undeserved commendation. 

The thought of the laboratory brings to mind many a lively scene. Strange 
results brought about by combining chemicals were proclaimed by the inevita- 
ble shriek, but no serious accidents occurred. One class-mate, desirous of per- 
forming more experiments than she had time to attempt at school, took home 
some chemicals. During dinner the family were startled by an explosion, and 
discovered that a fire was the result. Part of the hall carpet and her brother's 
new overcoat were sacrificed to her zeal. 

To Miss Walker our class was largely indebted for help in methods, and 
visions of frightened Seniors trying to show how they would teach a subject can 
be called up by each of the sufferers in that trying ordeal. 

Many of the Seniors were members of a literary society known as the Philo- 
mathean. One meeting, held in the assembly hall of the High School build- 
ing, is especially remembered. With charade and song, recitation and essay, 
the evening was pleasantly passed each successful participant rejoicing in his 
merited applause while all were happy in the delightful atmosphere created 
by youth and good spirits. 

We had arranged to honor Professor Allen's birthday by a supper, but the 
fire that destroyed our beloved Normal prevented the carrying out of our plans. 
Very pleasant events in our social life were two parties our worthy Vice- Prin- 
cipal, who evidently knew our weakness for ice cream, and served us generously 
with a most excellent quality of that article, invited us to one ; and Professor 
Allen gave the other, which was also most heartily enjoyed by all present. 

At last came the closing exercises of the year, held in the California Theater, 
which was filled to overflowing with the friends of the school. The usual num- 
ber of essays were read, our diplomas were presented by the State Superintend- 
ent, F. M. Campbell, and our class of forty-five went forth to its chosen work. 

According to established custom, our class planted its tree, and somewhat 
ambitious were we in its selection, choosing the Sequoia gigantea, a genuine 
California!!. 

Although several years have passed, how vividly rises before us a picture of the 
assembly hall with its rows of earnest faces. It is the beginning of another 
day, and we have gathered for the simple exercises that precede its work. We 
listen to beautiful words from the Holy Scripture, join in chant and anthem, 
and feel the solemn hush of silent prayer. After this, obedient to the tap of 
the bell, out by each door pass the long files to their appointed places and tasks. 

Again we seem to hear the words of counsel so fitly spoken by our honored 
Principal. Long shall we remember his kindness. May he live to a good old 
age to enjoy the happiness which attends an earnest, useful life. 

How dear to us is the remembrance of him who was an inspiration to every 
pupil with whom became in contact! Beloved Professor Norton! No one 
will ever usurp his place in the hearts of those who knew him. 



State Normal School. 71 

Many of our classmates are still engaged in teaching; some have become 
centers of happy homes, and are surrounded by the smiling faces of their own 
children; while two of our number, Annie E. Osgood and Mary R. Finnie, have 
learned the wonderful lesson of immortality, which in God's good time we, too, 
shall understand. 



SINCE THE FIRE. 



So far in the preparation of this history, the plan has been to 
present the historical facts and reminiscences of each year in a 
separate chapter. As space will not permit the continuance of 
this plan through the remaining years, the history of the period 
since' the fire is given topically, showing, as far as possible, the 
growth and present status of the school in its various departments. 

THE NEW BUILDING. 

Work on the building was begun in May, 1880, and prosecuted 
with such vigor that the school was able to occupy its new quar- 
ters for the first time May 2, 1881. Though lacking the beauty 
of the former structure, the new building has proved far more 
useful, being well planned,, healthful, and in every way better 
adapted to the wants of a Normal School. 

It is worthy of note, as an exceptional experience in the erec- 
tion of public buildings, that the present Normal School building 
was completed considerably within the appropriation, the total 
cost being $148,936 95, enabling the Trustees to return $1,063 05 
to the State Treasury. The Board of Trustees to whom this credit 
is due, was composed as follows: George C. Perkins, Governor; 
Fred. M. Campell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; 
Hon. James Denman, San Francisco; T. Ellard Beans, San Jose; 
Dr. Ben. Cory, San Jose; Hon. C. T. Ryland, San Jose; A. S. 
Evans, San Jose. The officers of the Board were: George C. Per- 
kins, President; C. T. Ryland, Vice-President; Charles H. Allen, 
Secretary and Executive Agent; C. T. Ryland, T. Ellard Beans, 
and A. S. Evans, Executive Committee. 

The following accurate description of the building, published 
about the time of its completion, is taken from the San Jose 
"Mercury: " 



72 Historical Sketch. 

The new edifice is of brick with stone sills and lintels. It covers an area of 
between four thousand and five thousand superficial feet more than the former 
building the enlargement being in the wings. It has a frontage of two hun- 
dred and thirty-six feet and five inches, facing the west, with a depth of one 
hundred and seventy-five feet. It is situated on the site of its predecessor. 

The basement contains play-rooms, janitors' rooms, store rooms, rooms for 
the heating apparatus, engine room, containing the engine for pumping water 
up to the tanks in the attic, chemistry-room, laboratory, and natural philosophy 
rooms. The tanks referred to are two in number, having each a capacitjr of 
between four thousand and five thousand gallons, one situated over each wing, 
and directly under the roof. The first story, or main floor, contains eight class 
rooms, two large training rooms, eight recitation rooms, two cabinet and appa- 
ratus rooms, four teachers' rooms, library and reception rooms, preceptress' 
room, office, three cloak and wash rooms, six flights of stairs to the second story 
and basement, and twelve-foot corridors extending the whole length and breadth 
of the building. There are three front entrances to this floor, with Ionic porti- 
coes. The second story contains ten large class rooms, the assembly room, 
sixty-five by ninety-six feet in area, and twenty-two feet from floor to ceiling; 
four cloak rooms, eight teachers' rooms, six flights of stairs connecting with the 
stories above and below, and three balconies in front over the porticoes. The 
assembly hall is lighted by twenty-two large windows, and besides the venti- 
lation afforded by them, there is a large ventilator in the ceiling, and others in 
the side walls. The third story occupies only the front portion, sixty-eight feet 
square, of the front part of the center building. It contains a large museum 
sixty-five by thirty-four feet, two stairways leading below, and one to the gar- 
ret and tower. This story is surmounted by an ornate bell tower, twenty-five 
feet square, rising to a height of one hundred and thirty-five feet above the 
ground, being twenty feet higher than the dome of the Court House. On the 
tower is a forty-foot flag-staff, making a distance of one hundred and seventy- 
five feet from the top of the flag-staff to the ground. The building is supplied 
with excellent water from an artesian well on the grounds. It is heated by hot 
water (Harvey's system). The new edifice, although plainer in its exterior than 
its predecessor, is well adapted to the purposes of the school, being modeled 
after the most approved Normal School structures in the East, and it has been 
pronounced by persons who have seen the best school buildings in the East, 
to be inferior to none on the continent. The walls are firmly bound together to 
provide against injury by earthquakes, by strong iron straps, built in the brick- 
work, and extending entirely around the building in one continuous bar four 
inches wide. The roof is heavy tin. The outside steps and platforms are of 
granite with sandstone buttresses and trimmings. For thoroughness of work 
and stability it is second to no building in the State. Its general style of archi- 
tecture is Ionic. The tower contains a bell weighing three thousand pounds, 
which cost $1,200. Time is kept by a system of electric clocks extending through 
all the departments. 

This building, so complete in its adaptation to the work for 
which it is intended, is well furnished with all needed appliances, 
and leading educators from the East express great surprise at 
finding a Normal School building so well equipped for its work. 

Notwithstanding all these conveniences, the school is rapidly 
outgrowing its present accommodations. Already the need of 



State Normal School. 



73 



more room for the use of the Training Department and the library 
is urgently felt, and it is quite probable that at no very distant 
day, the Legislature will be asked to provide for an additional 
building. 

GROUNDS. 

When the first Normal School building was erected, the sur- 
rounding twenty-six acres, then known as Washington Square, 
was, as compared with its present condition, an unimproved and 
dreary waste. Students who climbed to the tower in those days 
will remember looking down on the network of irregular paths 
that crossed the square in a multitude of devious ways, each 
marked out to serve the inclination and convenience of daily foot- 
travelers; and they will remember, too, the few straggling trees 
and bushes and, except in the early spring time, the dry intervals 
between. In place of all this, is now a beautiful park, with green 
lawns, variegated flower beds, graceful shade trees, and broad 
walks and driveways. 

The first attempt to improve the grounds was made in 1878, 
when a part of the Tuition Fund was spent in inclosing with a 
neat fence a portion of the grounds directly surrounding the 
building, and planting shrubbery and flowers. The shrubbery 
was largely donated by the public spirited citizens of San Jose. 
These were, however, all destroyed by the fire. In February, 
1881, the Legislature made an appropriation of $25,000 for 
improving and fencing the Normal School Square. The Board, 
after advertising for plans, adopted the plan of R. Ulrich, since 
well known as the landscape gardener at the Hotel del Monte. 
Following this plan, the grounds were carefully laid out, the 
walks and drives graveled, and lawns, flowers, and trees planted. 
Two additional artesian wells were bored and tanks and pump 
provided, furnishing an abundant water supply for both building 
and grounds. All this being completed, enough of the appropri- 
ation remained to erect a neat iron fence surrounding the square. 

Since that time the greater part of the Tuition Fund, derived 
entirely from the Training School, has been expended in support- 
ing the grounds. New lawns have, from time to time, been laid 
out, and additional trees and flowers planted ; so that now the 
grounds are both a delightful place of recreation for the students 
and an ornament to the City of San Jose. They also furnish an 
excellent field of research for the botanical and entomological 
classes. 



74 Historical Sketch. 



LIBRARY. 

In no way has the growth in the intellectual life of the school 
been more clearly indicated than in the increased and increasing 
use of the library. For several years a student librarian, whose 
business it was to keep the library open during intermissions, 
and a short time at the close of the afternoon session, was able to 
supply all demands for books. With the occupation of the new 
building came the employment of a special librarian, keeping the 
library open all day. A marked change was soon visible, due to 
several causes. The provision in the course of study for a study 
hour at the school building, for each pupil, opened the door to the 
increased use of reference books, and gave some added time for 
general reading. Visiting committees from the State Legislature, 
seeing both the usefulness of the library and the need of more 
books, recommended special appropriations, which were cheerfully 
made. This, in turn, reacted upon both teachers and students, 
who, finding that more and better books were provided, were 
induced to make better use of them. Besides these causes, the 
topical method of study, growing in use and favor, by which the 
student is given a subject to investigate rather than a portion of 
some particular book to master, has necessarily led to the demand 
for and the use of many books in each subject; while the constant 
presence of a librarian acquainted with the place and contents of 
the books, has made their use more extensive. Many students, 
especially in the higher classes, avail themselves of their study 
hour for library study, and not unfrequently the library is crowded 
beyond the point of convenience and comfort. The importance 
to the student of this familiarity with books can scarcely be over- 
estimated; and its results, as already shown in the increased love 
for good literature, and the wider culture of the graduates sent 
out, is highly satisfactory. The library now numbers about thirty- 
five hundred volumes. By the continued liberal appropriations 
made by the Legislature new books are added yearly, and the 
need of more room is constantly evident. This need will, in the 
near future, lead to the erection of an additional building. 

MUSEUM. 

The burning of the contents of the old museum was a loss to 
science, as well as to the State. Chief among its treasures were 
the specimens in conchology, known as the Canfield collection. 



State Normal School. 75 

These Dr. Canfield, of Monterey, had been years in collecting 
from all parts of the world, and it is now next to impossible to 
obtain many of the species represented in his collection. Of other 
specialties, there was a large and fine collection of the birds of 
California, and over three hundred unique specimens of ancient 
stone implements from Santa Clara County, that cannot be 
replaced. In the mineral collection was a series of large and 
interesting specimens of lead, zinc, and fossils from Wisconsin, 
with agates, alabaster, and many other things contributed by 
Professor Allen; also, from Mr. 0. Sharpe, of Fresno County, a 
beautiful series of Arizona minerals; and from Mr. Aplin, of Ne- 
vada County, a miscellaneous collection of the finest specimens. 

Though all these went with the destruction of the building, it 
is a pleasure to remember the interest displayed in founding a 
museum, and to note that this interest and liberality have out- 
lived the fire. In the new museum, the names of the same donors 
are seen, with many others added, telling of the widespread inter- 
est in this important educational feature of the Normal School. 

Though many treasures were lost that it is difficult, and in some 
cases impossible, to replace, patience and perseverance, with the 
kindly remembrance of friends, have furnished the new museum 
with so many helps to study, that to-day it compares favorably 
with older and more pretentious collections. 

As the room is entered at the north door, the first case to the 
left shows the few specimens that were reclaimed from the ashes, 
forming a nucleus for the new museum. 

The center of the room is occupied by cases containing speci- 
mens in conchology, noticeable among which is a collection of 
West Coast shells of over three thousand specimens, presented by 
the well known conchologist, Mr. Henry Hemphill. Another from 
Miss Jennie R. Bush, contains over fifteen hundred rare California 
and foreign shells. An interesting feature is the Blaschka glass 
models of such mollusks as cannot be preserved by ordinary 
methods. 

Other branches of natural history are well illustrated by the 
twenty cases of minerals, thirty of entomology, two of radiates 
and crustaceans, one case of silurian fossils, one of California ter- 
tiary fossils, and two of native and foreign woods. The aim has 
been to make the collection instructive and useful, rather than, 
by making a display, to gratify idle curiosity. 



76 Historical Sketch. 

There is not space to name individually all the many benefac- 
tors, but the following friends in the East, specialists, deserve 
honorable mention for their fine contributions when this school 
had nothing: Professor Riley, United States Entomologist at 
Washington; Dr. Farlow, cryptogamic botanist, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
George Davenport, botanist, Massachusetts; Frank Collins, a spe- 
cialist in marine algae. 

To the untiring efforts of Mrs. A. E. Bush, the Curator of the 
Museum, is mainly due its rapid growth and its excellence. She 
has spared no pains in establishing exchanges with prominent 
museums and scientific specialists, in procuring donations, and in 
collecting, many times devoting her entire vacations to this work. 
In the satisfactory results she may well feel a personal pride. 

HERBARIUM. 

By the patient and continuous efforts of Miss Mary E. B. Nor- 
ton, for many years teacher of botany, an herbarium has been 
collected, which goes far toward replacing the valuable collection 
lost at the fire. It numbers several thousand plants, including 
valuable representative plants from every continent, prominent 
among them being a set of North American and Pacific Coast 
ferns. As in the case of the museum, the herbarium has been 
collected through donations and exchanges. All the plants are 
carefully classified, labeled, and arranged in special cases. 

APPARATUS. 

Most of the valuable apparatus lost in the fire has been replaced, 
and much added, so that the school is, in this respect, well 
equipped, having all that is needed to illustrate the work taken in 
mechanics, optics, electricity, and other departments of physics. 
Besides these, there is a chemical laboratory, provided with all 
appliances for experimental work by the students. In physics 
and chemistry the pupils manufacture for themselves much of 
the apparatus used, the purpose being the better to prepare them 
for teaching elementary science. The school is well provided 
with microscopes, which are used individually by students in the 
study of botany, zoology, and physiology. 



State Normal School. 77 



ADMISSION. 

The grade of admission to the Normal classes has from time to 
time been raised, but, of necessity, very slowly. It has seemed 
best not to fix it above the point where pupils from country 
Grammar Schools, who have done reasonably good work, can 
pass examination for the Junior Class. In 1882 the Principal's 
report says: "The grade of school is now as high as we can make 
it and have it possible for the graduates of the High Schools of 
the State to complete the course in one year. Many of those who 
attempt it now fail. It may not be considered out of place for 
the Board to require such pupils to take a year and a half for the 
work." 

In 1884, after the system of granting County Grammar School 
diplomas became general throughout the State, the Board of 
Trustees decided to accept these diplomas for admission to the 
Junior Class, thus establishing a closer connection between the 
Normal School and the Grammar Schools of the State. Gradu- 
ates of High Schools also were, by this regulation, admitted to 
the Junior Class without examination, but were examined if they 
applied for admission to higher classes. This regulation has 
continued in force to the present time. 

In 1885 the Principal reported: 

We have now had a full year in which to test the gains and losses to be real- 
ized from the changes made in our Course of Study, and in the regulations for 
admission. 

We have admitted to the Junior Class thirty-eight on Grammar School 
diplomas, and fifteen on High School diplomas. Thirteen graduates of High 
Schools have been admitted to more advanced classes. The pupils admitted 
on Grammar School diplomas have, as far as possible, been kept in separate 
classes, to test our grade of admission on examination. The result has satis- 
fied us that it is safe to receive Grammar School diplomas not certificates from 
counties where the County Boards give the matter their attention. It also 
appears that we cannot advance our grade for admission without putting the 
Normal School out of the reach of the Grammar Schools of the State, as now 
organized. 

The fact that more than half of the graduates of High Schools who present 
themselves can reach only the Junior Class in the Normal School, shows that 
much time is wasted in pursuing the so called advanced studies, that might, 
with greater profit, be devoted to elementary work. 

In 1887 the test of admission for those entering on examination 
was still further raised, as shown by the following extract from 
the circular for 1887-88: 



Historical Sketch. 



It is the design to fix the grade of admission at a point where the graduates 
of the County Grammar Schools, who have fairly earned their diplomas, can 
enter and do the work of the course well in three years. These diplomas are, 
from year to year, becoming evidence of better scholarship, and the grade of 
admission to the Normal School has consequently been again advanced. For 
the coming year, all examined for the Junior Class must show that they can 
enter the Advanced Junior Class. This will give the opportunity for more 
training work and reviews very desirable to have taken in a Normal School. 

The Preparatory Class is discontinued, as we believe the Grammar Schools 
should now be able to do all the preparatory work. 

By a resolution of the Board, adopted May 15, 1883, pupils are 
admitted only at the beginning of the terms of the schools. The 
Faculty have, however, power to suspend this rule in cases which, 
for good and sufficient reasons, they may consider exceptional. 
None are, under any circumstances, admitted to the Senior Class 
after the first examinations each term, as none are graduated who 
have not been one year in attendance at the school. 

The following table shows the number of new students admitted 
each year for the past nine years: 



Number of new pupils admitted 

Number of these admitted to Junior 
Class on Grammar School diplomas.. 

Number admitted to Junior Class on 
High School diplomas 

Number of counties of California repre- 
sented by new pupils 

Number of other States and Territories 
represented by new pupils 



193 



197 



250 



204 



39 



239 
64 
11 

42 



39 



172 
41 



ATTENDANCE. 

As will be seen by reference to the table on page 102, the attend- 
ance in the Normal Classes since 1881 has varied from about five 
hundred to over six hundred. 

These fluctuations, with some of their causes, are indicated by 
the following extracts from reports of the Principal: 

FROM REPORT OF 1882. 

It is a notable fact that the attendance is becoming larger in the Advanced 
Classes, the Middle Classes this year having outnumbered the Junior Classes. 
This is, in itself, a sign of progress, showing that the school holds its pupils. 
The number admitted to the Middle and Senior Classes on examination, shows 
also that the schools of the State are doing better work. 



State Normal School. 79 

During the last half of the year we have carried on four Junior, four Middle, 
one Sub-Senior Class, and a Senior Class so large that it has been necessary to 
make two classes of it in most recitations. 

FROM REPORT OF 1885. 

The falling off of attendance during the past two years, and especially during 
the last year, comes from several causes : First The grade of admission has 
been raised nearly 20 per cent, and none admitted from places where Grammar 
Schools provide for graduation, except upon the Grammar School diploma or 
an equivalent course. This has worked out the beneficial result of having 
pupils fit themselves better before applying for admission. Restricting admis- 
sions to the first week of the term, save in exceptional cases, has also had its 
effect. Second The opening of the Branch School at Los Angeles has drawn 
the pupils from the southern counties to that school. Third Your honorable 
body, on the nineteenth of December, 1883, adopted the following resolution: 
"Resolved, That it is the opinion of the Board of Trustees that the teachers and 
Principals of the Normal Schools should decline any invitation to attend 
County Institutes, during the sessions of the schools, except by consent of the 
Executive Committee or the local committee at Los Angeles." 

Accepting this as an indication of the feeling of the Board that our work 
should be devoted more entirely to the school, I have declined nearly every 
invitation to attend County Institutes, and our school has been represented in 
but very few. You, gentlemen, are of course fully aware that the school has 
been built up and kept up by our making its work known, by coming in con- 
tact with people having children to educate, and by stimulating young teachers 
to try to fit themselves better for their work. 

FROM REPORT OF 1887. 

During the present year we have reached the highest number ever enrolled 
in the school, namely, six hundred and ninety-one in the Normal and Prepara- 
tory Departments, and more than eight hundred in the entire school. We have 
had a larger number of Normal pupils enrolled than any other State Normal 
School in the United States. The Normal College of New York City, and the 
Normal School for Girls in Philadelphia, alone outnumber us. 

FROM REPORT OF 1888. 

The average enrollment for the year, in the Normal School proper, has been 
four hundred and ninety. For the instruction of these we have had sixteen 
regular and two special teachers, aggregating, say, seventeen teachers, or one 
teacher to a little more than twenty-eight pupils. 

It is noticeable that the advanced classes have been relatively larger this 
year than last. This has been the constant tendency in the school for several 
years, showing that it holds its pupils, and that a larger number of those who 
enter remain until they graduate. 

The failing off in the Junior Class of from two hundred and ninety to two 
hundred and five is partly due to the fact that the Board avowed the policy of 
graduating hereafter but one class each year; and instead of having, as is usual, 
one hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty to examine at the opening 
of the winter term, but about eighty presented themselves. 



8o 



Historical Sketch. 



FROM REPORT OF 1889. 

During the year there have been representatives in the school from forty- 
seven counties in the State. This representation, in a State where the distances 
traveled are so great, is really surprising, and shows more clearly than any argu- 
ment that this is a State School. True, the representation from Santa Clara 
County is 34 per cent of the enrollment, but this is not surprising. This is a 
large county, and the patronage of all such schools is drawn largely from a 
radius of forty or fifty miles. Many residing in Santa Clara County come from 
many miles away, 

In addition to those enrolled from California, we have had from Colorado, 1 ; 
Honolulu, 2; Idaho, 3; Illinois, 1; Michigan, 1; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; 
Nevada, 6; Nova Scotia, 1; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 1; Utah Territory, 1; 
Washington Territory, 3; Wisconsin, 3. These pupils are here, usually, expect- 
ing to teach in California, and all sign the condition made on entering. 

Out of the fifty-two counties of California, the following table 
shows the number represented by pupils in attendance at the 
school during each year since 1880: 



1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


1884-85. 


1885-86. 


1886-87. 


1887-88. 


1888-89. 


45 


47 


49 


45 


46 


45 


46 


43 


47 



COURSE OF STUDY. 

The changes in course of study made from time to time have 
been, not so much in the subjects taught as in the relative impor- 
tance and proportionate length of time given to each subject, and 
in the place in the course at which it occurs. Beginning, perhaps, 
with the advent into the school of Professor Norton, more promi- 
nence was given to work in Science. The contagion of his enthu- 
siastic love for all scientific study, coming as it did at a time 
when the study of the sciences was making rapid growth in 
popularity in the common schools, gave a new interest to obser- 
vation studies, which the work of the later professors in science 
has fostered and increased. 

It was next felt that to keep pace with the most advanced edu- 
cational thought of this and other countries, more attention should 
be devoted to industrial drawing; therefore more time in the 
course was given to this subject, and a special teacher was 
employed who, as subsequently reported by the Principal, " is an 
enthusiast in his work," and " what was one of the weakest points 
in the course has been made strong." Professional work also 
demanded more attention, and added time in the Senior Class 



State Normal School. 81 

was devoted to the study of psychology and pedagogy, and more 
time given to observation and practice in the Training Department. 

To make room for this added work, political economy, Kame's 
Criticism, and a part of the science work were dropped, from the 
Senior year. These changes were incorporated in the Course of 
Study, as revised in 1884. An important improvement made at 
the same time was a re-arrangement of recitations, by which each 
regular pupil was given a study hour at the school, instead of 
spending the day in unbroken recitations, as previously. 

The next important change was made in 1888, when, under the 
new law, the Boards of Trustees of the several California. State 
Normal Schools, in joint session, adopted a uniform course of 
study. The radical change then made was in the division of the 
year into three terms instead of into two, and the forming of new 
classes in each grade but once a year. This practically admitted 
new pupils to the school at but one time in the year, and would 
have resulted, when in full operation, in graduating but one class 
yearly. A Post Graduate year was also, at this time, added to 
the course. After this course had been in operation a year, the 
Boards, at their annual joint meeting, in April, 1889, decided that 
"The number of terms in the year, the time of opening and clos- 
ing of terms, the arrangement of vacations, the time of gradua- 
tion, and the order of succession of studies in the prescribed 
course, shall be fixed for each school by its local Board of Trus- 
tees;" and "that the studies to be pursued and the time to be 
given to each shall be in accordance with the schedule adopted 
by the joint Boards for all the California Normal Schools." 

Accordingly, the local Board of the school at San Jose, upon the 
recommendation of the Faculty, decided to return to the plan of 
.two terms a year, carrying on two sets of classes, and graduating 
twice a year. 

The new course of study in force at the beginning of the school 
year 1889-90, in the Normal School at San Jose, is as follows: 



82 



Historical Sketch. 



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84 Historical Sketch. 



TRAINING DEPARTMENT. 

From the time of the organization of the Training School in 
San Jose, under Miss Titus, this department has been a strong and 
important feature of the work of the Normal School. Its full 
recognition as such is indicated in the name by which it has of 
late years been designated : viz., Training Department rather than 
Training School. 

With the crowded course of study, it seemed, for many years, 
impossible to give each member of the Senior Class time for more 
than two or three weeks of practice teaching, and this was usually 
attended by the entire loss during that time of recitations in other 
subjects. But, notwithstanding the shortness of the time, the 
results of this practice were of great value, and special emphasis 
has always been laid upon success in teaching as a factor in deter- 
mining graduation. 

As the grade of admission was gradually raised, the course of 
study more satisfactorily adjusted, and the size of the Senior 
Classes reduced by graduations twice a year, the time for practice 
was lengthened. By the course adopted in 1884, it was provided 
that each member of the Senior Class should spend one recitation 
each day for three fourths of the Senior Year in the Training 
Department the first ten weeks in observation, and the last five 
months in teaching. This plan has been followed ever since. 

During the half term spent in observation, the pupils write out, 
as regular exercises, criticisms upon the work of pupil teach- 
ers and analyses of model lessons given by the regular critic 
teachers, besides receiving special lectures upon the work they 
have observed. During the five months of actual practice work, 
they are required to make special preparation for each recitation, 
and are under the supervision of the regular critic teachers, who 
review their work, giving both class lectures and individual crit- 
icism. The constant presence of classmates and teachers as 
observers, cultivates both confidence and independence. 

From the one class with which it began, the Training Depart- 
ment has grown until it includes four distinct subdivisions, viz.: 
Primary, Intermediate, Grammar, and Advanced Grammar. The 
last was organized after the abolition of the Preparatory Class in 
1887. 

In the Training Department, an effort is made to keep pace 
with all the best methods of teaching, and to introduce, as far as 



State Normal School. 85 

practicable, by way of experiment, such new subjects as modern 
thought suggests the desirability of introducing into the public 
schools. In harmony with this intention, some parts of the kin- 
dergarten system are made use of in connection with primary 
work, elementary science is taught by observation in the study of 
specimens, and manual training is given through instruction in 
industrial drawing, sewing, clay modeling, etc. Of this latter 
work the Principal, in his last report, says: "To this work the 
pupils come as to an amusement, and it is therefore a respite 
from, rather than an addition to, their study tasks. It also tends 
to the development of special talent talent that in the near 
future may become valuable to society." 

Besides maps and apparatus, the Training Department has its 
own library, consisting mainly of well-selected books for children, 
in history, biography, travel, fiction, etc. 

The popularity of this Department is well evidenced by the 
fact that during the past year it has numbered over two hundred, 
every seat being taken and many applicants rejected for want of 
room. 



PROFESSIONAL WORK. 

In 1884, while the matter of changes in the course of study 
was under discussion, the Principal, in his report, made the fol- 
lowing statement regarding the professional work of the school: 

It has been remarked in a meeting of this Board, that if anything justifies 
the existence of Normal Schools, it is the work they do in giving professional 
training. At the last meeting of the Board the question was raised whether, in 
this school, we were sufficiently emphasizing this work. I desire, in this part 
of my report, to show, not that we are doing too much, for that could hardly 
be possible, but that it is receiving a large share of our care and attention, and 
that in amount it far exceeds that given in most Normal Schools. 

The professional training may be briefly summed up as follows: 

1. From the time the pupil enters the lowest Junior Class until he graduates, 
his attention is constantly kept fixed upon the fact that he is learning each 
subject with a view of imparting it to others, and the method of presentation 
is made a subject of continued observation. As with few exceptions all the 
faculty are graduates of Normal Schools, and even in the exceptional cases, 
they are teachers of wide and varied experience, the pupil is, from the begin- 
ning, being trained to teach. This continued for three years is, in itself, an 
amount of training which must be of great value. The philosophy of the work 
he has not yet culture enough to appreciate, or even understand. 

2. During his course, as he advances to riper scholarship, and a greater 
capacity for grasping the subject, he receives about one hundred and twenty 
lectures, beginning with an outline of mental philosophy, upon " methods of 

7 



86 Historical Sketch. 



teaching, grading, and disciplining a school." These lectures cover not only 
the philosophy of education, but practical and detailed instruction in the 
minutiee of teaching. Of these lectures he is required to take copious notes 
and to rewrite them for future reference. He also takes, during the Senior 
year, the same number of review lessons upon the subjects taught in the 
Grammar Schools, and these are a practical presentation of methods of teach- 
ing. These reviews are given, mainly, without text-books, the pupil taking 
notes, thus earning away a voluminous note book of original work, designed 
to be fitted for his own classes, when he becomes a teacher. 

3. He is required to practice in the Training Department until he convinces 
the critic teachers that he has at least a fair ability in teaching. During this 
teaching he attends four days a week, a critique upon his own work and the 
work of his fellow teachers, conducted by the critic teachers, and these sessions, 
being from one and a half to two hours each, constitute a continued and search- 
ing review of his theoretical ideas, as derived from lectures. He also spends 
some time in observation, during which he is expected to take part in the criti- 
cism, thus enabling him to judge of his own work and that of others. This is 
the regular work in the school, and while I should be exceedingly glad if more 
time could be given to practice teaching, I feel that if we can increase the time 
for observation, it will be all, as the school is now organized, that we can do. 

The last three classes have each subscribed for and read, with more or less 
care, a leading educational journal; and all are urged to continue this, and to 
purchase and study after they leave school, standard educational works. 

If it be asked why, after so much professional work, the teachers sent out are 
not all entirely successful, the answer must be found in the fact that this is a 
result parallel to that reached by all other professional schools. Of the gradu- 
ates from law, medical, or theological schools, some fail, many achieve medio- 
crity, and a few take high rank in their profession. It is not strange, then, 
that of those preparing for the profession of teaching, a profession requiring 
more varied acquirements, and greater versatility of thought, some fail in tak- 
ing that rank which we would desire for them. As a general proposition, our 
teachers are successful. They are constantly in demand, and of marked fail- 
ures we very rarely hear, 'if but few reach the higher ranks of the profession, 
it may be explained by the fact that the opportunities for such advancement 
are few, and that the great body of graduates have not yet been long in the field. 

In his report for 1886, he adds: 

The two classes during the year one numbering forty-five, in December, and 
one numbering fifty-three, in May go out as the first complete result of the 
changes made in our course of study. 

The additional work done in the Training Department has made them, in one 
sense, experienced teachers. Five months' observation, for which the pupil is 
held strictly responsible, and five months' actual practice, under judicious and 
searching criticism, are worth more to the embryo teacher, in the way of expe- 
rience, than years of practice without supervision. 

As we have recommended none for graduation who have not successfully 
passed this ordeal, we feel confident that these graduates will make excellent 
teachers. 



State Normal School. 87 



INDUSTRIAL TRAINING-. 

Industrial training in the Normal Department has, as yet, too 
much the character of an experiment to admit of definite conclu- 
sions as to its usefulness. In 1887, a work-room was fitted up 
and provided with tools for the use of pupils. For the first year, 
the instruction given was entirely by the regular teachers, at such 
times as could be made convenient for both pupils and teachers. 
This not proving satisfactory, a skilled mechanic was employed 
during a part of the past year, to give the necessary instruction. 
The work has been entirely optional on the part of the students, 
and the results are quite satisfactory. An exhibit of students' 
work, made at the close of the term, showed fancy tables, easels, 
footstools, boxes, and various other articles, of creditable work- 
manship. The experiment gives a promise which seems to justify 
its continuance. 



GRADUATIONS. 

From 1867 to 1883 but one graduating class was sent out yearly. 
The increasing size of the Senior Class and the demands of the 
State seeming to call for more frequent graduations, the Principal, 
in 1882, made the following recommendation: 

The matter has been laid before the Faculty, and has been fully discussed, 
and we unanimously recommend that hereafter two classes be graduated each 
year one at the middle of the year, and one at the close. Two very important 
gains will result from this. First, it will relieve the pressure upon the Senior 
Class ; and second, pupils who fail to reach the required grade in that class at 
the close of a term, can be graduated regularly with an additional five months' 
work, whereas it is now necessary for them to wait a whole year before they 
can be regularly graduated. This change involves somewhat more labor on 
the part of the Faculty, but we believe the gain will more than compensate 
for it. 

This recommendation was adopted, and in December, 1883, the 
first " Christmas Class," under the new plan, was graduated. This 
plan, having been found well adapted to the needs of the school, 
has been continued to the present time. 

It was at first thought that the classes graduated in December 
would have more difficulty in securing positions to teach than 
those graduated in the spring. But reports show that, on the 
contrary, from a half to nearly the whole of each December class 
have taught before the close of the school year in which they 
graduated. 



Historical Sketch. 

In 1884, the Board of Trustees, on recommendation of the 
Faculty, directed that the honors of salutatorian and valedicto- 
rian should no longer be awarded in the school; and in May, 1885, 
they still further did away with distinction in rank among gradu- 
ates, by ruling that no figures indicating a grade in scholarship 
should appear upon diplomas conferred after that date. 

As a marked deviation from the general custom of the school, 
the class of December, 1888, in accordance with their own request, 
received their diplomas without public graduating exercises. The 
result was so pleasing, that it is probable this plan will become 
customary with classes graduated at the middle of the year. 



WORK OF GRADUATES. 

It is not necessary to dwell at length upon the work of grad- 
uates and upon the fact that so large a proportion follow the pro- 
fession for which the school has prepared them. The "Graduates' 
Record " and accompanying statistics speak for themselves. It 
may not, however, be out of place to quote some extracts on this 
subject from the annual reports of the Principal. 

FROM REPORT OF 1884. 

The report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and records in 
this office show that about sixty per cent of all the graduates of the school 
since its beginning in 1862, taught in this State last year. It is greatly to be 
doubted whether any other school in the country can show so good a record. 
From the class of 1882, numbering seventy-five, seventy-one had taught in the 
public schools of the State within one year of graduation. From the class of 
May, 1883, numbering eighty-five, seventy-eight have taught; and many of the 
class of December, 1883, have already obtained positions. 

In 1885, after giving statistics showing that out of the five 
classes immediately preceding, numbering in all two hundred and 
fifty-five, two hundred and thirty-nine had already taught, he 
says: 

Of these five classes, nearly ninety-foiir per cent have taught, to our certain 
knowledge. Of the sixteen not reported as having taught, two have died, two 
have been prevented from teaching by death in the family, three have married 
without teaching, three have engaged in other business or are at home, and 
five have not been heard from. Some of the latter are doubtless teaching. Of 
the fifty-one graduated in December, 1884, more than one half are already 
teaching. We are often asked, " Do your graduates teach ? " The above show- 
ing gives a most emphatic answer, and speaks volumes for the spirit and use- 
fulness of the school. It sufficiently proves that graduates from the school are 
in demand. This demand must come because they do satisfactory work. A 



State Normal School. 89 

few of the counties, mostly for local reasons, do not recognize our diplomas as 
evidence of fitness to teach. Even in these counties, it is not claimed that the 
graduates are not good teachers. So far as I know, there are now but four 
counties not granting certificates upon Normal School diplomas. As, however, 
this is a matter that can be changed at any meeting of a County Board, we 
cannot know definitely what the usage is. It perhaps should be said, that, 
while the action of the Boards, in these four counties, in nowise injures the 
Normal Schools, it can but be an injury to the counties. Each county pays its 
proportionate amount toward the support of the Normal Schools; but, by 
refusing to recognize their diplomas, it is, in effect, cut off from any benefit to 
be derived from their work. For pupils will not be apt to go to a Normal School 
from a county where its diploma is not recognized; nor will graduates willingly 
seek employment under a County Board that does not consider the signatures 
of the Governor of the State, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
the Trustees and Faculty of a Normal School, a guarantee of qualification 
quite as good as the signature of the County Board. 

FROM REPORT OF 1886. 

The question constantly arises, " Where are your graduates to find places? 
The State is already overcrowded with teachers." This question implies, if it 
does not assert, that the Normal Schools are sending out too many teachers. 

For the surplus of teachers, if such a surplus exists, the Normal Schools are 
not responsible. The largest classes graduated do not furnish two teachers per 
year to a county, and this would hardly make good the death rate, to say 
nothing of marriages and other accidents. There are two other sources which 
furnish a large number of teachers. 

There is a constant influx of teachers from the East, drawn here by our 
charming climate, or more often by the higher salaries paid here. But the 
most prolific source is the semi-annual county examination. With from four 
to twenty teachers licensed at each examination, it is not strange that the 
ranks are overcrowded. 

These candidates are usually prepared for the examination in Grammar or 
High Schools, and sometimes in so called Normal Classes. Their preparation 
is likely to be for an examination rather than for teaching; but being at or near 
their homes, they secure positions, and often fill them to the satisfaction of the 
patrons. 

Although this state of things may seem to work a temporary evil (by trust- 
ing the education of children to untrained teachers), it is an evil that will, in 
the end, remedy itself, by working out the problem of the " survival of the fit- 
test." People are already beginning to find the difference between trained and 
untrained teachers; and as this difference becomes more apparent, trained 
teachers will be more and more in demand. 

As I have previously reported to you, our graduates find situations very soon 
after graduation; and what is still more gratifying, in many cases they make 
themselves so useful that they continue in the same school from year to year. 



OTHER NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

In March, 1881, an Act was passed by the Legislature estab- 
lishing a " Branch State Normal School" in Los Angeles County, 
the site to be selected and the building erected by the Board of 



90 Historical Sketch. 

Trustees of the school at San Jose. It was further provided that 
the Branch School should be governed by the same laws and be 
under the control of the same Trustees, as the San Jose School. 
The site selected was the property known as Beaudry Terrace, in 
the City of Los Angeles. 

The school was first opened August 29, 1882. For the first year 
the Principal of the San Jose School was the nominal Principal, 
and the school was conducted by the Vice-Principal, C. J. Flatt. 
In May, 1883, Prof. Ira More, of the San Jose Normal School, was 
elected Principal of the Los Angeles school, which position he 
still holds. 

In March, 1887, the Legislature created a second Branch 
Normal School for Northern California, to be located and built in 
the same way as the first. 

The same Legislature passed an Act creating a separate Board 
of Trustees for each Normal School, and otherwise amending the 
law. 

The Normal School for Northern California is located at Chico, 
Butte County. Its first session will be opened in September, 1889, 
under the principalship of Professor Pierce. 



LAWS RELATING TO THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 
As amended, to take effect July 1, 1887. 

354. The Normal Schools at San Jose" and at Los Angeles, and any Normal 
School established after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and eighty- 
seven, by the State, shall be known as State Normal Schools, and shall each 
have a Board of Trustees, constituted as follows: The Governor and State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be members of each Board, and 
there shall be five members, whose term of office shall be five years, who shall 
be appointed by the Governor ; provided, that the Trustees of the State Normal 
School in office June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and eighty-seven, shall hold 
office until the end of the terms for which they were appointed ; provided, that 
no appointment made after the approval of this Act shall be for a term of 
more than five years, and the Trustees in office when this Act takes effect shall 
become members of the Board of Trustees of the Normal School located nearest 
to their residences, and the members of any Board of Trustees, when first 
appointed and organized, shall classify themselves so that the term of one 
Trustee shall expire annually. 

1487. The State Normal Schools have for their objects the education of 
teachers for the public schools of this State. 

1488. The State Normal Schools shall be under the management and control 
of Boards of Trustees, constituted as provided in section three hundred and 
fifty-four of the Political Code of the State of California. 

1489. The powers and duties of each Board of Trustees are as follows: 



State Normal School. 91 

First To elect a Secretary, who shall receive such salary, not to exceed one 
hundred and fifty dollars per annum, as may be allowed by the Board. 

Second To prescribe rules for their own government, and for the government 
of the school. 

Third To prescribe rules for the reports of officers and teachers of the 
school, and for visiting other schools and institutes. 

Fourth To provide for the purchase of school apparatus, furniture, station- 
ery, and text-books for the use of the pupils. 

Fifth To establish and maintain training or model schools, and require the 
pupils of the Normal School to teach and instruct classes therein. 

Sixth To elect a Principal and other necessary teachers, fix their salaries, 
and prescribe their duties. 

Seventh To issue diplomas of graduation upon the recommendation of the 
Faculty of the school, 

Eighth To control and expend all moneys appropriated for the support and 
maintenance of the school, and all money received from tuition or from dona- 
tions. In no event shall any moneys appropriated for the support of the 
school, or received from tuition or donations, be paid or used for compensa- 
tion or traveling expenses of the Trustees of the school, except when attend- 
ing the joint meetings provided for by section one thousand four hundred and 
ninety-two of the Political Code of the State of Califurhia, and each Trustee 
attending such meetings shall receive the same mileage as is allowed bylaw to 
members of the Legislature, for not more than two meetings in each school 
year. 

Ninth To cause a record of all their proceedings to be kept, which shall be 
open to public inspection at the school. 

Tenth To keep, open to public inspection, an account of receipts and expend- 
itures. 

Eleventh To annually report to the Governor a statement of all their trans- 
actions, and of all matters pertaining to the school. 

Twelfth To transmit with such report a copy of the principal teacher's 
annual report. 

Thirteenth To revoke any diploma by them granted, on receiving satisfactory 
evidence that the holder thereof is addicted to drunkenness, is guilty of gross 
immorality, or is reputedly dishonest in his dealings; provided, that such per- 
son shall have at least thirty days' previous notice of such contemplated action, 
and shall, if he asks it, be heard in his own defense. 

1490. Each Board of Trustees must hold two regular meetings in each year, 
and may hold special meetings at the call of the Secretary, when directed by 
the Chairman. 

1491. The time and place of regular meetings must be fixed by the by-laws 
of the Board. The Secretary must give written notice of the time and place of 
special meetings to each member of the Board. 

1492. Joint meetings of the Boards of Trustees of the State Normal Schools 
shall be held at least once in each school year, alternately, at the different State 
Normal Schools. The first meeting shall be held at San Jose", and thereafter at 
the other Normal Schools in the order of their organization. At such meetings ^ 
the Trustees shall have the power, and it shall be their duty : 

First To prescribe a uniform series of text-books for use in the State Normal 
Schools. The State series of text-books shall be used, when published, in the 
grades and classes for which they are adapted. 

Second To prescribe a uniform course of study, and time, and standard for 
graduation from the State Normal Schools. 



92 Historical Sketch. 



1494. Every person admitted as a pupil to the Normal School course must be : 
First Of good moral character. 

Second Of sixteen years of age. 

Third Of that class of persons who, if of proper age, would be admitted in 
the public schools of this State without restriction. 

1495. Teachers holding State certificates of the first or second grades may 
be admitted from the State at large. 

1496. Persons resident of another State may be admitted upon letters of 
recommendation from the Governor, or Superintendent of Schools thereof. 

1497. Every person making application for admission as a pupil to the Nor- 
mal School must, at the time of making such application, file with the Principal 
of the school a declaration that he enters the school to fit himself for teaching, 
and that it is his intention to engage in teaching in the public schools of this 
State, or in the State or Territory where the applicant resides. 

1501. The Principal of each State Normal School must make a detailed 
annual report to the Board of Trustees, with a catalogue of the pupils, and 
such other particulars as the Board may require or he may think useful. 

1502. He must also attend County Institutes, and lecture before them on 
subjects relating to public schools and the profession of teaching. 

1503. The Board of Trustees of each State Normal School, upon the recom- 
mendation of the Faculty, may issue to those pupils who worthily complete 
the full course of study and training prescribed, a diploma of graduation. To 
each pupil receiving this diploma, and thereafter teaching successfully in the 
public schools of this State for three years, and to each pupil who worthily 
completes the Post Graduate course, the State Board of Education shall grant 
an educational diploma. 

1504. The Boards of Trustees, or such Trustees as attend the joint meet- 
ings, shall have power to appoint a Secretary, who shall receive such compen- 
sation, not to exceed twenty dollars for each joint meeting, as the Trustees 
present at the meeting may order paid. The Secretary shall keep a full record 
of all the proceedings of the joint meetings of the Trustees, and shall notify 
the Secretary of each Board of Trustees of any changes made in the course of 
study or the-text-books to be adopted in the State Normal Schools. 

1505. The Superintendent of Public Instruction must visit the school from 
time to time, inquire into its condition and management, enforce the rules and 
regulations made by the Board, require such reports as he deems proper from 
the teachers of the school, and exercise a general supervision over the same. 

1507. Each order upon the Controller of State by the Board of Trustees of a 
State Normal School must be signed by the President of the Board, and coun- 
tersigned by the Secretary. Upon presentation of the order aforesaid, signed 
and countersigned as aforesaid, the Controller of State must draw his warrant 
upon the State Treasurer in favor of the Board of Trustees for any moneys, or 
any part thereof, appropriated and set apart for the support of the Normal 
School, and the Treasurer must pay such warrants on presentation. 



State Normal School. 



REMINISCENCES SINCE 188O. 

Two EPISODES IN THE HISTORY OF THE CLASS OF MAY, 1882, BY ONE OF ITS 

MEMBERS. 

The Hand of Death. 

Marching in the ranks of the Senior Class of 1882 might be seen a diminu- 
tive personage, scarcely more than three feet in height, whose intelligent face 
and silvery voice were a pleasing contrast to her dwarfed and somewhat 
deformed body. 

Daily the little feet climbed the stairway, and daily the mind of Bessie War- 
then performed with honor the arduous tasks of the first half of the Senior 
years work. But the second half opened unfavorably to many, there being 
much sickness in the city. Measles broke out with violence, and those who 
had not had this disease lived in daily fear of the contagion. Several Normal 
pupils became affected, with no serious results ; but when her class was told 
that little Bessie had fallen victim to the dread disease, many feared for her 
safe recovery. The little form was sorely missed from class-room and hall, and 
when the news came at last that her heart had stopped its beating because the 
inflamed lungs gave it no room, grief was universal and a pall seemed hanging 
over all. 

On Saturday, February 26, 1882, her class gathered at her former boarding 
place, and after listening to words of hope and comfort from her beloved 
teacher, Professor Norton, they accompanied her remains in mournful proces- 
sion to the depot, from which her body was sent to her home at Gilroy. 

No fears were entertained for the others who were ill, but just eight days 
after Bessie's death came the news that Flora McFarland, apparently the 
strongest and healthiest of the whole class, had succumbed to the same disease. 
What a shock that was. No one knew who next would go, and two other mem- 
bers of the school followed shortly after. 

Her remains were interred at San Jose, as her parents lived too far away for 
them to be sent home. Funeral services were held in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and though a large concourse of people was present at the church and 
grave, only two or three of her relatives were able to be among those who 
accompanied our loved classmate to her grave. 

The desks of the departed ones were draped in mourning for thirty days, and 
floral offerings were daily seen among the crape. 

\ The Monterey Excursion. 

The class of 1882 was nearing its graduation. It had been an exceptionally 
studious and well behaved class, and several of the Faculty had been overheard 
to say : " Yes ; the class of '82 is a representative class ; we are proud of our 
present Seniors." 

Of course the pupils were somewhat elated at this, and held their heads high 
in consequence. But one day, three or four weeks before their school record 
was finished, a cloud passed over their fair fame, dimming its former luster. 

It came about in this wise. The indefatigable railroad company, whose iron 
bands span the distance between San Jose and Monterey, was always " getting 
up'' excursions. Plenty of Sunday excursions had passed away without 
tempting the exploring tendencies of the '82 Seniors, but here was one 
announced for Monday : " To Monterey and return reduced rates !" 



94 Historical Sketch. 



This was too much. Three or four Seniors read the announcement on Satur- 
day and concluded to go. On Monday morning one of their number was dis- 
patched to the Normal to spread the contagion, but as they feared a negative 
answer, no permission of the Faculty was asked. * * * The large assembly 
hall was gradually being filled. The Faculty, all unaware of the new " depart- 
ure," filed in and took seats on the platform. Our dignified Vice-Principal, 
Professor Braly, came in and took his seat at the enrolling desk. At last the 
hands on the clock above the platform pointed at a quarter to nine, and tap 
went the bell, producing an almost awe-inspiring silence. The monitors of the 
Middle and Junior Classes arose promptly on their feet, and began the count of 
their classes, but a failure on the part of the Senior monitor to arise caused 
the enrolling officer to notice a total vacancy in the front seats of the Senior 
Class. Monitors pro tern, were quickly appointed, but never will that class 
forget the surprised yet severe and inquiring look which the professor cast 
around at the Faculty. 

Many of the pupils had become aware of existing circumstances, and were 
breathlessly wondering how the teachers would regard them. The temporary 
monitors finished the count of their classes, and in most dignified tones were 
asked by the Professor to report. The mobile features of Miss Urrny, who had 
been appointed monitor of Senior A, were gleaming with suppressed mirth as 
she answered: "Present, thirty; absent, all the boys; total, forty." A general 
laugh greeted this, and even Professor Braly smiled as he saw where the blame 
was laid. 

Senior B had one boy present, so it could not make a like report. But through- 
out all the classes were reports of Mr. A., Mr. B., or Mr. C.'s being absent, while 
scarcely a girl had gone. 

The boys had their good time on Monday, but as they assembled on Tuesday 
morning their heads were not quite so erect; and when the mild but grave 
words of Professor Allen showed them the effect of their conduct upon the 
character of the class and the school, there was not one present but would have 
recalled the trip could he have done so. 

CLASS OF MAY, 1883, BY ANNA C. MURPHY. 

It is doubtful whether I can adequately represent the class of '83, as I was 
enrolled among its numbers during only the Senior year. 

I had been a country school ma'am, a product of the civilization of the 
mountains and the mines. I was a perfect stranger a unit of the one hun- 
dred and twelve, but it was not very long before we all coalesced into clubs and 
coteries, and began to bind the ties of friendship that will stretch across the 
years. 

We were divided into two sections, having Miss Wright and Professor Norton, 
respectively, for class teachers. The latter had charge of our division, and 
taught also the rhetoric and literature the most flexible media through which 
one mind can act upon another : " noblest thought seeking fairest word." How 
gratefully we all look back to that instruction freighted wilh wisdom and seren- 
ity far beyond the book's deepest plummet. Such gracious sympathy was ours, 
such exact help for one's so or weak spot. Already the dawn of the morning 
so near was irradiating his uplifted brow, giving him more perfect insight into 
nature and the hearts of her groping, stumbling children. 

The year of '82-'83 was Professor Kleeberger's first one with us. Chemistry 
was his department. Many of us did not understand him at first. He seemed 
stern, implacable; so large, and so unchangeable, that trying to influence him 



State Normal School. 95 

was considered about as feasible as trying to pry Jupiter out of his course, or 
shove Neptune on a little faster. But we grew to find the sweetness under the 
strength. We found the vein of humor, too, and, in spite of a persistent love 
of punning a habit of throwing words together with violence to phonetics and 
philology we learned to care very much for him. 

Professor Childs labored with us in penmanship and bookkeeping. He had 
taken the Middle Class through history. Many of his classical jokes are down 
in our note books, and doing duty in appropriate spots to-day. 

Professor More was of mathematics the awful autocrat. He had no patience 
with originality in geometry, insisted on the barren recital of facts, demanded 
effete demonstrations and thread-bare conclusions. How the girls did like to 
flock around his table at intermission. Fancy was free then, and laughter loud. 
That year was his last, in San Jose". He had a call to the Normal School at 
Los Angeles, and generations of girls go on calling him blessed there. 

Professor Allen we saw little of, till in the Senior Class. Many who had called 
him gruff and unsympathetic, recalled the verdict then, as in the method work 
he reviewed the secret springs of human action, and showed us how close to* the 
great heart of things he was. 

The Philomathean Society was in its zenith that year, but a civil war shook 
it at the last. A dozen irate girls withdrew at one meeting. The young men 
carried it on for awhile without much of the active feminine element. Then 
the Faculty took away the charter, and amid muttered words and dark looks 
at the tyrants in power, the evening Philomathean sank into a much-wept 
grave. 

We thought our Commencement a glorious occasion, and our valedictorian, 
Ida Jones, the fairest that ere the sun shone on. The after years made her 
only fairer, in face and spirit, although they robbed her of health and strength. 
Little Kittie Chandler, always the pet of our class, is another to whom time 
has brought grace and peace and sweetness. 

Space forbids individual mention of many others'who are dear to all of us. 
Many I have lost sight of in the rush of growing old. We had one reunion in 
1885. Only a few were represented though. In June, 1888, in the parlor of the 
Palace Hotel, we held an impromptu conclave, within the great conclave of the 
National Convention. Never again till the roll-call on judgment day shall we 
all assemble as on May 30, 1883. 

Five of our number are already waiting quietly on the other side. Early in 
life and in teaching they laid down book and pencil. One by one we shall join 
them, for an immortality of advancement, to be graded as our work and disci- 
pline here have fitted us, for already eternity's work is begun. Infinity can 
only multiply it. 

CLASS OF DECEMBER, 1883, BY LIZZIE B. CREW (MRS. CANFIELD). 

Of all the classes that have graduated from the Normal School ours claims 
peculiar distinction. It was the first Christmas gift from our dear Alma Mater 
to this glorious State, and the last class in which honors were granted. Two 
points, truly, that should make us extraordinarily proficient. 

One of the Faculty, Professor Braly, who was our class teacher during two 
years of our course, left the Normal with us to make his home in Fresno. 

While we were Seniors, Professor More went to take charge of a Normal 
School among the orange groves of Los Angeles, and Professor Kleeberger 
came to fill his place. 

On Commencement day, as is usually the custom, one of the Faculty is 
appointed to address the graduating class, and we feel much gratified at hav- 



96 Historical Sketch. 



ing had Professor Norton, that dearly loved teacher, appointed to perform this 
duty. We were the last class that he thus addressed. The class motto, 
" Onward, the palm awaits you," was taken as his subject. His thrilling words 
concerning the palms in the world beyond, awaiting those who righteously do 
their duty here, will ever ring in our minds and hearts and be incentives to 
noble work. 

The two years spent in the beautiful City of San Jose and in the Normal 
School, although at times our tasks were difficult, constitute an epoch in our 
lives full of satisfaction and pleasure. 

The opening exercises of the school were particularly interesting. At twenty 
minutes before nine all of the school and Faculty assembled in the Normal 
Hall, where reports were given by the monitors of each class. To get up for the 
first time before the four hundred present was a trying position for a new 
monitor, as the writer can testify. An anthem was then sung by the school and 
a passage of Scripture read by our honored Principal, Professor Allen. The 
chanting of the Lord's Prayer, which followed, was one of the most impressive 
things to which I have ever listened. It hardly failed to bring tears to the 
eyes of one hearing it for the first time, or of one feeling a little homesick. 

From nine to twelve and one to two-thirty o'clock was devoted to recitations, 
the classes passing from one room to another, each teacher having his own room. 

Ten-thirty P. M. was the prescribed hour for retiring, so from three o'clock to 
that time the studying for the next day must be done. If on our reports the 
retiring hour was often later than half-past ten, our preceptress, Miss Wright, 
would call us into her office and give us one of her characteristic "quiet talks." 

While we were Seniors, lectures often varied the monotony of every day 
work, and we were particularly blessed by having the talented lecturer, Major 
Dane, with us frequently during that time. 

The well filled library presided over by our faithful friend, Miss Royce, was 
a source of never failing pleasure. 

Miss Walker, ever ready to sympathize with the down-hearted, tried to make 
us grammarians, and it is too bad that we who have left the school-room do not 
remember more of her excellent precepts. 

Space forbids a mention of every teacher, but each holds his own place in 
our love and esteem, and the tie that bound us in the few short years of our 
intercourse has grown with our growth and strengthened with our strength. 

A LEAF FROM OUR CLASS HISTORY. CLASS OF DECEMBER, 1884, BY LOTTIE 

MATTHIS. 

To-day, as I sit thinking of the past, I can scarcely realize that more than 
four years have elapsed since we, the Christmas Class of '84, left our Alma 
Mater, to follow our chosen profession. 

Most of us have been so busy that the days have passed almost as quickly as 
those spent in our dear old Normal. We think of those school days with 
pleasure, notwithstanding the many discouragements we encountered in toil- 
ing up the hill toward that long-sought summit, graduation. 

We stumbled often, and sometimes feared falling so far (below the average) 
that we should be compelled to begin the ascent once more. But kindly cheer 
from patient instructors gave us fresh courage, and we pushed on again. 

From the first day we were called together in the assembly hall, we felt there 
was a great work to do, and a great something attainable by each of us. 

During the first week of examination, and consequent assignment to classes, 
what strangers we were. Only two familiar rooms, Room K and the assembly 
hall. There were few familiar faces, and as yet, not even a teacher we could 



State Normal School. 97 

call our own. When the classes were finally arranged, and our programme for 
Junior work was given us, we realized that the great work was about to begin. 

"Room G, Arithmetic." What that part of the programme signified we 
learned later, when shingles, carpets, brick houses, and bushel measures were 
showered upon us mercilessly. 

" Room I, Physiology." An amoeba was our first acquaintance in physiology, 
and Miss Washburn was not long in convincing us that even a bit of proto- 
plasm was not to be despised. Later on in the work, many representatives of 
the species feline were sacrificed to science. Poor kitty ! On one occasion, 
even a mouse ventured forth to drop a pitying tear. However, some of the 
young ladies failed to understand the object of its visit, and created such a 
sensation that mousey retreated in alarm. 

" Room E, Bookkeeping." Under Professor Childs' able instructions we 
learned the proper use of red ink, day-book, and journal; and when the ten 
weeks' report reached us, many students learned furthermore that our liabili- 
ties far exceeded our resources in the bookkeeping department. 

" Room K, Grammar." We ascertained, with a wonderful degree of accuracy, 
that there was yet something in connection with personal and relative pro- 
nouns which we had failed to find in our previous study of them. "The ribbon 
was an inch wide," brought several members of the class to grief. 

" Room C, Reading." A full study hour was to be devoted each evening to 
reading, regardless of the discomfort experienced by nervous landladies, who 
were startled from their slumbers by such cries as " Fire ! fire ! fire ! " " Sweet 
California oranges ! " " Bring out yer old clo' ! " 

Last, but not least, came our music hour. Professor Elwood often found his 
burden hard to bear, for the sopranos would lag along behind the more wide 
awake altos. " Keep up, stragglers ! " pronounced very abruptly, often had the 
desired effect, in recalling them to consciousness. 

Drill in marching occupied an occasional half hour, and not proud were the 
Junior B's when they received the title of "Crazy Class." Their sorrow gave 
way to joy a few days later, when one of the more advanced classes marched 
like a "flock of sheep." 

For five months we followed the Junior programme, striving for promotion 
into the Middle Class. This object attained, we turned our attention to bugs, 
cotyledons, gravitation, amendments, battles, binary compounds, essays, Anglo- 
Saxon abstracts, etc. 

Dear to the heart of every student is the memory of those green pencil marks 
which came weekly from the hand of Professor Kleeberger, who presided over 
chemicals and unknown quantities. 

History hour was occasionally enlivened by a debate or a thrilling incident 
from real life. 

Professor Braly labored patiently to impress upon our minds the principles of 
specific gravity and hydrostatics. 

Who does not remember the speeches which were written, committed to 
memory, and delivered under the directions of Miss Thompson? The criti- 
cisms written upon said speeches were worthy of remembrance also. 

The name of Professor Norton is dear, so dear to us all. How vividly we 
recall the many hours spent with that beloved teacher who has since been 
called to his better home ! Not in one subject, but in all things did we receive 
his able help. How much we owe to him for the example of his pure, noble 
life! 

Besides the class work, many students took an active part in various literary 
and debating societies of the school. The Philomathean was one of these, and 
lived long and weU. 



98 Historical Sketch. 



The Senior year was, to many, the pleasantest part of the Normal work. 
Many warm friendships had been formed among schoolmates, as well as 
between teachers and pupils ; and the tie which bound the class together grew 
stronger as we neared our journey's end. 

However, there was yet much hard work to be done before graduation. Our 
struggles with chemical experiments and unknown quantities were not yet 
ended, and composition, which took so much time, was to be varied now with 
bits of poetry. Not many of the poems written were published, and, it is 
thought, few were kept in manuscript form, as all efforts to obtain one for these 
reminiscences have been in vain. 

The word laboratory suggests to our minds visions of broken test tubes, 
fumes of H Cl, large calico aprons, and fearful explosions. 

Daily visits to the museum were made for geology's sake. The trip to Alma- 
den will doubtless be remembered by many of the would-be mineralogists. 

Our work in literature and in rhetoric, with Miss Wright as teacher, was 
usually well prepared, except on days following receptions or " star gazings." 
The latter generally took place on the Normal grounds, and on one occasion 
at the uncanny hour of three A. M. 

From the beginning of our Normal course much attention had been given to 
methods in teaching; and our attentive faculties were stimulated by the well 
known fact that the time would come when we should be given an opportunity 
for putting theory into practice, as pupil-teachers in the Training Department. 
The news came at last that Senior A. was to go down stairs, and the stoutest 
heart quaked, for well we knew how much depended upon this test of our abil- 
ity in school management. Of critics there was no lack, for in each class room 
was stationed an able body of Senior A's and B's, each individual armed with a 
pencil and open note book, all ready for an attack upon order, neatness, manner, 
or discipline. Miss Wilson and Miss Sargent made frequent calls, and seemed 
to write a great deal in a small note book. 

Days had grown into weeks and weeks into months ere our work in that 
department was declared finished. Joyfully we hastened back to our former 
class room Room K but sadness mingled with our joy when we realized that 
the work of the Senior year was finished, and that preparations must be made 
for our departure. Thursday, December eighteenth, was the day chosen for 
the graduating exercises. On that day we met together as pupils for the last 
time. When our diplomas were conferred, we felt that we had received our 
reward for the work completed, but that a much greater work was yet before 
us, which, if faithfully done, would insure a far richer reward. So we bade 
farewell to schoolmates, and to those faithful teachers who had guided us so 
carefully in the past, and went forth, each to take a part in the responsible 
work of life. 



SCHOOL PERIODICALS. 
(EDWARD L. SPINKS, Class of June, 1889.) 

A history of the school would be incomplete without some men- 
tion of its periodicals, their origin, aims, and work. The first 
attempt at journalism of which there remains any record in the 
school was made in 1867. In that year appeared a small written 



State Normal School. 99 

sheet, called the "Acorn," interesting to us now chiefly from its 
being the beginning of what has followed. Only a few numbers 
remain, 'but from these may be gained an idea of what the paper 
was. It consisted of witticisms and poems, and essays on literary, 
scientific, and educational topics, all in manuscript. It was read 
monthly before the school society by members of the same. The 
elegant penmanship, the neatly ornamented covers, and the dainty 
bows of ribbon show that its importance was appreciated by those 
having it in charge. 

After the disappearance of the "Acorn " there seems to have 
been no school paper for several years, but on May 20, 1880, the 
first printed sheet, " The Class Paper," afterwards " The Senior 
Journal," was given to the world. A complete file, dating from 
May, 1880, to December, 1885, having been preserved, it appears 
that the paper, or journal, was a semi-annual publication, and, 
as the names imply, was devoted to the interests of the Senior 
Classes. It contained the class and graduating exercises, and 
served a good purpose in keeping alive a class and school spirit. 
Its first numbers, each containing four pages, equal to about six 
quarto pages, were issued in newspaper form. Later supplements 
were added, and the last issue, December, 1885, appeared as a 
pamphlet of twelve large octavo pages. Each number was filled 
with excellent articles, to some of which are attached names that 
have since become familiar to all members of the school. 

But the school was growing; some regular medium of com- 
munication, some means of giving expression to school ideas, some 
tie to unite graduates more closely to each other and to their Alma 
Mater, was needed; and the best means of supplying this want 
was a recognized school paper. To these circumstances and con- 
ditions, the "Index" owes its existence. But circumstances do 
not make a paper; work must be done; and though, after the 
enterprise was well under way, many took an active part, to the 
energy and perseverance of Messrs. H. F. Clark, L. J. Lathwesen, 
and H. G. Squier are due the organization and establishment of 
the paper. Though the matter was agitated during the spring 
term of 1885, not till August of that year did the Senior Classes 
come together and take the decisive steps. 

Mr. H. F. Clark, Xmas, 1885, was unanimously chosen editor- 
in-chief, with the Misses Addie C. Spafford, Myra A. Parks, Fan- 
nie McKean, and Mary E. Lynch as associates, Mr. Lathwesen as 
manager, and Mr. Squier as assistant. 



ioo Historical Sketch. 



The first issue, a little yellow-covered journal containing eight 
pages of literary matter for the nourishment of Normal minds, 
and as many more of " ads " for the financial support of the paper, 
appeared in October, 1885. 

Like all new things, the " Index " was subjected to adverse criti- 
cism, and received as well its share of commendation. One en- 
thusiastic admirer was heard to remark, "Well, the school now 
has something to be proud of." Another not an admirer, said, 
"Pshaw! it won't survive the Christmas pudding, but will die of 
the colic before New Year's day." But it lived to become strong 
and healthy; and, being now the recognized school representative 
and newspaper, it has, we hope, become a permanent part of the 
institution. 

In December, 1885, the Senior Classes of the Los Angeles Nor- 
mal were induced to take part in conducting the paper. This 
department was continued till February, 1888, when the last con- 
tributions were received. Since then, all matter for publication 
has been supplied by our own school, and, we may add, the col- 
umns have always been well filled. 

At present the "Index" contains twelve quarto pages of read- 
ing matter, divided into six departments. The editorial contains 
short articles of interest to the school and to the teachers; the 
literary consists of poems, essays, and class exercises; in the edu- 
cational and scientific are found essays on appropriate subjects, 
hints to teachers, items of information, and lesson plans from the 
Training School. "Alumni " is a bureau of personal information 
for graduates; and "All Sorts," as the name suggests, is a miscel- 
laneous collection of sense and nonsense, wit and wisdom, fact 
and fancy, intended for amusement. 

The paper is under the management of the Senior Classes, the 
editor-in-chief and half the members of the staff being chosen 
from the Senior A Class, the business manager, his assistant, and 
the remaining members of the staff from the Senior B. Reporters 
for "Alumni " and "All Sorts " work are appointed in all classes, 
and articles and items for all departments are received from pupils, 
graduates, and teachers. The paper receives the hearty support 
of the Faculty, and its literary merits are largely due to the assist- 
ance of the teachers of rhetoric and literature. Since the discon- 
tinuance of the "Journal," the "Index" has published the class 
and graduation exercises. 



State Normal School. 101 

The money for carrying on the paper is supplied by advertising 
and subscription rates. The present circulation, chiefly among 
pupils and graduates, is about four hundred. The expense is 
small, as the officers receive no pay for their services, and nothing 
but printing and binding is to be paid for. 

The "Index" is doing a good work; for it is now firmly estab- 
lished, and, as one friend has said, "The period of experiment is 
passed, and it has carved for itself a place among the foremost 
school journals of the land." 

The latest venture in school journalism, the " Model Magazine," 
began its career in September, 1888. It is a semi-monthly sheet 
written by members cf the Model Class, and read before the 
Model Society. The editor and assistant being chosen anew for 
each issue, zest is given to the work by inspiring each with a 
desire to make his number the best. The result is a paper which 
in matter and execution is a credit to class and teacher. His- 
tory, science, and literature are discussed, the articles appearing 
as essays, poems, extracts, biographical sketches, etc., sometimes 
neatly illustrated by drawings. All the work is done by the 
pupils. The chief aims are to lead the pupils to become familiar 
with the important points of our history, to study scientific facts 
and principles, to learn something of the best authors and their 
works, to improve in language and composition, and, above all, to 
cultivate a taste for good reading and an aptitude for investiga- 
tion. 



IO2 



Historical Sketch. 



ATTENDANCE AND GRADUATES. 



SCHOOL YEAR. 


NORMAL DEP'T. 


5 


Training Dep't _ 


o 

2 

I; 

i p 


Annual Cost Per 
Capita in Nor- 
mal Dep't \ 


NUMBER OF GRADUATES. 


Annual Percent- 
age Graduates 
Normal Dep't_ 


| 

I 


Gentlemen. 


! 


1 


o 

5T 

5 

CD 

P 


1 


1862-63 .. 
















4 
18 
19 
25 
27 
37 
26 
40 
17 
13 
16 
28 
36 
30 
36 
48 
36 
41 
32 
62 
79 
72 
96 
82 
87 
103 
112 


~T 

4 

8 
4 
11 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
9 
8 
6 
10 
8 
6 
2 
13 
14 
16 
13 
18 
11 
18 
17 


4 
19 
23 
33 
31 
48 
29 
44 
21 
17 
20 
33 
45 
38 
42 
58 
44 
47 
34 
75 
93 
88 
109 
100 
98 
121 
129 




1863-64 


















1864-65 


















1865-66 


















1866-67 


















1867-68 


















1868-69 


180 
166 
132 
152 
130 
130 
271 
369 
395 
430 
402 
352 
375 
452 
524 
499 
450 
425 
544 
526 
507 


18 
22 
32 
29 
29 
36 
57 
65 
64 
70 
70 
58 
57 
96 
109 
101 
78 
72 
88 
71 
60 


198 
188 
164 
181 
159 
166 
328 
434 
459 
500 
472 
410 
432 
548 
633 
600 
528 
497 
632 
597 
567 








$40 00 


15% 


1869-70* 
1870-71 














73 00 
66 00 
94 00 
90 00 
53 00 
40 00 
52 00 
48 00 
70 00 
81 00 
77 00 
55 00 
47 00 
67 (0 
76 00 
76 00 
60 00 
65 00 
68 00 


13% 

n<y 

13% 
14% 

, ll 
9% 
11% 
8% 
14% 
15% 
15% 
20% 
20% 

16% 
20% 
23% 


1871-72 








1872-73 








1873-74 . 


32 

62 
67 
78 
103 
76 
58 
57 
52 
48 
45 
38 
56 
59 
t 
t 


114 

98 
134 
128 
109 
113 
109 
101 
103 
115 
115 
135 
129 
136 
196 
218 


312 
488 
635 
665 
712 
661 
577 
590 
703 
796 
760 
701 
682 
827 
793 
785 


1874-75 


1875-76 


1876-77 


1877-78 


1878-79 


1879-80 


1880-81 


1881-82 


1882-83 


1883-84 


1884-85 


1885-86 


1886-87 


1887-88 


1888-89 _ 


Totals 














1,222 


221 


1,443 























Owing to frequent changes in Principalship during the early 
history of the school, and the subsequent loss of records by fire, 
all the statistics now obtainable with reference to attendance dur- 
ing the first six years, give only the number of new pupils admitted 
each year as follows: 

Number of new pupils admitted, 1862. 31 

Number of new pupils admitted, 1863 62 

Number of new pupils admitted, 1864 75 

Number of new pupils admitted, 1865 83 

Number of new pupils admitted, 1866 100 

Number of new pupils admitted from January to May 30, 1867 34 

Total (ladies, 319; gentlemen, 66) 1 385 

Number of new pupils admitted for school year 1867-68, about 
one hundred and twenty-five. The complete record for this year 
is lost. 

* First half year. The record for the second half of this year is lost. 

f Preparatory Class abolished in 1887. The number in the Training Department for the last two 
years includes the Model Class. 

JThis estimate is made upon appropriations for support only, and does not include cost of build- 
ings, or special appropriations for library, furnishing, apparatus, improvement of grounds, etc. 



State Normal School. 



103 



WORK OF GRADUATES. 





8 


H3 





!3 


g 


fe! 


b 


ts 


9 


a 


f 


g 


to 


4 


S"? 


CLASS. 


>tal Number in Class. 


5. Known to have 
lughtsince Graduat'n. 


.who have not Taught 
since Graduation 


> Report as to Teach'g. 


)w Teaching in Cali- 
fornia 


)w Teach'g elsewhere. 


I 


igaged in Mercantile 
and other Business 


irmers 


<* 

| 


1 


| 


). held office of Co. 
Superintendent 


.since Graduat'd from 
ligher Institutions 


. Pursu'd Higher Stud- 
sat other Institutions. 


May 1863 


4 


3 


1 




1 




1 


















May 1864 


19 


17 


1 


1 


7 




2 








1 










Dec 1864 


9 


6 


1 


9 


1 




1 








1 










May 1865 


14 


13 


1 




5 




1 


















Dec ' 1865 


11 


10 




1 


3 




2 








2 






1 




June 1866 


22 


21 


1 




8 


1 


4 


1 






1 






1 




June 1867 


31 


27 


1 


3 


q 




6 








1 




9 






Nov 1867 


10 


4 




fi 


9 




1 








1 










May 1868 


38 


24 


4 


10 


2 




6 


2 


1 


2 






1 






May 1869 


29 


28 


1 




7 




3 












1 






Mar 1870 


44 


40 




4 


10 




5 


1 




3 






1 


1 




Mar., 1871 


21 


19 




2 


5 




1 


9, 


1 














Mar., 1872 


17 


17 






5 




1 




1 




1 




3 






Mar 1873 


20 


19 


1 




7 




1 


1 






1 




2 






Mar 1874 


33 


26 


2 


5 


5 




5 


1 




1 




1 








Mar 1875 


45 


40 


3 


9 


13 




4 


9 


1 


1 






2 


1 




Mar., 1876 


38 


37 




1 


9 




4 


8 












1 




Mar. 1877 


42 


42 






14 




2 


? 


1 


1 










3 


May, 1878. 


58 


53 


2 


3 


18 


2 


6 


2 


1 


1 








1 




May, 1879 


44 


39 


3 


2 


16 




2 


1 


3 


1 






1 


1 


1 


Jan., 1880* 


2 


2 






1 








1 














May 1880 


45 


41 


3 


1 


16 




2 


1 




1 




1 




1 


1 


May 1881 


34 


32 


9 




q 


s 


9 




1 












2 


Jan., 1882* 


1 


1 




























May, 1882. 
Dec., 1882* 


74 
8 


70 

7 


4 
1 


---- 


32 

8 


.... 


2 


4 


3 


1 


1 


.... 


1 


2 


.... 


May, 1883 


85 


81 


4 




43 


s 


4 


2 


1 












1 


Dec., 1883. 


50 


50 






19 


2 


3 


1 








1 


1 






May, 1884. 


38 


37 


1 




?:\ 


1 






1 




1 






1 


5 


Dec., 1884 


51 


51 






31 


9 


1 


1 


? 












1 


May 1885 


58 


57 


1 




36 




3 


1 


9 










9 


2 


Dec., 1885. 


45 


45 






3? 








1 














May, 1886. 


55 


50 


5 




80 


1 


2 


1 










1 


1 


1 


Dec., 1886 


32 


30 


1 


1 


90 


1 




1 
















May 1887 


66 


61 


4 


1 


45 






9 














1 


Dec., 1887. 


60 


52 


5 


3 


43 


1 


1 
















2 


Mav, 1888- 


61 


58 


8 




51 


1 




1 
















Dec., 1888 


58 


48 


10 




43 






















































Totals- 
Class of 
June, 1889 


1,372 
71 


1,258 


66 


48 


625 


18 


78 


33 


21 


12 


11 


3 


16 


14 


20 



































* Diplomas granted at this date, but no regular class graduated. 



104 



Historical Sketch. 



COUNTY REPRESENTATION OF GRADUATES. 

The following table gives the number of graduates from each 
county of California, and from other States and Territories, since 
the organization of the school: 



Alarneda 


95 


Sacramento 


40 


Alpine 





San Benito 


11 


Amador 


15 


San Bernardino 


6 


Butte 


22 


San Diego 


6 


Calaveras 


8 


San Francisco 


16 


Colusa 


7 


San Joaquin 


44 


Contra Costa 


54 


San Luis Obispo 


3 


Del Norte . 


2 


San Mateo 


14 


El Dorado 


18 


Santa Barbara 


4 


Fresno 


12 


Santa Clara 


429 


Humboldt 


23 


Santa Cruz . 


49 


Inyo 


1 


Shasta 




Kern 


2 


Sierra 


10 


Lake 


4 


Siskiyou 


3 


Lassen 


4 


Solano .- _. _ . 


30 


Los Angeles 


10 


Sonoma 


37 


Marin . _ . . 


17 


Stanislaus 


10 


Mariposa 


3 


gutter 


I 9 


Mendocino 


10 


Tehania 


o 


Merced 


10 


Trinity 


2 


Modoc 


3 


Tulare 


12 


Mono 


2 


Tuolumne 


18 


Monterey 


14 


Ventura 


1 


Napa 


23 


Yolo 


11 


Nevada _ . - 


38 


Yuba 


8 


Placer 


20 






Plunias 


1 


Total 


1401 










Arizona 




Ohio 


1 


Idaho 




Oregon 


1 


Illinois 




Pennsylvania 


1 


Iowa 




Utah 


1 


Michigan 




Washington 


4 


Missouri .. 


3 


Wisconsin 


2 


Nevada 


23 






New York 


1 


Total 


42 











State Normal School. 105 



STATE APPROPRIATIONS. 

Totals. 

For the school year 1862-63, support, $3,000; deficiency bill, $1,200 $4,200 00 

For the school year 1863-64, support - 6,000 00 

For the school year 1864-65, support 8,000 00 

For the school year 1865-66, support ~ 8,000 00 

For the school year 1866-67, support 8,000 00 

For the school year 1867-68, support. 8,000 00 

For the school year 1868-69, support. 8,000 00 

For the school year 1869-70, support, $8,000; deficiency bill, $1,500 9,500 00 

For the school year 1870-71, support, $12,000; library, $500 12,500 00 

For the school year 1871-72, support, $12,000; library, $500 12,500 00 

For the school year 1872-73, support, $15,000; library, $500 15,500 00 

For the school year 1873-74, support, $15,000; library, $500; deficiency 

bill, $4,512 88 20,012 88 

For the school year 1874-75, support, $17,500; library , $500 ; apparatus, 

$3,000 21,000 00 

For the school year 1875-76, support, $17,500; library, $500; deficiency 

bill, $5,000 23,000 00 

For the school year 1876-77, support, $24,000; library, $500 24,500 00 

For the school year 1877-78, support, $24,000; library, $500 24,500 00 

For the school year 1878-79, support, $33,300; deficiency bill, $63 17... 33,363 17 

For the school year 1879-80, support 33,300 00 

For the school year 1880-81, support. 33,300 00 

For the school year 1881-82, support, $30,000; furnishing, $10,000; im- 
proving grounds, $25,000. 65,000 00 

For the school year 1882-83, support.. : 30,000 00 

For the school year 1883-84, support 40,000 00 

For the school year 1884-85, support 40,000 00 

For the school year 1885-86, support, $38,000; library, $500; water sup- 
ply and improving grounds, $4,000; painting and repairing building, 

$1,500; museum cases, $500 44,500 00 

For the school year 1886-87, support, $38,000; library, $500 38,500 00 

For the school year 1887-88, support, $39,000; library, $1,000 40,000 00 

For the school year 1888-89, support, $39,000; library, $1,000 40,000 00 

Besides State appropriations, the school has an income from 
tuition fees in the Training Department, which has averaged, for 
the past ten years, about $3,400 annually. 

NOTE. Appropriations for buildings are given elsewhere in the historical 
sketch. 



io6 Historical Sketch. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOL TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

Ex OFFICIO MEMBERS. 
Governors. 

Leland Stanford May, 1862, to December, 18G3. 

Frederick F. Low ..December, 1863, to December, 1867. 

Henry H. Haight December, 1867, to December, 1871. 

Newton Booth ....December, 1871, to February, 1875. 

Romualdo Pacheco February, 1875, to December, 1875. 

William Irwin December, 1875, to January, 1880. 

George C. Perkins January, 1880, to January, 1883. 

George Stoneman January, 1883, to January, 1887. 

Washington Bartlett January, 1887, to September, 1887. 

R. W. Waterman September, 1887, to present time. 

State Superintendents. 

Andrew J. Moulder May, 1862, to December, 1863. 

John Swett December, 1863, to December, 1867. 

Rev. O. P. Fitzgerald- -^ December, 1867, to December, 1871. 

Henry M. Bolander December, 1871, to December. 1875. 

Ezra S. Carr December, 1875, to January, 1880. 

Fred. M. Campbell .January, 1880, to January, 1883. 

Wm. T. Welcker January, 1883, to January, 1887. 

Ira G. Hoitt January, 1887, to present time. 

Surveyor- General. 

J. F. Houghton May, 1862, to March, 1866. 

City Superintendent of Marysville. 

Mayor Fowler May, 1862, to April, 1863. 

City Superintendents of Sacramento. 

Dr. Gustavus Taylor May. 1862, to , 1864. 

Rev. Wm. H. Hill , 1864, to March, 1866. 

Superintendents of San Francisco. 

George Tait 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865. 

John C. Pelton , 1866, to December, 1867. 

James Denman December, 1867, to April, 1870. 

Superintendents of Sacramento County. 

Dr. F. W. Hatch March, 1866, to March, 1868. 

Dr. Aug. Trafton ..March, 1868, to April, 1870. 

Superintendents of Santa Clara County. 

Wesley Tonner ...March, 1866, and part of 1867. 

J. R. Brierly Part of 1867, to March, 1868. 

John H. Braly March, 1868, to , 1869. 

N. Furlong - To April, 1870. 

Superintendents of San Joaquin County. 

Melville Cottle March, 1866, to . 1870. 

W. R. Leadbetter .. To April, 1870. 



State Normal School. 107 

ELECTED MEMBERS. 

Samuel I. C. Swezey April, 1866, to April, 1870. 

J.M.Sibley.. ...April, 1866, to April, 1870. 

APPOINTED MEMBERS. 

Henry O. Weller. .1870 to 1872. 

Andrew J. Moulder 1870 and part of 1871. 

C. T. Ryland..- .1870 to 1881. 

James Denman. 1870 to present time. 

J. H. Braly 1870 to 1873. 

B. Bryant, M.D Part of 1871 and to 1880. 

Ben. Cory, M.D 1872 to 1882. 

T. Ellard Beans 1873 to present time. 

A. S. Evans 1880 to 1884. 

O. W. Childs ...1881 to 1887. 

Ralph Lowe 1882 to present time. 

Lawrence Archer. 1884 to present time. 

T. H. Laine. 1887 to present time. 



loS Historical Sketch. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRINCIPALS. 



AHIRA HOLMES. 

(Principal from July, 1862, to June, 18G5.) 

Ahira Holmes, the first Principal of the first Normal School 
established in California, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
in 1823, and received his primary educational training in the pub- 
lic schools of that historical and puritanical town. He entered 
the State Normal School in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, in 1843, 
pursuing the studies of the course in that institution until the 
latter part of 1847, but teaching in the public schools of his native 
town during the winter months before graduating. After leaving 
the Normal School, he was appointed to the position of Principal 
and Deputy Superintendent of the Boston Farm School, a free 
manual labor institution for boys, located in the suburbs of the 
city. This position he resigned in a little more than a year 
thereafter, having been elected Principal of the Milton Center 
Public Grammar School, in the vicinity of Boston, where he- con- 
tinued to teach until the following year, when he was elected to 
the Principalship of the Brockton, Massachuetts, High School. 

In the early part of 1852, Mr. Holmes came to California, and 
in the following June received from the Board of Education of 
San Francisco an appointment as Principal of the Union Street 
Public School, then designated as the Clarke's Point Public School, 
just established, the fourth school organized by the City Board, 
no system of public schools having been provided for by the State 
Legislature until the previous year. He continued to discharge 
the duties of Principal of this school during the four subsequent 
years. 

In 1856 Mr. Holmes was elected Principal of the Powell Street 
Grammar School, afterwards known as the Washington Grammar 
School, and at the same time received the appointment of Princi- 
pal of the Free Evening School, the first of the kind opened, under 
the auspices of the Board of Education, in the city. He continued 
to perform the duties of Principal of the former school but one 
term, but was afterwards re-appointed to serve as Principal of the 



State Normal School. 109 

Union Street Grammar School, which place he filled during two 
additional years. 

In 1861 Mr. Holmes removed to Los Angeles, where he was 
elected Principal of the only Grammar School then opened in 
that city. Here he continued one year, when, in June, 1862, he 
received from the Board of Trustees of the State Normal School 
an appointment as Principal of that institution. The school was 
opened in San Francisco in the following July, in accordance with 
an Act of the State Legislature, approved May second of the same 
year, and its sessions were continuously held in that city until 
1871, when the school was removed to San Jose. 

At the first daily session of the school only six students pre- 
sented themselves, but during the first part of the semi-annual 
session there were thirty in attendance, and about this average 
was maintained during the term. During the three years Mr. 
Holmes served as Principal of the school there were two hundred 
and thirty students enrolled and in attendance, of which number 
forty-four graduated. Many of these graduates have since success- 
fully filled prominent positions in the schools of San Francisco, 
and other parts of the State. 

Mr. Holmes was ably assisted during the last two years of his 
time of service by Mr. H. P. Carlton and Miss E. W. Houghton, 
and in the Experimental Department by Misses H. M. Clark and 
Kate Sullivan. 

After resigning his position in the State Normal School, Mr. 
Holmes was elected Principal of the Mission Grammar School, in 
San Francisco, and labored in that capacity during two years; 
then resigning, to engage in another vocation in the city. 

He is now living in retirement on a fruit farm in the suburbs 
of San Jose. 

GEOKGE W. MINNS. 

(Principal from June, 1865, to June, 1866.) 

George W. Minns was born in the City of Boston in 1813, and 
received his early education in a private Primary School and in 
the public Grammar and English High School of that city. He 
was fitted, under private tuition, for Harvard University, from 
which he graduated in 1836. For two years he attended the 
Howard Dane Law School, receiving the degree of LL.B. He 
then entered the office of the Hon. Rufus Choate, where he 



T i o Historical Sketch. 

remained for two years, and was admitted to practice law in all 
the Courts of the State. 

In 1854 he came to California, via Cape Horn. Through the 
failure of Page, Bacon & Co., with whom he had been advised to 
deposit his money, he was left penniless, and learned, as many 
others have, "that even heavy gold has wings and can fly away 
as swiftly as paper money." 

The succeeding failure of Adams & Co., and of other bankers, 
caused great business depression, and Mr. Minns, seeing from an 
advertisement that the City Board of Education intended to estab- 
lish a High School, with liberal salaries, applied for and was 
elected to the Professorship of Natural Science. He did not 
receive his appointment, however, until he had stood a running 
fire of examination, conducted by members of the Board, and by 
doctors, lawyers, and ministers, for about three weeks. He ac- 
cepted this position, as there was very little law business, and he 
desired to have his family with him; but, he adds, "none of the 
liberal promises made by the Board were fulfilled." 

He was connected with the school about ten years as long as 
both sexes attended. On the separation and the establishment 
of the Girls' High School, he was offered the choice of the Prin- 
cipalships, and chose that of the Boys' High School, being its 
first Principal. After holding this position one year, he was 
called to the Principalship of the State Normal School, then in 
San Francisco. This was done, although at the time the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction held a letter from Mr. Minns 
declining to be a candidate. This letter, he informed Mr. Minns, 
he had "kept in his pocket." Mr. Minns held the Principalship of 
the Normal School but one year. He returned to Boston, and for 
nearly fourteen years taught in the east. He was connected with 
the Eagleswood Military Academy in New Jersey, with Washing- 
ton University in Missouri, and with the Boston Latin High 
School. After this he established in Concord, Massachusetts, a 
private school, in which he fitted young men for Harvard. 

At the instance of John Swett, his intimate friend, he was 
invited to a position in the Girls' High School, of San Francisco, 
in 1880. Thinking a change of climate might be beneficial to 
the health of his children, he accepted this position, which he 
held until 1888. 

During the latter part of this time, he was visited by a serious 
calamity, viz.: a cataract in each eye. An operation was per- 



State Normal School. 1 1 1 

formed, and both crystalline lenses removed. His eyes are now 
so strong that he can read line print. 

His present residence is in the town bearing the distinguished 
name of Newton, in the State of Massachusetts. 

From Mr. Minns' autobiographical letter the following is taken 
verbatim: 

For five years I was Principal of the City Normal School of San Francisco. 
I lectured before the first State Teachers' Institute held in California, and at 
various times since. I hold the first certificate issued to a teacher by the State 
Board of Education. 

My work in a literary line has been contributions to college magazines, to law 
reviews, and the preparation of a series of lectures or essays on the most emi- 
nent American poets. 

I have spent the best part of my life in teaching. The life of the faithful 
teacher is laborious. It can truly be said that most teachers are overworked 
and underpaid, and yet there are compensations. The teacher is amply re- 
warded for all his toils who creates in those under his charge a love of knowl- 
edge, who gains their good will, esteem, and affection. Teaching, like the 
quality of mercy, is twice blessed : " It blesseth him that gives and him that 
takes." There is a quid pro quo of considerable value to be derived, not only 
from the diversions many and various which recesses and school hours afford, 
but also from the contemplation of many various and good points of pupils. 
Their thoughtlessness may lead to many objectionable traits and habits; as, for 
example, idleness, mischief, disobedience. On the other hand, nearly all of them 
are open, generous, good natured, very affectionate, forgiving everything in 
their teachers except partiality and injustice. That teacher is less adorned 
with graces than are the average of his pupils who cannot say of them, "With 
all their faults, I love them still." 



HENRY P. CARLTON. 

(Principal from June, 1866, to July, 1867, and from February to May, 1868.) 

Henry P. Carlton was born in Andover, Essex County, Massa- 
chusetts. His education, up to the age of twenty, was confined 
to the district school, which, after the manner of his time and 
place, was kept open only during the winter months. His work 
was that of a New England farmer's boy. For five or six winters, 
beginning with that of his eighteenth year, he taught a district 
school. He was twenty-one years old when he entered the South 
Andover High School, where he fitted for the classical course in 
the Vermont University. On account of his ability as a writer 
and speaker, he was given, at the close of the sophomore year, the 
place of honor on the programme of the public exercises of his 
class. Ill health compelled him to leave college, never to return. 



1 1 2 Historical Sketch. 

After a six months' sea voyage, he was engaged for several years 
in an insurance business in Philadelphia. 

In 1853 he came "around the Horn" to California, and, in the 
fall of that year, was made Principal of the North Beach Grammar 
School. Four years later he was elected Principal of the Powell 
Street Grammar School. This position he resigned in 1861, to go 
East. Upon his return, he accepted the offer of a deputyship in 
the office of John Swett, State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, where he remained till October, 1863, when he was elected 
assistant in the State Normal School, where he labored as Vice- 
Principal and Principal until March, 1873. 

His special work in the school was physiology, natural history, 
and mental philosophy, applied to teaching. The text-book in the 
latter study was Russell's work, and the first class completing the 
course in Normal Training remember well John Swett's expression 
of delight and surprise at their proficiency. Mr. Carlton's lessons 
in physiology and his enthusiasm in zoological work strongly 
impressed his pupils. While he was connected with the Normal 
School he made a collection of nearly all the then known species 
of land and freshwater shells of the Pacific Coast. 

Mr. Carl ton exerted a marked influence for good over the grow- 
ing characters of his pupils. Many of them remember with grati- 
tude his intense interest in their moral welfare, and his anxiety 
that they should grow in things spiritual as well as in things 
intellectual. 

After leaving the Normal School, he taught a few years in the 
Boys' High School and some of the Grammar Schools of San 
Francisco; but the onerous labor of the school-room was too great 
for his physical condition, and he has not taught for the last ten 
years. In these years he has done excellent literary work in 
school journals and other San Francisco papers. He now resides 
in Oakland. For the last thirty years he has been a teacher in 
Sabbath schools. 

Any just estimate of Mr. Carlton's work must take into account 
the fact that physical weakness continually oppressed him. Pain 
and weariness were his almost constant companions. His ideal 
is so high that he estimates his successful life work a failure. 
Few have been so useful. His three-score years have been well 
spent. 



State Normal School. 113 

GEORGE TAIT. 

(Principal from July, 1867, to February, 1868.) 

George Tait was born in 1831, in the City of New York, and 
was reared in the State of Virginia. He received his education 
at the University of Virginia, then in the most flourishing period 
of its history. He began his career as a teacher in Virginia, and 
before he was twenty-one. In 1853, at the age of twenty-two, he 
came to California, and went into the French Bank at San Fran- 
cisco, teaching school in the evening. In 1857 he was appointed 
Principal of the Denman School, and served as such until 1861, 
when he was elected City Superintendent of Schools. In 1863 
he was reflected. During his term of office he advocated many 
reforms, particularly in the interest of the primary schools, which 
he thought should, in regard to the character of their teachers, 
their buildings, and other appliances of education, rank first in 
every school department. Next in importance to the judicious 
selection of teachers, etc., in primary schools, he considered the 
work of examining, classifying, and promoting pupils. This work 
was then performed by the Committee on Classification, aided by 
the Superintendent. Mr. Tait considered this system inadequate, 
and proposed, in its stead, to commit the task to the grammar 
masters, under the supervision of the committee, and at the same 
time to relieve the masters of the charge of any one class, so that 
they might attend to the general interests of their schools. In 
his efforts to better the condition of our schools and to raise their 
standard, he sought inspiration in the wisdom and experience of 
the leading educators of the East, and in his views on the subject 
he was supported by the Board of Education. 

He also was a warm advocate of religion in the school, and 
thought the banishment of all religious instruction from the class- 
room a slur on the morals of the community. Educational 
authorities differ very much on this important subject, but Mr. 
Tait insisted strongly upon the excellent moral effect of reading 
the Scriptures, without comment on the part of the teacher, how- 
ever. During the years of his incumbency, the practice prevailed 
in New York and Boston, and was made compulsory bylaw; and, 
in fact, prevailed in this State at least, in the schools of San 
Francisco, in 1852, but soon after fell into disuse. He also be- 
lieved in the American system of co-education, but, at the same 
time, he advised the introduction of the European system into a 



1 1 4 Historical Sketch. 

certain number of schools, in view of the strong prejudice of our 
foreign element against the former system. He thought this con- 
cession necessary in order to extend to the greatest possible num- 
ber the inestimable benefits of a common school education. 

In 1867 he was appointed Principal of the State Normal School, 
then located in San Francisco. His connection with that institu- 
tion was, however, very brief, for stress of private business neces- 
sitated his resignation in 1868. In that year he moved, with his 
family, to Oakland, intending to devote himself thenceforth exclu- 
sively to his business interests. However, after a short residence 
in that city, he was prevailed upon by friends to undertake the 
task of organizing the schools of the young city. His long expe- 
rience in San Francisco was of the greatest advantage to him in 
this work. Soon afterwards he became connected with Brayton's 
College School, and when the College of California became the 
University of California, he was made one of its professors, and 
also given charge of the Preparatory Department. He resigned 
in 1873. With the exception of a term as member of the Board 
of Education of San Francisco, in 1876-7, his educational career 
ended here. After this he traveled in Europe for many years. 
He died suddenly in 1888, at Alameda, California. 

Thus, the best years of his life were devoted to the cause of 
education. He was a natural teacher, and loved his profession. 
He often remarked that the happiest hours of his life were spent 
in the school-room. Those who knew him well will testify to his 
worth, and praise his great services to the State of California. If 
any man ever exaggerated the advantages of a liberal education, 
it was Mr. Tait, and in the education of the masses he looked for 
the solution of the social question. 

The character and importance of Mr. Tait's work may be well 
estimated by reference to the points enumerated in an address by 
Professor Minns, Principal of the State Normal School, delivered 
upon the occasion of the presentation of a silver service to Mr. 
Tait, then about to retire from office, in which he calls attention 
to the important services rendered by Mr. Tait, and which were 
as follows: 

1. Obtaining from the State Legislature an Act authorizing the 
transfer of $60,000 from the General Fund to the School Fund. 
This money was used for building purposes. 

2. Improving the finances of the department. Before he was 
Superintendent there was always a deficit in the School Fund; 



State Normal School. 1 1 5 

during his entire term of office it showed a surplus. Teachers 
were paid in cash instead of in scrip; and the business of the 
department was conducted upon a cash basis. 

3. Improving the condition of the primary schools, by provid- 
ing better and healthier accommodations for the children. 

4. The revision of the by-laws of the Board, and of the school 
regulations. 

5. The introduction of a graded course of instruction in primary 
and grammar schools, thereby shortening the course from ten to 
seven years. 

6. Restoring the practice of reading the Bible, without note or 
comment. 

" It was also upon his recommendation," says Mr. Minns, "that 
Principals were directed to assemble their pupils annually, on the 
day preceding the birthday of Washington, and to read and 
explain to them extracts from Washington's farewell address, 
and to combine therewith such expressions as are likely to kindle 
in the breasts of the rising generation a holy and inextinguishable 
love of country." 

DR. WILLIAM T. LUCKY. 

(Principal from May, 1868, to August, 1873.) 

Dr. William T. Lucky was born in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, 
April 14, 1821. 

When fourteen years of age, with his parents, he removed to 
Illinois. At the age of sixteen he went to McKendrie College, 
Lebanon, Illinois. There he entered upon a regular course of 
study, and remained in the college until he graduated with the 
honors of his class, in August, 1842. On the same day on which 
he received his diploma, he was elected professor of mathematics 
in his alma mater, and after teaching two years, his resignation 
was received with deep regret. 

In August, 1844, Dr. Lucky was married to Miss Mary Searritt, 
and in October following removed to Fayette, Missouri, for the 
purpose of establishing a first class High School. This was his 
first individual enterprise, and it seemed a very small beginning, 
as he opened his school in Fayette with six pupils, and closed on 
Friday afternoon of the first week with two. But Dr. Lucky was 
of sanguine temperament and full of energy, and his peculiar 
faculty as an instructor, his rare talent for governing, together 



1 1 6 Historical Sketch. 

with his genial manner, soon filled his school-rooms, and there, 
with uninterrupted success, he taught for seventeen years. Mean- 
time, under Dr. Lucky's labor and direction, the High School 
increased, developed, and finely resulted in Howard Female Col- 
lege and Central Male College, both of which are now in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

In 1847 Dr. Lucky was ordained a regular minister in the 
Methodist Church, but did not receive special appointments as 
a pastor. He regarded teaching as his special calling and pro- 
fession. To become a thorough, useful, Christian educator was a 
fixed desire and purpose of his life, and he felt that to be vested 
with the authority of a Christian minister would increase his 
opportunities for doing good in his chosen field of labor. 

Almost in the beginning of the late war, these two colleges, 
with near three hundred students in attendance, were suspended, 
and the buildings occupied by soldiers during a greater part of 
the war. While things were in this unsettled condition, Dr. 
Lucky was warmly solicited to come to the Pacific Coast and 
take charge of a Methodist college at Vacaville, in Solano County. 
He came to California in 1861, accepted the position as President 
of Pacific Methodist College, in which he remained five years, and 
through many discouragements was successful in building up a 
fine school. 

From Vacaville Dr. Lucky went to Alameda, with the intention 
of opening a select seminary for young ladies, but was delayed 
in his plans for want of suitable buildings. At this time he was 
elected Principal of the Lincoln High School in San Francisco. 
After filling this position for one year with marked success, he 
was elected Principal of the State Normal School, of which he 
had charge five years three years in San Francisco and two 
years after it was removed to San Jose. 

While living in San Francisco, Dr. Lucky became interested 
in the moral and spiritual welfare of the many prisoners in San 
Quentin, and volunteered his services as chaplain for two Sabbaths 
in each month, and for over two years he was faithful to this new 
post of duty, employing every means possible to cultivate the 
better principles of their nature and induce them to reform their 
lives, and become honest men. It was largely the result of his 
individual effort and labor that a chapel was built when the 
prison was enlarged, and quite a large library of books was 
donated by the different churches of the city. 



State Normal School. 1 1 7 

In 1873 Dr. Lucky removed to Los Angeles, and there was 
appointed Principal of the High School and City Superintendent. 
In both of these positions he was successful and popular. 

In 1876 he made a visit to his many friends in the East. While 
there he visited the Centennial, attended the National Educational 
Convention in Baltimore, which convened in July, and a State 
Convention in St. Louis. He was urged to remain East and 
accept the Presidency of his alma mater, and also warmly solic- 
ited to return to Fayette and take charge of one of the colleges 
he had been instrumental in founding. But, after having been 
identified with the educational interests of California for fifteen 
years, he chose to decline the kind offers made him there, and to 
return to California, to take his place in the ranks and his part 
in the labor of elevating, improving, and carrying on the grand 
system of education in this glorious State. 

Though Dr. Lucky had a good constitution and seemed in per- 
fect health for many years, yet thirty years of mental labor and 
continued taxation of brain work, proved too much for even him. 
He was suddenly stricken down with disease which soon devel- 
oped into paralysis of the brain, of which he died in San Francisco 
August 21, 1876. 

" Dr. Lucky was a man of no ordinary powers, a man of even 
balance, a clear thinker, an extraordinary teacher, and an impres- 
sive preacher. But few men were more active and energetic than 
he in whatever he engaged in, and never seemed to tire in his self- 
imposed task, and but few men have impressed themselves upon 
more minds than did he. The record of his work is with us, his 
reward is on high. His life of unselfish labor and usefulness will 
remain a lasting monument to his memory." 



CHARLES H. ALLEN. 

(Principal from August, 1873, to July, 1889.) 

Charles H. Allen was born in Mansfield, Tioga County, Pennsyl- 
vania, February 11, 1828. He received his early education in 
the common schools, taking one term afterward in Condersport 
Academy. From here he went to Jamestown, Chautauqua County, 
New York, with the idea of continuing his education. He was 
compelled by illness to relinquish his desire for a higher educa- 
tion, a spinal curvature producing such serious nervous disturb- 
9 



1 1 8 Historical Sketch. 

ance that physicians pronounced it necessary that he should give 
up all mental labor. Here he entered a workshop, and learned 
a trade. Being of a strong mechanical turn, he rapidly acquired 
skill in the various departments, and was soon an expert cutler. 
His taste for mechanics has followed him all through his life, and 
a " workshop " has been his principal place of amusement. 

From his place in the shop he was unexpectedly called to finish 
a term of school, the teacher a former teacher of his being com- 
pelled to resign because of ill health. Mr. Allen taught his first 
school here, at the early age of fifteen. With no thought of becom- 
ing a teacher, he returned to the workshop at the end of the term, 
and resumed what he thought would be his life work. But it was 
ordered otherwise. His success in the school-room had been so 
marked that he was called back to the same school for a longer 
term, and at a considerable advance in the meager salary paid. 
During this term of school he read Abbott's Teacher and Page's 
Theory and Practice of Teaching, and from these learned that 
teaching is anything but drudgery. From the reading of these 
books, followed by "My School and Schoolmasters" dates the 
beginning of his career as a teacher. 

Mr. Allen taught in the common schools of western New York 
for several years, working at his trade during vacations. During 
this period he attended for one term a Regents, or Normal Class, 
in the Westfield Academy. 

While teaching in Busti, New York, he was, upon the recom- 
mendation of the County Superintendent, granted a New York 
State certificate, a certificate granted only upon great excellence 
in the art of teaching. 

He was now called to the Smethport Academy, in McKean 
County, Pennsylvania, where he soon became Principal, and 
began the training of teachers. At this period, also, began his 
institute work, which has continued all through his life. 

His health failing, from overwork, he became a land surveyor 
for a few years. He held the position of surveyor for the Ger- 
man colony which settled upon the tract of land first purchased 
by Ole Bull for a Danish colony. During this period he regained 
his health, and, in addition, "picked up" a fair smattering of the 
German language. 

From Germania he was called to Westchester, Pennsylvania, 
to take the position of Associate Principal of a Normal School. 
During the long vacation of the Normal School he went to Wis- 



State Normal School. 119 

consin, at the invitation of Chancellor Barnard, to take charge of 
several Teachers' Institutes. Here he was induced to remain for 
several months, to complete the work and aid in compiling the 
proceedings. Chancellor Barnard was compelled to resign his 
position and give up his work in Wisconsin, upon which event 
Mr. Allen was elected agent of the Normal School Regents of the 
State, and given in charge the Institute work and the supervision 
and examination of the Normal classes, held then in some of the 
colleges, academies, and high schools. For several years he 
carried on this work, holding institutes in different parts of the 
State, and lecturing in almost every hamlet. Tiring of the per- 
petual strain of this severe labor, he opened a private Normal 
Class in the Madison High School building. At this time, also, 
he was made City Superintendent of Schools. The demand for 
a Normal School was clearly indicated by the patronage extended * 
to this Normal Class, and before the expiration of a year the Re- 
gents of the University of Wisconsin invited Mr. Allen to take .. 
charge of a Normal Department in the University. He accepted 
the invitation, and entered the University as a Professor of Nor- 
mal Instruction. To him belongs the credit of first opening the 
doors of the University to women. While holding the professor- * 
ship in the University, Mr. Allen raised a company of students, 
and went to Memphis as Captain of the company. His company 
formed a part of the " Hundred day men," of whom so much 
was said and written. Returning, "honorably discharged," he 
resumed his work, but was again compelled to give up teaching 
by failing health. He resigned his position, and spent some 
months in a general life insurance office in Cincinnati. He was, 
however, soon called back, and made President of the first Nor- 
rnal School in Wisconsin, at Platteville. Here he organized the 
Normal School work of the State, and also took charge of the 
erection of the new building. 

A severe attack of bronchitis compelled him again to give up 
his work, and hoping for the benefits of a change of climate, he 
went to Portland, Oregon, where he opened and carried on, for 
eight months, the Bishop Scott Grammar School, as head master. 
This work was not to his liking. The climate, however, restored 
his health, and he returned and worked a year as Institute Agent 
in Wisconsin. While at work in an Institute there, he received 
his notification of an election as Professor of Natural Science in 
the Normal School at San Jose, California. This position he 



I2O Historical Sketch. 

accepted, and in a short time reported for duty. After serving 
one year as Professor of Natural Science, he was elected, August 
4, 1873, Principal of the School. 

Of Mr. Allen's work in California, both as the head of the Nor- 
mal School and in Institutes, little need be said. His educational 
ability may be best estimated by a study of the growth of the 
School, and his method of work, by the extracts from his reports, 
to be found in the body of this work. That his duties have been 
various and heavy, no one can doubt. In addition to the labor 
of Principal, he has had charge of the completion of the old build- 
ing, the erection of the present building, the improvement of the 
grounds, and the erection of the building at Los Angeles; and 
the Normal School building at Chico has had also a share of his 
time and attention. 

The wonder is not that, after nearly seventeen years of work in 
California, his health should give way, but rather, considering 
the nature and amount of work he has accomplished, that it has 
not given way before. 

With an experience that few men have had, Mr. Allen retires 
to his mountain ranch, to enjoy the evening of a busy life. 

This sketch of the life and work of Mr. Allen cannot be more 
fittingly closed, than by giving in full the official resolutions 
unanimously adopted by the Board of Trustees, on accepting 
his resignation: 

Among the customs or rules that a refined civilization has given us, none 
is imbued with more gravity than that which is devolved upon collective bodies, 
both public and private, of expressing, upon the death or retirement of a fellow 
member or employe", the regard and esteem in which he is held, and to which 
he is entitled by reason of his mental and moral worth, and his faithful, valu- 
able, and long-continued services. 

This custom is sanctioned by the most elevated sentiments that find lodg- 
ment in the human breast; and the outward expression, while exhibiting the 
gratification of conscientious duty in a worthy personal cause, is yet tinged 
with the sorrow and regret of a personal loss. 

The Board of Trustees of the State Normal School, at San Jose", are called 
upon to avail themselves of this custom, to discharge themselves of this trust. 

We have made it our duty pleasant in that which affects a knowledge of the 
past, unpleasant in that which looks towards the narrow line dividing the past 
from the future, and which shows a vacuum that can never be filled while old 
associates hold a place in our memories to say for you all what individually 
we know you would say, and much better, for yourselves. 

Professor Charles H. Allen is about to leave us. His connection with the 
school is soon to be closed. We have been compelled, sorrowfully, to accept 
his resignation, on account of his continued ill health, a long abstinence from 
work being imperative. In a word, he asks us for his life; and, as physicians, 
who are his friends, we are obliged to present the only prescription that will 



State Normal School. 121 



meet his case. And we do this in the sincere and earnest hope that rest and 
relaxation may bring back the strength he has lost, and that his future days 
may be long and happy. 

For seventeen years he has been connected with the school, sixteen as Prin- 
cipal; seventeen years of faithful, conscientious, laborious work. His influence 
has been deep, strong, far-reaching. By his teaching, by his management, by 
his labors on the State Board of Education, by his personal advice and coun- 
sel, and by his example, he has shaped the destinies of hundreds of men and 
women, many of whom are now highly honored by the State, and are the pil- 
lars of its present strength, and the hope of its future prosperity. His guidance 
has ever been in the line of truth and right, as well as purely intellectual appli- 
cation, and the power of his kindly Christian mind has been exerted upon all 
whose good fate has led them, as seekers for knowledge, within the portals of 
this grand educational edifice. 

California the whole coast, in fact owes him a debt of gratitude that can 
never be repaid. 

In view of all these facts, it is meet that this Board should give appropriate 
and emphatic expression of its sentiments ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That in the retirement, on account of ill health, of Professor Charles 
H. Allen, the State Normal School at San Jose" is deprived of the services of a 
competent and faithful educator, a wise counselor and friend, a conscientious, 
painstaking, and talented fellow laborer, and an honest, large hearted, Christain 
gentleman; that we part with him in unfeigned sorrow and regret, not only on 
account of personal esteem and regard for his many able qualities, but also 
by reason of the vast scope, important, and high moral and intellectual char- 
acter of the work that he has accomplished during his connection with the 
school, the Board, and the educational affairs of the State generally; that he 
goes from among us with our best wishes and deepest sympathies, and that the 
State ought not to forget, as it assuredly never will, one who has done such 
grand work in her moral and inteUectual behalf. 

^Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be spread upon the 
records of this Board, and that an engrossed copy be prepared under the direc- 
tion of the Executive Committee, and presented to Professor Allen. 

SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA, June 24, 1889. 

RALPH LOWE, 
T. H. LAINE, 
IRA G. HOITT, 
Committee on Resolutions. 



C. W. CHILDS. 

(Principal from July 1, 1889-) 

C. W. Childs was born in 1844, in Geneseo, New York; gradu- 
ated at the Wauwatosa High School, Wisconsin, in 1860, and at 
the outbreak of the rebellion served for a short time in the army. 
Subsequently he came to California, and began his life work in 
teaching a public school at Cold Springs, El Dorado County. 
Mr. Childs at that time was not of age, yet achieved marked 
success at the very commencement of his career as a teacher, 



122 Historical Sketch. 

and as years have rolled on fresh laurels have been added con- 
tinuously to his pristine success. After teaching several years in 
California, he entered the State Normal School, and was graduated 
in 1867. 

Finally he took a course in a commercial college in San Fran- 
cisco, and, thus equipped, returned to his life work. Shortly after 
finishing his commercial course he assumed the duties of Princi- 
pal of the High School at Suisun, which position he held for eight 
years. Here he won a brilliant reputation as a progressive edu- 
cator, and gained for the school the reputation of being one of the 
best in the State. By his efforts the school was supplied with 
efficient apparatus for all necessary purposes, and among other 
things not especially in the curriculum of a public school, he 
taught the boys how to set type, both as an accomplishment and 
for recreation. In acknowledgment of his worth as a teacher 
and his eminent fitness for the position, he was nominated and 
elected to the office of County Superintendent of Public Schools 
of Solano County for two successive terms, almost without oppo- 
sition. Capable, energetic, and enthusiastic, his administration 
of the office could not but be a success, and as a sequence of well 
earned laurels, at the close of his term of office, in 1878, Mr. Childs 
was elected to the position of teacher in the State Normal School, 
and in 1886 he was elected Vice-Principal. In June, 1889, he was 
made Principal. Here has he especially accomplished beneficial 
results in the interests of education. The State at large feels his 
influence for good. Popular with the students, possessing the 
confidence and esteem of his fellow teachers, he has won an envi- 
able reputation. Mr. Childs is an untiring student, and, though 
not a collegiate, is a fine scholar. He is the author of " Topical 
Outlines of History," " Topical Outlines of the Constitution," and 
"The Essentials of Bookkeeping," three exceedingly valuable 
handbooks for the use of teachers and pupils. In conclusion it 
may be said: As a teacher, he is progressive; in methods, direct 
and comprehensive; clear and explicit in explanation of knotty 
problems, and one who recognized the value of drawing and of 
Normal training in schools carried to the highest extent. As a 
man, genial, courteous, affable, not puffed up with conceit, but 
modest and unassuming. A man among men. His pupils love 
him, and the teachers of California respect him and acknowledge 
his worth. 



State Normal School. 123 



LIST OF TEACHERS. 



The names of teachers are given in order, according to the time 
at which they came into the school. In all cases where it could 
be obtained, an outline of the preceding and succeeding educa- 
tional work of each is given. In the case of some of the teachers 
connected with the school during its early history, these points 
can not be learned, because of death or removal. A few of those 
whose addresses are known have failed to respond: 

HELEN M. CLAEK. Native of Canada. Graduate of the Toronto Normal 
School, where she taught several years. Principal of Training School, Octo- 
ber, 1862, to May, 1864. Assistant in Training School, September to December, 
1865. Taught several years in the San Francisco schools. Afterwards became 
Mrs. Boyle. Resides in San Francisco. 

KATE SULLIVAN. Assistant in Training School, November, 1862, to May, 1864, 
Principal of Training School, July, 1864, to June, 1865. Afterwards taught in 
San Francisco public schools until her death, July 17,1879. Further particulars 
cannot be obtained. 

MARY R. HARRIS. Assistant in Normal Department, January, 1864, to Feb- 
ruary, 1864. Resigned to take a position in San Francisco schools. Further 
particulars unknown. 

MARY D. BODWELL. Assistant in Normal Department, February, 1864, to 
May, 1864. Resigned to take a position in Girls' High School, San Francisco. 
Further particulars unknown. 

ELIZA W. HOUGHTON. Native of Massachusetts. Educated in public schools 
of Massachusetts and at Mount Holyoke Seminary. Was a pupil of George R. 
Emerson, in Boston, three years. Taught in Harrisburg Seminary, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Providence High School, Rhode Island; in Normal School from 
July, 1864, to April, 1877, with leave of absence during, part of 1869 and part 
of 1876. Was Preceptress from August, 1873, to April, 1877. Has not taught 
since. Present address, San Jose*. 

MRS. C. H. STOUT. Principal of the Training School, September, 1865, to fall 
of 1868. Afterwards became Mrs. Shillaber. Resided in San Francisco several 
years. Died a year or two ago. Further particulars cannot be obtained. 

MRS. MARY L. SWETT. Native of Connecticut. Educated in Thompson Acad- 
emy, Connecticut, and San Francisco public schools. Graduated at San Fran- 
cisco Evening Normal School. Received State educational diploma November, 
1865. Vice- Principal of Training School, January, 1866, to June, 1867. Teacher 
in the Normal School, August, 1867, to December, 1867. Has not taught since. 
Married to John Swett, May 8, 1862. Has four children. Present address, 
Martinez, California. 



124 Historical Sketch. 



MRS. C. R. BEALE Assistant in Normal Department, July, 1866, to June, 
1867. Resigned to take a position in Girls' High School, San Francisco. Fur- 
ther particulars not received. 

MRS. P. C. COOK. Assistant in Training School part of school year 1867-68. 

MARY HEYDENFELT. Assistant in Training School part of school year 

1867-68. 

A. L. FITZGERALD. Assistant in Normal Department, spring term, 1868. 
Miss BUSH. Assistant in Normal Department, spring term, 1868. 

MRS. DORCAS CLARK. Educated in Canada. Was a teacher of many years' 
experience when elected to a position in the California State Normal School. 
Assistant in Normal Department from May, 1868, to March, 1873. Specialties, 
mathematics and history. Has taught most of the time since in Girls' High 
School, San Francisco. Further particulars have not been received. 

MATILDA LEWIS. Graduate of State Normal School, Oswego, New York. 
Principal of Training School, 1869 to 1871. Afterwards became Mrs. Robert 
W. Jordan, and resided in San Francisco. Died October 3, 1884. 

LETITIA RYDER. Assistant in Normal Department, 1869. 

MARY J. TITUS. Native of New York. Educated in public schools of Wis- 
consin and Oswego Normal School, New York. Graduated February, 1870. 
Taught in Ogdensburg, New York, two and a half years; in San Jose" Normal 
School since November, 1872. Was Principal of Training Department ten 
years; away on leave of absence one year; teacher in Normal Department 
since August, 1883. Specialties, mathematics and pedagogy. Preceptress 
since August, 1888. 

LUCY M. WASH BURN. Native of New York. Educated in New York public 
schools and Academy, Normal School at Fredonia, Vassar College, and Cor- 
nell University. Taught one year in Westfield Academy, New York; one year 
in Academic Department of Normal School, Fredonia, New York; two years 
in Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Virginia; in Normal School, 
San Jose", from March, 1873, to present time, with leave of absence of one year. 
Specialties, mathematics, physiology, and zoology. 

CORNELIA WALKER. Native of New York. Educated in New York and Minne- 
sota, in public schools and seminaries, and in Normal School at Winona, Minne- 
sota. Taught in city schools of Minnesota four years; in Normal School at St. 
Cloud, Minnesota, four years ; Root's Normal Musical Institute, Chicago, one 
season; in Normal School, San Jose", since November, 1873. For the first year, 
was teacher of Preparatory Class; since November, 1874, in Normal Depart- 
ment. Specialties, grammar, literature, and pedagogy. 

J. H. BRALY. Native of Missouri. Educated in public schools and Univer- 
sity of Pacific, California, and in Cumberland University, Tennessee, from which 
he graduated in 1859. Taught in public schools of California six years, and in 
private academies five years. Superintendent of Schools in Santa Clara County, 
1868-69. Was Vice- Principal and teacher in Normal School, San Jose", from 
August, 1873, till resignation, December, 1883. Specialty, natural philosophy. 
Married in 1861 to Miss Martha Hughes. Six children, three living. Present 
address, San Diego. 

FLORENCE GRIGSBY (Mrs. E. C. Singletary). Native of Wisconsin. Educated 
in public schools of Wisconsin and in California State Normal School, from 



State Normal School. 125 

which she graduated in 1874. Taught in Primary Class of Training Depart- 
ment from June, 1874, to November, 1876. Married January 11, 1877. Two 
children. Resides in San Jose". 

ANNIE E. CHAMBERLAIN. Native of Wisconsin. Graduate of Normal Depart- 
ment, University of Wisconsin. Taught in Milwaukee High School several 
years; in Normal School, San Jose", from November, 1874, to March, 1879. Spe- 
cialty, mathematics. Has since taught two years in the Milwaukee Academy, 
and rive years in the High School. Present address, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

PHEBE P. GRISGBY (Mrs. Jas. T. Hamilton). Native of Wisconsin. Educated 
in district schools of Wisconsin and in Platteville Normal School. Graduated 
in 1871. Taught in Wisconsin public schools three years; in Normal School, 
San Jose", from November, 1874, to December, 1885. For nine years of this time 
was teacher of the Preparatory Class ; for the succeeding two years, taught in 
the Junior Class. Not taught since. Married June 7, 1881. One child. Address, 
1013 Scott Street, San Francisco. 

HENRY B. NORTON. Native of New York. Educated in public schools of New 
York, Wisconsin, and Illinois, Beloit College, Wisconsin, and State Normal Uni- 
versity, Illinois. Taught in public schools of Illinois, in Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity, and seven years in State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. Teacher 
of science in San Jose" Normal School from June, 1875, to June, 1885. Special- 
ties, chemistry, zoology, and physical geography. Professor Norton died at his 
home, in the Santa Cruz Mountains, June 22, 1885, of congestion of the brain. 

Resolutions adopted, December 11, 1885, &.y the Board of Trustees of the Normal 

School. 

Resolved, That by the death of Professor Henry B. Norton, the State Normal 
Schools have received a deep wound and sustained a great loss. His life and 
labors were altogether beneficial. He was an excellent teacher, and a constant, 
industrious, successful student. Whatever he learned by study, investigation, 
or observation, was freely given to the scholars and utilized to the benefit of 
his students. His influence upon the common schools and the cause of edu- 
cating the people, through his services at Teachers' Institutes, was great and 
good. His coming was welcome; his departure a matter of regret. His career 
as a citizen was a life pure, useful, without stain. His work and his influence 
were always healthy and inspiring to good ; his life was a lesson. 

Resolved, That, as Trustees of the school, where he labored well and success- 
fully, we tender to his widow and bereaved children our sincere condolence, 
because we, too, are partakers with them in a great and melancholy loss. 

IRA MORE. Native of Maine. Educated at Bridgewater Normal School, 
Massachusetts (graduated in 1849), and Yale College (graduated in 1855). 
Taught in Massachusetts public schools six months; Bridgewater Normal 
School, one year; Chicago Normal School, one year; Illinois Normal Univer- 
sity, four years ; Principal of Normal School, St. Cloud, Minnesota, seven years ; 
teacher in Normal School, San Jose", July, 1876, to June, 1883. Specialties, 
mathematics and physical geography. Since that time has been Principal of 
State Normal School, Los Angeles, California. Married April 16, 1857, to Miss 
Lucy C. Drew. Two children living. 

HELEN S. WRIGHT. Native of New York. Educated in public schools and 
academy, Fredonia, New York, and Boston Art School. Preceptress of Fre- 
donia Academy between five and six years (during this time the school was 
made a Normal School); Preceptress, Academic Department, Potsdam Nor- 



126 Historical Sketch. 

mal School, two years; teacher in a seminary in Kentucky, two years; teacher 
in Normal School, San Jose", from June, 1876, to June, 1888. Specialties, En- 
glish language and literature. Preceptress from August, 1877, to June, 1888. 
Absent during school year 1888-89, on leave of absence, traveling in Europe. 

MARY E. WILSON (Mrs. T. C. George). Native of Wisconsin. Educated in pub- 
lic schools and California State Normal School. Graduated in 1875. Taught 
one year in public schools of Santa Clara County ; critic teacher in Primary 
Class, Training Department, six years, 1876 to 1882; Principal of Training 
Department, six years, 1882 to 1888. Married June 7, 1888, to Professor T. C. 
George, of University of the Pacific. Has since spent a year traveling in 
Europe. Address, San Jose". 

RUTH ROYCE. Native of California. Educated in public schools and State 
Normal School. Graduated in 1877. Taught in Preparatory Class, two years; 
substitute teacher and assistant in Junior Classes, three years ; Librarian since 
1881. 

MARY E. B. NORTON. Native of New York. Educated at Rockford Seminary, 
Illinois, and in Berlin, Germany. Taught two years in public schools of Illinois 
and Iowa ; fifteen years in Rockford Seminary, Illinois ; one year, International 
Academy, Berlin ; in Normal School from January, 1878, till resignation, Decem- 
ber, 1888. Specialties, botany and geography. Address, San Jose". 

FRANCES L. WEBSTER (Mrs. L. I. Fish). Native of New York. Educated in 
New York public schools and State Normal School at Potsdam, from which she 
graduated in 1875. Taught one term in State Normal School at Leavenworth, 
Kansas; two years in Iowa State Normal School; in San Jos6 Normal School 
from August, 1878, to March, 1881. Specialties, elocution and composition. 
Not taught since. Married March 31, 1881. Two children. Address, Martinez, 
California. 

MARGARET K. SCOTT. Native of Indiana. Educated in California public and 
State Normal Schools, and in Oxford Female College, Ohio. Taught in public 
schools of California; in Training Department of San Jose" Normal School, two 
and a half years, beginning August, 1879. For past six years has been teaching 
in Los Angeles, as Grammar School Principal. Now Principal of Eighth Street 
School. Has spent the past year traveling in Europe. 

JESSICA G. ALLEN. Native of New York. Educated in public schools and 
State Normal Schools, Platteville, Wisconsin, and San Jose", California. Gradu- 
ated in 1877. Taught in public schools of California one year; in Junior Class 
of Normal School, five months spring term, 1880. Has taught for past four 
years in Hester School, San Jose". Married July 20, 1880. 

ADDIE MURRAY. Native of New York. Educated in public and Normal 
Schools of Minnesota. Graduate of Normal School, Winona, Minnesota. 
Taught in public schools of Minnesota and California. Was Principal of 
Model Department of Normal School at St. Cloud, Minnesota, 1874 to 1876. 
Substitute teacher in San Jos6 Normal School, two years, beginning August, 
1880. Subjects taught, grammar, arithmetic, and bookkeeping. After leaving 
the Normal School, was Principal of the New Almaden School one year, and 
has taught in Los Angeles six years, most of this time as a Grammar School 
Principal. Is now Principal of Amelia Street Grammar School, Los Angeles. 

ELIZA B. BARNES. Native of Rhode Island. Educated in public schools of 
Rhode Island. Taught in public schools of Rhode Island, nine years; in public 



State Normal School. 127 

schools of San Francisco, six years; in Normal School, San Jose", from January, 
1881, to resignation, May, 1884. Specialty, drawing. After a prolonged visit in 
the Eastern States, returned to California, where she is now teaching. 

G LORA F. BENNETT. Native of New York. Educated in district schools of New 
York and Normal Schools at Brockport and at Geneseo, New York. Taught in 
district schools of New York, two and a half years; State Normal School at 
Geneseo, two years; High School in Michigan, one year; seven years in public 
schools of California; in Normal School since August, 1881. Specialty, English. 

LIZZIE P. SARGENT (Mrs. Lizzie P. Wilson). Native of California. Educated 
in public schools and Normal School. Graduated in 1875. Taught in public 
schools of California, six years; in Training Department of Normal School 
since October, 1881. Was critic teacher in Primary Class, five years; in Gram- 
mar Class, one year. Principal of Training Department since September, 1888. 
Married August 2, 1888. 

GEORGE R. KLEEBERGER. Native of Wisconsin. Educated in public schools 
of Wisconsin, State Normal School, Platteville, Wisconsin, Yale College, Con- 
necticut. Taught in public schools of Wisconsin as Principal, four years; 
Connecticut, two years. Teacher of science in Normal School, Whitewater, 
Wisconsin, three years. Taught in public schools of California as Principal, 
three and a half years ; in Normal School, San Jose, from February, 1882, to 
present time. Specialties, chemistry and geology. Married ifApril 19, 1879. 
Three children, one living. 

MARY P. ADAMS. Native of Wisconsin. Educated in public schools and San 
Jose Normal School, from which she graduated May, 1879. Taught one year in 
public schools; as assistant in Training Department, August, 1882, to March, 
1884; as teacher of music and critic teacher in Intermediate Class of Training 
Department from August, 1887, to present time. 

ISABELLA G. OAKLEY. Graduate of Packer Collegiate Institute, New York. 
Taught over twenty years, principally in private institutions. Taught in Nor- 
mal Department, spring term, 1883. Afterwards taught one year in Los Angeles 
Normal School. When last heard from was teaching in Santa Barbara. 

JESSICA B. THOMPSON (Mrs. A. H. Washburn). Native of Illinois. Educated 
in public schools of Illinois, San Jose" Normal School, and University of Mich- 
igan. Taught in Normal School from August, 1883, to December, 1889. Spec- 
ialties, literature and language. Married January 22, 1889. Not teaching. 

A. H. RANDALL. Native of Maine. Educated in Maine Wesleyan College 
and Maine Normal Schools. Principal of Stockton High School, California, 
from 1867 to 1883. Teacher in Normal School from January, 1884, to present 
time. Specialties, physics and geometry. Married February, 1869, to Miss 
Fannie H. Moore. 

JENNIE M. HAMMOND. Graduate of Normal School, 1878. Taught in public 
schools, six years; assistant and critic teacher in Intermediate Class of Train- 
ing Department from February, 1884, to May, 1887. Address, San Jose. 

FANNIE M. ESTABROOK. Native of Illinois. Educated in Illinois State Nor- 
mal School and National School of Elocution at Philadelphia, and has taught 
elocution twelve years. Taught reading and elocution in San Jose Normal 
School from August, 1884, to present time. 

GERHARD SCHOOF. Native of Hanover, Germany. Graduate of Gymnasium 
of Clausthal and Military Academy of Hanover. Taught in the San Francisco 



128 Historical Sketch. 

public schools from March, 1876, to August, 1884; in Normal School from 
August, 1884, to present time. Specialty, drawing. Was Principal of the San 
Jos6 Evening Schools, two terms. Married November 28, 1877. Three children. 

MYRTIE C. HUDSON. Native of Ohio. Educated in public schools, San Jose" 
Normal School (class of '78), and University of Michigan (class of '85). Taught 
in public schools of California six and a half years ; in Normal School from 
January, 1886, to June, 1889. Specialties, composition and history. 

MAMEY MURRAY. Native of California. Educated in public schools and in 
State Normal School, San Jose", from which she graduated December, 1884. 
Taught in public school three years ; as assistant in Junior Classes of Normal 
School, January to June, 1887. Has spent most of time since in studying and 
teaching music. Address, Auburn. 

KATE COZZENS. Native of California. Educated in public schools and Nor- 
mal School. Graduated in 1878. Taught in schools of Santa Clara County 
nine years. Teacher of Model Class, Training Department, since August, 1887. 

LAURA BETHELL. Native of Indiana. Educated in public schools of Indiana, 
at convent, and in California State Normal School. Graduated December, 1887. 
Taught language and mathematics in Normal School since January, 1888. 

R. S. HOLWAY. Native of Iowa. Educated in public schools of Iowa. Taught 
in Iowa five years ; in public schools of California as Principal, seven years ; in 
Normal School since January, 1888. Specialties, mathematics and physics. 
Married in 1883. 

MARGARET E. SCHALLENBERGER. Native of California. Educated in public 
schools and State Normal School, San Jose", where she graduated in 1880. 
Taught in San Jose" public schools five years; in Normal Department, one 
term; critic teacher in Primary Class of Training Department since January, 
1888. Has given special attention to clay modeling. 

VOLNEY RATTAN. Native of Wisconsin. Educated in public schools and State 
University, of Wisconsin. Taught in public schools of Wisconsin, two years ; 
country schools in California, five years ; San Jose" Institute, two years ; Oakland 
Military Academy, three years; Principal of Santa Cruz schools, one and a half 
years; teacher of natural science in Girls' High School, San Francisco, thirteen 
years ; teacher in Normal School since January, 1889. Specialties, botany and 
geography. Married September, 1872. Two children. 

NETTIE C. DANIELS. Native of Michigan. Graduate of University of Michi- 
gan. Taught two years in State Normal School at Indiana, Pennsylvania. 
Teacher in Normal School, San Jose", since January, 1889. Specialty, language. 

NANNIE C. GILDAY. Native of Missouri. Educated in public schools and 
academy in Missouri. Taught one year in private school; twelve years in 
public schools of Kansas City; assistant critic teacher in Training Depart- 
ment, Normal School, since February, 1889. Specialties, music, drawing, and 
reading. 



State Normal School. 129 



SPECIAL TEACHERS. 

MDLLE. PAROT Calisthenics 1863-64 

HUBERT BUBOES Drawing 1863, 1864, 1869 

W. ELLIOT Music 1863 and 1864 

C. J. ROBINSON Calisthenics 1864 

F. K. MITCHELL Music 1864 

E. KNOWLTON Calisthenics and elocution 1864, 1869 

DR. CROSSETTE. Music 1869 

Miss HANNAH MILLARD Drawing 1871-72 

OLIVE PARKER Music 1871-72 

Z. M. PARVIN... Music 1876 to May, 1878 

MADAME M. A. HAMM Music 1878-79 

Miss M. D. MCCHAIN.. Reading 1877-78, 1878-79 

MRS. M. F. GUNNING Drawing 1877-78 

PROFESSOR DREW. - Penmanship 1877-78 

J. H. ELWOOD Music 1875 and 1880 to present time. 

MRS. A. E. BUSH Curator of Museum 1878 to present time. 



3 o 



Historical Sketch. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GRADUATES, 

FROM THE FIRST CLASS, MAY, 1863, TO THE THIRTY-SIXTH CLASS, JUNE, 1889, 

INCLUSIVE. 



Abbe, Frank B December, 1883. 

Abshire, Alfred C December, 1888. 

Adams, Charles C December, 1885. 

Adams, Clara A March, 1870. 

Adams, Mary P May, 1879. 

Adams, M. Lydia December, 1886. 

Addicott, Lily A December, 1883. 

Ahlf, George P May, 1883. 

Albee, George B May, 1887. 

Albrecht, Annie F May, 1887. 

Allen, Carl H. ._ December, 1884. 

Allen, Hattie E December, 1888. 

Allen, Jennie A May, 1887. 

Allen, Jessica G. March, 1877. 

Allen, Kara F June, 1889. 

Allison, Arminta E March, 1870. 

Allyne, Lucinda N December, 1864. 

Alvarez.. Adam D May. 1888. 

Anderson, Emily. _ ..May, 1888. 

Anderson, Eula L May, 1888. 

Anderson, Grace L June. 1889. 

Anderson, Julia March, 1877. 

Anderson, Sarah E ..June, 1867. 

Angell, Cora L. . December, 1887. 

Angier, Hattie J May, 1888. 

Anglon. Annie E December, 1888. 

Aniser, Emilie May, 1878. 

Anker, Nana December, 1888. 

Aplin, Evaline V May, 1882. 

Appleby, Kate May, 1881. 

Aram, Mattie L May, 1878. 

Arbogast, Frederick L May, 1888. 

Archer, Louise -May, 1881. 

Armstrong, Mrs. Josie R.-March, 1877. 

Armstrong, Lizzie May, 1887. 

Arnold, George E May, 1886. 

Ashbrook, Martin V.. May, 1864. 

Ashbrook, Truman P May, 1868. 

Ashley, Julia V June, 1867. 

Ashley, Osee E May, 1886. 

Ashurst, Nellie. March, 1872. 



Asmus, Elise M December, 184. 

Atchison, John B December, 1885. 

Atherton, Hattie E December, 1883. 

Augustine, Martha ... December, 1883. 

Auld, Cecilia M March, 1874. 

Avery, Carrie L. May, 1887. 

Ayer, Edith E May, 1885. 

Ayer, Ethel C ...May, 1887. 

Avers, Tidie March, 1876. 

Babcock, Dollie C March, 1876. 

Bachelder, Ella E May, 1868. 

Backus, Hattie E May, 1885. 

Bacon, Horace G December, 1885. 

Baggett, Haddie A. ...December, 1888. 

Bagnell, Estella M May, 1885. 

Bailey, Arline L May, 1888. 

Bailey, Henry R.. May, 1885. 

Hailey, Louis C May, 1887. 

Bailey, Rebecca December, 1888. 

Bailey, Walter S -May, 1882. 

Bailey, William H... May, 1885. 

Baker, Modena I .March, 1877. 

Baldwin, Ellen S -May, 1864. 

Balis, Lola A May, 1882. 

Balis, Lutie M May, 1883. 

Ball, Hannah M December, 1888. 

Ballou, Alice K --May, 1885. 

Bankhead, Belle May, 1888. 

Bankhead, Hugh L May, 1886. 

Bankhead, William R June, 1889. 

Banks, Lizzie March, 1876. 

Bardenwerper, Kate G Myy, 1879. 

Barkley, Lena May, 1886. 

Barlow, Ada S December, 1887. 

Barnes, Emmogene A March, 1875. 

Barnes, Eudora A.._. March, 1877. 

Barrett, Lucy A June, 1889. 

Barrett, Maggie G ..May, 1880. 

Barry, Annie S March, 1877. 

Barthel, Franklin K June, 1889. 

Bass, Mamie. May, 1886. 



State Normal School. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Bassett, Mary P.... March, 1876. 

Bassham, Minnie C ..May, 1881. 

Bateman, Henry _ March, 1875. 

Baugh, Florence December, 1884. 

Beaizley, Alice E May, 1884. 

Beal, Charles R March ; 1872. 

Beaty, James G May, 1883. 

Beckman, Mamie T May, 1886. 

Beckwith, Carrie. May, 1885. 

Beckwith, Kate B May, 1882. 

Beckwith, A. Rose -May, 1881. 

Beers, Adrianna L. June, 1867. 

Beggs, Ida December, 1884. 

Beggs, R. Lizzie May, 1879. 

Bell, Mary ....May, 1869. 

Bell, N. Jane March, 1871. 

Bellew, Katie C .June, 1889. 

Bellingall, Julia L June, 1889. 

Benjamin, Julia I March, 1871. 

Bennett, Addie S December, 1884. 

Bennett, Clare December, 1887. 

Bennett, Eva May, 1887. 

Bennett, Ida M May, 1880. 

Bennett, Minnie A March, 1874. 

Benson, Clara A December, 1888. 

Bent, Lottie May, 1881. 

Berger, Lillian. December, 1887. 

Berry, Annie M May, 1888. 

Berry, Lauren J May, 1883. 

Bertola, Mariana June, 1889. 

Betancue, Lizzie C May, 1868. 

BethelJ, Laura December, 1887. 

Bevans, E. Margaret June, 1867. 

Beverly, Victoria... May, 1864. 

Bickford, Grace May, 1887. 

BicknelU Bertha A March, 1870. 

Bigsby. Emma A June, 1867. 

Billings, Ella G December, 1883. 

Bird, Belle.... March, 1877. 

Bird, Maggie M May, 1882. 

Bird, Mary-.-... March, 1874. 

Black, Anna E December, 1883. 

Black, James A December, 1888. 

Black, E.May March, 1877. 

Black, William J. May, 1883. 

Blackford, May F December, 1888. 

Blackstaff, Mary E. D. ...March, 1874. 

Elaine, Cora A May, 1883. 

Blodget, William O May, 1885. 

Blythe, Alice -May, 1878. 

Bodley , Julia May, 1885. 



Boke, George H December, 1887. 

Bondshu, Charles F. May, 1887. 

Bonnell, Lucy May, 1868. 

Bonney, Sarah F March, 1876. 

Bose, Anna I... May, 1888. 

Botsford, Lucy E December, 1883. 

Boulware, Millie R May, 1878. 

Bowers, Lillian -May, 1880. 

Bowman, Mary S May, 1880. 

Boyer, Annie B May, 1878. 

Boyle, Sarah J _. March, 1870. 

Bradley, Mattie -May, 1885. 

Bradshaw, Georgia L..December, 1888. 

Bradshaw, Wm. R December, 1864. 

Braly, Josephine December, 1883. 

Brauer, Car ri e May , 1886. 

Braun, Christiana H May, 1882. 

Breyfogle, Nellie M. .. December, 1886. 

Bride, Laura E May, 1885. 

Broadbent, Elijah December, 1864. 

Bromley, Kate I May, 1883. 

Brooks, Edward R March, 1874. 

Brown, Ada F May, 1881. 

Brown, F. Alice May, 1880. 

Brown, Esther A ...June, 1889. 

Brown, Floribel C May, 1880. 

Brown, Julia B May, 1868. 

Brown, Julia S December, 1885. 

Brown, Mary I March, 1877. 

Brown, Samuel A March, 1877. 

Brown, Susie M -May, 1887. 

Brown, William W May, 1879. 

Brownell, Elmer E May, 1884. 

Browning, Lizzie M. ..December, 1888. 

Browning, Mary E December, 1885. 

Bruch, Louis March, 1873. 

Bruch, Louise L.. May, 1878. 

Brunhouse, Fred G. ..December, 1888. 

Brunhouse, Mary C May, 1883. 

Bryant, Annie -May, 1869. 

Buckley, Annie P May, 1886. 

Buckley, Emma S March, 1875. 

Buckman, Samuel F May, 1869. 

Burrill, Mary Alice March, 1870. 

Burston, Selina G May, 1878. 

Burt, Minnie Clara. March, 1875. 

Bush, Jennie R December, 1883. 

Bushnell, Emma H.... May, 1885. 

Butts, Frank A ..May, 1884. 

Cahill, Josephine March, 1873. 

Calhoun, Jessie I -May, 1884. 



132 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Calhoun, Nannie L May, 1885. 

Calhoun, Virginia C May, 1884. 

Cameron, Augusta S June, 1865. 

Camp, Alice December, 1884. 

Campbell, Amey T June, 1866. 

Campbell, Anne B March, 1876. 

Campbell, Cornelia E June, 1865. 

Campbell, Grace May, 1886. 

Campbell, Ida A May, 1888. 

Campbell, Mrs. Orpah May, 1888. 

Campbell, Ruth G. -May, 1869. 

Carey, Mrs. Aimee L May, 1886. 

Carey, Elmer E May, 1880. 

Carey, Susie D. L May, 1864. 

Carmichael, M. Emeline.-.-May, 1883. 
Carothers, Leonora M. ...March, 1870. 

Carpenter, Ida M May, 1881. 

Carpenter, May March, 1877. 

Carr, Maggie E May, 1885. 

Carr, Mary C June, 1889. 

Carr, Mary E March, 1875. 

Carrau, Celina R March, 1871. 

Carroll, Anna March, 1873. 

Carruthers, Isabel ..March, 1870. 

Carswell, Abbie June, 1866. 

Carswell, Ella W March, 1874. 

Carver, Lue J.. May, 1883. 

Casey, Joanna T March, 1870. 

Casserly, Cillinda A May, 1887. 

Cassin, Bella R May, 1886. 

Gas well, Annie. --May, 1880. 

Cathcart, Annie May, 1868. 

Cauch, Frank R May, 1885. 

Cauch, Fred L May, 1886. 

Cearley, Emma S May, 1878. 

Chaloner, Louis B. May, 1878. 

Chaloner, Mary L. .May, 1882. 

Chambaud, Angeline. December, 1883. 

Chambaud, Sarah May, 1884. 

Chandler, Kittie A May, 1883. 

Chapin, Thomas L. May, 1882. 

Chaplin, Alice M March, 1877. 

Chapman, Amelia R May, 1878. 

Chapman, E. Mattie June, 1867. 

Chase, Carrie M June, 1867. 

Chase, Hattie M May, 1879. 

Chew, Mary F._ May, 1883. 

Chickering, Belle May, 1884. 

Childs, Charles W .June, 1867. 

Chipman, Lemuel J March, 1873. 

Chipman, William T -May, 1882. 



Church, Lillian E December, 1887. 

Churchill, Clara Belle March, 1876. 

Churchill, Jennie December, 1887. 

Cilker, Jennie A June, 1889. 

Cilker, Martha E December, 1887. 

Clark, Charlotte K March, 1875. 

Clark, Ida E._ May, 1883. 

Clark, Harry F December, 1885. 

Clark, Hattie G March, 1871. 

Clark, James E March, 1870. 

Clark, Lida C December, 1883. 

Clark, Lizzie M May, 1883. 

Clark, Mary P .June, 1867. 

Clark, Rose M. December, 1887. 

Clark, Tillie M May, 1885. 

Clarke, Mabel S December, 1887. 

Clayes, Lola B .December, 1884. 

Clayes, Madge M May, 1887. 

Clayton, Henry A May, 1883. 

Clayton, Julia May, 1864. 

Clayton, Kate J J une, 1867. 

Clift, Elizabeth B December, 1888. 

Cochrane, Annie December, 1884. 

Cocks, Roxa S .November, 1867. 

Coffman, Alfred B._ May, 1882. 

Coffman, Jennie A May, 1888. 

Coffman, Nelson B May, 1878. 

Coffman, Pelham H May, 1882. 

Colby, Julia C December, 1888. 

Colby, Mary A March, 1870. 

Cole, Eugene C May, 1883. 

Cole, Marie March, 1875. 

Coleman, Ella -May, 1885. 

Com stock, Bertha -May, 1863. 

Congdon, Georgietta N Dec., 1884. 

Conlin, Anne F December, 1885. 

Conmy, Ellen A .March, 1871. 

Conn, Frances S .December, 1885. 

Conn, Isabella May, 1882. 

Connell, Gertrude .June, 1889. 

Cook, Anne Edith May, 1888. 

Cook, Mary A December, 1885. 

Cooper, William W May, 1888. 

Cope, Lizzie May, 1868. 

Cormack, Jessie M May, 1887. 

Cory, Ben B .December, 1883. 

Cory, Hattie May, 1886. 

Cory, Lizzie ..March, 1874. 

Cory, Susie May, 1884. 

Cosgrave, George June, 1889. 

Cotter, RichaitfG May, 1888. 



State Normal School. 



133 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Cottle, Fannie A May, 1887. 

Cottle, Lizzie C May, 1884. 

Cottle, Mary A March, 1871. 

Coughlin, Mamie A... December, 1887. 

Courter, Henry F March, 1876. 

Cowden, Nina December, 1887. 

Cowie, Anna B March, 1875. 

Cox, Li via M December, 1885. 

Cox, Maggie May, 1887. 

Coyle, Ida M May, 1888. 

Cozzens, Kate May, 1878. 

Grain, Delia May, 1887. 

Crew, Lizzie B December, 1883. 

Crichton, Florence ...December, 1885. 

Crichton, Lottie E. ...May, 1880. 

Crittenden, Lillian A May, 1868. 

Crittenden. May S May, 1879. 

Crittenden, Nellie ...May, 1882. 

Crofton, Jennie A December, 1888. 

Cross, Lilian A December, 1885. 

Crough, Daniel- March, 1877. 

Crowley, Julia A May, 1886. 

Crumry, Alice A March, 1874. 

Cummings, Clara A May, 1864. 

Cunningham, lone M.. December, 1884. 

Currah, John M May, 1869. 

Currier, Adeline S -May, 1878. 

Curtis, Mary E.. December, 1883. 

Daingerfield, Lida P May, 1881. 

Daly, Mary R May, 1888. 

Danielewicz, Emma May, 1888. 

Daniels, Celia May, 1887. 

Daniels, Fannie A May, 1878. 

Daubenbis, Julia December, 1884. 

Davies, Abbie A March, 1875. 

Davis, Addie A March, 1876. 

Davis, Amy A.. June, 1889. 

Davis, Emma E. May, 1880. 

Davis, Kate M May, 1887. 

Davis, Lizzie December, 1887. 

Davis, Nathaniel W March, 1876. 

Davis, Rachael M May, 1888. 

Davis, Sadie December, 1864. 

Day, Frances A May, 1868. 

Day, Frances M March, 1874. 

Day, Jane O. _ May, 1864. 

Day, Mariana May, 1882. 

Day, Nellie B December, 1887. 

Deacon, Lizzie December, 1885. 

Deal, Erne M December, 1888. 

Deal, Virgia V. December, 1887. 

10 



De Lamater, G. May ..December, 1887. 

De Lamater, Jessie N June, 1889. 

Denny, Wilhelmina .. December, 1887. 

Denton, Josephine. May, 1886. 

De Saisset, Henrietta M May, 1880. 

Desimone, Josephine May, 1880. 

Desmond, Maggie May, 1878. 

Devine, Katie C., December, 1888. 

Devlin, Kate L December, 1887. 

De Zaldo,-Mary E ...May, 1884. 

Dickey, Emma J May, 1885. 

Dimon, Ella Jean June, 1889. 

Dixon, Alfred March, 1876. 

Dixon, Bessie March, 1872. 

Dodge, Adelaide L May, 1880. 

Donnelly, Carrie F December, 1884. 

Donovan, Julia A May, 1885. 

Dorn, S. Henrietta May, 1878. 

Dornberger, Albert L.. December, 1885. 
Dornberger, Victor ... December, 1885. 

Doud, Nettie December, 1865. 

Dougherty, Alice H._ June, 1889. 

Dowling, Anna H December, 1884. 

Downey, Kate May, 1878. 

Downing, Annie December, 1884. 

Downs, Blanche L March, 1877. 

Doyle, Carolyn B December, 1888. 

Doyle, Katie A May, 1884. 

Doyle, Mary I March, 1871. 

Doyle, Mary T May, 1884. 

Dranga, Inanda L. May, 1882. 

Dudley, Lucy J May, 1878. 

Duncan, Belle May, 1883. 

Duncan, George F December, 1883. 

Duncan, Laura May, 1883. 

Duncan, Lillie December, 1884. 

Duncan, Luella A May, 1883. 

Dunn, Susie M._ May, 1883. 

Durham, Melvina I.. .December, 1888. 

Durkee, Annie E ....May, 1887. 

Eames, Roscoe L. .-..November, 1867. 

Easter, Mary P May, 1884. 

Easterday, Sarah F ....May, 1878. 

Eastman, Augusta R March, 1870. 

Edgerton, Charles L May, 1888. 

Edmonds, Thomas May, 1879. 

Eley, Zader December, 1887. 

Ellerhorst, Henrietta T Dec., 1883. 

Elliott, D. Carter December, 1887. 

Erkson, Louisa A ..May, 1882. 

Estabrook, Hattie J...J June, 1867. 



134 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OP GRADUATES Continued. 



Estabrook, Mary A. H Dec., 1865. 

Estill, Lavinia May, 1880. 

Evans, Cicero P May, 1883. 

Everett, Rose A May, 1880. 

Fagg, Bell J March, 1875. 

Fairchild, Carrie S March, 1876. 

Fairlee, E. Belle May, 1883. 

Falconer, Nettie May, 1887. 

Farley, Cornelia M May, 1882. 

Farmer, M. Fannie. March, 1875. 

Farnham, Charles E March, 1875. 

Farnsworth, Julia B March, 1875. 

Farrell, Margaret R May, 1879. 

Featherly, Henrietta June, 1867. 

Feely, Frances A May, 1887. 

Felker, Allie M May, 1884. 

Ferry, Ella A May, 1885. 

Field, Carrie P December, 1864. 

Field, Mabel J December, 1886. 

Field, Sarah . May, 1868. 

Finch, Minnie B.. May, 1887. 

Fink, P. Augusta May, 1863. 

Finley, Sallie. May, 1878. 

Finnic, Belle J May, 1880. 

Finnic, Mary R May, 1880. 

*Fisher, Augustus W May, 1884. 

Fisk, Annie C May, 1882. 

Fisk, Julia A March, 1872. 

Fitzwater, M. Cornett. December, 1888. 

Fletcher, Annie A March, 1871. 

Flint, Almira T June, 1866. 

Foley, Kate J December, 1888. 

Foss, William F. F March, 1873. 

Fowler, Bessie May, 1888. 

Fowler, Fannie A June, 1889. 

Fowzer, Annie R ..May, 1878. 

Franklin, Benjamin H March, 1876. 

Frazier, Annie L December, 1886. 

Freyschlag, Norma May, 1884. 

Frisbie, Phoebe A.. March, 1872. 

Frissell, Sarah E December, 1865. 

Fuller, Lena B May, 1880. 

Gaddis, Anna D June, 1867. 

Gafney, Mamie A June, 1889. 

Gage, Marine May, 1885. 

Gairaud, Josephine A May, 1885. 

Galindo, Minnie G._._ May, 1885. 

Galinger, Emily E December, 1887. 

Gallagher, Addie D May, 1879. 

Gallimore, Susie December, 1886. 

Galloway, Florence... December, 1885. 

* Diploma revoked June 24, 1889. 



Gardner, Carrie M. .. .December, 1884. 

Gardner, Maggie. March, 1876. 

Gargan, Theresa V.. Jane, 1889. 

Garland, Abbie A March, 1870. 

Garner, Sadie V. -May, 1888. 

Garrison, Gazena A June, 1866. 

Gartelman, Kate M May, 1883. 

Geary, Lawrence J. May, 1888. 

Gee, Mary A June, 1889. 

Geer, Emily F ..March, 1871. 

George, Laura May, 1883. 

Germain, Clara June, 1867. 

Gesford, Henry C March, 1876. 

Gibbons, Anna .June, 1865. 

Gibbons, Bessie E May, 1885. 

Gibson, Anna A ...March, 1870. 

Gibson, Ida M.. May, 1882. 

Gibson, Olive E May, 1879. 

Gillespie, Agnes B May, 1888. 

Gillespie, Agnes R May, 1887. 

Gillespie, Cora E December, 1886. 

Gillespie, Margaret G May, 1883. 

Gillooly, May C December, 1886. 

Gilmor, Harriet N March, 1875. 

Gilmore, Susie M. . May, 1883. 

Gilmour, Rachel S.. -May, 1886. 

Gingery, Mandilla May, 1887. 

Girdner, G. Annie December, 1884. 

Girvin, Minnie December, 1864. 

Givens, Lou May, 1878. 

Gleason, Charlotte Z.. December, 1887. 

Gleason, Isabel S December, 1886. 

Goble, Lewis December, 1885. 

Goldsmith, Mary May, 1864. 

Goodcell, Henry March, 1873. 

Gordon, George A May, 1884. 

Gordon, Georgia A May, 1885. 

Gordon, Mary Q May, 1882. 

'Gosbey, Stella M May, 1888. 

Gould, Marietta J..- May, 1869. 

Gove, LillaB May, 1879. 

Gower, Hattie F -May, 1882. 

Graebe, Mattie December, 1882. 

Graffelman, Loleta March, 1870. 

Graham, Frank M May, 1885. 

Graham, James W December, 1887. 

Graham, Margaret December, 1885. 

Granger, Edith A May, 1886. 

Granicher, Martha ... December, 1882. 

Grant, Ellen May, 1864. 

Gray, Albert M May, 1886. 



State Normal School. 



135 



LIST OF GRADUATES- -Continued. 



Gray, Anna L June, 1867. 

Gray, Ida December, 1887. 

Gray, Minnie - May, 1886. 

Gray, Walter. December, 1888. 

Green, Ishmael March, 1877. 

Green, Jennie L. May, 1883. 

Green, Katie. March, 1870. 

Green. Mary B May, 1884. 

Green, Nettie A May, 1883. 

Greene^ Ada M December, 1885. 

Green well, Wm. M.... December, 1888. 

Greer, Jane E December, 1865. 

Greer, Mary L March, 1870. 

Gregory, Clara L May, 1882. 

Greiersen, Francisca May, 1885. 

Griffin, Eva F December, 1888. 

Griffin, A. May May, 1886. 

Griffin, Patrick H May, 1882. 

Griffiths, Emma May, 1880. 

Grigsby, Florence .__ March, 1874. 

Griswold, M. Edith June, 1889. 

Grogan, Annie E May, 1869. 

Grove, E. Louise December, 1885. 

Grubbs, Oscar H December, 1888. 

Grubs, Clara M May, 1883. 

Grummet, Isabel .May, 1886. 

Guild, Pacific March, 1874. 

Gummer, Lillie E June, 1866. 

Guppy, Florence May, 1887. 

Guppy, Ruth. -May, 1880. 

Haas, Annie E March, 1870. 

Haile, Mrs. Cornelia March, 1877. 

Haile, Harriet E May, 1879. 

Hall, Anna May, 1868. 

Hall, Annie J December, 1888. 

Hall, Bertha M May, 1888. 

Hall, Fannie May, 1886. 

Hall, Ida L May, 1882. 

Hall, Ida S May, 1882. 

Hall, Mary E December, 1865. 

Hall, Bailie L ..May, 1868. 

Hamilton, Agnes S May, 1886. 

Hamilton, Susie E, May, 1878. 

Hammond, S. Estelle March, 1874. 

Hammond, Hulda A March, 1874. 

Hammond, Jennie M. May, 1878. 

Hammond, Josiah S May, 1868. 

Hampton, Sallie B.... May, 1888. 

Handly, Sarah C December, 1885. 

Hanscorn, Nathan C March, 1875. 

Hanscom, Si L May, 1879. 



Hanson, Margaret A... December, 1886. 

Hanson, Mildred December, 1884. 

Hardman, Deborah W March, 1870. 

Hardy, George H March, 1871. 

Harrigan, Josephine May, 1880. 

Harriman, Mary G December, 1884. 

Harrington, Julia May, 1883. 

Harris, S. Adelaide December, 1886. 

Harris, Dora B March, 1873. 

Harris, Emily May, 1884. 

Harris, Lillie May, 1885. 

Hart, Mary T June, 1867. 

Hart, Nellie May, 1863, 

Harte, M. Frances June, 1889. 

Hartman, Kate May, 1884. 

Harvey, Ella M. June, 1867. 

Harvey, Susie H December, 1887. 

Haskell, Nellie M May, 1878. 

Hasty, Eva May, 1884. 

Hatch, Lida E. F December, 1886. 

Hauck, Julia L March, 1875. 

Hawkins, M. Texana. December, 1888. 
Hawxhurst, Theodosia M... May, 1885. 

Hayburn, Annie M May, 1869. 

Hayes, Gertrude I June, 1889. 

Hayford, Zilpha December, 1883. 

Hays, Florence M May, 1886. 

Healey, Mary E ..December, 1887. 

Heath, Alice M March, 1875. 

Heintz, Ella C June, 1889. 

Henderson, Janet M May, 1878. 

Henderson, Margaret Dec., 1887. 

Henderson, Margaret P May, 1879. 

Henderson, Mary A ...May, 1882. 

Henderson, Mary J March, 1870. 

Hendrix, Mary E March, 1873. 

Heney, Julia May, 1868. 

Henion, Mae E May, 1878. 

Henn, Carrie M ...March, 1874. 

Henning, David F .March, 1875. 

Hennings, Annie C. ..December, 1884. 

Henry, Agnes G May, 1885. 

Henry, Cecelia M December, 1887. 

Henry, Kate May, 1882. 

Henry, Katie L December, 1884. 

Henry, Maggie R --May, 1880. 

Henry, Nellie May, 1881. 

Herbert, Frank H December, 1886. 

Herbert, Susie F.. May, 1888. 

Herndon, Stella M May, 1885. 

Herrington, Bertram A Dec., 1887. 



His to rica I Sketch . 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Harrington, Rachel H May, 1883. 

Herrmann, Etta E December, 1885. 

Herrod, John May, 1880. 

Herrod, William .March, 1877. 

Hetfield, Anne December, 1884. 

Hetty, Lucy D ..December, 1883. 

Heydenfelt, Mary G Jane, 1867. 

Hickrnan, M. Sue December, 1888. 

Higgins, Belle F June, 1889. 

Higgins, Eliza F December, 1883. 

Hill, Carrie May, 1882. 

Hillebrant, Lavinia May, 1882. 

Hillman, Evaline C.. May, 1880. 

Hilton, Delia C May, 1879. 

Hilton, Emily H March, 1872. 

Hines, Robertine B May, 1879. 

Hinshaw, Amanda .. -December, 1887. 

Hitchcock, Erastus K May, 1882. 

Hite, Fannie M._ --May, 1887. 

Hixon, George C March, 1872. 

Hobart, Addie K. May, 1878. 

Hobson, Sarah P. May, 1879. 

Hodge, Alice J May, 1884. 

Hodge, Helen F May, 1886. 

Hodges, Charles M December, 1883. 

Holden, M. Genevieve June, 1889. 

Holland, Sarah E May, 1880. 

Hollenbeck, Minnie B March, 1875. 

Hollingsworth, Thompson.. Dec., 1884. 

Hollron, Minnie F March, 1876. 

Holmes, Annie M June, 1866. 

Holmes, John M May, 1886. 

Holmes, Mary E December, 1886. 

Holyer, Mrs. S. E December, 1883. 

Hothersall, George J. .December, 1883. 

Howard, Jennie F -May, 1880. 

Howard, Kate F.. May, 1886. 

Howard, Maggie November, 1867. 

Howard.. Millie S ..March, 1875. 

Howe, Alvin J March, 1870. 

Ho well, S. Marion June, 1889. 

Howes, Lucy A May, 1886. 

Hoyt, M. Jennie March, 1877. 

Hudson, Myrtie C May, 1878. 

Huffner, Mary J May, 1881. 

Hughes, Annie June, 1889. 

Hughes, John C May, 1887. 

Humphrey, Alice L May, 1879. 

Humphrey, Ervin D. June, 1866. 

Humphrey, Ida G May, 1882. 

Hunt, Byron E .November, 1867. 



Hunt, Mattie F December, 1882. 

Huntington, Nellie R -.May, 1881. 

Hunziker, Flora May, 1886. 

Hyatt, Minnie M May, 1886. 

Hyde, Mary E December, 1888. 

Ingemundsen, I. Mania May, 1886. 

Intermille, Rosina March, 1875. 

Irish, EllaM May, 1879. 

Irving, Jessie --May, 1885. 

Isbister, Hattie E December, 1887. 

Jacks, Fannie R.. --May, 1868. 

Jackson, Ella A March, 1874. 

Jackson, Etta H December, 1884. 

Jackson, Kate M.. May, 1880. 

Jaeger, Helena L June, 1889. 

Jarvis, Ollie June, 1889. 

Jepsen, Esther E. A. May, 1887. 

Jewell, W. Jerome March, 1874. 

Jewett. Annie S. May, 1864. 

Jewett, Lizzie B May, 1864. 

Johnson, Mrs. Edith May, 1887. 

Johnson, Isabelle March, 1874. 

Johnson, Kate E. May, 1883. 

Johnson, Samuel E March, 1874. 

Johnston, Lizzie M. May, 1887. 

Johnston, Marie May, 1886. 

Johnston, I. Petra December, 1883. 

Joice, Amelia -May, 1868. 

Jones, Absalom T. May, 1869. 

Jones, Edward W. ...May, 1868. 

Jones, Frances H December, 1886. 

Jones, Ida M. May, 1883. 

Jones, Jennie L May, 1888. 

Jones, Lena C May, 1886. 

Jones, Maggie June, 1889. 

Jones, Mary L May, 1883. 

Jones, Nellie R March, 1875. 

Jordan, Maggie L. June, 1865. 

Jordan, William E May, 1882. 

Joslin, Alice L.. ..May, 1887. 

Joslin, Minnie R December, 1887. 

Jourden, Annie M. June, 1865. 

Judson, Lizzie P December, 1883. 

Julien, Lillian M December, 1888. 

Jury, John G.. June, 1889. 

Kaufman, M. Winona -May, 1888. 

Keating, Hattie M December, 1883. 

Keaton, Lizzie December, 1885. 

Keaton, Nellie May, 1883. 

Keefer, Sallie E March, 1874. 

Keel, Laura B December, 1887. 



State Normal School. 



137 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Keely, Lucy V May, 1888. 

Keenan, Lizzie May, 1886. 

Keller, Lizzie F March, 1877. 

Keller, Mollie J. June, 1889. 

Kelley , Ada V May, 1886. 

Kelley, Eulalie May, 1882. 

Kellogg, Charles M May, 1878. 

Kelly , Ella December, 1883. 

Kelly, James B May, 1881. 

Kelly, Mamie C December, 1887. 

Kelly, Mary R May, 1878. 

Kelsey, Effie J.. .....May, 1883. 

KeJsey, Lucina H May, 1883. 

Kelsey, Mary E May, 1885. 

Kelso, lantha A May, 1878. 

Kelsoe, Luella March, 1873. 

Kennedy, Anna .December, 1864. 

Kennedy, James G June, 1867. 

Kennedy, Joseph F. .. December, 1865. 

Kennedy, May May, 1884. 

Kennedy, May E December, 1887. 

Kennedy, Rebecca F May, 1886. 

Kennedy, Thomas E March, 1872. 

Kent, Adah E May, 1879. 

Kent, Maggie May, 1878. 

Ketcham, Ariadne G March, 1874. 

Kimball, Ariadne L -May, 1864. 

King, Anna A May, 1883. 

King, Mrs. Mary A January, 1880. 

King, Mary E March, 1871. 

Kingdom, Henrietta E Dec., 1884. 

Kirkwood, William A -May, 1882. 

Knapp, Martha M May, 1880. 

Kneedler, Susie E March, 1874. 

Knott, Emily F. A.. --May, 1885. 

Knott, Georgie E May, 1883. 

Knox, Olive M May, 1887. 

Koenig, Theodore T May, 1887. 

Kohler, Annie December, 1888. 

Kooser, Miriam F December, 1883. 

Kottinger, Maggie May, 1885. 

Kratzer, Leila March, 1873. 

Krauth, M. Augusta May, 1864. 

Kuhlitz, Mary L May, 1888. 

Kullak, Annie M May, 1885. 

Lacy, Flora E May, 1885. 

Lacy, Louisa. May, 1869. 

Ladd, M. Alice May, 1883. 

Ladd, Leoline C June, 1889. 

La Grange, Anna May, 1868. 

Lake, Lulu May, 1882. 



Lane, Frank M May, 1888. 

Larkey, George E May, 1883. 

Lasater, Alice M May, 1887. 

Lathwesen, Louis J May, 1886. 

Lawless, Martha A November, 1867. 

La wrey, Beatrice M May, 1868. 

La wson, Karen M May, 1883. 

Lawson, Martin H May, 1886. 

Lawton, Susie S May, 1868. 

Leahy, Mary A. C March, 1875. 

Learned, Ella M .May, 1887. 

Lee, Carrie E June, 1889. 

Lee, Cora A December, 1886. 

Leggett, Elizabeth ..May, 1882. 

Lehnig, Lydia A -May, 1882. 

Leimbach, Edith -May, 1887. 

Leimbach, Mabel M May, 1887. 

Leland, Anna L June, 1889. 

Leonard, Grace E May, 1881. 

Leonard, Nettie J May, 1888. 

Lewis, Annie H ..May, 1868. 

Lewis, Cloelia M June, 1867. 

Lewis, Ella May, 1878. 

Lewis, Mary March, 1875. 

Lindberg, Emily U May, 1869. 

Litchfield, Sophie E May, 1887. 

Little, David F March, 1875. 

Little, Mary May, 1868. 

Littlefield, Nellie A June, 1865. 

Livingston, Malsie V -May, 1888. 

Locke, Ada March, 1876. 

Locke, Hattie B June, 1867. 

Locke,lda May, 1881. 

Locke, Nathaniel H May, 1880. 

Locke, Sarah A. J May, 1880. 

Locke, William W May, 1885. 

Lords, Ella -May, 1882. 

Lorigan, Minnie E December, 1885. 

Loucks, Annie May, 1878. 

Loucks, Lizzie M December, 1887. 

Louttit, J. Alexander. .December, 1865. 

Love, M. Lily May, 1886. 

Low, Fannie May, 1883. 

Lowden, Maggie May, 1886. 

Lucy, Addie M June, 1889. 

Lynch, Mary E May, 1886. 

Lyon, William I. H May, 1878. 

Lyons, Fanny S December, 1885. 

MacGo wan, Kitty C May, 1887. 

Machefert, Stella L May, 1888. 

Mackay, Minnie L June, 1889. 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Mackenzie, Helen C May, 1887. 

Mackie, Clara -A May, 1869. 

MacKinnon, Lizzie June, 1889. 

Madden, Ada F May, 1888. 

Madden, Mary A. L May, 1878. 

Magoon, William N May, 1868. 

Maguire, Louise... March, 1871. 

Mahoney, Daniel December, 1883. 

Mahoney, Lizzie T December, 1882. 

Mails, Louisa A. May, 1863. 

Maison, Amelia L May, 1868. 

Malloy, Nellie May, 1888. 

Manchester, Julia A May, 1886. 

Mandeville, Kate -May, 1882. 

Mangrum, R. Jennie June, 1889. 

Mann, Jennie S May, 1869. 

Mansfield, May E December, 1886. 

Mantz, Robert W May, 1880. 

Manuel, Cora J May, 1887. 

Marbut, Nora J December, 1888. 

March, Clara A June, 1889. 

Markham, Charles E March, 1872. 

Martin, Abbie L May, 1384. 

Martin, BertS... May,1888. 

Martin, Edith J March, 1874. 

Martin, Ella E May, 1880. 

Martin, Emma T June, 1889. 

Martin, George W May, 1885. 

Martin, Hattie V December, 1884. 

Martin, John W May, 1881. 

Martin, Julia F March, 1873. 

Martin, Kate March, 1875. 

Martin, Sarah A December, 1883. 

Marvin, Adella .March, 1870. 

Mason, Wilton M December, 1887. 

Matlock, Nannie T.... December, 1888. 

Matson, Fannie L May, 1887. 

Matthews, Mary March, 1870. 

Matthis, Lottie J .December, 1884. 

Maxey, Millie F May, 1888. 

May, Isabel March, 1875. 

Mayne, Bessie J December, 1883. 

McAllister, Bessie May, 1888. 

McBride, Henry E December, 1864. 

McCabe, Ella January, 1882. 

McCann, Margaret E May, 1879. 

McCarthy, Jennie G... December, 1884. 

McCarthy, Kate ..December, 1883. 

McCauley, Annie F May, 1887. 

McColgan, Kate F May, 1869. 

McCollam, Lizzie -May, 1868. 



McCowan, Blanche -March, 1877. 

McDonald, Mary A May, 1880. 

McDonnell, Kate March, 1876. 

McDonnell, Mary A March, 1875. 

McDougall, Alice S May, 1881. 

McDougall, Mary S May, 1881. 

McElwee, Kate G December, 1884. 

McFarland, S. Ellen ..December, 1888. 

McFarland, Flora A May, 1882. 

McGivern, Kate A December, 1884. 

McGrath, Thomas J... December, 1884. 

McHarry, Mary December, 1883. 

Mclntosh, Margaret E Dec., 1884. 

McJunkin, Alice M June, 1889. 

McKay, Amelia G. May, 1887. 

McKay, Mabel N December, 1886. 

McKean, A. Bronson June, 1889. 

McKean, Annie M March, 1870. 

McKean, Fannie L December, 1885. 

McKean, Lottie May, 1868. 

McKee, Abbie.. May, 1883. 

McKenney, Adah M.. May, 1888. 

McKenzie, Dora C.. May, 1886. 

McKenzie, Lizzie A May, 1880. 

McLean, Mary E. May, 1882. 

McLellan, M. Grace... December, 1888. 

McLeran. Charlotte C May, 1879. 

McLeran, Mollie. December, 1885. 

McMullan, Susan March, 1876. 

McMullin, Belle May, 1887. 

McNaughton, C. D November, 1867. 

McPherson, Florence E Dec., 1888. 

McPherson, Helen May, 1868. 

McPhillips, Annie E.... January, 1880. 

McTigue, Carrie A... May, 1882. 

Me Williams, Jennie A May, 1887. 

Mead, Emmeline R -March, 1874. 

Meek, Mary E May, 1882. 

Megerle, Lisetta May, 1878. 

Megerle, Louis J December, 1865. 

Meily, Albion S May, 1884. 

Mellen, Carrie M December, 1886. 

Menges, Caroline A June, 1865. 

Merritt, George W May, 1879. 

Merritt, Isabel March, 1873. 

Merritt, Mary.. March, 1873. 

Mertes, M. Augusta May, 1882. 

Merwin, E. Belle May, 1879. 

Metcalf, E. Louesa May, 1883. 

Metcalf, Mary F ..June, 1866. 

Meyer, Amelia E December, 1887. 



State Normal School. 



139 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Miles, Ella G May, 1884. 

Miles, Lula June, 1889. 

Miller, Mrs. Amanda March, 1874. 

Miller, Charles N March, 1874. 

Miller, Ida P ....May, 1883. 

Miller, Lillie J May, 1885. 

Miller, S. Lizzie May, 1882. 

Miller, Sarah E .June, 1866. 

Millett, Clara B May, 1869. 

Mills, Charles N December, 1884. 

Mills, Christenie E May, 1882. 

Mills, Ella A.. December, 1883. 

Mills, Lizzie T. May, 1881. 

Mills, Sophronia June, 1865. 

Miner, Alicia May, 1878. 

Mitchell, Katie March, 1876. 

Mize, Albert W May, 1883. 

Monaghan, Lizzie C. ..December, 1885. 
Montgomery, Alberta S... March, 1870. 

Montgomery, M. Kate May, 1884. 

Moody, Eva M May, 1888. 

Mooney, Fannie December, 1882. 

Mooney, Mary T December, 1883. 

Moore, Alice May, 1881. 

Moore, Lulu L ..March, 1877. 

Moore, Matilda M. E March, 1871. 

Moore, Susie D March, 1877. 

Moore, Kate March, 1877. 

Morey, Sabia E March, 1875. 

Morgan, Florence June, 1865. 

Morgan, Lizzie A June, 1866. 

Morgan, Mary E May, 1883. 

Morgan, Mary J .June, 1866. 

Morgan, RoseE. March, 1875. 

Morrell, Lizzie M -May, 1887. 

Morrison, Bertha C. ..December, 1883. 
Morrison, Mattie C December, 1887. 

Mott, Ellita December, 1886. 

Mott, Mary May, 1886. 

Moulthrop, Mary S June, 1866. 

Muir, Mary M May, 1879. 

Mullen, Katie L.. December, 1887. 

Mumford, Mrs. Maria E.. March, 1874. 

Murch, Clara.. May, 1878. 

Murch, Lila ..March, 1876. 

Murdoch, Grace R May, 1879. 

Murdoch, Maria E March, 1874. 

Murdock, Ella H March, 1873. 

Murphy, Anna C May, 1883. 

Murphy, Anna L May, 1886. 

Murphy ; Annie L ..March, 1874. 



Murphy, Ella F. May, 1881. 

Murphy, Isabella M March, 1870. 

Murphy, Mary S December, 1887. 

Murray, Frances December, 1885. 

Murray, Mamey December, 1884. 

Murray, Nettie M.._.. December, 1884. 
Murray, William H... December, 1888. 

Mutschlechner, Mary June, 1889. 

Neary, Annie J March, 1875. 

Neel, Gallic F December, 1884. 

Nelson, Lucy S May, 1878. 

Neuebaumer, Mary T May, 1885. 

Newcum, William A May, 1879. 

Newell, Lizzie A.. June, 1867. 

Nicholl, Aggie B December, 1885. 

Nichols, Edith H May, 1887. 

Nichols, Emnie H June, 1889. 

Nichols, Etta E December, 1888. 

Nichols, Fannie A. E June, 1865. 

Nichols, Ida C May, 1885. 

Nicholson, Annie M... December, 1884. 

Northcutt, Carrie A May, 1869. 

Norton, Mary E December, 1884. 

Norton, Mary J May, 1864. 

Oakley, Bonnie December, 1886. 

O'Brien, Catherine June, 1867. 

O'Brien, Frances M May, 1878. 

O'Brien, Kate C May, 1882. 

O'Brien, Rosella A... -May, 1882. 

O'Connor, Maria E December, 1865. 

O'Donnell, Margaret M June, 1889. 

Ogden, George W May, 1879. 

Ogden, John F December, 1885. 

Ogil vie, Kittie S May, 1883. 

O'Hanlon, Fannie May, 1881. 

O'Hara, Katie F March, 1876. 

O'Hara, Mary L May, 1879. 

O'Leary, Kate R March, 1870. 

Olinger, Abner F June, 1866. 

Oliver, Carrie E December, 1886. 

O'Neal, Amy E May, 1880. 

O'Rourke, Maggie March, 1874. 

O'Rourke, Mary J May, 1888. 

Orr, Annie December, 1883. 

Ortley, Mary L - May, 1885. 

Osborn, Mary M -May, 1882. 

Osgood, Annie E ..May, 1880. 

Ostrom, Jennie A December, 1887. 

Ottmer, F. H May, 1882. 

Overacker, Allie P March, 1887. 

Overacker, Kate December, 1887. 



140 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Overfelt, Bessie .December, 1883. 

Owen, Julia May, 1883. 

Owens, Effie December, 1888. 

Owens, Nellie M. . June, 1867. 

Pacey, Mary L -May, 1882. 

Page, Nellie May, 1886. 

Page, Pauline December, 1888. 

Paine, Sumner F May, 1868. 

Palmer, Anna M May, 1868. 

Parker, Allura B December, 1888. 

Parker, Bessie May, 1888. 

Parker, Lizzie A May, 1885. 

Parker, Olive G May, 1869. 

Parker, Phoebe L May, 1881. 

Parker, Willis H .May, 1887. 

Parks, Myra A May, 1886. 

Parson, Agnes M May, 1884. 

Pascoe, Mary J December, 1865. 

Pascoe, William March, 1875. 

Patterson, Alma March, 1877.. 

Patterson, Laura I May, 1881. 

Patterson, Mabel June, 1889. 

Patterson, Mattie M... December, 1883. 

Patton, Charlotte C May, 1888. 

Patton, Emma L December, 1888. 

Peck, William May, 1886. 

Peckham, L. Carrie May, 1886. 

Peckham, Lois A May, 1879. 

Peckham, Martha J March, 1872. 

Peckham, Mary A March, 1876. 

Pelton, Malvina C March, 1871. 

Pender, Agnes _ May, 1883. 

Penniman, Helen N March, 1876. 

Penny cook, Annie May, 1887. 

Pepper, Adella May, 1869. 

Perkins, Madge H May, 1884. 

Perkins, Mary. June, 1865. 

Perkins, Mary E November, 1867. 

Perry, Dora A December, 1884. 

Perry, Katie A May, 1878. 

Pershin, George S June, 1865. 

Petray, Henry C.. ...May, 1883. 

Pettit, Evan T May, 1878. 

Phelps, Augusta M March, 1872. 

Phelps, Belle December, 1883. 

Phelps, Mattie M. December, 1887. 

Phillips, Abbie F December, 1886. 

Phillips, Leonora E... December, 1888. 

Pinkham, Sarah M --May, 1887. 

Piper, Frances B June, 1866. 

Plank, Susanna R March, 1871. 



Plumado, Lucy December, 1887. 

Pollock, Adelaide L... December, 1888. 

Pond, C. Lillian May, 1878. 

Post, Mary H June, 1889. 

Pound, Jennie G .December, 1887. 

Powell, David ..May, 1868. 

Powell, Howell June, 1867. 

Powell, Mattie A June, 1889. 

Pratt, Elinor D May, 1886. 

Pratt, Mary E May, 1869. 

Pratt, Orson M May, 1878. 

Pratt, William F ..May, 1880. 

Purdy, Lillian E -May, 1888. 

Purinton, Edith L May, 1885. 

Purinton, Emily N May, 1883. 

Purinton, Lillian E June, 1889. 

Puter, Lawrence F... December, 1888. 

Quinby, Minerva M March, 1877. 

Rademacher, Christine May, 1882. 

Ramer, Wilemina December, 1884. 

Randall, Rosa March, 1870. 

Raney, Addie M. C ..May, 1879. 

Raney, Oren N May, 1878. 

Raney, Sheldon March, 1876. 

Rasmussen, Anna M Dec., 1886. 

Ray, Georgia May, 1879. 

Raymond, Elissie H May, 1882. 

Rayrnund, Kate May, 1878. 

Rea, lanthia December, 1882. 

Redman , Mollie May , 1879. 

Redman, Oda December, 1888. 

Reed, Wallace W May, 1888. 

Rees, Josephine D May, 1881. 

Remmel, Annie L December, 1888. 

Rennie, Lizzie A December, 1884. 

Reynolds, Franke B May, 1882. 

Reynolds, H. Grace.. -December, 1886. 

Rich, Nellie L March, 1877. 

Richards, Cornelia ...May, 1888. 

Richards, Lenora A May, 1883. 

Richardson. Ada May, 1882. 

Richardson, Anna M.. December, 1886. 

Richardson, Clara C -May, 1878. 

Richardson, Nellie B.. December, 1884. 

Richmond, Margaret May, 1886. 

Rickard, Nellie May, 1887. 

Rickey, Mary H May, 1882. 

Ries, Dora B.._ March, 1877. 

Riley, Ella March, 1877. 

Ringo, Mary Enna May, 1879. 

Rixon, Chattie K March, 1872. 



State Normal School. 



141 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Rixon, Hannah M May, 1880. 

Klxon, Minnie A May, 1882. 

Robb, Meggie L May, 1886. 

.Robert, Mary C._ ....May, 1884. 

Roberts, Ella A June, 1867. 

Roberts, Lizzie .March, 1873. 

Robertson, Maggie E._ December, 1884. 

Robinett, Nellie May, 1869. 

Rockefellow, Dollie E._ December, 1886. 

Rodden, Mary C March, 1876. 

Rodgers, Arthur -June, 1866. 

Rogers, Lucie A. May, 1882. 

Honey, Ella E December, 1882. 

Roney, Louise G... -May, 1882. 

Rooker, M. Georgia May, 1883. 

Root, Ellis J.- March, 1875. 

Rocjt, George E March, 1877. 

Rose, Anthony December, 1888. 

Ross, Adeline June, 1889. 

Rounds, Ida M June, 1889. 

Rouse, Marion A May, 1883. 

Rowell, Gertie F ..May, 1888. 

Royce, Ruth March, 1877. 

Rucker, Mary E. May, 1878. 

Rucker, Susie W- May, 1886. 

Ruddock, John C._ March, 1871. 

Rumrill, Julia S December, 1885. 

Rumrill, Mary June, 1889. 

Rumsey, Electra M. ..December, 1884. 

Russell, Ella L March, 1871. 

Russell, Mary F March, 1876. 

Ryan, Sadie C June, 1889. 

Said, Ella ....March, 1876. 

Salkeld, Libbie March, 1877. 

Sally, Mary E May, 1878. 

Sanborn, Allan P March, 1877. 

Sanders, Ella I December, 1883. 

Sanford, Leila December, 1888. 

Sargent, Lizzie P March, 1875. 

Savage, Mary E November, 1867. 

Savage, Nellie A .March, 1870. 

Sawyer, Mrs. Frances C... March, 1876. 

Sawyer, Philena December, 1864. 

Schallenberger, Fanny L...June, 1889. 
Schallenberger, Margaret E.. May, 1880. 

Schenck, Emma .March, 1875. 

Schilling, LenaB May, 1882. 

Schnebly, C. Jean May, 1883. 

Schoen, LillieS May, 1882. 

Schuck, Kate L May, 1881. 

Schultzberg, Frances .December, 1888. 



Schutte, Daisy C May, 1885. 

Scott, Minnie ...May, 1864. 

Scudamore, Lora May, 1887. 

Sears, Marion H November, 1867. 

Sears, William A May, 1882. 

Seavy, Minnie May, 1878. 

Sell, Laura F May, 1881. 

Selling, Nathalie A March, 1877. 

Senter, Kate December, 1883. 

Senter, Maggie M -May, 1880. 

Sexton, Kate ...May, 1883. 

Sharp, James M. ...March, 1871. 

Sharp, Mabel E May, 1888. 

Sharpe, Nettie C.. December, 1885. 

Shaw, Clara E ..December, 1885. 

Shaw,Jeannette May, 1882. 

Shaw, Sebastian ..March, 1876. 

Sheats, Addie May, 1882. 

Sheats, Arthur R May, 1883. 

Shelley, Troy May, 1868. 

Sherman, Ella I March, 1871. 

Sherman, Fannie A March, 1870. 

Sherman, Jennie R ..June, 1889. 

Shine, Nellie ...May, 1884. 

Shipley, John C. June, 1867. 

Shirley, James W March, 1875. 

Short, Fannie E May, 1888. 

Shuey, Sarah I March, 1870. 

Shumate, Albert E.... December, 1887. 

Sickal, Marcus T March, 1871. 

Siddons, Kate March, 1877. 

Simmons, Frances E._ May, 1878. 

Simmons, Mary A May, 1886. 

Simon, Frances June, 1866. 

Simpson, Cora A May, 1880. 

Sims, M. Kittie December, 1887. 

Sinclair, Lizzie ..May, 1887. 

Sinnott, Delia E December, 1887. 

Sinnott, Grace May -May, 1880. 

Sinnott, Richard J May, 1883. 

Slater, Henrietta S.... November, 1867. 

Sledge, Winnie S December, 1885. 

Smith, Edith C May, 1883. 

Smith, Flora B.... December, 1888. 

Smith, Flora C. June, 1867. 

Smith, Grace .June, 1867. 

Smith, Jane May, 1864. 

Smith, John A May, 1868. 

Smith, M. Louise May, 1883. 

Smith, Maggie E May, 1869. 

Smith, Mary May, 1868. 



142 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Smith, Mary S May, 1883. 

Smith, Sara J May, 1882. 

Smoote, Edith S December, 1888. 

Smullen, Annie M -May, 1888. 

Snedaker, Eunice I March, 1877. 

Snell, Mary E December, 1887. 

Snodgrass, David S December, 1883. 

Snook, S. Helen December, 1885. 

Snook, Jennie May, 1887. 

Snow, Alice R March, 1870. 

Snow, Delia R March, 1873. 

Snowden, Florence ..Maj 7 , 1881. 

Soderstrom, Hilda C May, 1887. 

Solomon, Esther May, 1869. 

Solomon, Eve May, 1864. 

Somers, Carrie December, 1886. 

Somers, Cora May, 1887. 

Soule", Fannie June, 1865. 

Soule", Maria L June, 1866. 

Spafford, Adelaide C... December, 1885. 

Spafford, Helen E December, 1887. 

Spatz, Agnes A December, 1884. 

Spencer, Ella V --May, 1883. 

Spinks, Edward L June, 1889. 

Sprague, Josie E March, 1877. 

Spring, Alida G June, 1889. 

Sprott, Maggie March, 1870. 

Squier, Heman G December, 1885. 

Stackpole, Georgie A May, 1869. 

Stansbury, Ella E May, 1888. 

Staples, Elizabeth ...May, 1868. 

Starling, Ella D May, 1882. 

Starr, Nellie M March, 1873. 

Steane, Gertrude December, 1887. 

Steele, George M June, 1889. 

Stegman, Mattie H May, 1869. 

Stenger, Maggie L. May, 1887. 

Stephens, Emma M May, 1888. 

Stephens, Mary R May, 1883. 

Stephens, Virginia P. March, 1872. 

Stephenson, Charlotte F June, 1866. 

Stephenson, Nancy J May, 1881. 

Stern, Augusta May, 1879. 

Stern, L. May May, 1883. 

Stetson, Emily M..' May, 1888. 

Steves, M. Ada May, 1879. 

Steves, Amy A May, 1883. 

Stewart, Eliza J. March, 1877. 

Stewart, Bessie M May, 1880. 

Stewart, Mary J. May, 1886. 

Stilson, Ella M May, 1885. 



Stilson, Hattie L December, 1885. 

Stincen, Emma E. C March, 1870. 

Stirling, Duncan December, 1886. 

Stirling, John W ...May. 1883. 

Stirling, Nellie May, 1884. 

Stivers, Charlotte J ...May, 1884. 

Stockton, Adelia A March, 1875. 

Stockton, Alice March, 1876. 

Stockton, Anna M March, 1870. 

Stockton, Fanny May, 1883. 

Stockton, William W May, 1878. 

Stoddard, Birdie E December, 1884. 

Stokum, Marion May, 1868. 

Stone, Helen M.___ March, 1870. 

Stone, M. Jeannette March, 1876. 

Stone, Mary E May, 1868. 

Stowe, Augusta M May. 1869. 

Stowell, Agnes December, ^887. 

Struve, Christine December, 1886. 

Sullivan, Frances M. May, 1879. 

Sullivan, John W May, 1884. 

Sullivan, Mary E ...June, 1889. 

Summers, Esther December, 1886. 

Sumner, William H May, 1883. 

Suniner, Etta A December, 1887. 

Sufiol, Frances A May, 1884. 

Talbot, Annie L December, 1882. 

Talmadge, Anna M. ..December, 1888. 

Tarr, Blanche _June, 1889. 

Taylor, Annie L May, 1885. 

Taylor, George G December, 1888. 

Taylor, Leolin May , 1 882. 

Taylor, Mary A. March, 1874. 

Taylor, Olivia L. March, 1873. 

Teaford, Nannie W March, 1877. 

Tebbe, George A May, 1888. 

Tebbe, William E ...May, 1887. 

Teel, Mary L. May, 1881. 

Teel, Verona... May, 1881. 

Terry, Eulalia A March, 1872. 

Thatcher, Georgia June, 1889. 

Theisen, Nettie C June, 1889. 

Thomas, Edward E May, 1882. 

Thomas, Ida M May, 1885. 

Thomas, Laura L June, 1889. 

Thomas, Mary A May, 1869. 

Thomas, Mary O March, 1876. 

Thomasson, Annie E May, 1879. 

Thompson, Anna C May, 1883. 

Thompson, Flora C May, 1883. 

Thompson, Isaac S May, 1883. 



State Normal School. 



LIST. OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Thompson, Martha B May, 1883. 

Thompson, M. Ruth.. December, 1885. 
Thomson, Gertrude ..December, 1884. 

Thrush, Dora December, 1885. 

Thunen, Lizzie May, 1881. 

Thurwachter, Mary E Dec., 1887. 

Tillotson, Emma. March, 1870. 

Tillotson, Henry I March, 1870. 

Til ton, Etta M.. March, 1873. 

Tinsley, Mary L._ June, 1889. 

Tolman, Jessie O May, 1883. 

Tompkins, Claudia M May, 1884. 

Towle, H. May May, 1881. 

Toy, Emma M March, 1875. 

Treadway, Addie May, 1868. 

Trimble, Caroline March, 1876. 

Trimble, Mattie M December, 1884. 

Trimble, Mollie F May, 1879. 

Trimingham, Martha A May, 1885. 

Trowbridge, Nelson S June, 1866. 

True, Marion E December, 1885. 

Tucker, Lillian E... May, 1888. 

Turner, Addie May, 1879. 

Turner, Addie S._ -May, 1888. 

Turner, Belle J March, 1875. 

Turner, Cynthia M March, 1870. 

Turner, Martha M December, 1883. 

Tuttle, Annabel December, 1886. 

Tuttle, Nannie E ..May, 1885. 

Tyrrell, Frank G December, 1883. 

Tyus, Mary A March, 1871. 

Urmy, Mabel. May, 1882. 

Utter, John F December, 1883. 

Vandervorst, Delia -. .December, 1888. 

Van Dusen, Marion S May, 1881. 

Van Eaton, Harriet E May, 1881. 

Van Heusen, Neelie G May, 1887. 

Von Dorsten, Emma May, 1887. 

Votaw, Emma. May, 1885. 

Wade, Margaret May, 1864. 

Wagenseller, Etta M March, 1872. 

Waggoner, Ida M December, 1883. 

Waken eld, Claude B.. May, 1879. 

Wakeman, Angy F ..May, 1883. 

Wallace, Alma. March, 1872. 

Wallace, Lute L. May, 1887. 

Walsh, Mollie E. May, 1883. 

Wambold, Kate C May, 1885. 

Ward, Grace May, 1888. 

Ward, Ida M May, 1880. 

Ward, Mary May, 1868. 



Ward, Minnie G December, 1885. 

Warring, Hattie B May, 1878. 

Warring, Nettie C December, 1884. 

Wash, William A.. March, 1874. 

Washburn, Dora B ..May, 1883. 

Watkins, Delia M ' May, 1886. 

Watkins, Emma May, 1882. 

Watkins, Florence M March, 1875. 

Watkin s, Kate F May , 1883. 

Watson, Maggie H._ ..May, 1869. 

Wear, A. Belle ..March, 1876. 

Webb, Oliver .December, 1887. 

Week, Bertie -May, 1887. 

Weed, Alice. ... May, 1869. 

Weinshank, Regina May, 1882. 

Welch, Henry C .December, 1887. 

Welch, Maude L .December, 1888. 

Wells, Alice M ...March, 1875. 

Wells, Annie L December, 1884. 

Wemple, Emmet L March, 1870. 

West, Fannie P May, 1883. 

Westfall, Lillian E June, 1889. 

Wetmore, Edith L March, 1870. 

Whatmore, Amy May, 1883. 

Wheeler, Tenah E June, 1889. 

Whelan, Ella E ..March, 1876. 

Whelan, Maggie L December, 1887. 

White, Alice M March, 1876. 

White, Elizabeth June, 1866. 

White, Silas A June, 1866. 

Whiting, Julia M.... March, 1874. 

Whitmore, Ella L May, 1869. 

Whitney, Anita - May, 1884. 

Wible, Annie A March, 1875. 

Wible, Julia F March, 1875. 

Wickham, Nellie T May, 1883. 

Wignall, Fannie March, 1872. 

Wiley, Maggie L March, 1877- 

Willard, Sadie P May, 1888. 

Williams, Carrie May, 1879. 

Williams, Cecilia A. ..December, 1883. 

Williams, Clara B March, 1877. 

Williams, Emily E ...May, 1887. 

Williams, Lillian December, 1887. 

Williams, Maggie December, 1883. 

Williams, May E May, 1864. 

Williams, NinaF December, 1884. 

Williams, Richard D.. December, 1886. 
Williams, Sabrina A. .December, 1865. 

Williamson, Jessie May, 1879. 

Wilson, David A .May, 1887. 



i 4 4 



Historical Sketch. 



LIST OF GRADUATES Continued. 



Wilson, Jessie E._ March, 1870. 

Wilson, Lewis B May, 1878. 

Wilson, Mary E March, 1875. 

Wilson, William R .March, 1875. 

Wissman, Annie L June, 1889. 

Witherspoon, Henry E May, 1885. 

Withington, Augusta S. ..March, 1873. 

Wi throw, Marie... March, 1870. 

Wood, E. Alfaretta May, 1878. 

Wood, Alfred A .May, 1880. 

Wood, Flora Decem ber , 1883. 

Woodman, Charles A May, 1878. 

Woodson, Annie -May, 1879. 

Woodward, Bessie -May, 1883. 

Woodward, N. Zoraide... .March, 1874. 

Wood worth, Willard D May, 1886. 

Wooll, Harriet L June, 1867. 

Workman, Oliver P March, 1876. 



Wright, Ada E June, 1867. 

Wrigh t, Emily L May, 1882. 

Wright, Mary A May, 1869. 

Wristen, Lizzie N May, 1883. 

Wurtenberg, Marianne. .-March, 1887. 

Wyckoff, Cora K May, 1885. 

Wyckotf, Nellie December, 1885. 

Wyllie, Hattie L May, 1882. 

Yaney, Elma K May, 1884. 

Yaple, Edith D May, 1885. 

Yates, Jennie March, 1870. 

York, Elizabeth June, 1866. 

Young, M. Frances ... December, 1886. 

Young, Mary E May, 1882. 

Youngberg, Mary F June, 1865. 

Zane, Anna F .December, 1885. 

Zeilian, John J .December, 1883. 



State Normal School. 



NAMES OF HOLDERS OF ELEMENTARY DIPLOMAS. 

(See page 56.) 



MIDDLE CLASS-ELEMEttTAKY DIPLOMAS, 



(GRADUATED MARCH 31, 1877.) 



MARIAN ASHLEY. 
ELIZA F. AULD. 
*ALICE BLYTHE. 
ELLIS C. BROWN. 
MATTIE E. CHAPPELL. 
*NELSON B. COFFMAN. 
*ADALINE S. CURRIER. 
JACOB DEPPELLER. 
LAURA C. GIDDINGS. 
ANNIE HARRIGAN. 
ARLIE J. JENNISON. 
*CHARLES M. KELLOGG. 
*1ANTHA A. KELSO. 
*MARGARET A. KENT. 



EMILY McMULLEN. 
WILLIAM P. MOORE. 
*FRANCES O'BRIEN. 
*C. LILLIAN POND. 
*OREN N. RANEY. 
*CLARA C. RICHARDSON. 
MABEL SEAVY. 
MARY A. SEAVY. 
*WILLIAM STOCKTON. 
MICHAEL F. SULLIVAN. 
ALICE E. THURSTON. 
*HATT1E B. WARRING. 
MARY WESTPHAL. 
*LEWIS WILSON. 



(GRADUATED MAY 23, 1878.) 



MAY ADCOCK. 
ANNIE BACON. 
*KATIE BARDENWERPER. 
*LAURA BETHELL. 
ROBERT J. BROWN. 
*HATTY M. CHASE. 
MATTIE A. COLE. 
GEORGE J. COLLIER. 
ELLA DONOVAN. 
EMMA A. EVERHART. 
*LILLA B. GOVE. 
NAOMI A. HAYES. 
*JOHN HERROD. 
*SARAH HOBSON. 
KATIE A. HUFFNER. 
*ETTA H. JACKSON. 
EMMA J. KENDALL. 
*ADAH E. KENT. 
IDA M. LOVE. 
*AIMEE MADAN. 
FANNIE M. MARTIN. 
*JOHN W. MARTIN. 
*ELLA McCABE. 
*CHARLOTTE C. McLERAN. 
*ANNIE 



^AUGUSTA M. MERTES. 
ALFREDA MORTON. 
*MARY M. MUIR. 
ANITA MURRAY. 
*ELLA F. MURPHY. 
ELLEN A. NEWBERRY. 
*LOIS A. PECKHAM. 
*CHRISTINE RADEMACHER. 
*GEORGIA RAY. 
IDA E. RH1NEHART. 
*ENNA M. RINGO. 
FLORENCE S. ROYCE. 
WILLIAM G. SMITH. 
NETTIE E. SPANGENBERG. 
*NANCY J. STEPHENSON. 
ISABEL SQUIRES. 
*AUGUSTA STERN. 
*ADA STEVES. 
ELLA M. TALLANT. 
*MARY L. TEEL. 
*ADDIE TURNER. 
*IDA M. WARD. 
EMMA WEAR. 
*JESSIE WILLIAMSON. 
WOODSON. 



146 Historical Sketch. 

(GRADUATED JANUARY 4, 1879.) 

*IDA M. BENNETT. *SARAH A. J. LOCKE. 

*EMMA E. DAVIS. *ELLA E. MARTIN. 

MARY F. FARRELL. "FLORA McCLELLAN. 

*JULIA HARRINGTON. *H. BURR NEEDHAM. 

LOUISE A. HORNE. FRED. W. NOBLE. 

FRANK HUSKEY. "AMY E. O'NEAL. 

LUCIA JUDKINS. JOSEPHINE R. PHILLIPS. 

WILLIAM H. LAWRENCE. MARY E. SMITH. 

"NATHANIEL H. LOCKE. "MATTIE B. THOMPSON. 

(GRADUATED MAY 22, 1879.) 

"KATE APPLEBY. ANNIE M. KENNEDY. 

ANN ASQUITH. *MARTHA M. KNAPP. 

HELEN D. BARIGHT. MARGRUIETTA B. LLOYD. 

*MARY S. BOWMAN. VIRGINIA E. LYNDS. 

ANNIE M. BRADY. DEANVER M. LYNDS. 

FRANCES A. BROWN. MARY F. McCONNELL. 

MARY E. BURGER. *LIZZIE A. McKENZIE. 

"LUCINDA J. CARVER. *ANNIE McPHILLIPS. 

*E. ELMER CAREY. KATE C. MORRIS. 

ADELAIDE DALEY. LUCY E. OWENS. 

ALICE R. DORAN. EMMA C. POWELL. 

"LOUISE A. ERKSON. * WILLIAM F. PRATT. 

*LOVINA ESTILL. *MARY H. RICKEY. 

"ROSE A. EVERETT. MARY A. ROGERS. 

JENNIE GALLAGHER. "HENRIETTA DsSAISSET. 

EMILY GILL. EMMA SELBY. 

*CLARA L. GREGORY. *MAGGIE M. SENTER. 

*MARGARET R. HENRY. MARY E. SENTER. 

*JENNIE F. HOWARD. "CORA A. SIMPSON. 

*M. KATE JACKSON. SOPHIE W. SMITHURST. 

"WILLIAM E. JORDAN. CORA L. SPEAR. 

MRS. SARAH KELSEY. WALDO S. WATERMAN. 
FLORA A. WOODFORD. 

(GRADUATED DECEMBER 17, 1879.) 

SUSIE P. BENSON. "WILLIAM A.. KIRKWOOD. 

*LUCY M. BOTSFORD. HOWARD M. LOCKE. 

ANNIE R. BREWSTER. *IDA LOCKE. 

PAUL J. BRYANT. "ROBERT W. MANTZ. 

"ANGELINA CHAMBAUD. P. JENNIE MAYHEW. 

BIRDIE A. CHESTNUTWOOD. *LIZZIE C. MONAGHAN. 

*LUELLA DUNCAN. "ALICE MOORE. 

"EVA B. FAIRLEE. "HANNAH M. RIXON. 

"SARAH E. HOLLAND. "MARTHA A. STEWART. 
MRS. LAURA A. WELLS. 



State Normal School. 



147 



(GRADUATED MAY 20, 1880.) 



IDA ALLEN. 
FLORENCE APLIN. 
*WALTER S. BAILEY. 
DELIA BEAUCHAMP. 
*ROSA BEOKWITH. 
*IDA M. CARPENTER. 
MARY F. CLAYPOOL. 
*A. B. COFFMAN. 
*BELLE CONN. 
KATE COOLEY. 
C. T. COYLE. 
*LAURA DUNCAN. 
NELLIE FELLOWS. 
*ANNIE C. FISK. 
HATTIE N. GAPEN. 
CARROLL W. GATES. 
LUELLA GILLESPIE. 
*MARY Q. GORDON. 
*NELLIE HENRY 
*CARRIE HILL. 
*NELLIE R. HUNTINGTON. 
MARY JONES. 
*ANNA KING. 
KATE LATIMER. 
*M. H. LAWSON. 



CORDELIA B. LEGGETT. 
*GRACE E. LEONARD. 
OSCAR E. MACK. 
EMMA MADDEN. 
ALMA MARTIN. 
MAGGIE G. MEEHAN. 
*MOLLIE MEEK. 
*ALBION S. MEILY. 
*CHRISTENIE MILLS. 
ALICE MORRILL. 
THOMAS P. MCDONALD. 

*MARY S. McDOUGALL. 
JULIA E. McLERAN. 
*CARRIE McTIGUE. 
VIRNETTA OLDHAM. 
*FANNIE O'HANLON. 
*F. H. OTTMER. 
*EMILY PURINTON. 
*IANTHA REA. 
*CORNELIA RICHARDS. 
*LAURA F. SELL. 
MILLIE THOMPSON. 
SALLIE E. WELLS. 
MRS. MARTHA A. WILKINSON. 
LUCY WOODSON. 



*EMILY WRIGHT. 



Afterwards took the Senior Year and received full diplomas. 



148 Historical Sketch. 



GRADUATES' RECORD. 



In May, 1883, the Board of Trustees adopted a resolution requir- 
ing all graduates, before receiving their diplomas, to sign the fol- 
lowing agreement: 

I hereby agree to report to the Principal of the school from which I graduate, 
at least twice a year for three years after my graduation, and once a year there- 
after, so long as I continue in the profession of teaching ; and when I shall leave 
the profession, 1 will report the fact to him, with the cause therefor. A failure 
to make such reports may be considered a sufficient cause for the revocation 
of my diploma. 

The graduates since that time, with a few exceptions, have 
faithfully complied with the conditions of their agreement. 

Reports of graduates before this date have been gathered from 
various sources. Circulars asking for reports were issued in 1886, 
and sent to all whose addresses were known. Many have 
responded. Some have kindly sent reports for classmates and 
others whose history was unknown. Some have failed to respond, 
and of a few nothing can be learned. The size of the State and 
the unsettled location of the school during the first few years of 
its existence have much to do with the incompleteness of the 
record concerning early graduates. Only such information is 
published as can be given with a good degree of certainty. This 
information has been gathered gradually during the past six 
years. The result, though not so nearly complete as could be 
wished, is highly satisfactory, and shows, as far as statistics can 
show, what the school is accomplishing through its graduates. 
Hearty thanks are here extended to all who have in any way 
assisted in this important work. 

The preparation of this History has shown more forcibly than 
ever the desirability of keeping on file at the school an accurate 
account of the work of the graduates, with their addresses. It 
is hoped, therefore, that the valuable habit of sending reports 
will not cease with the publication of the History, but that all 
graduates, whether or not they have previously reported, will send 
reports, at least annually, of their work and addresses, for refer- 
ence and future publication. It is of course expected that all 
members of classes graduated since the obligation to report has 
been required, will report annually, as pledged. 



State Normal School. 149 

Each annual catalogue of the school is mailed to all graduates 
who have reported during the year for which the catalogue is 
issued. 

It should be borne in mind that the time covered by the follow- 
ing " Record " closes with June, 1889, and in many cases, where 
reports have not lately been received, it closes at an earlier date. 
Graduates are requested to notify the Principal of the School at once 
of any errors in the " Record" and of changes in their addresses. 

NOTE. The name of the county represented by each graduate at the time of 
graduation, is placed opposite his name. 



ERRATA AND ADDENDA. 



PAGF. 



171. MARCUS T. SICKAL. Present address, Benicia, Solano 
County. 

CHAS. E. MARKHAM. Teaching at Haywards, Ala 
meda County. 

186. A. BELLE WEAR. (Mrs. Clement) Present address 

Livermore, Alameda County. 
MYRTIE C. HUDSON. (Mrs. Edward Wagner) Pres- 

ent address, Tien-Tsin, China. Married September 6, 

1 889. Engaged with her husband in missionary work. 
198. MARGARET E. MCANN. (Mrs. H. J. Stafford.) Taught 

in Temescal two years; in Oakland four years. 

216. MARY E. YOUNG. ( Mrs. Ed. North) Present address, 

JNWball, Los Angeles County. 

217. JAMES G. BEATY. Taught in Pluinas County one 

year; Butte County two years; Yuba County three 

years. Teaching in Yuba County. 
LAURA DUNCAN. Teaching in Honolulu. 
LIZZIE B. CREW. (Mrs. E. E. Canfield) Present 

address, Chico, Butte County. 
LIZZIE C. COTTLE. Taught in Monterey County one 

year; in Santa Clara County four years. Teaching at 

Evergreen, Santa Clara County. (OVER) 



148 



Historical Sketch. 



GRADUATES' RECORD. 



In May, 1883, the Board of Trustees adopted a resolution requir- 
ing all graduates, before receiving their diplomas, to sign the fol- 
lowing agreement: 

I hereby agree to report to the Principal of the school from which I graduate, 
at least twice a year for three years after my graduation, and once a year there- 
after, s< 



PAGE. 
232. 
239. 

241. 
261. 

262. 
265. 

265. 

265. 
267. 

267. 

272. 
274. 

275. 
275. 

277. 



NORMA FREYSCHLAG. Present address, San Jose. 
NETTIE C. WARRING. Has been teaching in Mon- 
terey County for past two years. 
TILLIE M. CLARK. (Mrs. Stephen Smith) Present 

address, Yuba City. Married November 9, 1889. 
FANNIE L. MATSON. Teaching at Sheridan, Placer 

County. 

AMELIA G. McKAY. Teaching in Benicia. 
NINA COWDEN. Teaching at Downieville, Sierra 

County. 

LIZZIE DAVIS. Present address, Golden Gate, Alameda 
County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 
Present address, College Park, 
Not teaching. 
Teaching at New Almaden, 



G. MAY DE LAMATER. 
AMELIA E. MEYER. 

Santa Clara County. 
ALBERT E. SHUMATE. 

Santa Clara County. 
ADAH M. MCKENNEY. 

Clara County. 
HANNAH M. BALL. 

County. 

CAROLYN B. DOYLE. 
MELVINA I. DURHAM. 
LAWRENCE F. PUTER. 

University. 



Teaching at Los Gates, Santa 
Teaching near Tipton, Tulare 
(Mrs. Trvin Ball) 

Studying law in the Michigan 



State Normal School. 149 

Each annual catalogue of the school is mailed to all graduates 
who have reported during the year for which the catalogue is 
issued. 

It should be borne in mind that the time covered by the follow- 
ing " Record " closes with June, 1889, and in many cases, where 
reports have not lately been received, it closes at an earlier date. 
Graduates are requested to notify the Principal of the School at once 
of any errors in the " Record " and of changes in their addresses. 

NOTE. The name of the county represented by each graduate at the time of 
graduation, is placed opposite his name. 



FIRST CLASS-MAY, 1863. 
BERTHA COMSTOCK (Mrs. J. C. Bates) San Francisco. 

Present address, 2412 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in San Mateo County and in San Francisco previous to marriage; 
not taught since. Married in 1868. Seven children. 

P. AUGUSTA FINK (Mrs. T. C. White) - -San Francisco. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in the San Francisco public schools from 1864 until resignation 
in 1876; for two years was Principal of the Spring Valley Grammar School. 
Not taught since marriage, November, 1877. One child. Residence, Raisina 
Vineyard, near Fresno City. 

NELLIE HART (Mrs. B. H. Ramsdell) San Francisco. 

Present address, Alameda. 

Taught in Santa Clara County two terms, and in San Francisco. Mar- 
ried in 1864. Work suspended several years ; has been teaching for the past 
three years in Alameda. Four children. 

LOUISA A. MAILS (deceased) San Francisco. 

Did not teach ; died soon after graduation. 



SECOND CLASS-MAY, 1864. 
MARTIN V. ASHBROOK Solano County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in Contra Costa County and Del Norte County, about seven years 
in all. Left teaching to study law; now an attorney at law, Fresno City. 
Married. Two children. 

ELLEN S. BALDWIN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 1900 Devisadero Street, San Francisco. 
Has taught in the San Francisco schools since January, 1865. Teaching 
in Hamilton Grammar School. 

VICTORIA BEVERLY (Mrs. Newbury) Santa Clara County. 

Address in January, 1886, Mountain View. 
11 



150 Historical Sketch. 

SUSIE D. L. CAREY (Mrs. S. C. Baker) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Pacific Grove, Monterey County. 

Taught in Santa Clara, one year; San Jose*, three years; Los Angeles, 
two years; Napa, one year; Vail ejo, two years; San Francisco, eight years; 
Placer and Monterey Counties, two years. Teaching at Pacific Grove. 
Married in 1868 and in 1870. Five children ; four living. Has published a 
book of poems and prose called "Gleanings," and is preparing a book on 
"Temperance in Public Schools." Holds Business College and Kindergar- 
ten diplomas. Has done much work as private teacher outside of public 
schools, and intends to spend her life in teaching. 

CLARA A. CUMMINGS San Francisco. 

Taught. Went to Europe several years ago. 
JULIA CLAYTON (Mrs. Sarles) San Francisco. 

Present address, 2327 California Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in the Grant Primary School, San Francisco; has taught in 
San Francisco eight years. Has two children, 

JANE 0. DAY (Mrs. Palmer) Santa Clara County. 

Resided in Oakland when last heard from. 
Taught one year. 

ELLEN G. GRANT Nevada County. 

Present address, 414 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since June, 1864 ; teaching in the Columbia 
Grammar School. 

MARY GOLDSMITH (Mrs. Prag) San Francisco. 

Present address, 915 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco. 
Has taught in San Francisco since June, 1864; teaching in the Girls' High 
School. 

ANNIE S. JEWETT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 714 Shotwell Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since November, 1865; teaching in Bartlett 
Primary School. 

LIZZIE B. JEWETT (Mrs. G. W. Towle, Jr.) Santa Clara County. 

Address in July, 1886, San Rafael. 
Taught. 

M. AUGUSTA KRAUTH (Mrs. Morgan) El Dorado County. 

Present address, Corralitos, Santa Cruz County. 

Taught in Monterey, one year ; San Francisco, two years ; Santa Cruz 
County, two years. Not teaching. 

ARIADNE L. KIMBALL (Mrs. H. R. Kimball) San Francisco. 

Present address, Petaluma, Sonoma County. 

Taught a short time as substitute in the San Francisco schools, and seven 
years in the Protestant Orphan Asylum, San Francisco. Married Novem- 
ber 21, 1872; not taught since. Three children. 



State Normal School. 151 

MARY J. NORTON (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught. 

JANE SMITH __San Francisco. 

Present address, 1413 Post Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since June, 1864; teaching in Longfellow 
Primary School. 

MINNIE SCOTT Alameda County. 

Married. Did not teach. 

EVE SOLOMON San Francisco. 

Taught one year. Married. 
MARGARET WADE (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from June, 1864, until the time of her death, 
September 23, 1882. Address of her sister, Miss Nettie Wade, 104 Webster 
Street, San Francisco. 

MARY E. WILLIAMS Marin County. 

Taught. 



THIRD CLASS-DECEMBER, 1864. 
LUCINDA N. ALLYNE San Francisco. 

Present address, unknown. 
Went to Massachusetts. 

ELIJAH BROADBENT Sierra County. 

Present address, unknown. 

Taught several years in St. Augustine College, Benicia, in California, and 
Nevada. Living in one of the Eastern States. 

WILLIAM R. BRADSHAW (deceased) Sutter County. 

Taught. 
SADIE DAVIS (Mrs. Cornwall) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco and in Redwood City. 

CARRIE P. FIELD (Mrs. Plunkett) Santa Cruz Co. 

Present address, 231 San Jose" Avenue, San Francisco. 
Has taught in San Francisco since April, 1865. Teaching in the Colum- 
bia Grammar School. 

MINNIE GIRVIN San Francisco. 

Married. Did not teach. 

ANNA KENNEDY San Francisco. 

No report. 



152 Historical Sketch. 

HENRY E. McBniDE Tulare County. 

Present address, San Luis Obispo. 
Has taught several years. Is now practicing law. 

PHILENA SAWYER San Francisco. 

Taught. Is married, but present name and address unknown. 



FOURTH CLASS-JUNE, 1865. 
CORNELIA E. CAMPBELL Sonoma County. 

Present address, Hubbard House, 139 Fourth Street, San Francisco. 
Has taught in San Francisco since February, 1867. Teaching in the 
South San Francisco School. 

AUGUSTA S. CAMERON (Mrs. Bainbridge) San Francisco. 

Present address, Covelo, Mendocino County. 

Taught in San Francisco two and one half years; Mendocino County, 
thirteen years. Teaching. Married January 6, 1869. Two children. Was 
the first native California graduate, and probably the youngest ever grad- 
uated from the school. Has done much work outside of the public schools 
as teacher in book-keeping, music, calisthenics, etc. 

ANNA GIBBONS (Mrs. Wm. T. Garratt) San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from June, 1868, to October, 1882, except one 
year's leave of absence. 

MAGGIE L. JORDAN (deceased) San Francisco. 

Was elected to a position in San Francisco in June, 1867. Further his- 
tory not known. 

ANNIE M. JOURDEN (Mrs. James Duffy) San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, 1944 California Street, San Francisco. 
Taught. 

NELLIE A. LITILEFIELD San Francisco. 

Present address, 511 Gough Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since December, 1865. Teaching in Potrero 
School. 

FLORENCE MORGAN San Francisco. 

Present name and address unknown. 
Married and went East soon after graduation. Did not teach. 

CAROLINE A. MENGES San Francisco. 

Present address, Norwood House, Los Angeles. 
Taught in San Francisco from December, 1867, to August, 1888. 

SOPHRONIA MILLS (Mrs. E. H. Kincaid) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in San Joaquin County two years. Married May 1, 1867. Not 
taught since. Seven children. 



State Normal School. 153 

FANNY A. E. NICHOLS San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from July, 1865, to March, 1882. Left the pro- 
fession on account of ill health. 

GEORGE S. PERSHIN Humboldt County. 

Present address unknown. 
Taught in San Francisco. Was afterwards engaged in surveying. 

MARY PERKINS Placer County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Spring Valley School, San Francisco. 

FANNIE SOULE San Francisco. 

Present address, 825 Polk Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since September, 1865. Teaching in Lincoln 
Grammar School. 

MARY F. YOUNGBERG (Mrs. Elliott Reed) San Francisco. 

Present address, 279 North San Pedro Street, San Jose. 
Taught in Willow Glen District, Santa Clara County, five months; in San 
Jos, eleven years. Not teaching. Married November 11, 1867. Two chil- 
dren ; one living: 



FIFTH CLASS-DECEMBER, 1865. 
NETTIE DOUD (Mrs. F. B. Wood) San Francisco. 

Present address, 2211 Steiner Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught continuously in the San Francisco schools since graduation; 
is now Principal of the Hermann Street Primary School. Married in 1873. 

MARY A. H. ESTABROOK (Mrs. Millington) San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, Napa City. 
Taught. 

SARAH E. FRISSELL (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught several years. Was married (name unknown), and died in the 
Eastern States. 

JANE E. GREER San Mateo. 

Present address, 1040 Twentieth Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Fairmount School ; has taught in San Francisco since June, 
1868. 

MARY E. HALL San Francisco. 

Taught. 

JOSEPH F. KENNEDY. Contra Costa County. 

Address, unknown. 
Attorney at law. Has taught. 



154 Historical Sketch. 



J. ALEXANDER LOUTTIT Calaveras County. 

Present address, Stockton, San Joaquin County. 

Taught in Calavera's County, one term ; Alameda County, three years ; 
San Joaquin County, one year. Left teaching for the profession of law ; 
was City Attorney of Stockton eight terms ; member of the Forty-ninth 
Congress, U. S. A. Married August 21, 1872. Five children ; is now a 
widower. Present occupation, attorney at law. 

Louis J. MEGERLE (deceased) San Joaquin County. 

Taught eight months in San Joaquin County. Graduated from the Uni- 
versity of the Pacific in 1870, and taught in that institution for a time; left 
teaching in 1871 to enter the Harvard Law School. Died June 29, 1872, 
within two weeks of graduation. 

MARIA E. O'CONNOR San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from December, 1865, to July, 1880. In 1886 
was reported as teaching in a Convent, but address unknown. 

MARY J. PASCOE (Mrs. Parolini) San Francisco. 

Present address, 37 Post Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since April, 1866. Teaching in the Garfield 
Primary School. 

SABRINA A. WILLIAMS Yuba County, 

Went East soon after graduation. 



SIXTH CLASS-JUNE, 1866. 
ABBIE CARSWELL San Francisco. 

Married. Taught. Name, address, and history unknown. 

AMEY T. CAMPBELL Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 1220 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 
Taught constantly since graduation in the San Francisco schools. Is 
now Vice-Principal of the Broadway Grammar School. 

ALMIRA T. FLINT San Francisco. 

Present address, 812 Hyde Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since June, 1866. Teaching in Denman 
Grammar School. 

GAZENA A. GARRISON San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from April, 1867, to March, 1882. Teaching in 
Marin County. 

LILLIE E. GUMMER (Mrs. Judge John Hunt) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught about five years. Has one child. 



State Normal School. 155 

ERVIN D. HUMPHREY (deceased) San Francisco. 

Was elected to a position in the San Francisco Schools immediately after 
graduation, and was Principal of the Fairmount, Mission Grammar, and 
Hayes Valley Grammar Schools successively. In January, 1877, he re- 
signed on account of failing health. In consideration of his faithful ser- 
vices, his resignation was not accepted by the Board of Education, but he 
was granted an indefinite leave of absence. He went to Ohio in June, 1877. 
Eeturned to California in February, 1878, and died March 18, 1878. He left 
a wife and three sons. 

ANNIE M. HOLMES (Mrs. Marcus D. Boruck) San Francisco. 

Present address, California Street, near Laguna, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco three years. Married April 14, 1869; not taught 
since. Two children. 

MARY J. MORGAN (Mrs. J. Irving Ayers) Sacramento County. 

Present address, 1758 Taylor Street, West Oakland. 

Taught in San Francisco four and one half years. In 187(3 discontinued 
teaching and married. . In 1883, resumed teaching in the Clawson School, 
Oakland, which position she has held continuously since. Has four chil- 
dren. 

LIZZIE A. MORGAN (Mrs. Wentworth T. Crowell), (deceased) _ 

Sacramento County. 

Taught in San Francisco two years; then married and resigned. After 
several years, again commenced teaching in Sacramento, where she taught 
until 1887. After an illness of seven months, died in August, 1887. Left 
three children, the eldest now a teacher. 

SARAH E. MILLER San Francisco. 

Present address, 239 Sixteenth Street, San Francisco. 
Has taught in San Francisco continuously since graduation. Teaching 
in Haight Primary School. 

MARY F. METCALF (Mrs. Hugh Davidson) San Francisco. 

Present address, 611 Haight Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from March, 1868, to October, 1885. Married 
October 3, 1885. 

MARY S. MOULTHROP San Francisco. 

Present address, 1108 Union Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught most of the time since graduation ; for the past two years at 
San Pedro, Los Angeles County, where she is now teaching. 

ABNER F. OLINGER San Francisco. 

Present address, Campbellton, Jackson County, Florida. 
Has taught most of the time since graduation: in various counties of 
Calif ornia, fourteen years; in Tennessee, three years; in Florida, five years. 
Teaching in Florida. Married April 16, 1871. Four children. 

FRANCES B. PIPER (Mrs. Wm. Hall) San Francisco. 

Present address, Stockton. 
Not taught. Married September 18, 1867. Four children ; three living. 



156 Historical Sketch. 

ARTHUR RODGERS San Francisco. 

Present address, Nevada Block, San Francisco. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three months ; San Mateo County, five 
months; Monterey County, five months; San Benito County, five months. 
Entered University of California, January, 1870, from which institution he 
graduated in 1872. Is now practicing law in San Francisco. Is a Regent 
of the University of California, and has delivered a number of public 
addresses. 

FRANCES SIMON (Mrs. Chas. Leavy) ' San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught eight years. Has six children. 

MARIA L. SOULE San Francisco. 

Present address, 516 Van Ness Avenue. 

Teaching in the Denman Grammar School. Has taught in San Francisco 
since June 1868. 

CHARLOTTE F. STEPHENSON (Mrs. Noah F. Flood), (deceased). 

Sacramento County. 

Taught. Died December, 1868. 

NELSON S. TROWBRIDGE Amador County. 

Present address, Berkeley, Alameda County. 

Taught six months near Lockeford; six months near Vacaville; six 
months at Michigan Bar. Left teaching January, 1869, for mining and 
mercantile pursuits. Married May 19, 1869, to Kate J. Clayton, class of 
1867. Six children ; five living. 

ELIZABETH WHITE (Mrs. Scott) San Francisco. 

Present address, Portland, Oregon. 

Taught in San Francisco. 



SILAS A. WHITE San Francisco. 

Present address, 2213 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 

Taught constantly in the public schools of San Francisco since gradua- 
tion. Principal of Spring Valley Grammar School. 

ELIZABETH YORK (Mrs. M. A. De Jough), (deceased) 

San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco. Married July 31, 1869. Two children ; one liv- 
ing. 



SEVENTH CLASS-JUNE, 1867. 

JULIA V. ASHLEY (Mrs. Alfred Thurber) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Salinas City. 

Taught in Contra Costa County eleven years; has been teaching in Salinas 
City since January, 1888. Married July 1, 1869. One child. 



State Normal School. 157 

SARAH E. ANDERSON (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught. 

E. MARGARET BEVANS (Mrs. C. Convis) San Francisco. 

Present address, New York City. 
Taught four years in San Francisco. 

EMMA A. BIGSBY (deceased) Sonoma County. 

Taught. 

ADRIANNA L. BEERS (Mrs. Maynard) San Francisco. 

Present address, 730 Green Street, San Francisco. 
Taught. 

CARRIE M. CHASE (Mrs. Wm. S. Murphy), (deceased) 

San Francisco. 

Taught in Ban Francisco from July, 1868, to March, 1875. Died July 2, 
1876. Left one son. 

CHAS. W. CHILDS El Dorado County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in El Dorado County, two years ; Suisun City, Solano County, 
nine years. Was County Superintendent of Solano County two terms. 
Now Principal of the State Normal School, San Jose", in which school he 
has taught since 1878. 

E. MATTIE CHAPMAN Sonoma County. 

Taught. 

KATE J. CLAYTON (Mrs. N. S. Trowbridge) San Francisco. 

Present address, Berkeley, Alameda County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year; Amador County, three months ; 
State of Nevada three months. Not teaching. Married May 19, 1869. Six 
children ; five living. 

MARY P. CLARK (deceased) Amador County. 

Taught in Amador County. Died March 31, 1870. Father's address, W. 
0. Clark, Drytown, Amador County. 

HATTIE J. ESTABROOK (Mrs. W. W. Thompson) __ San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, Napa City. Had taught five years. 

HENRIETTA FEATHERLY San Francisco. 

Present address, 1107 Mason Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since July, 1867. Teaching in the Powell 
Street Primary School. 

ANNA D. GADDIS (Mrs. Maxwell) Yolo County. 

Present address. Woodland, Yolo County. 

Taught in Yolo County until marriage, June 3, 1867. Not teaching. 
Three children. 



158 Historical Sketch. 

CLARA GERMAIN (Mrs. G. S. Potwin) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Concord, Contra Costa County. 

Taught ten years in Contra Costa and Alameda Counties. Then married 
and settled on a farm in Ygnacio Valley, where she resided at last report, 
April, 1883. Now a widow. 

ANNA L. GRAY (Mrs. R. R. Owen) _San Francisco. 

Present address, Alameda. 

Taught in San Francisco from September, 1867, to October, 1876. Taught 
in Alameda also. Married June 17, 1884. 

MARY T. HART (Mrs. Joseph Austin) (deceased) __E1 Dorado Co. 

Did not teach. Was for many years musical critic of the Argonaut, under 
the nom de plume " Betsy B." Died in San Francisco in 1888. 

MARY G. HEYDENFELT (Mrs. Wm. J. Dutton) San Francisco. 

Present address, corner of California and Devisadero Streets, San Francisco. 
Taught. 

ELLA M. HARVEY (Mrs. W. B. Priddy) Alarneda County. 

Taught in Oakland in the same school seven years, the last year as Prin- 
cipal. Married February 12, 1884. Two children. Her husbaud is a Meth- 
odist minister, and she has, therefore, no permanent address. 

JAMES G. KENNEDY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught in San Jose" several years. Was City Superintendent of San Jose" 
three terms. In 1885 he moved to San Francisco, where he taught in the 
city schools, and was afterwards School Inspector two years. Is now Prin- 
cipal of the Cogswell Polytechnic Institute. 

CLOELIA M. LEWIS (Mrs. Lewis A. Sage) San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, Congress Springs, Santa Clara County. 
Taught. 

HATTIE B. LOCKE San Francisco. 

No report. 

LIZZIE A. NEWELL Sonoma County. 

Taught. 

NELLIE M. OWENS San Francisco. 

Present address, 614 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in the Girls' High School. Has taught in San Francisco since 
July, 1869. 

CATHERINE O'BRIEN San Francisco. 

Present address, 319 Oak Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in the John Swett Grammar School. Taught in San Francisco 
since September, 1867. 



State Normal School. 159 

HOWELL POWELL Suiter County. 

Attorney at law, Sansome Street, San Francisco. Married Miss Mary E. 
King, class of March, 1871. Three children. 

ELLA A. ROBERTS (deceased) El Dorado County. 

FLORA C. SMITH (Mrs. Armstrong) Santa Clara County. 

In 1886 was living in Arizona. 
Taught. 

GRACE SMITH (Mrs. Preston) San Francisco. 

Address in 1885, 1922 Broderick Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco High School. 

JOHN C. SHIPLEY . _. Sonoma County. 

Present address, Healdsburg, Sonoma County. 

Taught constantly since graduation, principally in Sonoma and Mendo- 
cino Counties. Married July 16, 1871. Three children. At last report, 1887, 
was Principal of Healdsburg public schools. 

MRS. ADA E. WRIGHT San Francisco. 

Present address, 471 Haight Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Eighth Street Primary School. Has taught in San Francisco 
since February, 1869. Taught in Santa Clara County one year previous. 

HARRIET L. WOOLL San Francisco. 

Present address, 719 Polk Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Spring Valley Primary School. Has taught in San Francisco 
since September, 1867. 



EIGHTH CLASS-NOVEMBER, 1867. 
ROXA S. COCKS San Francisco. 

At last report was married (name unknown), and living in Washington 
Territory. 

ROSCOE L. EAMES .Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, 46 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 

Taught for two years after graduation in Clayton, Contra Costa County. 
Engaged in bookkeeping and railroading in Los Angeles County six years; 
in bookkeeping in Oakland four years ; since then has been a stenographer 
in San Francisco. Is now Principal of the Short-Hand Department of 
Barnard's Business College and a short-hand reporter. Is the author of 
a "Text-Book of Light-Line Short-Hand." Married Christmas, 1874, to 
Ninetta Wiley. 

MAGGIE HOWARD San Francisco. 

Mo report. Married (name unknown). 



160 Historical Sketch. 



BYRON E. HUNT Solano County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in San Mateo County three years ; Alameda County, six months ; 
Sierra County, one year ; Placer County, six months ; Napa County, five and 
one half years ; Marysville High School, two years. Left teaching in 1881, 
to practice law. Was a lawyer in Napa City several years. Also filled the 
office of Justice of the Peace and Police Judge. Is now General Agent for 
Southern California of the Pacific Endowment League. Married June 1, 
1873. Three children. 

MARTHA A. LAWLESS San Francisco. 

No report. Married (name unknown), and living in San Rafael. 

C. D. MCNAUGHTON (deceased) El Dorado County. 

MARY E. PERKINS (Mrs. W. A. Mathews) Colusa County. 

Present address, Selma, Fresno County. 
Taught. One son. 

MARY E. SAVAGE (MRS. McKown) San Francisco. 

Present address, 1316 Steiner Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since March, 1868; teaching in Lincoln 
Grammar School. Is a widow. 

MARION H. SEARS San Francisco. 

No report. 

HENRIETTA S. SLATER (Mrs. John A. Mclntire).. Sacramento Co. 

Present address, Sacramento. 

Took further work and received a second diploma with Class of May, 
1868. Taught one year in San Jose Institute. Entered High School in 
Sacramento, and graduated in 1872. Taught two years in public schools of 
Sacramento. Married in June, 1874. Two children. Not teaching. 



NINTH CLASS-MAY, 1868. 
TRUMAN P. ASHBROOK (deceased) Napa County. 

Taught successfully in Placer, Trinity, and Butte Counties, about ten 
years. In the fall of 1878 he took the school at Susanville, Lassen County. 
On the twenty-seventh of December, 1878, while skating alone on Honey 
Lake, he fell into an air hole and was drowned. Brother's address, M. V. 
Ashbrook, attorney at law, Fresno City. 

ELLA E. BACHELDER (MRS. O. C. Stonder) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Pablo, Contra Costa County. 

Has not taught. Married in 1872 to Dr. David Goodale, since deceased, 
and in 1885 to O. C. Stonder. Four children. 



State Normal School. 161 



LIZZIE C. BETANCUE Alameda County. 

Present address, 487 Twenty-sixth Street, Oakland. 

At last report, April, 1883, was teaching in Oakland, where she had taught 
constantly since graduation, with the exception of a vacation of one and 
one half years. 

LUCY BONNELL ( Mrs. Corcoran) San Francisco. 

No report. 

JULIA B. BROWN (Mrs. Arthur J. Foster) El Dorado County. 

Present address, 317 Seventeenth Street, San Francisco. 
Taught twelve years in San Francisco. 

ANNIE CATHCART (Mrs. Theller) San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, San Francisco. 

LIZZIE COPE San Francisco. 

Present address, Danville, Contra Costa County. 
Taught three months. 

LILLIAN A. CRITTENDEN San Francisco. 

No report. 

FRANCES A. DAY Calaveras County. 

Address in 1886, Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County. 
Taught sixteen years. 

SARAH FIELD (Mrs. Daniel Swett) Santa Cruz County. 

Residence, Alameda; mail address, No. 6 Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco seven years. Married September 2, 1875. Not 
taught since. Two children. 

ANNA HALL (Mrs. O. I. Bradley) San Francisco. 

Address in 1884, Santa Cruz. 
Not taught. 

SALLIE L. HALL (Mrs. De Witt Vestal) Santa Clara County. 

Address in 1886, San Jose". 
JOSIAH S. HAMMOND San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Butte City, Montana. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, four years; Yolo County, one year; State 
of Nevada, eleven months; County Superintendent of Lander County, 
Nevada, one term. Left teaching in November, 1873, to practice medicine. 
Now a practicing physician in Butte City. Married December 25, 1867. Six 
children. 

JULIA HENEY (Mrs. John Haynes) San Francisco. 

Address in 1886, Tucson, Arizona. Taught in San Francisco from Au- 
gust, 1870, to January, 1880. 



1 62 Historical Sketch. 



FANNIE R. JACKS Napa County. 

No report. 
AMELIA JOICE (Mrs. John E. Cosgriff), (deceased). San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco. Married June 26, 1872. Had three children ; 
two now living. Died January 10, 1879. 

EDWARD W. JONES Colusa County. 

At last report, April, 1883, was a merchant in Colusa. Had not taught. 

ANNA LA GRANGE (Mrs. C. S. Coleman) Alameda County. 

Present address, San Leandro, Alameda County. 
Taught two years. Not teaching. 

BEATRICE M. LAWREY (Mrs. B. L. Hollenbeck)__ Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Pacific Grove, Monterey County. 

Taught in San Jose public schools from July, 1868, to November, 1883, 
except twelve months' leave of absence; in Preparatory Class, State Normal 
School, from November, 1883, to June, 1887. Not teaching. Married Jan- 
uary 31, 1871. Two children. 

SUSIE S. LAWTON San Francisco. 

No report. 
ANNIE H. LEWIS (Mrs. Troy Shelley) San Francisco. 

Missionary in Japan. 

MARY LITTLE (Mrs. W. E. Price) San Francisco. 

Present address, 537 Haight Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco from October, 1868, to September, 1888. 

WILLIAM N. MAGOON Sonoma County. 

Present address, Stony Point. 

Taught in Sonoma County, six years; and one term each in Colusa, 
Mendocino, Yuba, Contra Costa, and Monterey Counties about ten years 
in all. Since then has engaged in blacksmithing and carriage making. 
Married April 30, 1884. 

AMELIA L. MAISON (Mrs. Thos. Dorland) __ Contra Costa County. 
Address in 1886, San Francisco. 

LIZZIE McCoLLAM (Mrs. Geo. Tasheira) San Francisco. 

Present address, Sausalito, Marin County. 
Taught two years. Not teaching. 

LOTTIE McKEAN (Mrs. A. T. Winn) San Francisco. 

Present address, 230 Herman Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco from March, 1869, to September, 1880. 

HELEN McPnERSON (deceased) San Francisco. 



State Normal School. 163 

SUMNER F. PAINE Sutter County. 

Present address, Meridian, Sutter County. 
Engaged in farming. 

ANNA M. PALMER (Mrs. C. C. Weisenburger) Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

Taught about five years in Nevada County. Left school teaching in 1873 
to teach music. Married August 5, 1875. 

DAVID POWELL Sutter County. 

Present address, Marysville, Yuba County. 

Taught in Sutter County, five months ; Contra Costa County, twelve 
months. Left teaching in 1870, to study medicine. Now a practicing phy- 
sician and surgeon. 

TROY SHELLEY Sutter County. 

Missionary in Japan. 

JOHN A. SMITH Sonoma County. 

Present address, Point Arena, Mendocino County. 
Has taught most of the time since graduation. Married. Three children. 

MARY SMITH San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from August, 1869, to April, 1881. 

ELIZABETH STAPLES (Mrs. Emlin Painter), (deceased) 

San Francisco. 

MARION STOKUM .__ San Francisco. 

No report. 

MARY E. STONE (Mrs. J. M. Caldwell) San Francisco. 

Present address, 10 Mission Avenue, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Bernal Heights School. Taught in San Francisco since 
June, 1868. 

ADDIE TREADWAY (Mrs. C. D. Ambrose), (deceased) .-.Napa Co. 

Taught three terms in Santa Clara County. Married February 2, 1870. 
Died November 7, 1879. Daughter's address, Mary L. Ambrose, Ukiah City. 

MARY WARD Calaveras County. 

Taught in San Francisco from June, 1869, to May, 1875. 



TENTH CLASS-MAY, 1869. 

MARY BELL San Francisco. 

No report. 

ANNIE BRYANT (Mrs. Anderson) Sonoma County. 

Present address, 3044 Sixteenth'Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Hayes Valley Primary School. 



1 64 Historical Sketch. 

SAMUEL F. BUCKMAN New York. 

Present address, San Buenaventura. 
Has filled the office of County Superintendent. 

RUTH G. CAMPBELL San Francisco. 

Present address, 1220 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 
Taught three months in Napa County and remainder of the time since 
graduation in public schools of San Francisco. Now teaching in the Broad- 
way Grammar School. 

JOHN M. CURRAGH Alameda County. 

No report. 

MARIETTA J. GOULD (Mrs. Buzzo) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught eleven years in the San Jose" schools. Not taught since 1884. 
Married September 25, 1873. One child. In 1872-73 was member of County 
Board of Santa Clara County. 

ANNIE E. GROGAN El Dorado County. 

No report. 

ANNIE M. HAYBURN (Mrs. Ward Brown) San Francisco. 

Present address, 342 Grove Street, San Francisco. 

Taught until July, 1882, in San Francisco. Not taught since. Married 
June 25, 1878. Three children. 

ABSALOM T. JONES Sonoma County. 

No report. 

LOUISA LACEY (Mrs. John Rolls) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Rafael. 

Taught four years in San Francisco. Married in 1875. Not taught since. 
Two children. 

EMILY U. LINDBERG San Francisco. 

Present address, 116 Turk Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught in San Francisco since October, 1874. Teaching in the South 
Cosmopolitan Grammar School. 

CLARA A. MACKIE (deceased) San Francisco. 

JENNIE S. MANN (Mrs. A. L. Mann) San Francisco. 

Present address, 2402 Mission Street, San Francisco. 
Principal of Shotwell Street Primary School. Has taught in San Fran- 
cisco since October, 1874. 

KATE F. McCoLGAN San Francisco. 

Present address, 1809 Ellis Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in the South Cosmopolitan Grammar School. Has taught in 
San Francisco since June, 1869. 



State Normal School. 165 



CLARA B. MILLETT (Mrs. W. B. Rankin) San Mateo County. 

Present address, Los Gatos, Santa Clara County. 

CARRIE A. NORTHCUTT (Mrs. Angus Boggs) Solano County. 

No report. 

OLIVE G. PARKER San Francisco. 

No report. 

ADELLA PEPPER Placer County. 

No report. 

MARY E. PRATT (Mrs. A. W. Tate) Alameda County. 

Present address, Corralitos, Santa Cruz County. 

Taught in Alameda County, three and one half years; Merced County, 
four years ; Contra Costa County, five months. Married December 5, 1877. 
Two children. Not taught since marriage. 

NELLIE ROBINETT (deceased) San Francisco. 

MAGGIE E. SMITH (Mrs. J. T. McGeoghegan) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught before marriage. 

ESTHER SOLOMON (Mrs. Haber), (deceased) San Francisco. 

MATTIE H. STEGMAN Mariposa County. 

At last report was married (name unknown), and living at Pescadero. 

AUGUSTA M. STOWE (Mrs. A. M. Crichton) __ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 29 San Augustine Street, San Jose". 
Taught several years in San Jose". 

MARY A. THOMAS (Mrs. Oscar Dunbar) San Francisco. 

Present address, Astoria, Oregon. 

Taught in San Francisco from February, 1872, to December, 1879. Taught 
in Modesto also. One child. 

MAGGIE H. WATSON (Mrs. J. H. Currier) San Francisco. 

Present address, 2012 Taylor Street, San Francisco. 

Taught constantly since graduation in the public schools of San Fran- 
cisco. Teaching in the Starr King Primary School. Married June 3, 1875 

ALICE WEED San Francisco. 

Present address, 1217 Leavenworth Street, San Francisco. 
Taught six months in San Mateo County, and fourteen years in San 
Francisco. Teaching in Pacific Heights School. 

12 



1 66 Historical Sketch. 

ELLA L. WHITMORE (Mrs. Wm. Gregory) Sonoma County. 

Present address, Livermore, Alameda County. 

Teaching near Livermore. Has taught in Alameda County seventeen 
years. Married December 24, 1885. 

MARY A. WRIGHT (Mrs. Van Schaick) Monterey County. 

Present address, Gilroy, Santa Clara County. 

Taught in Monterey County, one term ; in Gilroy, twelve years ; now 
Principal of the Gilroy High School. Married June 6, 1872. One child. 



ELEVENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1870. 

CLARA A. ADAMS San Francisco. 

Present address, 1910 Hyde Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Greenwich Primary School. Has taught in San Francisco 
sixteen years. 

ARMINTA E. ALLISON (Mrs. Wm. White) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, 3Q4 Eighteenth Street, San Francisco. 
Has substituted in the San Francisco schools at different times, but not 
taught regularly since graduation. Married April 25, 1870, to Wm. White, 
a teacher of many years experience. Has two children. Her daughter is a 
teacher in San Francisco. 

BERTHA A. BICKNELL (Mrs. D. P. Fenton) __ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 3624 Sacramento Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Santa Clara County, two years ; Solano County, two years ; San 
Francisco, twelve years. Teaching in the Redding Primary School. Was 
employed as a type-writer two years. 

SARAH J. BOYLE San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from June, 1870, to March, 1889. Not teaching. 

MARY ALICE BURRILL (Mrs. N. G. Simonds) San Francisco. 

Present address, 5 Pickman Street, Salem, Massachusetts. 
Taught one and one half years in San Francisco. Married September 11, 
1873. One child. 

JOANNA T. CASEY Shasta County 

No report. 

LEONORA M. CAROTHERS (Mrs. Barry Baldwin), (deceased). 

Contra Costa County. 

ISABEL CARRUTHERS (Mrs. I. Woodland) San Francisco. 

Present address, 5 Yerba Buena Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in the Garfield Primary School. 

JAMES E. CLARK __ Washington Territory. 

No report. 



State Normal School. 167 

MARY A. COLBY (Mrs. Ramsdell). Nevada County. 

In 1887 was teaching in Pasadena. Taught in San Francisco from Aug- 
ust, 1870, to July, 1882. 

AUGUSTA R. EASTMAN San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from January, 1872, to August, 1874. 

ABBIE A. GARLAND San Francisco. 

Present address, 215 Powell Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in San Mateo County a year. Has taught in San Francisco since 
October, 1874. Teaching in the South Cosmopolitan Primary School. 

ANNIE A. GIBSON (Mrs. Frank Clayton) Solano County. 

Present address, 163 Second Street, Portland, Oregon. 
Taught for some time in Solano County. Married May 23, 1872. Four 
children. 

KATIE GREEN San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from August, 1870, to February, 1888. 

MARY L. GREER (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco seventeen years. Died May 11, 1888. 

LOLETA GRAFFELMAN (Mrs. Winchester) Alameda County. 

Resides in Oregon. Taught four years. 

ANNIE E. HAAS (Mrs. Robert Broad) Alameda County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught one and one half years. 

DEBORAH W. HARDMAN (Mrs. C. Ham) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught two years. 

MARY J. HENDERSON Nevada County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught four months in Nevada County; seventeen years in San Fran- 
cisco. Teaching in Noe and Temple Street School. 

ALVIN J. HOWE Solano County. 

Present address, Santa Ana, Orange County. 
Physician. Taught two years. 

ADELLA MARVIN (Mrs. Clark) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

MARY MATTHEWS San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from November, 1871, to November, 1882. 

ANNIE M. McKEAN (Mrs. B. F. Rush) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Suisun, Solano County. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County. Not teaching. Married June 
20, 1876. Four children. 



1 68 Historical Sketch. 



ALBERTA S. MONTGOMERY (Mrs. Ecker) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in San Jos for seven years after graduation. Married March 17, 
1878, and removed to Ohio. One child. Lived in Ohio ten years and then 
returned to California. Now teaching in San Jose". 

ISABELLA M. MURPHY (Mrs. Miller) Solano County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught four years. 

KATE R. O'LEARY San Francisco. 

Present address, 2116 Howard Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in the South Cosmopolitan Grammar School. Has taught in 
San Francisco since May, 1871. 

ROSA RANDALL (Mrs. Weir) San Francisco. 

Present address, Honolulu, H. I. 
Taught one year in Contra Costa County before marriage. Three children. 

GEORGIE A. STACKPOLE (Mrs. H. Belden) San Francisco. 

Present address, Oakland. 

NELLIE A. SAVAGE (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from February, 1872, to November, 1878. 

SARAH I. SHUEY Alameda County. 

Present address, Lamanda Park, Los Angeles County. 
Taught three and one half years in Alameda County after graduation. 
Took an academic course in the State University, followed by a medical 
course. Graduated with degree of M.D. in 1878. Has practiced medicine 
since. Now has charge of a sanitarium in the San Gabriel Valley. 

ALICE R. SNOW (Mrs. Geo. Pardee), (deceased) __ -Santa Cruz Co. 
Taught in Watsonville before marriage. Died in Watsonville in 1887. 
Two children, one living. 

MAGGIE SPROTT San Francisco. 

Present address, 4 Ford Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Lincoln Evening School. Has taught in San Francisco since 
March, 1873. 

HELEN M. STONE (deceased) Alameda County. 

Taught eleven years. Died in June, 1882. 

EMMA E. C. STINCEN San Francisco. 

Present address, 816 Chestnut Street, San Francisco. 
Principal of Whittier Primary School. Has taughjt in San Francisco 
since September, 1870. 

ANNA M. STOCKTON (Mrs. Custer) Sacramento County. 

Living in Pennsylvania. 



State Normal School. 169 

FANNIE A. SHERMAN (Mrs. Guppy) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Oakland. 
Taught five years. 

HENRY I. TILLOTSON Solano County. 

Present address, Michigan Bluff, Placer County. 

Taught in Alameda County, one and one half years; Contra Costa 
County, five years. Left the profession in 1875, to engage in a general 
merchandise business. Since 1886 has been engaged in gold mining. 

EMMA TILLOTSON (deceased) Solano County. 

Taught one year. Died in 1871. 

CYNTHIA M. TURNER (Mrs. P. W. Dooner)__ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 742 S. Fort Street, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three years; Calaveras County, five 
months; San Mateo County, four months. Not teaching. Married May 25, 
1876. One child. 

EMMET L. WEMPLE_ Sutter County. 

Present address, Antioch, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, two years; Sutter County, three months. 
Entered the Pacific Medical College, May, 1871, and graduated November, 
1873. Practiced medicine in Norton ville, Contra Costa County, two years. 
Since April, 1876, has resided in Antioch and continued in his profession. 
Married April 15, 1874, to Miss Annie I. Gunn. Has three children. Was 
Superintendent of Schools in Contra Costa County from November, 1877, 
to January, 1879. 

JESSIE E. WILSON (deceased) San Francisco. 

Died November 30, 1872. Her mother's address in 1883, was 13 Ridley 
Street, San Francisco. 

MARIE WITHROW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 925 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Has devoted her time since graduation to teaching and studying music. 
Was superintendent of Music in the public schools of San Francisco 
County several years. Spent a number of years at Munich, Germany, per- 
fecting her musical education. Now teaching music in the Boys' High 
School, and in the Polytechnic Institute. Has private pupils and classes 
also. 

EDITH L. WETMORE (Mrs. Horswill) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Clayton. 
Is now a widow. Has three children. 

JENNIE YATES Sonoma County. 

No report. 



170 Historical Sketch. 



TWELFTH CLASS-MARCH, 1871. 
N.JANE BELL (Mrs, Sykes) San Francisco. 

Present address, 13 Dehon Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Sanchez Street Primary School. Has taught in San Fran- 
cisco since August, 1872. 

JULIA I. BENJAMIN (Mrs. Owen Moran) Solano County. 

Present address, Suisun, Solano County. 

Taught from July, 1871, to June, 1876, in Vallejo, Oakland, and San Fran- 
cisco. 

CELINA R. CARRAU (Mrs. Pechin) San Francisco. 

Present address, 1778 Green Street, San Francisco. 

Principal of the Greenwich Street Primary School. Has taught in San 
Francisco since September, 1871. 

ELLEN A. CONMY (Mrs. John Gordon) Shasta County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Teaching in San Jose". Taught seventeen years. 

HATTIE G. CLARK (Mrs. Wm. Faull) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 2023 Broadway, San Francisco. 

Taught four years in Amador and Contra Costa Counties. Not taught 
since marriage. 

MARY A. COTTLE (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County. Died soon after. 

MARY I. DOYLE San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from July, 1871, to August, 1885. Is married 
(name unknown), and lives in Mendocino City. 

ANNIE A. FLETCHER (Mrs. D. 0. Kelley) Nevada County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in San Francisco two years. Married April, 1874. Not taught 
since. Eight children ; seven living. Husband an Episcopal clergyman. 

EMILY F. GEER (Mrs. R. Gavin) Sacramento County. 

Present address, Concord, Contra Costa County. 

GEORGE H. HARDY Sierra County. 

Present address, Independence, Inyo County. 

Taught three years in Inyo County. Was County Treasurer eight years. 
Now a clerk and bookkeeper. Married August 13, 1871. Four children. 

MARY E. KING (Mrs. H. A. Powell) . -San Francisco. 

Present address, 921 Myrtle Street, Oakland. 

Taught in San Francisco three years. Not taught since marriage, May 
1, 1876. Three children. 



State Normal School. 171 



MATILDA M. E. MOORE San Francisco. 

Present address, 126 Collingwood Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Sanchez Street Primary School. Has taught in San Fran- 
cisco since November, 1872. 

LOUISE MAGUIRE (Mrs. John F. Hottel) Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Taught nine years in Napa County, four years of that time in Napa City. 
Married March 1, 1881. Not taught since. One child. 

MALVINA C. PELTON (Mrs. N. I. Wilson) San Francisco. 

Present address, 838 Guerrero Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one year in public schools of San Francisco and four years in 
Zeitska Institute. Married in 1877. Not taught since. Is now a widow. 
Three children. 

SUSANNA R. PLANK (Mrs. Jas. M. Sharp) San Francisco. 

Present address, Saticoy, Ventura County. 

Taught in Sonoma County for four years ; Ventura County, five months. 
Not teaching. Married August 6, 1874. Six children. 

ELLA L. RUSSELL (Mrs. Clyne) San Francisco. 

Present address, Oakland. 
Taught. 

JOHN C. RUDDOCK Tuolumne County. 

Permanent address, Ukiah, Mendocino County. 

Taught in Sacramento County, six months ; Mendocino County, eleven 
years. Was County Superintendent of Mendocino County three terms. 
Married February 4, 1880, to Kate Siddons, Class of March, 1877. Two 
children, one living. His wife died July 24, 1884. Is now Chief Clerk in 
the office of the Surveyor-General, San Francisco. 

ELLA I. SHERMAN (Mrs. George Stone) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 169 Tenth Street, Oakland. 

Taught one year in Calaveras County, one year in Napa County, one 
year in Marin County, four months in Contra Costa County, four months 
in Oakland. Married July 12, 1875. Not taught since. Three children. 

JAMES M. SHARP Alameda County. 

Present address, Saticoy, Ventura County. 

Taught in Ventura County three years. Now engaged in farming. Mar- 
ried August 6, 1874, to Susanna R. Plank, of same class. Six children. 

MARCUS T. SICKAL San Francisco. 

Present address, Benicia, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Solano County, nine and one half years ; Nevada County, one 
year; Los Angeles, five months. Not taught since 1881 on account of ill 
health, but intends to teach again. Superintendent of Overfelt Cattle Com- 
pany, Oregon. Traveling. Married July 3, 1878. Two children. 

MARY A. TYUS (Mrs. Williams) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 



172 Historical Sketch. 



THIRTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1872. 
NELLIE ASHURST Colusa County. 

Taught in Colusa County four years; was then married and went to 
Omaha. Further history unknown. Has been reported deceased. 

CHARLES R. BEAL _- Calaver as County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught fourteen years in Calaveras County, six years of this time as 
Principal of San Andreas School. Was Superintendent of Schools in that 
county eight years. Edited a paper at San Andreas ten years. Not taught 
since 1885. Is now Inspector of Customs, San Francisco. 

BESSIE DIXON Marin County. 

Present address, 1414 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 
Taught constantly since graduation, since 1875 in San Francisco. Teach- 
ing in Valencia Grammar School. 

PHOEBE A. FRISBIE (Mrs. E. L. Bailey) Solano County. 

Taught in Vallejo, three years; private school, one year; Monterey 
County, three months. Not taught since marriage. Married in 1877. In 
1885 was living in Battle Mountain, Nevada. 

JULIA A. FISK (Mrs. Parker) ,... -Santa Clara County. 

In 1887 was living in Los Angeles. Not teaching. One child. Has 
taught. 

GEORGE C. HIXON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Barbara. 

Taught in Butte, Monterey, Santa Clara, and Tulare Counties, six years 
in all. Farming. 

EMILY H. HILTON Alameda County. 

Present address, 572 Tenth Street, Oakland. 

Taught constantly since graduation, with the exception of one and one 
half years spent in Europe. Teaching, in Oakland. 

THOS. E. KENNEDY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 1319J Broadway, San Francisco. 

Taught in San JosS several years, to 1885. Practiced law for some time. 
Now head Inspector of Schools in San Francisco. 

CHARLES E. MARKHAM Solano County. 

Present address, Oakland, care of Joaquin Miller. 

Taught in San Luis Obispo County, six months; Christian College, 
Sonoma County, two years; El Dorado County, four years; other places, 
one and one half years. Was County Superintendent of El Dorado County 
seven years. Has spent much time in literary work. Has written poems 
and sketches for prominent magazines, and delivered lectures upon sub- 
jects connected with English and American literature. Married. No chil- 
dren. Expects to settle on a fruit farm near Oakland soon. 



State Normal School. 



173 



AUGUSTA M. PHELPS Yolo County. 

Present address, South Hero, Grand Isle County, Vermont. 
Taught in Contra Costa County, one year; Solano County, five months; 
Plumas County, three months; Yolo County, three years; Vermont, three 
months. Was Town Superintendent of Schools in South Hero for a time. 
Not teaching at present on account of household duties. 

MARTHA J. PECKHAM (Mrs. H. F. Pray) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Booneville, Mendocino County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, two years; Napa County, three years; 
Solano County, nine years; Mendocino County, three years. Teaching. 
Married March 2, 1879. One child, deceased. Is preparing a work entitled 
" Lectures to Young Teachers." 

CHATTIE K. RIXON (Mrs. Chauncey Gaines) San Francisco. 

Present address, Berkeley, Alameda County. 
Taught seven years. Not teaching. 

VIRGINIA P. STEPHENS (Mrs. Zumwalt) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught several years in Southern California, then married V. M. P. Zum- 
walt, of Visalia. Is now a widow, with one child, and is residing in Los 
Angeles. 

EULALIA A. TERRY (Mrs. E. A. Wilson) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 1309 New Broadway Street, Oakland. 
Taught in Sacramento County, one and one half years; in San Francisco, 
ten years. Is now Principal of the Temescal School, which position she 
has held for the past four years. 

ETTA M. WAGENSELLER (Mrs. John Leininger), (deceased) __ 

Sonoma County. 

Taught in Sonoma, Mendocino, Tehama, and Butte Counties. Married 
September 23, 1875, and resided at Nord, Butte County, where she was active 
in church and Sunday School work. Her health failed slowly for two 
years, and in May, 1888, hoping to regain it, she went to Saratoga Springs. 
There she died June 13, 1888. She was buried at Ukiah, Mendocino County. 
She left two children. 

ALMA WALLACE Napa County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Napa County three years. Since then has taught in Los 
Angeles. 

FANNIE WIGNALL (Mrs. Simon Clasey) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, "Washburn, Blackhawk County, Iowa. 
Taught in San Luis Obispo County, five months ; Santa Clara County, one 
year. Left teaching because of ill health. Married July 18, 1878. Two 
children. 



174 Historical Sketch. 



FOURTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1873. 
Louis BRUCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught constantly since graduation. Teaching near San Jose*. 

JOSEPHINE CAHILL (Mrs. G. E. McStay) San Joaquin County. 

In 1883 was living in Stockton. 

ANNA CARROLL (Mrs. Hawley) Placer County. 

Taught in Placer County, five months; San Diego, one year; Santa Bar- 
bara County, three years. In 1886 was teaching at Carpenteria. Married 
in October, 1874. Two children. 

LEMUEL J. CHIPMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Yuba County, three months ; Santa Clara County, three years, 
the last two as Principal of Schools in San Jose". Was City Superintendent 
of San Jose* schools two years. For the past eleven years he has held the 
office of County Superintendent of Santa Clara County. 

WILLIAM F. F. Foss Yuba County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Yuba County, three years ; Santa Clara County, seven years. 
Now real estate and insurance agent in San Jose*. 

HENRY GOODCELL San Bernardino County. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 

Taught two years. Was County Superintendent one term. Practicing 
law. Married Minnie A. Bennett, Class of March, 1874, who died in Novem- 
ber, 1886. Three children. 

DORA B. HARRIS (Mrs. Rogers) San Francisco. 

Present address, Baker?field, Kern County. 

Taught four years in Vallejo; six years in Kern County. Teaching. 
Married December 27, 1877. One child. 

MARY E. HENDRIX (Mrs. Thompson) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Cornelius, Washington County, Oregon. 
Taught in Placer County, two years; Monterey County, three years; San 
Luis Obispo County, two years ; Oregon, three years. Teaching. Married 
June 14, 1874. Husband died in 1880. Three children. 

LELLA KRATZER (Mrs. Bacher) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Gilroy. 

Taught in Placer County, three months; Plumas County, two years; San 
Benito County, three years ; Santa Clara County, six years. Teaching in 
Gilroy. Married January 14, 1877. Two children. 



State Normal School. 



175 



LUELLA KELSOE (Mrs. Samuel Hirst) Sonoma County. 

Present address, Santa Rosa. 

Has taught in Sonoma and Lake Counties constantly since graduation, 
with the exception of four years. Married July 15, 1886. Not teaching at 
present, but has not left the profession. 

MARY MERRITT (Mrs. J. Henry) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, St. Cloud House, Sutter Street, San Francisco. 
Taught before marriage. Has six children. 

ISABEL MERRITT (Mrs. Campbell) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Tulare. 

Taught in Napa County, three months; Plumas County, one month; 
Monterey County, four months; Santa Clara County, four months; Merced 
County, three months; San Francisco, five years; Tulare County, two 
years. Teaching. Married June 10, 1881. Three children. 

ELLA H. MURDOCK (Mrs. Burnett) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught in Santa Clara County six years. Has one child. 

JULIA F. MARTIN (Mrs. Hornsback) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught several years in Gilroy. Teaching in Los Angeles. One child. 

LIZZIE ROBERTS (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught for a short time. 

DELIA R. SNOW -Washington Territory. 

Present address, Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. 

Taught in El Dorado County, three months ; Placer County, four months ; 
Plumas County, eight months. In 1874 went to Utah, to take a position in 
a mission school at Salt Lake, in which she taught six months. Then 
taught in a mission school in southern Utah two and one half years. Not 
teaching. Left the work partly on account of health and partly because 
of home duties. 

NELLIE M. STARR (Mrs. A. J. Hanson) Santa Clara County. 

In 1883 was living in Sacramento. 
Taught before marriage. 

OLIVIA L. TAYLOR San Francisco. 

Present address, 1604 Mission Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Sacramento County, three months; State of Nevada, over 
nine years. Not teaching. 

ETTA M. TILTON San Mateo County. 

Present address, San Mateo. 

Taught constantly since graduation; for the past nine years in San 
Mateo. 



1 76 Historical Sketch. 

AUGUSTA S. WITHINGTON (Mrs. W. H. S. Welch) -Amador County. 

Present address, 215 South Hill Street, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Merced County, one year; Contra Costa County, one year; 
Amador County, thirteen years. Not teaching. Married October 24, 1883. 



FIFTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1874. 
CECILIA M. AULD __ r Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Grand View Hotel, Los Angeles. 
Taught fourteen years. Teaching in Los Angeles. 

MINNIE A. BENNETT (Mrs. Henry Goodcell), (deceased) 

__ El Dorado County. 

Mrs. Goodcell taught very successfully for about eight years. Was teach- 
ing what she intended as her last term when she was taken ill with fever. 
She died in November, 1886, after a month's illness. Her husband was a 
member of the Class of March, 1873. Three children. 

MARY E. D. BLACKSTAFF (Mrs. John McCarthy) 

Present address, 2213 Polk Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Marin County two years. Not teaching. Married September 
16, 1877, 

MARY BIRD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught three years in Los Angeles ; for past ten years as Principal of the 
Willow Glen School, Santa Clara County. 

EDWARD R. BROOKS Contra Costa County. 

No report. 

ELLA W. CARSWELL (Mrs. Wm. Reynolds) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

LIZZIE CORY (Mrs. H. C. LEDYARD) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in San Jose* three years, to 1878. Married in 1879. Not taught 
since. Two children. Resided in Constantinople, Turkey, for several years. 
Has lately returned to California. 

ALICE A. CRUMRY El Dorado County. 

No report. 

FRANCES M. DAY (deceased) San Joaquin County. 

Taught five and one half years in San Joaquin County and five months 
in Calaveras County. Married December 16, 1880. One child. Date of 
death not reported. Father's address, T. B. Day, Stockton. 



State Normal School. 177 

FLORENCE GRIGSBY (Mrs. E. C. Singletary) Wisconsin. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught two and one half years in Training Department of the Normal 
School at San Jose". Married in 1876. Not taught since marriage. 

PACIFIC GUILD (Mrs. N. S. Nichols) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

Taught three months in Santa Cruz County. Married November 19, 
1874. Not taught since. Two children. 

HULDA A. HAMMOND Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 777 S. Second Street, San Jose. 

Taught in Monterey, three years ; Dixon, three years ; San Jose, five years. 
Teaching in San Jose. Work suspended two years on account of ill health. 

S. ESTELLE HAMMOND. (Mrs. Greathead) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 777 S. Second Street, San Jose" 

Taught in public schools of Santa Clara and San Jose seven years. Mar- 
ried in 1877. One child. Work suspended after marriage for six years. 
Left the profession in 1887 for other business. Now engaged in stenography 
and type-writing. Was for a time an editor of a children's magazine. 

CARRIE M. HENN (Mrs. W. J. Landers) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Leandro. 
Taught two years in San Jose". Married in 1875. Three children. 

ELLA A. JACKSON (Mrs. Henry Fisher) Yolo County. 

Present address, Woodland. 
Taught one year. Married in 1876. Not taught since. 

W.JEROME JEWELL (deceased) Sol ano County. 

Went to New York State in 1875, where he taught eleven years. On ac- 
count of failing health, returned to California in 1886. After a year's rest, 
began teaching in Pomona, Los Angeles County. Had taught six weeks 
when he was taken ill with typhoid fever. Died December 4, 1887. Two 
children ; one living. His widow and surviving child reside at Pomona. 
Mr. Jewell was an earnest Christian man and a teacher of more than ordi- 
nary ability. 

ISABELLE JOHNSON (Mrs. Curtis Johnson )__.. Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Rohnerville, Humboldt County. 

Taught in Sonoma and Humboldt Counties. Married in 1878. One child. 
Not teaching. 

SAMUEL E. JOHNSON Sutter County. 

No report. 
ARIADNE G. KETCHAM (Mrs. L. L. Nattinger) _ .Humboldt County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught in El Dorado County, twelve months; Santa Clara County, six 
years. Not taught since November, 1884. Married February 2, 1879. One 
child. 



178 Historical Sketch. 

SALLIE E. KEEFER (Mrs. John Wade) El Dorado County. 

Present address, 830 Myrtle Street, Oakland. 

Taught in El Dorado County, three years; Plumas County, one year; 
Yuba County, one year; Oakland, one term; Arizona, one year. Married 
October, 1876. Two children. Not teaching. 

SUSIE E. KNEEDLER (Mrs. A. P. Logan) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Solano County, three months; Santa Clara County, three 
months. Married March 4, 1875. Not taught since. One child. 

EDITH J. MARTIN San Bernardino. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 
Has been teaching in San Bernardino County since graduation. 

EMMELINE R. MEAD (Mrs. Leslie A. Jordan) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught one year in Contra Costa County. Married June 17, 1875. Not 
taught since. Five children. 

CHAS. N. MILLER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, corner Thirteenth and Howard Streets, San Francisco. 
Physician. 

MRS. AMANDA MILLER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, corner Thirteenth and Howard Streets. San Francisco. 

MRS. MARIA E. MUMFORD Sacramento County. 

Present address, 922 Ninth Street, Sacramento. 

Is Principal of a public school in Sacramento. Has taught continuously 
since graduation. 

MARIA E. MURDOCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught continuously since graduation. Teaching in Los Angeles. 

ANNIE L. MURPHY (deceased) Alameda County. 

Taught one year. 

MAGGIE O'ROURKE San Francisco. 

Taught in San Francisco from October, 1876, until August, 1887. 

MARY A. TAYLOR (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught eleven years in Mountain View, Santa Clara County. Was 
obliged to suspend work in December, 1885, on account of failing health. 
Died at Mountain View January 16, 1888. 

WILLIAM A. WASH Missouri. 

Present address, Dallas, Oregon. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, five months; Stanislaus County, ten 
months; Tulare County, three years; Butte County, one year; Washing- 



State Normal School. 1 79 

ton Territory, two years ; Oregon, one year. Edited a paper at Goldendale, 
W. T., five years 1881-86. Now editing " Polk County Itemizer," at Dallas. 
Published a book concerning the late war entitled "Camp, Field, and Prison 
Life." Married December 24, 1884, to Helen McPheeters. One child. 

JULIA M. WHITING (Mrs. E. J. Doering) Santa Clara County. 

Not taught since graduation. At last report, 1883, was living in Chicago, 
Illinois. Address, 2330 In d ana Avenue. 

N. ZORAIDE WOODWARD Merced County. 

Present address, Merced. 

Taught in Alameda County and Merced County constantly since gradua- 
tion. Teaching in Merced. 



SIXTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1875. 
EMMOGENE A. BARNES (Mrs. Rufus Fiske). .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught in Santa Clara County, four years ; in Marin County, one year. 
Married May 8, 1879. One child. 

HENRY BATEMAN Napa County. 

Present address, Woodland, Yolo County. 
Farmer. 

EMMA S. BUCKLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 65 N. Eighth Street, San Jose". 

Taught continuously since graduation; for the past twelve years in San 
Jose\ 

MINNIE CLARA BURT , Amador County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught continuously since graduation. Teaching in Hester School, San 
Jose". 

MARY E. CARR (Mrs. J. T. Apperson) Solano County. 

Present address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. 
Taught six years. 

CHARLOTTE E. CLARK San Francisco. 

Present address, 737 Howard Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Napa County, one year ; San Francisco, ten years. Teaching 
in Mission Grammar School. 

MARIE COLE Napa County. 

Present address, Haywards, Alameda County. 

Taught seven years. Teaching. Graduated from the State University 
in 1879. 

ANNA B. COWIE (Mrs. Denniston) Tuolumne County. 

Present address, 1224 Twenty-first Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one year. 



180 Historical Sketch. 



ABBIE A. DA VIES (Mrs. Hayford) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Colfax, Placer County. 

Taught in Contra Costa and Placer Counties twelve and one half months. 
Married October 19, 1876. 

BELLE J. FAGG (Mrs. F. H. Fowler) Yuba County. 

Present address, Lincoln, Placer County. 

Taught in Napa County, six and one half months ; Yuba County, seven 
months; San Diego Countj*, five months; Sierra County, twelve months; 
Placer County, three years. At last report, June, 1887, was teaching at 
Bolinas, Marin County. Married January 13, 1884. One child. 

M. FANNIE FARMER (Mrs. Geo. Bennett) Sonoma County. 

Present address, 730 Shotwell Street, San Francisco. 

JULIA B. FARNSWORTH Santa Clara County. 

Living near San Jose". 
Not taught. 

CHARLES E. FARNHAM San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 672 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

Taught one and one half years. Left teaching to study medicine. Now 
practicing medicine and surgery in San Francisco. Professor in Cooper 
Medical College. 

HARRIET N. GILMOR (Mrs. W. E. Deering) Napa County. 

Present address, St. John, Colusa Count}*-. 
Taught six years before marriage. Not taught since. 

NATHAN C. HANSCOM San Joaquin County. 

Present address, San Andreas, Calaveras County. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, six months; Stanislaus County, four 
years; Washington Territory, six months; Calaveras County, four years. 
Teaching in San Andreas. For three years was traveling correspondent 
and editor of newspapers. Married January 24, 1883. One child. 

JULIA L. HAUCK Sacramento County. 

Present address, Dresden, Germany. 

Taught in San Benito County, one and one half years; San Jose", rive 
years; Oakland, five years; Germany, two years. Teaching in a private 
school in Dresden. 

ALICE M. HEATH Los Angeles County. 

Teaching a private school in Los Angeles County. 

DAVID F. HENNING Santa Clara County. 

Address, unknown. 
Taught several years in Santa Clara County. 

MINNIE B. HOLLENBECK (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

History unknown. 



State Normal School. 181 

MILLIE S. HOWARD . Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Danville, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, fourteen months ; Plumas County, one 
month. Not taught since November, 1877, on account of home duties. 

ROSINA INTERMILLE (Mrs. Morris Smith) Illinois. 

Present address, Susanville, Lassen County. 

Taught in Plumas County, one year; Butte County, six months; Lassen 
County, one year; Modoc County, one year. Teaching in Modoc County. 
Married October 22, 1875. Three children. 

MILLIE R. JONES (Mrs. G. Ivancovich) Marin County. 

Present address, Petaluma, Sonoma County. 

Taught two and one half years before marriage. Not taught since. Eight 
children ; five living. 

MARY A. C. LEAHY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 
At last report. May, 1883, was teaching near Watsonville. 

MARY LEWIS (Mrs. Bronson) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 1235 Park Avenue, Alameda. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, one year; Santa Clara County, two years. 
Not taught since June, 1878. Married April 21, 1878. Four children. 

DAVID F. LITTLE (deceased) Monterey County. 

Taught three years in Monterey. Gave up teaching because of ill health. 
Died at his home, in Nova Scotia, July, 1884. He did some literary work, 
mostly political. 

KATE MARTIN (Mrs. Lewis Bozeman) Santa Clara County. 

In 1886 was living in Montana. 

ISABEL MAY (Mrs. W. H. Church) Alameda County. 

Present address, 920 Filbert Street, Oakland. 
Taught six years. 

MARY A. MCDONNELL (Mrs. J. W. Davis) State of Nevada. 

Present address, Banning, San Bernardino Count}''. 

Taught six years in Gold Hill, Nevada. Married August 1, 1881. Not 
taught since. Two children ; one living. Husband died January 31, 1889. 

SABIA E. MOREY San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 1028| Folsom Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Mateo County, five months; Santa Clara County, three 
months; Marin County, two years; San Francisco, eight years. Teaching 
in Tehama Primary School. 

ROSE E. MORGAN Tuolumne County. 

Present address, 1254 Howard Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Merced County, two months; Tuolumne County, three years; 
Mendocino County, one month; San Francisco, ten years. Teaching in 
Peabody Primary School, San Francisco. Held office of County Superin- 
tendent in Tuolumne County two years. 

13 



1 82 Historical Sketch. 



ANNIE J. NEARY Sacramento County. 

Taught constantly since graduation, with exception of one year. Teach- 
ing in Sacramento. 

WILLIAM PASCOE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, College Park. 

Taught in Sonoma County, four months; Santa Clara County, four 
months; Shasta County, three years; Modoc County, one year; Contra 
Costa County, one year; Alameda County, four months; Humboldt 
County, two years. Work suspended four years for other business. Is 
now in the Auditing Department of Wells & Fargo Express Co., San Fran- 
cisco. Married July 20, 1880, to Jessica G. Allen, Class of March, 1877. 

ELLIS J. ROOT Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught six years. Since that time has been engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness. Married. 

LIZZIE P. SARGENT (Mrs. Lizzie P. Wilson) Amador County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Amador County, one year; Oakland, five years; seven years 
in Normal School, San Jose*. Is now Principal of the Training Depart- 
ment. Married August 2, 1888. 

EMMA SCHENCK (Mrs. Fred. Grimes) San Francisco. 

Present address, 202 Sixteenth Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Marin County, two years. Not taught since April, 1877. Mar- 
ried December 25, 1876. Three children. 

JAMES W. SHIRLEY (deceased) Lake County. 

Was County Superintendent of Lake County in 1878. Died at Lakeport. 

ADELIA A. STOCKTON (Mrs. R. B. Stockton) _ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Madera, Fresno County. 

Taught one term in San Luis Obispo County, and one term in San Benito 
County. Two children. 

EMMA M. TOY (Mrs. L. J. Chipman) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught one year in San Jose". Married December 7, 1876. Not taught 
since. One child. 

BELLE J. TURNER (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught five years. Died in 1880. 

FLORENCE M. WATKINS (Mrs. Andrew P. Hill) .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught eight years. Not teaching. Two children. 

ALICE M. WELLS (Mrs. A. B. Nye) Solano County. 

Present address, Oakland, Cal, care "Inquirer." 

Taught nine years in Solano County; one year in Alameda County. 
Married December, 1886. Not taught since. 



State Normal School. 183 

ANNIE A. WIBLE Merced County. 

Present address, Crescent City, Del Norte County. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, one year; Monterey County, six years; 
San Mateo County, one year; Humboldt County, four years. Not teach- 
ing, but expects to resume work soon. 

JULIA F. WIBLE (Mrs. Bugbey) Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 
Taught until marriage, December, 1879. 

MARY E. WILSON (Mrs. T. C. George) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in public schools of Santa Clara County, one year; in Normal 
School, San Jose", twelve years ; was Principal of the Training Department 
six years. Married June 7, 1888. Not teaching. 

WILLIAM B,. WILSON Santa Clara County. 

Address in 1886, Soquel, Santa Cruz County. 
Had taught nine years. 



SEVENTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1876. 
TIDIE AYRES (deceased) San Mateo County. 

Taught two and one half years in Redwood City. Died in October, 1879. 

DOLLIE C. BABCOCK (Mrs. Albert Maxson) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milton Junction, Rock County, Wisconsin. 
Taught before marriage. 

MARY P. BASSETT (Mrs. 0. A. Hale) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught in San 3 ose" five years. Married in 1881. One child. 

LIZZIE BANKS (Mrs. L. B. Sparks) Nevada County. 

Present address, Michigan Bluff, Placer County. 
Taught four years before marriage. Married in 1880. 

SARAH F. BONNEY (Mrs. Milton Henderson) ___Alameda County. 

Present address, 615 Tenth Street, Oakland. 
Taught before marriage. 

ANNE B. CAMPBELL San Francisco. 

Present address, 1220 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Sonoma, three months; in San Francisco, nine years. Teach- 
ing in Washington Grammar School. 

CLARA BELLE CHURCHILL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 418 S. Second Street, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year; Trinity County, one year; San 
Benito County, three months ; San Luis Obispo County, nine and one half 
years. Teaching at Paso Robles. 



184 Historical Sketch. 

HENRY F. COURTER Monterey County. 

Present address, Healdsburg. 

Taught in Pioneer District, Santa Clara County, three years ; in a private 
family, eight months ; Principal of East San Jos6 School one year ; taught 
music one year; Principal of San Yeidro School, Santa Clara County, one 
year ; typesetter and assistant editor in the Pacific Press, Oakland, over a 
year ; Professor of Mathematics in Healdsburg College since August, 1886. 
Married. No children. 

NATHANIEL W. DAVIS (deceased) Solano County. 

Taught several terms. Died in 1883. His widow, Mrs. Alice Davis, lives 
near Santa Clara. 

ADDIE A. DAVIS (Mrs. C. 0. Spaulding) Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom, Sacramento County. 

Taught in El Dorado County, eight and one half years ; in Sacramento 
County, four years. Teaching in Folsom. Married June 10, 1884. One 
child. 

ALFRED DIXON Yuba County. 

Present address, Michigan Bluff, Placer County. 

Taught seven years in Contra Costa County. Is now engaged in mer- 
cantile business. 

CARRIE S. FAIRCHILD San Mateo County. 

Present address, 311 Polk Street, San Francisco. 
Taught eleven years. Teaching in Broadway Grammar School. 

BENJAMIN H. FRANKLIN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Cambria, San Luis Obispo County. 

Taught in Cambria, five years. Left teaching September, 1881, to engage 
in mercantile business. Married June 10, 1876. Three children. 

MAGGIE GARDNER (Mrs. 0. S. Meeker) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Contra Costa County, three years; Merced County, one year; 
San Jose", three years. Has not taught since 1883. Married December 28, 
1881. 

HENRY C. GESFORD Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Taught in Napa County until 1880. Then went East and took a law 
course in Iowa University and Michigan University. Began the practice 
of law in Napa City, May, 1882. Was Superintendent of Schools in Napa 
County, 1877-8; State Senator, 1887-8. Married December 3, 1882. One 
child. 

MINNIE F. HOLLRON (Mrs. Gannon) San Francisco. 

Present address, 1755 Ellis Street. 

Teaching in Longfellow Primary School. Taught in San Francisco, since 
October, 1877. 



State Normal School. 185 
ADA LOCKE (Mrs. W. H. Cooke) 

Present address, Lockeford, San Joaquin County. 

Taught in Marin County, three months ; San Joaquin County, sixteen 
months; Napa County, two months; Tulare County, fourteen months. 
Married October 30, 1882, to Rev. W. H. Cooke. Two children ; one living. 
In July, 1886, resided in Oakland. Not teaching. 

SUSAN McMuLLEN (Mrs. Fred. Runyon) Alameda County. 

Present address, 1059 Poplar Street, Oakland. 
Has taught. Two children. 

KATIE MITCHELL (Mrs. H. H. West) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 488 Twenty-third Street, Oakland. 

Taught in Lassen County, two years; Contra Costa County, five and one 
half years. Married January 1, 1884. One child. Went to the Sandwich 
Islands in December, 1888, on account of her husband's health, and taught 
there a short time. Returned in March, 1889, because of the death of her 
husband. Intends to continue teaching. 

KATE MCDONALD (Mrs. B. F. Hyde) State of Nevada. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 

Taught in State of Nevada, one year; San Bernardino County, nine years. 
Married July 14, 1886. Not taught since. One child. 

LILA MURCH (Mrs. Kirkpatrick) San Mateo County. 

Present address, Oakland. 

Taught two and one half years in Redwood City. Married in 1880. Not 
teaching. 

KATIE F. O'HARA Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught twelve years. Teaching in San Jose". 

MARY A. PECKHAM (Mrs. G. F. Pillot) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 85 S. Eleventh Street, San Jose". 

Taught three months in San Mateo County; the remainder of the time 
since graduation has taught in San Jose". Married July 3, 1876. One child. 

HELEN N. PENNIMAN (Mrs. Geo. Pardee) Alameda County. 

Present address, East Oakland. 
Taught ten years in the Grove Street School, Oakland. One child. 

SHELDON RANEY San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Black Diamond, Contra Costa County. 
Taught in Fresno County, one year; Santa Cruz County, six years; Contra 
' Costa County, one year. Left teaching in 1884, on account of failing health. 
Engaged in mercantile business; also Postmaster and Justice of the Peace. 
Married in 1874. Four children. 

MARY C. RODDEN (Mrs. Warfield) Tuolumne County. 

Address in 1886, Oakdale, Stanislaus County. 



1 86 Historical Sketch. 



MARY P. RUSSELL (deceased) Alameda County. 

Father's address, Judge J. Russell, Haywards, Alameda County. 
Taught several years. Died April 13, 1886. 

ELLA SAID (Mrs. W. E. Houghton) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Bakersfield, Kern County. 

Taught in Solano County, three months ; Mono County, three months; 
Kern County, six years. Not teaching. Married December 25, 1880. One 
child. 

MRS. FRANCES C. SAWYER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught constantly since graduation. Teaching in High School, San Jose". 

SEBASTIAN SHAW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught continuously since graduation : Santa Clara County, five years ; 
Napa County, one year; Merced County, four months; Contra Costa 
County, one year; Sonoma County, four months; Los Angeles County, 
four years. 

ALICE L. STOCKTON (Mrs. J. A. Boulware)__ -Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught in Santa Clara County, two and one half years. Married Decem- 
ber 31, 1878. Not taught since. Four children. 

M. JEANNETTE STONE (Mrs. E. A. Bunce)__ .Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Dougherty Station, Alameda County. 
Taught one year. Not teaching. 

MARY O. THOMAS (Mrs. Thomas) Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught seven years in Los Angeles County. 

CAROLINE TRIMBLE (Mrs. Stanley Stephenson). Alameda County. 

Present address, 1846 San Jos6 Avenue, Alameda. 

Taught in Placer County, two months; in Alameda County, ten months; 
Marin County, fourteen months. Married June 28, 1879. Not taught since. 
Two children. 

A. BELLE WEAR (Mrs. Clement) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Haywards, Alameda County. 

Has taught at intervals throughout a period of ten years, about five years 
in all. Taught in Santa Clara, San Luis Obispo, and Alameda Counties. 
Filled office of Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Oakland for a time. 
Married July, 1876. Three children. 

ELLA E. WHELAN (Mrs. Greenman) Alameda County. 

Present address, East Oakland. 

Has taught in the Oakland public schools six years. Is teaching in the 
Durant School. Married July 12, 1878. Is now a widow. 



State Normal School. 187 

OLIVER P. WORKMAN (deceased) Sonoma County. 

Taught about one year. Died in 1877. 

ALICE M. WHITE (Mrs. David) Merced County. 

Present address, Sturgeon, Merced County. 

Taught in Merced County, nine months; Normal School, San Jose", one 
month; Sacramento County, two months. Married May 19, 1877, and 
moved to Michigan. Did not teach while there. Returned to California 
in 1888. Since that time has taught one term in Merced County, where she 
is still teaching. 



EIGHTEENTH CLASS-MARCH, 1877. 
JESSICA G. ALLEN (Mrs. Wm. Pascoe) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, College Park. 

Taught in Humboldt County, two months ; Plum as County, four months ; 
San Mateo County, five months; Normal School, five months; in Hester 
School, San Jose", for past four years. Work suspended four years on 
account of home duties. Married July 20, 1880. 

JULIA ANDERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Paula, Ventura County. 

Has taught in Ventura County eight years since graduation. Work sus- 
pended at different times, four years in all, on account of ill health. 

MRS. JOSIE R.ARMSTRONG Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 2002 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Taught one year in San Benito County. Not teaching. Two children 
one living. 

MODENA I. BAKER (Mrs. Tom Scott) Alameda County. 

Present address, Mission San Jose", Alameda County. 
Taught in Alameda County six years. One child. 

EUDORA A. BARNES (Mrs. Crossette) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 814 Geary Street, San Francisco. 

Taught two years in Santa Clara County ; one year in Washington Ter- 
ritory. Now teacher of voice-building and recitation. 

ANNIE S. BARRY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in San Joaquin County, five years ; Calaveras County, two years ; 
Santa Cruz High School, two years; Santa Clara County, three years. 
Teaching in Tulare City. 

BELLE BIRD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 376 Orchard Street, San Jose". 
Taught constantly since graduation in Willow Glen School, San Jose". 



1 88 Historical Sketch. 



E. MAY BLACK (Mrs. Crandall) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 36 Liberty Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, three years; Santa Cruz and 
Monterey Counties, three months. Not teaching. Married June, 1882. 
Three children. 

MARY I. BROWN Alameda County. 

Present address, Centreville, Alameda County. 

Taught in Alameda County, nine years; Los Angeles, one and one half 
years. Teaching in Centreville. 

SAMUEL A. BROWN Oregon. 

Present address, 169 First Street, Portland, Oregon. 

Taught in Napa County, six months; Lake County, six months; Tulare 
County, six months. Left teaching in August, 1878, to study medicine. 
Now a practicing physician. 

MAY CARPENTER (Mrs. J. E. Ellis) Mendocino County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 
Taught four years. Not teaching. 

ALICE M. CHAPLIN (deceased) Mendocino County. 

Taught one year. Died in 1881. 

DANIEL CROUGH Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Independence, Inyo County. 

Taught in Tuolumne County, seven months; Calaveras County, eight 
months; Inyo County, seven years. During 1883 and 1884 was Under 
Sheriff of Inyo County. Married August 5, 1883. One child. 

BLANCHE L. DOWNS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 
Teaching in San Bernardino. Taught nine years. 

ISHMAEL GREEN Colusa County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Sutter County, one year; San Joaquin County, two years; 
Napa County, one half year; Calaveras County, one half year. Left the 
profession in 1882. Since that time has engaged in mercantile business. 

MRS. CORNELIA HALLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 193 North Fifth Street, San Jose". 

Taught in Lassen County, one year; Placer County, five months; Siski- 
you County, one year; Shasta County, one year; Kern County, five months; 
State of Nevada, three years ; Santa Clara County, two years. Teaching in 
San Jose". Suspended work three years, 1885-88, on account of ill health. 

WILLIAM HERROD Nevada County. 

Present address, Oakland. 

Taught in Nevada County, eight and one half years ; State of Nevada, 
one year; Butte County, one term ; Monterey County, two months. Teach- 
ing work suspended part of the time, to attend State University and to 
study short-hand. Now Principal in the Oakland Academy. Married May 
29,1880. Two children. 



State Normal School. 189 

M. JENNIE HOYT (Mrs. Geo. W. Worthen) San Mateo County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Has taught constantly since graduation, and is still teaching. Married 
June 7, 1878. 

LIZZIE F. KELLER San Francisco County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Clara County schools four years ; in San Jose", two and 
one half years. Is now teaching sixth year in Los Angeles City schools. 

BLANCHE McCowAN (Mrs. John Landis) Mendocino County. 

Present address, Wheatland, Yuba County. 

Taught in Mendocino County, four and one half years. Married October 
16, 1881. Not taught since. One child. 

KATE MORE (Mrs. Chas. B. Wells) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Kohala, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. 
Taught in Contra Costa County, five months. Left teaching to study art, 
to which she devoted herself until marriage. Married August 5, 1884. Two 
children. 

LULU L. MOORE San Francisco County. 

Taught in San Benito County, three years ; Sandwich Islands, three years. 
Resigned position in Honolulu April 9, 1886. Since that time has been 
traveling and studying in Europe. Is teaching private pupils. At present 
is living at Meran, Austrian Tyrol. 

SUSIE D. MOORE (Mrs. Heapy) San Francisco County. 

Taught one year in San Francisco and three years in San Benito County. 
Married in Liverpool in May, 1881, where she resided until the death of her 
husband in the winter of 1888. Is now with her sister at Meran, Austrian 
Tyrol. Has one son. 

ALLIE P. OVERACKER (Mrs. Geo. Hawkins) Alameda County. 

Present address, 1409 Twenty-fifth Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one year in Napa County. Left teaching in November, 1878, on 
account of ill health. Married January 1, 1883. One child. 

ALMA PATTERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 704 Kerney Avenue, San Diego. 

Taught in Monterey County, one year; Santa Clara County, five years; 
San Diego County, four years. Work suspended a part of the time on 
account of sickness. Teaching in San Diego City. 

MINERVA M. QUINBY (Mrs. E. A. Kennedy )_ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos, Santa Clara County. 

Taught three years in Los Gatos. Married December 1, 1880. Not taught 
since. One child. 

NELLIE L. RICH (Mrs. C. L. Neale) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 718 Seventeenth Street, Oakland. 
Taught one year. Not teaching. 



1 90 Historical Sketch. 

DORA B. RIES (Mrs. Bernard Faymonville)_San Luis Obispo Co. 

Present address, 2502 Fillmore Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Alpine County, one year ; Fresno City, three years. Married 
April 19, 1881. Not taught since. Two children. 

ELLA RILEY Santa Clara County. 

In 1886 was teaching in Eureka, Nevada. 

GEORGE E. ROOT (deceased) Tuolumne County. 

Taught four years in Nevada County ; two years at Hay wards, Alameda 
County. Was engaged in other business for two years before his death. 
Died at La Conner, Washington Territory, October 20, 1884. 

RUTH ROYCE Alameda County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught in Preparatory Class of Normal School, two years; Santa Cruz 
County, three months ; as substitute teacher in Normal School, four years. 
Librarian of State Normal School, San Jose", since 1881. 

LIBBIE SALKELD (Mrs. M. N. Stone) State of Nevada. 

Present address, Virginia City, Nevada. 
Taught three years. Two children. 

ALLAN P. SANBORN Solano County. 

Present address, Benicia. 

Taught in Benicia, seven and one half years ; near Vacaville, one year ; 

. in Sutter County, one half year; Calaveras County, one half year; Contra 

Costa County, one year ; Sonoma County, one half year. Left the profession 

on account of failing eye-sight. Is engaged in the drug business in 

Benicia. 

NATHALIE A. SELLING San Francisco County. 

Present address, 1522 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 
Taught constantly since gra&uation. Teaching in Redding Primary 
School. 

KATE SIDDONS (Mrs. J. C. Ruddock), (deceased) ..Mendocino Co. 

Taught in Mendocino County, three years. Was married February 4, 
1880, to J. C. Ruddock, Class of March, 1871 , and did not teach afterwards. 
She was taken ill in 1883 with consumption, and died July 24, 1884. Was 
buried at Ukiah City. She had two children, one living at the time of 
her death. Mrs. Ruddock was successful as a teacher, and was highly 
esteemed by a large circle of friends. 

EUNICE I. SNEDAKER (Mrs. Judson Rice) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Willow Glen, Santa Clara County, two years ; Illinois, one 
year; Contra Costa County, two years; San Jose", five and one half years. 
Married October 22, 1887. Not taught since. 



State Normal School. 191 

JOSIE E, SPRAGUE (Mrs. J. H. Ward) San Francisco County. 

Present address, 6 Chilworth Street, Hyde Park, London, England. 
Taught five years in the public schools of Santa Cruz, and three years 
as a governess in Germany. Not taught since marriage. Married in April, 

1885. 

ELIZA J. STEWART (Mrs. B. A. Strobridge) Alameda County. 

Present address, Haywards. 
Taught eight years in Alameda County. 

NANNIE W. TEAFORD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Has taught constantly since graduation in the public schools of Santa 
Clara. 

MAGGIE L. WILEY (Mrs. Edgar Lewis) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 
Taught four years. Married October 17, 1882. Not taught since. 

CLARA B. WILLIAMS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Wrights, Santa Clara County. 

Taught three terms in Santa Clara County. Is now engaged in fruit 
raising in the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

MARIANNE WURTEMBERG (Mrs. M. S. Kohlberg) _ . Mendocino Co. 

Present address, 222 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco. 
Taught in Mendocino County, twelve months. Married February 21, 
1886. One child. 



NINETEENTH CLASS-MAY, 1878. 
EMILIE ANISER Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Taught constantly since graduation in Napa County. Teaching in Napa 
City for the past seven years. 

MATTIE L. ARAM Santa Clara County. 

Taught constantly since graduation. In spring of 1888 was teaching in 
Portland, Oregon. 

ALICE BLYTHE (Mrs. Lewis B. Wilson) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Los Angeles County, two and one half months ; Santa Cruz 
County, three months ; Santa Clara County, three and one half years, the 
last fifteen months in San Jose". Married January 10, 1883. Not taught 
since. One child. 

MILLIE R. BOULWARE (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught three months and then gave up the work on account of ill health. 
Died February 7, 1886. 



1 92 Historical Sketch. 



ANNIE B. BOYEB (Mrs. Wm. Cozzens) Tulare County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught five years. Three children. 

LOUISE L. BRUCH Santa Clara County. 

Teaching in San Jose". Taught ten years. 

SELINA G. BURSTON Sacramento County. 

Present address, 135 S. Hope Street, Los Angeles. 

Taught in El Dorado County, two years ; Napa County, four months ; 
Placer County, six months; State of Nevada, six years; Los Angeles, two 
years. Teaching in Los Angeles. 

EMMA S. CEARLEY (Mrs. F. Angelotti) Alameda County. 

Present address, San Rafael, Marin County. 
Taught six years before marriage. One child (deceased). 

Louis B. CHALONER San Joaquin County. 

Address in 1886, Wallace, Calaveras County. 
Had taught eight years. 

AMELIA R. CHAPMAN (Mrs. A. E. Kellogg) Alameda County. 

Present address, Eighteenth and Mission Streets, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Rafael until marriage, December, 1886. One child. 

NELSON B. COFFMAN Sonoma County. 

Present address, Healdsburg. 
Taught four years. Now a practicing physician. Married. 

KATE COZZENS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught constantly since graduation in Santa Clara County. Since Aug- 
ust, 1887, has taught in the Training Department of the Normal School at 
San Jose*. 

ADELINE S. CURRIER (deceased) Sacramento County. 

Taught successfully to the time of her death. Died at Folsom. Date of 
her death not reported. 

FANNIE A. DANIELS (Mrs. Charles D. Stuart) __ .Sonoma County. 

Present address, Pacific Grove, Monterey County. 

Taught in Sonoma County, one year; Solano County, four months. Left 
teaching in November, 1883, on account of home duties. Married August 
20,1885. One child. 

MAGGIE DESMOND Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Los Angeles since graduation; for several years in Training 
Department of the State Normal School. 

S. HENRIETTA DORN (Mrs. Housh) Santa Cruz County. 

Taught seven years. Married in 1886. Not taught since. Living in Ari- 
zona. 



State Normal School. 193 

KATE DOWNEY (Mrs. R. D. Spedding) Nevada County. 

Present address, Sierra City, Sierra County. 

Taught in Nevada, Sierra, and Alameda Counties, nine years in all. Mar- 
ried June 18, 1887. Not taught since. 

LUCY J. DUDLEY (Mrs. Campbell) Solano County. 

Present address, Seattle, Washington Territory. 

SARAH F. EASTERDAY (Mrs. T. W. Whitehurst) _ . Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Saratoga. 

Taught one and a half years in Monterey County. The remainder of 
the time since graduation has taught in Santa Clara County; since July, 
1882, in primary department of the Saratoga school. Married January 5, 

1882. 

SALLIE FINLEY Sacramento County. 

Present address, Santa Ana, Orange County. 

Taught in Monterey County, six months ; Los Angeles County, seven and 
one half years. Is now spending a year visiting in the Eastern States. 

ANNIE R. FOWZER (Mrs. J. H. Clark) Mendocino County. 

Present address, Cahto, Mendocino County. 

Lou GIVENS (Mrs. C. H. Porter) Sonoma County. 

Present address, Biggs, Butte County. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, five months ; Merced County, six 
months; Napa County, one month. Married December 15, 1881. Not 
taught since. Three children. 

SUSIE R. HAMILTON (Mrs. D. C. Agler) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Ashland, Oregon. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, two years ; Fresno County, one month ; 
San Joaquin County, one month; Placer County, six months; Merced 
County, two months. Not teaching. Married October 11, 1882. Three 
children. 

JENNIE M.HAMMOND Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 777 S. Second Street, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara, one year; in Monterey, three years; San Jose" 
public schools, two years ; State Normal School, three and one half years. 
Teaching. Work suspended a part of the time on account of ill health. 

NELLIE M. HASKELL San Francisco County. 

Present address, La Canada, Los Angeles County. 

Taught in Siskiyou County, eight months ; Lake County, four months ; 
San Francisco, three years ; Los Angeles County, four years. Teaching. 

JANET M. HENDERSON Nevada County. 

Home address, Grass Valley, Nevada County. 

Taught in Grass Valley, five years; Los Angeles County, five years. 
Teaching in Los Angeles. 



194 Historical Sketch. 

MAE E. HENION (Mrs. J. K. Simms) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught three months in San Benito County; seven years in San Joaquin 
County, the last five in Stockton. Married January 1, 1884. 

ADDIE K. HOBART (Mrs. J. F. Halloran) Sacramento County. 

Present address, Astoria, Oregon. 

Taught in Butte County, two years; State of Nevada, one and one half 
years. Married January 1, 1882. Not taught since. Two children. 

MYRTIE C. HUDSON Mendocino County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Amador County, one year; Contra Costa County, two years; 
Santa Clara County, one year. In 1882 entered Michigan University, from 
which she graduated in 1885. Taught in State. Normal School at San Jose", 
from January, 1886, to June, 1889. 

CHARLES M. KELLOGG Napa County. 

Present address, Rio Grande. 
Taught several years. Is not teaching on account of ill health. 

MARY R. KELLY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

Taught for three years in Contra Costa County. Suspended work one 
year on account of ill health. Since then has taught in various places in 
California. 

IANTHA A. KELSO (Mrs. W. R. Cooke) Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Towles, Placer County. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, four months ; Placer County, five and one 
half years. Not teaching. Married April 14, 1883. Three children; two 
living. 

MAGGIE KENT (Mrs. Albert Dunlap) San Benito County. 

Present address, Hollister, San Benito County. 

Taught two years in San Benito County. Not teaching. Married April 
10, 1881. Three children. 

ELLA LEWIS (Mrs. P. J. Hazen) Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Modesto. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, five years. Married June 16, 1883. Not 
taught since. One child. 

ANNIE LOUCKS Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Pacheco, Contra Costa County. 
Taught continuously since graduation at Pacheco. 

WILLIAM I. H. LYON Sonoma County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three years; Contra Costa County, three 
years; Solano County, five months; Alameda County, five months. Left 
the profession December, 1886, on account of ill health. Married December 

26, 1888. 



State Normal School. 



195 



MARY A. L. MADDEN (Mrs. W. T. Fitzgerald) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught in the public schools of San Francisco, nine years. Married in 
the summer of 1888. Not teaching. 

LISETTA MEGERLE San Francisco. 

Present address, Alameda. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, six months ; Merced County, six months; 
Sacramento County, six months. Since the summer of 1881 has been teach- 
ing in Alameda. 

ALIDA MINER (Mrs. E. W. Fogg) San Francisco County. 

Present address, Oroville, Butte County. 

Taught until May, 1883, in Alameda and Plumas Counties. Married 
October 9, 1883. Not taught since. One child. 

CLARA MURCH (Mrs. S. T. Ferguson) San Mateo County. 

Present address, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
Taught in Redwood City about seven years. Married May 22, 1886. 

LUCY S. NELSON (Mrs. Phil. Ruggles) Butte County. 

Present address, Rutledge, Oregon. 

FRANCES M. O'BRIEN (Mrs. W. J. Freeman) .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Contra Costa County, two months ; Santa Clara County, eight 
years. Teaching in San Jose", Empire Street School. Married July 20, 1881. 
One child. 

KATIE A. PERRY San Benito County. 

Present address, San Felipe, Santa Clara County. 

Taught nine years, most of this time in Monterey and San Benito Coun- 
ties. At present engaged in stenography. 

EVAN T. PETTIT Lake County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, two and one half months; Stanislaus 
County, three months; Tuolumne County, one and a half years; Santa 
Clara County, three years : Colusa County, two years. Left the profession 
of teaching in 1885, to engage in fruit raising. 

C. LILLIAN POND (Mrs. C. L. Good) Napa County. 

Present address, Colfax, Washington Territory. 

Taught in Napa County, two years. Married January 4, 1881. Not taught 
since. One child. 

ORSON M. PRATT (deceased) Marin County. 

Died two weeks after graduation. 

OREN N. RANEY Sonoma County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Los Angeles County, five years. Since 1883 has engaged in 
business as searcher of records. Married June 19, 1888, to Miss Cecelia 
Leffler. One child. 



196 Historical Sketch. 

KATE RAYMUND (Mrs. Wm. R. Thompson), (deceased) Ohio. 

Husband's address, Watsonville. 
Taught successfully. Died February 14, 1884. 

CLARA C. RICHARDSON (Mrs. Clark). Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Portland, Oregon. 

Taught about nine years in California and Oregon. Teaching in Port- 
land. One child. 

MARY E. RUCKER (Mrs. Boulware) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, four years. Left teaching May, 1883, on 
account of ill health. Married December 24, 1879. 

MARY E. SALLY San Benito County. 

Present address, Hollister. 

Taught in San Benito County, four and one half years; San Bernardino 
County, one half year; San Diego County, three years. Work suspended 
two years on account of sickness. Teaching at San Jacinto, San Diego 
County. 

MINNIE SEAVY (Mrs. Fowler) San Francisco. 

Present address, 804 Jones Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, two years; Yolo County, six months; 
San Diego County, six months; Marin County, four years. Married April 
13, 1886. Not taught since November, 1886. 

FRANCES E. SIMMONS (Mrs. Thad. Rivers) , (deceased) _ Alameda Co. 

Taught one year. Married December, 1879. Did not teach after marriage. 
Died April 23, 1880. 

WILLIAM W. STOCKTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 2223 Post Street, San Francisco. 
Not taught since graduation. Is an electrical engineer. 

HATTIE B. WARRING Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey Count}'', four months; San Luis Obispo County, four 
months; Ventura County, two years. Not teaching on account of home 
duties. 

LEWIS B. WILSON Pennsylvania. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Yuba County, four months; Monterey County, two years; 
Merced County, one year; Santa Clara County, four and one half years; 
part of this time in night school and business college. Is now Principal 
of San Jose" High School. Member of County Board of Education. Mar- 
ried January 10, 1883, to Miss Alice Blythe, of the same class. One child. 

E. ALFARETTA WOOD Monterey County. 

Present address, Riverside, San Bernardino County. 
Taught in Monterey County, two years; Sonoma County, two years; 
San Bernardino, six years. Teaching at Riverside. 



State Normal School. 197 

CHARLES A. WOODMAN Butte County. 

Present address, Chico, Butte County. 
Taught ten years. 

TWENTIETH CLASS-MAY, 1879. 
MARY P. ADAMS . Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year; Santa Clara County, three years. 
Now teaching in Training Department of State Normal School. 

KATE G. BARDENWERPER State of Nevada. 

Present address, Carson City, Nevada. 
Is teaching tenth year in the schools of Carson City, Nevada. 

R. LIZZIE BEGGS (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, two years; Stanislaus County, one half 
year. Attended the State University from May, 1880', to May, 1882. Died 
May 4, 1884. 

WILLIAM W. BROWN Napa County. 

Present address, Pviley, Grant County, Oregon. 

Taught two years in Fresno and San Luis Obispo Counties. Since 1881 
engaged in stock raising. 

HATTIE M. CHASE (Mrs. Byron E. DeHart) Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, 52 S. Spring Street, Los Angeles. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, six months; Santa Clara County, fifteen 
months. Married October 15, 1882. Not taught since. Two children. 

MAY S. CRITTENDEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught first year in Santa Clara County; three years in Plumas County. 
Has taught for past seven years in San Jose* public schools. 

THOMAS EDMONDS (deceased) San Francisco. 

Taught one term in San Luis Obispo County. Died in 1880. 

MARGARET R. FARRELL Marin County. 

Present address, San Rafael. 
Taught most of the time since graduation. Teaching in San Rafael. 

ADDIE D. GALLAGHER (Mrs. Morehead) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Taught in San Francisco five years, to January, 1886. 

OLIVE E. GIBSON (Mrs. Wm. F. Marshall )__Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught five years in Los Angeles. Married in 1885. One child. 

14 



198 Historical Sketch. 

LILLA B. GOVE (Mrs. W. H. Marshall) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 41 Eleventh Street, San Francisco. 

Taught five years in San Joaquin County. Married August, 1884. Not 
taught since. One child. 

HARRIET E. HAILE (Mrs. F. P. Gray) Solano County. 

Present address, Vacaville, Solano County. 
Taught two years. One child. 

Si L. HANSCOM Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Modesto, Stanislaus County. 
Taught. 

MARGARET P. HENDERSON Nevada County. 

Present address, Grass Valley, Nevada County. 

Taught in Nevada County, two and one half years; Alameda County t 
two and one half years. Not taught since November, 1884, on account of 
ill health. 

DELIA C. HILTON (Mrs. Solomon Rodgers) Alameda County. 

Present address, Oakland. 

ROBERTINE B. HINES (Mrs. E. S. Hall) Ventura County. 

Present address, Ventura. 

Taught in Ventura County, two years. Married September, 1881. Two 
children. Is not teaching at present, but does not consider that she has 
left the profession. 

SARAH P. HOBSON (Mrs. Martin) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has not taught. 

ALICE L. HUMPHREY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose\ 

Taught in Placer County, one year. Is teaching ninth year in San Jos6 
schools. 

ELLA M. IRISH (Mrs. Cox) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, one term ; in San Jose", two years ; in San 
Luis Obispo County, one year. Not teaching. 

ADAH E. KENT (Mrs. Dunlap) San Benito County. 

Present address, Hollister. 

MARGARET E. McCANN (Mrs. Henry J. Stafford)-. San Francisco. 

Present address, 626 Twenty-third Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Temescal, Alameda County, five years. Married September 1, 
1886. Two children. 

CHARLOTTE C. McLERAN (Mrs. Wm. Easton) Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Gilroy. 
Taught four years. Has one child. 



State Normal School. 199 

GEORGE W. MERRITT Los Angeles County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Practicing medicine in San Francisco. Married. 

E. BELLE MERWIN (Mrs. W. T. Webb) Alameda County. 

Present address, 626 East Fourteenth Street, Oakland. 
Taught in public schools of Oakland continuously since January, 1880, 
except a leave of absence for six months. Teaching. Married September, 
1885. One child. 

MARY M. MUIR (Mrs. Geo. W. Ogden) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Grafton, Yolo County. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, five months; Fresno County, one year; 
Santa Clara County, one year; Amador County, one and one half years. 
Not taught since December, 1883. Married July 3, 1882. 

GRACE R. MURDOCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught in Los Angeles constantly since graduation. 

WM. A. NEWCUM San Francisco. 

Present address, Suisun, Solano County. 

Taught two and one half years. Engaged in mercantile business several 
years. Now editing a paper at Suisun, Solano County. 

GEORGE W. OGDEN Humboldt County. 

Present address, Grafton, Yolo County. 

Taught in Humboldt County, one year ; Amador County, two years ; 
Marin County, one year. Left teaching because of failing health. Engaged 
in mining and other business two and one half years. Farming since 
October, 1885. Married July 3, 1882, to Mary M. Muir, of the same class. 

MARY L. O'HARA Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Jefferson School, Santa Clara County, four years ; in San Jose", 
three years. Teaching in Fourth Ward School, San Jose". 

Lois A. PECKHAM Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 615 E. Santa Clara Street, San Jose". 
Taught in Marin County, four years; Santa Clara County, five years. 
Teaching in San Jose". 

ADDLE M. C. RANEY Sonoma County. 

Present address, Santa Rosa. 

Taught in Los Angeles County, one year; Sonoma County, seven years. 
Teaching in Santa Rosa. 

GEORGIA RAY Sacramento County. 

Present address, Gait. 
Taught nine years. 



2OO Historical Sketch. 



MOLLIE REDMAN (Mrs. C. A. Oliver) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Chico, Butte County. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, three years; Ventura County, two years. 
Traveled in Europe, two years. Married September 7, 1884. Not teaching. 

MARY ENNA RINGO Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one term ; Tulare County, one year; since 
1882, in public schools of San Jose. 

AUGUSTA STERN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 372 South Market Street, San Jose". 
Has taught in San Jose" constantly since graduation. 

M. ADA STEVES San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Hornitos, Mariposa County. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, three years ; Mariposa County, three 
years ; Fresno County, one and one half years ; at Hornitos, Mariposa 
County, since September, 1887. 

FRANCES M. SULLIVAN Santa Clara County. 

Home address, 408 South Eighth Street, San Jose". 

Taught in San Benito County, five months ; Sierra County, two and one 
half years; Sutter County, three years; Plumas County, one year. Teach- 
ing at Spanish Ranch, Plumas County. 

ANNIE E. THOMASSON (Mrs. Clarke) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Jolon, Monterey County. 
Taught three years. 

MOLLIE F. TRIMBLE (Mrs. A. K. Whitton) __ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, eight and one half years. Left teaching 
in November, 1887. Married March 22, 1888. 

ADDIE TURNER (Mrs. Geo. Shear) Butte County. 

Present address, Nord, Butte County. 

Taught in Butte County about three years. Has left the profession tem- 
porarily, and is engaged in farming. Married August 23, 1881. 

CLAUDE B. WAKEFIELD El Dorado County. 

Present address, Garden Valley. 

Taught in El Dorado County, three years ; Alameda County, two years. 
Entered the State University in 1881, and graduated in 1885. Elected 
County Superintendent of El Dorado County in 1887. 

CARRIE WILLIAMS (Mrs. G. W. Hunter) Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka, Humboldt County. 

Taught two years in Humboldt County. Married January 30, 1881. Not 
taught since. Two children. 



State Normal School. 201 



JESSIE WILLIAMSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 48 S. Sixth Street, San Jo9e". 

Taught constantly in Santa Clara County since graduation. Teaching 
in San Jose since 1882. 

ANNIE WOODSON (Mrs. Toney) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Not taught. 



DIPLOMAS GRANTED JANUARY 3, 1880. 
MRS. MARY A. KING Solano County. 

Present address, Nacimiento, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught in Yolo County, one year; in Solano County, four months; in 
San Luis Obispo County, four years. Work suspended on account of ill 
health. Is now engaged in farming. 

ANNA E. MCPHILLIPS San Francisco County. 

Present address, 449 Tenth Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Franklin District, Santa Clara County, five years ; San Mateo 
County, two years. Teaching in San Mateo County. 



TWENTY-FIRST CLASS-MAY, 1880. 
MAGGIE G. BARRETT Placer County. 

Present address, 302 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Nevada County, one half year; Placer County, two and one 
half years. Left public school teaching in December, 1883, to practice 
shorthand and type-writing. Is now teaching these subjects in San Fran- 
cisco. 

IDA M. BENNETT San Bernardino County. 

In 1886 was teaching in San Bernardino. Had taught six years. 

LILLIAN BOWERS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Garvanza, Los Angeles County. 
Taught five years. Teaching. 

MARY S. BOWMAN (Mrs. F. W. Blackmar).. Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Has not taught regularly since graduation on account of home duties. 
Substituted and taught private classes about six months. Married June 
8, 1885. One child. 

F. ALICE BROWN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Bernardo, San Diego County. 
Taught six years in San Diego County. 



2O2 Historical Sketch. 



FLORIBEL C. BROWN Alameda County. 

Present address, Centreville. 

Taught in Alameda County, seven and one half years ; San Bernardino 
County, one half year. Not teaching at present on account of sickness. 

ELMER E. CAREY Mariposa County. 

Present address, 1316 California Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in various places in the State for seven years. Now employed as 
a journalist in San Francisco. 

ANNIE L. CASWELL (Mrs. Chas. Schurch) San Francisco. 

Present address, 8 Pleasant Street, San Francisco. 

Not taught. Married November 5, 1881. Two children. Husband died 
September 24, 1885. 

LOTTIE E. CRICHTON (Mrs. Dr. Curnow) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught four and one half years in Santa Clara County before marriage. 
Not taught since. 

EMMA E. DAVIS (Mrs. Holmes) Sacramento County. 

Address unknown. 
Taught several years. No definite report. 

HENRIETTA M. DE SAISSET Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Not taught. 

JOSEPHINE DESIMONE (Mrs. T. Vock) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 
Married in 1883. Taught several years in San Bernardino County. 

ADELAIDE L. DODGE (Mrs. F. D. Nicol) San Francisco. 

Present address, Sonora, Tuolumne County 
Taught one year. Married July, 1883. Not taught since. Two children. 

LAVTNIA ESTILL Lassen County. 

Present address, Bieber. 

Taught one term in Colusa County; one term in Shasta County ; four 
terms in Modoc County ; two terms in Lassen County. Teaching in Las- 
sen County. 

ROSE A. EVERET Santa Barbara County. 

Present address, Santa Barbara. 
At last report had taught six years and was still teaching. 

BELLE J. FINNIE Nevada County. 

Present address, Grass Valley. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, five months; Ventura County, four 
months; as substitute in Grass Valley, four years. Teaching near Grass 
Valley. 



State Normal School. 203 

MARY R. FINNIE (deceased) Nevada County. 

Taught in Nevada City, five months. Suspended work on account of 
sickness. Died January 28, 1883. 

LENA B. FULLER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
At last report had taught six years. 

EMMA GRIFFITHS Nevada County. 

Home address, Grass Valley. 

Taught in Grass Valley, seven years ; Los Angeles, one year. Teaching 
in Los Angeles. 

RUTH GUPPY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County. Attended University of Mich- 
igan five years, and graduated in 1887. Not teaching. 

JOSEPHINE HARRIGAN San Francisco. 

Present address, 949 Harrison Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Mission Primary School. Has taught in San Francisco 
since September, 1880. 

MAGGIE R. HENRY _San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Fresno. 
Taught eight years in Fresno County since graduation. Not teaching. 

JOHN HERROD Nevada County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Nevada County, two and one half years ; State of Nevada, two 
years ; Amador County, two and one half years ; Santa Clara County, one 
and one half years. Principal of school in East San Jose. 

EVELINE C. HILLMAN (Mrs. T. 0. Smith) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Humboldt County, five months ; in Santa Clara County, three 
and one half years. Engaged several years in studying and teaching 
music. Married September 27, 1888. 

SARAH E. HOLLAND (Mrs. A. B. McNeil) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 693 S. Second Street, San Jose". 

Taught three years in Santa Clara County. Married November 30, 1882. 
Not taught since. Two children. 

JENNIE F. HOWARD (Mrs. Chas. Erkson) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught in San Jose", eight years. Teaching. Married August 1, 1888. 

KATE M. JACKSON (Mrs. Wm. Gapen) San Benito County. 

Present address. Bird's Landing, Solano County. 

Taught three and one half years in Oregon ; one year at Brentwood, 
Contra Costa County ; one year at Bird's Landing. Not teaching. Married 
February 2, 1887. One child. 



2O4 Historical Sketch. 

MARTHA M. KNAPP Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year ; Trinity County, one year ; for 
past six years has been Principal of Training Department in the State Nor- 
mal School at Los Angeles. 

SARAH A. J. LOCKE (Mrs. Wm. T. Smith) __ San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Ferndale, Humboldt County. 

Taught in Humboldt County, two years. Not taught since December, 
1884. Married December 25, 1882. Three children. 

NATHANIEL H. LOCKE San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lockeford. 

Taught in Marin County, two years; San Joaquin County, two years. 
Was not teaching at last report, 1886. Married December 25, 1884. One 
child. 

ROBERT W. MANTZ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three years ; Contra Costa County, four 
months; Alameda County, eleven months; Sierra County, four months. 
Attended the State University two years, 1882-84. Married January 3, 1889, 
to Miss Edith Vale. 

MARY A. MCDONALD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught private class in San Jose", one year ; taught in Sonoma County, 
one and one half years; since jthen in Santa] Clara County, for past five 
years in San Jose". 

ELLA E. MARTIN (Mrs. A. Caminetti) Calaveras County. 

Present address, Jackson, Amador County. 

Taught one year in Calaveras County ; four years in Amador County. 
Not teaching. Married May 29, 1881. Two children. 

LIZZIE A. McKENZiE. _ Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Columbia. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, two years ; Tuolumne County, six years. 
Teaching at Columbia. 

AMY E. O'NEAL San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Valley Springs, Calaveras County. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, four years ; Calaveras County, one and 
one half years. Work suspended a part of the time because of ill health. 
Teaching at Valley Springs. 

ANNIE E. OSGOOD (deceased) Alameda County. 

Did not teach. Died in June, 1881, after a brief illness, at Irvington, 
Alameda County. 

WILLIAM F. PRATT Sutter County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught two years. Now a practicing physician. 



State Normal School. 205 

HANNAH M. RIXON (Mrs. J. T. Ladd) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Joliet, Illinois. 
Taught one and one half years. 

MAKGARET E. SCHALLENBERGER .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in public schools of San Jose", rive years ; in Normal School, two 
years. Now teaching primary class in Training Department of the Normal 
School. 

MAGGIE M. SENTER (Mrs. W. G. Griffith) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in Tehama County, five months ; Santa Clara County, two years ; 
Fresno County, three and one half years. Married July 29, 1886. Not 
taught since. Two children. 

CORA A. SIMPSON (Mrs. C. P. Van Dyke) Alameda County. 

Present address, Haywards. 

Taught two years in Marin County ; two years in Alameda County. One 
child. 

GRACE MAY SINNOTT (Mrs. Chas. M. Weber) .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Coyote. 

Taught six and one half years in Santa Clara County. Married Decem- 
ber, 1886. 

JESSIE M. STEWART Tuolumne County. 

Present address, East Oakland. 
Teaching in Union Primary School, San Francisco. Taught eight years. 

IDA M. WARD (Mrs. I. W. Van Eaton) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Taught eight years. 

ALFRED A. WOOD Sonoma County. 

Present address, Riverside, San Bernardino County. 
Taught one year. Now a merchant in Riverside. 



TWENTY-SECOND CLASS-MAY, 1881. 
KATE APPLEBY (Mrs. Goodrich) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Luis Obispo. 

Taught for a short time before marriage. Not taught since. Three chil- 
dren. 



LOUISE ARCHER (Mrs. M. J. Flavin) Santa Clara County. 

Present address. 924 Market Street, San Francisco. 
Not taught. Married February 6, 1883. One child. 



2o6 Historical Sketch. 



MINNIE C. BASSHAM Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year; Fresno County, six years. 
Teaching. 

A. ROSE BEGKWITH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in Mendocino County, two months ; Contra Costa County, four 
months; San Benito County, three months; San Jose", five months ; Fresno 
County, two years and three months. Resigned in the summer of 1886, to 
go on a trip to the East for eight months. Not taught since, but expects 
to teach again. 

LOTTIE BENT (Mrs. Mathews) Contra Costa County. 

Present -address, Martinez. 

Taught one year in Contra Costa County. Married May 28, 1884. Not 
taught since. 

ADA F. BROWN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 1519 Scott Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Shasta County, six months ; Santa Clara County, three months ; 
Monterey County, four months; San Luis Obispo County, two and one half 
years ; San Diego, four months. Now studying phonography in San Fran- 
cisco. 

IDA M. CARPENTER Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Taught constantly since graduation, most of the time in Napa City. Is 
now teaching a class of young ladies in the Government School in Tokyo, 
Japan. 

LIDA P. DAINGERFIELD (Mrs. Theo. B. Wilcox), (deceased) 

San Francisco. 

Did not teach after graduation. Was married October 2, 1882, and moved 
to Portland, Oregon, where she resided until her death. She had one child. 
Mrs. Wilcox was killed in a railroad accident at Puyallup, December 10, 
1888. 

NELLIE HENRY San Francisco. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught one and one half years in Contra Costa County; one and one 
half years in San Fernando, Los Angeles County. For the past four years 
has taught in Los Angeles County. 

MARY J. HUFFNER (Mrs. S. F. Wood) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Escondido, San Diego County. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, two years; San Diego County, three 
years. Not teaching. Married July 23, 1884. Two children. 

NELLIE R. HUNTINGTON (Mrs. F. A. Loring) San Francisco. 

Present address, 638 Green Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Siskiyou County, one year ; Humboldt County, one year; Men- 
docino County, one year ; Stanislaus County, six months. Not taught since 
May, 1885. Married September 25, 1883. Two children. 



State Normal School. 207 

JAMES B. KELLY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, six months; Contra Costa County, one 
year; Placer County, two years; Santa Cruz County, five months; San 
Luis Obispo County, one year. Married April 22, 1883. One child. 

GRACE E. LEONARD (Mrs. W. W. Lowe) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Camp Verde, Arizona. 

Taught in Tulare County, one year; Monterey County, one year; Los 
Angeles County, four years. Teaching in Camp Verde. 

IDA LOCKE (Mrs. W. H. Pascoe) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Redwood City, San Mateo County. 

Taught in Marin County, four months; San Joaquin County, one year. 
Left teaching November, 1882, on account of illness in family. Married 
May 8, 1883. Two children. Husband a Congregational minister. 

ALICE S. McDouGAL Santa Clara County. 

Began teaching at Gilroy Hot Springs ten months after graduation, and 
has taught constantly in Santa Clara County since that time. Teaching 
in East San Jose". 

MARY S. McDouGAL (Mrs. E. F. MuRcn)___Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. 

Taught in Tehama County, two months; Santa Clara County, four 
months. Married March 25, 1882. Not taught since. Two children. 

JOHN W. MARTIN Fresno County. 

Taught several years. Is now farming in Fresno County. Married and 
has children. 

LIZZIE T. MILLS Contra Costa County. 

Home address, Martinez. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, two and one half years ; Placer County, 
one year; Alameda County, one year; Marin County, two and one half 
years; Napa County, one half year. Teaching near Napa City. 

ALICE MOORE (Mrs. John Bishop) San Francisco. 

Present address, Orange, Massachusetts. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, four months; in Honolulu, one year. 
Left teaching in December, 1882, to travel in Europe. Marrie.d in the sum- 
mer of 1887. 

ELLA F. MURPHY Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, two and one half years ; Monterey County, 
two years ; San Luis Obispo County, one year. At last report, October, 1886, 
was teaching in San Luis Obispo County. 

FANNIE O'HANLON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, four years ; Tulare County, three years 
Los Angeles, one year. Teaching in Tulare City. 



208 Historical Sketch. 



PHOEBE L. PARKER San Francisco. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught in Mendocino County, four months; Humboldt County, one 
year; Santa Cruz County, five months; Alameda County, four years. Now 
teaching second term in San Diego. Work suspended two years on account 
of ill health. 

LAURA I. PATTERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one half year; Merced County, one year; 
Santa Clara County, one year; Fresno County, one and one half years; 
Lassen County, one half year; San Diego County, two and one half years. 
Teaching in Fall Brook, San Diego County. Intends to enter a medical 
college in summer of 1889. 

JOSEPHINE D. REES (Mrs. Horace H. Appel), (deceased) 

San Francisco. 

Taught most of the time until her marriage, April 2, 1884. Removed to 
Tucson, Arizona, where she died November 15, 1884. 

KATE L. SCHUCK Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Portland, Oregon. 
Taught constantly since graduation. Teaching in Portland. 

LAURA F. SELL (Mrs. Samuel Irving) Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Portland, Oregon. 

Taught three years before marriage. Not teaching. After marriage 
resided for several years in Sydney, Australia. 

FLORENCE SNOWDEN (Mrs. J. E. Ward) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Modesto, Stanislaus County. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, six years. Married February 14, 1887. One 
child. 

NANCY J. STEPHENSON Humboldt County. 

Present address, Rohnerville. 
Taught in Humboldt County, five years. Teaching near Rohnerville. 

MARY L. TEEL Alameda County. 

Present address, San Lorenzo. 

Taught seven and one half years, six years of this time in Napa County. 
Teaching at Haywards. 

VERONA TEEL Alameda County. 

Present address, San Lorenzo. 

Taught in Colusa County, one year ; Los Angeles County, one and one 
half years; Napa County, one half year; Alameda County, one and one 
half years ; one year in other places. Is teaching in Bieber, Lassen County. 

LIZZIE THUNEN Butte County. 

Present address, Cherokee. 

Taught in Butte County, three years. At last report, 1886, was not 
teaching. 



State Normal School. 209 

HELEN MAY TOWLE (Mrs. L. E. Baird) Solano County. 

Present address, Sanger, Fresno County. 

Taught three months in Solano County. Married December 25, 1881. 
Not taught since. Two children. 

MARION S. VAN DUSEN Mendocino County. 

Present address, Ukiah City. 

Taught in Mendocino County, five and one half years. Left teaching 
April, 1887, on account of ill health. 

HARRIET E. VAN EATON (Mrs. W. S. Bailey) Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Long Beach, Los Angeles County. 

Taught in Hester School, Santa Clara County, five years ; in Los Angeles 
County, two years. Not teaching. Married August 29, 1886. One child. 



DIPLOMA GRANTED JANUARY 21, 1882. 
ELLA McCABE Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Brentwood. 



TWENTY-THIRD CLASS-MAY, 1882. 

EVALINE V. APLIN (Mrs. W. D. Huntington) Nevada County. 

Present address, Oceanside, San Diego County. 

Taught in Nevada County, one year; Los Angeles County, one year; San 
Bernardino County, two years. Married June 1, 1886. Not taught since. 
One child. 

WALTER S. BAILEY Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Long Beach. 

Taught in Los Angeles County constantly since graduation. Married 
August 29, 1886, to Miss Harriet E. Van Eaton, Class of May, 1881. One 
child. 

LOLA A. BALIS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, East San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year; Stanislaus County, one year. 
Work suspended from 1884 to 1889, on account of home duties. Teaching 
in East San Jose*. 

KATE B. BECKWITH Santa Clara County. 

Taught in Los Angeles County until summer of 1886. Not taught since. 

MAGGIE M. BIRD (Mrs. 0. M. Keesling) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught five years. Married August 10, 1887. Not taught since. 



2 TO Historical Sketch. 



CHRISTIANA H. BRAUN (Mrs. Wm. H. Murphy) __ Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Antioch, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, two terms; Monterey County, two terms ; 
Solano County, two terms; Contra Costa County, one term. Married Octo- 
ber 2, 1887. Not taught since. 

MARY L. CHALONER (Mrs. Frank Belt) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Hills Ferry, Stanislaus County. 
Taught two years. 

THOMAS L. CHAPIN Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught three years. Engaged in real estate business. 

WILLIAM T. CHIPMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one and one half years ; Sierra County, 
one year; Lassen County, two months. In October, 1884, left profession of 
teaching, to enter County Clerk's office. Has since taught one term in 
night school in San Jose". Has occupied office of Deputy County Superin- 
tendent. Married March 30, 1889, to Hattie E. Ogan. 

ALFRED B. COFFMAN Napa County. 

Present address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. 
Real estate agent. Not taught. 

PELHAM H. COFFMAN Napa County. 

Present address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. 
Real estate agent. Not taught. 

ISABELLA CONN Nevada County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Fresno County, five years ; Los Angeles, two years. Teaching 
in Los Angeles. 

NELLIE CRITTENDEN Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose*. 

Has taught continuously since graduation in Santa Clara, Merced, and 
Los Angeles Counties. Is teaching in Pasadena. 

MARIANA DAY San Francisco. 

Present address, Hollister, San Benito County. 

Taught in California, two years; a private school in Tonald, Mexico, one 
year; returned to California, and taught in Trinity County, one year. Is 
teaching second term in Fairview District, near Hollister. 

INANDA L. DRANGA (deceased) San Diego County. 

Taught in San Diego County until May, 18*86, when she gave up teaching 
on account of failing health. Died at Vallecitas, San Diego County, June 
5, 1887, of consumption. 



State Normal School. 211 



LOUISA A. ERKSON (Mrs. A. 0. White) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Taught two and one half years in San Jose". Married in 1884. 

CORNELIA M. FARLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 
Teaching in High School, San Jose". Taught six years. 

ANNIE C. FISK (Mrs. James Gregory) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

IDA M. GIBSON Marin County. 

Present address, Bolinas. 

Teaching in Bolinas, where she has taught most of the time since gradu- 
ation. 

MARY Q. GORDON Monterey County. 

Present address, Monterey. 
Taught in Monterey continuously since graduation. 

HATTIE F. GOWER Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught in Los Angeles continuously since graduation. 

CLARA L. GREGORY (Mrs. J. H. Poor) Sacramento County. 

Present address, Penryn, Placer County. 

Taught in State of Nevada, one year; Alameda County, one half year. 
Married December 24, 1884. Not taught since. One child. 

PATRICK H. GRIFFIN Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Angel's, Calaveras County. 

Taught in Tuolumne County, four years ; Calaveras County, two years. 
Teaching. 

IDA L. HALL San Francisco. 

Home address, 627 Nineteenth Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Tulare County, one year; Los Angeles County, five years. 
Teaching in Los Angeles. 

IDA S. HALL Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Alamo. 

Taught continuously in Contra Costa County since graduation. Teach- 
ing near Alamo. 

MARY A. HENDERSON Nevada County. 

Home address, Grass Valley. 

Taught in Nevada City, three years ; in Los Angeles, three years. Teach- 
ing in Los Angeles. 

KATE HENRY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 
At last report had taught two years. 



212 Historical Sketch. 

CARRIE HILL Santa Clara County. 

Teaching in Los Angeles County at last report. Had taught several 
years. 

LAVINIA HILLEBRANT (Mrs. Ammon A. Goff)._ -Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Santa Ana, Orange County. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, five months; Colusa County, five months ; 
Los Angeles County, one year. Married October 8, 1885, and left the pro- 
fession. Two children ; one living. Has contributed frequently to papers 
and magazines. 

ERASTUS K. HITCHCOCK State of Nevada. 

Present address, Pacheco, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year; Santa Barbara County, one 
year; Alameda County, two and one half years; Los Angeles County, one 
year; Contra Costa County, one year. Teaching at Pacheco. 

IDA G. HUMPHREY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Placer County, one term ; one term in Santa Clara County ; 
four years in Alameda County. Has taught in San Jose" since July, 1888. 

WILLIAM E.JORDAN Fresno County. 

Present address, Kingsburg. 
Taught four years in Fresno County. Now engaged in farming. 

EULALIE KELLEY (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught one term. Died in August, 1884. 

WILLIAM A. KIRKWOOD Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, four years. In the fall of 1886 was 
elected County Superintendent, which office he holds at the present time. 

LULU LAKE (Mrs. Preston Menefee) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Diego. 
Not taught. 

ELIZABETH LEGGETT Butte County. 

Present address, Oroville. . 

Taught in Sierra County, five months; Butte County, three and one half 
years. Not taught since November, 1886, and does not expect to teach 
again. 

LYDIA A. LEHNIG (Mrs. R. H. Jamison) Alameda County. 

Present address, Agnews, Santa Clara County. 

Taught in San Mateo County, six months; Sacramento County, one year; 
Santa Clara County, thirteen months ; Alameda County, three months. 
Not teaching. Married September 8, 1886. 

ELLA LORDS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Alviso. 

Taught in Monterey County most of the time since graduation. Teach- 
ing in Monterey. 



State Normal School. 213 

KATE MANDEVILLE San Francisco. 

Present address, 207 Jones Street, San Francisco. 

Teaching in Clement Grammar School. Has taught in San Francisco 
since August, 1885. Previous to that time, taught one and one half years 
in Santa Clara County, and one term in Marin County. 

FLORA A. MCFARLAND (Mrs. E. B. Zumwalt) Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught one year before marriage. Married April 8, 1883. One child. 
Teaching at New Almaden, Santa Clara County. 

MARY E. McLEAN Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Modesto. 
Has taught several years. 

CARRIE A. McTiGUE State of Nevada. 

At last report, 1886, had taught four years in Los Angeles, and was still 
teaching. 

MARY E. MEEK (Mrs. Theo. Daulton) Alameda County. 

Present address, Seattle, Washington. . 
Taught six years in Oakland schools. Married November, 1888. 

M. AUGUSTA MERTES (Mrs. J. J. Sheafor) Placer County. 

Present address, Dunsmuir, Siskiyou County. 

Taught in Placer County, three years ; Nevada County, one year. Is now 
engaged as a bookkeeper. Married April 19, 1887. 

S. LIZZIE MILLER (Mrs. Herbert F. Conn)___Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Walla Walla, Washington. 

Taught in Los Angeles County, one and one half years; in Walla Walla, 
four and one half years. Still teaching. Married June 25, 1887. 

CHRISTENIE E. MILLS (Mrs. Wm. A. Graves) _Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Nicolaus, Sutter County. 

Taught in Sutter County, six months. Married October 3, 1883. Not 
taught since. One child. 

KATE C. O'BRIEN San Francisco. 

Home address, 1513 Valencia Street, San Francisco. 
In 1887 was teaching at Markham, Sonoma County. Taught four years. 

ROSELLA A. O'BRIEN (Mrs. Barlow) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one year. 

MARY M. OSBORN , Tulare County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Fresno County, five months; Tulare County, three years. 
Not teaching at present. 

15 



214 Historical Sketch. 



F. H. OTTMER Sonoma County. 

Present address, Petrolia, Humboldt County. 

Taught three years in Sonoma County. Left teaching to study medicine. 
Graduated from Cooper Medical College, November, 1887. Now practicing 
medicine in Petrolia. Married November, 1888. 

MARY L. PACEY San Francisco. 

At last report, 1886, had taught three years and was teaching in San 
Diego County. 

CHRISTINE RADEMACHER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
At last report had taught four years. 

ELISSIE H. RAYMOND Monterey County. 

Present address, Salinas City. 

Taught in Mariposa County, one year; Monterey County, four years. 
Teaching at Deep Well, Monterey County. Work suspended a part of the 
time on account of sickness. 

FRANKE B. REYNOLDS San Francisco. 

Present address, Kansas City, Iowa. ' 
Taught one and a half years. 

ADA RICHARDSON Sacramento County. 

Home address, 2100 T Street, Sacramento. 

Taught in State of Nevada, one year; Placer County, one year; Santa 
Clara County, two years ; Sacramento County, two years; Ventura County, 
one year. Teaching in Santa Paula. 

MARY H. RICKEY (Mrs. Litner) San Diego County. 

Taught three years before marriage. In 1886 was living in Alabama. 

MINNIE A. RIXON (Mrs. J. L. Siefkes) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 1132 Kentucky Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one year in San Joaquin County ; two years in Alameda County. 

LUCIE A. ROGERS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught four years. 

LOUISE G. RONEY San Francisco. 

Present address, 1519 J ackson Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Placer, Del Norte, and Contra Costa Counties five years. 
Teaching at Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County. 

LENA B. SCHILLING . _ -Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught in San Jose' six years. Teaching in Fourth Ward School. 

LILLIE S. SCHOEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught continuously in San Jos6 since graduation. 



State Normal School. 215 

WILLIAM A. SEARS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Wrights. 

Taught in Contra Costa County about five years, the last two years as 
Principal of the Pacheco School. Now has a fruit farm in the Santa Cruz 
Mountains. Married. One child. 

JEANNETTE SHAW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Taught in Santa Clara County continuously since graduation. 

ADDIE SHEATS Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Tustin City. 
Teaching. Taught six years. 

SARA J. SMITH (Mrs. Cunningham) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Honolulu, H. I. 
Taught four years. 

ELLA D. STARLING. .. State of Nevada. 

Present address, Carson City, Nevada. 
Taught six years. Teaching in Carson City. 

LEOLIN TAYLOR San Bernardino County. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 

Taught in Los Angeles County until May, 1887. Left the profession of 
teaching to study law. Married October 29, 1886. One child. 

EDWARD E. THOMAS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Los Angeles County, three months; Santa Clara County, four 
and one half years. Left the profession of teaching in June, 1888, to 
engage in fruit growing. 

MABEL URMY Stanislaus County. 

Present address, College Park, Santa Clara County. 

Taught in the Hester School, San Jose", two and one half years; in Uni- 
versity of the Pacific, two years. In 1886 suspended work of teaching, to 
attend the University of the Pacific, from which she graduated in June, 1886. 

EMMA WATKINS (Mrs. Henry L. Willey) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County continuously seven years; for the past six 
years in Santa Clara. Married November 13, 1889. Not teaching. 

REGINA WEINSHANK Los Angeles County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Has taught in Los Angeles County continuously since graduation. 

EMILY L. WRIGHT (Mrs. J. G. Bessinger)___Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County. 

Taught two and one half years in Santa Cruz and Santa Clara Counties. 
Married February 8, 1885. Not taught since. One child. 



216 Historical Sketch. 

HATTIE L. WYLLIE (Mrs. Henry Booksin) ..Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught six years. Married October 9, 1888. 

MARY E. YOUNG (Mrs. Ed. North) Santa Clara County. 

Taught about four years, in Monterey and Napa Counties. Married Feb- 
ruary 19, 1887. Not taught since. 



DIPLOMAS GRANTED DECEMBER, 1882. 
MATTIE GRAEBE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught seven years in Santa Clara County; for the past five years in 
San Jose". 

MARTHA GRANICHER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, four years. At last report, 1886, was teach- 
ing in Pacific Valley, Monterey County. 

MATTIE F. HUNT (Mrs. A. F. Hoehner) Sacramento County. 

Not taught. Married March 5, 1883. One child. 

LIZZIE T. MAHONEY Santa Clara County. 

Home address, 612 Linden Avenue, San Francisco. 

Taught in Mendocino County, three years. At last report, April, 1886, 
was teaching at Fresno Flats, Fresno County. 

FANNIE MOONEY Alameda County. 

Present address, 712 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Napa County, three months; Since August, 1883, in San Fran- 
cisco. Teaching in South Cosmopolitan Primary School. 

IANTHIA REA Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

At last report, 1885, was teaching second year at Artesia, Los Angeles 
County. 

ELLA E. HONEY San Francisco. 

Home address, 1519 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Humboldt County, six months ; Del Norte County, two years ; 
San Luis Obispo County, one year; Placer County, one year. 

ANNIE L. TALBOT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, East San Jose". 

Taught in Merced County, five months ; Santa Clara County, four years. 
At last report was teaching in Hall's Valley, Santa Clara County. 



State Normal School. 217 



TWENTY-FOURTH CLASS-MAY, 1883. 
GEORGE P. AHLF Colusa County. 

Present address, Colusa. 
Not taught. Has engaged in farming since graduation. 

LUTIE M. BALIS (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Did not teach. Her health failed gradually from the time she graduated 
until her death, March 15, 1884. Address of her sister, Lola A. Balis, San 
Jose. 

JAMES G. BEATY Yuba County. 

Present address, Oregon House, Yuba County. 

Taught in Plumas County, six months; Butte County, two years; Yuba 
County, two years. Teaching. 

LAUREN J. BERRY (Mrs. A. L. Sears) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Wrights. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, four years ; Tulare County, two years. 
Married July 3, 1888. Not teaching. 

WILLIAM J. BLACK Tuolumne County. 

Taught in the State of Nevada, two years. Justice of the Peace at Lewis 
several months ; also, assayer and bookkeeper for a mining company. At 
last report, December. 1886, was in a lumber business at San Miguel, Cal. 

CORA A. BLAINE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Napa County, three months; Tulare County, two months. 
Not teaching. Preparing to teach drawing. 

KATE I. BROMLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Oroville, Butte County. 

Taught in Los Angeles County, one year : Butte County, three years ; 
Lake County, one year. Teaching near Upper Lake. 

MARY C. BRUNHOUSE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Coulterville, Mariposa County, five years ; in Bradley, Mon- 
terey County, since August, 1888. 

M. EMELINE CARMICHAEL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year ; San Jose", five months ; Contra. 
Costa County, three and one half years. Teaching in San Jose". 

LUE J. CARVER (Mrs. Jas. E. Conner) Tulare County. 

Present address, Porterville, Tulare County. 

Taught in Kern and Los Angeles Counties three and one half years. 
Resigned position in Los Angeles, November, 1886, on account of failing 
eyesight. Not teaching. Married September 22, 1887. 



218 Historical Sketch. 



KITTIE A. CHANDLER San Francisco. 

Present address, 213 Duncan Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in El Dorado County, one and one half years; Contra Costa 
County, one half year; Alameda County, one half year; Marin County, 
one year. Teaching at Marshall, Marin County. 

MARY F. CHEW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Evergreen, Santa Clara County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, five years ; Monterey County, one half 
year. Teaching in Monterey County. 

IDA E. CLARK San Diego County. 

Present address, 22 Geary Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Monterey County, five months ; Corralitos, Santa Cruz 
County, two and one half years ; Principal of a school in Santa Cruz, one 
and one half years ; taught in San Francisco since spring of 1888. Teach- 
ing in Lincoln Grammar School. 

LIZZIE M. CLARK Amador County. 

Present address, lone. 
Taught since graduation near lone, Amador County. 

HENRY A. CLAYTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Clayton, Contra Costa County. 

Taught in Santa Barbara County, one year; Contra Costa County, two 
years. In spring of 1887 was teaching at Clayton. 

EUGENE C. COLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught in Monterey County, one year; Stanislaus County, four months. 

BELLE DUNCAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Salinas City. 

Taught in Sonoma County, two years; Santa Clara County, two and one 
half years. Has been teaching in Salinas City since November, 1887. 

LAURA DUNCAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Pasadena, Los Angeles County. 

Did not teach for first year after graduation, because of illness. Taught 
in Santa Cruz and San Benito Counties, two and one half years ; in Pasa- 
dena, three years. 

LUELLA A. DUNCAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Pasadena, Los Angeles County. 

Taught in San Benito and Santa Clara Counties, two years ; in Pasadena 
since 1887. 

SUSIE M. DUNN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 1656 Webster Street, Oakland. 
Taught in Contra Costa County, five years. Teaching at Concord. 



State Normal School. 219 

CICERO P. EVANS Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Carpenteria, Santa Barbara County. 
Taught in Stanislaus County, one year; Guadalupe, Santa Barbara 
County, two years ; in Carpenteria since January, 1887. 

E. BELLE FAIRLEE (Mrs. H. B. Spilman) Sutter County. 

Present address, Pennington. 
Taught two years. Married in fall of 1885. Not taught since. 

KATE M. GARTELMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Collins District, Santa Clara County, three years. Not taught 
since 1886. 

LAURA GEORGE (Mrs. Jos. Plunkett) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Tuscarora, Nevada. 

Taught three years in Santa Clara County, and two years in Tuscarora. 
Married December, 1888. 

MARGARET G. GILLESPIE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught in Stanislaus County, two years; in San Jose", since summer of 

1885. 

SUSIE M. GILMORE (Mrs. Geo. W. Pierce) El Dorado County. 

Present address, Davisville, Yolo County. 

Taught in El Dorado County, two years ; Fresno County, three years . 
Married August 15, 1888. Not taught since. 

JENNIE L. GREEN Sacramento County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 

Taught in Yolo County, two years. At last report, had not taught since 
June, 1885. 

NETTIE A. GREEN (deceased) San Joaquin County. 

Did not teach after graduation, because of failing health. Died April 3, 

1884. 

CLARA M. GRUBS San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lockeford. 

Taught two and a half years in Calaveras County ; three and a half years 
in San Joaquin County. Teaching at Lockeford. 

JULIA HARRINGTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Did not teach for first year after graduation, on account of ill health. 
Taught in Mendocino County, two and one half years; in Santa Clara 
County, since January, 1887. 

RACHEL H. HERRINGTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, one and one half years. Since July, 
1885, has taught in the Santa Clara school. 



220 Historical Sketch. 



KATE E. JOHNSON Yolo Count} 7 . 

Present address, Winters. 

Taught in Solano County, one year; Colusa County, four years. Teach- 
ing present year at Artesia, Los Angeles County. 

IDA M. JONES (deceased) Santa Cruz County. 

Taught in Colusa County for two months after graduation, and was then 
obliged to resign because of ill health. Did not teach again until 1886. 
Then taught one term in Santa Clara County and one year at her home in 
Laurel, Santa Cruz County. Gave up work again on account of failing 
health, and died of consumption, at Laurel, May 10, 1889. 

MARY L. JONES El Dorado County. 

Present address, Modesto, Stanislaus County. 

Taught in Amador County, one year; El Dorado County, one year; 
Stanislaus County, four years. Teaching near Modesto. 

NELLIE KEATON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, one and one half years ; Santa Clara County > 
one year; Stanislaus County, one year. Teaching in San Jose". 

EFFIE J. KELSEY (Mrs. J. M. DeWitt) Sutter County. 

Present address, 216 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year. Married September 15, 1884. Not 
taught since. 

LUCINA H. KELSEY (Mrs. G. B. Richardson). .Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Lincoln, Placer County. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one and one half years; Placer County, 
one and one half years; Monterey County, one and one fourth years. 
Married July 12, 1888. Not teaching. 

ANNIE A. KING (Mrs. Charles L. Morrill).__ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Oceanside, San Diego County. 

Taught in Kern County, two years; Los Angeles County, one year. Left 
teaching in 1886 on account of sickness. Married June 7, 1887. 

GEORGIE E. KNOTT Sacramento County. 

Present address, Isletori. 
At last report, June, 1886, had taught in Sacramento County, three years. 

M. ALICE LADD (Mrs. Milton H. Kingsbury)__San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 323 Fremont Street, Stockton. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, two years. Married in the summer of 
1887. Not taught since. 

GEORGE E. LARKEY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Newhall, Los Angeles County. 

Taught three years in Contra Costa County ; one year in Los Angeles 
County. In May, 1887, was teaching at Newhall. Married January 13, 
1885, to Miss Mamie A. Bryant. 



State Normal School. 221 

KAREN M. LAWSON Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom. 

At last report, December, 1885, had taught three terms in Newcastle, 
Placer County. 

FANNIE Low (Mrs. Arthur Thatcher) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Kohala, Hawaii, H. I. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one half year ; Kern County, one year ; 
Monterey County, one and a half years. Suspended work in the spring of 
1887 on account of ill health. Went to the Sandwich Islands in the sum- 
mer, where she is now teaching. Married June 24, 1888. 

ABBIE McKEE (Mrs. R. G. Coykendall) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Taught two months. Married December 24, 1885. Not teaching. 

E. LOUESA METCALF San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lockeford, San Joaquin County. 

Occupied with home duties until fall of 1887. Since then has taught one 
year in San Diego County, and is teaching the present year in Calaveras 
County. 

IDA P. MILLER (Mrs. J. J. Rice) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Tres Pinos, Monterey County. 

Taught in Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, four and one half years. 
Married June 17, 1888. Not teaching. 

ALBERT W. MIZE Santa Clara County . 

Address, unknown. 

In May, 1884, had taught one year in Solano County. Keported by a 
classmate as teaching in Washington Territory. 

MARY E. MORGAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

Taught in a district school in Santa Cruz County, three months ; in San 
Benito County, three months ; has taught in Santa Cruz since July, 1884. 

ANNA C. MURPHY Placer County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught in Colusa, three years ; in Los Angeles, two years. Teaching. 

KITTIE S. OGILVIE San Francisco. 

Present address, 621 Bush Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one term ; Fresno County, two years. Now 
engaged in type-writing and stenography. 

JULIA OWEN (Mrs. George Munson) Santa Barbara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year ; Napa County, one year ; San 
Luis Obispo County, two and one half years. Married February 20, 1889 
Not teaching. 



222 Historical Sketch. 



AGNES FENDER (Mrs. E. W. Conant) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught in Santa Clara County, five years. Married July 2, 1889. 

HENRY C. PETRAY Sonoma County. 

Present address, Healdsburg. 

Principal of a school in Santa Rosa. Taught one year in Colusa County, 
and five years in Sonoma County. Studying law preparatory to leaving 
the profession of teaching. Married July 11, 1889, to Miss Annie A. Brooke. 

EMILY M. PURINTON (Mrs. H. H. McCloskey) ___Merced County. 

Present address, Merced. 

Taught one year in Merced County. Married January 1, 1885. Not taught 
since. One child. 

LENORA A. RICHARDS (Mrs. Rich) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught in Merced County, three months ; Stanislaus County, five months ; 
in Del Norte County, one year. In 1885 went to San Francisco, and, while 
studying stenography, taught in the evening school. For the past two 
years, has been teaching stenography in the Commercial School, San Fran- 
cisco. Married July 7, 1888. Expects to teach private pupils after July, 
1889. 

M. GEORGIA ROOKER (Mrs. Frank T. Green) State of Nevada. 

Present address, 929 Haight Street, San Francisco. 
Not taught since graduation. Married November 12, 1884. One child. 

MARION A. ROUSE Santa Clara County. 

Home address, Alma. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, three months; Santa Clara County, two 
and one half years; Los Angeles County, one year. Teaching in Los 
Angeles. 

C. JEAN SCHNEBLY (Mrs. J. B. Davidson). -Washington Territory. 

Present address, Ellensburg, Washington Territory. 

Taught in Washington Territory, two and one half years. Married 
March 31, 1886. 

KATE SEXTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, four years ; San Jose", one and one half 
years. Teaching in San Jose". 

ARTHUR R. SHEATS Contra Costa County. 

Present address, San Pablo. 

Taught in Contra Costa County continuously since graduation. Teach- 
ing at San Pablo. 



State Normal School. 223 

RICHARD J. SINNOTT Sierra County. 

Present address, Gibsonville. 

Taught in Sierra County, three years; in Plumas County, one and one 
half years; in Los Angeles County, one and one half years. Not teaching 
at present, but expects to teach again soon. Married June 25, 1885. One 
child. 

EDITH C. SMITH Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom. 

At last report, July, 1886, had taught in Placer County, six months; Sac- 
ramento County, two years. Teaching in Folsom. 

M. LOUISE SMITH (Mrs. Frederic S. Cox) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught three years in Santa Cruz County before marriage. Married 
August 17, 1886. 

MARY S. SMITH (Mrs. W. A. Lane) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Orland, Colusa County. 

Taught in Sacramento County, one year; Napa County, three months ; 
Monterey County, one year; Tehama County, two years. Married March 
31, 1889. Not teaching. 

ELLA V. SPENCER (Mrs. A. B. Campbell) Merced County. 

Present address, Smith River, Del Norte County. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one year ; Merced County, three months I 
Del Norte County, three years. Teaching at Smith River. 

MARY R. STEPHENS Santa Clara County. 

Home address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Monterey County, four years. Work suspended one year, 
1885, on account of sickness. Teaching near Jolon. 

JOHN W. STIRLING Monterey County. 

Present address, Castroville. 

Taught in San Mateo County, one year ; Monterey County, two and one 
half years. Left teaching in spring of 1887. Warehouse keeper for Bank 
at Castroville. 

L. MAY. STERN Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one year; Alameda County, two years; 
Merced County, one 'half year ; San Diego County, one year. Work sus- 
pended one half year on account of home duties. Teaching at Otay, San 
Diego County. 

AMY A. STEVES (Mrs. Henry Austin) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, two years; Mariposa County, three 
years. Married in the fall of 1888. 



224 Historical Sketch. 



FANNY STOCKTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, four months ; San Benito County, four 
months ; in San Jose, three and one half years. Teaching in San Jose. 

WILLIAM H. SUMNER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Taught in Santa Clara County, three and one half years. Not teaching. 

ANNA C. THOMPSON Santa Clara County. 

Home address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Monterey County, four months ; Santa Clara County, one and 
one half years; Stanislaus County, three years. 

FLORA C. THOMPSON (Mrs. George Coffee) __Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Bakersfield, Kern County. 

Taught two years in Kern County. Married in April, 1885. Not taught 
since. 

ISAAC S. THOMPSON Santa Clara County. 

Home address, Santa Clara. 

Taught six months in Stanislaus County. In July, 1884, opened school 
at St. Louis, Sierra County, where he was teaching at last report. 

MARTHA B. THOMPSON (Mrs. Keeler) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County; rive years in Kern County. 
Married in 1889. Not teaching. 

JESSIE O. TOLMAN (Mrs. Watkins) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Mineral Park, Arizona. 
Taught three years in Arizona. Teaching when last heard from. 

ANGY F. WAKEMAN Alameda County. 

Present address, 1064 Tenth Avenue, Oakland. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, one and one half years; Alameda 
County, two years. At last report was teaching in Franklin School, Oak- 
land. 

MOLLIE E. WALSH El Dorado County. 

Present address, Placerville. 
Taught in El Dorado County continuous^ since graduation. Teaching. 

DORA B. WASHBURN Calaveras County. 

Present address, San Andreas. 
At last report, 1886, had taught three years in Calaveras County. 

KATE F. WATKINS (deceased) -Placer County. 

Taught in Santa Cruz two years. Gave up work on account of failing 
health. Died after a long and painful illness, July 15, 1886. 



State Normal Sc/iool. 225 

FANNIE P. WEST (Mrs. W. W. Gillespie) Nevada County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught three years in Nevada City. Married June 30, 1886. Not taught 
since. Two children. 

AMY WHATMORE San Francisco. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught in Monterey County, one year; Santa Clara County, two and one 
half years ; San Diego, two years. Teaching in San Diego. 

NELLIE T. WICKHAM Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Taught five years in Napa County. Taking a course in Heald's Business 
College, San Francisco. 

BESSIE WOODWARD (Mrs. T. A. King) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in San Joaquin County, three years. Married May 4, 1886. Not 
taught since. Two children, one living. 

LIZZIE N. WRISTEN (Mrs. E. H. Bentley). ... Yolo County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Fresno County, two years. Married May 13, 1885. Not 
taught since. 



TWENTY-FIFTH CLASS-DECEMBER, 1883. 

FRANK B. ABBE San Benito County. 

Present address, San Juan. 

Taught continuously since graduation in Aromas District, San Benito 
County. A part of the time, has been editor of a newspaper. 

LILY A. ADDICOTT (Mrs. D. S. Snodgrass), (deceased) .Placer Co. 

Address of husband, Selma, Fresno County. 

Taught a private school in Placer County, five months ; in public schools 
of Fresno City from summer of 1884 to fall of 1886. Married October 30, 
1886. Did not teach afterward on account of failing health. Died August 
3, 1888. 

HATTIE E. ATHERTON (Mrs. Hyland E. Barber) __ _Marin County. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught five years in Marin County. Married December 5, 1888. Not 
teaching. 

MARTHA AUGUSTINE Marin County. 

Present address, Normal, Illinois. 

Taught in San Rafael, Marin County, four and one half years. Returned 
to her former home in Illinois in the summer of 1888, and is now teaching 
in Normal. 



226 Historical Sketch. 



ELLA G. BILLINGS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Contra Costa County, one term ; in San Mateo County, one 
year. At last report, 1886, was teaching at Woodside, San Mateo County. 

ANNA E. BLACK (Mrs. Geo. W. Crawford) San Benito County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught one year in San Benito County, and two years in Santa Clara 
County. Married August 10, 1887. Not taught since. 

LUCY E. BOTSFORD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Fresno County, one 3 7 ear; Santa Clara County, three and one 
half years. Teaching in Santa Clara County. 

JOSEPHINE BRALY (deceased) Santa Clara County. 

Taught two years September, 1884, to June, 1886 in Fresno City, and 
was very successful, especially in primary work. Her special department 
was music. She was obliged to give up work on account of failing health. 
Died in Fresno City, May 2, 1887. 

JENNIE R. BUSH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Laribee, Humboldt County. 

Taught in Humboldt County, five years, teaching a private school dur- 
ing vacations of the public school. Also taught music to private pupils, and 
a part of the time held an evening school. Work suspended since October, 
1888, on account of injuries received in a stage accident, while on her way 
to attend a County Institute. 

ANGELINE CHAMBAUD Sonoma County. 

Present address, Santa Rosa. 

Taught in Sonoma County continuously since graduation. Teaching in 
Santa Rosa. 

LIDA C. CLARK Santa Clara County. 

Present address, East San Jose*. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, four years. Has been teaching in the 
East San Jose* School, three years. 

BEN. B. CORY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Lodi, San Joaquin County. 
Taught in San Jos6 and in Lodi, five years in all. Teaching at Lodi. 

LIZZIE B. CREW (Mrs. E. E. Canfield) Butte County. 

Taught in Chico, nine months. Married February 10, 1886. Not taught 
since. 

MARY E. CURTIS Tulare County. 

Present address, Visalia. 

At last report, 1886, had taught two years in Tulare County. Was not 
teaching on account of poor health. 



State Normal School. 227 

GEORGE F. DUNCAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Barbara County until January, 1887. Since that time 
in Los Angeles County. 

HENRIETTA T. ELLERHORST San Francisco. 

Present address, 1931 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Taught at Brannan Island, Sacramento County, from July, 1884, to 
December, 1887. Since January, 1888, has been teaching near Oakland. 

ZILPHA HAYFORD (Mrs. A. J. Storey) Placer County. 

Present address, 608 Capp Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Placer County, two and one half years. Not taught since May, 
1886. Married January 20, 1887. 

LUCY D. HETTY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Los Angeles County, five months; in Monterey County, fifteen 
months. Work suspended three terms on account of home duties. For 
the past two years has been teaching in Santa Clara. 

/ 

ELIZA F. HIGGINS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught in Marin County, one year. In August, 1885, opened school in 
Mt. Pleasant District, Santa Clara County, where she was teaching at last 
report, 1886. 

CHARLES M. HODGES San Benito County. 

At last report, October, 1886, was teaching at Paicines, San Benito 
County. Had taught in that county one and one half years. 

MRS. S. E. HOLYER Alameda County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Clara County, four months; Amador County, one year. 
Fresno County, two years ; Tulare County, where she is now teaching, six 
months. Work suspended a part of the time because of home duties. 

GEORGE J. HOTHERSALL Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 
Taught three and one half years in Nevada County. Teaching. 

I. PETRA JOHNSTON San Mateo County. 

Present address, Half Moon Bay. 

Taught continuously since February, 1885, in public school at Half 
Moon Bay. 

LIZZIE P. JUDSON (Mrs. W. E. Hardy) .. .^.._San Diego County. 

Present address, Bernardo. 

Taught in San Diego County, two years. Work suspended much of the 
time on account of ill health. Not teaching. Married September 11, 1888. 



228 Historical Sketch. 

HATTIE M. KEATING . San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 266 Rose Street, Stockton. 

Taught in Merced County, one year; in Stockton, since August, 1886. 
Teaching a primary class. 

ELLA KELLY Yuba County. 

Present address, Marysville. 

Taught in Sierra County, two years ; Yuba County, two years. At last 
report, 1888, was teaching at Honcut, Yuba County. 

MIRIAM F. KOOSER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three years ; in City of Los Angeles since 
August, 1887. 

KATE MCCARTHY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Humboldt County, four and one half years; in City of Los 
Angeles, one year. Teaching. 

MARY McHARRY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

Taught in Fresno County, one term ; in Contra Costa County, two years. 
At last report, 1887, was teaching at Pinole. 

DANIEL MAHONEY Nevada County. 

Present address, French Corral. 

Taught in Fresno County, three years; in Nevada County, one year. 
Teaching at French Corral. 

SARAH A. MARTIN Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 
At last report, 1884, was teaching in Santa Clara County. 

BESSIE J. MAYNE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Was Principal of the public school at Crescent City three years. Since 
January, 1888, has been teaching in the University of the Pacific, San Jose. 
Has taught music at various times when not engaged in public school work. 

ELLA A. MILLS (Mrs. John Zielian) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Modesto, Stanislaus County. 

Taught in Solano County, one year ; in Stanislaus County, one year before 
marriage. Married November 29, 1885. Since that time has taught in 
Stanislaus County, five months in 1886 and a part of 1888. Not teaching. 

MARY T. MOONEY Alameda County. 

Present address, North Temescal. 

Taught in Monterey County, six months; San Bernardino County, four 
months; Mendocino County, three months. Since January 12, 1886, has 
been teaching in the Urban (private) School, 1017 Hyde Street, San Fran- 
cisco. 



State Normal School. 229 

BERTHA C. MORRISON (Mrs. B. K. Said) Solano County. 

Present address, Bakersfieid, Kern County. 

Taught in Solano County, four months; Washington Territory, one 
month. Not teaching. Married August 12, 1884. One child. 

ANNIE ORR Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in San Luis Obispo County, one year; Contra Costa County, four 
months; Monterey County, one year; Napa County, one and one half 
years. Teaching in San Benito County. 

BESSIE OVERFELT (Mrs. W. D. Hatch) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Trught in Monterey County, three months ; in Santa Clara County, two 
and one half years. Married December 5, 1886. Two children. Not taught 
since December, 1888, but expects to teach again. 

MATTIE M. PATTERSON (Mrs. D. B. Frazee)__ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Luis Rej^, San Diego County. 

Taught in Fresno County, four months ; San Diego County, two years. 
Not taught since May, 1886. Married July 19, 1885. One child. 

BELLE PHELPS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

At last report, December, 1886, had taught one year in Sierra County and 
two years in Santa Clara County. Was teaching. 

ELLA I. SANDERS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jos6. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching near Petrolia, Humboldt County. Had 
previously taught three years in Monterey County. 

KATE SENTER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Humboldt County, one year ; Marin County, one year ; Fresno 
County, two years. Not teaching at present because of home duties. 

DAVID S. SNODGRASS Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Selma, Fresno County.' 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one term. Was Principal of Fresno City 
schools from September, 1884, to June, 1887. Resigned to take position as 
cashier of a bank. Married October 30, 1886, to Miss Lily A. Addicott, of 
same class. 

MARTHA M. TURNER San Joaquin County. 

Present address, French Camp. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, one year; in Reno, Nevada, two years. 
Returned to French Camp in June, 1887, where she has taught since. 

16 



230 Historical Sketch. 

FRANK G. TYRRELL Humboldt County. 

Taught two years in Humboldt County. Married September 5, 1888, at 
Harrisonville, Missouri, to Miss Edna B. Scott. 

JOHN F. UTTER Mendocino County. 

Present address, Redwood City. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year ; San Mateo County, two years. 
Has held the office of County Superintendent of San Mateo County since 
January, 1887. 

IDA M. WAGGONER (Mrs. Harmon) Merced County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught in Fresno County, one year. 

CECILIA A. WILLIAMS Fresno County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in Fresno County, four years. Work suspended one year because 
of sickness. Teaching in Fresno City. 

MAGGIE WILLIAMS (Mrs. F. P. Reed), (deceased) 

Contra Costa County. 

Taught the primary department of the Antioch school from February, 
1884, until within a week of her death, April 14, 1887. Married November 
6, 1886. Husband's address, Antioch. Mrs. Reed was a very successful 
teacher, and an active worker in the Sunday School and the W. C. T. U. 
She was universally beloved and mourned by her acquaintances and friends. 

FLORA WOOD (Mrs. Covington) _ .: San Bernardino County. 

Present address, San Bernardino. 
Taught three years in San Bernardino County. 

JOHN J. ZIELIAN Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Modesto, Stanislaus County. 

Has taught in Stanislaus County constantly since October, 1884; for the 
past three years in Modesto. Is Vice-Principal of the Modesto school and 
a member of the County Board of Education. Married November 29, 1885, 
to Ella A. Mills, of the same class. 



TWENTY-SIXTH CLASS-MAY, 1884. 
ALICE E. BEAIZLEY Alameda County. 

Present address, Gilbertsville, Otsego County, New York. 
Taught in Napa County, four months. In April, 1885, removed with her 
family to New York State, where she now resides. At last report was teach- 
ing private pupils. 

ELMER E. BROWNELL Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Contra Costa County, three months; San Luis Obispo County, 
one year; Alameda County, two and one half years ; Santa Clara County, 
three months. Teaching at Decoto, Alameda County. 



State Normal School. 231 

FRANK A. BUTTS Contra Costa County. 

Present address, South Vallejo. 

Taught in Plumas County, one year. Principal of the South Vallejo 
School since July 1, 1888. Married January 2, 1888, to Miss Maude Wal- 
cott, a graduate of the State University. His wife died November 26, 1888. 

JESSIE I. CALHOUN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Substituted in San Francisco schools for first year after graduation ; then 
as regular teacher four months. In October, 1885, went to Europe, where 
she made a special study of elocution. After an absence of two years she 
returned to San Jose". Is now teaching elocution in the University of 
the Pacific and to private pupils. 

VIRGINIA C. CALHOUN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Has been teaching in the Hester School, San Jose", continuously since 
graduation. 

SARAH CHAMBAUD Sonoma County. 

Present address, Santa Rosa, 

Taught in Sonoma County, three and a half years. Teaching near Santa 
Rosa. 

BELLE CHICKERING San Diego County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

At last report, 1886, had taught two years in Los Angeles County, and 
was teaching near Santa Monica. 

SUSIE CORY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Fresno County, one year; San Jose", one year. Resigned in 
June, 1886, on account of ill health. Has since spent a year in Europe. 

LIZZIE C. COTTLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one and a half years; in Monterey 
County, one year. At last report was teaching near Salinas City. 

MARY E. DE ZALDO Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught in Santa Clara County, one half year; Monterey County, one 
year; San Luis Obispo County, one year. At last report was teaching near 
San Miguel, where she had taken up a quarter section of land. 

MARY T.DOYLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

At last report, 1887, had taught three years in Bu/nett District, Santa 
Clara County, and was still teaching. 



232 Historical Sketch. 

KATIE A. DOYLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Monterey County, one year. Since the summer of 1885 has 
been teaching in the Santa Clara public school. 

MARY P. EASTER Santa Clara County. 

Home address, 1718 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland. 

Has taught three years in Mendocino County. During vacations has 
studied art. 

ALLIE M. FELKER _ Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year ; Monterey County, three years, 
two years of this time in the Salinas City school; five months in the Kin- 
dergarten, San Jose". Took a kindergarten course in San Francisco in 
spring of 1889, and received a diploma. Has done much literary work in 
the way of essays, letters, and poems for newspaper publication. 

AUGUSTUS W. FISHER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, unknown. 

Taught a short time in San Diego and Fresno Counties. Diploma revoked 
by Board of Trustees of the Normal School, June 24, 1889. 

NORMA FREYSCHLAG Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught in Kern County, three and one half years ; in San Diego County, 
one year. Was injured by a falling school building during a storm in San 
Diego, in December, 1888, and has not taught since. 

GEORGE A. GORDON Amador County. 

Present address, Jackson. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching in ..Etna District, Amador County, 
where he had taught continuously since graduation^ 

MARY B. GREEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Salinas City. 

Taught in Merced County, three years ; in Monterey County, one year. 
Teaching near Salinas City. 

EMILY HARRIS (Mrs. A. J. Gillis) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 732 Folsom Street, Sari Francisco. 

Taught four months in Monterey County. Married December 4, 1884. 
Not taught since. One child. 

KATE HARTMAN (Mrs. L. F. Castle) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Crook, Crook County, Oregon. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County. Married July 15, 1886. Not 
taught since. , 

EVA HASTY (Mrs. D. B. North) Butte County. 

Present address, Gridley. 

Taught in Plumas County, five months ; Butte County, two years. Mar- 
ried December 19, 1888. 



State Normal School. 233 

ALICE J. HODGE (Mrs. Fred. A. Gray) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, five months ; Monterey County, one and a 
half years. Married in 1886. 

MAY KENNEDY Yolo County. 

Present address, Capay. 

Taught one year in Stanislaus County; one year in Yolo County; one 
year in Tulare County. 

ABBIE L. MARTIN San Francisco. 

Home address, 2719 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Calaveras County, one year ; Santa Clara County, three years. 
Teaching at Gubserville, Santa Clara County. 

ELLA G. MILES (Mrs. F. M.Lewis) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

. Taught four months in Monterey County ; five months in Santa Clara 
County; two years in Fresno County. Married October 26, 1887. Not 
taught since. 

ALBION S. MEILY Sierra County. 

Home address, Forest City, Sierra County. 

Taught continuously since graduation in Butte County. Teaching at 
Enterprise. 

M. KATE MONTGOMERY Sonoma County. 

Present address, Visalia, Tulare County. 

Taught in Mendocino County, one year ; in Petaluma, two years. Work 
suspended one year on account of ill health. Teaching since October, 
1888, near Visalia. 

AGNES M. PARSON State of Nevada. 

Present address, Fresno City. 

Taught in San Joaquin County, one year; Santa Cruz County, one year; 
Kern County, four months. Since September, 1887, has taught in the 
schools of Fresno City. 

MADGE H. PERKINS Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Barbara. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, two years ; in Santa Barbara, since August , 
1887. Work suspended six months to attend business college. 

MARY C. ROBERT Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching in Watsonville, where she had taught 
continuously since graduation. 

NELLIE SHINE Tuolumne County. 

Home address, Columbia. 

Taught one year in Stanislaus County ; three years in Tuolumne County 
Teaching since summer of 1888 in Los Angeles. 



234 Historical Sketch. 

NELLIE STIRLING (Mrs. C. R. Whitcher) Monterey County. 

Present address, Castroville. 

Taught in Monterey County, two years ; Salinas City, one year. Married 
September 21, 1887. Not taught since. 

CHARLOTTE J. STIVERS Alameda County, 

Present address, Irvington. 
Taught one year. 

JOHN W. SULLIVAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught two years in Sutter County, and one year in Los Angeles County. 
Studied law, and was admitted to the Supreme Court of California while 
yet teaching. Left the profession of teaching in June, 1887, and is now 
practicing law in San Diego. 

FRANCES A. SUNOL Alameda County. 

Present address, Fruit Vale. 

Taught at Sunol Glen, Alameda County, three and one half years. Teach- 
ing in Marin County. 

CLAUDIA M. TOMPKINS (Mrs. W. A. Stephens) Yolo County. 

Present address. Madison. 

Taught at Madison, two and one half years. Married January 12, 1887. 
Not taught since. 

ANITA WHITNEY Alameda County. 

Home address, 1076 Fourteenth Street, Oakland. 

Not taught. Has spent time since graduation in study. Is attending 
Wellesley College, Massachusetts, and expects to graduate in June, 1889. 

ELMA K. YANEY Inyo County. 

Present address, Bishop Creek. 
Taught continuously since graduation in Inyo County. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH CLASS-DECEMBER, 1884. 
CARL H. ALLEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Wrights. 

Taught in the State of Nevada, one term ; in Fresno County, one term. 
Now engaged in fruit raising in the Santa Cruz Mountains. 

ELISE M. ASMUS San Francisco. 

Present address, 917 Polk Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one term. 

FLORENCE BAUGH (Mrs. C. H. Betts) San Diego County. 

Present address, Bradley, Monterey County. 

Taught two and one half years in Monterey County. Suspended work 
in May, 1887, on account of ill health. Married December 7, 1885. 



State Normal School. 235 

IDA BEGGS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 

Taught in Fresno County from graduation until November, 1888. Since 
that time has been teaching in Los Gatos. 

ADDIE S. BENNETT (Mrs. E. S. Pinney) Tulare County. 

Present address, Tulare. 

Taught one year in Tulare County, then left the work permanently on 
account of ill health. 

ALICE CAMP Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught at Pacific Mills, Santa Cruz County, one and one half years ; in 
Santa Clara County, two years ; in Felton, Santa Cruz County, one year. 

LOLA B. CLAYES San Francisco. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, two years. Since September, 1886, has 
taught constantly, both summer and winter, in Calaveras County. Summer 
school at Big Trees. 

ANNIE COCHRANE Mono County. 

Present address, Bodie. 

Taught three years in Mono County. In December, 1887, was teaching 
at Bodie. 

GEORGIETTA N. CONGDON (Mrs. Fred. Bailey) Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Port Townsend, Washington Territory. 
Taught in Santa Barbara County, four months ; Sierra County, six 
months; Los Angeles County, four months. Prevented from teaching a 
greater length of time by sickness in the family. Married January 10, 
1889. Not teaching. 

TONE M. CUNNINGHAM Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Soquel. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching in Summit District, Santa Cruz Mount- 
ains, where she had taught one and one half years. 

JULIA DAUBENBIS Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Soquel. 

Taught continuously in Santa Cruz County since graduation ; for the past 
three years in Branciforte School. 

CARRIE F. DONNELLY San Francisco. 

Present address, 318 Oak Street, San Francisco. 

Taught four months in San Benito County, in spring of 1885. Work 
suspended from that time until September, 1888. Since then has been 
teaching in New Almaden, Santa Clara County. 

ANNA H. DOWLING Nevada County. 

Present address, Moore's Flat. 

Taught one and a half years in a private school at Grass Valley. At last 
report, 1887, was teaching first year in public schools, at Iowa Hill, Placer 
County. 



236 Historical Sketch. 



ANNIE DOWNING (deceased ) Monterey County. 

Taught four months in spring of 1885. in Monterey County. Was pre- 
vented by sickness from further work. Died at her home in Salinas City, 
November 2, 1886. 

LILLIE DUNCAN * Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in San Benito County, one and one half years. In August, 1886, 
began teaching at Norwalk, Los Angeles County, where she was teaching 
at last report, May, 1887. 

CARRIE M. GARDNER (Mrs. W. H. Peake) Butte County. 

Present address, Corning, Tehama County. 

Taught in the Chico School from October, 1885, to May, 1887. Married 
May 11, 1887. Not teaching. 

G. ANNIE GIRDNER (Mrs. Geo. A. Pratt) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Challenge Mill, Yuba County. 

Taught one term in Sacramento County; two years at Orland, Colusa 
County; one year in Marysville; one term in Yuba County. Teaching 
second te.rni at Challenge Mill. Married February 20, 1889. 

MILDRED HANSON Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Tulare County, one year; San Luis Obispo County, two years; 
Washington Territory, one year. Now teaching in Waitsburg, Washing- 
ton Territory. To return to California soon. 

MARY G. HARRIMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Dutch Flat, Placer County. 
At last report had taught one year in Placer County. Was not teaching. 

ANNIE C. HENNINGS . Alameda County. 

Present address, 1652 Fourteenth Street, West Oakland. 
Taught in Alameda County constantly since graduation. Teaching in 
Oakland. 

KATIE L. HENRY San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Stockton. 
Taught two years in Fresno County. Not teaching. 

ANNE HETFIELD (Mrs. Hasty) Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Taught in Humboldt County, two years. Married March 5, 1887. One 
child. Work suspended after marriage two years. Teaching in Humboldt 
County. 

THOMPSON HOLLINGSWORTH Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Jolon, Monterey County. 

Taught three months in Santa Cruz County. Suspended work in June, 
1885, to take up land in Monterey County. Now farming, but expects to 
teach again. Married April 26, 1887. 



State Normal School. 237 

ETTA H. JACKSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Alameda. 

Since July, 1885, has taught continuously in the public schools of 
Alameda. 

HENRIETTA E. KINGDON Sierra County. 

Present address, Scales. 

Taught in Scales three years, to December, 1887. Is now taking a course 
in the Cooper Medical College, San Francisco. Teaching private school at 
Scales during vacation. 

HATTIE V. MARTIN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, 2719 Pine Street, San Francisco. 

Taught in Sacramento County, one year. Since the summer of 1886 has 
been teaching in San Francisco, Pacific Heights School. 

LOTTIE J. MATTHIS Monterey County. 

Present address, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught in Monterey County, three years ; in Franklin School near San 
Jose, one year. Not teaching at present. 

JENNIE G. MCCARTHY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 
Taught three years in Humboldt County. Now teaching in Los Angeles. 

KATE G. MCELWEE San Francisco. 

Present address, Auburn, Placer County. 

Taught in El Dorado County, one year; Placer County, three years. 
Teaching at Auburn. 

KATE A. McGivERN San Francisco. 

Present address, 381 Dolores Street, San Francisco. 
At last report, 1886, had taught one year in Del Norte County. 

THOMAS J. McGRATH Sierra County. 

Present address, St. Louis. 

Taught three years in Sierra County. During 1886 was bookkeeping and 
clerking. Teaching at Goodyear Bar. Is President of the Board of Edu- 
cation of Sierra County. 

MARGARET E. MC!NTOSH State of Nevada. 

Present address, Reno. 

Taught in Boca, Nevada County, one year. At last report, 1886, was to 
teach the same school again. 

CHARLES N. MILLS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Eureka Mills, Plumas County. 

Taught in Sierra County, one year; Plumas County, one and one half 
years; Sutter County, one half year. In 1887 was teaching at Eureka 
Mills. 



238 Historical Sketch. 



MAMEY MURRAY Placer County. 

Present address, Auburn. 

Taught in Sierra County, one year; Placer and Sacramento Counties, 
twelve months; Normal School, San Jose", five months; Salinas City, one 
month; Placer County, six months. Has given much attention to music, 
and is now teaching music pupils in Auburn. 

NETTIE M. MURRAY Placer County. 

Present address, Auburn. 
Taught four years. At last report was teaching. 

CALLIE F. NEEL (Mrs. J. W. Thomas) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Gilroy. 

Taught in a joint district of Santa Clara and San Benito Counties, two 
and one half years. 

ANNIE M. NICHOLSON Fresno County. 

Present address, Madera. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one term. Since September, 1885, has 
taught in the school at Madera. Is now Principal. 

MARY E. NORTON Marin County. 

Present address, San Rafael. 

Has taught three years in the San Rafael schools. Previous to that taught 
one year in a country school in Marin County. 

DORA A. PERRY Solano County. 

Present address, Suisun. 

Taught in Solano County, one year; in Los Angeles County, one and one 
half years. In 1887 was teaching in Los Angeles. 

WILEMINA RAMER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

Taught at Dougherty's Mill, Santa Cruz County, three years. Since that 
time has been teaching in the Santa Cruz schools. 

LIZZIE A. RENNIE Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Yuba City. 

Taught in Solano County, two years; in Sutter County, two years. 
Teaching in Yuba City. 

NELLIE B. RICHARDSON (Mrs. Walt. S. Huyck)__Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught in Merced County, two years; Santa Barbara County, one term. 
Work suspended one year because of sickness. Married in November, 
1887, and has not taught since. 

MAGGIE E. ROBERTSON Santa Clara County. 

Home address, 44 Whitney Street, San Jose". 

Has taught continuously in Monterey County since graduation ; for the 
past three years at Paraiso Springs. 



State Normal School. 239 

ELECTRA M. RUMSEY (Mrs. A. C. Sherwood) Yolo County. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught in San Mateo County, three months ; in San Diego County, one 
year. Has also taught private pupils. At last report was not teaching. 

AGNES A. SPATZ San Francisco. 

Present address, Alameda. 
Taught in Alameda County since graduation. Teaching in Alameda. 

BIRDIE E. STODDARD San Francisco. 

Present address, 426 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 

Taught four months in Sonoma County. Since January, 1886, has been 
teaching in San Francisco, Potrero School. 

GERTRUDE THOMSON (Mrs. Epperly) San Francisco. 

Present address, Avenales, San Luis Obispo County. 
Was prevented from teaching for two and one half years after gradua- 
tion by sickness. Has been teaching since August, 1887, in San Luis 
Obispo County. 

MATTIE M. TRIMBLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Has taught one and one half years in Santa Clara County. Teaching in 
Orchard District. 

NETTIE C. WARRING Santa C]ara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, one term. Since October, 1885, in Ventura 
County. At last report, 1887, was teaching at Saticoy. 

ANNIE L. WELLS Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, one year. At last report, 1886, was teach- 
ing in Sierra County. 

NINA F. WiLLiAMs(Mrs. Harry Van Valkenburgh) _ Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Cholame, San Luis Obispo County. 

Taught during 1885 in Monterey and San Benito Counties. Spent two 
years attending the Art School in San Francisco. In 1887-88 taught one 
year in San Luis Obispo County. Married November 14, 1888. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH CLASS-MAY, 1885. 
EDITH E. AYER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 
Has taught continuously in the Milpitas school since graduation. 

HATTIE E. BACKUS San Benito County. 

Present address, Hollister. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching at Cienga, San Benito County. Had 
taught in that county two years. 



240 Historical Sketch. 

ESTELLA M. BAGNELL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Madera, Fresno County. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County ; three and a half years in Fresno 
County ; since 1887 at Madera. 

HENRY R. BAILEY Marin County. 

Present address, Tomales. 

Taught one year in Lake County. Spent two years in dairy-farming. 
At last report, August, 1887, was teaching the Tomales school. Member of 
County Board of Education. Married. One child. 

WILLIAM H. BAILEY (deceased) Marin County. 

Taught one year; then engaged in farming. Died in San Francisco, 
October 3, 1889. 

ALICE K. BALLOU Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught one term in Santa Clara County. Is now taking a course in the 
Boston Conservatory of Music. To return to California in summer of 1889. 

CARRIE BECKWITH Humboldt County. 

Home address. Hydesville. 

Taught three years at Table Bluff, Humboldt County. Teaching in 
Washington Grammar School, San Francisco, since August, 1888. 

WILLIAM 0. BLODGET Shasta County. 

Present address, Millville. 

Taught one year in Butte County, and two and one half years in Shasta 
County. Much of the time has taught twelve months in the year, alter- 
nating summer and winter schools. 

JULIA BODLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one and one fourth years in Santa Clara County after graduation. 
Since that time has been engaged in the office of the City Clerk, San Jose". 

MATTIE BRADLEY Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

Taught in North Bloomfield, one year; since August 30, 1886, in the 
Primary School, Nevada City. 

LAURA E. BRIDE (Mrs. Wm. H. Powers) San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Taught three years in the schools of San Francisco. Married February 
19, 1889. 

EMMA H. BUSHNELL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. 

Taught four months in Solano County. In September, 1886, removed, 
with her family, to Pennsylvania. Since then has spent her time in study 
at the Waynesburg College. 



State Normal School. 241 

NANNIE L. CALHOUN Sonoma County. 

Present address, Windsor. 
Has taught continuously near Windsor since graduation. 

MAGGIE E. CARR Humboldt County. 

Present address, Rohnerville. 
Taught constantly in Humboldt County since graduation. 

FRANK R. CAUCH Santa Barbara County. 

Present address, Selma, Fresno County. 

Taught in Modoc County, three years a part of this time twelve months 
in the year. Since September, 1888, has taught at Selma. Member of Board 
of Education in Modoc County. Married November 11, 1887, to Miss Lydia 
V. Addicott. 

TILLIE M. CLARK Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 
Teaching near Yuba City, Sutter County, third year in the same school. 

ELLA COLEMAN (deceased) Santa Cruz County. 

Taught six months in Monterey County. Gave up work on account of 
sickness. Died J une 10, 1886. 

EMMA J. DICKEY Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Has taught in Humboldt County continuously since graduation. Teach- 
ing in Eureka. 

JULIA A. DONOVAN Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom. 

In 1887 was teaching at Grizzly Flat. Had taught two years in El 
Dorado County. 

ELLA A. FERRY Alameda County. 

Present address, 1317 Jackson Street, Oakland. 
In 1887 was teaching in the Oakland schools. 

MARINE GAGE (deceased) Sacramento County. 

Taught in Gait two years and six months. Died June 3, 1888. His death, 
from quick consumption, occurred six weeks after he closed his school. 
Mr. Gage was a noble man and an earnest teacher. His work received the 
highest praise from those who knew him best. 

JOSEPHINE A. GAIRAUD (Mrs. D. T. Bateman)__ -Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Mountain View. 

Has taught continuously since graduation at Mountain View, Santa 
Clara County. 

MINNIE G. GALINDO Alameda County. 

Present address, Mission San Jose". 

Taught one year in Sunol, and since then has taught in Mission San 
Jose". 



242 Historical Sketch. 



BESSIE E. GIBBONS... Alameda County. 

Present address, West End, Alameda. 

Substituted four months in San Leandro; taught one year in Napa 
County; one year in Monterey County. Since January, 1888, in Alameda 
County. 

GEORGIA A. GORDON Monterey County. 

Present address, Monterey. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching in Monterey County. Had taught one 
year. 

FRANK M. GRAHAM Kern County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Merced County, two years ; Butte County, six months ; Santa 
Clara County, one year. Teaching at Berryessa, near San Jose". 

FRANCISCO GREIERSEN Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Oakdale. 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one year; in Fresno County, three months.. 
Work suspended much of the time since graduation because of sickness. 
Not teaching at present. 

LILLIE HARRIS Alameda County. 

Present address, Pleasanton. 
Has taught continuously in Pleasanton, since March, 1886. 

THEODOSIA M. HAWXHURST (Mrs. Frederick E. Glass) 

Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Antioch. 

Taught three years in Contra Costa County. Married December 19, 
1888. Not teaching. 

AGNES G. HENRY San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 253 Fremont Street, Stockton. 
Taught two years in Fresno County. Not teaching. 

STELLA M. HERNDON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Teaching at Saratoga. Has taught in Santa Clara County three and one 
half years. 

JESSIE IRVING Alameda County. 

Present address, 711 Fifth Street, Oakland. 
In 1887 was teaching in Oakland, where she had taught one term. 

MARY E. KELSEY (Mrs. L. M. Damewood).. Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Royal, Lane County, Oregon. 

Taught in Placer County, three months ; in Oregon, three years; in Por- 
terville, Tulare County, one term. Teaching in Royal. Was married in 
Oregon January 22, 1887. 



State Normal School. 



243 



EMILY F. A. KNOTT Marin County. 

Present address, 609 Post Street, San Francisco. 

Taught two years in Sonoma County. Has not taught since the spring 
of 1887, because of home duties. 

MAGGIE KOTTINGER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Did not teach, except a short time in a private family, until August, 1887; 
then taught one year in Santa Clara County. Now teaching in Merced 
County, near Snelling. 

ANNIE M. KULLAK Santa Clara County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught two years in the Santa Cruz Mountains, near Wrights ; one year 
in San Luis Obispo County ; since July, 1888, at Moss Landing, Monterey 
County. 

FLORA E. LACY Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, San Diego. 
Has taught since March, 1886, in San Diego and Santa Cruz Counties. 

WILLIAM W. LOCKE San Joaquin County. 

Home address, Locheford. 

Taught about two years in San Joaquin County. Is now at Exeter, New 
Hampshire, preparing for college. 

GEORGE W. MARTIN (deceased) Shasta County. 

Mr. Martin was taken ill with lung trouble during the second term of 
the Senior year, and was obliged to leave school before the close of the 
term. The disease developed rapidly in spite of all attempts to check it. 
He died at his home in Millville, Shasta County, October 8, 1885. 

LILLIE J. MILLER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, New Almaden. 

Has taught continuously since graduation in the primary grade of the 
New Almaden school. 

MARY T. NEUEBAUMER Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Columbia. 

Was prevented by sickness from teaching for several months after grad- 
uation. Since August, 1886, has taught in Placer County. At last report, 
was teaching at Newcastle. 

IDA C. NICHOLS Sonoma County. 

Present address, Freestone. 

Since graduation has taught two and one half years in Sonoma County. 
Has spent the remainder of the time pursuing higher studies. Teaching 
at Glen Ellen, Sonoma County. 

MARY L. ORTLEY (Mrs. F. A. Wilcox) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one year. Married June 13, 1886. Not 
taught since. 



244 Historical Sketch. 

NELLIE PAGE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Mountain View. 

Taught one year in Mariposa County. Since summer of 1886 has taught 
at Mountain View. 

LIZZIE A. PARKER Alameda County. 

Present address, Berkeley. 

Has taught continuously since graduation in the Prescott School, 
Oakland. 

EDITH L. PURINTON (Mrs. Elsworth G. Sharon). .Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Merced County, two years. Not taught since May, 1888. 
Married April 7, 1889. 



MARGARET RICHMOND Humboldt County. 

At last report, 1887, was teaching at Ferndale, Humboldt County. Had 
taught two years. 

DAISY C. SCHUTTE (Mrs. Robert I. Lillie) San Francisco. 

Present address, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Taught one term in Los Angeles County, and one year in Humboldt 
County. Gave up work because of failing health, and went to the Sand- 
wich Islands, where she was married July 14, 1887. 

ELLA M. STILSON San Mateo County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Did not teach for first year after graduation. Has since taught one year 
in Monterey County, and one and a half years in Contra Costa County. 
Teaching. 

ANNIE L. TAYLOR (Mrs. Heman G. Squier) San Francisco. 

Present address, Gibsonville, Sierra County. 

Taught about two years in Sutter County. Married May 19, 1887. Not 
taught since. 

IDA M.THOMAS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Teaching at Evergreen. Has taught in Santa Clara County constantly 
since August, 1885. 

MARTHA A. TRIMINGHAM Alameda County. 

Present address, Sufiol Glen. 

Taught three years in the Sufiol Glen school. In September, 1888, opened 
school in Daneville, Placer County. 

NANNIE E. TUTTLE Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 
Taught one year. At last report was not teaching, because of ill health. 

EMMA VOTAW (Mrs. John Barry) Amador County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one year in Amador County. Not taught since marriage. 



State Normal School. 245 

KATE C. WAMBOLD Sonoma County. 

Home address, Cloverdale. 

Taught two years in San Simeon, San Luis Obispo County, to May, 1887 ; 
in San Luis Obispo, one and one half years ; in Mendocino County, one 
term. Has suspended work to take the Post Graduate course in the Normal 
School at Los Angeles. 

HENRY E. WITHERSPOON Arizona Territory. 

Present address, Etna, Siskiyou County. 

Taught private pupils in San Jose* until October, 1886. Since that time 
has taught in Siskiyou County; for more than a year past at Etna. Has 
written on mining and geology for a mining paper. 

CORA K. WYCKOFF Alameda County. 

Home address, 1512 Ninth Street, Oakland. 

Taught live months in Monterey County. In April, 1886, resigned, and 
went to the Sandwich Islands. Since May, 1886, has been teaching in the 
East Mauii Seminary, Makawao, Mauii. 

EDITH D. YAPLE (Mrs. Jas. S. Moulton) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Ripon. 

Taught two years near Ripon. Married July 31, 1887. Since that time 
has taught in the school at Linden, of which her husband is Principal. 



TWENTY-NINTH CLASS-DECEMBER, 1885. 
CHARLES C. ADAMS San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lathrop. 

Taught in San Joaquin County continuously since graduation. Teaching 
at Lathrop. 

JOHN B. ATCHISON Butte County. 

Present address, Oroville. 

In December, 1887, was teaching his first school, at Forest City, Sierra 
County. Previous to this was engaged in printing. 

HORACE G. BACON San Benito County. 

In December, 1886, had been Principal of the school in Alamo, Contra 
Costa County, one year. 

JULIA S. BROWN (Mrs. Joshua Downs) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Solano County, one term, of three and one half months. 
Married November 11, 1886. Not taught since. 

MARY E. BROWNING Amador County. 

Present address, lone. 

Taught one year in Monterey County ; two years in Fresno County. 
Work suspended several months because of sickness. Not teaching at 
present. 

17 



246 Historical Sketch. 

HARRY F. CLARK Sutler County. 

Present address, Saticoy, Ventura County. 

Taught in Sutter and Yuba Counties, one year; was Principal of the 
school at Brentwood, Contra Costa County, two years. Left the profession 
in November, 1888, and is now farming. Married July 27, 1887, to Miss 
Aggie B. Nicholl, of the same class. One child. 

ANNE F. CONLIN Nevada County. 

Present address, Grass Valley. 

In July, 1887, had taught one year in the Grass Valley schools, and 
expected to continue. 

FRANCES S. CONN Nevada County. 

Present address, Fresno City, Fresno County. 

Taught two years in the primary department at North San Juan, to 
April, 1888. Is teaching in Central Colony, near Fresno City. 

MARY A. COOK State of Nevada. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, one and one half years. Has taught in 
Amelia Street School, Los Angeles, since October, 1887. 

LIVIA M. Cox (Mrs. Frank Glass) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

Taught the same school, near San Ramon, Contra Costa County, for two 
years, to November, 1887. Married December 28, 1887. One child. Not 
teaching. 

FLORENCE CRICHTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught two years in Sierra County and one year in Santa Clara County. 
Not teaching at present. 

LILIAN A. CROSS Placer County. 

Present address, Roseville. 

Taught first half year in Sacramento County; second half year in Hum- 
boldt County. In January, 1887, was teaching a joint district of Sacra- 
mento and Placer Counties, near Antelope. 

LIZZIE DEACON San Francisco. 

Present address, 811 Twentieth Street, San Francisco. 
In April, 1887, had been teaching one month in Sierra District, Santa 
Clara County ; first school. 

ALBERT L. DORNBERGER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Mayfield. 

Taught a private school in Stanislaus County one year. Since July, 1887, 
has been Principal of the Mayfield school. 

VICTOR DORNBERGER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Mayfield. 

Taught music in San Francisco for several months. Since July, 1887, has 
taught in the Mayfield school. 



State Normal School. 247 

FLORENCE GALLOWAY Sonoma County. 

Present address, Valley Ford. 

Taught in Humboldt County, two years; Sonoma County, one year. 
Teaching in Sonoma County. 

LEWIS GOBLE Humboldt County. 

Present address, Ferndaie. 

Taught two and one half years in Humboldt County. Now teaching at 
Laws, Inyo County. 

MARGARET GRAHAM (Mrs. Joseph Hood) Kern County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught six months in the State of Nevada, and one year in San Jose*. 
Married June 21, 1887. One child. 

ADA M. GREENE San Joaquin County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one month in Monterey County; one year in Santa Clara County. 
Teaching at Berryessa. 

E. LOUISE GROVE San Francisco. 

Present address, 546 Elm Street, Oakland. 

Taught for one year, from July, 1886, in Alameda County. At last report, 
February, 1888, was teaching in Los Angeles. 

SARAH C. HANDLY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

In September, 1886, began teaching at Benton, Mono County. At last 
report was teaching the same school. 

ETTA E. HERRMANN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

At last report was teaching in Santa Clara County. Had taught in that 
county five months, and in Sacramento County one term. 

LIZZIE KEATON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught two and one half months in Stanislaus County; two years in 
Monterey County. Since July, 1888, has been teaching at Mountain View, 
Santa Clara County. 

MINNIE E. LORIGAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Sapta Clara. 

Taught one year at Felton, Santa Cruz County. Is now teaching in 
Santa Clara. 

FANNY S. LYONS Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom. 
At last report, 1887, had taught one year in Sacramento County. 



248 Historical Sketch. 



FANNY L. McKEAN Santa Cruz County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year; in San Bernardino County, one 
year; in Monterey County, four months. Teaching near Weimer, Placer 
County. 

MOLLIE MCLERAN Santa Clara County. 

Taught three years in Alviso, Santa Clara County; part of this time as 
Principal. Is now teaching at Trinity Center, Trinity County. 

LIZZIE C. MONAGHAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Since graduation has taught continuously in the Hester School, San Jose". 

FRANCES MURRAY Alameda County. 

Taught in Marin County, five months; in Oakland, one year. At last 
report, was teaching in Darwin, Inyo County. 

AGGIE B. NICHOLL (Mrs. H. F. Clark) Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Saticoy, Ventura County. 

Taught one term in Contra Costa County. Married July 27, 1887. One 
child. 

JOHN F. OGDEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Has taught since spring of 1887 in same school near Yuba City, Sutter 
County. 

JULIA RUMRILL Contra Costa County. 

Present address, San Pablo. 
Has taught continuously since graduation in San Pablo. 

NETTIE C. SHARPE State of Nevada. 

Home address, Gold Hill. 

Has taught since October, 1886, in Nevada. Is teaching second year at 
Washoe City. 

CLARA E. SHAW Santa Clara County. 

In August, 1886, had just opened her first school near Erie, San Benito 
County. No report since. 

WINNIE S. SLEDGE Fresno County. 

Present, address, Madera. 

Taught three months in a country district in Fresno County directly 
after graduating. Since November, 1886, has taught in the Fresno City 
schools. 

S. HELEN SNOOK Alameda County. 

Present address, 1678 Taylor Street, Oakland. 
Since January, 1886, has taught continuously in the Oakland schools. 



State Normal School. 249 

ADELAIDE C. SPAFFORD Alameda County. 

Present address, 2315 Slitter Street, San Francisco. 

Taught one term at Alma, Santa Clara County ; two yt:ars in the Eureka 
Academy, Eureka, Humboldt County. Teaching near San Luis Obispo. 

HEMAN G. SQUIER Sierra County. 

Present address, Gibsonville, Sierra County. 

Has taught continuously since July, 1886, one term in Sutter County, and 
the remainder of the time in Plumas County. Now teaching at Quincy, 
Plumas County. Married May 19, 1887, to Annie L. Taylor, Class of May, 
1885. 

HATTIE L. STILSON San Mateo County. 

Home address, San Jose. 

Has taught two years in San Diego County and one year in Contra Costa 
County. Teaching near Wildomar, San Diego County. 

M. RUTH THOMPSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

Has taught since April, 1886, in Santa Clara County. Is now teaching in 
Santa Clara. 

DORA THRUSH San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught one term in Fresno County in 1887; one year in San Joaquin 
County. Teaching in Stockton. 

MARION E. TRUE (Mrs. W. H. Edwards) Lassen County. 

Present address, Los Angeles. 

Taught two years in Lassen County. Married in June, 1888, and left the 
profession of teaching, 

MINNIE G. WARD Butte County. 

Present address, Oroville. 

Spent some months after graduation in studying music. In January, 1888 , 
had taught one term in Butte County, and expected to teach the same 
school again. 

NELLIE WYCKOFF Alameda County. 

Home address, 1512 Ninth Street, Oakland. 

Taught two and one half years in Monterey County. Since September, 
1888, near Woodland, Yolo County. 

ANNA F. ZANE Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Since summer of 1886 has taught continuously in the Eureka schools. 
Previous to that taught one term near Hydesville. 



250 Historical Sketch. 



THIRTIETH CLASS-MAY, 1886. 
GEORGE E. ARNOLD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 
Has taught two years at Loyalton, Sierra County. Teaching. 

OSEE E. ASHLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 
Last report, May, 1887, had taught one year at Milpitas. 

HUGH L. BANKHEAD Placer County. 

Present address, Pino. 

Is teaching third year in Tehama County, at Paskenta. Has also taught 
six months at St. Louis, Sierra County. 

LENA BARKLEY Butte County. 

Present address, Chico. 
Taught two years in Butte County. 

MAMIE BASS Alameda County. 

Present address, Pleasanton. 
Taught in Alameda County, two years. Teaching near Livermore. 

MAMIE T. BECKMAN Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

At last report, 1887, had taught one year in Nevada County, and was to 
continue. 

CARRIE BRAUER (Mrs. Frederick W. Plapp) San Francisco. 

Taught two years in primary grades in Anaheim, and one year in Los 
Angeles. Married August, 1889, in San Francisco. 

ANNIE P. BUCKLEY Placer County. 

Home address, San Jose". 

Taught in Stanislaus County, one year ; Placer County, one year. Teach- 
ing since September, 1888, near Paskenta, Tehama County. 

GRACE CAMPBELL Alameda County. 

Home address, Oakland. 

Has taught at Livermore, Alameda County, continuously since grad- 
uation. 

BELLA R. CASSIN Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 
Has taught in Santa Cruz County continuously since graduation. 

FRED. L. CAUCH Santa Barbara County. 

Taught from January, 1887, to May, 1888, in Carpenteria, Santa Barbara 
County. Has left the profession of teaching, and gone East, to take a two 
years' course in a dental college. 



State Normal School. 251 

HATTIE CORY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one term in Contra Costa County, and one term in Santa Clara 
County. In 1887-88 took a year's course of study in Mills' Seminary, and 
graduated. Not teaching at present. 

JULIA A. CROWLEY State of Nevada. 

Present address, Virginia City. 

Has taught since September, 1887, as Assistant Principal in the Virginia 
City High School. 

JOSEPHINE DENTON Nevada County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Has taught continuously since graduation in the San Jose* Fourth Ward 
School. 

RACHEL S. GILMOUR Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 
Taught three years in Humboldt County. Teaching near Eureka. 

EDITH A. GRANGER (Mrs. Elmer E. Chase) Alameda County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught at Alvarado, Alameda County, until marriage. Married April 

19, 1888. 

ALBERT M. GRAY Tulare County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one and one half years in Evergreen, Santa Clara County; one 
year in the San Jos6 day schools; two terms in the evening school, where 
he is now teaching. Is engaged as a life insurance agent. 

MINNIE GRAY Tulare County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught in Tulare County, two years; Santa Clara County, one year. 
Teaching in Santa Clara County. 

A. MAY GRIFFIN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

Taught one year at Riverside, San Bernardino County. Since July, 1887, 
has taught near Martinez. 

ISABEL GRUMMET Butte County. 

Home address, Oroville. 
Is teaching her third term at Oregon City, Butte County. 

FANNIE HALL Alameda County. 

In October, 1887, was teaching in Santa Ana ; second year in Los Angeles 
County. 

AGNES S. HAMILTON Alameda County. 

At last report was teaching second year at Richland, Sacramento County. 



252 Historical Sketch. 



FLORENCE M. HAYS Shasta County. 

Present address, Burney Valley. 

Is teaching second year in Shasta County. Suspended work one year 
on account of home duties and other business. 

HELEN F. HODGE (Mrs. C. R. Arnold) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Hueneme, Ventura County. 

Taught in Santa Cruz County, one year; in Ventura County, one year. 
Married April 4, 1889. Not teaching. 

JOHN M. HOLMES (deceased) Fresno County. 

Taught two years in Fresno County. Died in Fresno City, September 2, 
1889, after an illness of eight weeks. 

KATE F. HOWARD Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Walnut Creek. 
Taught two years in Contra Costa County. Teaching. 

LUCY A. HOWES Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

In August, 1887, had closed one year's work in Los Angeles County, and 
expected to teach in Santa Clara County. 

FLORA HUNZIKER (Mrs. E. A. Cooley) Sonoma County. 

Present address, Cloverdale. 
Taught two years in the Cloverdale school, until marriage. Not teaching. 

I. MANLA INGEMUNDSEN Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

Has taught in Napa County continuously since graduation ; since J uly, 
1888, in Napa City. 

MARIE JOHNSTON Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Taught in Humboldt County, two years. At last report was not 
teaching. 

LENA C. JONES Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Walnut Creek. 
At last report was to open third year of work at Walnut Creek. 

LIZZIE KEENAN Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 
Has taught three years in Pleasant Valley, Nevada County. Teaching. 

ADA V. KELLEY Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 
Taught one year in Santa Cruz County. 

REBECCA F. KENNEDY Amador County. 

Present address, lone. 

Taught one and one half years in Amador County; three months in Los 
Angeles County. 



State Normal School. 253 

Louis J. LATHWESEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one term in Fresno County. Has not taught since except three 
months in the City Night School, San Jose". For two years past has been 
engaged in McNeil Brothers' Printing House, San Jose". 

MARTIN H. LAWSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Bradley, Monterey County. 
Has not taught since graduation. Is Station Agent at Bradley. 

M. LILY LOVE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 
Has taught in the Los Gatos school continuously since graduation. 

MAGGIE LOWDEN Alameda County. 

Present address, 971 Center Street, Oakland. 
Taught one year in Alameda County. Not teaching. 

MARY E. LYNCH (Mrs. Wm. R. Rhinehart) __Yuba County. 

Present address, Gridley, Butte County. 

Taught two years in Sutter County, and one year in Butte County. 
Married June 5, 1889, and left the profession. 

JULIA A. MANCHESTER Merced County. 

Present address, Merced. 
At last report had taught one year in Merced County. 

DORA C. McKENziE (deceased) Marin County. 

Taught in San Rafael, Marin County, five months, beginning in January, 
1887. Gave up work because of illness. Died in San Rafael November 7, 
1887. Resolutions of respect to her memory were adopted by her fellow 
teachers and published in the San Rafael papers. 

MARY MOTT Sacramento County. 

At last report, August, 1887, was teaching near Ferndale, Humboldt 
County. Had previously taught one year near Roseville, Placer County. 

ANNA L. MURPHY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Brentwood. 

In December, 1887, had taught one and a half years in the same school 
near Brentwood. 

MYRA A. PARKS Lassen County. 

Present address, Janesville. 

Has taught one and one half years near Janesville, Lassen County. 
Since January, 1887, has held the office of County Superintendent of Las- 
sen County. On account of the duties attending this office, her teaching 
work has been suspended part of the time. 

WILLIAM 0. PECK' Sierra County. 

Present address, Loyal ton. 

At last report, 1887, had been engaged in mining business since gradua- 
tion and had not taught. 



254 Historical Sketch. 



L. CARRIE PECKHAM Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has not taught since graduation. 

ELINOR D. PRATT Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Has taught in Humboldt County continuously since graduation; for the 
past two and one half years in Eureka. Teaching in Eureka. 

MEGGIE L. ROBB Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught in Monterey County, one year. Since August, 1887, has taught 
in the San Jos schools. 

SUSIE W. RUCKER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Hamilton District, Santa Clara County. Since sum- 
mer of 1887 has taught in the Hester School, San Jose*. 

MARY A. SIMMONS (deceased) Humboldt County. 

Taught near Arcata, Humboldt County, one year. Her health, which 
was poor during her Senior year, failed rapidly, and she died of consump- 
tion, September 13, 1887. Miss Simmons was a faithful, conscientious 
teacher, much beloved by her pupils. Resolutions of respect to her mem- 
ory were passed by her fellow teachers, at the Humboldt County Institute 
held in October, 1887. 

MARY J. STEWART Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Alma. 

Is teaching in Lexington District, near Alma, where she has taught con- 
tinuously since graduation. 

DELIA M. WATKINS (Mrs. Campbell) Amador County. 

Taught one year in Amador County; six months in Los Angeles. 
Married in summer of 1888. Not teaching. 

WILLARD D. WOODWORTH Sutter County. 

Present address, Yuba City. 
Has taught three years in Central District, near Yuba City. 

Members of Earlier Classes who made up conditions and received 
their Diplomas with the Class of May, 1886. 

MRS. AIMEE L. CAREY (nee Madan), 1878-79 Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, 1316 California Street, San Francisco. 
Has not taught since graduation. 

MINNIE M. HYATT (Mrs. Henry J. Barton), 1884-85 

San Francisco. 

Present address, San Francisco. 
Has not taught since graduation. Married June 5, 1889. 



State Normal School. 255 



THIRTY-FIRST CLASS-DECEMBER, 1886. 
M. LYDIA ADAMS State of Nevada. 

Home address, Genoa, Nevada. 

At last report, January, 1888, had been teaching four months near Wood- 
fords, Alpine County. First school. 

NELLIE M. BREYFOGLE Fresno County. 

Present address, Madera. 

Has taught since September, 1887, in the Primary Department of the 
Madera School. 

MABEL J. FIELD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has not taught since graduation. 

ANNIE L. FRAZIER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

Taught continuously in Santa Cruz County since graduation. Teaching 
in the Primary Department of the Watsonville school. 

SUSIE GALLIMORE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Teaching in San Jose". Has taught two years in Santa Clara County, and 
seven weeks in San Mateo County. 

CORA E. GILLESPIE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught three months in Sacramento County in 1887, and three and one 
half months in Santa Clara County in 1888. Work suspended because of 
ill health. 

MAY C. GILLOOLY State of Nevada. 

Present address, Virginia City, Nevada. 

In October, 1887, had opened first school in Fresno County. No report 
since. 

ISABEL S. GLEASON Alameda County. 

Present address, San Leandro. 

Taught two years near San Leandro. Since than has substituted in the 
Oakland schools. 

MARGARET A. HANSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one term in Santa Clara County, and one term in Santa Cruz 
County. Teaching at Woodside, San Mateo County. 

S. ADELAIDE HARRIS State of Nevada. 

Present address, Reno, Nevada. 
In October, 1887, had taught in Reno since graduation. 



256 Historical Sketch. 



LIDA E. F. HATCH San Francisco. 

Present address, Salinas City. 

Has taught the Graves School, near Salinas City, continuously since 
graduation. 

FRANK H. HERBERT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Barbara. 

Taught one term in Monterey County in spring of 1887; then left the 
profession to become a bookkeeper. Now with Southern Mill and Ware- 
house Company, Santa Barbara. 

MARY E. HOLMES State of Nevada. 

Present address, Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Taught one year in Alameda County, and one year at Gold Hill, Nevada. 
Teaching as Vice- Principal of High School. 

FRANCES H. JONES Colusa County. 

Present address, Colusa. 
Has taught two years near Colusa. 

CORA A. LEE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught five months in Monterey County in 1887, and five months in Ala- 
meda County in 1888. Teaching in San Luis Obispo County. 

MAY E. MANSFIELD Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Columbia. 

Has taught two years in Tuolumne County. Teaching in Columbia. 
Member of Board of Education. 

MABEL N. McKAY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Newcastle, Placer County. 
Has taught the same school near Newcastle since September, 1887. 

CARRIE M. MELLEN Alameda County. 

Present address, 932 Fourteenth Street, Oakland. 

At last report, April, 1888, was teaching near Ventura. Had previously 
taught one term in Monterey County. 

ELLITA MOTT Sacramento County. 

In July, 1888, opened first school near Elk River, Humboldt County. No 
report since. 

BONNIE OAKLEY Sacramento County. 

Present address, Folsom. 
No report since graduation. 

CARRIE E. OLIVER[ Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Soquel. 

In October, 1887, was teaching near Soquel, where she had taught con- 
tinuously since graduation. 



State Normal School. 257 

ABBIE F. PHILLIPS Trinity County. 

Home address, Lewiston. 

Taught three months at Pacific Grove, Monterey County ; private class 
at Lewiston, one year. Since July, 1888, has been teaching near Cayucos, 
San Luis Obispo County. 

ANNA M. RASMUSSEN Modoc County. 

Present address. Fort Bid well. 

At last report had tiught one year in Modoc County, and expected to 
continue teaching. 

ANNA M. RICHARDSON Alameda County. 

Present address, 535 Laurel Street, Oakland. 

Taught one and one half years in Monterey County; one year in Oak- 
land. Teaching in Grant School, Oakland. 

CARRIE SOMERS Placer County. 

Present address, Newcastle. 

Has taught in the Primary Department of the Auburn school since Octo- 
ber, 1887. 

DUNCAN STIRLING Monterey County. 

Present address, Castroville. 

Taught one year in Los Angeles Count}', beginning in July, 1887. Since 
November, 1888, has been teaching at Meridian, Sutter County. 

CHRISTINE STRUVE Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

Has taught in Monterey County since graduation. Teaching near Salinas 
City. 

ESTHER SUMMERS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Del Norte County. Teaching near San Jose" since 
July, 1888. 

ANNABEL TUTTLE (Mrs. W. R. Radcliff) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

Taught one and one half years in Los Angeles; one year in Watsonville. 
Married September 12, 1889. Not teaching. 

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS Contra Costa County. 

Post Office address, Pleasanton, Alameda County. 

Has been teaching since March, 1887, at his home in Contra Costa County, 
nine miles from Pleasanton. 

M. FRANCES YOUNG Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Laurel, Santa Cruz County. 

Taught one year near Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, and one year near 
Laurel. Teaching. 



258 Historical Sketch. 

Member of Class of 1884-85, who made up Conditions and Received 
Her Diploma with Class of December, 1886. 

H. GRACE KEYNOLDS Lake County. 

Present address, Upper Lake. 
Taught in Lake County since January, 1887. Teaching at Clover Creek. 



THIRTY-SECOND CLASS-MAY, 1887. 
GEORGE B. ALBEE Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 

Taught five months in Trinity County; three and one half months in 
El Dorado County; one and one half months in Humboldt County; one 
year in Sierra County. Teaching at Sierra City. 

ANNIE F. ALBRECHT San Francisco. 

Present address, 1917 Green Street, San Francisco. 
Is teaching second year in San Diego County, at Escondido. 

JENNIE A. ALLEN Alameda County. 

Present address, San Lorenzo. 
Is, teaching second year at Porno, Mendocino County. 

LIZZIE ARMSTRONG Mono County. 

Present address, Coronado, San Diego County. 

Taught one term in San Luis Obispo County, and two years at Coronado. 
Teaching. 

CARRIE L. AVERY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught one year and a half near Madrone, Santa Clara County. Teach- 
ing near Salinas City. 

ETHEL C. AYER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 
Taught one term at Cupertino, Santa Clara County. 

Louis C. BAILEY Marin County. 

Present address, Freestone, Sonoma County. 
Taught one year in Lake County. Not teaching. 

EVA BENNETT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught three months at Alviso. Since December, 1887, has taught in the 
. Santa Clara Street School, San Jose". 

GRACE BICKFORD Colusa County. 

Present address, Elk Creek. 
Teaching second year near Elk Creek, Colusa County. 



State Normal School. 259 

CHARLES F. BONDSHU .Mariposa County. 

Present address, Crescent City, Del Norte County. 

Has taught in Del Norte County since August, 1887. Is Principal of the 
Crescent City School and a member of the Board of Education. 

SUSIE M. BROWN (Mrs. G. H. Anderson) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Monterey County before marriage. Married January 
19, 1889. Not teaching. 

CILLINDA A. CASSERLY Sierra County. 

Present address, Goodyear's Bar. 

Has taught one year in Sierra County. Did not teach for first year after 
graduation, because of ill health. 

MADGE M. CLAYES San Francisco. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught first year, to May, 1888, in Butte County; three months in San 
Luis Obispo County. Teaching near Stockton. 

JESSIE M. CORMACK Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Edna, San Luis Obispo County. 
Teaching in San Luis Obispo County. 

FANNIE A. COTTLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one year in Merced County. Not teaching. 

MAGGIE Cox Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 
Is teaching second year in the Lindley school, near Watsonville. 

DELIA GRAIN Butte County. 

Present address, Gridley. 
Teaching second year near Gridley, Butte County. 

CELIA DANIELS Modoc County. 

Present address, Lake City. 

Taught one year in Concord, Contra Costa County; one term at Lake 
City. Teaching in Modoc County. 

KATE M. DAVIS Alameda County. 

Present address, Livermore. 
Taught two years in the Livermore school. 

ANNIE E. DURKEE Alameda County. 

Present address, Warm Springs. 

Has taught continuously since graduation in the Primary Department 
of the Warm Springs school. 

NETTIE FALCONER -Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching second year in Mariposa County. Address, Lewis. 



260 Historical Sketch. 



FRANCES A. FEELY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Patchin. 

Taught one year in Sacramento County; one term in Napa County. 
Has not taught since November, 1888, on account of ill health. 

MINNIE B. FINCH Sacramento County. 

Present address, Natoma. 
At last report, October, 1887, was teaching in Natoma, Sacramento County. 

AGNES R. GILLESPIE Utah Territory. 

Present address, Park City, Utah Territory. 
Has taught continuously since graduation in Park City. 

MANDILLA GINGERY T Humboldt County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Humboldt County and two terms in Sonoma County. 
Teaching near Fort Ross, Sonoma County. 

FLORENCE GUPPY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has devoted her time since graduation to the study of music. 

FANNIE M. HITE (Mrs. Sanford Scott) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Chiles, Napa County. 

Tau-ght one term at Emmet, San Benito County; one year at Chiles, 
Napa County. Married December 13, 1888. Expects to continue teaching. 

JOHN C. HUGHES Missouri. 

Present address, Sierra City, Sierra County. 
Has not taught since graduation on account of other business. 

ESTHER E. A. JEPSEN Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

At last report, August, 1887, was teaching in the primary grade of the 
Napa City school. 

MRS. EDITH JOHNSON Merced County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 
Teaching in Fresno County; first school since graduation. 

LIZZIE M. JOHNSTON Alameda County. 

Present address, 404 Sixteenth Street, East Oakland. 
Taught one year in Fresno County. Is teaching second term in Hunter 
District, near Vallejo. 

ALICE L. JOSLIN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Antioch. 

Substituted four months in Contra Costa County, and five weeks in Cal- 
istoga, Napa County; taught at San Ramon, Contra Costa County, one 
year. 



State Normal School. 261 



OLIVE M. KNOX Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Sari Jose". 

Taught one term in Monterey County. Since January, 1888, has taught 
in the Hester School, San Jose. 

THEODORE T. KOENIG Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose'. 

Taught in Santa Clara County, three months ; at Hopetown, Merced 
County, one year; as Principal of school at Fort Bidwell, Modoc County, 
one term. Attending Cooper Medical College, San Francisco. 

ALICE M. LASATER Washington Territory. 

Present address, Walla Walla. 
Taught two years in Humboldt County. Teaching near Table Bluff. 

ELLA M. LEARNED San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Stockton. 

Taught one and one half years in San Benito County; five months in 
San Joaquin County. Teaching. 

EDITH LEIMBACH Sacramento County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 
Has taught one year in Sacramento County. 

MABEL M. LEIMBACH Sacramento County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 
Teaching second year at Michigan Bar, Sacramento County. 

SOPHIE E. LITCHFIELD Sonoma County. 

Present address, Sebastopol. 
At last report, October, 1887, was Principal of the school at Sebastopol. 

KITTY C. MAcGowAN San Francisco. 

Present address, 131 Post Street, San Francisco. 

Has taught one year in Humboldt County, and is teaching near Arcata. 
Work suspended one term, spent in Honolulu. 

HELEN C. MACKENZIE San Francisco. 

Present address, San Diego. 
Has taught continuously in San Diego since August, 1887. 

CARA J. MANUEL Calaveras County. 

Present address, Murphy's. 
No report since graduation. 

FANNIE L. MATSON Iowa. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Is the inventor of a language and number frame for use in schools. 
Upon the preparation and introduction of this she has spent her time 
since graduation, and therefore has not taught regularly. 

18 



262 Historical Sketch. 

ANNIE F. MCCAULEY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Danville. 
Teaching second year near Antioch, Contra Costa County. 

AMELIA G. McKAY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Diego. 

Taught one year in Placer County; since spring of 1888 has taught in 
San Diego County. 

BELLE McMuLLiN Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Modesto. 
Has taught since January, 1888, near Modesto. 

JENNIE A. McWiLLiAMs Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 
Taught three months in San Diego, and one term in Solano County. 

LIZZIE M. MORRELL (Mrs. H. D. Norton) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Wrights. 

Taught one year in Ventura County. Married September 19, 1888. Not 
taught since. 

EDITH H. NICHOLS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Pacific Grove, Monterey County. 
Taught one year in Monterey County, near Soledad. Teaching. 

WILLIS H. PARKER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County. 

Taught in Santa Barbara County, four months; in Los Angeles County, 
one and one half years. Teaching at McPherson, Los Angeles County. 

ANNIE PENNYCOOK Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo.- 
Has taught continuously since graduation in Vallejo. 

SARAH M. PINKHAM San Mateo County. 

Present address, Pescadero. 
Taught one year in Monterey County. 

NELLIE RICKARD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 

Taught fall term of 1887 in Monterey County. Since January, 1888, has 
taught in Santa Clara County. Teaching in Los Gatos. 

LORA SCUDAMORE Lake County. 

Present address, Lakeport. 
Has taught continuously in Lake County since graduation. 

LIZZIE SINCLAIR Alameda County. 

Present address, Warm Springs. 
Teaching since September, 1888, near Salmon Falls, El Dorado County. 



State Normal School. 263 

JENNIE SNOOK (Mrs. O. M. Tupper) Alameda County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught in Santa Clara Countj^, two months; in Alameda County, eight 
months. Married October 17, 1888. Not teaching. 

HILDA C. SODERSTROM ._ Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught one year in Santa Clara County. Teaching, since August, 1888, 
in San Luis Obispo. 

CORA SOMERS Placer County. 

Present address, Newcastle. 
Is teaching second year in Placer County. 

MAGGIE L. STENGER Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 
Has taught in Nevada County continuously since graduation. 

WILLIAM E. TEBBE Butte County. 

Present address, Yankee Hill. 

Taught one year in Butte County ; one year in Siskiyou County. Teach- 
ing at Etna, Siskiyou County. 

NEELIE G. VAN HEUSEN Butte County. 

Present address, Chico. 

Taught during fall term of 1887 near Oroville. Spent several months in 
the Eastern States. Has been teaching since September, 1888, in Chico. 

EMMA VON DORSTEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Teaching second year in Primary Department of Hamilton District, 
Santa Clara County. 

LUTE L. WALLACE (Mrs. J.W. Carpenter) Stanislaus County. 

Present address, Ceres. 
Has taught two terms near Ceres. 

BERTIE WECK San Francisco. 

Present address, 2107 Howard Street, San Francisco. 
Taught in Fresno County, six months ; in the Fruit Vale school, Alameda 
County, one term. Teaching in Monterey County. 

EMILY E. WILLIAMS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose".! 

Has taught continuously since graduation in Midway District, Santa 
Clara County. 

DAVID A. WILSON Butte County. 

Present address, Cherokee. 
At last report, October, 1887, was Principal of the school at Cherokee. 



:64 Historical Sketch. 



THIRTY-THIRD CLASS-DECEMBER, 1887. 
CORA L. ANGELL State of Nevada. 

Home address, Silver City. 

Taught one term at Aurora, Nevada ; one term at Silver City. Teaching 
in Reno. 

ADA S. BARLOW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Mayfield. 

Has taught since graduation near Mountain View, Santa Clara County. 
Now teaching in Mountain View. 

CLARA BENNETT Santa Clara County. 

No report since graduation. 

LILLIAN BERGER Alameda County. 

Present address, 1454 Tenth Avenue, Oakland. 
Taught near Germantown, Colusa County, one year. 

LAURA BETHELL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Has taught in the State Normal School, San Jose", since January, 1888. 

GEORGE H. BOKE .... Butte County. 

Present address, Nelson. 

Taught two months in Modoc County. Has been Principal of the school 
at Newcastle, Placer County, since September, 1888. 

LILLIAN E. CHURCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in San Benito County since August, 1888. 

JENNIE CHURCHILL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Santa Clara County, since March, 1888. 

MARTHA E. CILKER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 

Taught five months in Santa Clara County; since September, 1888, in 
Fresno County. 

ROSE M. CLARK Sacramento County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 
Teaching at Franklin, Sacramento County. 

MABEL S. CLARKE Alameda County. 

Present address, Niles. 
Has taught one year in San Luis Obispo County. 

MAMIE A. COUGHLIN State of Nevada. 

Present address, Gold Hill. 

Taught three terms near Altamont, Alameda County. Now teaching at 
Bishop, Cal. 



State Normal School. 265 

NINA COWDEN Sierra County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught four months in Tuiare County; seven months in San Diego 
County. Not teaching. 

LIZZIE DAVIS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year at Jolon, Monterey County. Not teaching because of 
ill health. 

NELLIE B. DAY Nevada County. 

Present address, Spokane Falls, Washington. 
Teaching since September, 1888, at Spokane Falls. 

VIRGIA V. DEAL San Francisco. 

Present address, 2007 Bush Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching in Monterey since October, 1888. 

G. MAY DE LAMATER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Santa Cruz since February. 

WILHELMINA DENNY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught for a short time in Fresno County. Work suspended several 
months on account of sickness. Teaching in Monterey County. 

KATE L. DEVLIN Humboldt County. 

Present address, Arcata. 
Has taught one year in Humboldt County. 

ZADER ELEY Fresno County. 

Present address, Herndon. 
Has taught in Fresno County continuously since graduation. 

D. CARTER ELLIOTT Michigan. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

Has not taught since graduation. Is attending Dental Department of 
University of California. 

EMILY E.GALINGER Humboldt County. 

Present address, Arcata. 
Has taught in Humboldt County one and one half years. Teaching. 

CHARLOTTE Z. GLEASON Alameda County. 

Present address, San Leandro. 
Taught one j r ear in Alameda County. Teaching. 

JAMES W. GRAHAM : Tuiare County. 

Present address, Yokohl. 
Teaching near Yokohl since September, 1888. 



266 Historical Sketch. 



IDA GRAY _ Yuba County. 

Present address, Marysville. 

Taught one term in Sutter County; one year near Marysville. Teaching 
near Nicolaus, Sutter County. 

SUSIE H. HARVEY Alameda County. 

Present address, Alvarado. 
Has taught in Alvarado school since January, 1888. 

MARY E. HEALEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught in Hall's Valley, Santa Clara County, since January, 1888. 

MARGARET HENDERSON Humboldt County. 

Home address, Eureka. 
Teaching third term near Newark, Alameda County. 

CECELIA M. HENRY Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Alamo. 
Has taught continuously since graduation in Contra Costa County. 

BERTRAM A. HERRINGTON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County. 
Taught one year. Is now a lawyer and real estate agent in San Miguel. 

AMANDA HINSHAW Sonoma County. 

Present address, Sebastopol. 

Is teaching third term since graduation in Pleasant Hill District, Sonoma 
County. Taught the same school for three years before entering the Nor- 
mal School. 

HATTIE E. ISBISTER Nevada County. 

Present address, Sweetland. 
Taught one year in Placer County. Teaching. 

MINNIE R. JOSLIN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Antioch. 
Has not taught since graduation. 

LAURA B. KEEL (Mrs. Martin F. Hauck) Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught four months in Alviso, Santa Clara County, and three weeks in 
the Normal School as substitute. Married April, 1889. 

MAMIE C. KELLY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught near Fresno City continuously since graduation. 

MAY E. KENNEDY San Francisco. 

Present address, 110 Haight Street, San Francisco, 

Elected to the substitute class in the San Francisco School Department 
in August, 1888. 



State Normal School. 267 

LIZZIE M. LOUCKS- Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Pacheco. 
Has taught one and one half years near Pacheco. 

WILTON M. MASON San Joaquin County. 

Home address, Lockeford. 

Taught in Fresno County, one term ; since July, 1888, near Gait, Sacra- 
mento County. 

AMELIA E. MEYER Nevada County. 

Present address, Cape Town, Humboldt County. 
Has taught one year in Fresno County. Is teaching at Cape Town. 

MATTIE C. MORRISON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching third term near Los Gatos, Santa Clara County. 

KATIE L. MULLEN Plumas County. 

Present address, La Porte. 
Teaching at La Porte since February, 1888. 

MARY S. MURPHY Placer County. 

Present address, Iowa Hill. 

Taught in Placer County, one term. Since January, 1889, has taught in 
Los Angeles. 

JENNIE A. OSTROM (deceased) Amador County. 

Taught three months in Amador County. She was obliged to give up 
her work on account of sickness. An attack of brain fever, lasting for 
many weeks, was followed by quick consumption, which caused her death 
December 1, 1888. 

KATE OVERACKER Alameda County. 

Present address, Centerville. 

Has spent her time since graduation in study. Entered the Cooper Med- 
ical College, San Francisco, in January, 1889. 

MATTIE M. PHELPS Yolo County. 

Present address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. 

Taught four months in Placer County; one year in Sutter County. 
Teaching in Colusa County. 

LUCY PLUMADO El Dorado County. 

Present address, Placerville. 
Taught one year at Smith's Flat, El Dorado County. Teaching. 

JENNIE G. POUND San Francisco. 

Present address, Fowler, Fresno County. 
Has taught at Fowler since February, 1888. 

ALBERT E. SHUMATE _ Missouri. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Not taught since graduation. 



268 Historical Sketch. 



M. KITTIE SIMS (Mrs. T. M. Stark) San Joaquin County. 

Present address, 322 First Street, Portland, Oregon. 
Married January 18, 1888. Since September, 1888, has been teaching in 
the Primary Department of the school at Sellwood, Oregon. 

DELIA E. SINNOTT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
No report. 

MARY E. SNELL Shasta County. 

Present address, Cayton. 

Taught continuously since graduation in Shasta and Modoc Counties. 
Teaching at Cayton. 

HELEN E. SPAFFORD San Francisco. 

Present address, 2315 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 

On account of home duties did not teach for a year and a half after 
graduation. Teaching near Cambria, San Luis Obispo County. 

GERTRUDE STEANE Alameda County. 

Present address, Pleasanton. 

Has taught in Alameda County since March, 1888. Teaching at Sunol 
Glen. 

AGNES STOWELL Marin County. 

Present address, San Rafael. 

Taught four months in San Luis Obispo County. Has been teaching in 
San Eafael since July, 1888. 

MARY E. THURWACHTER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watson ville. 

On account of ill health, did not teach until July, 1888. Since that time 
has taught near Watson ville. 

OLIVER WEBB Santa Clara County. 

Present address, National City, San Diego County. 
Taught three terms at National City. Teaching in Siskiyou County. 

HENRY C. WELCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught four months in Santa Barbara Count}' and four months as Prin- 
cipal of school at Templeton, San Luis Obispo County. Not teaching at 
present. 

MAGGIE L. WHELAN Alameda County. 

Present address, San Leandro. 

Substituted one term in Oakland schools, and taught one term in Men- 
docino County. 

LILLIAN WILLIAMS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has taught one year at Santa Paula, Ventura County. 



State Normal School. 269 

Member of the Class of May, 1885, ivho made up Conditions and 
received her Diploma December, 1887. 

ETTA A. SUMNER (Mrs. A. Kinnear) Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose 1 . 
Not taught since graduation. Married October 30, 1888. 



THIRTY-FOURTH CLASS-MAY, 1888. 
ADAM D. ALVAREZ Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Pinole. 
Taught one term in Fresno County. 

EULA L. ANDERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching near San Jose". 

EMILY ANDERSON San Francisco. 

Present address, 2661 Howard Street, San Francisco. 
Has not taught since graduation. 

HATTIE J. ANGIER Alameda County. 

Present address, Del Mar, San Diego County. 
Taught one year in Del Mar. Teaching in San Diego. 

FREDERICK L. ARBOGAST Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 
Teaching since July, 1888, at Liberty Hill, Nevada County. 

ARLINE L. BAILEY San Francisco. 

Present address, 226 Fair Oaks Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one term at Iowa Hill, Placer County. Teaching at Pomona, 
Los Angeles County. 

BELLE BANKHEAD Placer County. 

Present address, Pino. 
Teaching since September, 1888, in Placer County. 

ANNIE M. BERRY State of Nevada. 

Present address, Dayton, Nevada. 
Taught one year at Wabuska, Nevada. Teaching at Dayton. 

ANNA I. BOSE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Pioneer District, Santa Clara County. Now Principal 
of Berryessa School. 

MRS. ORPAH CAMPBELL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught two months in California. Spent some time studying music. 
Teaching in the Sandwich Islands. 



270 Historical Sketch. 

IDA A. CAMPBELL Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 
Teaching since September, 1888, in Solano County. 

JENNIE A. COFFMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Has not taught since graduation. 

ANNIE EDITH COOK Santa Clara County. 

Teaching since graduation near Lidell, Napa County. 

WILLIAM W. COOPER Alameda County. 

Present address, Haywards. 

Taught one term in Fresno County. Is now Principal in Alviso District, 
Alameda County. 

RICHARD G. COTTER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one year in Fresno County. Teaching in San Benito County. 

IDA M. COYLE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching since graduation in Fresno County. 

MARY R. DALY Sacramento County. 

Present address, Antelope. 
Taught one year near Antelope. Teaching. 

EMMA DANIELEWICZ Amador County. 

Present address, Sutter Creek. 
Teaching since November, 1888, at Middle Fork, Amador County. 

RACHAEL M. DAVIS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Golden Gate, Alameda County. 
Teaching since July, 1888, in Bay District School, Alameda County. 

CHARLES L. EDGERTON Del Norte County. 

Present address, Smith River. 
Teaching since July, 1888, near Crescent City. 

BESSIE FOWLER Sonoma County. 

Present address, Cloverdale. 

Teaching since August, 1888, in the Primary Department of the Clover- 
dale school. 

SADIE V. GARNER San Benito County. 

Present address, Hollister. 

Has taught in Bartlett District, San Benito County, continuously since 
graduation. 

LAWRENCE J. GEARY Contra Costa County. 

Present address. Walnut Creek. 
Teaching second term in Alamo District, near Walnut Creek. 



State Normal School. 



271 



AGNES B. GILLESPIE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Teaching since October, 1888, at Easton, Fresno County. 

STELLA M. GOSBEY (Mrs. B. D. Merchant) Monterey County. 

Present address, Oakland. 
Taught one term in Soledad, Monterey County. Married April 24, 1889. 

BERTHA M. HALL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 
Teaching since graduation in Placer County. 

SALLIE B. HAMPTON San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Spokane Falls, Washington. 
Has been prevented from teaching by illness. Expects to teach soon. 

SUSIE F. HERBERT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching second term in Chualar Canon, Monterey County. 

L. JENNIE JONES Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 
Taught one year in Fresno County. 

M. WINONA KAUFMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one year in Placer County. Teaching near San Miguel. 

LUCY V. KEELY State of Nevada. 

Present address, Virginia City, Nevada. 

Taught four months in Placer County ; four months in State of Nevada. 
Teaching at Columbus. 

MARY L. KUHLITZ Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonville. 

Taught four months in Monterey County. Resigned in January, 1889, 
on account of poor health, and is not teaching. 

FRANK M. LANE Fresno County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 
Teaching since September, 1888, at Watts' Valley, Fresno County. 

NETTIE J. LEONARD San Francisco. 

Present address, 819 Howard Street, San Francisco. 
Taught one year near Pleyto, Monterey County. 

MALSIE V. LIVINGSTON San Francisco. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Jackson District, Santa Clara County. Teaching at 
Turlock. 



272 Historical Sketch. 



STELLA L. MACHEPERT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught four months in Santa Cruz County, in the fall of 1888. Not 
taught since, on account of sickness. 

ADA F. MADDEN Idaho Territory. 

Present address, Caldwell, Idaho. 
Taught one year in Idaho, near Boise City. 

NELLIE MALLOY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Teaching in Lockwood school, Alameda County, since graduation. 

BERT S. MARTIN El Dorado County. 

Present address, Georgetown. 
Teaching since graduation at Georgetown. 

MILLIE F. MAXEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one year in Laguna District, Santa Clara County. Teaching in 
Berryessa school. 

BESSIE MCALLISTER Marin County. 

Present address, San Rafael. 

Taught one term near Roseville, Placer County. Teaching at Lakeview, 
Oregon. 

ADAH M. MCKENNEY State of Nevada. 

Present address, San Jose. 
Teaching second term in Santa Cruz County* 

EVA M. MOODY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching second term in Vineland District, Santa Clara County. 

MARY J. O'RoiiRKE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Teaching since August, 1888, in Mount Pleasant District, Santa Clara 
County. 

BESSIE PARKER (Mrs. W. I. McCall) Modoc County. 

Present address, Selma, Fresno County. 

Taught one term at Selma, Fresno County. Gave up work on account 
of sickness. Married October 31, 1889. 

CHARLOTTE C. PATTON San Francisco. 

Present address, 6 Bond Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching second term near Petaluma, Sonoma County. 

LILLIAN E. PURDY San. Francisco. 

Present address, 2114 Steiner Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching second term at Big Trees, Calaveras County. 



State Normal School. 273 

WALLACE W. REED Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

Taught six weeks and resigned because of sickness. Is now an express 
messenger for Wells, Fargo & Co. 

CORNELIA RICHARDS San Luis Obispo County. 

Present address, Cambria. 

Taught one term in San Luis Obispo County, and one term in Mono 
County. Teaching in Mono County. 

GERTIE F. ROWELL Fresno County. 

Present address, Easton. 
Teaching since September, 1888, near Easton. 

MABEL E. SHARP Fresno County. 

Present address, Madera. 
Taught one year at Firebaugh, Fresno County. 

FANNIE E. SHORT Nevada County. 

Present address, Boca. 

Taught four months in Lassen County in fall of 1888. Since that time 
has taught in the Primary Department of the school at Reno, Nevada. 

ANNIE M. SMULLEN Tuolumne County. 

Present address, Sonora. 
Taught one year in Tuolumne County. 

ELLA E. STANSBURY Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 
Has taught in Napa County continuously since graduation. 

EMMA M. STEPHENS Santa Clara County. 

Present address. San Jose". 

Taught one year in San Luis Obispo County. Teaching in Santa Clara 
County. 

EMILY M. STETSON Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Laurel. 
Taught one year in Contra Costa County, near Livermore. Teaching. 

GEORGE A. TEBBE Butte County. 

Present address, Yankee Hill. 
Teaching since September, 1888, at Fort Jones, Siskiyou County. 

LILLIE TUCKER Del Norte County. 

Present address, Crescent City. 
Teaching second term near Crescent City, Del Norte County. 

ADDLE S.TURNER San Joaquin County. 

Present address, French Camp. 
Teaching since September, 1888, in Monterey County, near Jolon. 



274 Historical Sketch. 



GRACE WARD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching at Roseville, Placer County. 

SADIE P. WILLARD Alameda County. 

Present address, 122 Eleventh Street, Oakland. 

Taught in Napa County, five months. Is substituting in the Oakland 
schools. 



THIRTY-FIFTH CLASS-DECEMBER, 1888. 
ALFRED C. ABSHIRE Sonoma County. 

Present address, Cloverdale. 
Teaching in Timber Cove District, Sonoma County. 

HATTIE E. ALLEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

Taught one term at Bell's Station, Santa Clara County. Teaching near 
Madrone. 

ANNIE E. ANGLON San Francisco. 

Home address, 629 Eddy Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching at Pino, Placer County. 

NANA ANKER San Francisco. 

Present address, Cloverdale, Sonoma County. 
Teaching near Adelaida, San Luis Obispo County, since March, 1889. 

HADDIE A. BAGGETT Siskiyou County. 

Present address, Yreka. 
Teaching in Siskiyou County since March, 1889. 

REBECCA BAILEY Alameda County. 

Present address, Livermore, Alameda County. 
Teaching at Livermore since January, 1889. 

HANNAH M. BALL Tulare County. 

Present address, Woodville. 

CLARE A. BENSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, New Almaden. 
Taught one term in Santa Clara County. Teaching. 

JAMES A. BLACK . Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

Taught four months in Contra Costa County. Teaching at Mount Eden, 
Alameda County. 

MAY F. BLACKFORD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching second term in Monterey County. 



State Normal School. 275 

GEORGIA L. BRADSHAW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 
Taught four months in San Antonio Valley. 

LIZZIE M. BROWNING Amador County. 

Present address, lone. 
Teaching in Placer County. 

FRED. G. BRUNHOUSE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

Taught four months in San Joaquin County. Teaching in Mariposa 
County. 

ELIZABETH B. CLIFT Alameda County. 

Present address, 1547 San Pablo Avenue. 

JULIA C. COLBY Solano County. 

Present address, Benicia. 

JENNIE A. CROFTON Sacramento County. 

Present address, Los Gatos, Santa Clara County. 
Taught five months in Fresno County. 

KATIE C. DEVINE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in the Franklin school, near San Jose. 

EFFIE M. DEAL -Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching near Evergreen, Santa Clara County, since February, 1889. 

CAROLYN B. DOYLE (Mrs. Irwin A. Ball) Lassen County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught one term in Lassen County. Married July 3, 1889. 

MEL VINA J. DURHAM Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Pacheco. 
Teaching near Brentwood, Contra Costa County. 

M. CORNETT FITZWATER San Luis Obispo County. 

Present address, San Luis Obispo. 
Teaching in San Luis Obispo County. 

KATE J. FOLEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching second term in Monterey County. 

WALTER GRAY Butte County. 

Present address, Chico. 
Taught four months at Lompoc, Santa Barbara County. 

WILLIAM M. GREENWELL Butte County. 

Present address, Hansonville, Yuba County. 
Teaching at Mendocino City. 



276 Historical Sketch. 



EVA F. GRIFFIN Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 
Teaching in Contra Costa County, near Martinez. 

OSCAR H. GRUBBS San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lockeford. 

Taught one term near Oleta, Amador County. Teaching in Greenwood, 
El Dorado County. 

ANNIE J. HALL (Mrs. Andrew D. Van Arsdell)__ Santa Clara Co. 

Present address, Paso Robles, San Luis Obispo County. 
Not taught since graduation. Married April 18, 1889. 

M. TEXANA HAWKINS Fresno County. 

Present address, Fresno City. 
Taught one month in Fresno County and resigned on account of sickness. 

M. SUE HICKMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in San Luis Obispo County, near Paso Robles. 

MARY E. HYDE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 
Taught one term in San Luis Obispo County. 

LILLIAN M. JULIEN Siskiyou County. 

Present address, Yreka. 
Teaching in Siskiyou County. 

ANNIE KOHLER Napa County. 

Present address, St. Helena. 
Teaching since graduation at Independence, Inyo County. 

NORA J. MARBUT Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching near Adelaida, San Luis Obispo County. 

NANNIE T. MATLOCK Shasta County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Creston, San Luis Obispo County. 

S. ELLEN MCFARLAND Alameda County. 

Present address, 559 Simpson Avenue, Oakland. 

Taught at Mission San Jose", Alameda County, one term. Teaching at 
Mount Eden. 

M. GRACE MCLELLAN San Mateo County. 

Present address, San Mateo. 
Not taught since graduation. 

FLORENCE E. MCPHERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in San Jose". 



State Normal School. 277 

WILLIAM H. MURRAY A San Joaquin County. 

Present address, Lockeford. 

ETTA E. NICHOLS Nevada County. 

Present address, Grass Valley. 
Teaching second term near Cambria, San Luis Obispo County. 

EFFIE OWENS Sacramento County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Kern County since January, 1889. 

PAULINE M. PAGE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 
Taught one term in Fresno County. 

ALLURA B. PARKER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Monterey. 
Teaching in Monterey since January, 1889. 

EMMA L. PATTON Monterey County. 

Present address, Natividad. 
Taught one term at Natividad. 

LEONORA E. PHILLIPS Merced County. 

Present address, Central Point. 
Teaching in Merced County. 

ADELAIDE L. POLLOCK San Francisco. 

Present address, Seattle, Washington. 
Teaching at Seattle. 

LAWRENCE F. PUTER Humboldt County. 

Present address, Eureka. 
Teaching in Eureka. 

ODA REDMAN Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Watsonviile. 
Teaching in Santa Cruz County. 

ANNIE L. REMMEL Alameda County. 

Present address, Alameda. 
Teaching in Contra Costa County. 

DOLLIE E. ROCKEFELLOW Contra Costa County. 

Present address, 326 Larkin Street, San Francisco. 
Teaching Lockwood school, Alameda County, since February, 1889. 

ANTHONY ROSE Alameda County. 

Present address, Newark. 
Teaching at Newark. 

19 



278 Historical Sketch. 

LELLA SANFORD Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 
Taught in Contra Costa County one term. Teaching. 

J. FRANCES SCHULTZBERG Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Taught five months in Aurora, Nevada. 

FLORA B. SMITH Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 
Teaching in San Luis Obispo County. 

EDITH S. SMOOTE Sacramento County. 

Present address. Elk Grove. 
Taught one term in Fresno County. Teaching. 

ANNA M. TALMADGE Sacramento County. 

Present address, Courtland. 
Not taught since graduation. 

GEORGE G. TAYLOR Butte County. 

Present address, 53 Flood Building, San Francisco. 

Taught a few weeks as substitute. Is now agent for the Educational 
Company, San Francisco. 

DELL A VANDERVORST Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Fresno County. 

MAUDE L. WELCH Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 
Teaching in Santa Clara County. 



THIRTY-SIXTH CLASS-JUNE, 1889. 

NOTE. The names starred are the names of those who are known to have 
engaged in teaching before the time when this History goes to print. 

KARA F. ALLEN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

*GRACE L. ANDERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

* WILLIAM R. BANKHEAD _ _ _ , Placer County. 

Present address, Pino. 

*LucY A. BARRETT Placer County. 

Present address, Roseville. 



State Normal School. 279 

*FRANKLIN K. BARTHEL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

KATIE C. BELLEW Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Milpitas. 

* JULIA L. BELLINGALL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*MARIANA BERTOLA Contra Costa County. 

Present address, Martinez. 

*ESTHER A. BROWN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*MARY C. GARB Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*JENNIE A. CILKER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Los Gatos. 

*GERTRUDE CONNELL San Bernardino County. 

Present address, Riverside. 

*GEORGE COSGRAVE Calaveras County. 

Present address, Angels Camp. 

*AMY A. DAVIS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

JESSIE N. DE LAMATER Santa Cruz County. 

Present address, Santa Cruz. 

*ELLA JEAN DIMON El Dorado County. 

Present address, Placerville. 

ALICE H. DOUGHERTY Alameda County. 

Present address, Livermore. 

*FANNIE A. FOWLER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 



*MAMIE A. GAFNEY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*THERESA V. GARGAN San Mateo County. 

Present address, Half moon Bay. 

*MARY A. GEE Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 



280 Historical Sketch. 



M. EDITH GRISWOLD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*M. FRANCES HARTE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*GERTRUDE I. HAYES Alaineda County. 

Present address, Livermore. 

ELLA C. HEINTZ Sacramento County. 

Present address, Sacramento. 

*BELLE F. HIGGINS Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

*M. GENEVIEVE HOLDEN Napa County. 

Present address, Napa City. 

S. MARION HOWELL Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*ANNIE HUGHES Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

HELENA L. JAEGER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*OLLIE JARVIS Alameda County. 

Present address, Newark. 

*MAGGIE JONES Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*JOHN G. JURY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*MOLLIE J. KELLER Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

LEOLINE C. LADD Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Gilroy. 

CARRIE E. LEE Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*ANNA L. LELAND Siskiyou County. 

Present address, Dunsmuir. 

*ADDIE M. LUCY Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 



State Normal School. 281 



*MINNIE L. MACKAY Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*LizziE MACKINNON Alameda County. 

Present address, Oakland. 

*R. JENNIE MANGRUM Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

*CLARA A. MARCH Yolo County. 

Present address, Yolo. 

*EMMA T. MARTIN San Francisco County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

* ALICE M. McJuNKiN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*A. BRONSON McKEAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

LULU MILES Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*MARY MUTSCHLECHNER Sonoma County. 

Present address, Cloverdale. 

*EMNIE H. NICHOLS Monterey County. 

Present address, Pacific Grove. 

*MARGARET M. O'DONNELL Nevada County. 

Present address, Nevada City. 

*MABEL PATTERSON Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose*. 

*MARY H. POST Santa Clara County. 

Present address, Santa Clara. 

*MATTIK A. POWELL Yolo County. 

Present address, Yolo. 

*LILIAN E. PURINTON Santa Clar County. 

Present address, San Jos6. 

*ADELINE Ross Alameda County. 

Present address, Newark. 

IDA M. ROUNDS Solano County. 

Present address, Vallejo. 



282 Historical Sketch. 



*MAKY RUMRILL Contra Costa County. 

Present address, San Pablo. 

*SADIE C. RYAN Alameda County. 

Present address, Oakland. 

*FANNIE R. SCHALLENBERGER Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose. 

JENNIE R. SHERMAN State cf Nevada. 

Present address, Reno. 

*EDWARD D. SPINKS Merced County. 

Present address, Athlone. 

*ALIDA G. SPRING Sacramento County. 

Present address, Elk Grove. 

*GEORGE M. STEELE ___San Luis Obispo County. 

Present address, San Miguel. 

*MARY E. SULLIVAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address. San Jose". 

*BLANCHE TARR Amador County. 

Present address, Volcano. 

*GEORGIA THATCHER Mendocino County. 

Present address, Hopland. 

*NETTIE C. THEISEN El Dorado County. 

Present address, Placerville. 

*LAURA L. THOMAS Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 

*MARY L. TINSLEY Trinity County. 

Present address, Weaverville. 

*LILIAN E. WESTFALL Monterey County. 

Present address, Pacific Grove. 

*TENAH E. WHEELER San Francisco County. 

Present address, San Francisco. 

*ANNIE L. WISSMAN Santa Clara County. 

Present address, San Jose". 



State Normal School. 283 



PROSPECTUS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT SAN JOSE, 
FOR 1889-90, 



CALENDAR FOR 1889-90. 

FIRST TERM. 

Entrance examinations, August 30 and 31, 1889. 

Term opens September 3, 1889, and closes January 31, 1890. 

Holiday vacation, December 21, 1889, to January 6, 1890, both inclusive. 

SECOND TERM. 

Entrance examination, February 3, 1890. 
Term opens February 4, 1890; closes June 27, 1890. 
Mid-term vacation, April 12 to April 21, 1890, both inclusive. 
Alumni Association and reunion, Friday evening, June 27, 1890. 



FACULTY. 

C. W. CHILDS Principal and Teacher of Pedagogy. 

GEORGE R. KLEEBERGER. ..' 

Vice-Principal and Teacher of Chemistry and Geology. 

MRS. LIZZIE P. WILSON 

Principal of Training Department and Critic Teacher. 

MARY J. TITUS Preceptress and Teacher of Pedagogy. 

A. H. RANDALL ...Physics and Mathematics. 

R. S. HOLWAY Physics and Mathematics. 

VOLNEY RATTAN Botany and Geography. 

LUCY M. WASHBURN Physiology and Zoology. 

CORNELIA WALKER Literature, Pedagogy, Grammar, and Reading. 

GLORA F. BENNETT... Literature, Grammar, and Reading. 

NETTIE C. DANIELS Grammar and Word Analysis. 

MRS. J. N. HUGHES History and Botany. 

LAURA BETHELL. Mathematics and Grammar. 

GERHARD SCHOOF Drawing. 

FANNIE M. ESTABROOK Reading. 

J. H. ELWOOD Teacher of Music. 

RUTH ROYCE Librarian. 

KATE COZZENS - ..Teacher in Training Department. 

MAMIE P. ADAMS Teacher in Training Department. 

MARGARET E. SCHALLENBERGER Teacher in Training Department. 

NANNIE C. GILDAY... -Teacher in Training Department. 

JOHN P. NAAS - Instructor in Manual Training. 

MRS. A. E. BUSH .. ...Curator of Museum. 



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