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Full text of "Historical Sketch of the generic names proposed for butterflies, A contribution to systematic nomenclature"

■n 



NHISTOraCAL SKETCH 



OF 



THE GENERIC NAMES PROPOSED FOR 
BUTTERFLIES 



A CONTRIBUTION TO SYSTEMATIC NOMENCLATURE 



BY 



SAMUEL H. SCUDDER 



From the Proceedings of the AjiEnicAic Academy op Arts and Sciences, Boston, 
\ Vol. X. (2d S., Vol. II.) 



""^i^^ 



SALEM 
Naturalist's agency 




y 



18' 



to 



6 iS X 
C.2. 



HISTOmCAL SKETCH 



OP 



THE GENEEIC NAMES PROPOSED FOR 
BUTTERFLIES > 



A CONTRIBUTION TO SYSTEMATIC NOMENCLATURE 



BY 



SAMUEL H. SCUDDER 



From the Proceedinqs of the American Academy op Arts and Sciences, Boston, 
Vol. X. (2d S., Vol. II.) 



SALEM 
NATURALIST'S AGENCY 
, 1875 






y 



Ca7nbridge : 
Press of John Wilson and Son, 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 91 



V. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE GENERIC NAMES 
PROPOSED FOR BTJTTERFLIi:S : 

A CONTRIBUTION TO SYSTEMATIC NOMENCLATURE. 

By Samuel H. Scddder. 
Presented, Is'ov. 11, 1S74. 

Botanicus mihi hio dicitur is, qui genera naturalia observare inlelligit 
Botanici (nee minus Zoologici) autera nomine indignum judico Curiosum, qui de 
generibus sollicitus non est. — Linne, Pli'dos. hotan. 

Nomina si pereunt. perit et cognitio rerum. — Fabhicius, Philos. entom. 

Three years a^^o, in preparing my Systematic Revision of North 
American r>utterflies, 1 first became fully aware of the extraordinary 
diversity of use of certain generic names in this group of insects ; and 
I endeavored, by an historical study of the subject, to satisfy my own 
mind of the proper manner in ■which they ought to be used. The 
results of this study were published in the paper alluded to ; but in 
only a few cases, and then in the briefest manner, was the process 
stated by whicl) a conclusion was reached. A month or so before the 
issue of that paper, the late Mr. G. R. Crotch published in the Cistula 
Eutomolojiica the results of an exactly similar study, based upon the 
same principles, but confined to an examination of those genera of 
buttertlies which had been proposed previous to the publication of 
Iliibners Yerzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge. The process was in 
this case given, but. as it seems to me, by an unsatisfactory method, 
and cue in which the individual opinion of the author often affectetl 
the result without the reader's cognizance. 

My own i)a])er was prepared under very unfavorable circumstances ; 
and I therefore determined to revise its conclusions df. novo, and to 
extend tlie study to the entire group of butterflies, as the onlv way in 
which accuracy and precision could be attained. The result is given 
in the present pa])er. The historical metliod is chosen as the most 
satisfactory one, the use of each genei'ic name being traced from its 
first proposal down to the year 1874. The entire body of entomological 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

literature has been searched with great care, and it is believed that very 
little of importance has escaped examination : at the same time, so 
much only is published as seems necessary to an elucidation of the 
subject. 

The plan pursued with each generic name in this essay is to give, in 
the first place, its date, author, and place of publication, and a list of 
the species first include<l in it. For the sake of uniformity and readier 
comparison, these specilic names (as well as all subsequent specific 
names) are reduced to the nomenclatui-e of the last general catalogue 
of butterflies,* without which it wouhi have been nearly impossible to 
have undertaken this study with the hope of any satisfiictory result. 
Where the specific name used by the author quoted differs from the 
one em[)loyed for the species by Kirby, it is placed in a parenthesis, 
after Kirby 's name; thus, in quoting the species placed by IlLibner 
under the generic name Brangas, we have: Caranus (Pelops, Caranus), 
Didymaon (Dydimaon). Syncellus, Bitias. The names, as given by 
Ilubner, stand : Pelops, Caranus, D^ydimaon, Syncellus, Bitias. As 
reduced to Kirby's nomenclature, they are : Caranus, Didymaon, Syn- 
cellus, Bitias, riubner's first two species being considered as one. If 
one or more species are indicated as types by any author, tliese are 
stated. 

In a similar way, the treatment of the group by the next author is 
given, whose action in any manner affects its boundaries ; but, in this 
and in subsequent cases, complete lists of the included species are not 
quoted, but only such a statement given as is necessary for the case in 
point. Other references follow, as far as they are needed, in chrono- 
logical order, the dates placed at the extreme left. The action of the 
diii'erent authors quoted is then criticised, conclusions drawn, and 
attention directed to the species, which, whether from the original 
author's action, or by the treatment of the name by subsequent 
writers, should be considered as typical. For readier consultation, 
they are also distinguished from others given in the primary list by the 
use of bold-fliced type in those cases where the generic name stands, 
or of italics where it falls ; often this is the only indication of my own 
judgment. 

Generic names which cannot be used for butterflies are followed 
by an asterisk. 

Where the name of an author occurs in brackets, it indicates that 



* W. F. Kirby, A Synonymic Catalogue of Diurnal Lei>i(loi)tcTa, London, 
1871, pp. GOO. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 93 

the fact of authorship is not distinctly stated, but is gathered from the 
context, or from subsequent works. 

Names of genera which contain no l)utterflies are introduced wherever 
their members were originally considered as butterrties by the founder. 

With regard to the principles upon which this work has lieen under- 
taken, I adopt, in general, those regarding genera enunciated by 
Agassiz in the preface to his Nomenclator Zoologicus, and more re- 
cently by Thorell, in his work on European Spiders, with such excep- 
tions or modifications as are indicated in my canons of systematic 
nomenclature.* There are, however, a few points which need special 
mention. 

Only those names are introduced which are connected with the 
binomial nomenclature founded by Linne : for this reason, the tri- 
nomials of Illibner and the terms applied by Linne himself to the 
groups into which he divided Papilio, as well as the similar terms used 
by other earlier writers, such as some of those of Fabricius, Ilerbst, 
etc., have been totally disregarded. All, or nearly all, the trinomials 
of Ilubner (used princiiially in the first volume of his Samralung 
Exotischer Schmetterlinge, and in his Systematisch-Alphabetisches 
Verzeichniss) are actually used by him in some work or other (as in 
the Tentamen or Franck's Catalogue) with a binomial application ; 
and in those cases they are here introduced, but only dating from the 
time at which and for the species for which they were employ td 
binomially. "With regard to the so-called subgeneric appellations of 
Linne and others, such as Plebeius, Nymphalis, etc., there are but two 
views which, it seems to me, can consistently be taken of them : one, 
that tliese authors always used them in a trinomial or quadrinomial 
nomenclature, exactly similar to that of Ilubner, such as Papilio 
Danaus candidus rapte, — in which case they ought not to be adopted, or 
else candidus should demand the same right as Danaus ; the other, that 
they should be letained as names of groups exactly as they were first 
used, at the head of divisions, in a plural form, — Plebeii, Nymphales, 
etc. Plural nouns as titles of groups, and singular nouns with a 
generic signitlcatiou, cannot be derived from one and the same source. 
" Nomina £renerica cum classium ct ordinum naturalium nonicuclaturis 
communia, omiMenda sunt." Now the early authors, in referring to 
the true "genera" of l^inue, always used them, as Linnd did, ir> a 
singular form ; but when referring to the groups into which Papilio 
was divided, as groups, they always used them, as LinuL- did, in a 

* Aracr. Journ. Sc. Arts [3], iii. '4iS. 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

plural form. The heading of the butterflies was Pai^ilio, not Papilio- 
iies ; of the swallow-tails, Equites, not Eques. 

That, if used at all, tliey should be retained in otlier than a generic 
sense, is alnindantly shown by tracing the mode in which these groups 
of Linnc, subordinate to the genus Papilio, became the divisions sub- 
sequently termed flirailies, and more comprehensive than the ;:enera of 
modern times. Even in the last century the term " families " was applied 
to them; for when Ci'amer, in 177'J, in the introduction to the first 
volume of his great iconographic work, alluded to the classification of 
Linne, it was introduced in these terms: " Je donnerai ici les divisions 
de M. liinne, Papillons — cinq families." Fabricius, when he first 
attempted in 1807 to subdivide the butterflies into numerous genera, 
retained the terms Papilio and Ilesperia formerly used by him, greatly 
restricting them of course ; but did not employ, in any form whatsoever, 
the group-names previously in use, whether those given by Linne 
or those established by himself, — with a single exception, where he 
divides Papilio into Trojaner and Achiver, just as the Equites (to which 
be restricts I'apilio) had before been divided into Trojani and Achivi. 

But it is to French writers that we must look for the greatest light 
upon this subject. In Cuvier's Tableau Elementaire (1798) we find 
these groups of Linne, somewhat remodelled and placed under the two 
genera then in use, Papilio and Ilesperia : the groups, as here modified, 
represent in the main the families of modern times. It was during the 
activity of Latreille that the old genera began to be more and more 
restricted and new genera to multiply, until, before his death and 
through his writings, the interrelationship of genera and families 
among butterflies was entirely reversed; "families " having formerly 
been considered divisions of "genera," while "genera" were now 
looked upon as divisions of " families." In the first edition of Cuvier's 
Kegne Animal (1817), Latreille placed all the butterflies under one 
"genus," Papilio, subdivided into groups termed " subgenera," which, 
though diifering greatly from the divisions of Linne, must really be 
considered modifications of them, brought gi'adunlly about by the 
progress of science ; a few, too, of Linnc's names are retained. In 
1825, in his Families Naturelles, the butterflies are divided into many 
"genera," corresponding very closely to his previous subgcneric divi- 
sions, and ranged under one "family," Diurna, exactly corresponding 
to Linnc's Papilio. lu this connection, a study of the numerous 
changes in classification introduced by Latreille in his dilferent works 
is very instructive. I have entered into these particulars, because 
!RIessrs. Kirby and Crotch have recently endeavored to carry back 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 95 

some of the Latreillean genera to Linnc's time, and even to insist, for 
the first time, upon the necessity of employing Plebeius and similar 
words in a generic sense and of accrediting tliem to Linnc. It may be 
added that, some of these subordinate names of Linne are used in what 
I deem to be their true signification, as names of groujis, in my Syste- 
matic Revision. 

Other subsidiary principles, which are employed in this essay, should 
be stated. A generic name founded upon that of any species intended 
to be included therein, or of any synonyme of such species, must fill ; 
and if any name fulls, from this or from any other cause, it should be 
dropped altogether in zoology. I have here adopted the views of 
biologists who allow the repetition of names in its two departments 
of zoology and botany, but no further. And no attempt has been 
made to discover whether the older name (under which another may 
fall) is in actual use or not, since in the ever-changing sentiment among 
naturalist?, of the generic limitation of groups, this is practically 
impossible, and would lead to the instability of nomenclature. The 
author, department, and date of publication of the older name before 
which any generic appellation fulls, has been given, whenever possible, in 
order that any person may, if he choose, follow out any reference for 
himself, here as elsewhere. If a species is designated as type of a 
genus whose name cannot stand, it retains that significance when a new 
generic name is proposed to supplant it. 

By thus calling the attention of naturalists to historical facts 
(which they may interpret in any way they judge best), I hope to have 
done something toward introducing some degree of fixity, logic, and 
precision in the generic nomenclature of the grouj) under consider- 
ation. INIore perhaps than any other class of animals, unless we 
except Molluscn, butterflies have suffered from the writings of un- 
educated naturalists : and it is impossible, such has become the multi- 
plicity of names, to reduce to order the chaotic mass of facts, excepting 
through their patient collation and chronological exposition. If other 
facts are discovered by which the result is affected, they can at once be 
brought into proper collocation ; if a wrong interpretation is given, 
it is the more readily seen and pointed out. The method is clear and 
precise, although tedious and painful in the extreme ; and such is the 
interrelation of usage among certain names, and the heterogeneous 
nature of otlu'rs, as often to render the study very perplexing. The 
result reached in some cases will surprise many entomologists, as it 
has myself, and in not a few instances I would gladly see a logical way 
out of the necessity of change among names which have hatl long 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

usage ; but the law of priority is, and would best be, inexorable, and 
the action of (hose who decry it would relegate our nomenclature to 
an increasingly chaotic condition. I therefore hold to it as of the 
utmost importance in nomenclatui'e, as the very foundation of its 
stability. The changes now required by its strict application are 
solely due to its neglect in the past. No thought of objection would 
arise, if it were not so. Entomologists more than others have neglected 
this law, have frequently acted in defiance of it, and upon them its 
application falls, as we should expect, most severely. A strict surveil- 
lance of systematic work hereafter will render the future, it may be 
hojied, less fruitful in blunders than the past. 

As the work is based upon a chronological order of facts, some 
remarks are necessary upon two points : the dates of lliibner's 
different works, and that of Doubleday and Westwood's Genera. The 
date of lliibner's Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge has generally 
been given as 180G-o7, the years during which it is supposed to have 
been issued. But a careful study of the internal and external evidence 
shows that the dates may be much more closely approximated iu all 
cases. The first volume contains only and all those plates to which a 
trinomial nomenclature is appended, and with which, as such, we have 
here nothing to do. The third volume, or continuation of lliibner's 
work, must be attributed to Geyer, and dated after lliibner's death in 
182G. lliibner's Index of 244 plates (including about one hundred 
and seventy-five species of butterflies), in which he applies a binomial 
nomenclature to all the species of his first volume, is dated December, 
1821, and must have been published shortly after the commencement 
of his second volume ; for he includes in the Index twenty-one species 
of this volume. Supposing the plates recorded in the Index, and there- 
fore published from 180G to 1821 inclusive, to have been issued at 
regular intervals, the first volume must have been completed at about 
the close of 1819. We may therefore, in default of more precise data, 
fix upon 1806-19 as the date of the first volume, 1820-21 as that 
of the plates of the second recorded in the Index, and 1822-26 of 
those not so recorded. 

This work, however, is not the only one of lliibner's which requires 
close examination. The Verzeicimiss is dated 1810, and has always 
been referred to under that date. But internal evidence positively 
disproves this, and on that account Ochsenheimer's and Dalman's 
works of 1816 ante-date it. The title-page and preface to lliibner's 
work, the latter bearing the date 21 Sept., 1816, were printed, as 
the paging and signature-mark show, at the same time as the first 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 97 

ten pages of the catalogue itself; that is, they form a part of the first 
eignature. But the preface to the first century of the Zutriige, which 
bears date 22 Dec, 1818, directly refers to a work of this nature 
as an unpublished desideratum. F'urther than this, not only are all 
the butterflies of the first century of the Zutriige referred to by number 
in the Verzeichniss,* but a species figured in the second century (Lycus 
Niphon (Nos. 203-4) is referred to both by name and number in 
the Verzeichniss, page 74. Now the preface to the second century 
bears the date 23 Dec, 1822. If we consider this the date when the 
plates of that part were completed, as is probable, then we must make 
the same supposition of the first century, viz., — the very end of 1818 ; 
and hence page 74 of the Verzeichniss, or, in other words, its fifth 
signature, and all following it, could not have been printed before two 
years after the Verzeichniss is dated. On page 312 of the Verzeich- 
niss are references by number to the Zutriige, Nos. 395-6 and 429—30 
the former on the last page of the second century, and the latter on the 
twelfth page of the third century, which dates from 27 Aug., 1825. 
Supposing, as before, that the preface of each part was not printed 
until the engraving of its plates was completed (which makes the least 
discrepancy), we cannot put an earlier date to page 312, or the twen- 
tieth signature, than 1823. It is questionable whether we can be so 
lenient as this ; for it is stated by Geyer in Thon's Archiv (I. 29-30) 
that Hiibner prepared Franck's Catalogue late in 1825. In this sale 
catalogue (p. 100) a list of the works of Iliibner and other entomologists 
is given with prices annexed ; and among them appear eighteen sig- 
natures (Bogen) of the Verzeichniss, probably all published at that 
time. We may therefore fairly conclude tliat, while this work was com- 
menced in 1816, it was issued in signatures; that by the end of 1818 
only the first five signatures were printed, and by the end of 1822 only 
the first twenty. More probably, however, only the first eighteen sig- 
natures were printed before the autumn of 1825. The work was com- 
pleted by Hiibner and wholly published by 1827, judging from Geyer's 
list of Ilubner's works given in Thon's Archiv t (1. c). Doubtless a 

* ExccptinjT only Nos. 193—1, which are not referred to at all ; and a few 
of the later ones, which are referred to by name only, — viz., Nos. 1G3— 4 on 
page 9 of tlie Verzeichniss, 187-8 on page 11, 188-90 on page 80, and 197-8 
on page 47. 

t The price of the work is given there as 44 kreutzers only, while that of 
the Syst.-alph. Verzeiclmiss, not one-fifth its size, as 54 kreutzers. Tiiis may 
probably be accounted for by the greater rarity of the latter, rather than by an 
incomplete condition of the former. 

VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 13 



98 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

nearer approach could be made toward the dates of the different parts 
of tlie book by a comparison of the moths with those of the Zutriige. 
These facts are given to show that the wliole work could not have 
been published in 1816. Still, for mere convenience and uniformity, I 
have used 1816 as the date; for the only case where the dates conHict 
with those of another writer in the use of the same generic name is 
that of P^urybia, which should unquestionably be referred to lUiger. 

The preceding statement also shows that the dates of the different 
parts of the Zutriige are probably correct. 

The Teutamen* is undated. It is twice referred to by Iliibner him- 
self: once in the preface to his Verzeichniss, written in 1816; and again, 
in 1818, in the preface to the first century of his Zutriige. In the latter 
case it is not specified by name, but the substance of it is reprinted, 
and there is no other work of liiibner's to which his words can refer ; 
it is stated to have been published in 1806. It is also referred to by 
Ochsenheimer in 1816, in tlie preface to the fourth volume of his 
Schmetterlinge Europas, as having been unknown to him at the time 
of the publication of the first volume of the same work, in 1807 ; it is 
also included by Geyer in his list of liiibner's works, and by Ilageu 
in his Bibliotheca Entomologica. 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Hagen, of Cambridge, and to Herr 
Gerichtsrath Keferstein, of Erfurt, for their kind assistance in my 
endeavor to discover the dates of liiibner's works. It would be a 
worthy task, if one of the Berlin entomologists would examine the works 
of Hiibner in the Konigliche Bibliothek, where, I am told by Dr. 
Hagen, they are preserved in their original wrappers. 

There is still another work, the dates of the different parts of which, 
as given here, require explanation. Doubleday and Westwood's Genera 
of Diurnal Lepidoptera was published in parts, and Mr. B, P. Mann has 
shown me a nearly complete set of the work in the original wrappers ; 
although it is the reissue and not the original edition, a careful com- 
parison of its divisions with the dates printed at the bottom of many of 
the signatures, convinces me that the reissue was purely a reissue, and 
that the plates accompanying each part of the text are the same as in 
the original issue. The dates given below are based upon this suppo- 
sition. 

The dates of different parts of such of Boisduval's works as appeared 
by livraisons are drawn from the official literary bulletin published iu 
Paris at that time, and can be relied upon for accuracy. 

* Republished by me iu facsimile. Cambridge, 1873. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 99 

References to Leach in Brewster's Encyclopa3clia are to the paging in 
the American edition ; all the references to liewitsou's Exotic Butter- 
flies are at second-hand. 

In conclusion, I would return my thanks to many entomologists who 
have answered special inquiries concerning works and insects to which 
I had no ready access ; and especially to Mr. TV. F. Kirby, of Dublin, 
and the late ]\Ir. G. R. Crotch, of Cambridge, with whom I have con- 
stantly consulted, and whose aid has been of the greatest importance. 

1. Ad^is. 
181G. Iliibn., Verz. 97: Nicippe, Cebrene (Arethusa), Brigitta. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 05 : designated Xicippe as type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 39: does the same. 

Nevertheless Nicippe cannot lie taken as the type, for that species 
must be reserved for Xanthidla (18"29). The other species referred to 
it belonging to the genus Eurema (1816), Cebrene may be taken aa 
the type. 

2. Abantis. 

1855. Ilopff. Verh. Akad. Wissensch. Berl. 643: tettensis. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

3. Abisaka. 

18G0. Feld., "Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 397 : Echerius (Kausambi), 
Savitri, Damajanti. 

18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. ix. 413: extends the 
genus, but includes in it only the former two of the orig- 
inal species. 
Echerius may be considered the tj-pe. 

4. Abrota. 

1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 176: Mirus (Ganga). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

5. ACAPTERA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 76 : crisia. Sole species and designated 
type. 

6. AccA. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 44: Melicerta (Blandina), Agatha, Columella 
(Columena), aceris (Matuta, aceris), Sappho (Liicilla), 
Venilia, Ileliodora, Lucothoe,Ophione,Valentina, Sulpitia, 
Hera. 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1865. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 66: confines the genus to two species, 

Procris and Urdaneta, not mentioned at all by Iliibuer, 

nor very closely related to the original types, but placed 

by Kirby in the genus Limenitis. They have therefore 

nothing to do with Acca. 

Felder in his Neues Lepidopteron divides the genus Neptis into seven 

sections, the fif'tli containing the species Venilia. It is to this group 

that I would restrict HuLner's generic nanrie Acca, with Veuilia for 

type. See Procris. 

7. ACENTROCNEME. 

Feld. MS., in a copy of Feld., Lep. Fragra. 46: Kollari. 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
Proposed by the author, in a copy of his work sent to Frauenfeld, as 
a substitute for .^giale (q. v.) preoccupied. I do not find it publislied 
anywhere. 

8i ACHALARUS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 50: Lycidas. Sole species and designated 
type. 

9. ACHILLIDES. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 85 : Bianor, Paris, Ilelenus, Severus, Deiphobus 
(Deiphobus, Alcandor), Agcnor* (Achates, Alcanor). 
Paris may be considered as the type. 

10. ACHLYODE^. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 107 : Busiris (Busiris, Bucolus), Thraso, Freder- 

icus (Fridericus). 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 524: employs it for several species, 

including, of HUbner's, all excepting Busiris. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 285: employs it for several species, 

including, of Hiibner's, only Busiris. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 98: designates Busiris as type, but 

wrongly, on account of Westwood's action. 
1872. Scudd., Syst, Rev. 50 [Achylodes] : does the same, with similar 
error. See also Helias. 

The three species placed by Hiibner in this group belong to as many 
genera ; and therefore, as Thraso was taken as type of Eantis (q. v.) in 
183G, Fredericus must be the type of this. 

11. ACHXA.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80: proposed for Ilelias, for no reason 
whatever. Ilelias (q. v.) falls for lack of members. 

* Placed also by Hiibner, in the same work, in Iliades. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 101 

12. Acid ALIA. 
181 G. Ilubn., Verz. 31: Cybele, Aglaia (Aglaja), Adippe, Niobe, 

Niphe. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Br. Lep. 13, 258 : uses the name for the three 

middle species, Aglaja, Adippe, Niobe. 
1858. Kii'b., List Br. Rhop. : employs it for the same and others. 

These, however, as well as Cybele, all belong to the earlier Argyn- 
nis. Niphe may therefore be taken as the type. 

13. ACOLASTUS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 50 : Savignyi. Sole species and designated 
type. See Polygonus. 

14. ACONTHEA.* 

1820. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. (expl. plates) : Adonia 

(Lubentina), Alankara, Aconthea (primaria). 
1829-30. lb., Zool. Journ. xvii. 65: Cocytiua, Coresia (Apaturina), 
Nero (Thyria). 
Being founded upon the name of one of the species included in 
the group,* the name falls, and cannot properly be used ; moreover, the 
name Acontia (Hiibn., Lep. 1816) is, perhaps, too closely allied. See 
Adolias. 

15. Acontia.* 
1847-48. Westw., Cab. Or. Ent. 76, pi. 37 : Siva (Doubledayi). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
The species has, however, been made the tj-pe of the genus Neuro- 
sigma (q. v.), and the generic name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera 
(Hiibn. 181(3). 

16. ACR^A. ' 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 284 : Horta, Terpsichore, Bellona (Bras- 
solis). 
The first two species are Acraeans, as understood in recent times ; 
the last, however, is a Pierid. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 92 : places five species under this generic name, 
none of which have any thing whatever to do with the 
Fabrician group ; most of them are Pierids. His genus 
Telchinia corresponds in general to the Fabrician Acrosa. 
Later authors have retained the Fabrician name for 
this group. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: specifies horta as type. 

* The first citation is undoubtedly the earlier. 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

17. ACUOPIITHALMIA. 

1861. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. v. 305 [Acrophtalmia] : Arte- 
mis. Sole species, and therefore type. 

18G7. lb., Reise Novara, 486: corrects the name to Acrophthalmia, 
and it is so used by Kirby. 

18. ACTIXOTE. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 27: Thalia, Gea (Eptea), Euryta (Eurita), 

Amosis (Amesis). 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 142: retains it for Thalia and seven 

others, placed in two sections. 
1869. Bull., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 128 : employs it for Thalia only. 

Nevertheless Thalia cannot be designated as the type (see Calornis) ; 
nor can Amosis, because it was placed in Alesa in 18i7. Euryta may 
be taken as the type. 

19. AcuLnuA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. Lep. 301 : Cinaron. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
The name is proposed in place of Dryas Feld., nee Boisd., nee Iliibn. 

20. Adelpha. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 42: Mesentina, Basilea (basilis), Tphicla, Ple- 
sanre, Cocala, Cytherea (Elea, Cytherea), Phliasus 
(Phliase). 

1865. ITerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 66: employs it for Irmina and five 
others, of which only Mesentina (Mesenteria) is mentioned 
by IlUbner, 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. Lep. 230: employs it for all the species men- 
tioned by Hubner and Ilerrich-Schaeffer, excepting the 
last of Hiibner's, which is wrongly placed in this con- 
nection. 
Mesentina may be designated as tj'pe. 

21. Adolias. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., plates 3, 4 B. : Aconthea [larva only], 

Dirtea (Boisduvalii). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. INIus. 102 : places a number of species in the 

genus, among them Aconthea. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 103 

1850. "V\^est\v., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 289 : places twenty-five species iu 

the genus, among them Aconthea, which he specifies as 

type.* 
1861. FelcL, Neues Lep. 34: divides the genus into ten sections, the 

fii-st of which he names Itanus, and places in it Aconthea 

and four others. See Aconthea. 

22. Adop^ea. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : Thaumas (linea) and a MS. species. 
Thaumas is therefore the type See Pehon. 

23. iEciALE.* 

18G0. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 110: KollurL Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
This generic term is too close to ^gialia (Latr., Col. 1807) ; and 
probably for this reason in a copj' of the Lepidopterologische Fragmente 
in my possession the name is erased, and Acentrocneme (q. v.) sub- 
stituted. 

24. M^lO^X. 

1868. Ilewits., Exot. Butt. iv. 64 : Amathusia. Sole species, and 
therefore ty^^e. 

25. iEoLA.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : Iris, Ilia, Bolina (Lascinassa, Bolina), 
and a MS. species. 
No matter which species is chosen as the type, tlie genus is preoc- 
cupied. See Apatm'a and Potamis. 

26. Aeria. 

1816. IliJbn., Verz. 9: Nasica, Reckia (Reckii), Aegle, Eumelia 
(Vociila), assarica (asarica). 
The first species is a moth, and Eumelia is very distinct from the 
others. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 149: places six species in this group, 
among which are Aegle and Reckia of Iliibner's list. 

1847. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lej^- 126: places four species in the group, 
of which Aegle is the only one of the original species of 
Iliibner's. 
Aegle then should be the type. See Choridis. 

* It may seem out of place to some to consider a species as type, when 
reference is originally made to the larva only; but the entire force of the objec- 
tion is lost, when we remember that generic distinctions are as easily traceil in 
tlie larva as in the imago. 



104 ^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

27. ^Erodes. 
1820. Dalm. in BDlb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Idomeneus. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
If, liowever, this species is strictly congeneric with Eurylochus, the 
genus will tail before the earlier Caligo (q. v.). 

28. -^iIropetes.* 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Licus (Licas), Tulbaghia. 

There is a Castnian with the name of the first species, and it is prob- 
ably tlie insect meant hy Billberg, although the species is Drury's, and 
not Fabriciiis's, as stated by the writer. The group as tiius constituted 
consists of wholly incongruous material, and may be discarded. See 
Meneris. 

29. -3Etheius. 

1816. HUbn., Verz. 109 : Pretus, Archytas, Meris. 

Archytas may be selected as type, although belonging to a different 
family from the other two; for it alone belongs to the group in which 
Hiibner placed this genus. 

30. JEthilla. 

1868. Hewits., Hesp. 55 : Eleusinia. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
1870. Bull., Eut. Monthl. Mag. vii. 57 : designates Eleusinia as 
type. 

31. Aganisthos.* 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 B. : Odius (Orion). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in same sense by subsequent authors. Probably, however, it 
must fall before Historis (q. v.) 

32. Agapetes. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : Galathea, Lachesis. 

Galathea may be taken as type. See Mclanargia, Satyrus, and Arge. 

33. AGATinNA.* 

1843. "White, Zool. i. 28 : 3Iargaretta. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
The name is, however, preoccupied in mollusks (Raf. 1881). 

34. Ageronia. 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 42: Ami^hinome, Arethusa (Laodamia), Feronia, 
Chloe. 

Subsequent usage has been in accordance with thia. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. • 105 

1861. Feld., Neucs Lep. 17 : divides the genus into four sections, the 
fourth of which, unnamed, contains only the last species 
mentioned by Iliibner. 
Chloe may therefore be considered as the type. See Peridromia. 

35. Aglais. 

1816. Dalm., Vetonsk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 56, 64: lo, Antiopa, 
Polychloros, urticC3, c. album, Atalanta, cardui; urticte 
specified as type. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 16 : also specifies urticoe as type. 

36. Aglaura.* 

1851. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 327: Westwood gives 
this as a MS. synonyme of Zeuxidia (q. v.). 
It is preoccupied in Acalcphs (Pc'r.-Les. 1809) and Worms (Sav. 
1817). 

37. Agkaulis. 

1833-4. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Am. Sept. 142: vanillae. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 6 B. : Moneta. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 7 : separates two sections, the first includmg 

vanillse and Juno, the second Moneta. 

38. Aguiades. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 68: Endymion (Daphnis), Laius (Cajus), Pa- 
noptes, Argiolus, Ladon, Admetus, Orbitulus, Corydon, 
Dorylas (Dorylas, Golgus), Thetis (Adonis), Alexis 
(Agestis), Chiron (Eumedon), Icarus (Icarius). 

1850. Steph., Cat. Br. Lep. 19, 261 : places in it Corydon, Thetis 
(Adonis), Alexis, Dorylas, and Icarus (Icarius, Eros). 

1858. Ivirb., List Br. Rhop. : places in it Argiolus, Corydon, Alexis 
(Agestis), and Artaxerxes (Salmacis, Artaxerxes). 

The species mentioned by Stephens and Kirby seem to belong to 
the earlier Rusticus, and hence liave no effect. Orbitulus may be taken 
as the type. 

39. Agrias. 

1844. Boisd. in Doubl., List Br. INIus. 106 : Claudia, Blomfildia 

(Blomfildia, bella). 
1848. Boisd. MS. by Doubl. in Ilewits., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. xvi. 

45: iEdon. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 14 



106 . PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1850. Westw,, Gen. Diurn. Lep. 298 : Claudia, iEdon. He credits 
Boisduval with the name, hut restricts the group to one 
of his MS. sections. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 52 : claims the name, and refers iEdon 

to it. 

1871. Kirh., Sjn. Cat. 2G5 : uses it for Claudia, iEdon, and others. 

Claudia may be considered as the tjpe through Westwood. The 
name is rather close .to Agria, used in Uiptera (Rob.-Desv. 1830). 

40. AGRODIiETUS. 

1825. Iliibn., Catal. Franck, 82: Semiargus (acis), Cyllarus (Damce- 
tas), Argiolus, lolas, Damon, Endjmion (Daphnis), Ai-cas 
(Erebus), Corydon, Orbitulus, Icarius, Dor3-las, Thetis 
(Adonis), Icarus (Alexis), Argus, Ilylas, Optilete, Ar- 
giades (Polysperchon;, Bceticus, roboris (Evippus), Vir- 
gaureffi, Gordius, Thersamon, Phla^as, Ballus, Hippothoe 
(Chryseis), Alciphron (Ilipponoe), Spini, Strephon (Sich- 
eus), Quercus, W. album, ilicis (Lynceus), Beon, Eury- 
tulus, Ilemon (Ilemon, Acmon), Atys, Marsyas, betulas 
(betuli), imperialis (Venus), Helius (Eurisus). 
Damon may be taken as the type. 

41. Aides.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : Epitus (Epithus), Phocus (Phocas), 
Proteus. 
This name is preoccupied through Aidos (Hiibn., Lep. 1816). 

42. AiLus.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : proposes, without reason, to use this 
name for Zelima (q. v.). 

43. Ajantis. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 13: Sappho, Antiochus (Antiocha), Pasithoe 
(Hecale). 
Sappho, which is genericaUy distinct from the others, may be taken 
as tlie type. 

44. Al^na. 
1847. Boisd., Voy. Delag. ii. 591 : Amazonia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. . 107 

45. Alazonia.* 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 46: Cjdippe, Cyane (Penthesilea, Simbiblis). 

Unless Cyane should prove generically distinct from Cj dippe, as 
scarcely seems probable, this name must fall before Cethosia (q- v.). 

46. Alcidis.* 

1860. Feld., "Wien. Ent. Monatsclir. iv. 250 : Liris. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

But the name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera (Hiibn. 181G). [See 
Appendix, p. 293.] 

47. Alctoxeis.* 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 35: Asterie, Almana (Almane). 

This name falls before Junonia of the same author, both its species 
being generically identical with those of Junonia. 

48. Alesa. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 1 : Amosis (Priolas), Prema. 

Subsequent authors (Westwood, Bates, Kirby) having always 
placed Prema first on the now more extended list of species, it may be 
considered as type. 

49. Algia.* 

1865. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 77 : Satyrina. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

But the species is inedited and the genus undescribed, its place only 
indicated as between Lachnoptera and Messaras; consequent!}' the 
name must be dropped. 

50. Allotinus. 

1865. Boisd. in Feld., Reise Novara, 285 : Fallax, major, subvio- 
laceus, iinicolor, albatus. 

The first species being the only one credited to Boisduval, that must 
be considered the type. 

51. Al<eides. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 73 : Thyra, Pierus. 
Pierus may be taken as the type. 

52. Amarynthis. 

181 6. Hiibn., Yerz. 26 : Meneria (Menaria). Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
The genus has always been used in this sense. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

53. Amartssus.* 

1816. Dalm., Vctensk. Acad. Handl. xxxvii. GO, 85: Machaon. 

Sole species and designated type. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. : applies it wrongly to other swallow-tails. 
But Macliaon had earlier been specified as type of Princeps, and 
therefore this genus falls, and cannot again be employed. See Papilio. 

54. Amatiiusta. 

1807. Fabr., El. Mag. vi. 279 : PMdippus. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
It has always been used in this sense. See Mitocerus. 

o5. Amauris. 
181 G. Hiihn., Verz. 14: Niavius (Niavia), Egialea, Echeria. 
1866. Reak., Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc. Philad. 33 : uses it in the same 

sense, adding another species. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 8: emjjloys it similarly. 
Niavius may be considered as the type. 

56. Ajiblygonia.* 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 308: Eumajus (Agathon), Amarynthina. 
Falls before No theme, and is preoccupied (Herr.-Schaeff., Lep. 1855). 

57. Amblypodia. 

1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 98: I. Narada; II. 
Vivarna; III. Apidanus, Centaums, JEdias (Ilelus), 
Eumolphus ; IV. Phocides (Sugriva) ; V. Vulcanus, 
Loliita, Syama, Timoleon (Rochana), Jalindra, Lon- 
ginus, Erylus, Jangala, Vidura, Etolus. 

1847. Doubl., List Brit. Mas. 23 : uses it for Narada, Apidanus, 
Centaurus (Pseudocentaurus), Eumolphus, Timoleon 
(Rochana), Longinus, Jangala, Vidura, and others which 
are mostly MS. species. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 477 : employs it for all these and 
others, specifying Centaurus, Apidanus, ^dias (Ilelus), 
and Anthelus — the last only not previously mentioned 
— as the types. 

1868. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. ii. 18: gives Narada and two others. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 14: specifies Narada as the type, but incor- 
rectly, through Westwood's previous limitation. 

187L Kirb., Syn. Cat. 419 : employs it for a largo number of species, 
including the four types mentioned by Westwood. 
Apidanus may be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 109 

58. Amblysciutes. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Eev. 54: vialis, Ilegon (Siimoset), Tolteca. 
The first species specified as type. 

59. Amecera.* 
18G7 (March). Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [8] xix. 1G3: Megcera 

(Megajra, Lyssa), Tigelius, Mnera, Eversmanii, Iliera, 
Schakra (Shakra), IMenara, Baldiva. 
The author s:iys that Dira of Iliibner " cannot be adopted, as it in- 
cludes several distinct forms, the type species moreover being a true 
Lasiommata." 

18G7 (June). lb., Entom. iii. 280: Megcera. 

1868. lb., Ent. Montlil. Mag. iv. 195 ; Cat. Sat. 123 : specifies Me- 
gjEra as the type. 
The name must fall before Lasiommata (q.v.), unless some of the 
species first mentioned by Butler should prove to be generically distinct 
from Meg^ra ; this is hardly probable. Dira of Hiibner contains repre- 
resentatives of three different genera, and can be retained for one of 
them. 

GO. Ahechania.* 

18G1. riewits., Exot. Butt. ii. 87 : incerta. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
18G1. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Ex. Schra. pt. 39: incerta. The genus is to be 
credited to Ilewitson, since Ilerrich-SchaefFer does so in 
his Prodromus. 
The genus, however, according to Butler, is strictly congeneric with 
Zethera, which has precedence by one month. Amecluuiia must there- 
fore drop, and cannot again be employed. 

61. Ammiralis.* 
1832. Renn., Consp. 10: Atalanta. Sole species, and therefore type. 
The genus falls before Vanessa. See also Pyrameis and Bassaris. 

G2. Amnosia. 

1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 88: decora. Sole si^ecies, 
and therefore type. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 259 : makes the same use of it, but 
accredits the generic name to Boisduval, in whose name 
it must therefore stand. Sec Leptoptera. 

63. AMPHICnLORA. 

1861. Fcld., Neucs Lep. 19 [as section of Ageronia] : Feronia 
(Feronia, Epinomc), Ferentina, Fornax. 



110 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

18G5. Herr.-ScIiaefF., Prodr, i. 7G: Chloe. The generic name is 
credited to Boisduval ! 
Feroaia may be taken as the type. 

64. Amphidecta. 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 404: pignerator. Sole 
species, and tlierefore type. 

65. Amphidema. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 27 : Beckeri. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

66. Amphirene.* 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 86: Trayja (Traja), Epaphus. 

1848. lb., Gen. Diuru. Lep., pi. 32: Epaj)hus. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 43 : Epaphus (Epaphea) and others. 
This name falls before Slproeta (q. v.)- 

67. Amphrisius.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 98 : Pompeus (Nymphalides). 

Amphrisius is one of the synonymes of this species ; and the gen- 
eric name being fomided upon it falls, and cannot be employed. See 
Troidos. 

68. Amtcla.* 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 223 : Taurione and three more to 

wliich a query is attached ; namely, Orphise (Orphise 
Triphosa), Amycla, and Cojlina. 

It is employed for Taurione and another species by Felder (Neues 
Lepid.) ; but, being founded upon the name of one of the species origi- 
nally hicluded in it, it falls, notwithstanding that Doubleday expressly 
says that the species Amycla may belong to Cybdelis. 

69. Amynthia. 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 65 : Chlorinde (Swainsonia), Mae- 

rula (Merula) ; type specified as Morula. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. i. 70 : proposes that it should be used 
for the American species placed by him in Gonepteryx, 
which includes both of the above. (See also Rhodocera.) 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 35, 45 : indicates Chlorinde (Swainsonia) as 
type, but of course erroneously. 
This generic name must be retained, because Anteos (q. v.) is vir- 
tually preoccupied. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Ill 

70. Anadedis. 
1867. But!., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 50 : Himachala. Sole 
species, and therefore type, as subsequently indicated by 
the same writer. See also Theope. 

71. AnvEa. 
1816. IlUbn., Verz. 48: Tro^lodyta (Troglodita), Morvus (Laertias, 
Acidalia),Leonida, llhipheus (lliphea). The last is not a 
butterfly. 
TrogloJyta may be taken as tlie type. 

72. AxAPii^is. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 93 : Creona, Chloris, Java (Coronea). 
Creona may be taken as the type. 

73. AXARTIA. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 33 : Arsinoe, Jatroplise, Amalthea (Amathea). 
1849. Doubl., Gen. Diuru. Lep. 214 : divides the group into two 
sections, in the first of which he places Jatrophce and in 
the second Lytrea (Lytrssa), and others, including Amal- 
thea (Amathea) ; the group is equivalent, he says, to 
Boisduval's MS. genus Cela^na (see Celoena). 
Felder adopts the same division, and we may therefore restrict the 
group to the first division, and consider Jatroplia3 as the type. 

74. Anastrus. 

1822-26. riUbn., P^x. Schm. ii. : Corbulo (obscurus). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Tliis may stand, though it is worth stating that Ilubner had pre- 
viously (Verz. 181(i) placed this species in two other and different 
genera. See Cela;norrhinus and Talides. 

75. Anatole. 

1816. IIubn.,Verz. 24: Zygia, Penthea. 

These two species not being congeneric, and this generic term liav- 
ing been retained by ditTerent authors, such as Doubleday, Westwood, 
Bates, Kirby, for the first species, it may be considered as the type. 

76. Anchtphlebia.* 
1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195 : Arclicea. Sole species, 
and specified type. 
Tails before Anlirrhea (qv.); Butler's objection to Antirrhca, that 
it was not characterized by its author, may lie urged just as strongly 
against many of Boisduval's genera, accepted by him. 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

77. Ancistrocampta. 

1862. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatsclir. vi. 183: Hiarbas (Sylllus). 
Sole species, and therefore type, as stated subsequeutlj bj 
Butler. 

78. Ancyloxypha. 

1862. Feld., Verb, zool.-bot. Gesellseb. Wien, xii. 477 : ITumitor, 

corades. Numitor is speciiied as type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 53 : also specifies Numitor as type. 

79. Ancyluris. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 23: Tedea, Aulestes (Pyrete), Feriander (Peri- 
andra). 

Kirby (Syn. Cat.) has usetl this terra ia the place of Erycina (preoc- 
cupied), placing in it the first two species, which are not congeneric, 
and others. 

Tedea belongs to Zeonia (1832-33), Periander was taken in 1837 as 
the type of Diorina, and hence Aulestes must be taken as the type. 
See Rodinia. 

80. Andropodum. '' 

1825. IlUbn., Catal. Franck, 84: crattegi, Ilaire (Margarita), Ly- 
cimmia (Limnoria), Monuste ? (Pseudomonuste), Pyrrha 
(Eieidias), Eucbaris, Tereas, Eurota, [?] Bunice (Endeis), 
cbeirantbi, brassica?, napi (napi, bryonia?), Callidice, 
Anguitia, Daplidice, Belemia, Ausonia (Belia, Ausonia), 
Eupbeno, cardamines, sinapis (latbyri), Phiale, Albula, 
Elatbea, Delia (Daira), Nise, Croceus (Edusa), Cbryso- 
tbeme, Ilyale, Pliicomene, Palajno, Ai-gante (Hersilia), 
Pbilea, Eubule (Eubule, Sennce), Cipris (Cypris), Statira 
(Evadne), Cleopatra, rhamni, and a MS. species. 
Ilaire may be taken as the type. 

81. Anelia. 

1822-26. Hubn., Exot. Scbmett. ii.: Numida (Numidia). Sole spe- 
cies, and tberefore type. 

1827-37. Gey. in Iliibn., Exot. Scbmett. iii. : Tbirza. See Clothilda 
and Synalpe. 

82. Anemeca. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 179: Elirenbergii. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. See also Morpbeis. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 113 

83. Anops.* 

1836. Boisd., S|x;c. gen., pi. 7 C. : Thetijs (Phtedrus). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Since used by Doubleday and Westwood, but the name is preoccu- 
pied in Crustacea (Oken, 1815), and Reptiles (Bell, 1833). See also 
Curetis and riiasdra. 

84. Anosia. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 16: Erippus (Archippe, Erippe), Misippus 
(iMisippe), Gilippus (Menippe, Vincedoxici, Eresima). 
As ]\Iisippus is totally distinct from the other species of this genus 
as well from the group to which it belongs (having been placed 
liere on account of its mimetic resemblance), it can in no case be con- 
sidered or made the type of the genus ; tlie other species not being 
strictly congeneric, and Erippus being already excluded, from its rela- 
tion to Danaida, Gilippus must be taken as the type. 

85. AxTEOS.* 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 99: rhamni, IMierula, Cleopatra. 

This name must be dropped, from its too close resemblance to Anteoa 
(.Jurine, Hym. 1807). See Amynthia and Colias. 

86. Anteros. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 77 : formosus, Achieus. 

It has since been used (Doubleday, 'Westwood, Bates, Kirby) in 
the same sense. Formosus may be taken as the type. 

87. Anthene.* 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 27 : Galathea, Larydas. 

This term is too close to Anthenea (Gray, Echin. 1840) to be 
employed. 

88. ANxnocHAKis. 

1836. Boisd., Spec. gdn. 556 : I. Belemia (Belemia, Glauce), 
Ausonia (Belia, Ausonia, Simplonia), Tagis, Eu[)heno, 
Damone, cardaminea, Genutia ; II. chlleiisis ; III. sub- 
fasciata; IV. Evantlie, EuchDris, Evai-ue, Dana?, Eu- 
pompe, Achine (Antevippe, Achine), Antigone, Evippe, 
Omphale, Theogone, Etrida, Phlegetonia, Delphine, 
Eione, Daira, Evagore, Epliyia (Ephya), Liagore, Euli- 
mene, Aretliusa, Cebrene, Ocale. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 56: places in Antliocharis (sens, 
strict.) ten species, including Belemia and Genutia. 
As Euchloe (q. v.) must be used for the European species, Genutia 
may be considered the type of this genus. See also Midea. 
VOL. X. ('2d s. II.) 15 



114 PEOCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

89. Anthomaster. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 57: Leoaardus, Uncas. Leonardus speci- 
fied as type. 

90. Anthopsyche. 

1857. "Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 10: I. Achine, Omphale, Evcnina, 
Procne, Phlegetonia, Gavisa ; II. Eupompe, Dance, 
Evarne, Eucharis, Agoye, Eris, lone (Jone, speciosa). 

We propose restricting this group to the first section, with Achine aa 
type. For the second section, see Callosune. 

91. Anthora.* 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 99 : Eurinome. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
This generic name falls before Euxanthe, and is preoccupied in 
Crustacea (Leach, 1813). See also Godartius. 

92. Antigonis.* 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 21 : Pharsalia. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. Used subsequently by Herrich-SchaefFer and 
Kirby in the same sense. 

This name is preoccupied in several ways by the following names : 
Antigonus (IlUbn., Lep. 1816), Antigona (Sclium., Moll. 1817), and 
Antigonia (Lowe, Fishes, 1844). Kirby has proposed the name Lin- 
coya (q. V.) for this group. 

93. Antigonus.. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 108 : IJearchus (ustus), Erosus. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Mouthl. Mag. vii. 98 : designates Nearchus as the 

type. See also Choetoneura. 

94. Antirrhea. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii: Archsea. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 121 : Archtea, Philoctetes. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 365 : uses it in the same sense. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195 ; and Cat. Satyr. 107 : gives 
Philoctetes as type, but of course erroneously. 
He afterwards founded the genus Anchyphlebia upon Archaea, 
because Hiibner's genus was not characterized ; but see remarks under 
Anchyphlebia. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 38 : uses the genus in its proper sense. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 115 

95. Apatura. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 280 : Iris, Bolina, Alimena. 

In 1806, Iliibner (Tent.) selected Iris as type of Potamis ; consequently 
Apatura must be restricted to the other two, which are congeneric, and 
Bolina may be taken as the type. This, however, is not in accordance 
with subsequent usage, as will be seen by the following: — 

1815. Leach, Edlnb. Encycl. 718 : gives Iris only. 

181 G. Oclis., Sclimett. Eur. iii. 19 : gives Iris and Ilia; but he was 
restricted to these from the nature of the case. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 35 : uses it for Bisaltide and a number of others, 

none of which have any thing to do with the Fabrician 
members of the genus. 

1831, Curtis, lirit. Ent., pi. 338: designates Iris as type. 

1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 402 : uses it for Iris and 

Ilia. 
1833-4. Boisd.-LeC, Lcp. Am. Sept. 206: refer Idyia (Clyton) and 

celtis to it. 
1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81 : proposes to spell it Apaturia. 
1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. H7 : specifies Iris as type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 108 : refers to it Iris, Ilia, and Clyton. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 302 : regards Iris and Ilia as types. 
1861. Feld.. Neues Lep. 36: divides the group into six sections, to 

the first of wliich he gives the name of Apatura par 

excellence^ with Iris, Ilia, and Namouna (Ambika) as 

species. 
187L Kirb., Syn. Cat. 259: uses it in the extended Feldcrian sense, 

arranging the species in the same order. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66 : says Iris is type, on account of 

Oc'hsenheimer's limitation, overlooking the work of his 

own countryman, Leach. 

This result is from want of familiarity with Hiibner's Tentamen. 
See also Esoptria, jEola, Hypolimnas, Piadema, and Potamis. 

96. Apatukia.* 

1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81 : proposes this name as an etymo- 
logical correction for Apatura (q. v.). 

97. ApATuniNA. 

1865. Ilerr.-Schacff., Prodr. i. 75 : Erninea. Sole species, and thero- 
fore type. 



116 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

98. Apaustus. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 113: Meaes. Sole species, and therefore type. 
Butler and Kirby use it subsequently in the same sense. 

99. ArnAciTis. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 19: Lusca, Lucinda (Dyndima). 

Lusca, though Iliibner's si:)et:ies, was not published until after his 
death, and hence we must take Lucinda as the type. See Nelone. 

100. Apiiantopus.* 
1853. "Wallengr., Lep. Scand. Rhop. 30: Hyperanthus. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
Falls before Hipparchia (q-v.). 

101. Apiix^uS. 
1816. IlUbn., Verz. 81 : Vulcanus, Orcas. 

1847. Doubl., List Brit. Miis. 25 : employs it for a number of species, 

including both of Iliibner's. 
1858. IIorsf.-Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 37: employ it for both 
Iliibner's species and others. 
Ilerricli-Schaeffer, Butler, and Kirby also use it for both of Iliibner's 
species with othei's. Orcas may be taken as type. 

102. Apiirissa. 

1873. Butl., Lep. Esot. 155 : Statira. Sole species and designated 
type. 

103. Aphrodite.* 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 95 : Evippe, Dauae (Eborea). 

This name is preoccupied by Aphrodita (Linn., Worms, 1735). See 
Callosune. 

104. Apodemia.* 
1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 302: Mormo, virgulti (Sonorensis). 

This name also is preoccupied by Apodemus (Kaup, i^Jammals, 182-3). 

105. Aporia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 90: crat£8gi. Sole species, and therefore type. 
It has frequently been used (Stephens, Wallengren, Staudinger, 
Westwood) in the same sense. See Leuconea and Pieris. 

106. Apostrapiiia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 13: Ricini, Bellona (Brassolis), Charithonia 
(Charitonia). 
Bellona (not a Heliconian at all) was placed here by error. Chari- 
thonia may be taken as type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 117 

107. Appias. 

181 G. Hiibn., Yerz. 91 : Zelmira, Achine. 

As Achine is needed as type of Anthopsyche, Zelmira may be con- 
sidered tlie type of this group. 

108. Apkotopos.* [Aprotopus in Index.] 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 19: iEdesia, Ceto, Melantho, Pytbo 

iEdesia being tlie necessary type of Xanthocleis, tliis name must 
fall, unless one of the other species should prove generically distinct. 

109. Arasciinia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 37: Levana (Levana, Prorsa). Sole sj^ecies, 
and tberefore type. 

110. Arcas.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 88: impericdis. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Must this name fall before Evenus? (q.v-) 

111. Arciiox. 

1822. Iliibn., Syst.-Alph. Verz. : Macbaon (Macbaon, Spbyrus), 
JMedisicaste, Mnemosyne, Phoebus, Podalirius (Poda- 
lyrius), Polyxena, Rumina, ApoUinus (Thia). 
ApoUinus may be taken as the type. See Doritis. 

112. AnciioxiAS. 
1825. HUbn., Zutr. iii. 19: Tereas (Marcias). Sole species, and 
therefore type. See Euterpe. 

113. Aresta. 
1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Iiis. 79: Amcstris, Idalia, Ariadne, As- 
terie, C'loantba, Laomedia. 
Laomedia may be selected as tlie type of this genus. 

114. Arge.* 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. GO: occitanica (Psycbe), Arge (Ampbitrite), 
Thetis (Inis), llussiie (Clotlio), Lachesis, Galatbea. 
This generic term has been used largely by subsequent authors 
(Boisduval, Duponcliel, Stephens, Doubleda\-, Westwood, Rambur.etc), 
always in noarl}' the same sense ; and Butler and Grote even cite occi- 
tanica (Syllius Butl., Psyclie Grote) as the type; but tlic name cannot 
stand : first, because founded upon a name "tised for one of the original 
species; and, second, because preoccupied in Ilymenoptera (Scinank, 
1801J. See Agapetes and Melanargia. 



118 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

115. Argus.* 

17G4. GeoflTr., Hist, des Ins. ii. Gl : employs the term Les Argus at 
the head of a division of blues ; but it can have no weight 
as a generic name, because it is used simply as a French 
word, as Les Estropies is for the next division, of skippers. 

1111 . Scop., Introd. 432 : employs it for more than fifty species, 
having no common and distinctive structural bond ; they 
are divided into four sections, all of them almost equally 
heterogeneous in composition, each, excepting the last, 
containing members of every family of butterflies except- 
ing the U rbicoliB. The name must therefore be dropped, 
and not be employed again in any sense. [The species 
Argus was not included in the genus by Scopoli.] 
Boisduval also uses it in his Species general, but is not followed in 
this use by many other authors. 

181G. Lam., Hist. Nat. An. sans Vert. iv. 21 : employs it for Argy- 
rognomon (vulgaris), Corydon, and others. One of the 
synonymes of Argyrognomon is Argus, so that if it 
be considered that the name was founded anew in this 
instance, it must be dropped, because based on a specific 
name. 

1832. Dup., Pap. de France, Diurn. Suppl. 388 : Battus and many 
others. 

1832. Boisd., Icon. 49 : employs it for the blues of Europe, appending 
his own name as authority ! 

1832. lb., Voy. Astrol. 90: Cleotas (Poeta). 

1833. lb., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. ii. 171 : Lysimon. 
1833-34. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Amer. Sept. 113 : Ilanno (Filenus), etc. 
1838-39. Krause, Fann. Thur. 60: uses it for Blues and Coppers. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 6: wrongly attempts to revive the name, 

calling Eurydice, one of Scopoli's species, the type. 

IIG. AUGYNNINA. 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 165: Hobartia, Latho- 

niella. 
18G8. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 19G : Ilobartia specified as type. 

117. Argtnnis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 283 : I. Paphia, Maia (Cynara), Laodice 
(Cethosia), Aglaja; II. Liriope, Tluiros (Morpheus), 
Hermes. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 119 

1810. Latr., Consul. 440: specifies Papliia aud Cinxia as types; but 
Paphia, the only one of these specified by Fabricius, can- 
not be the type, because already the type of Dryas (q.v.). 

1815. Leach, Ediiib. Encycl. 717: restricts it to the first of the Fa- 
brician sections. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 734 :■ gives it the same restriction, as have all 

subsequent authors. 

1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 57, GG : 1. Paphia, 

Aglaja, Adippe, Niobe, Lathonia (Latonia) ; II. Aphi- 
rape, Selene, Euphrosyne, Amathusia, lapponica (Freja), 
Pales, Dia, Chariclea (Carichlea), Frigga, Ino, Thore. 
Adippe specified as type, but of course erroneously. 

181 G. Hiibn., Verz. 30: Aphirape and its allies. 

1820. Oken, Lehrb. f. Schulen, 790: Aglaja only. 

1830. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 290: specifies Aglaja as type. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 88: wrongly specifies Paphia as type. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 24: specifies Aglaja as type. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GG : again specifies Paphia as type. See 
also Argyronome. 

118. ARGYnEA.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : vanillic, Lathonia, Niobe, Adippe, 
Aglaia (Aglaja), Paphia, Maia (Cynara), Niphe, Pha- 
lanta [?] (Pharantha), Aphirape, Selene, Euphrosyne, 
Pales, Gersenii, Ino, Thore, Amathusia, lapponica 
(Freja), Frigga. 
This terra is preoccupied by Argyreus (Scop., Lep. 1777) and Ar- 
gyria (Iliibn., Lcp. 181G). 

119. Argyreus.* 

1777. Scop., Introd. 431 : Niphe and twenty-six others in two sec- 
tions, tlie former of which is divided into live, and the latter 
into three subsections ; but they are all brought together 
in such a confused manner, and formed of sucli utterly 
incongruous material, even to what must have been the 
sense of the naturalists of his own day, that the genus 
must fall into merited oblivion. Subsection c of section A 
contains, for example, the following species among others: 
Rumina [Papilionides], vanilke [Nymphales], and Cupido 
[Ruralcs]. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

120. Argyronome. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 32: Lampetia, Phalanta (Colurabina), Laodice, 
Papliia, Mala (Pandora), Ilostilia (Orthosia). , 

1850. Steph., Cat. Br. Lep. 13, 258: uses it for Paphia, Aphrodite, 

and Cybele ; but Papilla, tlie only one of Hiibner's spe- 
cies, is the type of Dryas. * 
Should Laodice prove generically distinct from the species of tlie 
genera Dryas and Argynnis, this name may be reserved for it; other- 
wise it will fall. 

121. Argtrophenga. 

1848. Doubl., List Br. Mas., App. 31: antipodum. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in this sense by subsequent writers. 

122. Argyrophorus. 

1852. Blanch., Gay's Chili, vii, 30: argenteus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
So used by Cutler. 

123. Ariiopala. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 75 : Phryztis. Sole species, and there- 

fore type. 

124. Ariadxe.* 

1829. Horsf , Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co., expl. pi. : Ariadne 
(Coryta). Sole species, and therefore type. 

1833. Boisd., Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. 201 : specifies Merione and 

Coryta as types. 
But, being founded upon the name of its original species, the generic 
name must be dropped, and not be brouglit again into use. It is, more- 
over, preoccupied in Arachnids (Sav. 18-!5). See Ergolis. 

125. Aricoris. 

1851. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 449: Cepha (Epitus), 

Tisiphone, Tutana, Constantius, Theanus. 
18G8. Bates, Jourri. Linn. Soo. Lond. ix. 45G: employs it for Cepha 

(Epitus) and others. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 332 : uses it in the same sense as Bates, 
y Cepha, however, cannot be taken as type, for in 1856, through Pan- 

demos, this became the type of Boisduval's genus Orimba ; nor Theanus, 
for this is the tj-pe of Trichonis (18G5) ; Constantius is too far removed 
from the others to be looked upon as at all typical, so tint the choice 
remains, notwithstanding the action of Bates and Kirby, between Tisi- 
phone and Tutana. Wc propose that Tisiphone be considered the type, 
since it is illustrated by ^yestwood. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 121 

12G. Arisba* 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 11 : Agacles. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Preoccupied by Arisbe (Ilubn., Lep. 1816). 

127. AuiSBE. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 89: Leonidas (similis), Panope. 
Leonidas may be taken as the type. 

128. Akjiandia. 

1871. Blancli., Comptes Rend. Ixxii. 800 : Thaidina. Sole species, 

and therefore type. See Bhutauitis. 

120. Arotes.* 
1851. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 450: given by Westwood 
as a MS. synonj-me of Setabis (q. v.). 

130. Arpidea.* 
1837. Dune, For. Butt. 180: ChorincBa. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
This name must fall before Crorois (q. v.), and not be used again. 
See also Ilames. 

131. Arteurotia. 

1872. Butl.-Druce, Cist. Ent. i. 112 : tractipennis. Sole 'species and 

designated type. 

132. Artipe.* 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Gnat. 14: Eryx (Amyntor) specified as type. 

But the generic name is preoccupied by Artipus (Schunli., Col. 
1826). See Deudorix. 

133. ASCAXIDES. 
1837. Gey. in Iliibn., Zutr. v. 32 : Triopas. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

134. AsciA. 
1777. Scop., Introd. 434: cratopgi, napi, sinapis, Monuste, Polybe. 

With the exception of the hist species, which beU)ngs to the Rurales, 
the genus is comparatively homogeneous, — the only one of Scopoli's 
of which this can be said, — and it should therefore be retained for one 
of the groups included in it. See Mylothris. 

1816. Billb., Enum. Ins. 70 : gives this name to a number of species 
belonging to tlie Nymphales, nsing Scopoli's name at tlie 
same time as the author ! 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 16 



122 PEOCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1872. Scudd., Syst. E-ev. 40 : restricts the name to Monuste, and cor- 
rectly ; for Aporia removed crata^gi from this genus in 
181G, and Leptidia, sinapis in 1820. Polybe belongs to 
a different family, and must be passed over; and napi 
cannot be used, as it is needed for Pierls (q. v.). 

13.3. ASTKROPE. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. G6: Amulia, Sapphira (Sapphyra), Theanus 
r (Theane). 

Sapphira may be taken as type. See Callithea. 

136. ASTICTOPTERUS. 

1860. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 401 : Jama, Sindu. 
1870. Butl., Ent. Month]. Mag. vii. 95 : specifies Jama as type. 

137. ASTRAPTES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 103: Corytas (Corytus), Pervivax, Narcosius, 
Apastus, Enotrus, Creteus, Mercatus (Fulgurator), Aules- 
tes, Amyntas (lividus). 
Aulestes may be taken as the type. 

138. AsTYCus. 
1825. Hiibn., Catal. Franck, 85: Peleus, Mercatus (Fulgerator), 
. vitreus, Simplicius, Proteus ? Evadnes, Exadeus? Thraso, 
erosus, Tryxus, orbifei'a (orbifer?), oileus, Carthami, 
alcece (malvaj), Morpheus (Steropes), Crinisus, Augias, 
Acta;on, Thaumas (linea), Arsalte (Menalcas), Talaus, 
Phyllus, and a MS. species. 
1869. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 45, 54: suggests its employment, but 
does not indicate its membership. 
Peleus, Jlorcatus, Vitreus, Proteus, Thraso, Morpheus, Thaumas,- 
and Arsalte are specified as types of other genera. Augias may be 
taken as the type of this, since it is the only one of the true Astyci* 
not already confined to a generic name which will hold. 

139. Atalopedes. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 57 : Huron, campestris. Huron specified 
as type. 

140. Atella. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. DIurn. Lep., pi. 22: Phalanta (Eurytis). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

* Cf. Bull. Buff. Soc. Kat. So. i. 195. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 123 

1848. lb., ib. 1G5: Phalanta (Eurytis) aud five others in three sec- 
tions. 
As the figured species appeared six months before the text, it must be 
considered tlie type of the genus, as indeed it lias been virtually treated 
by subsequent writers. The name is rather close to Atela (Dej., Col. 
1833). See Phalanta and Messaras. 

141. Aterica. 

1833. Boisd., Ann. Miis. Hist. Nat. 195: Eabena. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in same sense by all subsequent writers. 

142. Athena. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 36: Peleus (Thetis). Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

According to Kirby (Syn. Cat. 220), this name is preoccupied, but 
he does not state where. See also Petreus. 

143. Athesis. 

1847. Donbl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. i. 109 : Clearista. Sole species, 
aud therefore type. 

144. Athis.* 

1816. IlUbn., Verz. 101 : Palatinus. It is not a butterfly. 

145. Athyma. 

1850, "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 272 : Leucothoe, Aceris (Eury- 
nome), Heliodora (Helicopis), Sulpitia (Strophia), opa- 
liiia, Sankara, Larymna, Venilia, taclava, Vikasi, Nefte, 
Inara, IMclaleuca, IJrebi^sonii. 

18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 32: divides the group into two sections, 
the first containing Leucothoe and Larymna, tlie second 
Nefte, Inara, and Sulpitia (Stropliia). 

1865. Ilerr.-Schaeff"., Prodr. i. G7 : uses it for Leucothoe and La- 
rymna only. 
Leucothoe as the older species may be considered as the type. 

140. Athyktis. 

1862. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 413: Mechanitis. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
Used in same way by Ilcrrich-Schaeffer and Kirby. 



124 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

147. Atlides. 
1816. riiibn., Verz. 80: Halesus (Ilalesus, Dolichus), Polybe 

(Atjs, Scamauder). 
18G9, Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 197 : uses it in the same sense. 
Halesus may be considered as the type. 

148. Atrophaneura. 

1864. Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Pliilad. iii. 446 : Semperi (Erjthro- 

soma). Sole species, and therefore type. 

149. Atrytone. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 56: Iowa, Logan, conspicua, Zabulon. 
Iowa specified as type. 

150. AUGIADES. 

1816. Iliibn,, Verz. 112: crinisus, Arcalaus, comma, sylvanus, 

Helirius, Euribates. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 23, 203 : uses it for sylvanus, comma, 

Vitellius. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : uses it for Vitellius only, but this is 

not congeneric with either sylvanus or comma. 
1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 58: overlooking the restriction 

of Stephens, calls crinisug the type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 53 : designates sylvanus as the type. 
See Erymiis. 

151. AULOCERA. 

1867. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 121: Brahminus, Saraswati, 

Padma (Padma, Avatara), Scylla. 

1868. lb.. Cat. Sat. 49 : specifies Brahminus as type. 

Is tliis name too near Autocera (Melly, Col. 1857J 1 

152. AuROTis. 
1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Handl. xxxvii. 63, 90: quercus, betu- 
la3, pruui, w. album, ilicis. 
It is given as a subgenus of Zephyrus, of which betu'je is iype. 
1863. Kirb., List Eur. Butt. 8 : roboris (P^vippus). [See also p. 293.] 
The last three of Dalman's species belonging to Thecla (q. v.) after 
the foundation of Zephyrus, quercus must be taken as the type of 
Aurotis, if it is generically distinct from betulae ; if not, Aurotis falls. 

153. AUSTROMTRINA.* 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 260 : Evagoras, Ictenus (Schraderi). 

Tliis name falls before Jalmenus. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 125 

154. AuTOcnxoN. 

1823. Iliibn., Zutr. ii. 13 : Itylus. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

155. AUTODEA.* 

1850. Boisd. MS. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 253: stated by 
Westwood to be synonymous with Ilu'oner's Luciuia, as 
used in the Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. Of course 
it died at its birth. 

15G. AUTONEMA.* 

1850. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diui'n. Lep. 2G6: AVestwood states 

that this is a MS. synonyme of Prothoe (q. v.). 
It is nowhere else referred to. 

157. AXIOCEESES. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 72 : Perion. Sole species, and therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 337 [Axiocerces] : uses it for Zeuxo and 

many others, including Perion. But see his Preface. 

158. B^OTis. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 21 : Ilisbon (Ilisbasna), Eumeus (Urauis). 
1817. Doubl., List Brit. Mus, 11 : uses it for Ilisbon and ethers, not 
including Eumeus. . 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 451 : divides the group into two 

sections, and in the second places Ilisbon. Eumeus is 
not given. 
18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lend. ix. 444 [Bccotis] : uses it for 
Ilisbon and three others. Ilisbon therefore becomes the 
type. 

15f). B.vrajARUS.* 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GO : refers this name, in a generic sense, 

to Linne, but remarks that it has not been accepted, 
because heterogeneous. 

It does not seem to me to liave ever been used, even by Linno, in a 
generic sense. 

IGO. Barbicornis. 
1823. God., Encycl. mcth. ix. 705 : basilis. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Used in same sense by Westwood, Bates, and Kirby. la it a butter- 
fly? Sec Chroma. 



126 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THi: A^IITJCAN ACADEMY 

IGl. BASILAKCniA. 

1872. ScndJ., Syst. Rev. 8 : Archippus (Disippc), Astyanas, Arte- 

mis (Arthecais). .Type specified as Astyanax. 
See also Ca'Jianira. 

1C2. Bassaris* 

1816-21. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Lea. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1821. Ilubn., Index, 4 : Itea. 

The name falls before Vanessa (q. v.). See also Ammiralis and 
Pvrameis. 

1C3. Batesia. 

1862, Fold., "Wien. Ent. Monatscbr. vi. 112: EypocMora. Sole 
species, and therefore type. See also Pandora. 

104. Battus.* 

1777. Scoj)., Introd. 4C3 : Polydamas and a great number of 
■wholly unrelated species, divided into six sections. 

The utterly heterogeneous nature of this group may be shown by 
noticing a few of the species from the first section, such as Polydamas 
[Papihonides], Antiopa [Xymphales], Tespis [Rurales], and malvae 
[Urbicolae]. Of course the name must be dropped in perpetuity; 
moreoTcr, Scopoh included in tliis group a species which he called 
Argus, hut which the Therisianer called Battus, and the name should 
drop from this cause ; nevertheless : — 

1858. Eamb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 85 : uses it for Sao. 

This was not even one of the many original species, although 
(almost necessarily !) closely aUied to some of them. 

105. Belenois. 

1816. nubn., Vevz. 92 : Calypso. Sole species, and therefore type, 
as specified by Butler (Cist. Ent. i. 37, 50). 

166. Bhutaxitis.* 

1873. Atk., Proc Zool. Soc Lond. 570 : Lidderdali. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
Falls, according to Kirby (in htt.), before Armandia. 

107. BlA. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 51 : Actorion (Actoriaena). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Westwood, Herrich-Schaeffer, and Kirby. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 127 

1C8. BiBLIS* 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 281 : Biblis, Leucotlioe, Nauplia, Neosrea. 
1819. God., Encycl. melh. o2o : emidojs it fur Biblis (Thadana) ami 

others. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen,, pi. 5 B. : uses it for Agauisa, closely allied 
to Biblis. 
Falls from having been named after one of the species on wliich it is 
founded. See Zonaga. 

1G9. BiCTCLUs. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 47 : Hewitsonii, Iccius, Italus, Ziiiebi. 
1873. lb., Zool. llec. for 1871, 3G3 : specifies Hewitsonii as type. 

Correctly, since it was the type of Idiomorphus (q. v.), which this 
supplants. 

170. BiTnrs. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 75 : Eris (Tyrrhenus), Cupentus (Cubentus), 
Cethegus, Vesulus, StrepllOll (Sicheus, Strephou), Lydus, 
Tephraeus, Leucopbaeus, Sphinx, quercus. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 17 : uses it for quercus. 
1858. Kir by, List Brit. Rhop. : uses it iu the same way. 
1869. Bull., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 18G : employs it for Strephon, Cyllarus, 
Agrippa, and Dhidymus. 
The usage of Stepiiens and Kirhy is indefensible, as quercus must 
belong to Aurotis. In accordance with Butler's action, Strephon may 
be taken as the type. 

171. Bletogona. 
1867. Feld., Reise Xovara, 465 : Mycalesis. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as specified by Butler (Cat. Sat.). 

172. BRACriTCNEilE.* 

1869. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 52. 

No species are cited, and the name is preoccupied by Brachycneniis 
(Schunh., Col. 1644). 

173. BnACIIYGLEXIS.* 

1862. FeLl., "W'ien. Ent. Mouatschr. vi. 73 : EstJicma. Sole species, 
aud therefore type. 
According to Fehler (ib. 23o), the name is preoccupied (Brachyglene, 
Lep., Herr.-Schaeff.*). See Tnietoglene. 

* I liave not been able to find any such generic name in the works of 
Herrich-Schaeffer; nor is Mr. A. R. Grote, to whom I referred tlie question, 
acquainted with it. It is not given in Marscliall's Nomenclator Zoiilogicus. 



128 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

174. Brangas. 
181G. Iliibn., Yerz. 80: Caranus (Pelops, Caranus), Didymaon 
(Dydimaon), Syncellus, Bitias. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 19C : uses it for Thales, Carauus, Didy- 

iriaou. 
Carauus may be taken as type. 

175. Brassolis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 282: Sophorse, cassia?, Obrinus. 
181G. Iliibn., Verz. 50: uses it for Darius (Anaxerete), and others, 

including Sophoraj and cassioe. 
1823. God., Encycl. meth. 45G: employs it for Sophoroe and the 

allied Astyra. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 341 : indicates Sophoras as type. 

1871. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GG : does the same. 

17G. Brekthis. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 30: Hecate, Ino (Dictynna), There, Daphne, 

Claudia. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 10: divides the group in two sections, 

specifying no species for the first, and for the second 

Pales and Cytheris. 
1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 73 : gives Cytheris (Siga, Cytheris) 

and others, including none of Hiibner's, all but the last 

of which are placed in Arygnnis. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 24: indicates Hecate as type. 

177. Brontiades. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 113: Procas, Gentius, Arsalte (Menalcas) 
Petrus. » 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 94 : designates Procas as type. 

178. BUTLERIA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 624: Polyspilus, exornatus, Agathocles, 

Cypselus, Caicus, Coeuides, dimidiatus, Polycrates, Epi- 
phaneus, Ilesperioides, aurcipennis, bisexguttatus. 

1873. lb., ZuiJl. Rec. for 1871, 365 : specifies exornatus as type. 

See also Carterocephalus. 

179. Byblia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 28 : Ilithya. Sole species, and therefore type. 
See also Hypanis. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 129 

180. Cabirus. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 102 : Linus, Julettus. 

Linus is not a butterfly, and Julettus may be taken as the type. 

181. C^CINA. 

1868. Hewits., Huudr. Ilesp. bo : Calathana, compusa. 

Calathana may be considered as the type. 

182. Cerois. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 56: Chorinseus (Arcesilae). Sole species, and 

therefore type, as stated by Butler (Cat. Sat. 1). 
1851. TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 366 : the same. 
1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 63 [Coerous] : the same. 
See Arpidea and Ilames. 

183. Calaides. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 86: Aadrogeos (Polycaon, Androgens, Piran- 
thus), Menatius. 
Androgeos may be taken as the type. 

184. Calais.* 

1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 58-4: given as a MS. synonyme of Idmais 
(q. v.). 
It has never been used, and of course falls ; moreover, it is the name 
of one of the species upon which it was proposed to found it. 

185. Calephelis. 

1869. Grote-Rob., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ii. 310: Cseneus (Cnenius), 

borealis. Type specified as Casneus. 

186. Caligo. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 51 : Tcucer (Teucra), Idomeneus (Tdomenea), 

Eurylochus (Euriloche), liioneus (Ilionea). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mas. 117: uses it for four species, allied to 

those of Hiibner, but including none of them. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn, Lep. 340: employs it for Hiibner's 

species and others, specifying Teucer and Eurylochus as 

the types. 
1864. Herr.-Schaetf., Prodr. i. 55 : uses it similarly. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 54: uses it for species placed by "Westwood 

and Kirby in the allied genus Opsiphanes. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 127 : employs it in the Westwoodian sense. 

Eurylochus may be taken as type. Tlie name is very close to 
Caligus (Mull., Crust. 1785). See iErodes. 
VOL. X. {'Id s. II.) 17 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

187. Calinaga. 

1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. East lud. Co. i. 162: Buddha. Sole spe- 
cies, aud therefore type. 

188. Calisto. 

1823. Hiibn,, Zutr. ii. 16: Herophile, Sole species, and therefore 
type. It has beeu used iu this sense by subsequent 
writers ; but 

1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194; and Cat. Sat. 97: specifies 

Zangis as type, of course erroneously. 

189. Calleuebia. 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3], xx. 217 : Scanda (Scanda, 
Armanda), Nirmala. Scanda is specified as type, as also 
subsequently (Cat. Sat.; Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194). 

190. Callianira.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 38 : Ast i/ anax (Ephestig&na.). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 91 : gives Eurota with a query, but 

this is fur removed from Hiibner's tj'pe. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 251: refers the generic name to 

Boisduval ! and places in it Alcmena, Eurota, and others, 

with equal error. 

The name is, liowever, preoccupied in Mollusks (P(^r.-Les. 1810). 
See also Basilarcliia. 

191. Callicore. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 41 : Codomannus (Astarte), Clymena. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 237 : Clymena and eleven others. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 20: cites no species, though Pandaraa and 

Bacchis are said to belong here, but erroneously [see 

Cyclogramma]. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 64: gives Cl3''mena (Janeira) only. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 207: also gives Clymena and a dozen other 

species, omitting Codomannus, which is not congeneric. 

Notwithstandinf^ tlie limitation of Doubleday, Butler, and Kirby, 
Clymena caimot be taken as type, since Billberg has earlier (Enum. 
Ins. 18J0) selected this as the type of Dia;thria (q. v.) ; and hence Codo- 
mannus must be the type. See also Catagramnia- 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 131 

192. Callidryas. 

1829-30. Boisd.-LeC, Lcp. Am. Sept. 73 : Eubule. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1832. Eoisd. in Poey, Cent. Lep. Cuba, i. : Orbis. 
1832. lb., Voy. Astrol. G2 : Pomona, Crocale (Endeer). 
1836. lb., Spec. gen. GOo : gives twenty-six species, including all the 

above, placing them in three groups. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 3G, 4G ; and Lep. Exot. loo: designates 

Eubule as type. 

193. Callidula.* 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 6G : Evander (Evandra), Petavius (Petavia), 
Pyramus (Pyrame). 

The first two species are not butterflies, and the genus may therefore 
be referred to the heterocerous Lepidoptera. 

194. Callimoumus. , 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 53 : juventus. Sole species and designated 
type. 

195. Caixiona. 
1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 447 : Irene, Latona, Siaka. 
Irene may be considered as the type. 

196. Callipareus. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 30 : Melinus. Sole species and designated 
type. 

197. Callit^nia.* 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 50: no species (but an unnamed MS. one) 

cited. 
18G5. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 82: refers Doris (Fold., Wicn. Ent. 
Monatschr. 1860, 107) to ibis. 

The name is, however, preoccupied by Calota^nia (" Ser. Callitjcnia," 
Agass. Nomencl. ZooL), a genus of Lepidoptera (Steph. 182'J). See 
MesotJcnia. 

198. Callit^era.* 

1868. Butl., Cat. Sat. 101 : :Menander (Menandcr, Andromeda), 
Pireta (Aurora), Andromeda (Esmeralda), Philis (Ilar- 
palyce). 
This generic name falls before Cithrerias (q. v.). 



132 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

199. Callituea* 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. G B. : Sapphira. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Subsequently used by Westwood, Felder, and Kirby. The name, 
however, must be dropped, because based upon one of the names of the 
species upon which it is founded. See also Asterope. 

200. Callitiiomia. 

1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 522: Alexirrhoe, Zeuxippe, 
Thornax. 
Alexirrhoe may be taken as the type. 

201. Callizona.* 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 296: Accste. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1850. Westw., ib. 240: Aceste (Acesta). 

The name falls before Tigridia (q. v.), since that genus was restricted 
to Aceste by Doubleday's own action in 1844. The name is also pre- 
occupied by Callizonus (Schonh., Col. 1826). 

202. Callophrts. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : Vulcanus, rubi, and a MS. species. 
Rubi may be taken as type. 

203. Callosune. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 57 : subfasciatus (subfasciata), 
Evanthe, Eucharis, Evarne, Dail39, Eupompe, Achine 
(Autevippe, Achine), Antigone, Evippe, Omphale, Tho- 
gone, Etrida, Pljlegetonia, Delphine, Eione, Daira, 
Evagore, Ephyia (Ephya), Liagore, Eulimenc, Cebrene, 
Ocale (Omphale, by misprint), lone. 

"Wallengr. (Rhop. CafFr. 10), in founding his genus Anthopsyche, 
which was in general originally sj'nonymous with this, divides it into 
two sections. We have above (see Anthopsyche) proposed to restrict An- 
thopsyche to his first section, and for his second suggest the retention of 
Callosune, with Danoe for type. See also Aphrodite and Anthopsyche. 

204. Calounis. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : Euterpe, Susanna, Rosalia, Thalia. 

The first two species belong to Boisduval's Nerias (183S) : Ilosaha is 
the type of Sais (Hiibner, 1816), by Doubleday's action in 1844; henco 
Thaha must be taken as the type of this group. See Actinote. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 133 

20.J. Calospila.* 
1832. Gey. in Ilubn., Zutr. iv. 28: Parthaon (Thermodoo). Sole 
species, and therefore t3pe. 
This name is used in tiie same sense by Doubleilay and Westwood, 
and in a difTerent sense by Bates ; but the name is preoccupied by 
Calospilus (lliibn., Lcp. 181G). See Polystichtis and Lemonias. 

20G. Calpodes. 
181 G. Iliihn., Verz. 107 : exclamationis (Forulus), Ethlius. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 93 : gives it as a section of 

Pamphila with Ethlius and others. 

1872. Scudd., Sjst. Rev. 61 : designates Ethlius as type. 

This name is written by Ilubner twice as Calpodes and, including it3 
Teutonic form, tlirce times as Colpodes in the Verzeiclmiss. Col- 
podes would seem to be the more probably correct form, judging from 
the derivation of the word ; but in that case it would be preoccupied, 
through Colpoda (Schnink, Polyg. 1803), and it would tiierefore be 
better to retain it as Calpodes. 

207. Calydna. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 5 : Meris, Thersander. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 436 : employs it for Thersander 
and a few others. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 441 : uses it for Thersander 

and many others. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 317 : follows Bates. 

Thersander must therefore be considered as the type. 

208. Cami^xa.* 

1865. Ilewits., 111. Diurn. Lep. ii. 47 : Ctesia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1868. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. iii. 21 [Camocna] : the same. 

Preoccupied through Cam'cna (Baly, Col. 18G2). 

209. Candalides. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 73 : xantliospilos, Thetys (Phiedrus). 

Thetys having become tlic type of Curetis, (the same species being 
given by llUbner in two genera !) xanthospilos becomes the tj'pe of 
this. 

210. Canopus.* 
1861. Wallengr. in Feld., Neues Lep. 33: Dcedalus (Mcleagris). 
Sole species, and therefore type. 
This name is preoccupied in Ilemiptera (Fabr. 1803) and Polyps 
(Montf. 1808). See llamanumida. 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADE3IY 

211. Capila. 
1865. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 785 : Jayadeva. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
This name can scarcely be consi Jered too close to Capella, used in 
Mammals (Keys and Bias, 1350). 

212. Caprona. 
1857. "Wallengr., Rliop. Caffr. 51 : Pillaana. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as specified by Butler. 

213. Capys. 
1865. IIe\Yits., 111. Diurn. Lep. 58 : Alphssus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. See Scoptes. 

214. CAKCnAKODUS.* 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 110: lavateraj (lavathera?), althea^, alcere 
^ (malvai). 

This is subsequently used by "Westwood, Stephens, and Kirby, but 
it falls bei'ore Urbanus. See also Spilothyrus. 

215. Caria. 
1823. Ilubn., Zutr. ii. 14: Argiope (Colubris). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used by Erichson (Schomb. Reise, 1848) in a similar sense. 

216. Cartea. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 308: Vitnla, Tapajona. 
1873. lb., Zool. Rec. for 1871, 3G4: designates Vitula as the type. 

Correctly, since it was the type of Orestias, which this name was 
intended to supplant. 

217. Carterocephalus.* 
1 852. Led., Verb, zool.-bot. Gesellsch. AVien, ii. 26, 49 : PalcBmon 
(Paniscus), Sylvius, argyrostigma. 
Although proposed by Lederer to supplant Steropes, preoccupied, 
none of the original species of Boisduval are cited, and the short diag- 
nosis is taken from the species above mentioned. 
1867. Snc'lL, Vlind. Nederl. 83: gives Palternon (Paniscus) as type. 
1870. Biitl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 96: specifies exoruatus as type, 
but erroneously [see Butleria]. 
The three species given by Felder are not congeneric with those 
originally specified by Boisduval under Steropes; they are mutually 
congeneric, however, and the name must fall before Pamphila, virtu- 
ally limited in 1832 to this group. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 135 

218. Cauystus. 
1816. Ilubn., Vcrz. 114 : JolllG, Ilylaspes, Thyllus, Abebalus. 

1869. Bull., Cat, Fabr. Lcp. 273 : uses it for Phyllus and three 

others not mentioned by Hiibner. 

1870. lb., Ent. Mouthl. Mag. vii. 92 : specifies Joins as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 589 : places all of Ilubuer's siDCcies and others 

in the group. 
Phylhis and Jolus being strictly congeneric, Jolus can be taken as 
tlie type. 

219. Castalia.* 

18.58. Boisd. in IIorsf.-Moore, Cat. Lcp. East Ind. Co. i. 199 : Bi- 
chroa, Chandra. 
It is used in same sense by Felder and others. Dicbroa sliould 
be type, as tlie only species known to Boisduval. But tlie genus is 
preoccupied, botli exactly, in Worms (Savig. 1817), in MoUusks (Lam. 
1819), and in Coleoptera (Lap.-Gay, 1838); and also by Castalius, a 
genus of Lepidoptera (llUbn. 181G). 

220. Castalius. 

1816. Ilubn., Yerz. 70: Clyton, RoGimon (Naxus, Rosimon). 
1869. ButL, Cat. Fabr. Lep. 1G2: uses it for Rosiraon, which there- 
fore becomes type. 

221. Castnius.* 

1816. Ilubn., Yerz. 102: Iphis (Juppiter, sic!), Pelasgus, Lycagiis 
(Lucagns). 
Pelasgus is a Castnian : the others belong to the Urbicolce ; but the 
name is preoccupied by Castnia (Fabr., Lep. 1807), of which it was 
probably intended as only an altered form. 

222. Casyapa. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 576: Corvus, Cerinthus, Cariatus, Callixenus, 
Thrax, Thyrsis, Semamora, Divodasa, Cliaya, Agna, 
Cinnara, Manga! a. 
1873. lb., Zucil. Rec. for 1871, 305 : designates Corvus as type. 

Correctly, since that was the type of Chajtocncme, for v.iiich name 
this was substituted. 

223. Catagramma.* 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 5 B. : Pygas (Hydaspes). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
It is used in same sense by Doubleilay, Felder, and Kirby ; but 
P^'gas is congeneric with Codomannus, and therefore it must fall before 
Callicore. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

224. Catagrammixa. 
18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. ix. 411: Tapaja. Sole specie?, and 
therefore type. 

225. Catargyria. 

1822-26. IIubn.,Exot. Schmett. ii: Druryi, Laurentia (Seraphina), 

Laure (Laura). 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 37 : uses it fur Cyane, Laurentia, Laure 

(Laura), and Druryi. 
Laurentia may be taken as the type. 

226. Catasticta. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 43 : Nimbice, Semiramis, Bithys, Se- 

benuica. Nimbice specified as type. 

227. Cath.emia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 92: Cseneus (Anthyparete), Isse, Ada, Aga- 

thina (xantholeuca), Belisama, Dorimene, Hirlanda. 
1867. Herr.-Schaetr., Prodr. ii. 11 : uses it for Belladonna and many 
others, including all of the above, excepting Ada, Aga- 
thiua, and Ilirlanda. 
Caeneus may be taken as the type. 

228. Catochrysops. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 87 : Cyta, Strabo, Ceutaurus. 
Strabo may be taken as the type. 

229. Catonephele. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 40: Acontius (Eiipalema^na, Chione), Numilia, 

Cupavia. 
1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 222 : uses it for Numilia (Micalia), 

Acontius (Medea), and Chromis. 
Acontius may be considered the type. 

230. Catophaga. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 93: Paulina, Canidia (Gliciria), Cheiranthi, 
brassiciE, rapa*, napi (bryonia?, napi). 
Pauhna may be taken as the type. See also Pieris. 

231, Catopsilia. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 98: Crocale, Trite, Statira (Alcmeone), Pomona 
(Ililaria). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat 481 : uses for Florella and a large number of 

others, including all of Iliibner's. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 137 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 37 : designates type as Crocale. 

1873. Bull., Lep. Exot. 154: makes the same designation. 

232. Catuna. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 238: Crithea, angustatum, Opis, Coenobita. 
1873. lb., Zool Rec. for 1871, 3G0 : designates angustatum as the 
type. 
Doubtless because it was supposed * to be the type of Folder's genus 
Euomma (preocc.) which this supplants. See also Jsra. 

233. Caudati.* 

1860. Koch, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxi. 230 : Daunus and a large number 
of tailed Papiliouids. 

This group, being founded solely upon the presence of caudate 
appendages to the hind wings of Tapilionides, would not have been 
excusable, scarcely tolerable, if it had been proposed in the middle of 
the last centur}' ; it is astonishing that it was allowed to appear in the 
respectable journal of Stettin ; of course it must drop, even if the name 
were not preoccupied (Dum., Rep. 180G) or its form unobjectionable. 
It is also used b^- Swainson (Zoiil. 111.) for a division of swallow-tails, 
but not in a generic sense. 

234. Cecrops.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 104: bipunctatus (Neis), Zarex. 
Preoccupied in Crustacea (Leach, 1813). 

235. Cecropterus. 
18G9. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 45 : no species are cited, but it is 

intended to supplant the preoccupied Cecrops. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 634 : gives Zarex, Oryx, Phrynicus, thus 
putting Ilerrich-Schaeffer's suggestion into practice. 
Zarex may therefore be considered as the type. 

23G. Cel^^norrhinus. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 106: Corbulo, Niso, Eligius, Cebrenus, Ser- 
gestus, Lucifer, Phajomelas. 
Eligius may be selected as the type. See Plesioneura. 

237. Cklcena. 
1849. Boisd. in Doubh, Gen. Diurn. Lep. 214 [Celaena]: Doubleday 
gives this name as a MS. synonyme for Anartia (q. v.). 



* But incorrectly ; sec Euomma. 
VOL. X. (2d 8. II.) 18 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1870. Boisil., Lep. Guat. 32 : employs it for Fatima. 

This is one of the species includerl in it by Doubleday, and there- 
fore may be taken as the type of Boisduval's Celoena ; since tlie species 
is generically distinct from Jatrophae, tlie type of Anartia, the genus will 
stand, but date from 1870. 

238. CepORA. 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 76: Monuste (Heliades MS.), 
brassicoe, Canidia (Gliciria), rapx, napi, Nerissa (Co- 
ronnis), Daplidice, cardamines, Eupheno, Eucharis, Glau- 
cippe, and a number of MS. species. 
Nerissa may be taken as tlie type. 

239. Ceratinia.* 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 10: Eumelia, Lenea (Lenea, Melanida), JVise 

, (Neso), Ninonia. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mas. 57 : uses it for Nise and Lenea (Lenea, 

Melanida). 
1847. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 127: employs it for Nise and many 

otliers, excluding Lenea. 
1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 523: limits it again to seven species, 

of which the only one of Iliibner's is Ninonia, which was 

not used by Doubleday in the first instance, although 

subsequently employed by him. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 32 [Ceratonia] : employs it for a number 

of species, including Ninonia (Barii, Ninonia). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 21 : follows Bates. 

By Doubleday's restriction, however, Nise must be considered as the 
type. But the name is preoccupied through Ceratina (Latr., Ilym. 
1804). 

240. Ceratrichia. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 274: Nothus, Phocion. Nothus desig- 
nated as type. 

241. Cethosia. 

1807. Fabr., El. Mag. vi. 280: Cydippe, Biblis (Biblis, Penthe- 

sdea). 
1809. Latr., Gen. Crust, et Tns. iv. 200 : divides the group into two 

sections, thus : I. Juno, Julia (Alcionea) ; II. Cydippe, 

Biblis (Penthesilea) ; the second corresponding to the 

Fabrician idea. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 139 

1810. lb., ConsiJ. 440: designates Cydippe and Juno ar, types. 

Since Cydippe alone was mentioned by Fabricius, it 

becomes ihe type. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : unreasonably changes the generic name 

to Eugramma (q. v.). 

All subsequent authors have followed Latreille in the definition of 
the group. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 65 : notices Cydippe as type, as above. 
See Alazonia. 

242. CHiETOCNEME.* 

18G0. Feld., Sitzungsb. Acad. Wien. xl. 4G0: Corvus, Cerinthus. 
1870. Bull , Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 57 : indicates Corvus as the 
type. 
The genus is preoccupied by Chaetocnema (Steph., Col. 1831). See 
Casyapa. 

243. Cn^TONEURA.* 

1862. Feld., "Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 185 : Nearchus (Ilippulus). 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
This name falls before Antigouus (q. v.). 

244. Chaltbs. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 76: Janias, Telemus, Amyntor (Eryx). 
18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 193: uses it for Janias, Telemus, amd 
others. 
Janias may be selected as the type. 

245. Cham^limnas. 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 304 : Tircis. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
Used in same sense by Bates and Kirby. 

246. CnARAXEs, 

1816. Ochs., Schmctt. Eur. ili. 18 : Jason (Jasius). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in this sense by subsequent authors. See Jasia and Paphia. 

247. CnAKlDRTAS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 26: Nycteis, Carlota (Ismcria). Type 
specified as Nycteis. 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

248. Charis. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 21 : Gyas (Gyadis), Avius (Ania). 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. IG : uses it for a large number of species, 

including Avius (Anius) of lliibner's list, which therefore 

becomes the type. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 452: uses it for a dozen species, 

including both of lliibner's. 
18G7. Bates, Journ. I^inn. Soc, Loud. ix. 442 : uses it for twenty-nine 

species, including Avius only of Hiibner's. 

249. ClIILEA.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : proposed in the stead of Libythea, for 
no reason whatever ; of course it falls. 

250. Chionobas.* 
1832-33 (probably late in 1832). Boisd., Icon. 182 : Aello, Noma, 

Jutta (.Jutta, Balder), Bootes. Polyxenes (Bore), 0£.uo 

(CEno, Also). 
1833-34 (probably late in 1833). Boisd.-LeC, Lcp. Amer. Sept. 

214: Jutta (Balder), Bootes, Q2no (Gi^no, Also). 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B.: Bootes. 

Subsequently used by authors in same sense. But the name must 
fall before ffineis (q. v.). 

251. Chlouippe. 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 108: Laure (Laura), Lau- 

rentia, Zunilda, Agathina. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 302 : gives it as a MS. Boisdu- 

valian synonyme of Apatura. 
1870. Boisd., Lcp. Guat. 47 : claims it as his own, and places in it 

Laure (Laura). 

Boisduval's group consists of two sections, the first two species be- 
longing to one, the last two to the other ; the species of tlie first form 
the genus Catargyria, and those of the latter may be referred to this 
name with Agatliina for type. See also Doxocopa. 

252. ClILORISSES.* 

1832-3. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 89 : Sarpedon. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
The name is preoccupied through Clilorissa (Stcph., Lep. 1829). 
See Zetidcs. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 141 

253. Chlosyne. 
1870. But!., Cist. Ent. i. 38: proposes this name to take the place 
of Synchloe Doubl. nee Iliibn. 

The original species of that group were Erodyle, Janais, 
Tyrinthe (?), and Narva (Bonplaudi). 

Eroilyle, however, was not described until 1804 by Bates (probably 
using a MS. name of Doubleday in the British Museum). Tyriutiie 
is still a JIS. name, and was omitted from the " Genera," and therefore 
the type must be either Janais or Narva. Janais as the older name 
may be taken as the type. 

Coatlantona (q. v.) was suggested by Kirby for the same group. It 
may not be amiss to remark tliat advance sheets of the portion of 
Kirby's Catalogue containing this suggestion were received by me in 
April, 1870, and that Chlosyne was not published until September, 
1870. Kirby's Catalogue was not published, however, before the follow- 
ing year, and Butler was previously unaware of the intended change. 

254. ClIORANTIIUS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 58 : radians. Sole species and specified 
type. 

255. CiiOKiDis. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 33 : Peridia. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Will this fall before Aeria? 

25G. CnoniNEA.* 
1832. Gray in Griff, An. Kingd., pi. 102, fig. 1 : Licursis (Xan- 
thippe). Sole species, and therefore type. 
But there is another species of the same restricted group which 
must have been known to Gray, and from which there is scarcely a 
doubt that he borrowed his generic name to append to his supposed 
new species ; viz., Chorineus. The name should therefore be dropped. 
It is also very close to Chorinus (Leach, Crust. 182-3). See also 
Zeonia. 

257. Cinio.^iA.* 

1832. Gray in Griff., An. Kingd., pi. 102, fig. 3 : hasUis (basalis). 
Sole species, and thcircfore type. 
It cannot be retained, having been preoccupied by Chroniis, wliich 
is used by Iliibner (Lep. 181G), and Cuvier (Fishes, 1817). See also 
Barbicornis. 

258. CnRYSoniANus. 
181G. Ilubn., Verz. 72 : Phhcas (Phltcas, Timeu.s), Ilclle, Thersa- 
mon, Gordius, Ilyllus, Alciphron (Ilipponoc), Hippothoe 
(Chryseis, Eurybia, Ilippothoe), Yirgaurea^, Dorilus 
(Circe). 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1841. "Westw., Brit. Butt. 91 : employs it for Phlasas, Illppothoe 
(Chryseis, Ilippothoe), Dispar, and Virgaurece. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 17: the same. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 35 : specifies Ilyllus as the type, but the 
usage of "Westwood, Stephens, and subsequent authors, 
will not admit of this. 
Hippothoe may be taken as the type. 

* 259. CnuYsoRrcHiA. 

1857. AYallengr. Rhop. Caffr. 44 : Thyra, Perion (Tjoane). 

1858. lb., K. Vet. Akad. Fcirh. xv. 80 : uses it for Thyra only, 

which must be taken as the type. 

2G0. CiGARITIS. 

1847. Boisd. in Donz., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. [2] v. 528: Zohra. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

In speaking of this insect, Donzel says that it belongs to a group of 
African species, of whieli Boisduval " a fait un genre propre, sous le 
nom de Cigaritis ; " but he does not specify tliem ; nor can I find any 
mention of the genus by Boisduval himself. Zohra therefore must be 
considered the type. 

1849. Lucas, Expl. Alg. Zool. iii. 362 : employs it for Siphax, Zohra, 

and Masinissa, referring the generic name to Boisduval. 
1871. Stand., Cat. Lep. Eur. 9 : refers the generic name to Lucas. 

2G1. CiNCLlDIA. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 29: Athalia (Phoebe), Parthenie (Athalia), 
Dictynna (Orthia). 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 15, 259 : uses it for Athalia and Par- 

thenie. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop.: employs it for the same and another. 
Athalia may be taken as type. See also Mellicta and Limnaecia. 

262. CiRROcnuoA. 

1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 21, fig. 2: Aoris. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1848. lb., ib. 157: Aoris and four others, six months later than the 

plates. 
Used in same sense by Feldcr and Kirby. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 143 

2G3. CissiA. 
1848. Doubl., List Br. Mus. App. 33 : Penelope (Clarissa) aud 
other species. 
All but Penelope, however, bear a query. Penelope must therefore 
be considered as the type. 

It should be noted tiiat there is an allied species (Ilesione) called 
Cissia by Cramer, which was known to Doubleday, having been placed 
by him in 1844 in IMycalesis. Also that there is a genus Cisia (Bole, 
Aves, 1826, written Cissa by Gray), which, however, has a distinct 
derivation. 

2G4. ClTIT^RIAS. 

1816. riUbn., Verz. 53: Piera (Pieria), Philis (Cissa), Andromeda, 

Nereis. 
1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 55 : uses it for Andromeda, Pliilis, 

and others not of Iliibner's list. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 36 : uses it for several species, including 

Philis and Andromeda. 
Andromeda may be considered as the type. See Callitaera. 

265. Cleis.^ 

1828-32. Guer., Voy. Coq^. : porticalis. 

It is not a butterfly. See Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. ii. 504. 

266. Cleodis.* 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 30. 

No species whatever are indicated, nor any type mentioned. It 
is described and stated to be near Xanthocleis. It is therefore value- 
less until the author indicates its membership. 

267. Cleosiris.* 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 7 C. : Catamita. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

This is not a butterfly. See Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. ii. 504. 

268. Cleuome. 
184'9? [Boisd. in] Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 54*: Arcesilaus. 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
1851. Boisd. in Westw., lb. 333: Arcesilaus, Eumeus, Faunula. Bois- 

duval is credited with the name. 

It is probable that the plates appeared before the text, but I have 
no proof of it ; in any case, Arcesilaus may be taken as the type. See 
Eaunis. 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

269. Clothilda.* 
1840. Blanch., Hist. Nat. Ins. iii. 440: Pantherata (Briaria). Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 155 : uses it for Pantherata and 
others- 
Subsequently used by Felder and Kirby, but the name falls before 
Anelia (q. v.), Pantherata being strictly congeneric with Numida. See 
also Synalpe. 

270. Clytia.* 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 120: Clytia (Clytia, dissimilis), 
Macareus (Macarius), Panope, specified as types. 
As the name of the group is founded upon that of one of the original 
species included in it, it of course falls. Even if it did not, the name is 
several times preoccupied, e.g. Hiibner (Lep. 181G), Desvoidy (Dipt. 
1830), etc. 

271. COATLANTONA.. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 178: Saundersii, Paupera, Mediatrix, Lacinia, 
Melanarge, Janais, misera, Hippodrome, Quehtala, ma- 
rina, MelitiEoides, Erodyle, Pojcile, Narva, gaudialis, 
Perezi, Judith. 
Proposed for Synchloe Doubl. neu Hiibn. ; but Chlosyne had been 
founded a short time previously for the same purpose. See the re- 
marks under Chlosyne. But all the species of this group cannot be 
placed in one restricted group, and therefore the name Coatlantona 
may be retained with Narva for its type. 

272. COBALUS. 

181G. Hiibn., Verz. 115: Virbius, Nitoeris, Adrastus, triangularis, 
Phorcus, Hemes, Leucomelas, and a MS. species. 

18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 272: uses it for Virbius and other 
species. 

18G9. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 77 : employs it for nearly eighty spe- 
cies, including Adrastus, triangularis (triangulum), and 
Phorcus. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 92 : employs it as a section of 
Carystus, and specifies Virbius as the type. 

273. CcEA. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 48 : Varanes (Varanessa), Acheronta ( Acheronta, 
Pherecydi.s). 
This has not been used subsequently. Varanes probably belongs to 
Palla (qv.) ; and therefore Acheronta, which is generically distinct fiom 
Odius, may be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 145 

274. CCELIADES. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. lOG: Forestall, dubius, chromus. 
Dubius may be taken as tlie type. 

275. CCELITES. 

1851. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 307: Nothis, Epiminthia. 
1805. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 02 : uses it for the same. 
18G8. Butl., Ent. Month!. Mag. iv. 195; and Cat. Sat. Ill: desig- 
nates Nothis as type. 

270. CcEXONYJIPHA. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 05: Oedipus (QEdipe), Hero, Dorus (Dorilis), 
Arcania, Ipliis, Corinna (Corynna), Pampliihis (Lylla, 
Pamphile), Typhon (PhiL)xena), Leander (Lcandra), 
Philea (Xeoclidis). 

1843. Herr.-SchaefF., Schmett. Eur. 83 : uses it for all of the above. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 140: makes the same use of it. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 9, 250 : employs it for Typhon (Davus), 

Pamphilus, Hero, Arcania (Arcanius), and another. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 390 : uses it for the same and others. 
1858. Ramb., Cat. Syst. Lep. Andal. 23: employs it for Pamphilus 

and Typhon (Davus) only. 
1808. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194 [Caenonympha] ; designates 

Qi^dipus (Geticus) as the type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 90: employs it for all the Pliibnerian species 

and for others. See Chortobius (p. 293). 

277. CCENOPIILEBIA. 

1802. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 422, note : Archidona. Sole 
sjiecies, and therefore type. 

278. CCENYRA.* 

1805. Ilewits., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [3] ii. 281 : Hebe. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type, as subsequently stated by Butler. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 93 : the same. 

This name, liowever, is preoccupied by tlie etymologically identical 
terms Coenurus (Rud., Worms, 1809), and Coenura (Big., Dipt. 1857). 

279. COGIA. 
1870. Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 508 : Hassan. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
VOL. X. (2d s. ii.) 19 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

280. COL^NIS. 
1816. Hiibn,, Verz. 32: Julia, Dellla, Lybia, Mereaui. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 148 : divides tlae group into three 

sections, as follows : I. a Delila, Julia, b Phaerusa ; II. 

Euchroia ; III. Dido. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. G : divides as follows : I. Phaerusa; 11. Julia, 

Delila; III. Dido. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 147: unites all in one group. 

Julia may be taken as the type. 

281. COLIAS. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 284: I. Paloeno, Hyale, Glaucippe ; II. 
rhamni, Cleopatra. 

1809. Latr., Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 2o4: uses it for rhamni, Cleo- 

patra, and Ilyale. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440 : S2:)ecifies rhamni as the type. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encycl. 716: restricts the name to Ilyale, but 
erroneously. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 739 : makes a similar restriction, and this has 

been followed by most subsequent authors, whenever they 
have separated the sections of Fabricius's genus as distinct 
genera. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 99: employs it for some approximate forms, but 

including none of Fabricius's. 

1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. 5: specifies Eubule (Ebule) as type, 
erroneously. 

1829. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 242: designates Hyale as type, errone- 
ously, as does Westwood in 1840 (Gen. Syn. 87). 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 43 : designates Palaeno as type, erroneously. 

1872. lb., il). i. 6G: designates rhamni as type (through Latreille, 

1810). 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 38 : designates Palajno as type, erroneously. 
See Eurymus, Earina, Gonepteryx, and Gonoplera. 

282. COLOBURA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Dirce. Sole species, and therefore type. 
See also Gynajcia. 

283. CoLOTis. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 97: Electra, Myrmidone, Croccus (Edusa), 
Aurora, Clirysotheme, Amata (Calais, Cypraja). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 147 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 3, 252 : uses it for Croccus (Edusa), 
Electra, Chrysotheme, aud Myi-midone. 
But Hyale, a species strictly congeneric with these, liad aheady been 
taken as the type of Eurymus, and so this action is annuUod. Amata 
must therefore be taken as the type. See also Zerene. 

284. Comma.* 
1832. Renn., Consp. 8 : c. album. Sole species, and therefore type. 
Altliough there is a congeneric species, called comma, it was not 
named until 1852, and this generic name cannot therefore be affected 
by it; it falls, however, before Polygonia (q. v.) See also Grapta. 

285. COMPSOTERIA. 

1870. Ilewits., Equat. Lep. iv. 57 : Cascella. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

1872. lb., Exot. Butt. iv. : states that this species belongs to the 
earlier founded genus Ithomiola, in which case this name 
fills, and cannot again be employed ; but Kirby, in his 
Synonymical Catalogue, puts them far apart. 

286. CONOGNATIIUS.* 

1862. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi, 181: Platon. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
But the name is preoccupied by Conognatha (Eschsch., Col. 1829). 

287. Consul. 

1800. Hiibn., Tent.: Hippona (Fabius). Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
See also Fabius, Helicodes, and Protogonius. 

288. CORADES. 

1848. Boisd. by Doubl. in Hewits., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. xvi. 115: 
Enyo. Sole species, and therefore type, as subsecpiently 
designated by Butler. 

1850. Ilewits., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [2] vi. 437: uses it for Enyo 
and others, referring the generic name to Doubleday. 

289. CouBULis.* 

1870. Boi.sd., Lep. Guat. 32: Euphon? (Euphane), Ocalea, Mahela 
(Neobule), Aletta, Gei)hira, Nise (Xeso, Selene). 
The name is preoccupied by Corbula (Brug., Moll. 1791). 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

290. CORYBANTES.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 101 : Amycus, Dardanus, Icarus, Licus, Syphax, 
Pylades. 
None of these insects are butterflies. 

291. CORYBAS.* 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 43 : Tipha (Typha). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

This is referred to as a MS. name of Boisduval by Westwood (Gen. 

Diurn. Lep. 252, — 1850), where it is rightly considered as a synonyme 

of Pyrrhogyra (q. v.), before whicli it falls, Tipha having become its 

type in 1844. 

292. CORYCIA.* 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Appias. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
This name is preoccupied by the same name given by HiilJner him- 
self (Verz. 1816) to one of the Phalaenid^ ! 

293. CORYDON.* 

1869. Hewits., El. Diurn, Lep. pt. iv. suppl. 1 : Boisduvalii. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
The name is preoccupied in Birds (Less. 1828, Wagl. 1830). See 
Hewitsonia. 

294. COSMOSATYRUS. 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 495 : leptoneuroides. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as specified by Butler. 

295. Crastia. 

1816. Hiibn., Vei'z. 16: Core, Climena (Limnoria). 
Core may be taken as the type. See Euploea. 

296. Cremna. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 14: Aetoris, and four unpublished 
species. Aetoris must therefore be type. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 456: Ceneus, Aetoris, and two 
others; the characteis are drawn up from Ceneus. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Loud. ix. 420 : uses it in the same 
sense. 

297. Crenis.* 

1821. Hiibn., Index, 2: Erato (Brylle). Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
1833. Boisd., Ann. Mas. Hist. 196: madaofascariensis. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 149 

1847. lb., Voy. Delegorg. ii. 592 : Drusius (natalensis). These two 
species have nothing to do with IlUbner's genus. 
Doubleilay, Wallengren, Butler, ;ind Kirby have used the name in 
the Boisduvalian sense. The name must tall before Migonitis. 

298. CUESSIDA.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 94 : Cress i da {Heliconldes, Harmon- 
ides) designated as type. 

The name being drawn from the species upon which it is founded, it 
faUs. See Eurycus. 

299. Cricosoma. 

ISGo. Feld., Reise Novara, 292: leopardinum. Sole specici?, and 
therefore type. 

Used in same sense by Bates and Kirby. Although tlie name is 
very close to Cricostoma (Klein, Moll. 1753), it differs etymologically. 

300. Crocozona. 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 296 : Pheretima. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

301. CupiiA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Erymanthis. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. See Messaras. 

302. CupiDO. 

1801. Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. i. 153, 206: I. Virgaurerc, Ilippo- 
thoe (Ilippothoe, Chryseis), Phheas, Dorilas (Circe) ; 
II. Arion, Alcon, Semiargus (Acis), Damon, Cylhirus 
(Damoetas), Argiolus, Chiron (Eumedon), Corydon, 
Thetis (Adonis), Alexis, Corydon (Agestis), Argus, 
Battus, Argiades (Piier), Alsus (Puer); HI. rubi, betuia;, 
quercus, priini, spini. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 77: uses it for Ilynaen (Liger), Amor, and 
Chrysiis. These have no generic connection with any of 
Schrank's species, but tiie last of them is closely allied to 
the species Cupido Linn., which may have been the cause 
of llubner's selection. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 345: uses it in place of Lyca?na of most 

modern authors, including some tliree hundred species, 

and among them all of Schrank's second section. 

The name may be retained for the group represented by the first 

two species of the second section, with Arion for the type. [See p. "J'Jo.l 



150 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

303. CURETIS. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 102: Thetys (^sopus), Pasiphae (Ormenus). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 418: uses it for Thetys and Bulls. 

Thetys therefore becomes the type. See also Anops, Candalides, 
and Pliacdra. 

304. Cyane.* 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 22 : Leprieurii. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
The name is, however, preoccupied by Cyanea (Per. et Les., Acal. 
1809). 

305. Cyaniris. 

1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 63, 94: Arion, Alcon, 
Cyllarus, Seraiargus (Argianus), Arg'iolus, Alsiis, Icar- 
ius, Thetis (Adonis), Icarus (Alexis), Alexis (Agestis), 
Chiron (Eumedon), Optilete, Battus,^rgiis. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80: uses it for all of Dalman's excepting 
Alcon, and for several additional species. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 34: indicates Argiolus as type. [Seep. 293.] 

306. Cybdelis. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 5 B. : Phaesyle (Phaesila). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Miis. 89 : uses it for Sydonia and others, but 

without including Phaesyle. 
1849. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 217: uses it for three species, including 

Phaesyle (Phassila). 

307. Cyclogramma. 

1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 27: Pandama. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1848. lb., ib. 219 : the same, and a MS. species. 

308. Cyclopides. 

1816. Illibn., Verz. Ill : Morpheus (Steropes), Pala^mon (Brontes), 

Sylvius, Metis, Coras. 
18j0. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 22, 262: uses it for Palaemon (Panis- 

cus) and Sylvius. 
1861. Staud., Cat. 15: employs it for Morpheus (Steropes). 
1866. Trim., Rhop. Afr. Austr. 292 : employs it for Metis and other 

African species. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 151 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 9G: indicates Morpheus (Ster- 
opes) as type, but erroneously, because Morpheus was 
taken by Dumeril as the type of Heteropterus in 1823. 
By a similar error, 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Ilev. 54: indicates Morpheus (Sterojies) as the 
type. 
Palaemon or Sylvius cannot be taken as the type, as would follow 
from Stepliens's action in 1800, because Palaimon must be taken for 
Pam{)liila (q. v. J : Metis may tlierefore be selected. See also Erynnis. 

309. Cycnus. 

181 G. Ilubn., Verz. 81 : Chiton, Phaleros (Agis, Phaleros), Linus 
(iEtolus). 
Phaleros may be taken as the type. 

310. Cyllo. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 140: amabilis, Constantia, Leda. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 120: employs it for the two latter 

species and others. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 300 : designates Leda (Leda, Bank- 

sia) as type. 

311. Cyllogknes. 
18G8. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194: Suradeva. Sole species 
and designated tyj^e. 

312. Cyllonium.* (Fossil.) 
1854. Westw., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. 395-6 : Boisduval- 
iunum, Hewitsonianum. 

The latter is not a butterfly, and it is exceedingly doubtful if the 
former can be so considered. The genus is uncharacterized, but the 
species are figured ; they are, however, so fragmentary that it would 
be impossible to trace any generic characters from them. 

313. Cyllopsis. 

18G9. Feld., Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien. xix. 474: Hede- 
manni. Sole species, and therefore type. 

314. Cym^enes. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. Gl : tripuncta, malitiosa. Tripuncta speci- 
fied as type. 

315. Cymatoguamjia. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lcp. pi. 49 : Echerus. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1850. lb., in Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 315: the same. 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

31G. Cyjiothoe.* 
181 G. Iliibn., Verz, 39 : Caenis (Ampliicede), Althea, Aconthea. 
1871. lurb., Syn. Cat. 251 : employed for Cajnis, Althea, and many 
others. 
Preoccupied by Cyinothoa (Fabr., Crust. 1798). 

317. Cyxthia. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 281: I. Arsinoe, interrogationis; 11. 

Q^none, Jatrojihoe, cardiii, Statilinus (AUioiiia). 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 737 : employs it erroneously for Maturna, 

Cynthia, etc. 

1827. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Ilaust. 47: restricts it to cardui and 

Vellida (hamptsteadiensis). 

1 828. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co., expl. pi. : cardui only. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87 : specifies cardui as type. 

1841. Westw., Brit. Butt. 56 : uses it for cardui, Huntera, and Vel- 

lida (hamptsteadiensis). 
1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 212: restricts it to Arsinoe only. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 152: restricts it to Ai'sinoe and Erota. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: says that cardui is type, through 

Ilorsfield's action in 1828. 

Cardui would be type, but tliat it is strictly congeneric with Ata- 
lanta which Wcas previously (Latr. 1810) designated as type of Vanessa. 
Arsinoe must therefore be taken as the type. 

318. Ctkenia. 

1851. "VVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 434: Martia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

Should tills name be dropped as preoccupied ? Cyrene has been 
used in Fishes (Heck. 1840), and Hemiptera (Westw. ! 1841). 

319. Cykestis. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 117 : Thyonneus (Thyoneus), Acilia. 

1833. lb., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 190 : elegans. 

It has since been used in the same sense by different authors, as 
Doubleday, Westwood, etc. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 24: divides the group into two sections, to 
the first of which he refers Thyonneus, and to the second 
Risa and Rahria. 
Thyonneus may then be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 153 

320. CVSTINEURA.* 

1836. Boiscl., Spec, gen., pi. 5 B. : Dorcas (Hersilia). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

Similarly used by subsequent authors. The name must fall before 
Mestra [q. v.). 

321. DiEDALMA. 

1858. Hewits., Exot. Butt. ii. 85 : Dinias, Drusilla, Dorajte, Dry- 
in sea. 

1867. Butler, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 268 ; Cat. Sat. 183 : 
specifies Dinias as type. 

322. Damis.* 
1832. Boiscl., Voy. Astrol. 07: Cyanea (Epicoritus), Euchylas 
(Coritus), Danis (Seba;). 

This name falls because founded on a specific name, Damis being 
one of the synonymes of Danis. See Danis and Thysonotis. 

323. Dam on A. 
1851. Nordm., Bull. Mosc. xxiv. ii. 439: Sagana (Paulina). Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1801. Feld., Neues Lep. 10: uses the name as a division of Argynnis. 

324. Dan AID A. 

1805. Latr., Sonn. Buff. xiv. 108: Plexippus. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1830? Guor., Icon. Rcgne An. 474, pi. 77: Kadu (Eunica) and 
another. 
This name is preoccupied only in botany, and ought to be restored. 
See Danaus. 

325. Danaus.* 

1809. Latr., Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 201 : I. Plexippus, similis, 

IMidamus ; II. Idea. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440: specifies Idea and Plexippus as types. 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 723 : uses it for cratoegi and allies, the Danai 

candidi of Linne. 
1819. God., Encycl. meth. ix. 172: uses it •nith the spelling Danais 
(which has clung to it through the writings of most sub- 
sequent authors) for Latreille's first group. Conse- 
quently Plexippus is the type. 

VOL. X. (2d 8. II.) 20 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GO : refers it, as Oken did, to Linne and 
says that the type was fixed by Cuvier in 1799 (Tubl. 
Elem.) as brassicai. 
Linne, however, used no such word in a generic sense, but divided 
his genus P.apilio into sections, to which he gave plural names, Danai, 
etc. ; these again into subsections, such as Danai fostivi, etc. ; we must 
thorefore disregard tliem altogether in treating of genera. Cuvier used 
it in tlie same plural form (Danai), but referred rapae as well as brassicae 
to it. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 7 : specifies Plexippus as type. 

Inasmucli as the name Danaus was proposed by Latreille to sup- 
plant his own Danaida (because preoccupied in botany, and of which 
Plexippus was the type), and since he subsequently specified Plexippus 
as one of the types in 1810, before any action had affected the Fabri- 
cian Euploea, Plexippus would have to be considered the type of this 
genus, could it stand. See Danaida. 

326. Danis.* 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 286 : no species whatever indicated. 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722: gives it as a division of Emesis, with no 
mention of species beyond the remark " vier Arten," 
wliich is copied from Fabricius. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : changes the name for no apparent 

reason to Hadothera (q. v.). 
1852. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 497 : uses it for several species, 
commencing with Danis (Sebaj). 
Very probably Westvvood was right, as Fabricius in several instances 
used specific names for genera containing them. But we cannot possi- 
bly determine this fact. If it were true, the name would fall from its 
illegal derivation. If it were not, it would have to be dropped for want 
of support, or possible fixity. See Damis and Thysonotis. 

327. Daptonouka.* 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 209 : Lycimnia, Salacia. Lycimnia 
specified as type. 
This name falls before Melete (q. v.). 

328. Darpa. 
1865. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 781 : Hanria. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

329. Dasyomma.* 
1860. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 401 : fuscum. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
This name is preoccupied in Diptera (Mag. 1840). 



• OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 155 

330. Dasyophthalma. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 343 j Eusina, Creusa. 

Used since in same sense by Ilerrich-Schaeffer, Ilewitson, and Kirby. 
Rusiua may be taiien as the type. 

331. Debts. 

1849. [Boisd. in] Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. Gl : Samio. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1851. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 358: uses it for Europa 

and eight others, including Samio. 

Westwood designates Europa as type, but erroneously ; for the 
plates had then been publislied two years, and there is no iniHcation that 
Boisduval, whose statement alone would have had force, intended 
Europa for tiie type. No Boisduvalian species are placed in the genus 
by Westwood, and moreover Europa is the type of Lethe, so that Samio 
must certainly be taken as the type. If, however, Samio is generically 
identical with Europa, then Debis falls before Lethe (q. v.). 

332. Di^LlAS. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 91 : Esfialea (Tyche, Apriate), Pasithoe CPasi- 
thoe, Porsenna). 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34: specifies Egialea as the type. 

See Thyca. 

333. Deloneura. 

1808. Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 81 : immaculata. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 426: uses it in the same sense. 

334. Dercas. 

1847. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 70: Verhuellii. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type, as subsequently indicated by 
Butler. 

335. Desmozona.* 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 2 B., 5 C. : Mantus (Manthus), Achcrois. 
1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 451 : uses it for thirty -five 
species, including both of Boisduval's. 

The name falls before Teplia. See also Ileliochlaena and Nymphi-. 
diurn. 



156 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN A'CADEMY 

336. Deudorix. 

18G3. Ilewits., m. Diurn. Lep. i. IG: Eryx (Amyntor), Perse, Epi- 
ras (Epirus, Despocua), Eos, Lexias, Domilia, Epijarbas, 
Diovis, Xenoplion, Dioetas, Pheretitna, Petosiris, Melam- 
pus, Phranga, Sphinx (Varuna), Elcia, Manea, Nissa, 
Orseis, Nasaka, Chozeba, Tsocrates, Anta, Galathea, 
Timoleon, MsEcenas (Timoleon). Epijarbas is desig- 
nated as tlie type. 
Subsequently used by Ilerrich-Schaeffer, Butler, and Kirby. See 
Artipe. 

337. DiADElIA.* 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. i. 135 : BoUna (Lasinassa), Alimena, 

Pandarus (Pipleis). 

1833. lb., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 187 : Bolina, dubius (dubia). 

Bolina therefore becomes the type, and in this sense the genus is 
used by Doubleday, Westwood, and Folder ; but the name is preoccu- 
pied in Crustacea (Sclium. 1817) and Echinoderms (Gray, 1825). See 
Esoptria and Apatura. 

338. Dl^THRIA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : Clymena. Sole species, and therefore 
type. See Callicore. 

339. DiCALLANEURA. 

1807. Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend. 37 : pulchra, decorata. 
Pulchra may be taken as the type. 

340. DiCnORRAGlA. 

1868. Buth, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 614: ITesimachus. Sole spe- 
cies and designated tyjie. 

341. DiDONis. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 17 : Vitellia, Biblis. 
1841. Doabl , List Br. Mus. 144: uses it for Biblis and its allies, in 

which sense it has since been used by Westwood, Ilerrich- 

Schaelfer, and Kirby. 

But Billberg had earlier (1820) taken Biblis as the type of Zonaga, 
and hence Vitellia must be used as the type. 

342. Dtltpa. 
'1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. East Ind. Co. i. 201 : ETorgiana. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 



' OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 157 

343. DiONE. 

181 G. Ilubn., Verz. 31 : vanilloj, Juno. 
Juno may be taken as the type. 

344. DlOPHTHALMA. 

183G. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 2 B., 5 C. : Sifia, Telegone. 
Telegone may be taken as type. 

345. DiORiNA. 

1837. Boisd. in Mor., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vi. 421 : Periander (Lao- 
nonie). Sole species, and therefore type. 

Since used in same sense ; but frequently (as by Doubleda}', Bates, 
and KirbyJ, with the incorrect spelling Diorliina. See also Rodinia 
and Rhetus. 

34G. DiPSAS.* 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 25: Ataxus, S//!a (Pholus), (both 

inedited). 
1852. "VYestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 479 : Syla (Sila), Alaxus, and ten 

others. Syla specified as type. 
18G5. Ilewits., 111. Diurn. Lep. G4: also specifies Syla and Ataxus 

as types. 

The genus is however preoccupied in Reptiles (Lam. 17G8) and Mol- 
lusks (Leach, 1814). 

347. DiRA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. GO: Roxelana (Roxelane), Mcgaera, Mjrra. Cly- 

tus (Clyte). 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 6: uses it for Meg^ra. 

Clytus must be taken as the type, as the other species fall into Lasi- 
ommata and Pararge. See also Amecera, Leptoneura, and Mauiola. 

348. DlKCENNA. 

1847 (Aug.). Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. 17: Jemima (Limbe). 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
1847 (Nov.). lb., ib. 119 : Jemima (lambc), and other MS. or queried 

names. 
18G2. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 520: employs it for eight species, 

including the above. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 20: follows Bates. 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

349, DlSCOPHORA. 

183G, Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 A., 8 B. : Celinde (Menetho), Sondiaea. 

In the explanation of the phxtes, the name is spelled as above, but on 

PI. 4 A. it is spelled Discophorus. Subsequently used in same sense by 

Doubleday, Wcstwood, and Kirby. Celinde may be taken as the type. 

The name is very close to Discopora (Lam., Pol. 181(i). 

350. Dis.MORPniA. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 10: Laia (Laja), Amphioue. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. 39, 54: Laia (Laja) specified as the type. 

351. DODONA. 

1861. Hewits., Exot. Butt. ii. 91 : Durga, Egeon. 

.Used in same sense by Herriuh-Schaeffer and Kirby. Durga may 
be taken as the type. 

352. DOLESCnALLTA. 

186L Feld., Neues Lep. 14: Bisaltide (Polibete, Bisaltide). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

353. DoRiLA.* 

1832. Gray, Griff., An. Kingd., pi. 102, fig. 2 : Asteris. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Preoccupied by Dorylus (Latr., Hyra. 1802), and doubtless also it 
owes its origin to the specific name of its close ally, Dorilas. See 
Syrmatia. 

354. DouiTis. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 283 : Apollo, Mnemosyne. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encycl. 710: uses it for Apollo only; but 

Apollo was selected in 1810 as the type of the earlier 
genus Parnassius (q. v.), so that Mnemosyne, which is 
generically distinct from Apollo, must be taken as t3'pe. 

1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 60: specifies Apollo as 

type. 

1816. IlUbn., Verz. 89 : employs it for Apollinus (Thia) only, but 
incorrectly. 

1832, Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 280: also restricts it to 
Apollinus (Apollina), in which he is followed wrongly 
by Boisduval and others ; Boisduval even says of the 
genus, "Etal)li par nous dans notre Icones"! 

1840. "Westw., Gen. Syn. 87: specifies Apollo as type. 

1872, Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66 : says that Apollina is type, tlirough 
Ilubner, 1816. 
See Archon, Parnassius, and Therius. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 159 

£55. DOXOCOPA. 
1816. IlLibn.. Vcrz. 49: Erminea, Iris, Ilia (Ilia, Astasia), Agathina, 

Polysena (Epilais). 
18G5. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Pro;lr. i. 80 : uses it for I<lyia, Celtis, Argus, 

none of them Ilubiier's species, although congeneric with 

Agathiua. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 9 : in accordance with Ilerrich-Schaeffer's 

use of the name, specifies Agathina as type. 

But it cannot so be considered, since Agathina must be referred to 
Clilorippe (q. v ). Erminea has been taken as the type of Apaturina, 
Iris and Ilia belong to Potamis, and hence tliis group must be restricted 
to Polyxena and its allies. 

35G. DuuciNA. 
1872. Butl., Cist, Ent. i. 72: Leonata specified as type. 

357. Drusilla.* 
1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. i. 11 : Urania (Jairus), Horsfieldii. 
Urania (.Jairus) specified as type. 

Used in same sense by Westwood : but the name falls before 
Tffiuaris, and is preoccupied in Coleoptera (Leach, 1819). 

358. Dryas. 
1806. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : PapMa. Sole species, and therefore type. 
1847. Boisd., Voy. Deleg. ii. 588 : uses it for Leda, which has 
notliing to do with the Hubnerian genus, but belongs to 
a distinct family. 
1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 305 : uses it for Cinaron, which has 
nothing to do with either the HiAbnerian or the Boisdu- 
valian genus ! See Aculhua. 
Wallengren has followed Boisduval ; Bates has followed Felder ; and 
Herrich-Scliaeffer, in his Prodromus, has fohowed both the one and the 
other ! See Argynnis. 

359, D'Urbania. 
1862. Trim., Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. [3] i. 400: Amakosa, Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

360. Dyctis. 
1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 138: Agendas. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1851. Westw., Gen, Diurn, Lep. 353: the same. 



160 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

361. Dynamine.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 41 : Mijlitla (Postuerta, Mylitta). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Subsequently used by Kirby, but preoccupied by Dynamena (Lam., 
Pol. 1812). 

362. Dynastor. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 58 : Napoleon. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1851. Doubl. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 346 : Napoleon (Napoleo), 
Darius. 
The plates being in advance of the text, Napoleon must be the type. 
See Megastes. 

363. Dynothea. 

1866. Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. v. 222: Lycaste, Salapia, Terra, 

Avella, Diasia. 
• Lycaste may be taken as the type. 

» 364. Dysenius.* 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 46: albicilla, cruentus. Albicilla specified 
as the type. 

As albicilla is congeneric with Palemon, the necessary type of 
Phocides, this name must fall. 

365. Dysmathia. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 382 : Portia, costalis. 

Portia may be taken as type. 

366. Eagris. 

1863. Guen. in Maill., Eeun. ii. Lep. 19 : Sabadius. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

367. Eantis. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B. : Thraso. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

363. Earina.* 

1839. Speycr, Isis, 98 : rhamni, Cleopatra. 

This name is preoccupied by Earinus (Weam., Ilym. 1837). See 
also Colias, Gonepteryx, and Gonoptera. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 161 

369. ECAUDATI.* 
1860. Koch, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxi. 230 : Memnon and a host of 
others. 
The objections urged against Caudati (q. v.) of tlie same autlior 
would consign this also to oblivion, even if the name were not preoc- 
cupied in Eeptiles (Dum. 180G), as well as in connection with the 
swallow-tails (Billberg, 1820). It is also used, but not in a generic 
sense, by Swainson (ZoiJl. III.) for a division of swallow-tails. 

370. ECHENAIS. 

1816. IlUbn., Verz. 19 : Arius (Aria), Misenes (Misenessa), Aristus 
(Leucophasa), Emylius (Emylia), pseudocrispus (Luciano, 
Crispa), Thelephus (A]pha?a), Chia. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 325 : employs this for fifteen species, includ- 
ing, of Hiibner's, only Aristus, which thereby becomes the 
type. 
The name is very close to Echeneis (Linn., Fishes, 1748). 

371. ECTIMA. 

1848 (Nov.) Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lap., pi. 42 : lona. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1849 (July). lb., ib. 227 : Liria. 

The text states that a species distinct from Liria " will be figured " 
in one of the supplementary plates. It will be noted that both text 
(which is Doubleday's) and plate were published after Doubleday's 
death. Although the description was drawn up from Liria, lona must 
be taken as the type. 

372. Elina. 
1852. Blanch, in Gay's Chili, vii. 28: Vanessoides, Lefebvrei (Mon- 

trolii). 
1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194; and Cat. Sat. 64: desig- 
nates Vanessoides as type. 

373. Elodina. 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 215: Egnatia (Therasia), Ilypatia. 
1867. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. ii. 8 : uses it in the same sense. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 40: designates Egnasia (Therasia) as 
tlie type. 

374. Eltmnias. 

1816. IlUbn., Verz. 37: undularis (Protogcnia, Jynx, undularis), 
Lais, Enotrea CEnothrea), Ariadne. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 21 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 38: employs it for Vitellia, undularis, 

Panthera, and Lais. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 112: uses it in the same sense. 
Lais may be taken as tlie type. 

375, Emesis. 

1807. Fabr.,' HI. Mag. vi. 287: Fatima (Ovidius), Absolon (Absa- 
lon). 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722: enlarges it greatly, making it include 

many other of the Fabrician genera, but in Emesis 
proper places the Fabrician species and others. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 21 : refers four species to it allied to Fatima, but 

places that in his Polystichtis. See INlesene. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : changes the name, for no apjiarent 

reason, to Tapina. 
1818. Hoffm., "Wied. Zool. Mag. i. ii. 98: employs it for Fatima 

(Ovidius), and many others, not including Absolon, so 

that Fatima becomes the type. 
1840. Blanch.-Brulle, Llist. Nat. Ins. iii. 4G6: specify Croesus as 

type, of course erroneously. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 9: employs it for Lucinda, Mandana, 

(Arminius), and Fatima, besides some MS. species. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 421, 446: specifies Fatima (Ovid- 
ius) as type. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 436 : employs it for Lucinda 

and others, including neither of the species of Fabricius. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 312 : follows Bates in general, but includes 

Fatima. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66 : says Fatima (Ovidius) is type through 

Westwood in 1850. See Nelone. 

376. Enantia. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 96: Melite, Licinia (Lininia). 
Licinia may be taken as the type. See Licinia. 

377. Endopogon. 
1864. Boisd. in Feld.. Si:)ec. Lep. 4: Sesostris (Sesostris, Zestos, 
Tarquinius), Childrente, Vertumnus (Vcrtumnus, Cu- 
tora, Iphidamas, Erithalion, Zeuxis, Alyattes, Rhamases), 
Anchises, Telmosis, Erlaces, Phosphorus, Cyphotes 
(Ilierocles, Eteoclcs, Lycomes), Nephalion, Idalion, 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 163 

Polyzelus, Areas (Xenares, Areas), Toxaris (Toxaris, 
Anacharsis), Cymoehles (Cymochles, Orbignyanus), 
Serapis (Serapis, Osyris), Pomares. 
Sesostris may be taken as the type. 

378. Endtmion.* 
1832-33. Swains, Zool. 111. ii. 85 : regalis. Sole speeies, and there- 
fore type. 
But Endymion is one of the synonymes of regalis, so that this name 
must be dropped. See Eucliaria, Evenus, and Areas. 

379. Enispe. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn, Lep., pi. 40: Enthymius. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1850. lb. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 292: the same. 

380. Enodia. 

181 G. Hubn., Verz. 61; Portlandia (Andromacha), Dejanira, Ily- 

peranthus (Hyperanthe). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 13G: uses it for Alope and Hyperan- 
thus. 
In this sense the genus is used by Westwood, Stephens, and Kirhy 
(List), but Hyperanthus was virtually the type of Ilipparchia in lb"20. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 5: designates Portlandia as the type. 

381. Enope.* 

1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 228 : Pulaha, Bhadra. 

According to Kirby (in litt.) this name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera 
(Walk. 1854). See Neope. 

382. Entheus. 
181G. Iliibn., Verz. 114: Peleus. Sole species, and therefore tyjie. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 579 : uses it for more than twenty species, 

including Peleus. See Phareas and Peleus. 

383. Epargyreus. 
181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 105: Prodicus, Tityrus (Clarus), Pomus (Co- 

mus), Evadnes, Epitus, Brino, Orchanius. 
18G9. lUitl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 275: uses it for Mathias and others, 

none of which are mentioned by Iliibner. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 49 : specifies Tityrus as type. 



164 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY ' 

384. Ephyriades. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. HI : Otreus, Folus, Tryxus, Asychis. 
Otreus may be taken as the type. 

385. Epicalia.* 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 90 : Acontius (Antiochus), 

Kumilia (NumiJius), Obrinus (Anciea). 
1850. Boisd. in Westvv., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 25G : uses it in same 

sense.* 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 17: L Acontius; IL species not mentioned 

by Doubleday ; III. Obrinus (Anci^a), and another. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 40 : claims it as his own, and refers to it 

Nyctim-us, Antinoe, and Numilia. 

The name is preoccupied through Epicallia, used in Lepidoptera 
(Hiibn. 1816), and Epicalla, used in Coleoptera (Dej. 1833). All have 
the same derivation. 

386. Epigea.* 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 62: Euryale (Adyte, Euryale), Ligea, Embla, 

Medea, Pyrrha. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 8 : uses it for Ligea and Medea (Blan- 

dina). 

But the name falls before Erebia. See also Gorgo, Marica, Syngea, 
Phorcis, and Oreina. 

387. Epinephele.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 59: Jurtina (Janira), Lycaon (Eudora), Cly- 
mene (Synclimene). 

1843. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Schmett. Eur. i. 81 : uses it for the first two of 
these and for others. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 7 [EpLnephila] : uses it for Jurtina 
(Janira) . 

1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : the same. 

1868. Bull., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194; and Cat. Sat. 64: desig- 
nates Jurtina (Janira) as type. 

The name, however, is preoccupied by Epinephelus (Bloch-Schneid., 
Fishes, 1801). 

388. Epinetes.* 
1820. Billb., Enum. Iijs. 77 : Ceres (Sebethis MS.), Isabella, Calli- 
ope, Polymnia, Psidii, diaphanus, and some MS. species^ 
A heterogeneous group which would best be left unused. 



or ARTS AND SCIENCES. 165 

389. Epipiiile. 

1844. [BoistL in] Doubl., List Br. Mus, 90 : Orea, Laothoe (Merione, 
Liberia). 

1849. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 224 : Orea, Chrysites, 

Lampethusa, ? Laothoe. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 40: Ariadne, Chrysites, Epicaste, Adrasta. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 201 : employs it for all the above, excepting 

Laothoe and Ariadne, and for others. 
Orea may therefore be taken as tlie type. 

390. EPITOLA. 

1852. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 470 : Elion. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

391. Erebia. 

1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 58, 79 : L JEgeria 
(Egeria), Ma3ra, Mega^ra ; II. Semele, Agave (Ilippo- 
lyte), Noma, Polyxenes (Bore), Ilyperanthus, Medusa, 
Ligea, Manto, Embla, Jurtina (Janira), Typhon (Davus), 
Pamphilus, Hero, Arcania, Iphis. Ligea is specified as 
type. 

1802-3. Boisd,, Icones, 147: uses it for Pronoe (Neorides) and 
others, including a mention of Ligea. 

1843. Herr.-Schaeff., Schmett. Eur. 55 : refers to it a large number 

of species, including I^igca. 

1844. Doubl,, List Br. Mus. 123: employs it for a large number, 

including Ligea. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 37G : makes similar use of it. 
18G8. Butl,, Ent. Monthl. Mag, iv. 194; and Cat. Sat. 72: specifies 

Ligea as type. 
See Gorgo, Marica, Syngea, Phorcis, Epigea, Oreina, and Maniola. 

392. EuEsiA. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen,, pi. 7 B. : Eunice (Euuica). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus, 04: uses it in this sense. 
1848. lb.. Gen. Diurn, Lep. 182: the same extended. 
1801. Feld., Neues Lep. 10 and App. : refers to it Nycteis, Ismeria, 

and others. 
The name is very near to Eresus (Walck. Arachn. 1805). 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

393. Ergolis. 

183G. Boisd., Spec. gdn. pi. 4 A: Ariadne (larva and pupa only fig- 
ured). Sole species, and therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Doubleday, "Westvvood, and Kirby. See 
Ariadne. 

394. Eribcea. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 46: Brutus (Bruta), Jason (Unedonis), Pelias 
(Pelopia), Lucretia, Castor (Castoris), Pollux (Pollussa), 
-.Eclus (Aile), Tiridates (Tiridatis), Athamas (Athamis), 
Etheocles (Etheoclessa), Xipliares (Thyestessa, Xy- 
pharis), Pyrrhus (Pyi-richia), Euryalus (Euriale). 
Is this name too near Erebia (Dahu., Lep. 1816) to be used ? If not, 
Etheocles may be considered the type. 

395. Erina.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 134 : Xanthospilos (pulcliella), Erinus, 
ignita. Erinus specified as typical. 
The generic name, being based upon it, must drop. See Holochila 
and Polycyma. 

396. Erites. 

1851. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 392: Medura (Madura). 
Sole species, and therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

397. Eroessa. 

1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 56 : chilensis. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

398. Eronia. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Cleodora. Sole species, and 

therefore type, as specified by Butler. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 604: the same. 

The genus has been used in the same sense by authors. 

399. Erora. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 32 : laeta. Sole species and designated 
type. 

400. Erotion.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enura. Ins. 80. Cupido. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
The name falls before Helicopis. See also Ilexuopteris. 

401. Erycides. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 110: Pygmalion (Pigmalion), Gnetus (Mega- 
lesius). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 1G7 

1852. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 509 : uses it for seven species, includ- 
ing Pygmalion. 

18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 2GG : employs it for Palemon only, not 
specified by Iliibner. 

18G9. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 59 : refers a great many species to 
it, including Pygmalion and Palemon. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. JMag. vii. 92: employs it not only for 

Palemon, but for many others, including Pigmalion. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 587 : places Pygmalion in it, with nearly 

thirty others. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 4G : specifies Pygmalion (Pigmalion) as the 

type. 

402, EUYCINA.* 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 28 G : Meliboeus, Lysippus, Orsilochus. 

1809. Latr., Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 205: extends the group, includ- 

ing in it all of the above. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440 : Lamis, Fatima, Melander, Lysippus, and 

]\Ielibocus are specified as types. One of the last two of 
these must therefore be chosen. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722 : gives it as a section of Emesis, referring 

to it the Fabrician species. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 22: restricts it to Thisbe (perdita),and Lysippus 

(Lysippe). 

The latter, therefore, is type, as stated by Crotch (Cist. Ent. 1872). 
Most authors have considered Meliboeus as typical, as would have been 
the case but for Hiibner, HoflTinan (Wicd. Zuol. Mag. I. ii. 97) specify- 
ing only MeliboDus of the species given by Fabricius. But the genus is 
preoccupied in MoUusks (Lam. 1805). See Riodina and Ancyluris. 
t 

403. EUYNNIS. 

1801. Schrank, Faun. Boica, ii. i. 157: alcea? (malva;), malvic (Fri- 
tilliini), Tages, comma, Thaumas (linea), Morpheus 
(Speculum). 

1820. Oken, Naturg. f. Scbulen, 788: alceae (Malvarum). 

1858. Kamb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 83:* Tages (Cervantes), Marloyi. 



* Rambur also in another work (Faune Ent. Andal.) restricts Erynnis to 
Tages (Cervantes). Tlio portion of tlie work containing this (p. 310) may have 
been printed as early as 1810, but does not appear to liave been issued before 
1870, judging from tlie memoranda attached to the coj)y in the Library of tlie En- 
tomological Society of France. See also Stuudiiiger's Catalogue, 1871, p. xxx. 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY ' 

1861. Staud., Cat. Lep. Eur. 15 : uses it for several species, includ- 
ing Tajes. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 610: employs it for alceae and others not of 

Schrank's list. See also Journ. Linn. See. Zool. x. 498. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 50 : specifies Tages as type. 

Neitlier alceae nor Tages can, however, be taken as type, for both 
were previously ehmuiated (see Urbanus and Thanaos); malvae was 
already type of Hesperia in 1798, Tliaumas of Adopaca in 1820, and 
Morpheus of Heteropterus in 1832; there is nothing left but comma, 
which virtually became the type of the genus in 1832. This necessi- 
tates further changes in Pampliila and Cyclopides. See Augiades. 

404. EiiYPiiAxis. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Gnat. 57 : Automedon. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. Also spelled by Boisduval Euryphanis and 
Eryphane. 
Used by Kirby in same sense. 

405. Ertthia. 
1818. Hubn., Verz. 24: Labdacus (Labdaca), Gelanor (Gelanoria), 
Melaphoea, Teleclus (Cataleuce). 
Labdacus may be taken as the type. 

406. ESOPTRIA.* 
1816. Hubn., Verz. 45: BoUna (Alcithoe, Bolina). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
But this name falls before Apatura, through Hubner's own writings. 
See also Diadenia. 

407. ESTHEMOPSIS. 
1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 306 : Clonia. Sole species, and therefore 
type. See Pseudopheles. 

408. Eteona.* 

1848. [Boisd. in] Doubl. List Br. Mus. App. 21 : Tisiphone. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1848. [lb. in] Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 42 : the same. 
1850. lb. in AYestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 254 : the same. 

The name is preoccupied by Eteone (Sav., Worms, 1817). 

409. EUBAGIS. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 70: Athemon (Arthemon). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in the same sense by Doubleday and Felder. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCE^. 169 

410. EUCHAKIA.* 

1870. Boisd., Ltip. Guat. 14: Ganymedes, imperlalis, regalis. 

The name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera (Hiibn., 1816) and in Arach- 
nids (Kocli, 1835). See also Evenus, Areas, and Endjmion. 

411. EuCIIEIRA.* 

1834. Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. i. 44: socialis. Sole species, 
aud therefore type, as indicated by Butler. 
The name is preoccupied by Eucheirus (Dej., Col. 1833). 

412. EUCHLOE. 

181G. Hiibn., Verz. 94: Ausouia (Bella, Ausonia), Tagis, Genutia 
(Midea), cardamines, Eupheno, Eucharis (Coeneos). 

1841. "Westw., Brit. Butt. 30: employs it for cardamines only, and 
therefore this must be taken as the type. Stephens 
(1850) and Kirby (1858) make the same use of it. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 42 : specifies Genutia (Midea) as the type, 
but erroneously. See also Kirby, Zool. Rec. 1872, 339. 
See Anthocharis. 

413. EuDiEMON.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 76 : Midamus (Midamus, Claudius, 
JMulciber), similis, Panope, Clytia (dissimilis), assimilis, 
Plexippus (Plexippus, Ilegesippus), Erippus, Chrysippus 
(Chrysippus, Alcippus). 
The name is preoccupied by Eudaemonia (Hubn., Lep. 1816). 

414. EUDAMUS. 

1832-33. Swains., 111. ii. 48 : Chalco (Agesilaus), Brachius (Dorys- 
sus), Proteus. Proteus designated as type. 

1833-34. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Am. Sept., pi. G9 : use it for Proteus 
and many others. 

1869. Bull., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 260: uses it, but places Proteus else- 

where. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 56: employs it for others than 

Proteus, and places Proteus elsewhere. See Goniurus. 

415. EUEIDES. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 11 : Dianasa, Ilalia, Pasinuntia, Eucoma, Mueme, 

Numata (Pione), Ilarmonia. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 57 : uses it for Dianasa and an unnamed 

species. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 22 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1848. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 145: divides the group into two sec- 

tions, the second containing Dianasa. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 6 : makes a similar division and reference. 

1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 5G2 : uses it for eight species, none 

of them the originals of Iliibner. 
Dianasa must be considered as the type. 

416. EUERYCINA. 

1849. Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [2] v. 97 : Calphurnia. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
Thus used by Bates and Kirby. See Rodinia. 

417. EUGLYPHUS.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : Chiron. 

The name is preoccupied by Euglyphis (Hiibn., Lep. 1816). See 
Marias and Megalura. 

418. EUGONIA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 36: c. aureum (Angelica), Polynice, van. album 
(v. album), Polychloros (Polychloros, Pyrrhomeltena), 
urticae, Charonia, Antiopa. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 12: uses it for Antiopa, Polychloros, 

and urtico!. 
1873. Grote, Can. Ent. v. 144: says that c. aureum (Angelica) is the 
type ; but, owing to the limitation of Stephens, that is 
impossible. 
Polychloros may be taken as the type. 

419. EUGRAPHIS.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 75: Polyxena (Hypsipyle). Sole 
species, and therefore tyj^e. 
Preoccupied through Eugraphe (Hiibn., Lep. 1810). See Thais and 
Zerynthia. 

420. EULACEURA. 

1871. Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 726 : Osteria. Sole species and 
designated type. 

421. EuLEPis. 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : Athamas. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

422. EdmjEus. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 67 : Minyas. Sole species, and therefore type. 
Subseq.uenily used by various authors in the same sense. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 171 

1837-47. Gey. ia Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. [Eumsea] iii. : uses it for 
Debora. 
See also Eumenia. 

423. EuMEXiA.* 
1823. God., Eucycl. meth. 826: Minyas (Toxea). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 5 C. : the same species. 

But the name must fall before Eumaeus (q. v.). Godart must have 
borrowed from Iliibner in this case, as Eumaeus must have been pub- 
lished by 1S18, and two such similar names could not have been pro- 
posed independently for the same insect. 

424. EuMENis. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 58 : Antonoe, Aello, Semele, Cclimene (Tarpeja). 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lap. 7 : uses it for Semele, which therefore 

becomes the type. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : employs it for Semele and Briseis. 

425. EuMESiA.* 
18G7. Feld., Reise Novara, 504: semiargentea. Sole species, and 
therefore tyjoe, as stated by Butler. 
But the name is preoccupied, through Eumesius (Westw., Ilym. 
1840). 

426. EuNiCA. 

181G. Iliibn., Verz. 61 : Anna, Monima. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 222: employs it for a number of 
species, including both of Iliibner's. 
Used in a similar sense by Felder, Butler, and Kirby. Monima may 
be taken as the type. 

427. EUNOGTRA. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 463: Satyrus. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

Used in same sense by Bates and Kirby. 

■ 

428. EuoMMA.* 

1867. F,eld., Reise Novara, 425: angustatum. Sole species men- 
tioned. 
The name is proposed, however, to take the place of Ja?ra (q. v.) 
preoccupied, with two species of which, Opis and Crithea, an<iustatum 
is congeneric ; and therefore one of these two must be taken as tlie 
type. But Euomma is itself preoccupied, as ]\Ir. Kirby has pointed 
out to me, in Coleoptera (Boh. 1858). See Catuna. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

429. EUPALAMIDES.* 

1816. Hlibn., Verz. 101 : Dcedalus. Sole species, and therefore type. 
It is not a butterfly. 

430. EuPHiEDRA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 39: Themis, Cyparissa, Ceres. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 247 : uses it for the same and many others. 

Cyparissa may be taken as the type. 

431. EUPHCEADES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 83: Glaucus, Troilus, Palamedes (Chalcas), 
Polyxenes (Asterius). 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 44 : specifies Glaucus as type. 

Glaucus, however, cannot be taken as type, being the necessary type 
of Jasoniades. Troilus may tlierefore be chosen. See Pterourus. 

432. EUPHYDRYAS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 27 : Phaeton. Sole species and designated 
type. 

433. EupHYEs. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 69 : Metacomet, vestris, singularis, Osyka, 
verna. Metacomet specified as type. 

434. EuPLCEA. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 280: Plexippus, similis, Core (Corus). 
1816. Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv. 15 : uses it for Chrysippus. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 15 : employs it for a number of forms, including 
only PlexipjDUS of the Fabrician species. 

But Plexippus is the type of Danaida, so that this cannot stand. 
Core would liave to be taken as the type (for it is in this sense that it 
lias been used by subsequent authors, such as Boisduval, who invari- 
ably spells it EuplEea, Duubleday, Herrich-Schaeffer, and Kirby), were 
it not that previous to these writers Hiibncr, in 1816, had taken Core 
and a close ally to form his Crastia (q. v.) ; hence similis, which is gen- 
erically distinct from Plexippus, must be taken as the type. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66 : says that Leucostictos (Eunice) is the 
type, through Boisduval in 1832 ; but it is not one of the 
species mentioned by Fabricius. 

435. EUPTOIETA. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 168: Hegesia, Claudia. 

Used in same sense by Felder and Kirby. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 22 : specifies Claudia as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 173 

436. EuPTTcniA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 54: Herse, Penelope (Clarissa), Ilesione (Ocyr- 
rlioe), Ocypete, Ceplius (Lisidice), Ilermes (Ilermessa), 
Mollina (Molina), Lydia, Juuia, Libya, Tolumnia, 
Chloris (Clilorimene), Arnaea (Ebusa), Myncea, and a 
MS. species. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 122: uses it for four species, of which 
three are Iliibner's ; viz., Hesione (Cissia), Arnoea 
(Ebusa), and Tolumnia. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. hep. 372: employs it for the same and 
others, including Ilerse. 

1868. Biitl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194: specifies Herse as- type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 47 : uses it for all of Hiibuer's species and 

others. 
As Ilerse appears to be strictly congeneric witli Tolumnia, it can be 
accepted as the type. 

437. EURALIA. 

1850.. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 281: dubius (dubia), Anthedon. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 25 [Kucalia]: the same. 
Dubius may be considered the type. 

438. EUREMA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 96: Delia (Demoditas), Elathea, Sylvia (Eu- 

doxia), Agave (Jodutta, Phiale), albula (Nise), Hecabe. 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 83 : uses it for Lethe and 

Zabulina, which have nothing to do with Iliibner's genus. 

See Ilypanartia. 
1848. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 176: makes the same 

general use of it. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 252: employs it for Philodice and Pa- 

hrno (Pahcno, Europome), which is nearer the Iliibuer- 

ian mark, but still erroneous. 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 12: uses it in Doubleday's sense. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 39 : does the same. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 35: designates the type as Delia. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 39 : the same. 

Sliould it be written Ileurema ? 

439. EuKiiixiA. 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 405 : Polynice (Elpinice, INIegalonice, 
• Stratonice). Sole species ; the name Eurhinia, however, 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

is evidently given to supplant Rhinopalpa (q-v.) preoccu- 
pied, of which fulva was the type. 
Fulva, therefore, and not Polynice, must be taken as the type of 
Eurliinia. This name, however, is certainly very close to Eurhina 
(Fitz., Rep. 1843) and Eurhinus (Kirb., Col. 1817). 

440. EURIPHENE. 

1847. Boisd., Voy. Deleg. ii. 592 : csBrulea. Sole species, and there- 

fore type. 
Used in same sense (but spelled Eurj'phene) by Westwood, Felder, 
and Kirby. 

441. EuRiPus. 

1848. Douhl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 41 : Halitherses. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 2^3: Halitherses, consimilis (Halli- 

rothrius). 
1861, Feld., Neues Lep. 26 : uses it in the same sense. 

The name is rather near to Eurrhypis (Hiibn., Lep. 1816). 

442. EURYADES. 

1864. Feld., Spec. Ins. 39 : Duponchelii, Corethrus. 

Used with exactly the same limitation by Herrich-Schaeffor and 
Kirby. Inasmuch as the Eelders remark that they had not seen the 

first species, Corethrus may be taken as the type. 

*■ 

443. EURYBIA. 

j 1816*. Ilubn., Verz. 17 : NicSBUS (Ni^osa), Halimede, Dardus (Upis). 
(1818. 111., Wied. Zool. Mag. i. ii, 100 : Nicfeus, Halimede, Lamia. 

AVith the exception of the last species in each case, the usage of 
Hiibner and lUiger is identical. Recalling the statements made in the 
introduction to this essay, there can be no question that this name 
should be credited to Illiger. 

1819. God., Encycl. meth. 459: uses it for Carolina, Nic£Eus, and 

Dardus. 
1832. Guer., Iconogr., pi. 80, fig. 4 [Erybia] : Carolina. 

Whether Illiger or Hiibner have priority, Nicajus, by Godart's usage, 
must become the tyi)e. 

444. EuRYCus. 

1836. Boisd., Sj^c. gen. 391: Cressida (Cressida, Harmonia). 
Sole species, and therefore t3'pe. 
In this sense it has been used by all subsequent authors. See 
Cressida. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 175 

445. EURYGO^'A. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 3, 5 C. : Crotopus (Midas) [larva aud 

jxipa only], PhsBclica. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mas. 6 : employs it for several species, but 

for neither of the above. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 437: employs it for many species, 

including both of Boisduvars and some of Doubleday's. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Loud. ix. 420 : employs it for more 

than sixty species, including both of BoisduvaFs. 
Phiedica may be taken as the type. 

440. EURYMUS. 

1829. Swains, in Horsf., Dcscr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Mus. 129, 134: 
Hyale. Sole species given, and designated type. Said by 
Horsfield to have been so given him by Swainson about 
eight years previously. 

1832-33. Swains., Zocil. 111. ii. 60, 70: Philodice (Philodice, Euro- 
pome). See Colias. 

447. EURYTELA. 

1833. Boisd., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 202: Horsfieldii (Ilorsfieldii, 

Stephensii), Dryope. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 145 : uses it for Dryope and two others. 
Dryope is therefore the type. 

448. EURYTIDES. 

1822-26. Ilubu., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Dolicaon, Iphitas. 
Dolicaon may be taken as the type. 

449. EUSCHEMOX.* 

1846. Doubl. in Stoke's Austr. i. App. 513 : Rcifflesia. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Preoccupied, through Euschema (Iliibii., Lep. 1816). 

450. EUSELASIA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 24: Crotopus (Crotope), Ilygenius (ITygenia), 
Orfita (Orsita), Arbas (Arbassa), Sabinus (Tenage), 
P^uritcus (Cynira*), Gelon (Geltena), Teleclus (Telecta). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 294 : uses it for all the above, and many more. 
Gelon may be selected as type. 

* This name is an accidental error of Ilubner's in copying from Cramer. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

451. Euterpe.* 

1832-33. Swains., 111. iL 74: Tereas (Terea). Sole sjiecies, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

Used in same sense by Boisduval, Doubleday, and Herricli-Schaeffer. 
According to Kirby (Syn. Cat.), this name is preoccupied (but not in 
zoology) : it falls, however, before Archonias (q. v.). 

452. EtJTIIALIA. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 41 : Lubentina, Adonia 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 252 : uses it for the above and others. 

Lubentina may be taken as the type. 

453. EUTHYMUS.* 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 56: Phylceus. Sole species and designated 

type. 
The name falls before Hylephila. 

454. EuTRESis. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. DIurn. Lep. Ill: Hypereia. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 19: the same. 

455. EUXANTHE. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 39: Eurinome. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 228 : the same and another. 
See Anthora and Godartia. 

456. EvENus. 

1816'. Hiibn., Verz. 78 : regalis (Endymion), Ganymedes. Regalis 
may be taken as the type. 

See Eucharia, Endymion, and Areas. 

457. EvEUES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 09 : Argiades (Amyntas, Polysperchon). Sole 
species, and therefore type, as indicated by Scudder 
(Syst. Rev.). 

458. EVONTME. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 61 : Amelia, Sophonisba. 

This generic name has never since been employed. Amelia may 
be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 177 

459. Fabius* 
1837. Dune, For. Butt. 1G7: Hippona. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

But as Fabius is one of the synonymes of Hii)pona, the name falls. 
See Consul, Ilelicodes, and Protogonius. 

4G0. Faunia.* 

1847. Poey, i\rem. Soc. Econ. Ilabana, [2] iii. 178: Orphise (Or- 

phisa). Sole species, and therefore type. 

The details of Ilerricli-Scliaetfer's reference (Suhmett. CuLa, 5) are 
erroneous. 

18G7. Feld., Reise Novara, 406 : Olympias, Persephone, Tithonia, 
Vemesia, Pomona, Araucana. 

Tlie name is preoccupied in Diptera (Rob.-Desv., 1830), and very 
near to Faunis (liubn., Lep. 1810) and Faunus (Montf., Moll. 1810). 

401. Faunis.* 
181G. IlUbu., Verz. 55: Eumeus (Eumea), Echo. 

Preoccupied through Faunus (Montf., Moll. 1810). See Clerome. 

4G2. Faunula. 
18G7. Feld., Reise Novara, 488 : Leucoglene. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

4G3. Feniseca. 
1869. Grote, Trans. Amer. Ent, Soc. ii. 308 : Tarquinius, Poi-senna. 
Tarquinius specified as type, as stated by Scudder. 

464. Festivus.* 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 62 : refers this name to Fabricius, and says 
that Latreille (1.805) fixed the type as Plexippus ; but 
see our introductory remarks. 

465. Ganoris.* 

181 G. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Handl. xxxvii. 61, 86: I. cratjegi, 
brassicce, rapae, napi, Daplidice, cardamines, sinapis ; 
II. Ilyale, Palajno, rhamni. Brassicic is specified as the 
type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 41 : designates rapaj as type, but erro- 
neously. See Pieris. 
Brassictc having i)rGviously been made the type of Mancipiuni, tliis 
name falls, and cannot be employed again. See also Pontia,.. 

VOL. X. (LD S. II.) 23 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

466. Gantra. 
1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 76 : Leucippe, Croceus (Edusa), 
Hyale, Palieno (Paleno), Hecabe, Nise, Proterpia, Ela- 
tliea, albula, Monuste, Pyrantbe (Gnoma, Minna), 
Amaryllis, Crocale (Alcraeone), Scylla, Argante (Her- 
silia), Eubule, Trite, and a number of MS. species. 
Amaryllis may be taken as the type. 

467. Gegenes. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 107: Pygmsus and two MS. species. Pyg- 

ma^us must therefore be considered the type. 
1870. Bull., Ent. Monthl, Mag. vii. 93 : specifies Pygma?us (Pyg- 

maja) as type. 

468. Geitoneura.* ' 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 164: Klugii, Achanta. 

1868. lb., Ent. Montlil. Mag. iv. 196 ; and Cat. Sat. 166 : specifies 

Klugii as type. 
The name falls before Xenica (q. v.). 

469. Gertdus. 
1836. Boisd., Sjjec. gen., pi. 7 C. : Symethus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for the same species by Doubleclay (List). See Symetha 
and Miletus. 

470. Glaucopsyciie. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Eev. 33: Lygdamus, Pembina. Lygdamus 
specified as type. 

471. Globiceps.* 

1869. Feld., Pet. Nouv. Ent. i. viii. : paradoxa. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
The generic name is preoccupied in Ilemiptera (Lep.-Serv. 1825). 
See Pseudopontia and Gonophlebia. 

472. Glycestha. 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 76: crataegi, Hyparete (llyparite), 
Pasithoe, Java (Coronea). 
, Java may be taken as tlie type. 

473. GNAxnoTRicnE. 
1862. Fold., TYien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 420, note : exclamationis. 

Sole species, and therefore type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 179 

474. Gnesia. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Dium. Lep. 141 : Medea, Zetes (Menippe, 

Zetes), Persephone, Egina, Perenna, Circeis. 
Circeis niay be taken as the type. 

475. Gnophodes. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. Gl : Parmeno. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., 363: Parmeno, Chelys (Morpena). 
18G8. But!., Ent. Montlil. Mag. iv. 194: designates Parmeno as 

type. 

476. GODARTIA.* 

1842. Luc, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. xi. 297 : madagascariensis. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 282 ; Eurinome, madagascariensis. 

The name is very close to Goedartia (Boie., Ilym. 1841), though 
named after another person. It is, however, synonymous with Eu- 
xantlie, and must fall before it. See also Anthora. 

477. GoDYHis.* 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 33 : DuilUa. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
It falls before Hymenitis. 

478. GONEPTERYX.* 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encycl. 716: rhamni. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1827. Curtis, Brit. Ent. pi. 173 : designates rhamni as the type. 
J 827. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Ilaust. 8: uses it for rhamni only. 
1840. AVestw., Gen. Syn. 87 [Goniapteryx] : rhamui given us ty[if. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 69 : uses it for many species with 

rhamui. 
1853. "WalleuLM-., Khop. Scand. 145 [Goniopteryx] : rhamni. 
1870. Bull., Cist. iMit. i. 35, 45: specifies rhamni as type. 

The peneric name falls, however, before Colias (q. v.). See also 
Gonoptera and Earina. 

479. GOXILOBA. 

1852. "Westw, Gen. Diurn. Lep. 512: Creteus, Celoenus, Yespasius 

(Cassander), Parmenides, Bixa?, A2;>astus, Aulostcs, Ily- 
laspes, Pervivax, Scipio, Mercatus (fulgerator), Talus, 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

Corytas (Pyramus), Amyntas (Savignyi), Phidon* 
(Phedon), Cometes, Schonherri, Idas (Mercurius), Tity- 
rus, Yuccae,* Olynthus,* Exadeus, Epitus,* Evadnes * 
(Evadne), Pomus (Comus), Brino,* dubius, Anaphus, 
Oi'c'hamus,* Pompeius (Archalaus), Ericus, Chromiis, 
Alexis, Enribates, Salatis, Muretus, Ramusis, Midas 
(Rhetus), Ethlius* (Chemnis, Ethlins), Ilesus, Corydou 
(Coridon), Lucasii (Lucas), Antoninus,* Salius,* Nyc- 
telius, Dalmanni,* Basochesii, Fischeri,* Lesueuri, Bon- 
filius, Dan, Sergestus, Feisthamelii, Sabadius, Japetus 
(Nepos), Phineus, Lucretius, Minos, Xanthaphes* (Xan- 
tlioptes), Aristoteles, Justinianus, Lafrenayii, Fantasos, 
Helops, Pliocus, Avitus, Criuisus, Ebusus, Psecas, Alc- 
moD, Artemides, Zestos, Bathyllus (Bethyllus), Astylos,* 
Broteas,* Corytas, Vulpinus, Olenus,* Nicias, Godartii. 

1869. Ilerr.-SchaeiT., Prodr. iii. G9 : gives a large number of species, 

including those of tlie above list which are followed by 
an asterisk. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. oG : uses it for Tityrus, Exadeus, 

and others not mentioned by Westwood. 

None of Butler's species being congeneric witli those employed in 
this group by Herrich-Sclmeffer, Butler's action has no effect whatever 
upon the determination of a type. Of Westwood's species mentioned 
by Herrich-Schaeffer, Phidon, Ethlius, and Olenus are types of other 
genera. This group may be confined to Xanthaphes and allies. See 
Niconiades. 

480. GONIURUS. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 104: Simplicius, Dorantes, Brachius (Brachyus), 
CobIus, Catillus, Proteus, Tarchon, Eudoxus, Orion. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 510 [Goniuris] : employs it for a 
dozen species, including all of the above. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 259 [Goniuris]: employs it for Proteus 

only. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthh Mag. vii. 56: specifies Simplicius as type. 

But neither Proteus nor Simplicius can be taken as the type, since 
they are congeneric, and Proteus has been taken as the type of Euda- 
mus, carrying with it most of Hiibner's Goniuri. Ccelus may be taken' 
as the type. 

* See the succeeding entry. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 181 

481. GONOPHLEBIA. 

1870 (Aug.). Fcld., Pet. Nouv. Eut. 95 : paradoxa. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

Proposed to supplant Globiceps, preoccupied. Is it a butterfly ? 
See also Pseudopoiitia. 

482. GONOPTERA.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 7G [Gonrptera] : rliamni (rhemni), 
Cleopatra. 
Falls before Colias (q. v.). See also Gonepteryx and Earina. 

483. GOXOPTERIS.* 

1832. Gey. in Iliihn., Zutr. iv. 34: Pcrgcea. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Tlie name is preoccupied through Gonoptera (Dalm., Lep. 1820, and 
Latr., Lep. 182.5). 

484. GouGO.* 
181G. Iliibn., Yerz. G4: Ceto, Medusa, Q^me (Psodea, Qirae). 

The name falls before Erebia. See also Marica, Syngea, Phorcis, 
Epigea, and Oreina. 

485. Graphiuji.* 
1777. Scop., Introd. 433 : Medon and an immense number of wholly 
disconnected species, arranged in eight divisions. 
None of these divisions (when they contain more than a single species) 
are homogeneous. Take, for example, the second, whicli among others 
contains Sarpedon [Papilionides], Mneme [Tribuni], populi [Archontes], 
and Clio [Ilamadryades] ; or the fourth with these : Euterpe [Stalach- 
tis], Cliarithonia {a Heliconian], and Venilia [Athyma]. Every one of 
the families are represented. The genus must therefore be dropped as 
thorou;jhly discreditable to the author, even at the early time it was 
established. 

4SG. Grapta.* 
1837. Kirb., Faun. Bor. Amer. 292: Progne (c. argenteum). Sole 

species, and therefore typd. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 195 : employs it for a number of 
species, including the above. 
He gives Polygonia as a synonyme, but evidently at one time intended 
to use it in preference to Grapta, since he elsewhere in the text (p. PJ'J) 
refers to this genus as Polygonia. 
1861. Fold., Neues Lep. 12 : uses it in the same sense. 

It has been elsewhere very generally adopted, but is synonymous 
with Polygonia, and must fall before it. See also Comma. 



182 proceedings of the american academy 

487. Gtxcecia.* 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 88: Dirce. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
It has been used in the same sense by Westwood, Kirby, and Felder, 
the last of whom spells it GynjEcia ; but it falls before Colobura (q.v.) 

488. Gyrocheilus. 

1867. But!., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [.3] xx. 2G7 : Patrobas. Sole 

species and designated type. 

489. Hades. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 435 : Noctula. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for the same species by Bates and Kirby. See Moritzia. 

490. Hadothera.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : proposed, without reason, to supplant 
Danis. No species are referred to it. 

491. ILematera. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. SO : Thysbe. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

1849. Bi., ib. 231 : Pyramus, Thysbe. 

Subsequently used in the same sense by Felder and Kirby. 

492. H^MONIDES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 101 : Cronis.* Sole species, and therefore type. 

493. II^TERA. 

1807. Fabr., Bl. Mag. vi. 284: Piera, diaphanus. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : without apparent reason, but much 

according to his wont, changes the name to Pselna, 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B. : Piera is figured, and therefore this 

must be taken as type. It has been used by subsequent 

authors in the same sense. 

1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195 : designates Piera as type. 
1872. Crotch, Cist, Ent. i. 66 : says that Piera is type through 

Doubleday in 1846, overlooking Boisduval's action. 

494. Hamadrtas. 
1806. Hiibn., Tent. 1 : lo. Sole species, and therefore type. 
1832. Boisd., Astrol. 91 : employs it fur Zoilus and Assarica (Assa- 
ricus), which have no connection with Hiibner's group. 
Since used by many authors in the later sense. See also Inacliis. 

« See note, p. 293. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 183 

495. IIamanumida. 
181 G. Ilubn., Verz. 18: Veronica, Daedalus (^Vleleagris), Flegyas 
(AUica), Actoris (Actoria), Thasus (Thase), Ceneus 
(Lusia). 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 249: employs it for Daedalus only, which 
therefore becomes type. 
See also Canopus. 

49 G. IIamearis. 
181G. Ilubn,, Verz. 19 : Abaris (Abarissa), Epulus (Epule), Lucina. 
1830. Curtis, Bi'it. Ent., 2^)1. 316: designates Lucina as the type; but 

Stephens's action in the previous year, in founding the 

genus Nemeobius, renders tliis nugatory. 
1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 88: specifies Lucina as type. 
18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 447: employs it for several 

species, including Epulus only of Hiibner's species, and 

this therefore becomes the type. 

497. IIames.* 

1851. Boisd. MS. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 3G6 : mentioned by 
Westvs'ood as synonymous virith Cajrois, but not other- 
wise referred to by any writer. Boisduval himself has 
never mentioned it, and no species have been referred 
to it. 

498. IIarma.* 

1848. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 40 : Tlieohene. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1850. " Doubl." [but erroneously] in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 287 : 

Theobene and others. 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 33 : divides the group into three sections, 

the first comprising Tlieobene. 
The name is preoccupied by Arma (Ilahn, Ilemipt. 1833). 

499, IIebomoia. 
181 G. IliJbn., Verz. 9G : Glaucippe, Leucippe. 
1847. Doubl,, Gen, Diurn, Lep. G2 : the same. 

1870. Butl,, Cist. Ent. i. 37, 48 : specifies Glaucippe as type. 
See Ipbias, 

500. IIecaekge.* 

181G. Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv. 32 : celtis. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 



184 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 100 : Carinenta, celtis. 

Besides tlie reasons given in tlie introduction for believing that Hiib- 
ner's Verzeichniss did not appear until after 1816, wliiclx alone would 
be enough to give Ochsenheimer the preference in this case, Ochsen- 
heimer's preface is dated in March and Iliibner's in September. One 
must have borrowed from the other. It is beyond credence that both 
should have coined the same generic word for the same insects, unless 
there were some special significance in the name, as there is not. 
Iliibner's genus was defined (briefly), while Ochsenheimer's was not; 
but the latter author gives a reason (an insufficient one) for changing 
the name of the earlier Libythea, just as he does m the case of Char- 
axes ; and there can therefore be little doubt that the genus is to be 
credited to Ochsenheimer. In that case, the genus cannot stand, for 
celtis (which is generically distinct from Carinenta) had already been 
taken as the type of Libythea. See also Ilypatus. 

501. Hecalene.* 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 112: Clytemnestra. Sole 
si^ecies, aud therefore type. 
But this name must fall before Hypna (q.v.), as pointed out by 
Westwood, in the Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera, where Hecalene is 
credited to Boisduval. 

502. IIectortdes. 
1822. Hiibn., Index : Agavns, Brunichus. 
1822-26. lb., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Lysithous, Ascanius. 
1825. lb., Zutr. iii. 25 : Proneus. 

The choice of type must, of course, lie between Agavus and Bru- 
nichus, and Agavus may be selected. 

503. IIedone.* 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 58 : Brettus, Prcecejis, Coscinia, Orono, 
JEtna. Brettus specified as type. 
It falls before Thymelicus (q. v.). 

504. IIelcyra. 

1800. Feld., Sitzungsb. Acad. Wien, xl. 450 : Chionippe. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
1861. II)., Neues Lep. 37, 44: the same. 

505. Helias.* 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 287 : no insects cited, excepting an unnamed 
MS. species. 
The description is also entirely insufllcient to give any clew to what 
Fabricius may have had in mind, and hence the name must be dropped. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 185 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : proposes, for no reason, to change the 
name to Aclina ; he also mentions no species. 

18G7. Feld.. Raise Novara, 531 : uses it for seven new species, allied 
to Busiris and others. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 98 : specifies phaloenoides as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 634: fullon's Butler, but questions whether it 

is used in the Fabriciau sense. 
See Achlyodes. 

506. IIelicodes.* 

1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 112: Hippona. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

1850. Boisd. MS. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 313 : TVestwood 
gives it as a synonyme of Protogonius. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 49 : claims it as his own, jilacing the same 
species in it. 
It falls, however, through Consul. See also Fabius and Protogonius. 

507. Heliconius. 

1805. Latr., S-onn. BufF. xiv. 108 : Antiochus (Anthioca). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

1809. lb., Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 200: divides the group in two sec- 

tions, but does not specify Antiochus in either. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440: specifies Polyninia and Ilorta as types (!), 

these being the first species of each section in his previous 

work. 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 725: treats it as Latreille in his later works. 
1817. Latr., Cuv. Regne Anim. iii. 549 : employs it for a number of 

species, but Antiochus is not mentioned. 
1823. Iliibn., Zutr. ii. 31 [Ileliconia] : employs it for Lansdorlii 

(Langsdorfii), which has nothing to do with the Fabriciau 

genus. 
183G. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 7 B. [Ileliconia] : figures Dajta. 

It is subsequently used for species allied to Anthioca by Doubleday, 
Bates, and others. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GO : refers the genus back to Linne [Ileli- 

conii], but erroneously, and says the type was fixed by 
Lamarck in 1801 as Psidii. 

But Lamarck at this time only divided the genus Papilio into sec- 
tions, giving them the Linnean names in the plural form, ami specified 
Psidii as an example of Ileliconii. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 21 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

508. PIelicopis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 285 : Cupido, Acis (Gnidus). 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722 : uses it as a section of Emesis, referring 

to it the same species, together with Endjmion. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 22 : employs it for Cecilia (Cicilia), which is only 

distantly related to the Fabrician types. 
1818. Hoffm. in "Wied., Zool. Mag. i. ii. 98 : refers the Fabrician 

species to it. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 3 A. : gives an illustration of Cupido, 
which therefore becomes type. 
It has been used in same sense by later authors. See also Erotion 
and Hexuopteris. 

509. IlELIOCHLiENA.* 

1822. Hiibn., Index : Leucosia. Sole species, and therefore type. 
The name falls before Peplia. See Desmozona and Xymphidium. 

510. Heliochroma. 
1869. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 15 : idiotica. Sole species, and therefore 
type, as subsequently indicated by Butler. See p. 293. 

511. Heliopetes. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : Arsalte (niveus) and a MS. species. 
Arsalte therefore is the type. 
See also Leucoscirtes. 

512. Heliophorus. 
1832. Gey. in Hiibn., Zutr. iv. 40 : Epicles (Belenus). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
See also Ilerda. 

513. Heliornis.* 
1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Laertes (Epistrophus), Mene- 
laus (Menelaus, Nestor), Achilles (Helenor, Achilles). 
This name is preoccupied in Birds (Bonn. 1790). 

514. Hemerociiaris.* 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 412 : given only as a MS. synonyme of 
Lejatalis by the author himself. It therefore cannot be 
used in this (or any other) sense. 

515. He Jii ARGUS. 
1816. Hubn., Verz. 09 : Bubastus, Parsimon (Cela^us), Lysimon 
(Ubaldus), Hanno, Isis (Isarchus), Larydas, and a MS. 
species. 
Hanno may be selected as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 187 

516. Heodes. 
1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Handl. xxsvii. 63, 91 : Hippothoe (Hip- 
pothoe, Chryseis), Virgaurete, Phlseas, Ileile, Dorilas 
(Garbas), rubi. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 : the same, excepting rubi, and others. 
1835. Vill.-Guen., Lep. Eur. 32 : Ilelle, Phlaeas, and other coppers, 
riilajas may be taken as the type. See Lycajna. 

517. Heraclides. 
1816. riubn., Verz. 83: Thoas (Oxikis, Thoas), Menestheus, Pehius, 
Demoliou (Cresphontes), Phorcas. 
Thoas may be taken as the type. See also Thoas. 

518. Herona. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. 41 : Marathus. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 293 : the same. 

519. Herp^nia.* 
1870. But]., Cist. Ent. i. 38, 52 : Eriphia (Tritogeuia). Sole spe- 
cies and designated type. 
The name must fall before Picanopteryx. 

520. Hesperia. 

1793. Fabr., Ent. Syst. iii. i. 258 : established upon all the Rurales 
and Urbicola3 known to him, three hundred and forty- 
nine names (231 Rurales, 118 Urbicolte), the two groups 
commencing respectively with Cupido and exclamationis 
among the latter malvae. 

1798. Cuv., Tabl. Elem. 592: cites malvte as an example and the 
only one. This, therefore, becomes the type, being one 
of those used by Fabricius. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 285 : employs it for Amor, Ilelius, Faunus, 
Vulcanus, Marsyas, Boetica, Acmon (TEmon), Tliysbe, 
Thetys (^sopus), and Pretus, all Rurales, to which 
group, but for Cuvier's action, Hesperia would have to 
be restricted ; as it is, Fabricius's action has no effect. 

1810. Latr., Consid. 440 : specifies Proteus, malvae, and Morpheus 
(Steropes) as types. 

1815. Oken., Lehrb. i. 720: employs it for Helle and allies ! 

1816. Dalm,, Vetensk. Acad. Handl. xxxvii. 200 : specifies comma 

as type, but erroneously. 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1816. Lam., Hist. Nat. Aa. sans Vert. iv. 20 : employs it for raalvie 

and others. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 25 : uses it for various Vestales, following Fabri- 

cius' own tartly limitation, although not in precisely the 

same sense. 
1820. Billb., Euum. Ins. 81 : some UrbicoltB, among them malva?. 
1820. Oken, Naturg. f. Schulen, 788 : employs it for some Ephori. 
1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. i. 28: specifies comma as the type, but 

erroneously. 
1833. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 442: also designates comma as the 

type. 
1837. SodofFsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 82 : proposes to supplant this name by 

Symmachia (q. v.). 
1840. Ramb., Faun. Ent. Andal. 312 [probably unpublished] : uses 

it for a number of species, including malvee (Alveolus). 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 525 : employs it for a heterogeneous 

group of Urbicolas, not including malv«. 
1858. Ramb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 88: limits it wrongly to Nostro- 

daraus ( Nostradamus) . 
1858. Kirb., Cat. Brit. Rhop. : limits it to comma. 
18G9. But!., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 269 : employs it for exclamationis and 

others, but not for malvaj. 
1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 58 : specifies exclamationis as the 

type, erroneously.* 
1870. Kirb., Journ. Linn. 8oc. Lond. x. 500 : says that Proteus seems 

to be Latreille's type, and Alcides that of Fabric! us. 



* Butler (Lep. Exot. 1G6, note) says of Ilesperia: "Fabricius described the 
genus in his Entomoiogia Systematica, vol. iii., Gloss. 1, p. 32-5 (1793), and 
gave no ti/pe, but used the following words in his description — ' Antennaj clava 
elongata, scepius uncinata.' These words at once fix the type as somewhere 
amongst the Uesperke. urbicolce (notwithstanding the fact that, in liis Systema 
Glossatorum, Fabricius refers it to the ruraJes). The Hesperia of Cuvier has for 
its type //. MalvcE (as Mr. Crotch has pointed out. Cist. Ent. p. 02) ; but Pijrgus 
Mali\e (of all the Ilesperice urlncokn) is about the worst to have chosen as the 
type, for it does not Jit the Fabrician description. Therefore it is clear that P. 
Malvce could not have crossed the mind of Fabricius when he penned his descrip- 
tion, and cannot be his type : later authors have referred the dark-coloured species 
of Pampfiila and Carystus to Hesperia, evidently taking H. Exclamationis as the 
type, it being the first species wliich he describes under his urhicolce ; but as //. 
Exclamationis turns out to be an Tsniene, and not, as formerly supposed, a Pam- 
phila, I have taken /. Exclamationis as the type. The first of the Uesperics 
liaralcs is a species of the family Erycinidaj." 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES.' 189 

1871. lb., Syn. Cat. Gil : places a large number of species in the 

group, including malviE, but exchuling comma, excla- 
mationis, and Proteus, showing that he doubtless considers 
malvas as the type. 

1872, Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. G2 : says that malvaj is the type, through 

Cuvier. 1799. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 52 : specifies malva) as the type. 

All of the species indicated above under this heading, excepting some 
of those not specified by name, were placed by Fabricius under Hes- 
peria at its establishment. See Pyrgus, Scelothrix, and Syrichtus. 

521. IIesperilla. 
18G8. He wits., Ilundr. Hesp. 37 : ornata, ITalyzia, Doubledayi (Dir- 
pliia), Donnysa, Peronii (Doclea). Ornata specified as 
type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. G22 : uses it in the same sense. 
See Telesto. 

522. Hp:sPEROcnARis. 
18G2. Feld., Yerh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, xii. 493 : I. Erota, 
Marchalii, Ilelvia, Nera, Anguitia; 11. Gayi. Seep. 293. 
18G7. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. ii. 17 : uses it in the same sense. 

1870. Bull., Cist. Ent. i. o-l, 42 : designates Erota as type. 

523. IIestia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 15: similis, assimilis, Idea, Lynceus (Lyncea), 

Ismare, Menelaus (Epliyre), Juventa, Plexippus (Thoe). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. b'2 : uses it for Idea, Lynceus, and 

two others not of Iliibner's list. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 94 : uses it in the same sense. 

1871. Kirby, Syn. Cat. 1 : follows Doubleday. 

Since Lynceus is getierically distinct from Idea, it may be taken aa 
the type. See Idea and Nectaria. 

524. Hestina. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 281 : I. assimilis, persimilis, con- 

similis, Nama ; II. Nyctelius, l*im[dea ? 
1801. Feld., Ncues Lep. 25 : limits it to the first section, which he 
again divides into two, using assimilis and Nama as the 
types of the two divisions. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 227 : uses it in the Fcldcrian sense. 
Assimilis may be considered as the type. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

525. Heterochroa. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 B. : Serpa. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 106 : employs it for a great number of 

species, including Serpa. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 276 : uses it in the same sense. 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 28: divides it into two sections. 

According to Kirby (Syn. Cat.), the name is preoccupied; but only 
in botany, as he informs me by letter. 

526. Heteronympha. 
1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forhaudl. xv. 78 : Merope, Abeona. 
1868. Butl., Ent. MonthL Mag. iv. 105 ; and Cat. Sat. 99 : specifies 
Merope as type. 
See also Tisiphone, Hipparchioides, and Xenica. 

527. Heteropsis. 
1850. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 323 : Drepana. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 96 (referred to Westwood, not Boisduval) : 

the same. 

528. IIeteropterus. 
1806. DuQi., Zool. Anal. 271 : no species mentioned ; he refers to it 

all Urbicolas with wings croisees, the rest being grouped 

under Hesperia. 
1823. lb., Consid. 222* pi. 41 : Morpheus given as an example. It is 

therefore the type. 
1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 413 : employs it for Morpheus 

(Aracinthus), Palajmon (Faniscus), and sylvius. 
1840. Eamb., Faun. Ent. Andal. 305 [unpublished ? ] : refers to 

it lineola and four other species no more nearly allied 

to Morpheus than it is. So also in his Faun. Andal. 
1853. "Wallengr., Scand. Rhop. 250: limits it to sylvius. 
1858. lb., Rhop. Caflfr. 46: uses it, more correctly, for Metis and 

Willenii. 
1870. Kirb., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. x. 500: says that Morpheus 

(Speculum) is tlie type. See also Cyclopides. 

529. PIeurema.* 
1867. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. ii. 8 : impura. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Preoccupied by Eurema (lliibn., Lep. 1816). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 191 

530. IIewitsoxia. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 426: Boisduvalii. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Proposed to replace Corydon, preoccupied. 

531. Hexuopteris.* 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 22: Endymioa (Endymioena), Cupido (Cujndina). 
This name falls before Helicopis. See also Erotion. 

532. IIipio. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 56: Constantia (Constantina), Leda. 
1865. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 61 : employs it for otlicr butterflies, 

Crishna and a MS. species. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Montbl. Mag. iv. 194: designates Constantia as the 

type. 

533. IIlPOSCRITIA. 

1832. Gey. in Hiibn., Zutr. iv. 16: Pandione. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

534. IIippARcniA. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 281 : Hermione, Statilimus (Fauna), 
Maera, Ligea, Epiphron, Galathea, Tithonus (Pilosellna), 
Hyperanthus, Rumina. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Eiicycl. 717 : uses it for Galathea, Hyperanthus, 

Tithonus (Pilosella3), and others not of Fabricius' list. 

1816. Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv. 19: divides the group into seven 

" families," and plaees in it all the European Satyrids. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 57: uses it for Statilimus (Arachne) and others 
not used by Fabricius. 

1828. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 205 : designates Jurtina (Janira) as type, 
but it was not one of the Fabrician species. 

1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81 : proposes to replace the name by 
Melania (q. v.). 

1840. "Westw., Gen. Syn. 88: specifies Megnera as type. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 129 : uses it for a large number, includ- 
ing Statilimus (Fauna) and others, but not Hyperanthus. 

1858. Pamb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 22: uses it for five species, including 
oidy Titlionus of those mentioned by Fabricius. 

1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194 ; Cat. Sat. 50: specifics Her- 
mione (fagi) as type, but incorrectly. 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 80: upes it for Hermione, Statilimus, Hy- 
perautbus, nnd otliers. 

The Fabrician species belong to as many genera. These were at 
once restricted by Leach's action in 1815 to three. Iliibner therefore 
misapplied it in 1816, as did Curtis in 1828, and Butler in 18G8. Of 
the species mentioned by Leach, Galathea belongs to Agapetes (1820) 
and Tithonus to Pyronia (181G), so that Ilyperanthus virtually became 
the tj'pe in 1820; consequently the name is also misapplied by Double- 
day in 181i and Kambur in 1858. See Aphantopus and Enodia. 

535. IIlPPARCHIOIDES.* 

18G7. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 125 : Merope, Pbilerope, 

Banksii (Banksia), mirifica. 
1868. lb., Cat. Sat. 99, note: specifies Merope as type. 

Falls before Heteronympha (q. v.). See also Tisiphone. 

53G. IIiSTORis. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 35 : Odius (Odia), Marthesia. 

If Marthesia is congeneric with Ide, which was made type of Side- 
rone in 1822-26, then Odius must be tj'pe of Ilistoris, and Aganisthos 
must fall. If generically separable, Marthesia must be taken as type 
of Ilistoris and Odius of Aganisthos. The writer has not the means of 
determining this point. 

537. HoLOcniLA.* 
1862. Feld., Yerh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, xii. 490: absimilis, 

Eriniis. 
1865. lb., Ileise No vara, 261 : absimilis. 

The name is proposed for Erina (q. v.), improperly formed ; but it is 
preoccupied in Mammals (Brandt, 1835). See also Polycynia. 

538. IIOMCEOXTHPHA. 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 487 : piisilla. Sole species, and there- 
fore type, as stated by Butler (Cat. Sat. etc.). 

539. IIyades. 
1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 157 : Urania (.Jairus), bioculatus (Indra). 
1836. lb., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B. : Ilorsfieldii. 
Bioculatus may be taken as the type. 

540. HVALIRIS. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Gnat. 33 : Coeno. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Does this fall before Ilypothyris 1 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 193 

541. Hyalites. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. i. 140: I. Horta, Quirina (Dice), 

Ranavalona, Ignati, Ilova, Mahela (Neobule, Mabela), 

Camoena, Andromache, and two MS. species ; II. Lycia. 

Lycia, as tlie species of the second section which is illustrated hy 

DouUeday, may be taken as the type. 

542. Hyantis. 
18G3. Hewits., Exot. Butt. iii. G8 : Ilodeva. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Used in same way by Ilerricli-Scliaeffer and Kirby. 

543. IlYDRiEXOMIA. 

1870. But!., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 99 : to supplant Udranomia as 

more orthographic. Hence Orcinus is the type, as des- 
ignated by Butler for Udranomia. 

544. Hylephila. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : comma, Phylsaus, sylvanus, and two 
MS. species. 
Comma became the type of Erynnis in 1832, sylvanus that of Au- 
giades in 1850, so that Phyteusmust be taken as the type of this. See 
Euthymus. 

545. IIyhenitis. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 8: diaphaiius (diaphane), Sao. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 59 : uses it for diaphanus (diaphana) and 
some unnamed species. 
It has been used in the same sense by Doubleday (Genera), Bates, 
and Ilerricb-Schaeffer (Prodr.). See Godyris. 

546. IIypanartia. 
1821-25. Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : PauUus (Tecmesia), Deliu-^ 

(Demonica), Hippomene. 
1827-37. Gey. in Ilubh., Exot. Schmett. iii. : Ilyppoclus (Ilippocla). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 180: uses it for all of lliibner's species and 

others. 
Paullus may be taken as the type. See Eurema. 

547. IIypanis.* 
1833. Boisd., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 203 : Ilithyia (Anvatara). Sole 

species, and tlierefore type. 
1836. lb., Spec, gen., pL 5 B.: Ilithyia (Polinice). 

Since used in same sense by Doubleday, "\Yestwood, Kirby, and 
others ; but the name must fall before Bybba (q. v.). 
VOL. X. ['lv> s. II.) 25 



194 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

548. Htpatus. 
1825. Hiibn., Catal. Franck, 85 : Celtis, Carinenta. 

Celtis being already type of Libythea, Carinenta must be taken aa 
the type of this. See Ilecaerge and Libythea. 

549. Hypermxestra. 

1851. Heyd., Lep. Eur. Cat. 3d ed. 16: Helios. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diuru. Lep. 530 : the same. 

Subsequently used similarly by FelJer, Kirby, etc. See Ismene. 

550. IIyphilaria. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 26: K^icias (Nicia). Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lend. ix. 420 : employs it for the 

same and others, in which he is followed by Kirby (Syn. 
Cat.). 

551. Htpna. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 56: Clytemnestra. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Used in the same sense by "Westwood, Felder, Butler, and Kirby. 
See Hecalene. 

552. Hypochrysops. 
1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 251: Doleschalii, Theon, Anacletus, 

Eucletus, Pythias, Protogenes, Chrysanthis. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 378 : employs it for the same and others. 
Anacletus may be taken as the type. 

553. IIypocysta. 

1850-51. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 67 : Euphemia. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

1851 (June). lb., ib. 397 : L-ius, Euphemia. 

1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 60: employs* it for this and others, 
including Irius (Adiante). 

1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 196 ; and Cat. Sat. 1G7 : wrongly 

specifies Irius as type, for the context shows that the 
plate was jirinted before the text. 

554, IIypolimnas. 

1816. Htibn., Verz. 45 (spelled both Ilypolimnas and ITipolimnas) : 
Antilope, Allmena (Velleda, Alimena, Porphyria), Bo- 
lina (Eriphile, Perimele, Manilla, Antigone, Alcmene, 
Iphigcnia), Pandarus (Pipleis). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 195 

1822-25. lb., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Puudarus (Pipleis). 

1871. Ivirb., Syn. Cat. 224: employs it for the same and others. 

Most of the species full into the earlier Apatura, but the name may 
be retained for Pandarus and its allies, in accordance with Iltibner'a 
later use of it. 

555. Hypoltc^xa. 
18G2. Fehl., Wicn. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 293 : Tmolus, Sipylus (Thar- 

rytas), Astyla. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 40G: employs it for the same and others. 
Sipylus may be taken as the type. 

55G. IIypopiiylla. 
1830. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 C. : Zeurippe (Zeurippa). 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 9 : employs it for this and others. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 446: uses it similarly. 

557. Hypothyris. 
1822. Hiibn., Index, 5 : Ninonia. Sole species, and therefore type. 
See Hyalu-is. 

558. Hyreus.* 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 70: Lingeus, Palemon, Misenes. 
The name is preoccupied in Birds. (Steph. 1815). 

559. Idaides. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 85: Codrus, Nireus. 
Codrus may be taken as the type. 

560. Idea.* 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 283 : Idea. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Subsequently used by Godart and others, but the name cannot 
stand, from having been borrowed from the species on which it ia 
founded. See Nectaria and Hestia. 

561. Ideopsis. 
1858. Ilorsf., Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 133 : Gaura, Daos. 
1871. Kirby, Syn. Cat. 2 : employs it for the same and others. 
Gaura may be taken as the type. 

562. Idiomorphus.* 
1861. Doum., Rev. Mag. Zool. [2] xii. 174: Hewitsonii. Sole 
species, and therefore type, as subsequently specified by 
Butler. 
Mr. Kirby informs me tkat the name is preoccupied in Coleoptera 
(Chaud. 1846). See Bicyclus. 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

563. Idioneura. 
1867. Feld., Eeise Novara, 474: Erebioides. Sole sjDecies, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler and used by Kirby. 

564. Idjiais. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. g(^n. 584: I. Chrysonome, Fausta; 11. Phi- 
sadia, Amata (Calais), Dynamene. 
Subsequently used in same sense by Doubleday, Kirby, and others. 
The generic name Colotis being applicable to the second section of 
Boisduval's group, Idmais may be restricted to the first, with Chryso- 
nome for its type. 

565. Ilerda.* 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 25 : Epicles and some MS. species. 
Epicles is therefore the type. 
Used in same sense by Hewitson, Herrich-Schaeffer, and Kirby ; but 
the name falls before Heliophorus (q. v.). 

5(jQ). Iliades. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 88: Polymnestor, Memnon (Ancaeus, Lao- 
medon, IMemnon), Agenor [placed also by Hiibner, in 
same work, in Achillides] (Agenor, Mestor), Protenor. 
Memnon may be taken as the type. See PapUio. 

567. Imelda. 

1870. Hewits., Equat. Lep. iv. 56: Glaucosmia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Kirby. 

568. Inachis.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 37 : lo. Sole species, and therefore type. 

Subsequently used by Stephens in the same sense. The name, how- 
ever, falls before Ilamadryas (q. v.), and is also preoccupied through 
Inachus (Fabr., Crust. 1798). 

569. Inctsalia. 
1872. Minot in Scudd., Rev. 31 : Augustinus (Augustus), Niphon, 
Irus (Triis), Henrici (Irus). Type specified by Scudder 
as Niphon. 

570. lOLAUS. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 81 : Helius (Eurisus). Sole species, and there- 
fore type, as stated by Hewitson (111. Diurn. Lep. 1865, 
40). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 197 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 26: employs it for Hymen (Liger) and 
others, not including Helius. 
It is u&ed in Hiibner's sense by several autliors. 

571. IpniAS.* 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 595 : Glaucippe, Leucippe. 

Used by Doubleday (1844), but fiills before Ilebomoia, and the name 
is preoccupied througli Ipliius (Dej., Col. 1833). 

572. IrniCLiDEs. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 82: Dolicaon, Antiphates, Nomius (Meges), 
Protesilaus, Podalirius, Ajax, Aristeus, Sinon, Anti- 
phates (Pompilius), Autheus, Agamemnon. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 251 : employs it, as does Kirby in 1858, 
for Podalirius (Podalirius, Feisthamelii), so that this 
becomes the type, as stated by Scudder (1872). 
See Podalirius and Papilio. 

573. IsAPis. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 18 : Agyrtus. Sole species, and there- 

fore type. 
Used for same species by "Westwood, Bates, and Kirby. 

574. ISMENE. 

1820-21. Swains., Zool. Ill i. 16: Oedipodia. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1846. Nickerl, Stett. Ent. Zeit. vii. 207 : employs it for Helios, a 

totally different insect. See Hypermnestra. 

1848. Menctr., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. [6] Sc. Kat. vi. 274 : the 

same. 
1852. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 514: employs it in the Swainsonian 

sense for a dozen species. 
1856. Gray, Pap. Brit. Mus. 77 ; and List Pap. 92 : uses it again for 

Helios. 
1869. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 54: without indicating any species, 

uses it as Swainson does. 
1871. Stand., Catal. 2: again reverts to Nickcrl's use. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 581 : iises it correctly. 

575. ISODEMA. 

1863. Feld., TVien. Ent. Monatschr. vii. 109, note: proposes the 
name for Paraplcsia (preoccupied), without indication of 
species. Adelma, being the type of Paraplesia (q. v.), 
becomes the type of this. 



198 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

576. ISOTEINOX. 
18G2. Feld., TVlen. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 30 : lamprospilus (lamprosi- 

lus). Sole species, and therefore tj^e. 
1871. Kirb., Sjn. Cat. 625 : the same and another species. 

577. IssoRiA. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 31 : Egista, lole (Anticliii), Lathonia, 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 14: uses it for Lathonia only. 

In this he is followed by Kirby (1858), and this therefore becomes 
the type. 

578. Itanus. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 34: Aconthea, Garuda, Phemius, Salia, 

Anosia, Anosia may be taken as the type. 
The name is too close to Itamus ( Schmidt-Goebel, Col. 18-16). 

579. Ithobalus. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 88: Polydamas, Crassus, Belus, Lycidas (Lyci- 
das, Erymanthus), Nuraitor. 
Polydamas may be taken as the type. 

580. Ithojieis. 

18C2 (Sept.). Bates, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxiii. 541 : Aurantiaca, 

Stalachtina, Heliconina, mimica, Satellites. 

Aurantiaca may be taken as the type. See Ithomiopsis. 

581. Ithomia. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 9 : Drymo, Euritea, Doto, Cymo. 

1821. lb.. Index : Cymo, Doto. 

1822? lb., Samml. Exot. Schmett. text: Doto only, which thereby 

becomes type. [See Note, p. 293.] 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 57 : Drymo, Euritea, and others. 

1847. lb.. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 125 : uses it in the same sense. 

1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 537 : Doto, Cymo, and others. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 26: all of Hiibner's and others. 

1872. Butl.-Druce, Cist. Ent. i. 95 : specify Drymo as type. 

582. Itiiomiola. 
1865. Feld., Eeise Novara, 311: floralis. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Used for same species only, by Bates and Kirby. See Compsoteria. 

583. Ithomiopsis.* 

1862 (Dec). Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 411: Corena, Astrtea. 

Stated by Bates to be synonymous with Ithomeis (q. v.). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 199 

584. Ituna. 

1847 (Aug.) Doiibl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 17: Phenerate. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1847 (Oct.) lb., ib. i. 113: Lamirus ? (Lamj'ra), Phcnerete, Ilione. 
Subsequently used in the same sense. 

585. IxiAS. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 95: Pyrene (Pyrene, Anexibia, iEnippe), 
Marianne (Bebryce, Mariane). 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 37, 48: suggests Pyrene as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 497 : employs it for both of Hiibners and 

others. 
See Thestias. 

58G. J^RA.* 
181G. Hiibn., Verz. 38: Opis, Afer (Afra), Crithea. 
1850. Westvv., Gen. Diurn, Lep. 2G9 [lera] : employs it for Crithea 

and Cojnobita. 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 30: using the genus in "Westwood's sense, 

separates the two species into two sections. 
18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr, Lep. 102 [lera] : uses it for the same species. 
Tlie name, however, is preoccupied througli Gaera [Scr. Jaera, Agass. 
Koraencl.] (Leach, Crust. 1815). See Catuna and Euomma. 

587. Jalmenx's. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 75 : Evagoras, Venulius. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 28 [lalmenus] : employs it for Evagoras 
and others, excluding Venulius. 
In tliis sense it has also been used by Ilerrich-Schaeffer, Ilewitson 
flalmenus], and Kirby [lahnenus], Evagoras therefore is the type. 
See Austromyrina. 

588. Jamides. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 71 : roboris (Evippus), Ethemon, BocilUS, 
Bochus may be taken as the type. 

589. Jasia.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 90: Jason (Jasius). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
The name, being derived from the species on which the genus is 
grounded, falls. See Cliaraxes and Tapliia. 

590. Jasoniades. 
1816. IlUbn., Verz. 83: Alexanor, Glaiicus, [placed also by ITiibnor 
in Euphccades in the same work !] (Turnus), Machaou, 
Xuthus. 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 2 [Jasonides] : Macliaon. 

So also Kirby (1858). 

Machaon, however, liad already been made the type of Princeps : 
the other species, excepting Glaucus, are congeneric, and hence this 
must be taken as the type. See Euphoeades. 

591. JuNONIA. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 34: Aonis, Lavinia, Orithya (Orithya, Ocyale, 

Isocratia), Clelia, Erymanthis (Lotis), QEuone. . 
1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 206: places in his typical section 

all the species of Hiibner excepting Erymanthis, besides 

others not mentioned by him. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 13 : divides the group into two sections, in 

the second of which he places two species, referred by 

Doubleday to his typical section. None of HUbuer's 

species are specially designated. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 186: follows Doubleday. 

1 872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 22 : designates Lavinia as the type. 

!Sce Alyconeis. 

592. Kallima. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 52 : Rumia, Paralekta. 

1850. AVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 324: nine species are given, in- 

cluding the above. 

The question of type is a somewhat peculiar one. The "Paralekta" 
of Doubleday is considered by Westwood to be distinct from " Para- 
lekta " of Horsfield, and tlie same as " Horsfieldii " of Kollar. Kirby 
(Syn. Cat. 193), on tlie other hand, makes "Paralekta" of Doubleday 
the same as the " Paralelcta " of Horsfield ; and the " Paralekta " of 
Westwood (together witli the "Horsfieldii " of Kollar), the same as the 
" Inachts " of Boisduval, pLaced as a possible synonyme of " Paralekta." 
Now Westwood regards his " Paralekta " as type. If, however. West- 
wood's "Paralelcta" is not the "Paralekta" of Doubleday, it could 
not become the type of the genus, because not mentioned in the first 
instance. If the same, it would liave to be taken as type ; consequently 
it would best be considered the type. The question, however, is still 
furtlier complicated by the following : — 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 14: refers to it only Inachis and Rumia. 

If Inachis (which includes the " Paralekta " of Westwood) is distinct 
from the Paralekta of Doubleday, and Westwood's decision of a type 
is thereby ruled out of place, then Kumia becomes the type. The 
question is, in reality, of little importance, since all the species men- 
tioned are congeneric in the strictest sense, and variety of opinion as 
to specific alliances does not affect the generic nomenclature. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 193: employs it for all these and another. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 201 

593. Kkicogonia. 
1863. Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. ii. 355 : Lyside, Menippc (Leach- 
iana). Lyside specified as type. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Eat. i. 3G, 4G : Lyside specified as type. 

594. Laciixoptera. 

1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 22 : lole. Sole species, and 

thd'cfore type. 

1848. lb., ib. 161 : the same. 

595. L^osopis. 

1858. Ramb., Cat. Lep. Andal. i. 33 : roboris. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syu. Cat. 377 : the same, and another. 

596. Laektias. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 84: Ulysses (Ulysses, Diomedes), Philenor, 
Menestheus (Cresus), Palinurus (Regulus), Polytes 
(Pamnon, Cyrus), Merope (Brutus). 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 43 : specifies Philenor as the type. 

597. Lampides. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 70: Numereus, iSlianus (Zethus), Helius, Bal- 
liston (Baaliston), Bceticus, Plato, Archias (Archius), 
Celeno (Celerio), Aratus. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 163: employs it for nineteen species, 

including Minereus, iElianus, Bocticus, Plato, and Celeno. 

1870. Newm., Brit. Butt. 117 : employs it for Bocticus only. 

It cannot be employed for Bceticus, as this became in 1810 the 
type of Polyoramatus. iElianus may be taken as tlie type. 

598. Lamproptera.* 

1832. Gray, in GrifF. An. Kingd., pi. 102, fig. 4: Curius. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
The same species is the type of Leptocircus (q. v.) published at 
about the same time : perliaps it is impossible to discover wliicli is ear- 
lier, but this name is too close, in any case, to Lampropteryx (Steph., 
Lep. 18'29) to stand. Leptocircus is also preferred to this by Gray 
himself in 1856 (Pap. Brit. Mus.). 

599. Lamprospilus. 
1832. Gey. in Iliibn., Zutr. iv. 30: Genius. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Subsequently used in same sense by Ilerrich-SchaeUer and Kirby. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 2G 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

600. Laogoxa* 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 6 B. : Hypselis. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Subsequently used in same sense by Doubleday and Felder, but the 
name falls before Symbrenthia (q. v.). 

601. Laparus.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : lihea (Sara), Erato (Doris), Phyllis, 
Melpomene. 
The name falls before SIcyonia, Migonitis, and Sunias. 

602. Larinopoda. 
1871. Butl., Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond. 172: lycsenoides. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

603. Lasaia.* 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 397 : Meris, Cleades 

(Cleadas). 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 321 : the same. 

But this name cannot stand, because preoccupied througli Lasaea 
(Brown, Moll. 1827) and Lasia (Wied., Dipt. 1824, and Hope, Col. 
1840). 

604. Lasiommata. 
1840. Westw. in Westw.-Humphr., British Butterfl. 65 : iEgeria, 

Megsera. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 134: employs it for ^geria, Mega3ra, 
and other insects not specified by Westwood. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Ent. 6, 254: employs it for ^geria, Mega^ra, 

and Ma3ra only. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 385: employs it for the same and 

others. 
As iEgeria is the type of Pararge, Megsera must be taken as the 
type of this genus. Butler, in his Catalogue of Satyridze and else- 
where, has sunk tills name under Pararge, apparently on tlie false 
principle tliat the first species must be taken as the type ; and he has 
founded on the second species of this list, and on others, a genus 
Amecera (q. v.), which must certainly fall, unless some of its other 
species are generically distinct from Megjera. 

605. Lasiopiiila. < 

1859. Feld., "Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iii. 325 : Cirta, Circe. Felder 
remarks that the species resemble, in habitus and coloring, 
the species of Pronopliila of the groujj of Zapatoza. 



1 OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 203 

18G7. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 2G8 ; also (18G8) Ent. 

Monthl. Mag. iv. 196, and Cat. Sat. 181 : specifies Zapa- 

toza as type, of course erroneously. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 107 : employs the name for all the species 

mentioned above, and others. 
Cirta may be considered the type. 

GOG. Lebadea. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 28: Ismene, Alankara, Martha. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 230: the above and Paduka. 
Ismene may be taken as the type. 

G07. Leiioxias. 

1806. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : Maturna. Sole species, and therefore type. 

1818. 111., "Wied. Zool. Mag. i. ii. 99: Lamis and others, wholly un- 
related to the above. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 16: uses it in the Illigeriau sense for 
Epulus and others. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 457 : uses it in a similar way for Chia 
and six others. 

18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 446 : extends it greatly, 
also using it for the Vestales. 

1871. Ivirb., Syn. Cat. 322 : uses it in the Westwoodian sense, and 
refers the genus to him ! 
See also Polystichtis, Calospila, Melitaea and Jlellida. 

C08. Leodonta. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 40 : Dysoni, Tagaste, Tellane. Dysoni 
specified as type. 

609. Leonte.* 
1816. Hubn., Yerz. 52: Menelaus (Nestira), Achilles (Deidamia), 
Menelaus (Menelae), Achilles (Achilleja), Hecuba, Tele- 
machus (Telemache). 
One of tlie synonymes of Achilles is Leonte Hiibn. The generic 
name being therefore drawn from, or at least the same as, one of the 
names previously in use for one of the species upon wluch it is founded, 
it must be dropped. 

610. Lepricornis. 
1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 307 : melanchroia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for this species only, by Bates and Kirby. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

611. Leptalis. 

1823. Dalm., Anal. Ent. 40 : Astynome, Amphione. Astjnome spe- 
cified as type. 
1836. BoisfL, Spec. gen. 412 : uses it for the above and many others. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 22: makes a similar use of it. 
1847. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 35 : uses it similarly. 
See Hemerocharis. 

612. Leptidia. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 76: sinapis. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Never since used, but should certainly be restored. See Leptoria 
and Leucopliasia. 

613. Leptocircus. 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 106 : Curius. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Frequently used since in the same sense. See Lamproptera. 

614. Leptoneura.* 

1857. Wallengr., Rhop. CafFr. 31 : Chjtus. Sole species, and there- 

fore type, as stated by Butler. 
It should fall, however, before Dira (q.v.). 

615. Leptopiiobia. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 35, 45: Eleone, Penthica (Pentica), Ba- 
lidia, Aripa (Arapa), Pylotis. Eleone specified as type. 

616. Leptoptera.* 

1842. Boisd. in Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. [1] xi. 298 : decora. Sole 
species and designated type. 
The species was at that time inedited, and before it was pubhshed 
Boisduval had changed the name to Amnosia (q.v.). 

617. Leptoria.* 
1841. "Westw., Brit. Butt. 31 : sinapis (candida). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Falls before Leptidia. See also Leucophasia and Leptosia, for the 
latter of which it was probably a misprint. 

618. Leptosia. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 95: sinapis (lathyri), Alcesta, Xiphia (clJoro- 
grapha), Brephos. 

1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : employs it for sinapis (candida, 

erysimi). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 20o 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 39, 54: specifies sinapis (lathyri) as type, 
but wrongly, as this was already the type of three differ- 
ent genera ! See Leptidia. 

Sinapis was taken as type of Leptidia in 1820, Brephos has belonged 
to LeuciJia since 1847, Alcesta and Xipliia are congeneric, and Xiphia 
may be taken as the type. See Nina and Nychitona. 

G19. Lerejia. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. Gl : Accius, Hianna, Pattenii. Accius 
specified as type. 

020. Lerodea. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 59 : Eufala, fusca, luca. Eufala specified 
as type. 

621. Lethe. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 56 : Europa. Sole species, and therefore type, 
as stated by Butler. See Debis. 

622. Lethites (fossil). See Satyrites. 

623. Leucidia. 
1847. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 77: EMna, Brephos. 
18G7. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. ii. 8: Brephos, Leucoma (Elphos). 
1870. Butl., Cist. Eat. 35, 43 : specifies Leucoma (Elphos) as type, 
but of course erroneously. 
Elvina may be taken as tlie type. 

624. Leucochitonea. 

1857. Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 52 : Levubu. Sole species, and there- 

fore t3pe, as stated by Butler. 
Since used by autliors in too extended a sense. 

625. Leucoxea.* 
1837. Donz., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vi. 80 : cratcerji. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1858. Ramb., Catal. Lep. Andal. 54: uses it in the same way. 

The name falls before Aporia. 

626. LEucopn.vsiA.* 
1827. Stcph., 111. Brit. Ent. ILiust. i. 24 : sinapis. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as specified by Westwood (Gen. Syn. 87). 
Used in same sense by many subsequent autliors. Falls before Le^v 
tidia. See also Lcptoria. 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

627. Leucoscirtes.* 

1872. ScudcL, Syst. Rev. 52 : ericetorum, Arsalte (nivea), Oceanus. 
Ericetorum specified as type. 
The name falls before Heliopetes. 

628. Leucothtris.* 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 32 : Ilerdina. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
This name is too close to Leucothyreus (MacL., Col. 1819) to be 
used. 

629. Lexias. 
1832. Boisd., Yoy. Astrol. 125: /Eropus. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 36: places this species in a first section, 
Dirtea (Dirtea, Boisduvalii) in a second. 

630. LiBTTHEA. 

1807. Fabr., IlL Mag. vi. 284: celtis, Carinenta. 

1810. Latr., Consid. 440: specifies celtis as the type. 

1820. Billb., Euum. Ins. 79 : changes the name, for no reason, to 

Chilea. 
1828. Boit., Man. Ent. ii. 299 [Libytha3us] : celtis. 

It has been used constantly by all authors in much the same sense. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: states that celtis is the type, through 

Latreille, 1810. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 28 : specifies Carinenta as type, erroneously. 

See Hypatus and Hecaerge. 

631. LiBTTHlNA. 

1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 49 : Cuvieri. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

632. LiciNiA.* 
1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. i. 15 : Mellte. Sole species and desig- 
nated type. 
Subsequently, in the same series (i. ii. 91 ; i. iii. 124), Amphione and 
Critomedia (Crisia) are given. An allied species is Licinia of Cramer, 
doubtless intended by Swainson to be included in the group, and from 
which the name was drawn ; on which account the name should be 
dropped. It is also preoccupied in MoUusks (Brown, 1756). See 
Enantia. 

633. LiJiENiTis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 281 : populi, Niavius, Camilla. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 207 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encjcl. 718: employs it for Camilla only, so 
that this becomes the type. [See Note, p. 203.] 

181G. Dalm., Vetensk, Acad. Ilaiidl. xxxvii. .06 [Limonitis] : speci- 
fies populi as the type. See Najas. 

181G. Illibn., Verz. 4-i : employs it for Camilla, populi, and two 
others. 

1820. Billb., Eiium, Ins. 78 [Limonetes] : uses it for popuii and 
others. 

1832. Dap., Pap, France, Diurn. Suppl. 400: uses it for Sibylla, 
Camilla, Lucilla, and aceris. 

1832. Reun., Cousp. 11 [Lemiuitis] : populi, etc. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87: specifies Camilla as type. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mas. 93 : employs it for Camilla and others, 
while populi is 2)laced under Nymphalis. 

1850. "\Yestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 274: regards populi as the type. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. G6 : regards populi as the type, through 
Dalmau, 18 IG, overlooking Leach's previous action. 

634. LiJiNiECiA.* 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 26: HarrisiL Sole species and designated 

type. 
Tliis falls before Cinclidia (<l-v.). 

635. LiMNAS. 
1806. ITubn., Tent. i. : Chrysippiis. Sole species, and therefore type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 C. : Pixe, a totally different insect from 

that of Iliibner. See INIelanis. 
1840. Blanch., An. Art, iii. 464 [Lynmas] : Jarbus (Electron). 
Closely allied to Boisduval's species. 
Doubleday, Westwood, Bates, Ilerricli-SchaeOer, Felder, and Kirby, 
have all since used it in the Ijoisdiivalian sense. But as Clirysippus is 
generically distinct from I'lexippus, Limnas will stand for the former. 

636. LiNCOYA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat., App. 649: Pharsalia, Feldcri. 

1873. lb., Zool. Rec. for 1871, 360: specifies Pharsalia as type. 

Correctly, as this M-as the type of Antigonis (qv.), wliich Lincoya 
was intended to supplant. 

037. LimochOres. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 59: Mystic, bimacnla, Manataaqiia, Tau- 

mas, Arpa, Pilalka (Palatka), and a MS. species. Man- 
ataaqua is specified as type. 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

G38. LlPHTKA. 

1864. "Westw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. xxxi. : Brassolis. Sole spe- 

cies, and therefore type. 
See Sterosis. 

639. LiPTENA.* 

1852? Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 77: Abraxas, Acrsea. 
1852. lb., ib. 503 : used as a synonyme of Pentila. 

1865. Hewits., Exot. Butt. iii. 119 : employs it for Acrasa and others, 

so that Acrtea becomes the type. 
1868. ITerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 13 : follows Hewitson. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 335 : follows Ilevvitson. 

The name falls before Pentila and Tingra. 

640. LoxuRA.* 

1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 119: Ati/mnus, Pita. 

Atymnus specified as type. 
Since used in same sense by Boisduval, Duncan, and Westwood, 
but the name must fall before Myrina (q-v.). 

641. LuCIA. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 135: Aurifer (Limbaria). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
Since used by authors in the same sense. 

642. LuciLLA. 

1870. Hewits., Equat. Lep. iv. 55 : Camissa. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

643. LuciNiA. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Sida. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Since used by Westwood, Felder, and Kirby, in same sense. See 
Autodea. 

644. Ltc^ides.* 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 69: Argyrognomon (Argus), Argus (^gon), 
Oi^tilete (Optilete, Cyparissus). 

1850. Steph., Cat. Ifrit. Lep. 20, 261 : employs it for Argus and 
other species not in Illibner's list. Argus therefore be- 
comes the type. 

1872. Scudd., Syst* Rev. 33 : specifics Argus as the type. 

The name falls before Ilusticus. See also Scolitantides. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 209 

G45. Lyc/ena. 
1807. Fabr., El. Mag. vi. 285 : I, Acis (Mars), Ecliion ; II. Argiades, 
(Arayntus), rubi ; III. Endymion (Meleager), Arion, 
Corydon, Thetis (Adonis), Leda (Ledi), virgaureae, 
Phla^as. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 717: restricts it mainly to the blues, referring to 

it all of the species indicated by Fabricius, excepting rubi 
and the coppers, virgaurete and Phlasas, and adding others. 

1816. Hlibn., Verz. 23: employs it for Echerius (Xenodice), which 

has nothing to do with Fabricius's species. 
1824. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 12 : designates Phla3as as type, but 

that is ruled out by Oken's action. 
1828. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 68 : restricts it also to 

the coppers, but, for the same reason, erroneously. 
1828. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. 79 : does the same. 
1832. Renn., Consp. 16: the same. 

1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 390 : uses it for Bceticus and 

Telicanus, which belong elsewhere. See Polyommatus. 
1832-33. Swains., ZooL 111. 132: also designates Phlasas as the type. 

1833. Boisd., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. ii. 171 : uses it for Bceti- 

cus, Telicanus, and others. 

1836. lb.. Spec, gen., pi. 3 B. : gives a figure of Bcetica. 

1837. Sodolfsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81, 96: proposes to change the name 

to Lycia or Migonitis, preferably the latter. 

1839. Ramb., Faune Ent. Andal. 262 : restricts it again to the 

coppers, erroneously. 

1840. Wei^tw., Gen, Syn. 88: specifies Phlicas as type. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 40: employs it for a great number of 
species, including, of Fabricius's list, Argiades (Amyntas), 
Endymion (Meleager), Arion, Corydon, Thetis (iVclonis). 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 488: makes a similar but more 
extended use of it, in which he has been followed by most 
recent writers. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 340 : restricts it again to the coppers. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 36: again spG;;ities Phhiias as type. 

No restriction of this group within the blues having been efTecterl, 
the genus may be confined to Endymion and Corydon of the species 
mentioned by Fabricius, witli Endymion for type. See Heodes. 

646. Lyc.enesthes. 
1865. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 773 : bengalensis. Solo spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 27 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

647. LyCuEnopsis. 

1865. Feld., Eeise Novara, 257: Ananga. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

648. Ltchnucus. 

1825. Hiibn., Zutr. iii. 24: Olenus. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 

649. Lycia.* 
1837. SodofFsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81 : proposes this name to supplant 
Lycaena, for etymological reasons. 
But these are insufficient, and Lycia is preoccupied in Lepidoptera 
(Hubn. 1816). 

650. Lycorea. 
1847 (July). Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 16: Cleobaea (Atergatis). 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
1847 (Aug.). lb., ib. 105 : Pasinuntia, Ceres, Halia, Cleoboea 
(Atergatis, Cleobasa). 
This name is very close to Lycoris (Sav., Worms, 1817). 

651. Lycus.* 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 74: Niphon, ruU, Damon (Gryneus). 

1850. Stejjh., Cat. Brit. Lep. 17 : employs it for rubi only, which 

thereby becomes the type. 
But the name is preoccupied in Coleoptera (Fabr. 1787). 

652. Lymanopoda. 

1851 (Jan. ?) Westw., Gen. Dkirn. Lep., pi. 67 : Samius. 

1851 (July). "VYestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 401: Samius, lonius, obso- 
leta. 

1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 56: employs it for Samius and others 
not mentioned by Westwood. 

1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 196; and Cat. Sat. 168: desig- 
nates Samius as the type. 
See Sarromia. 

653. Lyropteryx. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 433 : ApoUonia, Terpsichore. 

Apollonia may be taken as tlie type. 

654. Mancipium. 
1806. Hiibn., Tent. 1 : brassicae. Sole species, and therefore type. 
1827. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. 22: employs it for Daplidice 

and cardamines, belonging to the same subfamily as 

Hiibner's species. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 211 

1829. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. IncL Co. 141 : uses it as a subdi- 
vision of Pontia, assigning to it three species wliich have 
intimate connection with the above. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87 : specifies cardamines as type. 

1852. Renn., Consp. 4: follows Stephens. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lc]!. 5 : restricts it still further to Daplidice. 
See also Ganoris, Pontia, and Pieris. 

655. Maniola. 

1801. Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. i. 152, 170: I. Galathea (Galata?,a), 
^geria, Megiera, INItera, Dejanira, Medea, Ligea, Me- 
dusa, Jurtina (Lemur), Epiphron (Egea), Manto (Baucis), 
Hyperanthus, Arcania (Arcanius), Hero, Typhon (Ti- 
l^hon), Pamphilus, Iphis (Manto), Semele, Pha3dra, 
Briseis (Briseis, Janthe), Ilermione, Circe (Proserpina) ; 
II. Iris (Iris, Jole), Ilia (Julia, Ilia, Clytie). 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 732 : employs it for Iris and Ilia. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 64: uses it for Afer (Phegea) and Phryne, both 

Satyrids, but neither of them specified by Schrank. 
Tlie former, however, is congeneric witli those of Sohrank's species, 
for which the name Erebia must be used by the earlier action of Dal- 
man. Hence Hiibner's action has no effect upon Schrank's genus. 
1829. IMeig., Eur. Schraett. i. 104: employs it for Briseis and very 
many others. 
All his Satyritls are included, excepting those placed by him in 
Melanargia (Agapetes) : comprising, among others, Jurtina, which may 
be taken as the type. Excluding the second section of Schrank's 
genus, which belongs to Potamis, there are no less than ten genera 
represented by the species enumerated in his list. Of these genera, one 
(Agapetes) was taken out by Billberg, in 1820 ; one (Erebia) by Dal- 
man, in 1816; and one (Ilipparchia), through the action of various 
writers, in 1820. Most of the others are taken up by Hiibner's generic 
names, so that the choice finally lies between the present group repre- 
sented by Jurtina, and tliat for which wo have restricted Nytlia (q. v.). 
1859. Ilein., Schmett. Deutschl. u. Schwciz, i. 26 : Dejanira. 

But this has belonged to Pararge from its foundation. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 57 : considers it the same as Erebia. 

656. Makica.* 

1816, Iliibn., Verz. 63: Stygne [also given by Iliibner in the same 
work, in his genus Phorcis], Nelo. 
The name falls before Erebia. See also Gorgo, Syngea, Phorcis, 
Epigea, and Oreina. 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

657. Marius.* 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 45 : Chiron (Cinna). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1832-33. lb., ib. ii. 59 : Peleus (Thetys). 

As the work was published in parts, Chiron was pubhshed before 
Peleus. Marius is one of the synonymes of Chiron ; the generic name 
being based upon it falls. See also Euglyphus and Megalura. 

G58. Marmessus. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 81 :• Silenus (Alcides, Corax), Atymnus, Lisias. 
Silenus and Atymnus belonging to the earlier Myrina, Lisias must 
be taken as the type of Marmessus. 

659. Marpesia. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 47: Thyonneus (Thyonnea), Eleucha (Eleu- 
cliea), lole (Zosteria), Chiron (Chii-onias), Orsilochus 
(Ciuna). 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 86: employs it for Eleucha and Peleus 
(Thetis). Eleucha thereby becomes the type. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 263 : uses it in the same way. 

660. Mechanitis. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 284 : Calliope, Polymnia, Erato (Doris), 
Psidii, Phyllis. 

1866. Hiibn., Verz. 11: uses it for Eucrate and Polymnia (Lysim- 
nia, Polymnia). Polymnia therefore becomes the type. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 55 : employs it for Polymnia (Lysimnia), 
and others. 

1847. Ib., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 128: divides the eighteen species which 
he refers to this genus into two sections, jDlaciug Polymnia 
in the first. 

1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 528 : restricts the group to Double- 
day's first section, dividing that again into two sections, of 
which Mechanitis proper is made to include " Polymnia 
and its allies." 
See also Nereis. 

661. Megalura.* 

1840. Blanch., Hist. Ins. iii. 446 : Coresia. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1871. Kirb., Cat. 220 : Coresia and many others. 

The name is preoccupied through Megalurus (Vig.-Horsf., Birds, 
1820; Agass., Fishes, 1833). See also Euglyphus and Marius. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 213 

GG2. Megamede. 
181 G. Hiibn., Verz. 50: Ehetenor (Rhetenoris, Chalciope). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

6G3. Megastes.* 
1851. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 34G: given as a MS. 
synonyme of Dynastor (q. v.) by TVestwood. 
The species of Dynastor were Napoleon and Darius. Megastes, 
however, was only applied to Napoleon (Napoleo), and hence the name 
must fall before Dynastor. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 53: Macrosiris, Darius. 

664. Megathymus.* 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. G2 : yucccB. Sole species and designated 
type. 
It is not a butterfly. 

6G5. Megistanis. 
1814. [Boisd. in] Donbl., List Br. Mus. 109: Acheronta (Cadmus), 
BsBotus (Beotus). 

1849. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 48: Boeotus (Beotus). 

1850. lb. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 311 : Boeotus (Beotus), 

Acheronta (Cadmus), and another. 
By the publication of the plates of Doubleday and Westwood's Gen- 
era, Beotus became the type, and in this sense it has been employed 
by Felder and Kirby. But Boisduval in 1870 (Le'p. Guat.) refers 
Acheronta again to it. Kirby in his Synouymical Catalogue refers 
the genus to Westwood. 

666. Megisto. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 54: Euritus (Cymelia), Argante, Canthus 
(Euridice), Acmeiiis. 

18G8. Butl., Cat. Sat. 14 : sjiecifies Eurytus as the type. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 6 : does the same. But Eurytus is strictly 
congeneric with Penelope, the type of Cissia, and there- 
fore Acmenis may be taken as the type of Megisto. 

667. Megonostoma.* 

1863. Reak., Proc. Ent. vSoc. Phil. ii. 356: Cesonia (Cocsonia), 

Eurydice, Philippa, Helena. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 36, 46 : specifies Cesonia as the type. 
1872. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 489 [Meganostoma] : Cesonia and allies. 

The name must fall before Zerene, which, by the foundation of 
Eurymus, became restricted to tliis group. 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

6G8. Melampias. 
18L6. riiibn., Verz. 63 : Hyperbius (Iljperbia), Mnestra, Epiphron 

(Rhodia, Janthe), Pharte, Arete. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 9, 255: uses it for Epiphron (Cassiope), 

Melampus, and Mnestra. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Ilhop. : does the same. 

But it cannot Le used for these and their allies, as they are already 
taken up by Erebia, and consequently Hyperbius must be taken as the 
tj^e. See Pseudonympha. 

6G9. Melanargia.* 
1829. Meig., Eur. Schmett. i. 97 : Galathea (Leucomelas, Galathea, 
Procida, Electra, Galene), Lachesis, Ilussiaj (Clotho, 
Japygia), Arge (Simuhx), Thetis, Occitanica (Syllius). 
18G1. Staud., Cat. Lep. Eur. 9 [Melanagria] : refers the same and 

others to it. 
1865. Herr.-SchaefF., ProJr. i. 58 [Melanagria] : the same. 

A strictly liomogeneous group, so that the name must fall before the 
earlier Agapetes. See also Arge. 

670. Melania.* 

1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 81 : proposes to supplant Hipparchia 
by this word, but without sufficient reason; moreover, it 
is preoccupied in Mollusks (Sow. 1819). 

671. Melanis. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 25 : Melander (Melandra), Phereclus (Pherecla), 
Agyrtus (Agyrte). 
Melander may be taken as the type. See Limnas. 

672. Melanitis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 282 : Leda, imdularis. 
1809. Latr., Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 197: Ariadne (Ariadne, Merione), 

undularis. The latter therefore is the type. 
1828. Ilorsf, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co., expl. pi. 8: undularis only. 
1833. Boisd., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. ii. 205 : uses it for undularis and 

others. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mns. 143: makes a similar use of it. 
185L Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 403 : uses it in the same manner. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Month!. Mag. iv. 194; Cat. Sat. 1: specifies Leda 

as the type, doubtless for the single reason that it is the 

first species mentioned by Fabricius, yet, as seen by the 

foregoing, erroneously. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 215 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 43 : follows Butler. 

1872. lb., Trans. Ent. 8oc. Load. 1872, 115: specifies undularis as 

type. 

673. Melanocyjia. 
1857. Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Load. [n. s.] iv. 186: Faunula. 
Sole species, and therefore type. 

674. Melete. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. 79 : Lycimnia (Limnobia). Sole spe- 
cies and designated type. 
See Daptonoura. 

675. Melin^a. 

1816. Illibn., Yerz. 11 : Egina, Clara, Equicola, Euniaj, Irene. 
1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 80: ignorant of Iliibner's use of it, 

proposes this name to supplant Melita3a. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 56: employs it for Egina and Clara of 
Iliibner's species, besides others. 
It has since been used in the same sense, and Egina may be taken 
as the type. 

676. Melit^a.* 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 284 : Luciua, Didyma (Cinxia), Cynthia, 

Matnrna. 
1816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 57 : specifies Leucippe 

(Athalia) as type, but of course erroneously. 
I .S32. Curt., Brit. Ent. pi. 386 : designates Euphrosyne as type. 
1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 80: proposes to change the name to 

Melina^a (q. v.). 
1840. "VVestw., Gcii. Syn. 88: specifies Cinxia as type. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: says that Leucippe (Athalia) is type, 

through Dal man. 
The name, however, falls, because preoccupied tlirough Melitea 
(Pe'r.-Les., Acal. 1809). See Lemonias. 

677. Mellicta.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : Maturna, Aurinia (Artemis), Cinxia, 
Didyma, Dictynna, Athalia, Parthcnie, Lucina, and some 
MS. species. 
This name falls before tlio earlier Lemonias, Schoenis, and Cinclidia. 

678. ]MKMriiis. 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 48: Polycarmes (Odilia), Basilia. 
Polycarracs may be taken as type. 



216 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

679. Menelaides. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 84: Hector, Polytes (Romulus), Demetrius, 
Theseus, Anstolochice (Polydorus), Polytes, Alphenor, 

Ascanius, Agavus. 
Polytes may be taken as the type. 

680. Meneris. 

1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 106: Tulbaghia. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

1849. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Dep., pi. 46: the same. 

1850. Boisd. in Westw., ib. 296: the same. 

It has since been used in the same sense. See iEropetes. 

681. Mesapia. 

1856. Gray, List Lep. Brit. Mus. 92 : Peloria. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1872. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 510: the same. 

The name is very near to Mesapus (TJaf., Crust. 1814). 

682. Mesene. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 7 : Phareus, Thelephus (Telephus), and 
MS. species. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 441 : Phareus (Pharea), Thelephus 

(Telephus), and others. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 439 : employs it for Double- 
day's species and many others. 

1871. IGrb., Syn. Cat. 315: Doubleday's species and others. 

Phareus may be taken as the type. See Iliibner's use of Emesis. 

683. Mesophthalma. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 455 : Idotea (Idotcea). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

684. Mesosemia. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 21 : Philemon (Icare), Ilyphfca (Hiphia), Philo- 

cles (Philoclessa), Ca3a, Ulrica (Ultio), Osinia, Eumene, 

Croesus (Capanea), Ephyne, Thymetus (Thymete), Ro- 

siua. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 12 : employs it for Philemon, Philocles, 

Croesus (Capanea), an<l a number of unpublished species. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 453 : uses it for Philocles, and other 

sjiecies not given by both Hiibner and Doubleday. This. 

therefore, becomes the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 217 

1867. Bates, Journ. Liiin. Soc. Lond. ix. 416: employs it for many 

species, including Philocles. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 288 : follows Bates. 

685. Mesot^enia. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 209 : Doris. Sole species, and therefore type. 
Employed in place of CallitiEnia, preoccupied ; but it is itself very 
close to Mesotena (Esclisch., Col. 1831). 

G86. Messaras.* 
1848. Doubl., Gren. Dinrn. Lep. 103: Erymantlds, Alcippe. 

Subsequently used by Felder and Kirby, the latter for Erymanthis 
only and its allies. But this name must fall, whichever species is chosen 
as type. See Atella and Cupha. 

687. Mestra. 
1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmctt. ii. : Hypennnestra (Hypermestra). 
Sole species, and therefore type. See also Cystineura. 

688. Metacharis. 

1867. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iii. 174 : PtolomEeus, Agrius, Cad- 

meis, regalis, Lucius (Batesii). The first three specified 
as types. 

1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 444: places nine species 

here, including Ptoloma^us and Agrius and other of 
Bates's species, but excluding Cadmeis, which is placed 
under Charis. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 320 : uses it in the same way as Bates. 
Ptolomasus may be taken as the type. 

689. Metamorpha. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 43: Sulpitia (Elissa), Steneles (Sthenele), 
Dido. 
Dido belongs to Colaenis, and Sulpitia may be taken as the type of 
this group, since it is generically distinct from Steneles, the type of 
Victorina. 

690. Metapheles. 

1866. Bates, Ent. Monthl. Mag. iii. 155 : Dinora. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for same species by Bates and Kirby. 

691. Metaporia. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 38, 51 : Agathon. Sole species and 
designated type. 
. VOL. X. (2d s. n.) 28 



218 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

692. MExnoxA* 

1847 (Oct.). Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 115: Tliemisto. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

Subsequently used by Bates and Ilerrich-Sehaeffer in same sense ; 

but the name must fall before Tliyridia, limited at the same time to 

same group by Doubleday himself. Doubleday also, in the same year, 

established a genus Methone for an entirely different insect. 

693. Methone.* 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 4 : Cecilia (C£ecilia). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 422 : the same. See also Table 

vi. and 533. 
Westwood changes this name to Methonella (q-V-) because preoccu- 
pied by Methona, q. v. (Doubl., Lep. 1847), but both bear the same 
date. If Methona was first published, of course this falls, and Bates 
and Kirby assume this. 

694. METnONELLA. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. Table vi. and 533 : Cecilia. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
Subsequently used in same way by Bates and Kirby. See Methone. 

695. Metura. 
1873. Butl., Lep. Exot. 155 : Rurina, irrigata, intermedia, Virgo, 
Cipris (bracheolata, Neocypris). 
Cipris may be taken as the type. Is the name too near Mitoura 1 

696. Microtia. 
1864-65. Bates, Ent. Monthl. Mag. i. 83: Elva. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
This name is very close to Microtus (Sclirank, Mam. 1789). 

697. MiDEA.* 
1867. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. ii. 16 : Genutia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used also by Kirby ; but the name is founded on one of the syno- 
nymes of Genutia, and therefore falls. See Anthocliaris. 

698. MiGONITIS. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 12: Thales, Aoede, Erato (Erato, Crenis), 
Burneyi, Tlielxiope, Melpomene (Andremone, Ulrica, 
Erythraja), Egeria (Isaja). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 219 

1837. SodofFsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 82 : ^^robably ignorant of Ilubner's 
use of this word, proposes to substitute it for Lycsena. 
Erato mny be taken as the type. See also Crenis and Laparus. 

GOO. Miletus. 
1816. Hubn.,Verz. 71 : Polycletus (Epopus, Polycletus), Symethus. 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 502 : employs it for Symethus and 

three others. 
1857. Horsf.-Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co.: make a similar use of it. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 337 : the same. 

Symethus would therefore be type ; but Boisduval had already 
selected this as type of Gerydus (q. v.), and therefore Polycletus must 
be type. See also Symetha. 

700. MiMACRiEA. 

1872. Butl., Lep. Exot. i. 101 : Darwinia. Sole species, and there- 

' fore type. 

701. MnrONiADES. 
1823. Hiibn., Zutr. ii. 27 : Iphinous (Ocyalus). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

702. MiNETRA.* 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 126 : Nodrica, sylvia. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 86 : uses it for sylvia, Gambrisius. 
Sylvia therefore becomes type. 

Since used for all these species by Westwood and Felder. The 
name foils before Parthenos (q. v.). 

703. MiNOis. 

1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 57: Plissdra, Alcyone, Ilermione, Circe (Pro- 
serpina), Persephone (Anthe), Bi-iseis, Merope (Q2no- 
mais.) 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 254: employs it for Briseis, Phtedra, 
and Ilermione. 

1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : uses it for Phaedra only, which 
therefore becomes type. 

1867. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iii. 279: employs it for Phredra 

(Dryas) and others. 

1868. lb., ib, iv. 194; and Cat. Sat. 61 : designates Phajdra (Dryas) 

as type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 5 : docs the same. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

704. Mithras. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 79: Nautes (Nautus), Elis, Meton (Metus), 

Apidanus (Apidanus, Doriinund). 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 195: employs it for Pholeus and others, 
none of which are mentioned by Hiibner, although allied 
to all but the last. 
In accordance with Butler's usage, Nautes may be taken as the type. 
See Molus. 

705. MiTOCERUS.* 

1820. 'B'illh., 'Eunm. Ins. 79 : Phidippiis. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
. The name falls before Amathusia. 

706. MiTOURA. 

1872. Scudd. Syst. Rev. 31 : Damon (smilacis). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1874. Rye, Zool. Rec. for 1872, 350 : suggests spelling it IMitura. 
It is derived from pVof and oipa. 

707. MasRA.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 51 : Aurelius (Aurelia), Phidippus (Phidippe), 
Adonis (Adonidis) Tullia, Celinde, Automedon (Auto- 
medgena). 
The name is preoccupied in Crustacea (Leach, 1815). 

708. MoLus. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 78: Phalanthus (Phalantus), Ismarus. 

Pliilanthus may be taken as the type. Will it fall before Mithras 1 

709. MONETHE. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 461 : Alphonsus. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Bates and Kirby. 

710. MORITZIA.* 

1861. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. v. 100 : noctula (paradoxa). 
Sole species, and therefore type. 
The name falls before Hades. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 221 

711. MORPHETS.* 
1827-37. Gey. in Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. iii: Elirenhergii. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

Used for same species only, by DoubleJay, Westwood, and Felder ; 
but the name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera (Hiiba. 181G). See Ane- 
meca. 

712. MoRPiio. 

1807. Fabr., III. Mag. vi. 280 : Acllilles, Menelaus, Hecuba. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 733 : employs it for Sibylla, Camilla, and 

populi ! 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 49 : employs it for species of Prepona only. 
1820. Oken, Lehrb. f Schulen, 791 : the Fabrieian species and others. 
183G. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 8 B. : employs it for Cj'theris, a sj^ecies 

allied to the Fabrieian. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Miis. 115: uses it for all the species of 

Fabricius and others. 
1851. TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 337: the same. On p. 341 Achilles 

is specified as the type. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. G5 : specifies Acliilles as the type. 

713. MoscnoNEURA. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 39, 54: Methymna, Pintha^us (Pinthoeus), 

Kehemia (Cyduo). Methymna specified as type. 

714. MURTIA. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 98: Pyranthe (Minna). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

715. Mycalesis. 
181 G. Iliibn., Yerz. 55: Evadne, Mineus (Minea, Justina), Mamerta 

(Ilamerta), Medus (Hesione), Ostrea (Otrea). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 139 : employs it for Medus (Ilesione), 

Mineus, Ostrea (Otrea), and some MS. species. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 392 : the same and others. 
18G5. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. G2 : the same. 
18G8. Butl., Cat. Sat. 128 : specifies Evadne as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 87 : Evadne, Medus, Mineus, Ostrea, and 

others. 
Evadne may be accepted as the type, one at least of the species 
placed in this group by Doubleday being strictly congeneric therewith. 
See Orsotriaina. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

716. Mylgthris. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 90: Rhodope (Arsalte), Ilaire (Margarita), 
Argia, Lyncida (Monuste, liippo), Hedyle, Drusilla, 
Lycimnia (Agrippina), Demophile, Monuste (Hippo- 
monuste). 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 254 [INIilothris] : employs it for Mo- 
nuste only. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 42 : employs it for Rhodope (Poppea, 

Rhodope), Agathina, and Trimenia, and specifies Rho- 
dope (Poppea) as type. 

It cannot be used for Monuste in accordance ■witli Stephens's usage, 
since that must be the type of Ascia (q. v.). 

717. Mynes. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 129 : Anstralis (Leucis), Geoffroyi. 
1848. Doubl., List Br. Mus. App. 22 : employs it for Geoffroyi and 

others, and therefore this becomes type. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diuru. Lep. 267 : follows Boisduval. 

1869. Wall., Trans Ent. Soc. Loud. 77 : considers Geoffroyi as the 

type and describes two others. 

1871. Kirb., Syu. Cat. 274 : follows AVallace. 

718. Myrina. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 286: Silenus (Alcides), Ilelius (Helens). 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722 : uses it for eight species, specifying only 

Silenus (Alcides) and Halesus. 
1823. God., Encyl. meth. 592: divides the group into two sections, 

omitting Helius and placing Silenus (Alcides) in the 

second. 
1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 116: employs it for 

Ravindra and Freja (Jafra), and specifies the latter as 

the type, erroneously. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 3 B, C. : uses it for the Horsfieldian 

species and another. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 21 : the same and others. 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 475 : employs it for eighteen spe- 
cies, including Freja and Silenus (Alcides). 

1870. Kirb., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. x. 500 : specifies Silenus (Al- 

cides) as type. 



OF ArwTS AND SCIENCES. 223 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GG: says Silenus (Alcides) is type, through 
West wood, IS.) 2. 

But it was determined long before that; for Ilelius was taken in 
181G as type of lolaus, and nothing but Silenus then remained. See 
also Loxura. 

719. Myscelia.* 

1844. [BoisJ. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 88 : Orsis, Numilia (My- 

calia), Acontius (Medea). 
1849. Boisd. in ib.. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 220 : employs it for Orsis, 

Cyaniris, Etliusa, and Antholia. 
18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. IG: I. Orsis; IL Etliusa, Cyaniris. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 40: claims it as his own, and says it was 

founded on the females of Epicalia, and so should be 

dropped. 

The name, too, j^ unfortunately near Miselia (Ochs., Lep. 1816), and 
is actually preoccupied through filyscelus (Ilubu., Lep. 1816; Heyd., 
Arachn., 1826). See Sagaritis. 

720. Mtscelus. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 110: noMlis, Sebaldus, Erythus. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 52G: the same and others. 

18G9. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 58: uses it for a large number 

of species, including nobilis and Assaricus. 
18G9. ButL, Cat. Fabr. Lep. 2G4: employs it for nobilis and 

Assaricus. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 92 : specifies nobilis as the 

type. , 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 587 : uses it in the same sense. 

721. NAniDA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. App. G51 : coenoides. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Employed to replace Threnodes preoccupied. 

722. Nais.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 136: Thyshe (splcndens). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

Subsequently used by Feldcr. But one of the synonymes of 
Thysbe is Nais, and tlie name therefore falls ; it is also preoccupied 
in Worms (Mull. 1771). 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMEEICAN ACADEMY 

723. Najas. 

1806. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : populi. Sole species, and therefore type. 
See Nymphalis and Limenitis. See also Nympha, p. 293. 

724. Nap^ea. 

1825. Hiibn., Catal. Franck, 7G: NicjEus (Nicsea), Halimede, Eu- 
cliarila (Actoria), Thersander, Lucinda, Mandana (Man- 
daue), Lucina, Ceneus (Lusca), Athemon (Athemcena), 
Lamis, Caricae, INIantus (Mante), Bomilcar (Bombikar), 
Pbareus (Pharea), Thisbe (Perdita), Pais, Dorilas (Nyx), 
Lisias (Lisiassa), Sagaris. 
Lisias may be taken as the type. 

725. Napeocles. 

1864. Bates, Journ. Ent. ii. 194: jucunda. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1872. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 193: the same. 

726. Napeogenes. 

1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 533 : I. Cyrianassa (Cyrianassa, 
Tunantina, Adelphe), Inachia (Inachia, Pyrois, Pharo, 
Ercilla, sulphurina), Ithra, Corena ; II. Pheranthes, 
Crocodes, Duressa. Besides these, not classed in either 
group, are Tolosa, Larina, Apulia, and Xanthare. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 24: uses it in the same sense. 
Cyrianassa may be taken as the type. 

727. Narope. 
1849. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 50 : Cyllastros. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1851. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 348: Cyllastros and two 
others. 
Used in same sense by Herrich-Schaeffer and Kirby. 

728. Nathalis. 

1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 589 : lole. Sole species, and therefore type, 
as stated by Butler. 
Since used in same sense. 

729. Nectaria. 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 76 : given by Billberg as the 
equivalent of Fabricius's Idea, which fell, from being 
founded on the single species Idea, which therefore be- 
comes the type of this genus. 
See Idea and llestia. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 225 



rrrt/ 



'30. Necyria. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 432: Bellona, Duellona. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. is. 428: the same and others. 
1871. Kirb., Sjn. Cat. 302 : follows Bates. 

Bellona, being the species figured, may Le taken as the tjpe. 

731. jMelone.* 

1870. Boisd., Lcp. Guat. 23 : Mandana (Mandana, Ops), Fatima 

(Fatima, Ovidius), Lucinda, Praxithea, Aurimna. 
This name faUs before Aphacitis and Emesis. 

732. Nemeobius. 

1827. Steph., in. Brit. Ent. Ilaust. i. 28 : Lucina. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1847. Doubh, List Br. Mus. 2 : the same and another. 
1851. TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 419: Lucina. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 284: the same. 

733. NEOMiENAS. 

1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 78 : Servilea. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
But the species was inedited at this time, being first pubhshed, under 
the same generic name, two years later. 

734. Neontjipha. 
181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 65: Phocion (Ilelicta), Cornelius (Gemma), 

Clorimena (Clerimene), Dorothea. 
1844. Doubh, List Br. Mus. 137 : employs it for Phocion (areolatus), 

Cornelius (Gemma), and two others. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 374: uses it for twenty-five species, 

among them the two of Iliibner's mentioned by Doubleday. 
1865. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 59 : makes a similar use of it. 

1868. Buth, Cat. Sat. 35 : specifics Phocion (Helicta) as type. 

735. Neope.* 

1867. Buth, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 166: Bhadra, Pulaha, 

Goschkevitschii (Moorei, japonica). 

1868. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195 ; Cat. Sat. 112 : specifies Bhadra 

us type. 
Tlie name was proposed to supplant Enope preoccupied ; but it is 
itself preoccupied tlirougli Neopus (Ilodgs., Birds, 1841). Probably 
some English entomologist (the passion for the formation of generic 
terms by transposition seems to be strong in England) will propose 
Nopca, Eponc, Opene, or Oncpe, to take its place ! 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 2S) 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE A3IERICAN ACADEMY 

736. Neopuasia. 

1869. Behr, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ii. 303 : Menapia, Terlooii. 

Menapia may be taken as the type. 

737. NEOraNA. 

1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 65 : Hilda. Sole species, and 

therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

1851. lb., ib. 369: the same. 

738. Neorinopis (fossil). 
1873. Butl., Lep. Exot. i. 127: sepulta. Sole species and desig- 
nated type. 

739. NeosatypvUS. 

1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 79 : ambiorix. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

740. Nepheronia. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 38, 53 : Poppea (Idotea), Thalessina, Argia, 

Buquetii, Pharis (Pharis, Chione), Valeria (liippia, 
Bcebera), loboea (Jobjea). Poppea designated as type. 

741. Neptis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 282 : Melicerta, aceris. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 42 : Naiiplia, Emilia. These have nothing to do 

with the Fabrician group. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : changes the name, for no reason, to 

Philonoma (q-v.). 
1828. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co., expl. pi. 5, 7: Vikasi? 

populi, and aceris.* 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 270 : divides the group into two 

sections, and places both Fabricius's species in the second. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 30 : divides the group into seven sections, 

placing aceris in the first, with others, and Melicerta alone 

in the fourth. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: says aceris is type, through Ilorsfield 

and Westwood ; but Westwood's action certainly has no 

effect upon it. 
Aceris, however, has belonged to Nyraphalis (q. v.) since 1823 ; and 
hence Melicerta must be taken as the type of this group. 

* lie has also referred aceris, in the same work, to a new (unnamed) genus. 



OF AKTS AND SCIENCES. 227 

742. Nereis.* 

1806. Hiibn., Tent. 1 : Polymnia. Sole species, and therefore type. 
The name is preoccupied in Worms (Linn. 1731). See Mechanitis. 

743. Nekias. 

183G. Boiscl., Spec, gen., pi. 4 A., 7 B. : Calliope, Euterpe, Susanna. 

The larva and pupa only of the first two are figured. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. G4: emijloys it for Phlegia and Susanna 
only. 
Susanna, tlierefore, becomes tlie type. Tlie name is very near to 
Neria (Rob.-Desv., Dipt. 1830). 

744. Ness^a.* 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 41: Obrinus (Ancasa), Harpalyoe, Galanthis. 
Tliis name is preoccupied through Nesasa (Lamx., Pol. 1812). 

745. Xestorides. 

1816. Iliibn., A^erz. 86 : Gambrisius (Drusius, Gambrisius, Amphi- 
trion). Sole species, and' therefore type. 

746. Netrocoryne. 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 507 : repanda. Sole species, and there- 
fore type, as stated by Butler. 

1867. Hewits., Huudr. Ilesp. 22: beata, Denitza. 

3 869. Ilerr.-SchaeflT., Prodr. iii. 69: repanda, cojcutiens. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 621 : all the above. 

747. Neurosigma. 

1868. Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 615. Siva specified as type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 249: the same. 

See Acontia. 

748. NicA.* 
1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : JlaviUa. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Since used in the same sense by Doubleday, Felder, and Kirby ; 
but the name is preoccupied through Nika (Risso, Crust. 1816). 

749. NiCONIADES. 

1816-21. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Xanthaphes (Xanthaptes). 

Sole species, 5Uid therefore type. 
1821. lb., Index, 7 : the same. 

This name is too close to Nisoniades of the same family, proposed 
by the same author (Verz. 1816), to stand. It cannot, however, have 
been a simple typographical error. See Goniloba. 



228 proceedings of the american academy 

750. Nina* 
1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 140: Xiphia (Nina). 
Sole species, and therefore type. 
The name is one of the synonymes of Xiphia, and therefore falls. 
See Leptosia and Nychitona. 

751. NiRODIA. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 430: Belphegor. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

752. NiSONIADES. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 108: Bromius, Mimas, Zephodes, Juvenalis 
(Juvenis), Tages, Flesus (Ophion), and a MS. species. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 22 : restricts the name to Tages, but 
this had already (1832) been taken to form Thanaos. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 579 : employs it for all of Miibner's 

species excepting Zejahodes and Flesus, and for many 
others. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 286: employs it for Tages, Juvenalis, 

Mimas, and others. 
1871. Staud., Cat. Eur. Lep. 34: uses it for Tages and others. 

Other authors have used it similarly. Bromius may be taken as the 
type. See Thanaos. 

753. NOMIADES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 67 : Semiargus (Acis), Atys (Pheretes), Damon, 
Cyllarus (Damretas), Areas (Erebus), Alsus, Alcon, 
Diomedes (Euphemus), Arion, Lysimon. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 19, 261 : employs the name for Alsus, 

Semiargus (Acis), Arion, and Alcon. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : uses it for the same, excepting Alsus, 
and for others. The query attached to many of them 
only indicates that they are doubtful as British species. 
Semiargus may be taken as the type. 

754. NOTHEME. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 462: Eumeus (Ouranus). Sole 

species, and therefore type. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 425 : the same and another. 
See Amblygonia. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 229 

755. NrcniTONA.* 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 41 : Alcesta (Dorothea), Xiphia 
(Niobe). The formei* specified as type. 
The name falls before Leptosia. See also i^ina. i 

756. NrjiPHALis. 
1805. Latr., Sonn. Buff. xiv. 82: {nymj)hales) Jason (.Jasius), Antiopa, 
Polychloros, van. album (v. album), urtieoe, c. album, Egea 
(triangulum), Levana (Prorsa, Levana), Atalanta, lo, 
cardui, celtis, populi, Sappho (Lucilla), Sibylla (Sibilla), 
Iris (Iris, Beroe) ; (perlati) Paphia (Paphia, Valesiana), 
Adippe, Aglaia, Daphne, Dia, Pales, Euphrosyne 
(Euphrosine), Lathonia, Lucina, Cynthia, Aurinia (Ar- 
temis), Ciuxia; (safi/ri), Circe, Hermioue, Briseis, Fidia, 
Statilimus (Fauna), Acttea, Semele, Phaedra, Ligea, 
Melampus, Manto (Pollux), Medea (iEthiops), Dejanira, 
JEgeria, Mcera (Satyrus), Ilyperanthus, Tithonus (pilo- 
sellaj), Jurtina (Janira), Pamphilus, Arcania (Arcanius), 
Galathea. 
As Latreille indicates the first of these groups as typical by giving 

it the distinctive name nymphales, any further restriction of the genus 

must be confined to this group. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440: Dido, aceris, populi, and Achilles are specified 
as types. 
Populi is the only one given in the previous list, none of the others 
being even congeneric with any cf the species then referred to the 
genus. This, thei-etbre, would become the type, had it not been pre- 
viously taken as the type of Najas (q. v.). Latreille's treatment of 
the group in his Genera (1809), and in Cuvier's Eegne Animal (1817), 
is essentially the same as in Sonnini's Bufl^on. 

181 G. Lam., Hist. Nat, An. sans Vert. iv. 24: employs it for the 

Satyrids only, but of course erroneously. 
1823. God., Tab. Mcth. 43 : uses it for Jason (.Jasius), Iris, Ilia, 
populi, Sibylla, Camilla, Sappho (Lucilla). 
Jason had already been taken as the type of Charaxes, as Felder 
has pointed out; Iris, and consequently Ilia, were removed to Potamis 
in 180G. Camilla became the type of Limenitis in 1815, taking with 
it Sibylla ; so that Sappho must be considered the type of this genus. 

1828. Boit., Man. Ent. ii. [Nymphalus]. 

1829. Boisd., Index, IG: restricts it to populi. 

1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 401 : the same. 

1833. Brulle, Exp. Moree, 283: uses it for Jason (Jasius) only. 



230 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 96 : employs it for populi, Artemis, etc. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 306 : considers Jason as type. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 41 : divides the group into four sections, 

including the genera Cymatogramma and Paphia of 
Doubleday's Genera, but mentions no species referred 
to the group by Latreille. See remarks in his note. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 267 ; uses it for Jason and allies ; but on p. 

648 makes it supplant Vanessa, and refers the genus to 
Linne. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 60: also wrongly refers the genus to 

Linne [Nymphales], and says that Lamarck in 1801 
(where only the plural form is used) fixed the type as 
Atalanta. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 10 : specifies Polychloros as type, erro- 
neously. See also Neptis and Limenitis. 

757. Nyjiphidium. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 286: Caricoe, Thelephus (Telephus), 

Athemon. 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722 : the same and others. 
1832. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Am. Sept. 130 [Nymphidia] : Caeneus 

(Pumila). 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 2 B. : Jessa. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 10: employs it for a large number, 

including, of Fabricius's species, only Caricaj. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 447 : employs it for twenty species, 

including Caricoe and Lamis, which are specified as " rep- 
resentative." 
1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 450: uses it for nearly 

fifty species, including Caricte. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66: says that Caricie is type, through 
Westwood in 1850 [1851]. 
Caricas, however, belongs to Peplia, 1816, and Athemon to another 
family. Hence Tlielephus should be taken as the type. See Peplia, 
Desmozona, and Ileliochlasna. 

758. Nymula. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, g^n., pi. 4 C. : Gnosis. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

1840. Blanch., Hist. Nat. Ins. iii. 465 [Nimula]. 

1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 450 : employs it for Gnosis 
and allies. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 231 

759. NvTiiA. 

1820. Blllb., Enum. Ins. 77: Ilyperbius, Medea, Cljtus, Moera, 

Agave (Alcyone, Ilippolyte), Semele, Hermione, Briseis, 

Statilimus (Faun us), Fidia, and several MS. Species. 

All these species, excepting Ilermione and Briseis, fallinto the genera 

Erebia, Euraenis, Pararge, Melanipias, and Dira ; all of which are of 

earlier date. The name may therefore be retained for these two species 

and their allies, with Ilermione for type. Sec also Maniola and Oreas. 

760. Oakisma. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 54: Poweshiek. Sole species and desig- 
nated type. 

7G1. OCALIS.* 

1851. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 371 : Westv/ood gives it 
as a MS. synonyme of Oressinoma (q. v.). 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 03 : Tijphla. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
This name falls before Oressinoma; and is besides too close to 
Ocalea (Erichs., Col. 1837). 

762. OcnLODEs. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 57 : nemorum, agricola, Sonera. Nemo- 
rum specified as type. 

763. OCYTES. 

1872, Scudd., Syst. Rev. 55 : Metea, Seminole. Metea specified as 
type. 

764. CEneis. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 58: Noma (Noma, Celaeno), Polixenes (Bore), 

Jutta, Arethusa. 
1868'. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 196; Cat. Sat. 160: specifies 

Noma as the type. 

1871. Staud., Cat. 27 : uses it in the same sense. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 68: the same. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 4 : specifies Noma as type. 

See also Cliionobas. 

765. CEnomaus. 
1816. Iliibn., Ycrz. 76: Marsyas, Ortygniis, Eumolphus, Rustan, 

Palegon. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 196: employs it for Marsyas. 

But this is already tlie type of Pseudolycana. Ortygnus may be 
chosen as tlie type. 



232 PEOCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

766. Ogyris. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 20: Idmo, Abrota, Damo (all inedlted). 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 472: Abrota, Idmo: the former is 

figured. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 425 : Abrota, Idmo, and others. 

Since Doubleday's genus was undescribed, and at the time when it 
was proposed all the species were inedited, the genus can only date 
from 1852, though it should bear Doubleday's name : at this time the 
only published species was Abrota, and this therefore must be the type. 
Idmo was not pubhshed until 1862, and Damo is still a MS. name. 

767. OiLEIDES. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Vulpinus, Zephodes. 
Zephodes may be taken as the type. 

768. Oleria. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 9 : Astrea, Flora, Aegle (Clio). 
1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 529 : Phyllodoce, Theaphia : these 
species are allied to Hiibner's, but have no immediate 
connection with them. See Scada. 
1864. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 47: follows Bates. 
Astraea may be taken as the type. 

769. Oligoria. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 61 : maculata. Sole species and desig- 

nated type. 
Is this name too close to Oligorus (Dej., Col. 1833) ? 

770. Olina.* 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 31 : Azeca. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 407 : Azeca, Emilia. 

The name is preoccupied in Diptera (Rob.-Desv. 1830). See Vila. 

771. Olynthus. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 80: Tnachus, Narbal. 
Narbal may be taken as the type. 

772. Olyras.* 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 107: Crathis. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Hcrrich-Schaoffer and Kirby, but the name 
is preoccupied tlirough Olyra (McClell., Fishes, 1842), and perhops 
' through Oluris (Ueyd., Arachn. 182G). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 233 

773. OpsiriiANES. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 57 : Boisduvalii, Sallei, Eeeve- 

sii. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 344: Syme and eleven others, in- 
cluding Boisduvalii, Sallei, Xanthus, and Berecynthus, 
but not Reevesii. Xanthus and Berecynthus are specified 
as types, but they cannot be, because they were not of 
the original species. 

1864. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i, 54: Berecynthus and others. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 125 : all the above but Reevesii. 

Sallei may be taken as the type. 

774. Oreas.* 

1806. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : Circe (Proserpina). Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 740: the same and others. 

1865. Feld., Raise Novara, 305 : Marathon, Ctesiphon : wholly 

unrelated to the above. See Rusalkia. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 431 : follows Felder. 

The name is preoccupied in Mammals (Desra. 1804). See Nytha. 

775. Oreina.* 
1840. "Westw., Brit. Butt. 76 : Ligea, Medea (Blandina), Epiphron 
(Cassiope). 

1867. Butl., Ent. iii. 277: Epiphron and others not in preceding 

list. 

1868. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194: specifies Epiphron (Cassiope) 

as type. 
The name is preoccupied in Coleoptera (Chevr. 1834). See Erebia, 
Gorgo, Marica, Syngea, Phorcis, and Epigea. 

776. Oressinoma. 

1850. "\Yestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 62: Tjrphla. Sole species, and 

therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

1851. lb., ib. 371 : the same. 

See Ocalis. 

777. Orestias.* 
1862. Feld., Wien. Ent, Monatschr. vi. 73 : Vitula. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 432 [Orestia] : the same 

and another, 

VOL. X. (2d 8. II.) 80 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1868. Herr.-Scliaeff., Prodr. iii. 7 [Orestia] : follows Bates. 

The name is preoccupied in Fislies (Val. 1839) and also through 
Orestia in Coleoptera (Chevr. 1834). See Cartea. 

778. OuniBA. 
1856. Boisd. in Herr.-Schaeff., Exot. Schmett. 55 : Cepha (Cata- 
leuca), Pasiphae (Areas). 

Pasiphae was taken in 1847 as the type of Pandemos, so that Cepha 
must be taken as the type of this genus. See Aricoris, in founding 
wliich Boisduval also made use of Cepha ! 

779. Orinoma. 
1846. Doubl., in Gray's Nepaul, 14: Damaris. Sole species, and 
therefore tyi^e, as stated by Butler. 
Used for this species only by Westwood, Herrlch-Schaeffer, Butle^ 
and Kirby. 

780. Oknitiioptera. 
1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 33 : Priamus, Helena (Amphimedon, 

Helena). 
1836. lb., Sjjec. gen. 173: Priamus, Helena, and others. 

Used in same sense by Doubleday and Westwood. Priamus may 
be taken as the type. 

781. Orpheides. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 86: Lemoleus, Erithonius (Epius). 
Denioleus may be taken as the type. 

782. Orsotri^na.* 

1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 79 : Medus (Hesione). 
Sole species, and therefore type. 
The name probably falls before Mycalesis. 

783. OxEOSCnisTus. 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 268: Puerta, Hilara, 

Protogenia, Pronax, Propylea, Prochyta, Irmina, Tauro- 

polis. Puerta specified as type. 

1868. lb.. Cat. Sat. 180 : the same. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 106: follows Butler. 

784. OXTLIDES. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 77: Celmus, Faunus. 
Faunus may be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 235 

785. OXYNETRA. 

1862. Feld., Wien. Eut. Monatschr. vi. 179: semiliyaliiia. Sole 

species, aud therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 583 : the same. 

78G. Paculioptera. 
1804. Reak., Proc. Eut. Soc. Phil. iii. 503: Darsius, Pompeus, Rhad- 
amanthus, Priainus, Hector, AristolochiOB (Diphilus), 
Philenor? Polydamus ? Clytia (dissimilis). 
Aristolochiae may be taken as the type. See also Polydorus. 

787. Paciiyrhopala.* 
1858. WaUengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh, xv. 81 : Phidias. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
The name falls before Tamyris. 

788. Pachythone. 
18C7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 389 : Erebia, Laterltia, 

distigma, Xauthe, mimula. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 31 G: the same. 

Erebia may be taken as the type. 

789. Pagyris.* 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 34 : Ulla. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
Preoccupied through Pagurus (Fabr., Crust. 1798). 

790. PaljEOntina* (fossil). 
1873. Butl., Lep. Exot. i. 120: oolitica. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
It is not a butterfly, as I shall show in my memoir on Fossil Butter- 
flies, shortly to be published by the Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science. 

791. Palla. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 47: Decius (Decia). Sole species, and therefore 
type. Used by Kirby (Syn. Cat.) in same sense. 
See also Pliyllophasis and riiilognoma. 

792. Pallene.* 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 41 : Eupithes. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 289 : the same. 

The name is preoccupied in Coleoptera (Meg. 1823; Lap. 1836), in 
Crustacea (Johnst. 1837), and in Birds (Less. 1837). 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

793. Pampuila. 

1807. Fabr., III. Mag. vi. 287 : comma, PalsBinon (Paniscus), mal- 
va2 (Fritillum, lavateraa). 

1828. Steph., 111. Brit. Eut. Ilau&t. i. 99 : employs it for Paljemon 
(Paniscus), comma, and others, j)lacing malvae else- 
where. 

1837. Curtis, Guide, 2d Ed. 174 : makes similar use of it. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 88: specifies comma as type. 

1840 [ined. ?] Ramb., Faune Ent. Andal. 321 : malvce, Proto, etc. 

1858. lb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 78 : uses it for Proto and others. 

1858. Kirb., List Brit. Phop. : employs it for sylvanus only, a spe- 
cies not mentioned by Fabricius. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 27G: uses it for several species, includ- 

ing only comma of Fabricius. 

1870. Bull., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 93 : specifies comma as type. 

1871. Ivirb., Syn. Cat. 596 : employs it in a very wide sense, includ- 

ing comma. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 67 : says that comma is type, through 

Dalman's action in 1816. But Dalman did not use the 
name Pamphila even as a synonyme ! 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 56 : specfies comma as type. 

Comma, however, cannot be taken as tlie type, for in 1832 it vir- 
tually became the type of Erynnis (q. v.) ; malvae already belonged to 
Hesperia in 1798 ; and therefore Palaemon must be taken as the type. 
See Carterocephalus and Steropes. 

794. Panara. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 8 : Sagaris (Satnius), Thisbe (larbas). 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 442: employs it for Thisbe (lar- 
bas), Phereclus (Barsacus), and Sagaris (Satnius), the 
last with a query. 

Thisbe should therefore be considered the type ; and in this sense it 
is used by Bates and Kirby. 

795. Pandemos. 
1816. IlUbn., Verz. 25: Placidia, Liberia, Pasiphae (Arcassa), 

Lagus (Lagis). 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 7: employs it for Pasiphae (Areas) 

and others. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 440 : does the same, and specifies 

Pasiphae (Areas) as type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 237 

18G7. Bates, Journ. Linu Soc. Lond. ix. 456: uses it for Pasiphae 
(Areas) only. 

1871. Kiib., Syu. Cat. 332: follows Bates. 

796. Pandita. 

1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 181: Sinope. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in same way bj' Felder and Kirby. 

797. Pandora.* 

1848. Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 43 : Prola. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
1850. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 300 : the same. 

The name is subsequently used by Fekler; but it is preoccupied in 
MoUuslis (Drug. 1791; Meg. 1811), in Acaleplis {Escliscli. 182'J), and 
in Diptera (Halid. 18G3). See Batesia. 

798. Panopea.* 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 39: Semire, Lucretia. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Leji, 281 : employs it for the same and 

another. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 27 [Pauopa3a] : description only. 
1865. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 65 [Panopaja] : uses it for Hubner's 

species and others. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 95: the same. 

But tlie name is preoccupied through Panopa^a (Me'n., Moll. 1807). 
See Pseudacraja. 

799. Panopluia.* 

1864. Peak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. ii. 503 : no species mentioned. 

Indeed, it is established as an h\-pothetical genus, for a form of 
Papilionides, with an anopluriform larva, yet to be discovered ! ! Credat 
Judajus Apella ! 

800. Pansydia. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 60 : Cunaxa (Cunaxa, Mesogramma). Type 

specified as Cunaxa (Mesogramma). 

801. Panthiades. 
1816. Ilubn., Yerz. 79: Pelion (Phallus, Pclion). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 197: employs it for Pelion and five 
others. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

802. Pantoporia. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 44: Phoerusa, Nefte, Hordonia, Dorcas (Mar- 
dania). 
Hordonia may be taken as the type. 

803. Paphia.* 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 282 : I. Jason (Jaslus), Pollux ; II. Va- 

ranes, Moi'vus (Laertes), Chorinaeus ; III. Medon, As- 

tyanax (Ursula) ; IV. Odius (Orion), Isidora (Itys), 

Acontius (Antiocbus). 

1829. Meig., Eur. Scbmett. i. 95 : uses it for Jason (Jasius) only, 

wbicb therefore becomes type, as stated by Crotch (Cist. 

Ent. i. 66). 

It has subsequently been used in same sense by many naturaUsts, 

but is preoccupied in Mollusks (Lam. 1801). See Charaxes and Jasia. 

804. Papilio. 

[1735. Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. i. (Fee's Reprint, p. 7G) : no species mentioned; 
intended to include all Lepidoptera, divided into tliree groups, of 
which butterflies form the first. 
1736. lb., Acta Upsal. iv. 117 : species mentioned (without names) are, as given 
by Ilagen :* rhamni, brassicaj, rapas, napi, cratEegi, Apollo, Antiopa, 
polychloros, urticae, c. album, lo. 
1740. lb., Syst. Nat. ed. ii. 60 : no species mentioned ; divided into several 
groups by the structure of the antennae and mouth parts, those 
" pedibus 4," i.e. Nymphales, placed first. Essentially the same 
arrangement occurs in the third, fourth, and fifth editions. 
1746. lb., Faun. Suec. ed. i. 232 : the butterflies are divided into two groups, 
according as they have four (serviceable) or six legs. Species occur 
again without names, but numbered from 772 to 807 inclusive; 772 
was afterwards named Antiopa. 
1748. lb., Syst. Nat. ed. vi. 63 : species are introduced for the first time in a 
general work, but still unnamed. Sixteen butterflies only are men- 
tioned, all of them before treated of in the Fauna Suecica. Antiopa 
heads the hst. The arrangement of the seventh and ninth edition 
is identical ; the eighth edition contains no animals. 
I have introduced the foregoing only for its liistoric interest. The 
reader will find fuller details in papers by Dr. Hagen and myself in the 
Canadian Entomologist, vol. vi. pp. 143-145, 1G3-1G6. In this matter I 
hold to the views of Agassiz, who lays down as a maxim for genera : 
Cum binominalis nomenclaturce Linnaus sit auctor, ilia de prioritatu lex ad 
anfcriorum auctontm opera non est retorquenda.] I do not therefore deem 
even Linne"s action (previous to 1758, when binomial nomenclature was 
founded) to have had any binding force; yet, in view of the opinions I 
expressed in my Systematic Revision (p. 16), without examination of 

* Can. Ent. vi. 165. t NomencL ZoiiL Introd. xx. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 2-39 

Linne's action previous to 1758, it is interesting to discover thnt, in the 
first mention of species under Papilio, Antiopa is introduced, and Macliaon 
(or any other swalhnv-tail) is not; furtlier, that Antiopa is mentioned in 
every subsequent use of the generic name by Linne', and tiiat, in every 
instance, excepting in 17o0, wlien spec ies are first referred to, tlie group to 
whicli Antiopa belongs, or, if species are directly mentioned, tliis species 
itself, stands first upon tlie list, as if tliat insect, at least, were al\va3's in 
his tliought when Papilio was recorded. I repeat, liowever, tliat this 
consideration has no binding force wliatsoever.] 
1758. lb., Syst. Nat. ed. x. i. 458 : employs it for all butterflies then 
known, which are now described in full, and supjjlied 
with binomial nomenclature for the first time. They are 
divided as follows: p]quites (Trojani, Achivi), Heliconii, 
Danai caudidi, Danai festivi, Nymphales (gemmati, 
phalerati), Plebeii (rurales, urbicola;), Barbari. Among 
the butterflies occur Antiopa, Machaou, Podalirius, and 
Memnon.* 
1793. Fabr., Ent. Syst. iii. i. 1, 258: removes from this great group 
all the Rurales and Urbicolte, under the name of Hes- 
peria, thus confining Papilio to the Nymphales and 
Papilionides. 
1801. Schrank, Faun. Boica, ii. i. 152, 188: restricts the name still 
further to the Nymphales, and divides the group, thus 
limited, into sections, as follows : f I. populi (Semiramis, 
popidi), Sibylla (Sibilla), Camilla, aceris (Lucilla) ; II. 
Atahinta, cardui, lo (Jo), Antiopa, Polychloros, urtica3, 
c. album, Levana (Prorsa, Levana) ; III. Paphia, Adippe 
(Syrinx, Adippe), Niobe, Aglaia (Agluja), Lathonia, Dia, 
Selene (Thalia) ; IV. Athalia (Phoebe), Maturna, Cyn- 
thia (Cinthia), Hecate, Ino (Dictynna), Aurinia (Arte- 
mis), Didyma (Cinxia), Cinxia (Trivia), Lucina. 
1805. Latr., Soon. BuiF, xiv. 108: first restricts the name to the 
" swallow-tails," but erroneously, as these had already 
been excluded by Schrank's limitation. 
In this action he has been followed by all authors for nearly seventy 
years, until now it has become the all but universal custom to apply it 
to an immense group of over three hundred species, really composed 
of a vast number of genera, as any one may judge by a comparison of 
their earlier stages, wiiich show greater differences than can be foimd 
in any other generally accepted genus of butterflies. Compare also 
Felder's study of this great group. 

* I specify these, on account of what follows, 
t All the names are used by Linne. 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1810. Latr., Consid. 440 : specifies Macliaon as tlie type, but, of 
course, erroneously. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 722: makes tliis one of his groups of Emesis, 

and refers to it Melander (one of the Vestales). See 
aL~o Pieris. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. : makes no use of it whatever. 

1832-33. Swains. Zool. 111. ii. 95: considers Memnon a "pre- 
eminently typical" species. 
1836. Curtis, Brit. Ent. pi. 578: specifies Podalirius as the type. 
1840. Westvv., Gen. Syn. 87: specifies Macliaon as the type. 
1864. Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. ii. 60, 62 : separates the swallow- 
tails into several genera, retaining Pajiilio for one of the 
groups, including Memnon, Macliaon, Thoas, Glaucus 
(Turnus), etc. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 60 : says that Cuvier, in 1799, marked 
Machaon as the type. 
But nothing can be found in the Tableau Elementaire to warrant 
such a statement. Cuvier places all the butterflies under Papilio, 
dividing it into sections, to which the names Nymphales, Danai, Par- 
nassii, Ileliconii, Equites, and Plebeii are given ; and under Equites he 
gives "P. Macliaon" as an example or type. Certainly, from the con- 
tents of Cuvier's work, there is no more reason for selecting this as 
type than "P. Antiopa," which is the first example given under the 
Ny mphales. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 11 : specifies Autiopa as the type. 

See Scudderia, Amaryssus, Princeps, Iphiclides, and Iliades. 

805. Paramacera. 

1868 (Feb.). Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194 : Conhiera (a MS. spe- 
cies) given as type. No species whatever are described. 

1868. lb., Cat. Sat. 98: Xicaque. Sole species, and therefore type. 

Probably Butler found his Conhiera to be synonymous with Reakirt's 
Xicaque, and tlierefore simply suppressed his own name ; but it would 
have been well to have simply stated the fact, if it were so. 

806. Paramimus. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 115: Scurra, Talaus, Eumelus. 

1869. Herr. Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 52: without mention of species. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 97 : specifies Scurra as type. 

807. Paraplesia.* 

1862. Feld., "Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 26: Adelma. Sole species,! 
and therefore type. 
According to Felder, this name is preoccupied. See Isodema. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 241 

808. Pararge. 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 59: Aegeria (Egeria, Xyplna). Sole species, 
and therefore type, as stated by Butler, and as used by 
Stephens, Rambur, Ileydenreich [Pararga], Staudinger 
[Pararga, 18G1 ; Pararge, 1871], and Ilerrich-SchaefFer 
[Pararga]. 

809. Pardaleodes. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 96 : Edipus, Laronia. Edipus 

specified as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 625 : uses it in tlie same way. 

810. Pareba. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 142: vesta. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

811. Parides. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 87: Echelus, ^neas, iEneides (Gargasus), An- 
chises (Lysander), Yertumuus, Sessostris. 
Echelus may be taken as the type. 

812. Parnassius. 
1805. Latr., Sonn. Buff. xiv. 110: Apollo, Mnemosyne, Polyxena 

(Ilypsipyle), Rumina. 
1810. lb., Consid. 440: Apollo specified as type. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 725: uses it for Apollo and others. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 90: [Parnassis], Apollo, Phoebus (Delias), 

Mnemosj'ne. 

1816. Lam., Hist. Nat. An. sans Vert. iv. 32 : Apollo, Mnemosyne. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 21 : Apollo and others. 

1847. lb.. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 26: the same. 

1864. Feld., Spec. Lep. 39 : divides the species, twenty-seven in num- 
ber, into two sections, placing Mnemosyne in the first and 
Apollo in the second. 
See Doritis and Thcrius. 

813. Parxes.* 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 18 : Nycteis, Philotes (both unpublished 
species). 

1851. TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 464: the same. Both are de- 
scribed, and Nycteis figured. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 436: the same. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 31 



242 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. Ill : the same. 

If the name could be retained, it should be with Doubleday's name, 
and tiie date 1851 ; and Nycteis could most appropriately be taken as 
type; but it is preoccupied through Parnus (Fabr., Col. 1792). 

814. Paromia.* 

1861. Hewits., Exot. Butt. ii. : pulchra. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
The name is preoccupied in Coleoptera (Westvv. 1850). 

815, Parriiasius. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 79: Timoleon, Arogenus, Hemon (Acmon, He- 
mon), Polibetes (Polybetes), Lisus. 
Polibetes may be taken as the type. 

816. Parthenos. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 38 : Sylvia. Sole species, and therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 230: the same and others. 
See Minetra. 

817. Pathysa. 
1864. Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. iii. 503 : Sarpedon, Agamemnon, 
Eurypylus, Antiphates, Ajax (Marcellus, Ajax), Poda- 
lirius ? Sinon. 
Antiphates may be taken as the type. 

818. Pavermia.* 
1864. Peak., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. iii. 503. 

This is another of Reakirt's astonishing hypothetical genera, estab- 
lished upon supposititious forms of swallow-tails, with "vermiform" 
larvae, yet to be discovered ! 

819. Pavonia.* 
1823. God., Encycl. meth. Suppl. 807 : Actorion, Aorsa, Autome- 
don, Euryloclius, Ilioneus, Teucer, Idomeneus, Demos- 
thenes (Inachis), Martia, Taramela, Batea (Saronia), 
Syme (Acadina), Kusina, Creusa (Anaxandra), Darius 
(Anaxerete), Hercyna (Anosia), Darius, Q^thon, Bere- 
cynthus, Xanthus, Cassiope (Caryatis), cassiaj. 
The name has since been used by several authors, but is preoccupied 
in Polyps (Lam. 1816), as well as in Lepidoptera (Hiibn. 1816). 

820. Pedaliodes. 
1867. Bull, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 267: Poesia, Proerna, 
Pisonia (Pisonia, dejecta), Perperua, Phanias, Paneis, 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 2iS 

Polusca, Pausia, Piletha, Prytanis, Phcenissa, Physcoa, 
Poriua, Peucestas, Pallantis, Pylas, Plotina, Parepa 
Phila, Phaja, Peruda, Panyasis, Napaea. Poesia speci- 
fied as type. 
Subsequently used by Butler and Kirby. 

821. PeLEUS.* 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 75 : Dan (Eacus), Gentius, Feleus. 
Peleus specified as type. 
The name is founded on that of one of the species upon which the 
genus is founded, and therefore falls. It is also preoccupied through 
Pelias (Merr., Kept. 1820). See Entheus and Phareas. 

822. Pelia.* 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 30 : Lamis. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

1849. lb., ib. 229 : the same. 

Subsequently used by Felder, but the name is preoccupied in Crus- 
tacea (Bell, 1835). See Peria. 

823. Pelion.* 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : Thaumas (llnea). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
The name is preoccupied ; see the preceding. See also Adopsea. 

824. Pellicia. 
1870. Plotz in Herr.-Schaeff., Correspondenzbl. Zool.-min. Ver. 
Regensb. xxiv. 159: Macareus, Macarius, chloracephala 
(chlorocephala), dimidiatus (dimidiata), and several 
MS. species. 
Dimidiatus may be taken as the type. 

825. Penetes. 

1849. [Boisd, in] Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 58 : Pamphanis. 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
1851. Boisd. in Wcstw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 347 : the same. 
So used by Ilerrich-Schaeffer and Kirby. 

826. Pentoema. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 39 : Lisarda. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 281 : the same. 

Subsequently used by Felder and Kirby. The name is unpleasantly 
near to Penthimia (Germ., Hemipt. 1821). 



244 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

827. Pentila. 

1847. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 57 : undularis, and an un- 
named species ; * but undularis was undescribed until 
18GG, by Ilevvitsou. 

1851? Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 76: Zymna. 

1852. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diuru. Lep. 503 : undularis [still 
iuedited], Abraxas, AcrKa, and, with a query, Evauder. 

Abraxas and Acrzea are figured (pi. 77), but as species of Liptena, 
which Westwood at the time of the publication of the phites considered 
synonymous with Pentila. Zymna is placed in Miletus. 

18G6. Hewits., Exot. Butt. iii. 119: Mr. W. F. Kirby has kindly 
given me the following abstract of Hewitson's remarks, 
to which I have no personal access : — 

"Westwood in error used Liptena on pi. 77 (Gen. Diurn. Lep.), and 
then adopted the name Pentila, apphed by Boisduval to a part only, 
not knowing that Tingra was synonymous. Tingra was earlier, but 
uncharacterized, so Pentila must stand. Westwood's first species, 
undularis, was Boisduval's type of Pentila ; but, as Westwood's dissec- 
tions were made from tropicalis.t it should stand as Westwood's type. 
Pentila includes tropicalis and Peucetia." 

1868. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. iii. 13: uses it in the manner indicated 

by Hewitson. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 335 : the same. 

As will be seen from the above, the generic name, when first pro- 
posed, was founded upon undescribed species, and the characters of the 
genus .were also withheld. It was first recognizable when Westwood 
figured a species, Zymna, under that name ; but shortly afterward, and 
before any further use of the generic name, he confessed lumself in 
error in supposing this to belong to Boisduval's genus. The latter he 
now characterized (probably from an examination of the first three 
species on his list), and placed therein the species first referred to it 
by Boisduval (though still unpublished), together with others, one of 
them doubtless tlie unnamed species referred to tlie genus by Double- 
day. Still later, in ISGG, Hewitson described undularis; and since, 
according to Kirby, it is congeneric with Acraea, it may most properly 
be considered the type of this genus, which should date from 1852. 
See Liptena and Tingra. 

828. Peplia. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 20: Lamis, caricsB, Pelops (Pelope), Lysimon 

* Probably Abraxas or Acraaa. 

t This cannot be true, for Westwood remarks of tropicahs : " An insect 
which I have not had an opportunity of examining," 1. c. 604. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 245 

(Lisimcena) , Molpe, Cachnus (Damosna), INIenalcus 

(Menalcis), Mantus (Mante), Ilebrus (Pelidna), Ai-istus 

(Ariste). 

The group is synonymous with Desmozona and Heliochltcna, which 

fall before it. Carica; may be taken as the type. See also Nym- 

phidium. 

829. PEPLipnORUS. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 71 : Eucliylas, Cyanea (Cyanus). 
Cyanea may be taken as the type. 

830. Pereute. 
1867. Ilei-r.-Schaeff., Prodr. ii. 11: Callinice, Charops (marina), 
Autodjca (Autodyce), Telthusa, Leucodrosime (Leuco 
drosyne). 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 34, 40 : specifies Callinice as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 428 : follows Ilerrich-Schaeffer, but includes 

in it the genus Leodonta. 

831. PepvIA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 205 : Lamis. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
Proposed to supplant Pelia, of which Lamis was the type. 

832. Periciiares. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 60: Corydon, Triuitad, marmorata, Sanda- 

rac. Corydon is specified as type. 

833. Peridromia.* 

1836. Eoisd., Spec. g6n., pi. 7 C. : Arcthusa. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

Used similarly by Doubleday, Felder, and Ilerrich-Schaeffer. The 
name is preoccupied through Peridroma (Iliibn., Lep. 181G), wliich has 
the same derivation. See Ageronia. 

834. Periplacis. 

1837. Gey. in Iliibn., Zutr. v. 32 : Glaucoma. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

835. Peripltsia. 
1871. Gerst., Arch. f. Nat. xxxvii. i. 358: Leda. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1873. lb.. Faun. Sans. 370 : the same. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

836. Perisama. 
1849. Doubl, Gen. Diuru. Lep. 240: Bonplandii, Lebasii, D'Or- 
bignyi (D'Orbignii), Euriclea, Humboldtii, Oppelii, 
Philiuus ? and a MS. species. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 20: no species are cited. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 208 : follows Doubleday and adds other 
species. 
Bonplandii may be taken as the type. 

837. Perophthalma. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 455 : tenera. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

838. PerrhtbeIis. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 91 : Pyrrha (Eueidias), Medusa (Epimedusa). 

1867. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. ii. 10: employs it for a large number of 

species, including Pyrrha, but not Medusa. Pyrrha is 
therefore the type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 478: follows Ilerrich-Schaeffer. 

839. Petavia.* 

1828. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Lid. Co. 59, expl. pi. 2 : Petavius 

(Sakuni). 
This name falls, because derived from the species on which the genus 
is grounded. Moreover, we have nothing to do with it here, as it is not 
a butterfly. 

840. Petreus.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 110: Peleus (Thetys). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
The plate consists solely of the earlier stages of a butterfly, belong- 
ing to the Tribimi. The characters of the group are drawn up partly 
from the perfect insect (represented on pi. 59, and referred to Marius, 
while here to the subgenus Petreus, — a nymphalideous insect) and half 
from the caterpillar, belonging, as stated, to a totally difierent group ! 
The name therefore must be dropped altogether. Moreover, Petreus is 
one of the synonymes of Peleus. See also Athena. 

841. Ph^dra.* 

1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 123: TJietys (terricola, 

insularis). Sole species, and therefore type. 

1868. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 19: employs it for a large number 

of species, including Thetys. 
The name is taken from one of the synonymes of the species upon 
which the genus is grounded, and therefore it must be dropped. See 
Curetis, Anops, and Candalides. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 247 

842. Pe^DYiiA. 

18G1. Feld., Neues Lep. 31 : Heliodora, Sankara. 
Ileliodora may be taken as the type. 

843. Phalanta.* 

1829. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. lad. Co. expl. pi. 7: Phalanta. 
Sole species, and therefore type. 
As the name is founded upon that of the only species, it falls. See 
Atella. 

844. PlIANESSA.* 

1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. IMosc. x. SQ: proposed as a more correct spell- 
ing for Vanessa. 

845. PiiANUS. 

1816. IlUbn., Yerz. 114: vitreus. Sole species, and therefore type. 
Subsequently thus used by Butler and Herrich-Schaeffer. 

846. PlIAREAS.* 

1852. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 515: Eumelus, Dumerilii, Talaus, 
Busiris, Peleiis, Gentius, Procas, Pertinax, Cceleste, 
Loxus, Tertullianus, Jiilettus. Gentius and Peleus speci- 
fied as typical. 
1869. But!., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 283 : employs it for six species, in- 
cluding Gentius. 
Peleus being already type of Entheus, and Gentius being strictly 
congeneric, this name must give place to Entheus. See also Peleus. 

847. PiiASis. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 73: Thero (Salmoncus), Thysbe (Palmus, 

Nais). 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 176: employs it for Thero (Rumina), 
which thereby becomes type. 

848. PnELES. 

1858. Boisd. in Ilerr.-Schaeff., Exot. Schmctt. 77 : Heliconides. 
Sole species, and thei-efore type. 
Used in same sense by Bates and Kirby. 

849. PlIEMIADES. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 112: Ephesus, Edipus (Edippus), Ej^ictetus, 
Phineus, Angias. 
Phincus may be taken as the type. ' 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

850. PHILiETHRIA. 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 77: I. Hippona; II. Dido, Phje- 
rusa, Julia. 
Dido may be taken as the type. 

851. PniLOCALA. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Feronia, Amphinome, Orithya, Geno- 
veva, CEnone, cardui, Huntera, Atalanta (Atalantha), 
Levana (Prorsa, Levana), Poly nice, Ilithya. 

Felder (Neues Lep. 17) divides Ageronia into four sections, the 
second of whicli, unnamed, contains only Amphinome. This may be 
talcen as the type of Philocala. 

852. PniLOGNOJiA.* 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 112: Decius, Varanes. 
1850. Boisd. in Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 310: Decius, Varanes, 
Laodice, Lichas. The latter is figured. 
The name falls before Palla. 

853. Philonoma.* 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : proposes, without reason, to employ 
this name for Neptis. Of course it falls. 

854. PuiLOODUs. 

1840. Ramb., Faune Ent. Andal. ii. 308: Nostrodamus (Nostra- 
damus, Lefebvrei). Sole species, and therefore type. 

855. PlILEBODES. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 107: Pertinax, Saturnus. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 93: Pertinax is specified as the 
type. 

856. PlILOGRIS.* 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Melpomene. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
The name falls before Sunias (q. v.). 

857. Phocides. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 103: Palemon (cruentus), Alardus, Lisias 
(Lisiades). 
Lisias does not belong to the family in which this was placed by 
Iliibner, and therefore cwmot be taken as the type, Alardus belongs 
to Telegonus, and therefore Palemon must be taken as the type. See 
Dyscnius. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 249 

858. Pn(EBis. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 98 : Pliilea (Melanippe), Crocale (Ju<,mrtha), 

Argante (Cypris), Eubule (Eubule, Drya). 
1873. Butl., Lep. Exot. i. 155 : designates Argante (Cypris) as the 
type. 

859. PnoLisoRA. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Eev. 51 : Catullus, Ilayhurstii, Azteca. Catullus 
specified as type. 

8G0. PiiORCis.* 
1816. Hubn., Verz. 62: Scaja, Stygne (Epistj-gne), Gorge. 

The name falls before Erebia. See also Gorgo, Marica, Syngea, 
Epigea, and Oreina. 

861. Phrissura. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 37, 49 : Cynis. Sole species and desig- 
nated type. [See, however, additional note, p. 293.] 
862. Phryne.* 
1843. Herr.-Schaeff., Schmett. Eur. i. 90: Plmjne (Tircis). Sole 
species, and therefore tyjie. 
The name is taken from one of the synonymes of the species upon 
which the genus was founded, and therefore falls. It may also be pre- 
occupied in Ileptiles (Fitz. 1843). See Triphysa. 

863. PiiuLiA. 
1867. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. ii. 17: Nymphula. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

864. PlIYCANASSA. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 56 : Viator. Sole species and designated 
type. 

865. PlIYCIODES. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 29: Tharos (Cocyta), Liriope. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 181 : employs it for these and manv 

others. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 259 : uses it for Tharos only, which 

thereby becomes type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 25: specifies Tharos (Cocyta) as type. 

866. PlIYLLOPIIASIS.* 

1841. Blanch., Hist. Ins. iii. 4 17 : Galanthis (Galanthus), Varanes 
(Veranes). 
This name falls before Palla and Siderone. 
VOL. X. (2d 8. II.) 32 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

867. Physc^neura. 
1857. Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 32 : Panda. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

868. PlIYTALA. 

1847. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 20 : Elais. Sole species, 
but unpublished, and the genus uncharacterized. 

1852. Boisd. in "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 471 : Elais. The species 
figured. 
It is therefore type, and the genus should bear date 1852. 

869. PiCANOPTERYX. 

1857. Wallengr., Ehop. Caffr. 7 : I. Severina, Gidica (Doubledayi), 

Mesentina, Gidica (Westwoodi) ; II. Eriphia, Charina 
(Simana, alba). 

1858. lb., K. Vetensk. Acad. Forh. xv. 75 : I. Severina ; II. Eri- 

phia, Ada. 
The first section being synonymous witli Belenois, Eriphia may be 
taken as the type. See Ilerpaenia. 

870. PlERELLA. 

1851, TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 365 : Nereis, Rhea (Dindymene), 
Lena, Astyoche (Larymna), Dracontis (Lena, Dracoutis). 

1 864. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 55 : the same and others. 

1868. Butl, Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195; Cat. Sat. 103: specifies 
Nereis as type. 

871. PlERIS. 

1801. Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii. i. 152, 160: I. Apollo; 11. Polyx- 
ena, Machaon, Podalirius ; III. crataigi, brassicos, rapae, 
napi, sinapis, Daplidice, cardamines ; IV. rhamni, Palaeno, 
Hyale. 

1805. Latr., Sonn. Buff. xiv. Ill : restricts it to the third and fourth 
groups, specifying, of Schrank's species, rhamni, Hyale, 
crata?gi, lirassicae, napi, Daplidice, sinapis, cardamines. 

1809. lb.. Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. 203 : restricts it still further to 

Schrank's third section, and divides it thus : I. a, cratcegi, 
brassicse, Daplidice, cardamines, etc.; b, sinapis ; II. Crisia. 

1810. lb., Consid. 440 : specifies brassicas as type ; but that is already 

type of Mancipiura (q. v.). 
1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 727 : employs it for the swallow-tails. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 251 

181G. Lam., Hist. Nat. An. sans Vert. iv. 30 : brassicaj and others, 

including rapas. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 53 : employs it for species of another family. 
1827. Steph., III. Brit. Ent. Ilaust. i. 25: restricts it to cratxgi, but 

improperly. See Aporia. 
1831. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 3G0: also specifies crata?gi as type. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ir. 69: designates Belisama as type; but 

it is not even one of Schrank's species. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 434: employs it for all of Schrank's third 

group, excepting sinapis and cardamines, and this has 

been its general use ever since. 

Since all of the other species given bj' Schraiik must be taken as types 
of other genera (see Aporia, Mancipium, Pontia, Euchloe, and Leptidia), 
rapae may be taken as the type, as it is virtually included in the group 
by Latreille in 1809. This, too, would best accord with modern usage. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87 : also specifies cratsgi as type. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 37, 49 : considers Demophile (Amathonte) 

as type. This, he says, is the type of Boisduval's Pieris 
[it was simply his first species] ; Apollo, that of Schrank's ; 
Leucippe, that of Latreille and Godart; he adopts Demo- 
phile, because " we ought to have a genus Pieris in the 
Pierinte." But it was not mentioned by Schrank. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 41 : specifies brassicce as type, erroneously. 
See Mancipium, Ganoris, and Catophaga. 

872. PlERlTES* (fossil). 
1849. Herr, Insektenf. Oening. ii. 182: Freyeri. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Falls before Synchloe, with which it is synonymous. In 1840 a 
group of butterflies was named Pie'rites by Blanchard and Brullc; but 
it would hardly affect this, for the name is not Latin, but a Gallicized 
form of Latin. 

873. PiNDIS. 

1869. Feld., Verhandl. Zool. -hot. Gesellsch. "Wien. xix. 475 : squa- 

mistriga. Sole species, and therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 108: the same. 

874. PisoLA. 
18G5. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 785: Zennara. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 583 : the same. 



252 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

875. PiTHECOPS. 

1828. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. G6: Hylax. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 57 : the same. 

1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 18 : employs it for Argiolus. 

876. Planema. 

1848. Doubl., Gen. Diiirn. Lep. 140: L Lycoa, Gea (Jodutta, Car- 

mentis) ; 11. Gea, Euryta (Euryta, Umbra). 
Lycoa may be taken as the type. 

877. Plastingia. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 95 : flavescens, tessellata, Calli- 

neura, extrusa. Flavescens specified as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 619 : the same and others. 

878. Plebeius.* 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. App. 653: proposes to use this in the place 

of Cupido (in which he places most of the blues), as hav- 
ing been founded by Linne. Three hundred and twenty- 
nine species are included in it. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 60: says, wrongly, that Linne used this 

name in a generic sense, and that Cuvier, in 1799, fixed 
its type as Argus. See Introductory Remarks. 

879. Plesioneura.* 
1862. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 29 : curvifascia. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 620: employs it for this and others. 

The name is preoccupied in Diptera (Macq. 1855). See Celaenor- 
rhinus. 

880. Poanes. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 55 : Massasoit. Sole species and desig- 

nated type. 

881. PODALIRIDS.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 105 : Antiphates (Pompilius), Poda- 
Urius (EuropjEus). Podalirius specified as type. 
The name being founded upon that of one of its species, it falls. It 
is also preoccupied in Ilymenoptera (Latr. 1802). See Iphiclides. 

882. POLITES. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 57 : Peckius, Sabuleti. Peckius specified 
as type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 253 

883. POLTCIIROA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : Obrinus, Ancseus. 
Obrinus may be taken as the type. 

884. POLYCYMA.* 

18G2. Scott in Feld., Verh. ZoiiL-bot. Gesellsch. TVien. xii. 490: 
Felder says that Scott [iulitt. ?] proposes this for the 
species, whicla Felder there places in Ilolochila. Felder 
does not adopt the name, because it is not apjn'opriate for 
most of the species. See also Erina. 

885. POLYDORUS.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 101: Aristolochite (Thoas), Poly- 
dor us, Polytes (Polystes, Romulus). The last two speci- 
fied as types. 
As the name is founded upon that of one of the species included 
in it, it falls. Moreover, it is preoccupied through Polydora (Bosc, 
Worms, 1802). See Pachlioptera. 

886. POLYGONIA. 

181 G. Iliibn., Verz. 36: Egea (triangulum, i. album), c. aureum, 

Progne, c. album. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : employs it for c. album only, which 

therefore becomes type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 9 : specifies c. aureum as type, but incorrectly. 
See Grapta and Comma. 

887. POLYGONUS.* 
1822-26. Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Amyntas (lividus). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
The name is preoccupied through Polygona (Schura., Moll. 1817), 
and is very close to Iliibner's own Polygonia. See Acolastus. 

888. POLYOMIIATDS. 

1805. Latr., Sonn. Buff. xiv. 116: betulaj, quercus, pruni, Boeticus, 
rubi, Argus, Thetis (Adonis), Endymion (Meleager), 
Corydon, Arion, Areas (Erebus), Cyllarus, Semiargus 
(Acis), Argiolus, Alsus, Dorilas (Myopa), Phhicas, vir- 
gaureas. CorN'don alone is figured. 

1807. lb.. Gen. Crust, ct Ins. iv. 206 : divides the group into sec- 
tions, specifying a few, as follows : I. «, bctul£E, quercus, 
and others not in previous list ; h, Boeticus, Endymion 
(Meleager), rubi, Phla;as, virgaureaj; II. Argus, Cory- 
don, Alsus. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1810. lb., Consid. 440 : specifies betulte, quercus, Boeticus, and Argus 

as types. 
1817. lb. in Cuv., Regne An. iii. 553: specifies only Alexis (not 

given in the original list), as a species found in the 

environs of Paris, but refers to previous works for the 

species. 
1823. God., Encycl. moth. 595 : employs it for all Ephori, including 

all the above species. 
1823. lb., Tab. Meth. 46 : does the same. 
1828. riorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. lud. Co. G7 : restricts the name to 

the blues, but only uses it for new species. 

1828. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Ilaust. 83: uses it for Argiolus and 

many others, all blues, including Argus. 

1829. Boisd., Index, 10: follows Godart. 

1830. Meig., Eur. Schmett. ii. 1 : employs it for the same, excluding 

the hair-streaks. 
1832. Renn., Consp. 17: uses it for the blues only, specifying, of 

those given by Latreille in the first instance, Argus, Thetis 

(Adonis), Corydon, Arion, Semiargus (Acis), Argiolus, 

Alsus, and Dorylas. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. Ilk ii. 133 : uses it for Cassius, one of the 

blues. 
1832-33. Boisd., Icones, 43 : employs it for the coppers only. 
1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 391 : the same. 
1833-34. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Amer. Sept. 122: the same. 

1839. Ramb., Faune Ent. Andal. 264: places the blues here again. 

1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 88: specifies Arion as type. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 53 : follows Boisduval, as do most 

subsequent authors. 
1870. Kirb., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. x. 500 : thinks that Corydon 

should be taken as the type, because figured in the first 

instance by Latreille. 

Latreille's own action necessitates its restriction to tlie blues ; but 
Corj'don cannot be taken as the type, since it belongs to Ivusticus, 
established in 1810. Nor can Argus for the same reason. The only 
other type of blues mentioned by him in 1810 is Boeticus, for wliich 
Polyommatus must be retained. See also Lycajna. 

889. POLTSTICHTIS. 

1816. Hiibn,, Verz. 18: Fatima (Cerea), Zeanger (Zeangira), Man- 
dana (Mandane), Lucinda. 



OF AETS AND SCIENCES. 255 

1872. Sciuld., Syst. Rev. 28 : specifies Ciieneus as type. 

Erroneously, tliroutjh Hlibner's confounding of that species with the 
Fatima of Cramer. Hiibner's first species (No. 103) must be referred 
primarily to Cramer's Fatiraa, because he appends a mark of excla- 
mation or approval, after the reference to his figs. A. B., and of interro- 
gation or doubt to his C D., showing tliat Cramer's A. B. (Fatima) 
was in Hiibner's mind, unquestionably, the species referred to by his 
No. lOL). 

1873. Grote, Can. Ent. v. 144: corrects the identification of Scudder, 

and suggests that Fatima should be taken as the type. 
This, however, became in 1818 the type of Emesis ; so, too, Lucinda 
was placed, by another name, under Aphacitis, and must be taken as 
the type of that genus. Mandana belongs to Emesis, and consequently 
Zeanger must be taken as the type, and Polystichtis may replace 
Lemonias auct. nee Hlibn. (Tent.). See Calospila. 

890. POLYURA. 
1820. Billb., Enum, Ins. 79 : Jason (Jasius), Pyrrhus. 
Pyrrhus may be taken as the type. 

891. PONTIA. 

1807. Fabr., III. Mag. vi. 283: cratasgi, rapce, Daplidice, Elathea, 

beUa. 
1815. Leach, Edinb. Encycl. 716: cratajgi, brassicaj, rapaj, napi, car- 

damines, Daplidice, sinapis. 
181 G. Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv. 30 : employs it for cratnsgi, rapce, 

DapUdice, and otliers. 
181 G. IlUbn., Verz. 92: uses it for Hyparete, Eucharia, and Hierte 

of the same family. 
1824. Curtis, Brit. Ent. pi. 48: designates Daplidice as type, which 

must stand, although seldom used since in this manner. 
1827. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. i. 14: uses it for rapa; and others 

not in Fabricius's list, placing crata^gi and Daplidice 

elsewhere ; thus indicating rapaj as the type. 
1829. Horsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 138, 142: divides it into 

several named groups, and places in Pontia proper a 

number of species distantly allied to those of Fabricius. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 430: restricts it to several species of whites 

not mentioned by Fabricius. 
1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87 : specifies brassica) as the type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 24 : follows Boisduval. 
1847. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 40: does the same. 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1867. Herr.-SchaefF., Proclr. ii. 8 : the same. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Eut. i. 38, 50: designates crataegi as the type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 439 : follows Boisduval. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 66 : designates Xiphia (Nina) as type, 

through Boisduval in 1836. 
See Ganoris, Mancipium, and Synchloe. 

892. PORITIA * 

1865. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 775: Hewitsoni. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 409 : the same. 

The name is, correctly speaking, preoccupied, through PoriJe3 
(Lam., Pol. 1816). 

893. POTAMIS. 

1806. HUbn., Tent. 1 : Iris. Sole species, and therefore type. 
This name, never since used, must be restored. See Apatura. 

894. POTANTHUS. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 54: Omaha, Califomica. Omaha specified 

as type. 

895. Pkecis. 
1816. Hubn., Verz. 33 : Octavia, Dryope. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 209 : employs it for Octavia and 
others, to the exclusion of Dryope ; and the former there- 
fore becomes the type. 
It has since been used in the same sense by Felder, Butler, and 
Kirby. 

896. Prenes. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 60: Panoquin, Ocola, Hecebolus, sylvi- 
cola. Panoquin specified as type. 

897. Prepona. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 3 B.: Laertes (Demodice). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Since used in same sense by Doubleday, Westwood, Felder, and 
Kirby. 

898. Priamides. 
1816., Hiibn., Verz. 87: Torquatus (Caudiiis), Pompeius (Hippo- 
nous, Capys), Echelus (Echemon), Euristeus, ^Eneas 
(Marcius), Sesostris (TuUus), Anchises (Anchises, Bris- 
sonius, Pompejus), Hippason (Araosis, Hippason). 
Pompeius may be taken as the type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 257 

899. Prixceps. 

1806. Hiibn., Tent. 1 : Machaon. Sole species, and therefore type. 

See Amaryssus, Papilio. 

» 

900. Prioneris. 
1867. Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [3] iv. 383 : Thestylis (Thes- 
tylis, Seta), Sita, Clemauthe (Clemanthe, Berenice), 
Vollenliovii, Cornelia, Philonome, Autothisbe. 

1870. Bntl., Cist. Ent. i. 33 : specifies Thestylis as the type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 477: employs it fbr all of Wallace's species 

and others. 

901. Procris. 
1864. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 23 : no species mentioned. 

In his list, p. C6, this name is supphmted by Acca HUbn. and 
Procris and Urdaneta referred to it. These cannot be placed in Acca 
(q.v.) ; but the name of the genus, being the same as that of one of the 
species upon which it is founded, falls. It is also preoccupied in Lepi- 
doptera (Fabr., 1807). 

902. Prometheus.* 
1822-26. Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Gasmilus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
It is not a butterfly. 

903. Pronophila. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 60: Thelebe, Irmina, Phoronea. 

1850. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 66 : Tauropolis. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 357: the same with others. 

1807, Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xx. 266 ; Cat. Sat. 184 : speci- 

fies Thelebe as the type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 108: uses it in Butler's sense. 

904. Proteges. 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 105: Idas (Mercurius), Zestos, Exadeus, Ly- 
cidas (Lyciades), Clonius, Renaldus, Assaricus, Amphion. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 264: employs it for seven species, in- 

cluding Idas and Clonius (Clonias). 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 93: specifies Idas (Mercurius) as 

type. 

905. Protesilaus.* 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 93, 104: Pro^mVaws (Leilus), Bel- 
lerophon (Swainsonii). Protesilaus specified as type. 
The name, of course, falls, from being founded upon one of the species 
on which the genus is established. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) 33 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

906. Prothoe. 
1822-26. IlUbn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Franckii. Sole species, and 
therefore type. See CEnomaus. 
Used in same sense by Doubleday, Felder, and Kirby. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diiira. Lep. 266: employs it for this species 
only, and gives Autonema as a MS. generic syuonyme of 
Boisduval. 

907. Protogoniomorpha. 
1857. "Wallengr., Rhop. CafFr. 23: Anacardii. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 14: Sabina, Anacardii. 

Should Anacardii i)rove congeneric with Auguslina (as given by 
Kirby), this name will fall before Salamis. 

908. Protogonius.* 

1816. Illibn., Yerz. 100 : Hlppona (Fabius). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for this species only, by "Westwood, Felder, Butler, and Kirby; 
but the name falls before Consul. See also Fabius and Helicodes. 

909. Psalidopteris. 

1822. Hiibn., Zutr. ii. 17 : Thueydides (Nycha). Sole species, and 

therefore tj-pe. 
1837. Gey. in lb., v. 26 : Terambus (Lytiea). A very different 

insect. See Theope. 

910. PSELNA.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 77 : proposes, vpithout reason, to use this 
name for Ha3tera (q. v.). 

911. Pseud ACR^A. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 281 : Hirce, Euryta, Boisduvalii. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 229 : employs it for Ilirce, Boisduvalii, and 
others. 
Hirce may be taken as the type. See Panopea. 

912. PSEUDERGOLIS. 

1867. Feld., Eeise Novara, 404: Avesta. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

913. PSEUDODIPSAS. 

1860. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 243 : Eone. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1871. lOrb., Syn. Cat. 408 : the same and others. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 259 

914. PSEUDOLTC^NA. 

1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Fcirb. xv. 80: Marsyas. Sole 
species, and therefore type. See CEnomaus. 

915. PSEUDONYMPHA.* 

1857. "Wallengr., Rhop. CafFr. 31 : Hippia, Cassius (hyperbioides), 

Hyperbius, Narycia. 

1858. lb., K. Vet. Akad. Forb. xv. 79 : Hippia only, which therefore 

becomes type. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Montbl. Mag. iv. 194 ; Cat. Sat. 93 : specifies 
Hippia as the type. 
This name must fall before Melampias. 

916. PSEUDOPHELES.* 

1867. Bates, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [3] v. 544: Sericma. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
The name falls before Estlieraopsis, as pointed out by Bates himself. 

917. PSEUDOPONTIA.* 

1870 (Sept.). Plotz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxxi. 348: paradoxa (cala- 
barica). Sole species, and therefore type. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 57 : expresses the opinion that it is not a 

butterfly, but a moth. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 438 : employs it for the same. 

The name falls before Gonoplilebia. See also Globiceps. 

918. Pteronymia. 

1872. Butl.-Druce, Cist. Ent. i. 96: Aletta, Olyrilla, Notilla, fulvi- 

margo. Aetta specified as type. 

919. Pterourus.* 

1777. Scop., Introd. 433 : Paris and a great number of others destitute 
of the slightest distinguishing bond of union of any value. 
They are mostly butterflies whose hind wings are prolonged into a 
tail. Tliey are divided into two sections, but it would be dilRcult to 
Bay on what ground. The second section contains the following, among 
others: Hector [Papilionides], Leilus [Urania], pruni [Ephori], Proteus 
[Urbicola^], Butes [Vestales]. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 43 : specifies Troilus (one of the Scopoliau 
species) as type. See Euphoeades. 
But unreasonably and indefensibly, as the name tnust fall from the 
incongruity of the materials of which the genus is composed. 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

920. PTEUYGOSriDEA. 

1857. WalleogT., Eliop. Caffr. 53 : Flesus (Opbion), Motozi, Mokeesi, 

Sabadius (Nottoana). 

1858. lb., K. Yet. Akad. Forh. xv. 83: Flesus (Opbion) and a new 

species. Flesus therefore becomes type. 

921. Ptychaxdra. 
1861. Feld., Wien. Ent. Monatscbr. V. 304: Lorquiiiii. Sole species, 
and tberefore type, as stated by Butler and used by 
different autbors. 

922. Pttchopteryx.* 
1857. Wallengr., Rbop. Caffr. 17: suhfasciatus (Bobemanni). Sole 
species, and tberefore type, as stated by Butler. 
The name, however, is preoccupied in Diptera (Leach, 1818), and it 
was probably on tliis account that Wallengren subsequently proposed 
Tliespia (q.- v.) in its stead. The name falls before Teracolus. 

923. Pycina. 

1849, Boisd. in Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., j)!. 48 : Zamba. Sole 

species, and therefore type. 

1850. Boisd. in "Westw., ib. 305 : tlie same. 

Subsequently used by Felder and lurby. 

924. Pyra^ieis.* 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 33: Indica (Calliroe), Atalanta. 

1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 202 : employs tbe name for these 

and others, placing them in two sections, both of Hiibner's 
in tbe first. 

1850. Stepb., Cat. Brit. Lep. 11 : uses it for Atalanta only, which 

tberefore becomes tbe type. 
But Atalanta is already the type of Vanessa, and both species are 
strictly congeneric ; consequently this name falls. See also Ammi- 
ralis and Bassaris. 

925. Pykgds.* 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 109 : Syrichtus (Syrichtus, Oilus, Orcus), sidas, 
Tessellum, Alveus (cartbami), Fritilluni, malva3 (Alveo- 
lus), Sao (Sertorius), Yindex. 

1850. Stepb., Cat. Brit. Lep. 21, 262 : employs it for malvas (Alveo- 
lus), Syrichtus (Oileus), and alceoe (mal varum). 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 516: uses it for all of Hiibner's 
species and for others. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 261 

1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : follows Stephens. 

18G9. But!., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 280 : employs it for Sjrichtus, sidse, 

malvte, and others. 
1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 94: specifies Syrichtus as type. 

The name falls before Hesperia, all the species being strictly con- 
generic with noalvje, the type of that genus. See also Scelotlirix and 
Syrichtus. 

926. Ptristia. 

1870. Bull., Cist. Ent. i. 35, 44 : Proterpia. Sole species and 
designated type. 

927. PrPvOXiA. 

1816. Iliibn., Ycrz. 59 : Tithonus (Tithone), Ida, Xarica. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 7 : employs it for Tithonus only. 

In this he is followed by Kirby (List, 1858), and this may be con- 
sidered the type. 

928. PTRnnoGTKA. 

1816. Ilubn., Yerz. 43 : Tipha, Xea^rea. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 88 [Pyrrhajryra] : employs it for Tipha 

only, which thereby becomes U pe. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 252 : employs it for both of Hiib- 

ner's species and others. See also Cory bus. 
Subsequently employed similarly by Felder and Kirby. 

929. PrRunoPYGE. 

1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 103: Phidias (Bixas), h3rperici, Acastus (Phi- 
dias), Amyclas, Arinas. 

1852. Westw., Gen, Diurn. Lep. 508 [Pyrrhopyga] : employs it for 
fourteen species, including all but the last of Iliibner's, 
and adding others. 

1809. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 56 [Pyrrhopyga] : uses it for a still 
greater number of species, including all of Iliibner's. 

1869. Bull., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 267 [Pyrrhopyga] : refers to it aU of 

Iliibner's species excepting hyperici, and adds others. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 58 [Pyrrhopyga] : places here all 

of Iliibner's species excepting Arinas, and adds several 
others. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 584 : employs it for all of Hiibner's species 

and others. 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Eev. 4G [Pyrrhopyga] : specifies Phidias (Bixce) 
as type. 
Phidias, however, was taken in 1852 as type of Pachyrhopala. 
Hyperici may be selected as the typo of this genus. 

930. Ptrrhosticta. 
1872. Bull., Cist. Ent. i. 86: L^titia " and allies." Lostitia is then 
the type. 

931. Pythonides. 
1816. HUbn., Yerz. Ill; Jovianus, Cerialis (Cerberus), Lagia 

(Ilerennius). 
1827-37. Gey. in Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. iii. [Pithonides] : employs 
it for Cerialis (Orcus) and Lagia (Herennius). 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 285 : uses it for Jovianus, Cerialis 

(Cerealis), and another. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 97 : specifies Jovianus as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 626: uses it for all these species and others. 

Jovianus, which is generically distinct from Cerialis, cannot be taken 
as the type, because left out of the group by Geyer. Cerealis may be 
taken as the only one used by all authors. 

932. Ragadia. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 376: Crisia. Sole species, and 

therefore type, as stated and employed by Butler. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. .56: Crisia, Crisilda. 

933. Rhaphicera. 

1867. Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [3] xix. 164: Satricus, Moorei. 

1868. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. i v. 196 ; Cat. Sat. 158: specifies Sa- 

tricus as type. 

934. Rhetus.* 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. El. ii. 33: Butes (Crameri), Rhetus, Peri- 
ander. The last two are specified as types. 
Afterward employed by "Westwood (Gen. Diurn. Lep.), but the 
name must fall because based on that of one of the species upon which 
it was established. It is also preoccupied through Rhetia (Leach, Crust. 
1818). See Diorina. 

935. Rhinopalpa.* 

1860. "Teld,, Wien. Ent. INIonatschr. iv. 399: fulva. , Sole species, 

and therefore type. 

1861. lb., Neues Lep. 49 : Polynice, fulva. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 263 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 191 : the same and others. 

Mr. Kirby suggests to mo that this name is probably hybrid (/5I(T, 
palpus), and on that account ciianged by Felder hhiiself to Eurhinia 
(q.v.), just as he changed Teinopalpus to Teinoprosopus. 

936. Rhodocera. 
1829. Boisd.-LeC, 70 : Maerula, rhamni, Clorinde, Menippe (Leach- 

iana). 
1832. Dup., Pap. France, Dhirn. Suppl. 386: uses it for rhamni 

and Cleopatra. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 597 : employs it for the same species as 

Boisduval and LeConte, and for others. 
1840. Rami)., Faune Ent. Andal. ii. 256: employs it for Cleopatra 

only. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 37 : follows Boisduval's practice in 1836. 
1847. lb.. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 70 : suggests that it be used for the 
American species placed in that work under Gonepteryx, 
namely, Menippe (Leachiana), Clorinde, and Masrula of 
Boisduval and LeConte's list, and a few others. See 
also Amynthia. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 35 : specifies Menippe (Leachiana) as type. 
It cannot be taken for rhamni and allies, as Duponchel's action 
would require, because they were reserved for Colias as early as 1810. 
We may therefore follow Doubleday (1847), through Butler, in con- 
sidering Menippe as the type. 

937. Rhopalocampta. 

1857. Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 47 : Forestall (Florestan), Valmaran, 

Keithloa. 

1858. lb., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 81 : employs it for Forestan 

(Florestan) only, which thereby becomes the type. 

938. RiODixA. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 430 : Lysippus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Thus used, for this species only, by Bates and Kirby. See Erycina. 

939. RiPUEus.* 

1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 131 : Dasycephalus. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Tlie name will fall because derived from a spccjes of Drury's 
(Ripheus), with which this is directly compared. ^Moreover, it is prob- 
ably a fictitious insect, having the appearance of a Uranian to which 
clubbed antenna; have been artificially attaclied. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

940. RODINIA.* 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 430 : Jurgensenii (Jurgensenii, 
Montezuma), Calphurnia (Calpharuia), Periander, Au- 
lestes (Aulestes, Glaphyra), Paudama, Tedea, Meliboeus, 
(Meliboeus, Julia), Inca. 
The name must fall, because the species mentioned belong to the 
earlier genera Ancyluris, Diorina, Zeouia, and Euerycina. 

941. EOMALEOSOJIA. 

1840. Blanch., Hist. Ins. iii. 448 : Eleus. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
184i. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 99 : Eleus and others. 
1850. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 283 [Romalaeosoma] : the same in 

three sections. 

942. RUSALKIA. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 306 : Marathon, Ctesiphon. 

1873. lb., Zool. Pee. for 1871,304: Marathon given as type. SeeOreas. 

943. RusTicus. 

1806. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : Argyrognomon (Argus). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
See Lycreides, Scolitantides, and Polyommatus. 

944. Sagaritis. 

1822-26. HUbn., Exot. Schmett. ii : Orsis (Orseis). Sole species, 
and therefore type. See Myscelia. 

945. Sais. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 10: Rosalia, Pyrrha (Pamela). 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 57: employs it for Rosalia and some 

unnamed species. 
1848. lb.. Gen. Diurn. Lep. 131 : uses it for Rosalia and Cyrianassa. 
1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 527: specifies Rosalia as the type. 

946. Salacia.* 

1823. Hiibn., Zutr. ii. 25 : Phyllodoce. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
The name, liowever, is preoccupied in Polyps (Lamx. 1816). See 
Scada. 

947. Salamis. 

1833. Boisd., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 194: Augustina. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 84 : employs it for a large number of 

species, not including Augustina. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 265 

1849. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 211 : restricts it to half a dozen species, 

including Aiigiistina. 
1861. Fekl., Fam. Nymph. 13 : divides it into two sections, but does 

not specify Augustina in either, 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 192^: follows Doubleday (1849). 

See Protogoniomorpha. 

948. Salpinx. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 17: leucostictos (Nemertes). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

949. Sarota. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 424 : Dematria, Chrysus. 
Chrysus may be taken as the type. 

950. Sarromia.* 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 67 : ohsokta. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
This name falls before Lymanopoda, proposed at the same time, but 
subsequently united by their author under the latter name (q. v.). 

951. Satarupa. 
1865. Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 780 : Gopala, Sambara, 
Bhagava. 
Gopala may be taken as the type. 

952. Satyrites* (fossil). 

1872. Scudd., Rev. Mag. Zocil. 66 : Rei/nesii. Sole species, and 

therefore tj^pe. 
There is a name Satyrites, used for a subfamily group of butterflies 
by Blanchard and Brulle, in 1840 ; and therefore, in a memoir on fossil 
butterflies now in press, I have changed this name to Lethites. 

953. Satyrus.* 
1810. Latr., Consid. 440: Teucer, Phidippus, Sophoraj, Piera, Gala- 
thea^ Mtcra. 
These are all given as tj'pes only by Latrcille ; and it will be seen 
by comparison of the context that he intended to embrace within it all 
the Oreades. In a previous work (Sonnini's Buffon), he has placed all 
of these under his division Satyri of Nymphalis (q. v.) ; and in the list 
of names occurs Mrcra (given here as one of the types of Satyrus), 
but it bears there the name of Satyrus (le Satyre of old authors). The 
name, then, is based upon a synonj'me of one of the species included in 
the group (one of the specified types, indeed), and must therefore be 
dropped. Moreover, the name is preoccupied in Mammals (Tulp. 
1G92), and, through Satyra, in Diptera (Meig. 1803). 
VOL. X. ('2d s. II.* 34 



266 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

The subsequent history of the name is as follows : — 
1819. God., Encycl. meth. 4G0 : uses it for all the Satyrids. 
1822-23. Swains., Zool. 111. i. iii.pl. 159: specifies " Hyperanthus, 

Galathea, Semele, etc.," as types. If the name could 

stand, Galathea would then be type. See Agapetes. 
1832. Boisduval (loc. var.) : most of the European Satyrids. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 388 : specifies Semele and Fidia as 

representative. 
1858. Ramb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 25: employs it for Arethusa and other 

species not given by Latreille. 

1867. Butl., Entom. iii. 279 : says that the " Satyrus of Godart 

cannot be used, as the type of that genus was Constantia 

of Cramer, — a species previously used by Hubner as 

the type of his genus Ilipio." 

Here are three errors, two of them based on the untenable theory 

that an author's first species must be taken as his type, which would 

be an ex post facto rule of great undesirabiUty, and having no proper 

authority. 

1868. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194; Cat. Sat. 59 : specifies Aetata 

as type. 
1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. 91 : erroneously refers the name back to 
Fabricius [Satyri], and says that Latreille (1805) fixed 
Megasra as the type. 

954. SCADA. 

187 L Earb., Syn. Cat. 23: Phyllodoce, Leptalina, Reckia, Phile- 
mon, Ethica, Theaphia, Xanthina, Zibia. 
As this name is proposed to supplant Salacia (qt-v.), Phyllodoce 
must be taken as the type. See Oleria. 

955. SCALIDONEURA. 

1871. Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 250 : Hermina. Sole species 
and designated type. 

956. SCELOTHRIX.* ' 

1858. Ramb., Cat. Lep. Andal. i. Go : carthami, Alveus, serratulaj, 
onopordi, Fritillum, malvaj (Alveolus, melotis), Galactites, 
cynaroe, carlina?, cirsii, cacalias, centaurete. 
The name falls before Ilesperia. See also Pyrgus and Syrichtus. 
. 957. SCHCENIS. 

1816. Iliibn., Vcrz. 28 : Cinxia (Delia, Cinxia). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used in same manner by Stephens (1850) and Kirby (1858). See 
also Mellicta. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 267 

958. SCOLITANTIDES.* 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 68: Battus, Ilylas. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 167 : the same. 

The name faUs before Rusticus. See also Lycasides. 

959. ScoPTES.* 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. Ill: Alphoeus (Alpheus), Protumnus [also 
given ia same work under Thestor!), Crotopus [also 
given in same work under Eusalasia!]. 
1866. Buth, Cat. Fabr. Lep. 176: employs it for Alphasus (Alpheus) 
only. 
This, however, cannot he taken as type, as it had been previously 
selected as the type of Capys. Protumnus has been chosen as the type 
of Thestor, and Crotopus belongs to a distinct subfamily. Owing to 
the somewhat heterogeneous nature of the group, and tlie fact that two 
out of the three species were also placed elsewhere by Hubner, the 
name may as well be dropped. See Capys. 

960. SCUDDERIA.* 

1873 (Aug.). Grote, Can. Ent. v. 144: Antiopa. Sole species and 
designated type. 
The name falls before Papilio, previously restricted to this species, 
and is preoccupied in Ortlioptera (Stal, April, 1873). 

961. Semelia. 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 64: Vibilia, Aliphera. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 35 : claims the name, mentioning only 

Vibilia, which therefore becomes the type. 
The name is very close to Semele (Schum., Moll. 1817). 

962. Semicaudati.* 

1860. Koch, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxi. 231 : Nireus, and a number of 
other swallow-tails, having no sort of distinctive character 
but the comparative length of their tails. 

The formation of tlie name is itself objectionable, and the appearance 
of such divisions as the semicaudati, caudati, and ecaudati of this 
author, loss than half a generation ago, is an extraordinary case of the 
" survival" of the spirit of medieval science. The group is mentioned 
here only to make this historical sketch complete. 

963. Semome-sia. 
1851. Wcstw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 455: Croesus, geminus. 
Croesus may be taken as the type. 



268 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

964. Sericinus. 

1851. Westw., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [n. s.] i. 173 : Telamon. Sole 

species and designated type. 

1852. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 530 : the same. 

1856. Gray, Pap. Brit. Mus. 78 ; Cat. Pap. 93 : Telamon and others. 

965. Setabis. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 19 : Myrtis, Maionis [both species in- 
edited], 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 450: Myrtis, Serica. 

Both are described, and the latter figured. It would be better, how- 
ever, to designate Myrtis as tlie type, as one of those specified by 
Doubleday. Mseonis, however, may be the same as Serica, as it ap- 
pears to be hitherto only a MS. name. 

966. Setodocis. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78 : Philomela (Lisandra), Dejanira, Mineus, 
Peribsea (Periboea), Phedra, Hesione (Ocirrhoe). 
Peribaea may be taken as the type. 

967. SiCYONlA. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 13: Rhea (Sara, Thamar), Apseudes, Erato 
(Doris). 
Rhea may be taken as the type. See Laparus. 

968. SiDERONE. 
1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Ide. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 4 B. : the same. 

Subsequently used in the same sense by Doubleday, Westwood, 
Felder, Kirby, etc. See also Phyllophasis. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 51 : employs it for Mars and Isidora, pre- 
viously placed in the same group by other authors, and 
quotes the genus as his own! yet, in 1836, he uses it for 
the sole species placed in it by Hiibner ! 

969. SU'ROETA. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Trayja, Sole species, and 
therefore type. See Amphirene. 

970. SiRONIA. 

1823. Hiibn., Zutr. ii. 31 : TitMa. Sole species, and therefore type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 269 

971. SiSEME. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 4G2 : Aristoteles, Electryo. 
18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 433: the same and others. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 309 : the same. 

Electryo, having been figured by Westwood, may be taken as the 
type. 

972. SiTiiON. 

181 G. Hubn., Verz. 77: Nedymond, Melampus. 

18GG. Trim., Rhop. Afr. Austr. 232: employs it for Anta (Batikeli), 

allied to Melampus. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 411 : employs it for Nedymond and its allies, 

excluding Melampus. 

Melampus was taken in 1863 by Hewitson to form his Deudorix, 
and therefore we may follow Kirby in considering Nedymond as 
the type. 

973. Smyrna. 

1822-2G. Hubn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Blomfildia (Blorafildii). Sole 

species, and therefoi-e type. 
1827-37. Gey. in liiibn., Exot. Schmett. iii. : uses it for Karvvinskii. 
Westwood, Felder, and Kirby use it for botli these species. 

974. SospiTA. 

1861. Ilewits., Exot. Butt. ii. 91: Tantalus, Savitri (Susa), Neophron, 

Segecia, Fylla, Echerius, Tepahi. 
18G1. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Exot. Schmett. pt. 37: employs it for the first 
four of the above. 
Fylla, being generically distinct from Echerius the type of Abisara, 
may be selected to represent this genus. 

975. Spathilepia. 
1870. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 57: Tamyroides, Clonius, Cellus. 
.Clonius specified as type. 
Used by Kirby in the same sense. 

976. Speyeria. 
1872. Scmld., Syst. Rev. 23 : Idalia. Sole species and designated 
type. 

977. Sph^nogona. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 35, 44: Estriva, bogotana. Ectriva is 
specified as type ; it wa^ undoscribed until later, but 
before further use of the generic name. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

978. Spilgthyrus.* 
1832. Dup., Pap. France, Diurn. Suppl. 415 : alcene (malvce), altbeae 

(altliea), lavateras. 
1858. Ramb., Cat. Lep. Andal. 79 : employs it for the same. 
1861. Staud., Cat. 14: the same. 

The name falls before Urbanus. See also Carcliarodus. 

979. Spindasis. 
1857. Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 45: natalensis (Masilikazi). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

980. Spioniades. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 114: Artemides, Alcmon (Almon), Psecas. 
Artemides may be taken as the type. 

981. Stalachtis. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 27: Phlegia, Euterpe, Phoedusa, Calliope. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 19: the same and others. 

1848. lb., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 133 : uses it for Calliope, Euterpe, 

Susanna, and Phlegia. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 466 : employs it for eight species, 

including all of Ilubner's. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 457 : extends it still fur- 
ther, employing also the Iliibnerian species. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 333 : uses it in the same sense. 

Phlegia may be selected as the type of this genus, which is distinct 
from Kerias. 

982. Steroma. 
1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 400: Bega. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

983. Steropes.* 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 167 : picta, ornata, lacchus (Jacchus). 
1836. lb., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B. : uses it for Paloemon (Pauiscus) only. 
As the name is derived from that of one of the species intended, and 

afterwards employed, by Boisduval as one of this group, it must fall. 

It is also preoccupied in Coleoptera (Stev. 180G). See Carterocephalus 

and Pamphila. 

984. Sterosis.* 

1865. Boisd. in Feld., Reise Novara, 219 : BrassoUs (robusta). Solo 
species, and therefore type. 
The name falls before Liphyra (q. v.). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 271 

985. Stibociiioxa. 

1868. ButL, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 614: Nicea, Coresia. Coresia 

specified as type. 

98G. SxiCnOPHTHALMA. 

1862. FekL, Wien. Ent. Mouatschr. vi. 27 : Howqua. Sole species, 
and therefore type. 

987. Stomyles. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 55 : textor. Sole species and designated 
type. 

988. Stiiyjion. 

1816. HUbn., Verz. 74: Titus (Mopsus), pruni, betulas, w. album, 

ilicis (esculi, ilicis), acacias, Melinus, spini (Lyuccus, 

spini), Beon, Pan, Acis (Mars). 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 16,260: places here betulaj, pruni, 

w. album, Titus, spini, and ilicis. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop.: uses it for only pruni, w. album, spini, 

and ilicis ; but Thecla was restricted much earlier. 

1869. ButL, Cat. Fabr. Lep. 190: employs it (sensu stricto) for 

eight species, including, of liiibner's, Titus, pruni, 
w. album, ilicis, and spini. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 32 : specifies Titus as type, which follows 
from the action of Stephens and Butler. 

989. Stygnus.* 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 489 : humilis. Sole species, and therefore 
type, as specified by Butler. 
But the name is preoccupied in Arachnids (Pert}', 1830). 

990. SUNIAS. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 12: Phyllis, Melpomene (Lucia, Melpomene, 
Callicopis). 

Melpomene may be taken as the type. See also Phlogris and 
Laparus. 

991. Symbrentiiia. 
1816. Hubn,,Verz. 43: Hyppoclus (Hippocle). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 180: the same and others. 
See Laogona. 



272 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

992. Stjietha.* 
1828. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 59, expl. pi. 2 : Si/methus 

(Pandu). Sole species, and therefore type. 
1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 72 [SimcBthus] : Rex, Paudu. 

Tlie name, being derived from that of the species upon whicli it is 
grounded, falls. It is also preoccupied in Crustacea (Kafin. 1814). See 
Gerydus and Miletus. 

993. Stmmachia. 
1816. Hubn.,Verz. 2G: Helius (Ochima), Probetor (Probetrix). 
1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 82 : not knowing that this name was 
already in use, proposes to employ it in place of Hesperia. 
1847. DoubL, List Br. Mus. 8 : employs it for Probetor and others. 
1851, Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 444: makes a simiJar but more 

extended use of it. 
1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 437 : extends it still 

further in the same sense. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 313: the same. 
Probetor is therefore the type. 

994. Syjimaciilas. 

1820-21. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : nigrina. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1821. lb.. Index, 5 : nigrina. 

995. Stjiph^dra. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 40: JEropus (iErope), Thyelia (Alcaudra), 

Evelina, Lysandra. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 105: [Symphedra]. Employs it for 

Thyelia and unnamed species only. 
1850. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 294: Thyelia, JEropus. 

Used in same sense by subsequent authors. Thyelia becomes the 
type, through Doubleday's action. 

996. Stxalpe.* 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 36: Thirza (Euryale). Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Falls before Aneha. See also Clothilda. 

997. Synapta.* 

1865. Feld., Reise Novara, 294: Anon. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
The name is preoccupied in Echinoderms (Eschsch. 1829). 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 273 

998. Synargis. 
1816. Ilubn., Verz. 18: Phyleus (Phyllea), Orestes (Orestessa), 
Soranus (Sorane), Tytia, Odites (Oditis). 
Tytia may be taken as the type. 

999. Syxchloe. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 94: Callidice, Autodice, Hellica, Chlorldice, 

Daplidice, Belemia (Beleaiia, Glauce). 
1844. [Boisd. in] Doubl., List Br. Mus. 7G: employs this name for 

Erodyle, Janais, Narva (Bonplaudi), and some MS. 

species, all of which have nothing whatever to do with 

Iliibuer's group. See Chlosyne. 
1848. Boisd. in ib., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 185: follows the same course. 
1858. Kirb., List Brit. Rhop. : first restores the Iliibuerian sense 

by employing it for Daplidice, which would therefore 

become the type, but that it had already been taken as 

the type of Pontia. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 10: follows Doubleday. 
1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 38, 51 : specifies Callidice as type, but 

wrongly. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 42 : docs the same, with equal error. 

All the species but Celemia having been taken either for Pontia or 
Tatocheila (q. v.), this becomes the type. 

1000. Syxgea.* 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 62: Arachne (Pronoe, Pitho), Alecto. 

The name falls before Erebia. See also Gorgo, Marica, Phorcis, 
Epigea, and Oreina. 

1001. Synpalamides.* 
1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Mimon. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
It is not a bultorfly. 

1002. Syriciitus.* 
1832-33. Boisd., Icones, 230 : Proto, Sao (Therapne), Orbifera 
(Orbifer), cacaliae (alveus), Fritillum, Tesseilum, malvte 
(malvae. Alveolus), alceae (alceae, malvarum), lavatera;, 
sidas, carthami, althea?. 
The name of tlie group is derived from that of one of the species 
■which Boisduval must liave intended to include in it, and therefore 
falls. The first four only arc described in the Icones : tlic others are 
only alluded to in his remarks on the genus. See Uesperia, Pyrgus, 
and Scelothrix. 
VOL. X. (2d 8. II.) 35 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1003. Syrmatia. 

181G. Ilubii., Verz. 23: Dorilas (Nyx), llhetus (Rhete), Aulestcs 

(x\ulestis), Choriueus (Chorinea). 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 4: employs the name for Dorilas only, 

which therefore becomes the type. 
1851. TTestw., Gen. Diiirn. Lcp. 426: the same. 
Bates and Kirby use it similarly. Seu Dorila. 

1004. Tachtris. 

18G7. "Wall., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [3] iv. SGI : I. Ilombronii, 
Cardena, Nerissa, Lyncida (Lynceola, Lyncida, formosaua, 
Andrea, Hippo), Enarete, Scyllara (Scyllaria), Ada (Ada, 
Clavis), abnormis, Panda (Panda, Nathalis), Paulina, 
Albina (Rouxii), Psyche, Galathea, Ega, Urania, Agave 
(Jacquinotii), Alope, Amarella, Acrisa, Leptis ; II. Ce- 
lestina, Clementina, Athama, Cynisca, Eumelis, Panthea, 
Cycinna, Corinna, Liberia, Eliada, Placidia, Fatime 
(Fatima) ; III. Nero (Nero, Domitia), Galba, Zarinda, 
bournensis, Zamboanga, Asterope, Ithome, Nephele ; 
IV. Pandione, Lucasii, Indra, Phoebe, Nephele (Zamora), 
Lalage (Lahigo) ; V. Polisina, iEgis (Illana). 

1871. Kirb., Syu. Cat. 4G3 : uses it in the same sense. 
Nero may be taken as the type. See Trigonia. 

1005. T^NARIS. 

1816. Hiibn., A^erz. 53: Urania (.Jaira, Nysa). Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1865. Herr.-Schaeflf., Prodr. 71 : employs it for the same and many 

others. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 117 [Tenaris*]: follows Ilerricb-Schaeffer. 
See also Drusilla. 

1006. Tagiades. 
1816. Hiibn., Yerz. 108: Japetus, Paulinus. 

1869. ButL, Cat. Fabr. Lcp. 283: employs it for four species, in- 
cluding none of Hiibuer's. 

* The word is given in four different ways in Hiibner's Verzeichniss : Tae- 
nares and its Gennan equivalent Tanaren at the head of the group, where the 
names are always given in the plural forna ; Tenaris, in connection with tho 
species ; and Taenaris, in the index. This, as well as the derivation of the word, 
shows that Tenaris was simply a misprint. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 275 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 99 : specifies Japetus as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. G34: employs it for both Hiibuer's specie 

and many others. 

1007. Talides. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 106 : Athenion, Corbulo (obscurus), Sergestus 
(Sinois), Broteas, Astylos, Celtenus, Ramusis. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 2G6 : employs it for Nicias, Phocus, 

Sergestus (Sinon), and Sebaldus, the third of them only 
one of riubner's, and therefore type. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 93: specifies Athenion as type, 

but wrongly ; his own previous action having determined 
that Sergestus must be the type, the two species not being 
strictly congeneric. 

1008. Tamyris. 

1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. i. 33 : Zeleucus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

Subsequently, in the same work, he added other species. See 
Pachyrhopala. 

1009. Tanaecia. 

1868. Butl., Proc. Zobl. Soc. Lond. 610: Calliphorus, Valmikis, 

Apsarasa, Varuiia (supercilia), Varuna, Aruna, Lutala, 
Trigerta, Pelea, Pulasara (Pulasara, Vikrama), Violaria. 
Pulasara is specified as type. 

1871. Krb., Syn. Cat. 257 : uses it similarly. 

1010. Tanaoptera.* 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 79 : Amalthea (Amathea), Europa, Led;i 
(Leda, Banksii). 

Tiiis name may be allowed to drop, from the heterogeneous nature 
of the contents of the genus. 

1011. Tapina.* 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81 : proposes this name, for no reason, to 
supplant Emesis. lie gives no species. 

1012. Taractrocera. 

1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 279 : Maevius. Sole species, and there- 

fore type, as specified later by Butler, and as used by 
Kirby. 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1013. Tatocheila. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 38, 51 : Autodice (Autodyce). Sole species 

and designated type. 
Is tliis genus distinct from Pontia ■? See also Synchloe. 

1014 Taxila. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 2 : Haquinus (Drui:)adi), Orphna, 
Echerius, and some MS. species. 

1851. "VVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 421 : employs it for all the above 
and others. 

18G1. Ilewits., Exot. Butt. ii. 91 : uses it for the first two of Double- 
day's species and a number of others. 

18G7. Bates, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 414: employs it for Orphna, 
Haquinus (Drupadi), and others. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 285 : follows Bates. 

Haquinus may be taken as the type. 

1015. Taygetis. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 55 : Virgilia, Andromeda (Thamyra, Andromeda), 

Mermeria, Celia. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 355 : Mermeria is mentioned as "a 
good type of the genus," and all of liiibner's other species 
are included in it, besides others. 
1865. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. 58: the same. 

1867. Butl., Ent. Month!. Mag. iv. 1D4: specifies Virgilia as type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 108: uses it for all of Iliibuer's species and 
others. 
On account of Westwood's statement, Mermeria should be con- 
sidered the type. 

1016. Teinopalpus.* 

1843. Hope, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xix. 131 : imperialis. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
Since used for same species by Doubleday, Gray, and Kirby, but 
properly objected to by Eelder as of mongrel origin. See Teinopro- 
Eopus. 

1017. Teinoprosopus. 

1864. Feld., Spec. Lep. 1 : imperialis. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
1867. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. ii. 19 : the same. 

Proposed by Felder to replace Teinopalpus (q. v.). " Pristinura 
nomen vox hybrida." 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 277 

1018. Telchin.* 
1825. Iliibn., Cat. Franck, 85 : Llcus and three MS. species. Licus 

is therefore type. 
It is given with the authority Cramer, and is doubtless meant for 
Castnia Lycas of Verlorens's Catalogue of Cramer. 

As it is not a butterlly, we have nothing to do witii it in this place. 

1019. TKLcniNiA. 
181G. Iliibn , Verz. 27: violas (Cephea), Medea (Saronis), Cajcilia 
(Bendis), Zetes (Mycenasa, Zetis), Horta, Serena, vesta 
(Issoria). 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 141 ; employs it for a number of spe- 
cies, including, of IlUbner's, viola3, Caicilia, and Serena. 
1857. Ilorsf -Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 135 : adopt Doubleday's 
restriction, and employ it for violfE only. 
This would therefore become tlie type, were it not probable that it 
is strictly congeneric with Horta, tlie type of Acra;a. Serena may be 
chosen. 

1020. Telegonus. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 104: Talus, Phocus (Phocus, Morpheus), Ana- 

phus, Midas. 
18G9. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 2G1 : employs it for all of the above, 
excepting Phocus, and for others. 

1870. lb., Ent. Monthl. Mag. vii. 50: specifies Talus as the type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 572 : uses it in this sense. 

Talus, however, cannot be taken as the type, as it belongs to Tliy- 
mele, whose type was earher established. Anaphus may be taken as 
the type. 

1021. Telemiades. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz, 106: Avitus, Epicalus, Salatis. 
1869. Ilerr.-SchaefT., Prodr. iii. 68 : employs it for Avitus and others. 
Avitus therefore becomes the type. 

1022. Telesto.* 
1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 164: Pcronii (Pcrronii). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1862. Feld., Verb. Zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien. xii. 491: describes 

three new species, recognizing Peronii as the type. 
1869, Ilerr.-Schaetf., Prodr. iii. 53: without indication of species. 
1870 Butl., Ent. Monthl. :Mag. vii. 96: specifies Dirpha as type, of 
course erroneously. 
The name is preoccupied in Polyps (Lamx. 1812) and Crustacea 
(Rafin. 1814). See Hesperilla. 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1023. Temenis. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 34: Minerva (Arcadia), Laotlioe (Merione), 

Erigone, Hedonia, Laomedia. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 204: employs it for Sylphis, pulchra, and 
Laothoe. 
Laothoe should therefore be considered as the type. 

1024. Teracolus. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. 115 : subfasciatus. Sole species, 
and therefore type, as stated by Butler. 
Used in same sense by Kirby. See also Ptychopteryx and Thespia. 

1025. Terias. 
1820-21. Swains., Zool. 111. i. 22 : Elvina, Hecabe. Hecabe desig- 
nated as type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 651 : employs it for the two above-mentioned 
and more than fifty others. 
It is similarly used by Doubleday and others. 
1870. But!., Cist. Ent. i. 35, 44: specifies Hecabe as the type. 

1026. Terinos.* 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 5 B. : Clarissa. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

Used in same sense by Doubleday, Felder, and Kirby, but the name 
is preoccupied through Terina (Iliibn., Lep. 181G). 

1027. Tetragonus.* 

1832. Gey. in Hiibn., Zutr. iv. 17 : Catamitus. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

According toWestwood (Gen. Diurn. Lep. 504), it is nota butterfly. 
The name is in any case preoccupied through Tetragonum (Quoy et 
Gaim. 1824) and Tetragona (lb. 1827). 

1028. Tetrapiilebia. 

1867. Feld., Reise Novara, 487: Germainii. Sole species, and 
therefore type, as stated by Butler. 

1029. TuAis. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 283 : Polyxena (Hypsipyle). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
1810. Latr., Consid. 440 : specifies Rumina as type, but wrongly. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 279 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 726: employs it for Polyxena. 

1816. Uiibn., Verz. 89 : employs it for both of the above. 

It is subsequently used in the same sense by all authors, but is pre- 
occupied ia Mollusca (Bolt. 1798). Seo Zerynthia and Eugraphis. 

1030. THALER0PI3. 

1871. Stand., Cat. Eur. Lep. 17. Ionia. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. App. 649 : the same. 

1031. TlIANAOS. 

1832-33 (either late in 1832 or early in 1833). Boisd., Icon. 240: 

IMarloyi, Tages. 
1833-34 (probably 1834 or late iu 1833). Boisd.-LeC, Lep. AmcSr. 

Se[)t., pi. 65, 66 : Juvenalis, Brizo. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 9 B. : Tages. 
1870. But!., Ent. Mouthl. Mag. vii. 97 : specifies Juvenalis as type, 

but wrongly. 
Tages should be taken as the type. See Nisoniades and Erynnis. 

1032. TnARors. 

1816. Ilubn., Verz. 109: Menander, Thersander. [Placed by 

Iliibner among the Urbicolaj !] 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 14: employs it for Menander only, which 

thereby becomes the type. 
Used in this same sense by subsequent authors. 

1033. TlIAUMANTIS. 

1822-26. Ilubn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Odana (Oda). Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 8 B. : the same. 

Subsequently used by Douljleday, Westwood, and Kirby in the 
eatne sense. 

1034. TiiECLA. 

1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 286 : betula?, spini, quercus. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 721 : employs it for the same and others. 

1815. Leach, Edinb. Encycl. 718: uses it for betulaj, pruui (generi- 

cally identical with spini), and quercus. 

1821-22. Swains., Zool. 111. i. ii. 69 : specifies betulaj as type. 

Subsequent authors have employed it for the whole body of Euro- 
pean hair-streaks. 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1829. Curtis, Brit. Eot. pi. 264: designates betulte as the type. 

1840. Westw., Geu. Sjn. 88: does the same. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. P^nt. i. GG: says that betuloe is type, through 
Duluian in 181 G; but Dalman specifies betulse as type of 
Zepliyrus, of which Aurotis was a section. 

1870. ffirb., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ZooL x. 499: says "it would 

be far more convenient and quite justifiable" to take 
spini as type. 
1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 29 : sjjecifies spini as type. 

Betulac cannot be taken as the type on account of the foundation in 
1816 of Dalraan's Zephyrus, and consequently spini must be chosen. 

1035. TlIEMONE. 

1851. "Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 4G1 : Pais. Sole species in the 
typical section and designated type of the genus. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 425 : employs it for Pais 

and two others. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 299 : uses it in a similar manner. 

1036. Theope. 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. G: Lagus, Terambus, and some MS. 

species. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 439 : employs it for several species, 
including only Terambus (Lyttea, Terambus) of Double- 
day's, which thereby becomes the type. 
1858. Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 234: uses it (as new) for 
Himachala, an entirely different insect. See Anadebis. 

1868. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 453 : uses it for Terambus 

and very many others. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 330: uses it for many species, including 
Terambus. 
See also Psalidopteris. 

1037. Theorema. 
1865. Ilewits., 111. Diurn. Lep. 69 : Eumenia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Used for same species by Kirby. 

1038. Thereus. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 79 : Lausus. Sole species, and therefore type. 

1039. TlIERITAS. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 80 : imperialis (Venus), Mavors. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 281 

1869. Butl.,'Cat. Fabr. Lcp. 194: employs it for Actaeon, with 
which he places imperialis (Venus). 

This, therefore, wouhl become the type, but imperialis became in 
1832 the type of Areas, leaving Mavors for the tyj)e of this group. 

1010. TUKKIUS.* 

1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. lo : Apollo, IMnesonjme. 

The name is preoccupied through i'neiia (llUbu, Lep. 181G) and 
Thereus (lb.). See Parnassius and Durilis. 

1041. TlIESPIA.* 

1858. Wallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 77 : Bohemcmni. Sole 
species, and therefore type. 

Doubtless intended by Wallengren to supplant his Ptychopteryx 
(preoccupied), but it falls before Teracolus. 

1042. TUESTIAS.* 

1836. Boisd., Spec. gen. 590 : Pyrene (^nippe, Pirene), Marianne, 
VoUenhovii (Bailee), Venilia. 

Subsequently used by Doubleday and others, but the name is pre- 
occupied through Thestius (Ilubn., Lep. 1816). See Ixias. 

1043. Thestius. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 78: Gabriela (Gabrielis), Pholeus (Pholeus, 
Archytes), Hyacinthus, Ematheon, Lycabas (Lycabus). 
Pholeus may be taken as the type. 

1044. TlIESTOK. 

1810. Iliibn., Verz. 73: Protumnus (Petalus), Ballus. 

1857. Led., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. i. 32 : employs it for Ballus and 

others, not including Protumnus. 
1861. Stand., Cat. Lep. Eur. 3: follows Lederer. 

18G9. Bull., Cat. P^abr. Lep. 174: uses it for Protumnus and othi'r.'i. 
187 L Kirb., Syn. Cat. 345: follows Lederer. 

Ballus, however, cannot be taken as the type, since previously to 
Lederer's action it had been selected as the type of Tomares (q. v.) ; we 
must therefore follow Butler in considering Protumnus as the type. 

1045. TlllSBE. 
1816. Iliibn., Verz. 24: Irenaea (Bclisc). Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
Since used similarly by Bales and Kirby. 
VOL. X. (2d s. it.) 36 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF TUE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1046. Thoas * 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. 121: Ilectoriaes (Lysithous), Thoas, 
Agavus, (Agavius), Pompeiiis (Paris), Aiidrogeos (An- 
drogeus). Thoas and Agavus are specified as typical. 

Since the name is founded on one of the typical species, it must 
drop. See Ileraclides. 

1047. Thorybes. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 50 : Bathyllus, Pylades, Nevada. Bathyl- 
lus specified as type. 

1048. Thracides. 
1816. nubn., Verz. 105: Phidon, Salms. 

1869. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. iii. 44: employs the name, but without 

specification. Kirby (Syn. Cat. 624) credits him with 
placing here some of the species of Butleria Kirby, none 
of which are older than 1852. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 578: uses it for both of Ilubner's species and 
for others, 
riiidon may be taken as the type. 

1049. Threnodes.* 

1870. Hewits., Equat. Lep. iv. 58 : Ccenoides. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 306: the same. 

The name is preoccupied in Lepidoptera (Duponch. 1844.). See 
Nahida. 

1050. TllYCA. 

1858. TVallengr., K. Vet. Akad. Forh. xv. 76 : I. Hyparete, Egialea ; 

II. Aganippe. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 205 : employs it for the species in Wal- 

lengren's first section, and for others. 

But these must be placed in Delias, and consequently Aganippe 
must be taken as the type. 

1051. Tiiyjiele. 

18t)7. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 287: I. Proteus, Mercatus, Apastus 
(Acastus) ; II. Thrax, Gnetus, Bixa3 ; III. Morpheus 
(Aracinthus), malvaj, Tages. 

1815. Oken, Lchrb. i. 758: employs it for Proteus, Mercatus, Apas- 
tus (Acastus), and others not mentioned by Fabricius. 



OP ARTS AND SCIENCES. 283 

1828. Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Ilaiist. i. 97 : restricts it to malvae, Tages, 

and others not mentioned by Fabric! us. 
18-40. Westw., Gen. Syn. 88 : specifies Tages as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 569: Proteus and its immediate allies. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 47: specifies Proteus as type. 

Proteus, however, cannot be taken as type ; for in 1832 it became 
the type of Eiidamus. By Oken's action the genus must be restricted 
to Fabricius's first section after the removal of Proteus, and Mercatus 
may be taken as the type. 

1052. TlIYMELICUS. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 113: Actaeon, Pustula, Vibex, Thaumas (Venula, 
linea), lineola (Virgula),yitellius, Numitor (Puer). 

1850. Staph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 22: employs it for Actfcon and Thau- 
mas (linea). 

1858. lOrb., List Brit. Rhop. [Thymelinus] : u.ses it for Actaeon 
only. 

1869. Herr.-Schaeff., Pi-odr. iii. 44: uses it without specification of 

members. 

1870. Butl., Ent. Jilonthl. Mag. vii. 94: specifies Actajon as type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 609 : uses it in this sense. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 54: specifies Actaeon as type. 

Thaumas, however, is the type of Adopaea, and Actaeon and lineola 
belong to the same genus. Vitellius belongs to Atrytone (1872), and 
Numitor is the type of Ancyloxypha (1862). Pustula and Vibex 
remain: these belong to Hedone (1872), which may fall before thia 
name. Vibex may be taken as the type. 

1053. TnYRiDiA. 

1816. Hubn., Verz. 9 : Themisto, Psidii, Ilione. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 59 : cmplo3's it for the same and others. 
1847. lb., Gen. Dium. Lep. 117: uses it for Psidii and ^desia. 
1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. 519: employs it for Pytho (Ino) 

only. 
1864. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 47: employs it for several, including 

only Psidii of Hiibner's list. 

1870. Boisd., Lep. Gnat. 30 : employs it for Eupompe, etc. See his 

Xanthocleis for this group. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 19: uses it for Themisto, Psidii, and others 

not of Hiibner's list. 
Psidii becomes the type by Doublcday's action in 1847. 



284 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1054. TllYSONOTIS. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 20: Danis, Athemon (Athemocna). 
1860. Fekl., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. iv. 224: employs it (as new?) 
for Inops and others related to Danis. 
Atlieraon is the type of Eubagis, and Danis may be taken as the 
type. See Damis and Danis. 

1055. TlGUIDIA. 

1816. Hiibn., Verz. 40: Aceste, Dirce, Zingha. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 03 : employs it for Aceste only, which 
therefore becomes the type. 
See Callizona. 

1056. TniETES. 

?1836. Boisd. in Cuv., Regne An. Ed. Disc, ii., pi. 130 [Tymetes] : 
Merops. Sole species, and therefore type. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. i. 87: Coresia, Themistocles, Chiron, 
Orsilochus, Corinna, and some unpublished species. 

1850. TVestw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 262: employs it for all the above 

and for others. 
1870. Boisd., Lep. Guat. 44: uses it for Corinna and others. 

1057. TiNGUA. 

1847. Boisd., Voy. Deleg. ii. 589 : tropicalis. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1852. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 504 : refers to it as probably allied 

to Pentila. 
1857. Wallengr, Rhop. Caffr. 46: the same. 
See Pentila and Liptena. 

1058. TrsrpiioNE. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 60: Abeona (Zeliude), Pasiphae (Pasyphae), 

Tulbaghia (Tulbachii). 
1822-26. lb., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Hercyna. 
1844. Doubl., List Br, Mus. 150: Hercyna. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 370 : the same. 

1865. Herr.-SchaefF., Prodr. i. Gl : Hercyna and another, 

1868. Bull., Ent. Monthl. M:>g. iv. 194: specifies Hercyna as type, 

1868. lb., Cat. Sat. 71: the same; but refers the genus to Westwood, 

and adds in a note that Abeona is the tjqje of Hiibnor's 

Tisiphone. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 285 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 46: Ilercyna. He queries which of Iliib- 

ner's references is the older, but there can be little doubt 

upon tlie point, thanks to Hiibner's Index. 

Hercyna cannot be taken as the type, as it is not congeneric with 

any of tlie species upon whicii the genus was founded, nor is it one of 

the original list. Tuibaghia became t^'pe of Menoris in 1844. Pasi- 

phae belongs to Pyronia (18UJ), so fliat Abeona must be taken as tlie 

type. See also lleterouympba and Ilipparchioides. 

1059. Tirii()UL:A. 
1847 (June). Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep., pi. 14: Bonplandi, Harmo- 

nia (Megara). 
1847 (Aug.). lb., ib. 99: I. Ilnniboldtii. Bonplandi, Pavonii : II. 

Tiene, Ilarmonia (Megara), Tyro. 
1862. Bates, Linn. Trans, xxiii. J52 : employs it for Ilarmonia and 

a new species. 
1864. Ilerr.-Scliaeff., Prodr. i. 50: uses it much as Doubleday did. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. o5 : the same. 

Ilarmonia is the type through Bates. 

1060. T.-\ii:togli:xe. 
1862. Fcld., Wien. Ent. Monatschr. vi. 235. Esthema. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 
Used in same way by Bates, Ilerrich-Schacffer, and Kirby. See 
Brachyglenis. 

1061. T.aiolus. 
1816. Iliibn.. Yerz. 76: Mcgacles, Sylvanus (Syllidus), Crolus, 

Echion. Eurytulus. 
1869. Butl., Cat. Fabr. Lep. 187 : employs it for Echion and several 
others not specified by Iliibner. 
Fx'hion therefore becomes the type. 

1062. TOMAUES. 

1839. Ramb., Faune Ent. Andal. ii. 261: Ballus. Sole species, and 

therefore 'type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 345 [Thomares] : given as a .synonyme of 

Thestor (q. v.). 

1063. TuAPEZITKS. 

1816. Iliibn., Vcrz. 112: Symmomus. Sole species, and therefore 

type, as stated by Butler. 
1869. Ilerr.-SchaefF., Prodr. iii.49: used without mention of species. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 621 : used in same sense. 



286 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1064. Trepsichrois. 
1816. HiibQ., Verz. 16: Midamus (Basilissa, Mulcibra, Midamis), 
Alca, Eleusiiia. 
Midamus may be taken as the type. 

1065. Triciionis. 

1865. Ilewits., 111. Diurn. Lep. G8 : Theanus. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 427 : the same. 

1066. Trigoxia.* 

1837. Gey. in Hiibn., Zutr. v. 21 : Nero. Sole species, and therefore 
type. 
The name is preoccupied in Molluslcs (Brug. 1791). See Tacliyris. 

1067. Triopades. 
1816. Hiibn., Verz. 73: Orus, Eupalemon. 

Eupalemon may be taken as the type. This species is wrongly 
placed by Kirby among the Urbicolse. 

1068. Triphysa. 

1850. ZelL, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 308 : Dohrnii, Phryne (Tircis). 
1861. Staud., Cat. 14: employs it for Phryne and Sunbecca. 
1865. Herr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. GO: the same. 

1867. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 194 : designates Phryne as the 
type. 
Is this name loo close to Triphassa (Hiibn., Lep. 18IG) to be used? 
See Phryne. 

1069. Tritonia.* 

1832. Gey. in Hiibn., Zutr. iv. 25 : Eupompe. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
This name is preoccupied in Mollusks (Cuv. 1798). 

1070. Troides. 
1816. Hiibn.. Verz. 88 : Priamus, Helena (Amphimedon, Helena), 
Pompeus (Astenous, Mino.s), Amphrysus, Hippolytus 
(Remus). 
Helena may be taken as the type. See Amphrisius. 

1071. Troii.idf.s. 
1822-26. Hubn., Exot. Schmett. ii : Torquatus (Tros). Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore type. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 287 

1072. Tyanitis* 
1847. Doubl., List Br. Mas. 19: Tenes. Sole species, but unde- 
scribed. 
The genus also being undescribcd, the name falls. 

1073. Udranomia.* 

1870. Butl., Eut. Monthl. Mag. vii. 58 : Orciniis. Sole species, and 

designated type. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 579 : the same. 

See Ilydrajnomia, whicli supplants it on orthographic grounds. 

1074. Uraneis. 

18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 411 : hyalina. Sole spe- 
cies, and therefore ty[)e. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 333 : the same. 

Is this name too close to Urania (Fabr., Lep. 1807). 

1075. Urba>'us. 

180G. Iliibn., Tent. 1 : alceae (malvas).* Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 
See Carcharodus, Erynnis, and Spilothyrus. 

1076. Utica. 
1865. Ilewits., 111. Diuru. Lep. 56: Onyclia. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 
Thus used by Kirby. Preoccupied in Crustacea (White-Ad. 1817). 

1077. Valeria.* 
1829. Ilorsf., Descr. Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. 139 : Valeria. Solo 
species, and therefore type. 
The name, being founded on that of the sole species, falls. 

1078. Vanessa. 
1807. Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 281 : lo, Atalanta, urtica;, Levana. 
1810. Latr., Consid. 440: specifies Atalanta as type. 

1815. Oken, Lehrb. i. 729 : employs it for Arsinoe and others. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 33: uses it for Huntera (Ilunteri), Carye, and 

cardui. 
1825. Curtis, Brit. Ent., pi. 96: designates Atalanta as type. 



* Kirby (Syn. Cat. G12) strangely gives Iliibner's nialvic (Eur. Schmett. 
450-1) as a synonyme of sidx, and not of alcea;. 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADExAIY 

1837. Sodoffsk., Bull. Mo.^c. x. 80 : proposes to clumge the spelling 

of the name to Phanessa. 
1840. Westw., Gen. Syn. 87 : specifics lo as type. 
1848. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lcp. 98: lo, urticae, and otliers. 
1861. Feld., Neues Lep. 12: divides the group into five sections, 

placing urticce iu the third and lo in the fifth. 

1871. Kirb., Syu. Cat. 181 : employs it in Doubleday's sense, but 

subsequently (p. G48) treats it as a synonyme of Nym- 
phalis. 

1872. Scudd., Syst. Rev. 21 : specifies Atalanta as type. 

1872. Crotch, Cist. Ent. i. GO: would drop the name as synonymous 

with Nymphalis. 
See Ammiralis, Bassaris, Pyrameis, and Cynthia. 

1079. ViCTORINA. 

1840. Blanch., Hist. Ins. iii. 447 : Steneles. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

Subsec[uently used in same sense by Doubleday, Westwood, Felder, 
and Kirby. 

1080. Vila. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 217: Azeca, Mariana, Emilia, Stahxchtoides. 

1873. lb., Zodl. Rec. for 1871, 3G0: specifies Azeca as type, that 

having been the tyjDC of Olina, which this name is in- 
tended to supplant. 

1081. Xanthidia. 
1829-30. Boisd.-LeC, Lep. Am. Sept. 48: Delia, jucunda, Lisa, 
Nicippe. 

1832. Boisd., Voy. Astrol. 59: Smilax, puella. 

1833. lb., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. ii. 1G8; Brigitta (pulchella) and 

others. 

Delia, with which jucunda and Lisa are strictly congeneric, was 
taken in 1870 as type of Eurema (181G), so that Nicippe must be taken 
as the type of Xanthidia. See also Aboeis. 

1082. Xantiiocleis. 
1870. . Boisd., L'ip. Guat. 30 : Psidii, Themisto, iSdesia (Odessa), 
and a MS. species. 

Psidii and Themisto are congeneric but distinct from iEdesia ; and 
■ Psidii is already the type of Thyridia ; so that iEdesia must be taken 
as the type. See Aprotopos. 



OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 289 

1083. Xantiiot.'ENia. 

1857. Westw., Trans. Erit. Soc. Lond. [n. s.] iv. 187: Busiris. 

Sole species, and therefore type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cut. 238 : the same. 

1084. Xknandra. 

186;3. Feld., Reise Novara, 304 : Heliodes. Sole species, and there- 
fore t}pe. 

18G7. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 427 : Helius, Heliodes 
(Helioides). 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 301 : the same. 

1085. Xenica 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. ii. 387 : Achanta, Klugii (Singa), 
Abeona, Lathoniella. 

1858. JIorsf.-Moore, Cat. Lep. E. Ind. Co. i. 228 : employ it for 

Achanta only, which thereby becomes the type. 
18G7. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iii. 279 : Abeona and Joanna. 
1868. lb.. Cat. Sat. 70: sf)ecifies Abeona as type. See Hetero- 

nympha. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 76: uses it for some of Westwood's species 

and others, not including either of Butler's. 
See Geitoneura. 

108G. XoiS. 
1865. Hewits., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. [3] ii. 282 : Sesara. Sole 

species, and therefore type, as stated by Butler and used 

by Kirby. 

1087. YpnxniMA. 
1816. Hiibn., Vcrz. 63: Cassus (Casse), Ilippia, Manto, Tyudarus 

(Ck'o), Philomela. 
1844. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 138: employs it for Philomela and 

others. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 304: makes a similar use of it, so 

that Philomela becomes the type. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. I'JG: designates Lisandra (Philo- 
mela) as type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 1)4: makes a similar use of it. 

1088. Zahetis. 
1816. Iliibn., Yerz. 49: Isidora, Bisaltide (Polybete). 

Isidora may lie taken as tlie type. 
VOL. X. (2d s. II.) ■ 37 



290 PnOCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1089. Zegris. 
1836. Ramb., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. v. 581 : Euplieme. Sole species, 

and therefore type. 
1836. BoiscL, Spec. g6n. 552 : employs it for the same and others. 
1847. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 52 : the same. 

1870. Butl., Cist. Ent. i. 39, 54: specifies Eupheme as the type. 

1090. Zelima. 
1807, Fabr., 111. Mag. vi. 279 : Pylades. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 81: proposes, without reason, to supplant 

tliis name by Alius (q. v.). 

1091. Zelot^a. 

1867. Bates, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. ix. 381 : Phasma, dubia, 
Achroa. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 310: the same. 

Phasma may be taken as the type. 

1092. Zemeros. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 5 C. : Flegyas (Allica). Sole species, 
and therefore type. 
Used in same sense by subsequent authors. 

1093. Zeonia. 
1832-33. Swains., Zool. 111. ii. Ill: Faunus (Heliconides). Sole 
species, and therefore type. 
Used in same sense by Boisduval, Doubleday, "Westwood, Bates, and 
Kirby. See Ghorinea and llodinia. 

1094. Zephyrus. 
1-816. Dalm., Vetensk. Acad. Ilandl. xxxvii. 62, 90: all the species 

quoted under Aurotis, Ileodes, and Cyaniris (q. v.), these 

being the three sections into which he divides this group. 

Betulss is specified as the type. 
1820. Dalm. in Billb., Enum. Ins. 80 [Zephyrius] : employs it for 

betulce and others. 
1832. Gray, Griff. An. Kingd., pi. 58 [Zephyrius] : uses it for Amor. 
1842-44. Guer., Iconogr. Regne An. 490, pi. 81 [Zephyrius] : the 

same. 



OF AKTS AND SCIENCES. 291 

1853. Wallengr., Rliop. Scuud. 178: employs it for qucrcus and 
betaliTi. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 402: uses it for the same and others. 

See Aurotis. 

1095. Zerene. 

181G. Iliibn., Verz. 97 : Croccus (Ilyale), Eratc, Ilyale (Paloeno), 

Phicomeno, Cesonia. 
1850. Steph., Cat. Brit. Lep. 3 [Xerene] : employs it for Ilyale 

alone ; but this cannot be taken as the type, since it had 

previously been made the type of Eurymus. See also 

Colotis. 
18G2. Scudd., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. ix. 103: employs it for 

Cesonia (Coesonia) and Eurydice, wherefore Cesonia is 

type. 

1872. lb., Syst. Rev. 38 : specifics Cesonia (Ccesonia) as the type. 

1872. Grote, Can. Ent. iv. 215: says that this group, being synony- 
mous with Colias, cannot be used, and that IMcgouostoma 
(q. V.) should be employed ; but it is not strictly synony- 
mous with what Grote means by Colias. 

1096. Zeritis. 

1836. Boisd., Spec, gen., pi. 6 C. : Neriene. Sole species, and there- 
fore type. 

1847. Doubl., List Br. Mus. 56: employs it for the allied species 
Tliero, and for others, but not for Nericne. 

1849. Luc, Expl. Alg. Zool. iii., pi. 1 : Siphax, a wholly different 
insect. See Cigarilis. 

1852. Westw., Gen. Diurii. Lep. 500: uses it for fourteen species, 
among them Neriene and Thero. 

1«57. Wallengr., Rhop. Caffr. 46 [Zerythis] : uses it for Protumnus 
(Basuta). 
The name is very close to Zaretis (Iliibn., Lep. 1816). 

1097. Zeuyntiiia. 

1816. Ochs., Schmett. Eur. iv. 29: Polyxena, Rumina (Mcdcsica.ste, 

Rumina). 
1822—26. Iliibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : uses it for Ogina, an entirely 

different insect. 
1835, Ilcrr.-Schaeff., Nomencl. Ent. i. 4 : employs it in Ochsen- 

hcimer's sense. 



29:2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

1837. SodofFsk., Bull. Mosc. x. 82: suggests that it should be spelled 
Zerinthia. 
Polyxena may be taken as type. See also Eugraphis and Tliais. 

1098. Zi:sius. 
1816. Hubn., Verz. 77 : Phceomallus, Chrysomallus. 
Chrysomallus may be taken as llie type. 

1099. Zetiiera. 

1861. Boisd. in Feld., Neues Lep. 2G: Pimplea. Sole species, and 

therefore type, as stated by Butlei*. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 45 : employs it in the same sense. 
See Amechania. 

1100. Zetides. 

1816. Iliibn., Verz. 85: Sarpedon, Eurypylus, ^gistus. 
Sarpedon may be taken as the type. See Chlorisses. 

1101. Zi:uxiDiA. 

1822-26. Hiibn., Exot. Schmett. ii. : Luxerii. Sole species, and 
therefore type. 

1844. Doubl., List Br. Mui^. 114: the same. 

1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 327: the same and others. "West- 
wood gives Aglaura Boi.sd. IMS. as a generic synonyme. 

1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 115 : uses it in the same sense. 

1102. ZiP^Tis. 

1863.. Ilewits., Exot. Butt. iii. 100: Saitis, Scylax. 
1865. Ilerr.-Schaeff., Prodr. i. 63 : the same. 

1868. Butl., Ent. Mouthl. Mag. iv. 194 ; Cat. Sat. 98 : specifies Saitis 
as type. 

1103. ZONAGA. 

1820. Billb., Enum. Ins. 78: Biblis. Sole species, and therefore 

type. 
See Didonis and Biblis. 

1104. ZopnoESSA. 
1849. Doubl., Gen. Diurn. Lep. pi. 61: Sura. Sole species, and 

therefore type. 
1851. Westw., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 362 : the same. 
1868. Butl., Ent. Monthl. Mag. iv. 195; Cat. Sat. 108: specifies 

Sura as type. 
1871. Kirb., Syn. Cat. 40: employs it in the same sense. 



OF ARTS AXD SCIENCES. 



293 



Tlie following species of butterflies, mentioned as tj'pes of genera, were un- 
published at the time of the issue of Kirby's Catalogue : — 

Poweshiek, of Oarisma (Scudd.), 1872 
[oolitica, Piilasontina (Bull. ), 1S73.] 
Leda, Periplysia (Gerst.), 1871 

Aetta, Pteronyinia{Butl.-Druce), 1872. 

Reynesii, Satyrites (ScudJ.). 1S71!. 
Ilermina, Scalidoneura (Butl ), 1871. 



Tbaidina, of Armandia (Blanch.), 1871. 
tractipeunis, Arteurotia(Butl.-Druce), 1872. 
Lidderdali, Bhutanitis (Atkins.). 1873. 
Juventus, Callimormus (Scudd)., 1872. 
Leonata, Drucina (Butl.), 1872. 
Darwinia, Mimacraea (Bull.), 1872. 



ADDENDA. — (March, 1875.) 

46. Ai.ciDis. — This name was introduced by an accidental error. Liris is not 

a butterfly, and was not given as one by Felder. 
152. AuroTis. — Add: lbo5. Vill.-Ciuc-n , Lop. Eur. 36: employs it for robori.^ 
(Evippus). — 18G2. Kirb., Man. Eur. Butt. 87 : roboris. 

256 Ws. CaoRTOBics.* 

1859. [Gucn. in] Doubl , List Brit. Lep. Ed. 2 : Typhon (Davus), Paniphilus. 
Fide Kirby in litt. Falls before Coenonynipha. 

302. CupiDO. — Add: 1870. Kirb., Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. x. 499 : says, "The 
true t_ype appears to be Alsus;" because, he writes me in e.xjjlanation, 
" Schrank confounds Alsus ami Argiades as sexes under his Pucr," liie 
name I'uer being presumed to have suggested Cupido ; but this seems to 
me rather strained. 

305. Cyanikis. — Add: 1835. Vill.-Gue'n., Lep. Eur. 19: employ it for Cory- 
don, Argiolus, and others. 

492. HiEMOxiDES. — ?ilr. Kirby writes me: ''Cramer figures two species as 
Cronis, one a Castnian, tiie otiier a Pierid. Boisduval and I take this 
to be a case of mimicry ; but Butler considers both figures to represent 
the Castnian." 

510. Heliochhoma. — 1870. Butl., Lep. Exot. 70: says, "The genus Helio- 
chroma will, 1 think, have to sink into a section of Hesperocharis. I can 
find no ccinsiant structural characters by ".vliicli to separate it." 

581. Ithomia. — With regard to the text of Iliibner's Samndung exotischer 
Schmotterlinge, it may be remarked that the twelve species described in 
it are all figured in tiie first volume, and all referred to in the Index of 
244 plates. And inasmuch as in every case of alteration of the specific 
name, the Index is followed, we may conclude the text of the Sammlung 
to be posterior to, or most probably nearly synchronous with, the Index, 
namely, 18-2. The genus in wiiich Dianasa is placed is spelled Eieides, 
as in the Index, and not Eueides as in the Verzcichni.-s ; and further 
proof that it is later than the Verzeichniss is found in the entire nbsenie 
of one of the species (and its generic name) from the latter, — llelio- 
chlaena Leucosia. 

633. LiMicNiTis. — Mr. Kirby writes me that the Camilla of early British authors 
is not that of Fabricius, and cannot therefore be taken as type. But inas- 
much as it was a strictly congeneric insect (Sibylla), the question is not 
atlected by this fact. 

755 6(s. NvsiriiA.* 

1838-0. Krause, Faun. Thur., wrapper parts 4, 5 : proposes it to include all tlie 
European Nymphales. Mr. Kirby, from whom this intormation is de- 
rived, appears sometimes to write it Xympha, sometimes Nvniplia;. The 
latter form would be inadmissible in a generic name, and is also given 
earlier by Borkhausen (Eur. Schmett., Einl. xvii.) as a name for the whole 
family. "Mr. Kirby adds: "On p. 85, po/>iili is clearly, ns I think, imli- 
cated as type." In that case the name woidd fall be'ore N:ij:i8. 

861. Purissi-ra'. — Add: 1871. Bull., Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 171: says the 
insect upon which he intended to found this genus was .ZGgis (lllana), 
which at the time he wrongly identified as Cynis.