Skip to main content
This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.
It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.
Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.
Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.
We also ask that you:
+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.
+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.
+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.
+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.
About Google Book Search
Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web
at |http : //books . google . com/
[n tl)« jjnctcnt (Jup
6' ' ^
Book of tbe if^aQcants
300tb Ennivetsatig of tbe JounMno
of (Sluebec, tbe Hncient Capital
JttlB Uwentietb to Ubirtg first,
Tlineteen f)un^re^ and Biabt
ISSUED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
NATIONAL BATTLEFIELDS COMMISSION
AND DONB INTO A BOOK BT THS
CAMBRroOE CORPORATION LIMITBD
Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada^ by the
Cambridge Corporation^ Limited^ in the office of the
Minister of Agriculture^ in the year 1908.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.G.
Representing His Majesty the King at the
Attendite ad petram unde excisi estis.
IN pride, but not with boasting, Canada turns towards
the rock of Quebec. Three centuries ago twenty-eight
men landed beneath Cape Diamond amid the solemn
quiet of the wilderness. They were Champlain and
his little company of followers. Next spring, when the ice
drifted seawards, eight only remained alive. It was a pro-
phecy of the sacrifices that are exacted in the making of a
nation. But the deeds of the founders have not been forgot-
ten. Canada, remembering the virtues and the valour which
are her best heritage, leams from her past how dangers should
be faced and how duties should be welcomed.
At the moment when Columbus returned from his mar-
vellous first voyage, Spain and France were about to enter
upon their bitter contest for European supremacy. The New
World had been discovered by an Italian navigator sailing
from the port of Palos in a Spanish barque. But when once
America was disclosed to the eyes of Europe, each nation with
ships and sailors began to dream of lands lying beyond the
sunset. If Spain enjoyed an advantage at the start, no state
could preserve a monopoly of westward exploration.
France was well prepared to pursue by sea a rivalry that
had begun on land. Stretching from Picardy to the Pyrenees
her long coast line upon the Atlantic furnished her with
mariners of unsurpassed boldness and training. It was a
Norman noble, Jean de B6thencourt, who had discovered
and conquered the Canaries. Breton folk-lore preserves a
record of ancient voyages to the great bank. The Basques
and the Rochellois have traditions of a pre-Columbian land-
fall on the shore of Labrador. At Dieppe they believe that
Brazil was discovered in 1488 by Captain Cousin. Saihng
from Honfleur, Paulmier de Gonneville is thought by some to
have discovered Madagascar in 1503.
4 Historical Introduction
Whether fact or fable, these legends prove the activity
of French seamen in an age when Columbus and Cabot were
pointing Europe the way to a new hemisphere. Sprung from
the Vikings, each Norman of Dieppe and Honfleur sailed out
on the swan's path with a zest and confidence which he owed
to his ancestry. Farther south the Bretons had for centuries
been driven to the sea by the very law of their existence. Even
below the mouth of the Loire there were great harbours: La
Rochelle, the stronghold of the Huguenots; Brouage, the home
of Champlain, and Bayonne, the chief depot of the Basque
Under orders from Francis I, Verazzano entered the
Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1524. But it is with Jacques Cartier,
ten years later, that the French began their serious and per-
sistent exploration of Canada. Thus St. Malo becomes linked
inseparably with the annals of that great stream which
Cartier followed from the Gulf to the Lachine rapids. Of his
three voyages the second is by far the most important.
Leaving St. Malo on May 19th, 1535, Cartier, after a stormy
voyage, made the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which he had already
traversed in the previous season. Entering the river when
summer was almost over, he did not reach Cape Diamond
until the middle of September. Here, at the confluence of
the St. Lawrence and the St. Charles, stood the Indian village
of Stadacone. It was the residence of Donnacona, whom
Cartier styles 'Hhe lord of Canada."
Sixty leagues above Stadacon^ was Hochelaga, occupy-
ing some part of the sloping land that lies between Mount
Royal and the St. Lawrence. Having arrived at Hochelaga,
more than a thousand natives presented themselves before
Cartier — men, women and children who gave him a hearty
reception; ''showing marvellous joy ; for the men in one
band danced, the women on their side and the children
on the other, the which brought us store of fish and of their
bread made of coarse millet, which they cast into our boats in
a way that it seemed as if it tumbled from the air."
Conducted by these hospitable natives to the summit of
Mount Royal, Cartier ''had sight and observance of the
country for more than thirty leagues round about it." Re-
turning to Stadacon6 on the 11th of October, he passed there
a miserable winter, during which a large part of his band per-
ished from scurvy. In July, 1536, he was welcomed back
to St. Malo as one who had risen from the dead.
There is a gap of seventy-three years between the time
when Cartier first saw Stadacon6 and the actual founding of
Quebec. During this interval three attempts were made to
establish a colony on the St. Lawrence, but each proved tragic
failures. In 1542 the Sieur de Roberval landed at Cap Rouge
with a miscellaneous gathering of peasants and convicts. In
1600 Pierre Chauvin, captain of the king's guard at Dieppe,
left sixteen unfortunates to winter at Tadoussac. Death and
disaster were the result, for in neither case had the expedition
been well planned.
The difficulties which then attended the creation of a
colony add lustre to the name of Samuel de Champlain. The
Canadian climate was not balmy, and in the absence of gold
mines few inducements could be offered to the immigrant.
The sole wealth of the country was its furs, but the monopoly
of trade given to persons who were favoured by the court cut
off others from all hope of profit. Anyone could see that it
was a stern task to clear the Laurentian wilderness.
Fighting against continued, incessant obstacles, Cham-
plain became the foimderof New France. Before he took to
the sea he had been a soldier, serving on the Catholic side in
the Wars of the League. But America lured him from the
strifes and ambitions of Europe. In middle life it was his
dream to discover the North-west Passage, for which so many
navigators had already searched in vain. As this quest must
be made from the American side of the Atlantic, Champlain
desired that the French should have permanent stations in
the New World. For an explorer bent on solving the greatest
of geographical problems, what better point of departure
could there be than Quebec?
Uhomme propose, Dieu dispose. Champlain never found
the longed-for route to China, but he laid the corner-stone of
Canada. It was in 1603 that he first saw the St. Lawrence.
On this occasion he reached the foot of the Lachine rapids,
explored the Saguenay for some distance from its mouth, and
ascended the Richelieu as far as Chambly. Circumstances
then took him to the coast of Acadia, where he remained four
years, aiding De Monts and charting the seaboard from
Canso to Martha's Vineyard. Champlain was Geographer to
the King before he became the founder of Quebec.
6 Historical InbrodtuAian
When Alexander built Alexandria he could draw with
the might of a master upon the resoiut^es of three continents.
When Constantine built Constantinople he brought to it the
treasures of the ancient world — the marbles of Corinth, the
serpent of Delphi, and the horses of Lysippus. But from no
such origin does the Ufe of Canada proceed. Champlain in
rearing his simple Abitation at Quebec had no other financial
support than could be drawn from the fur trade. His hungry
handful of followers subsisted largely upon salt pork and
smoked eels. Everything that was won from the wilderness
cost heroism, self-sacrifice and faith.
As a warrior Champlain entered the Indian world to aid
the Algonquins and the Hurons against the Iroquois. As an
explorer he pierced the forests of the Ottawa, passed through
Lake Nipissing and threaded the islands of Georgian Bay. As
a colonizer he made indefatigable efforts to prevent his out-
post at Quebec from sharing the fate of RobervaFs earlier
settlement at Cap Rouge. For his recruits he did not look
to the gaols of France, but to those honest and courageous
spirits who would willingly win their new homes by toil and
thrift. Only less important than Champlain himself is Louis
Hubert, the colonist after his own heart, who from a Parisian
apothecary became the first farmer of Canada.
The dogged perseverance of Champlain can be measured
by the fact that twenty years after the founding of the colony
the total population of New France was seventy-six souls.
This was in 1628. That year, England and France being at
war, David Kirke cut off the ships bound for Quebec and
brought its inhabitants to the verge of starvation. Next
summer, when the English appeared before Cape Diamond
the famished French had no resource but to surrender. At
one blow the work of a lifetime seemed to go down in ruin.
But it was not so. Three years later, when Canada was given
back to France by the Treaty of St. Germain, Champlain re-
turned in triumph. And at Quebec he died on Christmas Day,
1635, having created the colony and carried it through its
time of greatest doubt.
Besides the desire of the French crown to hold the
Laurentian valley, three motives entered into the upbuilding
of Quebec. For Champlain this little settlement was a base
The Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, P.C., G.C.M.G.
Prime Minister of Canada.
Col, Hanbury'WilHwns, C.V.O.. C.M.G.
Military Secretary to His Excellency.
Joseph Pope, Esq., C.M.G., I.S.O.
Under-Secretary of State.
Historical iTdroduction 7
from which could be prosecuted the great work of westward
exploration. The fur traders found it a convenient head-
quarters for traffic with the Indians, It was also a home of
missionaries and nuns.
Champlain's own piety led him to wish that the savages
might be uplifted through Christian teaching and example.
Nor did he look in vain for aid. The spread of the Faith had
long been among the chief impulses which led catholic rulers
to promote discovery and colonization. As missionary zeal
had moved Queen Isabella in the days of Columbus, so for
generations the New World meant to many a call to save souls.
In the early life of Canada there is no larger element than the
The task of converting the Indians fell mainly to the
religious orders. Of these, the R6coUets were brought by
Champlain to Quebec in 1615. For the next thirty years the
country of the Hurons, lying between Georgian Bay and Lake
Simcoe, furnished the chief mission field. Ignorant at first
of Indian speech and customs, the R^ollets took up their
labours with the courage of enthusiasm. In 1625 they were
joined by the Jesuits, whose larger resources enabled them
to organize the work of the mission on a more comprehensive
scale. Without the names of the missionary martyrs Canadian
history would lose a superb record of heroism. Without the
Jesuit house of Notre-Dame des Anges the early annals of
Quebec would wear a far different aspect.
The R6coUets and Jesuits left Canada when Kirke
captured Quebec. In 1632 the Jesuits returned, but
the reappearance of the R6collets was delayed till 1670.
Therefore, during the last years of Champlain's life the Jesuits
conducted the Canadian mission without assistance. Re-
suming their efforts among the Hurons, they soon afterwards
entered upon the still more formidable task of converting the
Iroquois. Altogether, three hundred and twenty Jesuits
came to Canada during the old regime, and in their ranks
will be found many intrepid apostles. But judged by fame,
even among the martyrs, no other two quite equal Isaac
Jogues and Jean de Br^beuf .
Jogues was one in whom a certain natural timidity had
been mastered by power of will and religious fervour. Giving
up his life to ministrations among the Iroquois, he first suf-
fered torture at the hands of the Mohawks. On the occasion
of his second residence in the Iroquois country he was put to
8 Historical Introduction
death by this race, whose savagery no example of goodness
seemed able to assuage. Br6beuf differs from Jogues in
having possessed much greater physical endowments. He
wiw for manv years the central figure of the Huron mission,
and perished among his converts at the time when they were
over(U)me by the Iroquois. A Norman by birth and stature,
he had in their fullest measure the Norman qualities of firm-
ness and determination. The dreadful story of his torture
and death is a tale of almost incredible anguish endiu^
without flinching by one whose tenderness of heart coexisted
wit h a soul of iron.
No less heroic than the missionaries were the nuns*
Fired by the same longing to redeem the savages, they gave
themselves up to teaching Indian girls and women, nursing
the sick in the hospitals, and educating the daughters of the
French colonists. The first endowment given to build a
hospitiU in Canada was offered by Richelieu's niece, the
Duchease d'Aiguillon. Almost at the same moment Mme
de la Poltrie, a rich and pious lady of Norman birth, resolved
to build at Quebec a convent for the Ursulines. Crossing
to (Canada in 1639 she brought with her M6re Marie de
The personality of this famous woman breathes through
her letters, and is preserved by the tradition of her abundant
gcHHl works. Undismayed by the fire of 1650 which drove
the ITrsulinos from their home, she resisted all counsel to give
up the work of her order in Canada and return to France.
Ci>mbining great practical ability with the spirit of the
m\^tio, she plunged without thought of retreat into the toils
and privations of the wilderness. W hen she came to Canada
tlv*re were less than two hundred people in the whole colony.
But she could not ha^^ striven harder had a million depended
on her care, or had the Indians been grateful instead of per-
Nt^rstv Seated beneath the ash tree at Quebec where she
taught the voung savages and la\ished on them her affection,
Mario do rlncarnation remains to this day one of the most
typical figures from out the old r^me.
The ;«acounre of the colonv was the Iroquois. Drivoi
into hostility by lliamplain's league with his enemies, they
The National Battlefields Commission
Byron E. Walker.
Prctideni Champlain Society
Hon. Addard Turgeon. C.M.G. ^°'- ^^^''8^ T. Denison
^ Ck l>Q%«|K«y. CMC ' JbiM Stcfftiwy
Historical Introduction 9
descended like panthers upon every settlement that fringed
the Richelieu or the St. Lawrence. The scalping knife and
the tomahawk were not their worst weapons. The captive
whom they gave over to the torture suffered everything that
it is possible for mortal to endure.
Thus for ninety years the history of New France was
one long struggle with this relentless foe. As late as 1663
there were only twenty-five hundred colonists against seven-
teen thousand of the Iroquois. Now and then came an interval
of peace, but in the early, most heroic days strife was inces-
sant. The Canadian grew to manhood amid daily dangers.
The instinct of self-preservation made him fight to preserve
his home, his wife, his children. Hence many daring feats
of arms. But the noblest of all is Bollard's battle at the
It is an episode in the '^holy wars'' of Montreal. This
settlement, founded thirty-four years after Quebec, was called
into being as a religious citadel. The first band of colonists
numbered forty-four, of whom four were women. Maison-
neuve, the leader, had the soul of a crusader. Jeanne Mance,
in whose charge was placed the hospital, did not shrink from
the perils to which women, Uke men, were exposed at this
extreme outpost of French occupation. No one who went
to his work within a hundred yards from the fort could tell
when he would fall into an ambush. The first inhabitants
of Montreal placed religion before every other human interest,
They longed to revive the life of the Early Church. They
strove to convert the Indians. Even when they repelled
attack it was in the spirit of martyrs to the faith.
Bollard went out with sixteen companions to meet a force
of seven hundred Iroquois, who had resolved upon the com-
plete destruction of Montreal. Even then, in 1660, its people
were but a handful. To save them from the risk of siege and
sack. Bollard resolved to give the savages such a taste of
French courage that they would desist from their attempt.
He and his followers knew that they courted death. Each
made his will and took the sacrament. By the gift of their
lives, freely laid down in the service of their fellows, they were
resolved to stem the tide of Iroquois attack.
The scene of this superb and unexampled fight was the
rapid of the Long Sault on the Ottawa. For the details of
the story we are indebted to some Hurons who joined the
10 Historical Introduction
French on their way up the river, but in the heat of the action
deserted them through fear.
Of the two war parties coming against Montreal the
smaller descended the Ottawa, and the larger the Richelieu.
Bollard's plan was to take up a position in ambush at the
foot of the Long Sault, and try conclusions with those of the
Iroquois whom he could intercept at that point. His de-
fences were a poorly built fort which had been left by some
Algonquins, and a breastwork, part earth, part stones, that
the French themselves threw up.
Having destroyed some of the Iroquois in ambush,
Dollard prepared to stand a siege in this rude entrenchment.
The Iroquois seized his canoes, so there was no chance of
escape. The savages next tried to burn out the French,
but were driven back repeatedly by musket fire. Such were
their losses that they decided to wait till the war party from
the Richelieu should arrive. This caused a delay of five days
during which Dollard and his men were closely beleaguered
and cut off from water.
In the final scene there were seven hundred shrieking
Iroquois outside the rude pile of logs which DoUard defended
with sixteen Frenchmen, forty Hurons and four Algonquins.
Seeing the fatal odds most of the Hurons deserted, so that
during the last three days of the struggle the Montrealistes
stood almost alone. When the final assault came they had
been living for ten days on dry hominy and such moisture as
they could coUect by digging a hole in the ground beneath
Stung with shame at so many repulses, the Iroquois
finally selected leaders of a forlorn hope, and charged the fort
in one frantic mass. Then followed the most tragic incident
of the defence, for by mischance a grenade which DoUard
flung aloft to alight in the enemy's midst struck a branch
and, falling back, exploded in the fort. ^^But despite this
catastrophe," says DoUier de Casson, ''every man fought as
though he had the heart of a Uon, defending himself with
sword thrusts and pistol shots." Dollard was among the
first to be slain, but undeterred the rest fought on tiU they
were cut down one by one. Not a man survived.
But Montreal was saved, for the savages wanted no more
fighting against such foes.
The Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitzpatrick,
Chief Justice of Canada
R. L Borden, K.C.,
Leader of the Opposition
General Lake. C.B.. C.M.G.
Inspector General of the Canadian Forces
Brigadier General W. B. Otter, <
In Command of the Forces during the Cele
* Bishop Mountain
First English Bishop of C^ebec
The Right Rev. A. H. Dunn
Lord Bishop of Quebec
Very Rev. Dean William
English Cathedral, Quebec
Historical Ivtroduction 11
On the morning of June 30th, 1665, all Quebec was in
a transport of joy. Cannon were booming and bells
ringing as all the world dressed in its best hastened to the
landing place. At the head of the procession went Mon-
seigneur Laval, Vicar Apostolic and Bishop of Petrsea. He
was to meet the King's Lieutenant-General, the Marquis
It was no ordinary occasion. Louis XIV, then in the
prime of his youthful vigour, had determined that the strug-
gling Canadians should receive help. Hitherto the colony
in its wars against the Iroquois had fought alone, unsupported
by the royal troops. But now the King was sending aid to
his faithful subjects in the New World. The Marquis de Tracy
was about to land at Quebec with a detachment of the
Carignan Regiment. The remaining companies were soon
to arrive with De Courcelle, the new Governor, and Talon,
the new Intendant. In the hearts of all hope mounted high.
A bright era was to dawn for Quebec and Canada.
Laval, who took the leading part in Tracy's reception,
was the most eminent ecclesiastic of the Old Regime. As
the first Bishop of Quebec he was given an opportunity to
organize the Roman Catholic Church in Canada. Through
firmness of character and clearsightedness of purpose he left
his mark upon the distant future. By birth an aristocrat,
sprung from the great line of the Montmorency, he made it
Ms aim to spurn even those comforts which are demanded by
servants. Austere towards himself, he gave his whole soul
and effort to the service of the church. What property he
possessed went to endow the seminary which he founded to
educate candidates for the priesthood. All his energy,
physical and mental, he lavished upon the Canadian church
with whose care he had been entrusted. Clear-cut, self-
denying, and unflinching in his defence of cardinal principles,
Laval remains a leader of unsurpassed eminence among the
founders of New France.
As for Tracy, he, too, fulfilled the expectations and hopes
which were entertained at the moment of his landing. By
his chastisement of the Mohawks he secured for Canada the
longest breathing space she had ever known in this fierce
strife with the Iroquois. Impressed by the vigour and power
12 Historical Iniroduction
of the Carignan Regiment, the savages sued for peace. Their
country had been ravaged, their villages and their crops des-
troyed. Instead of invading the valley of the St. Lawrence,
the Five Nations found themselves attacked in their own
stronghold. Hence for a time they bent the knee to Onontio,
Viceroy of the great Kng beyond the sea.
But the coming of the Carignan Regiment meant much
more than a single brilliant campaign. This fine body of
troops, which in Europe had fought with honour against the
Turks, was disbanded in order that officers and men might
contribute to the upbuilding of Canada. The officers became
seigneurs receiving large grants of land on the Richelieu and
the St. Lawrence, where the names of Verchferes, La Duran-
taye, St. Ours, Chambly, Berthier, Baby, Varennes, La
Mothe, Fromont and Contrecoeur preserve the memory of
that rugged, stirring age. On these seigniories also settled
the disbanded troops, who, as tenants of their former officers
maintained the tie estabUshed in their youth. Officers and
men alike proved a fresh and potent bulwark to the colony.
Nor while mentioning Laval and Tracy must Talon be
overlooked — Talon, the Great Intendant, the man who did
naost to develop Canadian agriculture, trade, and manu-
factures. Coming to Canada in the same year with the
Carignan Regiment, he infused his splendid energy into
every branch of the administration. To enlarge the popula-
tion was the central feature of his policy, and next came his
desire to make Canada in all respects self-supporting. No
abler or more useful official was ever sent across the Atlantic
by the French crown.
Among the glories of Canada is that long line of explorers,
from Champlain to La V^rendrye, who made known the
inmost recesses of North America. Nicolet, Chouart,
Radisson, JoUet, Marquette, La Salle, Du Lhut and Perrot
are only the most distinguished of the many bold spirits who
plunged into the heart of the forest without thought of the
hardships and perils that exploration involved. It was theirs
to have heard in the midst of an unbroken soUtude the thunder
of Niagara, to have seen the waves of Lake Superior as yet
untraversed by any craft save the canoe, to have descended
the Mississippi among tribes that then gazed for the first
Quebec in 1700
H. E. Cardinal Taschercau
First Canadian Cardinal
F. X. Garneau,
Bishop of Quebec, 1806
Lt. Col. De Salaberry
Hero of Chateauguay
Interior English Cathedral, Quebec. Completed 1804. Royal Pew in Gallery
■ i ■■} WK^
m . h^=^w K.. '
The " Royal William,"
First vessel in the world to cross the Atlantic by steam alone, making her famous voyage in 1833
Historical Introduction 13
time upon the face of a white man, and to have traflScked
at the Lake of the Woods with Crees from the bomidless
There was no one who recognized with more prophetic
insight than Talon the possibilities of the far West.
He desired information about the native copper of Lake
Superior. Even before Joliet and Marquette had brought
back a sure report as to the existence of the Mississippi, he
was eager to prove the truth of rumours regarding this
great stream. And it was at his instance that Daumont de
Saint-Lusson unfurled the banner of Louis XIV at Sault
By this ceremony the French took possession of that dis-
tant West which lay around and beyond the inland seas.
Nothing was spared to make it an impressive scene. The
Sieur de Saint-Lusson, who had come from France with Talon,
was charged to collect envoys of all the friendly tribes in-
habiting the West, and to the meeting place they came from
a radius of more than a hundred leagues. Fourteen nations
were represented through their ambassadors, and on the 4th
of June, 1671, began the most solenm festival ever observed
in those regions.
It was partly religious and partly political. First came
the blessing of a great Cross which had been erected on a
height above the Sault. Then the King's escutcheon, fixed
to a cedar mast, was set up, while the missionaries present
sang the Exaudiat and prayed for the Sovereign. ^^ After
this," says Father Dablon, ^^Monsieur de Saint-Lusson, ob-
serving all the forms customary on such occasions, took pos-
session of those regions, the air resounding with repeated shouts
of Xong live the King !' and with the discharge of mus-
ketry, to the delight and astonishment of all those peoples
who had never seen anything of the kind." Then followed
orations by Father Claude Allouez and Saint-Lusson himself.
*The whole ceremony was closed with a fine bonfire, which
was lighted toward evening, and around which the Te Deum
was sung to thank God, on behalf of those poor peoples, that
they were now the subjects of so great and powerful a monarch."
14 Historical Introduction
liut (ho French were not the only Europeans in North
Arnoricii. A year before Champlain founded Quebec the
KngliHh had begun their settlement at Jamestown. Half a
century lat^r the whole Atlantic seaboard for hundreds of
miles to the south of Acadia was dotted with English colonies,
each active^ and aggressive, strong in the sense of political
froinloni, and endowed with a sense of initiative which has
seldom Ihhmi paralleled in the history of colonization.
The inevitable collision between English and French in
AmtTioa wjis postponed for seventy-five years by the local
t)roblems of each race in its new home. But at last the
\nglish U^gan to tuke notice of the progress which the French
won^ making in the West. The alarm was first sounded by
Uovornor Dongan, of New York. Fearing lest the English
should Ix^ hemmed in between the Atlantic and the Alle-
glianies, ho endeavoured to check the advance of the French
by involving them once more in war with the Iroquois. As
ho Kwkoil forward he could see a time in the near future
when a rival race possessing the St. Lawrence, the great
I^Hki>s and the Mississippi could hamper, or even check the
English in their natural expansion.
Within fiN-e NTars from the time when Dongan began to
make plans against the French of Canada, the expulsion of
%TanH^ ll from the English throne caused xiolent war between
the jvarent states. Transferred to North America it brought
on a stom and dreadful duel between these two races, whose
fones of action until so recently had l^een se\'ered by a wide
strotoh of wilderness.
It is at this juncture that Frontenac proved himself the
cneat<>st war (n^wnior that New France ever possessed.
thmng his first t^rm of office (1672-is2^ he had been wonder-
fully sucocssf\il in dealing with the Indians, but friction at
Quclvo had led to his i^ecalL Then followed a revi^'al of
trtvuble with the Iroquois dimng the period of his two sueces-
$»oTS, l^a IWre and IVinonx-ille. \Miere Frontenao had been
at his bests they were at their woi^t, and in 16S9, at the out-
break of the general war between France and England,
l.o\ns NIV sent Fronr^^nac back to his post at Quebec. He
mia$i then ^x-enty war? old, but no youth could have
more dash aiki xigout.
Stone over the Entrance to Philibert's House. Now inserted in the walls of the Post Office
Jeffrey Hale Hospital
Chateau St. Louis — Destroyed in 1834
Historical IfiiroductUm 15
At a time of gravest crisis Frontenac saved Canada from
her two foes, the Iroquois and the English. He sent forth
those three war parties which in the winter of 1690 carried
fire and sword to the hamlets of New England and New York.
He brought the coureurs de bois from the far West and turned
them against the Iroquois. In the face of overwhelming
nmnbers he turned Canada into a vast camp, wherein each
log house became a stronghold. It was the period when
Madeleine de Vercheres, aged fourteen, made herself the cap-
tain of a beleaguered fortress and issued from the contest a
Frontenac might strike at the English by land, but
Canada was vulnerable from the side of the sea. Here, too,
the old Governor had his triumph, for when in 1690 Sir William
Phips sailed up the St. Lawrence to demand the surrender of
Quebec he was met not with submission but defiance. D'lber-
ville, the greatest of the French Canadian warriors, was en-
gaged elsewhere, but his three brothers, Bienville, Longueuil
and Ste H616ne all took part in the resistance to the English
fleet. Where Earke had succeeded, Phips failed, baffled by
the vigilance of Frontenac and the bravery of the Canadian
mihtia. And when his fleet had withdrawn defeated, Quebec
in its gratitude and piety erected the church of Notre-Dame
de la Victoire.
It is the chief characteristic of our life to-day that in
one state two races should be working for the advancement
of Canada. Under a flag which was not the banner of Fron-
tenac or Montcalm, French and EngUsh enjoy the same pro-
tection and share the same citizenship. In other words the
ideal for which Colbert and Talon strove was impracticable
and has given way. Instead we find English and French
cooperating, and if, three hundred years after Champlain
there is no French King in Canada, there is a French Prime
The final struggle with which we link the names of Mont-
calm and Wolfe, of L6vis and Murray, was worthy of both
races. Marked by the most startling changes of fortune, it
taxed to their utmost the powers of the actors and brought
them to the level of their highest attainment. At the date
16 Historical Introduction
of Levis' surrender the English in America outnumbered
the French by forty to one. Remembering this fact the
contest is seen in its true Ught. It was inevitable that New
England and New France should battle for supremacy. But
we can now see how the issue was predetermined by those
general causes which made the emigration to Canada very
small, and that to the English colonies very large. In the
era of the Seven Years' War the disparity had become too
glaring. The parent states by their intervention mig|ht
modify the course of the conflict, but could hardly have de-
termined the result.
From Oswego to Ste Foy, who shall say where lies the
superiority in courage and devotion? Montcalm and L^vis
throwing their whole souls into a task which was rendered
impossible by the wanton perfidy of Bigot: Wolfe, shattered
in health, yet rising from a bed of fever to make a final effort:
the charge of the Highlanders, which showed that England and
Scotland had become a united nation : the bravery and willing*
ness of the French Canadian miUtia: — it is in vain that we
attempt to single out any one feature of this splendid an-
tagonism which can confer pre-eminence upon either naticm,
or upon any individual in either camp. What perished in
the capitulation of Montreal was the Bourbon monarchy and
the narrow absolutism which fettered the life of New France
throughout the Old Regime. What survives to this day is
the vigour of two great races, striving to make Canada strong
and free and reverent of law.
SANS MERCI— By Hcbcrt.
A harvester of the early times of the colony is surprised by a ferocious inhabitant of the forest : and.
with a reaping-hook in his hands, he fights desperately against his aggressor.
The two athletes grasp each other in a death struggle; teeth and nails penetrate the flesh; the
antagonists sway, shrivel, almost yell, in writhing mass to which the bronze gives a tragical effect.
it is civilization fighting barbarism.
Designer and Master of the Pageantry.
l^ote on the paaeants
By MR. LASCELLES
Quebec, July, 190S.
An appreciation of its ffistory and of the deeds of its heroes ranks
among the great factors in the development of a nation.
Hence it will be readily granted that any influence which tends to the
increase of this appreciation is not Ughtl}^ to be set aside.
Although, with the perspective lent by time, the present should realise
fully the structure of its heritage, yet it is given to few to have their imagi-
nation so stirred through the medium of the printed page, as to cause them
to appreciate the significance of the record.
But Art ever waiting to inspire, proves to us, as a handmidd to the
Sciences, the truth of the Roman poet's words, that "Things seen are
mightier than things heard.''
Here then is an attempt to recall in living form some events in the
history of a century and a half of Canada's early days.
It is no story of the pomp and panoply of a thousand years that there
is to unfold, but a story of the stru^es and vicissitudes that have gone to
the establishment of a great country.
And it cannot be without avail that the injunction has been borne in
mind to "Remember the days of old, and the years that are past."
Note: — ^In the few places where it has been found necessary to combine in one
scene incidents which may have taken place on different occasions, I cannot do better
than repeat as an apologia the words used in the prefatory note to the Book of Words
of the Oxford Historical Pageant : " It is perhaps advisable to point out that a modem
Pageant, like an historical play of Shakespeare, is often compelled by reason of space,
time, and suitability for representation, to foreshorten history. The critic must not
murmur if persons and events are found in a juxtaposition for which there is no absolute
warrant in the chronicles, or if fancy sometimes bodies forth possibilities which may
never have been realities."
Pour que le sang joyeux dompte Tesprit morose,
n faut, tout parfiun^ du sel aes go^mons.
Que le souffle atlantique emplisse tes poumons;
Ar\'or foffre ses cape que la mer blanche arrose.
L'ajonc fleurit et la bruj'^re est d^j^ rose.
La terre des vieux clans, des nains et des demons,
Ami, te garde encore, sur le nanit des monts,
L'homme immobile aupr^ ae I'inunuable chose.
Viens. P^rtout tu verras, par les landes d'Ar^z,
Monter vers le del mome, infrangible cypr^i,
Le menhir sous lequel git la cendre du Brave;
Et Toc^an, qui roule en un lit d'algues d'or
Is la voluptueuse et la grande Occismor,
Beroera ton coeur triste k son murmure grave.
Historical Notes on the First Pageant.
Just before Jacques Canier in 1535 moored two of his ships in the
stream now known as the St. Charles, he made his first visit to the old
Indian village of Stadacon^, '' the town and dwelling place of Donnacona."
Ranged along the high land between the St. Charles and the St. Lawrence
were the tillages of Ajoast^, Stamatam, Tailla ('* which is on a mountain/'
adds the discoverer), and Stadin. Stadacon^, on the high land just
beyond, overlooking the St. Charles, was by far the most considerable
of them all, for Donnacona was Agouhanna, "lord of Canada." " Under
this high land towards the north." reads Cart ier's narrative, "is the river
and harbour of St. Croix (St. Charles), where we stayed from the fifteenth
day of September until the sixth day of May, 1536."
The winter was a disastrous one. Twenty-fivi men were carried off
by scur^-y; the sur\*ivors had scarcely strength to draw water or to keep
the neighbouring savages in ignorance of their weakness by beating
t oget her pieces of wood wit hin t heir palisade. On t he t hird of May, 1 536.
the day and festival of HohTood, Canier raised a cross, 35 feet in height,
bearing a shield charged with the arms of France, and inscribed in Attic
letters: "Franciscus Primus. Dei Gratia Francortmi Rex Regnat."
Shortly after the ceremony Jacques Canier's crew brought Donnacona
and four other Indians on board the Grande Hermine, in order to carry
them off to France that Francis I might see them and hear them speak.
Names of Jacques Cabtier's Crew.
Ships' Roll of the expediiion of 1535. presented by Jean Poullet at
the meeting of the Municipal Council of St. Malo at Baie St. Jean
March 31. 1535.
The inscription of the said Masttts* Mariners and Pilots follows: —
JaeqxxB Carder. GBiptain. Eticnne PrinceTel.
Thomfts Fourmoat. Master. Michel .\udiepvre.
Guillaiuzie Le Breton Bastille, Captain Bertrand ;Skunbo5t.
and Piloc of ^' UEmeriUon. ** Ricfaazd le Bay.
Jacques Mazngard, Master of ^'^L'Eni^- Lucas Fkmmy^
rilLcMi.'* Frant^MS 0\xicauh. dnujcot.
Marc Jalobert. Cancain and Pilot of the Geoneet MabiQie.
"Correfiea."' '.^'i' GuiUaume Sequart* carpenter.
Gmllainne Le Uars^, Master of the '^Coc^ RoUn Le Tort.
celieo." Samsiw Ripauh« barber.
Laurent Bonlam. Fian^ob Ouillot.
Etienne NooeL OixiUftume Eisnault. carpenter.
Pierre Eanery dit Talbot. Jeittn IVibtn. carpenter.
Michel Hervel Jehan Duwrt. carpenter.
i^ii This vessel was the ^PETITE HERMIXSr Wr oacne betn$ thos changied
on the occasion of Cartier's second voYa^:e.
Arrival of Jbcityiirs C^frtner
at Oudbec 1535
•Conicfcncc U.i ween J&c«;
"^t «^* "^ o"^ Ov»«'>fc
■O-r "^-'- - ' to V'
c- .^.. ^«^J
Descrij^ian of the Pageants 19
Julien Golet. Jehan Ravy.
Thomas Boiilain. Pierre Marguier, trumpeter.
Michel Phelipot. Guillaume Le Gentilhomme.
Jehui Hamel. Raoullet Maingard.
Jehan Fleuiy. Frangois Diiault.
Guillaume Guilbert. Herv6 Heniy.
Ck>las Barbe. Yvon Legal.
Laurent Galliot. Antoine Alierte.
Guillaume Bochier. Jehan Colas.
Michel Eon. Jacques Poinsault.
Jehan Anthoine. Dom. Guillaume Le Breton, Chaplain.
Jehan Pierres. Dom. Anthoine, Chaplain.
Jehan Coiunyn. Philippe Thomas, carpenter.
Antoine Desgranches. Jacques Dubois.
Louis Douayrer. Julien Plantimet.
Pierre Coupeaulx. Jehan Go.
Pierre Jonch^e. Jehan Legentilhomme.
Ifichel Maingard. Michel Douquais, carpenter.
Jehan Maryen. Jehan Aismery
Bertrand Apvril. Pierre Main^rt.
Gilles Stuffin. Lucas Clavier.
Geoffroy Ollivier. Goulset Riou.
Guillaume de Guemez^. Jehan-Jacaues Morbihen.
Eustache Grossin. Pierre Nyel.
Guillaimie Allierte. Legendre Etienne Leblanc (>)•
To this list of names, 74 in all, we must add nine others, discovered by our archeo-
logists and historians since this list was published.
Monsieur: Claude de Pontbriand, son of the Seigneur de Montcevelles and cup-bearer
to the Dauphin.
Mcmsieur: Charles Guillot. secretary of Jacques Cartier.
'' Charles de la Pommeraye.
" Pierre de Chambeaubc,
" Jehan Guyon,
" Jehan Poullet,
" Jehan Gamier,
" De Goyelle,
and Philippe Rou^emont, the only one Jacques Cartier names of the thirty sailors who
died of scurvy dunng the winter of 1535-36.
This brings the total number of names, so far as known, to 83, but, as the men who
took part in this expedition totalled 110. there are some twenty nseven who are yet un-
known, and are likely to remain so. Clever indeed will be the antiquarian wno will
reveal their identity.
FIRST PAGEANT— Scene L S*"* ^
1534-6. — ^The Village of Stadacon6: Jacques Cartier plants a
cross on the bank op the river and returns to france.
There is a deep silence over the distant blue hills, over the broad river
flowing between its lofty banks, and over the wide waiting land of
primeval forest and* plain.
Outlined against the waters is the motionless figure of an Indian
chieftain, as, with his hand shading his eyes, he gazes out over the river.
He stands as though looking into the dawning of the future, with pre-
(>) Documents in^dits sur Jacques Cartier et le Canada, communique par M.
Alfred Ram^, de Rennes. et faisant suite k la relation du Premier voyage de /acques
Cartier, en 1534 d'apr^ r Edition de 1598, pages 10, 11 et 12. Paris, Labrairie Tross, 5,
rue Neuve des Petits Champs, 1865.
20 DeseripHan of the Poffeants
monition of coming change to his race. In the distant encampment is
heard the sound of singing. On a sudden he utters a cry, for away on
the river, he has caught sight of three strange ships.
The Indian families come running from the camp and gaze in wonder
at the strange apparition, while the song of the sailors is heard below.
Then, as the strangers put to land, the Indians troop down to the shore.
After a while they return, fear changed to friendly welcome, and wild
with deUght they crowd about the white strangers, dancing, singing,
leaping, cr3ring "Agouazi" in welcome, after the manner of their people.
Men and boys, women, young and old, some with infants in their arms,
crowd about Jacques Cartier and his crew, shouting for joy, stroking their
arms, feeling their faces, and holding up screeching infants to be touchcKl.
Jacques Cartier orders bread and wine to be set before them, and an
old chieftain, rising, makes an harangue, pointing out the extent of the
dominion to which the white men are received and welcomed. Then the
warriors, having caused the women to retire, squat on the ground about
the Frenchmen, row upon row of swarthy forms and grim faces, "as though"
says Cartier, "we were about to act a play.'* Then appears a troop of
women bringing mats, with which they cover the bare earth for their guests.
When they are seated, a feeble old savage laid on a deerskin is brought
before them by his tribesmen. They place him on the ground at Jacques
Cartier's feet and make signs of solemn appeal for him, Agouhana, their
lord and king, while he points feebly to his powerless limbs and implores
the healing touch from the hand of the French chief. Cartier rubs the
palsied limbs with his hands, and is given in return for his sympathy
several scalps — trophies of their victories — ^and the red fillet of his
Meanwhile, the sailors have set up a great cross of wood. Upon
its arms is a shield charged with the lilies of France and an inscription,
"Franciscus Primus Dei gratia Francorum rex regnat." The booming
of the cannon having died away, the Frenchmen kneel before the cross,
pointing to heaven, and striving to indicate that upon this sign depends
"At all of which," says Cartier, "the savages marvelled, turning one
to another and gazing upon the cross". Then, treating it with reverent
awe, they place baskets of com before it, adorned with flowers, and bum
tobacco before it as incense.
Meanwhile, from the wigwams beyond appears a woeful throng, the
sick, the maimed, and the decrepit, brought or led forth and placed before
the perplexed commander — "as if," he says, "God had come down to
cure them." He reads to his petitioners a portion of the gospel of St. John:
" IN PRINCIPIO ERAT VERBUM, ET VERBUM ERAT APUD
DEUM, ET DEUS ERAT VERBUM. " Then he makes the sign of the
cross over them, and, though comprehending not a word, his audience
listen with grave attention.
The squaws and children are recalled, and the warriors place them
in separate groups. Knives and hatchets are given to the men; beads
and rosaries, combs and bells to the women, while pewter rings and images
of the Agnus Dei are flung among the children, whence ensues a vigorous
Each of the chiefs sons is decked out in a shirt, coloured "sayon,"
and a red hat, each one receiving a chain of ^Uaton" aroimd his neck.
DeaeripUon of the Pageants
Cartier presents to the chief a doak of Paris red set with yellow and
white buttons of tin and ornamented with small bells.
Then a little girl is presented to Cartier; all the people give cries in
sign of joy and alliance, and the chief presents two little boys, one after
the other, upon which the same cries and ceremonies are made as beforei.
Now the trumpeters press their trumpets to their lips and blow a blast
that fills the hearts of their hearers with amazement and delight. The
visitors descend to the river, followed by a crowd of women, who, with
clamorous hospitality, beset them with gifts of fish, beans, com and
other articles of uninviting aspect, making signs that the cross shall not
be disturbed. A group of Indians accompany them in canoes to their
ships, their shrill songs of jubilation still reaclung the ears of the receding
Frenchmen as they spread their sails and steer for home, canning the
chief Donnacona and some of his companions to France, that Francis
the First may see with his own eyes the inhabitants of this "New World.'
THE SONGS OF THE SAILORS
A * i A-bpow fia-dic-fo A-EA-i.A-la B inintckvMndecf nouidom'lctot A-l At, A-
I A-b A-E A-E A
Ali, alo, pour Machero;
All, ali, alol
n mange la viande
Et nous donne les os;
Ali, ali, alo!
Ali, ali, alol
A SAINT'MALO. BEAU PORT DE MER
A Saint Malo, beau port de mer, (bis)
Trois gros navir's sont arriv^,
Nous irons sur Teau,
Nous jr prom' promener,
Nous irons jouer dans Ttie.
Vieille Stadaconal sur ton fier promon-
n n'est plus de for^t silencieuse et noire;
Le fer a tout d^truit.
Mais sur les hauls clochers, sur les blanches
Sur le roc escarp^, t^moin de cent batailles,
Plane ime Ombre la nuit.
EUle vient de bien loin, d'un vieux chAteau
A moiti^ d^moli, srand par la souvenance
Du roi FranQois premier.
Elle crut au Dieu fort qui souffrit en silence
Au grand chef dont le coeur fut perc6
Elle crut au guerrierl
22 Description of the Pageants
DonnAOona ramdne au pavs des anodtreB, Puis ce sont dans les airs mille clameuFB
Domagaya ]bm6 de servir aautrea mattrea, joyeuses,
Ai.—t T«o:.rt.*.«r«»; I^ voix chantent en coeur sur noa rivea
Auam Taiguragm. heureuses,
Lea vieux chefs tout par6i laissent leur Comme un long hosanna.
sepulture, Et I'on voit voltiger des spectres dia-
On entend cliqueter partout comme une „ Pjj^'l^' , , , . . ,
armure ^^ 1 echo sur les monts, dans les bois, les
Les colliers d'^surgni. K^p^te: Agouhannal
P. J. O. Chauvbau.
Historical Notes on the First Pageant (Scene II).
On his return to France, Jacques Cartier hastened to relate to His
Majesty all the incidents of his voyage and the results which might be
hoped for from his discoveries. The King, surrounded by his courtiers,
listened attentively to the story of the great Breton navigator, who
entertained him with vivid descriptions of the land, its rivers and vil-
lages, and, above all,the noble St. Lawrence, whose magnitude and beauty
could not be surpassed. Taiguragny and Domagaya, who had been to
France in 1534, interpreted for Donnacona the Chief, before the King.
The Indians were sent to St. Malo to be instructed in the catholic faith.
"They were baptized," says Cartier, "at their own desire and request.''
Cartier himself acted as godfather to Donnacona; but in 1542 the old
chief died, professing his new religion.
Present at the Court of Francis I.
Gentlemen of the Court:
Three Sons of the King, Francois, 17 years of age — Henri, 16
years of age — Charles, duke of Orleans, 13 years of age. Anne de
Montmorency, Prime Minister, Grand Master and Marshal of France
— Cardinal Jean de Lorraine — Chabot de Brion (Admiral of France)
— Claude de Lorraine, first Duke of Guise (giand master of the
chase) — Duke Claude de Savoie — ^Antoine du Bourcy (Chancellor)
— Guillaume Poyet (Chancellor, President of the ParUament of
Paris)— <])ount de Saint -Pol— Count de Tende — CMxlinal de Tournon
(High Chancellor)— Guillaume du Belley-Langey (Minister) — Marquis de
Saluces — Jean de Bellay (Bishop of Paris) — Mgr. Francois Bohier (Bishop
of St. Malo,) — Sire de Velly— Sire d'Annehaut — Sire de Montejan
— De la Meilleraye (Vice- Admiral of France) — Count de Rceulx
(lieutenant general) — Count des Bures (lieutenant general) — Caliot
de Genouillac (grand equerry, minister) — Sire de Sangey — Martin
du Bellay (captain)— Barbesieux (captain) — De la Porte (captain)—
Chandenier (lieutenant) — Antonio de Ley^'a (lieutenant) — Bonne-
val (captain) — Jean Morin (lieutenant of the Criminal Court) —
Du Prat (Chancellor of France, Minister) — Henri d'Albret (lieutenant
general of the King) — Francis de Genouillac (seneschal of Qu^ry) —
Abb* Rabelais (celebrated writer) — Clement Marot (celebrated writer)
— NoS du Fail (celebrated writer) — Etienne Dolet (celebrated writer)
— Louis Burgensis (first medic^ attendant)
Deacription of Ike Pageants 23
Ladies of the Court:
Queen El^onore (2nd wife) — ^Daughters of the King: Madeleine (15
years of age) and Marguerite de France (12 years of age) — Marguerite
de Navarre (sister of the King) — the Duchess d'Estampes — ^Princess de
la Roche-sur-Yon — Duchess de Lorraine — Marie de Bourbon (daughter
of the Duke of Vend6me) — Marie de Guise (daughter of Claude de Lor-
raine) — Jeanne d'Albret (niece of the King) — ^Marie d'Albret — Catherine
de M^dicis (wife of the Duke of Orleans, married 1533) — Mademoiselle
de TEstrange — Diane de Poitiers (daughter of the Grand Marshal of
FIRST PAGEANT— Scene II First
1536. — The Gardens at Fontainebleau: Francis the First receives Scene .
Jacques Cartier and learns op his Discovery op Canada.
At the close of a summer afternoon there comes through the gardens
of Fontainebleau a cavalcade of courtiers from the forest beyond.
Trumpets soimd in the distance, as the richly caparisoned horses, bearing
their noble riders come into view through the avenue of trees. Across
the greensward winds the long procession in sheen of velvets and of
satins until, drawing rein by the sparkling fountains, they are met by
groups of ladies and attendants of the court, while strains of music mingle
with the plash of the water and the jingling of the bells and harness.
The King rides under a canopy on a horse caparisoned in cloth of
gold; his clothes are embroidered in gold and jewels and as great cups of
wine and golden dishes of fruit are handed by the pages, a troup of fauns
and satyrs dance through the gardens. Then, at his command, is brought
in a man with a rugged, weather-beaten face, who has journeyed afar in
search of new lands and has returned to the Old World to tell his King
what he has seen and heard. Jacques Cartier, on bended knee, having
told of the notable discoveries he has made and the stories which have
reached his ears, presents the dark-hued chieftain of the west to the great
king of France. Donnacona falls prostrate with his companions on the
groimd before the king, and then, through an interpreter, he tells his
wondrous tale of a land of gold and rubies and of a nation white like
the French; of men who Uve without food, and of those to whom
nature has granted but one leg. The king having listened with interest
and attention hands them over to the Bishop of St. Malo, who blessed
Jacques Cartier at his departure on his second voyage. Then, laughing
and jesting, the king rides on with his Court.
Historical Notes on the Second Pageant — Scene I.
The new era inaugurated in the New World by Champlain was the
outcome of the new era in the Old World inaugurated by Henry of Navarre.
Exhausted by thirty years of conflict, France "had sunk at last,"
says Parkman, "to a repose, uneasy and disturbed yet the harbinger of
recovery. The rugged soldier whom for the weal of France and of man-
kind. Providence had cast to the troubled surface of afiFairs, was throned
in the Louvre, composing the strife of factions and the quarrels of his mis.
24 Description of the Pageants
tresses. The bear-hunting prince of the Pyrenees wore the crown of
France. He cared little for creeds or dogmas. Impressible, quick in
sympathy, his grim lip lighted often with a smile, and his war worn cheek
was no stranger to a tear. He forgave his enemies and forgot his friends.
Many loved him; none but fools trusted him. Mingled of mortal good and
ill, frailty and force, of all the Kings who for two centuries and more sat
on the throne of France, Henry the Fourth alone was a man. "
Such was Henry of Navarre in the Old World : Champlain, in the New,
was a true hero after the chivalrous mediaeval type. His character was
dashed largely with the spirit of romance. Though earnest, sagacious and
penetrating, he leaned to the marvellous; and the faith which was the life
of his hard career was somewhat prone to overstep the bounds of reason
and invade the domain of fancy. A Royal patent raised him to the rank
of untitled nobiUty. He soon wearied of the antechambers of the Louvre.
It was here, however, that his destiny awaited him and the work of his life
Aymar de Chastes, commander of the order of St. John of Jerusalem,
and Governor of Dieppe, wished to mark his closing days with some notable
achievement for France and the Church. He made reason and patriotism
his watchwords. He came to court to beg a patent of Henry IV, and he
resolved to proceed to New France in person and dedicate the rest of his
days to the service of God and his King.
Champlain, young, ardent, yet ripe in experience, consented to accept
a post in the new enterprise.
Before his departure for Canada in the spring of 1608, Champlain
submitted to the King his reasons for preferring the banks of the St.
Lawrence, the gateway of Canada, as a phice of settlement, to the rugged
shores of La Cadie.
The dream of the sailor of that period was a passage to the Western
Sea and the riches of Cathay. Champlain, however, recalled the great
stream which flowed in silent grandeur from sources in the West, which no
white man had ever discovered. Here the Indians would bring their furs;
the discoverer would prepare for his voyages of adventure; the Church
would proclaim her teachings to the children of the forest. Henry IV,
then at the height of his glory, extended to Champlain the encouragement
which assured to France a colony in the New World. On July 3, 1608,
Champlain's little ship anchored before the Rock of Quebec.
Present at the Court of Henri IV. 1608.
Henri IV (Kipg). Duke of Mayenne.
Dauphin Louis. Marquis of Montpesat.
Gaston, Duke of Orleans. Henri II de Montmorency (Marshal of
Another child who became Louis XUI France).
(seven years) . Duke of Epemon.
Jean Rosny (confidential minister of the C!ount of Auvergne.
King). Duke of Lesdigui^res (Grand C!onstable
Aubign^ (Marshal of France). of France).
Philippe du Plessis-Momay. De ViUeroy (Minister of the King).
Charles de Ck)88^Bris8ac (Marshal of Gdsar, Duke of Vend6me.
France). Roger de Bell^:arde (Marshal of France).
Brulart de Sillery (Chancellor of France). Antoine^Count of Moret.
Jeannin (Minister). CSiarles Faulet (diancellor).
Duke of (juise. Lenet (Gouncillor of State).
Prince de JoinvUle^ Du Teuil (confidant of the King).
The Founder of Qyebec, the Ancient Capital of Canada
Anne of Austria
Candiac — The Home of Montcalm
Launching of the "Griffin" on the Niagara River in 1679
Description of the Pageants
Marquis de Mrabeau.
Marquis de liancourt.
Duke of Montbazon.
Marquis de la Force.
De Lavardin (Marshal).
De Crillon (grand Oaptain).
Concmo-Ooncini, Mar^chal d'Ancre.
Marie de M^cis and the ladies of
Elizabeth (Queen of Spain) daughter of
the King and of Claude of France.
Henriette (Queen of England) daughter
of the Kmg and of Claude of France.
El^onore Don (Marauise d'Ancre)
lady of the bedchamoer of the Queen.
Marquise de VemeuiL
Princess of Cond6.
Duchess of Mayenne.
Jacqueline de Bueil.
Charlotte des Essarts.
SECOND PAGEANT— Scene I. Second
1608.— The Louvre: Samuel de Champlain at the Court op King
Henry the Fourth receives a Commission to set out for La
A throne is set up in the Palace of the Louvre and about it is tapestry
with fleur de lys. On either hand are the Halberdiers and Guards of the
King. To the strains of the Minstrels, the gaily attired courtiers troop in
with their ruffles and wide spread farthingales and all is laughter and
animation. Trumpets proclaim the entrance of the King and his Queen,
Marie de M6dicis, and, preceded by the officials and pages of the court and
followed by the gentlemen of honour and maids in waiting, they make their
way through the bowing throng to their throne of State. At the foot of
the throne stands a yoimg man in the prime of Ufe; filled with the spirit
of mediseval chivalry and romance, who is presented to the King as his
Lieutenant General by Pierre du Gast, Sieur de Monts, from Champlain's
own province of Saintonge, a gentleman in waiting and Governor of Pont.
He was, a tried and trusted warrior, who had fought valiantly for " Le
B^amais " in the wars of the League, and held as a reward for his services
the position of Viceroy of "La Nouvelle France" as successor to Aymar
The hautboys, lutes and violins strike up the opening bars of the
stately pavane or " peacock" dance, and emerging from the brilliant crowd
some thirty or forty couples take part in the graceful measure, stepping
with high-heeled shoes, and with crossed swords flashing over their heads in
the dainty figures of the dance. The dance over, the royal party pass out
amid the scattering of flowers, and the mirth loving gallants as they
disperse break out into the gay refrain of "Vive Henri Quatre."
Description of the Pageants
VIVE HENRI QUATREI
Vive Henri quatrelVi-ve ce roivad - Uni! Ce dunble^ qu&tre A Le tri-ple ta-lent deboireet de
^JJJIJ JJJ I f^
bat-tre. Et d'etre un vert galani!
Historical Notes on Second Pageant — Scene II.
Ghamplain had been nine years married to H61^ne Boull^, when in
1620 she decided to embark with her husband for New France. The ship's
company comprised scarcely twenty souls. Father Georges de Baillif, a
very distinguished R^coUet, and Brother Bonaventure accompanied the
Founder of Quebec. There were two clerks and three servants of Madame
Champlain. It was a great day for the little settlement when the ship
roimded the Point of Orleans. The doors of the Abitation in the Lower Town
were flung wide to receive the newcomers. Louis Hubert and his wife,
Adrien Duchesne, a physician, and his wife, Abraham Martin, Pierre Des-
portes, Nicholas Pivert and their wives appeared before Champlain to wel-
come him again to Quebec and to greet the mistress of the Uttle colony.
Madame de Champlain was in the full flower of youth and of so an-
geUc a beauty that the savages were tempted to take her for a divinity.
They marvelled to see that she bore their images next her heart, for she
carried at her girdle according to the fashion of the time, a mirror which
reflected their faces. During the four years of her stay in Canada, Madame
Champlain made of the Abitation the model of a Christian home. Often
she went with the others of her household to visit the savages who Uved
about the fort; she entered the rude wigwams of bark, gave them food and
clothing and cared for the sick. Such were these few lonely women who
shared the toil of their husbands m New France.
1620. — Samuel de Champlain.
King Louis XIII rewarded the services rendered to reUgion and to
France by the intrepid voyager by sending him the following letter: —
Having leamt of the command which you have received from my cousin the duke
of Montmorency, Admiral of France, and my viceroy in New France, to set out for the
said country^ to be there his lieutenant, and to loci: after my service, I am pleased to
write you tms letter, to assure you that the services which you shall render me on this
occasion will be very agreeable to me, especially if you maintain the country under my
authority, in causing the people there to live as conformably as possible to the
laws of my realm, taking care also of the interests of the Catholic religion, so as to
draw upon you by this means the divine blessing, which will cause your enterprises
and actions to succeed to the greatest glory of God whom I pray to nave you m his
Done at Paris, the seventh day of May, 1620. "
Sieur de Pontgrav6.
Sieur GuiUaume de Cagn et Sieur Em^ry
de Cato (his son).
Rerre du Gast, Sieur de Monts.
Duke of Montmorency.
Marquis de la Roche.
Marquis de Gamache.
Sieur de Poutrincourt.
Claude des Marets.
Pierre Chauvin, ^eur de Tontuit.
Champlain's Fortified Residence at Quebec
The Don dc Dieu — Champlain's Ship
^V^flHI jj iJ^M^^^^ VS
Scene of Habitant Life in Province Quebec
Some of the Children taking part in the Pageants
Old Parliament Buildings
Description of the Pageants 27
Heniy Couillard (captain). Nicholas Marion.
Etienne BHU^. Morel (captain).
Bonnerme. Jehan Routhier.
Jehan Duval. Guillanme le Testu.
Antoine NataL Pierre Oanan^.
Inhabitants : —
Louis Hubert. Nicolas Pivert.
Guillaume Couillard. Pierre Desportes.
Louis Couillard. Guillaume Huboust.
Abraham Martin. Marsolet.
Madame de Champlain (H^^e Boull6, Fran9oise Langlois (wife of Pierre Des-
22 years of^e) 3 servants. portes).
Guillemette Bulbert (wife of Guillaume Marie Rollet (wife of Guillaimie Huboust).
Couillard). Louise Couillard.
Mamierite Langlois (wife of Abraham Marguerite Couillard .
Martin). Elizabeth Couillard.
H^^e Desportes (wife of Guillaume Marie Couillard.
Hubert). Marguerite Martin.
Mamierite Lesage (wife of Nicolas Pivert) . H^^ne Martin.
Mademoiselle Pivert. Marie Martin.
NOTE ON THE CALUMET DANCE.
The Indians make use of a large pipe, called the calumet of peace. It is composed
of stone, either of a red. black or whitish hue, polished like marble. The body of the
calumet is 8 inches ana the head which contains the tobacco is 3 inches long. The
handle which is of wood, is 4 or 5 feet in length, is perforated in the centre to afford a
passage for the smoke. It is considered as an appendage of state, and r^arded as the
calumet of the som to whom it is presented to be smoked when calm weather, or rain, or
sunshine is required
The calumet has the same influence among savages that a flag of truce has among
dvilized nations. The red plimiage which decks the calumet denotes assistance to be
given. The white and grey mixed together, indicate peace and an offer of aid, not only
to those to whom the calumet is presented, but also to their allies. The ceremony of
smoking is practised with much solemnity previous to the discussion or execution of any
transaction of importance. The calumet dance is participated in onl^r by the most
considerable personages. It is r^arded by them as a ceremony of religion, and prac-
tised only upon occasions the most serious and solemn. Without the intervention of
the dance, no public or private transaction of moment can take effect. It seems to
operate as a charm, in rousing the natives from their habitual indolence and torpidity,
and in inspiring them with activity and animation.
Their youths are more passionately fond of these than Europeans are of theatrical
SECOND PAGEANT— Scene IL p^^t
1620. — Samuel de Champlain brings to Quebec his young wipe, and
IS received by the Garrison op the Fort and the priendly
Indians who perporm the Calumet dance in their honour.
The little rock bound village of Stadacon^ has now become Quebec.
Champlain who landed in 1608 has spent the intervening time in the midst
of the colony, where he has assisted the settlers in their labours and is
regarded as a father and friend by all. Now, after an absence of two
years spent in his native country, he is bringing back from France his ^rl
wife, who is twenty two years of age; prepared to spend the rest of his Ufe
among them and as a guarantee of his good faith to live in his own
wigwam here as the viceroy's lieutenant in "La Nouvelle France."
Description of the Pageants
The entire population consisting only of 80 persons, comes out to meet
them with much joy, and the artillery booms out at intervals from the
little fort which Champlain himself had constructed and the bells ring
from the church tower which he had built. The settlers include families
of the Huberts, Couillards, Martin, Pivert, Desportes, Huboust, Marsolet,
(many of whose descendants survive here to this day.
After the shouts of the assembled crowd, the Indians greet them
with the concise ceremony of the forest; they gaze at the young girl in
stupified amazement that anything so beautiful should come among
them. She wears dangling at her side a httle mirror, in the fashion of the
time, which reflects their countenances; and it pleases them vastly to think
that she has them each "in her heart." They have prepared a solemn
feast to which the elders and chiefs have been invited, and women sweep
the arena where the festival is to take place. The Viceroy and his wife
are seated on skins in the place of honour and the calumet or pipe of peace
is presented to them while the chiefs smoke, sitting round. Champlain
tells them that, moved by affection for them, he first visited their country
to see its rich mines and its beauty and to help them in their wars. In
the meantime preparation is being made for the Calumet dance. They
surround the spot with small trees and branches, placed perpendicularly in
the ground, and the chieftain advances, exclaiming that he carries a
calumet of peace.
A large mat is then spread, on which is placed the god of the chieftain
who gives the dance. On the right of the "manitou" are placed the calu-
met, with the trophies of warfare, the club, the hatchet, the bow, the
quiver and arrows. The singers, consisting of both men and women, are
seated under the foliage upon mats. The first part of the dance is per-
formed by one person, who throws himself into various attitudes, and
gesticulates with the calumet in his hand. He then invites a warrior to
join him in the dance; the latter approaches with his bow and arrows, and
hatchet or club, and commences a duel against the other, who has no ins-
trument of defence but the calumet.
The dance over, the performers approach in ceremony officially to
receive Champlain and his party.
Then a cask of good French wine is broached and the health of the
King, of Champlain and his young girl wife is drunk amid shouts of " Vive
le Roi," " Bien Venue " and " Vive Champlain" to which he replies, ''Vive
la Nouvelle France " and " Vive Quebec. " Then merrily singing the song
" C'6tait une frigate, " they accompany them to the Abitation,
DANSE DU CALUMET
c r. El r r I J i
j l J vf ^ E i r rH J jIj
He ' ia. ^ He ' . ia.
You 'ken -non ' oue' He'-ia. He' ' ia. ' You-ken-non -oue'
J -^^ J J.
Youkennon" ' oue: Hc'-ia. He'
He' ' ia. He' ' ia.
ia. You ken non - oue'
Description of the Pageants
A LA CLAIRE FONTAir4E
JTai trouv6 Teau si belle
Que ie m'y suis baign^;
Sous les feuilles d'lin ch6ne
Je me suis fait s^her.
Lui ya longtemps que je t'aime
Jamais je ne t'oubuerai.
* * * * *
Je voudrais que la rose
Fut encore au rosier,
Et que le rosier m^me
Fut k la mer jet4.
Lui ya longtemps que je t'aime.
Jamais je ne t'oublierai.
CETAIT UNE FRECATE
C^tait une frigate,
Hon joli coeur de rose,
Dans la mer a touchy,
Joli coBur d'un rosier, (ter.)
Dites-moi done, la belle,
Mon joli cceur de rose,
Qu'a vous k tant pleurer?
Joli coBur d*un rosier, (ter.)
Yavait un' demoiselle,
Mon joli coeur de rose,
Su' rbord d'la mer pleur6 (rait),
Joli ooBur d'un rosier, (ter.)
Faut-il, pour une fille,
Mon joli ccBur de rose.
Que mon fils soit noyel . . .
Joli coeur d'un rosier, (ter.)
Historical Notes on the Third Pageant.
La MisRE Marie de l'Incarnation and the Ursulines op Quebec.
The Guyarts of Tours had been renowned for their piety ever since
the great-great-grandfather of La M^re Marie had been sent to the wildest
part of the Calabrian coast to bring the famous ascetic, St. Frangois de
Paule to the death-bed of Louis XI. Marie was bom in 1599. She
"played nun" even in the nursery, and entered many a time the great
soaring cathedral at Tours and that exquisite Uttle gem of Gothic archi-
tecture de la Salette, all aglow with the sacred music. After her marriage,
the birth of an only son and an early widowhood, she had entered at thirty
the Ursuline convent at Tours. Stirred by the thrilling Relations des
Jisuites and the words of St. Vincent de Paul, aided by the companionship
of Madame de la Peltrie, a volunteer from the haute noblesse of Normandy,
and supported by Anne of Austria and the devotion of the Duchesse
30 Description of the Pageants
d'Aiguillon, M^re Marie de rincaraation sailed for the New World on the
4th of May, 1639. There were three Jesuits in the little company, three
Hospitali^res, founders of the Hdtel Dieu in Quebec, and Madame de la
Peltrie with her three Ursulines.
Great was the joy of the citizens of Quebec when the little vesBel
rounded the point of Orleans. Montmagny, the Governor, sent his barge
in viceregal state to welcome the woman whom Bossuet in years to come
was to call the Ste. Th&rhse de VAmirique, The Governor himself, Fathers
Vimont and Le Jeune, Martial Piraube and the citizens of Quebec thronged
the landing place and acclaimed the beginning of the pious work in the
The hardships endured by the first Ursulines cannot be recorded here.
Surrounded by the menace of the wilderness, assailed by the ravages of
smallpox, braving the discouragement of disastrous fires, of war and of
poverty, the society was sustained only by the indomitable perseverance
and devotion of the founders. M^re Marie de Tlncamation was accus-
tomed to gather about her the Indian girls beneath a primeval ash tree
which stood for two centuries as a monument to her zeal. Beneath these
rereading branches she told the story of "Him who made all things."
The convent in the upper town, burnt to the ground on a bitterly cold
midwinter's night, arose again from its ashes. Throughout the thirteen
disastrous years from 1650 to 1663, when plague stalked through the
colony* and the Iroquois scourged the land like the plague itself, the de-
votion of the nuns reassured the wavering inhabitants stayed the cry
"Back to France!'' which was raised throughout the stricken colony, and
stood between a discouraged people and apparent ruin.
The subsequent life of the Ursulines at Quebec forms one of the most
romantic chapters in Canadian history. The Ursuline convent passed
through no less than four sieges. The marks of the British shells of 1759
are still visible in its walls. Here Montcalm was buried in the shell-torn
ground. Here Wolfe's funeral sermon was preached by the Anglican
Chaplain of the British flagship. Within these walls are relics from the
time of Christ and his apostles to the martyrdoms in central China of a
few years ago. No community has such intimate human links with the
past. La M^re de St. Ignace stood by as Montcalm was lowered into his
grave; yet she is linked with our own day, on the one hand, by a living
nun who spent several years with her in the cloister; while on the other
she is linked with Champlain, whose ter-centenary we are celebrating,
through another nun, Genevieve de Boucherville, whose father was bom
during the lifetime of Shakespeare, though her own death did not occur
till the lifetime of Wellington. From the time when Murray made his
headquarters in their convent, and the nuns knitted long stockings for
the Highlanders during the bitter winter of 1759-1760, the Ursulines have
been the friends of every Governor, and have been visited by every mem-
ber of the Royal Family that ever set foot in Canada.
M. DE MONTMAGNT.
Courtiers: — Francois de BA, Chevalier de Repentigny, M. de Chavignv, M. de la
Pomeraye, Martial Piraube (secretary), Jean Juchereau de Mor^, Antoine ae Chateau-
fort, Noigl Juchereau Sieur des Ch&telets, Andr^ de Malapart.
Mere Marie dc L'incamation
First Superioms of the Ursuime
Madaroc Dc 1& Pchnc
Foundress of the Ursuime
icw of the First Ursuline Convent
View of the General Hospital
Fr«n did Ensravins
Foundress of the Oongregk'
lion of Villc Mjjie
The Duchess D'Aiguillon
Foundress of Hotel Die
Mgr. De Laval
First Bishop of Qyebcc
The Intendant Talon
Notre Dame des Victoires — Qyebcc
Governor of New France
Explorer of the Mississippi
Description of the Pageants 31
Cituens and Inhabitants: — Jean Bourdon, Jean Guyon, Simon Guyon, Denis Guyon,
Chevalier Delisle, Nicolas Marsolet, Olivier le Tardif , Jean Paul Godfrey, Robert Ginard,
Charles Giffard, Francis Aubert, La Treille, Charles Dumarche, Martin Lamarche,
Martin Grouvel, Philippe Amyot, Charles Sevestre, Etienne Sevestre, Jean C6t6, Jac<iues
Sevestre, Marin Boucher, No^ Langlois, Robert Langlois, Gaepard Boucher, Pierre
Boucher, Nicolas Boucher, Zacharie Cloutier, Jean Cloutier, Charles Cloutier, Robert
Drouin, Thomas Giroux.
Jesuits: — Father Barthel^my Vimont, Father Joseph Poncet de la Riviere, Father
Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot.
UrsidineSf Nuns: — ^Mother Marie de Tlncamation, Marie de St. Joseph, Ste, Croix.
HosjritaliireSf Nuns: — Mother Marie Guenet de St. Ignace. Mother Anne le Cointre
de St. Bernard, Marie Forestier de St. Bonaventure, Madame ae la Peltrie, Melle Barr^.
Ladies and Peasant Women: — Jacqueline Potel (wife of Jean Bourdon), Madeline
Boul^ (wife of Jean Guyon), Marie Ijanglois (wife of Jean Juchereau), Marie Renouard
(wife of Robert Giffard), Aime Fauconnier (i%ife of Francois Aubert), Anne Dupuis
iwifeof Jean Sauvaget), Jeanne Sauvaget (maiden), Melle Lhichesne, Mathurine Robin
wife of Guyon), Marguerite Aubert (wife of Martin Grouvel), Anne CJonvent
(wife of Phihppe Amyot), Alarie Inchon (wife of Charles Sevestre), Marguerite Petit Pa«
(wife of Etienne Sevestre), Anne Martin (wife of Jean C6t^), r^rinne Malet (wife of
Marin Boucher), Fran^oise Gienier (wife of No^ Langlois), Nicole Lemaire (wife of
Gaspard Boucher), Maddine Boucher (maiden), Xaintes Dupont (wife of Zacharie
Children: — Mathieu Amyot, Jean Gencien Amyot, Jean Juchereau, Nicolas Juch-
ereau, Noel Juchereau, Genevieve Juchereau, Barbe Guyon, Jean Guyon, Simon Guyon,
Marie Guyon, Claude Guyon^ Denis Guyon, Michel Guyon, Louis C!6t6, Marie Giffard,
Charies Giffard, Franroise Giffard, FranQoise Boucher, Jean Gencien Boucher, Robert
Langlois, Maddeine Boucher, Pierre Boucher, Marie Boucher, Marguerite Boucher,
Nicolas Boucher, Zacharie Cloutier, Jean Cloutier, Charies Cloutier, Louise Cloutier,
THIRD PAGEANT f^L
1639. — ^MftBE Maeie pe l'Incaenation beaches Quebec with the
Ubsulixes and Jesuits and is beceived by the Govebnob, Huault
DE MONTMAGNT, BENIGHT OF MaLTA.
Great progress has been made in Quebec since Champlain built his
AhibatUm. Soldiers in the fort give an air of importance to the place, and
the Governor is alwaj-B attended by a military escort. Father Le Jeune
says " We have a number of good, resolute soldiers. It is a pleasure to
see them go through their military exercises in time of peace, and to hear
the sound of musketry and cannons called forth by occasions of joy, while
our immense forests and mountains answer these salutes with echoes
like rolling thunder. The bugle awakens us every morning; we see the
sentuffils take their post; the guard is well armed, and each squad has
its day of duty. Quebec is guarded in time of peace as a well-regulated
post in time of war."
On the landing place at Quebec on August 1st, a little company gathers
to meet the women who have given their lives to New France in order
that they may teach Christianity to the heathen. Of the 250 settlers.
Dearly all are present. The Governor, tb« Sieur de Montmagny, succes-
sor to Champlain, is attended by a small retinue of soldiers attired in all
the splendor they can muster. Near by are the missionaries, forming,
in their black robes, and broad brimmed hats, a striking contrast
to the gaily attired soldiers. The seven delicate women have been buf-
fetted for more than two months by wind and storm in their voyage across
the Atlantic, and at last to the booming of cannon, they come forth " from
32 Description of the PagearUs
their floating prisons as fresh, says Le Jeune, "as when they left
their homes, the vast ocean, with its billows and tempests, not having
harmed them in the least." In a transport of joy they fall upon their
knees and kiss the soil of their new country, taking possession of it "in
the name of Charity/' Then, headed by the pious Governor, they go in
procession to the little church to thank God for their preservation. On
their way Madame de la Peltrie stops to kiss all the little red skins
that she meets, and Mother Marie de Tlncarnation cannot restrain
her joy, but gathers round her the little mountaineer children to whom she
is to teach "the sweet stories of old.''
Historical Notes on the Fourth Pageant.
The most glorious feat of arms of the heroic times of New France was
accomplished by DoUard, Sieur des Ormeaux, in the very year in which
the Iroquois had resolved to exterminate the colony.
In the spring of 1660 these savages collected an army of eight hundred
chosen warriors with the intention of capturing Quebec, Three Rivers and
At this alarming juncture a young oflBcer of twenty-five, Adam DoUard,
Sieur des Ormeaux, commanding Fort Villemarie, offered, with sixteen
companions, to meet the foe, hoping that their audacity would frighten
the Iroquois. To these seventeen Frenchmen were added forty Hurons,
commanded by Anohotaha, a celebrated leader, and six Algonquins under
Chief Mitiwemeg, in all sixty-four men.
The valiant little band arrived on May 1st at the foot of the Long-
Sault, on the Ottawa, eight or ten leagues from Montreal, and camped in
an entrenchment constructed the previous year by the Algonquins, and
defended chiefly by stakes. DoUard decided here to await the Iroquois,
as they must of necessity pass by it on their return from the hunt; and the
Frenchmen fortified the place as best they could by means of a breastwork
of earth, trees and stones, intersected by loop-holes for their muskets.
Hardly was the work completed when the enemy advanced to the
assault. After long and desperate fighting the Iroquois at last carry the
palisade, and practically hold the position. In this extremity,
DoUard loads a large musketoon to the muzzle and Ughts the fuse
intending to throw it, Uke a grenade, among the enemy. Unfortunately
the weapon struck a branch, fell back, and discharged its contents amongst
the French. At the same time the Iroquois everywhere broke through,
and then followed a hand-to-hand fight as short as it was bloody. The
battle became a butchery, and in a quarter of an hour the carnage was over.
DoUard, Anohotaha and Mitiwemeg were dead, but at what a cost to the
Frightened by so murderous a defence by seventeen Frenchmen, the
Iroquois abandoned their assault on Quebec, Three-Rivers and Montreal,
and the defenders' heroism saved the colony. Without their devotion and
voluntary mart)nrdom all Canada would have relapsed into the darkness of
paganism and barbarity, and Christian civilization would have had to
make a fresh beginning in the country.
On June 3, 1660; the abb€ Souart, cur^ of ViUemarie, now Montreal,
entered on the death register of the parish, the names of DoUard and his
companions in arms. This is the only document which preserves their
This Tablet is set up on the site of the Sault au Matelot
Spot where Montgomery Fell on Champlain St.
Description of the Pageants 33
In his history of the French Colony of Canada, the abb^ Faiiion
first published this glorious record, an act of national gratitude worthy of
Adam Dollard, Sieur dee OrmeaUx, Jaccjues Boisseau dit Cognac.
Commander. Ix>ms Martin.
Jacques Brassier. Christophe Augier, dit Desjardins.
Jean Ta vernier, dit La Hocheti^re. Etienne Robin, dit Desforges.
Nicolas Tillemont. Jean Valets.
Laurent Hubert dit La Riviere. Ren^ Doussue, Sieur de Sainte-C^cile.
Alonie de Lestres. Jean Lecomte.
Nicolas Josselin. Simon Genet.
Robert Jur6e. Fran9oi8 Cresson dit Pilote.
To the names of these seventeen heroes it is only fair to add those of
Anohotaha, and Mitiwemeg, the Huron and Algonquin chiefs, who re-
mained loyal to the French, and with them died on the field of battle.
Notes on the War Dakcb.
A number of males and females of the village assemble together and designate
their manner of going to war, of waiting to ensnare their enemy and of returning with
the captives whidi they were supposed to have suri)rised. The instrument used in the
dance was a calabash called '^chichicou^'' which is swung in the hand to mark the
cadence for the vcHces and the movements. They are strangers to melodies in their
songs, beins totallv unacquainted with music. The syllables which thev must use, are
Yo, We and Ya, these they invariably repeat, beating time with their hands and feet.
The dancers move their limbs but a little way from the ground.
The war dance is performed by the whole company in turn, all but the actor being
seated on the ground m a circular figure. He moves from rignt to left in the dance,
sinmng at the same time his own exploits, and those of his ancestors. At the conclusion
of me narration of each warlike feat, he gives a blow with a club, on a post planted in
the centre of the circle near to certain persons, who beat time on pieces of bark, or on a
kettle covered with a dressed skin.
Li this pantomimical display, he explains what he has witnessed in expeditions
against the enemy, without omitting any of the circumstances. They who are present
at this recital rise in a body, and jom in tiie dance: and without any previous concert
or preparation, exhibit these actions with as mucn vivacity as if they had actually
assisted in them. They thus delineate with considerable animation, and a multiplicity
of gestures, any occurrence which they have witnessed, placing it in a certain degree
before the eyes of the spectator; an art in which some of their orators have acquired an
astonishing desree of perfection. Durine the intervals of song, frequent distributions
of tobacco, and of other articles, are made among the guests, and the whole ceremony
generally concludes by an immediate partition and consumption of the remainder.
Notes on the Disoovbbt Dance.
The discovery dance is a natural representation of what passes in a war expedition,
and the principal object of those engaged in it is to search for an opportunity of sur-
prising tneir supposed enemies. It is practised by only two persons at a time, who
represent the departure of the warriors, their march, and encampments. They go forth
to descry the enemy, they make approaches in tne most clandestine and concealed
manner, stop as if to breathe, then oi a sudden blaze forth into anger, as if they intended
to destroy every one within their reach. The paroxjrsm of fury being somewhat ex-
hausted, they seize on one of the company present, as if he were a prisoner of war, and
Sretend to break his head and strip on his scalp. The principal actor then rims a short
istance, and abruptly stops when his passion seems to subside, and his intellect to
resume its ordinary state of composure. This stage of the exhibition represents the
retreat, made at first with rapidity, and afterwards with more leisure. He expresses
by different cries the various degrees of elevation to which his courage was raised during
toe campai^, and finishes with a recital of the valorous deeds which he achieved.
When it is resolved to engage in any particular dance, a person is sent aroimd the
village, to give notice to each cabin or family, which deputes one or two of its members
to be present. In the centre of the place where the dance is to be held, a small scaffold
34 Description of the Pageants
is prepared where a bench is placed for the singers. One holds a kind of drum, another
a chichicou^, or the skeleton of a tortoise filled with pebbles. Whilst they sing and
make a noise with these instruments, thev are joined by the spectators, who strike with
sticks against posts and kettles, or dried pieces of bark which they hold before theun.
The dancers turn in a circuitous figure without joining hands, each making different
gestures with his arms and legs, and, although, perhaps, none of the movements are
similar, but whimsical, and according to caprice, yet the cadence is never violated.
They follow the voices of the singers by the continued enunciation of " He, he" wluch is
concluded by a general cry of approbation still more elevated.
Fourth FOURTH PAGEANT
1660. — Adam Dollard, Sieur des Ormeaux, and his companions in
ARMS AT Long Sault keep the port against the Iroquois.
The whole population is in terror at the uprising of the Iroquois, who
with the Diost appalling deeds of barbarism and cruelty are devastating
the country as far as Montreal and Quebec. At this juncture the heroism
of a few youths diverts the storm of war and saves Canada from
ruin. Adam DoUard (or Daulac) is a young man of good family, who
came to the colony three years ago at the age of 22. He has held some
military command in France, and it is said that he has been involved
in some affair which makes him anxious to wipe out the memory of the past
by a noteworthy exploit. He has been for some time among the young
men of Montreal, inviting them to join him in the enterprise he meditates.
Sixteen of them have caught his spirit, struck hands with him and pledged
their word. They have bound themselves to receive no quarter, and have
made their wills, confessed and received the sacrament. They have been
implored to remain till the Spring sowing is over, but have refused. The
spirit of the enterprise is purely mediaeval. The enthusiasm of honor, the
enthusiasm of adventure, the enthusiasm of faith are its motive forces.
DoUard is a knight of the early crusades among the forests and savages of
the New World.
Among the bushes and stumps stands a palisade fort, the work of an
Algonquin war party in the past autumn. It is a mere enclosure of small
trees, planted in a circle; but such as it is the Frenchmen take possession
of it. They make their fires, sling their kettles and are joined by some
friendly Hurons and Algonquins. Though scarcely trusting their allies,
the Frenchmen make no objection to their company and they all bivouac
together. They pray in three different tongues, and while at sunset the
long reach of forest on the farther shore basks peacefully in the level rays,
the rapids join their distant music to the notes of the evening hymn.
Dollard has set men in ambush at a point where he thinks the enemy
may be espied, and as canoes with Iroquois approach they are met with a
volley, and fly to inform their main body, who are camping further down
the river. A fleet of canoes suddenly appears and the Iroquois warriors
come bounding towards the little fort. The allies escape into the stockade
leaving their kettles still slung over the fires. The Iroquois make a hasty
and desultory attack and are quickly repulsed. They then open a parley,
hoping to gain some advantage by surprise. Meanwhile the allies strength-
en their defence and, among the Iroquois, a song of war is raised. Psdnted
in a fantastical manner, and earring javelins, bows and arrows, and muskets,
they prepare for a war dance. The Chief, who elevates the hatchet, has his
View of Qyebec in 1759
Plan of Qyebec in 1663
Cap Rouge, where British Fleet Anchored. 1759
Orarii iarrer^ f^«ar /V iil ::r L-ivgu Lniver^ir/ -c "tie -qrr
Little Champlain Street
The Caleche — A favorite with the tourists
Deacription of the Pageants 35
face, shoulders and breast blackened with charcoal. Having sung for a
time, he raises his voice and signifies to all his assistants that he offers a
sacrifice to the god of war, whom he thus addresses: —
" I invoke thee, that thou wouldst be favourable to my enterprise and
have compassion upon me and my tribe. I likewise supplicate all the good
and evil spirits, those who inhabit the air, who perambulate and who pene-
trate the earth, to preserve me and my party, and to grant, that after a
prosperous journey we may return to our own country." The whole of
theassembly replies by "ho! ho!'' and accompanies, with these reiterated
exclamations, all the vows which it forms and all the prayers which it offers.
The chief raises the war-song and begins the dance by striking a
vessel with his club; at different periods of the song all join in chorus by
enouncing the syllables "he, he." Every person who elevates the signal
of war, strikes the vessel in turn and dances in the same manner.
Before the allies have finished strengthening their defence the Iroquois
have recommenced the attack, and kindle bark and rush to pile it blazing
against the palisade. But they are met by a steady fire and again fall
back. Many are left on the ground, the Chief of the Senecas among them,
and the savage allies dashing out cut off the heads of a chieftain and others
of the slain and stick them on the palisade, while the Iroquois howl in frenzy
of rage. The Hurons among them shout to their countrymen in the
camp, who, one, two or three at a time, climb the palisade and run over to
the enemy among the hootings and execrations of the deserted.
Then the Iroquois advance cautiously, screeching, leaping from side
to side and firing as they come on. Every loophole darts tongues of fire
from heavy musketoons and muskets. The Iroquois fall back discomfited,
some of them are for returning home, others object, saying to return
would be a disgrace.
Then the principal chief gathers bundles of sticks and places them
in the earth in order calling each by the name of some warrior, a few
— taller than the rest — ^representing subordinate chiefs. Thus he indicates
the position which each is to hold at the battle. All gather about and
attentively study the sticks, ranged like a child's wooden soldiers, or the
pieces on a chessboard; then with no further instruction they form their
Covered by large and heavy shields made by lashing together three
Slit lop with cross-bars, the band advances, followed by a motley throng
wamors. They reach the palisade in spite of fire and crouching below
raage of shot hew furiously with hatchets to cut their way through. The
rest follow closely, swarming like angry hornets about the fort, hacking and
tearing to get in. DoUard has a large musketoon plugged with powder up
to the muzzle; he lights the fuse and tries to throw it over the barricade to
burst like a grenade, but it strikes the ragged top of the palisade and, falling
backwith a loud report, creates terrible havoc among the Frenchmen. There
is great confusion and the Iroquois reaching the loopholes, thrust in their
guns and fire on those within. A breach is made in the palisade, but the
few survivors keep up the fight with the sword and knife in hand, fighting
the mass of enemies with the fury of madmen, till the Iroquois, despairing
of taking them alive, fire volley after volley, shooting them down. Then
there arises a burst of triumphant yells. All is over.
The bodies of the Frenchmen are burnt in the fort; while "Koay" is
cried sharply and triumphantly by the Indians for their own victorious
36 Description of the Pageants
dead. To the beat of drums the train moves ofiF uttering plaintive and
mournful sounds and bearing the bodies of the dead in procession, with
their trophies elevated on poles.
Historical Notes on the Fifth Pageant.
By a royal warrant dated November, 1663, Alexandre de Prouville,
Marquis de Tracy, was created Lieutenant-General for Louis XIV, of all
the French possessions in North America, " with power over all the generals,
Ueutenant-generals and all other officers both civil and miUtary." Tracy
had grown old in the service of the King. As a Ueutenant-general in the
French army and commissary-general of the army in Germany, he had
given many proofs of bravery in the field, of prudence in council, and of
wisdom in deUcate negotiation. The King in investing him with the widest
powers, assigned to him as a body-guard four companies of infantry bearing
the colours of the royal guards, and fitted out for his use two ships of war,
the Brizi and the TerroUy which sailed in company with a fleet laden
with supplies and ammunition.
The Marquis de Tracy, with many noblemen in his brilliant suite,
left Rochelle on February 26, 1664, for Cayenne, which had recently been
ceded again to France by the government of Holland. Two months were
spent in the voyage and in re-estabUshing French domination in Guade-
loupe, Martinique and St. Dominica. Tracy then sailed north for the
St. Lawrence. His flagship, the BrizS, was moored at Perc6, where two
ships were fitted out to conduct him to Quebec with his suite and the four
companies of infantry bearing the royal colours. The members of the
ConseU Souverain sent a royal galley from Quebec to meet him; the citizens
had prepared a royal welcome. Tracy landed at Quebec in June, 1666,
amidst acclamations of the populace such had never been equalled in
the annals of New France. He was escorted to the portals of the church,
where Mgr. de Laval, at the head of his clergy, received him with solemn
ceremony. Tracy was conducted to the chancel, where a prie-LHeu had
been prepared for him. The humble marquis, however, declined the
proffered distinction and knelt Uke the lowliest of his fellow worshippers
on the bare floor of the church.
A Te Deum "with organ and music," says a memoir of the period,
was sung, and the prelate conducted the Lieutenant-General with the
same ceremony to the Ch&teau St. Louis, where the colonial authorities
paid him their respects.
Previous to M. de Tracy's arrival at Quebec, a ship sent out direct
from France had landed four companies of the Carignan-Sali^res regiment.
It was a new and wonderful spectacle to the Frenchmen brought up in
the coimtry to see five or six hundred regular troops, preceded by martial
music, march under their colours and manoeuvre with a precision un-
dreamed of in Canada. The veterans of the Carignan regiment had recently
returned to France from the campaign in Hungary, where they had
distinguished themselves against the Turks. Most of the officers were
drawn from the nobility; and many of the rank and file estabUshed
themselves among their old companions-in-arms in the seigneuries of
Quebec, when the regiment was disbanded.
The Marquis de Tracy's household was a never-ending subject of
admiration for the Canadians. When he issued forth in the city streets
MAISONNEUVE MONUMENT, Montreal
Description of the Pageants 37
he was preceded by four pages and twenty-five guards bearing the royal
colours; six lackeys followed him, and many officers escorted him, having
at their head the Chevalier Chaumont, Captain of the Guards. The Indians
were dumfounded by such magnificence, which surpassed their wildest
imaginations, and a dozen of the most influential men among the Hurons
were sent to tender to the Viceroy the warmest of welcomes.
FIFTH PAGEANT— 1665— PERSONAGES REPRESENTED.
Mqr. db Laval: —
Ecclesiastics: — Henri de Bemi^res, Father J^rdme Lalemant, Louis Ango de Mai-
zerets, Thomas Joseph Morel, Jean EKidouyt, Father Rafeix, Father Jacques Bonin
(Jesuit), Ren^ Chartier (first Chaplain of the Ursulines), Pierre Joseph Marie
Chaumonot, Father Paul Ragueneau (Jesuit), Father Francois Le Mercier (Jesuit),
Le Sueur de St. Sauveur, Germain Moriir Hugues Pommier. Father Julien
Gamier (Jesuit), Father Louis Nicolas (Jesuit), Father Henri Nouvel (Jesuit), Gilles,
Perrot (priest of St. Sulpice), Francois Boniface, Charles de Lauzon-Chamy, Father
Jean Claude Allouez (Jesuit) Father Jacques Fr6min (Jesuit), Father Charles Albanel
(Jesuit), Father Pierre Bailloquet (Jesuit), Father Gabriel Druillettes (Jesuit), Gabriel
de Queylus, Jean Le Bey, Gabriel Souart (Sulpician), Dominique Galinier (Sulpician).
Marquis db Tracy: —
CSievalier de Chaumont, M. de Courcelles, Intendant M. Talon, M. de
Lsufeon-Chamy, M. de Bretonvilliers, Sieur de Brieeac, M. DoUier de Casson
M. de Maisonneuve. Henri Brault, Sieur de PomainviDe, Mtre Claude Le Barrois
general A^ent of tne West Indies Company), Frangois de Monteuil. Sieur de Cl^racq,
Francois de Gand, Sieur de Martainville, Prudent Alexandre ae Varonne, M. oe
Chambly, M. deSalampart, Sieur deGas, M. de Sorel, M. de L^role, M. de Montagni.
Carionan-SaliIsres Regiment and Officers of the Colony: —
Sieur de Sali^res, M. de Contrecoeur, Baby de Ranville, Tarieu de Lanaudi^re,
Dugu6 de Boisbriant, Morel de la Durantaye, Gautier de Varennes, Mouet de
Moras, La Valli^re, Saint-Denis, B^cancourt, Le Gardeur, Abb^ Dubois, Captain de la
Fouille, Captain Maximin, Captain Laubia, Captain Lamotte, Captain jacques de
Chambly, Captain Hubert d'Andigny de Grandfontaine, Captain Berthier, Captain
Traversy, Captain du Luques, Picot^ de B^lestre, M. de la Motte, M. de la Fredi6re„
D'Aiguesmortes, M. de Chasy, Martin de Chaulny, Paul Dupuis (ensign), Frangois
Janet de Verch^res, Captain Pierre de St. Ours, Francois PoUetde la Combe Pocatidre.
Jean de L'Epinay, Pierre Mouet de Moras, Jacques Labadie (sergeant), Laurent Bory,
Sieur de Grand Maison, Captain Antoine P^caudy de Contrecoeur, Captain Francois
de Ste.-Croix, Francois Feraud (first aide-de-camp). Captain Fromont, Captain
Flottant de TEscur, Sieur Mignardet, Jacques Le Ber, Captain de la Tour, Nicolas de
Choisy, Vincent d'Abadie Sieur de St. Castin, S^bastien de Villieu, Claude le Bassier,
Sieur de Daudeville, Pierre de St. Paul de la Motte-Lussier, Pierre B^cart de Grandville.
Pierre Daudonneau, Jean Gervaise, Jean Lemercier, Jean de Basset, Louis Loisel,
St. Jacaues, Major Dupuis, Jean Bourdon, Charles Lemoyne, Pierre Gadois, Urbain
Brossara, Louis Chevalier, Guillaume Gendron, Louis Guertin, Marin Janot, Mathurin
Langevin, Isaac Berthier, Nicolas Grisard, Rooh Theory, Frangois Hertel Sieur de la
Freni^re, Francois Marie Perrot, Louis de Nazo, Jean Laumonier.
Jeanne Daudonneau, Marie Mullois, Madame Loisel, Claude de Chevrainville, Marie
Perrot, Anne Gasnier, Anne Macart, Madame Etienne, Madame des Ormeaux, Melle
de Thauvenet, Louise Chartier de Lotbini^re, Marguerite Reine Denys de la Ronde,
Catherine Le Gardeur de Tilly, Marie Royer, Jeanne CouiUard, Marie le Gardeur de
Tilly, Fran^oise Duquet, Marie-Anne Juchereau, Marie Toupin, Marguerite le Merle de
Hautpr^, Barbe Denys.
38 Description of the Pageants
Fifth FIFTH PAGEANT
MONSEIGNEUR DB LaVAL CEREMONIALLY RECEIVES THE LlEUTENANT-
General of King Louis XIV, the Marquis de Tracy.
All Quebec is on the ramparts: above floats a broad white standard
with the fleurs-de-lys of France. The cannon roar and answer pro-
claiming the arrival of the King's Lieutenant-General. The regiment of
Carignan-SaU^res, lately arrived from France, with their slouched hats
and plumes, their bandoUers and shouldered firelocks, march to war-
like music beneath their Royal colors.
Below, on the river, the new Lieutenant-General has put in on a barge
covered with red cloth, the signal for the discharge of cannon and the
ringing of bells. In the meanwhile, the strains of an organ steal out on
the air, and the procession of ecclesiastics, all the clergy of Quebec, in alb,
cope and dalmatic, comes into view. First a priest carrying a silver
crucifix on high, and two priests with Ughted tapers on either hand.
Then, surrounded by acolytes with swinging censers of fragrant incense,
comes the stately figure of the great Monseigneur de Laval, arrayed in
pontifical vestments, bearing a great crozier in his hand.
Under a canopy borne by ecclesiastics, and saluted by artillery, he
makes his way to meet the oflScer of the King. The Marquis de Tracy,
tall and portly, clothed in a led suit ornamented with abundance of
gold lace, has at his side the Chevalier de Chaumont and a throng of
young nobles gorgeous in lace, ribbons and leonine locks. He is re-
ceived by the Sovereign Council, and the Procureur G6n6ral addresses him
in an eloquent speech, to which he answers very concisely. The cannon
give a general salute and the sound of music never ceases. Then he
reaches the Vicar Apostolic, kneeUng to kiss his hand and the crucifix
which is held for him by a priest. Laval addresses a short welcome
to the Lieutenant-General, and they proceed through lines of men-at-
arms, drawn from the burgesses, as far as the cathedral. The guards of
the Governor, with shouldered firearms, bearing the King's colours lead
the way. They seem to have brought sunshine from the court of France.
On the way twelve Indian chieftains specially welcome the Governor,
la3ring their bows and arrows at his feet.
"At thy feet," says the Huron, "thou seest the debris of a great land
and the pitiable remains of a whole world, at one time peopled by an
infinite number of inhabitants. These are merely the skeletons which
speak to thee. The Iroquois has devoured their flesh, has burned them
on the pyre and has left but their bones. There remains to us no more
than a thread of Ufe; our members which have passed through the boiling
cauldrons had no longer any vigour, when, raising our eyes, we of a sudden
perceived on the river those ships which have brought thee and thy brave
soldiers to our land."
So, while the people shout and the Indians stare, the bells ring in
a frenzy of welcome, and they make their way to the church from which
is heard the sound of the organ and the chant of a great Te Deum.
A view of the North-west part of the City of Quebec in 1761.
View of the Cathedral and Jesuits College, 1761.
Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 1908.
View from Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 1908.
Description of the Pageants 39
UN JOUR L'ENVI' MA PRIS DE DESERTER DE FRANCE
Un iour fen - vie m'a pris Dc de- scr-
^'' r c I M' I J 1 1 I ' V I m
•er de Fran - ce
Dans.mon.che -. mtn j'ai
jpen-oon — tre Ma charman - te beiiu — te: Je me
suis ar- re — te:
Ce - tait • pour
par — ler
Un jour Tenvi' m'a pris (bis)
De deserter de France.
Duis mon chemin j'ai rencontr^
Ma charmante beauts ;
Je me suis arrdt^;
CT^tait pour lui parler.
lis I'ont pris, ils Temm^nent, (bis)
G'est & la Place d'Armes.
Lui ont band^ les yeux
Avee un mouchoir blanc ....
Je me suis 6cn6;
La belle est sans amant!
—Prom Qagnon, Chansons Populaires du Canada, p. 168.
.PRIESTS MARCH (Froo AjU»)-M*n(Uissobn
te Domi • num Cou • fi • te • inur
Historical Notes on the Sixth Pageant.
In the year 1670 Jean Talon, Intendant of New France, had charged
Simon Francois Daumont, Sieur de Saint-Lusson, to search for copper
mineB on Lake Superior and to take possession in the name of the King
of IVance of all the country about the inland seas.
Early in May, 1671, Sieur de Saint-Lusson turned from his winter
quarters on Lake Huron towards Sault Sainte-Marie. Fourteen tribes
from a radius of a hundred leagues responded to the summons to attend
the most solemn ceremony ever observed west of the St. Lawrence. On
the fourth of June, on a height of land overlooking the Indian village at
the Sault, Saint-Lusson planted a cross and raised the arms of France.
"Having received the orders of Monseigneur the Intendant of New
EVance/' says Saint-Lusson in his record of this memorable occasion, ''we
40 Description of the Pageants
proceeded immediately to the country of the Ottawa, Nez-Perc6s, Illinois
and other Indian nations discovered and to be discovered in North America,
towards Lake Superior, or Mer Douce, to search for mines of all kinds,
especially copper, and, moreover, to take possession, in the name of the
King, of all the country, inhabited or not inhabited, through which we
should pass, planting, in the first village, the cross, which will bring forth
fruits of Christianity, and the escutcheon of France to assert the authority
of his Majesty and the French domination. And, in order that no one
may plead ignorance, we have attached on the back of the arms of France
an extract of our present minutes of the taking possession, signed by us
and the following persons who were present.
''Made at Sainte-Marie du Sault (to-day Sault-Ste-Marie) in the presence of the
Reverend Fathers Claude d'Ablon, Superior of the Missions in that part of the country;
Gabriel Dreuillettes, Claude Allouez, Andr6, all of the Society of Jesus of Sieur Nicolas
Perrot, His Majesty's Interpreter in this part of the country, of Sieur Louis Jolliet (the
discoverer of the Mississippi), of Jacques Mogras, inhabitant of Three Rivers, of Pierre
Moreau, Sieur de la Toupine, soldier of the Grarrison at the Ch&teau de Quebec, of Denis
Mass^, of Francois de Chavigny, Sieur de la Chevrotti^re, of Jacques Joviel, of Pierre
Porteret, of Robert Duprat, of Vital Driol, of Guillaume Bonhomme and other wit-
(Signed) DAUMONT DE SAINT-LUSSON.
The other witnesses were the Indian chiefs who had signed the
minutes of proceedings by means of figures of animals, totems of their
Nicholas Perrot reports that some representatives of other nations
arriving afterwards acknowledged also the King of France as their sov-
ereign and protector. He says also that Messieurs Jolliet, Mogras, Moreau,
Mass^, Chavigny, Lagillier, Mays^re, Dupuis, Bibaud (or Bidaud), Joviel,
Porteret, Duprat, Driol and Bonhomme, present at the ceremony of the
14th of June, were some Frenchmen who were then in that locality en-
gaged in trade. ''This" (the taking possession), he adds, ''was executed
according to the instructions given by M. Talon. ... All these nations
went back to their separate homes and lived many years without any
trouble on either side." ("Louis Jolliet," by E. Gagnon, p. 23.)
On this subject Bacqueville de la Potherie, in his **Histoire de VA-
mirique SeptentrionaUj^ relates the following facts: —
"The sub-delegate (Saint-Lusson) attached to the post a plate of
iron, on which the arms of the King were painted. He made a froehs-
verbal, which he caused all the Indian chiefs to sign with the marks of
their tribe — some a beaver, others an otter, a sturgeon, a deer or a moose.
Other instruments were drawn up, which were signed only by the French-
men present at the ceremony. A copy was cunningly slipt between the
wood and the plate, but it remained there but a short time, for the French
had barely left when the Indians unnailed the plate, threw the procbs-
verbal in the fire, attached the arms of the King once more, fearing that
this writing might be a sorcery which would cause the death of all those
who would inhabit or resort to this place.
" * Thrice, in a loud voice and by public cry,^ relates Saint-Lusson, *m
the name of the most high, most potent and mighty monarch Louis
XlVth of the name, most Christian King of France and of Navarre, we
took possession of the said place Sainte-Marie du Sault, and also of \b3sq
' Huron and Superior, the island of Caientoton (now Manitoulin) and of all
the other countries, rivers, lakes, contiguous and adjacent, those discovered
Archbishop of Quebec
Bishop of Quebec
The Basilica, Qyebec
Mgr. Marois, V.G.
Description of the Pageants
as well as those to be discovered, which are bounded on the one side by
the northern and western seas and on the other by the southern sea, as
well as all their longitudes or depth — ^taking up on each of the three pro-
clamations a piece of sod and crying' 'Long live the King!' and causing the
whole assembly, Indians as well as Frenchmen, to do likewise."
The French sang the hymn VexUla Regis, the Exaudiat and the
Te Deum, to the profound admiration of the Indians.
Daumont de Saint-Lusson and Father Claude AUouez then delivered
to the fourteen Indian nations an eloquent discourse, in which both ex-
tolled, with many hyperboles, ''the mighty captain of France, Louis XIV:
your protector and my father!" Nothing could equal the warmth of their
eloquence except that of the plaudits and frantic acclamations of the
The whole ceremony ended on the evening of that memorable day
by a huge bonfire and the singing of a second Te Deum to "thank God,
in the name of these poor people, for their being now the subjects of so
great and so mighty a monarch."
I — Officers.
Daumont de Saint-Lusson, Chief.
Nicolas Perrot, Interpreter of the King.
n — Jesuit Fathers.
Claude d'Ablon, Superior.
Ill — Fur Traders and Colonists.
FranQois de Chavigny,
IV — ^Indian Tribes.
(Present or represented).
Daumont de Saint-Lusson takes possession of the country of the
West in the name of the King of France.
Saint-Lusson has set out for the West with a small body of men and
an interpreter, Nicolas Perrot, whose name and fluency in the Algonquin
language are known to many a tribe about the great lakes. The party
is greeted with demonstrations of welcome and the Miami chief comes in
authority and state, attended day and night by a guard of warriors.
Fourteen tribes, the Sacs, Winnebagose, Mennomenies, the Crees, the
Amequins, the Nipissings, assemble to witness the ceremony which Saint-
Lusson has come to perform.
42 Description of the Pageants
About the four Jesuits — Claude Dablon, 8uperi(»* of the missions of
the lakes, Gabrielle Druilletes, Claude AUouez and Louis Andr6 — clad in
vestments of priestly office, throng the Indians, standing or crouching,
or reclining at length, with eyes and ears intent. A large cross of wood
has been prepared. Dablon with solenm ceremony pronounces his bles-
sing upon it and the cross is raised aloft for veneration. It is planted in
the ground, and the notes of the Vexilia Regis float out upon the air as
the Frenchmen, with heads uncovered, unite in reverent song. Beside
the cross is planted a post of cedar with a metal plate charged with the
royal arms. One of the Jesuits in these far shores of inland seas, offers
the prayo* for the King's sacred majesty.
With drawn sword in one hand, Saint-Lusson raises with the other
a clod of earth, as he takes possession of the boundless west in the name of
the King. Volleys from the firelocks mingle with the cries erf "Vive le
Roi " from the French. The uproar ceases and silence is imposed upon the
assembly, as Father Claude Allouez begins in the native tongue the eulogy of
the great King to whose sovereignty they have submitted. So incomparable
was the greatness of the monarch that the Indians have no words with
which to express their thoughts upon the subject. "Cast your eyes," said
he, "upon the cross rdsed so high above your heads: there it was that
Jesus Christ the Son of God, making Himself man for the love of men,
was pleased to be fastened and to die, in atonement to the Eternal Fath^
for our sins. He is the Master of our Uves, of heaven, of earth and of hell.
Of Him I have always spoken to you, and His name and Word I have borne
into all these countries. But look likewise at that other post, tp which
are affixed the armorial bearings of the great captain of France whom
we call King. He lives beyond the sea; he is the captain of the greatest
captains, and has not his equal in the world. All the captains you have
ever seen, or of whom you have ever heard, are mere children compared
with him. He is like a great tree, and they only like little plants that we
tread under foot in walMng. ' '
Mw de Saint-Lusson adds his words in martial and eloquent language;
how he had summoned them to receive them under the protection of we
great King beneath whose sway there was henceforth to be but one land
from the sunrise to the prairies. The ceremony closed with a feu de joie
and a Te Deum "to thank God on behalf of these rude savages that
they were now the subjects of so great and powerful a Monarch/'
Ve • xil • - - la Re gis pro . . . . Ue • uni-
Historical Notes on the Seventh Pageant.
An hour before daybreak on Monday, October 16, 1690, M. de Vau-
dreuil brought to Quebec the news that the EngUsh fleet of thirty-four sail
was scarcely three leagues distant from the city. Phips had anticipated
an easy victory. Some time before an officer of the Carignan-Saliferes
Regiment had fallen into his hands; from him he had learnt that Quebec
was absolutely at his mercy; that the fortifications were weak, the troops
View of the St. Lawrence from the CitAflel, 1008
Entrance :o Coareau Fronfenac showinj? Maltese
Cross -aJien from ^(d Coareaii Sr. Lo«n^
"'-^ — *-Mt^^ -if h«> '^it^\*i^T> 'r^.tj
'Here died Wolfe Victorious"
Wolfe and Montcalm
Samuel de Champlain — Founder of Quebec,
Major Short and Sergt. Waliick
Killed by explosion, 1889
Statue of Queen Victoria
In Victoria Park, Qyebec
Near Archbishop's Palace, Qjebec
Sous le Cap
A Street in the Lo>ver Town
In Memory of the Quebec con'
tingent who fell in South Africa
(Ste Foy RomI)
THE DOMINION ARCHIVES— Ottawa
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS— Ottawa
Description of the Pageants 43
few in number, the colony worn out with Indian warfare and disaster.
With Frontenac in the French camp, however, Phips had reckoned without
his host. There was a panic when the English ships' Ughts were seen off
Point L^vis a few hours before daybreak; but before the messenger charged
with Phips' summons to surrender had reached French soil, the old veteran
of the Italian wars and the campaign against the Turks in Candia, had
enthused every soldier with his own martial spirit. The cannon on the
ramparts uttered Frontenac's reply to the message of the enemy. Within
a week Phips sailed down the river leaving behind him the admiral's flag
which had been shot from the flagship, and a few cannon abandoned to
the defenders of the city.
In the Lower Town the little church was dedicated to Notre-Dame de
The SoTSBEiaN Coxtxgil — ^Historical Febsosaqts,
Mcmsieur Louib de Buade, comte de Frontenac, Govemor-GeneraL
" Jean-Baptiste de la Croiz-€hevridreB de Saint-VaDier, Bishop.
" Jean Bochart, Sd^neur de Champigny. Int^idant.
" FranyHa-Magie1eme-Fortun6 Roette a'Auteuil, seigneur d'Auteuil et de
Monceaux, Councillor and Attomey-GeneraL
Master Louis Rouer de Yilleray, Master Pierre Nod LeGardeur deTiUy,
" Nicolas Dupont de Neuville, " Jean Baptiste de Fer^ns,
" Charies Denis, Sieur de Vitn§, '* Claude Bermen, Sieur de la
Monsieur Jean-Baptiste Peuvret, Sieur de Mesnu, Seigneur de GaudarviUe, Chief
Clerk of the Council.
Monsieur GuiUaume Roger, First Bailiff.
" Hilaire Bema^, Sieur de la Rividre, Bailiff.
" Ren^ Hubert, BailifiP. Etienne Marandeau, Bailiff.
" Nicolas M6tru, Royal Sergt., Bailiff. Joseph Le Prieur, Bailiff.
COMPANY OF GOVERNOR'S GUARDS.
State Parade in 1690.
Captain 3fiehei Le Neuf ^ Sieur de la Valli^re et de Beaubassin.
lieutenant De Saldes, Steur de Saveret.
Oomet Jean-Baptiste Gueoiehon neur de Beusseville.
Jean de Bonne-f oi dit la Grandeur.
Giaixle Congd. Charles Call^.
Louis de la Forque dit La Couture. Dumont.
Andr6 Foumier. Philippe Gagneur.
Pierre G^ran dit Orleans. Pierre Guillot dit Lyonnais.
Bcatrand Lart dit Laramfe. Barthfl^mi Langlois.
Jean Langlois. Jean Lanr (or Darv) dit Lafleur.
Pierre Martin dit Lafortune. Danid luuan dit £afonune.
Danid Moreau dit Desloriers. Piore Provoux.
Count de Frontenac.
Off^en and Nobles: — ^Louis PhUippe Rigaud de Vaodreml. Jean Bochart de C3iam-
IT (Intttidant) , Monsieur le Chasseur Secretary di the Count) , Loms^oseph d' Auteml,
krifiB Le Gardeur de Ti%, J. B. de P^ras, Louis Denis de la Ronde, Loms Rouer de
l^Deiay, de Monsdgnat, diaries Denis de Yitr6, Pierre de Jovbert Seigneur de MarwMi
ei de SoulaDges, Loms Th6indre Chartier de Lotbinidre, ttere Denis de la Roode,
44 Description of the Pageants
Pierre Robineau (Chevalier de St. Michel), Francois de Chavignv Sr. de la Chevrotidre
Ren6 Robineau (baron de B^cancour), Pierre Le Moyne a'Iberville, Louis Perrot
(Attorney of the King), Frangois Marie Perrot (Giovemor of Montreal), Franj^is Marie
Renaud d'Avecne des Mcloiscs-CharleB Aubert de la CJhenaye, Captain Pierre Descayrac,
8r. de RAiu, Barth^l^my Francois Bourgonni^re Sr. d*Hauteville, (Secretary to
Frontenac), Nicolas d'Ailleboust. Sr. de Manteht, Major de Gallifet.
Citizens: — Pierre Payan de Noynn, Denis Roberge, Jean Martel, Henri de St. Vin-
cent, Alexandre le Gardeur, Etienne Bouchard, Jean de Launoy, Timothde Roussel,
Charles Hazire, Michel Cress^, Simon Denis^ Jacques Gourdeau. Charles Gannonchiase,
de Sorel, Jacques Bizard, Thomas de la Naudidre, Augustin Rouer Sr. de la Cardon-
ni^re, Guillaume Routhier (merchant), Claude Chaille, Francois Lefebvre, Lambert
Boucher, Nicolas Dupont de Neuville.
Ladies: — Louise Elizabeth de Joybert (Marquise de Vaudreuil), Louise Catherine
d'Ailleboust, Louise le Gardeur, Louise Chartier de Lotbini^re, Louise de Chavigny,
Louise Catherine Robineau, Louise Levasseur, Ang^que Perrot, Louise Bizard, (iene-
vi^ve Juchereau, Marie le (iardeur, Catherine de Lostelneau, Marie-Anne le Neuf de la
Poterie, Ai^^lique Denis, Marie Rende Godef roy, Catherine le Neuf, Madeleine de Lalande,
Charlotte Denis, Ang^lique Denis, Marie-Madeleine Chapoux (wife of the Intendant
Champigny), Marie-Anne de Lancey, Louise Madeleine du Puy, Claude de Saintes,
Madeleine Louise Levasseur, Marie (Jatherine Bourgonni^re, Louise Ang^lique de Galli-
fet, Marie Aubert de la Chesnaye.
Women: — Marie-Anne Bouchard, Marie-Anne Fleureau, Marie Genevieve Berthier,
Louise Roussel, Genevieve Macart, Elizabeth Damours, Marie Francoise Chartier,
Louise Cress^, Jeanne Ren^ Gourdeau, Louise Bolduc, Elizabeth Hubert, Jeanne
Grille Closse, Louise Angdlique Routhier, Louise Chartier, Frangoise Guilleteau, Marie-
Anne Bri^re, Marie Leroy, Marguerite Vauvril, Marie-Anne Renouard.
Seventh SEVENTH PAGEANT
More than eighty years have passed since Champlain built his Abita-
lion de Quebec. The population is now more than 1,500. The town is
frequented by rugged merchants and traders, blanketed Indians and wild
bushrangers. Frontenac, who is seventy years of age, loves pomp and
circumstance. It is a world which wants nothing to make an agreeable
society. The Governor-General has attendants, nobility, officers and troops.
There are rich merchants, who live in affluence; a bishop and numerous
seminary; RecoUets and Jesuits; circles as brilliant as many in the Old
World. The Governor's and Intendant's ladies make parties of pleasure
in summer; many a dance and brilliant assembly helps to pass the long
evenings of winter.
There are ominous signs, however, of danger from without. A few
spies from New England have appeared at intervals at Quebec; one has
been captured and sent in chains to France. There are rumours of in-
vasion. Frontenac with his wonted energy has striven to arouse the home
government from its lethargy. A powerful New England fleet under Sir
William Phips had already sailed for the St. Lawrence, and a messenger
brings word of the enemy's approach. The excitement which ensues is
almost a panic, until Frontenac, bold and fearless with warlike energy
assuages the fears of the populace. His bravery fills them all with
enthusiasm ; they resolve to die if need be, but never to yield to the foe.
The fleet is anchored a little below Quebec, and a boat, bearing a flag
of truce, has put out from the Admiral's ship. It brings a subaltern officer,
the beaier of a letter from Sir William Phips to the French commander.
Completely blindfolded, the messenger is taken by two sergeants and led to
the Governor. His guides draw him hither and thither through a noisy
jostling crowd, and laughing women cry: ^* VoUa! Monsieur Colinr-MaiUardy
qui vient nous faire visile! " Amid a prodigious hubbub intended to bewilder
Description of the Pageants
him and impress him with a sense of immense warlike preparation, they drag
him over barricades, and bring him at last before Frontenac and his brilliant
staff. Here at last they take the bandage from his eyes. The messenger
stands for a moment with an air of astonishment and some confusion. The
Governor stands before him haughty and stem, surrounded by French and
Canadian officers — ^Maricourt, Sainte-H61^ne, Longueuil, Villebon, Val-
renne, Bienville, and many others bedecked with gold and silver lace,
perukes and powder, plumes and ribbons, arrayed in all the martial foppery
in which they take delight, and regarding the envoy with keen, defiant
After a moment the envoy recovers his breath and his composure, salutes
Frontenac, and expressing a wish that the duty assigned him were of a more
agreeable nature, presents to him the letter of Phips. Frontenac gives it
to an interpreter, who reads it aloud in French that all may hear. When
the reading is finished the Englishman draws his watch from his pocket and
passes it to the Governor. Frontenac cannot, or pretends that he cannot,
seethe hour. The messenger, however, tells him summarily that it is ten
o'clock, and that he must have his answer before eleven. A cry of indig-
nation arises; and Valrennes calls out that Phips is nothing but a pirate,
and that his man ought to be hanged. Frontenac controls himself for a
moment, and then says to the envoy:
"I will not keep you waiting so long. Even if your general offered
me conditions a little more gracious, and if I had a mind to accept them,
does he suppose that these brave gentlemen would give their consent ? The
divine justice which your general invokes in his letter would not fail to
punish such an act severely."
The messenger is somewhat abashed at this warlike reception, but
boldly demands from the Governor a reply in writing within the hour.
" No," returns Frontenac, " I will answer your general only by the mouths of
my cannon, that he may learn that a man like me is not to be summoned
after this fashion. Tell him to do his best, and I will do mine."
The Englishman is dismissed with a wave of the hand; he is again
blindfolded, led over the barricades and sent back to the fleet by the boat
that brought him.
SI TU TE M£TS ANGUILLE
(Vsjj;i J Jl r- l -^J "^ I r f^
U y ' trwa 4-
(Jl^J l|j JJ I J J I p \ JJ ^^^
P»r ilem«r tbet om Unte U lid ya tun i
J- I -r J J'
r I r I r r r i^
long Je OMf inrt . inj mi
^^ 1 um rr I r- I r f r 1 ^ "^ I J
iMiP it ■• Mat tnA' n • foOle, Aa kuU • l« Jms IV ui
firr'.irstin & iM ?
'\M*x,V^ •--.mmaiiiiiK -.ni" .in "•riiu.-r^ -rm 7 n;i»"*. ul -ae -'^r, =7#m« raider the Gov-
*in«v ▼'ii-. i.m-. vw ifr.n-.'.i ;:i * *■:.»-• ;r:-'* ts'.rHrr.r vi«u*-»»r le !ili:i» M 5o act.
Vr? « v.r?*n .V.i.; -«. h* 'nt 'a J i...:.*:; -jh jTamusiia zi ^tffoi BtnMiOam, La
*0vr'> .'jvtt^ttnUf .K^'ftr-t. >i;i-i.Ti' i»ii: a .h-.n'. — . iiiHr "Ste uii r«ijczEi» efl£h French
fpw:nu»r.r -^-.r^ -::•» iii,\w -j -i»» :«-niy» :p ii:i:ii*r!iii.i ▼!»: :iacrii2iJ.7- r^vnal it, or oC the
?"*v»-r.iw **-.r.'. T-uiin - vu* •v—u-**:. Tit* •ifii!f»rs ▼«tr» :r 3uu:ii 'ie auzte daas aa
•.iB«.' .V— .nr. - —wt. .'».*5-ji*r J-»ra!:i n:r i •- -.1*11 vrsj* ihict « ;:r:ceaBoaaI as thoae
r. v.rt r-jwi:w wr-'-fs. >-■:•■ ••:r^ L.-mtt* ■.•-.n-j.nei nojrr ncn lecmnptidfaed soldien
VAT. .!• iw^^i-'.? *K\:ri:thH'..
T!u» .fi:*;'- r-:**--.'^-".?'* •••Ji.'ir v— j. ''•La-.i'j: n. "iii* i:^*" 5ii~ii» :c rbe Plains, lost a
•r.ir: -.r v vj*r. u-j-. -v -.--Vi — j* -.r -+ :ifii!?»r». Ti "-le *«:t:iiii 'zAzr'jt zz bad % duei with
rv.'Afjfn'. .-j^i: f. 7 Vxri V" '.tp. z. I'l/*. -¥^1*11 i^it-a-zi na^ Aijt»r:roenbie, thou|^
v-.r.f..i.r.v*r»f- :•-.•..• v. -.lu* I/i7i~u/a:/: *:.if*r»ii -jt» j:is :c ioir companies, who
•w*x^ *acr.-.r«»i %••» Ma. -.c '.Ht^.* vaj ii." ji 1";.:. Tht* ir&rsi aenc a> complete
\em *«ut.-^u»crr.«%r,-, Tr»r» & -r^ry 'rxx j-.r. lziI -m* :?!r-zasi- t-ceaise ihe wont maci-
r.iir.#!rt cr. C* •-*■:*. T»*r."T n^rji'j* :::i-._-^ji-!zit.-' iLs T-»r» itiiii iz. -^at Tear preceding
'iji trxi }Uk"^ 'J iiA P'iiuZi* ••ts.j** _iz.:ziK^:ur ~.~i:'r :ciz,^cKS, h^crm was one
o-f "h* oirUsft* iTj-i 2:*'j»r i;*"jz;r-:i:?«iK<i si-rn* ji t^i» ■vii:u» Ft^ucc. armj* and dated
ba«c v> -hifr I^-i 'wr.::irv. I: \:ii-- iLZii**! -l v:»*Ci« :=. J-zse. 17*5. with Guierme
txA ir,^~r 'if^KZAT.^ti U LfVu^-^z.'x. \Zii. lii* \:jix=^ ia-f b«en oq active service
^Ter »ir.ft*. I\s tfj^xA, m^ 'Ji*t r«i.iii*- laj^-irfr. -wtw crowsied his f^w^Hmw
ear*)ftr hy r.i* «f'>ryi>: itari^rs":!.: .- 1^ ««i:c;ii Sa-i-l* zi ^he Pbina. The rm-
mw-.t r^f C^vvTftfw. •«■•. r.T M:c:-:cfcl=L *.: rairi -i:«* H-siLrb-i* a week before the batUe,
and oniw*id •/> wa*^ Wolf*'* C>^t* -iut iij 'r*^:r*, tas cocnier-ordered by the Gov-
ernor Va»jdr«r a! ot •aii c^wasi-ci. !•-* : -:Tt;is"a w»r» ^b* irs; to come into contact
with Wr^lfe. hxA i: fo ispi". w>i; -Jr* -i^cj^-. g^'rtr-igv in io-ii bactle&
Tfc* Carxadian R/^r-i^re wer* o^r-iljy "yar: cf ibei.'T^'ipvfd^ ia .l/an'iic. They were
nm itATXiiPA in th^ Brl'.L^h ««?:.s«^ 11 ^IL ^ni Lai =.:» ci:xi:L<eir':ic& with the navT,biit were
\mAtiT the Hfjftof: Goi-emnrft: a.i!!L:::i*tra:aoc of :!:* I>K»rtinent of Manne. They
wtiTti maK*\y ivwrnuad in Casa-da. az^d :•:<.£ :be ec^ociai side against the Frendi regtilare
whwiever th^re was any fririjon in ".h*r rar^ks.
Canadian MUiiin was cosapo^^^i o: every able-bodied man in the country.
f^pfainA of iTiilttia were men of grear local !nipo"r.ance; they represented the State on
jufiht Irjcal occairioai. As raider^ and skirmi^ner? the Miliee excelled. They bad three
MMentials of all armies — the ability to rouzh it. march and shoot. They endured great
hardfthips in the P'rencfa cause, made a moet galiant stand to cover the retreat after the
first little, and did some dasbing work at the second.
Thu Indiann w<^re uncertain allies and tried the patience of Montcalm to the
la^t de^ffse. They can hardly be blamed for espousing the cause of whichever side
ntsMnmihe \em objectionable to them, for the time bdns, as all the whites persistently
drove them from their haunts and changed the whole uice of thdr coimtry in a way
abhorr*int to their every feeling.
Thi French Samf. — The French marines did duty on shore as guncrews at Quebec.
The vcfwcis during the si^e were anchored in the Richelieu. The only real encounter
l^etween the French and English in the St. Lawrence was when Vauquelin tried to head
off the liritish vanguard in 1760. The gallant officer fought his ship bravely and when
his last «hot lia^J h>f^in fired refa«5ed to strike his flag.
THE BRITISH ARMY AXD FLEET.
Wolfe's army was just under 5,000 strong at the Battle of the Plains. It was com-
jKu^d ofr —
L Tlie ITiih, then known as "Amherst's" Regiment, and now as the East York-
MhiroH. To the prfjW3nt day its uniform is distinguished by the line of black mourning
hrnid originally adopted in memory of Wolfe;
2. 'I m 2Hth, th(!n " Bragg's," now 1st Gloucesters. Wolfe took post on the right
of thifi roginiont;
Brigadier Gen. Robert Monckton Brigadier Gen. Jas. Murray
With Wolfe at Quebec First English Governor of C^bec
Brig. Gen. George Townshend
With Wolfe at C^ebec
Monument to Wolfe in Westminster Abbey
Sir Guy Carleton
From the Painting by Sir Joshua
Reynolds, P.R.A.. in the i
sion of E. J. Hale. Esq.. (
Description of the Pageants 49
3. The 35th, "Otway's," now 1st Royal Sussex, had been many years in Ireland
and was Irish almost to a man;
4. 43rd, "Kennedy's," now Ist Oxfordshire Light Infantry, of such high Penin-
sular fame, received its baptism of fire at Quebec;
6. 47tn, "Lascelles'", now 1st Loyal North Lancashire. Colonel Hale carried
the dispatches to the King, who afteiwards commissioned him to raise the 17th Lancers,
which adopted and still bears its famous badge and motto — a death's head "or glory"
in memory of Wolfe;
6. 48th, "Webb's," now 1st Northamptonshires, was present atBraddock's defeat
on the Monongahela;
7. 68th, "Anstruther's," now 2nd Northamptonshires, was raised only in 1755,
and first saw service at Louisburg;
8. The 2nd, " Monckton's," and 3rd. "Lawrence's," battalions of the "Royal
Americans," subsequently known as the 60th Rifles, and now oflBicially as "The King's
Royal Rifle Corps ;^
9. 78th, "Fraser's," now 2nd Seaforth Highlanders, was raised in 1757, within a
week, 1,200 strong bv Simon Fraser ;
10. The famous "Louisburg Grenadiers" was a special service three-company bat-
talion, formed from the Grenadier companies of five regiments which had not been
ordered to Quebec.
11. The Navy, it must be remembered, was a much greater force than Wolfe's little
army. The fleet was a quarter of the whole strength of the navy. There were 49
men-of-war, with 13,750 men, and the transports and auxiliary vessels of all kinds
numbered over 200.
Admiral Saunders was one of the stars of the service, even in those great dayv. He
had been First LLjutenant of the Centurion on Anson s celebrated voyage round the
world; he was second in command of the " carso of courage" sent to the Mediterranean
after Byng's failure off Minorca; and he closed his career as one of the best First Lords
the Admiralty had ever known. Durell and Holmes were second and third in conmiand
under him. Holmes was the admiral who managed the naval part of Wolfe's final
attack. Many subordinate officers subsequently rose to high distinction. Captain
" Jacky" Jervis, the friend to whom Wolfe confided the miniature of his fianc4e, Miss
Lowther, the night before the battle, was of course, the future Lord St. Vincent. The
celebrated circumnavigator. Captain Cook, was here as " Master," i.e., navigating officer,
of the Pembroke, and the followmg year made the first British chart of the St. Lawrence.
Note on the American Rangers. — ^Wolfe had about 900 of these irregulars with
him. They were useful in bush fighting, but were not armed or trained for flat and
open battlefields. None of them took part in the first Battle of the Plains; but
those who spent the winter in Quebec witn Murray behaved very gallantly at the second
battle in the following spring, particularly the company under Hazen, who afterwards
became a distinguished general of the American Revolution.
Ici brillent gravds en reliefs ^latants
Ces noms qne dans le bronze entrelace THistoire;
lis sont tomb^s ici, les braves combattants.
Foudroy^ dans un r^ve inmiortel de victoire.
Le temps passe, et le temps, bouleversant le sol,
Du cnoc des regiments efface TApre empreinte;
Le tenms passe, et le temps emporte dans son vol
Les fim^bres lauriers de la supr^e ^treinte.
Le panache d'6clairs s'^teignit. Sainte-Foy
De soleil et verdure, au printemps, se d^core:
L'espoir des beaux soldats de la Heine et du Roy
Monte au coeur d'une fleur mourante et saigne encore.
Le vieux fleuve, le fleuve, aux murmures d'orgueil,
Malgr^ les vastes bruits dont les hauteurs sont pleines,
C^dbre, de rivage en rivage, le deuil
Qui plane sur la terre hdroique des Plaines.
50 Description of the Pageants
Dans Torbe glorieux des souvenirs ^pars,
L*illustre sepulture ouverte par la twmbe,
De gradins en gradins montant de toutes parts,
Mont sacr^ par le sang des \nctoires, surplombe.
La France ct I'Angleterre inclinent leurs drapeaux
Devant le promontoire oil la gloire repose,
Et range de la paix couronne les tombeaux
Des palmes de I'honneur et de Fapoth^ose.
— N6r^ Beauchemin.
Final FINAL PAGEANT.
The shouting of the populace has died away; all is still.
Nearly seventy years in passing by have brought us to another scene.
There floats up out of the distance a full-throated rythmical song and, as
its volume swells, there appear, regiment by regiment, marching shoulder
to shoulder, two great and victorious armies.
Beneath their floating standards they file on in a great parade of
The present is joining hands with the past to the glorifying of a splendid
The heroes whose Uves were given here in the past, that this song
might be sung to-day, stand rank by rank before us in all the bravery of
uniform and miUtary pomp.
The great and significant unison of voices is singing —
" Ton histoire est une 6pop^e,
Des plus brillants exploits.
Et ta valeur, de foi tremp6e,
Prot^gera nos foyers et nos droits. "
We are looking down the vista of years now. There is Jacques
Cartier with the up-lifted cross, pioneer of a land
" qui salt porter P6p6e,
qui sait porter la croix. "
There, the noble minded and devoted Champlain who has realized that
pioneer's great ideal and has set firm the foundation of a Christian colony;
the little band of those whose self sacrifice, whose constant prayer and
unremitting toil have taught so profound a lesson and reUeved such count-
less suffering; the religieuses de Quihec; the hero DoUard with his hero
followers; the great Bishop without whose steadfast faith and firm hand
Canada would not be what she is; Saint-Lusson, with the pomp of temporal
and spiritual power; the courageous and proud spirited Frontenac; all are
wrested for a moment from the jealous years, and that apotheosis of loyalty,
obedience and courage, that great muster of warriors, whose spirit has
passed into the life of this country are now singing with the rest,
"Le cri vainqueur:
Pour le Christ et le Roi. "
DiEu Sauve Le Roi. God Save the King.
Review on the Esplanade — 1830
Wolfe's Cove- 1833
Vjew of Qyebcc— 'About ^B^0
Gen. Richard Montgomery who fell at Qyebec.
Wounded at C^ebec, 1775
Death of Montgomery at Qyebec, 1775
After the Painting of Trumbill
O Canada! Our Fathers' Land of Old.
(O Caoadal Terre de bos aleucl)
^%ril8 bj Tbe HononblB Judge Roathier. ^
Mnsie by C. LcraOfte.
i t^*!' J. MJ nJ Mr r i r r r r If' L^^
old, Tlij bravr is eroimVI with lesfM of red and gold. Be .
Tlij brovr is eroimVI with lesfos of red and gold. Be
^ tbB Ho . ^ eioM, Thj. ehfl-dren own thoir birth. No
itr fi ' pi . 4, n smi par. ttr U eroixt Ibm JUt.
No etains thy t^onanM annals doaa.
Since Talonr shields thy hearth.
Almin^ty God! On thee w« ealL
Defend oar ricfats, forefend this nation's thrslL
Ton histoire est uAe ^popfc
Des plus brillants exploits.
Et ta valeur, de foi tremp^e,
ProtH?era nos foyers et noe droits.
Altar and throne command our sacred lore.
And mankind to as shall ener brothers prove*
O Kins of Kin^s. with Thy mi^^y breath.
All oar sons do Thou inspire.
May no eraven terror of life or death.
Ere damp the patriot's fire.
Oar m^itT eall lot
As In the days of old.
loadly riiall rinc,
"' For Christ and the King! "
Amoar sacr^ du trftne et de Tautel.
Remplis noe cceurs de ton souffle immortell
Parmi les races ^raxig^res,
Notre guide est la loi:
Sachons ^re un peuple de frires
Sous le joug de la foL
Et r^p^tons comme nos p^res,
Le en vainquear: "Poor le Christ et le Roil'