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B 850,987 

[n tl)« jjnctcnt (Jup 

of ^anadia 



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- IS 


Ibistodcal Souvenir 


Book of tbe if^aQcants 


300tb Ennivetsatig of tbe JounMno 

of (Sluebec, tbe Hncient Capital 

of Canaba 

JttlB Uwentietb to Ubirtg first, 
Tlineteen f)un^re^ and Biabt 






Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada^ by the 

Cambridge Corporation^ Limited^ in the office of the 

Minister of Agriculture^ in the year 1908. 




Representing His Majesty the King at the 

Tercentenary Celebration 


Historical Introduction 

Attendite ad petram unde excisi estis. 

IN pride, but not with boasting, Canada turns towards 
the rock of Quebec. Three centuries ago twenty-eight 
men landed beneath Cape Diamond amid the solemn 
quiet of the wilderness. They were Champlain and 
his little company of followers. Next spring, when the ice 
drifted seawards, eight only remained alive. It was a pro- 
phecy of the sacrifices that are exacted in the making of a 
nation. But the deeds of the founders have not been forgot- 
ten. Canada, remembering the virtues and the valour which 
are her best heritage, leams from her past how dangers should 
be faced and how duties should be welcomed. 


At the moment when Columbus returned from his mar- 
vellous first voyage, Spain and France were about to enter 
upon their bitter contest for European supremacy. The New 
World had been discovered by an Italian navigator sailing 
from the port of Palos in a Spanish barque. But when once 
America was disclosed to the eyes of Europe, each nation with 
ships and sailors began to dream of lands lying beyond the 
sunset. If Spain enjoyed an advantage at the start, no state 
could preserve a monopoly of westward exploration. 

France was well prepared to pursue by sea a rivalry that 
had begun on land. Stretching from Picardy to the Pyrenees 
her long coast line upon the Atlantic furnished her with 
mariners of unsurpassed boldness and training. It was a 
Norman noble, Jean de B6thencourt, who had discovered 
and conquered the Canaries. Breton folk-lore preserves a 
record of ancient voyages to the great bank. The Basques 
and the Rochellois have traditions of a pre-Columbian land- 
fall on the shore of Labrador. At Dieppe they believe that 
Brazil was discovered in 1488 by Captain Cousin. Saihng 
from Honfleur, Paulmier de Gonneville is thought by some to 
have discovered Madagascar in 1503. 

4 Historical Introduction 

Whether fact or fable, these legends prove the activity 
of French seamen in an age when Columbus and Cabot were 
pointing Europe the way to a new hemisphere. Sprung from 
the Vikings, each Norman of Dieppe and Honfleur sailed out 
on the swan's path with a zest and confidence which he owed 
to his ancestry. Farther south the Bretons had for centuries 
been driven to the sea by the very law of their existence. Even 
below the mouth of the Loire there were great harbours: La 
Rochelle, the stronghold of the Huguenots; Brouage, the home 
of Champlain, and Bayonne, the chief depot of the Basque 
fur traders. 

Under orders from Francis I, Verazzano entered the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1524. But it is with Jacques Cartier, 
ten years later, that the French began their serious and per- 
sistent exploration of Canada. Thus St. Malo becomes linked 
inseparably with the annals of that great stream which 
Cartier followed from the Gulf to the Lachine rapids. Of his 
three voyages the second is by far the most important. 
Leaving St. Malo on May 19th, 1535, Cartier, after a stormy 
voyage, made the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which he had already 
traversed in the previous season. Entering the river when 
summer was almost over, he did not reach Cape Diamond 
until the middle of September. Here, at the confluence of 
the St. Lawrence and the St. Charles, stood the Indian village 
of Stadacone. It was the residence of Donnacona, whom 
Cartier styles 'Hhe lord of Canada." 

Sixty leagues above Stadacon^ was Hochelaga, occupy- 
ing some part of the sloping land that lies between Mount 
Royal and the St. Lawrence. Having arrived at Hochelaga, 
more than a thousand natives presented themselves before 
Cartier — men, women and children who gave him a hearty 
reception; ''showing marvellous joy ; for the men in one 
band danced, the women on their side and the children 
on the other, the which brought us store of fish and of their 
bread made of coarse millet, which they cast into our boats in 
a way that it seemed as if it tumbled from the air." 

Conducted by these hospitable natives to the summit of 
Mount Royal, Cartier ''had sight and observance of the 
country for more than thirty leagues round about it." Re- 
turning to Stadacon6 on the 11th of October, he passed there 
a miserable winter, during which a large part of his band per- 
ished from scurvy. In July, 1536, he was welcomed back 
to St. Malo as one who had risen from the dead. 

Historical Irdrodvjction 


There is a gap of seventy-three years between the time 
when Cartier first saw Stadacon6 and the actual founding of 
Quebec. During this interval three attempts were made to 
establish a colony on the St. Lawrence, but each proved tragic 
failures. In 1542 the Sieur de Roberval landed at Cap Rouge 
with a miscellaneous gathering of peasants and convicts. In 
1600 Pierre Chauvin, captain of the king's guard at Dieppe, 
left sixteen unfortunates to winter at Tadoussac. Death and 
disaster were the result, for in neither case had the expedition 
been well planned. 

The difficulties which then attended the creation of a 
colony add lustre to the name of Samuel de Champlain. The 
Canadian climate was not balmy, and in the absence of gold 
mines few inducements could be offered to the immigrant. 
The sole wealth of the country was its furs, but the monopoly 
of trade given to persons who were favoured by the court cut 
off others from all hope of profit. Anyone could see that it 
was a stern task to clear the Laurentian wilderness. 

Fighting against continued, incessant obstacles, Cham- 
plain became the foimderof New France. Before he took to 
the sea he had been a soldier, serving on the Catholic side in 
the Wars of the League. But America lured him from the 
strifes and ambitions of Europe. In middle life it was his 
dream to discover the North-west Passage, for which so many 
navigators had already searched in vain. As this quest must 
be made from the American side of the Atlantic, Champlain 
desired that the French should have permanent stations in 
the New World. For an explorer bent on solving the greatest 
of geographical problems, what better point of departure 
could there be than Quebec? 

Uhomme propose, Dieu dispose. Champlain never found 
the longed-for route to China, but he laid the corner-stone of 
Canada. It was in 1603 that he first saw the St. Lawrence. 
On this occasion he reached the foot of the Lachine rapids, 
explored the Saguenay for some distance from its mouth, and 
ascended the Richelieu as far as Chambly. Circumstances 
then took him to the coast of Acadia, where he remained four 
years, aiding De Monts and charting the seaboard from 
Canso to Martha's Vineyard. Champlain was Geographer to 
the King before he became the founder of Quebec. 

6 Historical InbrodtuAian 

When Alexander built Alexandria he could draw with 
the might of a master upon the resoiut^es of three continents. 
When Constantine built Constantinople he brought to it the 
treasures of the ancient world — the marbles of Corinth, the 
serpent of Delphi, and the horses of Lysippus. But from no 
such origin does the Ufe of Canada proceed. Champlain in 
rearing his simple Abitation at Quebec had no other financial 
support than could be drawn from the fur trade. His hungry 
handful of followers subsisted largely upon salt pork and 
smoked eels. Everything that was won from the wilderness 
cost heroism, self-sacrifice and faith. 

As a warrior Champlain entered the Indian world to aid 
the Algonquins and the Hurons against the Iroquois. As an 
explorer he pierced the forests of the Ottawa, passed through 
Lake Nipissing and threaded the islands of Georgian Bay. As 
a colonizer he made indefatigable efforts to prevent his out- 
post at Quebec from sharing the fate of RobervaFs earlier 
settlement at Cap Rouge. For his recruits he did not look 
to the gaols of France, but to those honest and courageous 
spirits who would willingly win their new homes by toil and 
thrift. Only less important than Champlain himself is Louis 
Hubert, the colonist after his own heart, who from a Parisian 
apothecary became the first farmer of Canada. 

The dogged perseverance of Champlain can be measured 
by the fact that twenty years after the founding of the colony 
the total population of New France was seventy-six souls. 
This was in 1628. That year, England and France being at 
war, David Kirke cut off the ships bound for Quebec and 
brought its inhabitants to the verge of starvation. Next 
summer, when the English appeared before Cape Diamond 
the famished French had no resource but to surrender. At 
one blow the work of a lifetime seemed to go down in ruin. 
But it was not so. Three years later, when Canada was given 
back to France by the Treaty of St. Germain, Champlain re- 
turned in triumph. And at Quebec he died on Christmas Day, 
1635, having created the colony and carried it through its 
time of greatest doubt. 


Besides the desire of the French crown to hold the 
Laurentian valley, three motives entered into the upbuilding 
of Quebec. For Champlain this little settlement was a base 

The Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, P.C., G.C.M.G. 
Prime Minister of Canada. 

Col, Hanbury'WilHwns, C.V.O.. C.M.G. 
Military Secretary to His Excellency. 

Joseph Pope, Esq., C.M.G., I.S.O. 
Under-Secretary of State. 

Historical iTdroduction 7 

from which could be prosecuted the great work of westward 
exploration. The fur traders found it a convenient head- 
quarters for traffic with the Indians, It was also a home of 
missionaries and nuns. 

Champlain's own piety led him to wish that the savages 
might be uplifted through Christian teaching and example. 
Nor did he look in vain for aid. The spread of the Faith had 
long been among the chief impulses which led catholic rulers 
to promote discovery and colonization. As missionary zeal 
had moved Queen Isabella in the days of Columbus, so for 
generations the New World meant to many a call to save souls. 
In the early life of Canada there is no larger element than the 

The task of converting the Indians fell mainly to the 
religious orders. Of these, the R6coUets were brought by 
Champlain to Quebec in 1615. For the next thirty years the 
country of the Hurons, lying between Georgian Bay and Lake 
Simcoe, furnished the chief mission field. Ignorant at first 
of Indian speech and customs, the R^ollets took up their 
labours with the courage of enthusiasm. In 1625 they were 
joined by the Jesuits, whose larger resources enabled them 
to organize the work of the mission on a more comprehensive 
scale. Without the names of the missionary martyrs Canadian 
history would lose a superb record of heroism. Without the 
Jesuit house of Notre-Dame des Anges the early annals of 
Quebec would wear a far different aspect. 

The R6coUets and Jesuits left Canada when Kirke 
captured Quebec. In 1632 the Jesuits returned, but 
the reappearance of the R6collets was delayed till 1670. 
Therefore, during the last years of Champlain's life the Jesuits 
conducted the Canadian mission without assistance. Re- 
suming their efforts among the Hurons, they soon afterwards 
entered upon the still more formidable task of converting the 
Iroquois. Altogether, three hundred and twenty Jesuits 
came to Canada during the old regime, and in their ranks 
will be found many intrepid apostles. But judged by fame, 
even among the martyrs, no other two quite equal Isaac 
Jogues and Jean de Br^beuf . 

Jogues was one in whom a certain natural timidity had 
been mastered by power of will and religious fervour. Giving 
up his life to ministrations among the Iroquois, he first suf- 
fered torture at the hands of the Mohawks. On the occasion 
of his second residence in the Iroquois country he was put to 

8 Historical Introduction 

death by this race, whose savagery no example of goodness 
seemed able to assuage. Br6beuf differs from Jogues in 
having possessed much greater physical endowments. He 
wiw for manv years the central figure of the Huron mission, 
and perished among his converts at the time when they were 
over(U)me by the Iroquois. A Norman by birth and stature, 
he had in their fullest measure the Norman qualities of firm- 
ness and determination. The dreadful story of his torture 
and death is a tale of almost incredible anguish endiu^ 
without flinching by one whose tenderness of heart coexisted 
wit h a soul of iron. 

No less heroic than the missionaries were the nuns* 
Fired by the same longing to redeem the savages, they gave 
themselves up to teaching Indian girls and women, nursing 
the sick in the hospitals, and educating the daughters of the 
French colonists. The first endowment given to build a 
hospitiU in Canada was offered by Richelieu's niece, the 
Duchease d'Aiguillon. Almost at the same moment Mme 
de la Poltrie, a rich and pious lady of Norman birth, resolved 
to build at Quebec a convent for the Ursulines. Crossing 
to (Canada in 1639 she brought with her M6re Marie de 

The personality of this famous woman breathes through 
her letters, and is preserved by the tradition of her abundant 
gcHHl works. Undismayed by the fire of 1650 which drove 
the ITrsulinos from their home, she resisted all counsel to give 
up the work of her order in Canada and return to France. 
Ci>mbining great practical ability with the spirit of the 
m\^tio, she plunged without thought of retreat into the toils 
and privations of the wilderness. W hen she came to Canada 
tlv*re were less than two hundred people in the whole colony. 
But she could not ha^^ striven harder had a million depended 
on her care, or had the Indians been grateful instead of per- 
Nt^rstv Seated beneath the ash tree at Quebec where she 
taught the voung savages and la\ished on them her affection, 
Mario do rlncarnation remains to this day one of the most 
typical figures from out the old r^me. 


The ;«acounre of the colonv was the Iroquois. Drivoi 
into hostility by lliamplain's league with his enemies, they 

o i 


UJ o 

o ^ 

d I 







The National Battlefields Commission 

Byron E. Walker. 

D.C.L. LLD..F.G.S. 

Prctideni Champlain Society 

Hon. Addard Turgeon. C.M.G. ^°'- ^^^''8^ T. Denison 

^ Ck l>Q%«|K«y. CMC ' JbiM Stcfftiwy 

Historical Introduction 9 

descended like panthers upon every settlement that fringed 
the Richelieu or the St. Lawrence. The scalping knife and 
the tomahawk were not their worst weapons. The captive 
whom they gave over to the torture suffered everything that 
it is possible for mortal to endure. 

Thus for ninety years the history of New France was 
one long struggle with this relentless foe. As late as 1663 
there were only twenty-five hundred colonists against seven- 
teen thousand of the Iroquois. Now and then came an interval 
of peace, but in the early, most heroic days strife was inces- 
sant. The Canadian grew to manhood amid daily dangers. 
The instinct of self-preservation made him fight to preserve 
his home, his wife, his children. Hence many daring feats 
of arms. But the noblest of all is Bollard's battle at the 
Long Sault. 

It is an episode in the '^holy wars'' of Montreal. This 
settlement, founded thirty-four years after Quebec, was called 
into being as a religious citadel. The first band of colonists 
numbered forty-four, of whom four were women. Maison- 
neuve, the leader, had the soul of a crusader. Jeanne Mance, 
in whose charge was placed the hospital, did not shrink from 
the perils to which women, Uke men, were exposed at this 
extreme outpost of French occupation. No one who went 
to his work within a hundred yards from the fort could tell 
when he would fall into an ambush. The first inhabitants 
of Montreal placed religion before every other human interest, 
They longed to revive the life of the Early Church. They 
strove to convert the Indians. Even when they repelled 
attack it was in the spirit of martyrs to the faith. 

Bollard went out with sixteen companions to meet a force 
of seven hundred Iroquois, who had resolved upon the com- 
plete destruction of Montreal. Even then, in 1660, its people 
were but a handful. To save them from the risk of siege and 
sack. Bollard resolved to give the savages such a taste of 
French courage that they would desist from their attempt. 
He and his followers knew that they courted death. Each 
made his will and took the sacrament. By the gift of their 
lives, freely laid down in the service of their fellows, they were 
resolved to stem the tide of Iroquois attack. 

The scene of this superb and unexampled fight was the 
rapid of the Long Sault on the Ottawa. For the details of 
the story we are indebted to some Hurons who joined the 

10 Historical Introduction 

French on their way up the river, but in the heat of the action 
deserted them through fear. 

Of the two war parties coming against Montreal the 
smaller descended the Ottawa, and the larger the Richelieu. 
Bollard's plan was to take up a position in ambush at the 
foot of the Long Sault, and try conclusions with those of the 
Iroquois whom he could intercept at that point. His de- 
fences were a poorly built fort which had been left by some 
Algonquins, and a breastwork, part earth, part stones, that 
the French themselves threw up. 

Having destroyed some of the Iroquois in ambush, 
Dollard prepared to stand a siege in this rude entrenchment. 
The Iroquois seized his canoes, so there was no chance of 
escape. The savages next tried to burn out the French, 
but were driven back repeatedly by musket fire. Such were 
their losses that they decided to wait till the war party from 
the Richelieu should arrive. This caused a delay of five days 
during which Dollard and his men were closely beleaguered 
and cut off from water. 

In the final scene there were seven hundred shrieking 
Iroquois outside the rude pile of logs which DoUard defended 
with sixteen Frenchmen, forty Hurons and four Algonquins. 
Seeing the fatal odds most of the Hurons deserted, so that 
during the last three days of the struggle the Montrealistes 
stood almost alone. When the final assault came they had 
been living for ten days on dry hominy and such moisture as 
they could coUect by digging a hole in the ground beneath 
their feet. 

Stung with shame at so many repulses, the Iroquois 
finally selected leaders of a forlorn hope, and charged the fort 
in one frantic mass. Then followed the most tragic incident 
of the defence, for by mischance a grenade which DoUard 
flung aloft to alight in the enemy's midst struck a branch 
and, falling back, exploded in the fort. ^^But despite this 
catastrophe," says DoUier de Casson, ''every man fought as 
though he had the heart of a Uon, defending himself with 
sword thrusts and pistol shots." Dollard was among the 
first to be slain, but undeterred the rest fought on tiU they 
were cut down one by one. Not a man survived. 

But Montreal was saved, for the savages wanted no more 
fighting against such foes. 

The Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, 
P.C., K.C.M.G. 

Chief Justice of Canada 

R. L Borden, K.C., 
Leader of the Opposition 

General Lake. C.B.. C.M.G. 
Inspector General of the Canadian Forces 

Brigadier General W. B. Otter, < 
In Command of the Forces during the Cele 


* Bishop Mountain 
First English Bishop of C^ebec 

The Right Rev. A. H. Dunn 
Lord Bishop of Quebec 

Very Rev. Dean William 

English Cathedral, Quebec 

Historical Ivtroduction 11 

On the morning of June 30th, 1665, all Quebec was in 
a transport of joy. Cannon were booming and bells 
ringing as all the world dressed in its best hastened to the 
landing place. At the head of the procession went Mon- 
seigneur Laval, Vicar Apostolic and Bishop of Petrsea. He 
was to meet the King's Lieutenant-General, the Marquis 
de Tracy. 

It was no ordinary occasion. Louis XIV, then in the 
prime of his youthful vigour, had determined that the strug- 
gling Canadians should receive help. Hitherto the colony 
in its wars against the Iroquois had fought alone, unsupported 
by the royal troops. But now the King was sending aid to 
his faithful subjects in the New World. The Marquis de Tracy 
was about to land at Quebec with a detachment of the 
Carignan Regiment. The remaining companies were soon 
to arrive with De Courcelle, the new Governor, and Talon, 
the new Intendant. In the hearts of all hope mounted high. 
A bright era was to dawn for Quebec and Canada. 

Laval, who took the leading part in Tracy's reception, 
was the most eminent ecclesiastic of the Old Regime. As 
the first Bishop of Quebec he was given an opportunity to 
organize the Roman Catholic Church in Canada. Through 
firmness of character and clearsightedness of purpose he left 
his mark upon the distant future. By birth an aristocrat, 
sprung from the great line of the Montmorency, he made it 
Ms aim to spurn even those comforts which are demanded by 
servants. Austere towards himself, he gave his whole soul 
and effort to the service of the church. What property he 
possessed went to endow the seminary which he founded to 
educate candidates for the priesthood. All his energy, 
physical and mental, he lavished upon the Canadian church 
with whose care he had been entrusted. Clear-cut, self- 
denying, and unflinching in his defence of cardinal principles, 
Laval remains a leader of unsurpassed eminence among the 
founders of New France. 

As for Tracy, he, too, fulfilled the expectations and hopes 
which were entertained at the moment of his landing. By 
his chastisement of the Mohawks he secured for Canada the 
longest breathing space she had ever known in this fierce 
strife with the Iroquois. Impressed by the vigour and power 

12 Historical Iniroduction 

of the Carignan Regiment, the savages sued for peace. Their 
country had been ravaged, their villages and their crops des- 
troyed. Instead of invading the valley of the St. Lawrence, 
the Five Nations found themselves attacked in their own 
stronghold. Hence for a time they bent the knee to Onontio, 
Viceroy of the great Kng beyond the sea. 

But the coming of the Carignan Regiment meant much 
more than a single brilliant campaign. This fine body of 
troops, which in Europe had fought with honour against the 
Turks, was disbanded in order that officers and men might 
contribute to the upbuilding of Canada. The officers became 
seigneurs receiving large grants of land on the Richelieu and 
the St. Lawrence, where the names of Verchferes, La Duran- 
taye, St. Ours, Chambly, Berthier, Baby, Varennes, La 
Mothe, Fromont and Contrecoeur preserve the memory of 
that rugged, stirring age. On these seigniories also settled 
the disbanded troops, who, as tenants of their former officers 
maintained the tie estabUshed in their youth. Officers and 
men alike proved a fresh and potent bulwark to the colony. 

Nor while mentioning Laval and Tracy must Talon be 
overlooked — Talon, the Great Intendant, the man who did 
naost to develop Canadian agriculture, trade, and manu- 
factures. Coming to Canada in the same year with the 
Carignan Regiment, he infused his splendid energy into 
every branch of the administration. To enlarge the popula- 
tion was the central feature of his policy, and next came his 
desire to make Canada in all respects self-supporting. No 
abler or more useful official was ever sent across the Atlantic 
by the French crown. 


Among the glories of Canada is that long line of explorers, 
from Champlain to La V^rendrye, who made known the 
inmost recesses of North America. Nicolet, Chouart, 
Radisson, JoUet, Marquette, La Salle, Du Lhut and Perrot 
are only the most distinguished of the many bold spirits who 
plunged into the heart of the forest without thought of the 
hardships and perils that exploration involved. It was theirs 
to have heard in the midst of an unbroken soUtude the thunder 
of Niagara, to have seen the waves of Lake Superior as yet 
untraversed by any craft save the canoe, to have descended 
the Mississippi among tribes that then gazed for the first 

Quebec in 1700 

H. E. Cardinal Taschercau 
First Canadian Cardinal 

F. X. Garneau, 
French'Canadian Historian 

Mgr. Plessis 
Bishop of Quebec, 1806 

Lt. Col. De Salaberry 
Hero of Chateauguay 

Interior English Cathedral, Quebec. Completed 1804. Royal Pew in Gallery 

on left 

■ i ■■} WK^ 


m . h^=^w K.. ' 









The " Royal William," 
First vessel in the world to cross the Atlantic by steam alone, making her famous voyage in 1833 

Historical Introduction 13 

time upon the face of a white man, and to have traflScked 
at the Lake of the Woods with Crees from the bomidless 

There was no one who recognized with more prophetic 
insight than Talon the possibilities of the far West. 
He desired information about the native copper of Lake 
Superior. Even before Joliet and Marquette had brought 
back a sure report as to the existence of the Mississippi, he 
was eager to prove the truth of rumours regarding this 
great stream. And it was at his instance that Daumont de 
Saint-Lusson unfurled the banner of Louis XIV at Sault 
Ste Marie. 

By this ceremony the French took possession of that dis- 
tant West which lay around and beyond the inland seas. 
Nothing was spared to make it an impressive scene. The 
Sieur de Saint-Lusson, who had come from France with Talon, 
was charged to collect envoys of all the friendly tribes in- 
habiting the West, and to the meeting place they came from 
a radius of more than a hundred leagues. Fourteen nations 
were represented through their ambassadors, and on the 4th 
of June, 1671, began the most solenm festival ever observed 
in those regions. 

It was partly religious and partly political. First came 
the blessing of a great Cross which had been erected on a 
height above the Sault. Then the King's escutcheon, fixed 
to a cedar mast, was set up, while the missionaries present 
sang the Exaudiat and prayed for the Sovereign. ^^ After 
this," says Father Dablon, ^^Monsieur de Saint-Lusson, ob- 
serving all the forms customary on such occasions, took pos- 
session of those regions, the air resounding with repeated shouts 
of Xong live the King !' and with the discharge of mus- 
ketry, to the delight and astonishment of all those peoples 
who had never seen anything of the kind." Then followed 
orations by Father Claude Allouez and Saint-Lusson himself. 
*The whole ceremony was closed with a fine bonfire, which 
was lighted toward evening, and around which the Te Deum 
was sung to thank God, on behalf of those poor peoples, that 
they were now the subjects of so great and powerful a monarch." 

14 Historical Introduction 


liut (ho French were not the only Europeans in North 
Arnoricii. A year before Champlain founded Quebec the 
KngliHh had begun their settlement at Jamestown. Half a 
century lat^r the whole Atlantic seaboard for hundreds of 
miles to the south of Acadia was dotted with English colonies, 
each active^ and aggressive, strong in the sense of political 
froinloni, and endowed with a sense of initiative which has 
seldom Ihhmi paralleled in the history of colonization. 

The inevitable collision between English and French in 
AmtTioa wjis postponed for seventy-five years by the local 

t)roblems of each race in its new home. But at last the 
\nglish U^gan to tuke notice of the progress which the French 
won^ making in the West. The alarm was first sounded by 
Uovornor Dongan, of New York. Fearing lest the English 
should Ix^ hemmed in between the Atlantic and the Alle- 
glianies, ho endeavoured to check the advance of the French 
by involving them once more in war with the Iroquois. As 
ho Kwkoil forward he could see a time in the near future 
when a rival race possessing the St. Lawrence, the great 
I^Hki>s and the Mississippi could hamper, or even check the 
English in their natural expansion. 

Within fiN-e NTars from the time when Dongan began to 
make plans against the French of Canada, the expulsion of 
%TanH^ ll from the English throne caused xiolent war between 
the jvarent states. Transferred to North America it brought 
on a stom and dreadful duel between these two races, whose 
fones of action until so recently had l^een se\'ered by a wide 
strotoh of wilderness. 

It is at this juncture that Frontenac proved himself the 
cneat<>st war (n^wnior that New France ever possessed. 
thmng his first t^rm of office (1672-is2^ he had been wonder- 
fully sucocssf\il in dealing with the Indians, but friction at 
Quclvo had led to his i^ecalL Then followed a revi^'al of 
trtvuble with the Iroquois dimng the period of his two sueces- 
$»oTS, l^a IWre and IVinonx-ille. \Miere Frontenao had been 
at his bests they were at their woi^t, and in 16S9, at the out- 
break of the general war between France and England, 
l.o\ns NIV sent Fronr^^nac back to his post at Quebec. He 
mia$i then ^x-enty war? old, but no youth could have 
more dash aiki xigout. 

Stone over the Entrance to Philibert's House. Now inserted in the walls of the Post Office 

Jeffrey Hale Hospital 

Chateau St. Louis — Destroyed in 1834 

Historical IfiiroductUm 15 

At a time of gravest crisis Frontenac saved Canada from 
her two foes, the Iroquois and the English. He sent forth 
those three war parties which in the winter of 1690 carried 
fire and sword to the hamlets of New England and New York. 
He brought the coureurs de bois from the far West and turned 
them against the Iroquois. In the face of overwhelming 
nmnbers he turned Canada into a vast camp, wherein each 
log house became a stronghold. It was the period when 
Madeleine de Vercheres, aged fourteen, made herself the cap- 
tain of a beleaguered fortress and issued from the contest a 

Frontenac might strike at the English by land, but 
Canada was vulnerable from the side of the sea. Here, too, 
the old Governor had his triumph, for when in 1690 Sir William 
Phips sailed up the St. Lawrence to demand the surrender of 
Quebec he was met not with submission but defiance. D'lber- 
ville, the greatest of the French Canadian warriors, was en- 
gaged elsewhere, but his three brothers, Bienville, Longueuil 
and Ste H616ne all took part in the resistance to the English 
fleet. Where Earke had succeeded, Phips failed, baffled by 
the vigilance of Frontenac and the bravery of the Canadian 
mihtia. And when his fleet had withdrawn defeated, Quebec 
in its gratitude and piety erected the church of Notre-Dame 
de la Victoire. 


It is the chief characteristic of our life to-day that in 
one state two races should be working for the advancement 
of Canada. Under a flag which was not the banner of Fron- 
tenac or Montcalm, French and EngUsh enjoy the same pro- 
tection and share the same citizenship. In other words the 
ideal for which Colbert and Talon strove was impracticable 
and has given way. Instead we find English and French 
cooperating, and if, three hundred years after Champlain 
there is no French King in Canada, there is a French Prime 

The final struggle with which we link the names of Mont- 
calm and Wolfe, of L6vis and Murray, was worthy of both 
races. Marked by the most startling changes of fortune, it 
taxed to their utmost the powers of the actors and brought 
them to the level of their highest attainment. At the date 

16 Historical Introduction 

of Levis' surrender the English in America outnumbered 
the French by forty to one. Remembering this fact the 
contest is seen in its true Ught. It was inevitable that New 
England and New France should battle for supremacy. But 
we can now see how the issue was predetermined by those 
general causes which made the emigration to Canada very 
small, and that to the English colonies very large. In the 
era of the Seven Years' War the disparity had become too 
glaring. The parent states by their intervention mig|ht 
modify the course of the conflict, but could hardly have de- 
termined the result. 

From Oswego to Ste Foy, who shall say where lies the 
superiority in courage and devotion? Montcalm and L^vis 
throwing their whole souls into a task which was rendered 
impossible by the wanton perfidy of Bigot: Wolfe, shattered 
in health, yet rising from a bed of fever to make a final effort: 
the charge of the Highlanders, which showed that England and 
Scotland had become a united nation : the bravery and willing* 
ness of the French Canadian miUtia: — it is in vain that we 
attempt to single out any one feature of this splendid an- 
tagonism which can confer pre-eminence upon either naticm, 
or upon any individual in either camp. What perished in 
the capitulation of Montreal was the Bourbon monarchy and 
the narrow absolutism which fettered the life of New France 
throughout the Old Regime. What survives to this day is 
the vigour of two great races, striving to make Canada strong 
and free and reverent of law. 

SANS MERCI— By Hcbcrt. 

A harvester of the early times of the colony is surprised by a ferocious inhabitant of the forest : and. 
with a reaping-hook in his hands, he fights desperately against his aggressor. 

The two athletes grasp each other in a death struggle; teeth and nails penetrate the flesh; the 
antagonists sway, shrivel, almost yell, in writhing mass to which the bronze gives a tragical effect. 

it is civilization fighting barbarism. 



Designer and Master of the Pageantry. 

l^ote on the paaeants 


Quebec, July, 190S. 

An appreciation of its ffistory and of the deeds of its heroes ranks 
among the great factors in the development of a nation. 

Hence it will be readily granted that any influence which tends to the 
increase of this appreciation is not Ughtl}^ to be set aside. 

Although, with the perspective lent by time, the present should realise 
fully the structure of its heritage, yet it is given to few to have their imagi- 
nation so stirred through the medium of the printed page, as to cause them 
to appreciate the significance of the record. 

But Art ever waiting to inspire, proves to us, as a handmidd to the 
Sciences, the truth of the Roman poet's words, that "Things seen are 
mightier than things heard.'' 

Here then is an attempt to recall in living form some events in the 
history of a century and a half of Canada's early days. 

It is no story of the pomp and panoply of a thousand years that there 
is to unfold, but a story of the stru^es and vicissitudes that have gone to 
the establishment of a great country. 

And it cannot be without avail that the injunction has been borne in 
mind to "Remember the days of old, and the years that are past." 

Frank Lascelles. 

Note: — ^In the few places where it has been found necessary to combine in one 
scene incidents which may have taken place on different occasions, I cannot do better 
than repeat as an apologia the words used in the prefatory note to the Book of Words 
of the Oxford Historical Pageant : " It is perhaps advisable to point out that a modem 
Pageant, like an historical play of Shakespeare, is often compelled by reason of space, 
time, and suitability for representation, to foreshorten history. The critic must not 
murmur if persons and events are found in a juxtaposition for which there is no absolute 
warrant in the chronicles, or if fancy sometimes bodies forth possibilities which may 
never have been realities." 


Pour que le sang joyeux dompte Tesprit morose, 
n faut, tout parfiun^ du sel aes go^mons. 
Que le souffle atlantique emplisse tes poumons; 
Ar\'or foffre ses cape que la mer blanche arrose. 

L'ajonc fleurit et la bruj'^re est d^j^ rose. 
La terre des vieux clans, des nains et des demons, 
Ami, te garde encore, sur le nanit des monts, 
L'homme immobile aupr^ ae I'inunuable chose. 

Viens. P^rtout tu verras, par les landes d'Ar^z, 
Monter vers le del mome, infrangible cypr^i, 
Le menhir sous lequel git la cendre du Brave; 

Et Toc^an, qui roule en un lit d'algues d'or 
Is la voluptueuse et la grande Occismor, 
Beroera ton coeur triste k son murmure grave. 


The Pageants 

Historical Notes on the First Pageant. 

Just before Jacques Canier in 1535 moored two of his ships in the 
stream now known as the St. Charles, he made his first visit to the old 
Indian village of Stadacon^, '' the town and dwelling place of Donnacona." 
Ranged along the high land between the St. Charles and the St. Lawrence 
were the tillages of Ajoast^, Stamatam, Tailla ('* which is on a mountain/' 
adds the discoverer), and Stadin. Stadacon^, on the high land just 
beyond, overlooking the St. Charles, was by far the most considerable 
of them all, for Donnacona was Agouhanna, "lord of Canada." " Under 
this high land towards the north." reads Cart ier's narrative, "is the river 
and harbour of St. Croix (St. Charles), where we stayed from the fifteenth 
day of September until the sixth day of May, 1536." 

The winter was a disastrous one. Twenty-fivi men were carried off 
by scur^-y; the sur\*ivors had scarcely strength to draw water or to keep 
the neighbouring savages in ignorance of their weakness by beating 
t oget her pieces of wood wit hin t heir palisade. On t he t hird of May, 1 536. 
the day and festival of HohTood, Canier raised a cross, 35 feet in height, 
bearing a shield charged with the arms of France, and inscribed in Attic 
letters: "Franciscus Primus. Dei Gratia Francortmi Rex Regnat." 
Shortly after the ceremony Jacques Canier's crew brought Donnacona 
and four other Indians on board the Grande Hermine, in order to carry 
them off to France that Francis I might see them and hear them speak. 

Names of Jacques Cabtier's Crew. 

Ships' Roll of the expediiion of 1535. presented by Jean Poullet at 
the meeting of the Municipal Council of St. Malo at Baie St. Jean 
March 31. 1535. 

The inscription of the said Masttts* Mariners and Pilots follows: — 

JaeqxxB Carder. GBiptain. Eticnne PrinceTel. 

Thomfts Fourmoat. Master. Michel .\udiepvre. 

Guillaiuzie Le Breton Bastille, Captain Bertrand ;Skunbo5t. 

and Piloc of ^' UEmeriUon. ** Ricfaazd le Bay. 

Jacques Mazngard, Master of ^'^L'Eni^- Lucas Fkmmy^ 

rilLcMi.'* Frant^MS 0\xicauh. dnujcot. 

Marc Jalobert. Cancain and Pilot of the Geoneet MabiQie. 

"Correfiea."' '.^'i' GuiUaume Sequart* carpenter. 

Gmllainne Le Uars^, Master of the '^Coc^ RoUn Le Tort. 

celieo." Samsiw Ripauh« barber. 

Laurent Bonlam. Fian^ob Ouillot. 

Etienne NooeL OixiUftume Eisnault. carpenter. 

Pierre Eanery dit Talbot. Jeittn IVibtn. carpenter. 

Michel Hervel Jehan Duwrt. carpenter. 

i^ii This vessel was the ^PETITE HERMIXSr Wr oacne betn$ thos changied 
on the occasion of Cartier's second voYa^:e. 

^-riLTUzs I 

Arrival of Jbcityiirs C^frtner 

at Oudbec 1535 

•Conicfcncc U.i ween J&c«; 

"^t «^* "^ o"^ Ov»«'>fc 

■O-r "^-'- - ' to V' 

c- .^.. ^«^J 

Descrij^ian of the Pageants 19 

Julien Golet. Jehan Ravy. 

Thomas Boiilain. Pierre Marguier, trumpeter. 

Michel Phelipot. Guillaume Le Gentilhomme. 

Jehui Hamel. Raoullet Maingard. 

Jehan Fleuiy. Frangois Diiault. 

Guillaume Guilbert. Herv6 Heniy. 

Ck>las Barbe. Yvon Legal. 

Laurent Galliot. Antoine Alierte. 

Guillaume Bochier. Jehan Colas. 

Michel Eon. Jacques Poinsault. 

Jehan Anthoine. Dom. Guillaume Le Breton, Chaplain. 

Jehan Pierres. Dom. Anthoine, Chaplain. 

Jehan Coiunyn. Philippe Thomas, carpenter. 

Antoine Desgranches. Jacques Dubois. 

Louis Douayrer. Julien Plantimet. 

Pierre Coupeaulx. Jehan Go. 

Pierre Jonch^e. Jehan Legentilhomme. 

Ifichel Maingard. Michel Douquais, carpenter. 

Jehan Maryen. Jehan Aismery 

Bertrand Apvril. Pierre Main^rt. 

Gilles Stuffin. Lucas Clavier. 

Geoffroy Ollivier. Goulset Riou. 

Guillaume de Guemez^. Jehan-Jacaues Morbihen. 

Eustache Grossin. Pierre Nyel. 

Guillaimie Allierte. Legendre Etienne Leblanc (>)• 

To this list of names, 74 in all, we must add nine others, discovered by our archeo- 
logists and historians since this list was published. 

Monsieur: Claude de Pontbriand, son of the Seigneur de Montcevelles and cup-bearer 

to the Dauphin. 
Mcmsieur: Charles Guillot. secretary of Jacques Cartier. 

'' Charles de la Pommeraye. 

" Pierre de Chambeaubc, 

" Jehan Guyon, 

" Jehan Poullet, 

" Jehan Gamier, 

" De Goyelle, 

and Philippe Rou^emont, the only one Jacques Cartier names of the thirty sailors who 
died of scurvy dunng the winter of 1535-36. 

This brings the total number of names, so far as known, to 83, but, as the men who 
took part in this expedition totalled 110. there are some twenty nseven who are yet un- 
known, and are likely to remain so. Clever indeed will be the antiquarian wno will 
reveal their identity. 

FIRST PAGEANT— Scene L S*"* ^ 


1534-6. — ^The Village of Stadacon6: Jacques Cartier plants a 
cross on the bank op the river and returns to france. 

There is a deep silence over the distant blue hills, over the broad river 
flowing between its lofty banks, and over the wide waiting land of 
primeval forest and* plain. 

Outlined against the waters is the motionless figure of an Indian 
chieftain, as, with his hand shading his eyes, he gazes out over the river. 
He stands as though looking into the dawning of the future, with pre- 

(>) Documents in^dits sur Jacques Cartier et le Canada, communique par M. 
Alfred Ram^, de Rennes. et faisant suite k la relation du Premier voyage de /acques 
Cartier, en 1534 d'apr^ r Edition de 1598, pages 10, 11 et 12. Paris, Labrairie Tross, 5, 
rue Neuve des Petits Champs, 1865. 

20 DeseripHan of the Poffeants 

monition of coming change to his race. In the distant encampment is 
heard the sound of singing. On a sudden he utters a cry, for away on 
the river, he has caught sight of three strange ships. 

The Indian families come running from the camp and gaze in wonder 
at the strange apparition, while the song of the sailors is heard below. 
Then, as the strangers put to land, the Indians troop down to the shore. 

After a while they return, fear changed to friendly welcome, and wild 
with deUght they crowd about the white strangers, dancing, singing, 
leaping, cr3ring "Agouazi" in welcome, after the manner of their people. 
Men and boys, women, young and old, some with infants in their arms, 
crowd about Jacques Cartier and his crew, shouting for joy, stroking their 
arms, feeling their faces, and holding up screeching infants to be touchcKl. 

Jacques Cartier orders bread and wine to be set before them, and an 
old chieftain, rising, makes an harangue, pointing out the extent of the 
dominion to which the white men are received and welcomed. Then the 
warriors, having caused the women to retire, squat on the ground about 
the Frenchmen, row upon row of swarthy forms and grim faces, "as though" 
says Cartier, "we were about to act a play.'* Then appears a troop of 
women bringing mats, with which they cover the bare earth for their guests. 
When they are seated, a feeble old savage laid on a deerskin is brought 
before them by his tribesmen. They place him on the ground at Jacques 
Cartier's feet and make signs of solemn appeal for him, Agouhana, their 
lord and king, while he points feebly to his powerless limbs and implores 
the healing touch from the hand of the French chief. Cartier rubs the 
palsied limbs with his hands, and is given in return for his sympathy 
several scalps — trophies of their victories — ^and the red fillet of his 
grateful patient. 

Meanwhile, the sailors have set up a great cross of wood. Upon 
its arms is a shield charged with the lilies of France and an inscription, 
"Franciscus Primus Dei gratia Francorum rex regnat." The booming 
of the cannon having died away, the Frenchmen kneel before the cross, 
pointing to heaven, and striving to indicate that upon this sign depends 
their redemption. 

"At all of which," says Cartier, "the savages marvelled, turning one 
to another and gazing upon the cross". Then, treating it with reverent 
awe, they place baskets of com before it, adorned with flowers, and bum 
tobacco before it as incense. 

Meanwhile, from the wigwams beyond appears a woeful throng, the 
sick, the maimed, and the decrepit, brought or led forth and placed before 
the perplexed commander — "as if," he says, "God had come down to 
cure them." He reads to his petitioners a portion of the gospel of St. John: 
DEUM, ET DEUS ERAT VERBUM. " Then he makes the sign of the 
cross over them, and, though comprehending not a word, his audience 
listen with grave attention. 

The squaws and children are recalled, and the warriors place them 
in separate groups. Knives and hatchets are given to the men; beads 
and rosaries, combs and bells to the women, while pewter rings and images 
of the Agnus Dei are flung among the children, whence ensues a vigorous 

Each of the chiefs sons is decked out in a shirt, coloured "sayon," 
and a red hat, each one receiving a chain of ^Uaton" aroimd his neck. 

DeaeripUon of the Pageants 


Cartier presents to the chief a doak of Paris red set with yellow and 
white buttons of tin and ornamented with small bells. 

Then a little girl is presented to Cartier; all the people give cries in 
sign of joy and alliance, and the chief presents two little boys, one after 
the other, upon which the same cries and ceremonies are made as beforei. 
Now the trumpeters press their trumpets to their lips and blow a blast 
that fills the hearts of their hearers with amazement and delight. The 
visitors descend to the river, followed by a crowd of women, who, with 
clamorous hospitality, beset them with gifts of fish, beans, com and 
other articles of uninviting aspect, making signs that the cross shall not 
be disturbed. A group of Indians accompany them in canoes to their 
ships, their shrill songs of jubilation still reaclung the ears of the receding 
Frenchmen as they spread their sails and steer for home, canning the 
chief Donnacona and some of his companions to France, that Francis 
the First may see with his own eyes the inhabitants of this "New World.' 


A * i A-bpow fia-dic-fo A-EA-i.A-la B inintckvMndecf nouidom'lctot A-l At, A- 

I A-b A-E A-E A 

Ali, alo, pour Machero; 

All, ali, alol 
n mange la viande 

Et nous donne les os; 

Ali, ali, alo! 

Ali, ali, alol 


A Saint Malo, beau port de mer, (bis) 
Trois gros navir's sont arriv^, 
Nous irons sur Teau, 
Nous jr prom' promener, 
Nous irons jouer dans Ttie. 


Vieille Stadaconal sur ton fier promon- 

n n'est plus de for^t silencieuse et noire; 

Le fer a tout d^truit. 
Mais sur les hauls clochers, sur les blanches 

Sur le roc escarp^, t^moin de cent batailles, 
Plane ime Ombre la nuit. 

EUle vient de bien loin, d'un vieux chAteau 

de France, 
A moiti^ d^moli, srand par la souvenance 

Du roi FranQois premier. 
Elle crut au Dieu fort qui souffrit en silence 
Au grand chef dont le coeur fut perc6 
d'une lance, 

Elle crut au guerrierl 

22 Description of the Pageants 

DonnAOona ramdne au pavs des anodtreB, Puis ce sont dans les airs mille clameuFB 

Domagaya ]bm6 de servir aautrea mattrea, joyeuses, 

Ai.—t T«o:.rt.*.«r«»; I^ voix chantent en coeur sur noa rivea 

Auam Taiguragm. heureuses, 

Lea vieux chefs tout par6i laissent leur Comme un long hosanna. 

sepulture, Et I'on voit voltiger des spectres dia- 

On entend cliqueter partout comme une „ Pjj^'l^' , , , . . , 

armure ^^ 1 echo sur les monts, dans les bois, les 

sa vanes. 
Les colliers d'^surgni. K^p^te: Agouhannal 

P. J. O. Chauvbau. 

Historical Notes on the First Pageant (Scene II). 

On his return to France, Jacques Cartier hastened to relate to His 
Majesty all the incidents of his voyage and the results which might be 
hoped for from his discoveries. The King, surrounded by his courtiers, 
listened attentively to the story of the great Breton navigator, who 
entertained him with vivid descriptions of the land, its rivers and vil- 
lages, and, above all,the noble St. Lawrence, whose magnitude and beauty 
could not be surpassed. Taiguragny and Domagaya, who had been to 
France in 1534, interpreted for Donnacona the Chief, before the King. 
The Indians were sent to St. Malo to be instructed in the catholic faith. 
"They were baptized," says Cartier, "at their own desire and request.'' 
Cartier himself acted as godfather to Donnacona; but in 1542 the old 
chief died, professing his new religion. 

Present at the Court of Francis I. 

Gentlemen of the Court: 

Three Sons of the King, Francois, 17 years of age — Henri, 16 
years of age — Charles, duke of Orleans, 13 years of age. Anne de 
Montmorency, Prime Minister, Grand Master and Marshal of France 
— Cardinal Jean de Lorraine — Chabot de Brion (Admiral of France) 
— Claude de Lorraine, first Duke of Guise (giand master of the 
chase) — Duke Claude de Savoie — ^Antoine du Bourcy (Chancellor) 
— Guillaume Poyet (Chancellor, President of the ParUament of 
Paris)— <])ount de Saint -Pol— Count de Tende — CMxlinal de Tournon 
(High Chancellor)— Guillaume du Belley-Langey (Minister) — Marquis de 
Saluces — Jean de Bellay (Bishop of Paris) — Mgr. Francois Bohier (Bishop 
of St. Malo,) — Sire de Velly— Sire d'Annehaut — Sire de Montejan 
— De la Meilleraye (Vice- Admiral of France) — Count de Rceulx 
(lieutenant general) — Count des Bures (lieutenant general) — Caliot 
de Genouillac (grand equerry, minister) — Sire de Sangey — Martin 
du Bellay (captain)— Barbesieux (captain) — De la Porte (captain)— 
Chandenier (lieutenant) — Antonio de Ley^'a (lieutenant) — Bonne- 
val (captain) — Jean Morin (lieutenant of the Criminal Court) — 
Du Prat (Chancellor of France, Minister) — Henri d'Albret (lieutenant 
general of the King) — Francis de Genouillac (seneschal of Qu^ry) — 
Abb* Rabelais (celebrated writer) — Clement Marot (celebrated writer) 
— NoS du Fail (celebrated writer) — Etienne Dolet (celebrated writer) 
— Louis Burgensis (first medic^ attendant) 

Deacription of Ike Pageants 23 

Ladies of the Court: 

Queen El^onore (2nd wife) — ^Daughters of the King: Madeleine (15 
years of age) and Marguerite de France (12 years of age) — Marguerite 
de Navarre (sister of the King) — the Duchess d'Estampes — ^Princess de 
la Roche-sur-Yon — Duchess de Lorraine — Marie de Bourbon (daughter 
of the Duke of Vend6me) — Marie de Guise (daughter of Claude de Lor- 
raine) — Jeanne d'Albret (niece of the King) — ^Marie d'Albret — Catherine 
de M^dicis (wife of the Duke of Orleans, married 1533) — Mademoiselle 
de TEstrange — Diane de Poitiers (daughter of the Grand Marshal of 



1536. — The Gardens at Fontainebleau: Francis the First receives Scene . 
Jacques Cartier and learns op his Discovery op Canada. 

At the close of a summer afternoon there comes through the gardens 
of Fontainebleau a cavalcade of courtiers from the forest beyond. 
Trumpets soimd in the distance, as the richly caparisoned horses, bearing 
their noble riders come into view through the avenue of trees. Across 
the greensward winds the long procession in sheen of velvets and of 
satins until, drawing rein by the sparkling fountains, they are met by 
groups of ladies and attendants of the court, while strains of music mingle 
with the plash of the water and the jingling of the bells and harness. 

The King rides under a canopy on a horse caparisoned in cloth of 
gold; his clothes are embroidered in gold and jewels and as great cups of 
wine and golden dishes of fruit are handed by the pages, a troup of fauns 
and satyrs dance through the gardens. Then, at his command, is brought 
in a man with a rugged, weather-beaten face, who has journeyed afar in 
search of new lands and has returned to the Old World to tell his King 
what he has seen and heard. Jacques Cartier, on bended knee, having 
told of the notable discoveries he has made and the stories which have 
reached his ears, presents the dark-hued chieftain of the west to the great 
king of France. Donnacona falls prostrate with his companions on the 
groimd before the king, and then, through an interpreter, he tells his 
wondrous tale of a land of gold and rubies and of a nation white like 
the French; of men who Uve without food, and of those to whom 
nature has granted but one leg. The king having listened with interest 
and attention hands them over to the Bishop of St. Malo, who blessed 
Jacques Cartier at his departure on his second voyage. Then, laughing 
and jesting, the king rides on with his Court. 

Historical Notes on the Second Pageant — Scene I. 

The new era inaugurated in the New World by Champlain was the 
outcome of the new era in the Old World inaugurated by Henry of Navarre. 

Exhausted by thirty years of conflict, France "had sunk at last," 
says Parkman, "to a repose, uneasy and disturbed yet the harbinger of 
recovery. The rugged soldier whom for the weal of France and of man- 
kind. Providence had cast to the troubled surface of afiFairs, was throned 
in the Louvre, composing the strife of factions and the quarrels of his mis. 

24 Description of the Pageants 

tresses. The bear-hunting prince of the Pyrenees wore the crown of 
France. He cared little for creeds or dogmas. Impressible, quick in 
sympathy, his grim lip lighted often with a smile, and his war worn cheek 
was no stranger to a tear. He forgave his enemies and forgot his friends. 
Many loved him; none but fools trusted him. Mingled of mortal good and 
ill, frailty and force, of all the Kings who for two centuries and more sat 
on the throne of France, Henry the Fourth alone was a man. " 

Such was Henry of Navarre in the Old World : Champlain, in the New, 
was a true hero after the chivalrous mediaeval type. His character was 
dashed largely with the spirit of romance. Though earnest, sagacious and 
penetrating, he leaned to the marvellous; and the faith which was the life 
of his hard career was somewhat prone to overstep the bounds of reason 
and invade the domain of fancy. A Royal patent raised him to the rank 
of untitled nobiUty. He soon wearied of the antechambers of the Louvre. 
It was here, however, that his destiny awaited him and the work of his life 
was unfolded. 

Aymar de Chastes, commander of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
and Governor of Dieppe, wished to mark his closing days with some notable 
achievement for France and the Church. He made reason and patriotism 
his watchwords. He came to court to beg a patent of Henry IV, and he 
resolved to proceed to New France in person and dedicate the rest of his 
days to the service of God and his King. 

Champlain, young, ardent, yet ripe in experience, consented to accept 
a post in the new enterprise. 

Before his departure for Canada in the spring of 1608, Champlain 
submitted to the King his reasons for preferring the banks of the St. 
Lawrence, the gateway of Canada, as a phice of settlement, to the rugged 
shores of La Cadie. 

The dream of the sailor of that period was a passage to the Western 
Sea and the riches of Cathay. Champlain, however, recalled the great 
stream which flowed in silent grandeur from sources in the West, which no 
white man had ever discovered. Here the Indians would bring their furs; 
the discoverer would prepare for his voyages of adventure; the Church 
would proclaim her teachings to the children of the forest. Henry IV, 
then at the height of his glory, extended to Champlain the encouragement 
which assured to France a colony in the New World. On July 3, 1608, 
Champlain's little ship anchored before the Rock of Quebec. 

Present at the Court of Henri IV. 1608. 

Henri IV (Kipg). Duke of Mayenne. 

Dauphin Louis. Marquis of Montpesat. 

Gaston, Duke of Orleans. Henri II de Montmorency (Marshal of 

Another child who became Louis XUI France). 

(seven years) . Duke of Epemon. 

Jean Rosny (confidential minister of the C!ount of Auvergne. 

King). Duke of Lesdigui^res (Grand C!onstable 
Aubign^ (Marshal of France). of France). 

Philippe du Plessis-Momay. De ViUeroy (Minister of the King). 

Charles de Ck)88^Bris8ac (Marshal of Gdsar, Duke of Vend6me. 

France). Roger de Bell^:arde (Marshal of France). 

Brulart de Sillery (Chancellor of France). Antoine^Count of Moret. 

Jeannin (Minister). CSiarles Faulet (diancellor). 

Duke of (juise. Lenet (Gouncillor of State). 

Prince de JoinvUle^ Du Teuil (confidant of the King). 

The Founder of Qyebec, the Ancient Capital of Canada 

Anne of Austria 



Candiac — The Home of Montcalm 

Launching of the "Griffin" on the Niagara River in 1679 

Description of the Pageants 


Marquis de Mrabeau. 
Marquis de liancourt. 
Duke of Montbazon. 
Marquis de la Force. 
Le Noue. 

Roquelaure (Lieutenant-general). 
De Lavardin (Marshal). 
De Crillon (grand Oaptain). 
Jean d'Albret. 

Concmo-Ooncini, Mar^chal d'Ancre. 
Marie de M^cis and the ladies of 


Elizabeth (Queen of Spain) daughter of 
the King and of Claude of France. 

Henriette (Queen of England) daughter 
of the Kmg and of Claude of France. 

El^onore Don (Marauise d'Ancre) 
lady of the bedchamoer of the Queen. 

Marquise de VemeuiL 

Princess of Cond6. 

Duchess of Mayenne. 

Marquise d'Elbeuf. 

Madam Duplessis-Momay. 

Jacqueline de Bueil. 

Charlotte des Essarts. 

Mile d'Aumale. 

Scene 1 

SECOND PAGEANT— Scene I. Second 

1608.— The Louvre: Samuel de Champlain at the Court op King 
Henry the Fourth receives a Commission to set out for La 
NouvELLE France. 

A throne is set up in the Palace of the Louvre and about it is tapestry 
with fleur de lys. On either hand are the Halberdiers and Guards of the 
King. To the strains of the Minstrels, the gaily attired courtiers troop in 
with their ruffles and wide spread farthingales and all is laughter and 
animation. Trumpets proclaim the entrance of the King and his Queen, 
Marie de M6dicis, and, preceded by the officials and pages of the court and 
followed by the gentlemen of honour and maids in waiting, they make their 
way through the bowing throng to their throne of State. At the foot of 
the throne stands a yoimg man in the prime of Ufe; filled with the spirit 
of mediseval chivalry and romance, who is presented to the King as his 
Lieutenant General by Pierre du Gast, Sieur de Monts, from Champlain's 
own province of Saintonge, a gentleman in waiting and Governor of Pont. 
He was, a tried and trusted warrior, who had fought valiantly for " Le 
B^amais " in the wars of the League, and held as a reward for his services 
the position of Viceroy of "La Nouvelle France" as successor to Aymar 
de Chastes. 


Wrinen W 



tetk Centmrf. 







The hautboys, lutes and violins strike up the opening bars of the 
stately pavane or " peacock" dance, and emerging from the brilliant crowd 
some thirty or forty couples take part in the graceful measure, stepping 
with high-heeled shoes, and with crossed swords flashing over their heads in 
the dainty figures of the dance. The dance over, the royal party pass out 
amid the scattering of flowers, and the mirth loving gallants as they 
disperse break out into the gay refrain of "Vive Henri Quatre." 


Description of the Pageants 


Vive Henri quatrelVi-ve ce roivad - Uni! Ce dunble^ qu&tre A Le tri-ple ta-lent deboireet de 


bat-tre. Et d'etre un vert galani! 

Historical Notes on Second Pageant — Scene II. 

Ghamplain had been nine years married to H61^ne Boull^, when in 
1620 she decided to embark with her husband for New France. The ship's 
company comprised scarcely twenty souls. Father Georges de Baillif, a 
very distinguished R^coUet, and Brother Bonaventure accompanied the 
Founder of Quebec. There were two clerks and three servants of Madame 
Champlain. It was a great day for the little settlement when the ship 
roimded the Point of Orleans. The doors of the Abitation in the Lower Town 
were flung wide to receive the newcomers. Louis Hubert and his wife, 
Adrien Duchesne, a physician, and his wife, Abraham Martin, Pierre Des- 
portes, Nicholas Pivert and their wives appeared before Champlain to wel- 
come him again to Quebec and to greet the mistress of the Uttle colony. 

Madame de Champlain was in the full flower of youth and of so an- 
geUc a beauty that the savages were tempted to take her for a divinity. 
They marvelled to see that she bore their images next her heart, for she 
carried at her girdle according to the fashion of the time, a mirror which 
reflected their faces. During the four years of her stay in Canada, Madame 
Champlain made of the Abitation the model of a Christian home. Often 
she went with the others of her household to visit the savages who Uved 
about the fort; she entered the rude wigwams of bark, gave them food and 
clothing and cared for the sick. Such were these few lonely women who 
shared the toil of their husbands m New France. 

1620. — Samuel de Champlain. 

King Louis XIII rewarded the services rendered to reUgion and to 
France by the intrepid voyager by sending him the following letter: — 

"Champlain, — 

Having leamt of the command which you have received from my cousin the duke 
of Montmorency, Admiral of France, and my viceroy in New France, to set out for the 
said country^ to be there his lieutenant, and to loci: after my service, I am pleased to 
write you tms letter, to assure you that the services which you shall render me on this 
occasion will be very agreeable to me, especially if you maintain the country under my 
authority, in causing the people there to live as conformably as possible to the 
laws of my realm, taking care also of the interests of the Catholic religion, so as to 
draw upon you by this means the divine blessing, which will cause your enterprises 
and actions to succeed to the greatest glory of God whom I pray to nave you m his 
holy keeping. 

Done at Paris, the seventh day of May, 1620. " 

Sieur de Pontgrav6. 

Sieur GuiUaume de Cagn et Sieur Em^ry 

de Cato (his son). 
Rerre du Gast, Sieur de Monts. 
Duke of Montmorency. 
Marquis de la Roche. 



Marquis de Gamache. 

Sieur de Poutrincourt. 

Robert Grav6. 

Claude des Marets. 

Pierre Chauvin, ^eur de Tontuit. 

Champlain's Fortified Residence at Quebec 

The Don dc Dieu — Champlain's Ship 


c!h «K 

A ^ 

^, Jm 



^ _ 

^V^flHI jj iJ^M^^^^ VS 






^^^B^/ ^^^^H 


Scene of Habitant Life in Province Quebec 

Some of the Children taking part in the Pageants 

Old Parliament Buildings 

Description of the Pageants 27 

Crew: — 
Heniy Couillard (captain). Nicholas Marion. 

Etienne BHU^. Morel (captain). 

Bonnerme. Jehan Routhier. 

Jehan Duval. Guillanme le Testu. 

Antoine NataL Pierre Oanan^. 


Inhabitants : — 

Louis Hubert. Nicolas Pivert. 

Guillaume Couillard. Pierre Desportes. 

Louis Couillard. Guillaume Huboust. 

Abraham Martin. Marsolet. 

Madame de Champlain (H^^e Boull6, Fran9oise Langlois (wife of Pierre Des- 

22 years of^e) 3 servants. portes). 

Guillemette Bulbert (wife of Guillaume Marie Rollet (wife of Guillaimie Huboust). 

Couillard). Louise Couillard. 

Mamierite Langlois (wife of Abraham Marguerite Couillard . 

Martin). Elizabeth Couillard. 

H^^e Desportes (wife of Guillaume Marie Couillard. 

Hubert). Marguerite Martin. 

Mamierite Lesage (wife of Nicolas Pivert) . H^^ne Martin. 

Mademoiselle Pivert. Marie Martin. 


The Indians make use of a large pipe, called the calumet of peace. It is composed 
of stone, either of a red. black or whitish hue, polished like marble. The body of the 
calumet is 8 inches ana the head which contains the tobacco is 3 inches long. The 
handle which is of wood, is 4 or 5 feet in length, is perforated in the centre to afford a 
passage for the smoke. It is considered as an appendage of state, and r^arded as the 
calumet of the som to whom it is presented to be smoked when calm weather, or rain, or 
sunshine is required 

The calumet has the same influence among savages that a flag of truce has among 
dvilized nations. The red plimiage which decks the calumet denotes assistance to be 
given. The white and grey mixed together, indicate peace and an offer of aid, not only 
to those to whom the calumet is presented, but also to their allies. The ceremony of 
smoking is practised with much solemnity previous to the discussion or execution of any 
transaction of importance. The calumet dance is participated in onl^r by the most 
considerable personages. It is r^arded by them as a ceremony of religion, and prac- 
tised only upon occasions the most serious and solemn. Without the intervention of 
the dance, no public or private transaction of moment can take effect. It seems to 
operate as a charm, in rousing the natives from their habitual indolence and torpidity, 
and in inspiring them with activity and animation. 

Their youths are more passionately fond of these than Europeans are of theatrical 


1620. — Samuel de Champlain brings to Quebec his young wipe, and 
IS received by the Garrison op the Fort and the priendly 
Indians who perporm the Calumet dance in their honour. 

The little rock bound village of Stadacon^ has now become Quebec. 
Champlain who landed in 1608 has spent the intervening time in the midst 
of the colony, where he has assisted the settlers in their labours and is 
regarded as a father and friend by all. Now, after an absence of two 
years spent in his native country, he is bringing back from France his ^rl 
wife, who is twenty two years of age; prepared to spend the rest of his Ufe 
among them and as a guarantee of his good faith to live in his own 
wigwam here as the viceroy's lieutenant in "La Nouvelle France." 


Description of the Pageants 

The entire population consisting only of 80 persons, comes out to meet 
them with much joy, and the artillery booms out at intervals from the 
little fort which Champlain himself had constructed and the bells ring 
from the church tower which he had built. The settlers include families 
of the Huberts, Couillards, Martin, Pivert, Desportes, Huboust, Marsolet, 
(many of whose descendants survive here to this day. 

After the shouts of the assembled crowd, the Indians greet them 
with the concise ceremony of the forest; they gaze at the young girl in 
stupified amazement that anything so beautiful should come among 
them. She wears dangling at her side a httle mirror, in the fashion of the 
time, which reflects their countenances; and it pleases them vastly to think 
that she has them each "in her heart." They have prepared a solemn 
feast to which the elders and chiefs have been invited, and women sweep 
the arena where the festival is to take place. The Viceroy and his wife 
are seated on skins in the place of honour and the calumet or pipe of peace 
is presented to them while the chiefs smoke, sitting round. Champlain 
tells them that, moved by affection for them, he first visited their country 
to see its rich mines and its beauty and to help them in their wars. In 
the meantime preparation is being made for the Calumet dance. They 
surround the spot with small trees and branches, placed perpendicularly in 
the ground, and the chieftain advances, exclaiming that he carries a 
calumet of peace. 

A large mat is then spread, on which is placed the god of the chieftain 
who gives the dance. On the right of the "manitou" are placed the calu- 
met, with the trophies of warfare, the club, the hatchet, the bow, the 
quiver and arrows. The singers, consisting of both men and women, are 
seated under the foliage upon mats. The first part of the dance is per- 
formed by one person, who throws himself into various attitudes, and 
gesticulates with the calumet in his hand. He then invites a warrior to 
join him in the dance; the latter approaches with his bow and arrows, and 
hatchet or club, and commences a duel against the other, who has no ins- 
trument of defence but the calumet. 

The dance over, the performers approach in ceremony officially to 
receive Champlain and his party. 

Then a cask of good French wine is broached and the health of the 
King, of Champlain and his young girl wife is drunk amid shouts of " Vive 
le Roi," " Bien Venue " and " Vive Champlain" to which he replies, ''Vive 
la Nouvelle France " and " Vive Quebec. " Then merrily singing the song 
" C'6tait une frigate, " they accompany them to the Abitation, 



c r. El r r I J i 

j l J vf ^ E i r rH J jIj 

He ' ia. ^ He ' . ia. 

You 'ken -non ' oue' He'-ia. He' ' ia. ' You-ken-non -oue' 





J -^^ J J. 

Youkennon" ' oue: Hc'-ia. He' 

He' ' ia. He' ' ia. 

ia. You ken non - oue' 

Description of the Pageants 


tctnpsqueie tawne. 

JTai trouv6 Teau si belle 

Que ie m'y suis baign^; 

Sous les feuilles d'lin ch6ne 

Je me suis fait s^her. 

Lui ya longtemps que je t'aime 
Jamais je ne t'oubuerai. 
* * * * * 

Je voudrais que la rose 

Fut encore au rosier, 

Et que le rosier m^me 

Fut k la mer jet4. 

Lui ya longtemps que je t'aime. 
Jamais je ne t'oublierai. 


C^tait une frigate, 
Hon joli coeur de rose, 
Dans la mer a touchy, 
Joli coBur d'un rosier, (ter.) 

Dites-moi done, la belle, 
Mon joli cceur de rose, 
Qu'a vous k tant pleurer? 
Joli coBur d*un rosier, (ter.) 

Yavait un' demoiselle, 

Mon joli coeur de rose, 

Su' rbord d'la mer pleur6 (rait), 

Joli ooBur d'un rosier, (ter.) 

Faut-il, pour une fille, 
Mon joli ccBur de rose. 
Que mon fils soit noyel . . . 
Joli coeur d'un rosier, (ter.) 

Historical Notes on the Third Pageant. 

La MisRE Marie de l'Incarnation and the Ursulines op Quebec. 

The Guyarts of Tours had been renowned for their piety ever since 
the great-great-grandfather of La M^re Marie had been sent to the wildest 
part of the Calabrian coast to bring the famous ascetic, St. Frangois de 
Paule to the death-bed of Louis XI. Marie was bom in 1599. She 
"played nun" even in the nursery, and entered many a time the great 
soaring cathedral at Tours and that exquisite Uttle gem of Gothic archi- 
tecture de la Salette, all aglow with the sacred music. After her marriage, 
the birth of an only son and an early widowhood, she had entered at thirty 
the Ursuline convent at Tours. Stirred by the thrilling Relations des 
Jisuites and the words of St. Vincent de Paul, aided by the companionship 
of Madame de la Peltrie, a volunteer from the haute noblesse of Normandy, 
and supported by Anne of Austria and the devotion of the Duchesse 

30 Description of the Pageants 

d'Aiguillon, M^re Marie de rincaraation sailed for the New World on the 
4th of May, 1639. There were three Jesuits in the little company, three 
Hospitali^res, founders of the Hdtel Dieu in Quebec, and Madame de la 
Peltrie with her three Ursulines. 

Great was the joy of the citizens of Quebec when the little vesBel 
rounded the point of Orleans. Montmagny, the Governor, sent his barge 
in viceregal state to welcome the woman whom Bossuet in years to come 
was to call the Ste. Th&rhse de VAmirique, The Governor himself, Fathers 
Vimont and Le Jeune, Martial Piraube and the citizens of Quebec thronged 
the landing place and acclaimed the beginning of the pious work in the 
New World. 

The hardships endured by the first Ursulines cannot be recorded here. 
Surrounded by the menace of the wilderness, assailed by the ravages of 
smallpox, braving the discouragement of disastrous fires, of war and of 
poverty, the society was sustained only by the indomitable perseverance 
and devotion of the founders. M^re Marie de Tlncamation was accus- 
tomed to gather about her the Indian girls beneath a primeval ash tree 
which stood for two centuries as a monument to her zeal. Beneath these 
rereading branches she told the story of "Him who made all things." 
The convent in the upper town, burnt to the ground on a bitterly cold 
midwinter's night, arose again from its ashes. Throughout the thirteen 
disastrous years from 1650 to 1663, when plague stalked through the 
colony* and the Iroquois scourged the land like the plague itself, the de- 
votion of the nuns reassured the wavering inhabitants stayed the cry 
"Back to France!'' which was raised throughout the stricken colony, and 
stood between a discouraged people and apparent ruin. 

The subsequent life of the Ursulines at Quebec forms one of the most 
romantic chapters in Canadian history. The Ursuline convent passed 
through no less than four sieges. The marks of the British shells of 1759 
are still visible in its walls. Here Montcalm was buried in the shell-torn 
ground. Here Wolfe's funeral sermon was preached by the Anglican 
Chaplain of the British flagship. Within these walls are relics from the 
time of Christ and his apostles to the martyrdoms in central China of a 
few years ago. No community has such intimate human links with the 
past. La M^re de St. Ignace stood by as Montcalm was lowered into his 
grave; yet she is linked with our own day, on the one hand, by a living 
nun who spent several years with her in the cloister; while on the other 
she is linked with Champlain, whose ter-centenary we are celebrating, 
through another nun, Genevieve de Boucherville, whose father was bom 
during the lifetime of Shakespeare, though her own death did not occur 
till the lifetime of Wellington. From the time when Murray made his 
headquarters in their convent, and the nuns knitted long stockings for 
the Highlanders during the bitter winter of 1759-1760, the Ursulines have 
been the friends of every Governor, and have been visited by every mem- 
ber of the Royal Family that ever set foot in Canada. 



Courtiers: — Francois de BA, Chevalier de Repentigny, M. de Chavignv, M. de la 
Pomeraye, Martial Piraube (secretary), Jean Juchereau de Mor^, Antoine ae Chateau- 
fort, Noigl Juchereau Sieur des Ch&telets, Andr^ de Malapart. 

Mere Marie dc L'incamation 

First Superioms of the Ursuime 

Madaroc Dc 1& Pchnc 

Foundress of the Ursuime 
Com«m. Qyebec 

icw of the First Ursuline Convent 

View of the General Hospital 
Fr«n did Ensravins 

Madame Boivgeovs 

Foundress of the Oongregk' 
lion of Villc Mjjie 

The Duchess D'Aiguillon 

Foundress of Hotel Die 

Mgr. De Laval 
First Bishop of Qyebcc 

The Intendant Talon 

Louis XIV 

Notre Dame des Victoires — Qyebcc 

Governor of New France 

La Salle 
Explorer of the Mississippi 


Description of the Pageants 31 

Cituens and Inhabitants: — Jean Bourdon, Jean Guyon, Simon Guyon, Denis Guyon, 
Chevalier Delisle, Nicolas Marsolet, Olivier le Tardif , Jean Paul Godfrey, Robert Ginard, 
Charles Giffard, Francis Aubert, La Treille, Charles Dumarche, Martin Lamarche, 
Martin Grouvel, Philippe Amyot, Charles Sevestre, Etienne Sevestre, Jean C6t6, Jac<iues 
Sevestre, Marin Boucher, No^ Langlois, Robert Langlois, Gaepard Boucher, Pierre 
Boucher, Nicolas Boucher, Zacharie Cloutier, Jean Cloutier, Charles Cloutier, Robert 
Drouin, Thomas Giroux. 

Jesuits: — Father Barthel^my Vimont, Father Joseph Poncet de la Riviere, Father 
Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot. 

UrsidineSf Nuns: — ^Mother Marie de Tlncamation, Marie de St. Joseph, Ste, Croix. 

HosjritaliireSf Nuns: — Mother Marie Guenet de St. Ignace. Mother Anne le Cointre 
de St. Bernard, Marie Forestier de St. Bonaventure, Madame ae la Peltrie, Melle Barr^. 

Ladies and Peasant Women: — Jacqueline Potel (wife of Jean Bourdon), Madeline 
Boul^ (wife of Jean Guyon), Marie Ijanglois (wife of Jean Juchereau), Marie Renouard 
(wife of Robert Giffard), Aime Fauconnier (i%ife of Francois Aubert), Anne Dupuis 

iwifeof Jean Sauvaget), Jeanne Sauvaget (maiden), Melle Lhichesne, Mathurine Robin 
wife of Guyon), Marguerite Aubert (wife of Martin Grouvel), Anne CJonvent 

(wife of Phihppe Amyot), Alarie Inchon (wife of Charles Sevestre), Marguerite Petit Pa« 
(wife of Etienne Sevestre), Anne Martin (wife of Jean C6t^), r^rinne Malet (wife of 
Marin Boucher), Fran^oise Gienier (wife of No^ Langlois), Nicole Lemaire (wife of 
Gaspard Boucher), Maddine Boucher (maiden), Xaintes Dupont (wife of Zacharie 

Children: — Mathieu Amyot, Jean Gencien Amyot, Jean Juchereau, Nicolas Juch- 
ereau, Noel Juchereau, Genevieve Juchereau, Barbe Guyon, Jean Guyon, Simon Guyon, 
Marie Guyon, Claude Guyon^ Denis Guyon, Michel Guyon, Louis C!6t6, Marie Giffard, 
Charies Giffard, Franroise Giffard, FranQoise Boucher, Jean Gencien Boucher, Robert 
Langlois, Maddeine Boucher, Pierre Boucher, Marie Boucher, Marguerite Boucher, 
Nicolas Boucher, Zacharie Cloutier, Jean Cloutier, Charies Cloutier, Louise Cloutier, 
Anne Cloutier. 


1639. — ^MftBE Maeie pe l'Incaenation beaches Quebec with the 
Ubsulixes and Jesuits and is beceived by the Govebnob, Huault 


Great progress has been made in Quebec since Champlain built his 
AhibatUm. Soldiers in the fort give an air of importance to the place, and 
the Governor is alwaj-B attended by a military escort. Father Le Jeune 
says " We have a number of good, resolute soldiers. It is a pleasure to 
see them go through their military exercises in time of peace, and to hear 
the sound of musketry and cannons called forth by occasions of joy, while 
our immense forests and mountains answer these salutes with echoes 
like rolling thunder. The bugle awakens us every morning; we see the 
sentuffils take their post; the guard is well armed, and each squad has 
its day of duty. Quebec is guarded in time of peace as a well-regulated 
post in time of war." 

On the landing place at Quebec on August 1st, a little company gathers 
to meet the women who have given their lives to New France in order 
that they may teach Christianity to the heathen. Of the 250 settlers. 
Dearly all are present. The Governor, tb« Sieur de Montmagny, succes- 
sor to Champlain, is attended by a small retinue of soldiers attired in all 
the splendor they can muster. Near by are the missionaries, forming, 
in their black robes, and broad brimmed hats, a striking contrast 
to the gaily attired soldiers. The seven delicate women have been buf- 
fetted for more than two months by wind and storm in their voyage across 
the Atlantic, and at last to the booming of cannon, they come forth " from 

32 Description of the PagearUs 

their floating prisons as fresh, says Le Jeune, "as when they left 
their homes, the vast ocean, with its billows and tempests, not having 
harmed them in the least." In a transport of joy they fall upon their 
knees and kiss the soil of their new country, taking possession of it "in 
the name of Charity/' Then, headed by the pious Governor, they go in 
procession to the little church to thank God for their preservation. On 
their way Madame de la Peltrie stops to kiss all the little red skins 
that she meets, and Mother Marie de Tlncarnation cannot restrain 
her joy, but gathers round her the little mountaineer children to whom she 
is to teach "the sweet stories of old.'' 

Historical Notes on the Fourth Pageant. 

The most glorious feat of arms of the heroic times of New France was 
accomplished by DoUard, Sieur des Ormeaux, in the very year in which 
the Iroquois had resolved to exterminate the colony. 

In the spring of 1660 these savages collected an army of eight hundred 
chosen warriors with the intention of capturing Quebec, Three Rivers and 

At this alarming juncture a young oflBcer of twenty-five, Adam DoUard, 
Sieur des Ormeaux, commanding Fort Villemarie, offered, with sixteen 
companions, to meet the foe, hoping that their audacity would frighten 
the Iroquois. To these seventeen Frenchmen were added forty Hurons, 
commanded by Anohotaha, a celebrated leader, and six Algonquins under 
Chief Mitiwemeg, in all sixty-four men. 

The valiant little band arrived on May 1st at the foot of the Long- 
Sault, on the Ottawa, eight or ten leagues from Montreal, and camped in 
an entrenchment constructed the previous year by the Algonquins, and 
defended chiefly by stakes. DoUard decided here to await the Iroquois, 
as they must of necessity pass by it on their return from the hunt; and the 
Frenchmen fortified the place as best they could by means of a breastwork 
of earth, trees and stones, intersected by loop-holes for their muskets. 

Hardly was the work completed when the enemy advanced to the 
assault. After long and desperate fighting the Iroquois at last carry the 
palisade, and practically hold the position. In this extremity, 
DoUard loads a large musketoon to the muzzle and Ughts the fuse 
intending to throw it, Uke a grenade, among the enemy. Unfortunately 
the weapon struck a branch, fell back, and discharged its contents amongst 
the French. At the same time the Iroquois everywhere broke through, 
and then followed a hand-to-hand fight as short as it was bloody. The 
battle became a butchery, and in a quarter of an hour the carnage was over. 
DoUard, Anohotaha and Mitiwemeg were dead, but at what a cost to the 

Frightened by so murderous a defence by seventeen Frenchmen, the 
Iroquois abandoned their assault on Quebec, Three-Rivers and Montreal, 
and the defenders' heroism saved the colony. Without their devotion and 
voluntary mart)nrdom all Canada would have relapsed into the darkness of 
paganism and barbarity, and Christian civilization would have had to 
make a fresh beginning in the country. 

On June 3, 1660; the abb€ Souart, cur^ of ViUemarie, now Montreal, 
entered on the death register of the parish, the names of DoUard and his 
companions in arms. This is the only document which preserves their 


This Tablet is set up on the site of the Sault au Matelot 

Spot where Montgomery Fell on Champlain St. 

Description of the Pageants 33 

In his history of the French Colony of Canada, the abb^ Faiiion 
first published this glorious record, an act of national gratitude worthy of 
imitation: — 

Adam Dollard, Sieur dee OrmeaUx, Jaccjues Boisseau dit Cognac. 

Commander. Ix>ms Martin. 

Jacques Brassier. Christophe Augier, dit Desjardins. 

Jean Ta vernier, dit La Hocheti^re. Etienne Robin, dit Desforges. 

Nicolas Tillemont. Jean Valets. 

Laurent Hubert dit La Riviere. Ren^ Doussue, Sieur de Sainte-C^cile. 

Alonie de Lestres. Jean Lecomte. 

Nicolas Josselin. Simon Genet. 

Robert Jur6e. Fran9oi8 Cresson dit Pilote. 

To the names of these seventeen heroes it is only fair to add those of 
Anohotaha, and Mitiwemeg, the Huron and Algonquin chiefs, who re- 
mained loyal to the French, and with them died on the field of battle. 

Notes on the War Dakcb. 

A number of males and females of the village assemble together and designate 
their manner of going to war, of waiting to ensnare their enemy and of returning with 
the captives whidi they were supposed to have suri)rised. The instrument used in the 
dance was a calabash called '^chichicou^'' which is swung in the hand to mark the 
cadence for the vcHces and the movements. They are strangers to melodies in their 
songs, beins totallv unacquainted with music. The syllables which thev must use, are 
Yo, We and Ya, these they invariably repeat, beating time with their hands and feet. 
The dancers move their limbs but a little way from the ground. 

The war dance is performed by the whole company in turn, all but the actor being 
seated on the ground m a circular figure. He moves from rignt to left in the dance, 
sinmng at the same time his own exploits, and those of his ancestors. At the conclusion 
of me narration of each warlike feat, he gives a blow with a club, on a post planted in 
the centre of the circle near to certain persons, who beat time on pieces of bark, or on a 
kettle covered with a dressed skin. 

Li this pantomimical display, he explains what he has witnessed in expeditions 
against the enemy, without omitting any of the circumstances. They who are present 
at this recital rise in a body, and jom in tiie dance: and without any previous concert 
or preparation, exhibit these actions with as mucn vivacity as if they had actually 
assisted in them. They thus delineate with considerable animation, and a multiplicity 
of gestures, any occurrence which they have witnessed, placing it in a certain degree 
before the eyes of the spectator; an art in which some of their orators have acquired an 
astonishing desree of perfection. Durine the intervals of song, frequent distributions 
of tobacco, and of other articles, are made among the guests, and the whole ceremony 
generally concludes by an immediate partition and consumption of the remainder. 

Notes on the Disoovbbt Dance. 

The discovery dance is a natural representation of what passes in a war expedition, 
and the principal object of those engaged in it is to search for an opportunity of sur- 
prising tneir supposed enemies. It is practised by only two persons at a time, who 
represent the departure of the warriors, their march, and encampments. They go forth 
to descry the enemy, they make approaches in tne most clandestine and concealed 
manner, stop as if to breathe, then oi a sudden blaze forth into anger, as if they intended 
to destroy every one within their reach. The paroxjrsm of fury being somewhat ex- 
hausted, they seize on one of the company present, as if he were a prisoner of war, and 
Sretend to break his head and strip on his scalp. The principal actor then rims a short 
istance, and abruptly stops when his passion seems to subside, and his intellect to 
resume its ordinary state of composure. This stage of the exhibition represents the 
retreat, made at first with rapidity, and afterwards with more leisure. He expresses 
by different cries the various degrees of elevation to which his courage was raised during 
toe campai^, and finishes with a recital of the valorous deeds which he achieved. 

When it is resolved to engage in any particular dance, a person is sent aroimd the 
village, to give notice to each cabin or family, which deputes one or two of its members 
to be present. In the centre of the place where the dance is to be held, a small scaffold 

34 Description of the Pageants 

is prepared where a bench is placed for the singers. One holds a kind of drum, another 
a chichicou^, or the skeleton of a tortoise filled with pebbles. Whilst they sing and 
make a noise with these instruments, thev are joined by the spectators, who strike with 
sticks against posts and kettles, or dried pieces of bark which they hold before theun. 
The dancers turn in a circuitous figure without joining hands, each making different 
gestures with his arms and legs, and, although, perhaps, none of the movements are 
similar, but whimsical, and according to caprice, yet the cadence is never violated. 
They follow the voices of the singers by the continued enunciation of " He, he" wluch is 
concluded by a general cry of approbation still more elevated. 



1660. — Adam Dollard, Sieur des Ormeaux, and his companions in 
ARMS AT Long Sault keep the port against the Iroquois. 

The whole population is in terror at the uprising of the Iroquois, who 
with the Diost appalling deeds of barbarism and cruelty are devastating 
the country as far as Montreal and Quebec. At this juncture the heroism 
of a few youths diverts the storm of war and saves Canada from 
ruin. Adam DoUard (or Daulac) is a young man of good family, who 
came to the colony three years ago at the age of 22. He has held some 
military command in France, and it is said that he has been involved 
in some affair which makes him anxious to wipe out the memory of the past 
by a noteworthy exploit. He has been for some time among the young 
men of Montreal, inviting them to join him in the enterprise he meditates. 
Sixteen of them have caught his spirit, struck hands with him and pledged 
their word. They have bound themselves to receive no quarter, and have 
made their wills, confessed and received the sacrament. They have been 
implored to remain till the Spring sowing is over, but have refused. The 
spirit of the enterprise is purely mediaeval. The enthusiasm of honor, the 
enthusiasm of adventure, the enthusiasm of faith are its motive forces. 
DoUard is a knight of the early crusades among the forests and savages of 
the New World. 

Among the bushes and stumps stands a palisade fort, the work of an 
Algonquin war party in the past autumn. It is a mere enclosure of small 
trees, planted in a circle; but such as it is the Frenchmen take possession 
of it. They make their fires, sling their kettles and are joined by some 
friendly Hurons and Algonquins. Though scarcely trusting their allies, 
the Frenchmen make no objection to their company and they all bivouac 
together. They pray in three different tongues, and while at sunset the 
long reach of forest on the farther shore basks peacefully in the level rays, 
the rapids join their distant music to the notes of the evening hymn. 

Dollard has set men in ambush at a point where he thinks the enemy 
may be espied, and as canoes with Iroquois approach they are met with a 
volley, and fly to inform their main body, who are camping further down 
the river. A fleet of canoes suddenly appears and the Iroquois warriors 
come bounding towards the little fort. The allies escape into the stockade 
leaving their kettles still slung over the fires. The Iroquois make a hasty 
and desultory attack and are quickly repulsed. They then open a parley, 
hoping to gain some advantage by surprise. Meanwhile the allies strength- 
en their defence and, among the Iroquois, a song of war is raised. Psdnted 
in a fantastical manner, and earring javelins, bows and arrows, and muskets, 
they prepare for a war dance. The Chief, who elevates the hatchet, has his 

View of Qyebec in 1759 

Plan of Qyebec in 1663 

Cap Rouge, where British Fleet Anchored. 1759 

Orarii iarrer^ f^«ar /V iil ::r L-ivgu Lniver^ir/ -c "tie -qrr 

^eakneck Seeps 

Little Champlain Street 

The Caleche — A favorite with the tourists 

Deacription of the Pageants 35 

face, shoulders and breast blackened with charcoal. Having sung for a 
time, he raises his voice and signifies to all his assistants that he offers a 
sacrifice to the god of war, whom he thus addresses: — 

" I invoke thee, that thou wouldst be favourable to my enterprise and 
have compassion upon me and my tribe. I likewise supplicate all the good 
and evil spirits, those who inhabit the air, who perambulate and who pene- 
trate the earth, to preserve me and my party, and to grant, that after a 
prosperous journey we may return to our own country." The whole of 
theassembly replies by "ho! ho!'' and accompanies, with these reiterated 
exclamations, all the vows which it forms and all the prayers which it offers. 

The chief raises the war-song and begins the dance by striking a 
vessel with his club; at different periods of the song all join in chorus by 
enouncing the syllables "he, he." Every person who elevates the signal 
of war, strikes the vessel in turn and dances in the same manner. 

Before the allies have finished strengthening their defence the Iroquois 
have recommenced the attack, and kindle bark and rush to pile it blazing 
against the palisade. But they are met by a steady fire and again fall 
back. Many are left on the ground, the Chief of the Senecas among them, 
and the savage allies dashing out cut off the heads of a chieftain and others 
of the slain and stick them on the palisade, while the Iroquois howl in frenzy 
of rage. The Hurons among them shout to their countrymen in the 
camp, who, one, two or three at a time, climb the palisade and run over to 
the enemy among the hootings and execrations of the deserted. 

Then the Iroquois advance cautiously, screeching, leaping from side 
to side and firing as they come on. Every loophole darts tongues of fire 
from heavy musketoons and muskets. The Iroquois fall back discomfited, 
some of them are for returning home, others object, saying to return 
would be a disgrace. 

Then the principal chief gathers bundles of sticks and places them 
in the earth in order calling each by the name of some warrior, a few 
— taller than the rest — ^representing subordinate chiefs. Thus he indicates 
the position which each is to hold at the battle. All gather about and 
attentively study the sticks, ranged like a child's wooden soldiers, or the 
pieces on a chessboard; then with no further instruction they form their 

Covered by large and heavy shields made by lashing together three 

Slit lop with cross-bars, the band advances, followed by a motley throng 
wamors. They reach the palisade in spite of fire and crouching below 
raage of shot hew furiously with hatchets to cut their way through. The 
rest follow closely, swarming like angry hornets about the fort, hacking and 
tearing to get in. DoUard has a large musketoon plugged with powder up 
to the muzzle; he lights the fuse and tries to throw it over the barricade to 
burst like a grenade, but it strikes the ragged top of the palisade and, falling 
backwith a loud report, creates terrible havoc among the Frenchmen. There 
is great confusion and the Iroquois reaching the loopholes, thrust in their 
guns and fire on those within. A breach is made in the palisade, but the 
few survivors keep up the fight with the sword and knife in hand, fighting 
the mass of enemies with the fury of madmen, till the Iroquois, despairing 
of taking them alive, fire volley after volley, shooting them down. Then 
there arises a burst of triumphant yells. All is over. 

The bodies of the Frenchmen are burnt in the fort; while "Koay" is 
cried sharply and triumphantly by the Indians for their own victorious 

36 Description of the Pageants 

dead. To the beat of drums the train moves ofiF uttering plaintive and 
mournful sounds and bearing the bodies of the dead in procession, with 
their trophies elevated on poles. 

Historical Notes on the Fifth Pageant. 

By a royal warrant dated November, 1663, Alexandre de Prouville, 
Marquis de Tracy, was created Lieutenant-General for Louis XIV, of all 
the French possessions in North America, " with power over all the generals, 
Ueutenant-generals and all other officers both civil and miUtary." Tracy 
had grown old in the service of the King. As a Ueutenant-general in the 
French army and commissary-general of the army in Germany, he had 
given many proofs of bravery in the field, of prudence in council, and of 
wisdom in deUcate negotiation. The King in investing him with the widest 
powers, assigned to him as a body-guard four companies of infantry bearing 
the colours of the royal guards, and fitted out for his use two ships of war, 
the Brizi and the TerroUy which sailed in company with a fleet laden 
with supplies and ammunition. 

The Marquis de Tracy, with many noblemen in his brilliant suite, 
left Rochelle on February 26, 1664, for Cayenne, which had recently been 
ceded again to France by the government of Holland. Two months were 
spent in the voyage and in re-estabUshing French domination in Guade- 
loupe, Martinique and St. Dominica. Tracy then sailed north for the 
St. Lawrence. His flagship, the BrizS, was moored at Perc6, where two 
ships were fitted out to conduct him to Quebec with his suite and the four 
companies of infantry bearing the royal colours. The members of the 
ConseU Souverain sent a royal galley from Quebec to meet him; the citizens 
had prepared a royal welcome. Tracy landed at Quebec in June, 1666, 
amidst acclamations of the populace such had never been equalled in 
the annals of New France. He was escorted to the portals of the church, 
where Mgr. de Laval, at the head of his clergy, received him with solemn 
ceremony. Tracy was conducted to the chancel, where a prie-LHeu had 
been prepared for him. The humble marquis, however, declined the 
proffered distinction and knelt Uke the lowliest of his fellow worshippers 
on the bare floor of the church. 

A Te Deum "with organ and music," says a memoir of the period, 
was sung, and the prelate conducted the Lieutenant-General with the 
same ceremony to the Ch&teau St. Louis, where the colonial authorities 
paid him their respects. 

Previous to M. de Tracy's arrival at Quebec, a ship sent out direct 
from France had landed four companies of the Carignan-Sali^res regiment. 
It was a new and wonderful spectacle to the Frenchmen brought up in 
the coimtry to see five or six hundred regular troops, preceded by martial 
music, march under their colours and manoeuvre with a precision un- 
dreamed of in Canada. The veterans of the Carignan regiment had recently 
returned to France from the campaign in Hungary, where they had 
distinguished themselves against the Turks. Most of the officers were 
drawn from the nobility; and many of the rank and file estabUshed 
themselves among their old companions-in-arms in the seigneuries of 
Quebec, when the regiment was disbanded. 

The Marquis de Tracy's household was a never-ending subject of 
admiration for the Canadians. When he issued forth in the city streets 













Description of the Pageants 37 

he was preceded by four pages and twenty-five guards bearing the royal 
colours; six lackeys followed him, and many officers escorted him, having 
at their head the Chevalier Chaumont, Captain of the Guards. The Indians 
were dumfounded by such magnificence, which surpassed their wildest 
imaginations, and a dozen of the most influential men among the Hurons 
were sent to tender to the Viceroy the warmest of welcomes. 


Mqr. db Laval: — 

Ecclesiastics: — Henri de Bemi^res, Father J^rdme Lalemant, Louis Ango de Mai- 
zerets, Thomas Joseph Morel, Jean EKidouyt, Father Rafeix, Father Jacques Bonin 
(Jesuit), Ren^ Chartier (first Chaplain of the Ursulines), Pierre Joseph Marie 
Chaumonot, Father Paul Ragueneau (Jesuit), Father Francois Le Mercier (Jesuit), 
Le Sueur de St. Sauveur, Germain Moriir Hugues Pommier. Father Julien 
Gamier (Jesuit), Father Louis Nicolas (Jesuit), Father Henri Nouvel (Jesuit), Gilles, 
Perrot (priest of St. Sulpice), Francois Boniface, Charles de Lauzon-Chamy, Father 
Jean Claude Allouez (Jesuit) Father Jacques Fr6min (Jesuit), Father Charles Albanel 
(Jesuit), Father Pierre Bailloquet (Jesuit), Father Gabriel Druillettes (Jesuit), Gabriel 
de Queylus, Jean Le Bey, Gabriel Souart (Sulpician), Dominique Galinier (Sulpician). 

Marquis db Tracy: — 

CSievalier de Chaumont, M. de Courcelles, Intendant M. Talon, M. de 
Lsufeon-Chamy, M. de Bretonvilliers, Sieur de Brieeac, M. DoUier de Casson 
M. de Maisonneuve. Henri Brault, Sieur de PomainviDe, Mtre Claude Le Barrois 
general A^ent of tne West Indies Company), Frangois de Monteuil. Sieur de Cl^racq, 
Francois de Gand, Sieur de Martainville, Prudent Alexandre ae Varonne, M. oe 
Chambly, M. deSalampart, Sieur deGas, M. de Sorel, M. de L^role, M. de Montagni. 

Carionan-SaliIsres Regiment and Officers of the Colony: — 

Sieur de Sali^res, M. de Contrecoeur, Baby de Ranville, Tarieu de Lanaudi^re, 
Dugu6 de Boisbriant, Morel de la Durantaye, Gautier de Varennes, Mouet de 
Moras, La Valli^re, Saint-Denis, B^cancourt, Le Gardeur, Abb^ Dubois, Captain de la 
Fouille, Captain Maximin, Captain Laubia, Captain Lamotte, Captain jacques de 
Chambly, Captain Hubert d'Andigny de Grandfontaine, Captain Berthier, Captain 
Traversy, Captain du Luques, Picot^ de B^lestre, M. de la Motte, M. de la Fredi6re„ 
D'Aiguesmortes, M. de Chasy, Martin de Chaulny, Paul Dupuis (ensign), Frangois 
Janet de Verch^res, Captain Pierre de St. Ours, Francois PoUetde la Combe Pocatidre. 
Jean de L'Epinay, Pierre Mouet de Moras, Jacques Labadie (sergeant), Laurent Bory, 
Sieur de Grand Maison, Captain Antoine P^caudy de Contrecoeur, Captain Francois 
de Ste.-Croix, Francois Feraud (first aide-de-camp). Captain Fromont, Captain 
Flottant de TEscur, Sieur Mignardet, Jacques Le Ber, Captain de la Tour, Nicolas de 
Choisy, Vincent d'Abadie Sieur de St. Castin, S^bastien de Villieu, Claude le Bassier, 
Sieur de Daudeville, Pierre de St. Paul de la Motte-Lussier, Pierre B^cart de Grandville. 

Citizens: — 

Pierre Daudonneau, Jean Gervaise, Jean Lemercier, Jean de Basset, Louis Loisel, 
St. Jacaues, Major Dupuis, Jean Bourdon, Charles Lemoyne, Pierre Gadois, Urbain 
Brossara, Louis Chevalier, Guillaume Gendron, Louis Guertin, Marin Janot, Mathurin 
Langevin, Isaac Berthier, Nicolas Grisard, Rooh Theory, Frangois Hertel Sieur de la 
Freni^re, Francois Marie Perrot, Louis de Nazo, Jean Laumonier. 

Ladies: — 

Jeanne Daudonneau, Marie Mullois, Madame Loisel, Claude de Chevrainville, Marie 
Perrot, Anne Gasnier, Anne Macart, Madame Etienne, Madame des Ormeaux, Melle 
de Thauvenet, Louise Chartier de Lotbini^re, Marguerite Reine Denys de la Ronde, 
Catherine Le Gardeur de Tilly, Marie Royer, Jeanne CouiUard, Marie le Gardeur de 
Tilly, Fran^oise Duquet, Marie-Anne Juchereau, Marie Toupin, Marguerite le Merle de 
Hautpr^, Barbe Denys. 

38 Description of the Pageants 




General of King Louis XIV, the Marquis de Tracy. 

All Quebec is on the ramparts: above floats a broad white standard 
with the fleurs-de-lys of France. The cannon roar and answer pro- 
claiming the arrival of the King's Lieutenant-General. The regiment of 
Carignan-SaU^res, lately arrived from France, with their slouched hats 
and plumes, their bandoUers and shouldered firelocks, march to war- 
like music beneath their Royal colors. 

Below, on the river, the new Lieutenant-General has put in on a barge 
covered with red cloth, the signal for the discharge of cannon and the 
ringing of bells. In the meanwhile, the strains of an organ steal out on 
the air, and the procession of ecclesiastics, all the clergy of Quebec, in alb, 
cope and dalmatic, comes into view. First a priest carrying a silver 
crucifix on high, and two priests with Ughted tapers on either hand. 
Then, surrounded by acolytes with swinging censers of fragrant incense, 
comes the stately figure of the great Monseigneur de Laval, arrayed in 
pontifical vestments, bearing a great crozier in his hand. 

Under a canopy borne by ecclesiastics, and saluted by artillery, he 
makes his way to meet the oflScer of the King. The Marquis de Tracy, 
tall and portly, clothed in a led suit ornamented with abundance of 
gold lace, has at his side the Chevalier de Chaumont and a throng of 
young nobles gorgeous in lace, ribbons and leonine locks. He is re- 
ceived by the Sovereign Council, and the Procureur G6n6ral addresses him 
in an eloquent speech, to which he answers very concisely. The cannon 
give a general salute and the sound of music never ceases. Then he 
reaches the Vicar Apostolic, kneeUng to kiss his hand and the crucifix 
which is held for him by a priest. Laval addresses a short welcome 
to the Lieutenant-General, and they proceed through lines of men-at- 
arms, drawn from the burgesses, as far as the cathedral. The guards of 
the Governor, with shouldered firearms, bearing the King's colours lead 
the way. They seem to have brought sunshine from the court of France. 
On the way twelve Indian chieftains specially welcome the Governor, 
la3ring their bows and arrows at his feet. 

"At thy feet," says the Huron, "thou seest the debris of a great land 
and the pitiable remains of a whole world, at one time peopled by an 
infinite number of inhabitants. These are merely the skeletons which 
speak to thee. The Iroquois has devoured their flesh, has burned them 
on the pyre and has left but their bones. There remains to us no more 
than a thread of Ufe; our members which have passed through the boiling 
cauldrons had no longer any vigour, when, raising our eyes, we of a sudden 
perceived on the river those ships which have brought thee and thy brave 
soldiers to our land." 

So, while the people shout and the Indians stare, the bells ring in 
a frenzy of welcome, and they make their way to the church from which 
is heard the sound of the organ and the chant of a great Te Deum. 

A view of the North-west part of the City of Quebec in 1761. 

View of the Cathedral and Jesuits College, 1761. 

Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 1908. 

View from Parliament Buildings, Quebec, 1908. 

Description of the Pageants 39 


Un iour fen - vie m'a pris Dc de- scr- 

^'' r c I M' I J 1 1 I ' V I m 

•er de Fran - ce 

Dans.mon.che -. mtn j'ai 

jpen-oon — tre Ma charman - te beiiu — te: Je me 

suis ar- re — te: 

Ce - tait • pour 

par — ler 

Un jour Tenvi' m'a pris (bis) 

De deserter de France. 

Duis mon chemin j'ai rencontr^ 

Ma charmante beauts ; 

Je me suis arrdt^; 

CT^tait pour lui parler. 

lis I'ont pris, ils Temm^nent, (bis) 

G'est & la Place d'Armes. 

Lui ont band^ les yeux 

Avee un mouchoir blanc .... 

Je me suis 6cn6; 

La belle est sans amant! 

—Prom Qagnon, Chansons Populaires du Canada, p. 168. 

ylir yivau 

.PRIESTS MARCH (Froo AjU»)-M*n(Uissobn 

Te De 

te Domi • num Cou • fi • te • inur 

Historical Notes on the Sixth Pageant. 

In the year 1670 Jean Talon, Intendant of New France, had charged 
Simon Francois Daumont, Sieur de Saint-Lusson, to search for copper 
mineB on Lake Superior and to take possession in the name of the King 
of IVance of all the country about the inland seas. 

Early in May, 1671, Sieur de Saint-Lusson turned from his winter 
quarters on Lake Huron towards Sault Sainte-Marie. Fourteen tribes 
from a radius of a hundred leagues responded to the summons to attend 
the most solemn ceremony ever observed west of the St. Lawrence. On 
the fourth of June, on a height of land overlooking the Indian village at 
the Sault, Saint-Lusson planted a cross and raised the arms of France. 

"Having received the orders of Monseigneur the Intendant of New 
EVance/' says Saint-Lusson in his record of this memorable occasion, ''we 

40 Description of the Pageants 

proceeded immediately to the country of the Ottawa, Nez-Perc6s, Illinois 
and other Indian nations discovered and to be discovered in North America, 
towards Lake Superior, or Mer Douce, to search for mines of all kinds, 
especially copper, and, moreover, to take possession, in the name of the 
King, of all the country, inhabited or not inhabited, through which we 
should pass, planting, in the first village, the cross, which will bring forth 
fruits of Christianity, and the escutcheon of France to assert the authority 
of his Majesty and the French domination. And, in order that no one 
may plead ignorance, we have attached on the back of the arms of France 
an extract of our present minutes of the taking possession, signed by us 
and the following persons who were present. 

''Made at Sainte-Marie du Sault (to-day Sault-Ste-Marie) in the presence of the 
Reverend Fathers Claude d'Ablon, Superior of the Missions in that part of the country; 
Gabriel Dreuillettes, Claude Allouez, Andr6, all of the Society of Jesus of Sieur Nicolas 
Perrot, His Majesty's Interpreter in this part of the country, of Sieur Louis Jolliet (the 
discoverer of the Mississippi), of Jacques Mogras, inhabitant of Three Rivers, of Pierre 
Moreau, Sieur de la Toupine, soldier of the Grarrison at the Ch&teau de Quebec, of Denis 
Mass^, of Francois de Chavigny, Sieur de la Chevrotti^re, of Jacques Joviel, of Pierre 
Porteret, of Robert Duprat, of Vital Driol, of Guillaume Bonhomme and other wit- 


The other witnesses were the Indian chiefs who had signed the 
minutes of proceedings by means of figures of animals, totems of their 

Nicholas Perrot reports that some representatives of other nations 
arriving afterwards acknowledged also the King of France as their sov- 
ereign and protector. He says also that Messieurs Jolliet, Mogras, Moreau, 
Mass^, Chavigny, Lagillier, Mays^re, Dupuis, Bibaud (or Bidaud), Joviel, 
Porteret, Duprat, Driol and Bonhomme, present at the ceremony of the 
14th of June, were some Frenchmen who were then in that locality en- 
gaged in trade. ''This" (the taking possession), he adds, ''was executed 
according to the instructions given by M. Talon. ... All these nations 
went back to their separate homes and lived many years without any 
trouble on either side." ("Louis Jolliet," by E. Gagnon, p. 23.) 

On this subject Bacqueville de la Potherie, in his **Histoire de VA- 
mirique SeptentrionaUj^ relates the following facts: — 

"The sub-delegate (Saint-Lusson) attached to the post a plate of 
iron, on which the arms of the King were painted. He made a froehs- 
verbal, which he caused all the Indian chiefs to sign with the marks of 
their tribe — some a beaver, others an otter, a sturgeon, a deer or a moose. 
Other instruments were drawn up, which were signed only by the French- 
men present at the ceremony. A copy was cunningly slipt between the 
wood and the plate, but it remained there but a short time, for the French 
had barely left when the Indians unnailed the plate, threw the procbs- 
verbal in the fire, attached the arms of the King once more, fearing that 
this writing might be a sorcery which would cause the death of all those 
who would inhabit or resort to this place. 

" * Thrice, in a loud voice and by public cry,^ relates Saint-Lusson, *m 
the name of the most high, most potent and mighty monarch Louis 
XlVth of the name, most Christian King of France and of Navarre, we 
took possession of the said place Sainte-Marie du Sault, and also of \b3sq 
' Huron and Superior, the island of Caientoton (now Manitoulin) and of all 
the other countries, rivers, lakes, contiguous and adjacent, those discovered 

Mgr. B^gin, 
Archbishop of Quebec 






1 . 

r f?i 


1 M 




mi 1 


Mgr. Roy 
Bishop of Quebec 

The Basilica, Qyebec 

Mgr. Marois, V.G. 


Description of the Pageants 


as well as those to be discovered, which are bounded on the one side by 
the northern and western seas and on the other by the southern sea, as 
well as all their longitudes or depth — ^taking up on each of the three pro- 
clamations a piece of sod and crying' 'Long live the King!' and causing the 
whole assembly, Indians as well as Frenchmen, to do likewise." 

The French sang the hymn VexUla Regis, the Exaudiat and the 
Te Deum, to the profound admiration of the Indians. 

Daumont de Saint-Lusson and Father Claude AUouez then delivered 
to the fourteen Indian nations an eloquent discourse, in which both ex- 
tolled, with many hyperboles, ''the mighty captain of France, Louis XIV: 
your protector and my father!" Nothing could equal the warmth of their 
eloquence except that of the plaudits and frantic acclamations of the 

The whole ceremony ended on the evening of that memorable day 
by a huge bonfire and the singing of a second Te Deum to "thank God, 
in the name of these poor people, for their being now the subjects of so 
great and so mighty a monarch." 


I — Officers. 

Daumont de Saint-Lusson, Chief. 
Nicolas Perrot, Interpreter of the King. 

n — Jesuit Fathers. 
Claude d'Ablon, Superior. 
Gabriel Dreuillettes, 
Claude Allouez, 

Ill — Fur Traders and Colonists. 
Jacques Mogras, 
Pierre Moreau, 
Denis Mass^, 
FranQois de Chavigny, 
Jacques LagiUier, 
Jean Mayser^, 
Nicolas Dupuis, 
FranQois Bibaud, 
Jacques Joviel, 
Pierre Porteret, 
Robert Duprat, 
Vital Driol, 
Guillaume Bonhomme. 

IV — ^Indian Tribes. 
(Present or represented). 




















Daumont de Saint-Lusson takes possession of the country of the 
West in the name of the King of France. 

Saint-Lusson has set out for the West with a small body of men and 
an interpreter, Nicolas Perrot, whose name and fluency in the Algonquin 
language are known to many a tribe about the great lakes. The party 
is greeted with demonstrations of welcome and the Miami chief comes in 
authority and state, attended day and night by a guard of warriors. 
Fourteen tribes, the Sacs, Winnebagose, Mennomenies, the Crees, the 
Amequins, the Nipissings, assemble to witness the ceremony which Saint- 
Lusson has come to perform. 


42 Description of the Pageants 

About the four Jesuits — Claude Dablon, 8uperi(»* of the missions of 
the lakes, Gabrielle Druilletes, Claude AUouez and Louis Andr6 — clad in 
vestments of priestly office, throng the Indians, standing or crouching, 
or reclining at length, with eyes and ears intent. A large cross of wood 
has been prepared. Dablon with solenm ceremony pronounces his bles- 
sing upon it and the cross is raised aloft for veneration. It is planted in 
the ground, and the notes of the Vexilia Regis float out upon the air as 
the Frenchmen, with heads uncovered, unite in reverent song. Beside 
the cross is planted a post of cedar with a metal plate charged with the 
royal arms. One of the Jesuits in these far shores of inland seas, offers 
the prayo* for the King's sacred majesty. 

With drawn sword in one hand, Saint-Lusson raises with the other 
a clod of earth, as he takes possession of the boundless west in the name of 
the King. Volleys from the firelocks mingle with the cries erf "Vive le 
Roi " from the French. The uproar ceases and silence is imposed upon the 
assembly, as Father Claude Allouez begins in the native tongue the eulogy of 
the great King to whose sovereignty they have submitted. So incomparable 
was the greatness of the monarch that the Indians have no words with 
which to express their thoughts upon the subject. "Cast your eyes," said 
he, "upon the cross rdsed so high above your heads: there it was that 
Jesus Christ the Son of God, making Himself man for the love of men, 
was pleased to be fastened and to die, in atonement to the Eternal Fath^ 
for our sins. He is the Master of our Uves, of heaven, of earth and of hell. 
Of Him I have always spoken to you, and His name and Word I have borne 
into all these countries. But look likewise at that other post, tp which 
are affixed the armorial bearings of the great captain of France whom 
we call King. He lives beyond the sea; he is the captain of the greatest 
captains, and has not his equal in the world. All the captains you have 
ever seen, or of whom you have ever heard, are mere children compared 
with him. He is like a great tree, and they only like little plants that we 
tread under foot in walMng. ' ' 

Mw de Saint-Lusson adds his words in martial and eloquent language; 
how he had summoned them to receive them under the protection of we 
great King beneath whose sway there was henceforth to be but one land 
from the sunrise to the prairies. The ceremony closed with a feu de joie 
and a Te Deum "to thank God on behalf of these rude savages that 
they were now the subjects of so great and powerful a Monarch/' 


Ve • xil • - - la Re gis pro . . . . Ue • uni- 

Historical Notes on the Seventh Pageant. 

An hour before daybreak on Monday, October 16, 1690, M. de Vau- 
dreuil brought to Quebec the news that the EngUsh fleet of thirty-four sail 
was scarcely three leagues distant from the city. Phips had anticipated 
an easy victory. Some time before an officer of the Carignan-Saliferes 
Regiment had fallen into his hands; from him he had learnt that Quebec 
was absolutely at his mercy; that the fortifications were weak, the troops 

View of the St. Lawrence from the CitAflel, 1008 

Entrance :o Coareau Fronfenac showinj? Maltese 
Cross -aJien from ^(d Coareaii Sr. Lo«n^ 

"'-^ — *-Mt^^ -if h«> '^it^\*i^T> 'r^.tj 


'Here died Wolfe Victorious" 

Wolfe and Montcalm 

Samuel de Champlain — Founder of Quebec, 


Erected 1898 

Jacques Cartier 
Erected 1887 


Major Short and Sergt. Waliick 
Killed by explosion, 1889 

Statue of Queen Victoria 
In Victoria Park, Qyebec 

Laval Monument 
Near Archbishop's Palace, Qjebec 

Sous le Cap 

A Street in the Lo>ver Town 

In Memory of the Quebec con' 
tingent who fell in South Africa 

Aux Braves 
(Ste Foy RomI) 





Description of the Pageants 43 

few in number, the colony worn out with Indian warfare and disaster. 
With Frontenac in the French camp, however, Phips had reckoned without 
his host. There was a panic when the English ships' Ughts were seen off 
Point L^vis a few hours before daybreak; but before the messenger charged 
with Phips' summons to surrender had reached French soil, the old veteran 
of the Italian wars and the campaign against the Turks in Candia, had 
enthused every soldier with his own martial spirit. The cannon on the 
ramparts uttered Frontenac's reply to the message of the enemy. Within 
a week Phips sailed down the river leaving behind him the admiral's flag 
which had been shot from the flagship, and a few cannon abandoned to 
the defenders of the city. 

In the Lower Town the little church was dedicated to Notre-Dame de 
la Victoire. 

The SoTSBEiaN Coxtxgil — ^Historical Febsosaqts, 

Mcmsieur Louib de Buade, comte de Frontenac, Govemor-GeneraL 

" Jean-Baptiste de la Croiz-€hevridreB de Saint-VaDier, Bishop. 
" Jean Bochart, Sd^neur de Champigny. Int^idant. 
" FranyHa-Magie1eme-Fortun6 Roette a'Auteuil, seigneur d'Auteuil et de 
Monceaux, Councillor and Attomey-GeneraL 


Master Louis Rouer de Yilleray, Master Pierre Nod LeGardeur deTiUy, 

" Nicolas Dupont de Neuville, " Jean Baptiste de Fer^ns, 

" Charies Denis, Sieur de Vitn§, '* Claude Bermen, Sieur de la 

Monsieur Jean-Baptiste Peuvret, Sieur de Mesnu, Seigneur de GaudarviUe, Chief 
Clerk of the Council. 

Monsieur GuiUaume Roger, First Bailiff. 

" Hilaire Bema^, Sieur de la Rividre, Bailiff. 

" Ren^ Hubert, BailifiP. Etienne Marandeau, Bailiff. 

" Nicolas M6tru, Royal Sergt., Bailiff. Joseph Le Prieur, Bailiff. 


State Parade in 1690. 

Captain 3fiehei Le Neuf ^ Sieur de la Valli^re et de Beaubassin. 

lieutenant De Saldes, Steur de Saveret. 

Oomet Jean-Baptiste Gueoiehon neur de Beusseville. 


Jean de Bonne-f oi dit la Grandeur. 

Giaixle Congd. Charles Call^. 

Louis de la Forque dit La Couture. Dumont. 

Andr6 Foumier. Philippe Gagneur. 

Pierre G^ran dit Orleans. Pierre Guillot dit Lyonnais. 

Bcatrand Lart dit Laramfe. Barthfl^mi Langlois. 

Jean Langlois. Jean Lanr (or Darv) dit Lafleur. 

Pierre Martin dit Lafortune. Danid luuan dit £afonune. 

Danid Moreau dit Desloriers. Piore Provoux. 


Count de Frontenac. 

Off^en and Nobles: — ^Louis PhUippe Rigaud de Vaodreml. Jean Bochart de C3iam- 
IT (Intttidant) , Monsieur le Chasseur Secretary di the Count) , Loms^oseph d' Auteml, 
krifiB Le Gardeur de Ti%, J. B. de P^ras, Louis Denis de la Ronde, Loms Rouer de 
l^Deiay, de Monsdgnat, diaries Denis de Yitr6, Pierre de Jovbert Seigneur de MarwMi 
ei de SoulaDges, Loms Th6indre Chartier de Lotbinidre, ttere Denis de la Roode, 

44 Description of the Pageants 

Pierre Robineau (Chevalier de St. Michel), Francois de Chavignv Sr. de la Chevrotidre 
Ren6 Robineau (baron de B^cancour), Pierre Le Moyne a'Iberville, Louis Perrot 
(Attorney of the King), Frangois Marie Perrot (Giovemor of Montreal), Franj^is Marie 
Renaud d'Avecne des Mcloiscs-CharleB Aubert de la CJhenaye, Captain Pierre Descayrac, 
8r. de RAiu, Barth^l^my Francois Bourgonni^re Sr. d*Hauteville, (Secretary to 
Frontenac), Nicolas d'Ailleboust. Sr. de Manteht, Major de Gallifet. 

Citizens: — Pierre Payan de Noynn, Denis Roberge, Jean Martel, Henri de St. Vin- 
cent, Alexandre le Gardeur, Etienne Bouchard, Jean de Launoy, Timothde Roussel, 
Charles Hazire, Michel Cress^, Simon Denis^ Jacques Gourdeau. Charles Gannonchiase, 
de Sorel, Jacques Bizard, Thomas de la Naudidre, Augustin Rouer Sr. de la Cardon- 
ni^re, Guillaume Routhier (merchant), Claude Chaille, Francois Lefebvre, Lambert 
Boucher, Nicolas Dupont de Neuville. 

Ladies: — Louise Elizabeth de Joybert (Marquise de Vaudreuil), Louise Catherine 
d'Ailleboust, Louise le Gardeur, Louise Chartier de Lotbini^re, Louise de Chavigny, 
Louise Catherine Robineau, Louise Levasseur, Ang^que Perrot, Louise Bizard, (iene- 
vi^ve Juchereau, Marie le (iardeur, Catherine de Lostelneau, Marie-Anne le Neuf de la 
Poterie, Ai^^lique Denis, Marie Rende Godef roy, Catherine le Neuf, Madeleine de Lalande, 
Charlotte Denis, Ang^lique Denis, Marie-Madeleine Chapoux (wife of the Intendant 
Champigny), Marie-Anne de Lancey, Louise Madeleine du Puy, Claude de Saintes, 
Madeleine Louise Levasseur, Marie (Jatherine Bourgonni^re, Louise Ang^lique de Galli- 
fet, Marie Aubert de la Chesnaye. 

Women: — Marie-Anne Bouchard, Marie-Anne Fleureau, Marie Genevieve Berthier, 
Louise Roussel, Genevieve Macart, Elizabeth Damours, Marie Francoise Chartier, 
Louise Cress^, Jeanne Ren^ Gourdeau, Louise Bolduc, Elizabeth Hubert, Jeanne 
Grille Closse, Louise Angdlique Routhier, Louise Chartier, Frangoise Guilleteau, Marie- 
Anne Bri^re, Marie Leroy, Marguerite Vauvril, Marie-Anne Renouard. 



More than eighty years have passed since Champlain built his Abita- 
lion de Quebec. The population is now more than 1,500. The town is 
frequented by rugged merchants and traders, blanketed Indians and wild 
bushrangers. Frontenac, who is seventy years of age, loves pomp and 
circumstance. It is a world which wants nothing to make an agreeable 
society. The Governor-General has attendants, nobility, officers and troops. 
There are rich merchants, who live in affluence; a bishop and numerous 
seminary; RecoUets and Jesuits; circles as brilliant as many in the Old 
World. The Governor's and Intendant's ladies make parties of pleasure 
in summer; many a dance and brilliant assembly helps to pass the long 
evenings of winter. 

There are ominous signs, however, of danger from without. A few 
spies from New England have appeared at intervals at Quebec; one has 
been captured and sent in chains to France. There are rumours of in- 
vasion. Frontenac with his wonted energy has striven to arouse the home 
government from its lethargy. A powerful New England fleet under Sir 
William Phips had already sailed for the St. Lawrence, and a messenger 
brings word of the enemy's approach. The excitement which ensues is 
almost a panic, until Frontenac, bold and fearless with warlike energy 
assuages the fears of the populace. His bravery fills them all with 
enthusiasm ; they resolve to die if need be, but never to yield to the foe. 

The fleet is anchored a little below Quebec, and a boat, bearing a flag 
of truce, has put out from the Admiral's ship. It brings a subaltern officer, 
the beaier of a letter from Sir William Phips to the French commander. 
Completely blindfolded, the messenger is taken by two sergeants and led to 
the Governor. His guides draw him hither and thither through a noisy 
jostling crowd, and laughing women cry: ^* VoUa! Monsieur Colinr-MaiUardy 
qui vient nous faire visile! " Amid a prodigious hubbub intended to bewilder 





Description of the Pageants 


him and impress him with a sense of immense warlike preparation, they drag 
him over barricades, and bring him at last before Frontenac and his brilliant 
staff. Here at last they take the bandage from his eyes. The messenger 
stands for a moment with an air of astonishment and some confusion. The 
Governor stands before him haughty and stem, surrounded by French and 
Canadian officers — ^Maricourt, Sainte-H61^ne, Longueuil, Villebon, Val- 
renne, Bienville, and many others bedecked with gold and silver lace, 
perukes and powder, plumes and ribbons, arrayed in all the martial foppery 
in which they take delight, and regarding the envoy with keen, defiant 

After a moment the envoy recovers his breath and his composure, salutes 
Frontenac, and expressing a wish that the duty assigned him were of a more 
agreeable nature, presents to him the letter of Phips. Frontenac gives it 
to an interpreter, who reads it aloud in French that all may hear. When 
the reading is finished the Englishman draws his watch from his pocket and 
passes it to the Governor. Frontenac cannot, or pretends that he cannot, 
seethe hour. The messenger, however, tells him summarily that it is ten 
o'clock, and that he must have his answer before eleven. A cry of indig- 
nation arises; and Valrennes calls out that Phips is nothing but a pirate, 
and that his man ought to be hanged. Frontenac controls himself for a 
moment, and then says to the envoy: 

"I will not keep you waiting so long. Even if your general offered 
me conditions a little more gracious, and if I had a mind to accept them, 
does he suppose that these brave gentlemen would give their consent ? The 
divine justice which your general invokes in his letter would not fail to 
punish such an act severely." 

The messenger is somewhat abashed at this warlike reception, but 
boldly demands from the Governor a reply in writing within the hour. 
" No," returns Frontenac, " I will answer your general only by the mouths of 
my cannon, that he may learn that a man like me is not to be summoned 
after this fashion. Tell him to do his best, and I will do mine." 

The Englishman is dismissed with a wave of the hand; he is again 
blindfolded, led over the barricades and sent back to the fleet by the boat 
that brought him. 


(Vsjj;i J Jl r- l -^J "^ I r f^ 

U y ' trwa 4- 

(Jl^J l|j JJ I J J I p \ JJ ^^^ 

P»r ilem«r tbet om Unte U lid ya tun i 

J- I -r J J' 

r I r I r r r i^ 

long Je OMf inrt . inj mi 

^^ 1 um rr I r- I r f r 1 ^ "^ I J 

iMiP it ■• Mat tnA' n • foOle, Aa kuU • l« Jms IV ui 

firr'.irstin & iM ? 

'\M*x,V^ •--.mmaiiiiiK" .in "•riiu.-r^ -rm 7 n;i»"*. ul -ae -'^r, =7#m« raider the Gov- 
*in«v ▼'ii-. i.m-. vw ifr.n-.'.i ;:i * *■:.»-• ;r:-'* ts'.rHrr.r vi«u*-»»r le !ili:i» M 5o act. 

Vr? « v.r?*n .V.i.; -«. h* 'nt 'a J i...:.*:; -jh jTamusiia zi ^tffoi BtnMiOam, La 
*0vr'> .'jvtt^ttnUf .K^'ftr-t. >i;i-i.Ti' i»ii: a .h-.n'. — . iiiHr "Ste uii r«ijczEi» efl£h French 
fpw:nu»r.r -^-.r^ -::•» iii,\w -j -i»» :«-niy» :p ii:i:ii*r!iii.i ▼!»: :iacrii2iJ.7- r^vnal it, or oC the 
?"*v»-r.iw **-.r.'. T-uiin - vu* •v—u-**:. Tit* •ifii!f»rs ▼«tr» :r 3uu:ii 'ie auzte daas aa 
•.iB«.' .V— .nr. - —wt. .'».*5-ji*r J-»ra!:i n:r i •- -.1*11 vrsj* ihict « ;:r:ceaBoaaI as thoae 
r. v.rt r-jwi:w wr-'-fs. >-■:•■ ••:r^ L.-mtt* ■.•-.n-j.nei nojrr ncn lecmnptidfaed soldien 
VAT. .!• iw^^i-'.? *K\:ri:thH'.. 

T!u» .fi:*;'- r-:**--.'^-".?'* •••Ji.'ir v— j. ''•La-.i'j: n. "iii* i:^*" 5ii~ii» :c rbe Plains, lost a 
• -.r v vj*r. u-j-. -v -.--Vi — j* -.r -+ :ifii!?»r». Ti "-le *«:t:iiii 'zAzr'jt zz bad % duei with 

rv.'Afjfn'. .-j^i: f. 7 Vxri V" '.tp. z. I'l/*. -¥^1*11 i^it-a-zi na^ Aijt»r:roenbie, thou|^ 
v-.r.f..i.r.v*r»f- :•-.•..• v.* I/i7i~u/a:/: *:.if*r»ii -jt» j:is :c ioir companies, who 
•w*x^ *acr.-.r«»i %••» Ma. -.c '.Ht^.* vaj ii." ji 1";.:. Tht* ir&rsi aenc a> complete 
\em *«ut.-^u»crr.«%r,-, Tr»r» & -r^ry 'rxx j-.r. lziI -m* :?!r-zasi- t-ceaise ihe wont maci- 
r.iir.#!rt cr. C* •-*■:*. T»*r."T n^rji'j* :::i-._-^ji-!zit.-' iLs T-»r» itiiii iz. -^at Tear preceding 
'iji trxi }Uk"^ 'J iiA P'iiuZi* ••ts.j** _iz.:ziK^:ur ~.~i:'r :ciz,^cKS, h^crm was one 
o-f "h* oirUsft* iTj-i 2:*'j»r i;*"jz;r-:i:?«iK<i si-rn* ji t^i» ■vii:u» Ft^ucc. armj* and dated 
ba«c v> -hifr I^-i 'wr.::irv. I: \:ii-- iLZii**! -l v:»*Ci« :=. J-zse. 17*5. with Guierme 
txA ir,^~r 'if^KZAT.^ti U LfVu^-^z.'x. \Zii. lii* \:jix=^ ia-f b«en oq active service 
^Ter »ir.ft*. I\s tfj^xA, m^ 'Ji*t r«i.iii*- laj^-irfr. -wtw crowsied his f^w^Hmw 
ear*)ftr hy r.i* «f'>ryi>: itari^rs":!.: .- 1^ ««i:c;ii Sa-i-l* zi ^he Pbina. The rm- 
mw-.t r^f C^vvTftfw. •«■•. r.T M:c:-:cfcl=L *.: rairi -i:«* H-siLrb-i* a week before the batUe, 
and oniw*id •/> wa*^ Wolf*'* C>^t* -iut iij 'r*^:r*, tas cocnier-ordered by the Gov- 
ernor Va»jdr«r a! ot •aii c^wasi-ci. !•-* : -:Tt;is"a w»r» ^b* irs; to come into contact 
with Wr^lfe. hxA i: fo ispi". w>i; -Jr* -i^cj^-. g^'rtr-igv in io-ii bactle& 

Tfc* Carxadian R/^r-i^re wer* o^r-iljy "yar: cf ibei.'T^'ipvfd^ ia .l/an'iic. They were 
nm itATXiiPA in th^ Brl'.L^h ««?:.s«^ 11 ^IL ^ni Lai =.:» ci:xi:L<eir':ic& with the navT,biit were 
\mAtiT the Hfjftof: Goi-emnrft: a.i!!L:::i*tra:aoc of :!:* I>K»rtinent of Manne. They 
wtiTti maK*\y ivwrnuad in Casa-da. az^d :•:<.£ :be ec^ociai side against the Frendi regtilare 
whwiever th^re was any fririjon in ".h*r rar^ks. 

Canadian MUiiin was cosapo^^^i o: every able-bodied man in the country. 
f^pfainA of iTiilttia were men of grear local !nipo"r.ance; they represented the State on 
jufiht Irjcal occairioai. As raider^ and skirmi^ner? the Miliee excelled. They bad three 
MMentials of all armies — the ability to rouzh it. march and shoot. They endured great 
hardfthips in the P'rencfa cause, made a moet galiant stand to cover the retreat after the 
first little, and did some dasbing work at the second. 

Thu Indiann w<^re uncertain allies and tried the patience of Montcalm to the 
la^t de^ffse. They can hardly be blamed for espousing the cause of whichever side 
ntsMnmihe \em objectionable to them, for the time bdns, as all the whites persistently 
drove them from their haunts and changed the whole uice of thdr coimtry in a way 
abhorr*int to their every feeling. 

Thi French Samf. — The French marines did duty on shore as guncrews at Quebec. 
The vcfwcis during the si^e were anchored in the Richelieu. The only real encounter 
l^etween the French and English in the St. Lawrence was when Vauquelin tried to head 
off the liritish vanguard in 1760. The gallant officer fought his ship bravely and when 
his last «hot lia^J h>f^in fired refa«5ed to strike his flag. 


Wolfe's army was just under 5,000 strong at the Battle of the Plains. It was com- 
jKu^d ofr — 

L Tlie ITiih, then known as "Amherst's" Regiment, and now as the East York- 
MhiroH. To the prfjW3nt day its uniform is distinguished by the line of black mourning 
hrnid originally adopted in memory of Wolfe; 

2. 'I m 2Hth, th(!n " Bragg's," now 1st Gloucesters. Wolfe took post on the right 
of thifi roginiont; 







Brigadier Gen. Robert Monckton Brigadier Gen. Jas. Murray 

With Wolfe at Quebec First English Governor of C^bec 

Brig. Gen. George Townshend 
With Wolfe at C^ebec 

Monument to Wolfe in Westminster Abbey 

Sir Guy Carleton 
Lord Dorchester 

Gen. Hale 

From the Painting by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, P.R.A.. in the i 
sion of E. J. Hale. Esq.. ( 

Description of the Pageants 49 

3. The 35th, "Otway's," now 1st Royal Sussex, had been many years in Ireland 
and was Irish almost to a man; 

4. 43rd, "Kennedy's," now Ist Oxfordshire Light Infantry, of such high Penin- 
sular fame, received its baptism of fire at Quebec; 

6. 47tn, "Lascelles'", now 1st Loyal North Lancashire. Colonel Hale carried 
the dispatches to the King, who afteiwards commissioned him to raise the 17th Lancers, 
which adopted and still bears its famous badge and motto — a death's head "or glory" 
in memory of Wolfe; 

6. 48th, "Webb's," now 1st Northamptonshires, was present atBraddock's defeat 
on the Monongahela; 

7. 68th, "Anstruther's," now 2nd Northamptonshires, was raised only in 1755, 
and first saw service at Louisburg; 

8. The 2nd, " Monckton's," and 3rd. "Lawrence's," battalions of the "Royal 
Americans," subsequently known as the 60th Rifles, and now oflBicially as "The King's 
Royal Rifle Corps ;^ 

9. 78th, "Fraser's," now 2nd Seaforth Highlanders, was raised in 1757, within a 
week, 1,200 strong bv Simon Fraser ; 

10. The famous "Louisburg Grenadiers" was a special service three-company bat- 
talion, formed from the Grenadier companies of five regiments which had not been 
ordered to Quebec. 

11. The Navy, it must be remembered, was a much greater force than Wolfe's little 
army. The fleet was a quarter of the whole strength of the navy. There were 49 
men-of-war, with 13,750 men, and the transports and auxiliary vessels of all kinds 
numbered over 200. 

Admiral Saunders was one of the stars of the service, even in those great dayv. He 
had been First LLjutenant of the Centurion on Anson s celebrated voyage round the 
world; he was second in command of the " carso of courage" sent to the Mediterranean 
after Byng's failure off Minorca; and he closed his career as one of the best First Lords 
the Admiralty had ever known. Durell and Holmes were second and third in conmiand 
under him. Holmes was the admiral who managed the naval part of Wolfe's final 
attack. Many subordinate officers subsequently rose to high distinction. Captain 
" Jacky" Jervis, the friend to whom Wolfe confided the miniature of his fianc4e, Miss 
Lowther, the night before the battle, was of course, the future Lord St. Vincent. The 
celebrated circumnavigator. Captain Cook, was here as " Master," i.e., navigating officer, 
of the Pembroke, and the followmg year made the first British chart of the St. Lawrence. 

Note on the American Rangers. — ^Wolfe had about 900 of these irregulars with 
him. They were useful in bush fighting, but were not armed or trained for flat and 
open battlefields. None of them took part in the first Battle of the Plains; but 
those who spent the winter in Quebec witn Murray behaved very gallantly at the second 
battle in the following spring, particularly the company under Hazen, who afterwards 
became a distinguished general of the American Revolution. 


Ici brillent gravds en reliefs ^latants 
Ces noms qne dans le bronze entrelace THistoire; 

lis sont tomb^s ici, les braves combattants. 
Foudroy^ dans un r^ve inmiortel de victoire. 

Le temps passe, et le temps, bouleversant le sol, 

Du cnoc des regiments efface TApre empreinte; 
Le tenms passe, et le temps emporte dans son vol 

Les fim^bres lauriers de la supr^e ^treinte. 

Le panache d'6clairs s'^teignit. Sainte-Foy 

De soleil et verdure, au printemps, se d^core: 
L'espoir des beaux soldats de la Heine et du Roy 

Monte au coeur d'une fleur mourante et saigne encore. 

Le vieux fleuve, le fleuve, aux murmures d'orgueil, 
Malgr^ les vastes bruits dont les hauteurs sont pleines, 

C^dbre, de rivage en rivage, le deuil 
Qui plane sur la terre hdroique des Plaines. 

50 Description of the Pageants 

Dans Torbe glorieux des souvenirs ^pars, 

L*illustre sepulture ouverte par la twmbe, 
De gradins en gradins montant de toutes parts, 

Mont sacr^ par le sang des \nctoires, surplombe. 

La France ct I'Angleterre inclinent leurs drapeaux 

Devant le promontoire oil la gloire repose, 
Et range de la paix couronne les tombeaux 

Des palmes de I'honneur et de Fapoth^ose. 

— N6r^ Beauchemin. 



The shouting of the populace has died away; all is still. 

Nearly seventy years in passing by have brought us to another scene. 
There floats up out of the distance a full-throated rythmical song and, as 
its volume swells, there appear, regiment by regiment, marching shoulder 
to shoulder, two great and victorious armies. 

Beneath their floating standards they file on in a great parade of 

The present is joining hands with the past to the glorifying of a splendid 

The heroes whose Uves were given here in the past, that this song 
might be sung to-day, stand rank by rank before us in all the bravery of 
uniform and miUtary pomp. 

The great and significant unison of voices is singing — 

" Ton histoire est une 6pop^e, 
Des plus brillants exploits. 
Et ta valeur, de foi tremp6e, 
Prot^gera nos foyers et nos droits. " 

We are looking down the vista of years now. There is Jacques 
Cartier with the up-lifted cross, pioneer of a land 

" qui salt porter P6p6e, 
qui sait porter la croix. " 

There, the noble minded and devoted Champlain who has realized that 
pioneer's great ideal and has set firm the foundation of a Christian colony; 
the little band of those whose self sacrifice, whose constant prayer and 
unremitting toil have taught so profound a lesson and reUeved such count- 
less suffering; the religieuses de Quihec; the hero DoUard with his hero 
followers; the great Bishop without whose steadfast faith and firm hand 
Canada would not be what she is; Saint-Lusson, with the pomp of temporal 
and spiritual power; the courageous and proud spirited Frontenac; all are 
wrested for a moment from the jealous years, and that apotheosis of loyalty, 
obedience and courage, that great muster of warriors, whose spirit has 
passed into the life of this country are now singing with the rest, 

"Le cri vainqueur: 
Pour le Christ et le Roi. " 

General Salute. 
DiEu Sauve Le Roi. God Save the King. 

Review on the Esplanade — 1830 

Wolfe's Cove- 1833 

Vjew of Qyebcc— 'About ^B^0 

Gen. Richard Montgomery who fell at Qyebec. 

Col. Arnold 
Wounded at C^ebec, 1775 

Death of Montgomery at Qyebec, 1775 
After the Painting of Trumbill 

O Canada! Our Fathers' Land of Old. 

(O Caoadal Terre de bos aleucl) 

^%ril8 bj Tbe HononblB Judge Roathier. ^ 

Mnsie by C. LcraOfte. 

i t^*!' J. MJ nJ Mr r i r r r r If' L^^ 

old, Tlij bravr is eroimVI with lesfM of red and gold. Be . 

Tlij brovr is eroimVI with lesfos of red and gold. Be 

^ tbB Ho . ^ eioM, Thj. ehfl-dren own thoir birth. No 

itr fi ' pi . 4, n smi par. ttr U eroixt Ibm JUt. 

No etains thy t^onanM annals doaa. 

Since Talonr shields thy hearth. 

Almin^ty God! On thee w« ealL 

Defend oar ricfats, forefend this nation's thrslL 

Ton histoire est uAe ^popfc 
Des plus brillants exploits. 
Et ta valeur, de foi tremp^e, 
ProtH?era nos foyers et noe droits. 

Altar and throne command our sacred lore. 
And mankind to as shall ener brothers prove* 
O Kins of Kin^s. with Thy mi^^y breath. 
All oar sons do Thou inspire. 
May no eraven terror of life or death. 

Ere damp the patriot's fire. 
Oar m^itT eall lot 
As In the days of old. 

loadly riiall rinc, 

"' For Christ and the King! " 

Amoar sacr^ du trftne et de Tautel. 

Remplis noe cceurs de ton souffle immortell 

Parmi les races ^raxig^res, 

Notre guide est la loi: 

Sachons ^re un peuple de frires 

Sous le joug de la foL 

Et r^p^tons comme nos p^res, 

Le en vainquear: "Poor le Christ et le Roil'