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Full text of "Historic days in Cumberland County, New Jersey, 1855-1865 : political and war time reminiscences"

Glass __ 
Book _ _ 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT 




PRESIDENT LINCOLN AND "TAD' 
READING THE SCRIPTURES-ISI.I 



HISTORIC DAYS 



IN 



Cumberland County, New Jersey 



1855-1865 



POLITICAL AND WAR TIME 
REMINISCENCES 



BY 

ISAAC T. NICHOLS 



CjdV\T- 






c 



z 



LiSR/iRy "• OONeRESS 





COPYRIGHTKI). ItKjT 



ISAAC T. NICHOLS 



The story of the Civil War and the early days of a 
great poHtical movement in Cumberland County is a theme 
of interest to the descendants of the noble men who ga\e 
their lives for the Union and those who stood at the cradle 
of the party of human liberty at a crucial hour in our Na- 
tional history. It appeared to tlie writer that it was worthy 
of preservation. 

To the memory of those who organized the Republican 
Party in Cumberland County in 1855, and the heroic sons 
of old Cumberland who volunteered in the war for the pres- 
ervation of the Federal Union — 1861-1865 — manj' of 
whom lie in nameless graves on battlefields once red with 
patriotic blood, this volume is affectionately dedicated. 

Isaac T. Xichols. 
Bridgeton, Xew Jersey, January i. 1907. 



THE PRIVATE. 

Here is a song for the private, the gallant and true; 
Though others may plan, he is the one that must do; 
The world may the deeds of the leaders proclaim. 
Here is a wreath fur his brow, a song for his fame. 

I learn from the telegraph, hear by the train, 
Of tlic glory some general by valor has gained, 
Of the "wing he's outflanked," "the fort overthrown," 
And the poem is sung to the leader alone. 

But tell me, oh, tell me, where would he have been. 
Had the private not been there the play to begin ?_ 
Had he sheltered his breast from the steel or tlie fire, 
Or dared on the march to faint or to tire? 

I have heard the debt the nation will owe 
The heroes that over the despot shall throw, 
And only petition that this be its care — 
The private shall have a Benjamin's share. 

Is a fort to be stormed, a charge to be made, 
A mountain to climb, a river to wade, 
A rampart to scale, a breach to repair, 
'Neath the blaze of artillery — the private is there. 

He might tell what he suffered in cold and in pain, 
How he lay all night with the wounded and slain. 
Or left with his blood his tracks on the snow, 
But never from him the story you'll know. 

He fights not for glory, for well does he know 
The road to promotion is weary and slow ; 
His highest ambition is for freedom to fight. 
To conquer the foe or die for the right. 

Should he fall, perchance, to-day and to-morrow 
His messmates will sigh at evening in sorrow; 
But onward they march, far, far from the spot. 
And the name of the private is lost or forgot. 

But oh ! on his struggle the pale stars of even 
Look down from the glittering pathways of heaven. 
And angels descend to take his death sigh, 
.'\nd the name of the brave is emblazoned on high. 

Then here is a song for the brave and the true ; 
Though others may plan, it is he that must do ; 
The world may the deeds of the leaders proclaim, 
Here is a wreath for the private — a song for his fame. 

Found on a dead Confederate officer at Hatcher's Run. Va., after 
the battle, l)v J. L. Smith, of the i i8lh Pa. Inf. 'Vols. 



(F 



e^cij^ 



1 F. Repuljlican party had organized in New York 
State. Michigan and in Pittsburg, in the year 
:S3^. hut did not make much progress in New 
Jersev ])riiir u> 1S55. In the Fall of the latter 
)ear a number of citizens who had made the slavery ques- 
tion a matter of conscience, but who had previously 
been identified with the Whig, Democratic and Na- 
tive American jjarties, resolved to inaugurate a move- 
ment looking toward the organization of a new political 
party in Cumberland County. They met at the courthouse 
in Bridgeton, as near as can be ascertained, some time dur- 
ing the month of September. The gathering was informal. 
No resolutions were passed or ticket formed. It was a 
conference of good men for the purpose of talking n\er 
the situation of the country with a view to future action 
when the hour should be ripe. 

The following were present: — Dr. William Elmer, 
James B. Potter, Jas. ^I. Riley, Johnson Reeves, David P. 
Mulford, of Bridgeton; Isaac B. Mulford. Aaron W'estcott, 
of Millville: Dr. Enoch Fithian, of Greenwich: Philip 
Fithian. Lewis Howell, Lsaac Elwell, of Stow Creek: Robert 
More, George W. Moore, Isaac West, Isaac D. Titsworth. 
Parnell Raincar. Jnlni S. Bonhani. .Archibald Minch, of 
Hopewell: Elwell Nichols. Philip Souder, of Deerfield ; Dr. 
B. Rush Bateman. of Fairfield. 

Dr. Bateman was chosen chairman of the meeting, after 
which there was a f|uiet. but firm discussion of the political 
situation of the country because of the presence under our 
flag of the growing and pernicious system of human slavery 
then threatening the destruction of the Union. 

Tliis meeting was the first Republican gathering held 
in Cumberland County, and the forerunner of that which 
was soon to follow in the building up in South Jersey of a 
great political party which was hereafter to become famous 
as the party of humanity and the peoi)le. 



JllSldUlt 1).\\S 

'I'lic following- year, August i6, 1856, the appended 
notice appeared in the Bridgeton papers, at that time known 
as the "Chronicle" and the "West Jersey Pioneer;" 

"We are re(iuested to say that there will he a meeting 
of those favorahle to the Repuhlican ])arty at the Session 
Room at Shiloh. on Monday next, iSth inst. The object 
of the meeting is tn organize, appoint committees, and make 
arrangements for the Presidency campaign. A mass meet- 
ing at an early date is talked of by the partv." 

The call for this meeting was signed by thirty-five per- 
sons of Shiloh and \icinity. As the papers gave no pub- 
lication ni the names of those jjresent it is impdssible to learn 
who were there beyond the fact that l.ewis Howell was 
elected chairman, and Alljcrt R. Jones, secretary, with a 
committee on resolutions consisting of W. B. Davis, G. H. 
Leeds and A. R. Jones. 

Hon. James Hampton, a former Representative in Con- 
gress on the Whig ticket from the First District, then a resi- 
dent of Bridgeton, was present and made a powerful speech. 
Mr. Hampton was one of the most elocjuent and convincing 
speakers of his day, and his speech to the heroic men at 
Shiloh w^as a very remarkable presentation of the evils of 
liunirni slavery with reasons why it should ])e eradicated. 
His remarks aroused the meeting to a high plane of en- 
thusiasm and were the opening gun of Ihe party of liberty 
in Cumberland County. 

The committee on resolutions reported the following 
which were adopted as the views of the meeting: 

"Whereas, the monster, .slavery, has ever been 
stealthily coiling its slimy i'olds around the dearest in.sti- 
lutions of oin- country, corrui)ting the \erv fountain head, 
and rendering every stream that emanates from it foul and 
impure; and that we view the passage of the Nebraska bill, 
the consequent violation of ;i sacred compact — Missoiu-i 
C(imi)riimise — the brutal, biirb.iriau and cowardlv act of 
knocking down a Senator in the National Legislature; the 
border ruffian outrages in Kansas, murdering of the citi- 
zens, violating their wives and daughters, burning their 

(fi) 




CUMBERLAND COUNTY COURT HOUSE 

Bridgeton, New Jersey— I''^.')-!*^!'!.' 



(7) 



8 HISTORIC HAYS 

he. lines ami printing presses; tiie nnlawful closing up of a 
highway (Missouri) against 'the citizens of the United 
States ; the present cruel confinement of Free State men near 
Lecompton, each so many aggressions of a slave oligarchy; 
therefore, 

"Resolved, that it is the duty of every good citizen to 
resist by all just means the further extension of slavery. 

"Resolved, that intriguing, unscrupulous demagogues, 
among wlioin we regard Stephen A. Douglass as the leader, 
have bv the repeal of the Alissduri dimpromise, in\ol\'ed 
the I'ninn in dilliculty. arrayed one section against the 
other, and they thereby have rendered themselves unworthy 
the confidence of honest men. 

"Resolved, that the affairs of our country are approach- 
ing a crisis which has been hastened on ])y the repeal of the 
Missouri Compromise ; that the fate of Kansas and millions 
of unborn freemen must be decided by the next administra- 
tion it behooves every lover of his cnuntry tn be on the alert, 
and examine witli I'ealous care the platfnrm and past conduct 
of the candidates, who arc now before us for the highest 
office in the gift of the American people. 

"Resolved, that the candidate, James liucbanan, in 
swallowing the abominable platform of the Cincinnati Con- 
\cntinn. thcrcbv emlorsing S(|uatter sovereignty. f"ili1)ustering 
and in fact e\-ery act of the [jresent adniinistralii>n. has for- 
feited the sui)i)ort of every true jiatriot. 

"Resolved, that in tlie Ixepublican platform and in the 
people's candidates John C. Fremont and William L. Day- 
ton, we have tiie guarantee that Freedom shall be national 
and Shucry sectional, and as the evidence is clear and satis- 
factory that it was the design of the framcrs of our go\-ern- 
ment that Slavery should extend no farther, but they suf- 
fered it where it was that it might in time be removed with 
the least possible disadvantage to all, as all parties admit that 
Slax'erv is a great evil, it is no injustice fur tin millions of 
freemen to say to the few hundred thousand slave holders. 
'you may come and possess the public domain on equal 



IN ( r.MliKKI.AM) ColNTY, NICW JKKSKV 9 

terms with ourseKcs, but we cannot ailuw you to curse it 
with Shuei'}'.' 

"Resolved, tliat we pledtje tlieni our hearty support, 
belicxiuL;' tiiat thc\- will carr_\- out the original design of the 
Constitution, ,'md we earnestly ask all to wisely retlect 'ere 
they cast another vote for a Slavery propagandist. 

"Resolved, that it is the great doctrine of Jefferson that 
we advocate the non-extension of Slavery. We wish to 
be understt)0(l. that we do not interfere with Slavery in the 
States where it already exists, but we do firmly insist upon 
having no more Slave States from territory now free." 

These resolutions caused considerable debate among the 
voters of the county and the men who took i)art in the 
meeting were denounced as "woolly heads," "negro lovers," 
etc. During the ensuing hiur years the doings of the 
Abolitionists at Shiloh attracted great attention and as late 
as the Fall of i860 when the country was excited because 
of the election of .\braliam Lincoln to the Presidency, 
Laleb 1 lenrv .Shejipard, of .'^Itow Ircck, afterwards a Mem- 
ber of Assembly and Senator from Cumberland County, en- 
gaged in a newspaper controversy with several advocates 
and defenders of the pro-slavery contention in the columns 
of one of the Bridgeton papers. Mr. l^beppartl was a 
scholarly writer and a man of intensely radical views, stand- 
ing w^ith Wendell Phillips. William Lloyd Garrison and 
other early, out-spoken abolitionists. His pen was sharji and 
he stirred up his opponents to the point of rmger. Far in ad- 
vance of the Republicans ;is a jiarty he did not hesitate to 
declare his opinion that they were timitl in the presence 
of the great overshadowing jieril. Slavcrv. Jose])h 11. C. 
Appelgate. then a resident of the I'riesburg neighliorlK^od. 
near Cohansey, took up the cudgel and lampooned the 
Shiloh man with a sarcasm that tickled the Democrats im- 
mensely, lie was a gifted writer and in one of his com- 
munications saitl : "^'ou jircach the abominable doctrine 
of amalgamation, and urge free negro suffrage." Finally, 
Mr. Appelgate declared that he was done and desired no 
further debate as he believed he could not continue "with- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

out suffering further contact with a negro worshipper," 
but desired in conclusion that Mr. Sheppard should answer 
one question, to wit: "Did you, last Tuesday, November 6, 
i860, vote for Abraham Lincoln? Please answer yes or 
no?" 

This ended the writing, all of which grew out of the 
fact that the radicals at Shiloh had promulgated certain 
doctrines which were repugnant to the Democrats and many 
Native Americans. Mr. Appelgate was a product of Salem 
County and up to the election of Mr. Lincoln he had not 
got away from his earlier training. Strange to say, how- 
ever, within two vears afterward he took his gun. enlisted 
in the 24th New Jersey Regiment and went South, taking 
])art in se\-eral bloody battles for the preservation of the 
Union and the freedom of the slave. He Imre an honor- 
able part in his country's service. 

At the hour of 10 o'clock, Friday, October 24, 1856, 
a number of gentlemen gathered in the Court House at 
Bridgetoii. ;ind nominated a straight Republican ticket to 
be voted for in November. No record of this convention 
appears in the BridgetDii ])apers (ither than a paragraph 
stating tliat a Republican ticket was nominated consisting 
of the following: 

For Senator — Benjamin Rush Bateman, of Fairfield. 

For .Assembly — First District, Robert More, of Hope- 
well : Second District, Philip Souder, of Deerfield. 

For Coroners — James M. Riley, of Bridgeton; Syl- 
vanus Tubman, of Downe : Thomas Corson, of Millville. 

I'lic call for the comention was signed bv Tames 
Hampton. James Al. Riley, G. IL Leeds. It is presumed 
that the men who met in the court house in 1835 and those 
who met in the Sessions Room at Shiloh, .August 18. 1856, 
were self-constituted delegates to this convention. The 
editors of the two Bridgeton papers were on the fence, and 
for fear that they might lose a little advertising or other 
local patronage they carefully avoided publication of the 
resolutions or proceedings of the convention. 

In the afternoon at 2 o'clock, George William Curtis, 

(10) 




GROUP OF FOUNDERS OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY 

IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY-l^v, 

Hon. Benjamin Rush P.atcman Dr. William Elmer David P. Mulford 

Archibald Minch Isaac Elwell Dr. Enoch Fithiao 

John S. Bonham 
(11) 



12 lUSroUU DAVS 

of New "^I'ork, afterward editor of Harper's Weekly, ad- 
dressed a mass-meeting" in behalf of the principles of the 
new ly organized party. He was an able speaker, and stirrec' 
tlie hearts of his iiearers by his pungent references to the 
sla\e power. 

Tiie campaign was short but enthusiastic, and tlie 
Democrats were at their wits' end to circumvent the argu- 
ments of the "woolly heads" as they continued to term the 
followers (.)f Fremont anil Dayton. 

On the day the nominations were made a parade was 
formed and marched thmugli the streets of Bridgeton. It 
contained a large wagon in which were thirty-two young 
ladies dressed in white, one for each State of the Union and 
one for the territory of Kansas, then struggling for admis- 
sion and over which so much l)itterness had appeared in 
Congress. 

Hugh Runyon ]\Ierseilles, a man of note and ability in 
Bridgeton, later on surrogate on the Republican ticket, 
planted a pule in front of his oftice located in an okl frame 
building- on Commerce street, near Pearl, and hoisted a 
Fremont and Dayton flag. "Runynn" as he was termed, 
was small in stature but a fighter for principle. The Dein- 
ocrats made him a target, so much so that even the small 
boy u^hen passing his place would yell. "Woolly head." On 
the night of the election, when it was learned that James 
Buchanan was chosen President, a pniminent Democrat, 
cabinet-maker by trade, manufactured a small coffin and 
hoisted it to the top of "Runyon's" pole. When "Runyon" 
came down to the office on the morning after election he 
found the coflin swinging from the halyards, and of course 
was somewh.'it chagrined, but he h\cd to see the party wliich 
the coffin was supi)Osed to ha\e 1)uried rise to splendid 
heights of national supremacy. 

Meetings to forward the cause of Republicanism in 
Cumberland County were held previous to election at the 
following places: Millville. Port Elizabeth, Mauricetown, 
Dividing Creek. Cedarville, addressed by E. H. Coates, of 
Pennsylvania. 



I.N CUMBEUI.AND COLNTV, NEW J KUSKV I3 

Tlic new party made a gallant fight, and an especially 
good one, when it is remembered, that the most talented 
men in the county and the best politicians were battling in 
the ranks of the Democratic and Native American parties. 
jnhn T. Xixon. in a few brief years to be sent to Congress 
on the tidal wave of the L'nion-Republican votes, was \-et 
a Native .\merican antl their ablest leader. 1 le ad- 
dressed a meeting at llcislerville, for Millard Filmore. 
I'mvidence Ludlam, soon to be the beloved Senator and 
leader of the Republican part}- in Cumberland County, per- 
haps the most popular man of his day in Sotithern Xew 
Jersey, was a candidate on the Native .\merican ticket for 
Assembly and was defeated l)y his Denidcratic oppduent. 

The result of the election astounded even the Republi- 
cans. By a fusion of the Republicans and Native .\mericans 
on Governor and Congress, William .\. Newell, of Mon- 
nii>utli, and Isaiah D. Clawson, of Salcni, carried the cminty 
by 293 majority. The straight Republican ticket for Elec- 
tors and the Legislature polled a vote as follow's : 

The Presidential electors, of whom Hon. Lewis Ho- 
well, of Stow Creek, was one, 642; Benj. Rush Bateman, 
for State Senator, 602 ; Robert More, .Assembly, First Dis- 
trict, 471 ; Philip Souder, Assembly, Second District, 216. 

Thus did the youthful Republicans, like David of old, 
sling the shot which e\ entually felled the Goliath of Slavery. 

The six hundred odd voters who faced the torrent of 
abuse and went gallantly to the polls in a forlorn hope were 
men of high character and principle. They were not par- 
ticipants for the spoils of ofifice or seekers of public applause. 
On the contrary, they were men who loved their country 
and hatctl hinnan slavery. \\"ith Lincoln they believed that 
this nation could no longer remain half slave and half free. 
It must either be all slave or all free. And they faced to the 
front, and took up a new march for liberty. 



Previous to the November election of T857, the Re- 
publicans again met at the courthouse in Bridgeton and 
nominated a ticket which was elected. Robert More, of 



IIISTOKK- DAYS 

Hcipcwfll. was successful for Assembly in the First Dis- 
trict 1)\' a majority of 219 o\er Jonathan Richman, Dem- 
ocrat, lilwell Xichols, of Deerheld, was chosen over Frank 
]'". I'atterson. then editor of the Bridgeton Chronicle. Dem- 
ocrat, Second District, by 14 majority. 

This was the bes^inning' of Republican x'ictory in Cum- 
berland ','oiuity. which, with rare intervals, has continued 
to this day. 

lion. Robert .More, the newly elected .\ssemblyman 
from the First District, served li\e terms in the House of 
As.sembly at Ti-enton. He was present when Abraham Lin- 
coln addressed the Legislature in 1861, when that great 
President was on his way to take the chair as the nation's 
Chief E.xecutive in Washington. He afterward saw Air. 
Lincoln st.imling in the presence of the two Houses. Tall, 
homely in api)earance. and of serious countenance, yet when 
he warmed up in his speech Mr. Lincoln's eyes slione and his 
face appeared positively beautiful. It was a picttu'e ne^-er to 
be forgotten. .\t the death of Air. Lincoln, Mr. More was 
the author of a series of resolutions where] )y the portrait 
of .Abraham Lincoln, which now hangs in the .Assembly 
Chambei" at Trenton, became the jiropertv of the State. It 
was purcha.sed. and he was one of the committee that se- 
cured it. On the ratification of the constitutional amend- 
ment prohi])iting slavery Mr. Alore delivered an able and 
clo(|uent address in the .Assembly in reply to remarks of 
Leon .\l)bett. afterward Covernor of the State, and other 
Democrats, who were opposing the adoption of this impor- 
tant measure. 

I^obert More came of distinguished ancestrv. His 
grandfather, John T. More, was a captain in the Army of 
the American Revolution and fought in the battle of Red 
Bank. His brother, Ca])t;iin Enoch More ran a Government 
transport during the Civil War, and carried the ])rivate dis- 
patches of President Lincoln. Captain More brought Tef- 
fer.son Davis, President of the Confederacy, and .Alexander 
H. Stevens, Vice President, together with the Confederate 
Cabinet to Fortress Monroe on his transport after their 

(U) 




CUMBERLAND COUNTY NOTABLES-lS-Vj-lsGo 

Hon. Providence Ludlam, Firbt Republican Senator 
Hon. Elwell Nichols Hon. Robert More 

First Republican Members of Assembly 
Hon. Philip Souder. First Republican Assembly Candidate 



l6 HIS'KlKU IIAVS 

capture at the close of tlie war. This same lirother also 
served under Tolonel John C. F"remiint during- his journey- 
in.^s throuiih the heart of the Rocky .Mountains and across 
the continent in the '50's. His <^reat ancestor John More, 
came tn tins country with Fenwick's colony from England 
and the log- house in which he lived with his family is shown 
m a will 1(1 cut in Thomas Shourd's History of Lord Fen- 
wick and the families which accomifanied him tn America. 

l-'rom the small beginning in '55 he li\ed to see the 
magnificent results of the great Republican jjnlicy. which 
emancipated the sla\e, restored the L'liion. and made of 
the United States of .\merica the most enlightened and 
prosperous nation of the earth. 

Hon. Elwell Nichols, elected on the Republican ticket 
with Mr. More, as Assemblyman from the Second District, 
was also a scion of Rexohitinnary st(.)ck, and a man of strong 
convictions of duty. He was quiet in his demeanor, but a 
man of ability. At the election in 1857 he succeeded in se- 
curing a majoritv in his native township of Deerfield, a 
remarkable feat considering the rock-ribbed Jacksonian 
IJeniocrac}' of that coninimiitv. Mr. Nichols was a Com- 
mon Pleas Judge of the Cumberland Courts one tertii, and 
for years previous to his death was annually chosen Assessor 
of his township, rmd enjoyed a rare jjnpularitv. Judge 
Nichols was a stalwart Rcpul)lican ti> the end. and as one 
of the founders of the party in Cumberland County his 
memory is highly cherished by many relatives, among whom 
is the writer. 

The campaign of 1857, wdiich closed with the election 
of Robert More and Ehvell Nichols to the House of Assem- 
bly as the first persons ever chosen to office in Cumberland 
County, on the Repubhciui ticket, also witnessed the election 
of Providence Ludlam as county clerk, H. R. Merseilles as 
surrogate and Jonathan Fithian as sheriff, by a fusion of 
the Native American and Republican votes. Ludlam had 
336 majority over his Democratic opponent; l'"ithiaii had 
313 majority, atid Merseilles 3S majority. 



IN tTMIlICUI.AM) (OINTV, NICW Jl-KSICV 1/ 

\\ licii the caiu-ass of 1858 opeiieil tlie }'oung Kepub- 
lican part}' IihukI itself practicalh- in possession of all the 
county offices save that of State Senator. 'J"he nati\'e .Amer- 
icans were still in existence but the seeds of disintegration 
were fast decimating their numbers. Few persons at this 
day are aware of the fact that the .Xative .American party 
was at one time a \ery ])ciwei"ful political organization. it 
carried several important States of the I'nion and was a 
power to be reckoned witli. Among its adherents were 
many of the best and most intelHgent citizens of the country 
and es[)ecially was this true of Cumberland C'ount\\ The 
party stronghold was found in the secret meetings of lodges 
known as the "Know Nothings, '" whose members were 
bound by solemn oaths to support only native l)orn Amer- 
icans for public oftice. ihe \\ big and Temjjerance i)arties 
in the tlecade preceding the formation of the Native Amer- 
ican party had dissolved into chaos, renniants of the two 
going back to the Democratic party, others halting between 
opinions waiting for the dawn of that dav when tluw could 
unite with an organization which should take up the fight 
against the fm-ther extension of sla\ery wliich tlioughtful 
men knew nnist soon occup}' the held of i)olitical conten- 
tion. Previous to its demise, however, the Native .\merican 
party made a final efifort for success. By a fusion with the 
Republicans in a convention held at the Court House in 
Bridgeton, October jd, 1858, Robert More, of Hopewell, 
was nominated for .Assembly in the I'irst District, and 
.\aron S. W'estcott, of Millville, for Assembly in the Second 
District. Mr. More was re-elected .Assemblyman In- a ma- 
jority of ^'!>('i over D. TI. Hawkins, Democrat. Air. We.st- 
cott was elected Assemblyman by a majority of 157 over 
Benjamin F. Lee, Democrat. In this exciting campaign 
John T. Ni.xon, of Bridgeton, became the Republican and 
.\merican cruididate for Congress in the I-'irst District aufl 
was chosen by 3300 majority. Cumlierland County ga\-e 
Nixon 763 majority over George .A. \\'alkcr. Democrat; 
John H. Jones, of Camden, polling 414 votes as a straight- 
out Nati\e .\merican candidate in the couiUv. 



l8 IIISTORK' DAYS 

On the night of the election of 1858 a great crowd of 
men and bo\s paraded Commerce street in honor of tlieir 
fellow citizen whom the returns had decided was to sit in 
the Congress of the United States. The procession halted 
in front of Mr. Xixon's residence at the corner of Commerce 
and Orange streets, and sent up a series of cheers for the 
Republican part)- and its successful candidate for Congress. 
Barrels of tar were rolled into the street in front of the 
house which lit the skies with lurid flames, while the air was 
redolent with martial music. Mr. Nixon appeared upon 
the veranda and delivered an eloquent speech of thanks for 
the honor conferred upmi him. He defined the course he 
should pursue, Providence permitting, in the troubled arena 
of legislation at Washington. His remarks were received 
with tremendous cheering. The new Congressman was a 
man of remarkable talents. Of distinguished personal ap- 
pearance, learned and cultured, he soon attained a high place 
in the hall of the House of Representatives. Before him was 
a great career to end as a member of our highest judiciary. 
Judge of the United States District Court in Trenton by 
appointment of President Grant. 

The smoldering embers of Americanism were extin- 
guished by the rising tide of popular opinion hostile to the 
encroachments of the southern slave oligarchs, so that when 
the hour for action in the campaign of 1859 arrived the Re- 
publican party pure and simple began its work with an ardor 
it had not as yet exhibited in the preceding- incipient years. 



Pursuant to call the Republicans of Cumberland 
County met at the Court J louse in Bridgeton, Monday, Oc- 
tober 17, 1859. Forty delegates were present. Benjamin 
Ayars, of Greenwich, was made chairman, with Ephraim 
Bateman, of Fairfield, and Charles West, of Shiloh, secre- 
taries. Hon. Robert More, of Hopewell, who had served 
two years in the Plouse of Assembly, was unanimously 
nominated for State Senator. Ebenezer Hall, of Greenwich, 
was nominated for Assembly, First District, and Aaron S. 
Westcott, of Millville, for Assembly, Second District. Hon. 



IN cumi!i:rl.\ni) col'nty, nkw jkrsky 19 

James Hampton and Hon. Jolin T. Xixon addressed the 
convention, their speeches being enthusiastically applauded. 

The resolutions were a bugle call for action, brief and 
to the point, and are the first planks of straightout Republi- 
can doctrine ever promul^aetl by a convention in Cumber- 
land County. They read as follows : 

"Whereas, the time has now arrived for the friends of 
America to take a decided stand upon the great questions 
of the day ; therefore 

"Resolved, that we use all bfinnrable means to carry 
out our principles which are, I'rotection to .American in- 
dustry, Free Territory, the Bible in our public schools and 
the alteration of our naturalization laws." 

The convention appointed what was in all probability 
the first Republican Executive Committee ever named in 
Cumberland County, to wit : 

Providence Ludlam, Bridgeton ; Lawrence Woodruff, 
Cohansey; Elwell Nichols, Deerfield ; Jonathan Fithian, 
Hopewell; Isaac Elwell, Stow Creek; Benjamin Ayars, 
Greenwich ; Richard D. Bateman, Fairfield ; Jefferson Lore, 
Downe; Asbury Chester, Millville; Daniel Loper, Maurice 
River. 

Providence Ludlam. Bridgeton ; .Assembly candidate 
on the American ticket in 1856, had now become the leader 
of the ivepublican party in Cumberland. ;nid as county clerk 
exercised a large influence in the shaping of political affairs. 
Flis efTorts told in the canvass of '59. not so much in the 
way of a successful result for the entire ticket, but in welding 
and perfecting the new organization for the work which 
was to come. Ludlam was a born leader, a man of fine per- 
sonal appearance, with agreeable manners. Everybody liked 
"Provie" and he lived to become a great power not only in 
the county but in the State. He became State Senator for 
two terms dying suddenly on the last year of the second 
term, his funeral being attended by the Legislature in a 
body at iiis home in Bridgeton amid the greatest public 
demonstration of sympathy in crowded streets ever given 
any citizen in Cumberland County. Had bis life been spared 



HISTOKIC DAYS 

it is generally believed that he would have been Governor 
of the State. 

Charles S. Olden. Republican candidate for Governor, 
carried the county by 1/2 majority over \\'right. Democrat. 
Mr. Olden was chosen Governor in the State at large by 
aijuut 1600 m.ijority. Hon. l\(il)erl More who had ren- 
dered such excellent ser\ice in the House of Assembly was 
defeated for State Senator by Nathaniel Stratton, of Mill- 
ville, Democrat. Senator-elect Stratton had previously 
been .Sheriff on the Temperance ticket and was a \-ery popu- 
lar man in the county, and by reason of his wide personal 
accjuaintance succeeded by tlie narrow margin of 16 votes. 
Ebenezer Hall, of Greenwich, Republican, was chosen As- 
semblyman in the I'irst District o\-er Sockwell. Democrat, 
by i()2 majorit}-. John Carter, of Bridgeton, Democrat, 
defeated Aaron .S. Westcott, of Millville, one of the original 
founders of the Republican party, who had serx'ed the pre- 
vious year as a member of the House, iiy a majority of 84 
\-otes, Mr. Carter was popular in Bridgeton, He was an 
honest man as the politicians afterward discovered at 
Trenton, and with one term of serxi-ce they had no further 
use lor him. 



Congress adjoiu^ned in the spring of i860 when Rep- 
resentative John T. Xi.xon returning from Washington, 
took the steamer "I'atuxenl" from Philadelphi;i b\' way of 
the Delaware ri\er for his home in Ih'idgeton. I'y invitation 
of Cai)tain Da\id lilew and the reipiest of the passengers, of 
whom there was a large number fin the boat, Mr. Nixon 
drew a striking picture of ])o|itical affairs in Washington 
and the attitude of Southern representati\es as to the slave 
question in Congress, His speech was in a sense the open- 
ing gun of the exciting campaign for the election of .\bra- 
ham Lincoln sn f;ir as the conntv of Cumberland was con- 
cerned. It made a strong impression upon those who heard 
it. and was highly complimented by Rev. Isaiah D. King, 
then pastor of Trinity M. ]\. Chm-ch, Bridgeton, who made 
the concluding remarks to the passengers, 

(•JU) 




LEADERS OF PUBLIC OPINION IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY— isr.l-lstl". 

Hon. Le%vis HorA'ell 
Hon. John T. Nixon Hon. Benjamin F. Lee 

Hon. L. Q. C. Elmer Hon. Charles E. Elmer 

(-1) 



22 IIISTOKIC DAVS 

The political horizon was filled with clouds — clouds 
read}- to lireak with excitement — on the eve of that ever 
memorable election in the year i860. Early in June the 
Republicans of Bridgeton began to organize, and on Satur- 
day evening, June i6tli, a call for a meeting to establish a 
Lincoln and Hamlin Club was responded to with en- 
thusiasm. The meeting was organized 1j_\' the election of 
Providence Ludlam as president, with the following officers: 
Vice-presidents, Dr. N. R. Xewkirk, Robert Jordan, John 
Ware, Jonathan Davis, Samuel \\'ilson, Richard Burch, 
John Lupton, Dr. Henr_\- Xeff. Secretaries, John S. Mit- 
chell, H. R. Merseilles, Daniel B. Ginenback : treasurer, 
Joseph H. Elmer; Committee on Resolutions, Dr. \. R. 
Newkirk, Robert B. Potter. John S. Mitchell. 

Mr. Ludlam, on taking the chair, thanked the meeting 
for the honor which they had given him, and proceeded 
to explain the doings of the Republican National Conven- 
tion at Chicago which resulted in the nomination of Abra- 
ham Lincoln for Presitlent, and Hannibal Hamlin for Vice- 
President, of which convention he was a delegate from 
New Jersey. He declared that the prairies of the West 
were on fire for Lincoln, the rail-splitter of Illinois. This 
allusion was received by tlie large audience present with 
unbounded applause. ^^'hile Mr. Ludlam was speaking 
there w-as suddenly seen projecting itself through the open 
doorway a small baimer fastened to an enormous rail. On 
this banner was inscribed the names of the candidates and 
the name of the new organization — "The Rail Splitters' 
Association." This was followed by a large body of men 
bearing rails, broad axes, grulibing hoes, beetles, wedges, 
etc. .-\s this ])rocession came into the main hall the applause 
w'as long and loud. At the conclusion of the business of 
the evening Major James Hampton addressed the meet- 
ing in a very entertaining speech. Thus opened the great 
campaign in Bridgeton — a campaign W'hich changed the cur- 
rent of events throughout the nation and brought the people 
face to face with a civil war soon to shake the very founda- 
tions of the repul>lic. 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY. NEW JERSEY 23 

On tlie brink of this tremendous revolution how many 
timid souls there were who had not yet sufficient courage 
to stand for the right as against the grievous wrong. 
The Bridgeton papers were yet on the fence fearful as to 
the source from which might come official patronage. Here 
is a specimen paragraph from a leading editorial of the issue 
of one of them under date of June 30th, i860. After al- 
lusion to Mr. Lincoln, Air. Douglass, Mr. Bell, and Mr. 
Breckinridge as Presidential candidates, the editor said : 
"W'iiich of the candidates will be elected we shall not under- 
take to determine, but we have strong reasons for believing 
that some of them will be defeated, and a private opinion 
that one of the abo\e will be the next President of the 
United States." 

There were manv. howe\er, who had the courage of 
their convictions, and later on they met again in the Session 
House at Shiloh, to consider the outrageous treatment which 
one Robert Halford, a fugitive slave, had received at the 
hands of the local authorities. Halford had fled from a 
cruel master in the South and was struggling for life and 
liberty. He made his way into South Jersey where he found 
friends, only to be discovered by the minions of the law who 
wore the livery of slavery in the free north. What was 
then known as the fugitive slave law was an act of Congress 
whereby slaves escaping from their owners should be re- 
turned to their masters in the South. Under this act Jus- 
tice Taney, of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
rendered the famous decision in the case of Dred Scott, a 
colored man whose liberty was in danger, that "a negro 
had no rights which a white man was bound to respect." 

Shiloh was the home of a cultured. God-fearing people, 
fathers and mothers of principle. They loved liberty and 
abhorred slaverv. AMien they met on the evening of the 
2d dav of September. 1860. a commfttee was appointed to 
investigate the arrest of the fugitive slave, Robert Halford. 
and report what information they could obtain, together 
with some appropriate resolutions at a meeting to be held 
on the 6th day of September. On the latter date the ap- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

peiuled resolutions were rei^rted by the committee, unan- 
imously adopted as the voice of the meeting, and ordered 
published in the Bridgeton papers : 

"\\ liereas. the fugitive slave law is an infamous en- 
actment and diametrically opposed to the spirit of the Dec- 
laration of Independence; therefore 

"Resolved, that we consider the recent capture of a 
fugitive slave, Robert Halford, in our vicinity, as an out- 
rage upon the neighborhood from which he was summarily 
dragged. 

"Resoh'ed, that in proportion as we sympathize with 
the indi\i(lual who was deprived of his God-given liberty, 
and thrust back into the hell of slavery, in the same pro- 
portion do we execrate the conduct of those persons who 
willingly gave their aid to such a disgraceful and under- 
handed plot. 

"Resolved, that we believe the County jail was erected 
for the confinement of the guilty and not for the innocent, 
and that every departure from that rule, similar to the re- 
cent occurrence, is treachery to true Democracy and Re- 
publicanism. 

"Resolved, that the spectacle of four or five men. armed 
and trembling with fear, capturing a boy who has no riglits 
which white men are bound to respect, shows the self-de- 
stroying tendency of slavery and furnishes to the com- 
munity foofl for thought." 

Again had the Shiloh abolitionists attacked the monster 
ini(|uity of the century, and through these resolutions con- 
cerning the fugitive slave and their earlier resolutions to 
which reference has been made, furnished food for thought 
indeed. The "fugitive slave resolutions" were gall and 
wormwood to the many who still bowed down to the god 
of slavery, so much so that one writer in a Bridgeton paper 
the following week after their publication refers to them 
as "the consummation of folly, yes. T mav sav ridiculous- 
ness, exhibited in last week's issue in the form of some fan-- 
atical resolutions, etc." This writer signed himself "Con- 
servator," and remains incognito tn this day. 

(24) 



FIRST SHERIFFS ELECTED BY THE REPUBLICAN PARTY IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY 




Jonathan Fithian Le\vis H. Dowdney 

Charles L. Watson 
Samuel Peacock Enoch Hanthorn 



(25) 



26 msroKic days 

The Reiniblican County Conxention of i860 met in the 
Court House. Bridgeton. September J9th. There was much 
interest manifested in the proceedings. The following ticket 
was nominated: Assembly. First District, William Bacon, 
of Uowne; Assembly, Second District, Jonathan F.. Shep- 
pard, of Maurice River; Sheriff, Lewis H. Dowdney, of 
Stow Creek. 

This was the beginning of the wide-awake campaign 
in Cumberland County, and in the e\'ening of convention 
day the Bridgeton Wide-Awakes — some sixty strong — pa- 
raded to the end of Elmer"s mill dam where they met the 
Millville W'ide-Awakes, thirty strong, and escorted them to 
Grosscup's Hall, when Hon. John C. Ten Eyck, United 
States Senator, addressed the assembled multitude «liich 
the papers said "filled the hall to its utmost capacity."' The 
Bridgeton \\'idt;-.\wakes were commanded by Captain Wil- 
liam Shull and Lieutenants Charles Hetzell and Samuel 
Wilson. They wore red caps and capes, and their Millville 
guests wore black ca])s and capes. Each carried transpar- 
encies with appropriate mottoes and torches which poured 
forth a great stream of light, making Commerce street as 
bright as daw The parade was led by a marshal and a 
fine band of music. Hon. John T. Nixon also addressed 
the meeting at the hall. 

l'\ullier on in the campaign there was a greater parade 
of the Wide-Awakes of Bridgeton and surrounding towns 
through the streets of Bridgeton. In this procession many 
transparencies appeared with the mottoes: "Free press, 
free speech, free soil:" "Hurrah for Old Abe. the Rail .Split- 
ter of Illinois." "Elect (Jld .\bc who is six foot and four, 
and the cry of hard times will come no more." (^ne of the 
great attractions was a large wagon on which stood James 
Bright, splitting" rails in inn'tation of the early occujiation 
of Mr. Lincoln, the V-icpublican candidate for President. 
Bright was a muscular _\-oung man and a picturesque figure 
for the vast throng who \iewed his de.xtrous manipulation 
of the rails. A year later he was a gallant soldier in the 
l^nion .\rmv. fightiu"- in the ranks of the Third Rcsjiment. 



IN CU.MBERI.ANi:) COUNTY, NEW JKRSi;\- 27 

New Jersey Infantry, afterward transferred to the U. S. 
Navy wiiere he rendered \alnal)le service thiring' the con- 
tinuance of the war. Wliile tiie parade was moving Demo- 
crats stood upon tlie sidewalk and yelled "woolly heads," 
"nigger lovers" and other opprobrious epithets. Bricks 
were thrown and some of the trrmsparencies mashed. The 
Shiloh Republicans on horseback were hissed every now and 
then by persons along the line of march, who seemed to 
have special animosity to them, perhaps because they were 
the nucleus and essence of the anti-sla\-er_\- nioxement around 
which the Republican i)arty was finally organized in Cum- 
berland County. 

The Wide-Awake feature of the i860 campaign will 
ne\'er be forgotten by tliose who witnessed the parades of 
that year. They were called Wide-Awakes in contradis- 
tinction to the Douglass Democratic parading clubs who 
were known as "Eye-Shutters," meaning on the one hand 
that the Republicans were ali\e to the great issue while the 
Democrats of the Douglass stripe were deceivers and com- 
promisers with the slave pow-er. 

The election took place Xovcniber 3d. and the entire 
Republican ticket was chosen in Cumberland County. While 
the returns were coming in an immense crowd gathered in 
front of the County Clerk's Office. It was addressed by 
John S. Mitchell, Esq., and Hon. James Hampton. 
When the result was announced the cheering could be heard 
two miles distant. 

The Republican Presidential electors, of whom Charles 
E. Elmer, of Bridgeton, was one, were elected by 608 ma- 
jority. Mr. lilmer had the honor of being a member of the 
Electoral College and casting his vote for the immortal 
Lincoln. He w^as one of the three Republican electors 
chosen by Xcw Jerse)-. the other three .going to Mr. Doug- 
lass on a fusion. 

Hon. John T. Nixon was re-elected to a seat in Con- 
gress from the First District, Cumberland County giving 
him 638 majority. William Bacon, .\ssembly. First Dis- 
trict, had 4^2 luajority: Jonathan F. Shcppard, Assembly, 



28 HISTORIC DAYS 

Second District, liad i 13 majority. Lewis H. Dowdney 
was elected the first straiglit-out Republican Sheriff by a 
majority of 344 over Benjamin Keen, Democrat. ^Ir. 
Keen was a highly-respected citizen of Bridgeton, un- 
married, remaining a baclielor to the end of iiis life. Dur- 
ing the campaign, however, a statement was made by one 
of his political opponents that while he was a good man 
he (Keen) had the unfortunate habit of beating his wife. 
This varn was l)elie\ed by a number of voters, and liad the 
effect of decreasing Air. Keen's vote. The Sheriff-elect^ 
Mr. Dowdney. was also a popular man, and brought a large 
personal lolliiwing to the support of the Republican ticket. 
He made a good Sheriff, and was in after years sent to 
represent tlie First Assemljly District of Cumberland County 
in the Legislature two successive terms. 



'I'hc year 1861 opened in gloom. The great party 
which was to sa\-c tlie Uni(_)n was about to c<;)nie into pos- 
session of the Government at Washington. In the South 
there was derision and defiance of the victors in the cam- 
paign of i860, and the cry went u]) and out that as for 
them, tiic Southern ])eoi)le. ne\er would they submit to 
Black Rei)ul)lican rule. Beginning with South Carolina 
conventions were held in all of the States, south of Mason 
and Dixon's Hue. and ordinances of secession passed. There 
was hurr\ing to and fro, a gathering of men and material 
to force a dissolution of the Union. Treason reared its 
odious bead in high ])laccs, and tlic clouds of war hung low 
and tbre.-ilcning. The i)atri(itic North, out of whose homes 
had come the freeman's verdict at the ballot-box, was torpid 
in the face of the tempest which the slaveocracy had pre- 
cipitated. Men spoke in hurried breath and in whispers, 
saving: "Can it be that nur lirc-thren of the Sonlli are so 
far lost to reason as to be willing and determined that the 
Republic of Washington, of Jefferson and of Jackson shall be 
destroyed? Can it be that they have forgotten the glories 
of the Rc\'olution, and the battles won at .Sa\anna]i, at 
Cowpens, at Yorktuwn, wliere .Southern blood and South- 



IN CUMBERLAND CorNTV, Ni:\\ J I'.RSKY 29 

eni \alnr hroutjlit \ict(irv to the ohl llajj;- ami lai<l linn and 
ileep tlie foundations of civil and religious liberty in the land 
of the free? Can it be that because of the traffic in Ininian 
flesh and the love of power, the brave men of the South are 
ready td make j^ood the fear of Daniel W'rhster, that the 
land might be deluged with fraternal blixid and the I'nion 
rent by internecine strife?" 

.\mid such uncertainties, and such gloom, all who loved 
the Union of the States, turned with one accord to the colos- 
sal figure of the coming man into whose hands bad been com- 
mitted the destinies of a great nation, whose very existence 
was dependent upmi the proper solution of the tremendous 
problems then confronting the American people. Six feet, 
four inches in height, of slender figure, homely countenance, 
with firm tread, and tender eyes, out of which shone the 
kiiidK' disjiosition of a braiiiv, liniad-minded man — such 
was Abraham Lincoln, whose like the world had not liere- 
tofore seen ; whose equal was not hereafter to appear. 



The morning of the b'ourth of March, iSOi. dawned in 
darkness and mist. The light of the opening d;iy was 
barely discernible, but \\';ishington awoke nevertheless 
under high tension and with fear and trembling. It was an 
unpropitious day, yet thousands had gathered to see and 
hear the new l'".\ecuti\c. In front of the eastern |)ortico of 
the National Capitol, under the shadow of the dear old flag, 
Mr. Lincoln ajipeared, accompaniefl by the great men of 
the hour. .\t the hand of Roger P>. Taney, Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court, he took the Bible — his mother's Bible 
— and the oath of office as the sixteenth President of the 
L'nited States of America. Justice Taney was he who liad 
but recently rendered that heartrending opinion, based upon 
the Constitution, that the l"ugiti\e .Slave .Statute was legal 
and binding upon e\ery citizen of the Republic. Face to 
face tliev stofid. the (Mie the representative of the declining 
slave ])owcr. the other the great advocate of the people, soon 
to be the emancipator of the black men and women who for 
two centuries had lu-aved "mid blood ,-uid tears for the com- 



30 HISTORIC DAYS 

ing of tliat (lay whicli God in liis good time sliould alone re- 
veal. 

As the new rrcsident turned his face toward the audi- 
ence which stretched away in the long distance with its 
thousands of upturned faces, many of them covertly treach- 
erous, others openly hostile, his countenance assumed a 
more thoughtful mood than was his wont, and his eyes 
shown with a gentle radiance which penetrated the hearts of 
those who listened with a sentiment which seemed to say: 
■'Here stands a man the Creator has sent to do a great work 
f(jr a trouhled pe(.)ple.'" Out of obscurity, out of po\'erty, 
he has been called, a st.'ir of the first magnitude, for a few 
lirief years to be abused, to be misrepresented, but in the 
end to be lauded and loved by North and South as one of the 
few immortal names that were not born to die. 

\\'ith the introductory sentence, "Fellow Citizens of 
the L'nited States," the vast audience stood in silence while 
Mr. Lincoln argued with those who sought to destroy the 
nation, pleading as a father would to a wayward child to 
refrain and return to the Union which the fathers had set 
up at such costly sacrifice. Leaning his stalwart form and 
kindly lineaments into the faces of his auditors so far as it 
were possil)le he finished his splendid inaugural with the fol- 
lowiiio- pathetic paragra[)h : 

"In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, 
and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The 
Go\ernment w ill not assail you. You can have no conllict 
without being yoin-seh'cs the aggressors. You have no 
oath registereil in heaven to destroy the Government, while 
I .shall have the most .solemn one to preserve, protect, and 
defend it. I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but 
friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may 
have strained it must not brerdx our bonds of affection." 

Tears stood in the eyes of many in the solemn hush 
which rested u])on the audience, for a moment transfi.xed, 
then slowdy (lis|iersing to wonder and to marvel on the 
potent truths so wonderfully presented by the great Presi- 
dent. 



IN CU.MHKRLAxVD COl'NTV, NhU J KKSliY 3I 

History was made at rapid pace during the notable 
year of '6i. Fort Sumter, commanded by Major Anderson, 
fell April 14th. That insult to the flag woke the nation to 
an intense excitement and patriotic activity. Governor 
Olden, of Xew Jersey, issued a proclamation April 17th. 
calling on the people of the State to rally to the support of 
the Union. It was headed : "To arms, to arms, ve brave !" 



One of the first volunteers from Cumberland County 
to enlist in the Union Army for three years was George 
W. Shute. of Greenwich Township. The fires of patriot- 
ism were arousetl witliin him bv the thunder of the Con- 
federate guns at Sumter, and an anxiety to enter the volun- 
teer service. George left Cumberland by stagecoach, reach- 
ing Philadelphia and from thence to Trenton. The "Cum- 
berland Greys" were at that time organizing in Bridgeton, 
but he tarried not. so anxious was he to enlist. Arriving 
in Trenton, he was mustered in the First Xew Jersey Regi- 
ment Infantry \^olunteers. Company G. Captain Alexander 
M. \\"a\-. serving with great credit in the battles of the 
Army of the Potomac from Bull Run to Spotts\-lvania. 
June 23d, 1864. he re-enlisted and was transferred to Gen- 
eral Hancock's Veteran Corps. Company .■\. Third Regi- 
ment \'eteran \''olunteers. From then on. through the re- 
mainder of the war he gallantly served until discharged. 
February 14. 1866, at Fort Snelling. Minnesota. 



Saturday evening, April 20th. the largest and most 
enthusiastic meeting ever held in Bridgeton took place at 
Grosscup's Hall. It was a mass meeting of all citizens who 
loved their country, irrespective of party. Hon. John T. 
Xixon presided. The following were chosen Vice Presi- 
dents — Dr. William S. Bowen. Richard Lott. Robert C. 
Xichols. George ^^^ Claypoolc. Daniel M. Woodruff. Mor- 
ton Mills, Dr. J. P.. Potter. Jonathan F.lmer. Charles D. 
Burroughs. Dayton R. Whitaker. .Alexander Stratton. Rob- 
ert DuBois. Jas. Stiles. John Cheesman, Sr. Secretaries — 
Dr. Joseph Moore. Eden M. Hood. .Alexander Robeson. 
lohn S. McGear. Committee on Resolutions — Charles E. 




WAR TIME PICTURES— iscj-l^i,:; 

Aaron Terry, Co. K. I2th Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 

Albert S. Emnicll Charles Livingston 

Co. H, nth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. Co. K, nth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 

George W. Shute. Co. G, ist Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 

Charles O. Powell 
Co. K, ijth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 

Bloomfield Holmes Absalom Jordan Adam Jordan 

Co. K,l2th Reg. N. J. Inf.Vols. Co. K I2th Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. Co. G, I2th Reg. N. J. Inf.VoIs. 

13J| 



John J. Boone 
Co. A, I2th Reg. N. J. Inf.Vols. 



HISTORIC DAYS 

Elmer, James R. Hoagland, John S. Mitchell. Dr. Joseph 
C. Kirby, Col. David Potter. The committee reported a 
series of stirring" resolutions which were adopted with 
enthusiasm. Patriotic speeches were made by Judge L. 
Q. C. Elmer, Dr. William S. Bowen, John S. .Mitciiell, Rev. 
James Brown, pastor P>aptist Church; Rev. Joseph Hub- 
bard, pastor Second Presbyterian Clinrch. and I'aul T. 
Jones. Mr. Jones who was a \ery ter\ent speaker, aroused 
the meeting into repeated cheering liy his denunciation of 
treason and those who were giving the Southern leaders 
aid and sympathy. 

Tuesday morning, April 23d, a recruiting station for 
volunteers was opened at Sheppard's Hall, near the Com- 
merce street bridge. Within two days a company of loi 
men were enlisted, and organized into what was afterward 
known as the "Cumberland Greys." The company officers 
were as follows: Captain. James W. II. Stickney; First 
Lieutenant, Samuel T. DuBois; Second Lieutenant. George 
Woodruff; Orderly Sergeant, Charles F. Salkeld; Second 
Sergeant, David W. Fry; Tiiird Sergeant, Sylvester W. 
Randolph; Fourth Sergeant. Michael H. Swing; First 
Corporal, Clarence J. Mulford; Second Corporal, Samuel 
Harris; Third Corporal. John C. Garrison; Fourth Cor- 
poral, Smith Dalrymple; Drummer, Francis Albin; Fifer, 
Horace E. Loper. Enlisted men as follows : James Bright, 
Bowman II. Buck. Daniel Doyle. Jonathan Fadley. James 
W. Murphy, b'urman Cambloss. Joseph R. Woodruff. 
David ?.. Husted. Thomas M. Woodruff. Joseph Clayton, 
Josiah F. Sheppard, John Royal. Chas. L. Davis, David 
Yearicks, William Painter, .A.dolph Bergen, Reuben Brooks. 
David P. Clark. Thomas Cottrell, Jonathan H. Facemire. 
Robert Gallaspie, Levi J. Harker, William G. Howell. 
Charles T. Jordan. Davis P.. Loder. Henry W. Marts, 
Charles McCallister, John Mowers, William H. Naglee, 
Daniel R. Parvin, Alexander Sayre, George Sleit, Walter S. 
Williams. William IT. Williams, James B. Woodruff, Dan- 
iel T. Dillon. Daniel B. Ginenback, Barnett Burdsall, Aaron 
M. Allen, Reuben F. Barrett, David S. Briod. Robert Burd- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

sail, Thomas E. Calverlcy, Thomas P. Coles, Edmund B. 
Crozier, James Dailey, Thomas B. Davis, Eldorado H- 
Grosscup, Ethan T. Harris, Charles H. Henderson, John 
R. Hill, Josiah Hunter, William Mulford, Joshua R. Nich- 
ols, Rohert Potts, Philip Ritner, George Robinson, Ed- 
ward 1). Stanley, Mathias Taylor, William A. Thomas, 
John Thompson, Benjamin V. Tyler, Alexander H. Webb, 
Samuel W. Wells, James G. Westcott, Joseph S. Layton, 
Alexander 'SI. Parvin, Joab C. Lore, Richard C. Levick, 
^^'illiam Aloncrict. John Ogden, Samuel Patchell. Henry 
L. Seymour. Robert AI. Vansant. Enoch B. Pew, Charles 
H. Bacon, Elias W. Blackson, Henry Clark, Raymond D. 
Crandol, Smith J. I""ogg. Robert Jackson, Gideon W. John- 
son, Thomas B. Keen, \\'illiam E. Nichols, Josiah B. Shep- 
pard. Henry B. Stockton, Joseph R. Thompson, John F. 
Thornard, John M. Tyler, Geo. Wolf, Thomas Andrews, 
George Fauver, John J. Matthews, Levi McDonald. 

Of the above list, all save six enrolled their names in 
Bridgeton, the lialance being added on as recruits. Eour 
members of this magnificent company of young men, after- 
ward known as Company F, Third New Jersey Infantry 
\'nlunteers. proved derelict and basely deserted, a very small 
percentage indeed. The rank and file of the "Greys" was 
composed of the flower of the county of Cumberland, and 
nowhere in this broad land was a finer body of young men 
enrolled umlcr the flag. It became the company to whose 
custody was committed the stars and stripes and the reg- 
imental standards. As the color company of the gallant 
Third New Jersey it carried the national flag through 
forty-three bloody engagements. Beginning with the first 
Bull Run, its service ended with the surrender of Lee at 
Appomattox. 

Conipanv I' lost the following members on Southern 
battlefields, death coming by bayonet and bullet : Sylvester 
W. Randolph, killed in action at Gaines Farm, Va.. June 
27, 1862; Enoch B. Pew, died of wounds received in action 
at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8, 1864: Charles H. Bacon, 
killed in action at Cramj)ton's Pass, Md., September 14. 





WAR TIME PICTURES— lS(;i-lS<Vi 
Officers "Cumberland Greys." Company F. Third New Jersey RegilT.ent Inf. Vols. 



Major James W. H. Stickney First Capt.) 
Lieut. Samuel T. DuBois 

(35) 



Capt. Charles F. Salkeld 
Lieut. George Woodruff 



36 IIISIDRIC DAYS 

r862; Elias Blackson, died of wounds received in action at 
Gaines farm, Va., June 27, 1862; Henry Clark, died in 
action at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 1863; Gideon W. 
Johnson, killed in action at Gaines farm, Va., June 27. 
1862: Thomas B. Keen, killed in action at Crampton's Pass, 
M(l.. September 14, 1862; \Mlliam F. Nichols, killed in 
action at Gaines farm. \'a.. June 27, 1862; Henry B. Stock- 
ton, killed in action at Six>ttsyl\ania, Va., j\Iay 8, 1864; 
Josepli R. Thompson, died of wounds received in action at 
Gaines farm, Va.. June 27. 1862; John M. Tyler, died of 
w'^imds recei\ed in action at Gaines farm, Va., June 27, 
1862. 

Besides the killed many members died from the effects 
of disease contracted in the field, and a large number were 
discharged because of wounds and other disabilities so that 
when the war closed a bare remnant of twenty veterans 
returned to their homes in Bridgeton and \icinity. 



j\Iay 27, 1861, the L'umlierland Greys left for the seat 
of war. Business was suspended in Bridgeton. The side- 
walks on Commerce street were packed with hundreds of 
people, come to see the departing soldiers. This company 
of noble young men, erect, handsome, in the first and best 
years of early manhood, in double file stood in column on 
the sideualk in front of Elmer & Nixon's law office. A 
farewell meeting which packed Grosscup's Hall had just 
been held, of which Hon. John T. Nixon was chairman. 
The ladies of Bridgeton had prepared with their own hands 
a set of colors for the company, of the finest quality of red, 
white and blue silk, yy^ feet in length by 4j4 feet in width, 
the stars set in the field being gold. Surmounting the staflf 
to which the stars and stripes were attached was a golden 
eagle with outstretched wings. It was a handsome flag in 
every respect, and drew forth great applause as it was un- 
folded to the gaze of the patriotic audience. Paul T. Jones, 
a native of South Carolina, but for several years a resident 
of Bridgeton, brother to Rev. Samuel Beach Jones, with 
whom he resided in the home on Broad street, presented 



IX CUMBERLAND COLWrY. NKW J ICKSKY 37 

the flag to the company. Paul T. Jones was the antithesis of 
his brother Samuel Beach in his views of the impending 
national crisis. The scholarly pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church on Laurel street, was perhaps the ablest min- 
ister who ever accepted a Bridgeton pastorate. Of splen- 
did physique and magnetic hearing, with resonant voice, 
and magnificent delivery his reading of a hymn or a chap- 
ter of the Scripture was equal to a sermon at the hands of 
most other speakers. Doctor Jones, as he was familiarly 
termed by the community, was not only a great preacher, 
but was loved b}' all who had the pleasure of his acquaint- 
ance. His great talent — his popularity — his winning 
presence — failed, howe\er. to make amends for that 
wherein his patriotic congregation and the people thought 
him lacking. In those trying days the masses were de- 
termined to know where prominent citizens stood on the 
important issue then before the country. When it began 
to be whispered that there was fear that the good doctor 
was not loyal, trouble arose in the society over which he had 
heretofore been the beloved pastor. People outside said 
that the weather vane on the Laurel street church pointed 
due South, and so between the differences within and the 
talk outside the doctor resigned and retired to the privacy 
of his home. Directly contrary to this position was that of 
his brother Paul T. Jones. Loyal to the core his delight was 
found in denouncing traitors and all in sympathy with them 
with his powerful and eloquent tongue. His speech to the 
"(ireys"' was the most powerful patriotic address ever de- 
li\ered in Cumberland County. Tt roused the war feeling 
to a high state when Mr. Jones taking Hrni bold of the staff 
and the flag struck the floor of the hall with it with such 
tremendous force as to break one of the wings of the beauti- 
ful eagle which adorned it. This scene, together with his 
splendid apostrophe to the flag, in a peroration which was 
well nigh sublime, raised a volume of cheers from the 
audience which has not died out to this day in the memory 
of those who heard that masterful presentation of the Union 
cause and what its rise or fall in victory or defeat meant 
for coming generations. 



HISTORIC DAYS 

I'riiir to tlie start fi>r llie old wharf and the steamer 
Patuxenl which was to convey the young- soldiers up the 
Delaware to I'hiladelphia, a committee of ladies gave to 
each meml>er of the compaii}' an elegantly hound copy of the 
Xcw Testament and I'salms with clasp and gilt edge. 
Judge Elmer, austere ami noljle looking, then addressed 
the comjiany on their duty to the country and its cause, 
which he said was just. "Lay to heart the precepts of the 
Gospel. Rememher xour dut\- to God as well as to country. 
As faithful soldiers act according to the Divine Word and 
perform your part well. The duties of the professional 
siildier were n(.it inconsistent with those of the true Chris- 
tian." With this parting admonition from the upright 
Judge the comjiany filed into the street and proceeded down 
Pearl street along the Fairton road to the steamboat land- 
ing. Thousands lined the sidewalks. As the procession ad- 
vanced headed l)y the grayhaired veteran Marshal of the 
Day, Daniel M. Woodruff, a salute was fired in honor of 
the departing soldierA'. The scene upon the wharf was he- 
\'on(l descri])tioii. \\'ee])ing mothers, wives and children 
were hidding farewell to lo\-ed ones many of whom tliey 
were ne\er more to see. Marched upon the upper deck the 
lioys sent their last farewells to those upon the shore, an- 
swered in tile tears and cheers of those on the wharf, and 
amid music and tlnuuler of cannon the staunch oh] steamer 
sailed out on the Cohansey and was lost to \iew in the 
distance. 



Many of the good jieople of Cumberland County are 
not aware of the fact that in the ])atriotic township of Fair- 
iicld the hell of the steamer I'atu.xenl. which swiuig in the 
I)ilot-house in 1X61, hangs in the belfry of the \illage school- 
house at Fairton. fi-om which position it rings out clear anrl 
full a resonant call to the hoys and girls that school is abont 
to begin, tliereforc — bark, and hasten thither! Many preci- 
ous memories cluster annmd this old-time bcll--relic of his- 
toric (lays! In the autumnal twilight, the writer meditates, as 
(lid his .Scri]itural ancestor "at eventide." Fantastic figures 




WAR TIME PICTURES-l^'.I 

Major James Hampton. Ex-Member Congress 

Paul T. Jones Dr. Samuel Beach Jones 

Daniel M. Woodruff 

Marshal of the Day— Departure of the "Cumberland Greys." May "J7, ISi'.l 



40 HISTORIC DAYS 

flit in the fire — coming and going as in the days of yore — 
moving pictures of scenes and personages of the long ago! 
Kaleidoscopic — panoramic. On the Patuxent's deck we see 
the forms of many fainih'ar faces, long since numbered with 
the dead. Dear old Captain Blew, with kindly countenance 
and cheerful address, whose shadow lingers still. The boat 
is at the wharf, steam is up, the last bell taps to warn late 
comers that the "Patuxent" is off for a day upon the Co- 
hansey and a moonlight return on the Delaware back to 
Bridgeton in the evening. She is off — the town disappears 
to view — the promenade begins on upper and lower decks. 
The saloon is cheerful with music from the ancient piano, 
and chorus of lusty voices of the young men and their best 
girls. The old, the middle-aged, the young men, the young 
women, the business men of the town, the boys and girls, sit 
upon the chairs and stools, drinking in the soft breezes of the 
summer day, or parade with laughter and song from fore to 
aft — happ)', cheerful, joyous! Here is the best element 
of the town and country out for a day of relaxation and re- 
creation — here are the rank and file of the people, all on 
pleasure bent. The centre of attraction is the forward deck, 
where is gathered the cream of society. Overhead, the canvas 
flapping gently in the breeze shields the gay company from 
the sun. Beneath it, the fiddlers take position, and the dance 
begins. The cotillion is on ! The mellow violin sends its 
strains far out, and the passing breeze carries the music to 
the farmer on shore, as he toils with the plow, causing the 
lowing kine in the meadows to prick up their ears and re- 
turn an answer in the gentle tinkling of their bells. Many 
handsome couples appear, the young men in cool raiment 
and straw hats, the young ladies in white dress and elaborate 
hoops, as was the custom then. "Dart" and "Becky" open 
the dance (and in all the country 'round no fairer couple 
could be found), while, wooed by the lively music, others 
follow in the mazy figures of the "light fantastic toe." 
"Manners around." says the man with the leading fiddle. 
Away they go. "Right and left," "Balance." "Ladies 
change," "Promenade." Then the intermission, everybody 



IN CUMUERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 4I 

laugliiiig, chatting. Second figure — "Forward," "Balance," 
"hinr times annuid."' Third figure — "Right Hands Across." 
"Balance." ".Swing opposite lady," "Forward." and tour 
times around again. Fourth figure — "Balance all," "Ladies 
to the right," "Swing corners," ''Gents to the right." And 
all went merry as a marriage bell. At Tyndall's, at (Green- 
wich, at Laning's, the "l'atuxent"s" bell tapped at intervals, 
while country man and country maiden passed the gang- 
plank to become part of the happy throng in the festivities 
on the boat. The blue waters on the bay appear with wliite 
capped billows rolling far and near, glistening in the sun- 
shine of a perfect day. Hut the dance goes on. Joy is un- 
confined. How beautiful their faces are — the dancers of that 
day, which seems so far away, and yet is still so near! The 
day is over; the moonlight covers the waters of bay and 
river with a silver sheen ; the boat returns, the excursionists 
depart, the decks are silent. Never more will that happy 
company be gathered on the staunch steamer. Out into the 
great world they have gone — some to other cities — some to 
foreign lands — some to the unknown future — home with the 
Master. 

Good old "Patuxent," from whose decks C'umber- 
land's first volunteers, the noble "Greys," waved their last 
farewells to weeping kindred, and from whose pilot-house 
the old bell rang such cheerful notes, reverberations of 
which are full of pathos now, .Adieu! .Xdieu! 



The early Spring witnessed many flag raisings 
throughout the county to emphasize the spirit of the people 
that the preservation of the Union was the immediate and 
pressing emergency to be .settled at the cannon's mouth with 
all the means and power of the Government. The largest 
gathering of people was in the centre of Broad street, 
Bridgeton, in front of the Court House where a pole had 
been erected for the display of the National ensign. Hon. 
John T. Nixon addressed the assemliled throng, and in 
his speech made the error of underestimating the strength 
of the enemy, intimating that the rebellion could easily be 



HISTORIC DAYS 

put down by a few women witli broomsticks. Mr. Nixon, 
admiralile ])atriot tliat be was. lived to see tbe great sacri- 
fice of 1)1(11x1 and money tlirougb four long years of terrible 
war. and to acknowledge bis mistake in tbe views expressed 
in bis patriotic speecb on tbe Court House green. Many 
otber leading men cnnimitted similar errors of speecb in 
tbe opening davs of tbe war. as likewise did tbe orators 
of tbe Soutb wbo were tben telling tbeir audiences tbat tbe 
war would be o\er in tbirty days and tbat one Soutbern 
man could wbip twenty Yankees. 



Tbe Fourtb of July, 1861, was patriotically celebrated in 
Ibidgeton, tbe exercises taking place in a grove on West 
Commerce street. Paul T. Jones delivered an eloquent ad- 
dress, patriotic and entbusiastic in cbaracter. Tbe Declara- 
tion of Independence was read by Morton Mills. Tbe clay 
opened brigbt and beautiful. Early in tbe morning the old- 
time drum corps. Lot Loper, fifer; Le\ in Pxnid, kettle drum- 
mer; Eddie Crozier with tbe ])ig drum, proceeded ili>wn 
Laurel bill to Edmund Davis' botel, corner Laurel and Com- 
merce, and took a position whicb was soon surrounded by 
a crowd of men and boys. Tbe music wbicb tbese veterans 
sent fortb roused tbe crowd, tbe reveille was beat, and tbe 
spirit of '76 beld bigb carnival. Tbose wbo looked on can 
never forget tbe appearance and entbusiasm of Lev., Lot 
and Eddie as tbey made tbe welkin ring witb "Yankee 
Doodle," "Hail Columbia," "Red, Wbite and F.lue." "Tbe 
(b'rl T Left P.ebind Me," and an Irisb iig or two. 



Tbe first battle of tbe Civil War was fougbt at Bull 
Run, \'a.. July 21, 1861. Ceneral McDowell witb 60,000 
men, led tbe L'nion army to wbat was expected to be certain 
victory, so ceK<'ain tbat many members of Congress on borse- 
back and in carriages followed tbe army to tbe scene of con- 
flict bclie\'ing tbat tlie rebels w'ould run at tbe lirst sound of 
tbe battle. Among tbe number was Hon. Jobn T. Nixon, 
tben serving his second term in Congress. In company with 
friends be took carriage for Bull Run only to see the Union 

(42) 




DEPARTURE OF THE "CUMBERLAND GREYS ' 

Company F. Third New Jersey Regiment Inf. Vols., by Steamer " Patuxent,' 
From Bridgeton, May I'T. l>^*'il. 
John G. Ke\ ser's Paiiitinc. 



44 HISTORIC DAYS 

armv defeated, and join in tlie disastrous retreat to ^\'ash- 
ington. 

Men of all political parties forgot their differences of 
opinion in tliis vear of tremendous responsibility, and came 
together for the saving of the Union. Political parties, how- 
e\cr, still went through the motions antl made nominations. 
Only two tickets were presented for the \-oters. the Republi- 
can and Democratic. 



Early in October, 1861, the patriotic citizens of Shiloh 
began the organization of Company D. Tenth Regiment. 
The drum beat to arms, the spirit of '76 was aroused, and 
the home of the anti-sla\ery movement in Cumberland 
County sent to the front the best blood of the best families. 
The members of this gallant company of three-year men 
were largely from Hopewell. .Stow Creek and Deerfield. as 
follows: 

CoMP.\NY D. — Captains, John Evans, William H. 
SnoW'den ; First Lieutenants. Isaac T. Thackera. Benjamin 
A. Pine. James Smith ; Second Lieutenants, George W. 
ITummell. William J. Sutton; First Sergeant, Charles D. 
Shcppard : Sergeants. Adoniram J. Sheppard. Helms V. 
Linch, John B. Hoffman. Jacob H. Ott. (leorge X. Subers ; 
Corporals, Isaac Kain, John G. Bowen, Henry V. Elwin. 
.Alexander Linch. Charles Robinson. Martin Hanley. Ed- 
ward Fuller. John D. Avars, Edward Noble : Musician. 
James M. West; Wagoner, Henrv C. Martin; Privates, 
.•Mexandcr Aitken. William H. Allen. Thomas F. Allen, 
George \v]), John .Armstrong. Theophilus P. Avres, 
Thomas B. Ayres. William Barry, Ephraim E. Bnck. 
George H. Bergen, Charles Beibigheiser, Baptist Bernard, 
Michael Blake. Thomas Benett, Levi Blakenstein. Xavier 
Bovelier, Edward Brown. William T. Browning. John 
Corey, James Clafflin, Thomas Cohen. John Crater. Jacob 
Conger, Morris Crater, Henry Corliss. Michael Crossin, 
Lorenzo D. Davis, Lsaac M. Dare, Augustus H. Dorland, 
Henry H. Disbrow. John Day. George Dowd, Michael 
Driscoll. William II. luiimons. Lewis Escoar. Tonathan B. 



IN CUMBKKI.AND COUNTV, NICW J EKSliV 45 

Evans, William \V. Ellston, James M. Jiveretl, Jonathan 
Fisher, Joseph Fisher, William Frank, Antoniu Flashen- 
drew, Louis Greenland, Joseph (iunther, Thomas Hadfield, 
Charles Headley, John J. Hamilton, Nils Herlin, Herman 
Hoffman, Horace F. Howell, John Hyer, Frederick Johns- 
tun, Clement H. Irelantl, Samuel U. Keen, Frederick B. 
Kauffman, Charles Lanian, Charles Lotl, Georoe W. Loud, 
Samuel A. Alarryatt, Charles Miller, Louis Mixner, Frank- 
lin S. Moncrief, Patrick McGetrick, Joseph iNIcGraw, Gar- 
ret -Minton, James McLaughlin, Samuel Minton, James Mil- 
ler. John .Mc_)gtord, John Monahan, Gabriel Mossee, Thomas 
Murphy, Charles Neisch, Robert R. Noble, Isaac H. 
Nugent, Christopher Fersonic, Edgar C. Fhilbrick, Rhine- 
hart Ragh, Lewis H. Rerig, John Ricker, John Scarf, Peter 
Sharp. James Strong, Cornelius Schellinger, Joseph Schel- 
linger. Charles Smith, l""rancis Smitli, Henry Steinland, 
William Sulli\an, Andrew Stenun, John Stewart, Frederick 
Strongmeyer, James FL Turner, James Timons, Charles 
Vallet, .\rthur Will, James Williams, Charles Wilson, Wil- 
liam 11. W Oliver, James P. Ward, John Williams. 

Died in the service — John C. Perry, of disease, at Co- 
lumbia L'. S. .\rmy General Hospital, Washington, D. C, 
June 4, 1865 ; Samuel P. Garton, at Finley U. S. Army Gen- 
eral Hospital, Washington, D. C, June 22, 1864, wounds re- 
ceived in action at ("old Harbor, Va., June i, 1864; James 
C. Sutton, of fever, at U. S. Army General Hospital, Wash- 
ington, D. C, March 7, 1862; John Casper, Jr., of fever, at 
U. S. Army General Hospital, Georgetown, D. C, August 
12, 1862: Thomas J. liivins. of fever, at LT. S. Army Gen- 
eral Hospital, Hampton, Va., July i, 1863, buried at 
National Cemetery, Hampton, Va., Row i, Section D, grave 
14; William F. Rockerman, of disease, at Greenwich, N. J., 
November 5, 1863; George W. Bedford, of disease, at First 
Division, Sixth Corps Hospital, near Bailey's Cross Roads, 
Va., June 23, 1865, buried at National Cemetery. Arling- 
ton Heights, Va. ; William Bergen, of disease, at Libby 
prison, Richmond, Va., February 21, 1865, buried at Na- 
tional Cemetery, Richmond, Va. : Benjamin H. Bitters, of 



HISTHRIC DAYS 



fe\er. at U. S. Army General Hospital. W'asliington. D. C, 
June I, 1862; Benjamin I*". Bivins, of disease, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, September 8, 1862; William H. Burr, of scurvy, 
at prison, Andersonville. February 12. 1865, buried at Na- 
tional Cemetery. .Andersonville. Ga., grave 12,640: Edward 
Cook, at New York City, July 31. 1864. wounds received 
in action at Gait House, Va.. May 14, 1864; Charles Dan- 
ielly, killed in action at Gait House. Va., May 14, 1864; 
Lewis H. Danzenbaker, at U. S. Army General Hospital, 
Tliird Dixision, Alexandria, Va., wounds received in action 
at Cold Harbor, \'a., June i, 1864, buried at National Ceme- 
tery, Alexandria, Va., grave 2,102; Jacob E. Essig, of dis- 
ease, at prison, Andersonville, Ga.. July 29, 1864. buried 
at National Cemetery, Andersonville. Ga., grave 4.303 ; 
Ebenezer GrifYeth. of fever, at U. S. Army General Hos- 
pital, Frederick City, Maryland, August 21, 1864; Charles 
L. Hofifman, of fever, at U. S. Army General Hospital, 
Washington, D. C. Al.-iy 14. 1862; Francis Husted. of dis- 
ease, at U. S. Army General Hospital, Division 2, Annapolis 
Maryland, March 7, 1865, buried at Annapolis, Maryland; 
James S. Husted. of disease, in cjuarters at Washington. D. 
C, January 13. 1863: Eemuel A. Randolph, at U. S. Army 
General Hospital. New York City, June 17, 1864, wounds 
received in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 1864, buried 
in Seventh Day Baptist Cemetery, Shiloh, N. J. ; Jacob So- 
den, of fever, at Beverly. New Jersey, September 16, 1861 ; 
William R. Soley, of disease, at Danville. Va., December 12, 
1864, buried at National Cemetery, Danville. Va. 



l''roni Greenwich Township went. also, fifteen young 
men, brave, patriotic, to join the Ninth New Jersey Regi- 
ment in its rendezvous at Trenton, October 23d, 1861. En- 
rolled in Company F were: Reuben H. Leaming, Samuel 
R. Mills, Lewis D. Slu-ppard. Charles M. Preston, Edward 
Carlaw. James Baner. Robert G. Sheppard. John E. French, 
Augustus Aubick, Franklin Blizzard. Michael Boyle. Jona- 
than Richman. Enrolled in Company I : ALnrk L. Carney. 
Isaac Reeves, James W. Daniels. Of this number, Lewis D. 



(41!) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— ISCMSlM 
Isaac T. Garton Isaac Kain 

Co. K, Sixth N.J. Reg. Inf. Vols. Co. D, Tenth N.J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Samuel Garton 
Co. D, Tenth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Smith Bacon Horace B. Garton 

Co. K, Tenth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. Co. K, Twelfth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 



HISTOKIC DAYS 

Sheppard was promoted successively to First and Second 
Lieutenancies, and finally Captain of Company F. Robert G. 
Sheppard was promoted Second Lieutenant. Michael Boyle 
died at Xew Berne, North Carolina, March 15th, 1862, 
wounds received in action at Xew Berne, N. C, buried at 
New Berne National Cemeteiy, N. C, Section 12, grave 96; 
F"ranklin Blizzard died at U. S. Army General Hospital, 
Morehead City, North Carolina, November 29th, 1S64, 
buried at New Berne National Cemetery, N. C, Section 12, 
grave 38 ; Jonathan Richnian died of fever on board hos- 
pital transport Dragon, at New Berne, N. C, March 23d, 
1862, buried at New Berne National Cemetery, N. C, 
Section 12. grave j^. The Ninth Regiment, in which 
tlie Greenwich young men enlisted, became famous in the 
battles at Roanoke Island and New Berne, North Carolina ; 
also before Petersburg, Virginia, and at the surrender of 
the Confederate General Joe Johnston, at Goldsboro, N, C, 
March 21st, 1865. In this regiment were such gallant 
spirits as James Stewart, Jr., from Northern New Jersey, 
who rose from the ranks to a Brigadier Generalship, be- 
cause of meritorious conduct on the battlefield, when only 
twenty-five years of age, and Fidelio B. Gillette, Assistant 
Regimental Surgeon, Shiloh, one of the most popular of- 
ficers in the army. Also Lucius C. Bonham, Shiloh, who 
was promoted from the ranks for bravery until he arrived 
at the Captaincy of Company A. From Downe Township, 
there also enlisted in Company I, Ninth Regiment, John 
Johnson, drummer: Robert Alcorn, bugler; George Lott, 
Charles Messic. Iulm W'arficld and F.dward Cliance. 



In addition to the ten companies of men enlisting in the 
County of Cumberland there was a large number of young 
men desirous of service in the Union Army, anxious to takfe 
active part in the war for the suppression of the rebellion, 
who left their homes early in 1861 and enlisted in other 
companies from other sections of the State then forming. 
Among this patriotic number were a group of five young 
men from Cedarville, Fairfield Township. They enrolled 
themselves in Company H, Seventh New Jersey Regiment 




Charles M. Preston 
Lieut. Charles M. Pinkard 
Samuel R. Mills 



WAR TIME PICTURES— 1SG2-18(» 
Group Ninth New Jersey Reg. Inf. Vols. 

John W. Hilyard Lieut Lucius Bonham 

Surgeon Fidelio B. Gillette Robert B. Craig 

Reuben H. Learning Edward Carlaw 



l49l 



50 HISTORIC DAYS 

Infantry. \'olunteers. Septenilier 17, 1861, for the term of 
three years. They were: Lorenzo D. Paynter, Benjamin 
F. Ogden. Joseph Burt. Josepli H. Diver. Ehner B. Ogden. 
Two of tliem gave their hves for the country, three re- 
turned after brave service in many battles from the cam- 
paign in tlie swamps of the Chickahominy to Boydton 
Plank Road, Va.. October, 1864. Joseph Burt died at 
camp near Falnioutli, Virginia, of disease, February 10, 
1S63. Elmer B. Ogden, killed in action at Williamsburg, 
Virginia, May 5, 1862; buried upon the field by his com- 
rades, one of whom was Benjamin F. Ogden. 



Tuesday, October 22d, the County Republican Con- 
vention met at the Court House at 2 o'clock P. iM. Lewis 
Howell was made chairman, with Benjamin F. Elmer and 
Charles West, secretaries. Alphonso Woodruff, of Bridge- 
ton, was unanimously nominated for Surrogate. William 
Bacon, of Downe, was nominated for Assembly in the First 
District; J. Edmund Sheppard. of Maurice River, in the 
Second District. For Coroners: Jdhn \\'are. of Cohansey ; 
Alfred Holmes, of Hopewell: Charles Madden, of Maurice 
River, were named. 

Resolutions were read and adopted as follows : 

"Whereas, within the last year events have happened 
wliich call upon all tlie patriots to rally around our country's 
tlag. and to defend our Constitution from destruction by 
men who once stood high in the confidence of the people 
and of the country, but who are ikiw traitors of the blackest 
dye — therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we, the delegates of the people in con- 
vention assembled, regard with the deepest interest and 
anxiety the present condition of our country, and that we 
trace it to the continued pernicious teachings on tfie part 
of those who hold that the sovereignty of the State is be- 
yond Federal control. ;nid to the tkigrant neglect of the late 
administration in the \igorous enforcement of the laws. 

"Rcsril\-ed. Tliat we do pledge otu'seh'es to sustain tlic 



IN cUMi;i;i<i.A.\i) iinNiv, .\i:\v jkksky 31 

administration <>{ Ahraliani Lincoln — in wliom we have 
full confidence — in all measures necessary to put down the 
causeless, fratricidal and black-hearted rebellion and all 't? 
aiders and abettors wherever found either at home or 
abroad, tliough it may cost millions of money and oceans 
of blood. 

"Resolved, That we have the utmost confidence in tlic 
[)atriotism and military skill of (Jenerals Scott and Mc- 
Clellan. and give them and all our gallant ofiicers and the 
armies they command our heartfelt sympathy and support. 

"Resolved, That we extend to the volunteers from oui 
county, many of whom are near and dear friends, our best 
wishes for their welfare and the welfare of their families, 
and trust they may win for themselves a name that shall 
be a praise and glory to them and their children after them. 

"Resoh'ed, That we ha\e the utmost confidence in the 
candidates for Assembly this day nominated by the conven- 
tion, they having been tried in the last session of the Legis- 
lature, and found to be true Union men — also in our candi- 
date for Surrogate, whom we know to be a true and loyal 
patriot. 

"Resolved, That we have the utmost confidence in our 
whole ticket, knowing them to be honest men capable for 
the respective offices for which they are presented, and citi- 
zens who recognize no higher allegiance than that to the 
General Government, and pledge ourselves to stand by the 
ticket and use all honorable means to elect it." 

-At this convention the party took upon itself the name 
of the "Union Republican Party," and the ballot \-otcd at 
the election was beaded "The Union Ticket." 

The election was devoid of excitement, a Hglit vote was 
polled, and the returns came in early, .\lphonso Woodruff 
was elected Surrogate over ]\Iorton Mills. I^emocrat, by 212 
majority, ^^'illianl Racon was chosen to the .Assembly in 
the First District by 321 majority over J. O. Lummis, 
Democrat. In the Second .'Assembly District there was a 
close contest. J. Edmund Sheppard was successful by the 
narrow margin of three votes over Rcniamin F. Lee. Demo- 



lIlSTOklC DAYS 

crat. .Mr. Lee was then a resident of Port Elizabeth, the 
home of his ancestors, and a very popular man in the terri- 
tory bordering on the Maurice River. Unlike many others, 
defeat with him was only the forerunner of future victory. 
It was nut his fortune to he electcil by the Z'ox j^opidi. but 
in later years because of his great capacity for leadership 
Governor Joel I'arker took him out of the store at the 
Port and made him Clerk uf the Xew Jersey Supreme Court. 
In this e.xalted place he ser\ed the State for a quarter of a 
centurv with great satisfactifin to the people. 



The year 1862 was perhaps the most momentous, the 
most patriotic in the history of the nation. The clouds which 
had gathered at Sumter in "61 were still further enlarged by 
the disasters which had befell the Union arms. The Presi- 
dent's first call of 75,000 had been quickly responded to — 
went to the front and returned to their home by reason of 
the expiration of their three months' service. .-\t last it be- 
gan to dawn upon the minds of those who had lieen slow to 
comprehend the magnitude of the rebellion that it was to be 
a war of Titans with the end far off. Three hundred thou- 
sand men were summoned to the colors, another and another 
300.000. until the song went up to the skies from every 
vallev and from every hillside, "We are coming, father .-\bra- 
ham. 300,000 more." This great war anthem was sung upon 
the streets, in the schoolhouses. in the churches, in the public 
halls, and wherever the people gathered. 

Then it began to appear that the war was not onlv a war 
for the preservation of the Union, but a war for the preser- 
vation of the rights of man. In his message to the special 
session of Congress Jtdy 4, iS^i:, ]\Ir, Lincoln had said: 

"This is essentiallv a people's contest. On the side of 
the ITnion it is a struggle for maintaining in the world that 
form and substance of government whose leading object is 
to elevate the condition of men. I am most happy to believe 
that the plain people understand and appreciate this. It is 
worthv of note that while in this the Tiovernment's hour of 




WAR TIME PlCTURES-l-iin 

Group Fairfield Boys, Co, H, Seventh N, J, Reg. Inf, Vols, 

Joseph H, Diver Benjamin F. Ogden 

Joseph Burt Elmer B. Ogden Lorenzo D, Paynter 



(53) 



54 ILISIORIC DAYS 

trial larye numbers of those in the army and navy who 
ha\e been favored w ith the offices liave resigned and proved 
false to the hand which had pampered them, not one common 
soldier or sailor is known to have deserted the flag. To the 
last man so far as known they have successfully resisted the 
traitorous efforts of those whose commands but an hour be- 
fore they obeyed as absolute law. This is the patriotic in- 
stinct of ])lain people. Thev understand without an argu- 
ment thai the destroving of the Government which was made 
b\- ^^'ashington means no good to thetii." 

The illustrious President never penned a greater truth, 
it was essentiallv the people's contest. How Mr. Lincoln 
lo\-ed the plain people, as he was wont to term them. Born 
in a log cabin he knew by stern adversity what the destruc- 
tion of a repuljlican form of government meant for them. 
He was one of thein by birth, by association, by representa- 
tion. It was a favorite theme for him to dwell upon, for said 
he, "the Lord must love the plain people, otherwise he would 
not have made so many of them." 

The plain people were, under God, to save the republic. 
By their ballots, by their bullets, bv their strong arms the 
ark of the covenant of liberty was to be kept in the shekinah 
of the temple whose foundations were laid in the blood of 
the Revohitionarv fathers. 



Cumberland County rose as one man in unison with the 
people of other States to aid the Gox'ernment to the last man 
and the last dollar ft)r the suppression of the relieilion. No 
county in the republic fuiMiishcd more volunteers for the 
Union .Army in ijroportion to its population than did this 
good old commonwealth named in honor of the Duke of 
Cumberland fur Ins heroic conduct on Cullodon field. The 
county was on fire with patriotic zeal, so much so that from 
the opening of hostilities to the close of the war, a full regi- 
ment of a thousand men had vohmteered and been sent to 
Southern battlefields. 

brnni the farm, from the factorv. fruni tlie store, from 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 55 

tlie village, from the city, from the hamlet by the sea, came 
the greatest armies the world had ever seen. Young men in 
the bloom of manhood, middle-aged men ripe witli maturity, 
a vast concourse rank upon rank, file upon file, under the 
shadow of the flag whose stars were of heaven wiiose stripes 
were of Ciod. For four years tliey were to fight ami die. 
In more than 600 battles and skirmishes blood was to flow 
like water. Streaming over grassy plain, staining the rocks, 
making red the undergrowth of the forest, so the blood of 
patriots ran from the vitals of the mighty armv which with 
majestic courage marched on from one conflict Id another, 
knowing that they were fighting the battles of the people and 
of liberty. 



Rumors of battles fought and reports of the killed and 
wounded began to appear in the city papers. The "Cumber- 
land dreys," now in the thickest of the fight in the campaign 
on the Virginia peninsula, were losing some of the bravest 
and best, news of which brought sadness to the hearts and 
homes of many in the town of Bridgeton. June ist in the 
seven days' fight in the Chickahominy swamps, Capt. Ros- 
well S. Reynolds, of Co. F, 5th Regiment of N. J. Vols., 
Inf., was badly wounded. A minuie ball entered and passed 
thrnugh his thigh, striking the bnne and glancing off. 
Reynolds was brought home to his family in Bridgeton. 
The captain had previously been principal of the Bank street 
jniblic school and was a gentleman of ability and scholarly 
attainments. Of splendid personal appearance and charm- 
ing manners., he made an excellent impression in the com- 
munity. He was intensely loyal to the Union and radical 
in his views concerning slavery. 

A few days after his arrival home he appeared on 
crutches near the corner of the Davis House. Commerce and 
Laurel streets, engaged in conversation with a number of 
friends, when a citizen whose sympathies were said to be 
with the South, appeared and accused Capt. Reynolds of 
cowardice. Quick as a flash the Captain's crutch was raised 



56 HISTORIC DAYS 

in the air to strike the "secesh" as Reynolds labeled him, hut 
his accuser, believing discretion the better part of valor, dis- 
appeared before the crutch had done its work. This little 
episode added to the bitterness already existing about town 
and gave zest to the zeal of those who favored the Union in 
efforts which made it very unpleasant for sundry citizens 
who were suspected of disloyalty. 

So high did the wave of patriotism run that several per- 
sons were compelled to send communications to the local 
papers certifying under their own signatures, that they were 
Union men. Schoolchildren took matters up in the yard of 
Bank street school, where numerous frst-fights occurred 
whenever the Union boys suspected other lioys of lack of 
lo\e for their countr} . The flag was hoisted over the school- 
house with cheers, and the boys and girls sang patriotic 
songs in the class rooms and upon the streets. One of the 
favorite songs contained the following verse: 

"Brave boys are they, gone at their Country's call; 

And yet. and yet, we cannot forget. 
That many brave boys must fall !" 

About this time the word "copperhead," meaning 
"snake in the grass," appeared, and was placed as a stigma 
upon e\erv male or female who failed to stand up for the 
Union. 

In the battle on the Chickahominy, in which Capt. 
Reynolds received his wound, William S. Cobb, of Maurice- 
town, this county, distinguished himself as a marksman, kill- 
ins; li\e rebels, on one of whom was a gold watch of which 
he took possession. 

Samuel Harris. ])ri\-ate in Company F, Third New Jer- 
sey, the company known as "the Greys," came home with his 
throat bandaged, because of a wound received in one of the 
battles under (lencral McClellan. The bullet grazed his wind- 
])il)e and his life was saved as by miracle. When the big war 
meeting was held a few days later, Samuel Harris went upon 
the ])lalform in Grosscup's Hall, wlicrc he made a few re- 
marks as to his experience in actual warfare. He was re- 



IX CUMIiERLAND COLNTV. NKW J likSEY 37 

ceived with cheers, and afterward honored with tlie Cap- 
taincy of Compan\- I". Twenty-fourth Regiment New Jersey 
\'nhmteers. and returned to tlie seat of war. 



One of the most pathetic reports from the battlefields 
in \'irginia came later in shape of a letter from Rev. G. R. 
Darrow, chaplain of the Third New Jersey Regiment, con- 
cerning the death of one of Bridgeton's best young men, a 
member of the famous Cumberland Greys, the first defenders 
who barely a year previous had left their homes for the 
scene of war. Comrade Bacon, a gallant soldier. Christian 
gentleman, left a wife and five small children to sorrow be- 
cause of his untmiely death. Chaplain Darrow sent the 
widow the appended letter, afterward published in the 
Bridgeton papers : 

"Mrs. Charles Bacon — The papers, 'ere you receive this, 
will have announced to you the sad intelligence of the death 
of your husband. Amid the carnage of the battlefield he 
fell, ha\ing with his regiment charged on the enemy and 
while pursuing them in hot haste and pouring a deadly fire 
upon a routed foe. He went into the fight with unusual 
vigor, his health having greatly improved recently, faltering 
not until a ball passing through his Testament which he al- 
ways carried with him, entered his abdomen and caused his 
immediate death. His captain was wounrled at the same 
time and while I was assisting in gettng him to the rear 
where a surgeon could be found, he told me of Bacon's fall 
I went immediately in pursuit of him and found him dead. 
His diary, Testament and purse, I took from his person and 
handed them to Lieutenant Salkeld who will forward them 
to vou the earliest opportunity. I buried him with eight of 
his cnnn-adcs who fell in the same fight, under an elm tree 
in the same field where the regiment charged on the enemy, 
on the estate of Jacob Goodman, north of the village of Biir- 
kettsville, about half a mile distant. We had our funeral on 
Mondav afternoon — he was killed on Sunday — the drum 
corps and comrades of the deceased assisting in the burial 



HISTORIC DAYS 



of our bra\e dead. liro. Bacon was a good man. a consist- 
ent Cliristian. and 1 feel that his loss to me is very great. 
But what an aHlicti(jn to you, his companion. .May the God 
of all peace abundantly .sustain you in your loneliness and 
sorrow. Yours truly. 

"G. E. Darrow." 

The Lieut. Salkeld, to whom Chaplain Uarrow refers^ 
was afterward Captain Charles F. Salkeld, the veteran officer 
who led the "Cumberland Greys'" in many engagements and 
brought the remaining members of the company safely home 
to Bridgeton amid the plaudits of the community. 



Renn'nders of the sanguinary conflict at the front com- 
ing to Bridgeton week after week aroused the people to 
great heigbths of excitement and the determination to put 
down treason, and all connected with it became more fixed 
than ever. The generation of to-day cannot realize or 
imagine the intensity of public feeling at that time. A case 
in point will illustrate it, however, as one among thousands 
North and South. There livetl in Bridgeton the newly 
elected surrogate of Cumberland County, chosen on the 
Union Republican ticket in the Autumn of '6i. He w-as a 
stalwart for the Union. One of his sons. Joseph, enlisted in 
the "Cumberland Greys"' and served bravely throughout the 
war. Another son, living in the South went into the Con- 
federate army. This so enraged Mr. Woodruff, the father, 
that he wrote to his boy in the Third New Jersey, and said : 
"joe. if von meet your brother, shoot him on the spot."' This 
was the spirit of General Dix wdio had advanced the same 
sentiment in connection with the attempt of any rebel or 
sympathizer to haul down the flag. It was commended to 
the echo throughout the loyal North. 



The ladies f)f Bridgeton organized for the patriotic 
work of furni.shing articles of clothing and delicacies for the 
sick and wounded soldiers in field and hospital. With a 
membership of T20 they formed a "Soldiers" Relief Associa- 



(n») 





WAR TIME PICTURES— 1S(J1 
Group Company F i " Cumberland Greys" .Third N.J. Inf. Vols., who Died on the Field 

Joseph R. Thompson 



Charles H. Bacon 
Enoch B. Pew 



David Yearicks 



(59) 



60 HISTORIC DAYS 

tion" meeting ever}' Thursday in Carll's building near the 
Commerce street bridge. The noble work they did brought 
much comfort and jov to the sick and wounded soldiers, and 
it is recorded in heaven. 

One of the significant signs of this eventful period was 
the attitude of the Bridgeton papers. W'hereas heretofore 
they had hesitated as to advocacy of the new political party 
known as a Republican, they now came boldly to the front 
with powerful editorials for the support of the Union cause. 
One of the editors of the Chronicle, an able writer, Robert 
B. Potter, not only expres.sed his opinions vigorously in the 
columns of that journal, but enlisted as a soldier in the 24th 
New Jersey Regiment, going to the front as a lieutenant. 



The greatest meeting for the prosecution of the war 
was held in Grosscup's Hall, Bridgeton. July 26th, 1862. 
Dr. William S. Bowen was chairman, with a long list of 
vice-presidents and secretaries, made up principally of the 
men who had served in similar capacities in the war meeting 
of 1861. 

The Committee on Resolutions, consisting of Robert B. 
Potter. James R. Hoagland, Joel Fithian, James Horton 
and James B. Ferguson, reported a series which recom- 
mended financial support for the volunteers of the country 
and their dependent families, and declared for the vigorous 
prosecution of the war, emphasizing the sentence "that there 
could only be two divisions of the people — patriots and trait- 
ors with their sympathizers." Eloquent speeches were made 
at this meeting by Hon. John T. Nixon., Rev. Charles H. 
Whitecar, pastor of Commerce Street ]\I. E. Church : Revs. 
Messrs. IMargerum, of Trinity M. E. Church; Dr. Challis. of 
the Baptist Church, and Colhour, of the Laurel Street M. 
P. Church. Rev. Mr. Whitecar made the speech of the meet- 
ing. He urged with much fervor that it was not a contest 
of the North against the South, but a struggle of the gov- 
ernment against armed traitors to maintain its own exis- 
tence. It was important that every man do his whole duty 



IN CUMBERLAND COINTV. XKW J F.RSEV 6l 

in tliis crisis. Doctor Wliitecar was a speaker of wonder- 
fully clear enunciation and eloquent periods. He roused the 
immense audience to a furore of patriotism. Judge Elmer, 
who was present, pronounced it one of the ablest and most 
convincing speeches he had ever heard. On this occasion 
William E. Potter, son of James B. Potter. President of the 
Cumberland Hank, fresh from honors at Princeton Col- 
lege, one of the finest looking young men of the town, of 
great native talent, was introduced to the audience. The 
summer previous he had received the colors from the hand 
of Paul T. Jones on the i)art of the "Cumberland Greys" the 
day of their departure in a brief speech, but now the genius 
exhibited itself which in future years was to prove him one 
of the ablest barristers ever heard in the New Jersey Courts. 
"This contest." said young Mr. Potter, "is a contest for 
constitutional liberty. If a republican form of government 
failed here, as it had everywhere else, it would be a death- 
blow to our own lil)erties. and the hopes of the struggling 
millions of the old world." He closed by announcing that he 
was ready to enlist for the war. and urged the young men to 
do likewise. The hall rang with cheers when this brave 
utterance was made, the beginning as it were of his dis- 
tinguished career in the Army of the Potomac which ter- 
minated at the close of the war in the great honor of brevet- 
lieutenant colonel, for gallant and meritorious conduct as a 
staff officer on many battlefields. 

The echoes of the second great war meeting had barely 
died out when the drum began to beat for volunteers for a 
new company for the Twelfth New Jersey Regiment thai 
forming. Recruiting quarters were opened in Carll's build- 
ing, first floor, near the bridge. Within a week the quota of 
the company was full, more than one hundred young men 
having enrolled their names. It was a magnificent company, 
composed of the best material, and of the best families. Capt. 
Henry Crooks, who had seen service in the regailar army, a 
skillful drill master, having previously drilled the "Cumber- 
land Greys." and organized the German military company 
w liich f<irmed an escort for the former the day of its depar- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

lire fniiii llridgetiin, enlisted as a member (if the new contin- 
i;ent and becoming its first sergeant, gave it the benefit of 
his experience. In a few days it was ready for the field 
under the command of Captain Ricliard S. Thompson, a 
"entieman of fine militar\- liearing. 



War meetings were held in all the towns and villages 
of Cumlierland County during the summer of i86j. The 
piipulation was aroused to a high state of enthusiasm. It was 
a wonderful year, and one never to be forgotten. Bridgeton, 
the shire town, with barely 4.000 inhabitants, was the cen- 
tre of interest. Here the people gathered to listen to patri- 
otic speeches : here they stood upon street corners discussing 
the latest news from the army and the situation of the coun- 
try. Boys and girls paraded the streets eager to hear what 
was to be learned concerning the perilous condition of the 
brave boys who had gone to the front to do battle for the 
homes and the land which they loved. The boys wore red, 
white and blue neckties ; the girls wore dresses and ribbons 
of the same materials. Work was susjjended, while the 
tdwn teemed with excitement. 



L)n the morning of August uth, 1862. Company K was 
ready to depart for the war. The da_\- was bright and balmy ; 
the stores and business places were decorated with bunting; 
the streets were lined with crowds of people. The company 
left its quarters in the Carll building, and was drawn up in 
cohimn on the sidew;ilk. I'aul T. Junes. Charles E. Elmer, 
Hon. John T. Nixon. Rev. Jo.seph Hubbard, Lieutenant 
William E. 1 'otter, and Captain Richard S. Thomp.son made 
patriotic si)eeches. .\ handsome set of colors was presented 
to the company. Tn the afternoon Co. K tonk train ;U the 
new West Jersey Railroad depot on Irving avenue, en route 
to Camp Stockton, Woodbury, there to be mustered into the 
Twelfth New Jersey Regiment, Infantry, Volunteers. Never 
did a finer looking body of men pass thnmgh the streets of 








Dr. William S. B^wen 
Edmund R. Elmer 
Eden M. Hoad 



PROMINENT CITIZENS-lSiW-1^ 
Charles Laning 
John Cheesman, Jr. 
John R. Graham 



Hiram Harris 
Robert M. Seeley 
Hon. John Carter 



64 HISTORIC DAYS 

Bridg-eton. In the march to the depot several thousand 
people follinved to bid them God speed in the noble cause for 
whicii they were to give the last full measure of devotion. 
It was an imposing and an inspiring scene. At the depot 
weeping wi\es. mothers and children bade sad farewells to 
the departing young men, and many tears were shed. The 
whistle was blown and the locomotive with the train of patri- 
ots slowly receded from view, while the cheers of those 
who remained made the air resound with an afifectionate 
adieu. Three years later this noble company was to return 
with thirty men under a battle flag whose stars were riddled 
with bullet holes and whose stripes were torn by shot and by 
shell. A handful of brave hearts like Napoleon's Old Guard 
black with the smoke of many engagements upon their faces 
they marched jjroudly through Commerce street 'midst the 
huzzahs of patriotic Bridgeton. 

This gallant Company K took part in triirty-one engage- 
ments, entering at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3d and 4th, 
1863: in the glorious l)attle of Gettysburg, Pa., July ist, 
2d and 3d, 1863 : at the Wilderness, Va., May 5th to 7th, 
1864: Spottsylvania, Va., May 8th to i8th, 1864; closing 
its meritorious service at the capture of Petersburg, Va., Ap- 
ril 2d. 1865, and witnessing Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
Va., April 9th, 1865. 

The following is the roster of the company : Captain, 
Richard S. Thompson; First Lieutenant, Daniel Dare; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, William E. Potter ; Sergeants, Edward M. 
DuBois, Henry Crooks. Moses B'. Holmes., Frank M. Riley, 
William S. Ayres, Charles S. Padgett, Timothy Bateman, 
Aaron Terry. Edwin .M. Padgett, Benjamin F. Howell, 
James P. Williams. John F. Shuman. William B. Hines; 
Corporals: Charles M. Riley, Albert Walker. William F. 
Aloore. George Laws, Joseph B. Husted, William H. Ben- 
nett, Justus H. Livingston, Horace B. Garton, Amos S. 
Burt, Butler Xewcomb, George McHem-y : Privates : Henry 
C. Lore. John Evans, Jonathan Borden. Henr\- \\'. Gaskill, 
Henry H. Bradford, Henry Campbell, Albert F. Carll. Rob- 
ert G. Clark, Reeves Coulter, Anderson Davis, William H. 



IX CUMIM-.Kl.A.M) COrXTV, NEW J ICUSKV 65 

Dickesoii, Abraham l-aceniire, Robert P. Fisher, Edgar M. 
Fithian, John Garrison, Thomas S. Green, Edward C. Hall, 
George H. Horner, Jcremiali Husted, Absalom Jordan, John 
.Maxwell, Thomas H. Pancoast, Hiram Pew, Charles O. P. 
Riley, James R. Rainear, William M. Seeley, Charles L. 
Sockwell, Edward M. Steward, John G. Swinney, Samuel 
Tomlinson, Daniel Tullis, William Jl. I!, Ward, John Yates, 
John B. Bonham, Josiah Garrison, George A. Harris, IMaritz 
Isell, Isaac F. Jerrell, Thomas R. Keni]), Jacob Keyport, 
Lorenzo D. Messic, Simon S. Swing, Samuel R. Payne, 
Daniel Simpkins, Josiah F. Smith, Bloomfield Spencer. Wil- 
liam) H. A'augtin. Elmer M. West. \\'illiam H. Berry. Henry 
D. Duffeld, Varney W. Gaskill, William H. Greenly, Dan- 
iel R. Harris, Asa A. F. Randolph, Richard F. Randolph, 
Jeremiah Roray, George S. Tindall, Henry Walker. 

Company K. was afterward recruited by the addition of 
substitutes during its term of service to take the place of 
those killed, discharged by disease and because of amputa- 
tions and other serious wounds. Only si.x of its entire mem- 
bership deserted, one of whom returned to duty later on. 

The following members of this company died on the 
field and in hospital : Aaron Terry, at Andersonville, Ga. 
prison, March 24. 1864, of disease and hunger, buried at 
National Cemetery, Andersonville, grave 133: Aloses B. 
Holmes, died at Field Hospital, June 4, 1864, wounds re- 
ceived in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3d, 1864; Hor- 
ace B. Garton died at U. S. General Hospital, in Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 3d. 1864, wounds received in action at 
Spottsylvania Courthouse, Va., buried at National Cemetery. 
Arlington, Va. ; Charles E. Smith killed in action at Nortli 
Anna River. Va., May 26 1864: Samuel Carey, died at Field 
Hospital, May 5th. 1864, wounds received in action at Wil- 
derness, Va. ; Daniel H. Carman, died at Field Plospital, July 
3d, 1864, of wounds received in action at Gettysburg, Pa. ; 
Jacob W. Carter, killed in action at Chancellorsville, Va. 
May 3d, 1863; Simon \\'. Creamer, killed in action at Get- 
tysburg, Pa,, July 3d, 1863, buried at National Cemetery, 
Gettysburg. Pa.. Section .\, Grave 20; Thomas C, Galloway, 



HISTORIC DAYS 



died of scurvy at Andersonville prison, Ga.. August 28th, 
1864, buried in National Cemetery, Andersonville, Grave 
7.039; Joseph H. Gaunt, died of disease, at Ward U. S. 
General Hospital, Newark, N. J.. April 20th, 1865, buried 
at Fairmount Cemetery, Newark; William D. Hendrickson, 
died of fever, at Regular Hospital, Camp near Falmouth, 
Va., January 23d, 1863, buried at National Cemetery, Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., Division A. Section A. grave 137; Samuel 
Hollenback, died of wounds received in action at Boydton 
Plank Road, Va., Oct. 27th, 1864, buried at Poplar Grove 
National Cemetery, Va., Division D, Section C. grave 164; 
Nathaniel H. Horner, died June 4th, 1864. of wounds re- 
ceived in action at Cold Harbor, Va. ; Henry Howell, died of 
disease at Regular Hospital Camp near Falmouth, Va., 
March 23d, 1863 ; Francis Husted, died of fever, at Patent 
Office, U. S. General Hospital, Washington, D. C, Decem- 
ber 19th, 1863, buried at Military Asylum Cemetery, Wash- 
ington; Charles Livingston, died at Field Hospital, Spotts- 
sylvania Courthouse, Va., May 14th, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived in action at Spottsylvania ; Matthias Maloney, killed 
in action, at Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, 1864; 
John H. Mullica, died of disease, at U. S. General Hospital, 
City Point. Va., June 30th, 1864; Charles O. Powell, killed 
in action, at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3d, 1863 ; Charles H. 
Simpkins, killed in action, at Wilderness, May 5th, 1864; 
Henry S. Sockwell, killed in action at Gettysburg. Pa., July 
3d, 1863 ; Samuel S. Sutton, died at Field Hospital, White 
House, Va., June 8th, 1864, of wounds received in action 
at Cold Harbor, Va. ; Theophilus Sutton, died of scurvy, at 
Andersonville prison, Ga., October 28, i8r>4. buried at 
National Cemetery, .Andersonville. gra\e i 1.615. 



Such is the record of this splendid body of volunteers. 
Of its oftkers — Lieut. -Colonel Edward M. DuBois, rose 
from the ranks to high honors, a Bridgeton boy whose brav- 
ery on many fields was nobly attested ; Captain I-'rank M. 
Riley, wlm enlisted is second sergeant of Compain- K. but 

((•.6) 




Henry Campbell 
William F. Moore 



WAR TIME PICTURES— 18i;2-IS*V> 

Group Company K, Twelfth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols, 

Daniel B. Harris 

Capt. Henry Crooks 

Edwin C. Hall 



Butler Newcomb 
Justus H. Livingston 



68 HlSTdKll' DAVS 

returned as Captain of Co. F., was a brave and efficient 
officer. In one of the battles around Petersburg, Va., Cap- 
tain Riley was seriously wounded in the face, a niinnie ball 
passing- through it and dropping into his mouth. He was 
taken prisoner by the Confederates, and during his confin*- 
ment his line India rubber blanket and other \aluables disap- 
peared as he supposed at the time, by command of the Con- 
federate General, M. C. Butler, of South Carolina. The theft 
of Captain Riley's blanket afterwards figured in the evidence 
before the Committee on Privileges and Elections of the 
United States Senate several years after the war, when the 
seat of M. C. Butler was contested as a Senator from that 
Sftate. It finally turned out that General Butler had no 
knowledge of the theft. In 1904, to Captain Riley's sur- 
prise, he received a telegram from the ex-Confederate, to 
meet him at the Hotel Walton, in Philadelphia. He did so 
and there met a handsome, dignified Southern gentleman, 
who apologized for the robbery of forty years previous, say- 
ing that he had no knowledge of it and that it was done by 
one of his subDrdinatcs withuut authority, and would never 
have occurred had he had the slightest intimation that such 
an ungentlemanly act was contemplated. General Butler en- 
tertained Captain Riley with old-time Southern hospitality, 
and in\ ited him to \isit his home and become his guest. Cap- 
tain Riley participated in the three days' fight at Gettysburg, 
July 1st, 2d, and 3d, 1863, the bloodiest engagement of the 
war, where with liuck and ball the Twelfth Regiment took 
part in the charge upon the Bliss barn, and from behind a 
stone fence, sent death and destruction into Pickett's men in 
the historic advance of the Confederates on that eventful 
third (lav. 



The commander of the Twelfth Regiment was Colonel 
J. Howard Willetts, of Port Elizabeth, Cumberland County. 
Colonel Willetts had been transferred from the Seventh 
Regiment, in which he had held command as captain of 
Company II. Enlisting October 3, 1861, he had rendered 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 69 

\aluable service in General McCIellan's campaigns on the 
peninsula and in Maryland. Promoted to lieutenant colonel 
August 12, 1862. for gallant and meritorious conduct in 
the field, he entered upon a distinguished career as colonel 
of the regiment soon after its formation, February 27, 

1863. At the battle of Chancellorsville, .May 3, 1862, 
Colonel W'illetts was badly wounded, several balls enter- 
ing his body. He remained in the service until December 
19, 1864, when he was discharged with high honors as a 
patriotic ofiicer and soldier. 

Company K also furnished other notable men. auKJUg 
the most prominent of whom is Benjamin !■'. Howell who 
served in Congress from the New Brunswick district for 
many years. Congressman Howell was born in Fairfield 
township, Cumberland Cdunty, serving his country faith- 
fully as a soldier until July Toth, 1865. Returning home he 
changed his residence to .Middlesex County, whose citizens 
repeatedly honored him with exalted position. Captain 
Richard S. Thompson closed a distinguished career in the 
i_'tli Regiment with the honors of Lieut. -Colonel. Charles 
S. Padgett, so long a prominent citizen of ]5ridgeton, was 
another member of Company K, wiio distinguished himself 
;uid left a limb on the field of battle; likewise William F. 
Moore, one of the color guard of the Twelfth Regiment, who 
took active part in the assault upon the P>liss barn, when 
ninetv rebels were caiiluroil liy our boys; afterwards seri- 
ously wounded in action at Spottsylvania; also William H. 
Bennett, who bore an honoralile part as one of the color 
bearers of this heroic regiment. 

F.dwanl C. Hall, of l-'airfield township, private in Com- 
paiiv I\. Twelfth Regiment, was a soldier of heroic mould. 
Serving from 1862 to 1863, he was twice seriously wounded 
at the battle of Chancellorsville. Va.. May 3rd. 1863. gim- 
shot woiuids of the head and left leg. Xot withstanding his 
wounds, when the regiment was ordered to fall back he re- 
fused, and. joining the io8th Xew York \'ols.. fired four- 
teen rounds at the enemy, .^t Cold Harbor. Va.. June 3d, 

1864. he was again hit, gunshot wound tln'ongh the left 



HISTORIC DAYS 



shoulder. Caplured at Hatclier's Run, Va., October 27th, 
1864, lie was taken 1)\- the Confederates to Castle Thunder 
and then to Lihbv prison. While in Libby he was ordered 
by Alajor Turner, commander of the prison, to do some 
blacksniithino- for the Confederacy, as Hall was known to 
be a blacksmith by trade. Turner said he would allow him 
extra rations, and extra liberties if he would do the work. 
Private Hall said "No," with a loud emphasis, thereby tak- 
ing- his life in his hand. But Turner rather admired his 
spunk, and left him unmolested. Once the Confederates 
offered him a discharge on parole, but his answer was — "not 
while rebels remain in arms!" \\'hen captured he w^eighed 
185 pounds : when exchanged, such w ere the rigors of starv- 
ation in Libb\-. he had become reduced to a skeleton of 92 
jiounds. I'rixate Hall was in the famous charge on the 
Bliss barn at (iettysburg. Pa., July 3d, 1863, and during 
his entire soldier career participated in twenty-seven battles. 



But this remarkable year was to witness still further 
excitement. No sooner had Company K departed than the 
work of filling Cumberland County's quota was resumed. 
Just here it may be well to make the statement, which is 
indisputable, that no town in the country, save one — the town 
of Haverhill, Mass., furnished so many volunteers for the 
Union army as the town of Bridgeton, New Jersey. The 
patriotic blood which led the fathers at Greenwich to destroy 
the cargo of British tea on the public common, after it had 
I)een taken from the deck of the Greyhound, in the mouth 
of the Cohansey, November, 1774. had been transmitted to 
the sons of those illustrious sires, and they rushed to the 
defense of constitutional government and tlie saving of the 
Union. 

The \crandas of the Davis House on Commerce street, 
and the pavements in front, were daily crowded with patri- 
otic citizens discussing the subject of enlistments. Jerry 
Maul, with his fife: Charles W'oodruff, with his kettle-drum; 
Lou Clark with the big drum, appeared day by day and en- 
livened the scene with m.irtial music. Excitement reached 

(70) 




WAR TIME PICTURES-lSV.'-lSlVi 

Group Company K. Twelfth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

William H. Bennett William B. Mines Charles M. Riley 

Benjamin F. Howell 
I Now Member Congress Fourth N.J. District > 
Charles O. P. Riley Henry Howell Abram Facemire 

(71) 



HISTORIC DAYS 

its greatest Iieig'Iit about September ist, when quarters were 
opened in the old Iirick store known as the J. B. Potter store, 
at the corner of Commerce and Cohansey streets. In two 
days three hundred men liad enlisted for the nine months' 
service, under the new call of the President. The new com- 
panies, three in number, were enrolled in the Twenty-fourm 
New Jersey Regiment. The following is a roster: 

Company F. : Captain, Samuel Harris ; First Lieuten- 
ant, Elijah Husted; Second Lieutenant. William B. Pepper; 
First Sergeant. Benjamin JHlancock ; Sergeant. 'Joseph S. 
Glaspey, Isaac L. Moore, David Garrison ; Corporals, Wil- 
iam F. Demaris, Theodore F. Buck, Alphonso Dunham, 
Charles Haley, Joseph Shimp, Benjamin S. Avars, Charles 
X. Woodruff, David D. Sheppard; Musician. Samuel Hum- 
phries ; Privates, Jesse S. Adams, Charles F. Ackley, Charles 
M. Alkire. \\"illiain S. .Ackley. Josejjh H. C. Appelgate. 
Judsdii liateman, jcmathan W. Pinnhani. Isaiah F. Boody, 
David M. Bnwen, Daniel Brooks, David G. Brooks, 
Charles Brown, Edgar S. Brown. Thomas Campbell, Louis 
G. Clark, Charles R. Coulter, James Craig, John D. Craig, 
Roger S. Crosier, Albert Davis, William F. Duffield, Joseph 
P. Fithian, Theodore A. Felmy, John h^inley, Enos Glaspell, 
Simon J. Garrison, Samuel Colder, Jr., Christopher Get- 
singer, Jeremiah Hann, James Harding, Allen N. Harris, 
Edward R. H'usted, Francis Husted, William M. Husted, 
Henry F. Hutchinson, Samuel H. Jones, Joseph Jeffries, 
Benjamin 1-". Ladow. Peter Ladow. Isaac Laning, Jr., Aaron 
Leaming, Edwin J. Lee, James E. Logue, Andrew Maynes, 
Clarence D. Mayhew, John Murphy, Jesse B. McBride. Ma- 
jor McDaniels, Daniel 'McHenry, Jesse McKee, Thomas 
McKuen, Isaac McPherson. John N. Middleton, John S. 
Miller. Clement C. Moore. William Moore, Charles H. 
Newcomb. John II. Orr. Oswald Patchell, Elihu R. Peter- 
son, George Pierson, William Reddon, George G. Richmon, 
Edgar J. Riley, James Stewart, Edgar Shute, Samuel P. 
Trout, WMlliam B. Trout, Il'enrv Vogel, Henry W. Warful. 
Isaiah P. Warren. Tlmnias C. Weldon, John F. Wlieaton, 
Tini(ilb\- Wo'uhnlT. jnlm L. Wilfong. 

(72) 




WAR-TIME I'lL 1 LIRES— IWVJ-lWiS 
Group Company F. Twenty-fourth N.J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Benjamin S. Ayres Charles M. Alkire Joseph P. Fithian 

Judson Bateman Samuel Humphries Benjamin Hancock 

Isaac McPhersin David D. Sheppard Isaac Laning 

Major McDaniels Theodore A. Felmy Joseph S. Glaspey 

(73) 



74 



IIISIDKIC DAYS 



Died in the service : Cliarles F. Garrison, at Division 
Hospital, near Falmoutli, Va., Dec. 21. 1862, wounds re- 
ceived in action at Fredericksburg, Va.. Dec. 13, 1862 ; Peter 
German, missing in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862, never heard of afterward ; David A. Long, of fever at 
U. S. Army Gen. Hospital, Newark, N. J., Jan. 11, 1863; 
John McNichols, missing in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13. 1862. never heard of afterward; William J. Orr. 
missing in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862, 
never heard of afterward ; William F. Richards, of fever at 
Regimental Hospital, near Falmouth, Va.. Jan. 15. 1863. 
btu'ied at Xat. Cemetery, Fredericksburg, Va.. Div. A, Sec- 
tion A, grave 407 ; William R. Vanmeter, missing in action 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862, never heard of after- 
ward. 

Company G : Captain, James R. Hoagland ; First Lieu- 
tenant, Charles M. Pease; Second Lieutenant, Robert B. 
Potter; First Sergeants, Francis M. DuBois, Henry R. Pier- 
son; Sergeants, Jesse C. Davis, George M. Chester, William 
F. Brown. Thomas A. Harris; Corporals, John DuBois, 
Japhet Hann. Israel L. Fish. Charles McDaniels, Dallas T. 
Haley ; Musician, Benson Smith ; Privates, \\'illiam Ackley, 
Charles P. Bacon, Thomas IVL Barracliff, James Boyle, 
Aaron R. Broadway, \\'illiam S. Brown, John W. Blizzard. 
David AL Carman, Ephraim Carman, Joshua Clark, Caleb 
Cobb, Joseph W. Cobb. John W. Cobb, James Cornell. 
Jacob P. Cobb. William C. Dare. Charles H. Dare, Jere- 
miah .\. Davis, I'^rancis W. Gallagher. Samuel Gallagher. 
W illiam Garrow, Jonathan C. Garrison. James H. Gaudy, 
Xclson Haley, I-'ranklin F. If and, Henry Huster. Henry 
Harris. Alfred Harris. Frederick Heintz, John F. Heintz. 
Mathias Fox. Charles R. Hopkins, Isaac Hunter, Lorenzo 
D. Hutton. Daniel Jaggers, Joseph L. Kincaid, Levi J. 
Loper. Walter S. Leach, John AlcConnell. Jeremiah 
P. Mills. Isaac Newcomb, Daniel K. 'Pearson, Xathan 
Pennington, Jr., David F. Randolph. Benjamin R. Ra- 
singer, William H. Rawley, Robert Robinson. William 
Seaman, Levi Sharp. Isaac Sheppard. .\ndrew B. Shimp. 



IN CUMBERLAND COl'NTV. NKW JICK.SICY 75 

Stacy Sloan. Albert Smith, George Steelman, Smith 
Stites. Job T. Trout, Hiram Trueland, Daniel Turner, Wil- 
liam H. H. West, Sheppard Wescott, ^^■illiam H. White, 
George E. Wills, John Wines, Wallace Wriggins. 

Died in the sevice : .\lbert B. Jones, at hospital near 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 22, 1862, wounds received in ac- 
tion at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862 ; Lot Bacon, of disease, 
at Finley U. S. Army Gen. Hospital, Washington, D. C., 
Jan. 2, 1863; Lorenzo Bailey, at hospital near Fredericks- 
burg, Va., Dec. 22, 1862, wounds received in action at Fred- 
ericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; Alfred S. Cobb, of fever, at 
Camp near Chain Bridge. Va., Nov. 14, 1862; William S. 
Corson, at hospital near Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 22, 1862, 
wounds received in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862: John Danelbeck, missing in action at Fredericksburg, 
Va., Dec. 13, 1862. never heard of afterward; Nathan P. 
derls, at Hospital, at Fredericksburg, Va.. Dec. 14, 1862, 
wounds received in action at Fredericksburg. Va., Dec. 13, 
1862: William C. Husted. killed in action at I'redericksburg. 
Va., Dec. 13, 1862; Valentine Maxner, killed in action at 
l'"re(lericksburg. Va.. Dec. 13. 1862: Jacob C. Shinn. missing 
in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. never heard 
of afterward. 

Company H: Captain. Henry Xet^'; P'irst Lieutenant. 
Alexander L. Robeson ; Second Lieutenant, James J. 
Reeves; First Sergeant, John H. Schreiner ; Sergeants, Sam- 
uel ]\r. McCall. James IMcCowan. William B. Smith. David 
S. Pedrick; Corporals, Benjamin T. Bright, Daniel H. Xeip- 
lin. James Ewing, Charles H. Atmore, Alexander McGraw, 
Jesse D. Claypoole, Jacob Ernest, James R. Sellers; Musi- 
cian. Ephraim R. Ayars; Privates. Edward Ayars. Richard 
R. Ayars, Samuel Ayars, William IM. Barnes, Thomas Bo- 
dine, William Howard Blew, William Bowers. William Bo- 
dine, John D. Boone, Darius Bowen, Frederick Bowen, Isaac 
H. Bowen. Harris Brooks. Joseph C. Brooks. Richard H. 
Brooks, William E. Brooks. Ephraim E. Buck. John Cake. 
Williami Campbell, George Cawman. Samuel B. Carter. Wil- 
liam S. Conklin. Tames R. Cheesman. Henry C. Dare. Henry 



HISTORIC DAYS 

C. Deenier. Albert Dolton, David Edwards, Martin Ed- 
wards., Jacob Elwell, John S. Ernest, Benjamin Ford, Am- 
brose Fox, Jacob Garton, Benjamin N. Gibson. James Gil- 
len, WiHiam B. Gilman, Henry Griner, Francis AI. Harris, 
Robert V. Hnntsinger, William G. Harris, Daniel Ireland, 
William Ireland, John G. Keyser, Christoph Laich. Martin 
Loder. Reuben ^larryott, Edward Alixner, Joseph L. Mul- 
ford, Robert Moncrief, Allen Mulford, Jacob Naglee, James 
Norton, John B. Nieukirk, Solomon Overdorf, William A. 
Parvin. Charles Ouicksell, John Lenhart Rice, William 
Riley, William E. Schuyler, Francis Seaman, Charles S. 
Sellers, Elmer Sheppard, John Sheppard. Thomas W. Shep- 
pard. Stephen Shimp. Edward B. Simpkins, Enos D. Simp- 
kins. William Smith, James L. Stiles, Jehu Tumey, Charles 
S. Wallen. George H. Whipple, George M. D. Woodruff. 
William Harrison Woodruff, Abram \\"oodruff". 

Died in the service: William B. Elmer, at Division Hos- 
pital, near Falmouth, Va., Dec. 21. 1862. wounds received 
in action at Fredericksburg. Va., Dec. 13, 1862; Joseph M. 
Elwell, of fever, at hospital. Windmill Point, Va.. Jan. 27, 
1863; George Fox, at Stanton U. S. Army Gen. Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, Jan. 7, 1863. wounds received in action 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; George W. Burch, 
of consumption at Newton University Hospital, Baltimore, 
Maryland. April 2, 1863; Charles Dayton, niissing in action 
at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863, never heard of after- 
ward ; Edward R. Gilman, of fever at Camp Kearney, Va., 
Oct. 24, 1862; David McGear, of fever at Regimental Hos- 
])it;d. near l'"almouth, Va., Feb. 22, 1863 ; Alexander Riggan, 
of fever at L;. S. .'Xrniy Gen. Ho.spital, Windmill Point, Va., 
Jan. 25, 1S63; Richard H. Rittig, at Harewood U. S. Army 
Gen. Flospital, Washington, D. C, Dec. 28, 1862, wounds 
received in action at Fredericksburg. Va., Dec. 13. 1862; 
First Lieutenant, Alexander L. Robeson, killed in action at 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 



.Among the distinguished men in the Twenty-fourth 
Regiment was Major Joel A. iMtbian. of Bridgeton. a 



(7(i) 




WAR-TIME PICTURES-1-^iVJ-lMi;. 
Group Company G, Twenty-fourth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Sergeant Francis Marion DuBois William M. Husted 

Sergeant Jesse C. Davis 
Samuel Joslin Lieut. Henry R. Pierson 

Thomas M. Barracliff" 



HISTORIC DAYS 

native of Cumberland County, descendant of one of the 
best families, his ancestors being long resident of the fine 
agricultural region known as Hopewell and Stow Creek 
Townships. Major Fithian was a very handsome man. a 
commanding figure, and fine looking soldier. He made an 
admirable record as an ofticer. Once during his term of 
service he was detailed to pay certain troops in the capacity 
of paymaster, said contingent not having received compen- 
sation for several months owing to the exposed position 
they were occupying at the front. The Confederate Cav- 
alryman Mosby was scouring the country making havoc 
on all sides. It was dangerous work for the Major, but he 
started with the money chest full of greenbacks. When his 
journey was well nigh finished Mosby suddenly appeared, 
captured his escort, and compelled Major Fithian to canter 
for his life. He succeeded, however, to the great chagrin 
of the Confederate, for the money was what Mosby was 
after. The war closed, and years later Colonel Mosby and 
Major Fithian met in a hotel in Los Angeles, California, 
by accident. Recognizing the Confederate, as he had never 
forgotten his appearance, the Major said : "Colonel I met 
you before under very difYerent circumstances." Mosby 
repeated the Major's name several times, and finally replied, 
"O, you are the fellow that got away from me, in that raid 
in Virginia." Colonel Mosby had captured the roster of 
the Major's escort, and had kept it. He said that "Fithian" 
was a singular name, and he had never forgotten it. He 
also thought that Fithian was a very slick as well as singular 
fellow to get away so cleverly, when he (Mosby) thought 
he had him. The recognition was mutual, and a pleasant 
chat was had between the erstwhile enemies. After the as- 
sassination of President Lincoln. Major Fithian was one of 
the ])arty that buried John Wilkes Booth, a secret that he 
kept to the end. The closing years of Major Fithian's life 
were spent in Southern California. 



Another distinguished Bridgetonian in the Twenty- 
fourth Regiment was Lieutenant Henry R. Pierson, of 

(78) 













WAR TIME PICTURES— 1SC.2 
Group Company H. Twenty-fourth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

John Lenhart Rice Joseph G. Brooks Joseph M. Elwell 

William M. Barnes Henry C. Dare William Smith 

Christoph Laich William B. Gilman Allen Mulford 

Martin Loder Jehu Tumey George H. Whipple 

(791 



HISTORIC DAYS 

Company D, afterward assistant quartermaster, with the 
rank of captain, United States Volunteers. Captain Pier- 
son was very proud of a commission he held, dated Alay 
i8, 1864. which bore the signature of Abraham Lincoln, 
President; and Edwin 'SI. Stanton, Secretary of War. Cum- 
mission was signed May 24, 1864, approved by E. D. Town- 
send, Assistant Adjutant General, and was handsomely en- 
graved with the heading "The President of the United 
States of America to Henry R. Pierson, Greeting."' 



When the wa\e of patriotism was at its height in 
Bridgeton and the townships adjacent thereto, the town of 
Millville, ten miles away, was girding itself for the war. 
Flag-raisings were attended by large crowds of citizens, 
patriotic speeches by Hon. Edward Maylin, Dr. W'm. L. 
Newell, and other prominent citizens, stirred the hearts of 
all who loved the Union and the Flag. Company B, com- 
posed of young business men and glassworkers, was quickly 
formed for the Twenty-fourth Regiment. Following is a 
list of its officers and men : 

Company B. — Captains, George E. Dunlap, James 
Smith ; First Lieutenant, B. Reed Brown ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, John Springer; First Sergeants, Henry S. Spalding, 
Hiram B. Shaw; Sergeants, William H. Wills, Gilbert K. 
Heritage, Francis Hankins, Thomas S. Simmons : Coi'por- 
als, Richard W. VanSant, George IMadden, Jacob B. Kates, 
Joseph Gerard, William D. Jackson, Franklin Appleby, 
Enoch Laird, Jabez Scholes, Joshua Corson ; Musicians, 
Henry H. Meyhew, Isaiah E. Johnson ; Privates, Alexander 
Anderson, Samuel F. Bard, Francis L Batcheldor, Isaac H. 
Beakley, Frederick Blint, John H. Boody, Edward C. 
Champion. Jacob F. Cake, Joseph Camp, William J. Carlisle, 
John W. Cawman, Benjamin Cossaboon, Jesse Cossaboon, 
David Crawford, Isaac W. Downs, Oscar B. Eastlack, Ru- 
dolph Edwards, Jesse Ford, Thomas H. Gifford, Allen S. 
Garrison, John Gilliland. John Garrison, Jr., John M. Hen- 
derson, Job Hess, John Hess, Samuel Hess, James Headley, 
Nicholas Griner, George F. Headley, William F. Hogbin, 

(80) 




Capt. Samuel Harris 
Company F 
Capt. Henry Neff 
Company H 



WAR TIME PICTURES-l*^i-' 

Cumberland County Officers 

L;4th New Jersey Regiment Inf. Vols. 

Dr. AVilliam L. Newell. Surgeon 

Major Joel A. Fithian 

Quarter-Master Samuel R. Fithian 

(SI) 



Capt. George E. Dunlap 

Company B 
Capt. James R. Hoagland 

Company G 



HISTORIC DAYS 



Joseph E. James, Samuel Kears, George B. Langley, Sam- 
uel Maines, John Alatticks, John McGill, Calvin J. McMa- 
han, George W. Messeck, John S. Orr, William W. Rob- 
inson, John R. Sapp, William C. Shaw, Isaac S. Sheldon, 
Job Sheppard, Harvey T. Shaw, John Sheppard, Albert L. 
Singers, Jeremiah B. Shull, John W. Simmons, Edward 
Spence, Lewis S. Sockwell, David D. Stites, Samuel 
Stokley, John Stout, John D. Stout, Thomas C. Stout. Dare 
Thompson. Andrew H. Tomlin, Zingles VanHook, John 
Webb, William W'eiser. Lemuel G. \\'elch, Levi \\'ilson, 
William Young. 

Died in the service — John Rounds, fever, at camp near 
Falmouth, \'a., January 20, 1863, buried at National Ceme- 
tery, Fredericksburg, Va., Division A, Section A, grave 
411: Loren Russ, at Fredericksburg, Va., December 14, 
1862, wounds received in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 13, 1862; Henry Adler, at Ascension U. S. Army 
General Hospital, Washington, D. C, January 13, 1863, 
wounds received in action at Fredericksburg, Va., December 
13, 1862, buried at Military Hospital Cemetery, D. C. ; 
George Donnelly, of fever, at Division Hospital, near Fal- 
mouth, Va., March 15, 1863, buried at National Cemetery, 
Fredericksburg, Va., Division D, Section C, grave 16; James 
Gibson, killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., December 
13, 1862; Samuel H. Jones, of fever, at Hospital, Windmill 
Point, Va., February 9, 1863 ; Henry Reeves, killed in action 
at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1S63; Ezekiel Simmons, 
killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13. 1862; 
Anson Thompson, at Washington. D. C, December 18, 
1862, wounds recei\'ed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 13, 1862; Benajah Thompson, killed in action at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; William Tinker, 
of disease, at camp near Falmouth, Va., February 8, 1863, 
buried at National Cemetery, Fredericksburg, Va.. Division 
D. Section C, grave 66; Benjamin F. Vannaman. of disease. 
at Emory U. S. Army General Hospital, Washington, D. 
C, October 3, 1862. 

(S2) 




WAR TIME PICTURES-iNi-' 
Group Company B. Twenty-fourth N.J. Inf. Vols. 
Nicholas Griner Isaiah E. Johnson 

John W. Simmons Thomas S. Simmons Ezekiel Simmons 

Samuel F. Bard George B. Langlcy 

(83) 



84 IIISIdKU DAVS 

While \olunteers were forming the three Bridgetoii 
companies for the Twenty-fourtli Regiment, tiie young men 
of Fairfield and Downe Townships were, with patriotic 
ardor, rallying for the organization of Company D, of the 
Twenty-fifth Regiment. This company was composed 
largely of oystermen and farmers, young men of brain and 
muscle. Amid the boom of cannon, the music of a ch-uni 
corps, and presentation of a beautiful flag at the hands of a 
local committee, the company left its rendezvous in Fair- 
field for the seat of war. Appended is a roster of its officers 
and men : 

Company D. — Captain. Ethan T. Garretson ; First 
Lieutenant, Samuel Peacock ; Second Lieutenants, Joseph 
Bateman, Charles J. Field, B. Frank Williams; First Ser- 
geant, Nathaniel Westcott ; Sergeants, William \\'. Mes- 
sick, James W^ Trenchard, James B. Russell, Henry Jess; 
Corporals, Rufus E. Bennett. George Crosier, Frank 
Gandy, Francis P. Riley, James H. Stevens, Charles H. 
Turner, David S. W. Steelman, Charles R. Conover; Musi- 
cian, William P. Sink ; Privates, Wesley D. Barton, David 
E. Bateman, John P. Applegate. Henry H. Beakley, Robert 
M. Bennett, Charles Biddle, John Blizzard, Joseph C. Brad- 
ford, Archibald Campbell. Philip Clark, Peter Campbell. 
William IM. Carter, Joseph L. Cassidy, William Cobb. John 
Coleman, James G. D. Craig, David ]\T. Craner, John 
Dowdridgc, Job Dilks, James Duuthaclav. Svlvanus Dough- 
erty, Fli Far], Peter Felts. TTugh Fowler, Benjanu'n F. 
Gaskill, Horatio I\L Gates, William L. Gray, Charles Gas- 
kill, F.ldriflge Hand. John H;nies. George Harlev, Charles 
Henry, lleiir\- \). Hines. George W. Hall, l-llmer V.. Hog- 
bin, Lewis 1'.. Tbilnics. Daniel \\'. Hustcd, Joseph E. Hus- 
ted, John P. Jerrell, John V>. Jones. Jr.. \\'illiam T. C. 
Jordan. Robert J. Kell. Charles Lloyd. Cliarles S. Lore, 
Dallas Lore, George D. O.gden, John M. Nicholson. John E. 
Ogden, Willis A. Ogden. James W. Pettit. Benjamin Pine, 
Martin V. B. Powell, Thomas B. Shaw, \\'illiam P.'. Shaw, 
William H. Sheppard. Charles P. Stewart, Thomas Sutton, 
Edward H. Sheppard. Charles Swing, Leonard R. Swing, 



IN CUMBERLAND COfNTY. NECW JERSEY 85 

Elijah Thompson, John Tliompson, William Tullis, Samuel 
V'anaman, Robert O. Wallen, John B. Westcott, Henry H. 
Whitecar, Isaac S. W'hitecar, William T. Whitecar, Benja- 
min F. Williams, Inirman R. Willis, Henry Wallen. 

Died in the service — Ephraim F. Bateman, of fever, 
at Armory Square, United States Army General Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, February 19, 1863; Hiram B. Whitecar, 
of fever, at camp near Julian's Creek, Va., May 21, 1863; 
James P. Calloway, of disease, at Chesapeake U. S. Army 
General Hospital, Fortress JMonroe, Va., May 25, 1863; 
Henry Craven, of fever, at camp, near Falmouth, Va., Jan- 
uary 22, 1863; Lewis M. Kates, killed in action at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; James Nicholson, of 
disease, at Emory U. S. Army General Hospital, Wash- 
ington, D. C, November 5, 1862, buried at Military Asylum 
Cemetery, D. C. ; Daniel B. Powell, at camp near Falmouth, 
Va., December 22, 1862, wounds received in action at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; David Simpkins, of 
disease, at camp near Fairfax Seminary, Va., November 19, 
1862, buried at National Cemetery, Alexandria, Va.. grave 
1,600; Benjamin F. Sockwell, at Stanton U. S. Army Gen- 
eral Hospital, Washington, D. C, February 5, 1863, 
wounds received in action at Fredericksburg, Va., Decem- 
ber 13. T862; Ephraim L. Young, killed in action at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 



Job Dilks, of Company D, of Cedarville, because of 
wounds received in action at Fredericksburg, had a leg am- 
putated, and to the day of his death walked on crutches. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph Bateman, of Company D, had a 
remarkable experience at the battle of Fredericksburg. Vir- 
ginia. December 13, 1862. About dusk the regiment was 
ordered to take an advanced position in front of the fortifi- 
cations on Marie's Heights. While lying on a little knoll 
near the rebel works, in the midst of a heavy artillery fire 
which opened on the Union troops very suddenly. Lieuten- 
ant Bateman found that the two comrades who were with 
liim. Lewis Kates and Ephraim "N^oung, had been killed by 



I1IST(JK1C IIAVS 



his side, tiieir bodies torn and mutilated by the Confederate 
shot and shell. The slauiihter was terrific, the surrounding 
field being coxered with wounded and dying men. 



From Downe Township then extending from the Fair- 
field line to JNIaurice River and the Cove, came First Lieu- 
tenant Charles M. Pease with a delegation of stalwart young 
men from Port Norris, Mauricetown and vicinity. They 
enlisted in Company G, 24th New Jersey, Captain Hoag- 
land and among the number was a fighting family of five 
brothers known as the Cobbs. as follows: Caleb Cobb. 
Joseph W. Cobb, Jolm \V. Cobb, Jacob F. Cobb, Alfred S. 
Cobb, the latter dying of fever at camp, near Chain Bridge, 
Va.. November 14th. 1862. The two McDaniels brothers 
came with them. Charles McDaniels enlisting in Company 
G. and Major McDaniels in Company F. Jacob C. Shinn, 
of Company G, one of Port Norris's best citizens, after whom 
"Shinn Post," Grand Army of the Republic was named, 
was another patriot whom fate had willed should sleep in 
an unknown grave. Missing in action at Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13th, 1862, is the record. Perhaps, in that 
great cemetery on the heights of Marie by the side of the 
Rappahannock, where the silent forms of 17,000 Union 
soldiers slumber, 

"On his grave the sunlig'nt lingers. 

And the silvery moonbeams fall. 
There he sleeps far, far from kindred 

Sleeps until the last great call." 

From the eastern section of Downe came the Garrisons, 
the Ladows. the Husteds. the Hines. the Orrs. the Trouts, 
the Newcombs. the Gandys. the Blizzards, the Baileys, the 
Corsons, and a host of others with brave Lieutenant William 
B. Pepper. Several of these gallant sons of Downe left 
their bones on Soutlu-rn battlefields and returned not to 
the families and the homes in which for many years there- 
after loving hearts iiave waited and longed for a \-ision of 
the departed. 

(SB) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— 1-i.J 
Group Company D, Twenty-fifth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Second Lieut. Joseph Bateman James ^A/. Trenchard Henry Watlen 

George A. Ogden Capt. Ethan T. Garretson Leonard R. Swing 

Francis P. Riley William P. Sink Archibald Campbell 



HISTORIC DAYS 

Great days had preceded it in Eridgeton, but Monday, 
September 3d, 1862, surpassed all other days before or since 
in the history of tlie town. Never had such a patriotic out- 
pouring of the people or such tremendous enthusiasm been 
witnessed. It seemed as though every member of every fam- 
ily was interested. The stars and stripes appeared on every 
side, while the melody of the fife, stirring airs of the drums, 
and the firing of cannon, woke Bridgeton at early dawn. 
Stores were closed and business suspended while the volun- 
teers were preparing for departure. Drawn up in double 
column on the sidewalk in front of the famous old Da\is 
House, the companies presented a picture which it is un- 
fortunate for posterity that the photographer's art has not 
preserved. Splendidly officered were these bodies of fine 
young men about to reinforce their fighting brothers in the 
field. On the one hand was Lieutenant Robeson, handsome 
and erect, a modest patriot, a model citizen, in a few 
short weeks killed in action at Fredericksburg. Virginia, his 
bones to be numbered among the unknown dead. On the 
Other hand stood stalwart Captain Hoagland, afterward to 
be Judge of the Cumberland Courts ; lawyer Lieutenant 
James J. Reeves ; editor Lieutenant Robert B. Potter ; Cap- 
tain .'"ianiuel Harris fresh from the battle of Gaines' farm, 
Virginia : Gajjlain Henry Xeff, scholar and patriot. Stand- 
ing at rest each company received a stand of colors. Again 
the tall form of Paul T. Jones arose and made a telling ad- 
dress to the departing soldiery. Rev. James F. Brown, of 
the First Baptist Church, and Hon. John T. Ni.xon made 
earnest remarks, the latter presenting the flags. Responsive 
speeches were made by Joel A. Fithian. in a short period to 
be Major of the Twenty-fourth; also by Captain James R. 
Hoagland and Lieutenant James J. Reeves. How youthful 
did the officers and men appear, mere boys as it were, going 
at their country's call, brave and courageous. Especially did 
this seem to be true of Lieutenant Alexander L. Robeson. 
Mr. Robeson at the time of enlistment was a member of the 
firm of Whitaker & Robeson, druggists, located on Com- 
merce street, near T>aurel, in an old-time brick building. He 

(SS) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— ISa 

Five Patriotic Cobb Brothers— Company G, -Ith N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

John W. Cobb 

Joseph W. Cobb Jacob P. Cobb 

Caleb Cobb Alfred S. Cobb 

(>9) 



HISTORIC DAYS 

was a rising- young business man, with a large circle of 
friends, and much esteemed by his fellow-citizens. In a 
w( )rd he was a gentleman "sans peur, et sans reproche," and 
his untimely death at Fredericksburg brought sorrow to 
many homes in Bridgeton. 

The marcli from the Davis Flouse to the West Jersey 
Railroad depot on Irving avenue was an ovation, and yet a 
parade in sorrow. Wrapped in the arms of a mother, a 
wife, a sister, it seemed as though the ties of affection would 
not be severed from the forms of those who were taking 
tlieir last farewell of those so near and dear. The 
scenes witnessed at the departure of the "Cumberland Greys" 
and of "Company K" were being repeated, only on a larger 
scale. Forebodings of disease, of wounds^ of death, were in 
the minds of loved ones because of what had happened to 
many of Cumberland County's sons in the battles so far 
fought. Thus was the parting the more solemn, the more 
tender, the more pathetic. 



Time went on. The Twenty-fourth Regiment was 
equipped, uniformed, and in the presence of the enemy be- 
fore the heights of Marie on the Rappahannock. The battle 
of Fredericksburg, Virginia, was fought December 13th and 
14th, 1862. The weather was disagreeable. Early winter 
had set in in gloom. General Ambrose E. Burnside, brave, 
modest, but incompetent for great command was at the head 
of the Army of the Potomac. Crossing the river on pon- 
toons in the face of a murderous fire the three Bridgeton 
companies advanced with their comrades and entered the 
village of Fredericksburg. Inexperienced but heroic to the 
core they fought from beginning to end. The roar of 
cannon, the whistle of shell, the crash of musketi-j', the bay- 
onet charge deterred them not. Through the blinding 
smoke and the carnage of battle they followed the flag, bul- 
let to bullet, steel against steel. Comrades fell around them 
some dying instantly, others suffering with terrible wounds 
while the life l)lood slowly ebbed away. In the lull of battle 
the early moon hid its face behind the cloudy night as if 

(90) 




THE DAVIS HOUSE, BRIDGETON 

l\V.— l>il.'> 

Edmund Davis, Proprietor 

(91) 



IIISTDKU' DAYS 

fearful of the bloody scenes on the earth below. Here and 
there a soldier was praying for succor and help, and yet no 
help save that alone which came from the Master whose pity- 
ing eye and loving heart was ready to receive. If, per- 
chance, some comrade 'mid the storm of grape and cannister 
sought to rest the head of a dying friend upon his breast, 
the forward, ever forward command prevented. The burial 
of Sir Thomas Moore was re-enacted a thousand times on 
Fredericksburg's fatal field. 

"Slowly and sadly we laid them down ; 

From the field of their fame fresh and gory, 
We carved not a line; we raised not a stone — 
But left them alone in their glory." 

From the field of death with its bloody repulse came 
the retreat across the turbulent river. Safe on the other shore 
the terrific cost of this unfortunate conflict was counted. The 
aftermath of this and other battles is found in the cemetery 
on Marie's heig"hts where repose the bones of seventeen 
thousand Union soldiers and among the known and un- 
known dead are many members of the gallant companies 
who left the dear old town of Bridgeton on that fair Sep- 
tember morning. 

Immediately after the battle on the Rappahannock Rob- 
ert DuBois and Charles R. Elmer, together with Jeremiah 
Dubois, full of interest and charity for those who were 
baring their bosoms to the storm of death on Southern 
fields, began inquiries in Washington and Virginia as to 
the casualties occurring to our home companies. December 
27, 1862, Robert DuBois and Charles R. Elmer returned to 
Bridgeton with very sad news and a list of those killed and 
wounded. In its issue of that date, the Chronicle said: 

"At the time of going to press no news has been re- 
ceived of Lieutenant Robeson who has been missing since 
the battle of Fredericksburg. There is reason to suppose 
that he has been taken prisoner and is now in the hands 
of the rebels. The wound received by Lieutenant Reeves 
is a flesh wound upon the left arm, painful though not dan- 

(9'J) 




LIEUTENANTS IN BRIDGETON COMPANIES 

Twenty- fourth New Jersey Inf. Vols. — iMiJ 

Second Lieut. James J. Reeves, Co. H. First Lieut. Charles M. Pease, Co. G. 

First Lieut. Alexander L. Robeson. Co. H. 
Second Lieut. William B. Pepper. Co. F. Second Lieut. Robert B. Potter, Co. G. 

(W.l 



94 HISTDUU DAYS 

gerous. Ca])tain Samuel Harris was severely shocked by 
a sliell. Lieutenant Robert B. Potter had a very narrow 
escape. A ball striking his watch glanced off and wadded 
itself in a glo\e in his pocket. He was also knocked down 
bv a shell. Captain Hi^agland is unhurt." 

The town went wild im the receipt of this news, 
(ireat crowds gathered in front of the Post Office, George 
W. Johnson.^ Postmaster, office then located on Commerce 
street, near the southeast corner of Laurel, listened to tele- 
grams from Washington, clamored for letters from the ab- 
sent soldiers, and packed the sidewalks, while some person 
stood upon a dry goods box and read the lists of killed and 
wounded from the columns of the Philadelphia Inquirer, the 
popular newspaper of war days. 

The "Copperheads" were plentiful about this time with 
their sneers and "I told you so's." but the patriotic senti- 
ment of the people soon asserted itself from bruised but 
loyal hearts, and the war went on. 

Then it was that the good President on his knees be- 
fore Ciod appealed for guidance in the nation's hour of bitter 
trouble. 

.Mr. Lincoln issued and concluded the lunancipation 
Proclamation with the following eloquent passages: 

"I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves 
within said designated States and parts of States are and 
henceforth shall be free. 

".\nd upon this act, sincerelv believed to be an act of 
justice, warranted by the (Constitution, upon military neces- 
sity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the 
gracious fa\or of Alniigbtv God." 

The world wondered, and the black man went free. 
Xo more auction block, no more separation of husband from 
wife, parent from child, at the command of the brutal mas- 
ter. The prayers of centuries which had gone up from the 
humble cabins of the South were answered at last. "Halle- 
lujah!" cried the manumitted freemen. "It is God and 
^Lassa Lincoln, Bress de Lord." 



IN CUMBERLAND COLNTY. NliW JERSEY 95 

The Republican Congressional Convention met at 
.May"s Landing. Atlantic County, and nominated John K. 
Starr, of Camden, Hon. John T. Nixon, declining a re- 
nomination. 

Governor Charles S. Olden, who had endeared him- 
self to the people of the State and the soldiers in the field, 
was about to retire from office. The Republican State Con- 
vention met at Trenton and named Marcus L. Ward as his 
successor. The Democratic State Convention nominated 
Joel Parker. The latter convention adopted a platform 
which Governor Parker afterward told the writer, had two 
meanings. Part of it read for a vigorous prosecution of 
the war. the other portion read for peace. This was a di- 
lemma, but "I straddled it," said the Governor, "and so 
managed to please both the War and Peace Democrats that 
I was elected all right." .\nd as he said this there was a 
twinkle in his eye and a broad smile on his handsome coun- 
tenance. Joel Parker was elected, and proved an efficient 
and loyal Governor for w-hom President Lincoln had great 
respect. 



Thursday, October 9, 1862, the Republican County 
Convention met at the Court House, Bridgeton. Isaac 
Sharpless was chosen chairman. Dr. Ephraim Bateman and 
J. Edmund Sheppard were made secretaries. The conven- 
tion proceeded immediately to business. Nominations being 
declared in order. Providence Ludlam. of Bridgeton. was 
unanimously chosen as the candidate for State Senator. A 
contest for the county clerkship which Mr. Ludlam w^as 
about to vacate, developed. Theophilus G. Compton and J. 
Edmund Sheppard were proposed. The ballot resulted in 
35 votes for Compton. 14 votes for Sheppard. Mr. Comp- 
ton was declared the unanimous choice of the convention 
amid some excitement on the floor. Dr. B. Rush Bateman. 
of Fairfield, was nominated for Assembly, First District; 
Edward W. Maylin, of ^lillville. for .Assembly. Second 
District. For Coroners: Tames AL Riley. Cohansey: 



insTouic DAVs 

George Woolford, j\]ill\ille : Charles Madden, Maurice 
River. 

Providence Ludlani, then in the prime of life, of fine 
personal appearance, accepted the nomination in a brief 
speech. He was received with applause. Mr. Compton 
also appeared and accepted the nomination for County 
Clerk, as did Dr. F.atcman and Mr. Maylin for Assembly. 

The Democratic County Convention nominated 
Richard Lott, of Bridg'eton, for Senator, and Dr. Joseph 
C. Kirby, of Bridgeton, for County Clerk. The canvass 
was Cjuiet. owing to the great interest in the war, hut there 
was an occasional scrap between "Provie" and the Demo- 
cratic leaders. These debates generally occurred in front 
of the Davis House, and every now and then were finished 
before Edmund's bar where the "jack" went 'round, lend- 
ing a mellow radiance to the asperities of the day. 

The removal of General George B. McClellan from 
the command of the .\rmv of the Potomac occurred No- 
vember lo, a few days after election, but the contemplation 
of this act inade the Democrats a little snappy, for they 
loved "Little Mac" and lnoked upon him as the great 
soldier of the war of whom the Republican administration 
was jealous. Ludlam was always around to take up the 
cudgel when Mr. Lincoln's conduct was attacked, and in 
the verbal encounters with Ephraim Shepfjard and 'Squire 
Hughes which ensued, "Pro\ie" usually came out on tup. 



The ])olls closed with the following result in the 
county: I"or Governor, Marcus L. Ward, Republican, 322 
majority over Jdcl Parker, Democrat; for Congress, John 
F. Starr, Republican, 273 majority over Xathaniel Strat- 
ton. Democrat ; for State Senator, Providence Ludlam, 
Republican, 213 majority over Richard Lott, Democrat; 
for County Clerk, Theophilus Compton, Republican, 299 
majority over Joseph C. Kirby. Democrat; for Assembly 
First District, Dr. B. Rush Bateman, Republican, 180 ma- 
jority over Ezekiel .Mayhew, Democrat; Secnnd District, 




PROMINKNT CITIZENS— I8GI-I8G0 
Hon. Nathaniel Stratton Sherraid Sockwell Artis E. Hughes 

Dr. Joseph C. Kirby Richard Lott 

0J-) 



98 HISTORIC DAYS 

Edward \V. Maylin, Republican, 74 majority over Andrew 
H. McNeil, Democrat. The Republican Coroners were 
elected by about 300 majority. 

The victory was celebrated at the County Clerk's office 
en Commerce street. "Provie" made a good speech, and 
the boys tumbled over each other in the apple barrel and 
made sad havoc with the crackers and cheese. 

This was the campaign in which Richard Lott, the 
Democratic candidate for State Senator, who kept the grist 
mill near the Cumberlajiid Iron Works, got rid of several 
barrels of extra quality of flour famous as "Lett's Best." 
Richard Lott was one of the leading citizens of Bridgeton, 
and one of the best of men. He was a man of genial quali- 
ties and good appearance, but had no knowledge of politics 
and was completely outgeneraled by Ludlam from start 
to finisli. Air. Lott in after years was wont to refer to the 
contest with "Provie" as a campaign in which he seemed to 
be doing well in his own neighborhood, but said he, "When 
we got into Downe township it appeared as though every 
other slump was a Republican." 

In this canvass Nathaniel Strattnu, of ]\IillviIIe. the 
Democratic candidate for Congress, met his first defeat. 
He had been Sheriff of Cumberland County and State Sena- 
tor, filling both positions with credit. "Natty," as his fol- 
lowers delighted to term him, was a man of impressive 
appearance, dignified in bearing, and of genial manners. 
His face smoothly shaven, he was a type of the good citizen 
who fifty years ago was the salt of the earth. The tem- 
perance men made him Sheriff because of his ardent views 
upon that great moral question, to which he adhered 
through a long and useful life, his last honors terminating 
with his career as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 

With the advent of Providence Ludlam to a seat in the 
Senate of New Jersey, a great force was given to the leader- 
ship of the Republican party in the Southern section of 
the State. He rose rapidly, and by the end of his first ses- 
sion was more influential than any member of the State 
Senate previously sent from Cumberland County. 



IN" ciMRicRi-Axn cnrxTV, Ni:\v .n-.usi:Y oo 

Tlie elections of 1862 were not encouraging to tlie 
L'nion cause and the Republican Administration. New 
York had elected Ilnratio Seymour, (ioxernor; Ohio and 
Indiana had gone back to the minority party which, through 
its press and its public speakers, was ridiculing the party 
in power and openly sympathizing with the enemy in the 
field. The Vallandighams of the North were apparently 
in the saddle. To crown the miseries of the situation Gen- 
eral Burnside had fought and lost the battle of Fredericks- 
burg. Not a rift appeared in the pall of darkness which 
seemed to have settled over the country. In this hour of 
national grief and depression, Mr. Lincoln, the devout 
President, leaning upon the Higher Power, issued a procla- 
mation setting apart Thursday, the 30th day of April, 1863, 
as a day of national humiliation, fasting and prayer. How 
humble and yet how tender were the petitions set out in 
that remarkable document. Never before in all history 
had a great ruler so penitently placed himself and the fu- 
ture of his country in the hands of his Lord and Master. It 
rested upon the hearts of his countrymen with a gentle in- 
fluence like imto the soft wind which, blowing upon the 
land from the Pacific Ocean, is known as the "chinook" — a 
breath from God. Said he : 

"And inasmuch as we know that by His divine law 
nations, like individuals, are subjected to punishments and 
chastisements in this world, may we not justly fear that 
the awful calamity of civil war which now desolates the land 
may be but a punishment upon us for our presumptuous 
sins, to the needful end of our national reformation as a 
whole people? W't have been the recipients of the choicest 
bounties of heaven ; we have licen preserved these many 
years in peace and prosperity ; we have grown in numbers, 
wealth and power as no other nation has ever grown. But 
we have forgotten God. We have forgotten the gracious 
hand which preserved us in peace and multiplied and en- 
riched and strengthened us, and we have vainly imagined, 
in the deceitfulness of our hearts that all these blessings 
were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our 



lOO HISTURIC n.ws 

own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become 
too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and 
preserving grace, too proud to pray to the God that 
made us. 

"Tt behooves us, then, to humble ourselves before the 
offended power, to confess our national sins, and pray for 
clemency and forgiveness." 

The nation on its knees before God — such was Mr. 
Lincoln's wish. It was answered from every hearth and 
home in the land. The pulpit was eloquent with fervency — 
the people prayed with tears, and as did Jacob of old, wres- 
tled with the Lord until the break of day. 

It was Peniel over again. Verily, the nation had seen 
God face to face, and its life was preserved. 



Just a little more darkness, then there was to be light. 
General Joe Hooker, successor to Burnside, fought the bat- 
tle of Chancellorsville, May 3 and 4, 1863, and was re- 
pulsed. The Confederates suffered a serious loss, however, 
in the death of Stonewall Jackson, one of their best and 
most skillful leaders. 

The result at Chancellorsville so encouraged General 
Robert E. Lee. the Confederate commander, that he began 
an advance through Maryland into Pennsylvania with the 
object of carrying the war into the North. 

Early in June the Bridgeton companies enlisted in the 
nine months regiments returned home because of expiration 
of their tenu of service. They had bravely fought in the 
two great battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. 
With depleted ranks they received a royal welcome and 
the plaudits of the people. 



July I, 2 and 3 the great decisive battle of Gettysburg, 
Pa., was fought. For three days 160,000 men were en- 
gaged in mortal combat. When the sun went down on the 
evening of the third day 57,000 men lay upon the field, 
killed and wounded, 39 per cent, of the two armies whose 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY lOI 

Utmost Strength had been fully tested in that awful en- 
counter. Six hundred cannon on the Union side alone vol- 
lied and thundered. Caniphell's description of Huhenlinden 
was eclipsed — 

"Then shook the hills with thunder riven. 
Then rushed the steed to battle driven, 
And louder than the bolts of heaven 
Far flashed the red artillery." 

Down the declivity from Seminary Ridge, through the 
open fields, came Pickett's splendid division of brave Con- 
federates. By double platoons, column upon column, as 
nuiTierous as the leaves of the forest. The glistening bay- 
onets of the Confederate host shone brightly in the Summer 
sun. Flags Hying, bands iilaying. bravely forward they 
marched. Xot a sound stirred the air. while the column ad- 
vanced nearer and nearer. Face to face with the Union 
position, tlie solemn stillness was Ijroken l\v the sound of 
battle. Frnni liehind the stone wall rose the Union line, 
and poured a deadly lire into the .gray breasts of the oncom- 
ing foe. Infantry antl cavalry joined in the o;;slauglit 
— musketry and sabre crashed. lunged and parried, while 
"furious every charger neighed to join the dreadful revelry." 

The gallant columns melted away again and again, 
immediately to return the charge, only to at last disappear 
in the debris and carnage of that Satanic field. 

With Schiller— 

X'earer they close — foes upon foes. 

■'Ready" — from square to square it goes. 

Down on the knee they sank. 

.\nd the fire comes shar]) fnini the foremost rank — 

Many a man to the earth it sent. 

Many a gap by the balls is rent — 

O'er the corpse before springs the hinder-man. 

That the line mav not fail to the fearless van. 

Tn the right, to the left, and wherever ye gaze. 

Goes the Dance of Death in its whirling maze 

Cod's sunlight is quenched in the fiery fight. 

Over the hosts falls a broading Xight ! 



HISTORIC DAYS 

'l"\\ ili.<;ht (leei)ened. Tlie rain came iluwii in a pitiless 
sliower upon tlie upturned faces of tlie countless dead and 
their wounded comrades. Darkness fell with the Union 
Araiy resting upon its arms, uncertain as to with whose 
eagles the victory rested, waiting patiently for the coming 
day. 



The morning dawns — it was the glorious Fourth of 
July. Far away in the distance Lee's mutilated regiments 
were disappearing through the mists of the South Moun- 
tains. The Confederate prestige was broken, never to be 
restored — the war for the Union was not a failure. 

"The charge, the dreadful cannonade, 
The din and shout are passed — " 

The wheat field, the peach orchard. Cemetery Hill and 
Round Top are red with the blood of patriots. Precious 
blood! Glorious victory! Historic field — Mecca for the com- 
ing generations. 



On a sunny slope of the great battlefield at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., stands a granite monument in memory of the 
heroic deeds performed there on the 2d and 3d days of July, 
1863, by the Twelfth New Jersey Regiment, Infantry, Vol- 
unteers. This monument, located on the Gettysburg Road, 
now called Round Top Avenue, is of durable stone, twelve 
feet. si.K inches in height. It is in the centre of the position 
of the regiment as occupied on those eventful days. The 
base of the monument is four feet, eight inches square, and 
two feet high. The sub-base is three feet, eight inches 
square and eighteen inches high, and contains this inscrip- 
tion : "Second Brigade, Third Division. Second Corps," on 
three sides. The die is two feet, eight inches square, by four 
feet, ten inches, in height, jiolished on the two faces fronting 
Round Top .'\ venue, inscribed as follows : 

'In memory of the men of the Twelfth Regiment New 
Jersey Infantry, ^'llluntecrs, who fell uiion this field, July 

(10^) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— IS62-1S65 

Officers Twelfth Regiment New Jersey Inf. Vo's. 

Col J Howard Willetts 

Lieut -Col. Richard S Thompson Major William E. Potter 

Lieut -Col Edward M Duliois Capt Frank M Riley 

Regimental Monument at Gettysburg, Pa, 

(U«) 



I04 HISTORIC DAYS 

2d and 3, 1863. and who elsewhere died under the flag, this 
monument is dedicated by their surviving comrades as an 
example to future generations." On the second face: 

"Buck and Ball, 
Calibre .69." 

"This regiment made two separate charges on the Bliss 
Barn, and captured it." 

On the base there is also a picture in bronze of the 
charge upon the Bliss Barn. The capstone is surmounted 
by a pedestal, upon which is a representation of the missiles 
so effectively used by the regiment in repelling the charge of 
the enemy — buck and ball. 

In addition to this beautiful monument, the Twelfth 
New Jersey Regiment also has a marker near the site of the 
Bliss Barn. This marker is a massive piece of granite, ten 
feet, three inches in height : three feet, nine inches wide, 
and two feet thick, extending into the ground five feet, and 
weig'hing about eight tons. On the top of this marker are 
two carved crossed bayonets and corps badge, and "12th N. 
J. Vols." in raised letters. On the front is the following in- 
scription : 

"Erected by the State of New Jersey, 1888. in honor 
of the Twelfth Regiment of Volunteers, a detachment of 
which, in the afternoon of July 2, 1863, charged the Bliss 
house and barn here, capturing the enemy's reserve of seven 
officers and eighty-five men stationed therein." 

On the rear of the tablet is the following: 

"On the morning of July 3d, another detachment of 
the regiment charged, capturing the buildings, one officer 
and one man, and driving back the skimiish reserve. The 
regiment lost in their charges sixty officers and men." 



Thus, in enduring granite, is told the story of the gal- 
lant work of one of the best New Jersey regiments, in the 
most tremendous struggle of the Civil War. It was here 
that it met the Confederate General Pettigrew's onslaui,dit 
in the advance known as Pickett's charge, and stood like 



IN CUMBKKLAND COU.XTV, NEW J liKSEY IO5 

a solid rock— a barrier for the Union. The strength of the 
retjinient, on the 2d day of July, was about four hundred 
men. It was armed with the Spring-field smooth-bore mus- 
ket, calibre .69, a terrible weapon at close range. Lieutenant- 
Colonel William E. Potter, in his address at Gettysburg, 
on the dedication of the monument, May 26th, 1886, said 
that : "The men were young, well disciplined, of respectable 
parentage, in comfortable circumstances, and almost solely 
of native birth. In the entire regiment, as originally mus- 
tered — one thousand strong — there were but seventy-two 
men of foreign nati\ity, and these were, almost without ex- 
ception, faithful soldiers. The men had the confidence of 
their officers, who were, in turn, very generally trusted and 
respected by their men. The usual cartridge of the isprmg- 
field musket carried a large ball and three buckshot, but 
many of the men. while awaiting the enemy's advance, had 
opened their boxes and prepared special cartridges of from 
ten to twenty-five buckshot alone. It was the only regiment 
in the division bearing the arms mentioned, and I doubt 
whether anywhere upon that field a more destructive fire 
was encountered than blazed forth from its front." 



Part of this regiment, composed of such splendid native 
fighting material, was Company K, enlisted at Bridgeton, 
the shire town of Cumberland County, New Jersey. Be- 
hind a stone wall, which in the Gettysburg country sepa- 
rated the farms from the road, which ran a distance of about 
three hundred and fifty yards, serving as a line fence, Gen- 
eral .Smyth's Brigade of the Second Corps lay. with the 
Twelfth New Jersey on the right, the First Delaware to the 
left, the Fourteenth Connecticut next. As Generals Petti- 
grew and Armistead, of Pickett's Division, moved upon 
the Union line with magnificent front. Company K. made 
up of the honest yoemanry of Cumberland County, of whose 
brilliant action on the historic field at Gettysburg history 
has made no mistake, waited upon the ground for the word 
of command to fire. When the order rang out. the boys 
from Cumberland joined with their comrades in withering 



Io6 HISTORIC DAYS 

volleys of buck and ball into the faces of the advancing foe. 
Three times did Pickett's Division advance, only to recede 
with decimated ranks. Column on column of Confederates 
had gone to their death before the deadly fusilade of shot 
and shell from the Union line; the field ran red with blood, 
the dead and dying. lay in row upon row, as far as the eye 
could reach when the lifted smoke gave opportunity to ob- 
serve the dreadful scene. As the assault continued, one gal- 
lant Confederate in the van of the assaulting column placed 
his foot upon the stone wall, bravely carrying the Confeder- 
ate colors. He was a member of General Pettigrew's Divi- 
sion, and a stalwart North Carolinian, and it is the testimony 
of the living remnant of Company K to-day — about thirty in 
number, now, with whom the writer has long had personal 
acquaintance — that to the soldiers of North Carolina, under 
the gallant Pettigrew, belongs the honor and glory of hav- 
ing gone farthest into the Union lines at Gettysburg — a 
credit that has often been denied them by writers whose 
hasty productions have done gross injustice to the brave men 
from the old North State, who in many battles of the Civil 
War brought victory to the Confederate arms on fields which 
might otherwise have lieen lost. The New Jersey soldiers 
who met the soldiers of North Carolina on that bloody 
field, face to face, remember their sterling qualities as 
American soldiers on the wrong side of a great issue ; Init, 
nevertheless. Americans still. 



The afternoon of July 2d, 1863, at Gettysburg, brought 
still greater honors to the Twelfth Regiment. The five 
centre comjjanies were ordered to charge the Bliss barr., 
wliich stood in the open field, some distance from the stone 
wall. The barn was occupied by Confederate sharpshoot- 
ers, who were picking off the Union soldiers wherever a 
head appeared. In this charge. Captain Frank M. Riley, 
of P.ridgelon, then in command of Company F, took an im- 
portant part, braxely leading his men to the attack. The 
assault was successful, the barn captured, and a large 
number nf prisoners taken. The companies were soon 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY IO7 

obliged to abandon the barn, and fall back witli their prison- 
ers to the stone wall again, owing to a heavy Confederate 
fire. On the morning of July 3d, a second charge of the re- 
maining five companies of the regiment was ordered. This 
charge was gallantly led by Captain Richard S. Thompson, 
of Company K, Bridgeton. The barn was again captured, 
and a few more prisoners taken. The Confederates rallied 
and began to surround the barn, when the companies fell 
back to the stone wall. W'iien the order to retire rang out. 
Sergeant Aaron Terry, of Company K, a native of Downe 
Township, Cumberland County, a noble fellow, and Private 
John J. Boone, of Company A, were engaged in firing from' 
the main floor above the basement, in which they had got 
comfortably fixed. They immediately returned to the base- 
ment of the barn to rejoin their comrades, when they found 
themselves alone. Their fellow-soldiers were nearly back 
to their old position on the Emmettsburg Road. A line of 
Confederates perhaps seventy-five yards long could be seen 
behind a fence on each side of the field through which 
Terry and Boone must pass to reach safety in the Union 
lines. A glance disclosed the fact that they must run for 
their lives or submit to capture. .Accordingly, they started 
for the Union position on a double-quick. The attention 
of the Confederates being on the main body of Federals 
which had just escaped them, they did not discover the two 
Jerseymen until they were about two-thirds of the way 
through their lines. Then suddenly came the challenge, 
sharp and short: "Halt, you Yankees!" But the command 
was not obeyed. It only added flcetness to the sprinters. 
Bullets flew like hail 'roimd and about the runners, whist- 
ling about their ears, striking the ground in every direction, 
but neither Terry nor Boone were hit. Fortune had favored 
them, and they arrived safely at the position occupied by 
their comrades at the stone wall, very happy over their 
close escape from death. That night, however. Sergeant 
Terry was captured on the picket line, and his heroic soul 
departed tliis life of disease and starvation at the Confeder- 
ate prison. Andersonville, Georgia. The casualties in Com- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

]);my K during tlie two sanguinary days at Gettysburg 
were : Killed — Simon W. Creamer, Henry S. Sockwell ; 
wounded — Daniel H. Carman (who afterwards died at Field 
Hospital). William H. Dickson, Charles H. Simpkins, 
Bloomfield Spencer, Samuel Tomlinson; missing — Aaron 
Terry, Thomas C. Galloway, Theophilus Sutton. 

Many were the gallant deeds performed by members 
of Company K at Gettysburg, and many were the hair- 
breadth escapes from instant death. Each member took meri- 
tin-ious part in that fiercest contest of the war. and to each 
and all belongs the meed of praise for patriotic service well 
dune — a record of which the County of Cumberland will be 
ver}- [irnud throughout the generations which are tci come. 



Late telegrams brought to the good people of the town 
of Bridgeton great news in the early afternoon and even- 
ing of July 4th, 1H63. The telegrams posted in front of 
the Post Office said that the rebel General Pemberton had 
surrendered the fortress at Vick.sburg, Mississippi, to Gen- 
eral Grant, with 32,000 prisoners and 200 cannon, and that 
General Robert E. Lee, with the Confederate Ariny of 
Northern Virginia, bad been disastrously defeated in a three 
da_\-s' fight at Gettysburg, Pa., and was on the retreat. 
General George G. Meade, with the Army of the Potomac, 
having killed, wounded and taken prisoners 35.000 of the 
Confederates. 

The first telegram read as follows: 

"War Di:i'artment. 
Washington, July 4, 1863, 10 A. M. 
The President announces to the country that news from 
the .Army of the Potomac, up to 10 o'clock P. M. of the 3d, 
is such as to cover that army with the highest honor, to 
promise a great success in the cause of the Union, and to 
claim tlie condolence of all for the many gallant fallen; and 
that for this he specially desires that on this day He whose 
will, not ours, should ever be done, be everywhere remem- 
bered and c\er rc\crcnced with profoundcst gratitude. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN." 

(108) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— I«i;j-l«i'.^ 
Group Company K. Twelfth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 
Thomas S. Green Thomas H. Conover 

Serg. Charles S. Padgett 
George Laws George McHenry Samuel H. Tomlinson 



(109) 



no HISTORIC DAYS 

No so.oner had the news arrived than the beU on Gross- 
cup's Hall began to ring vigorously. The melodious bells 
on the First Presbyterian Church Session House, the Second 
Presbyterian Church, the West Jersey Academy, joined in 
the tumult, and far and near rang out peals of victory. Ihe 
old six-pounder, which had done good service in celebra- 
tions of by-gone years, was brought out and fired a salute 
on the banks of the Cohansey. The fire engines "Alinerva" 
and "Bridgeton." old-time hand vehicles, appeared from the 
hose house on the Cumberland Nail and Iron Works 
grounds, near Lott's Mill, and, with a long line of men and 
boys attached to the ropes, ran through Commerce Street 
with a clatter of fire bells and a rattle of cheers which 
set the town wild. The local brass band came out, 
and added to the hurrah by discoursing patriotic mu- 
sic. The old-time drum corps, Lot Loper, Jerry 
^laul, Jerry Rora_\-. with the fife ; and Lev. Bond, Eddie 
Crozier, Crockett Loper, and every man of the town 
who could handle drum sticks, came down Laurel Hill 
with a "Yankee Doodle" and "Hail Columbia" that made 
other forms of music pale into insignificance. Whistles and 
horns screamed and tooted. Bands of citizens sang upon the 
streets all the patriotic airs of the war time, chief among 
which was the familiar "Rally 'Round the Flag, Boys, 
Rally Once Again, Shouting the Battle Cry of Freedom !" 
Thousands of men, women and children, paraded the streets 
until the small hours. Stirring speeches were made from 
dry goods boxes at the corner of Commerce and Laurel 
streets by excited patriots. In front of the old Davis House 
the sidewalk was impassable. From the great crowds, aug- 
mented every moment by large numbers of farmers from 
the adjacent townships, who, having heard rumors of the 
good news, hastened by horseback and every form of vehicle 
to join in the festivities at the county seat, cheer upon cheer 
went up to the heavens. At Edmund's bar the health of 
Generals Grant and Meade was repeatedly drunk I'mm brim- 
ming glasses, and the bravery of the soldiers in the field 
lauded in excited huzzahs. Flags and red fire decorated and 



IX L I'M IMCKI-A.M) COINTV. NKW .1 KRSF.Y III 

illuminated the residences on every hand. He who did not 
produce tiie Stars and Stripes was looked upon as a traitor. 
Glorious night ! Happy people ! 



Ne.xt day the Philadelphia papers arrived, with start- 
ling headlines and graphic accounts of the great victories 
secured on the anniversary of the American Fourth of July, 
Gettysburg and X'icksburg, both on the same day. The par- 
ticulars of the Vicksburg surrender, however, seemed to 
cheer the nation even more than that at Gettysburg. One 
of the papers — tlie Phila. Inquirer, which was the journal 
tliat had a wide circulation in Eridgeton — gave pen-picture 
sketches of the scenes attending the surrender of the rebels. 
Among other things, it said that before noon of the preced- 
ing day Grant and Sherman's armies, about 70,000 strong, 
filed into the streets of tlie city and hoisted the Stars and 
Stripes over the Court House. The soldiers made the wel- 
kin ring with shouts and cheers, singing the battle cry of 
freedom. One of the Wisconsin regiments, the Eighth, 
famous for its fighting (lualities, carried with it an eagle 
wliicli had been with the regiment in the thickest of the fight, 
in many battles. The war-eagle was known as "01d-.\be." 
Seated on the staff-head of the old flag, borne by the color 
guard, in advance of Grant's columns, into the captured 
city, "Old Abe" flapped his wings and screamed his joy to 
the great delight of the marching soldiers. 



July 15th, in the midst of the national rejoicing, the 
great President, whose faith always rested in God, again 
appealed to the nation, setting apart Thursday, the 6th day 
of August, 1863, as a day for national thanksgiving, praise 
and prayer "to the Divine IMajesty, for the wonderful things 
He has done in the nation's behalf, and invoke the influence 
of His Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has produced 
and so long sustained a needless and cruel rebellion, to 
change the hearts of the insurgents, to guide the counsels 
of the Government with wisdom adequate to so great a 



HISTORIC DAYS 

national emergency, and to visit with tender care and con- 
solation, throughout the length and breadth of our land, all 
those who, through the vicissitudes of marches, voyages, 
battles and sieges, have been brought to suffer, in mind, 
body or estate, and finally to lead the whole nation through 
the paths of repentance and submission to the divine will 
back to the perfect enjoyment of union and fraternal peace." 
The puissant arm of the nation had won great victories 
on land and sea: the eagles of the army shone with the re- 
fulgence of the triumphs achieved on the soil of Pennsyl- 
vania, red with the blood of heroes; by the banks of the 
Mississippi, and on the waters of the rivers which ran to 
the sea. Peans of earthly victories filled the air. Then, with 
meekness and humility, Abraham Lincoln, colossal figure, 
called the nation from festivity to duty. He pointed them to 
God — that God without whose help nations must fall, with 
whose favor nations stand, prosperous, victorious. 



The Democratic majority in the New Jersey Legis- 
lature, during the month of January, 1863, at a time when 
the national horizon was depressed and disturbed because of 
the failure of the Union commanders to bring the Confed- 
erate armies to defeat, set on foot a scheme which they im- 
agined would secure peace between the sections. Accord- 
ingly, the Senator from Hudson County, Mr. Randolph, 
introduced a document for the consideration of the State 
Senate, afterward known as the "Peace Resolutions." The 
substance of this treasonable proposition was: "That the 
Legislature should appoint a Commission to go to Richmond 
to see upon what terms the rebels will make peace, and ask- 
ing President Lincoln to furnish them safeguards for the 
journey." 

Mr. Scudder. Chairman of the Committee on Federal 
Relations, reported the resolutions favorably. 

Mr. Ludlam, Senator from Cumberland County, of- 
fered a substitute, the third section of which read as fol- 
lows: 

(n2) 




PROMINENT CITIZENS— INIil-lHli:. 
George B. Cooper Hon. Charles C. Grosscup 

Hon. C. Henry Sheppard 
Thomas Corson Joseph H. C. Appelgate 

1 IKii 



114 HISTORIC DAYS 

"Be it Resolved, That we are opposed to all proposi- 
tions for peace as a cessation of hostilities or to compromise, 
unless the rebels lay down their arms, and acknowledge the 
rightful gfovernment of the United States, and return to an 
obedience of the laws, on a common level with all the States 
under the Constitution as our forefathers made it. 

"That we extend to our brave Jerseymen who have left 
their homes to battle for the Go\'ernment, all praise and 
honor for the noble manner in which they have upheld the 
old flag, and promise that by no act of ours shall the blush 
of shame be made to mantle their cheeks." 



In tlie House of Assembly, Dr. Benjamin Rusli Bate- 
man, of Cumberland, offered a resolution bearing upon the 
peace propositions and the objections which the Democrats 
were then making to the use of colored men as volunteers 
in the army and navy, to wit. : 

"That, as General Washington did never disdain the 
services of persons of color in the War of the Revolution, 
and as Andrew Jackson, at the defence of New Orleans, like- 
wise invited them to his standard, and after the battle had 
been won did issue to them a splendid address, in which he 
thanked them for their efficient services, therefore, the Presi- 
dent has done well to fdllnw the precedent established by 
the Father of his Country, and by the idol of the Democracy, 
in summoning to the help of the Union all who love their 
country." 

Mr. Ludlam's substitute was rejected by the Senate, as 
was Dr. Bateman's resolutions in the House, by strict party 
votes, the Democrats having majorities in both Houses. 



Wednesday, the 25th day of February, 1S63, the reso- 
lutions were discussed by Mr. Randolph, Senator from Hud- 
son ; Mr. Chandler, Senator from Morris; Mr. Buckley, Sen- 
ator from I'assaic: Mr. Ludlam. Senator from Cumberland. 

In his remarks, among other excellent things. Senator 
Ludlam said : 



IN' CUMliKKr.AND COfXTV, NKW J KRSKY 11, 

"For nineteen months after tlieir attack on Fort Sumter 
we protected their slaves and other property. I am person- 
ally acquainted with volunteers from my own county, who 
went at the first call for three years' men, who stood in the 
winter of 1862 shoe-top deep in mud night after night, pro- 
tecting rebel property, and to keep their slaves from running 
into our lines : and all the thanks they got for it was to be 
insulted in tlie morning as a return, or by information sent 
by these scoumlrels to the rebel pickets of their whereabouts, 
then to be shot like dogs as they stood at their posts; and 
this, as I said before, for nineteen months, through summer's 
lieat and winter's cold, through hunger and thirst, sickness, 
and the death of many a noble heart. * * * * 

"The object of the war is the maintenance of the Gov- 
ernment, the object of these resolutions is the restoration of 
a party to power and to efifect that object, it exposes the 
Government to destruction, and declares that they prefer the 
supremacy of a party to the supremacy of the Government. 

"I expect to stand by the Government, let who will ad- 
minister it, until this war is over, and all such resolutions as 
these are illtimed and out of place. Our business now as 
loyal citizens is the putting down armed rebellion, and giv- 
ing the Government all the support in our power — not to as- 
sist our enemies in striking it down by showing up every 
aspect and gloating over every mishap or mistake in judg- 
ment which the Government or the commanders of our 
armies may make. That is not the way we want a true and 
trustful friend to act towards us and it is not the way he 
would act. if he was a true friend, and had our welfare at 
lie;irt. 1 cannot vote for these resolutions offered by the 
(Democratic") majority of the committee; and I hope, for 
tlie credit of the State of Xew Jcrscv and her 30.000 .sons 
who are now on the liattllield, that no Senator will vote for 
them." 

Brave Senator Ludlam ! Words fitly spoken at a proper 
time, yet of no avail! The resolutions passed, all the Demo- 
crats votinsf for them. 



I l6 IIISTIJUIC DAYS 

When the news of the passage of the traitorous Peace 
Resolutions reached the Army of the Potomac, the soldiers 
of Xew Jersey were indignant. The Twenty-fourth New 
Jersey Regiment, encamped not tar from the recent battle 
field of Fredericksburg, prepared a protest. At a meeting 
held Thursday, April 2d, the regiment, without arms, was 
formed in h<illii\\ s(|uare fin the plaza in front of the 
Colonel's mar(|ue. After an appropriate pra}er ])y the good 
chaplain, ^\'illiam Stockton, the meeting organized by call- 
ing Colonel William B. Robertson to the chair. Surgeon 
Dr. William L. Newell was made secretary. On motion, the 
following officers were named a committee to draft a set 
of resolutions expressing the sense of the meeting: Captain 
Augustus Sailer, Surgeon William L. Newell, Lieutenant 
Robert B. Potter, Lieutenant James J, Reeves, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Frank L. Knight. This committee reported a series 
of patriotic and denunciatory resolutions of the action of the 
New Jersey Legislature. 

Surgeon Newell, Lieutenants Wilkins, Reeves. Potter 
and Bartine, of the Twenty-fourth Regiment, addressed the 
meeting in favor of the adoption of the resolutions. Captain 
Richard S. Thompson, of Company K. Twelfth New Jersey 
Regiment, and Lieutenant William E. Potter, of the same 
company and regiment, then Ordnance Officer on the staff 
of General French, also spoke. Colonel Robertson ad- 
dressed the meeting in an excellent speech. Chaplain Stock- 
ton in his remarks touched the hearts of all present by an elo- 
quent allusion to "the old Independence Bell" in Philadel- 
phia, sending its voice as to these resolutions, to all the 
land and the inhabitants thereof. 

The speeches were patriotic and eloquent expressions 
from the hearts of the loyal Jerseymen who wore the blue. 



Doctor William L. Newell, surgeon of the regiment, of 
Miliviile. Cumberland County, a man of distinguished per- 
sonal appearance. Democratic by birth and training, deliv- 
ered one of the most impressive speeches made on that mem- 
orable day. Standing on the soil of Virginia, made sacred 



IN CUMIilCRLANO COUNTY, NEW .IKRSKV 11/ 

hy tilt" bl(i()(l of Lieutenant Robeson ami thousands of his 
comrades, who iiad come to early graves because of armed 
treason now confronting them, with uncovered head, in the 
presence of this splendid regiment, with the starry heavens 
as a canopy, the Doctor said : 

"It is an old story, and a true one, and 1 here re{)€at 
it, that this is the best Government on God's earth; and, as 
such, who is not proud of such a structure? But her flag 
has been assailed, and we are here to avenge her honor. 
This country is writhing in civil war, a condition greatly to 
be dejilnred. But what is it to be, the inheritance of a free 
and independent nation we are, or are not to leave our chil- 
dren? If we are to lie a free, united and happy people, there 
is but one single, plain and comprehensive course to pursue, 
and that is to stand by the Government in her offorts to 
overthrow the most gigantic rebellion the world ever knew. 
There is one effectual way to support the Government, and 
I heartily recommend it to the misguided State from whence 
we come. There is a doctrine, or maxim, rather, to which 
the lamented Douglass gave force, that 'who is not for the 
Government is against us.' and I now declare that such men 
as are against us in this struggle have no business in our 
midst, and were I a member of a legalized body, I would 
vote for a law which would send every Southern sympathizer 
inside the Southern lines, and appropriate their property for 
Government use." 

This, the substance of the Doctor's speech, was received 
with great applause. 



The youthful Lieutenant William E. Potter (to be 
known later on as Colonel), with serious countenance and 
impressive gestures, then addressed the regiment, a few brief 
sentences of which are here appended : 

"You wish, fellow-soldiers, if I understand the object 
of this meeting, to stigmatize as traitors those men at home 
who, while pretending to represent the sentiments of the 
people, are endeavoring to commit our State to some act of 
sympathy towards the rebellion which is striving to over- 



Il8 IIISTOKIC DAYS 

throw the republic. And, standing where you do to-day, 
bv your voices and your votes, you proclaim, as with tones 
of a clarion, unto the people of New Jersey that it is to you 
a matter of regret and shame that, while you are enduring 
the perils and sufferings of war, and while, alas! the ac- 
cursed soil of Virginia is even now dotted with the nameless 
graves of Jerseymen who have already fallen in defence of 
our national life, that these traitors at home should be striv- 
ing to outstrip each other in their haste to throw themselves 
at the feet of the slave power, and to kiss the hands which 
are stained with the blood of their brethren." 

Enthusiastic was the applause at the conclusion of Lieu- 
tenant Potter's eloquent periods. 



Lieutenant James J. Reeves was loudly applauded in 
the sentiment expressed in the following paragraph : 

"I cannot let the occasion pass without saying a word 
in favor of the resolutions. I think they will accomplish a 
two-fold purpose in awakening a stronger sentiment of 
loyalty among the friends of the Government at home, and 
of striking terror to the hearts of the secret enemies who, 
from partisan motives, are doing all that lies in their power 
to embarrass and resist its efforts to suppress the rebellion 
and restore the Union. The lips could not give utterance to 
language too strong in denunciation of these contemptible 
'Peace Resolutions' of our notorious Legislature. Though 
they purported to be the voice and view of the people, they 
were but the exponents of the sentiments of men in open 
sympathy with traitors, and it is our duty as Jerseymen and 
Jersey soldiers openly to rebuke such a spirit of disloyalty." 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted by a chorus 
of ayes, and amid the cheers of the entire regiment. 



April 25th, 1863, the attached item appeared in the col- 
umns of the Bridgeton Chronicle: 

"Charge of Kimball's Brigade at the Battle of Fred- 
ericksburg," is the title <if a handsome lithograph from a 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NI£\V JERSliY I IQ 

sketch by John G. Keyser, of the Twenty-fourth New Jer- 
sey Regiment, wliich took such an active part in the en- 
gagement. This regiment being composed principally of 
men from this section of the State will give additional in- 
terest to the handsomely gotten up scene. Mr. G. W. John- 
son, at the Bridgeton Post Office, and Mr. Jacob Kienzle 
have copies of it for sale." 

Artist John G. Keyser was a private in the Twenty- 
fourth New Jersey Regiment, and made several sketches of 
camp and battle scenes during his term of service. Born in 
Germany, he was a typical son of the Rhine country, loving 
his pipe and glass of Bock. Two of his sketches have be- 
come historical. One, a painting of the "Departure of the 
Cumlicrland Greys on the Steamer I'atuxent," the other 
known as "Campaign Sketches of the Twenty-fourth Regi- 
ment, New Jersey Volunteers, 1862." Keyser was a brave 
comrade and a good fellow. After fifty years of residence in 
the United States, he returned to Germany, at the request of 
a sister, and resided with her until his death. He deceased 
at an advanced age. and, until within a few montiis of his 
end, wrote to friends in Bridgeton, among whom was the 
writer. His last letter breathed a prayer for America, which 
he said he loved above all other lands, and he longed to re- 
turn to it previous to death. His wish was not gratified, but 
on the margin of the letter he said : "Isaac, my friend, here 
is to the Star Spangled Banner; long may it wave," a pa- 
thetic, patriotic farewell. 



The Union men of the North began to organize them- 
selves into societies for the promotion of the cause which 
tliey had so much at heart. In all the large cities the move- 
ment had made rapid progress. New York and Philadel- 
phia organized Union Leagues, which survive to this day. 
They did, and are still doing, a great work for the nation 
whenever in moments of depression and peril the national 
life and honor are assailed. 

The Union League was a secret organization, which the 
Democrats denounced as contrary to the spirit of our insti- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

tutions, and the public speakers of that party made the 
League the object of very bitter attacks, as did also the 
Democratic press. 

Tiie initiatory ceremunies of tiie Union League were de- 
void of rituahsni, modest in form, and of a beautiful, patri- 
otic character. Candidates were conducted to the altar, upon 
which was dra]>ed the folds (A the American Hag, antl, with 
the crimson incense of red fire surrounding them, allegiance 
to the Government was sworn in a simple oath dedicatory of 
the life, honor and means of the candidate to the great work 
of saving and preserving the Union — just such an obliga- 
tion as the Revolutionary Fathers took when they attached 
their signatures to the Declaration of Independence. 

Saturday evening, March 2ist, 1863, a meeting of 
Union men was held in Grosscup's Hall, Bridgeton, and the 
first League organized in Cumberland County. Adrian Bate- 
man called the assemblage to order. Hon. John T. Nixon 
was made President ; Charles E. Elmer, Adrian Bate- 
man, Vice Presidents; John S. Mitchell, Secretary. David 
McBride, Stephen G. Porch, Charles E. Elmer, Alphonso 
Woodruff, Adrain Bateman were appointed by the chair a 
committee to draft a constitution for the League. 

The Committee reported a constitution setting forth 
the objects of the League, providing for the manner of or- 
ganization, etc. Second section of the constitution read: 
"The primary object of this League is, and shall be, to bind 
together all loyal men, of all trades and professions, in a 
common union, to maintain the power, glory and integrity 
of the nation, and to discountenance and relmke 1)\' moral and 
social influences all disloyalty." 

Two hundred persons signed the roll of membership 
at this meeting. Hon. John T. Nixon and Paul T. 
Jones spoke eloquently on the merits and purposes of the or- 
ganization, but the speech of the evening was made by Chas. 
E. Elmer. Then in the prime of life, Mr. Elmer was a com- 
manding figure, and few pos.sessed the attractive personality 
and gifts which nature had given him. In the presence of 
the best element of the town, men in every department of 





/ - 




■>-• . 




t^ < 




A^ 


^ 


w 


m 



PROMINENT CITIZENS— lJ5ti:-16i.'> 
Charles S. Fithian Clement J. Lee 

Horatio J. Mulford James M. Riley 

Dayton B. Whitaker Stephen G. Porch 

(I'-'l) 



William Dare 
Dr. Joseph Moore 
Isaac B. Mulford 



122 HISTORIC DAYS 

iTfe, who had come together because of love of their country, 
he exhibited traits of character which stamped his loyalty 
on the hearts of all present. With flashing eye and erect 
carriage, he drove conviction home with stalwart blows for 
the flag and the Union. Said he : "I advocate the formation 
of Union Leagues everywhere, and by this means strength- 
ening the Government by every method within our power, 
thereby making clear and distinct the line between the loyal 
and the disloyal, so that the sheep may be distinguished from 
the goats. Let those who are sincere in their devotion to 
the disunion and destruction cause take their guns and go 
South — let us have an end to this mock devotion, both 
among the loyal and disloyal, and when we have rid our- 
selves, or have been rid, of the enervating influence of the 
disloyal and semi-loyal, and the true and patriotic see and 
understand that they must depend alone upon their own 
strong arms and brave hearts, then there will be a blow 
struck to treason and the foes of democratic institutions 
that will hurl from power the traitors who have first de- 
luded, and then trampled upon, the rights and liberties of the 
Southern people. The perjured traitors now wielding such 
unlimited sway over the South have elevated themselves 
to place and dominion upon the suffering, tears, human sac- 
rifices and miseries of their downtrodden subjects. Let us 
all unite, all who feel that they have a Government to love 
and admire — all who feel that the institutions of their fathers 
are worth preserving, and then with unbroken front and 
'serried shields in thick array,' devote ourselves by words 
and acts to the work that is given us of God to perform — 
to the overthrowing and destroying this monstrous and 
wicked rebellion." 

The Union League of Bridgeton continued in existence 
long after the close of the Civil War, and rendered valuable 
sen'ice to the Union cause and Mr. Lincoln's administra- 
tion. 



The Chronicle, in its issue of April 25th, 1863, had this 
to say of the beautiful silk flag presented to the "Cum- 



IX CU.MBERI.AND COUXTY, XKW .1 KKSEY I23 

berland Greys"' the day of their departure, in 1861, by tlie 
ladies of Bridgeton : 

"W'c have been asked wliat has become of the flag 
presented to tlie 'Cumberland Greys,' (Company F, Third 
New Jersey Regiment, Volunteers). We would here state, 
for the benefit of all who may feel an interest in the matter, 
that it has been deposited in the County Clerk's Office of this 
county, according to the following request : 

'Camp, Near Fredericksburg, December 22, 1862. 

Please deliver to Robert DuBois, Esq., the "Cumber- 
land Greys" colors, to be deposited in the Clerk's Office. 

JAMES W. H. STICKNEY, 
Major, late Captain, Co. P., 3c/ A''. /. Vols. 

SAMUEL T. Dubois, 

Captain Co. C, late 1st Lieutenant Co. F, ^d N. J. Vols. 

CHARLES F. SALKELD, 
Captain Co. F, 2>d N. J. Vols. 

MICHAEL H. SWING. BOWALVN il. BUCK, DANIEL 
B. GINENBACK, CLARENCE MULFORD, 

Sergeants Co. F., yl N. J. Vols.' " 

Robert DuBois, together with his brother Jeremiah, 
were paying visits to the army every now and then, convey- 
ing clothing and delicacies to the soldiers from Cumberland. 
They were good Samaritans engaged in a work which will 
long redound to the credit of themselves and their posterity. 
Robert brought the flag to Bridgeton, and carried out the 
instructions as per the request. 

The "Cumberland Greys" did not carry this flag in 
battle, because by the United States Anny Regulations they 
were enrolled under their own regimental colors, now en- 
closed in one of the glass cases in the corridors of the State 
House, riddled with bullet holes, torn and tattered by the 
battle and the breeze. 



HISTORIC DAYS 



The appended notice appeared in the Bridgeton papers 
the last week in June : 

"To the Returned Volunteers of the County of Cum- 
berland. 

"Reception and Dinner at the Elmer Grove, near the 
West Jersey Academy, July g, 1863, at 2 o'clock. This in- 
vitation includes not only the officers and privates of the 
nine months' volunteers, but all soldiers now in the county 
belonging to the three years' regiments who have been hon- 
orably discharged from the service. 

"By order of Ladies' Aid Society of Bridgeton." 

The day of the reception, July 9th, dawned bright and 
beautiful. The streets were alive with people. Rain the 
previous day had laid the dust nicely, and the ground was 
in fine marching order. The returned volunteers formed in 
front of the Davis House on Commerce Street, and, under 
command of Major Joel A. Fithian, of the Twenty-Fourth 
Regiment, marched to the grove in perfect order and disci- 
pline, wliich marked them as well-drilled soldiers and elicited 
the applause of the people. At the Elmer Grove the ladies 
had spread a magnificent repast under the large tent of the 
Cumberland County Agricultural Society. The table 
abounded with roast beef, chicken potpie, baked pig, vege- 
tables of every kind, fruit, cake, pie, cream, and all the deli- 
cacies of the season. The boys made merry 'round the 
festive board, and in the intervals between eat and drink 
fought the battles of the past over again, without fear of bul- 
let or shell. 

Hon. John T. .Vixon addressed the veterans on behalf 
of the ladies, and eulogize(l the eminent scr\'ices they 
had rendered the country in the campaigns in Virginia. 
Franklin F. Westcott, a rising young attorney, of Bridge- 
ton, was also present, and in a rousing speech stirred the 
hearts of the returned soldiers to cheers. Lieutenant James 
J. Reeves replied for the companies of the Twenty-Fourth 
Regiment and the boys in blue generally, thanking the 
ladies and citizens for the splendid reception. The festivi- 
ties closed with cheers for the ladies and the singing of the 
■'Star .Spangled Banner" and other patriotic airs. 



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BmLmk 


^ 




PROMINENT CITIZENS-l'-r.l-lSio 
Hon. Uriah D. Woodruff Daniel Bacon 

Hon. James H. Trenchard 
Hon. Morton Mills Theophilus G. Compton 



126 HISTORIC DAYS 

On the 28tli day of June, 1863, the first colored volun- 
teers arri\-ed in Bridgeton from the Townships of Hopewell 
and Greenwich. They numbered 29 stout, healthy young 
men, and among the number was Robert Gould, who did 
good service in Company I, Third Regiment U. S. Colored 
Troops. Accompanying him were Alexander Manley, John 
W. Miller, Perry Sawyer, John Sewell, John Coursey, Jos- 
eph R. Walker and others. They were taken to Philadel- 
phia and enrolled there after their names had been registered 
in the County Clerk's office. The regiment to which they 
were attached took part in the engagements at Fort Wagner, 
in the siege of Charleston, South Carolina, August 26th, 
1863; Bryant's Plantation, Fla., October 21st, 1864; Marion 
County. Fla., ^larch loth, 1865: Jacksonville, Fla., April 
4th. 1865. A large number of colored men from Cumljer- 
land County enlisti-d in United States regiments later on in 
the war. 

At this time prejudice against the colored man both 
as a soldier and citizen, was very bitter ; but the men for 
whom "John Brown's body lay mouldering in the grave" 
went marching on, standing shoulder to shoukrer, with 
their white brothers, leaving their bodies and blood on the 
field where death held high carnival amid the clash of 
armies and the fearful onslaught of embittered foes. 

Honor to the black man for bis brave work and gallant 
conduct in the service of the nation under whose flag for 
more than a century he had toiled by command of the lash 
of his Southern master, beaten and bruised until Abraham, 
the gentle, liberty-loving Fxecutive came. Then, sorrow 
ceased — the humble cabin echoed with songs of jubilee and 
the light of freedom streamed through the crevice in the 
thatch, beneath which the humble prayer of the berea\-ed 
slave had so often gone up to God. 

New York City, having failed to secure the quota of 
volunteers which the Government required at her hands, 
the draft was resorted to. When the Provost-Marshal at- 
tempted to put the draft in force rioting began in the city 
streets and .several men were killed. Only through the 
presence of troops was the mob at last quelled into sub- 



IN' CUMr.ERLANI) COUNTV, NEW JF.RSF.V 12/ 

niission. What a contrast in the conduct of certain citizens 
of Xew York as compared with the vohinteer service of the 
patriotic colored men North and Soutii offered the Govern- 
ment so quickly, so generously. 



Xews came from the front at several periods during 
the summer of 1863, to the effect that William E. Potter, 
(Bridgeton) of Company K, 12th New Jersey, had been 
promoted to a First Lieutenancy, and made Judge Advo- 
cate of the 3d Division, Second Army Corps, Army of the 
Potomac, aid to Division General in action ; that Lieutenant 
Daniel Dare, (Bridgeton,) Company K, had been trans- 
ferred to and made Captain of Company E, 12th New Jer- 
sey; that First Lieutenant Josiah Shaw, Millville, had been 
honored with the captaincy of Company C, 4th New Jer- 
sey, (and just here we note that at the close of hostilities 
Major Shaw, which latter honor he attained for gallant 
service in the field, was appointed to an important position 
in the Bureau of Pensions, Washington, D. C, where for 
forty years he rendered valuable service to the Government, 
in the adjustment of thousands of pension cases whicli 
came under his supervision in that great department) ; that 
Sergeant-Major Edward J\L DuBois, of Bridgeton, had 
been advanced to First Lieutenant, then captain of Com- 
pany C, 1 2th New Jersey, concerning which gentleman the 
Chronicle of August 15th, 1863. said: "Our townsman, 
Sergeant-Major Edward M. DuBois, of the 12th Regiment, 
New Jersey Volunteers, has been promoted to Lieutenant 
and still later to a captaincy in Company C, of the same 
regiment. The appointment is well deserved and popular. 
Mr. DuBois was commended for gallantry in tlie battles of 
Chanccllorsville and Gettysburg, and we are glad to know 
that this braverv has been suitablv rewarded." 



The Republican County Convention met at the Court 
House, in Bridgeton, Monday. October 12, 1863, at 2 
o'clock in the afternoon. Senator Providence Ludlam wras 



HISTORIC DAYS 

elected chairman, and George B. Cooper, of Alillville, sec- 
retary. 

The following persons were preseiited as candidates 
for the Sheriffalty nomination: Lucius Moore, of Deer- 
field: Ebenezer Hall and Charles L. Watson, of Green- 
wich. Eden Hood and Daniel B. Ginenback were ap- 
pointed tellers. 

Charles L. Watson was nominated for the office of 
Sheriff on the second ballot, and his nomination was im- 
mediately made unanimous. 

Hon. B. Rush Bateman. of Fairfield, was renominated 
for As.sembly, First District; Hon. Edward W. Maylin, of 
Millville. for Assembly, Second District. 

James M. Riley, of Cohansey ; Charles P. ^Madden, of 
Maurice River; Alfred Holmes, of Hopewell, were nomi- 
nated for Coroners. 

During the absence of the Committee on Resolutions 
Hon. John T. Nixon addressed the convention in a patriotic 
speech. 

Resolutions were adopted as follows : 

"Resohed, That we pledge ourselves anew to an un- 
wavering and unconditional support of the National Gov- 
ernment, in its efforts to suppress the wicked rebellion 
against its autlu)rity. 

"Resolved. That we return our hearty thanks to the 
soldiers and sailors of the Union for their services : we con- 
gratulate them on their successes; rejoice with them in their 
victories, and promise tliem our sympathy, encouragement 
and support in their heroic hardships and sufferings. 

"Resolved, That we are for the prosecution of the war 
until the power and authority of the Government are estab- 
lished : and. to this end, we greet as brothers the loyal men 
of all parties who join heart and hand with us in this cause ; 
and we recognize as political enemies all who make this 
paramount issue subordinate to personal interests or par- 
tisan dogmas. 

"Resolved. That we will sustain the Government in 
the exercise of all measures which thev mav deem wise 



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Richard Laning 
Joel Fithian 
Daniel Sharp 



PROMINENT CITIZENS— 18fil-1865 
Lucius Moore 
Ethan Lore 
Albert R. Jones 



Robert 1 Fithian 
Robert Jordan 
John L. Sharp 



I30 



HISTORIC DAYS 



and necessary for the overthrow of the rebelHon, the sup- 
pression of the conspiracy, and the extermination or com- 
plete submission of the conspirators, whether it be by the 
overthrow of tiieir armies, the issuing of proclamations 
of freedom, the arrest of sympathizers, aiders and abettors 
of treason, tiie use of Greek tire or the hanging of traitors." 
j\lr. Watson, in accepting the nomination for Sheriff, 
after his introduction to the conxention tiianked the dele- 
gates for the honor, and "declared his purpose to so act, if 
elected, that none should ever feel that tlieir confidence in 
him had been misplaced." 



The Democratic County Convention met about a week 
later. Richard Langley, of Millville, was named for 
Sheriff. L. \\'. Probasco, of Hopewell, was nominated for 
Assembly, First District ; Charles Laning, of Deerfield, for 
Assembly, Second District. 

In its fifth resolution the convention said: "That the 
total lack of sound policy and the sole reliance on i)hysical 
force by the Administration is calculated to prolong the 
war and defeat the object for which it was waged." This 
resolution was a re-echo of the famous Peace policy en- 
dorsed by the Democrats in the Legislature at Trenton the 
winter previous. 

John L. Sharp, of Millville, former State Senator, 
urged the convention to "stand by their vested rights as 
Democrats, and knowing them to be right to maintain them 
at the sacrifice of life if necessary." 

The convention was in bitter mood because of Mc- 
Clellan's removal and Burnside's suspension of the writ 
of habeas corpus in the arrest of the Ohio copperhead. Mr. 
Vallandigham. which action was sustained by the Admin- 
istration. Vallandigham was a secessionist pure and simple, 
and his treacherous conduct was very properly punished. 



The canvass w^as warm and the result narrow majori- 
ties. Wat,son was chosen Sheriff by 156 majority. Bate- 



IN CUMBERI-AND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 131 

man. Assembly, First District. 292 majority: Maylin, As- 
sembly, Second District. 173 majority. 

Charles Laning, Democratic candidate for Assembly- 
man, Second District, was the father of Samuel A. Laning, 
a former postmaster of Bridgeton. Laning, pere. was a 
man of earnest conviction, a Democrat of the Jeffersonian 
type. Quiet in demeanor, nevertheless firm. Apparently 
not popular, yet at every test a vote-getter. When the polls 
closed the first Tuesday in November, '63, the vote at the 
county seat stood : "Maylin, 301 ; Laning, 264. Majority 
for Maylin, 37 votes. In Cohansey township, now the Third 
Ward of Bridgeton, Maylin's vote was 138; Laning's, 106. 
Majority for Maylin. 32 votes. Big nni in war times for a 
Democrat in Cumberland County! 

Election night the boys went wild. The Clerk's Office 
was crowded with shouting Republicans. Senator Ludlam 
occupied the chair and read the returns, now and then in- 
terjecting some witty remark which convulsed the assem- 
bly with laughter. Langley, Democratic candidate for 
Sheriff, was popular, and ran well in his Millville home. 
Not until a late hour was the result definitely known. News 
came by carriage and horseback. The last township heard 
from was Maurice River in the "wee sma' hours." Charles 
L. \\'atson had won. Then the enthusiastic crowds outside 
attempted to get into the office. Amid the tumult of strug- 
gling Republicans the apple barrel upset and "Roman 
stem" and "Turn-the-Lane" were trampled into mush upon 
the floor. 



The election proved a general Republican victory. 
New York State, which had elected Seymour, Democrat, 
Governor in 1862, by 10.000 majority, reversed itself with 
20,000 majority for the Republican ticket. New Jersey 
remained Democratic, but there was a Republican gain of 
10,000 on the popular vote in the State. 

One of the Bridgeton papers announced November 21 
that "The oath of office was administered to our new- 



1^2 HISTORIC DAYS 

Sheriff, Uy. C. L. Watson, on Tuesday, the loth inst. ^Slr. 
Watson will doubtless make a very acceptable and efficient 
officer. He is polite, gentlemanly and honorable, with all 
with whom he has dealings. The profits of the office are 
not sufficient to pay a man for his entire services." 



The echoes of the election had barely died out when 
the attention of the nation was directed to the dedicatory 
ceremonies soon to be held on the historic battlefield of 
Gettysburg, Pa. By act of Congress the village cemetery 
of Gettysburg was purchased and prepared as a National 
cemetery for the gallant men who fell in that bloody conflict. 
Gettysburg was one of the five decisive battles that have set- 
tled the fate of nations, and throttled the enemies of Chris- 
tian civilization. It is a magnificent field of hill and valley, 
the scenery connected therewith being one of nature's mas- 
terpieces. The cemetery located on a rising knoll or knob 
of the foothills which a little further to -the east and south 
rise into mountain ridges, overlooked the field upon which 
but a few brief months preceding 

"The battle shout and waving plume. 
The drum's heart-stirring beat 
The glittering pomp of war. 
The rush of million feet," 

had roused the passions of men to fever heat in a supreme 
efYort for and against the supremacy of the Union, was sur- 
rounded by the debris of the great struggle not yet re- 
moved. Fresh graves appeared on every hand; marks of 
the battle were everywhere visible. The mountains and 
hills still retained a portion of the autumnal beauty which 
was tlTeir heritage at this, the closing of the year. The foli- 
age of many trees tinted the landscape with sombre colors, 
and the cedar and pine were green and bright in the midst 
of the picturesque scenery which, like a great panorama, 
opened to the ey<: from Round Top to Seminary Ridge, 
from the clump ef '.rees on the north where gallant Rey- 



IN CUMnKRLAXD COUNTY, NEW JERSEY I3J 

nolds fell to the distant hills in the south through which the 
shattered army of the Confederates vani?lied in despon- 
dency and in gloom. The hush of the dyi.ig.year Had set 
its imprint on the field, on the forest, on the mountain. 
It was the 19th day of November, 1863. Propitious season 
for such solemn, touching and impressive ceremonies. Presi- 
dent Lincoln and his Cabinet, Governors of States, officers 
of the army and navy, foreign officials, soldiers upon whose 
bodies scars of the conflict were visible, together with a 
vast concourse of citizens, had gathered to witness the pro- 
ceedings. Edward Everett, Senator from the State of 
Massachusetts, a polished orator, who ranked second only 
to Webster in the forum of the world's great debates, had 
been selected to deliver the oration. The theme was great; 
and it was in worthy hands. Mr. Everett's speech was one 
of the finest specimens of oratorical skill a great audience 
had ever listened to. It had been carefully prepared and 
memorized, and may be classed with the productions of 
Demosthenes or Cicero on great State occasions. At its 
conclusion it was encored by repeated cheers, so great was 
the admiration of Senator Everett's gifts as a classical 
speaker. W'hile in the cars on his way from the White 
House to the battlefield. President Lincoln was notified that 
he would be expected to make some remarks at the con- 
clusion of Mr. Everett's oration. He had made no prepara- 
tion, but asking for some paper, a sheet of foolscap was 
handed to him, and in a seat by himself he took a pencil and 
wrote the address, which Arnold has said "for appropriate- 
ness and eloquence, for pathos and beauty, for sublimity in 
sentiment and expression, has hardly its equal in English 
or American literature." Mr. Everett had finished and 
turned aside to take his seat, when an earnest call for Lin- 
coln was heard through the vast crowd. Then rose the tall, 
homely form of Abraham Lincoln. His careworn face 
glowed with intense feeling. Slowly and deliberately he 
adjusted his spectacles, and began to read. With the utter- 
ance of the first sentence he appeared to be unconscious of 
himself, absorbed onlv with recollections of the heroic dead. 



1^4 HISTORIC DAYS 

As he proceeded his countenance seemed touched with the 
sunshine of heaven, and his voice rang- far out upon the field 
"with bloody corpses strewn" with a resonance and a 
rhythm which bound the assemblage with a magician's spell. 
With bated breath, listening ear and eager eye, they waited 
upon the sentences which fell from the great man's lips. 

In the newly erected rostrum, upon the historic field 
hereafter to be celebrated in song and story, there he stood — 
that able, lovable, tender-hearted, illustrious President. 
Listen ! 

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought 
forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty 
and dedicated to the proposition tliat all men are created 
equal. 

"Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing 
whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedi- 
cated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield 
of that war. We are met to deihcate a portion of it as the 
final resting-place of those who here ga\e their lives that 
that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper 
that we should do this. 

"But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate — we cannot 
consecrate — we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men. 
living and dead, who struggled here, liave consecrated it 
far above our power to add or detract. The world will little 
note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never 
forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to 
be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus 
far so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedi- 
cated to the great task remaining before us, that from these 
honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for 
which they here gave the last full measure of devotion, that 
we here highly resolve that the dead shall not have died 
in vain : that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of 
freedom ; and that government of the people, bv the people 
and for the people shall not peri.sh from the earth." 

'i'hc audience seemed to realize that tlie greatest actor 
in the world's greatest drama was before it. \\'hen the last 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NKW JERSEY I35 

sentence was uttered and the magnificent address ended, 
silence, deep and intense, rested upon all present, while their 
hearts were wonderfully stirred. Tiiere was no api)lause ; 
no cheers. Afterward Mr. Lincoln in an hour of medita- 
tion thought his speech was a failure, inasmuch as there was 
no applause. Later on he lived to learn that the highest 
honors ever paid a public speaker were his — the "silence 
which is golden" had placed the stamp of commendation 
upon its immortal sentences, henceforth to be the precious 
heirloom of posterity to remotest history. 

Turning to President Lincoln, Mr. Everett said : "Mr. 
President, your speech will live when mine is forgotten." 
Prophetic sentence! Edward Everett's polished periods 
were lonsf since forgotten — Mr. Lincoln's will live forever! 



'i'he nation was stirred with an intense excitement in 
July, 1863, because of the news from Richmond, the Con- 
federate Capital, that death sentence had been imposed u[K)n 
Captain Henry W. Sawyer, a resident of Cape May, New 
Jersey. The Captain was well known in Cumberland 
County, and especially in Bridgeton, the county seat, where 
he had a number of personal friends, among whom was the 
Hon. John T. Nixon, Representative in Congress from the 
First New Jersey District. Many hearts were made sorrow- 
ful by the news of the sad position in which the gallant 
soldier was placed. Captain Henry W. Sawyer, afterwards 
Major, and Colonel by brevet, on account of meritorious 
conduct on the battlefield, then in command of Company K, 
First Regiment New Jersey Cavalry, was badly wounded 
in the first great ca\alry action of the war. which occurred 
at Brandy Station, Virginia, June 9th. 1863. Captain Saw- 
yer was gallantly leading his company when he fell, and was 
left on the field, being overlooked when his regiment retired. 
He was captured by the Confederates and taken to Lihby 
Prison. General William Hemy Fitzhugh Lee, a son of Gen- 
eral Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, was seriously wounded in the same engagement. 
He was conveved bv his Confederate friends to a farm house 



HISTORIC DAYS 



in Hanover County, within a few miles of Riclmiond. Here 
a Federal raiding party under Colonel Spears, found young 
Lee. and carried him off as a prisoner of war to Fortress 
Monroe. 



Among the officers confine,] in Libby Prison was Cap- 
tain John W. Flinn, of an Indiana regiment. The two cap- 
tains became great friends, little thinking that they were to 
figure so conspicuously in Civil War history. Sawyer was 
a large, handsome man, w'hile Flinn was spare and of me- 
dium stature. Prison fare dealt hard with Sawyer, and he 
grew thinner day by day. Likewise Flinn. whose flesh with- 
ered away until he was a skeleton. Both were in rags, both 
despondent, hoping against hope for release from their un- 
fortunate condition. What was their surprise when, on the 
morning of July 6th, all the Federal captains in the prison 
were summoned to appear before Captain T. P. Turner, 
commander of Libby. All appeared on the lower floor in 
good humor, supposing they were to be exchanged. Instead 
of receiving the news of their release they were informed 
that a special order had been issued from the Confederate 
War Department, directing that two captains should be 
selected by lot to be executed, in retaliation for the execu- 
tion of two Confederate officers by General Burnside. 

The order created great excitement in the prison. The 
Confederate commander desired to know how he should 
make the selection, when Captain Sawyer suggested that a 
number of white and black beans should be placed in a hat, 
while the captains advanced and drew out a bean. The first 
black bean was to be the first death prize, and the second 
black bean the second death prize. Captain Sawyer stepped 
forward, put his hand in the hat, and drew the first black 
bean. Captain Flinn then came up, thrust his hand in the 
hat, and drew the second black bean. Deathly stillness pre- 
vailed during the drawing. In a few moments the matter 
of life and death had been decided, and Sawyer and Flinn 
were marked for execution. 




WAR TIME PICTURES-lH'.l-IMwi 
Major Henry W. Sawyer, First Reg. N. J. Cav. Vols 
Libby Prison Fame 
Capt. Roswill S. Reynolds 



Co. F, Fifth Rc!;N.J. Inf. Vols. 
First Lieut. Henry VJ. Gaskill 
Co. K, Twelfth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 



Major Josiah Shaw 
Fourth Reg. N.J. Inf. Vols. 
Dr. John B. Bowen 
Surgeon Thirty-fourth Reg. N. J. Inf. Vols. 



138 HISTORIC DAYS 

Lieutenant James W. Stradling, a comrade of Captain 
Sawyer. ser\-ing in the same company with him, in an article 
written for McClure's Magazine, in 1905. gives tlie state- 
ment of what fuUowed, as he afterward received it 
from Sawyer's Hps. The captain was of Gennan descent, and 
his speech retained the quaint expression which he had in- 
herited from his ancestors, known as "Pennsylvania 
Dutch :" 

"Mine fiott ! Jim, I never felt so weak in all my life as 
I did when I found I had drawn a 'death prize.' My kind 
friend, Captain Flinn, was very pale and much weaker than 
I; but we did not have much time to think about it, for a 
Confederate officer told us that his verbal instructions were 
to have us executed before noon, and that he would return 
in an hour, so we asked permission to have a few moments 
to write letters to our homes and to our friends before being 
executed. We were removed to a room by ourselves, and 
furnished with writing material, but we could not compose 
our nerves or our thoughts sufficiently to write. The Con- 
federate ofificer was as humane as he could be under the 
circumstances, and, instead of returning in an hour, did not 
return for two hours. In the meantime, we bade our com- 
panions farewell, and distriljuted a few trinkets we had on 
nur persons, and then, after confiding to our warmest friends 
a few messages for our families, we waited as tjuietly as we 
could for the coming of the death summons. We did not 
have loiit;- to w.-tit. for soon a Confederate officer appeared 
with a guard, and Flinn and I were marched to the street, 
where we found a cart waiting for us. ^\'e took our seats 
in the cart, and the Confederate officer and the guard of 
cavalry escorted us through the streets of Richmond. The 
cart, if I remember rightly, was drawn by oxen, and it did 
not move very fast, but a thousand times too fast for us. 
We had almost reached the city limits, when we met a prom- 
inent Roman Catholic Bishop, who stopped to incpiire the 
cause of the intended execution. WHiile the Bishop was in- 
(|uiring of the Confederate officer about us. Captain Flinn, 
who was a Catholic, said he was being executed without the 
'rites of clergy.' The Bishop, who was a great friend and 



IX ClMlilCKI-AND COLNTV, X1£\V .1 KUSICV I39 

admirer of Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Con- 
federacy, exclaimed, 'that would never do,' and he re- 
quested the Confederate ofticer to move slowly and he 
would hasten to see President Davis, and, if possible, get 
a delay for a short time. The cart moved on, and the 
Bishop hurried at a rapid pace to interview President Davis. 
The Bishop was mounted on a full-blooded and a very 
spirited horse, and he seemed to us to go like the wind when 
he started for the residence of his friend. We moved on to 
a small hill on which was a single tree, and to this tree the 
cart took its way. When the tree was reached, ropes were 
placed around our necks, and we were doomed to be hanged. 
This would have been an ignominious death, if we had 
been guilty of any crime punishable by death ; but we had 
committed no crime, and yet we did not want to die in that 
way. We had a slight ray of hope in the Bishop's interces- 
sion for us, but it was too slight to allay our fears for the 
worst. 1 was very weak. Mine Gott! Jim, I had never felt 
so badly in all my life before. I was so weak that the tree 
and the guards seemed to be moving in a circle around me. 
We stood up in the cart, so when it moved we would dangle 
between the earth and sky. and in this way our existence was 
to end. Xo courier from the Bishop was in sight, and. Mine 
Gott! Jim, the suspense was terrible for us to bear. The 
Confederate officer took out his watch, and informed us that, 
while his instructions were to have us executed before noon, 
he would wait until one minute of twelve, and then, if there 
was no sign of a courier, the cart would be driven away, and 
the arbitrary orders of the War Department of the Southern 
Confederacy would be obeyed. 

"Half-past eleven arrived, and yet no signs of any 
courier from the Bishop. Mine Ciott! Jim. our legs became 
so weak that we could not stand any longer, so we re- 
quested that we might be permitted to sit down in the cart 
until the time for us to be executed arrived. Then we would 
stand up and the ropes could be adjusted to our necks and 
the execution concluded. The ropes were tlicn untied, and 
we were permitted to sit down on the side of the cart. Ten 



I40 HISTORIC DAYS 

minutes more passed in dead silence, and yet no eye could 
detect any signs of a courier. At the end of another ten 
mintites we stood up and the ropes were adjusted to our 
necks, and tlie Confederate officer was raising his sword 
as a sign to tlie driver to move away, when a cloud of dust 
was observed in tiie distance. The Confederate ol^cer hesi- 
tated for a few moments, when a horseman covered with 
dust and iiis horse covered with foam, dashed up, and 
handed him a dispatch. He opened it quickly, and read: 
'Captains Sawyer and Flinn are reprieved for ten days.' 
Mine Gott! Jim. I never felt so happy in my life; and Flinn 
and I embraced each other, and cried like babies. The ropes 
were untied, and the cart started slowly back for Libby 
Prison. We never learned the name of the officer who was 
detailed to execute us. Our comrades were greatly rejoiced 
to see us return alive, and made many inquiries concern- 
ing the postponement of the execution. 

"On our return, we were taken to the headquarters of 
General Winder, where we were warned not to delude our- 
selves with any hope of escape, as retaliation must and 
would be inflicted ; and it was added that the execution 
would positively take place on the i6th, ten days hence. We 
were then conducted back to Libby Prison, and taken to the 
second story, to our old place on the floor. We were not 
permitted to remain there very long, when we were taken 
to the cellar and placed in a dungeon and isolated from the 
world and our companions : and the only company we now 
had were the rats and \-erniin. which swarmed over us in 
great numbers. 

"After resting for a short time to compose my thoughts, 
I asked for writing material, which was furnished me. with 
a candle, and then on an old board for a writing desk. I 
wrote the following letter to my wife, which I started on 
July 6th. but did not finish until the next day : 

"Provost Gener.vl's Office. 
"Libby Prlsox. Richmond. \'a., July 6th. 1863. 
"My Dear Wife:— 

"I am under the necessity of informing you that my 



IX CCMEERLAND COINTV. NEW TERSIIV I4I 

prospects look dark. This moniini^, all tlie caplains in 
I-ibby Prison drew lots, for two to be executed. It fell to 
my lot and Captain Flinn's to be executed, in retaliation 
for two captains executed by General Burnside. in Tennes- 
see. The Provost General assures me that the Secretary of 
War will permit you and my dear children to visit me before 
I am executed. Captain Whilden or Uncle \V. W. Ware, 
or Brother Dan. had better come with you; you will be al- 
lowed to return without molestation to your home. I am 
resigned to whatever is in store for me, with the consola- 
tion that I die without having committed any crime. My 
situation is hard to be borne, and I cannot think of dying 
without seeing you and the children. 

"I have no trial, no jury, nor am 1 charged with any 
crime, but it fell to my lot. Proceed at once to Washing- 
ton, Government will give you transportation to Fortress 
Monroe, and come here by flag of truce, and return same 
way. Bring with you a shirt and some clothing for me. It 
will be necessary for you to bring evidence of my condi- 
tion, at Washington. This letter is sufficient. 

"My pay is due from March the ist, which you are en- 
titled to. Captain B. owes me fifty dollars, loaned him 
when we went on leave of absence: write him. and he will 
send it to you. 

"Aly dear wife, the fortunes of war have put me in 
this position. If I must die a sacrifice to my country, being 
God's will, I must submit; I will die becoming a man and 
an officer. Write me as soon as you get this, and go to 
Captain Whilden ; he will advise you what to do. I have 
done nothing to deserve this penalty. But you must submit 
to your fate. It will be no disgrace to me, to you, or to my 
children ; but you may point with pride and say, 'I give my 
husband.' My children will have the consolation to say, 
'I have been made an orphan for my country.' God will 
provide for you, never fear. Oh ! it is hard to leave you 
thus. I wish that the ball that pierced through the back part 
of my head in this last battle had done its work ; but it was 



!42 HISTORIC DAYS 

not to be so. '\\y mind is somewhat influenced, for this 
has come so suddenly upon me. 

"Write me as soon as you get this. Lea\e your letter 
o])en : I w ill get it. Direct name and rank, \ia h'ort Monroe. 
"Farewell! h'arewell ! Let us Imiie it is all for the best. 
"I remain yours until death, 

H. \V. S.WVYER, 
Captain 1st N. J. Cav. 

"The Confederate ofificer read it through, and then sent 
it through the lines under a flag of truce, with a lot of other 
mail from my fellow-officers. 

"I calculated that it would rer[uire some four or fi\e 
days for the letter to reach its destination, and then I knew 
that my wife would make superhuman efiforts to save me ; 
and this was the only bright ray of hope that lighted up that 
dark dungeon cell in which I was placed. The letter reached 
my wife on the 13th, and slie was greatly shocked and 
almost overcome, and when she read it again and compre- 
hended the full meaning of it, she collapsed; but. realizing 
that any delay might prove fatal to me, she rallied, and a^ 
soon as she could make the necessary preparations, she, 
in conipanv with Captain Wliilden. started for Washing- 
ton, where she arrived on the night of the 14th of July. 
After eating a lunch, they proceeded to the White House, 
and secured an interview with President Lincoln, before- 
ten o'clock. The President was greatly startled, as well as 
shocked and agitated, by the recital of the way I, her 
husband, was treated in the Confederate prison at Rich- 
mond, and. after encouraging her to be brave, he said: 
'Mrs. Sawyer, I do not know whether I can save your 
husband and Captain Flinn from the gallows, but I will do 
all that is in my power. Thev are two brave men, and I 
will make extraordinary efiforts to save them. If you and 
your friend will call before noon to-morrow, I will be 
pleased to inform you what action I have taken.' " 



IX CC.MlUIKi AM) tOlNI^V, NKW .1 KKSKV 14,^ 

Tlie tender lieart of I'lesideiU Lincoln was deeply 
luuched when Mrs. Sawyer had finished her recital of her 
husband's condiiion. and he immediately set about finding 
a wa\' by which the lives of Minn and Sawyer might be 
savetl. lie sat up late that night conferring with Genera! 
llalleck and Secretary Stanton as to what was the best 
course 10 pursue. It was a delicate C[uestion, which must 
be settled in such a manner as would not establish a prece- 
dent. Retaliation for the two spies whom General Burnside 
had executed was not justifiable, in any view of the case, 
and Mr. Lincoln was loath to believe that the Confederate 
Government could approve such summary action in dealing 
with prisoners of war. Such a course was dishonorable in 
the extreme, and he felt that the Confederates must recede 
from the position taken after the matter had had due reflec- 
tion. In the meantime, the day of execution was approach- 
ing, and action must be prompt and decisive if Captains 
Sawyer and Flinn were to be saved. 

The next morning, when Mrs. Sawyer again called. 
the President said: "I did not make up my mind, and d:d 
not arrive at a final decision in the case until three o'clock 
this morning. After that time I slept peacefully and felt 
greatly refreshed, for I believed my plan would save the two 
gallant men who were at that moment fighting the rats and 
vermin in Libby Prison." 

This is the way in which Mr. Lincoln solved the per- 
plexing question: General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee 
was still a prisoner, subject to the commands of the Presi- 
dent. If Sawyer and Flinn were to die for no cause, why 
should not the son of Robert E. Lee die in retaliation? Ac- 
cordingly, he issued the following order : 

Washington, July 15th, 1863. 
Colonel W. H. Ludlow. Agent for the Exchange of Prison- 
ers of War : 

The President directs that you immediately place Gen- 
eral W. H. F. Lee. and another officer selected by you, not 
below the rank of captain, prisoners of war. in close confine- 
ment, and under guard, and that you notify Mr. Robert 



J44 HISTORIC D.WS 

Ould, Confederate Agent for the Exchange of Prisoners of 
War, that if Captain H. W. Sawyer and Captain John M. 
Flinn, or any other otticers or men in the service of the 
United States, not guilty of crimes punishable with death 
by the laws of war, shall be executed by the enemy, the afore- 
mentioned persons will be immediately hung in retaliation. 
It is also ordered that immetliately on receiving official or 
other authoritative information of the execution of Captain 
Henry W. Sawyer and Captain John M. Flinn, you will 
proceed to hang General W. H. F. Lee and the other officer, 
designated as hereinabove directed, and that you notify 
Robert Ould, Esq., of said proceeding, and assure him that 
the Government of the United States will proceed to retal- 
iate for every similar barbarous violation of the laws of 
civilized war. 

H. W. HALLECK, 
General-hi-Chief. 

Colonel Ludlow immediately communicated to Hon. 
Robert Ould, Confederate Agent for Exchange of Prisoners 
of War at Richmond, the order of President Lincoln in full, 
for the benefit of the Confederate authorities. As was ex- 
pected, the order produced great excitement in the Confed- 
erate Capital. It would never do to have the son of General 
Lee hung on the gallows, so the end came, as Mr. Lincoln 
thought it would, in the final release of Captains Sawyer 
and Flinn, and restoration to their families and homes. 

Mrs. Sawyer was not permitted to land at City Point, 
and visit her husband in the prison at Richmond, as an order 
of the Confederate Agent, Robert Ould, prevented it. She 
returned to New Jersey in a sorrowful mood, but feeling 
sure that the Captain's life had been saved. 



Pending the release of the prisoners, and while still 
in a state of suspense, Captain Sawyer wrote the appended 
letter to Hon. John T. Nixon, then at his home in Bridge- 
ton: 



IN cr.\ii'.i;RL.\xi) couNTV, m:\v .n:usEV 145 

"LiBBV Prison, Richmond, Va., Nov. ist, 1863. 

"Hon. John T. Nixon, 

"Dear Sir: I am still ahoul, and hope iooii to be re- 
leased and restored to my family, friends and command. 
My health is good, my hopes for the future never higher, 
and my confidence unshaken. It is not worth while for rr<; 
to speak of my experience as a prisoner, for you are fully 
posted ; but allow me to explain how I was captured, June 
9th, at the cavalry action. Brandy Station. In a charge 
for the possession of an elevated position, and upon a Con- 
federate States battery, leading my squadron to the charge, 
I fell, with a ball through the back part of my head and 
one in the fleshy part of my leg. The charge was mutual on 
both sides, and was hand-to-hand ; indeed, so close that my 
own face was blackened with the powder of my opi>onent's 
revolver, and is still remaining, to a considerable extent, in 
my face. The effect of this charge was dreadful on both 
sides, for here the gallant Lieutenant Colonel Virgil 
Broderick and brave Major John H. Shelmire fell dead from 
their horses, both gentlemen belonging to the First New 
Jersey Cavalry. There, too, were lying Confederate States 
ofificers and men, who one-half hour before were in the 
bloom of life. 

"Notwithstanding this sad sight, I shall always remem- 
ber that action with pride, for nobly did our regiment push 
on. Here I fell wounded, senseless, and in this condition 
remained, cannot say liow long. When I came to my senses, 
I was discovered. Our forces had pushed on, and I was 
picked up by three Confederate States soldiers, lifted on a 
horse, and taken to a hospital at Culpepper. 

"Of the prize drawn by me. July 6th. I have at this time 
nothing to say. only that, as yet. I have not been released 
from the sentence ; at least, I have not been notified that I 
have ; yet it has always been my endeavor to show an un- 
flinching front under all circumstances, and even in that ex- 
treme case. I was determined to show no other. 

"A soldier works not for gain: glory, and the welfare 
of his countrv is his aim; and, even in my situation, T 



146 HISTORIC DAYS 

found tliat pride was what upheld me, and that it was suffi- 
cient to nerve me for my fate. Still, I fervently hope it is 
past: for, really, it was an awful situation to be in. I enjoy 
the same treatment as my unfortunate brother officers here 
at Libb_\- : but let me assure }ou that we all hope for a speedy 
release. Several special exchanges have been made. Have 
I not as much right to expect this consideration as any 
one ? I lea\e that question for my friends. 

"Can you not do something to effect an exchange? I 
do not think there is any grand principle in the way ; nothing 
but policy. But, sir, here are twelve thousand men and nine 
hundred officers. Have they not the right to expect that 
their own Government will release them from this imprison- 
ment, if they can without detriment to their country? Really, 
sir. we think it is hard if it don't. We all have great hopes 
that an exchange will be effected before a great while. We 
do not think (at least, we drive the thought from us) that 
we shall remain here all winter. 

"I hope you will not think me a fault finder. If you can 
imagine your situation as prisoner, it will certainly be an 
excuse for using the above language. 

"I hope you and your family are well, and in the en- 
joyment of a peaceful home with happv surroundings, and, 
with my best wishes, I sincerely remain, 

"Your most obedient ser\-ant, 

"H. W. SAWYER, 
"Capt. First New Jersey Cavalry. U. S. A. 



\\'hile the movements, leading up to freedom for the 
heroic men in Libby Prison were being made. Captains 
Sawyer and I'dinn were confined in the dungeon, fed upon 
corn-bread and water. The cell was so damp that their 
clothes mildewed. They remained twenty days in the dun- 
geon. The day of their supposed execution came at last, 
July iTith. The long day ])assed in terrible suspense, as they 
waited each moment for the coming of the executioners. 
But they came not. Finally, an order arrived restoring them 
to their comrades on the upper floor of the prison, where 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NKW I KRSIIV I47 

they remained until March, 1864, when the prison doors 
opened, and the)- were conducted by wagon to a boat on the 
James River. Tlie boat steamed to City Point, and, as they 
passed down the river, they rejoiced to discover that tliey 
were on the way to be exchanged, fearful wlien starting that 
tliey were going to a place of execution. Junaciated and too 
weak to walk, tliey were assisted from the boat, as General 
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and Captain Robert H. Tyler. 
the two Confederates for whom they were exchanged, 
stepped on board, ."^^s the Federals and Confederates met 
face to face, General Lee and Captain Sawyer exchanged 
greetings, congratulating each other on their escape from 
ignominious death. President Lincoln's plan had worked 
si)lendidly. and. as Sawyer and Flinn passed from boat to 
shore, never had liberty seemed so precimis: never had the 
old flag appeared so beautiful, to the returning veterans lust 
out of the jaws of death. 



Early in the autumn of 1863 Ethan T. Harris, of 
Bridgeton, who rendered sjjlendid service in the "Cumber- 
land Greys." returned from Virginia with authority to or- 
ganize a company of volunteer cavalry. Quarters were 
opened on Commerce Street in the old Potter store, and 
in the course of a few weeks a hundred young men were 
enrolled in what was afterward to be known in the military 
roster, as Company H, Third Regiment, New Jersey Cav- 
alry. Ethan T. Harris was made captain, with Barnet Burd- 
sall, of the "Greys," as first lieutenant. Previous to the 
company's departure both Captain Flarris and Lieutenant 
Btirdsall were presented with handsome swords, gifts of 
admiring friends. This company was sometimes called 
"the Hussars," but its members were nicknamed by the 
boys around town as "the butterflies." and it stuck to them 
until long after the war. The uniform of the company was 
modeled after a troop of Austrian army hussars, very gay 
colors, hence "the butterfly." Privates wore pantaloons of 
sky-blue cloth, with yellow stripes. Jackets were of dark 
blue, with a profusion of yellow cords across the breast and 



HISTflRIC MAYS 

on the front of the collar on an orange-colored ground. 
Three rows of large, burnished bell buttons adorned the 
breast with a braiding of cord. On the seams of the back 
and on the sleeves there was an elegant braiding of cord. 
Officers' uniforms were still gayer with gold cord and trap- 
pings. The boys were handsome in their gorgeous uniforms 
and many a maiden looked after them from afar. Leaving 
home amid the plaudits of the people, many of them returned 
no more to the homes of their boyhood, dying in the valley 
of the Shenandoah at Five Forks, at Sailor's Creek, at Win- 
chester, and in the closing battles around Petersburg and 
Richmond. Gallant company of splendid soldiers, forty 
years has not yet dimmed the lustre of your achievements. 

Following is a roster of its officers and men: 
Company H. — Captain, Ethan T. Harris; First Lieu- 
tenants, Barnet Birdsall. John liamford, William M. Xnr- 
ton; Second Lieutenant, Sylvanus Murphy; First Sergeant, 
Charles S. Wallen ; Sergeants, Joseph H. Fithian, Lewis 
Schaible, Theodore A. Dare, Richard J. Herring, William C. 
Lore, Jacob Spahr, William E. Schuyler, Burris Plummer, 
Sheppard F. Stewart ; Corporals, Howard Minot, Charles 
Clark, Robert Potts, Franklin W. Buzby, Andrew R. Sny- 
der, John L. Smith, Theodore F. Sheppard, Elam Crozier, 
Lewis R. Finley; Buglers, John Louderman, Theodore F. 
Strang; Farriers, John E. Carton, Jacob H. Brown, Robert 
Bell ; Privates, Flenry Allinson. Levi B. Ayars, George F. 
Baker, George R. Baker, Benjamin F. Barracliff, Henry C. 
Beebe, Jonathan Berger, Caleb Blake, Peter Boyle, Enoch 
Brooks, William E. Brooks, Charles B. Buck, George S. 
Buck, William Clark, Robert G. Clymer, Charles H. 
Coombs, James M. Clark, Benjamin Cousins, Edward Cun- 
ningham, Charles F. Doran, John G. Davis, James Drum- 
mond, Charles G. Edwards, George Edwards, Ed- 
ward Flynn, Jacob Fritz, Enoch B. Garrison, Thomas 
Grady, James Garrison, Lewis T. Helmbold, Levi 
J. Harker, Samuel Harris, Gustavus Hartman, Helms 
Heritage. Francis Onnhoff. James Jobes, Alexander 
K. Johnson. John B. Johnson, Elias M. Keller, 

(US) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— ISW-l-^Wi 
Group Company H. ;'.d N. J. Reg. Cav. Vols. 
John G. Davis Capt. Ethan T. Harris First-Lieut. Barnet Birdsall 

Samuel T. Strang Louis D. Schaible Enoch Brooks 

Jonathan McCowan Leonard Roray Benjamin F. Barraclifl 

Howard Minot Charles S. Wallen Theodore F. Strang 

ilW) 



HISTORIC DAYS 

William Keller, Alfred Lamarie, John L. Longcore, 
William C. Loder, George ]\Iaster. John AIcAdoo, 
Franklin McCandless, Samuel A. McClintock, Jona- 
than McCowan, John Miller, Edward McGuire, Harrison 
McNeely, Edward McQuillan, Joseph McWilliams, Bar- 
tholomew Meder, Joseph Mills, Matthias Murphy, Daniel 
Newcombe, Isaiah Palmer, John Phillips, George E. Par- 
rish, Daniel Robinson, George W. Robinson, Leonard L. 
Roray, Aaron Schellenger, Henry Schneider, George Scott, 
Daniel R. Seeds, John Sharp, Samuel T. Strang, James 
Sherin, Michael Sligar, William Stetson, Andrew Sullivan. 
James L. Stiles, John Sulli\an, Isaac Swing, James 
Rynear, John Trimble, Frederick Thresh, William 
Tullis, John Valentine, John Walker, Walter G. West, 
William A. Wright, William W^irts; Colored Cooks, 
Thomas Herbert, Henry Johnson, William Nichols. 

Died in the service. — Barnet Birdsall, killed in skirmish 
with guerrillas at Warwick Bridge, Virginia, July 5, 1864, 
buried in Seventh Day Baptist Cemetery, Shiloh, Xew Jer- 
sey; Azor E. Swinney, killed in action at Winchester, Vir- 
ginia. September 19, 1864; Isaiah Weeks, killed in action 
at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864; Theodore W^ 
Elmer, died at Salisbury prison. North Carolina, January 
13. 1865; James Bradford, killed in action at Winchester. 
Virginia, September 19, 1864; Samuel V. Davis, of fever, 
at Camp Bayard, Trenton, New Jersey, February 10, 1864; 
Daniel Heaton, of fever, at U. S. Army General Hospital. 
Cumberland, Maryland. April 30. 1865, buried in National 
Cemetery, Antietam, Maryland, Section 11, Lot C, grave 
69 ; Edward Jones, of disease, at Salisbury prison. North 
Carolina. January 10, 1865, buried at National Cemetery, 
Salisbury, N. C. ; Samuel H. Jones, missing in action at 
Fisher's Hill. \'irginia. September 22. 1864, died of dis- 
ease, at Danville. Va., January 20. 1865. buried at National 
Cemetery. Danville. Va. ; Stephen Monroe, of consumption, 
at Hoboken. New Jersey, April 6, 1865: Charles Morris, 
killed in action at Cupp's Mills. Virginia. October 13, 1864; 
Henry Peterson, of disease, at Andersonville prison. Geor- 

(150) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— lSi;3-1Si;:, 
Group Company G. Third N.J. Reg. Cav. Vols. 
Charles Bartlett Charles Clunn Captain Thomas G. McClong 

Avery S. Messec William E. Clunn Levi Messec 

Jacob Adams Joseph Messec Benjamin F. Buck 

Charles Webb John Lutes Thomas Sharp 



I l.'.l I 



152 



HISTORIC DAYS 



gia, September lo, 1864, buried at National Cemetery, An- 
dersonville, Ga., grave 5,206. 

The "butterfly" regiment was the favorite of tlie hour, 
and in quici< succession came another gallant company from 
Millville to become a part of the Third Cavalry. The roster 
follows : 

Company G. — Captains, Thomas G. McClong, Henry 
C. Warner; First Lieutenants, William M. Scott, Michael 
T. Dwyer; Second Lieutenants. Gilbert Tice, James D. 
Comstock; First Sergeants. James F. Long. William 
F. Rocap; Quartermaster-Sergeants, Henry Lippincott, 
Joseph T. Rose; Commissary Sergeant, William E. Clunn; 
Sergeants, Charles P. Clunn, Avery S. Messic, William 
Baitzell, David Key; Corporals, Irvin Marts, Lemuel G. 
Welch, James Beebe, Alfred J. Brooke, Henry R. Grif- 
feth, William Carey, Thaddeus W. Oxford; Saddler, Hosea 
Sithens; Farrier, Jonathan "SI. Davis; Privates, Jacob Ad- 
ams, William M. Andrews, Ervin Armstrong, Charles Bart- 
lett, Joseph Bareford, William H. Beebe, Samuel F. Ben- 
nett. William Bercan. George Biggs, John H. Boody, Cor- 
nelius Brannin, Benjamin P. Buck. Jonathan D. Buck, 
Nathan Buck, John W. Cawman, James M. Chamberlain, 
Ezra Champion, Richard Cummings, Joseph T. Donnelly, 
William F. Finley, Elwood Fisher, George Fitzpatrick, An- 
drew J. h^ox, John S. Gardner, Charles P. Garrison, William 
Garrison. Israel Garran, Samuel Getsinger, Clement Grand- 
ingham, John Griner, William Hand, James Harper, James 
Hindley, David Harris, Charles Hankins, Amos T. Hub- 
bard, John Headley, Benjamin F. Hewlings, Andrew Hiles, 
George Hillman, George Hogan, John W. Horn. Joshua 
C. Howell, James P. Hughes, John Impsson, William Jones, 
Mark C. Jordan, James D. Kendle, Lewis Kramer, Henry 
M. Lee, Joel Madden, William Morse, Joseph Martin, Ed- 
ward McGloan. Henry H. Mead, Joseph A. Messic, Andrew 
Mosher, Joseph B. Meyers, Charles F. Miller, Tilghann W. 
Mills, Lewis Mixsell, Thomas Morgan, Henry Morris, 
Samuel Morris, Jacob Neiplin, John Owens, Thomas W. 
Pcttit. Lewis R. Payne. Charles R.PIiillips. Andrew TT. Post. 



IX CU.MnERr.AND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY I53 

William V. B. Pierce, Rufus Rand, Joseph D. Richardson, 
Edward B. Shaw, Ohver Smith, William E. Smith, Thomas 
B. Sneathen, John G. Stout, George W. Strong, William H. 
Sutton, Lawrence V. Toy, Josiah H. Tice, Charles P. Tyler, 
Thomas Tyler, Henry Ward, Ciiarles A. Webb, Joseph 
Weiner, William Wilfong, Joseph Williams, Levi Woolston, 
George Wright, John F. Redding, colored cook. 

Died in the service — Gideon Biggs, killed in action on 
Berryville Turnpike, near Winchester, Va., September 13, 
1864; John Lutes, of smallpox, at U. S. Army General Hos- 
pital, White House, Va., June iith, 1864; George J. Bard, 
of smallpox, at L'. S. Army General Hospital, Fortress 
Monroe, \'a., August 31. 1864, buried at National 
Cemetery, Hampton, Va., Row 21, Section A, grave 24; 
James B. Kerlin, of disease, at Camp Parole, An- 
napolis, Maryland, March 7, 1865, buried at Annapolis, 
Maryland; Alexander Anderson, of disease, at U. S. .Army 
General Hospital, Division No. i, Camp Parole, Annapo- 
lis, Maryland, December 24, 1864, buried at .AnnajKilis, 
Md. ; George K. Bennett, missing in action at Wayneshore, 
Virginia. September 28, 1864, died of disease at Salisbury, 
North Carolina, January 19, 1865, buried at National Ceme- 
tery, Salisbury, N. C. ; William M. Corson, of fever, at U. S. 
Army General Hospital, Alexandria, Virginia, August 23, 
1864. buried at National Cemetery, Alexandria, Va., grave 
2,607 : Enoch F. Doughty, killed in action at Summit Point, 
Virginia, August 21, 1864; John L. Doughty, of smallpox, 
at Camp Bayard, Trenton, New Jersey, February 26, 1864; 
Abraham T. Kean, missing in action at Bridgewater, Vir- 
ginia, October 2, 1864, died of disease at Salisbury prison. 
North Carolina, January 13, 1865, buried at National Ceme- 
tery, Salisbury, N. C. ; Samuel B. Lewis, of disease, at 
prison, Andersonville, Georgia. July 20, 1864; buried at 
National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga., grave 3.622; 
Charles Loder, of fever, at Jarvis U. S. Army General Hos- 
pital, Baltimore, Maryland, October 19, 1864, buried at 
Louden Park National Cemetery. Baltimore, Md. : James 
AlcGill, of disease, at Mower U. S. General Hospital. Phila- 
(k'lpliia. V:i.. December 28th. 1864. buried at Philadel- 



154 HISTORIC DAYS 

phid, Pa. ; Levi S. Messic, died at Sandy Hook, Maryland, 
August 31, 1864, of wounds received in action at Summit 
Point, Virginia, buried at National Cemetery, Antietam, 
Maryland, Section 25, Lot E, grave 504; George W. Penn, 
killed in action at Summit Point, Virginia, August 21, 
1864; Benjamin C. Robbins, of fever, at Giesboro Point. 
Maryland, September 16, 1864, buried at National Ceme- 
tery, Arlington Heights, Virginia; Thomas Sharp, killed in 
action at Winchester, Virginia, August 17, 1864; John 
Sheppard, of disease, at Division No. i, U. S. Army Gen- 
eral Hospital, Annapolis, Maryland, March 21, 1865. 



Never was a day of thanksgiving and praise more de- 
voutly or more joyously observed than was the last Thurs- 
day in November, A. D. 1863. Victories on land and sea 
had cheered the heart of the nation and given it renewed con- 
fidence in the final triumph of a just and righteous cause. 
The crops were bountiful, prosperity appeared on e\ery 
hand, and but for the scourge of war the people would have 
been in the full enjoyment of happiness and contentment. 
How beautiful then, and how appropriate, were the appended 
paragraphs from Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of that ever 
memorable year : 

"The year that is drawing toward its close has been 
filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. 
To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we 
are prone to forget the source from which they come, others 
have been added which are of so extraordinary a nature that 
they cannot fail to penetrate and soften the heart which is 
habitually insensible to the ever-watchful providence of Al- 
mighty God. 

"No human counsel hath devised, nor hath any mortal 
hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious 
gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in 
anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy." 

And so the curtain fell on the old vear. as the incense 
from the altar went up to the Throne. 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTV, NEW JERSEY 1 55 

The year 1864 opened auspiciously for the Union cause. 
It was the year of the Presidential election, and both great 
political parties were soon to engage in an exciting struggle 
for the control of the National Government. During the 
campaign of i860 Mr. Lincoln had said that he was a be- 
liever in one term in tlie Presidency, and that he would 
not be a candidate for re-election. As time went on, how- 
ever, a great demand for the renomination of tiie President 
began on the part of the people and the Union press. Dis- 
cerning men in all sections of the country who sought the 
success of the National arms and the preservation of the 
Union were strongly of opinion that it would be extremely 
unfortunate for the nation were Mr. Lincoln refused a re- 
nomination. In the homely language of that great man "it 
was no time to swap horses in crossing a stream." How 
to get over the difficulties of the situation was a serious 
problem to honest Abraham, who believed in the good, old- 
fashioned doctrine that a man's word should be equal to 
his bond. Personally the good President would have been 
glad to have been relieved of the cares and responsibilities 
of the great office, but in his heart there was a wish that 
he niiglit be allowed to finish the work wdiich the American 
people liad entrusted to his hands. In the dilemma as to what 
course he should pursue, Mr. Lincoln sent for Simon Cam- 
eron, Senator of tlie United States from Pennsylvania. Cam- 
eron went to the White House and in a lengthy conference 
with the President he suggested a plan whereby Mr. Lin- 
coln's compunctions of conscience as to the propriety of his 
candidacy for re-election might be overcome. Senator Cam- 
eron's plan was, first, that the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
then in session, should pass complimentary resolutions of the 
Lincoln administration, and the necessity for its continuance 
in office with the request th.it the President waive liis 
objections because the people demanded his renomina- 
tion. Cameron controlled the Legislature, and in 
the course of a few days the resolutions were passed, pub- 
lished in the newspapers and telegraphed to the National 
Capital. Everv loyal State Legislature followed with simi- 



156 HISTORIC DAYS 

lar resolutions, until the call for another term was heard in; 
the home of every lover of his country throughout the land. 
Mr. Lincoln took great delight in the action of the several 
States as cleverly brought about by Senator Cameron's gen- 
eralship, and was inclined to joke over the success of the 
scheme. One day at a White House reception, in the midst 
of the celebrities of the day, generals, admirals, cabinet 
ministers, senators, representatives and foreign ambassa- 
dors, their wives and many of the fairest women of the land, ■ 
who had come to the East Room to do honor to the Nation's 
Chief, tlie President's jocularity broke out unexpectedly to 
the great astonishment of the creme de la creme. It seem? 
that during the day of the reception the President had re- 
ceived a telegram announcing that the Ohio Legislature had 
passed a resolution calling on him to again become a candi' 
date for the office which he had so highly honored. When 
the festivities were at their height Senator Cameron ap- 
peared at the end of the line of callers with whom Mr. Lin- 
coln was busily shaking hands. As soon as the President 
discovered Cameron's presence he addressed him in a voice 
that was audible to the extreme end of the chamber, with a 
merry twinkle in his eye. exclaiming: "Simon, another 
State heard from to-day!" This remarkable sentence was 
not understood by the majority of the guests, but to those 
who knew what it meant it was a source of merriment for 
many years thereafter. The resolutions accomplished the 
purpose for which they were intended. The country be- 
came wildly enthusiastic for the nomination of the President 
at the hands of the National Republican Convention to meet 
in tile city of Baltimore in the month of June, at which con- 
vention he was renominated unanimously with tremendous 
cheers. 



In New Jersey the Legislature was controlled by the 
Democratic party, so that the only way to formulate a re- 
quest to the President that he again consent to be a candi- 
date was for the Republicnn members to write him a letter. 



IX cl"mbi;rl.\xd county, new jicrsev 157 

Accordingly at Trenton, February 18. 1864, twenty-one 
members signed a communication on tlie subject addressed 
^'To Abraham Lincohi, President of the United States." 
Among the signers was Providence Ludlam, the patriotic 
Senator from Cumberland County. The letter concluded 
with the following paragraph : 

"With feelings akin to affection we regard the patience 
with which you have endured the anxieties and burdens of 
your position ; the courage which has always risen w'ith 
every danger that threatened us. We admire the fidelity 
with which you have sustained and proclaimed those princi- 
ples which underlie every free government, and which alone 
can make this nation again what it was but now the admira- 
tion of men and wonder of the world. Without any 
disparagement of the true men who surround you and whose 
counsel you have shared; believing that you are the choice 
of the people whose servants we are; and firmly satisfied 
that they desire and intend to give you four years for a 
policy of peace, we present your name as the man for Presi- 
dent of the American people of 1864." 



Upon the convening of our State Legislature early in 
January, Hon. Edward Maylin, of Millville, was honored 
with the vote of the Republican members of the House of 
Assembly as their candidate for Speaker. The House was 
strongly Democratic, consequently tlic numination was 
merely complimentary. It was given, however, to a worthy 
man, for Edward Maylin was an able, patriotic, representa- 
tive citizen, an honor to his party, to Cumberland County, 
and his country. 

Early in March, after extended debate, the Democratic 
majority in the Legislature passed a concurrent resolution 
to the effect that the soldiers of New Jersey then in the 
service of their country fighting on Southern battlefields 
should have the privilege of the elective franchise only in 
case they were permitted to return home on furlough at 
the time of the coming Presidential election. This, of 



HISTORIC DAYS 

course, prevented the New Jersey soldiers from voting in 
the field, as it was impossible for them to be furloughed as 
a body to go to their respective voting precincts at home. 
To save themselves from too much criticism of their dis- 
graceful action in the passage of these resolutions, they pre- 
fixed them with a preamble declaring it to be unconstitu- 
tional to allow an absent elector to cast his vote. And thus 
it came to pass that while the soldiers of other States were 
casting their ballots in the field at the Presidential election, 
the 50.000 sons of New Jersey who were baring their 
breasts to the shot and shell of the Confederates were denied 
the privilege of a choice as to who should govern the land 
for which they were offering their blood and their lives. 

An illustration of the notorious character of the Legis- 
lature of 1864 was given the very day of its organization 
when William Kelley, of Essex County, a pot-house Demo- 
cratic politician, was chosen doorkeeper of the Ladies' Gal- 
lery of the House of Assembly over John Lawrence, of 
Gloucester County, by a strict party vote of 39 to 20. Law- 
rence was a brave New Jersey soldier who had lost both legs 
at the battle of Roanoke Island. North Carolina, in 1862, 
while a private in Company B, Ninth New Jersey. He 
had borne his sufferings heroically, this good Union soldier 
and Jersey Blue, but the Democrats had no use for him. 
So on his two artificial limbs he hobbled back to his home 
in Gloucester County, to tell the story of the unpatriotic 
conduct of the partisans at Trenton, who, out of love for 
the spoils of office, refused the paltry place of doorkeeper 
to a man who had periled life and limbs in order that they 
might enjoy the blessings of liberty. 



The first number of a straight-out Republican news- 
paper in the town of Alillville was issued January 9, 1864. 
In speaking of the new journal the Bridgeton Chronicle 
said : "We have received the first number of the Millville 
Republican, published at Millville by John W. Newlin & 
Co. It is a very neat paper, especially devoted to the advo- 

(I;.8) 




PROMINENT CITIZENS— ls-i;l-lvil'> 

Percival Nichols Adrian Bateman 

Charles R. Elmer Hon. Edward Maylin Robert DuBois 

Dr. Robert W. Elmer Hon. Ebenczer Hall David McBride 

Henry B. Lupton James B. Ferguson 

1 159) 



HISTORIC DAYS 

cacy of the Union cause. We wish it abundant success and 
welcome its editors into the fraternity." 

Mr. Nevvlin had come to Cumberland County from 
West Chester, Pennsylvania, to edit the new paper, which 
was to thereafter strike sturdy blows for the Union cause, 
and the Republican party. In the vigor of early manhood, 
with fine personal appearance, and unusual talent as a writer 
and public speaker, Mr. Newlin at once took a leading part 
in the political movements of the Republicans of Cumberland 
County. His editorials were crisp; his speeches went to 
the core of the opposition, so much so that his services on 
the stump were in demand at each recurring election for 
many years. 



About the middle of June a letter was received in 
Bridgeton from the pen of Lieutenant Edward M. DuEois. 
with particulars of the death of M. Bloomfield Holmes, be- 
loved son of Alfred Holmes, of Hopewell Township. The 
letter said: "He was gallantly leading his company (K, 
Twelfth New Jersey), in the crossing of the Chickahominy 
at Mcchanicsville by our army on the third day of June, 
when he was struck on the leg by a shell. L'pon consulta- 
tion by the surgeons amputation was pronounced impracti- 
cable. He lingered until next day, being able in an interval 
of consciousness to give direction as to his effects, and send 
messages of love to his family. The boys of the company 
buried him with more care than any colonel has received 
who has died here. Sergeant Holmes commanded Company 
K since the 6th of May and led it into all tlie fights with the 
greatest coolness and bravery. In one thing he was con- 
spicuous, that amid all the temptations of camp life he never 
swerved from the strict path of a consistent Christianity." 

The crowning glory of the soldier's life was told in the 
last sentence of tlie letter, and it is to tiiis day a precious 
legacy to the relatives and friends who remember the splen- 
did Christian soldier, the young, manly, brave oflicer, Bloom- 
field Holmes, whose early death brought sorrow and tears 

(100) 




PROMINENT CITIZENS— lSr.I-l.Hi,.- 



George F. Nixon 
Franklin F. Westcott 



John W. Ncwlin 



Hon. James H. Nixon ,, ,^u.ii 

John S. Mitchell 



(i.;i) 



l62 HISTORIC UAVS 

to the country folk of his boyhood home, in the loyal town- 
ship of Hopewell. 



The body of David Yearicks, Corporal Company F, 
Third New Jersey (Cumberland Greys), was brought to 
Bridgeton, June 13, and buried the next day. Corporal 
Yearicks was wounded on the 8th day of May in action 
near Spottsylvania. His arm was amputated, but he died 
a few days later, only a brief season previous to the ex- 
piration of his term of enlistment. Mr. Yearicks was a 
young man highly esteemed, with a large circle of friends. 
He was a good soldier. His death brought great grief to 
a devoted wife, i\'Irs. Kate Yearicks, and many relatives 
and friends. 



Great preparations were on foot in Bridgeton early 
in May with a view of furnishing articles and supplies 
for a fair to be held in Philadelphia in June, the proceeds 
of which were for the aid of the soldiers and sailors, the 
wounded and suffering of the army and navy. Governor 
Parker appointed the following as a committee to look after 
the representation of Cumberland County at the fair: Dr. 
William S. Bowen, Robert C. Nichols, Miss Harriet F. 
Stratton and Miss Anna Brewster. 

The committee met and selected the following as aids: 
Dr. Joseph C. Kirby, Captain James R. Hoagland, Lieuten- 
ant James J. Reeves, Miss Hannah S. Elmer, Miss Belle 
Howey, Miss Carrie Buck, Miss Sallie H. Buck. 

Later the homes of the ladies whose names are attached 
were selected as depositories for articles to be sent to the 
fair from Bridgeton and other towns of the county: Miss 
Harriet F. Stratton. Commerce and Atlantic streets ; Miss 
Anna Brew.ster, West Commerce street : Miss Carrie Buck. 
foot Laurel street; Miss Sallie H. Buck. West Commerce 
street; Miss Belle Howey. Commerce and Atlantic streets. 

Aids to these committees were appointed in Millville 
and the townslii])s. and when May 25th had arrived, the date 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 163 

when contributions should be all in, Cumberland County 
had made a great record for patriotism, which the United 
States Sanitary Commission in Philadelphia acknowledged 
with thanks. 

Fair hands indeed were those wiiich gathered Cum- 
berland's offerings for the relief of the heroic soldiery at 
the front. Notable in this good work with her patriotic 
sisters was Miss Belle Howey, stately, beautiful, with a 
soul replete with tentlerness for the work to which she gave 
a willing heart and hand. Miss Howey came of one of 
the best New Jersey families. Captain Frank Howey, a 
brother, served in the war for the ITnion, and was after- 
ward elected to Congress. 



During the year "64 two drafts for soldiers were made 
to fill tlie county's quota under tiie President's last call of 
500,000 men to close the gaps in the depleted columns of 
the Army of tlie Potomac and the other national armies 
because of the death, wounds, disability and termination of 
enlistments of many three-year regiments. The men who 
were drafted, as a rule, either went themselves or promptly 
furnishd substitutes. Persons who desired to escape army 
service all at once became decrepit and unfit, putting up all 
sorts of physical ailments for exemptions. Among the 
drafted men were several persons of prominence in the 
community, notably Hon. John T. Nixon. Charles C. Gross- 
cup, of Grosscup Hall fame: Dr. Oliver S. Belden and 
others. 



Previous to the adjournment of the Legislature in the 
spring of 1864 an act for the incorporation of the townships 
of Bridgeton and Cohansey into a municipality to be known 
as the city of Bridgeton, passed both Houses of the Legis- 
lature, was signed by Governor Parker and became a law. 
The enacting clause of the bill declared that it should take 
effect the following year, March i, 1865. This was a great 
forward movement for the people of the town of Bridgeton,. 



164 HISTORIC DAYS 

but it was accomplished in the face of much prejudice, even 
so good a citizen as Judge Ehner deeming it unnecessary 
and unwise. The Judge's opinion was that it would be bet- 
ter to keep the town in borough form rather than take a 
step which in the end meant increased expenditures and 
increased taxes. Public sentiment, however, was favorable 
to the act of incorporation on the ground that the separate 
township government on the two banks of the Cohansey 
was not up to the spirit of the times, and that consolidation 
and a greater Eridgeton was needed. 



June 7, 1864. at Baltimore, Abraham Lincoln, of Illi- 
nois, was renominated for President of the United States, 
with Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice-President. 
The National Republican Convention did wisely in again 
selecting Air. Lincoln as its Presidential candidate, but the 
nomination of Andrew Johnson for the Vice-Presidency was 
a political error which the lamented death of the President 
brought prominentlv to view. Johnson retarded the work 
of reconstruction and was a failure at a critical period of the 
nation's history. 

The Democratic National Conxention met in Chicago, 
and nominated General George B. McClellan. of New York, 
for President, with George H. Pendleton, of Ohio, for Vice- 
President. 

With tiie making of the nominations the great Presi- 
dential campaign of 1864, the most exciting, momentous 
and decisive political campaign in American history, opened 
— a canvass of bitterness unparalleled, fought with that 
"weapon firmer set, and better than the bayonet, the bal- 
lot!" While the contest waged the battalions in the field 
rested on their arms — the Confederates hoping for a re- 
versal of Mr. Lincoln's policy — the Federals trusting in 
the patriotic North for a reindorsement of the administra- 
tion at Washington and a vote of confidence in the officers 
and soldiers of the republic who had by their heroism and 
sufferings brought victory to the flag on many bloody fields. 



IN CfMIiKKI.AND COrXTV. NEW JKRSKV ift^ 

At a ineetiiiif of citizens of Bridgeton great prepara- 
lions were niatle U>v tlie celehratinn (if tlie iMiurtli of [uly. 
1864. An eial)orate program was mapped out, and tiie 
following gentlemen appointed a committee of arrange- 
ments : Joseph H. Elmer. Robert DuBois. James R. Hoag- 
land, Edmund 1\. l''.lmer. l-"den .M. Hood. Charles D. Bur- 
rouglis, Providence Ludlam. Robert W. Elmer, Charles E. 
Mulford. Edwin Ware, Rol)ert P.. Potter. 

The members of Compan\- F. "Cumberland Greys," 
Third New Jersey, who had served three years, but did not 
re-enlist, had returned home a few days previous to the 
Fourth, so it was decided that in addition to the other pa- 
triotic exercises a reception antl dinner should be given to 
tile returned soldiers. 

At sunrise on the morning of the Fourth the old cannon 
which had figured in so many previous celebrations was 
brought out and a National .salute fired. The day was fair 
— the sun slione brightly — the sidewalks were packed with 
thousands of men, women and children. Farmers from the 
country districts came to town in large numbers to take 
part in the festivities. lUisiness places and private resi- 
dences were gav witli Imntiiig. The old wnoden bridge 
over the Cohansev River at Commerce Street, was beauti- 
fully decorated with evergreen. A triumphal arch erected 
above the roadway of the structure was adorned with flags 
and flowers, forming a beautiful design in the words "Wel- 
come Home." 

At 10 o'clock a parade formed in front of the Davis 
House on Commerce Street, headed by Lewis H. Dowdney, 
marsli.il : James R. Hoagland and Samuel T. DuBois, as- 
sistant marshals. The Bridgeton Cornet Band and the 
Laurel Hill bife and Drum Corps furnished nuisic, patriotic 
and inspiring. A remn.uu of tlie "Greys." two officers and 
twenty-eight muskets strong, occupied the place of honor 
in the procession, under command of Captain Charles F. 
Salkeld. The veterans marched splendidlv to the great ad- 
nu'ration of the vast crowds of onlookers. Preceding the 
"Greys" was an omniljus containing members of the com- 



HISTORIC DAYS 

pany who were unable to march liecause of wounds and 
other disabilities. 

Corporal John Royal, at the head of the veteran sol- 
diers, stood erect and manly, holding with a firm grip the 
beautiful silk colors which the ladies of Bridgeton had pre- 
sented to the "Greys" that bright May day in '6l the eve 
of tlieir departure for tlie seat of war. John Royal was 
the senior color corporal of the gallant Third New Jersey. 
He had carried the regimental colors through many bloody 
engagements, and was a proud man that glorious Fourth of 
July, 1864. when the original flag of the "Cumberland 
Greys" was given to his hands. It was a splendid flag, 
bright with the tri-colors, glorious with its canopy of stars. 
On its broad stripes the names of the principal battles in 
which the company had been engaged from Bull Run to 
Cold Harbor were emblazoned in letters of shining gold. 
As the returned soldiers passed, the fair sex, of whom the 
local papers said there had never before been such a turn- 
out, waved their handkerchiefs in salute, while the citizens 
rent the air with round after round of cheers. 

-Appended is a list of the brave soldiers who partici- 
pated in the celebration and reception that day : 

Charles F. Salkeld, captain ; former Lieutenant Samuel 
T. DuBois. then a captain ; Joseph R. Woodruflf, Michael 
H. Swing, James W'. Murphy. Thomas M. W'oodruff, 
James B. Woodruff, John Royal, Charles L. Davis, William 
H. Williams, Clarence J. Mulford, Jonathan H. Facemire. 
David W. Fry. Robert Glaspey, John C. Garrison, Horace 
E. Loper, Reuben Brooks, Charles T. Jordan, Davis B. 
Loder, Daniel R. Parvin, Alexander Sayre, Walter S. Wil- 
liams. Robert M. Vansant, Levi J. Harker, Furman Cam- 
bloss, Joab C. Lore, Daniel Doyle, David P. Clark, Charles 
McAllister, Henry Marts. 

The following members of the "Greys" were not pres- 
ent at the reception because of their having re-enlisted for 
another term of three years. They served the country with 
great loyalty, returning after the surrender at Appomattox, 
in 1865 : 

(166) 





FLAG OF THE • CUMBERLAND GREYS 
Company F. Third New Jersey Regiment Inf. Vols. 
John Royal, Color Bearer 
isr.l— LSiVI 
(It") 



HISTUUU; UAVS 

Bowman H. Buck, David B'. Husted, .\lexander M. 
Parvin. Joseph Clayton, William Painter, Adolph Bergen, 
Thomas Cottrell, William H. Nagle, Jonathan Fadely. Rich- 
ard C. Levick. Henry L. Seymour, Henry B. Stockton. The 
latter. Comrade Stockton, was killed in action near Spott- 
syhania, \'a.. after re-enlistment. 

Twelve members had been transferred to Hancock's 
Veteran Reserve Corps and to other regiments, in which 
they finished their three years" enlistment. Thirty-two mem- 
bers were discharged from service prior to the termination 
of their enlistment period, owing to wounds and disabilities. 
Seventeen members were killed on the field, and died of 
wounds and disease. 

Captain James W. H. Stickney, who commanded the 
company at its organization in Bridgeton, was later pro- 
moted to the position of major, which he filled with distin- 
guished ability. 

Magnificent record of a gallant hundred who, going 
at the first call of an imperiled country, rendered invalu- 
able service, to the great honor of the patriotic county of 
Cumberland. 

As the veterans marched anud applause and cheers 
the vacant places in the depleted ranks of the splendid com- 
pany were more and more apparent. The erect forms of 
Randolph, Pew. Bacon, Clark, Crandol, Fogg, Jackson, 
Johnson, Keen, Nichols, Sheppard, Stockton, Thompson, 
Thornard, Tyler, Yearicks and Wolf, were not in the visible 
line. They had joined the invisible. The blood and tears 
of earthly suffering had been e.xchanged for the peace of 
that glorious land in the house not made with hands eternal 
in the heavens. 

"Nor wreck, nor change, nor winter's blight. 
Nor time's remorseless doom. 
Can dim one ray of holv light 
That gilds your glm-ious tomb." 

At the Crove on West Commerce street the exercises 
were opened b\- an elocpient ])ra\er from the lips of Rev. 

(lOh) 




WAR TIME PICTURES-lslil-lMi.'. 

Group Company F i " Cumberland Greys " . Third N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Francis Albin Reuben Brooks Joab C. Lore 

Bowman H. Buck 

William G. Howell Levi J. Marker 

David B. Husted Thomas P. Coles 



ili'.'.'i 



l/C HISTORIC DAYS 

Henry M. Stuart, rector of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church. 

Hon. John T. Nixon addressed the large assemblage 
which had gathered in his usual magnetic manner. The 
oration by Paul T. Jones was a masterpiece. He welcomed 
the braves to whom he had presented the flag in the early 
spring of '6i, in one of the most patriotic, pathetic and 
eloquent speeches ever delivered in South Jersey. At one 
moment the eyes of his auditors would be dim with tears; 
at another the trees of the grove reverberated with the 
plaudits of his hearers, to whom he recounted the story of 
the heroic deeds of the veterans who had added new glory 
to the flag and the republican institutions which treason had 
sought to destroy. 

Captain Charles F. Salkeld. of stalwart, soldierly ap- 
pearance, whose bravery had been tested on many hotly 
contested fields, whom the men loved as they loved their 
own souls, addressed the audience in an exhaustive and elo- 
quent review of the company's history as follows : 

Fcllozv Citizens. Ladies and Gentlemen : 

"In the name and on the behalf of tiiis organization, 
lately designated as Company F, Third New Jersey Regi- 
ment Volunteers, but more familiarly known to you as the 
'Cumberland Greys." I return you their sincere and heart- 
felt thanks for this welcome greeting, which you have this 
day extended them, upon their arrival among you after an 
absence of over three years at the seat (^f war, most of which 
time has been spent 'mid scenes of danger, toil, hardship and 
privation. 

"Your efforts, ladies of tlie .Aid Society, to conduce to 
our comfort, pleasure and gratification, upon this memorable 
occasion, previous to our departure from home, and during 
our absence, are deeply and thoroughly appreciated, and will 
ever be gratefully remembered and cherished by the recipi- 
ents; never for an instant have the many favors so grate- 
fully bestowed u])on us by you been forgotten, even amid 
scenes of the utmost peril. On the contrary. \ve know from 
our own observation that many an arm has been nerved to 
strike a hcaxier bliw in defence of tliose rights and privi- 



IN CUMHKE<LAXD COUNTY, NEW JERSEY \Jl 

leges bequested us by our ancestors and for which we liave 
been battling when thoughts of home, friends and all those 
who were there laboring to minister to our comfort while 
in camp, upon the battlefield, or in the hospitals — would rise 
prominently before us. 

"The soldier, when about to engage in a hand-to-hand 
conflict with the enemy, very naturally reverts his thoughts 
to scenes far distant, and very liift'erent from those by which 
he is at tlie moment surrounded, and as visions of the happy 
home, and the dear ones he has left behind, present them- 
selves before him, he is animated to more daring and valor- 
ous deeds, that lie may perform his part in subduing the 
enemy, so that he may sooner be enabled to return to enjoy 
those benefits and blessings so dearly prized by him. While 
in active campaign he is peculiarly situated. }Iis lot compels 
him for tiie time to withdraw him.scif from all gentle society, 
or from all that tends to refine or elevate him in the social 
scale. His constant and daily comrades are the rougher, 
sterner sex, therefore some degree of allowance should be 
made if his manners are not as cultivated or poli.shed as some 
of the male devotees of fashion, who enamour cities and 
towns. His heart is warm, impulsive, generous and easily 
imjiressed liy kindness: a letter, a gift, or a kind message 
makes a deep and sensible effect upon him, and if his emula- 
tion be excited and his ambition rewarded, lie will smile at 
danger, and shrink from no foe. 

"During the prevalence of this present unhappy Civil 
War the Federal soldier has established a reputation which 
is world-wide. No troops have ever been compelled to make 
greater sacrifices, undergo more severe and trying efforts, 
than those composing the rank and file of the Army of the 
Potomac. Yet they willingly, gladly, aye cheerfully sub- 
mit to all these discomforts, face danger and death in every 
form, for the preservation of our Union and Constitution, 
as they were handed down to them by their forefathers. 
You ladies have done much to ameliorate their condition, 
and you have a powerful influence, which, if rightly exer- 
cised, tends greatlv towards developing those characteristics 



which shiiukl. and if }ou will hut foster, cherish and assist to 
develoi) these traits, you will learn of still more glorious 
achievements being performed by our armies. 

"All of us from the day of leaving this place, followed 
by }'our pra_\'ers and blessings. ha\'e been looking forward, 
eagerly and anxiously, to the time when we should be per- 
mitted, if spared, to return again to the county which sent 
us forth as her first representatives in the Army of our Na- 
tion. Many of us this day see our fond wishes consum- 
mated, but alas, these sable Ijadges we see. remind us that 
our circle has been narrowed, and that death has been busy 
among us. We would that all our comrades, who, three 
years since, left their homes and friends to obey their coun- 
try's call, were with us to participate in the festivities of 
to-day, but an all-wise Providence has deemed proper that 
it should be otherwise, and while we have been preserved, 
we must not forget the fact that the remains of nearly a 
score of our former companions in arms lie mouldering 
near the banks of the Potomac, the Chickahominy, the 
James, the Antietam, the Rappahannock and the Po. The 
so-called sacred soil of Virginia should seem doubly sacred 
now by reason of the blood of our heroes, who rest in their 
silent graves beneath it. 

"The record described on this banner will tell you how 
well, how nobly, those departed ones, as well as their sur- 
vivors, performed their obligations to their country; upon 
all those bloody fields have they faithfully defended the flag 
of their nation, never once allowing it to fall into the enemy's 
hands. A sacred and important trust assigned to thern. 
but one honestly and truly performed. 

"Attired in these same soiled and tattered uniforms in 
which you behold them, with the others of their regiment, 
have they gallantly confronted their foes face to face, caus- 
ing them during the last three days even of their service 
to fiy from their cold and glistening bayonets, and though 
the air was hot and thick with screaming .shells, and whist- 
ling bullets, bravely did they ascend the heights of Cold 
Harbor, the enemy retreating from their steady firm ad- 




Group Company F 
James B. Woodruff 

James G. Westcott 



WAR TIME PICTURES-l>^il-l-itVl 

Cumberland Greys " . Third N. J. Reg. Inr. Vols. 

Joseph R. Woodruff William Mulford 

Charles T. Jordan 
Clarence J. Mulford Aaron Allen 



174 HISTORIC DAYS 

vance; and in all the engagements now recorded as a portion 
of our national history have they courageously performed 
their part, as the transcripts of the company will readily 
show. The fields of Gaines' Hill. Bull Run, Fredericksburg, 
Salem Heights, South Mountain. Antietam, Gettysburg. 
Mine Run, Wilderness. Spottsylvania and others will attest 
to their coolness, bra\ery and intrepidity. Many of them 
bear about their persons the best and most convincing proofs 
confirming a soldier's undaunted courage, scars recei\cd in 
battle while in line of their duty. Proud, indeed, should you 
be, my comrades, of these wounds, those maimed, disfigured 
limbs : you came by them honorably and risked your life 
for them, and they will be the boast and pride of your chil- 
dren and your children's children, in after years, when re- 
ferring to you, mentioning the services you rendered in 
endeavoring to suppress this gigantic rebellion. And it will 
be your own boast as time shall come upon you apace to 
exhibit those blemishes and relate portions of your own 
experience, which occurred while yi>u were connected with 
the Army of the Potomac. 

"It may not be inappropriate at this time to give a sum- 
mary of the history of this company from the date of its 
muster into the United States service, three years ago, 
to the present time. It left this place May 27th, 1861, fully 
officered and with ninety-eight enlisted men. Two other 
officers and four recruits were afterwards added, making 
the total number belonging to the company one hundred 
and se\-en : i>i that number, two officers have been [)ronioted 
to other commands, two discharged and one mustered out 
with the company. Eighteen men have died and been killed 
in action, lliirty-two have been discharged, the majority 
from wounds, the others from disability. Eighteen have 
been transferred, a portion to the Veteran Reserve Corps, 
others to the Navy, some to other regiments from New Jer- 
sey, by reason of re-enlistments. Four have been dropped 
from the company rolls as deserters, and thirty mustered 
out on account of expiration of their term of service. At 
Gaines' Hill, two years since, the company went into action 



IX clmi!i:ri.axd county, new jersey 175 

numbering sixty men. and supporting regimental colors, and 
withdrew at the close of that fearful engagement with but 
thirty-one, the remainder having been killed, wounded or 
captured. At Manassas, two months after, two were killed 
and three captured. At South Mountain, during the first 
Maryland campaign, the company numbered twenty-two, 
two were killed and three wounded. At Antietam, three 
days later, five were wounded ; at Salem Heights, after the 
occupation of Fredericksburg, Va., May, 1863, one was 
killed and six wounded, and during the campaign under 
General Grant, inaugurated May 4, 1864, up to the time 
of their leaving the front, three were killed and died of 
their wounds, eight were wounded and four captured, the 
last mentioned were soon retaken by our cavalry and re- 
turned. 

"The casualties attentling the company have not been 
so great as many persons might suppose, from the amount 
of service rendered, having taken part in all the general en- 
gagements the Army of the Potomac ever participated in, 
with the exception of Williamsburg and Fair Oaks. It 
seems as if a special Providence watched over us and pre- 
served us, when we think of the danger and exposure we 
have been subjected to. Let us reverently iiope that we are 
sufficiently thankful for the great mercies which have been 
extended to us. 

■"And now. my comrades, tiic most painful task of all 
devolves upon nie. The hour of separation has nearly 
arri\ed, and we are in future to go forth into the world, 
each of us to follow that career in civil life to which choice, 
circumstances or inclinations may call us. For the last 
three years we have been co-laborers in one common cause, 
we have shared togetiier the arduous and difficult duties 
of the camp, the bivouac, ttie battlefield. We have seen 
our comrades fall dead, dying and wounded, around and 
about us, have heard their groans, dying exclamations, and 
piercing, heartrending slirieks, have followed to their last 
resting-place beneath Virginia sod several of our number. 
but liavc ourselves been graciously spared to return to our 



HISKlKIC DAYS 

happy homes and dear friends, whose familiar faces we see 
ijefore ns to-day. Never in all human probability will we 
be assembled together again after the exercises of to-day 
are concluded. Our duties we obligated ourselves to per- 
form have been executed, and our contract cancelled. You 
ha\e lieen battling these many months with open enemies 
in your front, from whom you are now remo\'ed, but you 
will find it necessary still to be vigilant, or enemies will 
appear upon your front, your rear, and on both flanks, even 
here in your native State. Be wary, watchful, cautious, 
keep vour outposts well guarded and supported, lest they 
take you by surprise. Repel them when attacked, force 
them either to evacuate or capitulate, and all will be well, 
but ne\ er surrender one inch to them. Remember the sacred 
cause you have so long been contending for. Remember 
the leaders you have followed, whose names are now his- 
toric — Kearney, Taylor, Slocum. Smith. Sedgwick and 
Wright, three of whom have sealed their devotion to their 
country with their lives. Remember the blood shed by 
your own comrades, and consider it as a solemn duty you 
owe to their memory to be true to your country now in 
the hour of her great peril, and let us hope that tyrants or 
usurpers may never point to the sepulchre of her liberty and 
mock her degraded and sufifering children. Let us each 
rather once more lend a helping hand, if necessary, to as- 
sist in wresting back our land from those rebel hordes who 
would destroy the best government the world ever saw. 
Let us transmit it unimpaired to posterity, and though we 
may not be lionored with the helm, let us be content to cheer- 
fully unfurl a sail, splice a rope, or clear the deck for action. 
Let us look back one year from to-day at the horrible field 
of Gettysburg, and as the memory of that spot and the 
scenes there enacted come visibly before us. and we contrast 
them with those we witness here, let us renew our obliga- 
tions to bear true and faithful allegiance to our Government. 
But I am warned that I have exceeded the time allow^ed me, 
and must conclude. Tn doing this let me assure each and 
every one of mv unbounded friendship and interest in you. 

(176) 




WAR TIME PICTURES— 1M(U. 1st;-) 
Group Company F ,," Cumberland Greys." Third N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Michael Swing ^V. Scott ^ViUiams William H. Negley 

Thomas M. Woodruft 
Jonathan Fadely Eldorado H. Grosscup 

John C. Garrison 
(1771 



HISTORIC DAYS 

Wherever in the future your lots may be cast, remember 
you have no firmer friend, or no one who will always feel 
more interested in your welfare than he who lately had the 
honor of commanding you. That prosperity may attend 
you is my earnest desire, and while taking leave of our kind 
friends here, who have so kindly welcomed us home, I will 
also bid you adieu." 

Franklin F. Westcott, Esq., then addressed the veterans 
in a brief, patriotic speech, laudatory of the service they 
had rendered the county and the nation. 

The exercises closed with a feeling benediction by Rev. 
John W. Hickman, the beloved pastor of Commerce Street 
M. E. Church, after which the soldiers sang "Rally 'Round 
the Flag. Boys, Rallv Once Again ! Shouting the Battle Cry 
of Freedom !" 

Counter-marching back to Grosscup's Hall, the "Greys" 
were received by the Ladies' Aid Society of Bridgeton, and 
tendered an elegant dinner prepared by E. Davis & Son, 
of the Davis House. It was a festive occasion around the 
feast of delicious viands, waited upon by the hands of 
Bridgeton's fairest young ladies, surrounded by a wealth of 
floral decorations, and in the presence of the best citizenship. 
Memories of the war, still fresh from the tented fields — the 
fallen comrades — the dreadful scenes of battles lost and won 
— the advance — the retreat — the defeat and final victory 
were before them. But home with its joyous environments 
was theirs at last! Victors of many well-fought fields, well 
done ! well done ! 



Manv were the interesting stories told of the days by- 
gone in march and bixnuac. when the jiigs and poultry of 
some rebel farmer were appropriated for the use of the boys 
of Company F. One of the best was that which concerned 
Comrade John C. Garrison. John was a Christian, and a 
strong believer in honesty, lint (Uioe while the Third New 
Jersey lay encamped near Gaines' Mill, Virginia, it was dis- 
covered that the miller who ground the grist was very bitter 
in his talk against tlic Yankees. He furnished a good qual- 

(17.S) 




DRUM CORPS "CUMBERLAND GREYS" 
Company F, Third New Jersey Regiment Inf. Vols— l^^JlI 
Horace E. Loper. Fifer 
William Painter, Drummer 

(179) 



l8o HISTORIC DAYS 

ity of tlour, but under General ^IcClellan's orders neither 
the miller's property nor his Hour could be touched. The 
boys were anxious for a little of that Hour, nevertheless, 
and so it was arranged that while a squad of comrades en- 
gaged the rebel miller in conversation Garrison was to slip 
in back of the mill and get away with a bag. The scheme 
worked like a charm, and so it came to pass that wiiile the 
bovs talked witli the "■rcb." lohn took tlie tlour. 



Among the first to enlist in the "Cumberland Greys" 
were Horace E. Loper, fifer; l<"rancis .Mbin ("Dart") and 
William ("Billy") Painter, tlrummers. No musician in 
the Army of the Potomac could handle a fife more melodi- 
ously than Horace, and none were more skillful with the 
drum sticks than "Frank" and "Billy." The former re- 
turned with his comrades at the end of his three-year term 
of enlistment with the honors of fife major. Horace Loper 
was one of three breathers who had local fame as "Crockett 
the First." Frank Loper was "Crockett the Second." 
Johnny Loper was "Crockett the Third." All were gifted 
as musicians. On his return from the war Fife Major Loper 
gave some vivid descriptions of scenes of service, but said 
he, "The saddest and most heartrending were those of the 
battle of Cold Harbor, fought just i)revious to the discharge 
of the three-year men. when so many of the Third Regi- 
ment were killed and wounded. Such sights were terrible 
to witness, and brought tears to many eyes." Drummer 
Francis .\lbin. who had gone into the i\egimental Band, 
was discharged .August lo, i86j, by an act of Congress 
which re])ealed the act under which the Third Regiment 
Band was organized. 1 )rummer William Painter went in 
at the beginning and remained to the end. He re-enlisted 
December 30, 1863, and was honorably discharged June 29. 
1865. The echoes of your martial notes have long since 
died away, noble drum corps of the sixties: the last re\eille 
has sounded — "Xo liraving horn or screaming fife, at dawn 
shall call to arms." 



IN CUMBKRLAND COLNTV, XKW J KUSKV l8l 

Fife Major Loper, of the "Greys," had talent as a poet. 
After the Third Regiment had arrived in Virginia he coni- 
poseti and printed a patriotic song, which he distributed 
among liis comrades and sent to his friends at home. Ap- 
pended is tlie song as Horace wrote it : 

THE NEW JERSEY THIRD. 

BY H. E. I.OPF.R, COMPANY F. 

Conic all yc true .-Vmcricaus, I pray you It-iid an ear, 
I'll tell you as true a talc as ever you did hear ; 
'Tis of the New Jersey Third, as you will understand. 
It is a famous regiment. Col. Taylor in command. 

'Twas in the year of si.xty-one, and in the month of May, 

We left our wives and sweethearts, in a lamenting way ; 

To go and tight Secession, and the traitor's flag pull down, 

.•\nd those we left may rest assured we'll strike it to the ground. 

We struck our tents at Trenton on the 28th of June— 
The fields and flowery gardens and meadow? were in bloom; 
Whilst on our way to Washington the pretty girls would say, 
There goes a gallant regiment from the State of Xew Jers-a. 

When we arrived at Washington, the people looked amazed. 
To hear the yells of us Jerseymen— they really thought us crazed; 
Whilst jumping from the cars you could hear their voices loud. 
Crying "Vengeance to Secession," as we passed the eager crowd. 

We had not been at Washington more than three weeks or four. 
When we received an order to cross to Virginia's sacred shore ; 
Through woods and mud we traveled, whilst hungry, tired and dry. 
We never shall forget that night until the day we die. 

We arrived at Camp Trenton about ten o'clock that night^ 
I'lrt sure t' would rend the hardest heart to witness such a sight ; 
We lay upon the cold, damp ground until the lire.ik of day ; 
When we arose we found ourselves in a bed of mud and clay. 

We pitched our tents, in short, on top of Roach's hill ; 
We soon had all things fixed. ;ind then remained quite still. 
I'ntil the ifith of July, a skirmish we heard say 
Had taken place at Springfield, and we must march that way. 

When we arrived at SpringReld. the rebels they had fled. 
Unto that sad. ill-fated field, where many brave hearts bled; 
Then to building up the bridges we impatiently did go. 
That were torn down and burned by our rebel foe. 

Then next tn Fairfax Station, our steps we did repair, 
But little did we think how we were going to fare: 
Hard crackers, without water, we were obliged to eat. 
And to add to our misfortunes, we were ordered to retreat. 

Those orders were obeyed, although against the grain. 

To leave them in possession, and go from whence we came ; 

Rut we'll show them hereafter, we can stand before a gun. 

.\nd they never shall experience another Bull Run. 



i82 msToRK' UA^.s 

Although to theni a victory, to us it has been more, 
Akhougli many a true soldier lies in that field of gore; 
The time is fast approaching — how soon we do not care — 
For the Third is waiting patiently to gain of praise her share. 

Here's health to Col. Taylor and Lieut. Col. Brown, 
Also to Major Collett, for their betters can't be found; 
And to Capt. Stickney, and Company F success — 
For 'tis as brave a company as the regiment does possess. 

My song cannot be ended until our hopes and fears are told ; 
The time is fast approaching, which will a tale unfold ; 
The final blow will soon be struck, and traitors get their due; 
And soon we will return to those, whose love for us is true. 

We anticipate a glorious time, when again on Jersey shore. 

If God in His boundless mercy should protect us through this war; 

But if it be His will that on the field we lie, 

Our friends at home will full well know that at our post we die. 



Among the gallant men in the ranks of the "Cumber- 
land Greys" was Smith Dalrymple, of Bridgeton. Tall in 
stature, of fine physique, patriarchal beard, and genial man- 
ners, intelligent soldier was comrade Dalrymple. A printer 
by trade, previous to the war compositor and editor of the 
Bridgeton Chronicle. He was a writer of more than ordi- 
nary ability. His life was replete with strange experiences 
and remarkable escapes from death. In 1856 he was one 
of the few who escaped with their lives from the decks 
of the burning ferryboat "New Jersey," destroyed by fire 
while crossing the Delaware River from Philadelphia to 
Camden. Serving throughout the Civil War meritoriously. 
he seemed to bear a charmed life, coming to the end after 
many close calls unscathed. Immediately on taking posses- 
sion of Petersburg, Virginia, by the Union Army, under 
General (irant. Smith Dalryni])le discovered a printing 
ofifice from which the Confederates had fled in great haste. 
Going into the composing room of the defunct sheet, Smith 
took to the case, and in a few hours after the Union occupa- 
tion of the city there issued from the Confederate press 
under date of April 8, 1865, a spirited Yankee newspaper, 
five columns in width, with the title "Grant's Progress." 
The type was set and the paper worked off in connection 
with Comrade Dalrymple by soldiers of different regiments 



IN' CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 183 

who had not forgotten their trade as printers. The lead- 
ing editorial in this novel journal said: "W'e believe in the 
United States, now and indivisible, in Abraham Lincoln, 
our adopted father; in IJ. S. Grant, Captain of the Host, 
and in ourselves as the principal sojourners in the Army of 
the Potomac, and the freedom of the contrabands, and the 
speed}' extinction of the rebellion, and the perdition of 
Teff. Davis here and hereafter." 



The pastors of the Bridgeton churches were outspoken 
for the Union during the trying days of the great war. From 
every pulpit rang an appeal for loyalty, and many were the 
eloquent sermons delivered and stirring prayers offered to 
the God of battles that victory might crown the Union arms. 
Among this splendid corps of Christian ministers was Rev. 
James M. Challis. Dr. Challis was a retired Baptist clergy- 
man, resident of Bridgeton, who was an enthusiastic Union 
man and great admirer of President Lincoln. At one time 
during the war while the pulpit of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Bridgeton was vacant pending a successor to 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Beach Jones. Dr. Callis preached 
several sermons. One Sunday morning when the national 
horizon was shadowed with gloom because of repeated re- 
verses to the Union arms, the doctor entered the pulpit 
brimful of patriotic earnestness, giving utterance to one 
of the most remarkable prayers ever heard in any church 
After praying for the success of the Union armies in the 
field and the navy upon the sea. he fervently exclaimed 
"God bless the soldiers and sailors. God bless the President 
of the United States," and here the doctor paused. "And, 
T-ord. T mean Abraham Lincoln." 



Congress adjourned in the spring of 1863. when the 
term of Hon. John T. Nixon expired and that gentleman 
returned to his home in Bridgeton. A service of four years 
in the exciting days immediately preceding, and the open- 
ing days of the great civil conflict in the Congress of the 



HISTORIC DAYS 

United States, had ripened Mr. Nixon's great abili- 
ties. Going to Washington a novice, so far as national 
affairs were concerned, he returned a statesman. Those 
who knew him will never forget him. The author of this 
volume can see him even now, standing in the forum of the 
Cumberland Court House, addressing the jury as to the 
merits of the cause entrusted to his hands by plaintiff or 
defendant. And the cause which he defended or argued 
was always meritorious, because it was a cardinal principle 
of Mr. Nixon's life that he would not appear as an advocate 
of any acti(jn which he knew to be wrong. The client who 
desired his service must first give him a truthful statement 
of the case, otherwise he would not agree even to listen to 
it. If the client was in the right, then he was sure that 
the great talent of the former Congressman would be ex- 
erted to its utmost limit. John T. Nixon's sole and only 
standard was "thrice armed is he whose cause is just." 
Discouraging litigation instead of creating it, as is too often 
the rule by lawyers of modern days, he lived to the end a 
goodly and upright life. His silver gray head and flowing 
side whiskers could say yes or no, with significant em- 
phasis, while his sincere argument and eloquent sentences 
touched tlie hearts of many juries for the righteous verdict 
whicli he desired should be based upon the truth and the 
evidence. The sterling principles of his life were exem- 
plified not only before the bar of the Court, but upon the 
stump, when in hot campaigns of excited partisans he was 
always the same courteous, argunientive, polished speaker. 
The Nixon family of which the illustrious jurist- 
statesman came was of Fairfield growth. On a small farm 
near the village of Cedarville, in what was then a part of 
the good old township of Fairfield, named after a county 
which the early settlers had left in Connecticut for a home 
in New Jersey, Jeremiah Nixon reared a remarkable fam- 
ily. Besides Judge Nixon, he had other distinguished sons, 
none of whom arc now li\ing. Rev. J. Howard Nixon 
became a minister of the Gospel of the Presbyterian faith, 
at one time pastor of the church in Tndianapolis, Tnd., of 




WAR TIME PICTURES— IS);2-IH)15 
Group Tenth New Jersey Regiment Inf. Vols. 
Lieut. John B. Hoffman Capt. George W. Hummell 

Lieut. William J. Sutton Capt Isaac T. Thackara John Faw/nsbury 

Lieut. James Nieukirk Joseph Simkins C. Henry Seelcy 



1 86 HISTORIC DAYS 

which President Benjamin Harrison was an elder. An- 
other son. James Nixon, went South, became editor of the 
New Orleans Crescent, and led a regiment as colonel in the 
Confederate Army. The remaining brother, William G. 
Nixon, long president of the Cumberland National Bank, 
Bridgeton's oldest financial institution, a financier of great 
ability, amassed a fortune in the keen pursuit of wealth. 
Two sisters became the wives of leading men — one the wife 
of David P. Elmer, the other the wife of General John H- 
Sanborn, of the United States Army. Two other sisters 
became wives of Samuel Bodine, a Philadelphia manufac- 
turer, and Henry Sheppard, of Missouri. 



During Governor Olden's administration Cumberland 
County had furnished a thousand men for military service. 
In addition to the "Cumberland Greys," of the Third New 
Jersey ; Company K, of the Twelfth New Jersey, and Com- 
panies F, G and H of the Twenty-fourth New Jersey, two 
companies of volunteers had gone from Millville, Maurice 
River. Fairfield and other townships. Company B, of Mill- 
ville, Captain George E. Dunlap. Lieutenants James Smith 
and B. Reed Brown, joined the Twenty-fourth. Company 
D. Captain Ethan T. Garretson. of Fairfield; Lieutenants 
Samuel Peacock and Joseph Bateman, joined the Twenty- 
fifth Regiment. Company D, Tenth New Jersey, Captain 
John Evans. Lieutenants Isaac T. Thackara and George \\'. 
Hummell. William J. Sutton. Sergeant, was largely re- 
cruited at Shiloh and in the western section of the county. 
Lieutenant Hummell afterwards became captain, for gallant 
concfn^fin ihe field. Sergeant ^^'illiam J. Sutton was pro- 
moted to a first lieutenancy because of meritorious conduct. 
This company of the Tenth Regiment did valorous .service 
tin-oughout the war, manv of its members serving the full 
three vears and re-enlisting. The Third New Jersey Cav- 
alry also contained a large number of volunteers from Cum- 
berland County. Companv G. Captain Thomas G. Mc- 
Clong, of Millville. coming from eastern parts of the county, 



IN CU.MltliKI.AXr) COUNTY, NEW JERSEV 187 

and Company H, Captain Ethan T. Harris, of Bridgeton, 
from the county seat and the townships immediately sur- 
rounding it. First Lieutenant Barnet Burdsall. of Company 
H, a splendid officer, whose remains rest in the Shiloh Bap- 
tist Cemetery, was killed in a skirmish with guerrillas at 
Warwick Bridge, Virginia, July 5, 1864. The men who 
went into the Third, Tenth and Twelfth Regiments en- 
listed for three years, as did those who enlisted in the Third 
Cavalr\-, hut those who ser\ed in the Twenty-fourth and 
Twenty-fifth Regiments were enrolled for nine months only. 



There were two families in Bridgeton of humble origin 
whose patriotism sent them into the ranks of the Union 
army almost in their entirety. Elizabeth Ayars, widow, re- 
sided on Laurel street. Of her six sons, four of them 
enlisted in Company H, Twenty-fourth Regiment, as fol- 
lows : Edward Ayars, Samuel Ayars, Richard B. Ayars, 
Ephraim R. Ayars. Jeremiah Ayars enlisted in the First 
Delaware Regiment. Beside her five volunteer soldier sons 
Mrs. Ayars had a son-in-law, Bowman H. Buck, in the 
"Cumberland Greys." He had a remarkable career as a 
soldier. \\'hen a young man Mr. Buck served with Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor in the IMexican War, and was present 
at the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma. Cerro 
Gorda. Vera Cruz. Cherubusco, and witnessed the surren- 
der of Santa Anna in the city of Mexico. During the War 
of the Rebellion he fought from 1861 to the close of hos- 
tilities in 1865. This veteran of two wars was enrolled as 
sergeant and came out a sergeant. By reason of his heroic 
conduct on manv battlefields Hon. John T. Nixon secured 
a lieutenant's commission for Mr. Buck, but he would not 
have it, preferring to remain in the ranks with the hoys. 
Few men have such a splendid record as Bowman IL Buck 
and few were so modest when epaulets were to be had. 
Robert G. Clark. Company K. Twelfth Regiment, was also 
a son-in-law of Mrs. Avars, who served his country honor- 
ably. \\'idow Ayars could well be proud of her sons and 



HISTORIC DAYS 

her sons-in-law, for in the hands of faniihes hke hers tiie 
priceless jewel of our liberties was doubly safe from the foe- 
man's treacherous steel. 

Another Icjyal family was that of Richard D. Penn, 
resident of North Bridgeton. Four sons enlisted for the 
war : Isaac and Jesse Penn in Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment ; Amos Penn in Company G. Thirty-eighth Regiment ; 
George Penn in Company G, Third New Jersey Regiment, 
Cavalry, the latter killed in action at Sunnnit Point, \'a.. 
August 21, 1864. 



Then there was the Nieukirk family, which sent three 
brothers : William R. Nieukirk, United States Navy ; 
James P. Nieukirk, first lieutenant. Company H, Tenth 
New Jersey Regiment; John B. Nieukirk, Compan\- H, 
Twenty-fourth New Jersey Regiment. 

And the Croziers, consisting of three brothers : Ed- 
mund Crozier, Company F, Third New Jersey Regiment; 
Elam Crozier. Company F, Third New Jersey Regiment,. 
Cavalry ; Roger Crozier, Company F, Twenty-fourth New 
Jersey Regiment. 

Also the three sons of Phebe Robinson : George W. 
Robinson, Company H, Third New Jersey Regiment, Cav- 
alry; Hosea Robinson, Company F, Thirty-seventh New 
Jersey Regiment, who died in the service and was buried 
at City Point, Virginia, September 10, 1864; William Rob- 
inson, United States Navy. 

In Company H. of the Twenty-fourth New Jersey 
Regiment, there was also enlisted a Bridgeton family of 
three brothers, Thomas W. Shc|)i)ard. Elmer Sheppard. 
John Sheppard. 

The Swinneys, of Shiloh. were another family who 
did much for the land they loved. .\zor E. Swinnev enlisted 
in Company H, Third New Jersey Cavalry, and was killed 
in action at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864, 
while gallantly fighting under the command of General 
Phil. Sheridan, in the famous Shenandoah ^^^llev cam- 

(ISS) 




Ephraim R. Ayars 
Musician Co. H. JIth N. J. 
Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Richard R. Ayars 
Co. H, JIth N.J. Reg. Inf. Vols 



FIVE PATRIOTIC AYARS BROTHERS :- J 

Edward Ayars 

Co. H, Jlth N J. Reg 

Inf. Vols. 



Jeremiah Ayars 
st Del. Reg. Inf. Vols. Samuel Ayars 

Co. H, JIth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols 
(IS9) 



HISTORIC DAYS 

paigii. John G. Swinney, a brother, served a term of three 
years in Company K, Twelfth New Jersey, with merit and 
honors. 

The Brooks family, of Bridgeton, was another loyal 
contingent for the Union cause. Reuben Brooks went 
among the first defenders in Company F, Third New Jersey 
Infantry (Cumberland Greys) ; Joseph C. Brooks, enrolled 
in Company H, Twenty-fourth New Jersey, afterward serv- 
ing in tlie United States Navy; Enoch Brooks enlisted in 
Company H, Third New Jersey Cavalry. 

Still another Cumberland County family of three 
brothers gave much and suffered much for the land and na- 
tion. Horace Garton, Company K, Twelfth New Jersey 
Regiment, died June 3, 1864. of wounds received in action 
at Spottsylvania Court House, \'irginia : Samuel P. Gar- 
ton, Company D, Tenth New Jersey Regiment, died of 
wounds received in action at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 
I, 1864; Isaac T. Garton, Company K, Sixth Regiment, 
transferred to Company G, Eighth Regiment, re-enlisted 
June 4, 1864, served throughout the war. 



Patriotic records indeed., yet there was another family 
in Cumberland County, which gave more than any other to 
the Government which they loved. Near the village of 
Shiloh there resided a family of sterling qualities of mind 
and body. Born upon a farm in one of the most productive 
and peaceful sections of the State, rising with the birds at 
the early dawn, laboring in the fields by day, in the evening 
participating with the good men and women of the neigh- 
borhood in the intellectual and religious work of the noble 
Seventh Day Baptist communion at Shiloh, of such were 
the Randolphs. The young men had heard the story of 
Robert Halford, the fugitive slave, and listened to the 
resolutions of protest passed by the earnest company as- 
sembled in the Session House. In tlie night time they drew 
inspiration from the starry heavens, and, believing in the 
great Architect who rules and overrules, they became stal- 
warts for the righteous cau.se of the down-trodden and op- 

(190) 








WAR TIME PICTURES— 1n;1-1WJ 

The Brave Randolph and Swinney Brothers 

Azor E. Swinney 



Co. H, ;id N J. Reg. Cav. Vols. 
Alfred T. Randolph Sylvester W. F. Randolph 

- - ■ Co. F. ;;d N. J. Reg. 

Inf. Vols. 
Lemuel A. Randolph 
Co. D. loth N. J. Reg Inf. Vols. 

(I'-'l) 



Second-Lieut. Co. B. lith 
N.J. Reg. Inf. Vols 



John G. Swinney 
Co. K. l-th N. J. Reg. 
Inf. Vols. 



I(j2 HISTORIC DAYS 

pressed. At the first sound of the cannon they came for- 
ward witli the spirit of the Greeks at Thermopylae. First 
went Sylvester W. F. Randolph with the "Cumberland 
Greys." in a few- brief months to die in action at Gaines 
Farm. \'a., June 2'j, 1862. Torn by shut and shell, his life 
blood quickly ebbed away, and when comrades sought 
to carry him from the field he protested that they 
should leave him to his fate and succor those for whom 
there was yet hope. With streaming eyes and bruised 
hearts they buried him where he fell. Then went x\lfred 
T. Randolph in Company D, Tenth Regiment, to leave his 
good right arm on the amputation table, the result of a 
rebel bullet in the final struggle before Petersburg. Then 
followed Lemuel A. Randolph in the same com[)anv and 
same regiment. The record says : "Died of wounds re- 
ceived in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 1864. Buried 
at Baptist Cemetery., Shiloh, New Jersey." Three noble 
brothers — two gave their lives that the nation might live, 
falling with their faces to the foe. The other gave an arm, 
and returned to tell the story of the battles fought and vic- 
tories won on Southern fields. What more could one family 
do? What greater service has any family rendered? 



Of such material were the soldiers of Cumberland 
County. The boys in our public schools may read the his- 
toric page from remote ages, but they will never find the 
superiors of the young manhood who fought under our 
flag in the potential armies that saved the Union in the 
tremendous conflict of '61. '62, '63. '64, '65. They did not 
fight for aggrandizement of territory, for glory, or for the 
perpetuation of monarchy. Neither were they forced to 
fight because of the mailed hand of arbitrary rulers. Vol- 
unteers, not conscripts, they fought for humanity and the 
preservation of civil and religious liberty. Caesar or Char- 
lemagne, Hannibal or Henry of Navarre, Napoleon or 
Wellington never commanded such intrepid, such brave, 
such invincible legions. The nation looked on and won- 
dered while patriotic Americans changed the course of his- 



IN CUMI'.EUI.ANl) COUNTY, M:\V J KUSIIV l<;3 

tdiy and out <if the carnage of many bloody fields brought 
forth a new nation dedicated to Inmianity and a new birth 
of h!)erty. Xo more was the starry banner to be called a 
flaunting lie. The brave volunteers were to put a new 
brightness to its stripes and add a new glory to its stars. 



It may have been forgotten by even the oldest citizen, 
but it is a fact, that Bridgeton was represented in the famous 
sea fight in Hampton Roads, Virginia, fought Saturday and 
Sunday, March 8th and 9th, 1862. This battle changed the 
character of naval architecture, and from it dates the era of 
armor-plated ships of war. The IMerrimac was a wooden 
vessel, built at the Norfolk Navy Yard, not yet completed by 
the United States Government, when the Confederates 
seized the yard and naval stores at that port. The latter 
utilized the ship by plating her with railroad iron, thereby 
making a sheath impenetrable by shot or shell from the small 
calibre guns with which war vessels of the day were armed. 
In the roadstead, March 8th, lay the U. S. war vessels Cum- 
berland, Congress and Minnesota, old-time frigates, with 
deck upon deck, and row upon row of cannon — formidable, 
as naval warfare had heretofore been conducted, but there- 
after to become obsolete through and by the appearance of 
armored ships. They were noble-looking craft, of the type 
of those upon whose decks John Paul Jones carried the first 
American flag to victory off Flamborough Head, in the 
North Sea. in the autumn of 1779, during the memorable en- 
gagement with the Serapis, the finest ship in the service of 
his Britannic Majesty, George III. 

But with the advent of the Monitor and the jMerriniac, 
the days of wooden ships were over. On the morning of 
March 8th, the Merrimac appeared and, making direct for 
the Cumberland, opened a terrific hail of iron on that ves- 
sel. The crew of the Cumberland, loyal, brave, worked the 
ship's batteries with rapidity, sending broadside after broad- 
side into the iron monster before them. Blood ran down 
the decks in torrents, and hundreds of gallant tars fell to 
rise no more. The defence was unequal to the attack; so, in 



194 HISTORIC DAYS 

blood and carnage, the Cumberland went down to a watery 
grave. On the deck of the doomed ship were two former 
citizens of Bridgeton. One of them, Rev. John L. Lenhart, 
Chaplain in the Navy, pastor of the Commerce Street ]\Ieth- 
odist Episcopal Church, 1840-1841, was last seen going into 
the cabin. Who knows but what his feet were turned thence 
because of the habit of prayer which had been his custom 
from early childhood? While the beloved Lenhart prayed, 
the Master took him home. The gate of heaven, to which 
he had so often pointed the fathers and mothers in good, olil 
Commerce Street Church, had ushered in his gentle spirit. 
With him it — 

'"Twere sweet, indeed, to close our eyes, with those we cher- 
ish near. 

And, wafted upwards by their sighs, soar to some calmer 
sphere ; 

But, whether- on the scaffold high or in the battle's van. 

The fittest place where man can die is where he dies for 
man !" 

The blood-dyed waters of Hampton Roads were his 

winding slieet, and there he sleeps, waiting the Resurrection 
of the dead. 

Some there were of the crew of the Cumberland who 
escaped death when the ship went down. Among the few 
in a crew of more than 300 men, was William Clark, of 
Bridgeton, who jumped overboard, was picked up by a boat 
and saved. He lived to serve in 1S64-65 as a private 
soldier in Co. H, Third New Jersey Cavalry, and was 
honorably discharged. The great conflict of the Monitor, 
with the Merrimac, occurred the following da\' after tne 
wreck of the Cumberland. Sunday morning, March 9th, 
1862, a puff of smoke seaward, announced the coming of 
John Erricsson's battery knmvn as the "Monitor." The 
latter looked like a cheese-box mounted on a raft — the deck 
being freeboard and almost level with the sea, upon which 
was an iron-clad turret containing two cannon from which 
could be hurled 20o-poun(l projectiles. The Merrimac came 



IN CUMBERLAND COIN TV, NICW JERSEY 105 

gayly out to meet the stranger seeming to say witli jaunty 
air. "I have destroyed the Cumberland, rammed the Con- 
gress and sent the Minnesota high and dry upon the shore, 
who are you to dispute with me the supremacy of the sea?" 
The battle opened wiih fierce attack on either side — it ended 
in victory for the little Monitor, which at an opportune 
moment had appeared and restored the prestige of the old 
flag never previously lost on land or sea. 



The Bridgeton ladies having organized early in 1861 
their Millville sisters took up the work of assistance Sep- 
tember 14th, 1862. Most of their efforts were devoted to 
the needy and suffering soldiers in the various hospitals. 
Six pieces of muslin were given by the Millville merchants 
for this purpose. One hundred yards of muslin and twelve 
pounds of yarn were contributed by Richard D. Wood, cot- 
ton goods manufacturer. The yarn was speedily fashioned 
by the ladies into substantial socks. One good mother in 
Israel, in her 72d year, whose health would not permit her 
to attend the meetings of the society, knit si.xteen pairs of 
socks, besides making eighteen shirts. Pity 'tis that her 
name has been lost, the local papers failing to chronicle it. 
While the Millville ladies were industriously engaged in 
this manner, the Bridgeton ladies were sending bo,K after 
bo.x of clothing and eatables to the front. The dying 
soldier upon the cot in hospital or on the battlefield wet 
with tears the pillow which the patriotic mothers and sisters 
had shaped in the sewing societies at home. Visions of 
angelic faces were his as he passed from time to eternity. 
Who can measure the value of the noble service rendered 
by the splendid women of Cumberland County in that great 
epoch of the war for the Union? In that accounting day 
before the Throne the stor}' will he fully told. Then and 
not till then will their glorious work and its glorious re- 
sults receive the reward of those who "in His Name gave 
the cup of water, and who visited Him when sick and in 
prison." 



HISTORIC DAYS 

The Bridgeton ])apers editorially were speaking out 
strong and emphatic for the Union in the year 1863. The 
Chronicle, puhKshed by George F. Xixon. and Robert F>. 
Potter, was dealing sturdy blows each and every week in 
behalf of the L'nion cause, and was ably edited. Its com- 
ments on the actions of New Jersey Regiments in the field 
and the individual bravery of the soldiers from Cumberland 
County, were especially reliable because editors Nixon and 
I'otter had official knowledge of the movements (editor 
Potter being a lieutenant in the 24th Regiment) and per- 
sonal acquaintance with most of the men who had gone from 
our midst to face the perils of death on ensanguined fields. 
The Chronicle, just after the battle at Cbancellors\'ille. had 
this to say concerning the conduct of two of the Jersey 
Regiments which were more largely than otliers composed 
of sons of the county of Cumberland : 

"At Chancellors\-ille the 24th New Jersey did not 
lose as heavily as some other regiments. It behaved beauti- 
fully, led by Colonel Robertson. Major I-"itliian, acting as 
aid to General French, l)ehave(] in a most gallant and 
soldierly manner through the whole fight." 

"The conduct of the 25th New Jersey in the recent 
conflict on the Xansemond, near Sufi^olk, \^irginia, is 
spoken of in high terms of praise. They formed in con- 
nection with the 103d Xcw York, the right wing of the at- 
tack, and are described as doing their work splendidly, 
driving the enemy back slowly but surely. 

"It gi\es us special pleasure to make this statement, 
inrismuch as the b'airfield Company from this county. Cap- 
tain (iarretson's, belongs to this regiment. There are many 
other Cumberland and Cape May boys in the 25th." 



While the town of Bridgeton and the western town- 
siiii)s of Cumberland County produced remarkable families 
of citizen-soldiers to whom reference has been already 
made, the Townships of Fairfield and Downe to the south 
along the Cohansey and by the Delaware Bay were pro- 

(190) 




WAR TIME PICTURES-lSSl-lKS) 

Five Brave Young Men from Fairfield Killed in Battle 

William B. Elmer Benjamin Sockwell 

Co. H, Jlth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. Co. D. J.th N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Albert Jones. Co. G. Jlth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Lewis S. Elmer Theodore W. Elmer 

Co. G. IJth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. Co. H, 3d N. J. Reg. Cav. Vols. 

(197) 



igS 



HISTORIC DAYS 



portionatelv patriotic. \\ hen the flag at Sumter was in- 
sulted the farmer boys and oystermen came boldy, bravely 
forward. 

In the gallant contingent from Fairfield came the Elmer 
family to take a leading part in the great battles for human 
liberty. Theodore and Ann Elmer gave three sons, as fol- 
lows: To Company E, I2lh Regiment, Lucius O. C. Elmer, 
who served honorably and was transferred to Hancock's 
X'eteran Reserve Corps — to Company H, 24th New Jersey, 
William B. Elmer, Corporal, who died at Division Hospital, 
near Falmouth. Virginia, of wounds received in action at 
Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862 — to Company H, 
3d New Jersey Cavalry, Theodore W. Elmer, Corporal, 
died in the prison at Salisbury, North Carolina, January 
13th, 1865, a prisoner of war. To this list of loyal Elmers 
may be added the name of Lewis S. Elmer, son of Owen 
Elmer, Company G, 12th New Jersey, killed in action at 
Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, 1863. 

Then came the Williams family! Daniel W^illiams was 
a leading farmer and business man of the county. He re- 
sided on a farm just below Herring Row schoolhouse, upon 
which he raised a large and interesting family. For several 
years he was President of the Bridgeton and Philadelphia 
Steamboat Company, the corporation which built the swift, 
beautiful steamer City of Bridgeton, placing that boat upon 
the Cohansey River in tri-weekly trips to and from Phila- 
delphia. Mr. Williams was a robust defender of the Union, 
and his heart beat strong for the success of the great cause. 
Erecting a tall pole on his farm he hoisted the Stars and 
Stripes, declaring that the colors should never come down 
from that pole until his three boys, who had enlisted for 
the war, returned to him dead or alive. His was the spirit 
of the Spartan mother when she said: "My son (handing 
him the shield), return with it or upon it." First, went 
William H. Williams in Company F. 3d New Jersey, the 
favorite Cumberland Greys, early in '61, participating in 
the many battles in which that company and regiment took 
heroic part. James P. Williams followed, enlisting in Com- 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY I99 

pany K, 12th Xew Jersey, becoming Corporal, Sergeant 
and First Lieutenant by rapid promotion. James was on 
the firing line at Gettysburg and served meritoriously until 
the close of the war. Later Benjamin Frank Williams 
joined Company D, 25th New Jersey, rising from Sergeant 
to Second Lieutenant pre\ious to the expiration of his term 
of enlistment. 

From Fairfield also went a son of Sherrard Sockwell. 
veteran Democrat, who loved his country above and beyond 
his party. Benjamin F. Sockwell, Company D, 25th New 
Jersey, died at Stanton United States Army General 
Hospital, Washington. D. C, February 5th, 1863, wounds 
received in action at Fredericksburg. Va. ; leg amputated. 
Many were the patriotic addresses made on Decoration 
Days in later years by Mr. Sockwell. in remembrance of 
his soldier son. 

Albert B. Jones. Company G, 24th New Jersey, another 
Fairfield boy, sealed his devotion to his country, dying at 
the hospital near Fredericksburg, \'a.. of wounds received in 
action at Fredericksburg. December 13th, 1862. 



The Union fleet fought the battle of Mobile Bay, Au- 
gust 5, 1864. Admiral David Farragut. a naval hero of 
the John Paul Jones stripe, captured the fortifications in the 
harbor of Mobile known as Morgan. Powell and Gaines, 
after running through a field of torpedoes and a terrific 
storm of shot and shell. During the height of the battle 
Farragut directed operations of the fleet from the masthead 
of his llagship, the "Hartford," to which he had been lashed. 
The night previous to the engagement the Admiral sent a 
telegram to the authorities at Washington which read : "I 
am going into Mobile in the morning, if God is my leader, 
as T hope He is." Early the following day he appeared upon 
the quarter-deck and said to his flag officer: "What direc- 
tion is the wind blowing?" The officer answered by saying 
that it was from a favorable quarter. "Will it blow our 
smoke in the face of the enemy?" The reply was: "It will." 
"Then," said .Admiral Farragut. "T think we had better go 



lUSTUlUC DAYS 

in." This was the word of command from the veteran leader 
and the fleet went in, its decks sHppery with tlie blood of 
patriots, bnt with colors flying to the great glory of the 
American Navy and the crushing defeat of the Confederates. 
The news of the successful issue of the conflict in Mo- 
bile Ba_\- roused the loyal North with a great wave of en- 
thusiasm, and Farragut and his men were the heroes of the 
'hour. Two families in the town of Bridgeton were repre- 
sented in that great naval battle, and intensely interested in 
the news which might bring joy or sadness to their homes. 
Ezbon C. Lambert, son of William Lambert, was an ofificer 
on the gunboat "Itasca" of the West Gulf Squadron. Wil- 
liam T. DuBois was aboard the dispatch boat "Glasgow." 
Fortunately both were alive anl unscathed. Ezbon was 
enrolled in 1861 with his brother, William S. Lambert, as 
a musician in the regimental band of the Third New Jer- 
sey, serving in that position until 1863. Re-enlisting in 
the United States Navy, he remained to the close of the war. 
While the fleet lay in Mobile Bay, one day the Admiral's 
gig came alongside the "Itasca," and up the ladder came 
Farragut. A man of medium stature, with round, smooth 
face, fatherly in appearance, he stepped upon the ship's 
deck with a familiarity which made him a favorite with 
both officers and men. With a glance at the twenty-pounder 
on the forward deck, he turned to the commander of the 
"Itasca" and said : "Captain Brown, don't you think that 
gun is a little too light, and hadn't you better go over to 
Pensacola and get a thirty-pounder?" The kindly question 
was a command which Captain Brown acted upon promptly. 
How beautifully the dear old Admiral put the orders of the 
dav and the hour none but those who served under him can 
ever knmv. Ever mindful nf the wants of his subordinates, 
ever solicitous for their proper care and treatment, the men 
loved him. Modest, unassuming, all heart, all soul, was 
David Farragut. The Russian .Xdmiral who thirty years 
later dcpf>sited a wreath of flowers on Farragut's tomb in 
Greenwood C"cmetery, said while standing o'er his grax'e : 

(200) 




B. Frank Williams 
Second-Lieut. Co. D, -"'th N.J. 
Reg. Inf. Vols 
James 



WAR TIME PICTURES-lN.l-IflV. 
Daniel Will.ams. Ka.rfield. and His Soldier Sons__^_^ „^.„..„, 



Daniel Williams^ ^ ^_, Cumberland Greys 



P Williams. First-Lieut. Co. G. IJth N. J. Reg 

■.VI) 



Reg. Inf. Vols. 
. InTVols. 



;d N.J. 



202 HISTORIC DAYS 

"Admiral Farragut was the noblest, the bravest, the best 
naval commander the world has known." 

The memory of that noble commander is a sweet fra- 
grance which will linger with the American people so long 
as the Republic shall endure or the historic page shall remain 
to tell the story of the victory won on the waters of Mobile 
Bav. 



The Union League remo\ed its quarters from Gross- 
cup's Hal! and took rooms in Sheppard's building, just 
beyond the Commerce street bridge. An executive commit- 
tee composed of the following members was named : Alex- 
ander Stratton, Providence Ludlam, Robert C. Nichols, 
Stephen G. Porch, Alphonso Woodrufif. Theophilus G. 
Compton, Paul T. Jones. Hon. John T. Nixon, president; 
Morton Mills, vice-president, with Charles D. Burroughs as 
treasurer. 

The rooms were very comfortably furnished and in 
them much zealous work was done during the campaign 
of 1864 for the sti"engthening of the Union cause — and the 
re-election of Mr. Lincoln so far as Cumberland County 
was concerned. The efforts of that patriotic body of citi- 
zens, irrespective of political party, brought splendid re- 
sults. 



Bridgeton was the pivot on which great political move- 
ments revolved in the autumn of '64. The first to open the 
ball were the Democrats of the First Congressional District. 
Delegates from every county in the district came to the 
county seat on the morning of Wednesday, September 14, 
to take part in the proceedings of a convention to be held at 
the Court House. Samuel J. Bayard, of Gloucester County, 
was selected chairman. I. V. Dickinson, of Salem County, 
was unanimously nominated for Congress, M. R. Hamilton 
and Abram Browning, of Camden, declining. 

Mr. Dickinson addressed the convention in a very radi- 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEV 203 

cal speech, which was loudly applauded. One of his para- 
graphs was as follows : 

"But let us patiently wait a little longer; a change will 
surely come. Our chosen chief, the great and good Mc- 
Clellan, will soon be President, and directed by Him whose 
aid he has invoked, establish peace, restore the Union, and 
give each State a full guarantee of all its constitutional 
rights. Let us not be deceived by those who would stir up 
strife and create divisions. There is but one issue before 
the people, and this is distinct and clear. The Democratic 
party is in favor of a speedy peace, the condition of which 
is the restoration of the Union. This is clearly expressed in 
the Chicago platform. General McClellan in his letter of 
acceptance endorses this doctrine in most emphatic lan- 
guage. Mr. Lincoln in his letter 'to all to whom it may 
concern,' makes tlie abandonment of slavery the doctrine 
of peace. This is the issue before the people, and there can 
be no other. If we triumph there will be peace; if we are 
defeated this war will still continue." 

In the same issue of the local paper which published 
the action of the Democratic Convention the following edi- 
torial appeared: 

"General Sheridan has won a great victory in the 
Shenandoah Valley over Early, the rebel general. Win- 
chester is in our possession ; 2,500 prisoners, five guns, and 
nine battle flags were captured; 5,000 rebel dead and 
wounded left on the field. Truly the God of battles is smil- 
ing upon us. IMobile, Atlanta and Winchester are on all 
tongues and gladden all loyal hearts." 

And yet in the face of these great Union victories the 
Democratic party of 1864 was ready to make peace with 
rebels in the field with the assurance that slavery should be 
retained. 

In contradiction of the ignominious peace proposals of 
the Democrats were the noble sentiments expressed by Mr. 
Lincoln in the closing sentences of his message to Congress, 
December 6, 1864. The magnificent character of Abraham 



HISTORIC DAYS 

Lincoln was never more beautifully illustrated than when 
he said : 

"In presenting the abandonment of armed resistance 
to the national authority on the part of the insurgents as 
the only indispensable condition to ending the war on the 
part of the Government, I retract nothing heretofore said 
as to slavery. I repeat the declaration made a year ago, that 
while I remain in my present position I shall not attempt 
to retract or modify the emancipation proclamation, nor 
shall I return to sla\er\- anv person w ho is free by the terms 
of that proclamation or by any of the acts of Congress. If 
the people shall by whatever mode or means, make it an 
executive duty to re-enslave such persons, another, and not 
I, must be their instrument to perform it. 

"In stating a single condition of peace I mean simply 
to say that the war will cease on the part of the Govern- 
ment whenever it shall have ceased on the part of those who 
began it." 



The Republicans of the First Congressional District 
met in convention at tlie Court House in Bridgeton, Tues- 
day, October 5, 1S64. It was the most enthusiastic political 
convention ever held in South Jersey. None of its prede- 
cessors could hold a candle to it — none of its successors have 
equaled it. At half-past 9 o'clock in the morning a pro- 
cession formed in front of the National Union Repttblican 
headquarters in Sheppard's Hall, Commerce Street, headed 
by the Bridgeton Brass Band. It marched by way of Com- 
merce and Laurel Streets to the West Jersey Railroad depot 
on Irxing .\venue to meet the delegations from .\tlantic. 
Camden, Salem. Cape May and Gloucester Counties, then 
en route for the convention. Special trains from Camden, 
Salem and Cape May arrived at the depot about twenty min- 
utes past TO o'clock, with some three thousand shouting Re- 
publicans, consisting largely of marching clubs. With a 
dozen bands of music, flags and I)anners flying, the proces- 
sion began a trinmplial march out Church Street to Com- 




Rev. Isaiah D. King 
Pastor Trinity M. E. Church 

Rev. Joseph Hubbard 
Pastor Second Pres. Church 

Rev. Charles H. Whitecar 
Presiding Elder M. E. Church 

Rev. Henry M. Stuart 
Recto St. Andrews P. E. Church 



PATRIOTIC PREACHERS OF BRIDGETON— '.H ;'.l.-.i.:. 

Rev. James M. Challis Rev. James Brown 

Retired- Baptist Church Pastor First Baptist Church 

Rev. Charles E. Hill Rev. Gasper R. Gregory 

Pastor Commerce Street Pastor First Prcs. Church 

M. E. Church Rev. John W. Hickman 

Fastor Commerce St. M. E. Church 

Rev. Richard Thorn 

Pastor Trinity M. E. Church 



.Mo) 



206 HISTORIC DAYS 

merce Street, down Commerce to the bridge, up Commerce 
Street hill to Franklin, and thence to tlie Court House. 
Paraders from Bridgeton joined the visiting delegations, to- 
gether with hundreds of persons from the townships of 
Deertield. Hopewell, Stow Creek, Downe, Fairfield, farmers 
in wagons wreathed with evergreens and bearing banners 
with inscriptions. One of the transparencies from Stow 
Creek bore the following bit of rural poetry: 

"Stow Creek is all right. 
You need not be afraid ; 
We will all go down to Jericho, 
And vote for Uncle Abe." 

The march of the cheering Repubhcans was an ova- 
tion. From balcony and every window along the route 
ladies signaled and waved it onward with handkerchiefs and 
flags. The Chronicle, in referring to the enthusiasm of the 
ladies, said : "Especially pleasing was the greeting extended 
at the Female Seminary, known as Ivy Hall, e\ery window 
of whose ample front literally burst with patriotic beauty." 
When the parade arrived at Commerce Street bridge the 
rear was yet at the depot on Ir\ing Avenue : and so long was 
the line that it took one hour for it to pass the Davis House. 
It was acknowledged that no such spectacle of popular en- 
thusiasm had ever before been witnessed in Bridgeton. As 
the marching column passed, the various clubs sang war- 
time songs, placing especial stress on the clause of "Rally 
'Round the Flag," which ended in the lines — "Down with 
the Copperheads, up with the Stars." This particularly 
irritated the Democrats, who now and then appeared on the 
sidewalks to watch the procession, and the result was that 
several hand-to-hand fights and scrimmages took place, in 
which the local Democrats were badly used up by the rough- 
and-ready element from Camden. Whisky from Edmund'.s- 
bar added to the hilarity, and a land office business was done 
at the hotel. By evening the Republicans had cleared up 
the town and not a Democrat was in sight. The town mar- 
shal and his specials were powerless, and in an attempt ta 



IN ClMliKKI.AND COL' NT V, NEW JKRSKY 207 

restore order llie marshal himself was rolled in the "gutter. 
It was a day of tremendous excitement. To crown the tur- 
moil of excited partisans Uncle Eph's omnibus was seized 
and packed full of cheering Republicans who made a tour of 
the town without compensation, by sheer force of numbers. 

While the convention was in session James M. Scovel, 
then a prominent leader in the Republican politics of West 
Jersey addressed a great mass meeting in the open lot in 
the rear nf Grosscup's Hall. It was a tiery speech, replete 
to the brim witli satire of the Democrats and eulogy of Mr. 
Lincoln and his Administration. Scovel was of impressive 
ap]5earaticc and splendid voice. Then in his prime, he com- 
manded the applause of his audience with encore after en- 
core. As a member of the New Jersey Senate he had be- 
come unusually prominent with men of affairs, and was 
personally acquainted with President Lincoln and a frequent 
visitor to the White House. It was said that the President 
had ;;reaL respect for Colonel Scovel, because of his zeal and 
loyalty for the L'nion when so many others from Jersey 
were lacking in those qv:alities. Of this friendship on the 
part of the immortal Lincoln, Scovel was always very 
proud. 

The evening of the convention was a gala night. An 
immense torchlight parade, led by the Fort Delaware Band 
made the streets over which it passed as light as day. Com- 
merce Street was on fire with Roman candles, rockets and 
glittering torches. Transparencies carried in this proces- 
sion stared the onlookers in the face with sentences like the 
following: "We are Coming, Father Abraham!" "The 
Rebellion can only be ended by a hard fight, and we will 
make it!" "Ballots for Union men, bullets for traitors!" 
"We do not belong to the Left Wing of Jeff Davis' Army!" 
"McClellan is tough, but who can stand Pendleton ?" On 
the sides of one of the transparencies were pictures of Mc- 
Clellan on horseback, smoking the pipe of peace, and Pen- 
dleton alongside of him. riding a donkey. It was the Wide- 
Awake campaign of i860 over again, more spectacular, 
more demonstrative because of the critical national situa- 



2o8 IIISIOKIC UA^■S 

tion pending the settlement of the great issue of compromise 
v.itli reliellion. or tlie continuance of the war and the ulti- 
mate triumph of the I'nion cause. 

Hon. Frederic T. I'relint^huysen, the most gifted public 
speaker New Jersey had produced since the days of Samuel 
L. Southard, delivered one cf the most charming, eloquent 
and convincing speeches to the multitude in Grosscup's 
Hall that had ever been heard in Cumberland County. 
The audience listened spell-bound, to lireak into patriotic 
cheers at its conclusion. Freylinghuysen was afterward 
United States Senator, and Secretary of State in President 
Arthur's Cabinet. 

Hon. John T. Xixon was given an ovation at the con- 
vention when he rose to speak. Alexander G. Cattell, of 
Salem, later United States Senator from New Jersey, and 
Colonel .\. B. \\'oodruff. of Paterson, also addressed the 
people during the day and evening. 

The Congressional Cunvention met at the Court House 
about noon. Rev. Charles E. Hill, of Salem, late chaplain 
of the Corn Exchange Regiment of Pennsylvania, and a 
former pastor of Commerce Street ]\I. E. Church, offered 
an intensely loyal and soul-stirring prayer. 

General George M. Robeson, of Camden, was elected 
chairman of the convention, with George B. Cooper, of 
Millville, and J(.ihn S. ^litcliell, of Bridgeton, secretaries. 
General Robeson, a very able and eloquent speaker, aroused 
the convention to a high pitch of enthusiasm in a memorable 
speech. Then at the beginning of a distinguished career he 
was afterward Secretary of the Navy in General Grant's 
Cabinet, and for four vears the ablest Representative in 
Congress ever sent from the First District. 

John F. Starr, James M. Scovel and Paul C. Brinck, 
of Camden : William Moore, of Atlantic, were presented 
as candidates for the Congressional nomination. The vote 
by counties resulted as follows : Starr, 39 ; Scovel. 7 ; 
Moore, 7: Brinck, i. 

lohn !■". Starr's nominaliou was then made unanimous 



IX Cr.\llli;i<l. AM) COUNTY, NF.W .IF.RSKV 2O9 

amid cheers. Starr was a successful iron master of Cam- 
den, who served the district two terms with credit. 

Committee on Resohitions reported the following, 
which were unanimously adopted. Vastly different in senti- 
ment were the utterances of this convention in comparison 
with those adopted by the Democratic Convention when I. 
V. Dickinson was nominated for Congress a few days pre- 
vious : 

"Resolved, That the friends of Union ami Liberty of 
the First Congressional District of New Jersey, in conven- 
tion assembled, do cordially endorse the nomination of those 
true and tried patriots and statesmen, Abraham Lincoln and 
Andrew Johnson, for President and Vice-President of the 
United States : tliat we accept the resolutions adopted by the 
Convention which nominated those candidates as our plat- 
form of principles, and as an earnest enunciation of patri- 
otic sentiments of no doubtful meaning. 

"Resolved, That we recognize as the only true basis of 
a speedy and permanent peace, no compromise with traitors 
until they shall first lay down their arms and submit to the 
Constitution and laws of the Union; that we have implicit 
reliance in our Peace Commissioners, Grant, Sherman, Sher- 
idan. Farragut. and their brave CDUuades, to command nego- 
tiations for a permanent peace. 

"Resolved, That an armistice at this time means, as it 
was intended bv the Chicago Convention, a cowardly and 
disgraceful surrender to a beaten foe : an insult to the heroic 
dead who have fallen in defence of our cimntry, and a 
slander upon those still battling for its prosperity and in- 
tegrity. 

"Resolved, That wc have no luuueaning words of 
'sympathv' for the brave heroes lighting our battles at the 
front, but tender them our heartfelt thanks for what they 
have done in behalf of the Union, and our prayers for their 
continued success." 



The Republicans of Cumberland County completed the 
ticket at a con\ention held in the court house, October 



HISTORIC DAYS 

loth, at lo o'clock. Hon. Providence Ludlam called the 
convention to order. On motion. Seeley Sliute, of Green- 
wich, was made chairman, and John Kandle, of Landis, 
secretary. Rev. James J\I. Challis, an ardent patriot, ofifered 
a feeling prayer in behalf of the Union, appealing to God 
for succor and help with heartfelt thanks to Him for vic- 
tories won. 

John S. Mitchell, chairman of the Committee on Reso- 
lutions, reported a series of resolutions which were signifi- 
cant of the political situation of the hour largely upon the 
lines of those adopted at the Congressional Convention, 
which were adopted amid applause. 

Nominations being in order, Hon. Robert More, a 
former Assemblyman, was nominated by a unanimous vote 
as the Republican candidate for Assembly in the First Dis- 
trict. In the Second District Convention James H. Nixon, 
a rising young lawyer, was selected as the nominee on the 
first ballot. The vote stood— Nixon, 21; Dr. Samuel G. 
Cattell, of Deerfield, 9. Mr. Nixon was then a citizen of 
Bridgeton. He was four times elected a member of the 
House of Assembly, and with this, his first nomination, be- 
gan a distinguished career which ended as a Circuit Judge 
of the New Jersey courts. 

James M. Riley, of Cohansey; Jeremiah F. Zane, of 
Maurice River; Levi K. Moore, of Hopewell, were nomi- 
nated for Coroners. 

Charles L. Watson was renominated for Sherifif, it 
being the custom then to give the Sherif¥ three annual elec- 
tions after his first success, without opposition from either 
political party. 

The Democ-ats of Cumberland County convened at the 
Court House, October igth. at 10 o'clock. Thomas Ware, 
of Stow Creek, was made chairman, and John S. McGear, 
of Bridgeton, secretary. 

Jonathan Wood, of Fairfield, was nominated for As- 
sembly. First District ; Samuel Foster, Maurice River, for 
Assembly, Second District. 

The Convention was perfunctory in its proceedings, 

1210) 




WARTIME PICTURES -In.;-. 

William T. DuBois Elias P. Sec\cy 

Band, Third N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. U. S. Navy Co. F. Fifth Reg. 



Isaac Edwin ^Vest 



as P. Seeley 
Reg. Inf. Vols 



Ezbon C. Lambert and William S. Lambert 
U. S. Navy-Band. Third N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols 



■William V. Robinson 
Co. G. Eighth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 

Elbert Bradford 
Co. F. Thirty-seventh N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 



Jonathan Hustcd 
Co. F. Fifth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 
Joseph \V. Henderson 

Co. G. Eighth N. J. Reg. Inf. Vols. 



212 IIlSldKir DAYS 

and little enthusiasm manifested itself save when the name 
of General McClellan was mentioned. 



One of the local papers under date of October 15th. 
said: 

"The numerous friends of Lieutenant Frank M. Riley, 
of this town, will be gratified to learn that he has returned 
home after imprisonment in Richmond. He was fortunate 
in being exchanged so soon. The fare there was very hard, 
but by sending out bv 'contral)ands' engaged in the prison, 
he was enabled to procure several dollars in Confederate 
money for every one in greenbacks, and thus procure some 
of the necessaries and luxuries of life. Lieutenant Riley 
handed us a copy of the Richmond En(|uirer of the .V'd inst., 
which cost fifty cents. It is printed on a half-sheet of poor 
paper and makes a miserable appearance." 



The Richmond \\"hig, of October 24th, contained the 
following paragraph : "A Yankee raiding partv visited Fort 
Gibson. JNIiss.. last week, and carried off some of the prom- 
inent citizens, among the number the Hon. Henry T. Ellett." 

This was delightful reading for Bridgetonians, who 
were conversant with Ellett's life and character. .\ native 
of South Jersey, Henry T. Ellett came to Bridgeton in 
early life and took up the study of law with ex-Governor 
Elias P. Seelew a noted lawyer of this State who had won 
high honors in politics and at the bar, Ellett was a man of 
ability, and Bridgeton was too small a field for him. He 
married Miss Rebecca Seeley, daughter of his preceptor 
Governor Seeley, and went South. The people of his 
adopted State honored him with a seat in the Legislature 
and other important places. .\ believer in human slavery 
and an extremist as converts from one faith to another are 
apt to be, it is said of Ellett that he made a speech in the city 
of New Orleans in i86t. in which he declared that "the 
North would not fight, and he (Ellett') would take a con- 
tract to drink all the blood that would be spilt." 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NKW .1 KRSIiY _M ,? 

He lived to see the land drenched with fraternal blood, 

and leamed that tiie North would not only fight, but that it 
would fight to the end no matter what the cost or what the 
sacrifice. Two of Ellett's sons enlisted in the Confederate 
army, one of them being severely wounded by a Northern 
bullet, the family suffering much at the hands of the North- 
ern men whom the father had so boastfully denounced as 
cowards. 



Wednesday night, Xovenibcr 2d. the Demncrais of 
Cumberland County joined in a torciilight parade through 
tJie streets of Bridgeton. A large number of men and boys 
took part, but there was a noticeable lack of enthusiasm. It 
was declared by the local press to have been "a sad affair." 
Several inscri])tions on transparencies read : "No Nigger in 
our Woodpile!" "Little Mac's the boy!" "Do you want 
your daughter to Marry a Nigger?" "Give us Back our Old 
Commander!" 

When the procession passed beneath the large flag 
stretched across Commerce street from Slieppard's build- 
ing, containing the names of ".Abraham Lincoln, Andrew 
Joluison .ind X'ictory," it hooted and bowled, which salu- 
tation was answered from the windows of the Republican 
headquarters with cries of "Copperheads," "Traitors." 

It was a night of political bitterness rarely, if ever, sur- 
passed in any Presidential campaign in the history of the 
country. The generation of to-day cannot in the remotest 
degree realize the feeling which pervaded all ranks of so- 
ciety from the highest to the lowest during the contest for 
tlie re-election of .^Kbraham Lincoln in the year 1864. Look- 
ing hack to that historic election, even the men who still 
survive, who were a part of the McClellan contingent, must 
regret that they ever allowed themselves to advocate and 
sustain a ])olicy wliich, had it prevailed at the polls, would 
have restored slavery and destroyed the Union. 



214 HISTORIC DAYS 

Cumberland County was thoroughly canvassed by the 
Republicans of 1864. Meetings and parades were held 
nightly during the month of October at every town-hall and 
every schoolhouse and in every township. Able speakers 
were brought from a distance to enlighten the voters as to 
the political duty of the day. The bulk of the speaking, 
however, was placed upon local talent. Assembly candi- 
dates More and Nixon addressed meetings in every section 
of their districts, but there was no better or more effective 
speaker in the county than John S. Mitchell, a young law- 
yer then but recently graduated from the law office of Elmer 
& Nixon. Tutored by the learned Jurist Hon. L. Q. C. 
Elmer, Mr. Mitchell had a knowledge of law rarely pos- 
sessed. In addition he had the gift of oratory, and was a 
power in the courts and upon the stump. His polished 
sentences rang with unswerving loyalty for the Union and 
made a lasting impression upon the electorate who gathered 
to hear him in the various meetings which he addressed. 
For his excellent work in this and other campaigns Mr. Mit- 
chel could have had high honors had he so aspired, but he 
never sought office, being content with the practice of law. 
Strong in his likes and dislikes, he was an ardent friend or 
an unrelenting opponent. Intensely loyal to his client he 
prepared his cases with great care and fought them to a suc- 
cessful finish. Few lawyers were so strong with a jury, 
and few so argumentative or so eloquent. 



The Bridgeton Chronicle was in the height of its power 
and inllucnce in the campaign of 1864. For forty-seven 
years it had flourished as a weekly newspaper, going into 
the homes of the best families of Cumberland and adjacent 
counties. It had existed under Whig and Democratic leader- 
ship, it was now the leading exponent of Republicanism in 
Southern New Jersey. During this eventful campaign it 
rendered splendid ser\-ice in support of the Lincoln adminis- 
tration, and the war for the preservation of the Union. Its 
editorial pages bristled with keen yet eloquent paragraphs 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NKW J ERSliY 215 

for llie cause on wiiose success depended tlie tuturc of uur 
republican form of government and civilization in the United 
States. Its shibboleth was — "The war must continue until 
traitors are made to bite the dust, and victory rests upon the 
Union arms in a permanent peace." The war for the Union 
must not be a failure, and so believing the Chronicle held up 
the hands of the great leader in the day of battle, adding 
strength and courage to the voters in the county of Cumber- 
land. Cieorge F. Nixon, was editor and proprietor. The 
writer, who was an apprentice in his employ, learning the 
art preservative in early life, will always remember his kind 
disposition, quiet demeanor, and inflexible integrity for right. 
Mr. Nixon was the offspring of one of the best families in 
Cumberland County, a cousin to Hon. John T. Nixon, mem- 
ber of Congress and Federal Judge. He was a native of 
Fairfield township. 



The National election excited the country from length 
to breadth. \\ hen the voters went to the ballot-box, Tues- 
day, November 8th, 1864, the nation seemed almost in the 
throes of dissolution so deep was the chasm between the 
opposing political forces. As the shades of night gathered, 
and the last ballot had been deposited, the people waited 
with bated breath for the great result which was to follow. 

The count in Cumberland County gave the Union Re- 
publican Electors for President 636 majority. John F 
Starr, for Congress, 631 majority; Robert More, Assembly, 
First District, 331 majority; James H. Nixon. Assembly, 
Second District, 318 majority. 

The returns from the First Congressional District 
gave Starr. Union-Republican, 1S49 majority, but the other 
three Congressional districts elected Democratic Congress- 
men, famous among whom was the notorious Copperhead 
Jack Rogers, of the Third District, by 887 majority. 

General McClellan carried the New Jersey Electors by 
a little over 5,000 majority, and also succeeded in Delaware 
and Kcntuckv bv small margins. 



2l6 HISTOStIC DAYS 

Had tlie soldiers in tlie field from New Jersey been al- 
lowed to vote the result would have been different, but while 
their comrades on either hand were casting their ballots, the 
Jersev Blues looked on disfranchised by act of a Democratic 
Legislature. 

The balance of the Union, Eiist and West, New York, 
Pennsylvania and Ohio inclusive, gave Mr. Lincoln hand- 
some majorities. 

Election niglit was turned into a carnival of joy. Dis- 
patches from every section of the countrv kept the wires hot, 
and the crowded rooms of the Union League in Sheppard's 
Hall and the shouting hundreds upon the sidewalks, added 
to the flash of red lights, the music of bands, the boom of 
cannon, the lilowing of horns, and rattle of musketry, kept 
the old town in a cjuiNer of excitement until early (hiwn of 
the following morning. 

The Union armies on distant battlefields listened for 
the good news of the election. To them it was the incentive 
to triumphant results, and so beneath the folds of the old 
flag they took up a new march to victory. 

Confederates in arms heard the news in the \alle_\s of 
the South and trembled. It was the Omega of their strug- 
gles and their hopes for the preservation of human slavery 
through long years of blood and tears — the edict by the 
hand of God in punishment of their sins and their treason. 

To the black man it was the \-oice of liberty calling him 
from centuries of bondage. Standing in his cabin door he 
heard the news and rejoiced. 



The year 1865 opened gloriously. The Presidential 
election of 1864 had settled the question as to who should 
control and what policy was to be piu'sued in the adminis- 
tration of the Government. Victory was in the air — the 
national skies were propitious. On the 4th of March Mr. 
Lincoln again assumed the sceptre in the presence of a 
vast concourse of .Xmerican citizens. Escorted down Penn- 
sylvania avenue by a mas^nificent civic and nu'litarv pageant 



IN CL'MinCKLAND CdlNTY, XKW JKRSEY 21J 

he again faced the people from the eastern portico of the Na- 
tional Capitol. But, under what vastly different conditions 
from those that existed in '61-2. Then, all was doubt and 
gloom — now all was sunshine and presage of coming success 
in tiie final surrender of the Confederate armies. Amid the 
enthusiastic greetings of thousands, the beauty and wealth of 
Washington, and the loyal support of every true American 
in tiie land, he stood with bared head at the hour of noon on 
that early March day. a picture in silhouette with the land- 
scape and sky as a background, the cynosure of all eyes, 
the beloved President of a great nation. The echoes of the 
Presidential oath were yet whispers on the passing breeze 
wlicn w ith great impressiveness he proceeded to deliver the 
following address, acknowledged by the greatest scholars 
to be the most chaste, tender, humble and convincing in- 
augural that ever fell from the lips of prince, potentate, or 
statesinan in anv cduntry or anv clime; 

"Fellow CouiUrymen: At this second appearing to- 
take tlie oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion 
for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a 
statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued 
seemed fitting and proper. Now at the expiration of four 
years, during wliich public declarations have been constantly 
called forth on every point and phase of the great contest 
which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies 
of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The prog- 
ress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as 
well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust rea- 
sonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With hope for 
the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. 

"On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago 
all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil 
war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. A\'hile the in- 
augural address was being delixered from this place, de- 
voted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent 
agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war — 
seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotia- 
tion. Roth parties deprecated war. but one of them would 



2i8 HISTORIC DAYS 

make war rather than let the nation sunuve, and the other 
would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came. 
'"One eighth of the whole populati(.in were colored slaves 
not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in 
the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar 
and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was some- 
how the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate and 
extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents 
would rend the Union even by war, while the Government 
claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial 
enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the 
magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. 
Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease 
with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each 
looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental 
and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the 
same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It 
may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just 
God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of 
other men's faces, but let us judge not. that we be not 
judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That 
of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His 
own purposes. 'Woe unto the world because of offenses ; for 
it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by 
whom the offense cometh.' If we shall suppose that Ameri- 
can slavery is one of those offenses which in the providence 
of God must needs come, but which, having continued 
through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and . 
that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as 
the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we 
discern tlierein any departure from those divine attributes 
which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? 
Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty 
scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet. if God wills 
that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's 
two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, 
and imtil every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be 
paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTV, NEW JEKSKV 2I9 

thousand years ago, so still it must be said 'the Judgments 
of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.' 

"With malice toward none, with charity for all, with 
firmness in the right as God gives us to see tlie right, let 
us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the na- 
tion's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the bat- 
tle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may 
achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves 
and with all nations. 

"ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

"March 4. 1865." 



Few in that vast multitude would have believed it, 
had the statement been then and there made, that within a 
few weeks hence, the form of Abraham Lincoln suicken by 
the hand of an assassin, would lie cold and silent on a cata- 
falque in the rotunda of the building from the marble por- 
tico of which he had just enunciated that memorable address. 
Yet so it was to be. The curtain of the new administration 
lifted in brightness and joy was soon to be drawn in sorrow 
and tears. 

Strange indeed is the web of human life. Fate had 
willed that "General Orders No. 50" should be Mr. Lin- 
coln's last ofScial act. In the stormy days of his first ad- 
ministration the stars and stripes were lowered at Sumter 
by the hand of Major Anderson because of overpowering 
force. With the beginning of his second administration the 
tide of war had restored the fortress to its rightful owner- 
ship, and in the hour of his departure he submitted to the 
nation the appended document for tlie unfurling of the flag 
in the honored place it had occupied just four years previous. 
Then, that very day, like Enoch he walked with God, and 
was not, for the Lord took him. 

"War Department. 
Adjutant-General's Office, 
Washington, March 27, 1865. 

Ordered, first. That at the hour of noon on the 14th 



HISTORIC DAYS 

day of April. 1865, Brevet Major-Geueral Anderson will' 
raise and plant upon tlie ruins of Fort Sumter, in Charles- 
ton Harbor, the same United States flag which floated over 
the battlements of that fort during the rebel assault, and 
which was lowered and saluted by him and the small force 
of his command when the works were e\'acuated on the 14th 
day of April, 1861. 

Second. That the flag, when raised, be saluted by one 
hundred guns from Fort Sumter and by a national salute 
from every fort and rebel battery that fired upon Fort Sum- 
ter. 

Third. That suitable ceremonies be had upon the oc- 
casion, under the direction of Major-General William T. 
Sherman whose military operations compelled the rebels 
to evacuate Charleston, or. in his absence, under the charge 
of Major-General O. A. Gilmore. commanding the depart- 
ment. Among the ceremonies will be the delivery of a 
puljlic address by the Re\'. Henry Ward Beecher. 

Fourth. That the naval forces at Charleston and their 
commander on that station be united to participate in the 
ceremonies of the occasion. 

By order of tlic Prcsi.le;!! i.f t::e Tnit-d States. 

F.DWi.v M. St.vxto.v. 

Secretary of War." 



L'nder the pnixi^iims of an act of the Legislature 
passed in 1864 the first municipal election was held on 
Tuesday, March nth. 1865. The act divided tlie town into 
three wards, with a IMayor, City Recorder, Treasurer. ^lar- 
shal. Solicitor, School Superintendent, and a Common 
Council c<impose(l of two members from each ward, and the 
usual ward officers. The community had been ver\' much 
divided as to the question of incorporation, so mucli so that 
voters were not enthused over the election. .\ fair vote 
was. however, polled, the result being a Republican victory. 
In the division of the city. Commerce street was made the 
line between the First and Second wards, all north and ea.st 

C-'.'M 




\ ^ 



-%— r-y 





EARLY MAYORS, CITY OF BRIDGETON 
James Hood 
Isaac B. Dare Ephraim E. Shcppard 



(Sin 



222 HISTORIC DAYS 



being the First ward, all south and east being the Second 
ward, taking tlie Cohansey river for tlie western boundary. 
The two wards were composed exactly of the territory in- 
cluded in the old Township of Bridgeton. The Third ward 
occupied the territorial limits of the former Township of 
Cohansey bounded on the east by the Cohansey, the west 
and south, by Hopewell Township. 

James Hood, Republican, was elected the first mayor 
by a majority of 29 votes over Adrian Bateman, Democrat. 
Daniel Bacon was chosen City Recorder by 55 majority; 
Uriah D. Woodruff, City Treasurer, by 61 majority; Dr. 
James M. Chaliss, City School Superintendent, by 58 ma- 
jority. Wallace Taylor was elected Marshal without op- 
position, as was John T. Nixon, to the office of City Soli- 
citor. 

Members of City Council selected at this election were 
all Republicans. First ward — Thomas U. Harris, Charles 
S. Fithian; Second ward — David P. Mulford, Samuel Ap- 
plegit; Third ward — Robert C. Nichols, Robert J. Fithian, 
the two latter having no opposition. 

The Mayor. James Hood, was a man of considerable 
ability, strong in his opinions of right and wrong. Be- 
cause of the latter quality his adnu'nistration was not as 
popular as it nu'ght have been. When the new municipal 
government was inaugurated the Mayor by a provision of 
the city charter became the President of Council. Iti that 
position as Executive and President of the city local legis- 
lature Mayor Hood pursued a courageous course, which had 
a salutary effect upon evil doers in the municipality of the 
city of Bridgeton during its early days. 

WitJT the passing of the Township system, the char- 
acter of municipal elections was entirely changed. The 
town meeting which had existed since Colonial days was no 
more. Thereafter the old-time gatherings at the taverns 
in the respective townships of Bridgeton and Cohansey 
in the spring of the year were to become a matter of history 
onlv. For the viva voce vote was substituted the l)allot. 



IN CUMBERLAND COINTY, NEW JERSEY ^23 

Epliiaiiii Sheppard, Democrat, wlio because of his fitness 
for the place, was generally selected hy the iinaniinous con- 
sent of all parties was to act as Mr. Moderator no more. 
John Cheesman. Democrat, whose clerical abilities were 
recognized by the public in repeated elections, would no 
longer act as Township Clerk, and record the suffrages of 
the citizens of the good old town of Bridgeton. Town 
Meeting days, how they loom up in the shadows of the 
past! The long line of good citizens — here they come to 
tell the Clerk by voice what their judgment is as to the ap- 
propriation for roads, for police, for light, for salaries, and 
for township officers. Memory pictures the faces as they 
pass in the long ago. First the Moderator, Uncle Ephraim, 
declares in the shrill voice and clearing of the throat once 
so familiar: "(ientlenien. we are ready to vote! and on the 
motion just made 1 vote "Xo"! as it appears to me that if 
there was a little less extravagance in our town affairs it 
would be considerable better for the tax-payers." Then 
the Clerk votes — then the rank and file pass. Reader, note 
these worthies of the good old days : Providence Ludlam, 
James B. Potter, James Stiles. Ephraim Sheppard.Jr.. Lot 
Loper. Edmund Crozier, John Carter. L. Q. C. Elmer, 
John T. Nixon. Fxlmund Roork. David Potter, James 
Hood, Nathaniel l-'ish. William McCear. Sr., John S. Mc- 
Gear, Hugh McGear. Nathan McGear. John Salkeld. .Alfred 
Maul, Henry Knerr. Joseph Gibson. Sr.. Franklin Dare, 
Isaac Pedrick, Daniel B. Thompson, David P. Mulford, 
Elam Quicksell, Allen Mulford, Moses Mulford, Joseph 
Allen, Robert Jordan. Charles S. Fithian, Nathaniel Strat- 
ton, Alexander Stratton, Samuel Ward Seeley, William 
Alkire, Johnson Reeves, Joseph Reeves, Elmer Camm, Isaac 
Nichols, Isaac Laning, Jonathan Loper, Ner .Allen, John 
R. Graham. Dayton B. Whitaker. John Cheesman. H. R. 
Mer.seilles. Henry B. Lupton. Lewis M'Bride. J. Barron 
Potter. Samuel Hider, Henry Nordyke, Joel Fithian, 
Joseph Borden, Artis E. Hughes. Charles C. Grosscup. 
Robert Poole. Samuel B. Poole. William Pogue. Richard 



UISTOUIC DAYS 

Burch. Levi Wood, Charles Hetzell, Jeremiah DuBois, 
Jonathan Ehner, William S. DuBois. James Whitaker, 
Samuel L. Fithian, Jonathan Paynter, James B. Ferguson. 
Thomas Comae. Francis G. Brewster, Alexander Robeson, 
Lot Harris, Thomas U. Harris, James Woodruff, Abram 
Woodruff, Charles Laning, Daniel Fithian, and a host of 
others. 

Honest citizens of the past were tliey — good men and 
true. The world has not yet seen their superiors in qual- 
ities of head and heart. 

Commenting upon the result of the first election under 
the new charter, the "Chronicle" said : "Let it be handed 
down to posterity and recorded in letters of gold on the 
pages of history that the first election for city officers in 
Bridgeton resulted in electing candidates favorable to the 
Constitution, the Union, the Administration, Liberty, Free- 
dom and Sound Democracv." 



Early in ;\ larch the announcement came from Wash- 
ington that Joseph S. Miner had Ijeen named by President 
Lincoln for the Postmastership of Bridgeton, vice George 
W. Jolmson resigned. 

Quite a lively contest developed previous tf) the mak- 
ing of this appointment. Daniel B. Thompson announced 
himself a candidate, and made an earnest effort to secure 
the office. Mr. Thompson had been postmaster of Bridge- 
ton under the administration of President Tames K. Polk, 
1845 to 1849, being then identified with the Democratic 
party. When the war for the Union opened Daniel B. 
Thompson became a War Democi'at, and finally a Rei)ubli- 
■can. .\ man of strong convictions, prominent in tlie 
Methodist Episcopal Churcli, he had many warm friends 
who zealously contributed time and influence toward his suc- 
cess. Among his friends was Charles E. Elmer, at that time 
one of the mo.st influential citizens of Bridgeton. Joseph S. 
Miner was a young man of fine business capacity, and an ac- 
tive advocate of Republican principles and the Union cause. 




Daniel B. Thompson 
Jeremiah DuBois 



PROMINENT CITIZENS-I«(U-1SC5 

Joseph S. Miner Robert C. Nichols 

Benjamin T. Bright Jonathan Elmer 

Joseph H. Elmer 



226 HISTORIC DAYS 

He also had many friends who labored earnestly for him. His 
petition addressed to "His Excellency, Abraham Lincoln. 
President of the United States," was headed by the names 
of Providence Ludlam, Lewis H. Dowdney, Jonathan El- 
mer, Robert C. Nichols, George W. Johnson, Henry B. 
Lupton. Jeremiah DuBois and many other leading citizens, 
to the number of 283. It was a powerful petition and car- 
ried much weight, composed as it was of representatives of 
the manufacturing and business interests of Bridgeton. 
But, the influence of Hon. Providence Ludlam, Senator 
froni Cumberland County, was paramount in the fight, and 
through his efforts largely Mr. Miner became postmaster. 
The appointment was one of Mr. Lincoln's last official 
acts ; and had not been sent to the Senate at the hour of his 
assassination, but Mr. Miner took possession of the office 
by authority of Postmaster General Dennison. Andrew 
Johnson, on becoming President, refused to issue a com- 
mission to him, and for two years there was a prolonged 
contention over the place. Pending the difficulties which 
arose between President Johnson and the Republican ma- 
jority in Congress, Johnson appointed Samuel R. Fithian, 
postmaster. Mr. Fithian was not confirmed, and did not 
get possession oi the nf+ice. Time went on, the contro- 
versy lietween Executive and Congress grew so bitter that 
the Republican majority passed a measure known as the 
"Tenure of office act," which the President vetoed. Passed 
over his veto it became a law. Under that statute there 
was therefore notliing for Mr. Johnson to do but issue com- 
missions to Mr. Lincoln's appointees. The commission was 
issued to Mr. Miner, March 28th, 1867, for four years. At 
one time during the long contest for the Bridgeton post- 
office, Mr. Miner received a letter from Hon. Henry Wil- 
son. Senator from Massachusetts, in which that famous 
statesman said : "Yon will either be appointed by Presi- 
dent Johnson or no other man will ever be confirmed by 
the United .Stales .Senate." Re-appnintcd by President 
Grant. March 13th, 1871, and February 2r)th, 1875, also 
by President Hayes. March 3(1, 1879, Postmaster Miner 



IX CUMUEULANU COUNTY, NEW J liRSEY 22/ 

served tlie long period of nearly eighteen years. Joseph S. 
Miner proved a model officer, and brought the postal ser- 
vice in Bridgeton to a higli state of efficiency. It was a max- 
im of Thomas Jefferson tliat in tlie line of office holding, 
"few die. and none resign." In Mr. Miner's case it was 
slightly different. The Johnsonites wanted him to either 
die or resign out of spite, but he did neither. After almost 
a score of years of honorable service he could have con- 
tinued in office, but did what few others have done, volun- 
tarily announced through the press, under date of February 
I, 1S83, in a card to the public that: "Whereas my commis- 
sion will soon expire, I deem it proper to give public notice 
that I am not an api)licant for reappointment. With many 
thanks to the citizens of Bridgeton and vicinity for their 
courtesy and kindness to myself, as an official during my 
years of public sen-ice. I remain, yours truly." 

Appointed five times, always the free-will offering of 
his party and fellow citizens, Mr. Miner left a record 
which is parallel to that of the good and faithful servant 
who received the highest compliment ever paid to man in 
the Biblical 'AVell Done!" 



March i8th, 1S65, Captain Ethan T. Harris, a Bridge- 
ton boy, who had served in the "Cumberland Greys," been 
wounded in the seven days' fight before Richmond. Mc- 
Clellan's peninsula campaign, afterward organizing Com- 
pany H. Third New Jersey Cavalry, "the Butterflies." and re- 
turning to the seat of war, again found himself in his na- 
tive town. He was now a paroled prisoner of war, after 
seven months of torture, privations, and imprisonment in 
the prisons of the Confederacy. Incidents connected with 
his capture were interesting. Out w'ith a scouting party of 
his regiment on the 29th of September, 1864, he was cap- 
tured by a large force of guerrillas coming upon him sud- 
denly. The Captain was separated from his command in 
the excitement of the rush and endeavored to escape. 
Meeting a farmer on a road which he had turned into he 



228 HISTORIC DAYS 

inquired the road to Staunton. The man gave him the 
wrong direction, which soon led him in sight of a body of 
the eneni}'. A young girl informed him that they were 
Confederates. He then spurred his horse in another di- 
rection. A shot was soon fired at him which whizzed close 
to his head. He was finally surrounded and taken prisoner. 
His captors robbed liim of his watch, boots and other valu- 
ables. They told him that they had followed him three 
miles, and one of them said he had raised his rifle several 
times to shoot the captain, but feeling certain of his capture 
he refrained. Captain Harris was taken to Libby prison, 
thence to Danville, Virginia, then to Salisbury, North 
Carolina. Eight thousand Union soldiers were at Salis- 
bury, three thousand of whom perished miserably between 
the middle of October and the first of January. Deaths 
still continued after the latter date at the rate of thirty a 
day. Poor fellows without blankets or shelter were com- 
pelled to burrow lioles in the ground, and from the holes 
numerous bodies were taken every morning. Terrible trials, 
terrible scenes did the brave boys in blue pass through and 
witness in the Inferno at Salisbury. 

Captain Harris was fortunate in retaining a fair meas- 
ure of health, and returned to receive the congratulations 
of his family and friends. He was a stern disciplinarian 
some of his men thought, but a good, true, patriotic soldier. 
During his terms of service he was three times severely 
wounded and was breveted major for meritorious conduct. 



Monday. April 3d, 1865, Bridgeton became wildly en- 
thusiastic over the news received by telegraph from Wash- 
ington that the Union Army had captured Richmond. 
When the full particulars were confirmed by the evening 
papers, business was at once suspended. Professor Dor- 
ville's Band appeared upon the streets, and began a sere- 
nade of city officials and the people generally with the 
finest band music that had ever been furnished by local 
musicians. Prof. Dorville was a gifted band master — a 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 229 

Frenclimaii by birth, full to the brim with the musical en- 
dowments of his native land. The way he handled the ba- 
ton that famous night, won the patriotic admiration of the 
town. The cannon fired, flags flung to the breeze, windows 
and residences decorated, torchlight parades, streets filled 
with people, deafening cheers was the order of the night. 
''Richmond is Ours!" was the shout from every throat, and 
each citizen appeared to be trying to outdo his neighbor 
with noise. I^he procession passed the Female Seminary 
in a blaze of red light. Halting there the young lady 
students appeared upon the veranda, sat upon the window 
sills of the building to the topmost story, singing the great 
National st)ng — the "Star Sjjangled Banner." One young 
lady of spendid voice led the singing, and as she rang out 
the verse — 

"What is that which the breeze o'er the towering steep. 
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam. 
In full glory reflected, now shines in the stream ! 
'Tis the Star Spangled Banner, long may it wave. 
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave — " 

the procession jniued in the song with such a vim that it set 
the old courthouse bell on edge to join in the general re- 
joicing over the downfall of the Confederate Capital. 

April 9th, 1865. again the news of victory electrified 
the patriotic North. General Robert E. Lee had surren- 
dered the Army of Northern Virginia to General Grant 
with 20.000 stands of arms, many guns, and many battle 
flags. When the news arrived in Bridgeton there was 
another season of rejoicing, and the town went wild again 
in prei^aration for a great celebration. 

But this very day. when all was so bright for the 
Union cause, the assassin Booth was to destroy the gentle 
life of the sweetest and best ruler the nation had had. 
And. so the festivities were brought to a sudden end by tlie 
telegrams from Washington that President Lincoln had 
been assassinated while in attendance at the opera house 
on the night of .April 14th. 



230 HISTORIC DAYS 

Bridgeton was never so sad and solemn as on Wednes- 
day, the 19th day of April, 1865, the day of President Lin- 
coln's funeral obsequies. Mayor Hood had issued a 
proclamation calling upon the people to assemble in due 
observance of the memory of the illustrious Lincoln, ask- 
ing that business be suspended, and the day set apart as a 
day of sermon and prayer. In accordance therewith the 
churches were filled to overflowing with citizens who had 
come to pay their last respects to a great man, the nation's 
fallen chief. While the church bells tolled hundreds of 
people joined in procession, marching from Sheppard's Hall 
to the First Presbyterian Church, where obsequial services 
were held, the band playing funeral dirges. At the church 
a feeling invocation was offered by Rev. James M. Chaliss. 
The Scriptures were read by Rev. John W. Hickman, pas- 
tiir (^f Commerce Street ^I. E. Church, followed by a solemn 
hymn by the choir. Prayer was again offered by Dr. C. R. 
Gregory. Hon. John T. Nixon delivered a splendid eulogy 
of the dead President to the immense audience which filled 
the church. Rev. Richard Thorn, pastor of Trinity M. E. 
Church, read an appropriate selection in his usual eloquent 
manner; Dr. James Brown, of the Baptist Church, closing 
the exercises with a fervent prayer. 

The Sunday previous the pulpits of all the churches of 
Bridgeton rang with heroic utterances denunciative of the 
treacherous act which had brought the nation to such in- 
tense grief. Especially strong was the sermon of Rew 
Richard Thorn, in the Trinity M. E. Church, who declared 
those who sympathized with rebellion in the North to be 
equally guilty of the foul crime of assassination with the 
wretch who did it — John Wilkes Booth. 

Great excitement prevailed in Bridgeton during the 
days immediately following the President's assassination. 
Several persons were accused of sympathy with Mr. Lin- 
coln's murderers, because of their indiscreet talk. To add 
to the bad feeling some unkn( i\\ n person carried off the drap- 
ery from the altar nf the Rapti.st church, which had. like 



IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NKW .1 1'.RSICV 23 1 

the Other houses of worship, been placed in mourning habili- 
ments. Who the person was, was never accurately ascer- 
tained, but many were the suspicions which for a long time 
filled tlie pul)lic nn'nd. 



A few days previous to the assassination a gentleman, 
so said one of tlie Bridgeton papers, visited Washington on 
business witli President Lincoln. Previous to leaving home 
a friend requested him to ask Mr. Lincoln whether he (Lin- 
coln) loved Jesus. The business being completed, tlie ques- 
tion was kindly asked, whereupon the good President buried 
his face in iiis handkerchief, turned away and wept. He 
then turned to his visitor, and said : "When I left home to 
take the chair of State I requested my countrymen to pray 
for nie. I was not then a Christian. Wlien my son died, 
(Willie Lincoln who deceased at the White House,) the 
severest trial of my life, f was not a Christian. But. when 
I went to Gettysburg, and looked upon the graves of our 
dead heroes who had fallen in defence of their country I 
then and there, consecrated myself to Christ; / do love 
Jcsits!" Like F.dwanl ^Motc he was ready to e.xclaim: 

His oath, his covenant and blood. 
Support me in the whelming flood ; 
AMicn all around my soul gives way, 
He then is all my hope and stay. 
On Christ the solid rock I stand. 
All other ground is sinking sand. 

]\LTrtyred President! Noble spirit! Tiie bugles of the 
Union had not yet ceased their victorious notes in the Shen- 
andoah and on the .Appomattox when the gates of Heaven 
opened wide for the soul of .Abraham Lincoln. 



Saturday. May 6th. 1865, the Bridgeton Chronicle 
said : 

"The war is virtually ended." But it seems to the 
writer that tlie final chapter in the great drama of the civil 



HISTORIC DAYS 

war was enacted in the closing hours of Mr. Lincoln's Presi- 
dency. X'ictory was in the air, and the flag floated in 
triumph o'er all the Southern country so lately in rebellion. 
The soft winds of the early Spring bore tidings of great joy 
to the mansion and the tenement in imperial cities; to the 
humble home in the forest, on the prairie, on broad acres 
throughout the national domain ; to the sailor upon the sea, 
to the American in foreign lands. They also brought tidings 
of sorrow to the citizens of the great Republic everywhere 
because of the death of the great man, who under God iiad 
accomplished so much for the American people. He had 
lived to the hour of triumph, but he was not to see the 
columns of veterans who had won the fight in the grand 
march they were to soon take up on Pennsylvania avenue. 
God had willed otherwise. That great statesman Charles 
Sumner, of Massachusetts, knew the dead President well 
and loved him. He voiced the sentiment of the nation when 
he presented the following resolutions in the Senate of the 
United States : 

T. That in testimony of their veneration and affection 
for the illustrious dead, who has been permitted, under 
Providence, to do so much for his country and for libert\-. 
the Congress of the United States will unite in the funeral 
services and by an appropriate committee accompany his 
remains to their place of burial in the State from which he 
was taken for the national service. 

2. That in the life of Abraham Lincoln, who by the 
benignant favor of republican institutions rose from humble 
beginnings to the heights of power and fame they recognize 
an example of purity, simplicity, and virtue which should be 
a lesson to mankind, while in his death they recognize a 
martyr whose memory will become more precious as men 
learn to prize those principles of constitutional order and 
those rights — civil, political, and human — for which he was 
made a sacrifice. 



It is remarkable how many sons of Cumberland county 
distinguished themselves in the course of the civil war. Cap- 



(2:t2) 




PROMINENT CITIZENS— iJ^lMMi*. 
David P. Elmer Alphonso Woodruft 

Capt. Enoch More 
Robert S. Buck Charles D. Burroughs 



234 HISTORIC DAYS 

tin Enoch More, of Bridgeton. was one of our citizens who 
took an important part in the final scenes connected with the 
capture of Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Con- 
federacy. As commander of the steamer William P. Clyde, 
by orders of the War Department, he brought "Jeff" and 
his Cabinet from Hilton Head, South Carolina, to Fortress 
Monroe, at Hampton Roads, Virginia. The following let- 
ter from Captain More to a relative in Cumberland County, 
at that time, explains itself: 

'Fortress Monroe, IMay 19. 1865. 
'\\'e arrixed here fitty-twn hnurs from Hilton Head, 
having been expressly detailed by General Gilmore to be 
the bearer of Cresar and his fortunes, under convey of the 
U. S. S. Tuscarora, and carrying- the following valuable 
freight: Jeft' Davis and family, consisting of his wife, four 
children and four servants, with part of his late Cabinet, 
composed of Alexander H. Stephens. Vice President, Con- 
federacy : Postmaster General Reagan, Colonels Johnston 
and Lulibick. Aids-de-Cani]) : Colonel Harrison. Private 
Secretary ; Lieutenant Hathway, Major Maurand, Captain 
Moody, Major Howell and sister, the latter brother and sis- 
ter to Mrs. Davis; General Wheeler and staff; Clement C. 
Clav and wife, with all their plunder, all under the care of 
their gentlemanly captor (Colonel D. B. Pritchard, of the 
Fourth Michigan Cavalry) and guard consisting of seventy 
men of the party who surprised and captured the last re- 
mains of the bogus Confederacy. They were encamped in 
the bushes when captured, and finding themselves beset by 
the cavalry, the indomitable "Jeff" dressed himself in 
woman's clothes, and taking a bucket on his arm, accom- 
panied l)y his wife attempted to skedaddle a la Richmond. 
At this time Corporal Munger, of the Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry, appeared at the tent door and inquired of a lady 
standing at the entrance who those persons were that he 
saw nioxing off. He was informed that the lady with tlie 
bucket was her mother going to the creek after a pail of 
water : I)Ut the uncommon tallness of the figure attracted 



I.N" CUMBlikLAND COUNTV, NEW JliUSi:\- J35 

Corporal ]\ lunger's attention, and as Mr. Davis was step- 
ping off pretty lively through the long grass, and his dress 
being ratlier short, tlie sliarp eye of the corpora! discovered 
what he thought were boots instead of slippers on the bogus 
lady's feet. Spurring his horse, he came up with the pair, 
and lowering the point of his sabre, it must be confessed 
very indelicately, raised slightly the back part of the pre- 
tended tall woman's dress, when the previous suspicions of 
the corpora! were fully confirmed, for instead of ladies' 
slippers, lo ! and behold, he saw a pair of cavalry boots, and 
leveling his carbine, he demanded the party to halt. At 
this time, "Jeff" seeing tliat further disguise was useless, 
threw t!ie shawl which covered his head to the ground, and 
turning to tlie corporal told !iim to "fire as he was ready 
to die," but Mrs. Davis tlirew her arms around him and 
begged him to be quiet, at tlie same time putting her Iiand 
over his mouth to stop him and prevent him from speaking. 
Here was "the last ditch, the last man. and the last dollar.'' 
We have them fast and allow them no communication 
with tlie outside world. Some of tlicm on the voyage have 
been badly seasick. Mr. Stepliens is very feeble, and I think 
failing, 'Jeff' is terri!)!y down, and Clement C. Clay is on 
the anxious stool. On the passage up they scanned the hori- 
zon with anxious eyes in the hopes of seeing the rebel ram 
"Stonewall." It was reported at Hilton Head that she was 
in the offing watching for us, but they looked in vain. 

ENOCH MORE.' 



Tuesday, May 23, 1865, was the greatest day in tlie 
history of the National Capital. The war was over and the 
returning soldiers were to pass in review before the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and the generals of the army. 

The morning broke bright and beautiful — the city of 
Washington was in gala dress — thousands of visitors were 
in attendance from every section of the country to witness 
the great parade of veterans 'ere their departure for their 
homes and the peaceful avocations of life. Just a few days 



236 HISTORIC DAYS 

previous to his death. Mr. Lincoln had discussed the question 
of llie disbandment of tlie troops witl: Mr. Stanton, Secre- 
tary of War. Alarmists had predicted that the injection of 
such large bodies of men so long used to war into the indus- 
trial centres would prove a menace to the public safety. 
President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton both agreed that 
there need be no alarm and no trouble, because, said the 
President, "the men who saved the Union are patriotic and 
law-abiding — they love their homes and families, and in 
their hands, whether at home or upon the field of battle, 
our liberties will be preserved." Lincoln did not live to 
see the magnificent procession of veterans — he did not sur- 
vive to the hour when they should return to peaceful pur- 
suits, but his view of the American soldier was correct. 
Secretary Stanton when requested by several leading men to 
provide troops to maintain order, because nf the apjirehen- 
sion that so great a force suddenly released from military 
restraint would become turbulent, replied that "if we could 
not trust the soldiers who had subdued the rebelliijn we 
might as well yield the life of the Republic." He also was 
right. When the war closed the volunteer army of the 
United States numbered a total of 1.045.064 men. Lord 
Macaulay said that the English people were fearful that 
Oliver Cromwell's army when disbanded would produce 
much misery and crime when once thrown on the world 
after being so long accustomed to the profession of arms. 
No such result followed. But, while alarm was felt over the 
discharge of Cromwell's soldiery nuniliering barely 50,000, 
what the feeling of the timid was as to our own great forces 
is not difficult to imagine. 

Battles and skirmishes to the number of 625 had been 
fought. Blood had flowed as water — the land was full of 
sorrow. The people were tired of war ; the soldiers were 
tired of war: and happy dav it was for them when they 
should begin the homeward march. 

See them as they proudly mark time on the stately 
Pennsylvania a\'enue! Notice that serious gentleman, with 
the quiet face, on his charger at the head of the Army of 



IN CUMBERLAND COCXTY, NEW JERSEY 237 

the Potomac?" It is General George G. Meade, the victor- 
ious leader of Gettysburg! The bugle sounds, and as it 
echoes on the air of that balmy May day, the command 
"Forward" is heard along the long line of veteran soldiers 
as they begin a parade of victor}' compared with which that 
of Napoleon and his legions beneath the "Arc de Triomphe" 
pales into insignificance. "Tramp, tramp, the boys are 
marching" by platoons, sixty abreast, 100,000 strong. How 
splendidly they line up, gallant veterans of Malvern Hill, of 
Fredericksburg, of Antietam, of Gettysburg, of Spottsyl- 
vania, of the \\'ilderness, of Petersburg, of Appomattox! 
How the sunlight glistens on the hundred thousand bayonets 
Lt the command of "right shoulder, shift!" How the mu- 
sic floats upon the breeze with the good old strains of the 
National airs that so often revived tlie drooping spirits in 
days when despondency and gloom seemed to permeate the 
very marrow of the soldiers' bones — and so often spurred 
the boys in blue to triumphant victory! How the great 
populace cheered the passing soldiers! How the ladies 
tossed their handkerchiefs and waved salutes from eyes and 
lips ! How the old flag scarred by the liattle and the breeze 
floated its folds o'er the heads of the marching columns as 
much as to say — "This is the stars and strips under which 
Washington and Jackson fought — it is the flag of Lincoln 
— it is the flag which through four long years of bloody 
civil strife maintained its proud position — the representa- 
tive svmbol of liuman liberty. No longer stained with the 
blemish of slaverv it has come from out the fire and smoke 
of many battles without spot, without wrinkle — the flag of 
hope to all posterity !" 

The grand old .Army of the Potomac was seven hours 
in passing the reviewing stand, and its line extended a dis- 
tance of twenty-one miles. In that splendid line coines the 
gallant Second Corps under command of that great soldier, 
General Winfield Scott Hancock. Superb officer — see him 
as he sits his horse, erect, stalwart — a handsome figure with 
his noble face and huge mustache. The boys rend the air 
with cheers, and among the number are the remnants of the 



238 HISTORIC DAYS 

Jersey Blues, proudly ach'ancing by the double platoon in 
the shadow of the tattered, bullet-ridden colors under which 
they fought so bravely on many bloody fields. Looming up 
in the distance appears Sheridan with the Army of the Shen- 
andoah. Clatter-clatter go the hoofs on the pavement, thou- 
sands of horses, thousands of cavalrymen. Steeds tightly 
reined, sabres at shoulder, this is the division which swept 
Early out of Winchester — that ended the Rebellion at Five 
Forks and Sailor's Creek. Philip Sheridan, hero of many 
battles, look at him as he takes his place on the reviewing 
stand. Typical American soldier! Magnificent leader! Who 
is that that follows? It is Custer — -dashing, heroic Custer, 
with his long hair, flowing backward, falling upon his 
shiuilders like a lion's mane, riallanl ca\alry coniniander. 
his like we shall not see again ! Little thought the cheering 
multitude that in a few brief years that splendid leader of 
the Nation's Horse should fall by the hand of the American 
Indian in the duel to the death on the Little-Big Horn in the 
far-away wilds of the great West. 



The second day — May 24th — came Sherman's army 
fresh from its famous tour through the South singing as it 
marched — "Hurrah! hurrah! tlie flag that made you free! 
Hurrah! hurrah! we'll sing the Jubilee! So we sang the 
chorus from Atlanta to the .Sea, as we were Marching 
Through Georgia !" What a remarkable exhibition of the 
spoils of war did LTncle Billy's soldiers present to the massed 
thousands on the sidewalks. First appeared a regiment 
with a live coon at the head of the column- — then another 
with a corps of pickaninnies dancing in bare feet — then a 
donkey upon which was mounted an octogenarian darkey 
singing "Massa's gone away — don't know how long he 
stay. Throwed the key down de smoke house cellar — 'den 
I run away!" Martial music — colors flying, the steady 
tramp went on one hundred thousand more, until the shades 
of evening closed the scenes of the two days' march of the 
invincible legions to which the soldiers of neither Crosar 



IN CUMBERLAND COINTY, NEW JERSEY 239 

nor Napoleon could compare in the days of Roman glory 
or France's imperial conquest of continental Europe. 

On the reviewing stand at the White House were Presi- 
dent Johnson, Generals Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and 
Admiral Farragut. But the colossus of American history 
— the great, the gentle, the true heart, Ahraham Lincoln, 
who had home the National burden of secession and of war 
— wept because of defeats which filled the land with widows 
and orphans, and rejoiced in humility o'er victories won, 
was no more. His place on the grand stand, in the presence 
of the soldiers whom he loved, was vacant. The veteran 
as he marched looked in vain for the homely President, and 
as he glanced upward at the flag, still in crepe, his hat was 
unconsciously lifted to heaven, in memory of the fallen Chief 
no longer in the quick, but present with the Lord. "Why 
Should the Spirit of Mortal Be Proud" was the favorite 
poem of the deceased President, and lie was wont to quote: 

"The hand of the king that the sceptre hath borne; 
The brow of the priest that tiie mitre hath worn ; 
The eye of the sage and the heart of the brave. 
Are hidden and lost in the depths of tlie grave." 

Yet. not lost! Vanquished by the assassin's bullet! 
Victor bv the Master's crown ! 



The review was ended. The boys iiad recrossed the 
long bridge into Virginia to await the general mustering 
out. Washington had resumed its accustomed quiet. The 
war was over — peace had come. No more bloodshed ; no 
more widows' tears; no more wounds; no more disease; 
no more sorrow borne of the battlefield. The trumpet 
sounds — Taps! Lights out. The soldier sleeps and dreams 
of home. 



Regiments of the Army of the Potomac commenced 
leaving, 1 61.851 officers and men, present and absent from 
the camp near Washington on May 29th, and by July 19th, 



240 HISTORIC DAYS 

1865, the last regiment had started for home. Regiments of 
Sherman's Army in camp near Washington, numbering 
present and absent, 116,183 officers and men, began leav- 
ing May 29th, and August ist, 1865, the last regiment had 
left for home. Rapid was the discharge! Of the entire 
armies of the Union 640,806 officers and men had been 
mustered out by August 7th; by November 15th, 800,963: 
by January 20th, 1866, 918,733; by May ist, 986,782; by 
June 30th, I. 010,670; by November ist, 1866, 1,023,021 — 
the entire volunteer fnrce leaving in service only 11,043 
soldiers, colored and white, to guard the National interests 
after the most stupendous war in history. 

The world had never looked upon such a spectacle — 
it never will again! From the rough life of the soldier, 
hardened by scenes of blood and death, the soldiers of the 
Union went back to industrial paths to take up the avoca- 
tions and professions which they had left off at the com- 
mand of an ini]ierile(l government. It \vas to the everlast- 
ing credit of the noble men who made up the rank and file 
of the National armies that they came back to civil life, the 
great majority l)etter citizens than when at the first call 
they pledged their li\es, their all. that the nation might live. 
Peace with her gentle influence melted the cohorts of liberty 
like the snow before the sunshine. Clasped in the arms of 
loved ones the tired soldier was home at last! 

With his peaceful advent entered also the shadow of 
death to other homes. Victory was tinged with sadness, 
for— 

"Many hearts ami blades were broken. 
Thousands of the noblest 'braves'. 

Wrapped in jackets blue were sleeping 
Coldlv in their unknown graves." 



& 



Monday, June 19th, 1865, news came to the town of 
Bridgeton. very unexpectedly that the heroic remnant of 
Company K, gallant 12th New Jersey Regiment, would ar- 
rive home that day. Great preparations were matle at short 



IX Cl'.\U!l-.KI.A.M) ((IINTV, MOW Il-.KSICV 2^1 

notice. Every bell in Bridgeton began to ring ; whistles 
blew an enthusiastic toot-toot-toot ! Flags appeared from 
every loyal window. Dorville's band, at the head of a pro- 
cession of citizens, (the Union League starting from Shep- 
pard's Hall in a bodv ) marched to tiie West Jersey Rail- 
road depot on Irving avenue. 

.\s the train passed into the station, what a hurrah went 
up — what vociferous cheers rent the air — how wives and 
mothers, relatives and friends, crowded the station ! The 
car doors open; out they step to receive the greeting "Wel- 
come Home!" Sergeant William B. Hines in command. 
"Fall in boys," and line up for your last parade. "File 
Right." "Halt," •■Ris^iit Dress." "I'ront Face," "By 
Fours," (platoon); "Forward!" Do you see them? 

William B. Hines, George Laws, Timothy Bateman, 
\\'illiam H. Bennett, Edwin M. Padgett, Justus H. Living- 
ston, Amos S. Burt, Butler Xewcomb, George McHenry, 
John Evans, Henry Clay Lore. Jonathan Borden, Henry 
Bradford, Flenry Campbell, Robert G. Clark, Reeves 
Coulter, Abraham Facemire, Edward C. Hall, Thomas S. 
Green, Absalom Jordan, Thomas H. Pancoast, John Max- 
well. Hiram Pew, Charles O. P. Riley, James R. Rainear. 
William M. Seeley, Edward M. Steward, Samuel Tomlin- 
son. Daniel Tullis, William F. Moore, Cliarles M. i\iley, 
William S. Ayars, Anderson Davis, William H. Dickeson, 
Edgar M. Fithian, Jeremiah Husted. Simon S. Swing, 
William H. B. Ward. 

From one hundred strong men the company had 
dwindled to thirty-eight muskets, several of those in line 
meeting their conn-ades at the depot joined them there, hav- 
ing arri\ed home pre\'iously because of wounds. Green- 
horns in T)j. they were veterans now. bronzed by the sum- 
mers and winters of many campaigns ! 

Chancellorsville to .Appomattox was a long way — can- 
non to the right of them : cannon to the left of them ! 

Conn-ades Terry. Holmes. Garton. Smith. Carey. Car- 
man, Carter. Creamer. Galloway, Gaunt. Hendrickson. Hol- 
lenback, Horner, Howell. Husted. Livingston (Charles) ; 



2^2 HISTORIC DAYS 

Maloney, ilullica, Powell, Sutton (Theophilus) ; Simp- 
kins, Sockwell, Sutton (Samuel S.), had answered the last 
roll-call, by disease and the bullet. 

Eighteen had been discharged by reason of disability 
and wounds. Sixteen had been transferred to the Veteran 
Reserve Corps and other departments of the service. 

Few officers of the company were present on this 
propitious day, owing to the failure of accounting officials 
in Trenton to adjust the settlement with line and staiT. 

The brave men who had survived the storms of war 
and the privations of army life still in the \'igor of early 
manhood, bearing the muskets with which they had rendered 
the country such efficient service, were in line to recei\'e the 
plaudits of their fellow-citizens. 

Marching down Pearl to Commerce street the comrades 
proceeded to Sheppard's Hall, near the bridge ( West Side) 
where Hon. John T. Nixon received them on behalf of the 
people of Cumberland in a speech eulogistic of their pa- 
triotic service, warm with congratulations on their safe re- 
turn to the old home. Major William E. Potter returned 
the thanks of the members of Company K, to the good 
people of Bridgeton, for the sympathy extended to the 
soldiers in the field and for the earnest welcome this hour 
extended. 

An elaborate dinner prepared by E. Davis & Son. was 
given the returned soldiers at the expense of the Ladies' 
Aid Society. Fair hands decorated the tables and presided 
over the repast which was one of the finest ever spread in 
Bridgeton. And, so ended another historic day. 



The victorious conclusion of the civil war, and the re- 
turn of the veteran soldiers of Cumberland county after four 
years of patriotic service, called for a great celebration of 
the glorious Fourth of July. Accordingly at a preliminary 
meeting of citizens the following were selected a committee 
to prepare a program and make the necessary arrange- 
ments: Providence Ludlam, James M. Challis, Jeremiah 



IX CUMBERLAND COUiNTY, NEW .1 ERSI-.V _'4_^ 

DuBois. Ri)bcrt R. Potter, Edmund R. Elmer. Maskell \V. 
Applegate, Robert DuBois, George W. P'inlaw, Joseph H. 
Elmer, Percival Nichols. 

The committee went about the matter vigorously, and 
prepared an elaborate celebration which should have a 
double purpose, to wit : A rousing celebration and en- 
thusiastic reception to all the soldiers of whatever company 
or regiment who had had a part in the suppression of the 
rebellion and restoration of the L'nion. The program was 
carried out with an enthusiasm never previously manifestcil 
on a Fourth of July, in Bridgeton. 

At daybreak, a National salute was fired — at 9 o'clock 
thirteen guns announced the number of States forming the 
original Union, followed by the ringing of all the bells of 
the town. 

The procession formed in front of the Davis House 
on Commerce street. My, what a crowd was there to see 
it start! The population of Cumberland County, in its en- 
tirety appeared to have turned out to take a hand in the 
glorious festivities. Never liad the sun shone brighter — 
never had the good old town looked hantlsomcr, than this 
splendid Fourth of July morning. 

The parade moves ! Who is that at the head of the 
column on the black horse? It is the veteran marshal, 
Daniel M. Woodruff, the same who led the farewell march 
in honor of the departing "Cumberland Greys" in '61. See 
him as he sits on his horse as straight as an arrow, patting 
the mane and talking in his old-time way to the good steed 
— "Haw, there! be careful Billy! do you hear, old fellow?" 
What a portrait is that of the ancient landmark, typical 
American with his silver hair, tall silk hat marked with the 
word "Marshal ;" the "red, white and blue sash" around his 
waist, with the gaily caparisoned horse on which he sits 
so proudly! Reminiscent of the olden time indeed, was 
Uncle Dan. once sheriff, once clerk of Cumberland County, 
quaintest and best auctioneer since the Revolution, pic- 
turesque and patriotic. 

Then came the assistant marshals. Uncle Dan's staff — 



244 HISTORIC DAYS 

Ex-Sheriff Lewis H. Dovvdney; Colonel Edward M. Du- 
Bois; Major William E. Potter; Captain Samuel T. Du- 
Bois. 

With a large body of veterans in line, an ambulance 
with crippled soldiers, section of artillery and great con- 
course of citizens with bands of music and drum corps, the 
procession moved to the Grove on West Commerce street, 
where the exercises of the day occurred. At the grove Rev. 
Casper R. Gregory, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, invoked the divine blessing. The Declaration of 
Independence was read by James J- Reeves, Esq., followed 
by prayer by Re\'. James M. Chaliss, of the Baptist Church. 
A choir of young ladies and gentlemen sang very patrioti- 
cally the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," and the "Battle 
Cry of Freedom." Robert B. Potter read "Our Martyred 
President's Last Inaugural." Hon. .Alexander G. Cattell 
then delivered an eloquent oration which enthused the great 
audience with patriotic applause, many times repeated as 
he told the story of the war and the sacrifice of blood and 
money in order that the L'nion of the Fathers might endure. 
After music by the l)and. the singing of the doxology, and 
benediction by Rev. John W. Hickman, former pastor of 
Commerce Street M. E. Churcli. the exercises ended and the 
procession reformed and proceeded to Grosscup's Hall. 

The Ladies' Aid Society had charge of the program 
at the hall, and many were the fair faces that greeted the 
returned soldiers as they took their places at the well-filled 
table which e.xtended from one end of the floor to the other. 
Tlie word "Peace" in e\ergreen apjieared over the rostrum 
of the hall, with " '76 — Fourth of July — '65" encircling it — 
\\''ashinglon and Lincoln's portraits on either side. On the 
centre panel of the gallery a picture of General Grant — 
over the entrance to the hall the sentence "Welcome Vet- 
erans" — at the western end of the gallery "X'ictory at Last!" 
Rev. James I'rown, of the Baptist Church, offererl in- 
vocation. Music followed while the soldiers enjoyed the 
sumptuous dinner. Hon. Inhn T. Nixon, announced toasts 
as follows: 



IK CU.MBERLAMJ COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 245 

"Our Returned Soldiers," responded to by Major 
William E. Potter. 

"Washington and Lincoln." by I\e\ . James M. Chaliss. 

"The Spirit of Slavery," by Lieutenant James J. 
Reeves. 

"The M.ni W iio Stood by the Soldiers," by Hon. A. G. 
Cattell. 

"J'he Clergy," by Rev. C. R. Gregory. 

"The City of Bridgeton," by George W. Finlaw. 

"The Women of America," by Rev. Henry M. Stuart. 

Complimentary toast to Hon. John T. Nixon, "who 
had done more with voice and means to suppress the re- 
bellion tJian any other man in the First District," was of- 
fered by Mr. Cattell. Mr. Nixon responded in a very 
felicitous speech. 

.\fter benediction by Rev. Hammill Davis, of Deer- 
held, the celebration and reception ended with cheers for 
the nation and the old soldiers. 

Fourth of July night the town was brilliantly illumi- 
nated. The word "Victory" appeared in blazing letters on 
the front of the L'nion League room in Sheppard's Hall. No- 
table among the decorations were the handsome windows 
of the stores of Robert J. Fithian, West Bridgeton, and' 
Mrs. Caroline Dare, Commerce street. Captain Joseph- 
Wescott's residence on the Fairton road, attracted great at- 
tention by its decoration and display of light. 

The illumination was so extensive and so bright that 
it lit the heavens with a lurid glare, and could be seen for a 
long distance. A great torch-light parade with ascending 
rockets, red, white and blue lights, was the spectacular 
feature of the closing day. 



The L'nion Republicans of New Jersey gathered in 
State convention in Trenton, July 20th, 1865. Hon. John 
T. Nixon, of Bridgeton, was unanimously elected chair- 
man. It was an enthusiastic body of delegates, among 
whom were many returned soldiers the most prominent 



246 HISTORIC DAYS 

being the famous Cavalry Commander General Judson 
Kilpatrick, of Sussex County. There was good-natured 
rivalry over the nomination, and several prominent men 
were anxious because it was generally believed that the 
choice of the convention would prove the choice of the 
people. South Jersey presented a candidate in Alexander 
G. Cattell, one of the leading business men of Philadelphia, 
but a Jerseyman by birth and residence. Mr. Cattell had 
done much for the Union cause, and was largely instru- 
mental in the enlistment and equipment of the 118th Penn- 
sylvania Regiment, known as the Corn Exchange Regiment. 
Pie was earnestly supported by his South Jersey friends. 
General Kilpatrick was named as the choice of his soldier 
friends. Marcus L. Ward, who, as the Republican can- 
didate for Governor in 1862, had met defeat, his opponent 
being Governor Joel Parker, was again presented by dele- 
gations, from various sections of the State. He was a 
business man of the city of Newark, who had done much 
for the Union soldiers and their families during the war 
just closed. Making repeated trips to the camps in Vir- 
ginia, and the hospitals where the sick and wounded lay. 
his generous hand and kindly disposition earned him the 
title of the "Soldiers' Friend." There was a well developed 
sentiment in the State that Marcus L. Ward would prove 
the strongest candidate the convention could name. It was 
also felt that his splendid character and upright life would 
strengthen the ticket, and those who look at his benevolent 
face in the portrait gallery of Governor? in the State House 
at Trenton, will see at a glance that the record of such a 
man was a tower of strength for the party as it proved to 
be in the strenuous campaign which followed his nomina- 
tion. In the long line of Governors Xew Jersey has had 
no purer or better Executive. 

The nomination was made on the fourth ballot, the 
vote standing: Ward, 349; Kilpatrick, 173; Cattell, 148. 
It was made unanimous amid tremendous cheering, Mr. 
Cattell and General Kilpatrick seconding and heartily en- 
dorsing the selection. 



IX CUMBERLAND COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 247 

The convention adjourned after adopting a platform 
of thanks to the soldiers who had saved the Union, advoca- 
ting the ratification of the amendment abolishing slavery 
in the United States, and declaring the National debt in- 
curred by the Government in suppression of the rebellion 
a sacred contract never to be repudiated. 



July 26th, 1865, the Third Xew Jersey Cavalry re- 
turned to Trenton and was mustered out. Recruited early 
in January, it left the State April 5th, 1864, and marched 
overland to Annapolis, Maryland, where it was assigned 
to the Ninth Army Corps. It remained at this point but a 
short time when under orders it proceeded to Alexandria, 
Virginia, where it joined the Army of the Potomac. On 
leaving Trenton, the strength of the regiment was 47 of- 
ficers, 1,131 non-commissioned officers and privates, a 
total of 1,178 men, under command of Colonel Andrew J. 
Morrison. It was designated by the authorities as the "First 
Regiment United States Hussars." On account of its hand- 
some uniform it attracted general attention and admiration, 
wherever it appeared. It was a patriotic regiment and in 
the remaining months of the war it did gallant service for 
the Union, participating in nearly all the cavalry engage- 
ments under General Phil. Sheridan in the brilliant cam- 
paign in the Shenandoah valley. 

Company H, composed principally of Cumberland 
County boys, returned to Bridgeton, quietly August ist, 
and was given a warm welcome by families and friends. 

Eleven of this splendid company either died of disease 
or were killed in action. Seven were transferred to other 
companies, and seven discharged because of wounds and 
disability. 

The following is a list of those who arrived in Bridge- 
ton safe and sound : Sylvanus Murphy. William M. Nor- 
ton. Charles S. Wallen. Joseph H. Fithian, Louis Schaible, 
Theodore A. Dare. William C. Lore, Howard Minot, 
Charles Clark, Robert Potts, Franklin W. Buzby, Benja- 



24.S HISTORIC DAYS 

mill Barraclift'. Andrew R. Snyder. John L. Smith, Theo- 
dore F. Sheppard. Elam Crozier. Theodore F. Strang, John 
E. Garton, Henry AlHson, George F. Baker. Henry C. 
Beebe. Jonathan Berger. George P. Baker, Peter Boyle, 
Enoch Brooks. WiUiam E. Brooks, Charles B. Buck, George 
S. Buck. \\'illiam Clark. Ri)l)ert G. Clymer, Charles G. Ed- 
wards, Edward Flynn. Jacob Fritz. James Garrison, Enoch 
B. Garrison. Thomas Herbert, Levi J. Harker, Samuel 
Harris. Joseph Johnson, Henry Johnson, Elias M. Keeler, 
William Keeler, George Master, Jonathan McCowan, Har- 
rison AlcXeeley, Edward McQuillan, Joseph Mills, Matthias 
Murphy, Daniel Newcomb, William Nichols, Isaiah Palmer, 
Daniel Robinson, George W. Robinson, Leonard L. Roray, 
Aaron Schellenger. Samuel Strang, Henry Snyder, Daniel 
R. Seeds, Michael Sliger, W'illiam Stetson, James Sheerin, 
Isaac Swing, James Rynear, John Trimble, William Tullis, 
John Valentine, Walter G. West. Several other members 
of Company H, returned at a later date being detained in 
Washington and Trenton, on special duties. 

Company H took part in thirty-four engagements all 
in the space of one year. Few organizations had done bet- 
ter in the entire course of the war. 

Captain Ethan T. Harris, the company's first com- 
mander, returned with the honors of Major. 



The Union Republican County Convention met in the 
Town Hall, Millville, at lo o'clock A. M., October 4th, 
1865. Charles K. Landis, founder of Vineland, was elected 
chairman, with John S. Mitchell, of Bridgeton. and John 
W. Newdin. editor of the Millville Republican, as secretaries. 

Hon. John T. Nixon and Colonel Hawkins, of Tennes- 
see, the latter having commanded a regiment in the civil 
war, addressed the convention, and were loudly applauded. 

For the first time in the history of the Republican party 
in Cumberland County, tlie names of all the delegates were 
read and printed in the papers. The follow-ing is a com- 
plete list of the delegates: 



IN Cr.Ml'.KKI.AND <()r.\TY, MCW JERSF.V 24O 

Bridgeton — First ward — Robert M. Secley, George 
W. Johnson. John R. Graliam. Edward R. Broomall, 
George W. Finlaw. Second ward — Isaac B. Dare, Samuel 
B. Poole, Wallace Taylor, Henry B. Marker, Samuel S. 
Sparks. Third ward — Daniel M. Woodruff, Enoch Han- 
thorn. John S. Mitchell, David Sithens, Lawrence Wood- 
ruff. 

Millville— Lewis Mulford, Isaac B. Mulford, E. G. 
-McClong, Samuel F. Freas, John W. Newlin. 

Downe — Allen Sheppard, Jefferson Lore, Charles 
Sharp, Fithian S. Parvin. George Sloan. 

Deerfield — -Elwell Nichols, Enoch Riley, John Han- 
non, Lucius Moore, Jesse Finley. 

Fairfield — Richard Stanton, Richard D. Bateman. 
Theophilus Trencliard. James Campbell, Jr.. Richard Lan- 
ing. 

Greenwich — Charles L. Watson, Morri.> r)acon. Job 
Bacon, Seeley Shute, Elmer Ogden. 

Hopewell — Richard Minch. C. Henry Sheppard, 
Theophilus P. Davis, John S. Bonham, Ellis A. Davis. 

Stow Creek — Lewis Howell, Isaac W. Elwell, William 
Ogden, Richard West. George Bonham. 

Landis — Charles K. Landis, John Kandle, J. S. Hoard, 
John Tompkins, William A. House. 

Maurice River — Daniel Harris, Theodore Rogers, 
Ephraim Sharp, Nathan Baner, Franklin .Allen. 

The personnel of this convention was high. Among 
the number were many of the most prominent citizens of 
the county, men of character and standing in the com- 
munities they had come to represent. The Republican party 
had been in existence barely a decade, yet under its banner 
a large portion of the best element had enlisted in behalf of 
political principles the success of which they deemed to be 
of the highest importance for the welfare of the nation. 
There was no taint of corruption in that remarkable con- 
vention of the early days. Each delegate expressed his 
choice free and untrammeled. 

Editor John \\'. Newlin from the Committee on Res- 



250 HISTORIC DAYS 

olutions, reported the following which were unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved. That we rejoice over the successful issue 
which has crowned the efiforts of the Union arms; that an 
honorable peace has been established; that the authority of 
the Government has been vindicated, and the stability and 
permanency of our institutions forever assured. 

Resolved, That we tender our thanks to the brave 
soldiers and sailors of the Republic, who have proved the 
ability of the Government, to meet domestic foes with as 
much success as it has met foreign enemies, and that we 
of¥er them not merely "lip service" to catch votes, but the 
warm affection of grateful hearts. 

Resolved, That we endorse the policy inaugurated by 
our late lamented President, and which has been so faith- 
fully and successfully carried out by his successor. 

Resoh'ed, That we endorse the nomination of Marcus 
L. Ward, for Governor of New Jersey, and pledge our most 
earnest efiforts for his election; that we also endorse the 
nominations this day made by this convention, and hereby 
pledge all honorable means to secure the election of the en- 
tire ticket. 

Convention proceeded to nominations. The names of 
Hon. Providence Ludlam, Hon. B. Rush Bateman and 
Jonathan Elmer were presented. A ballot w-as taken with 
the following result: Ludlam, 46; Bateman 7; Elmer, 7; 
Senator Ludlam's renomination was then made unanimous 
amid cheers. 

Hon. Robert More, was unanimously renominated for 
Assembly, First District ; Hon. James H. Nixon for As- 
sembly, Second District. 

Dayton Wallen, of Millville; James M. Riley, of 
Bridgeton ; Elmer Y. Robinson, of Maurice River, were 
nominated for Coroners. 



The Democrats of Cumberland County, met in con- 
vention at the Court House in Bridgeton, October 19th, 



IN" CUMBliULANU COLNTV, NEW JllKSliY ^5 1 

1865, and made out a strong ticket in opposition to tliat 
presented by the Union-Republican Convention. Siierrard 
Sockwell, of Fairfield township, was nominated for State 
Senator, Samuel Rammell, of Deerfield, was named for 
Assembly, First District ; George W. Dummett, of Millville. 
Second District; Ephraim E. Johnson, of Bridgeton ; 
Charles L. Parker, of ^laurice River, and Benoni M. 
Chance, of Downe, were selected as candidates for Coroner. 
The resolutions were patterned after those adopted in the 
State Democratic Convention and were strongly Bourbon 
Sherrard Sockwell, the nominee for Senator, was a Union 
man, strong in his convictions of duty, but warmly attached 
to the Democratic party as the faith of his fathers. He was 
a man of considerable ability, could make a good speech, 
being forcible and vigorous in the expression of his opinions. 
He was one of a type of good men who have long since 
disappeared from local politics — quaint, honest characters, 
whom all respected, though widely divergent in political 
views. "Uncle Sherrard" had lost a son in one of the great 
battles in Virginia, an only son, whose maimed body he 
had personally brought from the South to be interred in the 
cemetery at the old home. His heart was sore because of 
the loss of the boy whom he loved, and he made an affecting 
appeal to the voters of the county from the stump, specially 
effective for its sorrowful patriotism. One of the common 
people all his life his candidacy strongly appealed to the 
farmer and oysterman. Added to this was the rumor of 
friction in the Republican ranks over the renomination of 
Senator Ludlam. "Provie" had made an excellent Senator; 
his course had been patriotic and creditable. But, as the 
special advocate of labor, introducing bills for the abolition 
of orders on factory stores, he had incurred the enmity of 
certain manufacturers. For this reason the Democrats 
thought him weak and had hopes. Labor, however, rallied 
to his support both in the primaries and at the election, and 
he won by a large plurality, the heaviest up to that day, that 
had been given a Republican candidate for Senator in 
Cumberland County, and returned to Trenton with flying 
colors. 



2:;2 IIISTIIKIC DAYS 

In the series of gatherings held throughout the State, 
in the famous Kilpatrick-Rogers debate, the greatest po- 
htical colloquy ever heard in New Jersey, the meeting for 
Cumberland County was set down for October ii, 1865. 
In the early evening thousands of people blocked Laurel 
street and the vacant square l)ack of Grosscup's Hall. 
A large platform had been erected immediately in 
the rear of the hall from which the speakers had a splen- 
did view of the audience and an excellent reach of voice. 
It was decided by the local leaders of the two great political 
parties that each should be represented in the government 
of the meeting. Hon. John T. Nixon was selected to rep- 
resent the Republicans, and Doctor Joseph C. Kirby, the 
Democrats, both representative gentlemen of their respec- 
tive parties. 

The two orators stepped upon the platform on time. 
The band discoursed several lively airs, and the gladiators 
prepared for the struggle. Andrew Jackson Rogers, who 
was to open the debate in the first half hour, was a man of 
stalwart frame, able, affable and splendid voice. As a mem- 
ber of Congress from the Fourth Congressional District of 
the State, he had distinguished hiiuself in the House of 
Representatives as an exponent of Northern Democracy. A 
fiery talker was "Jack" and at times bitter, the latter at- 
tribute obtaining for him the label "Copperhead" at the 
mouths and pens of his political opponents. Democratic 
chairman Kirby arose, introduced the Honorable "Jack," 
and the fun began. His theme was "equal taxation," with a 
vindictive attack on what he believed to be an outrage and 
a crime, the exemption from tax of the income from gov- 
ernment bonds. Congress had a right, in his judgment, to 
rejieal the act exempting government bonds from taxa- 
tion. There is "nothing in the Federal Constitution," said 
"Jack," "to prevent repudiation of the National debt saddled 
upon the people by an unjust ;uid inicalled for war." Dur- 
ing the second half-hour allotted him in the closing of the 
debate Rogers attacked the proposition looking toward 
negro suffrage, ridiculed its advocates and exalted the vir- 



IX CLMHERI.AND C(UNTY. XICW JKRSKY 253 

tues of tlie Democratic party, w hicli lie claimed was the party 
of the people, and the party wiiich believed in a white 
man's government. 

Congressman Rogers was loudly cheered by his friends 
in the audience at the conclusion of his opening and closing 
argument. Many persons present while disagreeing with 
the speaker's sentiments, warmly complimented the delivery 
and diction of tiie orator. 



One hour was given to Kilpatrick to present the Re- 
publican view of the political situation. General Judson 
Kilpatrick w'as one of the heroic figures of the great civil 
war. Of medium height, good face, and long flowing side 
whiskers pla3'ing havoc in the breeze as he excitedly tra- 
versed the platform, General Kilpatrick was a picture which 
the rostrum has rarely produced in our great national dis- 
cussions of political questions and issues. Fresh from vic- 
tories won by the army of the Potomac and the glories of 
Sherman's march from Atlanta to the sea, the form of the 
doughty General loomed in the eye of the patriotic Ameri- 
can in a halo of splendor reflecti\e of many bloody fields. 
Hence, his soldier history carried much weight with the 
audience, and "Little Kil" was the hero of the hour in the 
many debates of the Marcus L. Ward campaign. 

Republican chairman Xixnn introduced the General 
in a few well-timed remarks, and the reply began which 
never ceased in volume until the umpires announced "time." 
and then it seemed as though the orator had just cleverly 
touched his subject. 

"There are other things more important than the sub- 
ject of equal taxation," said the General. "The Demo- 
cratic party is responsible for the war, and the taxes of 
which niv learned friend Rogers complains. Last Fall — 
1864 — we were trying to prove the war not a failure, and 
to hand down the Government as it was received from the 
Fathers. Had McClellan been elected, the fourth of ]\L-ircii 
would have brought a cessation of hostilities, and a dis- 



254 UISTOUIC UAVS 

graceful peace. All this to be brought about at a time when 
victory was crowning our arms. We are trying this Fall 
— 1865 — to reap the rich fruits of victory over rebellion, to 
unite the Union, and to vindicate the principles for which 
the soldiers fought, and in whose behalf we are willing to 
again draw the sword. In regard to equal taxation the 
Democratic platform says that tliat party is in favor of tax- 
ing government bonds. Does it say anything about taxing 
State and railroad bonds? Do you know, hearer, that there 
are nearly four millions of dollars' worth of State bonds 
untaxed by a "Copperhead Legislature," and fifty-six mil- 
lion ddllars of railroad bonds untaxed by the State? If 
the latter were reached by taxation the people of New Jer- 
sey would have no other taxes to pay. Government bonds 
cannot be taxed, because it would be unconstitutional. The 
Constitution of the United States expressly declares that 
Congress shall pass no law impairing the validity of con- 
tracts. The Democrats are dishonest in their statements 
as they know it cannot be done." 

In a brilliant peroration General Kilpatrick declared 
that he favored the emancipation of the black man, but that 
he was opposed to negro suffrage. Paying a glowing trib- 
ute to the valor and sacrifices of the soldiers of New Jer- 
sey now returned from the war, he appealed to them to aid 
by their votes the restoration of the grand old State to the 
hands of the party which saved the Union. 

Enthusiastic were the cheers that went upward from 
a thousand throats when Kilpatrick had concluded, an au- 
gury of coming victory at the polls in Cumberland County. 

In his conclusive remarks "Jack" Rogers was fre- 
quently interrupted by General Kilpatrick, with pertinent 
questions, all of which the former answered with courtesy. 
As Rogers finished i\il])alrick brought out a furore of ap- 
plause from the audience by the ironical exclamation : 
"Jack, meet me at the depot in the morning!" 

Thus ended the great debate — the next morning Kil- 
patrick and Rogers went to the depot arm-in-arm. ap- 



IN CUMBICRLANU COLMV, NKW .1 KKSIiV J-,-, 

parently the best of friends, to tlie great astonishment of 
fierce partisans who presumed that they were personal 
enemies, because perchance they had politically differed. 



The canvass for the election of a Republican Gov- 
ernor in New Jersey was productive of great excitement 
and efYort in Cumberland County. Political meetings were 
held in every school district of the county, a majority of 
them being addressed by fonuer Congressman John T. 
Nixon. One of the greatest rallies was held in the school- 
house at Dividing Creek, where Mr. Nixon delivered the 
closing speech of the campaign on the night of November 
5th. It was a fruitful year for orators and public speakers, 
as the State was turned upside down and inside out by both 
political parties. Among the youthful speakers was the 
writer of this work, and the place was the Baptist Ses- 
sion House on the main street of the village of Green- 
wich, where the boys and men of that staid old borough, 
whooped things up for Marcus L. Ward, and the whole 
Republican ticket. It was a delightful meeting. The 
young ladies had formed a patriotic singing club and they 
sang war songs with a vim. It was the occasion of our 
first political speech, a never to be forgotten year with sev- 
eral of us who are still in Cumberland County, and remem- 
ber the good, old-fashioned politics which prevailed when 
men, not money, won seats in Congress and the Legisla- 
ture. 



A rousing result was that of the glorious campaign 
of 1865. The State House passed from the control of the 
Democrats, both Executive and Legislative departments be- 
coming Republican. Marcus L. Ward was elected Governor 
by a luajority of 2.789 votes in the State over General 
Theodore Runyon. the Democratic candidate. The Legis- 
lature stood eleven Republicans and ten Democrats in the 
Senate: the House had twelve Republican niajority. a Re- 



256 HISTORIC DAYS 

publican niajurily of thirteen \-otes on joint ballot. In Cum- 
berland County. Ward had 887 majority. Providence Lud- 
1am was re-elected Senator by 870 majority: Robert More, 
Assembly, First District, 369 majority: James H. Xixon, 
Second District, 493 majority. 

The Union League headquarters in Shepparfl's Hall, 
election night, November 6th, was the centre of excitement. 
Great crowds gathered in front of the building on \\^est 
Commerce street, and as the results came pouring in of 
Union Republican majorities in the townships tremendous 
was the cheering. Telegrams from up State at a late hour 
brought the final good news that New Jersey had reversed 
her Democratic allegiance, when with cheers for the success- 
ful candidates the elated Republicans departed for their 
homes. 

In its issue following the election an editorial appeared 
in the Chronicle, and it read : 

"The result is mainly due to the soldiers. Being denied 
the privilege of voting while in the field, when they were 
battling for the life of the nation, they promised themselves 
that as soon as the rebels were subdued and concjuered, they 
would return and x'indicate their rights at Imme. Brave 
boys — they have noblv done so — they ha\'e openly rebuked 
the wrongs done them, and proved in overwhelming num- 
bers their gratitude and esteem for the soldiers" friend — 
Marcus T.. Ward." 



From Robert Halford to the close of the Civil War 
was only a decade, but what wonders had God wrought! 

No more would black "Tom" and black "Joe" bare 
their backs to the s]a\e driver's whi]") ! No more would 
"Chloe" and "Phvllis" be separated from bone of their bone, 
flesh of their llcsh. From the new made graves of a half 
million human si nils that had perishecl in the blood and car- 
nage of the greatest w.ar in historv the smoke nf holocaust 
went up to Heaven. Like the gentle dew upon the sum- 
mit of Hermon it sparkled and scintillated before the Throne 
in the crucible of the Master's refining fire! 



IX rrMRF.Rl..\\o ((iiNTV, xi:\v IKRSKV 257 

Two hundred years of oppression had sped its course, 
and the end liad come. Before tlie omniscient eye the pano- 
rama of cruelties and its gory finish was curtained forever, 
and they wlio liad defied tlie laws of God had paid the pen- 
alty in ruined homes, bloody graves, and wrecked hopes. 




4ik. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



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