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Full text of "Historic design in printing; reproductions of book covers, borders, initials, decorations, printers' marks and devices comprising reference material for the designer, printer, advertiser and publisher;"

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HISTORIC DESIGN 

IN PRINTING 

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A rich and graceful pattern representative of the store of motives for the designer to be found in early book 

bindings. From an edition of The True Portraits and Lives of Illustrious Men, Paris, 1584. 

The arms are those of King James I of England ensigned with the royal crown 






ilistorit Besign in printing 

REPRODUCTIONS OF BOOK COVERS, 
BORDERS, INITIALS, DECORATIONS, 
PRINTERS' MARKS AND DEVICES COM- 
PRISING REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR THE 
DESIGNER, PRINTER, ADVERTISER 
AND PUBLISHER 

WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTATIONS 

BY 

HENRY LEWIS JOHNSON 



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BOSTON 



Cfje (§rapf)ic ^rtg (Eompanp ^ 

1923 



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Designed by Geofry Tory for the Hours of Simon de Colines, 1520 




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COPYRIGHT 1923 

BY 

The GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY 

This copyright relates to the 
text, compilation and group- 
ing of this work hut does not 
in any way restrict the adapta- 
tion of motives and individual 
designs. These are the heritage 
to all craftsmen, from previous 
generations most rich in 
accomplishment 




FINE ARTS DE 



OCT b 1987 



JAMES KENT EATON, rNC, PRINTERS, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

wNLY those who are collectors or connoisseurs can appreciate the pleasurable task 
represented by garnering the many forms of design and ornament presented herein. 
At the beginning of my experience in printing in the office of a Boston printer of 
exceptional abilities, Carl H. Heintzemann, 1 learned to know the thrill of gratifi- 
cation from a page of fine typography and especially so when it carried some design 
or color. Mr. Heintzemann, more than any other printer of my early acquaintance, 
brought to his work a knowledge and practice of principles of composition, design, 
and color, derived from an appreciation of best Italian, French and Qerman printing. 
He was a master printer, both as a designer and technician, and from him I learned 
to have a regard for both phases, in contrast to the then more prevalent effort for 
mechanical rigidity. 

In applying myself to the design of printing for many years, 1 found my success to 
be frequently in the use of borders, decorations or devices which gave color in a 
general sense to the page. Later in originating and editing two periodicals, first 
The Printing Art and then The Qraphic Arts, 1 greatly extended my collection and 
use of design in printing. 

As a part of my instruction in courses which I have in printing at Boston University, 
I require students to give particular attention to early printing for its distinction in 
typography and its masterpieces in design. The reference material is so widely 
scattered and m£iinly limited to individual copies, that it is difficult for students to 
attain an adequate knowledge of this historic foundation for good work. This 
compilation is partly to make available for students the forms and styles of design 
in the Renaissance of printing of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and still more 
to offer authoritative examples in a reasonably comprehensive range as motives for 
the designer, printer, advertiser, and publisher. The increasing use of devices, 
trade marks, borders, and decorations creates a wide interest which can be met only 
by going back to the greatest sources which are afforded by the Renaissance. 

It has been possible to photo-engrave many prints of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries in clear, fine details; others show the defects of early printing as no attempt 
has been made to redraw the originals. 



Neither does this work undertake to define styles, elements or uses of the materials. 
Any prescription of motives and forms of design uithout typography ivould merely 
lead to li'ork having unrelated elements. 

This work is offered with the most serious conviction from study and experience 
that the expression of feeling and personality through design is the greatest oppor- 
tunity in the craftsmanship of printing. Charles Eliot f^orton's forecast "Printing 
will become one of the first great arts of this country" finds much confirmation in 
the sincerity and attainments of an increasing number of those who design and 
produce printing. 

Following the stimulus of the William Morris period of the revival of conventional 
design, we have had a pictorial era in book covers and in general printing. Now 
there is a popularity of black and white pattern effects in borders and decorations, 
ivhich can well be extended again to formal designs in covers and to combinations 
with many forms of typography. The wealth of Renaissance designs, in panels, 
vignettes, and initials can be drawn upon for motives which combine most admir- 
ably with the rigidity of types. Such effects in printing are today a necessary offset 
to the grayed out pages in which half-tones and light types so largely predominate. 

It is hoped that this compilation, ivhich at best is only representative of a great 
period, will serve to turn attention to the study of the work of the early masters of 
printing. Without the influence of this study much printing of today is impover- 
ished and inadequate to its opportunities. 

HEhlRY LEWIS JOH}^SON 



Boston, Massachusetts 
September, ig23 




HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 

RAPHIC ARTS of today offer great opportunities to the desigr\er, 
to the printer, and to those who use printing. It is difficult to 
conceive of anyone active in the professions, arts, industries or 
commerce who does not use printing, either supplied to him, as 
in the case of books for the teacher, or produced for his specific 
purposes, instanced by catalogues for the manufacturer. It follows 
therefore that not only those who actually design and produce 
printing, but also the rank and file of humanity, have a direct 
concern with the manner of printing which best serves them. 

To reach quickly the basic reason for design in printing, compare printing with archi- 
tecture, "the mother of the arts." Buildings might all be flat surfaces of stone, brick, 
or wood, with merely openings for passage and light. Yet no structure of any account is 
without finish, defining doors, windows and construction. The simplest printing in- 
volves design in form, and when it has a purpose of appeal or influence, it requires some 
elements of design to be appropriate or significant in expression. Otherwise, it is a flat 
surface, without individuality. There are many appropriately printed books and routine 
forms absolutely bare of decorative design, but by far the greater portion are enhanced 
by designs, either the simplest mark on a title page, a cover design, borders or initials. 

Design is a large factor in style in printing. "Style is the man" can well be paraphrased — 
"Style is the printer." Lethaby's definition: "Art is design in workmanship" means an 
intelligence for doing work best in appearance as well as in utility. 

Design in printing dates from the inception of the art. The first printing was mainly 
pictorial and decorative, from engraved blocks. When type printing began, it was sup- 
plemented by designs to rival manuscript decorations. Then Ratdolt, in 1475, engraved 
and printed borders and initials which marked the advent of engraved design in printing as 
it now concerns us. The forms of design in printing of this time do not diff^er from these 
used in the earliest work. Interlacings, patterns and cartouch forms for covers, borders, 
initials, headbands, tailpieces and trade mark devices for type pages are identical now with 
the earliest usage. What then are the significance and importance of this compilation of 
historic design in printing? 

Pen and ink design, supplemented by photo-engraving, forms a natural adjunct to type 
printing because of the similarity in the definition of lines. The engraved lines and type 
lines can be alike or in suitable relation in color. 




INTRODUCTORY - Continued 

NNUMERABLE photo-engraving establishments, with their art de- 
partments, designing on a quantity basis, individual designers, mostly 
without the resources or specific training in historic design, and the 
very few master designers, are now producing design for printing on 
a scale never before approached. 

Some design in the advertising pages of the popular periodicals is 
beautiful in composition and of high technical rank but it must be 
said that whatever is good follows historic styles. 

Too much work is produced by the "born" designer, and by others without reference 
resources, while the specious claims of originality, something new, and unique are common 
self-introductions for un-classifiable or nondescript work. It may be pretty, well rendered, 
and "original" but that is as far as it goes. No one wants a doctor or lawyer who is not 
well founded on precedents, and why should a novice in design expect to lift himself by 
his own bootstraps? 

Several authorities quoted in the display pages warn against the effort for originality — 
without a foundation upon the best that has been done. Outside of a few cities having 
large libraries, the designer has only a meager opportunity to study early printing first hand 
but the printing periodicals point the way by examples and discussions of early work so 
that all who aspire to advancement can know something of the traditions. 

The great difficulty lies in the too prevalent practice of following with avidity the hetrogen- 
ious design in present day printing. The designer who adopts this method for his motives 
can produce only variants without much likelihood of making any advancement. 

The great artists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries gave to printing of that period a 
wealth of design. The study of this is the foundation for architectural construction, 
symbolism, foliage, interlacing and arabesques. 

Many of the early title-pages are masterpieces in architectural motives and also are an author- 
itative source of decoration in mouldings and frets, supplemented by every form of foliage, 
fruits, fishes, garlands, cornucopias, vases, pilasters and human figures. 

Page borders of these centuries display master craftsmanship in flat decoration and in geo- 
metric design. Book bindings are unsurpassed in strictly ornamental form and detail. 
Almost every conceivable kind of decorative motive and the most beautiful letters are to 
be found in the alphabets of initials designed by the greatest artists of the period. 

Although the prints of early wood engravings are usually imperfect because of the crudi- 
ties of press work, they still provide examples of technique in line and shading. These 
renderings of forms and details are more appropriate in combinations with types than the 
stipple and crosshatching of intaglio plates. Early prints by the latter process have re- 
markable perfection of form and elaboration in design but they are more useful for motives 
than for technique. 




INTRODUCTORY - Continued 

MOST concise presentation of the Renaissance is by the English 
librarian and author, R. N. Wornum, from whom we quote at 
length: 

"The term Renaissance is used in a double sense: in a general sense 
implying the revival of art, and specially signifying a peculiar 
style of ornament, that is, implying both an epoch and a style. 
The original idea of the Rinascimento, or rebirth, which is the 
literal meaning of the term, was purely architectural; the restor- 
ation of classical ornament did not immediately follow the restoration of the classical or- 
ders, though this was the eventual result; this is an important consideration, for unless 
we bear constantly in mind that the original revival was simply that of the classical orders 
of architecture in the place of the middle-age styles, the apparent inconsistencies we shall meet 
with in the ornamental details of the Renaissance will be liable to confuse us. The Renais- 
sance styles, therefore, are only those styles of ornament which were associated with the 
gradual revival of the ancient art of Greece and Rome, which was not really accomplished 
until the sixteenth century, in that iinished style the Cinquecento. 

The course of ancient and modern art has been much the same ; both commenced in the 
symbolic, and ended in the sensuous. The essence of all middle-age art was symbolism, 
and the transition from the symbolism to the unalloyed principles of beauty is the great 
feature of the revival. 

Venice, already rich in Byzantine works, appears to have taken the lead also in the dawn- 
ing of classical art; and the Venetians seem likewise to have contributed more than any 
others to its most finished development, the Cinquecento. The Venetians and the Italians 
generally, controlled by no trammels of tradition, added their own beginnings of natural 
imitations, to Christian or to Pagan elements indiscriminately; the prestige of a thousand 
years was broken; the classical forms prevailed, and the Quattrocento, the first great style 
of the Renaissance, was established. 

The first of those modern innovations is the transition style, the Trecento; which may 
be considered a negative style, as its peculiarity consists in its exclusion of certain hitherto 
common ornamental elements. 

The great features of this style are its intricate tracery of interlacings, and delicate scroll- 
work of conventional foliage, the style being but a slight remove from a combination of 
the Byzantine and Saracenic, the symbolism of both being equally excluded ; the foliage 
and floriage, however, are not exclusively conventional, and it comprises a fair rendering 
of the classical orders. 

In the Quattrocento, the next style, we have a far more positive revival. Lorenzo Ghiberti 
may, perhaps, be instanced as its great exponent or representative in ornametal art. 
Filippo Calendario and Antonio Riccio, called Briosco, contemporary with Ghiberti, are 
likewise important names, of this period. 



INTRODUCTORY - Concluded 

In this style, also, we have the first appearance of cartouches or scrolled shield-work, which 
became so very prominent in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Another feature of this Quattrocento style — or what is more especially the Italian Renais- 
sance, as distinct from the Cinquecento — is the introduction, for the first time, of the gro- 
tesque arabesque, after the ancient models of Rome and Pompeii; in fact, the style of dec- 
oration is now of a very complicated character, though not confused, for we will have the 
Trecento interlacings very largly used as borders, and the scroll, from the pretty serpentine 
character of the previous style, appears with all the fulness of the Roman arabesque, but 
not yet very prominently introduced. 

We speak of the Renaissance as an epoch and as a style, but the only true or literal revival 
is the Cinquecento; the other varieties contain too many orignial and extraneous elements 
to be considered an historical revival." 

The term applied to a library "the treasure house of printing" seems sometimes a misnomer 
to those who want some particular kind of binding or design. It is often difficult to find 
the desired reference material. This is necessarily so because the examples are scattered 
through many early printed books or reproduced in works on art in general in which de- 
sign in printing has only a minor part. There is a real inspiration in searching because 
many other phases of artistic endeavor contribute to a general sense of what is good. 

The pleasure from the exercise of technical skill and the gratification from a finished product 
are among the rewards to those who achieve well in design in printing. "Art alone endures," 
and no one can foresee what far reaching influence his handicraft may have. When it has 
gone from the press it is like Longfellow's: 

I shot an arrow into the air. 

It fell to earth, I knew not where. 
Design in printing is a form of expression which contributes to its immediate influence and 
usually to its longevity. It is a form of eloquence not limited to any time or place. To 
have a part in the preparation of printing is within the activities of every man of afl^airs 
and the right use of design is a most worthy challenge to personal accomplishment. 





Grolieresque binding from Erasmus on the New Testament 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 

GROUP I -BINDINGS 

These superb compositions, consecrated to the bindings of the epoch 

ERNEST THOINAN 



GROUP 1 NO. 2 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Grolieresque binding of the 16th century, with the arms of Charles V and his device — the 
Pillar of Hercules and the motto "Ne Plus Ultra" 



JEAN GROLIER 

IN the history of bookmaking, no more interesting and brilliant figure is to be found than that of 
Jean Grolier de Servier, vicomte d'Aguisy, Treasurer-General of France, ambassador to the Court 
of Rome, and bibliophile. His life forms a complete, epitomized expression of the higher literary 
feeling of his time. Grolier was born at Lyons in 1476. His family was of Italian descent, 
originally from Verona; his father, Etienne Grolier, a gentleman of the Court of Louis XII of 
France, and Treasurer to the King in the Duchy of Milan. At an early age, Grolier was introduced at 
the French Court by his father, where he soon attracted notice, both by his learning and by his talents 
as a financier. Under Francis I he held the position of intendant of the army in the Milanese country. 
He returned to France after the battle of Pavia, and was appointed ambassador to Pope Clement VII 
in 1534. In this capacity he conducted certain diplomatic negotiations with so much delicacy and skill 
that he won the personal friendship of the Pontiff, who gave him substantial proof of his favor. During 
his stay at Rome, Grolier began collecting a library. Upon his return to France he was first appointed 
Treasurer of the King for the districts of Outre-Seine, and L'Ue-de-France, and afterward Treasurer- 



General of Finance, an office which he held until his death, displaying ability and integrity in his admin- 
istration of the public money, and, not withstanding the malicious accusations which were brought against 
him, completely triumphing over his enemies. He died at Paris on the 22d of October, 1565, at the age 
of eighty-six years, and was buried in the Church of St. Germain des Pres, near the great altar. 

The interest attached to the name of Grolier in the mind of posterity has far less to do with his distinction 
and personal merits as a financier than with his passion for books. He loved books as a man of letters, 
as an artist, and as a dilettante. Both at Paris and in Italy, he had many warm friends among the learned 
men and the men of letters of his time, to whom he accorded a generous and delicate protection. He 
was linked also by ties of common interest and sympathy of pursuits with the most famous printers of 
the epoch. Garuffi, Etienne Niger and Bude dedicated books to him. It was Grolier who caused Bude's 
treatise "de Asse," to be printed by the Aldines in 1552. An example on vellum of this volume, that 
which was presented to Grolier and brought 1500 francs in 1816 at the MacCarthy sale, afterwards found 
its way to England. Dedications to Grolier are seen also at the beginning of a Suetonius printed at Lyons 
in 1518, of a book by Etienne Niger on Greek literature (Milan, 1517), and of different other works. In 
many writings of the time, Grolier is spoken of in terms of the highest commendation. Erasmus 
bestowed great praise upon him. Coelius Rhodigimus, Aldus Manutius, Baptiste Egnazio, and various 
other persons dedicated works to him. It is Egnazio who relates that Grolier, having invited several 
learned men to dinner, at the close of the repast set before the guests gloves, in each of which was 
wrapped a considerable sum in gold. 

The historian De Thou compares the famous library of Grolier with that of Asinius Pollio, the most 
ancient library of Rome. Only such books were included in it as were remarkable for their intrinsic 
literary value and their beauty of form. The Greek and Latin classics, the works of contemporary 
philosophers and learned men, historians, geographers, archaeologists, composed a great part of it. By 
the side of these figures the modern Latin poets, which were read at that time, and the literature of 
Italy. For this library Grolier selected the best copies procurable of the different works, and frequently 
caused several copies of a book to be printed especially for him in fine paper. He had the frontis- 
pieces and the initials painted in gold, and in colors. The covers bore ornaments in the most exquisite 
taste, and were gilded with remarkable delicacy. The compartments were painted with various colors, 
were perfectly well-drawn, and all were designed in different figures. Grolier even went so far as to 
have new margins carefully added to the leaves which had been left too short in the folding, in order 
to possess copies with very wide margins. But it is particularly in the bindings which he caused to be 
made, that Grolier gave the most positive proofs of his admirable good taste. The art with which 
they were executed was no less remarkable than the beauty of the ornaments which he himself designed. 

Most of the books of Grolier's library bore on one side his personal motto, " Portio mea, Domine, sit in 
terra viventium," and on the other the words, "lo Grolierii et amicorum." This latter inscription has 
given rise to the theory that Grolier was a bibliophile of an uncommonly generous disposition, and re- 
garded his books as the property of his friends as well as of himself. Another theory, upheld by 
authenticated facts, is that Grolier, possessing several copies of the same book, all richly bound, was in 
the habit of reserving the finest copy for himself and distributing the others among his friends. 

Being what he was, an evenly balanced, symmetrical individuality, Grolier has left his mark on history 
as a brilliant, successful man of the world, of broad and generous sympathies, whose business in life was 
finance and diplomacy, whose recreation was art and letters. He was equally at home in palace, camp, 
council chamber, treasury, studio and printing room. His list of friends and acquaintances began with 
kings and popes and ended with artisans and toilers among the people. 

He gave to the book, in its most sumptuous form, a lofty and lasting position in the world of letters. 
To posterity, Grolier represents the spirit of the Renaissance, in all its proud, splendid materialism. His 
personality stands out in bold relief among the many significant figures of sixteenth century France and 
Italy, presenting a long busy and useful life ; the life of a cultivated gentleman, the influence of which 
is still felt at the lapse of three centuries and has reached the new world. 

CHARLOTTE ADAMS 



From JEAN GROLIER— Printed for the Grolier Club, New York, 1907 



GROUP I NO. 4 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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GROUP I NO. 5 




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A Grolier binding on dark green sheepskin with ornaments, lines and borders in gold. The 

motto at the bottom, "Grolierii et amicorum," was adopted by this 

celebrated bibliophile of the 16th century 



GROUP I NO. 6 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP I NO. 7 




From an Italian binding in gold, silver and black 



GROUP I NO. 8 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP I NO. 9 




The central motive and the four angle-ties of this binding of the 16th century have a correct and 

serious style yet not devoid^of charm. The book so artistically bound is the Histoire de Marc-Aurele, 

printed in Paris by the royal printer, Jehan le Royer, 1565 



GROUP I NO. 10 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC AKTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Binding made under the direction of Demetrio Canevari, physician to Pope Urbain VIII 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP I NO. 11 




From a binding designed by Geofroy Tory to whom several references^are made in this volume. This design 
includes the Tory mark known as the "broken pot" as a part of the background of airy and graceful 

ornaments. The original is in gold stamped on sheepskin 



GROUP I NO. 12 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




This binding comes from the library of Henry II, showing his medallion portrait hve times 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP I NO. 13 




An excellent example of the bindings for Tommaso Maioli, by an unknown master designer 

of the early part of the 16th century 



GROUP I NO. 14 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




A duplicate reproduction of a Grolier binding to show the contrast of a soHd 
background as against the stipple in Group 1 No 5 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 

GROUP II -BORDERS AND FRAMES 



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^Vreus bi'c liter ed : non eft preciodor ulla 
.Gem'a kalendano : quod doceciftud opus. 
Aureus bic Humerus ; lune ; folifcjlabores 

Monfltantur facile : cuncla^ figna poli : 
Quotcj Tub boc libro tej;r? per longa regantur 

Terripora : quifq? dies : mends : 6c annus erit . 
Scitur in inftanti qu^cuncp'fic bora di'ei'. 

Hunc emat aftrologus qui uehc efle dto. 
Hocloannesopus regio de monte pvobatum 

Compofuit : tota notus in italia . 
Quodueneta impiefTum fuicin tellure per illos 

Infenus quorum nomi'na piclaloco. 



14.7 tf. 



Bemardus pidor de Augu(h 
Petrus loOdn de Laiigencen 
Eilurtius Ptdokde AugtH>4 




vi 




In 1476 there was printed in Venice, simultaneously in Latin, Italian and German, an absolutely perfect 
and complete title-page, giving the place and date of publication and the names of its printers, with no 
other peculiarity than the fact that the contents of the book was stated in verse instead of prose. 
Other title-pages were printed between 1470 and 1490 but they did not become general until as late as 1520 



GROUP II NO. 2 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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DESIGNS IN EARLY TITLE-PAGES 

The early printed books did not have title-pages. The slow 
development of this feature after the invention of printing is 
accounted for by the reason that in this respect, as in others, 
the first printed books were modelled in imitation of the illu- 
minated missals, and it 'was not deemed necessary in the 
mediaeval books and manuscripts to have a title-page, the 
scribe of the olden time merely recording in a note or label 
fastened to the end of the volume the name and description 
of his work; so this habit was continued for a long time by the 
early printers. This note or ending was called a Colophon. 

Printers' devices, which were generally of an heraldic char- 
acter, were commonly seen on the title-pages, some of which 
were very elaborate and finely designed. The famous printing 
house of Aldus at Venice had a device of an anchor with a 
dolphin twined around it, and the motto "Propera tarde" or 
"Festina lente" (Hasten slowly). It was from the printing 
press of Aldus in 1499, that the celebrated book called Poliphili 
Hypnerotomachia, "The Dream of Poliphilus," was issued. 
It is a finely illustrated book, consisting of classical compositions 
of figures and processions, many architectural designs, orna- 
mental letters, emblems, and devices, all of which are executed 
in outline and printed from wood blocks. 

A renaissance border, from a woodcut which appeared in an 
edition of "Herodotus" printed at Venice in 1470, has a rich 
and delicate design which is extremely effective in white on a 
black ground, and is artistically appropriate to the decoration 
of the page, much more so than the later French and German 
work in borders and title-pages, which was usually of an ex- 
tremely heavy character. 

Shaded designs of an architectural kind, such as friezes, col- 
umns, basis, and pediments, with corpulent figure decoration 
and heavy mouldings, were compositions which in the latter 
end of the sixteenth and during the seventeenth centuries took 
the place of the earlier light arabesque scroll-work of the 
Italian school, which revelled in the beauty of purer outline 
and in flat treatment of black and white. 

JAMES WARD 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 3 






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H (f 



^iu^ 



LVwe 



^/.^ 



"THE WORLD'S MOST 
MAGNIFICENT TITLE-PAGE" 

THIS BORDER WAS USED ON THE 
FIRST PAGE OF HERODOTUS PRINT- 
ED BY JOANNEM ET GREGORIUM DE 
GREGORII FRATES AT VENICE, 1914. 
THE BLACK BACKGROUND COVERED 
WITH WHITE VASES, ARABESQUES, 
CORNUCOPIAS, DOLPHINS, BIRDS AND 
FLOWERS, RENDERED WITH ELEGANCE 
AND SUPREME GRACE WITH SUCH 
RARE SURETY OF TASTE. THIS HERO- 
DOTUS TITLE-PAGE WAS THE ONLY 
DECORATION IN THE BOOK IN WHICH 
IT APPEARED 

The border design has a brilliancy and clearness 
which have never been surpassed; so it is with 
reason regarded as the masterpiece of style and 
the most perfect type of decorative art applied to 
the ornamentation of a book. 

DUG DE RIVOLI 



•fX4. 






ym 



JJ 



I Vl 



(^ ^ 



I ^s^m^i 



GROUP II NO. 4 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




-a 
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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 5 




GROUP II NO. 6 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







Design by Florio Vasassore, 1507 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 7 



t-M: 



V*. 



mm- 



im 



mmi 






CT Seciida pars opens dnicx pafliionis&! refurredio 
nisdicidaga£^& ludxoj;; fu^Thocargumctaconfutat, 

Tfi multa funt argumenra ^ 
quibus ludxi magn/m no 
bis calumnia folcnt alirue 
rc_,&fidcmrpcratara nobis 
relurre(^ionisftulragarrU' 
litatederidere_,inhac tame 
lucubratiunculanoftra ea 
duntaxat confutar^ ^ggre^ 
diemur^qux dommicx paf 
lionis & relurre(^honis materiam concernunt.Solet 
iiaiKjj obftinatum lUud , & feruile ludxorum pecus 
in Chrifti faluatoris blafphemiam exire propenftus 
fiiTin chrillianorumcalumniam infultare audenuus 
& confidentius, quia legis noftrx munimenra noji 
pauca ex auita ipforum religione mutuati fumus 
ea pra:cipue,qux agni pafchahs ry^po^domini paflio 
nem figuificabanr:quo fie uc perperam interpretan 
res lcgem,& diuini lacramenti myfterium conrami 
nanreSjUiuIras indies calumnias jiobisinferre node 
fiftant,nunquam cauillandi finem facientes:adeo ^ 
cotinuisfubfanationibusnos lace(Ientes,& fingulas 
obfcruationes noftras deteftates perpecuis ipfoj^ c6/ 
tumeliis^arc^ conuitiis finlus obnoxhmon (olum in 
pafcbp; celebratione obferuatione noftram ludibrio 
maximoqj opprobrio ducenrcs(de quofuperion lu 
cubratiunculanoftra rcrip(imus)uerri etiami dnic.c 
paiTionis myfterio ruditatis^^^ifcicLrnos iliinulare.; 

A. ii 



^ 



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l^imm:. 



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Border and initial engraved on metal, 1513 



GROUP II NO. 8 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



TrM 




r ^ ^'T ■ 




However small the remuneration of 
the writers was, still they clung to it; 
and they were naturally the first to 
protest against the new invention. At 
the same time, their opposition and that 
of the booksellers, was soon overcome, 
swamped, and choked by the grow- 
ing crowd of printers. Then, as always 
happens in similar cases, in place of 
fighting against the current, most of 
the former workers in manuscript fol- 
lowed it. The caligraphers designed 
letters for engraving in wood, the book- 
sellers sold the printed works, and the 
illuminators engraved in relief their 
histoyres. For a long time the latter 
continued to decorate books with the 
ornamental drawings with which they 
had adorned the manuscripts, and so 
contributed to form the fine school of 
illustrators who carried their art to so 
high a point by the end of the fifteenth 
century. 

HENRI BOUCHOT 



"■ < ■> 



I 



cvfl^^ 



Title-page border from a rare folio published in Rome by Jocopo Mazocchi in 1521. This design has been described as 
illustrating well the printing of the early Italian Schools which had for their object the production with the plainest means 

the greatest possible sum of effect 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 9 




\ 



CAESARIS 

CONTARDI GENVEN. 

ADVOCATI CVRIAE 
R O M A N .«. 

vnicam. C. SideMomen. pofTefs. 
fue. appcl. 




CumPriuilegio. 

J\^0 M ^E , ^piid lofephum de ^ngelis, 
M. D. L X X I I I. 



J 




An unusual type of early title-page border, the freedom of the outline and the solid black 
being in contrast to the more usual strictly rectangular forms 



GROUP II NO. 10 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





These two reproductions are from intaglio engravings in the series of portraits of 
illustrious persons begun by Thcodorus de Bry who was born in Liege in 1528. He was a 
print and book seller in Frankfort and he engraved a large number of plates. He was assisted 
by his son, John, who added greatly to the series of engravings of similar character. As a 
peculiarity some insect was used in the decorations of nearly every engraving 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 11 




11llil|i|ii|ii|||liNnHiiiniiiniiiiiiiii||i|||iiiii|iii!|tiiiiiiimiiiffliii|iHii^^ 

Sydus in sy-^ypenis 'X)iruE,s r^atonibus oHunv, 
.Jj-^votultt artloum cur juhar ufqj ■pol'u'm 



M jEMsm ^^'i''''^^^^^^^^^^^ 



This portrait and the one adjoining are shown because they are representative of the great sources 
of decoration in intaglio engravings. As the Hne treatment is different from that used in reUef, 
such work is not suited to study in technique by those designing for reproduction in photo- 
engraving. There are many architectural works and series of portraits which contain elaborate 

frames and rich ornamentation 



GROUP II NO. 12 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THH GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




1 



This wreath, having the appearance of a new design, is an example 
of the motives to be found in the frames, borders and trade mark 
devices in the Golden Age of printing. In the center of the wreath 
was the Tree of Knowledge used as a device by Jean Richer, a 
publisher in Paris, 1572-1602 



iLL design is a dealing with certain problems in the light of a body of 

// observation and experience. As to general arrangement, we are mostly 

^^yj- agreed that the first consideration should be utility and as to construction, 

that it should be governed by stability. Beyond this, there is no agreement as 

to elements and no recognized basis of criticism other than that of archaeological 

correctness— judgment by authority. 

W. R. LETHABY 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 13 






ConolanusCepio Clanfltmo uiro Matioo An^ 
tonioMaurocaiocquiri apud illuftnilima du- 
cem Burguiidis Venetoru oraton fchduccm. 



Vom pr^fcdustriremis ad daf-' 
fern profiaTcercr/quam fchdffi' 
mus imperator Venct»*^ Pctrus 
Mocenicus contra. Ocbomanum 
Turco^ pnnapeduccbar:uebc' 
menterrogafti me/utquic^dm baccxpeditionc 
gcftum efiet licteris mandarcm: affirmans ca te 
Apollinisoraculo ueriora habiturum qug a me 
{cripta forcnt. Igic ut abi moregcrcrcni qugab 
impcratoreMocenicx) pquadncnniu gcftafunt 
anhotaui : Tanco cnim tempore & iilc imperiu 
gcffit/ & ego pt^fedura fundus (u m.Quapptcr 
opufculu in quo bjc (cripta funtabi mitxo:quod 
«ji perlegcris/ no minus teegregias imperatoris 
uirtutes q magnifica iplius gefta adniiratu^ cer^ 
tu babeo: mento<]^damnabis eotu (cntentia qui 
affirmare folent effoetam efle naturam : necpto - 
ducere tales uiros quales prifas temporibus ex ^ 
aterut;omnia(^ mundo Icncfcente degenerafie: 
q falfi {int ucl ex lx>c maxime apparet . Nam (i 

a z 






'^snfr 



Several of the books printed by Erhart Ratdolt carry the name of Bernardus Pictor. The latter was a painter 
and made the border designs and some of the initials used by Ratdolt 



GROUP II NO. 14 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 15 




This massive and bold design was used as a border to an illustration. It is virtually a window 
frame with ornate architectural setting. Designed by Hans Burgmair, Augsburg, 1530 



CROUP II NO. 16 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THF GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Crudely engraved but richly decorative border of 1511 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 17 




Page border of 1494, practically pure white in design, and with another variation in dolphins 



GROUP II NO. 18 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





_ __ . _ ' * 



An illustration frame by Hans Burgmair, Aushurg, 1530. Dolphins are used eight 

times in the composition 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 19 




The versatility of early printers in adapting a very limited number of borders and frames to 
succeeding works is paralleled somewhat at the present time. It is certain that many printers 
today do not have equal resources in what may be termed stock borders. This frame is more 
conventional than many of the early portrait borders and shows an oak leaf and acorn wreath 
which is somewhat rare as a decorative motive 



GROUP II NO. 20 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Portrait and border of 1561 by an unknown artist, printed in Venice by Gabrielle Giolito, 1562 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP 11 NO. 21 





GROUP II NO. 22 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




S^SZ^ZZZZ 



'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




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f— t 

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u 

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a 

a 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 23 




E^ 



EARLY ORNAMENT AND ITS RELATION TO 
THAT OF TODAY 



^eisr?' 




T would be beyond the truth to say that the principles 
iwhich underlie all old work are the same. Those prin- 
ciples are as diverse as the temperaments and characters 
of the races among whom they were developed. The 
Egyptians loved mystery and symbolism; the Greeks 
carried the refinement of form to perfection ; the Romans 
revelled in richness; the Byzantines indulged in a bril- 
liance of color that is yet always barbaric; the Arabs gave themselves 
up to the subtle interweaving of intricate detail; the artists of the 
Gothic period combined religious sentiment with energy of executions; 
and those of the Renaissance returned to the symbolism that runs 
through Egyptian ornament, the purity of line that characterizes 
Greek detail, or the sumptuousness that belongs to Roman scroUery. 
Inasmuch as all nations and all ages differ, their expression in orna- 
ment differs; and inasmuch as all nations and all ages are alike, they 
express themselves alike in their everyday art. 

LEWIS F. DAY 

A made up page border from a Venetian book of 1556 with top and bottom panels 
in characteristic crible backgrounds 




:^ss^^ssss3ss 



S2S25^B 



rvvvvvv'i'VJvvKu^ 



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GROUP II NO. 24 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANT, BOSTON 




I 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 25 




GROUP II NO. 26 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 









THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 27 




GROUP II NO. 28 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



JoSTr I 



ru BL 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 29 




^^%S£££di£££,^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



^^W-A-^ 



GROUP II NO. 30 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 
f 



Title-page design by Hans Holbein 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 31 




BERNARDINEBBr ISVBRES 
DEBERE EAIenIvR 

nominvsiacmagno 
bdma^svperbaTtto- 







Title-page engraved on wood, 1503 



GROUP II NO. 32 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




3 3 J 3 3 re 3 1 




3-] ] 1 1 "i ] 1 1 3 r 



3 il 3 3 3 f.. 



^c: 



Before the end of the fifteenth century, 
the learned Belgian Jost Bade a native 
of the village of Asch, near Brussels, 
(from whence his Latin name, jodocus 
Badius Ascensius) had established him- 
self in Paris as printer, after having 
taught in different places of France, 
the Greek and Latin languages, which 
he had studied in Italy. In this he 
imitated the three German printers, 
Vlric Qering of Constance, Martin 
Crantz and Michel Frihurger of Col- 
mar, who carried the typographical art 
to Paris, in the very center of the Sor- 
bonne, in the year 1469. Jost Bade de- 
voted himself to this new art with 
quite the ardor of a neophyte, and was 
happy enough to improve it very soon 
by the abandonment of the Gothic 
forms and the introduction of the Ro- 
man type. He had the honor of marry- 
ing his three daughters to the three 
chiefs of French typography, Michel 
Vascosan, Robert Estienne and Jehan de 
Roigny. He called his studio, " Real 
Sanctuary of the Sciences." 



Title-page border from a work printed 
by Badius 



^^ss 











:J.- ! H^S-Mg> , VkV.kx'i^^-JKU^J.'^T.A ' 




«,'.'r.i|;.V'Va,ijia'> 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 33 




Wood engraved title-page border with crible background, having ribbon and interlacing in Italian style, designed 

by Oronce Fine for Simon de Colines, Paris, 1534 



GROUP II NO. 34 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




GEOFROY TORY 

THE first half of the sixteenth century was with 
respect to printing (as with respect to the other 
arts) a period of renovation, not in the matter of 
processes of execution, which remained about the 
same as in the fifteenth century, but in the matter of 
make-up of books, which was entirely revolutionized. 
Typographical arrangement, appearance of the letters 
and ornaments, everything, even to the cover, was 
changed almost at the same time, or, at all events, 
within a very few years. At that time printing gave 
over the servile copying of manuscripts, which had 
at first served it as models, and adopted special rules, 
better adapted to its method of execution. For 
instance, it relegated notes to the foot of the pages, 
calling attention to them by marks of reference, in- 
stead of placing them at the side of the text, as had 
previously been the custom, at the cost of an enormous 
amount of labor, without benefit to the reader. It 
also abandoned the use of red capitals, which, by in- 
creasing the labor two fold, made books expensive, 
and replaced them by floriated letters, which were 
quite as distinctive, but were set up and printed with 
the text. This style of ornament, so favorable to 
artistic result, developed rapidly, and soon extended 
from the letters to the illustrations, which began to be 
introduced in books in constantly increasing numbers. 
Under the general impulsion of the Renaissance, 
engraving was transformed : instead of the coarse 
woodcuts, of the so-called crible style, in which the 
background was black sprinkled with white dots, and 
the design stamped in white, as with a punch, en- 
graving in relief came into vogue, just as we have it 
today, identical in form, although the processes have 
been perfected. A similar revolution took place in 
the matter of letters: the Gothic or semi-Gothic 
characters, which had hitherto been used, were re- 




Title-page border in separate blocks, designed by Geofroy Tory and printed by 

Simon de Colines, Paris, 1529 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 35 



^^ig^s^rg ^yL^L.^^^^^ 



placed by roman characters of a novel shape, borrowed 
trom the monuments of antiquity (then studied with 
great ardor) which continued in use until the Revo- 
lution. Lastly, the covers of books also underwent 
a transformation brought about by the force of events; 
the parchment rolls used by the ancients had been 
succeeded, during the Middle Ages, by bound vol- 
umes, of a shape more convenient for reading ; these 
volumes, of which those who were fortunate enough 
to own any never owned more than a very small 
number, being intended to be arranged on the library 
shelves in such wise as to present one side to the 
visitor's eye, were adorned with numerous ornaments 
of various sorts on that side, so that they could easily 
be distinguished. 

Later, these ornaments were omitted and the title 
of the book substituted, in huge black or gauffered 
letters. But the invention of printing soon caused 
that device to be abandoned. As the increasing num- 
bers of books made it impossible to give up so much 
space to them, they were arranged side by side on the 
shelves, care being taken tc print the title in gold 
letters (so that it might be more legible) on the back 
of the book, which was the only part of it in sight. 
This innovation compelled the doing away with 
raised decorations, especially those in precious stones 
or m metal, which would have torn the books that 
stood next them. Thereafter leather binding came 
into general use ; the gauffering on the sides was con- 
tinued for some time; but in the sixteenth century 
this in turn was replaced by gold tooling 'a filet' and 
the transformation was complete. 



_^ 



znj- 



From the series of wood engraved borders designed by Geofroy Tory from 
Lefevre d' Estaples' Commentar zu den 4 Evangelisten 



GROUP II NO. 36 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




The man who contributed most largely to this 
evolution I have described was Geofroy Tory, a man 
who is hardly known today, despite all his talents, 
although he received in 1530, as reward of his labors, 
the title of King's Prmter, which Francis I had never 
before bestowed upon anyone. I say that Tory is 
hardly known today; in truth, it is, in his case, 
equivalent to being unknown, to be known, as he is, 
only as a publisher. Some few scholars, to be sure, 
are aware that he was a printer ; but the fact is so little 
known that his biographer has denied it. 

As for his noblest title to fame, that of engraver, 
nobody is aware of it ; and yet we owe to Tory the 
resuscitation of engraving in France. As the historian 
of typography, 1 have thought that it was for me to 
describe with special care one of the fairest jewels in 
his crown. Such is the purpose of the work here 
presented, wherein will also be found, in connection 
with the honor paid to Tory by Francis I, some in- 
formation concerning the first royal printers, and a 
list of those officers trom the beginning down to the 
extinction of the office in 1830, three centuries, year 
for year, after its creation. Francis I is, in truth, 
entitled to be considered the creator of the office of 
King's Printer, for prior to his reign we find but one 
typographer who bore that title, while, from Francis I 
down, the series of king's printers was not again in- 
terrupted. The appointment of Pierre le Rouge, on 
whom the title was bestowed in 1488, may be credit- 
able to Charles VIII, but it was without result. The 
honor of having made of the eminently literary post 
of King's Printer a permanent office reverts of right 




From the series of wood engraved borders designed by Geofroy Tory from 
Lefevre d'Estaples' Commentar zu den 4 Evangelisten 



I 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP U NO. 37 




and naturally to the prince who has been called the 
Father of Letters. In truth that prince, as we shall 
see hereafter, was not content with a single printer; 
he had several at once, with distinct functions, and 
appointed successors without loss of time to such as 
retired or died during his lifetime. 

Bur, I repeat, the principal purpose of my work is 
to make Tory known as one of the most skilful en- 
gravers we have ever had. Of course I cannot forget 
that he was the learned editor of the 'Cosmographie 
du Pape Pie II,' the 'Itineraire Antonin,' etc.; the 
publisher, of rare taste, who put forth the Hours of 
1525, 1527, etc.; the accomplished printer of the 
'Sacre de la Reine Ele'onore,' and the distinguished 
philologist of ' Champ fleury,' to whom, as we shall 
see, we owe the invention of the orthographic forms 
peculiar to the French language. But what has 
especially attracted me in Tory is his work as an en- 
graver. In that role he was without predecessor or 
rival, for those persons who may be represented as 
such may have been his pupils, nothing more. Jean 
Duvet alone might quarrel with this limitation; but, 
although he was Toiy's contemporary, he was not 
his teacher; for Tory had gone for his schooling in 
the art to the very fountain-head, to Italy, before 
Duvet produced anything. As for Jean Cousin, 
de Laulne, du Cerceau, Leonard Gauthier, and the 
rest, they did not come until after Tory. The honor 
of revivifying the art of engraving in France belongs 
to Tory alone, bestriding two centuries, the fifteenth 
and sixteenth; indeed, some of his productions are 
pure Gothic. AUGUSTE BERNARD 



J^^C^^^ 






From Geofroy Tory, by Auguste Bernard, as translated by George Ives, illustrated by 
drawings by Bruce Rogers, and published by Houghton MifHin Co., Boston, 1909. The 
reproductions from Mr. Rogers' drawings give a much more correct showing of the 
beauty of line and design than in these direct reproductions which have the imperfec- 
tions of the early printing 



GROUP II NO. 38 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 39 








GROUP II NO. 40 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Wood engraved border designed by Salomon Bernard and printed by Jean de Tournes, Paris, 1558 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 41 




GROUP II NO. 42 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







y 



THE URAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO 43 






mm^^k^.^^w>^:^m.^^sm^ 




s^S«, 




GROUP II NO. 44 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 45 




Cartouch designed by John Leonard Eysler, and engraved by H. Bolman, 1730 



GROUP II NO. 46 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP II NO. 47 





Cartouch designs of the Spanish School?of the 16th century, by Frederic Zuccaro 





GROUP II NO. 48 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





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■■■J 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 

GROUP III -DECORATIONS 




The successful designer of ornament should have a thorough knowledge 
of the historic styles, not for the purpose of reproducing their forms, 
but in order to discover for himself the methods by which the old 
artists arrived at the successful treatment of nature and of former styles, 
so that by the application of his knowledge, derived from the study 
of nature and the works of former artists, he may be enabled to give to 
the world some original and interesting work. 



JAMES WARD 



GROUP III NO. 2 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



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A MIRACLE OF GENIUS 

Yes, he is a miracle of genius, because 
he is a miracle of labor; because, in- 
stead of trusting to the resources of his 
own single mind, he has ransacked a 
thousand minds ; because he makes use 
of the accumulated wisdom of ages, and 
takes as his point of departure the very 
last line and boundry to which science 
has advanced ; because it has ever been 
the object of his life to assist every in- 
tellectual gift of nature, however muni- 
ficientand however splendid, with every 
resource that art could suggest andevery 
attention that diligence could bestow. 

SIDNEY SMITH 




^ 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 3 











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VERY day and all day long we breathe the atmosphere of ornament. There is no 
escape from its influence. Good or bad, it pervades every object with which our 
daily doings bring us in contact. We may, if we choose, keep away from picture 
galleries and not look at pictures ; but, our attention once turned to ornament, 
we can no longer shut our eyes and decline to take heed of it, though there are 
all about us forms of it which every cultivated man would evade at any cost if he 

could. It may be to us a dream of beauty or a horrible nightmare, but we cannot shake it off. At 

every turn in life we come face to face with some fresh phase of it. 




12 point Bodoni 



LEWIS F. DAY 



GROUP III NO. 4 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 










Interlacing and repeating patterns affording motives suitable for borders 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 5 







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The four large circles and the vertical panel are exceptional in the amount of white on black 



GROUP III NO. 6 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 7 







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Book-binding corners and panels of the 16th century 



GROUP III NO. 8 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




MEANING OF HISTORY 

Decorative design appears at first sight to be so entirely a matter of the designer's 
unhampered fancy, that a history of the art might seem an impossibility; for 
how can there be a history of millions of independent, unrelated fancies ? But 
as a matter of fact no designer is or ever has been wholly free. In the first 
place, he knows but an infinitesimal fraction of the world of possible decora- 
tive forms — those, in short, which he has been taught or has seen, or has 
learned by experience. He is hampered by the traditions of his art, by the 
taste of his age and the demands of the market, by the tools and materials he 
uses, by his own mental and artistic limitations. By reason of common limita- 
tions and environment, the designers of any one place and time tend to work 
alike in certain respects, and those characteristics which are common to their 
work constitute the style of that time and region. The history of ornament is, 
then, the record of the origin, growth, decay, succession and inter-relation of 
the various styles of decorative design. 

A. D. F. HAMLIN 




The infinity of motives and arrangements possible in decoration is evidenced in these eight varied circle forms 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPAMY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 9 








The center design at the top of the page and the 
two immediately above are Roman of the 16th 
century. The others are niello ground decora- 
tions of the same period 




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GROUP III NO. 10 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




The book cover designs at the ri^ht 
and left are by Hans Holbein. The 
two panels below are of German 
origin. The balance are niello plates 












THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO 11 




Intarsia ornaments dated Bologne, 1493. They afford studies in pendant and 
vertical forms, set out by exceptional areas in solid backgrounds 



ORNAMENTAL art, pure and simple, is like the measure and rhythm of a verse. A 
verse may scan, may have a proper accent and cadence. In short, may have all the 
music of harmonious versification, and yet be made up of words that are mere non^ 
sense; and so in ornament, it is not necessary to its beauty, as ornament, that it should have any 
meaning. It is quite sufficient that it should be beautiful. 

F. W. MOODY 



GROUP III NO. 12 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 










The oval plates suggest types of design for title page and 
cover decorations 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 13 




Light and graceful evolutions, similar in effect but totally different in 
details. Panels of the 16th century 




ISTORIC styles of ornament remain for us, vast accumulations of tried 
experiments, for the most part in the character of conventional render- 
ings of natural forms ; for however remote from nature some of these 
may be, they can, sls a general rule, be traced directly back without 
much difficulty to the natural origin, where in most cases they were 
used symbolically. 

JAMES WARD 



GROUP III NO. 14 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 15 




Base and vase forms, Florence, 1440 



GROUP III NO. 16 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 17 








The Roman eagle is 
an excellent model 
and the oak wreath 
indicates sculptural 
origin 

The six decorations 
on the sides are ara- 
besques with criblee 
backgrounds 




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GROUP III NO. 18 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



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GROUP III NO. 19 






GROUP in NO. 20 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 21 







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GROUP III NO. 22 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 23 








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Bands in technique suited to printing upon antique papers 



GROUP III NO. 24 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GR.\PHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 25 




















Typographic Vignettes, Panels and Niellos 



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GROUP 111 NO. 26 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY. BOSTON 













Headbands and Decorations well suited to use on circulars 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 










Studies in foliage patterns 



GROUP 111 NO. 28 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 









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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 29 







The large panel is from the top of a damaskeened coffer. The main 
foliages develop their curves toward the four angles and the principal 
enlargements are profiles of heads of birds, fishes, harpies and foliations 



GROUP III NO. 30 




HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 
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GROUP III NO. 31 












GROUP III NO. 32 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






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Niello foliages from box covers, watch cases and sword ends 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 33 




ORNAMENT AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT 

NIVERSAL efforts show a universal want; and beauty of effect and 

[decoration are no more a luxury in a civilized state of society than 

warmth and clothing are a luxury to any state: the mind, as the body, 

makes everything necessary that it is capable of permanently enjoying. 

• Ornament is one of the mind's necessities, which it gratifies by means 

of the eye; and, in its strictest aesthetic sense, it has a perfect analogy 

with music, which similarly gratifies the mind, but by the means of 

a diflferent organ — the ear. 

So ornament has been discovered to be again an essential element in commercial 
prosperity. This was not so at first, because, in a less cultivated state, we are quite 
satisfied with the gratification of our merely physical wants. But in an advanced state, 
the more extensive wants of the mind demand still more pressingly to be satisfied. 
Hence, ornament is now as material an interest in a commercial community as even 
cotton itself, or, indeed, any raw material of manufacture whatever. 




12 pt. Caslon Old Style 



RALPH N. WORNUM 




Arabesque book decorations of the 15th century 



GROUP III NO. 34 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 35 




^^^^ 






Friezes of 16th century Italian design, in foliage patterns and 
sculptured ornaments 



GROUP III NO. 36 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 37 





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GROUP III NO. 38 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 39 




Five Plantin and other ornaments 












GROUP in NO. 40 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 41 



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of 1530 



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GROUP III NO. 42 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 43 










Frames and ornaments from a German work of 1559 



GROUP in . NO. 44 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 








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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 45 




The side panels are designs by Albrecht Durer 



GROUP III NO. 46 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP III NO. 47 








GROUP III NO. 48 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV-INITIALS 



I 



This is the largest grouping in this work because of the importance "^ 
and lueahh of design of this class in early printing. The value | 
of these initials is well defined by Mr. De Vinne in this text. J/ 



cccccnxp:Qoaxt( 




^^^^^^^UMBERED chapters or chapter headings in some form have 
5 been approved guide-posts for a reader ever since books were 
written. For this purpose the Roman numeral still keeps its 
prominent position, but largely because its letters are broader 
and plainer than the thinner characters of Arabic figures. 
Numerals of Roman letters mate neatly with the capital letters 
that precede them in the line. The modern practice of be- 
ginning a chapter with a fresh leaf, with a broad margin at its 
head, and of ending that chapter with a blank that shows its 
finish at the end of its last page, was known in the fifteenth century. 

For many years it was customary to have one chapter follow its predecessor without 
any intervening lane of white space, as must still be noticed in all compact modern 
editions of the Bible. This huddling of print, without a rest for the eye in the form of 
blank space, made study fatiguing and the print repelling. 

Early writers of fine manuscript books were more considerate, and provided 
blank space for added decorations of borders, center bands, initial letters, or illustrative 
miniatures. Initial letters were most frequently employed, for they permitted an infinite 
variety of ornamentation. It was not possible for any typographic printer to imitate the 
gold and bright color and beautiful designs of the calligraphers, yet Ratdolt and others 
did engrave initial letters of merit, spanning and filling in height two or more lines of 
text-type. Initial letters of large size, whether plain or engraved, were a pleasant relief to 
eyes wearied with the monotony of compacted composition, and were as effective in 
arresting the attention of a hasty reader as numbered chapter headings. 

This time-honored device for adding to the attractiveness of a page has been for 
many years undervalued, but largely so because the letters now furnished for this purpose 
are seldom good mates for the text and are hackneyed by repetition. They are often 
inferior in design to the approved initials of the fifteenth century. 



THEODORE L. DE VINNE 



GROUP IV NO. 2 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



THE EARLIEST 
NOTABLE ENGRAVED AND PRINTED INITIALS 




ATDOLT was unquestionably one of the most remarkable of the 
early printers. He was born at Augsburg about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, and there practised the art by means of which Gutenburg had 
rendered his native ciry of Mayence forever celebrated in the year 1455, 
when the first printed book, in the form of the magnificent folio Bible, 
issued from the first-established printing-press under his direction. Ratdolt 
quitted Augsburg in 1475, just twenty years after the first appearance of 
Gutenberg's ever-famous Bible, and established himself in Venice in that 
year, in partnership with his countrymen, Loslein and Maler. The works 
which he at once began to produce in Venice were marked by conspicuous 
advances in the art; the Kalendar which he issued in 1475 being the first 
example of the adoption of a regular frontispiece; and in the introduction 

of handsome initial letters, engraved on wood, to print with the type, he was more successful than any 

of his predecessors or immediate followers. 

The edition of the Roman History of Appianus, which appeared in 1477, has, in addition to a noble 
series of splendid initials, an elaborately enriched border, which, like the initials, is so finely designed 
and engraved, that the book is sought by collectors with as much avidity as a manuscript richly adorned 
by the pencil of the illuminator. 

He was also the first to introduce mathematical figures engraved on wood and printed with the 
text; an example of which will be found in the annexed facsimile of the first page of his magnificent 
edition of "Euclid's Elements of Geometry." So confident was Ratdolt of the superiority and beauty of 
the decorations with which he enriched his volumes, that he occasionally printed them in gold. 

FINE copy of his Euclid, printed on vellum, with the decorations of the first page in 
gold, is preserved in the Bibliotheque Imperiale of Paris. The designs of these ex- 
quisite initials and borders of this and other works were doubtless the work of Bernado 
the painter, who is mentioned in the colophon at the end of the beautiful edition of 
Appianus just referred to: "Venetiis, per Bernardum Pictorum et Erhardum Ratdolt 
de Augusta, 1477." 

Such was the fame acquired in Venice, Ratdolt was invited to several of the principle monasteries 
in Italy to superintend the printing of Missals and other works. But notwithstanding his great success, 
the lure of country appears to have overborne all other feelings, and in I486 he returned to Augsburg, 
where he continued the exercise of his art till the year 1516. The works then produced have scarcely 
the same high degree of merit as those produced during his short but brilliant career in Venice; and 
their illustrations are always in the German style, except a few of the fine initials designed by Bernardo 
Pictor. These initials were, indeed, imitated by other printers, far and wide. Those, for instance, in a 
fine folio Psalter printed in Venice in 1496, were evidently imitattd from Ratdolt's; and they are very 
fine, especially an "A" and a "P;" but the "B" at the commencement of the first Psalter exhibits the 
closest copy of Ratdolt's style. 

In St. Gregory's treatise in the Book of Job, printed at Seville in 1527, a magnificent initial "C" 
and an "E" are evidently copied from Ratdolt; and in a Psalter printed in Paris in 1532, by Jehan de 
Roigny, a noble initial "D" and an "I" are imitated from those designed at Venice for Ratdolt by 
Bernardo the painter. 

H. NOEL HUMPHREYS 

■» 

The initials in this page were used by Erhart Ratdolt first in "Appiani Alexandrini historiae 
Romanae" and later in "De civilibus Romanorum bellis." 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 3 



P.Candi'dnnlibros Appianifbpbift? Alexandrini ad Nico' 
humquintu fummu pond&ccm Pr^facio incipic felia(rime. 



Ppi'ani Alcxandnni bidona feu ue ^ 
ecru incunaifeu cemporu ini'quitace 
depcrdica: dcuelucilonnopoflluni-' 
ni'oadnos redeunteopcime.'ac maxi 
me pocifcx Nicolac quintetuo nucu 
cuo(^ I'mpeno e gi?ca lanna m facere 
infticuu ut non modo apud nofb-os 
noca enctfcdulicas meiobfequij! fed 
adpofteros quoc^ uirtucis tu$ fama 
tranliiecQuid enim dtgnius tuis niencis impendi potelt/q uc 
ij: qui in fequenci^uo b?caliquandolegentcum ^dificiorum 
magnitudinemomaru intuebunc": qu^^tatenofhacuoaurpK 
do confecla func te Nioolau eum efTe incelhganc: qui no mi'/ 
norem in recuperandis libns/ q in rcfhcuendis moenibus buic 
urbi adbibuenscuram. Ecpfedohcetillapr^dara: &L magna 
(Tnc.'qug manu & arte conftant: &C a plun'mis fi-mmo ingenio 
diligentiacj parancui/pr?ftanciora tamen babenda erunc: qu$ 
rtudijs adiun(fla/ monumentisquoc^feruanturlitteraru. Icac^ 
qui Pecn Bafilic? conrciguamdomum adtniranc aceftruclam 
quadiatolapiderquiHadnani molem uicilTrm refticutal qui 
deoru ccmplu ab Agrippacondicu atefuffeclu gcacenoftxa : 
qui plura alia breuicelTurauetuftati ni tuacancasadmouiTTec 
pias manus/ eofdequocg admi'rari coueniec tot illuftres libros 
ad nos tua opera traduclos e gr^cis ;nec tuam fapientia nomen 
dignitate comemorationehudis fu? immunes pr^tenre: etd 
non buius tempons efle puccm uirtutes tuas elegantion flilo 
debitas in mediu proterre boc folu dixerim tc bis rebus geflis 
aflecutum ut uerus prf (ul digninimus pnnceps baberere.Sed 
ut ad Appiana redeam Doleoequide fumme pater bis i libris 




From Appiani Alexandrini historiae Romanae, Printed by Ratdolt, 1477 



^ 



GROUP IV NO. 4 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



P 



Addiuuin Alfonfum Aragonum iCutnufcjjSicili?. 
regem in hbrosciuiliu bellovu ex Appiano Alex.in' 
dnno 111 latinutraductosPr^faDoinapicfelici{rimc< 



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Aitbofu regcm lit ab Anneo accepi"/- 

mus (Tnc munere falutare nemo po^ 

teft. Ego uero gloriohfTime rex cu m 

tuam uircute butnanitat^^jj cofidero 

tum ceteras natur? dotes rquibus nv 

terftatisnofl:r§prinapes uel in piv 

mis illuftris es: lublime ingeniuin : 

{iimma caricate: I'ummacontinentia 

nulla ritione adducipofTum ut non 

pluns apud te fidem mea efle exiftimem q ullas opes. Quip^ 

pe cij te indi'gentibus & ueluti e naufragio emeriis gq ignotis 

ofFeire uideam pias manus.Cgte^ nee fine munere ad te ueni 

nee uacuis( utaiunt)manibus tua maieftatefumadoraturus . 

Nam cu pn'oies Appiani Iibros/Libycum: Syri'um: Partbicu 

6c Mitbridhticrj Nicolao quinto fumo pontifici dum i buma-' 

nisa:>efctegrecotianl}uli(Iem/ Reliquosciuilium bellorum 

comentanos.'qugSenatusipopulufc^romanus inuicemgeflic 

nundu editos aut perfeclos a me ad quern potius mitterem q 

ad teiuidilTime princeps/Hifpanigpanter 6cltalie nofcr^de' 

cus: & qui non minus optimatum arttum ftudijs;6c littens/q 

armis indytus es: atq} memorandus. Accipiesigic nouu opus; 

nee indignu regio animoliegiocj cofpcdu tuo.Sed quod cum 

prilcis illi's uoluminibus ab ];is:qui biftonas (cri'plere pofteiK 

tatitraditis/ facile con tern queat^C^ fi in contrarium no nulh" 

♦■efiagentur(utgmulorum moseftjc^uemueUntexlatinis in 

medium adducant/ flue CriTpurriueC^faremiriueCurtium: 

due alia uulgata doctoru nomina/ eoru : qui biftonas fcripfe^ 

runt/ nulloscx bis; qui cum duilibus Appiani libris conferri 

2 2 



Anncus Seneca dc 
regepaitboium. 



Nicolaus papa quin/ 
Libycus. (tus. 
Syrius. 
Parcbicus. 
Mit]:)ridacicus. 



Crifpus. 

Cgfar. 

Curtius. 



1^ 



Ratdolt border of 1478. Note the closeness of the type to the initial and the close set of the text page. There are no rivers dis- 

ccrnable as often seen in the present day book page 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 5 




Gothic initials of the 15th century 



GROUP IV NO. 6 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 












Italian nxanuscripr initials of the 12th century, having intense color and flourishes in a style now being used somewhat in 

accentuating magazine pages 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 7 





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Designs of a missal character from an ecclesiastical work of 1531 




GROUP IV NO. 8 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 





THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 

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Spanish initials of the 16th century by Juan Yciar and Jean de Vingle 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 9 






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It is quite the fashion still as it has 
always been to depreciate the im- 
portance of technique, to put it down 
as the mechanical part of the book 
or the picture, something subsidiary 
to the thought; but when, where, 
and how in the history of any art 
has there been great work without 
it? How does it happen that the 
world's great writers, musicians, 
painters, sculptors are also the 
world's great craftsmen. 

JOHN C. VAN DYKE 








German initials of the 15th century 



GROUP IV NO. 10 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 









THE WEALTH OF OLD WORK 

Whatever we may think of the various 
styles of ornament that have come down 
to us, it is impossible for us to ignore them 
altogether. They are the various lan- 
guages in which the past has expressed 
itself, and unless we fancy in our foolish- 
ness that we can evolve from inner con- 
sciousness something at once independent 
of and superior to all that has been done 
before our time, we must begin by some 
study of the ancient principles and practice. 
It will save time in the end. Even those 
who flatter themselves that it will be easy 
for them to take one bound into successful 
originality, would do well to reflect that 
they are more likely to succeed by step- 
ping back a pace or two for a spring than 
by "toeing the line." 

If there were no other reason why we 
should know something of past styles, it 









German initials of the 16th century modeled after manuscript initials of the 10th century 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 11 









would be sufficient that, in the absence of 
any marked national style among us at 
present, we have taken to " reviving " in 
succession all manner of bygone styles. 
The ornament of today is to so great an 
extent a reflection, in some instances a 
distortion of old work, that one cannot 
well discuss it without reference to its 
origin. These "revivals," irrational as they 
are in themselves, are not without good 
results. We have such a wealth of old 
work about us, accessible through modem 
facilities of travel, purchasable through 
modern processes of reproduction, brought 
to our notice by modern methods of publi- 
cation, that we cannot escape their influ- 
ence if we would; and the " revivals " have 
involved such a thorough study of the vari- 
ous styles that, when we shall have arrived 
at reason and begin to express ourselves 
naturally in the language of our own day, 
it will surely tell in our work to some 
purpose. 

LEWIS F. DAY 









These initials are exceptional in their areas of black back ground and they will be less dominant when used in smaller sizes 



GROUP IV NO. 12 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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Italian Renaissance initials of 1517 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 13 

























Groups of German initials of the somewhat decadent style of the 17th and 18th centuries 



GROUP IV NO. 14 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 










FLORENTINE INITIALS OF 
THE ITALIAN RENAIS- 
SANCE IN BRILLIANT, 
WELL-BALANCED WHITE 
ON BLACK, AFFORDING 
ALSO AN EXCELLENT EX- 
AMPLE OF A CLASSIC 
FORM OF IN-LINE 
LETTERS 









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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 15 















GROUP IV NO. 16 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THB GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



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Gothic letters with flourishes particularly 
useful for their carrying quality when in- 
dividual letter is used on a broadside or 
prospectus page 







THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 17 















GROUP IV NO. 18 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





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GEOFFROY TORY 

PAINTER, DESIGNER, ENGRAVER, 
PRINTER AND BINDER 

FOUNDER OF A SCHOOL 
OF DESIGN 

Born at Bourges in 1480, he became a master 
craftsman, developing a finer genius than his 
predecessors. He is credited with having 
cultivated all the sciences with equal success 
and to him must be assigned the first place in 
the art of the decoration of books. He en- 
graved portraits, designed alphabets and 
borders, was royal printer and made rich 
bindings, some of them in conjunction with 
Grolier. It was for Grolier,that he inter- 
wove so finely his designs in compartments 
for bindings. 

The honor of revivifying the art of engrav- 
ing in France belongs to Tory alone, be- 
striding two centuries, the l5th and 16th. 

AUGUSTE BERNARD 





French Renaissance alphabet by GeofFroy Tory from Etienne's great Latin Bible, 1540 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN"IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 19 













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GROUP IV NO. 20 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 












Early 16th century designs with letters of 
maximum size and criblee backgrounds 




O follow precedent wisely does not mean to 
imitate slavishly one great exemplar, but to 
study all masters faithfully, letting their great 
achievements sink slowly into the mind in 
order that we may patiently derive from the 

richness of our acquired knowledge and organized system 

an attitude of our own 

LINDSAY SWIFT 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 21 












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the early 16th century 











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GROUP IV NO. 22 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





Initials of the Plantin Press, Antwerp 

The collection of ornaments and initials used by Plantin exceeds those of any other early 
printer. His artistic taste carried itself so far that he produced many ornaments of which 
he was, in fact, the designer and engraver. He also employed many artists including Gode- 
groid Ballaing of Paris, who designed for him 21 Hebrew initials in 1664. Pierre van der 
Borcht designed an alphabet in 1571 and this was engraved by Antoine van Leest. An al- 
phabet of Gothic initials with white ornaments on black was also used in the Psalterium of 
1571. Three alphabets of different sizes, ornamented with natural flowers, were used in the 
Psalterium and in the Messe de la Hele. 





From a series of eleven Plantin initials representing subjects in the Old and New Testaments, designed by Pierre van der 
Borcht and engraved by Antoine van Leest. They were used in the Messe de Georges de la Hele 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPAhfY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 23 















Roman alphabet decorated in grotesque style with satyrs, fantastic animals and human figures, 
used by Plantin in the polyglot Bible of 1570 



GROUP IV NO. 24 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 













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A Roman alphabet decorated in grotesque style, satyrs, fantastic animals and human figures, 

dated 1570 and used in the polyglot Bible 

















An alphabet of interlacings used in the Psalterium of 1571 
PLANTIN INITIALS 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 25 























From Summa Bartholomaei Pisani Ord. Praedic. De Casibus Conscientiae, about 1475 



GROUP IV NO. 26 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY. BOSTON 












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Ribbon initials from the Missale 
Traijectense, 1515 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 27 





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Interlacing initials with richly foliated backgrounds from The Hystorie De 

Perceval Le Galloys, 1530 



GROUP IV NO. 28 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 29 




















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Designs based upon decorative metal work 




GROUP IV NO. 30 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 










Barock initials designed by 
Georg Heinrich Paritus, 1710 







THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 31 















GROUP IV NO. 32 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







Roman initials of the 16th century with 

Hght, foliated backgrounds without the 

usual border lines 













THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 33 







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Initials of the Louis XIV period 



GROUP IV NO. 34 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 















Barock initials by von Lucas Kilian, 1627 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 35 















GROUP IV NO. 36 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 










GermanRenaissance designs, with in-line, 
shaded Roman letters 







^ 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 37 













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GROUP IV NO. 38 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




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Wood engraved initials from de- 
signs by Oronce Fine, Paris, 1532 







THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 39 




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GROUP IV NO. 40 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS CC PANY, BOSTON 




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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 41 




GROUP IV NO. 42 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 













The story told of Giotto and his drawing for the Pope that perfect 
circle on paper as a proof of his artistic ability is possibly a little 
fiction of Vasari's; but in the mouth of the mouthpiece of all the 
Italian painters, it is eloquent of the prevalent belief as to what 
constituted art. There was no great thinking or subject or theme 
there. Technical skill was the only thing demonstrated, but that 
was sufficient not only for Vasari but for the Pope and his coun- 
cillors. Given that, they thought everything else might follow as 
a natural sequence. Two hundred or more years later, in the same 
town of Florence, Andrea del Sarto, after doing some super frescos 
for the church of the Servi, received the popular designation of 
"Andrea senza errori" — Andrea without faults. It was his tech- 
nical skill, not his thinking or his piety, that was without fault. 
That skill was the result of the insistence upon craftsmanship which 
had ruled in the teachings of the mediaeval guilds and had been 
handed down from master to pupil into the period of the Renais- 
sance. It was the first and last requirement of the artist in any 
department that he should be a skilled workman. 

What craftsmen were sent out of that land of Italy before, and 
through, and even after the Renaissance! To mention such names 
as[Donatello, Verrocchio, Mantegna, Leonardo, Raphael, Michael 
Angelo, Corregio, Titian, Paolo Veronese is not only listing the 
great technicians, but suggesting the whole history of Italian art. 
Every one of them was a masterhand whether a master-mind or 
not. It was just so at the north. The Van Dycks and Memlings, 
the Durers and Holbeins, the Rubenses and the Rembrandts, were 
skilled in form, color, and pattern to the last degree known to their 
time; they were every one of them " senza errori" in the Florentine 
sense. They would not be alive to-day were it not for their skill, 
for their subjects have practically faded out. 

"All passes — an alone 
Enduring lasts to us. 
The bust outlives the throne, 
T/ie coin Tiberius." 

JOHN C. VAN DYKE 










THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 43 







Arabesque initials with shading 
which colors in well with the lar- 
ger sizes of type in the hook page 




For every art is a language, and to secure power and beauty 
and adequacy of expression a man must command all the 
secrets and resources of the form of speech which he has 
chosen. 

HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE 






GROUP IV NO. 44 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




Design, which is a translation of man's thoughts and aspirations and wants 
into the language of form or color, must of necessity depend very largely 
upon impressions derived from nature, and will be controlled to a certain 
extent by his powers of expression. The rudeness or conventionality of 
barbarous art springs probably from undeveloped art powers; and repetition, 
creating manner, perpetuates imperfections, until, associated in regular 
sequences, they become accepted as styles. Processes of work, and character 
of material, will also control the nature of design. A great distinction, how- 
ever, may be drawn between the conventionality of barbarism and the con- 
ventionality of style; the first being the result of immature art power, and the 
second of mature choice. The naturalistic in design is the imitation of natural 
forms, with most of their peculiarities to create ornamental effects; whilst the 
conventional treatment adheres to general forms and principles of nature as 
a motive, omitting unimportant details and individual peculiarities, thus pro- 
ducing a generalization or typeform of ornament based upon first principles. 

WALTER SMITH 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 45 





THE ARTS REFLECT EACH OTHER 

HE highest authorities consider all the arts as one in 
fundamental principles, if not in aim. Phidias, Giotto, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, and the greatest 
artists of all time were not specialists in one art, but 
students of every form of art. They were painters, 
architects, sculptors, musicians and poets. The arts re- 
flect each other ; the terms which are applied to the arts 
are borrowed from each other. We speak of the tone of a picture, and the 
color of a piece of music. The sculptor must have a sense of color and 
music, or his work will be cold. Each art may definitely require a special set 
of faculties to be trained, but these are co-relative and must be brought into 
harmony for power in any one art. Hence a certain amount of training 
in different arts develops the art capacities, and enables the mind to grasp 
the elements that are fundamental to all art. 

S. S. CURRY 




GROUP IV NO. 46 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN; PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






The field occupied by the printing arts in modern life is one of 
vast extent. Not only is printing with type employed to convey 
ideas in never ending volume through books, magazines, news- 
paper and numberless other ways, but graphic advertising in 
countless forms has become one of the striking features of 
modern life. 

Illustration, whether concerned with imaginative work or photo- 
graphic reproduction, represents an important field. Printing 
also enters the domain of the fine arts as in the case of etching, 
mezzotint and auto-lithography. In all of these fields the ele- 
ment of composition and design appears. 

CHARLES R. RICHARDS 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP IV NO. 47 









RIGINALITY is a quality which is very 
much misunderstood. It is in truth easy 
enough to be original if one does not mind 
being ridiculous. If any man was master of 
Renaissance ornament it was surely Alfred 
Stevens; yet the number of fresh ornamental motives 
which he was able to produce during his lifetime can 
probably be counted on the fingers of one hand. 

G. WOOLLISCROFT RHEAD 






Selections from incomplete alphabets 




GROUP IV NO. 48 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPAKl', BOSTON 








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Rubricated page from the Prayer Book of the Emperor Maximillian. The crisp angularity of this Gothic type imitates 

the large black-letter of actual penmanship to a marvelous degree. It was printed in 1514 by Johann Schoensperger at 

Ausburg especially for the emperor, who was a munificent patron of the newly developed art of printing 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 

GROUP V- PRINTERS' MARKS AND DEVICES 

Y the end of the fifteenth century the Printer's Mark had as- 
sumed or was rapidly assuming an importance of which its origi- 
nal introducers had very little conception. Indeed, as early as 
1539, a law, according to Dupont, in his "Histoire de I'lmprim- 
erie," was passed by which these marks or arms of printers and 
booksellers were protected. Unfortunately the designs were very 
rarely signed, and it is now impossible to name with any degree 
of certainty either the artist or engraver, both offices probably in the majority of cases 
being performed by one man. 

There is no doubt whatever that Hans Holbein designed some of the very grace- 
ful borders and tide-pages of Frobert, at Basle, during the first quarter of the sixteenth 
century, and in doing this he included the graceful Caduceus which this famous printer 
employed. It does not necessarily follow that he was the original designer, although he 
was in intimate association with Frobert when the latter first used this device. 

W. ROBERTS 





The vessel of Galliot du Pre, a printer and bookseller of numerous romances and legends beginning 
in Paris in 1512. It bears the printer's motto : " Row on the Galley" 



GROUP V NO. 2 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 







Top: 

Ambroise Girault, Paris, 1525-1546 

Claude Micard, Paris, 1558-1588 

Pierre Le Brodeulx 

Center ; 

jean Temporal, Paris, 1550-1559 

Jehan Guyart, Bordeaux, 1528 

Bottom : 

jean Bogard, Lovain, 1556-1634 

Benoist Rigaud, Lyons, 1550-1597 

Francois Gryphe, Paris, 1532-1545 







THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 3 









Top : Marks of Venetian Printers 
Center : Plantin and a Venetian Printer's Marks 
Bottom: Robert Estienne, Paris and Geneva, 
15254559 

Jean de Tournes, Lyons, 1542 
Barthelemy Honorat, Lyons, 1554-1587 





GROUP V NO. 4 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 




THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 5 




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Top Left: F. Giunta, 1517 

Top Right : John Schoeffler 

At Right: Francois Regnault, Paris, 1512-1551 

Lower Left : B. Rembolt 

Lower Right: Anthoine Verad, 1485-1512 






GROUP V NO. 6 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






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Top Left: 
Ayme de la Porte, Lyons, 1498 

Top Right : 
Guillaume de la Riviere, 1591- 
1637 

Center Left : 
Simon de Colines, Paris, 1520- 
1546 

Center Right : 
Jehan la Porte, Paris, 1508-1520 

Lou'er Left : 
Gaspard Phillipe, Paris, 1500-15 10 

Lou'er Right : 
Anthoine Denidel, Paris, 1497- 
1501 






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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 7 




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Top Left: 
Guyot Marchant, Paris, 1483-1502 

Top Right: 
Pierre Regnault, Rouen, 1489-1520 

At Center: 
jehan Bonfons, Paris, 1548-1572 

Loiver Left : 
Denis Roce, Paris, 1490-1518 

Lower Right: 
Pierre Regnault, Rouen, 1489-1520 




GROUP V NO. 8 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 






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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 9 




CORNEI 



mfTime reoffnm a^b infimdderrozibaeecpargat&Bddins 
DC noao rjlmarqs:coploro vtlUffitiioq5iRepro2fo.£iorq5eE' 
cclimaozieviti arcrgo bmae pagiemtegenlmS ^bcn$» 




Rubricated title-page of a work on civil law by Petrus Phillippus, printed in 
Perugia, 1477 by Johan Vydenast 



GROUP V NO. 10 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





I 



Top: 
The Aldus Dolphin and Anchor were copied hy many printers and in later years have been 
the mark of various English and American publishers 
Rig/it; One of the large engravings of the series of printing office interiors illustrated 

by Geofroy Tory for Badius 
Bottom: 

Left: Ulricherus of Strasburg, 1529-1539, used several 

adaptations of the female figure with the cornucopia 

Center: Jacques Roffet, Paris, 1549 used the Seed-Sower 

in several of his marks 

Right: Symbolic device of Robert Estienne, 

Paris, 15254559 



used as 






THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 11 



C O N C O R D A N T I iS. 

B IBLI O R VM 

V T R I V S Q^V E 

TESTAMENT!. 

VETERIS ET NO VI, 

PERFECTS ET INTEGRA; 

^ms re <rucrfi M.mores ft^pUetrc^o^is, 

Opvs facrarum liceramm ftudiofis apprime vtile , denuo, port omnes quas 
prxceflerunt editiones , multis deprauatis locis commode reftitutis &:caftigatis 
iiimmo ftudio ac labore illuftratum. 




A N T V E P- r I ^, 

Ex officina Chriftophori Plantini, 



M. D. L X X X V. 



One of the many different marks used by Christopher Plantin. The initial "G" is probably 
or Geofroy Tory, although this designer marked his work generally by the Lorraine Cross 



GROUP V NO. 12 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 





The device at the left is commonly ascribed to Nicholas Jenson, Venice, although it was really used 
by him in conjunction with books printed by him and John of Cologne. This device of the cross 
and circle has had a most significant use and survival. In Ongania's "L'Arte Delia Stampa" there 
are twenty-seven variations used by early printers, the one at the right being that of Octavian Scot 

of Monsa in the Milanese 
In W. Roberts' "Printer's Mark" there are thirty variations of the use of the cross and this extra- 
ordinary phase of Printer's Mark is termed by Paul Delalain " la persistence de la croLx." It has 
appeared in all forms and almost every conceivable shape, the initials of the printer usually being in 

the circle 



I 



Pn& boc opurat{u5 {initu ae cat>l€tu>ct ad 
cufcbiaj ^tndudne m ouiratr (pagunti) 
p2rloba!itic fiift duc^cr jSctrufdpifflxr h? 
^cmBxym clcricu DtotcP cturclc3 cO confti^ 
tnatu. Anno mcarnacois x>\\\ce*A\<cccAxi\- 
Invigitw MimpcS\6 gfbrcvirgim& mane. 




♦ 



The Fust and SchoefFer mark with the text of the colophon used in the first dated Bible, 1462. This 
is the mark now used by the Clubs of Printing House Craftsmen as significant of union and good 

fellowship in printing 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 13 



DECISIONES 

C A S V V M 

IVRIDICA PRAXI RECEPTORVM 

totaq; die con tmgentium,ac in contra- 
did:orio ludiciodeciforum^. 

VINCENTIO CAROCIO TVDERTINO 

I. C CLARISSIMO AVTHORE. 

Nunc fecimda hac cditione in ftudioforum gratiam euulgatae. 

In dice duflici,vno Titulorum,altero Re rum memoria dignarum, 

vt iOpiofo,ita & met bodice digeJio,quofacilius materix 

omnes legenti occur rerepofsmt, decedent e . 

CVM LlCh'NTIA SVPERIORVM, ET PRIVILEGIIS. 




VENETIIS, MDCXII. 



Apud Florauantem Pratuni^ . 



Rubricated Venetian title-page with mark of printer, the three trees 
surmounted by the three birds being symbolic, perhaps, of wisdom 

and its messengers 



GROUP V NO. 14 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



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THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 



GROUP V NO. 15 



D. Mathiae Colcrilurifcon' 

fulti in Academia lenenfi 

T RACT AT VS 

DE PROCESSIBVS 

EXECVTIVIS, IN CAVSIS CIVIL I- 

BVS ET PECVNIARIIS, ACCOMMODA- 

TVS PASSIM AD PRACTICAM 
FORI SaXONICI. 

Cui in fine adiecftus eft index verborum&rcrum, 
quxinhocoperecontinentur, copiofus. 




CVM GRATIA ET PRIVILEGIO ROMANAE 

CaESARHAE MAIISTATIS AD DECENNIVM. 

lense, 

EXCVDEBAT TOBIAS STEINMAN- 



Anno M. D. L X X X V I. 



A title-page of 1586 in which the larger sizes of lettering are engraved, indicating the limitation 

in cast types. The printer's mark has an elaborate inscription and an unusually 

pictorial center. Printed by Tobias Steinman, Jena, 1586 



GROUP V NO. 16 



HISTORIC DESIGN IN PRINTING 





THE GRAPHIC ARTS COMPANY, BOSTON 
7Zt 




It is interesting to note that the Printer's Mark preceded the introduction of the title- 
page by nearly twenty years, and that the first ornamental title known appeared in the 
"Calendar" of Regiomontanus, printed at Venice by Pictor, Loeslein and Ratdolt in 
1476, in folio. Neither the simple nor the ornate title-page secured an immediate or 
general popularity, and not for many years was it regarded as an essential feature of 
the printed volume. Its history is intimately associated with that of the Printer's Mark, 
and the progress of the one synchronizes up to a certain point with that of the other. 
In beauty of design and engraving, the Printer's Mark, like the Title-Page, attained its 
highest point of artistic excellence in the early part of the sixteeth century. This per- 
haps is not altogether surprising when it is remembered that during the first twenty 
years of that period we have title-pages from the hands of Diirer, Holbein, Wechtlin, 
Urse Graff, Schauffelein and Cranach. 

W. ROBERTS 




Top: 

Left: Design by Hans Holbein for John 
Bebel, Palma 

Center: One of tlie series of Badius' print- 
ing office interiors 

Right; Shield with motto and device used 
by Heinrich Von Neuss, Cologne 

Bottom : 
Left: Poncet Le Preux, Paris, 1508-1551 
Right: One of the smaller devices used by 
Christopher Plantin with the compass 
and Plantin motto, "Work and Con- 
stancy " 




GLOSSARY OF TERMS 

USED IN DECORATIVE DESIGN 

IN PRINTING 



EARLY every problem of 
design involves discussion, 
and the naming of styles, 
construction or details. It is 
difficult for those who have 
not taken a course of instruction in design 
to knovu all the terms. As this work on 
Historic Design in Printing will he used 
for reference purposes and discussion by 
many who will want some general term- 
inology and description, a limited Qlossary 
is presented. There are several comprehen- 
sive histories, dictionaries of art and finely 
printed books of reproductions. A few 
titles are included in the list of reference 
books in two of the succeeding pages. 



GLOSSARY 



Acanthus. A plant, the foliage of which has 
served as decorative motive in classic design 
from its use in Greek ornament down to modern 
times. Its beautiful serrated leaves and graceful 
growth give acanthus special value to the orna- 
mental designer. 

Alignment. A term used in typography for true- 
ness to marginal, top or bottom lines and applied 
commonly to the even relation of initial letters 
or other decorations of the type page. 

Anchor. In religious use it is the symbol of hope 
and is one of the great motives used in devices. 

Anthemion. In Greek art a flat decorative group 
of flower or leaf; some have the general character 
of radiating cluster of blossoms of the plant and 
hence often called honeysuckle. 

Arabesque. A piece of decorative scroll work or 
other ornament more or less intricate, composed 
of foliage, leaves, fruits, scrolls of fantastic ani- 
mals and human figures. Arabesque won its 
highest triumph in the Loggia of the Vatican as 
shown in the designs of Raphael. 

Asthetics. A theory of perception and of the 
science of the beautiful. 

Balance. Synonym for equilibrium. A composi- 
tion may be well balanced in both grouping and 
in lights and shades. 

Caduceus. The staff carried by Mercury or 
Hermes. Around it two serpents were coiled and 
it was winged at the top. It is the symbol of 
peace. 

Capital. The uppermost and ornamented part of 
a column, pillar, or pilaster, which serves as the 

crown of the shaft. 

Cartouch. 1. An elliptical tablet or scroll like 
some containing the names of the Pharaohs. 
2. Sculpture or back ornament in form of a scroll 
enrolled, used as field for inscription, etc. 

Cinquecento. Literally 500 but it is used as an 
abbreviation for mille cinquecento that is, 1,500 
and is applied as a general term to the art of 
Italy of the Ibth century. During this brilliant 
period the classical art was at its height. 

Classical. In the strict sense it is the term applied 
to the best period of ancient Greek art. By 
analogy, the name is given to schools which take 
the monuments of Greek art as their models. 

Congruity. A general consistency in the relation 
of each part of an object or between the com- 
pleted work and its surroundings. The incon- 
gruous in ornament was perhaps most apparent 
following the break up of the Renaissance the 
latter part of the 16th century. 

Cornice. The large molding which forms the cop- 
ing of a facade or surmounts the door or window. 

Cornucopia. An ornament consisting of a horn 
in which are flowers, fruits and other natural 
objects. It symbolizes peace and prosperity. 



Crible. \Iinute punctures or depressions in sur- 
faces of metal or wood. It occurs in earliest back- 
grounds for printed borders and initials. De 
Vinne describes the process as being intended to 
offset in a measure the impossibility of obtaining 
a solid background because of the imperfections 
of early press work. Its modern equivalent is 
the stippled background used in illustrations and 
advertisements for rapid printing processes to 
obviate offset. Crible backgrounds also lighten 
borders and decorations so that they harmonize 
better with type pages than if solid blacks are 
used. 

Cross. Used in expression of religious sentiment, 
in heraldry and in processionals. 

Decoration. Derived from the Latin word de- 
corus, a root that also supplies us with an Eng- 
lish word decorum. Decorative art is therefore 
primarily what may be used in a certain position 
with propriety ; that which is seemly, becoming 
and fitting. Hulme. 

Diaper. As a symbol of ornament it consists of a 
repetition, covering surfaces as in bookcover 
designs and in decorative end leaves. 

Dolphins. A favorite fish which heralds used as 
the armorial ensign of the Dauphin, the eldest 
son and heir apparent of the kings of France. 
InChristian archaeology, the dolphin is a symbol 
of swiftness, diligence and love. It is often en- 
twined with an anchor. The first Christians 
wore these two symbols united in a ring which 
was known as a nautical anchor. The dolphin 
anchor was made most famous as a printers' 
device by Aldus. The dolphin appears more than 
any other significant feature in the borders in- 
cluded in this book. 

Eagle. In ancient art the eagle often figured on 
medals and coins. It also symbolizes victory, 
authority and power. 

Egg-and-Dart. A decorative motive consisting 
of a pointed arrow separating two eggs. Some- 
times the darts are slightly ornamented. The 
Egg-and-Dart is one of the most used motives in 
conventionalized borders and frames. 

Encarpa. A festoon of fruit and flowers commonly 
used to decorate friezes and other flat spaces. 

Entablature. In Grecian, Greco-Roman and neo- 

classic architecture, the ordinary horizontal 
forms of material carried upon the columns and 
extending upward as far as and including the 
first decidedly projecting course of material. 

Escutcheon. Name applied ;to a shield upon 
which coat of arms and other devices are em- 
blazoned. Escutcheons are abundantly used in 
Gothic architecture. The term is always applied 
to metal plates on doors for keyholes, etc. It is 
now a common form of frame for devices and 
trade-marks. 



Facade. The outside surface of a building, espec- 
ially the front which is more richly decorated 
than the rest of the edifice. Illustrations of 
facades in classical architecture are a source of 
many useful forms and details for the designer. 

Festoon. It generally consists of foliage, flowers 
or branches entwined or bound together. Fes- 
toons were employed by architects of the Ren- 
aissance and are now common in headbands and 
other forms of decorative design in printing. 

Fleur-de-Lis. The flower found in many coats of 
arms as the symbol of nobility and sovereignty. 
It is pre-eminently the royal insignia of France. 
It assumes different forms in different epochs. 

Fleuron. The name given to a small rose-like 
flower surrounded by leaves employed as an 
ornament in classic art. 

Foliage. Nearly every style of architecture has 
made use of foliage for purposes of ornamenta- 
tion. In antiquity, the leaves of the acanthus, 
palm, olive and ivy were thus employed; the 
Byzantine and other styles utilized for the same 
purpose the vine, oak, parsley, mullein and 
thistle. Foliage has been applied to the decora- 
tion of capitals, bands and friezes. The work 
thus enriched is said to be foliated and the orna- 
ment itself is called foliation. 

Fret. A kind of ornament much employed in 
Grecian art, formed of bands or fillets variously 
combined; a piece of perforated ornamental 
work. Frets are in meander patterns, also crine- 
lated, triangular and undulating. Many of the 
best type foundry borders are frets and they are 
used frequently in decorative design. 

Frieze. In architecture it is the entablature be- 
tween the architrave and cornice. The term 
frieze is applied to the broad border which some- 
times runs around the top of a room between the 
wallpaper and the cornice. By analogy, the 
frieze may also be a design the length of which 
is considerably greater than its height. 

Frontispiece. The term applied to the reproduc- 
tion of a drawing or painting obtained either by 
engraving or some mechanical process and 
placed as the illustration next the first page of 
a book or manuscript. 

Garland. An architectural ornament representing 
foliage, flowers or fruits plaited and tied together 
w ith ribbons. 

Goffering. The impressing by means of a hot 
plate an ornament either sunk or in relief upon 
leather, paper, etc. as shown by the border plate 
of this book. . 

Gothic. A term applied to mediaeval architecture 
and to lettering of an angular form in general use 
in the middle ages. Mediaeval manuscripts were 
executed in Gothic characters of extraordinary 
beauty. The Gutenberg Bible and other early 
books were in Gothic type. 



Grotesque. A symbol of ornament representing 
fantastic subjects or forming arabesques in which 
extravagant figures and fanciful animals are 
interlaced. The taste for this method of decora- 
tion continued during the period of the Renais- 
sance. 

Hours, Books of. Prayer books of which there are 
many in existence in manuscripts and in early 
printed hooks. Among the early printed books 
of this kind are many with pages which are 
bordered with woodcuts of extraordinary deli- 
cacy. These books are keenly sought by collec- 
tors especially those printed by Simon de Col ines, 
Hardouin, Simon Vostre and Kerver. 

Imbrications. Ornaments which take the form of 
fishes' scales or the segemented edge on tiles 
which overlap. Ornaments have undulating por- 
tions which overlap each other. 

Incanabula. The term applied to volumes printed 
before the 16th century. Many libraries have 
collections under this head and the library of 
the Ann Mary Brown Memorial at Providence, 
Rhode Island consists entirely of Incanabula. 

Intaglio. A design or illustration made by cutting 
into the surface of the material. The name was 
originally given to engraved gems but now more 
commonly applied to printing from incised 
plates. 

Lapis Lazuli. An opaque blue stone — the shade 
of blue used principally in illuminated manu- 
scripts. 

Lorraine Cross. A cross with two projecting arms 
on each side. One of the most persistent elements 
in printers' devices. It is shown in Group V, No. 
12. 

Lotus. The beautiful lily of the Nile is one of the 
most characteristic forms of Egyptian ornament. 
It was dedicated to Isis and Osiris and was also 
an emblem of fertility from its association with 
the great river that, by its annual overflow, 
brought plenty to the land and made Egypt the 
granary of the ancient world. Hulme. 

Louis Quatorze. A style of ornament developed 
towards the close of the 17th century (1643- 
1715). It is described as "essentially an orna- 
mental style, its chief aim being effect by a 
brilliant play of light and shade; color, mere 
beauty of form in detail having no part in it. 
This style arose in Italy, and the Chiesa del 
Gesu at Rome is mentioned as its type or model. 
The great medium of the Louis Quatorze was 
gilt stucco-work, which, for a while seems to 
have almost wholly superseded decorative paint- 
ing; and this absence of color in the principal 
decorations of the period seems to have led to its 
more striking characteristic, — infinite play of 
light and shade. " (Wornum, Analysis of Orna- 
ment.) 



Louis Quinze. This style (1715-74) is the exag- 
geration of the Louis Quatorze, rejecting all 
symmetry, and introducing the elongation of the 
foliations of the scroll, mixed up with a species 
of crimped conventional coquillage or shell-work. 
The style found its culmination in the bizarre 
absurdities of the Rococo. 

Meander. To wind, turn or twist. A labyrinth; a 
kind of ornamental design having a labyrinthine 
character. 

Molding. A projection, square, convex, or con- 
cave in profile, ornamenting a wall. Moldings 
are frequently decorated with foliage and geo- 
metric forms. They form an important part of 
decorative design in borders and frames. 

Mythology. Early design was largely influenced 
by the fabulous history of gods, god- 
desses and heroes. Mediaeval and modern 
artists have ever sought their inspiration in 
classical mythology. It is an especially impor- 
tant source for the designer seeking classical 
motives. 

Olive. The foliage of the olive tree, a native of 
Asia, is frequently used in decorative art. The 
olive is the symbol of peace. 

Ovolo. A continuous ornament in the form of an 
egg which generally decorates the molding called 
the quarter-round. Eggs are usually separated 
from one another by pointed darts. 

Palm. The leaf of the palm tree is a frequent 
motive in decorative art. It is particularly ap- 
propriate to the construction of trophies as it is 
the symbol of victory. 

Parchment. The skin of a sheep or goat prepared 
and polished with pumice stone and used for 
several artistic purposes. Old manuscripts were 
executed on parchrnent and expensive works are 
now sometimes printed on it as it is admirably 
adapted for taking proofs of line engravings. 

Passe-Partout. An engraving made of two mov- 
able parts. The term may be applied to engraved 
ornament or illustrations. The frame of it 
always remains the same while the center is 
movable. 

Pediment. The triangular mass resembling a 
gable at the end of a building in the Greek style ; 
a small gable or triangular decoration like a gable 
over a window. Pediments are shown in several 
of the title-pages and small frames in the pre- 
ceding pages. 

Pilaster. A square pillar on a wall partly em- 
bedded in it, one-fourth or one-fifth of its thick- 
ness projecting. Pilaster forms of ornamentation 
arc much used in border design. 

Pompeiian. Essentially Roman, with freedom, 
lightness of touch and delicacy of treatment. 
While primarily architectural, Pompeiian orna- 
ment in entablatures is a source of many beauti- 
ful motives and colorings for design in printing. 



Proportion. Harmonizing relation of the differ- 
ent parts of a composition. 

Renaissance. A period during which there was 
a general revival of art throughout Europe. This 
movement began in Italy during the 15th cen- 
tury and continued with little abatement of 
vigor throughout the 16th. It is further defined 
by various authors in the display pages of this 
book. 

Scrolls. The decorative ornament in use from the 
earliest period and prototype of the arabesque, 
tangential junction or growth based on natural 
forms is the decorative principle involved. 

Radiation. The spreading out or divergence of 
lines or forms from a common origin. It is a 
principle which is almost universal in nature and 
is common in vertical and pendant forms of 
design. 

Repose. The result of fitness, proportion and har- 
mony — the opposite of unrest and movement. 

Rubricated. Printed in red. Rubrica was red 
ochre, the edicts of the civil law being written 
originally in it. Rubrics was a term applied to 
manuscripts in which the initial letters were 
illuminated in red. The example shown in Group 
IV, No. 48, is an excellent rubricated page, al- 
though the same term applies to the one im- 
mediately following and many others. 

Spacing. A harmonizing distribution of forms in 
a given space. In typography, it relates both 
to the distance between letters and between 
lines. 

Strap- Work. A form of ornament which consists 
of a narrow band in convolutions similar to those 
that a leather strap thrown down at hazard 
would form. Very common in late Renaissance. 

Subordination. To make one part of a work sub- 
servient to another with the object of emphasiz- 
ing the principle motive and also enriching it by 
the process. 

Superposition. Imposing one ornamental mo- 
tive, inscription or device over another less im- 
portant element. 

Symmetry. A harmony produced by repetition and 
doubling over of any form on its axis. 

Symbolism. A symbol is a visible sign of an idea, 
anything which suggests an idea or thing as by 
resemblance or by convention. Symbolism is the 
greatest field for the designer in printing, giving 
significance to the elements as well as beauty to 
the form. The great galaxy of symbolism im- 
parting attributes to the sun, moon and stars 
and to nearly all vegetable and animal life en- 
ables the designer to give a meaning to his 
ornamentation. 

Tailpiece. An engraving usually merely orna- 
mental and placed at the end of chapters or on 
short pages of display printing. 



Technique. In painting and sculpture the term 
technique denotes manipulative skill, mastery of 
material and all those qualities of hand and eye 
which contribute to the executive excellence of a 
work of art. It has been the fashion of late years 
to decry technique and to attach too great a 
value to certain gifts of literary invention. But 
as it is an artist's business to be articulate in his 
own medium, whether it be paint or clay, it is 
quite certain that technique is of far greater im- 
portance, and is dependent on far higher quali- 
ties of mind than any knack of finding subjects 
or portraying sentiment, Adeline. 

Tertiary. Colors variable in number which enter 
into the composition of another color. 



Vellum. The skin of a calf used in illuminated 
books of the middle ages. It is also used for 
proofs of engravings and etchings and sometimes 
for bookbindings. 

Vignette. It means strictly a little vine. Used 
originally to denote an ornament in Gothic archi- 
tecture, it was also applied to initial letters in 
manuscripts which were decorated with the ten- 
drils of a vine. The meaning of the word has 
been extended to cuts forming head and tail- 
pieces in a book whether they are decorative or 
illustrative. Vignette commonly applies to any 
cut or engraving which is not enclosed in rigid 
lines but is included in the text. 




The latter part of the fifteenth century was prolific 
in artistic genius. Truly, "there were giants in those 
days." Albrecht Durer, the father of the German 
School, was born in 1471; that sublime genius 
Michael Angelo, in 1474; Titian, the great Venetian 
colorist, in 1477; Raphael, "the prince of painters," 
in 1483. Rubens was born more than three hundred 
years ago; Rembrandt, "the inspired Dutchman," 
in 1606. Those great masters fully understood the 
value of that art which could multiply their designs. 



FREDERICK KEPPEL 



BOOK REFERENCE LIST 

^-^vJy HERE are many books about books and seemingly there should be no difficulties in 
the accessibility of all the works dealing with the history, styles and standards of printing. 
The subject of Historic Design in Printing is, however, so largely buried in general books 
that only a few can be specified as relating directly to design. 

The most useful books for those interested in this subject are to be found under library 
headings such as History of Printing, Incunabula, Bookbinding and general books relating 
to the arts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The brief list of authors and titles 
following will be found to contain much of the best material. 



Bagley, Harold The lost language of Symbolism, 
an inquiry into the origin of Certain Letters. 
Words, Names, Fairy Tales, Folklore and Myth- 
ology. This deals historically with the earliest 
water marks and printers' devices, defining the 
various elements of symbolism entering into 
them. 

Bernard, Auguste. Geofroy Tory, Painter and 
Engraver: First Royal Printer: Reformer of 
Orthography .and Typography under Frances 
I. An account of his life and works by Auguste 
Bernard, translated by George B. Ives and illus- 
trated under the direction of Bruce Rogers. 
Boston, The Riverside Press, 1909. 

Blades, William. A list of medals, jettons, tokens, 
in connection with printers and the art of print- 
ing. London, 1869. 

Butsch, A. F. Die Bucher-Ornamentik der Ren- 
aissance. A collection of initials, title-pages, 
borders and bindings. Vol. 1, contains 100 plates 
and Vol. 2,111 plates. 

De Vinne, Theodore Low. Christopher Plantin 
and the Plant in-Moretus Museum at Antwerp 
with illustrations by Joseph Pennell and others. 
New York. The Grolier Club. 1888. 

Notable printers of Italy during the fifteenth 
century. Illustrated with facsimiles from early 
editions and with remarks on early and recent 
printing. New York, The Grolier Club 1910 

Duff, Edward Gordon and others. Hand lists of 
English printers, 1501-1554. 

Gerlach, Martin. Das alte Buch. A collection of 
printing ornamentation and binding from the 
fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries. 

Goudy, Frederic W. The Alphabet. Fifteen in- 
terpretative designs drawn and arranged with 
explanatory text and illustrations. 



Hamlin, A. D F. The History of Ornament, 
Ancient and Medieval with 400 illustrations. 
New York, Century Company, 1916. 

Humphreys, Henry Noel. Masterpieces of the 
early printers and engravers. A series of fac- 
similes from rare and curious books. London, 
Sotheran&Co. 1870. 

Jones, Owen. The Grammar of Ornament. Illus- 
trated by examples from various styles of Orna- 
ment. 1 12 plates. 

Lippman, Fr. Engraving and Etching, a hand- 
book for the use of students and print collectors, 
with 131 illustrations. New York, Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1906. 

McKerrow, Ronald B. Printers' and Publishers' 
Devices in England and Scotland 1485-1640. 
Printed at the Chiswick Press for the Biblio- 
graphic Society, London, 1913. 

Neidling, A. Bucher Ornamentik in Miniaturen, 
Initialen, Alphabeten das IX bis XVI II, Jahr- 
hundert. This contains many ornaments and 
initials and has many book decorations by Hans 
Holbein. 

Ongania, Ferdinando. L'Arte della Stampa nel 
Rinascimento Italiano, Venezia, 1894. This 
book contains the largest collection of borders, 
initials and other designs used in printing. Un- 
fortunately it is not well arranged nor well 
printed. Copies are still obtainable through 
booksellers. 

Petzendorfer, Ludw ig. This contains many ex- 
cellent examples of both early and modern ini- 
tials. Stuttgart, Julius Hoffman, 1894. 

Plantin, Index Characterum Architypographiae 
Plantinianae Specimen des Caracteres Em- 
ployes dans L'lmprimerie Plantinienne Editions 
du Mysee Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp, 1905. 



Pollard, Alfred William. Early illustrated books. Roberts, William. Printer's Marks. A chapter in 
A history of the decoration and illustration of the history of typography. London, Bell, 1893. 

books in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. _, , , . ,, ,, ,,.,,. , ., , , 

London 1893 S>haw, Henry. A Handbook of Medieval Alphabets 

and Devices, with 36 plates. London, Bernard 
Last words in the history of the title-page, with Quaritch, 1853. 

notes on some colophons and 27 facsimiles of e-i .^ i /- \ < i ■ t-i 

., '^ Jsilvestre, L. C Marques typographiques. 1 here 

' "PS- are over 1 ,000 marks and designs, well repro- 

Quaritch, Bernard. A collection of Facsimiles duced with the name and date but with no 

from Examples of Historic or Artistic Book- descriptive text. Paris, 1867. 

binding, illustrating the History of Binding as ,,, r-, , > v, . . r ^ 

a branch of the decorative arts. London, 1889. Womum, Ralph R Analysis of Ornament and 

Characteristics of Styles, with introduction to 
Monumentsof the early printers in all countries. the study of the history of ornamental art. 

London, 1886-87. London, Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1884. 



In several of the large libraries of the United States particular provision has been made 
for books about printing. In 1906, in connection with the 200th Anniversary of the Birth 
of Benjamin Franklin, a catalogue of books on the History and Art of Printing was issued 
by the Boston Public Library, listing the books of this library and of the libraries of 
Harvard University and the Boston Atheneum. These three libraries have much material 
for the designer and a considerable portion of the examples in this book are from the 
original works and collections in them. 

The American Typographic Library and Museum, Jersey City, N. J. has many books on 
printers' marks and historic design from which much material was obtained for this work. 

The New York Public Library, the Library of Congress, Washington, the Chicago Public 
Library and other large libraries have many examples of early printing and reference works. 

The Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York, and 
other museums of fine arts throughout the United States have libraries and collections 
of prints. State, university and historical libraries have many books dealing with the 
history of printing, engraving, paper making and the allied arts. 

The higher achievement of the individual and of printing as an art is true to the adage, 
"He who would advance in the arts or professions must look backward at least one-half 
of the time." 

To those who are acquiring books and prints relating to printing, Goodspeed's Bookshop, 
9A Ashburton Place, Boston, offers books on printing, old printed books, books of design 
and lettering, prints of all kinds, ancient and modern, also portraits of printers, old title- 
pages and other samples of early printing. 

Some of the publishers and dealers in architectural books in New York and other cities 
also have books of design and examples of early printing which are desirable as reference 
material. 



H 



Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 

Fine Arts Department 



The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 
pocket. 



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